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Sample records for hints peep mnnik

  1. Pop Culture Peeps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruszewski, Julie; Fontes, Kris

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the authors present a classroom activity called Pop Culture Peep. In this particular activity, students are required to first research famous artists and/or famous artworks to have an image to use as a reference. Students then plan out how they would decorate the Peep, deciding what materials they would use to create the Peep in…

  2. Recruitment Maneuvers and PEEP Titration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Dean R

    2015-11-01

    The injurious effects of alveolar overdistention are well accepted, and there is little debate regarding the importance of pressure and volume limitation during mechanical ventilation. The role of recruitment maneuvers is more controversial. Alveolar recruitment is desirable if it can be achieved, but the potential for recruitment is variable among patients with ARDS. A stepwise recruitment maneuver, similar to an incremental PEEP titration, is favored over sustained inflation recruitment maneuvers. Many approaches to PEEP titration have been proposed, and the best method to choose the most appropriate level for an individual patient is unclear. A PEEP level should be selected that balances alveolar recruitment against overdistention. The easiest approach to select PEEP might be according to the severity of the disease: 5-10 cm H2O PEEP in mild ARDS, 10-15 cm H2O PEEP in moderate ARDS, and 15-20 cm H2O PEEP in severe ARDS. Recruitment maneuvers and PEEP should be used within the context of lung protection and not just as a means of improving oxygenation. Copyright © 2015 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  3. Professor Peep Veski meie meenutustes

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2014-01-01

    Mälestusi Tartu Ülikooli Farmaatsia instituudi juhatajast Peep Veskist jagavad: Eve-Irene Lepist, Urve Paaver, Karin Kogermann, Kristian Semjonov, Jaak Koppel, Kristin Raudsepp, Imre Klebovich, Filiz Hincal, A. Atilla Hincal ja Elmar Arak

  4. The Neopuff's PEEP valve is flow sensitive.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hawkes, Colin Patrick

    2012-01-31

    AIM: The current recommendation in setting up the Neopuff is to use a gas flow of 5-15 L\\/min. We investigated if the sensitivity of the positive end expiratory pressure (PEEP) valve varies at different flow rates within this range. METHODS: Five Neopuffs were set up to provide a PEEP of 5 cm H(2) O. The number of clockwise revolutions to complete occlusion of the PEEP valve and the mean and range of pressures at each quarter clockwise revolution were recorded at gas flow rates between 5 and 15 L\\/min. Results: At 5, 10 and 15 L\\/min, 0.5, 1.7 and 3.4 full clockwise rotations were required to completely occlude the PEEP valve, and pressures rose from 5 to 11.4, 18.4 and 21.5 cm H(2) O, respectively. At a flow rate of 5 L\\/min, half a rotation of the PEEP dial resulted in a rise in PEEP from 5 to 11.4cm H(2) O. At 10 L\\/min, half a rotation resulted in a rise from 5 to 7.7cm H(2) O, and at 15 L\\/min PEEP rose from 5 to 6.8cm H(2) O. CONCLUSION: Users of the Neopuff should be aware that the PEEP valve is more sensitive at lower flow rates and that half a rotation of the dial at 5 L\\/min gas flow can more than double the PEEP.

  5. Effect of external PEEP in patients under controlled mechanical ventilation with an auto-PEEP of 5?cmH2O or higher.

    OpenAIRE

    Natalini, G; Tuzzo, D; Rosano, A.; Testa, M; Grazioli, M.; Pennestr?, V; Amodeo, G.; Berruto, F.; Fiorillo, M; Peratoner, A; Tinnirello, A.; Filippini, M; Marsilia, PF; Minelli, C; Bernardini, A

    2016-01-01

    Background In some patients with auto-positive end-expiratory pressure (auto-PEEP), application of PEEP lower than auto-PEEP maintains a constant total PEEP, therefore reducing the inspiratory threshold load without detrimental cardiovascular or respiratory effects. We refer to these patients as ?complete PEEP-absorbers.? Conversely, adverse effects of PEEP application could occur in patients with auto-PEEP when the total PEEP rises as a consequence. From a pathophysiological perspective, all...

  6. Peep Aaviksoo : Minu äri 10 käsku / Peep Aaviksoo

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Aaviksoo, Peep, 1956-

    2008-01-01

    Paljudes suurfirmades töötanud ja sellega hindamatu kogemuse saanud ärimees jagab kogemusi, kuidas olla ettevõtluses edukas. Hetkel tegeleb Peep Aaviksoo Eesti investorite raha paigutamisega IPC Investmenti kaudu Rumeenia kinnisvarasse. Lisa: Peep Aaviksoo (tegevus). Vahendanud Kaileen Mägi

  7. Peep Reinas ei taha enam olla Res Publica liige / Peep Reinas ; interv. Argo Soolep

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Reinas, Peep

    2004-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Severnoje Poberezhje, 16. sept. 2004, lk. 2. Peep Reinas arvati välja Res Publica nimekirjast kohaliku võimu tasandil Keskerakonnaga tehtud koostöö tõttu. Tallinna linnakohtu otsusest

  8. The Neopuff's PEEP valve is flow sensitive.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hawkes, Colin Patrick

    2011-03-01

    The current recommendation in setting up the Neopuff is to use a gas flow of 5-15 L\\/min. We investigated if the sensitivity of the positive end expiratory pressure (PEEP) valve varies at different flow rates within this range.

  9. Providing PEEP during neonatal resuscitation: which device is best?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Jennifer A; Gerber, Angela; Kamlin, C Omar F; Davis, Peter G; Morley, Colin J

    2011-10-01

    The study aims to compare three commonly used neonatal resuscitation devices, the Laerdal self-inflating bag with a positive end expiratory pressure (PEEP) valve, a T-piece resuscitator (T-piece) and a flow-inflating bag to provide peak inflation pressure (PIP) and PEEP. Participants were asked to use each device to give positive pressure ventilation to a modified neonatal mannequin via a face mask to achieve 40-60 inflations per minute, aiming for a PIP/PEEP of 30/5 cm H₂O. A manometer was visible to participants with each device. PIP, PEEP, percentage leak at the face mask and expired tidal volume were measured using a hot-wire anemometer. We analysed 20 inflations from each participant for each device. Fifty participants provided PIP and PEEP with each device. The T-piece was the most accurate and consistent. The flow-inflating bag had the most variation. The leak was lowest with the self-inflating bag and PEEP and highest with the flow-inflating bag, but all had wide variation. Each device was able to provide PIP and PEEP when used appropriately. When compared with other resuscitation devices, the T-piece provided the most accurate and consistent PIP and PEEP. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2011 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  10. Model-based PEEP optimisation in mechanical ventilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiew Yeong Shiong

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS patients require mechanical ventilation (MV for breathing support. Patient-specific PEEP is encouraged for treating different patients but there is no well established method in optimal PEEP selection. Methods A study of 10 patients diagnosed with ALI/ARDS whom underwent recruitment manoeuvre is carried out. Airway pressure and flow data are used to identify patient-specific constant lung elastance (Elung and time-variant dynamic lung elastance (Edrs at each PEEP level (increments of 5cmH2O, for a single compartment linear lung model using integral-based methods. Optimal PEEP is estimated using Elung versus PEEP, Edrs-Pressure curve and Edrs Area at minimum elastance (maximum compliance and the inflection of the curves (diminishing return. Results are compared to clinically selected PEEP values. The trials and use of the data were approved by the New Zealand South Island Regional Ethics Committee. Results Median absolute percentage fitting error to the data when estimating time-variant Edrs is 0.9% (IQR = 0.5-2.4 and 5.6% [IQR: 1.8-11.3] when estimating constant Elung. Both Elung and Edrs decrease with PEEP to a minimum, before rising, and indicating potential over-inflation. Median Edrs over all patients across all PEEP values was 32.2 cmH2O/l [IQR: 26.1-46.6], reflecting the heterogeneity of ALI/ARDS patients, and their response to PEEP, that complicates standard approaches to PEEP selection. All Edrs-Pressure curves have a clear inflection point before minimum Edrs, making PEEP selection straightforward. Model-based selected PEEP using the proposed metrics were higher than clinically selected values in 7/10 cases. Conclusion Continuous monitoring of the patient-specific Elung and Edrs and minimally invasive PEEP titration provide a unique, patient-specific and physiologically relevant metric to optimize PEEP selection with minimal disruption of MV therapy.

  11. Effect of external PEEP in patients under controlled mechanical ventilation with an auto-PEEP of 5 cmH2O or higher.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natalini, Giuseppe; Tuzzo, Daniele; Rosano, Antonio; Testa, Marco; Grazioli, Michele; Pennestrì, Vincenzo; Amodeo, Guido; Berruto, Francesco; Fiorillo, Marialinda; Peratoner, Alberto; Tinnirello, Andrea; Filippini, Matteo; Marsilia, Paolo F; Minelli, Cosetta; Bernardini, Achille

    2016-12-01

    In some patients with auto-positive end-expiratory pressure (auto-PEEP), application of PEEP lower than auto-PEEP maintains a constant total PEEP, therefore reducing the inspiratory threshold load without detrimental cardiovascular or respiratory effects. We refer to these patients as "complete PEEP-absorbers." Conversely, adverse effects of PEEP application could occur in patients with auto-PEEP when the total PEEP rises as a consequence. From a pathophysiological perspective, all subjects with flow limitation are expected to be "complete PEEP-absorbers," whereas PEEP should increase total PEEP in all other patients. This study aimed to empirically assess the extent to which flow limitation alone explains a "complete PEEP-absorber" behavior (i.e., absence of further hyperinflation with PEEP), and to identify other factors associated with it. One hundred patients with auto-PEEP of at least 5 cmH2O at zero end-expiratory pressure (ZEEP) during controlled mechanical ventilation were enrolled. Total PEEP (i.e., end-expiratory plateau pressure) was measured both at ZEEP and after applied PEEP equal to 80 % of auto-PEEP measured at ZEEP. All measurements were repeated three times, and the average value was used for analysis. Forty-seven percent of the patients suffered from chronic pulmonary disease and 52 % from acute pulmonary disease; 61 % showed flow limitation at ZEEP, assessed by manual compression of the abdomen. The mean total PEEP was 7 ± 2 cmH2O at ZEEP and 9 ± 2 cmH2O after the application of PEEP (p behavior of "complete PEEP-absorber." The best model included a respiratory rate lower than 20 breaths/min and the presence of flow limitation. The predictive ability of the model was excellent, with an overoptimism-corrected area under the receiver operating characteristics curve of 0.89 (95 % CI 0.80-0.97). Expiratory flow limitation was associated with both high and complete "PEEP-absorber" behavior, but setting a relatively high respiratory rate

  12. Peep Põldsamm lõi kampa Skype'i loojatega

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Peep Põldsamm asus juhtima Modesat Communications OÜd, mille omanik on Skype'i kaasasutajatele kuuluv investeerimisfirma Ambient Sound Investments. Modesat plaanib saavutada modemitehnoloogia rahvusvahelisel turul viieprotsendilise turuosa. Vt. samas: Põldsamm: olen uute äride ülesehitaja

  13. Automatic detection of AutoPEEP during controlled mechanical ventilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Quang-Thang

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dynamic hyperinflation, hereafter called AutoPEEP (auto-positive end expiratory pressure with some slight language abuse, is a frequent deleterious phenomenon in patients undergoing mechanical ventilation. Although not readily quantifiable, AutoPEEP can be recognized on the expiratory portion of the flow waveform. If expiratory flow does not return to zero before the next inspiration, AutoPEEP is present. This simple detection however requires the eye of an expert clinician at the patient’s bedside. An automatic detection of AutoPEEP should be helpful to optimize care. Methods In this paper, a platform for automatic detection of AutoPEEP based on the flow signal available on most of recent mechanical ventilators is introduced. The detection algorithms are developed on the basis of robust non-parametric hypothesis testings that require no prior information on the signal distribution. In particular, two detectors are proposed: one is based on SNT (Signal Norm Testing and the other is an extension of SNT in the sequential framework. The performance assessment was carried out on a respiratory system analog and ex-vivo on various retrospectively acquired patient curves. Results The experiment results have shown that the proposed algorithm provides relevant AutoPEEP detection on both simulated and real data. The analysis of clinical data has shown that the proposed detectors can be used to automatically detect AutoPEEP with an accuracy of 93% and a recall (sensitivity of 90%. Conclusions The proposed platform provides an automatic early detection of AutoPEEP. Such functionality can be integrated in the currently used mechanical ventilator for continuous monitoring of the patient-ventilator interface and, therefore, alleviate the clinician task.

  14. HINTS Puerto Rico: Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    This final report describes HINTS implementation in Puerto Rico. The report addresses sampling; staffing, training and management of data collection; calling protocol; findings from the CATI Operations, and sample weights.

  15. Peep Vain - the Best-known Training Guru in the Baltics = Peep Vain - Baltikumi tuntuim koolitusguru / Marit Sillavee

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sillavee, Marit

    2006-01-01

    Koolitusfirma Vain & Partnerid osaniku Peep Vainu karjäärist ja koolitajatööst. Vt. samas: Spiritual Trainer toTop Sportsmen = Tippsportlaste vaimutreener ; Lead Billing in Estonia's Highest-Grossing Documentary = Eesti edukaima dokfilmi peategelane

  16. Active Learning Using Hint Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chun-Liang; Ferng, Chun-Sung; Lin, Hsuan-Tien

    2015-08-01

    The abundance of real-world data and limited labeling budget calls for active learning, an important learning paradigm for reducing human labeling efforts. Many recently developed active learning algorithms consider both uncertainty and representativeness when making querying decisions. However, exploiting representativeness with uncertainty concurrently usually requires tackling sophisticated and challenging learning tasks, such as clustering. In this letter, we propose a new active learning framework, called hinted sampling, which takes both uncertainty and representativeness into account in a simpler way. We design a novel active learning algorithm within the hinted sampling framework with an extended support vector machine. Experimental results validate that the novel active learning algorithm can result in a better and more stable performance than that achieved by state-of-the-art algorithms. We also show that the hinted sampling framework allows improving another active learning algorithm designed from the transductive support vector machine.

  17. English for lawyers / Liina Soobik ; [preface: Peep Pruks

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Soobik, Liina, 1955-

    2001-01-01

    Kasutatud tekstide autorid: Peep Pruks, Merit-Ene Ilja, Ilona Nurmela, Kristi Raba, Andreas Kangur, Raul Narits, Peeter Roosma, Kalle Merusk, Maret Altnurme, Jaan Ginter, Aare Tark, Norman Aas, Lasse Lehis, Hannes Veinla, Jaan Sootak, Eerik Kergandberg, Paul Varul, Jaanus Ots, Urve Liin, Irene Kull, Merle Muda, Gaabriel Tavits, Andres Vutt, Kadri Siibak, Ellen Ridaste, Heiki Pisuke, Andrus Siibak

  18. Reliability of two common PEEP-generating devices used in neonatal resuscitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelm, M; Proquitté, H; Schmalisch, G; Roehr, C C

    2009-12-01

    Approximately 15% of neonates require respiratory support at birth, the demand of which increases with decreasing gestational age. Positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) stabilizes the airways and improves both pulmonary functional residual capacity and compliance. Self-inflating bags, which can be used with and without a PEEP-valve, are most commonly used for neonatal resuscitation, pressure limited T-piece resuscitators are becoming increasingly popular. The aim of the study was to investigate the reliability of PEEP provision of both systems. An intubated, leak free mannequin (equivalent to 1 kg neonate, pulmonary compliance 0.2 ml*cmH (2)O (-1)) was used for testing both devices. Eleven PEEP-valves attached to a 240 ml self-inflating bag and 5 T-piece resuscitators were investigated. Provision of a PEEP of 5 cmH (2)O (gas flow of 8l/min) at manual ventilation at breaths 40/min was investigated. Data were recorded using a standard pneumotachograph. Only 1/11 PEEP-valves provided a PEEP of 5 cmH (2)O (mean (SD) 2.95 (1.82) cmH (2)O, CV 0.62%), in 5/11 (45%) PEEP was piece resuscitators provided a PEEP >5 cmH (2)O (mean 5.59 (0.32) cmH (2)O, CV 0.06%). Significant differences in individual performance per device (pinflating bags did not reliably provide the desired PEEP of 5 cmH (2)O, whereas T-piece resuscitators did reliably provide the set PEEP-level, with less variability. When using self-inflating bags with PEEP-valves, neonatologists should check the equipment regarding the reliability of PEEP provision. (c) Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart New York.

  19. Lugejate valik : Peep Vain on parim / Marko Liibak

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Liibak, Marko

    2007-01-01

    Aripaev.ee ja ajaleht Äripäev korraldasid lugejate seas küsitluse, mille käigus valiti Eesti parimaks koolitajaks Vain & Partnerite omanik ning koolituskonsultant Peep Vain. Teisele kohale tuli koolitaja, juhtimiskonsultant ja nõustaja ning Tallinn Ülikooli kliinilise psühholoogia professor Mare Pork. Järgnesid Ülo Vihma, Indrek Saul, Tiit Valm, Mihkel Pärjamäe ning Alexander Kotchubei

  20. Complexity hints for economic policy

    CERN Document Server

    Salzano, Massimo

    2007-01-01

    This volume extends the complexity approach to economics. This complexity approach is not a completely new way of doing economics, and that it is a replacement for existing economics, but rather the integration of some new analytic and computational techniques into economists’ bag of tools. It provides some alternative pattern generators, which can supplement existing approaches by providing an alternative way of finding patterns than be obtained by the traditional scientific approach. On this new kind of policy hints can be obtained. The reason why the complexity approach is taking hold now in economics is because the computing technology has advanced. This advance allows consideration of analytical systems that could not previously be considered by economists. Consideration of these systems suggested that the results of the "control-based" models might not extend easily to more complicated systems, and that we now have a method—piggybacking computer assisted analysis onto analytic methods—to start gen...

  1. Hyperdynamic sepsis modifies a PEEP-mediated redistribution in organ blood flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bersten, A.D.; Gnidec, A.A.; Rutledge, F.S.; Sibbald, W.J. (Univ. of Western Ontario, London (Canada))

    1990-05-01

    Changes in organ blood flow (Q) produced by 20 cm H2O positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) were measured before and after the induction of hyperdynamic sepsis in nine unanesthetized sheep. During the baseline nonseptic study, PEEP was associated with a 9% fall in thermodilution-measured systemic Q, although arterial perfusing pressures were unaffected. Concurrently, microsphere-derived Q was maintained to the brain and heart, but fell to liver, spleen, pancreas, kidney, large intestine, and gastrocnemius. Twenty-four to 36 h after cecal ligation and perforation, a pre-PEEP septic study demonstrated an increase in all of the cardiac index (CI) and systemic O2 delivery when compared with the nonseptic study, whereas whole-body O2 extraction was depressed. Although PEEP depressed systemic Q during the septic study to a greater extent than during the nonseptic study (p less than 0.02), absolute organ Q fell only to pancreas, liver, and spleen. Relative to the simultaneous fall in the CI, Q to some splanchnic organs was not depressed by PEEP to the same magnitude in the septic as in the nonseptic study. When an infusion of Ringer's lactate subsequently restored systemic Q to pre-PEEP septic levels, individual flows that had been depressed by PEEP were not restored. Furthermore, Q-kidney continued to fall, such that the postfluid Q-kidney (-19%) was significantly less than was demonstrated in the pre-PEEP septic study. We postulate that differences noted in the distribution of organ Q between the nonseptic and hyperdynamic septic studies after the application of PEEP were secondary to the vasculopathy of sepsis and/or an alteration in the function of specific organ microcirculations. However, these data do not address whether the changes in organ Q distribution after a PEEP-mediated depression in systemic Q during sepsis significantly restricted tissue DO2.

  2. Effects of PEEP on acinar gas transfer in healthy and lung-injured dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnas, G M; Donahue, P L; Kong, C S; Ryder, I G; Choi, D H; Hoff, B H; Mackenzie, C F

    1995-10-01

    We measured cardiorespiratory variables and 133xenon washout from a nonperfused lung region (XeW) in six anesthetized/paralyzed dogs, mechanically ventilated with 60% O2 at different positive end-expiratory pressures (PEEP). XeW in this technique represents directly measured acinar gas transfer (3). Measurements were repeated after induction of lung injury by lavaging the lungs 11 to 13 times with 600 ml saline. In control dogs, lung compliance (CL), alveolar ventilation (Valv), and XeW all decreased with increasing PEEP from 0 to 25 cm H2O (p XeW below 15 cm H2O PEEP were all less than control values (p XeW increased, but CL did not change; RL decreased only from 0 to 5 cm H2O. At 20 cm H2O PEEP, Valv and CL were not different from control values (p > 0.05), and XeW was higher than control values (p XeW before and after lavage were similar. We conclude that, during severe lung injury: (1) increasing PEEP to moderate levels will increase acinar gas transfer but, after a certain lung volume is reached, further increases in PEEP will have effects similar to the healthy condition; (2) overall mechanical properties of the lung do not reflect the responses to PEEP of the lung periphery.

  3. Respiratory mechanics in COPD patients who failed non-invasive ventilation: role of intrinsic PEEP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonaglia, Vittorio; Ferluga, Massimo; Capitanio, Guido; Lucangelo, Umberto; Piller, Fulvia; Roman-Pognuz, Erik; Biancardi, Bruno; Caggegi, Giuseppe Davide; Zin, Walter A

    2012-10-15

    Non-invasive positive pressure ventilation (NPPV) is the first choice to treat exacerbations in COPD patients. NPPV can fail owing to different causes related to gas exchange impairment (RF group) or intolerance (INT group). To assess if the respiratory mechanical properties and the ratio between the dynamic and static intrinsic positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP(i),dyn/PEEP(i),stat), reflecting lung mechanical inequalities, were different between groups, 29 COPD patients who failed NPPV (15 RF and 14 INT) were studied, early after the application of invasive ventilation. Blood gas analysis, clinical status, and mechanical properties were measured. pH was higher in INT patients before intubation (p<0.001). PEEP(i),dyn/PEEP(i),stat was found higher in INT group with (p=0.021) and without PEEP (ZEEP, p<0.01). PEEP(i),dyn/PEEP(i),stat was exponentially associated with the duration of NPPV in INT group (p=0.011). INT and RF patients had similar impairment of respiratory system resistance and elastance. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Differential Effects of Intraoperative Positive End-expiratory Pressure (PEEP) on Respiratory Outcome in Major Abdominal Surgery Versus Craniotomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Jong, Myrthe A C; Ladha, Karim S; Melo, Marcos F Vidal

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: In this study, we examined whether (1) positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) has a protective effect on the risk of major postoperative respiratory complications in a cohort of patients undergoing major abdominal surgeries and craniotomies, and (2) the effect of PEEP is differed.......91 (0.84 - 0.98)], whereas PEEP >5 cmH2O was not significantly associated with reduced odds of respiratory complications or hospital length of stay in patients undergoing craniotomy. CONCLUSIONS: The protective effects of PEEP are procedure specific with meaningful effects observed in patients...... by surgery type. BACKGROUND: Protective mechanical ventilation with lower tidal volumes and PEEP reduces compounded postoperative complications after abdominal surgery. However, data regarding the use of intraoperative PEEP is conflicting. METHODS: In this observational study, we included 5915 major...

  5. Detection of optimal PEEP for equal distribution of tidal volume by volumetric capnography and electrical impedance tomography during decreasing levels of PEEP in post cardiac-surgery patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Blankman (Paul); Shono, A.; Hermans, B.J.M.; Wesselius, T.; D. Hasan (Djo); D.A.M.P.J. Gommers (Diederik)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractBackground Homogeneous ventilation is important for prevention of ventilator-induced lung injury. Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) has been used to identify optimal PEEP by detection of homogenous ventilation in non-dependent and dependent lung regions. We aimed to compare the

  6. Interpreting hints for lepton flavor universality violation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altmannshofer, Wolfgang; Stangl, Peter; Straub, David M.

    2017-09-01

    We interpret the recent hints for lepton flavor universality violation in rare B meson decays. Based on a model-independent effective Hamiltonian approach, we determine regions of new physics parameter space that give a good description of the experimental data on RK and RK*, which is in tension with Standard Model predictions. We suggest further measurements that can help narrowing down viable new physics explanations. We stress that the measured values of RK and RK* are fully compatible with new physics explanations of other anomalies in rare B meson decays based on the b →s μ μ transition. If the hints for lepton flavor universality violation are the first signs of new physics, perturbative unitarity implies new phenomena below a scale of ˜100 TeV .

  7. PEEP-ZEEP technique: cardiorespiratory repercussions in mechanically ventilated patients submitted to a coronary artery bypass graft surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Auler José

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The PEEP-ZEEP technique is previously described as a lung inflation through a positive pressure enhancement at the end of expiration (PEEP, followed by rapid lung deflation with an abrupt reduction in the PEEP to 0 cmH2O (ZEEP, associated to a manual bilateral thoracic compression. Aim To analyze PEEP-ZEEP technique's repercussions on the cardio-respiratory system in immediate postoperative artery graft bypass patients. Methods 15 patients submitted to a coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG were enrolled prospectively, before, 10 minutes and 30 minutes after the technique. Patients were curarized, intubated, and mechanically ventilated. To perform PEEP-ZEEP technique, saline solution was instilled into their orotracheal tube than the patient was reconnected to the ventilator. Afterwards, the PEEP was increased to 15 cmH2O throughout 5 ventilatory cycles and than the PEEP was rapidly reduced to 0 cmH2O along with manual bilateral thoracic compression. At the end of the procedure, tracheal suction was accomplished. Results The inspiratory peak and plateau pressures increased during the procedure (p Conclusion The PEEP-ZEEP technique seems to be safe, without alterations on hemodynamic variables, produces elevated expiratory flow and seems to be an alternative technique for the removal of bronchial secretions in patients submitted to a CABG.

  8. PEEP-induced changes in lung volume in acute respiratory distress syndrome. Two methods to estimate alveolar recruitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dellamonica, J; Lerolle, N; Sargentini, C; Beduneau, G; Di Marco, F; Mercat, A; Richard, J C M; Diehl, J L; Mancebo, J; Rouby, J J; Lu, Q; Bernardin, G; Brochard, L

    2011-10-01

    Lung volumes, especially functional residual capacity (FRC), are decreased in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) contributes to increased end-expiratory lung volume (EELV) and to improved oxygenation, but differentiating recruitment of previously nonaerated lung units from distension of previously open lung units remains difficult. This study evaluated simple methods derived from bedside EELV measurements to assess PEEP-induced lung recruitment while monitoring strain. Prospective multicenter study in 30 mechanically ventilated patients with ARDS in five university hospital ICUs. Two PEEP levels were studied, each for 45 min, and EELV (nitrogen washout/washin technique) was measured at both levels, with the difference (Δ) reflecting PEEP-induced lung volume changes. Alveolar recruitment was measured using pressure-volume (PV) curves. High and low recruiters were separated based on median recruitment at high PEEP. Minimum predicted increase in lung volume computed as the product of ΔPEEP by static compliance was subtracted from ΔEELV as an independent estimate of recruitment. Estimated and measured recruitments were compared. Strain induced by PEEP was also calculated from the same measurements. FRC was 31 ± 11% of predicted. Median [25th-75th percentiles] PEEP-induced recruitment was 272 [187-355] mL. Estimated recruitment correlated with recruited volume measured on PV curves (ρ = 0.68), with a slope close to identity. The ΔEELV/FRC ratio differentiated high from low recruiters (110 [76-135] vs. 55 [23-70]%, p = 0.001). Strain increase due to PEEP was larger in high recruiters (p = 0.002). PEEP-induced recruitment and strain can be assessed at the bedside using EELV measurement. We describe two bedside methods for predicting low or high alveolar recruitment during ARDS.

  9. Kas kool vajab kõrvalpilke? / Meelis Kond, Peep Susi, Marge Lepik ... [jt.

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2009-01-01

    Küsimusele vastavad Tallinna haridusameti hariduskorralduse teenistuse direktor Meelis Kond, Lihula gümnaasiumi direktor Peep Susi, Lääne-Viru maavalitsuse haridus- ja kultuuriosakonna juhataja Marge Lepik, Oru kooli direktor Andres Kampmann ja Haapsalu Nikolai kooli direktor Aive Saadjärv

  10. Effect of PEEP on regional ventilation and perfusion in the mechanically ventilated preterm lamb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlessel, J.S.; Susskind, H.; Joel, D.D.; Bossuyt, A.; Harrold, W.H.; Zanzi, I.; Chanana, A.D. (Cornell Univ. Medical College, Manhasset, NY (USA))

    1989-08-01

    Improvement of gas exchange through closer matching of regional ventilation (V) and lung perfusion (Q) with the application of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) was evaluated in vivo in six mechanically ventilated preterm lambs (107-126 days/145 days gestation). Changes in V and Q were determined from in vivo scintigraphic measurements in four lung regions with inhaled radioactive 81mKr, and infused {sup 81m}Kr/dextrose and/or ({sup 99m}Tc)MAA as PEEP was applied at 2, 4, and 6 cm H{sub 2}O in each animal. Dynamic compliance varied between 0.02 and 0.40 ml/cm H{sub 2}O, which was consistent with surfactant deficiency. As PEEP was increased, the regional distribution of Q shifted from the rostral to the caudal lung regions (p less than 0.02 to less than 0.05), while that of V remained unchanged. Regional V/Q matching improved together with a trend towards improvement of arterial blood gases as PEEP was increased from 2 to 4 cm H{sub 2}O. Pulmonary scintigraphy offers a noninvasive methodology for the quantitative assessment of regional V and Q matching in preterm lambs and may be clinically applicable to ventilated neonates.

  11. Lung volume calculated from electrical impedance tomography in ICU patients at different PEEP levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.G. Bikker (Ido); S. Leonhardt (Steffen); J. Bakker (Jan); D.A.M.P.J. Gommers (Diederik)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractPurpose: To study and compare the relationship between end-expiratory lung volume (EELV) and changes in end-expiratory lung impedance (EELI) measured with electrical impedance tomography (EIT) at the basal part of the lung at different PEEP levels in a mixed ICU population. Methods:

  12. Raudna põhikooli spordihoone Heimtalis = Raudna School Sports Facility in Heimtali / Peep Jänes

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Jänes, Peep, 1936-

    2009-01-01

    2008. a. valminud spordihoonest, mille autor on Peep Jänes, projekteerija GS-Dis, sisekujundajad Signe ja Gildardas Stokas. Spordihoone rajati 1860. a. ehitatud mõisa ringtalli välismüüri sisealale ja restaureeriti ajalooline ringmüür

  13. Experimental hint for gravitational CP violation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gharibyan, Vahagn [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron, Hamburg (Germany). MDI Group

    2016-01-15

    An equality of particle and antiparticle gravitational interactions holds in general relativity and is supported by indirect observations. Gravity dependence on rotation or spin direction is experimentally constrained only at low energies. Here a method based on high energy Compton scattering is developed to measure the gravitational interaction of accelerated charged particles. Within that formalism the Compton spectra measured at HERA rule out the positron's anti-gravity and hint for a gravitational CP violation around 13 GeV energies, at a maximal level of 1.3±0.2% for the charge and 0.68±0.09% for the space parity. A stronger gravitational coupling to left helicity electrons relative to right helicity positrons is detected.

  14. Increased anxiety-related behaviour in Hint1 knockout mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varadarajulu, Jeeva; Lebar, Maria; Krishnamoorthy, Gurumoorthy; Habelt, Sonja; Lu, Jia; Bernard Weinstein, I; Li, Haiyang; Holsboer, Florian; Turck, Christoph W; Touma, Chadi

    2011-07-07

    Several reports have implicated a role for the histidine triad nucleotide-binding protein-1 (Hint1) in psychiatric disorders. We have studied the emotional behaviour of male Hint1 knockout (Hint1 KO) mice in a battery of tests and performed biochemical analyses on brain tissue. The behavioural analysis revealed that Hint1 KO mice exhibit an increased emotionality phenotype compared to wildtype (WT) mice, while no significant differences in locomotion or general exploratory activity were noted. In the elevated plus-maze (EPM) test, the Hint1 KO animals entered the open arms of the apparatus less often than WT littermates. Similarly, in the dark-light box test, Hint1 KO mice spent less time in the lit compartment and the number of entries were reduced, which further confirmed an increased anxiety-related behaviour. Moreover, the Hint1 KO animals showed significantly more struggling and less floating behaviour in the forced swim test (FST), indicating an increased emotional arousal in aversive situations. Hint1 is known as a protein kinase C (PKC) interacting protein. Western blot analysis showed that PKCγ expression was elevated in Hint1 KO compared to WT mice. Interestingly, PKCγ mRNA levels of the two groups did not show a significant difference, implying a post-transcriptional PKCγ regulation. In addition, PKC enzymatic activity was increased in Hint1 KO compared to WT mice. In summary, our results indicate a role for Hint1 and PKCγ in modulating anxiety-related and stress-coping behaviour in mice. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Structured hints : extracting and abstracting domain expertise.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hereld, M.; Stevens, R.; Sterling, T.; Gao, G. R.; Mathematics and Computer Science; California Inst. of Tech.; Louisiana State Univ.; Univ. of Delaware

    2009-03-16

    We propose a new framework for providing information to help optimize domain-specific application codes. Its design addresses problems that derive from the widening gap between the domain problem statement by domain experts and the architectural details of new and future high-end computing systems. The design is particularly well suited to program execution models that incorporate dynamic adaptive methodologies for live tuning of program performance and resource utilization. This new framework, which we call 'structured hints', couples a vocabulary of annotations to a suite of performance metrics. The immediate target is development of a process by which a domain expert describes characteristics of objects and methods in the application code that would not be readily apparent to the compiler; the domain expert provides further information about what quantities might provide the best indications of desirable effect; and the interactive preprocessor identifies potential opportunities for the domain expert to evaluate. Our development of these ideas is progressing in stages from case study, through manual implementation, to automatic or semi-automatic implementation. In this paper we discuss results from our case study, an examination of a large simulation of a neural network modeled after the neocortex.

  16. Effect of patient position and PEEP on hepatic, portal and central venous pressures during liver resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sand, L; Rizell, M; Houltz, E; Karlsen, K; Wiklund, J; Odenstedt Hergès, H; Stenqvist, O; Lundin, S

    2011-10-01

    It has been suggested that blood loss during liver resection may be reduced if central venous pressure (CVP) is kept at a low level. This can be achieved by changing patient position but it is not known how position changes affect portal (PVP) and hepatic (HVP) venous pressures. The aim of the study was to assess if changes in body position result in clinically significant changes in these pressures. We studied 10 patients undergoing liver resection. Mean arterial pressure (MAP) and CVP were measured using fluid-filled catheters, PVP and HVP with tip manometers. Measurements were performed in the horizontal, head up and head down tilt position with two positive end expiratory pressure (PEEP) levels. A 10° head down tilt at PEEP 5 cm H(2) O significantly increased CVP (11 ± 3 to 15 ± 3 mmHg) and MAP (72 ± 8 to 76 ± 8 mmHg) while head up tilt at PEEP 5 cm H(2) O decreased CVP (11 ± 3 to 6 ± 4 mmHg) and MAP (72 ± 8 to 63 ± 7 mmHg) with minimal changes in transhepatic venous pressures. Increasing PEEP from 5 to 10 resulted in small increases, around 1 mmHg in CVP, PVP and HVP. There was no significant correlation between changes in CVP vs. PVP and HVP during head up tilt and only a weak correlation between CVP and HVP by head down tilt. Changes of body position resulted in marked changes in CVP but not in HVPs. Head down or head up tilt to reduce venous pressures in the liver may therefore not be effective measures to reduce blood loss during liver surgery. 2011 The Authors Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, 2011 The Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica Foundation.

  17. Efecto del incremento de la PEEP en la actividad muscular respiratoria evaluado con electromiografia de superficie en individuos sanos bajo ventilacion espontanea

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hernandez-Valdivieso, Alher Mauricio; Salazar-Sanchez, Maria Bernarda; Munoz-Ortega, Isabel Cristina

    2016-01-01

    ...) para cuantificar el trabajo respiratorio. Objetivo: evaluar el efecto de la PEEP en la actividad muscular respiratoria mediante EMGS en individuos sanos bajo ventilacion mecanica no invasiva. Metodologia...

  18. Study Hints At Link Between Some Statins, Parkinson's Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... html Study Hints at Link Between Some Statins, Parkinson's Risk But the connection was only seen with ... may have a slightly increased risk of developing Parkinson's disease, a new study suggests. Researchers said the ...

  19. Reliability of Single-Use PEEP-Valves Attached to Self-Inflating Bags during Manual Ventilation of Neonates--An In Vitro Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia C Hartung

    Full Text Available International resuscitation guidelines suggest to use positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP during manual ventilation of neonates. Aim of our study was to test the reliability of self-inflating bags (SIB with single-use PEEP valves regarding PEEP delivery and the effect of different peak inflation pressures (PIP and ventilation rates (VR on the delivered PEEP.Ten new single-use PEEP valves from 5 manufacturers were tested by ventilating an intubated 1 kg neonatal manikin containing a lung model with a SIB that was actuated by an electromechanical plunger device. Standard settings: PIP 20 cmH2O, VR 60/min, flow 8 L/min. PEEP settings of 5 and 10 cmH2O were studied. A second test was conducted with settings of PIP 40 cmH2O and VR 40/min. The delivered PEEP was measured by a respiratory function monitor (CO2SMO+.Valves from one manufacturer delivered no relevant PEEP and were excluded. The remaining valves showed a continuous decay of the delivered pressure during expiration. The median (25th and 75th percentile delivered PEEP with standard settings was 3.4(2.7-3.8 cmH2O when set to 5 cmH2O and 6.1(4.9-7.1 cmH2O when set to 10 cmH2O. Increasing the PIP from 20 to 40 cmH2O led to a median (25th and 75th percentile decrease in PEEP to 2.3(1.8-2.7 cmH2O and 4.3(3.2-4.8 cmH2O; changing VR from 60 to 40/min led to a PEEP decrease to 2.8(2.1-3.3 cmH2O and 5.0(3.5-6.2 cmH2O for both PEEP settings.Single-use PEEP valves do not reliably deliver the set PEEP. PIP and VR have an effect on the delivered PEEP. Operators should be aware of these limitations when manually ventilating neonates.

  20. Reliability of Single-Use PEEP-Valves Attached to Self-Inflating Bags during Manual Ventilation of Neonates--An In Vitro Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartung, Julia C; Wilitzki, Silke; Thio-Lluch, Marta; te Pas, Arjan B; Schmalisch, Gerd; Roehr, Charles C

    2016-01-01

    International resuscitation guidelines suggest to use positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) during manual ventilation of neonates. Aim of our study was to test the reliability of self-inflating bags (SIB) with single-use PEEP valves regarding PEEP delivery and the effect of different peak inflation pressures (PIP) and ventilation rates (VR) on the delivered PEEP. Ten new single-use PEEP valves from 5 manufacturers were tested by ventilating an intubated 1 kg neonatal manikin containing a lung model with a SIB that was actuated by an electromechanical plunger device. Standard settings: PIP 20 cmH2O, VR 60/min, flow 8 L/min. PEEP settings of 5 and 10 cmH2O were studied. A second test was conducted with settings of PIP 40 cmH2O and VR 40/min. The delivered PEEP was measured by a respiratory function monitor (CO2SMO+). Valves from one manufacturer delivered no relevant PEEP and were excluded. The remaining valves showed a continuous decay of the delivered pressure during expiration. The median (25th and 75th percentile) delivered PEEP with standard settings was 3.4(2.7-3.8) cmH2O when set to 5 cmH2O and 6.1(4.9-7.1) cmH2O when set to 10 cmH2O. Increasing the PIP from 20 to 40 cmH2O led to a median (25th and 75th percentile) decrease in PEEP to 2.3(1.8-2.7) cmH2O and 4.3(3.2-4.8) cmH2O; changing VR from 60 to 40/min led to a PEEP decrease to 2.8(2.1-3.3) cmH2O and 5.0(3.5-6.2) cmH2O for both PEEP settings. Single-use PEEP valves do not reliably deliver the set PEEP. PIP and VR have an effect on the delivered PEEP. Operators should be aware of these limitations when manually ventilating neonates.

  1. Effects of unilateral PEEP on biomechanics of both lungs during independent lung ventilation in patients anaesthetised for thoracic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trela-Stachurska, Katarzyna; Nestorowicz, Andrzej; Kotlińska-Hasiec, Edyta; Sawulski, Sławomir; Dąbrowski, Wojciech

    2015-01-01

    Synchronous independent lung ventilation (ILV) is the treatment of choice for unilateral pathology of lung parenchyma. Numerous studies have documented the improved blood oxygenation and clinical efficacy of this procedure. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of ILV on the selected biomechanical parameters of the lungs. The study involved ASA I-II patients undergoing thoracic surgery in the lateral decubitus position under the standard conditions of general anaesthesia with the thoracic cavity closed. ILV with equal separation of the tidal volume was performed with a prototype volume separator, using incremental a PEEP of 0-15 cm H₂O in the dependent lung. Peak pressures, dynamic compliance and airway resistance of both lungs were evaluated. The study included 36 patients. In all of the patients, a PEEP of 5-15 cm H₂O in one lung increased its peak pressures, dynamic compliance and resistances, and variably affected the biomechanical parameters of the other lung. Irrespective of patient positioning on the right or left side, the highest compliance was recorded at a PEEP of 10 cm H₂O. In ILV, peak pressures and airway resistances are higher in the dependent lung compared to compliances in the non-dependent lung. ILV with a PEEP of 5-15 cm H₂O increases the biomechanical parameters of the dependent lung while variably influencing the parameters in the non-dependent lung.

  2. New physics hints in B decays and collider outlook

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    There are currently two hints for new physics involving CP violation in → transitions: ≡ - / ≠ 0, and difference in direct CP asymmetry Δ A K π ≡ A K + π 0 − A K + π ≠ 0 . We explore the two scenarious with a large and unique new CP phase in ← tansitions. Motivated by ≠ 0, we update on the ...

  3. HINTS in the Acute Vestibular Syndrome: Pearls and Pitfalls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kung, Nathan H; Van Stavern, Gregory P; Gold, Daniel R

    2018-01-09

    The acute vestibular syndrome (AVS) is characterized by the rapid onset of vertigo, nausea/vomiting, nystagmus, unsteady gait, and head motion intolerance lasting more than 24 hours. We present 4 patients with AVS to illustrate the pearls and pitfalls of the Head Impulse, Nystagmus, Test of Skew (HINTS) examination.

  4. Observational Hints of a Pre--Inflationary Scale?

    CERN Document Server

    Gruppuso, A.

    2015-09-28

    We argue that the lack of power exhibited by cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies at large angular scales might be linked to the onset of inflation. We highlight observational features and theoretical hints that support this view, and present a preliminary estimate of the physical scale that would underlie the phenomenon.

  5. A two-Higgs-doublet model facing experimental hints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crivellin Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Physics beyond the Standard Model has so far eluded our experimental probes. Nevertheless, a number of interesting anomalies have accumulated that can be taken as hints towards new physics: BaBar, Belle, and LHCb have found deviations of approximately 3:8σ in B → Dτν and B → D*τν; the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon differs by about 3σ from the theoretic prediction; the branching ratio for τ → μνν is about 2σ above the Standard Model expectation; and CMS and ATLAS found hints for a non-zero decay rate of h → μτ at 2.6σ. Here we consider these processes within a lepton-specific two-Higgs doublet model with additional non-standard Yukawa couplings and show how (and which of these excesses can be accommodated.

  6. New physics hints in B decays and collider outlook

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Physics search, and we do have two hints from the B factories. The first is the difference in mixing-dependent CPV (TCPV) as measured in penguin-dominated b → s¯qq processes vs. tree-dominated b → s¯cc processes. One expects no CPV in. B0 → J/ψK0 decay, hence, by measuring TCPV in this process, one expects to.

  7. Towards a universal auto-hinting system for typographic shapes

    OpenAIRE

    Herz, J; Hersch, R. D.

    1994-01-01

    The article presents a simple method for the automatic recognition and hinting of character structure elements such as horizontal and vertical stems. Stem recognition is based on successive steps such as extraction of straight or nearly straight contour segments, detection of hidden segments, merging of original and hidden segments into larger segments, sorting of segments into classes according to their slopes and finally, composition of black and white stems. Reference values required for c...

  8. Ventilation with high versus low peep levels during general anaesthesia for open abdominal surgery does not affect postoperative spirometry: A randomised clinical trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Treschan, Tanja A.; Schaefer, Maximilian; Kemper, Johann; Bastin, Bea; Kienbaum, Peter; Pannen, Benedikt; Hemmes, Sabrine N.; de Abreu, Marcelo G.; Pelosi, Paolo; Schultz, Marcus J.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUNDInvasive mechanical ventilation during general anaesthesia for surgery typically causes atelectasis and impairs postoperative lung function.OBJECTIVEWe investigated the effect of intraoperative ventilation with high positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) and recruitment manoeuvres (RMs)

  9. Performance of different PEEP valves and helmet outlets at increasing gas flow rates: a bench top study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isgrò, S; Zanella, A; Giani, M; Abd El Aziz El Sayed Deab, S; Pesenti, A; Patroniti, N

    2012-10-01

    Aim of the paper was to assess the performance of different expiratory valves and the resistance of helmet outlet ports at increasing gas flow rates. A gas flow-meter was connected to 10 different expiratory peep valves: 1 water-seal valve, 4 precalibrated fixed PEEP valves and 5 adjustable PEEP valves. Three new valves of each brand, set at different pressure levels (5-7.5-10-12.5-15 cmH(2)O, if available), were tested at increasing gas flow rates (from 30 to 150 L/min). We measured the pressure generated just before the valves. Three different helmets sealed on a mock head were connected at the inlet port with a gas flow-meter while the outlet was left clear. We measured the pressure generated inside the helmet (due to the flow-resistance of the outlet port) at increasing gas flow rates. Adjustable valves showed a variable degree flow-dependency (increasing difference between the measured and the expected pressure at increasing flow rates), while pre-calibrated valves revealed a flow-independent behavior. Water seal valve showed low degree flow-dependency. The pressures generated by the outlet port of the tested helmets ranged from 0.02 to 2.29 cmH(2)O at the highest gas flow rate. Adjustable PEEP valves are not suggested for continuous-flow CPAP systems as their flow-dependency can lead to pressures higher than expected. Precalibrated and water seal valves exhibit the best performance. Different helmet outlet ports do not significantly affect the pressure generated during helmet CPAP. In order to avoid iatrogenic complications gas flow and pressure delivered during helmet CPAP must always be monitored.

  10. Effects of tidal volume and PEEP on arterial blood gases and pulmonary mechanics during one-lung ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sang Hun; Jung, Ki Tae; An, Tae Hun

    2012-08-01

    The main problem of one-lung ventilation (OLV) is hypoxemia. The use of a high tidal volume for preventing hypoxemia during OLV is controversial. We compared the effects of a high tidal volume versus a low tidal volume with or without PEEP on arterial oxygen tension (PaO(2)) and pulmonary mechanics during OLV. Sixty patients (age range, 16-65 years; ASA I, II) who underwent wedge resection with video-assisted thoracostomy during OLV were assigned to three groups: group I received a high tidal volume (10 ml/kg) (n = 20), group II received a low tidal volume (6 ml/kg) (n = 20), and group III received a low tidal volume (6 ml/kg) with PEEP (5 cmH(2)O) (n = 20). Patient hemodynamics, pulmonary mechanics, and arterial blood gases were measured before (T(0)) OLV and 5 (T(1)), 15 (T(2)), 30 (T(3)), and 45 min (T(4)) after OLV. The PaO(2)/FiO(2) ratios of group II and III were significantly decreased and the incidence of hypoxemia was significantly higher in groups II and III than in group I (P mechanical ventilation with a low tidal volume with or without PEEP increased hypoxemia as compared to that when performing OLV with a high tidal volume.

  11. Semantic analysis according to Peep Koort--a substance-oriented research methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivonen, Kerstin; Kasén, Anne; Eriksson, Katie

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this article is to describe the hermeneutic semantic analysis created by professor Peep Koort (1920-1977) and to discuss it as a methodology for research within caring science. The methodology is developed with a hermeneutic approach that differs from the traditions of semantic analysis in philosophy or linguistics. The research objects are core concepts and theoretical constructs (originally within the academic discipline of education science, later on within the academic discipline of caring science), focusing deeper understanding of essential meaning content when developing a discipline. The qualitative methodology of hermeneutic semantic analysis is described step by step as created by Koort, interpreted and developed by the authors. An etymological investigation and an analysis of synonymy between related concepts within a conceptual family guides the researcher to understand and discriminate conceptual dimensions of meaning content connected to the word studied, thus giving opportunities to summarise it in a theoretical definition, a discovery that can be tested in varying contexts. From a caring science perspective, we find the hermeneutic methodology of semantic analysis fruitful and suitable for researchers developing their understanding of core concepts and theoretical constructs connected to the development of the academic discipline. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  12. Ventilation with high versus low peep levels during general anaesthesia for open abdominal surgery does not affect postoperative spirometry: A randomised clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treschan, Tanja A; Schaefer, Maximilian; Kemper, Johann; Bastin, Bea; Kienbaum, Peter; Pannen, Benedikt; Hemmes, Sabrine N; de Abreu, Marcelo G; Pelosi, Paolo; Schultz, Marcus J

    2017-08-01

    Invasive mechanical ventilation during general anaesthesia for surgery typically causes atelectasis and impairs postoperative lung function. We investigated the effect of intraoperative ventilation with high positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) and recruitment manoeuvres (RMs) on postoperative spirometry. This was a preplanned, single-centre substudy of an international multicentre randomised controlled trial, the PROVHILO trial. University hospital from November 2011 to January 2013. Nonobese patients scheduled for major abdominal surgery at a high risk of postoperative pulmonary complications (PPCs). Intraoperative low tidal volume ventilation with PEEP levels of 12 cmH2O and RM (the high PEEP group) or with PEEP levels of 2 cmH2O or less without RM (the low PEEP group). Time-weighted averages (TWAs) of the forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) and the forced vital capacity (FVC) up to postoperative day five. Thirty-one patients were allocated to the high PEEP group and 32 to the low PEEP group. No postoperative spirometry test results were available for 6 patients. In both groups, TWA of FEV1 and FVC until postoperative day five were lower than preoperative values. Postoperative spirometry test results were not different between the high and low PEEP group; Data are median [interquartile range], TWA FVC 1.8 [1.6 to 2.4] versus 1.7 [1.2 to 2.4] l (P = NS) and TWA FEV1 1.2 [1.1 to 2.5] versus 1.2 [0.9 to 1.9] l (P = NS). Patients who developed PPCs had lower FEV1 and FVC on postoperative day five; 1.1 [0.9 to 1.6] versus 1.6 [1.4 to 1.9] l (P = 0.001) and 1.6 [1.2 to 2.6] versus 2.3 [1.7 to 2.6] l (P = 0.036), respectively. Postoperative spirometry is not affected by PEEP and RM during intraoperative ventilation for open abdominal surgery in nonobese patients at a high risk of PPCs, but rather is associated with the development of PPCs. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01441791.

  13. I tweet, therefore I am / Andrei Korobeinik, Henrik Roonemaa, Mati Hint ; intervjueerinud Ivo Visak

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Korobeinik, Andrei, 1980-

    2014-01-01

    Tehnoloogiaajakirjanik Henrik Roonemaa, suhtlusvõrgustiku rate.ee looja Andrei Korobeinik ning keele- ja ühiskonnateadlane Mati Hint vestlesid y-generatsiooni digitaliseerumise teemadel Paide arvamusfestivalil

  14. HINT-KB: The human interactome knowledge base

    KAUST Repository

    Theofilatos, Konstantinos A.

    2012-01-01

    Proteins and their interactions are considered to play a significant role in many cellular processes. The identification of Protein-Protein interactions (PPIs) in human is an open research area. Many Databases, which contain information about experimentally and computationally detected human PPIs as well as their corresponding annotation data, have been developed. However, these databases contain many false positive interactions, are partial and only a few of them incorporate data from various sources. To overcome these limitations, we have developed HINT-KB (http://150.140.142.24:84/Default.aspx) which is a knowledge base that integrates data from various sources, provides a user-friendly interface for their retrieval, estimates a set of features of interest and computes a confidence score for every candidate protein interaction using a modern computational hybrid methodology. © 2012 IFIP International Federation for Information Processing.

  15. Understanding Attention to Adaptive Hints in Educational Games: An Eye-Tracking Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conati, Cristina; Jaques, Natasha; Muir, Mary

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a user study that investigates the factors affecting student attention to user-adaptive hints during interaction with an educational computer game. The study focuses on Prime Climb, an educational game designed to provide individualized support for learning number factorization skills in the form of textual hints based on a…

  16. Effects of Hint1 deficiency on emotional-like behaviors in mice under chronic immobilization stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Liankang; Liu, Peng; Liu, Fei; Zhou, Yuan; Chu, Zheng; Li, Yuqi; Chu, Guang; Zhang, Ying; Wang, Jiabei; Dang, Yong-Hui

    2017-10-01

    Histidine triad nucleotide-binding protein 1 (HINT1) is regarded as a haplo-insufficient tumor suppressor and is closely associated with diverse neuropsychiatric diseases. Moreover, HINT1 is related to gender-specific acute behavior changes in schizophrenia and in response to nicotine. Stress has a range of molecular effects in emotional disorders, which can cause a reduction in brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression in the hippocampus, resulting in hippocampal atrophy and neuronal cell loss. This study examined the role of HINT1 deficiency in anxiety-related and depression-like behaviors and BDNF expression in the hippocampus under chronic immobilization stress, and investigated whether the sex-specific and haplo-insufficient effects exist in emotional-like behaviors under the same condition. In a battery of behavior tests, the results of the control group, not exposed to stress, showed that knockout (KO) and heterozygosity (HT) of Hint1 had anxiolytic-like and antidepression-like effects on the male and female mice. However, both male and female Hint1-KO mice showed elevated anxiety-related and antidepression-like behavior under chronic immobilization stress; moreover, both male and female Hint1-HT mice displayed elevated anxiety-related behavior and increased depression-like behavior under chronic immobilization stress. There were no significant differences in general locomotor activity between Hint1-KO and -HT mice and their wild-type (WT) littermates. Hint1-KO mice under basal and chronic immobilization stress conditions expressed more BDNF in the hippocampus than did Hint1-HT and WT mice; overall, there were no significant sex differences in emotional-like behaviors of Hint1-KO and -HT mice. Additionally, Hint1-HT mice showed haplo-insufficient effects on emotional-like behaviors under basic conditions, rather than under chronic immobilization stress. Both male and female HINT 1 KO and HT mice had a trend of anxiolytic-like behavior and

  17. Finale of a Quartet: Hints on Supernova Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Xiao; Thompson, Todd A.; Hirata, Christopher M.

    2018-01-01

    The origin of Type Ia Supernovae (SNe) is not well understood. Two most popular hypotheses are the single-degenerate scenario, where one white dwarf (WD) accretes matter from its giant companion until the Chandrasekhar limit is reached, and the double-degenerate scenario, where two WDs merge and explode. We focus on the second scenario. It has long been realized that binary WD systems normally take extremely long time to merge via gravitational waves and it is still unclear whether WD mergers can fully account for the observed SN Ia rate. Recent effort has been devoted to the effects of introducing a distant tertiary to the binary system. The standard “Kozai-Lidov” mechanism can lead to high eccentricities of the binary WDs, which could lead to direct collisions or much efficient energy dissipation. Alternatively, we investigate the long-term evolution of the hierarchical quadruple systems, i.e. WD binary with a binary companion, which are basically unexplored, yet they should be numerous. We explore their interesting dynamics and find that the fraction of reaching high eccentricities is largely enhanced, which hints on a higher WD merger rate than predicted from triple systems with the same set of secular and non-secular effects considered. Considering the population of quadruple stellar systems, the quadruple scenario might contribute significantly to the overall rate of Ia SNe.

  18. [HINT1--a novel tumor suppressor protein of the HIT superfamily].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozga, Magdalena

    2010-01-01

    The histidine triad nucleotide binding protein1 (Hint1) belongs to the first branch of the HIT superfamily. Hint1 catalyses the process of hydrolysis of the P-N bond in AMP-lysine, AMP-alanine, AMP-NH2. The physiological role of this enzyme is still unclear. There is accumulating evidence that HINT1 is a novel tumor suppressor protein, albeit the mechanism of action of HINT1 in respect to tumor suppression is not fully understood. Recent findings have shown that Hint1 inhibits the activity of the transcription factors AP1, MITF and USF2, as well as influences the transcription process of some genes of Wnt/beta-catenin pathway. Thereby, it seems that Hint1 exerts its major cellular function as gene transcription regulator, and thus, this function provides its potential role as a tumor suppressor protein. The clinical relevance of impairments in the Hint1 expression with the respect to specific human cancers is still a matter of extensive studies.

  19. Effect of Different Levels of Peep on Oxygenation during Non-Invasive Ventilation in Patients Submitted to CABG Surgery: Randomized Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordeiro, André Luiz Lisboa; Gruska, Caroline Aparecida; Ysla, Pâmella; Queiroz, Amanda; Nogueira, Sarah Carvalho de Oliveira; Leite, Maria Clara; Freitas, Bruno; Guimarães, André Raimundo

    2017-01-01

    Introduction During and after coronary artery bypass grafting, a decline in multifactor lung function is observed. Due to this fact, some patients may benefit from non-invasive ventilation after extubation targeting lung expansion and consequently improved oxygenation. Objective To test the hypothesis that higher levels of positive end expiration pressure during non-invasive ventilation improves oxygenation in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting. Methods A randomized clinical trial was conducted at Instituto Nobre de Cardiologia in Feira de Santana. On the first day after surgery, the patients were randomized: Group PEEP 10, Group PEEP 12 and Group PEEP 15 who underwent non-invasive ventilation with positive end expiration pressure level. All patients were submitted to analysis blood pressure oxygen (PaO2), arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2) and oxygenation index (PaO2/FiO2). Results Thirty patients were analyzed, 10 in each group, with 63.3% men with a mean age of 61.1±12.2 years. Mean pulmonary expansion pre-therapy PaO2 was generally 121.9±21.6 to 136.1±17.6 without statistical significance in the evaluation among the groups. This was also present in PaO2/FiO2 and SaO2. Statistical significance was only present in pre and post PEEP 15 when assessing the PaO2 and SaO2 (P=0.02). Conclusion Based on the findings of this study, non-invasive ventilation with PEEP 15 represented an improvement in oxygenation levels of patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting. PMID:28977202

  20. P-Hint-Hunt: a deep parallelized whole genome DNA methylation detection tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Shaoliang; Yang, Shunyun; Gao, Ming; Liao, Xiangke; Liu, Jie; Yang, Canqun; Wu, Chengkun; Yu, Wenqiang

    2017-03-14

    The increasing studies have been conducted using whole genome DNA methylation detection as one of the most important part of epigenetics research to find the significant relationships among DNA methylation and several typical diseases, such as cancers and diabetes. In many of those studies, mapping the bisulfite treated sequence to the whole genome has been the main method to study DNA cytosine methylation. However, today's relative tools almost suffer from inaccuracies and time-consuming problems. In our study, we designed a new DNA methylation prediction tool ("Hint-Hunt") to solve the problem. By having an optimal complex alignment computation and Smith-Waterman matrix dynamic programming, Hint-Hunt could analyze and predict the DNA methylation status. But when Hint-Hunt tried to predict DNA methylation status with large-scale dataset, there are still slow speed and low temporal-spatial efficiency problems. In order to solve the problems of Smith-Waterman dynamic programming and low temporal-spatial efficiency, we further design a deep parallelized whole genome DNA methylation detection tool ("P-Hint-Hunt") on Tianhe-2 (TH-2) supercomputer. To the best of our knowledge, P-Hint-Hunt is the first parallel DNA methylation detection tool with a high speed-up to process large-scale dataset, and could run both on CPU and Intel Xeon Phi coprocessors. Moreover, we deploy and evaluate Hint-Hunt and P-Hint-Hunt on TH-2 supercomputer in different scales. The experimental results illuminate our tools eliminate the deviation caused by bisulfite treatment in mapping procedure and the multi-level parallel program yields a 48 times speed-up with 64 threads. P-Hint-Hunt gain a deep acceleration on CPU and Intel Xeon Phi heterogeneous platform, which gives full play of the advantages of multi-cores (CPU) and many-cores (Phi).

  1. Mida arvate ideest, et kõrgkoole võiks juhtida ülikoolivälistest inimestest koosnev nõukogu? / Jaak Aaviksoo, Maris Mälzer, Peeter Kreitzberg, Peep Sürje

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2010-01-01

    Küsimusele vastavad Tartu Ülikooli eelmine rektor Jaak Aaviksoo, Eesti Üliõpilaskondade Liidu esimees Maris Mälzer, Riigikogu kultuurikomisjoni esimees Peeter Kreitzberg ja Tallinna Tehnikaülikooli rektor Peep Sürje

  2. Kas omakeelsel haridusel ja teadusel on tulevikku? / Kirsti Siitonen, Jolanta Zabarskaite, Josep Soler-Carbonell, Rainer Enrique Hamel ; intervjueerinud Peep Nemvalts ; tõlkinud Doris Kareva, Aili Künstler

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2011-01-01

    TLÜ teaduskeelekeskus korraldas koos TLÜ eesti keele ja kultuuri instituudiga 29. ja 30. augustil rahvusvahelise konverentsi "Rahvuskeeled teaduses ja kõrghariduses". Sel teemal vastavad TLÜ teaduskeelekeskuse juhataja Peep Nemvaltsi küsimustele konverentsi rahvusvahelised esinejad

  3. Uus töölpeinguseadus : nagu Soomes lama ajal? Ei, veel karmim / Maret Maripuu, Tarmo Kriis, Peep Peterson ; interv. Külli-Riin Tigasson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Maripuu, Maret, 1974-

    2008-01-01

    Uue töölepingu seaduse eelnõust. Vestlusringis on sotsiaalminister Maret Maripuu, Eesti tööandjate keskliidu juhataja Tarmo Kriis ja transpordi ametiühingu juhatuse esimees Peep Peterson. Lisatud: mida eelnõu muudab? ; ametiühingute keskliidu juhi Harri Taliga kommentaar: dzhungliseaduste tagasitulek? ; Helmes ASi nõukogu esimehe Jaan Pillesaare kommentaar: praegune seadus on tobe

  4. Efecto de las maniobras de reclutamiento en la lesión pulmonar aguda experimental comparado con diferentes niveles de PEEP

    OpenAIRE

    Ponisio, F.; Vecchio, L; Marcos, Josefina; Stringa, Pablo; Vittone, Leticia; Laguens, Graciela; Correger, E

    2014-01-01

    La estrategia de ventilación protectora, empleando bajos VT y altos niveles de PEEP, ha demostrado ser el modo más idóneo de ventilar pacientes con SDRA. Las maniobras de reclutamiento (MR) alveolar se han propuesto como medidas adicionales en el manejo ventilatorio de estos pacientes. Sin embargo, existen escasas evidencias que demuestren el efecto beneficioso de estas maniobras en el campo experimental.

  5. A hinting strategy for online learning of radiograph interpretation by medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutis, Kathy; Pecaric, Martin; Shiau, Maria; Ridley, Jane; P Gladding, Sophie; S Andrews, John; V Pusic, Martin

    2013-09-01

    We examined whether a 'hint' manoeuvre increases the time novice medical learners spend on reviewing a radiograph, thereby potentially increasing their interpretation accuracy. Senior year medical students were recruited into a randomised control, three-arm, multicentre trial. Students reviewed an online 50-case learning set that varied in degree of 'hint' intervention. The 'hint' was a dialogue box that appeared after a student submitted an answer, encouraging the student to re-evaluate their interpretation. The students in the control group received no hints. In the weak intervention group, students received 'hints' with 66% of their incorrect interpretations and 33% of those that were correct. In the strong intervention group, the incorrect interpretation hint frequency was 80%, whereas for correct responses it was 20%. All students completed a 20-case post-test immediately and 2 weeks after the 50 cases. The primary outcome was student performance on the immediate post-test, measured as the ability to discriminate between normal and abnormal films (dPrime). Secondary outcomes included the probability of considering the hint, time spent on learning cases and knowledge retention at 2 weeks. We enrolled 117 medical students from three sites into the three study groups: control (36), weak intervention (40) and strong intervention (41) groups. The mean (standard deviation) dPrime in the control, weak and strong groups were 0.4 (1.1), 0.7 (1.1) and 0.4 (0.9), respectively (P = 0.4). In the weak and strong groups, participants reconsidered answers in 556 of 1944 (28.6%) hinting opportunities, and those who reconsidered their answers spent a mean (95% confidence interval) of 13.9 (11.9, 16.0) seconds longer on each case. There were no significant differences in knowledge retention at 2 weeks between the groups (P = 0.2). Although the implemented hinting strategy did result in students spending more time considering a proportion of the cases, overall it was not

  6. In COPD patients on prolonged mechanical ventilation heart rate variability during the T-piece trial is better after pressure support plus PEEP: a pilot physiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitacca, Michele; Scalvini, Simonetta; Volterrani, Maurizio; Clini, Enrico Maria; Paneroni, Mara; Giordano, Amerigo; Ambrosino, Nicolino

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate heart rate variability (HRV), hemodynamics, mechanics, dyspnea and blood gases following different mechanical ventilation (MV) settings. No study has evaluated physiological changes during T-piece trials following different MV settings. In 8 COPD patients on prolonged MV we applied in random order two MV settings: i) pressure support (PS) 20 cm H2O + positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) 0 cm H2O (setting-1) and ii) PS 15 cm H2O + PEEP 5 cm H2O (setting-2), each followed by a 30 min T-piece trial. Setting-1 induced greater minute ventilation, tidal volume/inspiratory time and lower pulmonary artery occlusion pressure; setting-2 reduced intrinsic PEEP. Mechanics and hemodynamics data did not differ, but all HRV time domain indices were reduced only after setting-1, suggesting a decreased parasympathetic and increased sympathetic cardiac modulation. The T-piece trial following setting-2 seems less stressful on neural control of HRV. Future studies on T-piece trials should consider the residual effect of the MV setting. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Eestlastest Austraalias / Peep Pillak ; foto: Peep Pillak

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pillak, Peep

    2009-01-01

    eestlaste saabumisest Austraaliasse XVII saj. lõpus, XIX ja XX sajandil, Sydney Eesti Majast, pagulaste saabumisest pärast II maailmasõda, Sydney Jaani kogudusest, eestlaste kalmistust Rookwoodis, ajaleht "Meie Kodu" asutamisest, Eesti konsulaadist Sydneys, Eesti Arhiivist Austraalias, eestlastest Thirlmeres ja mujal, seltsielust, kirjasõna Austraalia eestlastest

  8. Monitoring of intratidal lung mechanics: a Graphical User Interface for a model-based decision support system for PEEP-titration in mechanical ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buehler, S; Lozano-Zahonero, S; Schumann, S; Guttmann, J

    2014-12-01

    In mechanical ventilation, a careful setting of the ventilation parameters in accordance with the current individual state of the lung is crucial to minimize ventilator induced lung injury. Positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) has to be set to prevent collapse of the alveoli, however at the same time overdistension should be avoided. Classic approaches of analyzing static respiratory system mechanics fail in particular if lung injury already prevails. A new approach of analyzing dynamic respiratory system mechanics to set PEEP uses the intratidal, volume-dependent compliance which is believed to stay relatively constant during one breath only if neither atelectasis nor overdistension occurs. To test the success of this dynamic approach systematically at bedside or in an animal study, automation of the computing steps is necessary. A decision support system for optimizing PEEP in form of a Graphical User Interface (GUI) was targeted. Respiratory system mechanics were analyzed using the gliding SLICE method. The resulting shapes of the intratidal compliance-volume curve were classified into one of six categories, each associated with a PEEP-suggestion. The GUI should include a graphical representation of the results as well as a quality check to judge the reliability of the suggestion. The implementation of a user-friendly GUI was successfully realized. The agreement between modelled and measured pressure data [expressed as root-mean-square (RMS)] tested during the implementation phase with real respiratory data from two patient studies was below 0.2 mbar for data taken in volume controlled mode and below 0.4 mbar for data taken in pressure controlled mode except for two cases with RMS < 0.6 mbar. Visual inspections showed, that good and medium quality data could be reliably identified. The new GUI allows visualization of intratidal compliance-volume curves on a breath-by-breath basis. The automatic categorisation of curve shape into one of six shape

  9. Evident or doubtful? How lexical hints in written information influence laypersons' understanding of influenza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayweg-Paus, Elisabeth; Jucks, Regina

    2015-01-01

    There are clear differences in the way written information on health issues presents research findings. In some cases, the source of a piece of information (e.g. "expert professor") is highlighted to emphasize its credibility and relevance. In other cases, the impact of a certain argument is stressed by avoiding hints on tentativeness such as "mostly" or "up to now." This article examines whether and how far such differences influence laypersons' comprehension of the contents provided. In an experimental setting, 157 laypersons were asked to read an online article on a new approach to preventing influenza. The texts manipulated whether there were (a) hints on the source of information and (b) lexical hints on the tentativeness of the information (hedges). After reading the text, participants were asked to write an essay reporting their opinion on the topic. Their argumentation on vaccination was assessed with content analysis and their attitudes toward vaccination were surveyed with a questionnaire. Results indicated that when lexical hints were given, tentativeness led participants to focus more on the actual information in the text. Additionally, decisions more strongly favored the direction implied in the text when the source of the medical information was not reported. Consequences for the way health information should be presented to laypersons are discussed.

  10. Ultra high energy cosmic rays above 10 GeV: Hints to new physics ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    physics pp. 297–305. Ultra high energy cosmic rays above 10. 11. GeV: Hints to new physics beyond Standard Model. PIJUSHPANI BHATTACHARJEE. Indian Institute of Astrophysics, Koramangala, Bangalore 560 034, India. Abstract. The observed cosmic ray events above 10ЅЅ GeV are difficult to explain within the con-.

  11. Semantic Elaboration through Integration: Hints Both Facilitate and Inform the Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Patricia J.; Varga, Nicole L.; King, Jessica E.; Nolen, Ayla M.; White, Elizabeth A.

    2015-01-01

    Semantic knowledge can be extended in a variety of ways, including self-generation of new facts through integration of separate yet related episodes. We sought to promote integration and self-generation by providing "hints" to help 6-year-olds (Experiment 1) and 4-year-olds (Experiment 2) see the relevance of separate episodes to one…

  12. Breastfeeding: Hints to Help You Get Off to a Good Start

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to Help You Get Off to a Good Start Breastfeeding: Hints to Help You Get Off to a Good Start Share Print Breastfeeding has many benefits for your ... to help you get off to a good start.Before you give birthDuring pregnancy, the following things ...

  13. Helping Love Grow: Some Hints for Mothering Your Adopted Baby. (Revised Edition).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bumgarner, Norma Jane

    This booklet presents child care guidelines for mothers of newly adopted children. Hints for getting acquainted with a baby and developing a close mother-child relationship are provided. Medical checkups, feedings, and physical displays of affection (touching) are emphasized. Also provided is information pertaining to special cases of adoption: if…

  14. Res Publicas käärib mäss / Hants Hint

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hint, Hants

    2002-01-01

    Res Publica eestseisuse liige ja Ida-Viru piirkonna esimees Hants Hint vastab küsimustele Res Publica ja Keskerakonna võimuliidu moodustamisega tekkinud skandaali, Res Publica esimehe Juhan Partsiga kohtumise kohta. Vt. samas: "Korbi toetajaid ootab hukkamõist"

  15. Effects of cognitive and metacognitive hints on reading performance in a digital learning environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brummer, Leonie; ter Beek, Marlies; Donker, Anouk; Opdenakker, Marie-Christine

    2017-01-01

    In secondary education, learning is constituted by reading. For example, for content courses such as history and geography. However, many learners have difficulties to understand what they are reading and lack strategies to regulate their reading. Hints appear to be effective in supporting learners

  16. Data-Driven Hint Generation in Vast Solution Spaces: A Self-Improving Python Programming Tutor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivers, Kelly; Koedinger, Kenneth R.

    2017-01-01

    To provide personalized help to students who are working on code-writing problems, we introduce a data-driven tutoring system, ITAP (Intelligent Teaching Assistant for Programming). ITAP uses state abstraction, path construction, and state reification to automatically generate personalized hints for students, even when given states that have not…

  17. Efecto del incremento de la PEEP en la actividad muscular respiratoria evaluado con electromiografía de superficie en individuos sanos bajo ventilación espontánea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernández-Valdivieso, Alher Mauricio

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In a mechanically ventilated patient with increased airway resistance, the expiratory time span is insufficient to exhale all the inspired volume. In order to maintain oxygenation and to reduce the workload of respiratory muscles, it is common to apply an extrinsic positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP that reduces tissue collapsibility, counterbalancing the increased resistance. Several studies have shown the usefulness of surface electromyography (sEMG to quantify the work of breathing (WOB, particularly in patients with obstructive diseases. Objective: To assess the effect of incremental PEEP in the respiratory muscle activity through sEMG in healthy volunteers noninvasively ventilated. Methods: Study of muscle activity in 10 healthy male volunteers, noninvasively ventilated for 20 minutes. The extrinsic PEEP was applied from 0 to 5 cm H2O in steps of 1 cm H2O at 30 seconds intervals. Results: The bio-potentials of diaphragm and sternocleidomastoid muscles revealed different breathing patterns in response to incremental PEEP: 1 increase in the workload of both muscles during inspiration and expiration; 2 increase in the workload of only one muscle; 3 a remarkable increase in muscle activity only in expiration. Conclusion: In noninvasively ventilated volunteers, sEMG quantitatively relates the PEEP level with changes in sternocleidomastoid and diaphragm activity.

  18. Rationale, Procedures, and Response Rates for the 2015 Administration of NCI's Health Information National Trends Survey: HINTS-FDA 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Kelly D; Portnoy, David B; Kaufman, Annette R; Lin, Chung-Tung Jordan; Lo, Serena C; Backlund, Eric; Cantor, David; Hicks, Lloyd; Lin, Amy; Caporaso, Andrew; Davis, Terisa; Moser, Richard P; Hesse, Bradford W

    2016-12-01

    The National Cancer Institute (NCI) developed the Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS) to monitor population trends in cancer communication practices, information preferences, health risk behaviors, attitudes, and cancer knowledge. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recognized HINTS as a unique data resource for informing its health communication endeavors and partnered with NCI to field HINTS-FDA 2015. HINTS-FDA 2015 was a self-administered paper instrument sent by mail May 29 to September 8, 2015, using a random probability-based sample of U.S. postal addresses stratified by county-level smoking rates, with an oversampling of high and medium-high smoking strata to increase the yield of current smokers responding to the survey. The response rate for HINTS-FDA 2015 was 33% (N = 3,738). The yield of current smokers (n = 495) was lower than expected, but the sampling strategy achieved the goal of obtaining more former smokers (n = 1,132). Public-use HINTS-FDA 2015 data and supporting documentation have been available for download and secondary data analyses since June 2016 at http://hints.cancer.gov . NCI and FDA encourage the use of HINTS-FDA for health communication research and practice related to tobacco-related communications, public knowledge, and behaviors as well as beliefs and actions related to medical products and dietary supplements.

  19. Stoic Behavior Hypothesis in Hint Seeking and Development of Reversi Learning Environment as Work Bench for Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miwa, Kazuhisa; Kojima, Kazuaki; Terai, Hitoshi

    2014-01-01

    Tutoring systems provide students with various types of on-demand and context-sensitive hints. Students are required to consciously adapt their help-seeking behavior, proactively seek help in some situations, and solve problems independently without supports in other situations. We define the latter behavior as stoic behavior in hint seeking. In…

  20. Anti-depressant and anxiolytic like behaviors in PKCI/HINT1 knockout mice associated with elevated plasma corticosterone level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Jia

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Protein kinase C interacting protein (PKCI/HINT1 is a small protein belonging to the histidine triad (HIT family proteins. Its brain immunoreactivity is located in neurons and neuronal processes. PKCI/HINT1 gene knockout (KO mice display hyper-locomotion in response to D-amphetamine which is considered a positive symptom of schizophrenia in animal models. Postmortem studies identified PKCI/HINT1 as a candidate molecule for schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. We investigated the hypothesis that the PKCI/HINT1 gene may play an important role in regulating mood function in the CNS. We submitted PKCI/HINT1 KO mice and their wild type (WT littermates to behavioral tests used to study anti-depressant, anxiety like behaviors, and goal-oriented behavior. Additionally, as many mood disorders coincide with modifications of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis function, we assessed the HPA activity through measurement of plasma corticosterone levels. Results Compared to the WT controls, KO mice exhibited less immobility in the forced swim (FST and the tail suspension (TST tests. Activity in the TST tended to be attenuated by acute treatment with valproate at 300 mg/kg in KO mice. The PKCI/HINT1 KO mice presented less thigmotaxis in the Morris water maze and spent progressively more time in the lit compartment in the light/dark test. In a place navigation task, KO mice exhibited enhanced acquisition and retention. Furthermore, the afternoon basal plasma corticosterone level in PKCI/HINT1 KO mice was significantly higher than in the WT. Conclusion PKCI/HINT1 KO mice displayed a phenotype of behavioral and endocrine features which indicate changes of mood function, including anxiolytic-like and anti-depressant like behaviors, in conjunction with an elevated corticosterone level in plasma. These results suggest that the PKCI/HINT 1 gene could be important for the mood regulation function in the CNS.

  1. Anti-depressant and anxiolytic like behaviors in PKCI/HINT1 knockout mice associated with elevated plasma corticosterone level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbier, Elisabeth; Wang, Jia Bei

    2009-11-13

    Protein kinase C interacting protein (PKCI/HINT1) is a small protein belonging to the histidine triad (HIT) family proteins. Its brain immunoreactivity is located in neurons and neuronal processes. PKCI/HINT1 gene knockout (KO) mice display hyper-locomotion in response to D-amphetamine which is considered a positive symptom of schizophrenia in animal models. Postmortem studies identified PKCI/HINT1 as a candidate molecule for schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. We investigated the hypothesis that the PKCI/HINT1 gene may play an important role in regulating mood function in the CNS. We submitted PKCI/HINT1 KO mice and their wild type (WT) littermates to behavioral tests used to study anti-depressant, anxiety like behaviors, and goal-oriented behavior. Additionally, as many mood disorders coincide with modifications of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function, we assessed the HPA activity through measurement of plasma corticosterone levels. Compared to the WT controls, KO mice exhibited less immobility in the forced swim (FST) and the tail suspension (TST) tests. Activity in the TST tended to be attenuated by acute treatment with valproate at 300 mg/kg in KO mice. The PKCI/HINT1 KO mice presented less thigmotaxis in the Morris water maze and spent progressively more time in the lit compartment in the light/dark test. In a place navigation task, KO mice exhibited enhanced acquisition and retention. Furthermore, the afternoon basal plasma corticosterone level in PKCI/HINT1 KO mice was significantly higher than in the WT. PKCI/HINT1 KO mice displayed a phenotype of behavioral and endocrine features which indicate changes of mood function, including anxiolytic-like and anti-depressant like behaviors, in conjunction with an elevated corticosterone level in plasma. These results suggest that the PKCI/HINT 1 gene could be important for the mood regulation function in the CNS.

  2. Employing UMLS for generating hints in a tutoring system for medical problem-based learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazi, Hameedullah; Haddawy, Peter; Suebnukarn, Siriwan

    2012-06-01

    While problem-based learning has become widely popular for imparting clinical reasoning skills, the dynamics of medical PBL require close attention to a small group of students, placing a burden on medical faculty, whose time is over taxed. Intelligent tutoring systems (ITSs) offer an attractive means to increase the amount of facilitated PBL training the students receive. But typical intelligent tutoring system architectures make use of a domain model that provides a limited set of approved solutions to problems presented to students. Student solutions that do not match the approved ones, but are otherwise partially correct, receive little acknowledgement as feedback, stifling broader reasoning. Allowing students to creatively explore the space of possible solutions is exactly one of the attractive features of PBL. This paper provides an alternative to the traditional ITS architecture by using a hint generation strategy that leverages a domain ontology to provide effective feedback. The concept hierarchy and co-occurrence between concepts in the domain ontology are drawn upon to ascertain partial correctness of a solution and guide student reasoning towards a correct solution. We describe the strategy incorporated in METEOR, a tutoring system for medical PBL, wherein the widely available UMLS is deployed and represented as the domain ontology. Evaluation of expert agreement with system generated hints on a 5-point likert scale resulted in an average score of 4.44 (Spearman's ρ=0.80, p<0.01). Hints containing partial correctness feedback scored significantly higher than those without it (Mann Whitney, p<0.001). Hints produced by a human expert received an average score of 4.2 (Spearman's ρ=0.80, p<0.01). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The Diagnostic Accuracy of Truncal Ataxia and HINTS as Cardinal Signs for Acute Vestibular Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmona, Sergio; Martínez, Carlos; Zalazar, Guillermo; Moro, Marcela; Batuecas-Caletrio, Angel; Luis, Leonel; Gordon, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    The head impulse, nystagmus type, test of skew (HINTS) protocol set a new paradigm to differentiate peripheral vestibular disease from stroke in patients with acute vestibular syndrome (AVS). The relationship between degree of truncal ataxia and stroke has not been systematically studied in patients with AVS. We studied a group of 114 patients who were admitted to a General Hospital due to AVS, 72 of them with vestibular neuritis (based on positive head impulse, abnormal caloric tests, and negative MRI) and the rest with stroke: 32 in the posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) territory (positive HINTS findings, positive MRI) and 10 in the anterior inferior cerebellar artery (AICA) territory (variable findings and grade 3 ataxia, positive MRI). Truncal ataxia was measured by independent observers as grade 1, mild to moderate imbalance with walking independently; grade 2, severe imbalance with standing, but cannot walk without support; and grade 3, falling at upright posture. When we applied the HINTS protocol to our sample, we obtained 100% sensitivity and 94.4% specificity, similar to previously published findings. Only those patients with stroke presented with grade 3 ataxia. Of those with grade 2 ataxia (n = 38), 11 had cerebellar stroke and 28 had vestibular neuritis, not related to the patient’s age. Grade 2–3 ataxia was 92.9% sensitive and 61.1% specific to detect AICA/PICA stroke in patients with AVS, with 100% sensitivity to detect AICA stroke. In turn, two signs (nystagmus of central origin and grade 2–3 Ataxia) had 100% sensitivity and 61.1% specificity. Ataxia is less sensitive than HINTS but much easier to evaluate. PMID:27551274

  4. The Diagnostic Accuracy of Truncal Ataxia and HINTS as Cardinal Signs for Acute Vestibular Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Carmona

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The head impulse, nystagmus type, test of skew (HINTS protocol set a new paradigm to differentiate peripheral vestibular disease from stroke in patients with acute vestibular syndrome (AVS. The relationship between degree of truncal ataxia and stroke has not been systematically studied in patients with AVS. We studied a group of 114 patients who were admitted to a General Hospital due to AVS, 72 of them with vestibular neuritis (based on positive head impulse, abnormal caloric tests and negative MRI, and the rest with Stroke: 32 in the PICA territory (positive HINTS findings, positive MRI and 10 in the AICA territory (variable findings and grade 3 Ataxia, positive MRI. Truncal ataxia was measured by independent observers as grade 1, mild to moderate imbalance with walking independently; grade 2, severe imbalance with standing, but cannot walk without support; and grade 3, falling at upright posture.When we applied the HINTS protocol to our sample, we obtained 100% sensitivity and 94.4% specificity, similar to previously published findings. Only those patients with stroke presented with grade 3 ataxia. Of those with grade 2 ataxia (n = 38, 11 had cerebellar stroke and 28 had vestibular neuritis, not related to the patient's age. Grade 2-3 ataxia was 92.9% sensitive and 61.1% specific to detect AICA/PICA stroke in patients with AVS, with 100% sensitivity to detect AICA stroke. In turn, two signs (nystagmus of central origin and grade 2-3 Ataxia had 100% sensitivity and 61.1% specificity. Ataxia is less sensitive than HINTS but much easier to evaluate.

  5. Gene prediction in eukaryotes with a generalized hidden Markov model that uses hints from external sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morgenstern Burkhard

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In order to improve gene prediction, extrinsic evidence on the gene structure can be collected from various sources of information such as genome-genome comparisons and EST and protein alignments. However, such evidence is often incomplete and usually uncertain. The extrinsic evidence is usually not sufficient to recover the complete gene structure of all genes completely and the available evidence is often unreliable. Therefore extrinsic evidence is most valuable when it is balanced with sequence-intrinsic evidence. Results We present a fairly general method for integration of external information. Our method is based on the evaluation of hints to potentially protein-coding regions by means of a Generalized Hidden Markov Model (GHMM that takes both intrinsic and extrinsic information into account. We used this method to extend the ab initio gene prediction program AUGUSTUS to a versatile tool that we call AUGUSTUS+. In this study, we focus on hints derived from matches to an EST or protein database, but our approach can be used to include arbitrary user-defined hints. Our method is only moderately effected by the length of a database match. Further, it exploits the information that can be derived from the absence of such matches. As a special case, AUGUSTUS+ can predict genes under user-defined constraints, e.g. if the positions of certain exons are known. With hints from EST and protein databases, our new approach was able to predict 89% of the exons in human chromosome 22 correctly. Conclusion Sensitive probabilistic modeling of extrinsic evidence such as sequence database matches can increase gene prediction accuracy. When a match of a sequence interval to an EST or protein sequence is used it should be treated as compound information rather than as information about individual positions.

  6. Effects of manual rib-cage compression versus PEEP-ZEEP maneuver on respiratory system compliance and oxygenation in patients receiving mechanical ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Flavio Renato Antunes Dos; Schneider Júnior, Luiz Carlos; Forgiarini Junior, Luiz Alberto; Veronezi, Jefferson

    2009-06-01

    Patients unable to perform breathing functions may be submitted to invasive mechanical ventilation. Chest physiotherapy acts directly on the treatment of these patients for the purpose of improving their lung function. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of manual rib-cage compression versus the positive end expiratory pressure-zero end expiratory pressure (PEEP-ZEEP) maneuver, on compliance of the respiratory system and oxygenation in patients under invasive mechanical ventilation. A double centric, prospective, randomized and crossover study, with patients under invasive mechanical ventilation, in controlled mode for more than 48 hours was carried out. The protocols of chest physiothe-rapy were randomly applied at an interval of 24 hours. Data of respiratory system compliance and oxygenation were collected before application of the protocols and 30 minutes after. Twelve patients completed the study. Intragroup analysis, for both techniques showed a statistically significant difference in tidal volume (p=0.002), static compliance (p=0.002) and dynamic compliance (p=0.002). In relation to oxygenation, in the group of manual rib-cage compression, peripheral oxygen saturation increased with a significant difference (p=0.011). Manual rib-cage compression and PEEP-ZEEP maneuver have positive clinical effects. In relation to oxygenation we found a favorable behavior of peripheral oxygen saturation in the group of manual rib-cage compression.

  7. Keskkond / Peep Pobbul

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pobbul, Peep

    2004-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: 2003 : annual report : [Eesti Raudtee]. - Tallinn, 2004, lk. 40-41; 2003 : godovoi ottshjot : [Eesti Raudtee]. - Tallinn, 2004, lk. 40-41. AS-i Eesti Raudtee keskkonna-alastest projektidest

  8. [Mati Hint. Eesti keele astmevahelduse ja prosoodiasüsteemi tüpoloogilised probleemid] / Paul Alvre

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Alvre, Paul

    1997-01-01

    Arvustus: Hint, Mati. Eesti keele astmevahelduse ja prosoodiasüsteemi tüpoloogilised probleemid : [artiklivalimik] = Typological problems of Estonian grade alternation and prosodical system = Viron kielen astevaihtelun ja prosodian typologiset ongelmat. Tallinn ; Helsinki : Eesti Keele Instituut, 1997

  9. Basics of compounding: tips and hints, Part 3: compounding with ointments, creams, pastes, gels, and gel-creams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Loyd V

    2014-01-01

    This article represents the third in a series of articles on tips and hints ofcompounding. In this issue, we will discuss some tips and hints for the compounding of ointments, creams, pastes, gels, and gel-creams. For clarification, a gel-cream is a cream in which the external aqueous phase has been thickened using a gelling agent; the advantage is a more stable cream.

  10. Brazilian Portuguese Hearing in Noise Test (HINT): different interpretation criteria for individuals' responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Rafaela do Couto; Menezes, Denise Costa; Pacífico, Fernando Augusto; Advíncula, Karina Paes; Griz, Silvana Maria Sobral

    2017-03-09

    The ability to recognize the sounds of speech enables an efficient communication. This ability must always be considered when communication disorders are evaluated. In this study, sentences of the Hearing in Noise Test (HINT), originally developed in English and adapted to Brazilian Portuguese, were used to evaluate speech recognition in silence and in the presence of noise. Although this test can be an important clinical tool, it is noticed that it has not been used in audiological clinical practice in Brazil. One possible reason is the lack of standardization of some aspects of the test, including the methods adopted to analyze the patient's answers. The aim of this study was to analyze different judgment criteria of individuals' answers during sentence recognition thresholds measurement using the HINT in Brazilian Portuguese. The study was conducted with 30 young adults (three groups of 10 people), between 18 and 25 years old, of both genders, with normal hearing. HINT sentences were adapted to Brazilian Portuguese and speech recognition thresholds were determined in the presence of noise by using three judgment criteria published in Brazilian literature. A single variation analysis was performed to compare the average threshold between the three groups. The maximum error probability to reject the null hypothesis was 5%. The mean and standard deviations of thresholds, respectively, were: 59.90 ± 1.43 dB SPL; 59.60 ± 0.53 dB SPL and 59.95 ± 0.6 dB SPL. There was no statistically significant difference between the means (F = 0.398; p> 0.05). Regardless the judging criteria used, results obtained in all groups were equivalent.

  11. Hints for clarification of influencing factors in case of occupational liver diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zober, A.; Raithel, H.; Valentin, H.

    1981-05-01

    Clarification of influencing factors is of great importance in suspected occupational liver diseases. Hints are given on the basis of the author's own experience and after critical evaluation of the relevant literature. Most important are: 1) Establishment of a comprehensive working anamnesis with special regard to specific features of the job, exposure patterns, and all working materials; 2) assessment of the hepatotoxic potential of the suspected working material according to the present state of knowledge in working medicine and toxicology; 3) objectification and quantification of the suspected noxious substances at the place of work by means of air analysis and analysis of the biological matter; 4) differential diagnosis in view of possible competitive influencing factors.

  12. HINT2 triggers mitochondrial Ca2+ influx by regulating the mitochondrial Ca2+ uniporter (MCU) complex and enhances gemcitabine apoptotic effect in pancreatic cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Linghui; Sun, Qiang; Zhou, Dongkai; Song, Wei; Yang, Qifan; Ju, Bingjie; Zhang, Lufei; Xie, Haiyang; Zhou, Lin; Hu, Zhenhua; Yao, Hangping; Zheng, Shusen; Wang, Weilin

    2017-12-28

    In early studies, it was shown that HINT2, which sensitizes cells to mitochondrial apoptosis, is down-regulated in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells (Martin et al., 2006). However, the molecular mechanism of this effect is unknown. Immunohistochemistry revealed that HINT2 expression is relatively low in pancreatic cancer tissues, compared to that in adjacent tissues (P cancer patients. Up-regulation of HINT2 was shown to trigger pancreatic cancer cell apoptosis, decrease mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm), promote intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, and elevate mitochondrial Ca2+ levels. However, co-treatment of HINT2 overexpressing BxPC-3 cells with ruthenium red partially inhibited HINT2-induced apoptosis, which was associated with a reduction in ΔΨm and an increase in intracellular ROS and mitochondrial Ca2+. According to our results, mitochondrial calcium uptake1 and 2 (MICU1 and MICU2) were down-regulated and the essential MCU regulator (EMRE) was up-regulated in cells transduced with Adv-HINT2. Therefore, we deduced that HINT2 triggers apoptosis in pancreatic cancer cells by regulating mitochondrial Ca2+ influx through the mitochondrial calcium uniporter (MCU). In addition, we found that HINT2 can sensitize BxPC-3 and L3.6pl cells to gemcitabine-induced apoptosis and that gemcitabine up-regulates HINT2 expression. This indicates that gemcitabine-induced apoptosis is related to HINT2 levels. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. HEALTH INFO SANTÉ – REMINDER ANNUAL DEDUCTIBLE AND REIMBURSEMENT CLAIMS HINTS FOR USE

    CERN Multimedia

    CHIS Board

    2000-01-01

    Information from the CHIS Board and the Human Resources Division:Annual deductible and reimbursement claims: hints for useOne should bear in mind that the annual deductible is an amount (currently CHF 100) charged automatically by the Administrator of the scheme for every adult aged 18 and above. This is what happens: The amount is deducted annually for all medical services received over a calendar year.It is triggered by the date of the treatment and neither by the date of the bill nor that of the reimbursement claim.In other words, if you receive medical treatment in December for the first time in a given year, the CHF 100 will be deducted from the claim for that treatment. So, except for urgent cases, it would be better to wait till the following month, thus avoiding one annual deductible.It is also worth remembering that the cost of processing our reimbursement claims - and there were 54, 000 in 1999 - is part of the cost of our insurance.Help keep administrative costs down: do not submit reimbursement cl...

  14. Seven Hints for Primordial Black Hole Dark Matter arXiv

    CERN Document Server

    Clesse, Sebastien

    The detection by Advanced LIGO/VIRGO of black hole mergers with large progenitor masses ranging up to 30 $M_\\odot$ and one progenitor spin likely to be non-aligned with the orbital momentum, point towards a possible primordial (non-stellar) origin of these black holes. If they are primordial black holes (PBH), the merger rates inferred by LIGO coincide with the ones expected for abundances comparable to those of Dark Matter (DM). By re-investigating some observations, such as microlensing and compact star clusters in faint dwarf galaxies, and by analyzing the latest LIGO data, we identify seven hints pointing towards PBH-DM, with a broad mass spectrum centered in the range $[1-10] M_\\odot$. The detection of numerous micro-lensing events of distant quasars and stars in M31 provide firm evidences that 15%-25% of the halo of massive galaxies is made of compact objects with masses $[0.05-0.45] M_\\odot$ and $[0.5-1] M_\\odot$ respectively, such as a primordial black holes. These values are compatible with the re-co...

  15. Hints for Neutrino-process Boron in Presolar Silicon Carbide Grains from Supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiya, Wataru; Hoppe, Peter; Ott, Ulrich

    2011-03-01

    We have studied more than 1000 presolar silicon carbide (SiC) grains from the Murchison CM2 chondrite for C- and Si-isotopic compositions. Twelve SiC X grains, characterized by strong enrichments in 28Si and believed to originate from Type II Supernovae (SNeII), were also measured for Li- and B-isotopic compositions. None of these grains show resolvable isotope anomalies in Li or B. For the seven X grains without Li and B contributions from nearby or attached SiC grains of distinct origins we find on average 7Li/6Li = 11.83 ± 0.29 (solar system: 12.06) and 11B/10B = 4.68 ± 0.31 (solar system: 4.03). The average 7Li/6Li is compatible with the solar system ratio and the lithium in the X grains is likely largely dominated by contaminating Li of laboratory or meteoritic origin. Also, most of the boron in X grains appears to be contamination but the small 11B excess of ~16%, significant at the 2σ level, can be considered a hint for the presence of boron produced by the neutrino process in the parent SNeII. Despite this finding, a quantitative comparison of the B isotope and abundance data of X grains with model predictions reveals deficiencies in our current understanding of the details of B production in SNeII as well as on B chemistry and condensation in SNII ejecta.

  16. Health Information National Trends Survey in American Sign Language (HINTS-ASL): Protocol for the Cultural Adaptation and Linguistic Validation of a National Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushalnagar, Poorna; Harris, Raychelle; Paludneviciene, Raylene; Hoglind, TraciAnn

    2017-09-13

    The Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS) collects nationally representative data about the American's public use of health-related information. This survey is available in English and Spanish, but not in American Sign Language (ASL). Thus, the exclusion of ASL users from these national health information survey studies has led to a significant gap in knowledge of Internet usage for health information access in this underserved and understudied population. The objectives of this study are (1) to culturally adapt and linguistically translate the HINTS items to ASL (HINTS-ASL); and (2) to gather information about deaf people's health information seeking behaviors across technology-mediated platforms. We modified the standard procedures developed at the US National Center for Health Statistics Cognitive Survey Laboratory to culturally adapt and translate HINTS items to ASL. Cognitive interviews were conducted to assess clarity and delivery of these HINTS-ASL items. Final ASL video items were uploaded to a protected online survey website. The HINTS-ASL online survey has been administered to over 1350 deaf adults (ages 18 to 90 and up) who use ASL. Data collection is ongoing and includes deaf adult signers across the United States. Some items from HINTS item bank required cultural adaptation for use with deaf people who use accessible services or technology. A separate item bank for deaf-related experiences was created, reflecting deaf-specific technology such as sharing health-related ASL videos through social network sites and using video remote interpreting services in health settings. After data collection is complete, we will conduct a series of analyses on deaf people's health information seeking behaviors across technology-mediated platforms. HINTS-ASL is an accessible health information national trends survey, which includes a culturally appropriate set of items that are relevant to the experiences of deaf people who use ASL. The final HINTS

  17. Development and Validation of a Novel Generic Health-related Quality of Life Instrument With 20 Items (HINT-20

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Woo Jo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives Few attempts have been made to develop a generic health-related quality of life (HRQoL instrument and to examine its validity and reliability in Korea. We aimed to do this in our present study. Methods After a literature review of existing generic HRQoL instruments, a focus group discussion, in-depth interviews, and expert consultations, we selected 30 tentative items for a new HRQoL measure. These items were evaluated by assessing their ceiling effects, difficulty, and redundancy in the first survey. To validate the HRQoL instrument that was developed, known-groups validity and convergent/discriminant validity were evaluated and its test-retest reliability was examined in the second survey. Results Of the 30 items originally assessed for the HRQoL instrument, four were excluded due to high ceiling effects and six were removed due to redundancy. We ultimately developed a HRQoL instrument with a reduced number of 20 items, known as the Health-related Quality of Life Instrument with 20 items (HINT-20, incorporating physical, mental, social, and positive health dimensions. The results of the HINT-20 for known-groups validity were poorer in women, the elderly, and those with a low income. For convergent/discriminant validity, the correlation coefficients of items (except vitality in the physical health dimension with the physical component summary of the Short Form 36 version 2 (SF-36v2 were generally higher than the correlations of those items with the mental component summary of the SF-36v2, and vice versa. Regarding test-retest reliability, the intraclass correlation coefficient of the total HINT-20 score was 0.813 (p<0.001. Conclusions A novel generic HRQoL instrument, the HINT-20, was developed for the Korean general population and showed acceptable validity and reliability.

  18. ALMA HINTS AT THE PRESENCE OF TWO COMPANIONS IN THE DISK AROUND HD 100546

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walsh, Catherine; Juhász, Attila; Pinilla, Paola; Harsono, Daniel; Mathews, Geoffrey S.; Hogerheijde, Michiel R. [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Dent, William R. F. [Joint ALMA Observatory (JAO), Alonso de Córdova 3107, Vitacura, Santiago (Chile); Birnstiel, T. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Meeus, Gwendolyn [Dep. de Física Teórica, Fac. de Ciencias, UAM Campus Cantoplanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Nomura, Hideko [Department of Earth and Planetary Science, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 Ookayama, Meguro-ku, 152-8551 Tokyo (Japan); Aikawa, Yuri [Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Kobe University, 1-1 Rokkodai-cho, Nada, 657-8501 Kobe (Japan); Millar, T. J. [Astrophysics Research Centre, School of Mathematics and Physics, Queen' s University Belfast, University Road, Belfast, BT7 1NN (United Kingdom); Sandell, Göran [SOFIA-USRA, NASA Ames Research Center, MS 232-12, Building N232, Rm. 146, P.O. Box 1, Moffett Field, CA 94035-0001 (United States)

    2014-08-10

    HD 100546 is a well-studied Herbig Be star-disk system that likely hosts a close-in companion with compelling observational evidence for an embedded protoplanet at 68 AU. We present Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array observations of the HD 100546 disk which resolve the gas and dust structure at (sub)millimeter wavelengths. The CO emission (at 345.795 GHz) originates from an extensive molecular disk (390 ± 20 AU in radius) whereas the continuum emission is more compact (230 ± 20 AU in radius), suggesting radial drift of the millimeter-sized grains. The CO emission is similar in extent to scattered light images indicating well-mixed gas and micrometer-sized grains in the disk atmosphere. Assuming azimuthal symmetry, a single-component power-law model cannot reproduce the continuum visibilities. The visibilities and images are better reproduced by a double-component model: a compact ring with a width of 21 AU centered at 26 AU and an outer ring with a width of 75 ± 3 AU centered at 190 ± 3 AU. The influence of a companion and protoplanet on the dust evolution is investigated. The companion at 10 AU facilitates the accumulation of millimeter-sized grains within a compact ring, ≈20-30 AU, by ≈10 Myr. The injection of a protoplanet at 1 Myr hastens the ring formation (≈1.2 Myr) and also triggers the development of an outer ring (≈100-200 AU). These observations provide additional evidence for the presence of a close-in companion and hint at dynamical clearing by a protoplanet in the outer disk.

  19. Smartphone Ownership Among US Adult Cigarette Smokers: 2014 Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS) Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mull, Kristin E

    2017-01-01

    Background Despite increasing interest in smartphone apps as a platform for delivery of tobacco cessation interventions, no previous studies have evaluated the prevalence and characteristics of smokers who can access smartphone-delivered interventions. Objective To guide treatment development in this new platform and to evaluate disparities in access to smartphone-delivered interventions, we examined associations of smartphone ownership with demographics, tobacco use and thoughts about quitting, other health behaviors, physical and mental health, health care access, and Internet and technology utilization using a nationally representative sample of US adult smokers. Methods Data were from the National Cancer Institute’s 2014 Health Information National Trends Survey 4 (HINTS 4), Cycle 4. This mailed survey targeted noninstitutionalized individuals aged 18 years or older using two-stage stratified random sampling. For this analysis, we restricted the sample to current smokers with complete data on smartphone ownership (n=479). Results Nearly two-thirds (weighted percent=63.8%, 248/479) of smokers reported owning a smartphone. Those who were younger (PSmartphone owners did not differ from nonowners on frequency of smoking, recent quit attempts, or future plans to quit smoking, although they reported greater belief in the benefits of quitting (P=.04). Despite being equally likely to be overweight or obese, smartphone owners reported greater fruit and vegetable consumption (P=.03) and were more likely to report past-year efforts to increase exercise (P=.001) and to lose weight (P=.02). No differences in health care access and utilization were found. Smartphone owners reported better physical and mental health in several domains and higher access to and utilization of technology and the Internet, including for health reasons. Conclusions Smartphone ownership among smokers mirrors many trends in the general population, including the overall rate of ownership and the

  20. Smartphone Ownership Among US Adult Cigarette Smokers: 2014 Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS) Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heffner, Jaimee L; Mull, Kristin E

    2017-08-31

    Despite increasing interest in smartphone apps as a platform for delivery of tobacco cessation interventions, no previous studies have evaluated the prevalence and characteristics of smokers who can access smartphone-delivered interventions. To guide treatment development in this new platform and to evaluate disparities in access to smartphone-delivered interventions, we examined associations of smartphone ownership with demographics, tobacco use and thoughts about quitting, other health behaviors, physical and mental health, health care access, and Internet and technology utilization using a nationally representative sample of US adult smokers. Data were from the National Cancer Institute's 2014 Health Information National Trends Survey 4 (HINTS 4), Cycle 4. This mailed survey targeted noninstitutionalized individuals aged 18 years or older using two-stage stratified random sampling. For this analysis, we restricted the sample to current smokers with complete data on smartphone ownership (n=479). Nearly two-thirds (weighted percent=63.8%, 248/479) of smokers reported owning a smartphone. Those who were younger (PSmartphone owners did not differ from nonowners on frequency of smoking, recent quit attempts, or future plans to quit smoking, although they reported greater belief in the benefits of quitting (P=.04). Despite being equally likely to be overweight or obese, smartphone owners reported greater fruit and vegetable consumption (P=.03) and were more likely to report past-year efforts to increase exercise (P=.001) and to lose weight (P=.02). No differences in health care access and utilization were found. Smartphone owners reported better physical and mental health in several domains and higher access to and utilization of technology and the Internet, including for health reasons. Smartphone ownership among smokers mirrors many trends in the general population, including the overall rate of ownership and the association with younger age and higher socioeconomic

  1. Discovery at Young Star Hints Magnetism Common to All Cosmic Jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-01

    Astronomers have found the first evidence of a magnetic field in a jet of material ejected from a young star, a discovery that points toward future breakthroughs in understanding the nature of all types of cosmic jets and of the role of magnetic fields in star formation. Throughout the Universe, jets of subatomic particles are ejected by three phenomena: the supermassive black holes at the cores of galaxies, smaller black holes or neutron stars consuming material from companion stars, and young stars still in the process of gathering mass from their surroundings. Previously, magnetic fields were detected in the jets of the first two, but until now, magnetic fields had not been confirmed in the jets from young stars. "Our discovery gives a strong hint that all three types of jets originate through a common process," said Carlos Carrasco-Gonzalez, of the Astrophysical Institute of Andalucia Spanish National Research Council (IAA-CSIC) and the National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM). The astronomers used the National Science Foundation's Very Large Array (VLA) radio telescope to study a young star some 5,500 light-years from Earth, called IRAS 18162-2048. This star, possibly as massive as 10 Suns, is ejecting a jet 17 light-years long. Observing this object for 12 hours with the VLA, the scientists found that radio waves from the jet have a characteristic indicating they arose when fast-moving electrons interacted with magnetic fields. This characteristic, called polarization, gives a preferential alignment to the electric and magnetic fields of the radio waves. "We see for the first time that a jet from a young star shares this common characteristic with the other types of cosmic jets," said Luis Rodriguez, of UNAM. The discovery, the astronomers say, may allow them to gain an improved understanding of the physics of the jets as well as of the role magnetic fields play in forming new stars. The jets from young stars, unlike the other types, emit radiation

  2. Increased PKC activity and altered GSK3?/NMDAR function drive behavior cycling in HINT1-deficient mice: bipolarity or opposing forces

    OpenAIRE

    Javier Garzón-Niño; María Rodríguez-Muñoz; Elsa Cortés-Montero; Pilar Sánchez-Blázquez

    2017-01-01

    Mice with histidine triad nucleotide-binding protein 1 (HINT1) deletion exhibit manic-like symptoms that evolve into depressive-like behavior in response to stressful paradigms. Molecular and electrophysiological studies have indicated that HINT1?/? mice exhibit increased PKC, PKA, and GSK3? activities, as well as glutamate N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR)/?-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic receptor (AMPAR) and NR2B/NR2A subunit ratios. Pharmacological interventions stabiliz...

  3. Absolute energy measurement of the electron beam of TJNAF (hall A) by p(e,e`p) elastic scattering; Mesure absolue de l`energie du faisceau d`electrons de TJNAF (hall A) par diffusion elastique p(e,e`p)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravel, Olivier [Ecole Doctorale des Science Fondamentales, Universite Blaise Pascal, U.F.R. de Recherche Scientifique et Technique, F-63177 Aubiere Cedex (France)

    1997-11-21

    This thesis describes the electron beam energy measurement device at TJNAF hall A (Virginia USA). The accuracy of the measurement is 10{sup -4}. Such an accuracy is needed for scattering electron experiments, in particular for the determination of cross section by transverse-longitudinal separation. The method is based on the measurements of the scattering particle angles of the reaction p(e,e`p). Angular measurements are realized by a setup of silicon micro-strips detectors with an angular accuracy of 10{mu}rd. Theoretical aspects of the method and some techniques of electron beam energy measurement are presented. A precise uncertainty calculation allowed to determine the EP detector characteristics: thin target of polypropylene, silicon strips detectors, data acquisition, electronics and trigger. The high level of accuracy leads to the development of a new and original techniques of position measurement. The data analysis method, the beam energy calculation and the different corrections (vertex, radiative tails) are presented. The first tests of the detector are reviewed. The first measurement of TJNAF electron beam energy with the EP detector is foreseen on March 1998. (author) 43 refs., 84 figs., 32 tabs.

  4. Increased PKC activity and altered GSK3β/NMDAR function drive behavior cycling in HINT1-deficient mice: bipolarity or opposing forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garzón-Niño, Javier; Rodríguez-Muñoz, María; Cortés-Montero, Elsa; Sánchez-Blázquez, Pilar

    2017-02-27

    Mice with histidine triad nucleotide-binding protein 1 (HINT1) deletion exhibit manic-like symptoms that evolve into depressive-like behavior in response to stressful paradigms. Molecular and electrophysiological studies have indicated that HINT1-/- mice exhibit increased PKC, PKA, and GSK3β activities, as well as glutamate N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR)/α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic receptor (AMPAR) and NR2B/NR2A subunit ratios. Pharmacological interventions stabilized their behavior but through different mechanisms. GSK3β inhibitors and valproate directly attenuated the expression of the manic-like symptoms, whereas PKC inhibition, lamotrigine, or risperidone promoted NMDAR-mediated depressive-like behaviors that counterbalanced the preexisting manic-like symptoms. Naïve HINT1-/- mice exposed to stressful paradigms rapidly manifested depressive-like behaviors in subsequent stressful situations, a capacity that persisted for a couple of weeks thereafter. During the depressive-like phase, citalopram, amitriptyline and MK801 precipitated manic-like behaviors in stressed HINT1-/- mice. Notably, the antagonism of NMDARs prevented HINT1-/- mice from alternating behaviors in response to stress. A comparison with "manic" Black Swiss mice indicated that in HINT1-/- mice, PKC supports manic-like symptoms and reduces the expression of depressive-like behaviors via activation of GSK3β and regulation of NR2B-enriched NMDARs. HINT1-/- mice represent a suitable model for studying human BPD and may facilitate the identification of novel targets and drugs to treat this mental disorder.

  5. Weimar, Euroopa kultuuripealinn / Peep Pillak

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pillak, Peep, 1957-

    1999-01-01

    1999. a. Euroopa kultuuripealinnast Weimarist. Linna minevikust, Weimaris elanud suurmehi, juubelitest, mida tähistatakse 1999. a. 1552. a. asus Weimarisse Lucas Cranach, isa alustatut jätkas Lucas Cranach noorem. 1919. a. alustas Walter Gropiuse juhtimisel Weimaris tegevust Bauhaus, kus aastatel 1922-1925 töötasid ka Wassily Kandinsky, Paul Klee

  6. Pommisatelliit Eesti kohal / Peep Pedmanson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pedmanson, Peep, 1963-

    1997-01-01

    Discovery Channel Europe presenteeris Pirital toimunud telemessil videofilmi "Profid. Pommirühm" ("Professionals : Bomb Squad"), stsenarist, režissöör ja operaator Rein Kotov : Inglismaa - Eesti - Taani 1997

  7. Health Information National Trends Survey in American Sign Language (HINTS-ASL): Protocol for the Cultural Adaptation and Linguistic Validation of a National Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Raychelle; Paludneviciene, Raylene; Hoglind, TraciAnn

    2017-01-01

    Background The Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS) collects nationally representative data about the American’s public use of health-related information. This survey is available in English and Spanish, but not in American Sign Language (ASL). Thus, the exclusion of ASL users from these national health information survey studies has led to a significant gap in knowledge of Internet usage for health information access in this underserved and understudied population. Objective The objectives of this study are (1) to culturally adapt and linguistically translate the HINTS items to ASL (HINTS-ASL); and (2) to gather information about deaf people’s health information seeking behaviors across technology-mediated platforms. Methods We modified the standard procedures developed at the US National Center for Health Statistics Cognitive Survey Laboratory to culturally adapt and translate HINTS items to ASL. Cognitive interviews were conducted to assess clarity and delivery of these HINTS-ASL items. Final ASL video items were uploaded to a protected online survey website. The HINTS-ASL online survey has been administered to over 1350 deaf adults (ages 18 to 90 and up) who use ASL. Data collection is ongoing and includes deaf adult signers across the United States. Results Some items from HINTS item bank required cultural adaptation for use with deaf people who use accessible services or technology. A separate item bank for deaf-related experiences was created, reflecting deaf-specific technology such as sharing health-related ASL videos through social network sites and using video remote interpreting services in health settings. After data collection is complete, we will conduct a series of analyses on deaf people’s health information seeking behaviors across technology-mediated platforms. Conclusions HINTS-ASL is an accessible health information national trends survey, which includes a culturally appropriate set of items that are relevant to the

  8. Histidine triad nucleotide-binding protein 1 (HINT-1) phosphoramidase transforms nucleoside 5'-O-phosphorothioates to nucleoside 5'-O-phosphates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozga, Magdalena; Dolot, Rafal; Janicka, Magdalena; Kaczmarek, Renata; Krakowiak, Agnieszka

    2010-12-24

    Nucleoside 5'-O-phosphorothioates are formed in vivo as primary products of hydrolysis of oligo(nucleoside phosphorothioate)s (PS-oligos) that are applied as antisense therapeutic molecules. The biodistribution of PS-oligos and their pharmacokinetics have been widely reported, but little is known about their subsequent decay inside the organism. We suggest that the enzyme responsible for nucleoside 5'-O-monophosphorothioate ((d)NMPS) metabolism could be histidine triad nucleotide-binding protein 1 (Hint-1), a phosphoramidase belonging to the histidine triad (HIT) superfamily that is present in all forms of life. An additional, but usually ignored, activity of Hint-1 is its ability to catalyze the conversion of adenosine 5'-O-monophosphorothioate (AMPS) to 5'-O-monophosphate (AMP). By mutagenetic and biochemical studies, we defined the active site of Hint-1 and the kinetic parameters of the desulfuration reaction (P-S bond cleavage). Additionally, crystallographic analysis (resolution from 1.08 to 1.37 Å) of three engineered cysteine mutants showed the high similarity of their structures, which were not very different from the structure of WT Hint-1. Moreover, we found that not only AMPS but also other ribonucleoside and 2'-deoxyribonucleoside phosphorothioates are desulfurated by Hint-1 at the following relative rates: GMPS > AMPS > dGMPS ≥ CMPS > UMPS > dAMPS ≫ dCMPS > TMPS, and during the reaction, hydrogen sulfide, which is thought to be the third gaseous mediator, was released.

  9. ALGUNAS PAUTAS PARA LA ESCRITURA DE ARTÍCULOS CIENTÍFICOS SOME HINTS FOR WRITING SCIENTIFIC PAPERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos M Zapata

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este artículo es presentar, a aquellos investigadores neófitos, una serie de pautas que faciliten los procesos de escritura y publicación de manuscritos en revistas científicas de corriente principal. En la comunidad científica, una investigación sólo se completa cuando los resultados se socializan a través de artículos en revistas arbitradas que garanticen la originalidad, importancia y validez científica de los hallazgos reportados. Consecuentemente, es necesario que los investigadores desarrollen destrezas y habilidades en la escritura científica. Sin embargo, el proceso de preparación de un manuscrito, desde su fase inicial hasta su publicación final, suele ser largo y difícil, debido a algunos factores clave que tienen influencia sobre su calidad. Este artículo, suministra lineamientos generales sobre la preparación de manuscritos y entrega, también, pautas alrededor de las buenas prácticas de escritura de artículos con miras a facilitar la revisión por parte de los árbitros. En este sentido, este trabajo constituye aporte para quienes se inician en la difusión de la investigación científica.The objective of this paper is to present, to those neophyte researchers, a set of hints that facilitate manuscript writing and publishing processes needed for high class scientific journals. In the scientific community, a research would only be completed when the results are shared through papers in peer-reviewed journals that guarantees the originality, importance and scientific validation of reported contributions. Consequently, researchers have the necessity to develop skills and abilities in scientific writing. However, the manuscript preparation process from the initial phase to the final publication is usually slow and difficult, due to some key factors having influence over its quality. In this paper, we present general guidelines about manuscript preparation and we give some hints about good scientific

  10. Hints for collective effects in identified particle spectra from p-Pb collisions at 5.02 TeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schork, Michael [Physikalisches Institut, University of Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 226 (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    First hints for collective dynamics in high-multiplicity p-Pb collisions at LHC were observed in two-particle correlations of unidentified particles. We present results of a systematic fit using a simple blast wave parameterization to identified particle spectra from p-Pb and Pb-Pb collisions as measured by ALICE at LHC. While in Pb-Pb collisions, a large number of particles can be commonly described by a single set of parameters including mass A=2 and A=3 nuclei, also spectra from high-multiplicity p-Pb collisions allow for a description within this rather simple model. Finally, we give predictions for spectra and the nuclear modification factor of mesons carrying a charm or bottom quark.

  11. The Effect of Three Different Kinds of Feedback: Hint, Correct Answer, and Right/Wrong. IDD&E Working Paper No. 11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Betty; Reigeluth, Charles M.

    Self-instructional booklets simulating computer-assisted instruction (CAI) were used to teach four basic concepts in science to first graders in three treatment groups which received different types of feedback--hints, correct answers, and right or wrong. A control group received neither instruction nor feedback. A multiple-choice test was…

  12. Mutations in HINT1 are one of the most frequent causes of hereditary neuropathy among Czech patients and neuromyotonia is rather an underdiagnosed symptom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laššuthová, P; Brožková, D Šafka; Krůtová, M; Neupauerová, J; Haberlová, J; Mazanec, R; Dvořáčková, N; Goldenberg, Z; Seeman, P

    2015-01-01

    Mutations in the HINT1 gene were recently discovered as being the major cause of autosomal recessive axonal neuropathy with neuromyotonia. This combination was clinically recognized and described previously in a few reports but is generally unknown. We aimed to establish the importance of HINT1 mutations as the cause of hereditary neuropathy and particularly hereditary motor neuropathy/axonal Charcot-Marie-Tooth (HMN/CMT2) among Czech patients. Overall, mutations in the HINT1 gene seem to be a surprisingly frequent cause of inherited neuropathy in our group of patients. Biallelic pathogenic mutations were found in 21 patients from 19 families. The prevalent mutation in the Czech population is the p.R37P (95% of pathogenic alleles). Clinically, all patients with biallelic mutations presented with early onset of symptoms at the end of the first decade. Foot/toe extension weakness to plegia was present in almost all patients. Neuromyotonia was present in all but two patients. However, it had been properly recognized in only three patients prior to molecular genetic diagnosis. HINT1 mutations seem to be one of the most frequent causes of inherited neuropathy and are probably the most frequent cause of HMN in Czech patients. We suggest all HMN/CMT2 patients be tested for the presence of the prevalent mutation, the p.R37P.

  13. Histidine Triad Nucleotide-binding Protein 1 (HINT-1) Phosphoramidase Transforms Nucleoside 5′-O-Phosphorothioates to Nucleoside 5′-O-Phosphates*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozga, Magdalena; Dolot, Rafal; Janicka, Magdalena; Kaczmarek, Renata; Krakowiak, Agnieszka

    2010-01-01

    Nucleoside 5′-O-phosphorothioates are formed in vivo as primary products of hydrolysis of oligo(nucleoside phosphorothioate)s (PS-oligos) that are applied as antisense therapeutic molecules. The biodistribution of PS-oligos and their pharmacokinetics have been widely reported, but little is known about their subsequent decay inside the organism. We suggest that the enzyme responsible for nucleoside 5′-O-monophosphorothioate ((d)NMPS) metabolism could be histidine triad nucleotide-binding protein 1 (Hint-1), a phosphoramidase belonging to the histidine triad (HIT) superfamily that is present in all forms of life. An additional, but usually ignored, activity of Hint-1 is its ability to catalyze the conversion of adenosine 5′-O-monophosphorothioate (AMPS) to 5′-O-monophosphate (AMP). By mutagenetic and biochemical studies, we defined the active site of Hint-1 and the kinetic parameters of the desulfuration reaction (P-S bond cleavage). Additionally, crystallographic analysis (resolution from 1.08 to 1.37 Å) of three engineered cysteine mutants showed the high similarity of their structures, which were not very different from the structure of WT Hint-1. Moreover, we found that not only AMPS but also other ribonucleoside and 2′-deoxyribonucleoside phosphorothioates are desulfurated by Hint-1 at the following relative rates: GMPS > AMPS > dGMPS ≥ CMPS > UMPS > dAMPS ≫ dCMPS > TMPS, and during the reaction, hydrogen sulfide, which is thought to be the third gaseous mediator, was released. PMID:20940308

  14. Perturbed Lepton-Specific Two-Higgs-Doublet Model Facing Experimental Hints for Physics beyond the Standard Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crivellin, Andreas; Heeck, Julian; Stoffer, Peter

    2016-02-26

    BABAR, Belle, and LHCb Collaborations report evidence for new physics in B→Dτν and B→D^{*}τν of approximately 3.8σ. There is also the long lasting discrepancy of about 3σ in the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon, and the branching ratio for τ→μνν is 1.8σ (2.4σ) above the standard model expectation using the HFAG (PDG) values. Furthermore, CMS Collaboration finds hints for a nonzero decay rate of h→μτ. Interestingly, all these observations can be explained by introducing new scalars. In this Letter we consider these processes within a lepton-specific two-Higgs doublet model (i.e., of type X) with additional nonstandard Yukawa couplings. It is found that one can accommodate τ→μνν with modified Higgs-τ couplings. The anomalous magnetic moment of the muon can be explained if the additional neutral CP-even Higgs boson H is light (below 100 GeV). Also R(D) and R(D^{*}) can be easily explained by additional t-c-Higgs couplings. Combining these t-c couplings with a light H the decay rate for t→Hc can be in a testable range for the LHC. Effects in h→μτ are also possible, but in this case a simultaneous explanation of the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon is difficult due to the unavoidable τ→μγ decay.

  15. Trends in cancer survivors' experience of patient-centered communication: results from the Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanch-Hartigan, Danielle; Chawla, Neetu; Moser, Richard P; Finney Rutten, Lila J; Hesse, Bradford W; Arora, Neeraj K

    2016-12-01

    Two Institute of Medicine reports almost a decade apart suggest that cancer survivors often feel "lost in transition" and experience suboptimal quality of care. The six core functions of patient-centered communication: managing uncertainty, responding to emotions, making decisions, fostering healing relationships, enabling self-management, and exchanging information, represent a central aspect of survivors' care experience that has not been systematically investigated. Nationally representative data from four administrations of the Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS) was merged with combined replicate weights using the jackknife replication method. Linear and logistic regression models were used to assess (1) characteristics of cancer survivors (N = 1794) who report suboptimal patient-centered communication and (2) whether survivors' patient-centered communication experience changed from 2007 to 2013. One third to one half of survivors report suboptimal patient-centered communication, particularly on core functions of providers helping manage uncertainty (48 %) and responding to emotions (49 %). In a fully adjusted linear regression model, survivors with more education (Wald F = 2.84, p = .04), without a usual source of care (Wald F = 11.59, p health (Wald F = 9.08, p communication. Although ratings of patient-centered communication improved over time (p trend = .04), this trend did not remain significant in fully adjusted models. Despite increased attention to survivorship, many survivors continue to report suboptimal communication with their health care providers. Survivorship communication should include managing uncertainty about future risk and address survivors' emotional needs. Efforts to improve patient-centered communication should focus on survivors without a usual source of care and in poorer health.

  16. Overcoming students’ misconceptions concerning thermal physics with the aid of hints and peer interaction during a lecture course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Risto Leinonen

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available As has been shown by previous research, students may possess various misconceptions in the area of thermal physics. In order to help them overcome misconceptions observed prior to instruction, we implemented a one-hour lecture-based intervention in their introductory thermal physics course. The intervention was held after the conventional lectures and homework sessions, and it consisted of three phases: individual working, hinting, and peer discussion. To probe students’ conceptual understanding before, during, and after the intervention, use was made of a diagnostic test related to the multiphased process of an ideal gas [D. E. Meltzer, Am. J. Phys. 72, 1432 (2004AJPIAS0002-950510.1119/1.1789161]. The students’ conceptions were monitored by analyzing the explanations they provided and by recording the peer discussions of five voluntary pairs. The intervention helped students to realize the flaws in their explanations and increased the proportion of their scientific explanations, the increase being statistically significant in five tasks out of seven. When the same themes were addressed in a post-test, it was shown that the level of accurate explanations remained almost constant after the intervention, and hence it could be deduced that the impact had not been short-lived. In comparison with earlier studies conducted with the same material, our intervention produced a better learning outcome, the difference being 15–20 percentage points. In addition, the number of misconceptions on the part of the students was smaller in our study, although with individual exceptions. Hence, we conclude that the intervention was successful and that similar interventions could also be designed and implemented in other areas of physics.

  17. Hints for Diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Lars K

    2015-01-01

    /or caretakers. Based on this, a provisional decision to pursue a food allergy diagnosis may be made after carefully considering other possible reasons for an adverse reaction to a food: aversion, infection, intoxication, or an underlying metabolic disease. To respond to the next question, the anamnesis......The diagnosis of food allergy requires responses to two important questions: Does the patient have a food allergy? If so, which foods will elicit allergic symptoms? The first question will most often have to be answered following a physical examination and an interview with the patient and...... is highly important in selecting which tests and, ultimately, oral food challenges the patient should undergo to reach the final diagnosis. For the diagnosing doctor, it is important to know and consider the regional pattern of inhalation and food allergies, the food consumption patterns in the local...

  18. Healthy household hints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, P

    1999-01-01

    Ten commonly found items that can help keep your home clean are listed. Baking soda and vinegar are effective in cleaning drains. Certain plants, including English ivy and the spider plant, filter carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide out of the air. In addition, specific brand-name products, such as Bon Ami and "Simple Green", are also good alternative cleansers. Contact information is provided.

  19. Efeitos da compressão torácica manual versus a manobra de PEEP-ZEEP na complacência do sistema respiratório e na oxigenação de pacientes submetidos à ventilação mecânica invasiva Effects of manual rib-cage compression versus PEEP-ZEEP maneuver on respiratory system compliance and oxygenation in patients receiving mechanical ventilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavio Renato Antunes dos Santos

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Os pacientes com incapacidade de desempenhar suas funções ventilatórias podem ser submetidos à ventilação mecânica invasiva. A fisioterapia respiratória atua no tratamento destes pacientes com a finalidade de melhorar sua função pulmonar. O objetivo do estudo foi avaliar os efeitos da compressão torácica manual versus a manobra de pressão expiratória final positiva-pressão expiratória final zero (PEEP-ZEEP na complacência do sistema respiratório e na oxigenação de pacientes em ventilação mecânica invasiva. MÉTODOS: Foi realizado um estudo bicêntrico, prospectivo, randomizado e crossover, incluindo pacientes em ventilação mecânica invasiva em modo controlado por um período superior a 48 horas. Os protocolos de fisioterapia respiratória foram realizados de forma aleatória, com intervalo de 24 horas entre eles. Dados da complacência do sistema respiratório e da oxigenação foram coletados antes da aplicação dos protocolos e 30 minutos após a aplicação dos mesmos. RESULTADOS: Doze pacientes completaram o estudo. Na análise intragrupo, em ambas as técnicas houve aumento estatisticamente significativo do volume corrente (p=0,002, da complacência estática (p=0,002 e complacência dinâmica (p=0,002. Com relação à oxigenação, no grupo compressão torácica manual, a saturação periférica de oxigênio aumentou com diferença significativa (p=0,011. CONCLUSÕES: A compressão torácica manual e a manobra de PEEP-ZEEP têm efeitos clínicos positivos e não diferem entre si. Em relação à oxigenação encontramos um comportamento favorável da saturação periférica de oxigênio no grupo compressão torácica manual.OBJECTIVES: Patients unable to perform breathing functions may be submitted to invasive mechanical ventilation. Chest physiotherapy acts directly on the treatment of these patients for the purpose of improving their lung function. The objective of this study was to evaluate the

  20. High-resolution X-ray structure of the rabbit histidine triad nucleotide-binding protein 1 (rHINT1)-adenosine complex at 1.10 Å resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolot, Rafał; Ozga, Magdalena; Krakowiak, Agnieszka; Nawrot, Barbara

    2011-07-01

    Histidine triad nucleotide-binding protein 1 (HINT1) represents the most ancient and widespread branch in the histidine-triad protein superfamily. HINT1 plays an important role in various biological processes and has been found in many species. Here, the first complete structure of the rabbit HINT1-adenosine complex is reported at 1.10 Å resolution, which is one of the highest resolutions obtained for a HINT1 structure. The final structure has an R(cryst) of 14.25% (R(free) = 16.77%) and the model exhibits good stereochemical qualities. A detailed analysis of the atomic resolution data allowed an update of the details of the protein structure in comparison to previously published data.

  1. The human interactome knowledge base (hint-kb): An integrative human protein interaction database enriched with predicted protein–protein interaction scores using a novel hybrid technique

    KAUST Repository

    Theofilatos, Konstantinos A.

    2013-07-12

    Proteins are the functional components of many cellular processes and the identification of their physical protein–protein interactions (PPIs) is an area of mature academic research. Various databases have been developed containing information about experimentally and computationally detected human PPIs as well as their corresponding annotation data. However, these databases contain many false positive interactions, are partial and only a few of them incorporate data from various sources. To overcome these limitations, we have developed HINT-KB (http://biotools.ceid.upatras.gr/hint-kb/), a knowledge base that integrates data from various sources, provides a user-friendly interface for their retrieval, cal-culatesasetoffeaturesofinterest and computesaconfidence score for every candidate protein interaction. This confidence score is essential for filtering the false positive interactions which are present in existing databases, predicting new protein interactions and measuring the frequency of each true protein interaction. For this reason, a novel machine learning hybrid methodology, called (Evolutionary Kalman Mathematical Modelling—EvoKalMaModel), was used to achieve an accurate and interpretable scoring methodology. The experimental results indicated that the proposed scoring scheme outperforms existing computational methods for the prediction of PPIs.

  2. The relationship between high-frequency pure-tone hearing loss, hearing in noise test (HINT) thresholds, and the articulation index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermiglio, Andrew J; Soli, Sigfrid D; Freed, Daniel J; Fisher, Laurel M

    2012-01-01

    Speech recognition in noise testing has been conducted at least since the 1940s (Dickson et al, 1946). The ability to recognize speech in noise is a distinct function of the auditory system (Plomp, 1978). According to Kochkin (2002), difficulty recognizing speech in noise is the primary complaint of hearing aid users. However, speech recognition in noise testing has not found widespread use in the field of audiology (Mueller, 2003; Strom, 2003; Tannenbaum and Rosenfeld, 1996). The audiogram has been used as the "gold standard" for hearing ability. However, the audiogram is a poor indicator of speech recognition in noise ability. This study investigates the relationship between pure-tone thresholds, the articulation index, and the ability to recognize speech in quiet and in noise. Pure-tone thresholds were measured for audiometric frequencies 250-6000 Hz. Pure-tone threshold groups were created. These included a normal threshold group and slight, mild, severe, and profound high-frequency pure-tone threshold groups. Speech recognition thresholds in quiet and in noise were obtained using the Hearing in Noise Test (HINT) (Nilsson et al, 1994; Vermiglio, 2008). The articulation index was determined by using Pavlovic's method with pure-tone thresholds (Pavlovic, 1989, 1991). Two hundred seventy-eight participants were tested. All participants were native speakers of American English. Sixty-three of the original participants were removed in order to create groups of participants with normal low-frequency pure-tone thresholds and relatively symmetrical high-frequency pure-tone threshold groups. The final set of 215 participants had a mean age of 33 yr with a range of 17-59 yr. Pure-tone threshold data were collected using the Hughson-Weslake procedure. Speech recognition data were collected using a Windows-based HINT software system. Statistical analyses were conducted using descriptive, correlational, and multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) statistics. The

  3. A new crystal form of human histidine triad nucleotide-binding protein 1 (hHINT1) in complex with adenosine 5′-monophosphate at 1.38 Å resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolot, Rafał; Ozga, Magdalena; Włodarczyk, Artur; Krakowiak, Agnieszka; Nawrot, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    Histidine triad nucleotide-binding protein 1 (HINT1) represents the most ancient and widespread branch of the histidine triad protein superfamily. HINT1 plays an important role in various biological processes and has been found in many species. Here, the structure of the human HINT1–adenosine 5′-monophosphate (AMP) complex at 1.38 Å resolution obtained from a new monoclinic crystal form is reported. The final structure has R cryst = 0.1207 (R free = 0.1615) and the model exhibits good stereochemical quality. Detailed analysis of the high-resolution data allowed the details of the protein structure to be updated in comparison to the previously published data. PMID:22869114

  4. A new crystal form of human histidine triad nucleotide-binding protein 1 (hHINT1) in complex with adenosine 5'-monophosphate at 1.38 Å resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolot, Rafał; Ozga, Magdalena; Włodarczyk, Artur; Krakowiak, Agnieszka; Nawrot, Barbara

    2012-08-01

    Histidine triad nucleotide-binding protein 1 (HINT1) represents the most ancient and widespread branch of the histidine triad protein superfamily. HINT1 plays an important role in various biological processes and has been found in many species. Here, the structure of the human HINT1-adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP) complex at 1.38 Å resolution obtained from a new monoclinic crystal form is reported. The final structure has R(cryst) = 0.1207 (R(free) = 0.1615) and the model exhibits good stereochemical quality. Detailed analysis of the high-resolution data allowed the details of the protein structure to be updated in comparison to the previously published data.

  5. Different Implicit Means in the Hinting Strategy. To the Problem of Implicitness in Modern Linguistics (On the Material of English Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hnatiuk Lubomira

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The investigation of implicitness as the core of the Hinting Strategy is the current research issue because of the growth of interest in the modern linguistics to the effectiveness of interpersonal interaction. Generalization of various implicit means in communicative material which determine the effectiveness of interpersonal communication under conditions of interpersonal interaction allows to develop the appropriate models of their practical application. Purpose: The purpose of the analysis is to determine the basic differences between presuppositions and implicatures, qualifying and classifying features of the different types of implicit means. Results: The implicit information with all types of presuppositions, such as intertextual, extra-linguistic, pragmatic, as for the reference to reality is crucial to understand the illocutionary forces of indirect illocutions. The lack of information on indirect illocutions leads to communicative deviations. Different implicit means are called by different speech situations. It depends on how the speaker conveys the illocutionary force of an utterance. In hinting strategy, the speaker's meaning and the sentence meaning come apart in various ways, therefore it is important in such case to pay attention to contextual assumptions. These assumptions rather than the content of the utterance affect the appropriate interpretation. The notion of implicature as the powerful pragmatic means of interpersonal communication is considered to be one of the most important implicit means of the interpersonal interaction. The study of the functional and pragmatic peculiarities of implicit information has proved the connection between effectiveness of interpersonal interaction and the indirectness, obliquity. In the Hinting Strategy the meaning is manifested not only in the content of conversation but also in the way conversation is managed and structured by its participants. Therefore, the speaker

  6. AUTOSOMAL RECESSIVE PERIPHERAL NEUROPATHY WITH NEUROMYOTONIA (ARAN-NM: DESCRIPTION OF A CLINICAL CASE CONFIRMED BY A MUTATION IN THE HINT1 GENE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga A. Klochkova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Autosomal recessive  peripheral neuropathy with neuromyotonia  (ARAN-NM  is a relatively newly described  disease associated  with mutations  in the HINT1 gene.  It accounts  for a significant  part of the poorly  differentiated  forms  of axonal polyneuropathies.  We present the first in Russia description of the genetically confirmed case of ARAN-NM in a boy aged 14 years and 11 months without the hereditary-tainted anamnesis. On presentation,  the patient experienced  progressive  distal muscular weakness, asymmetric foot deformity,  gait disorders  and minimal manifestations  of neuromyotonia  (stiffness  in the fingers.  During examination,  we detected an increase in the level of creatine phosphokinase up to 635 U/l, a disturbance of conduction of motor and, to a lesser extent, sensory fibers  of  the  peripheral  nerves  (according  to  the  stimulation  electromyography,  EMG,  denervation-reinnervation  changes,  single positive acute waves, fibrillation potentials, complex repeated discharge (according to the data of needle EMG. In the study of exome, a homozygous mutation c.110G>C, p.R37P was determined in exon 01 of the HINT1 gene, which confirmed the presence of ARAN-NM. A molecular-genetic  examination of the patient's immediate relatives was carried out. The described case is compared with literature data. An overview of currently available information on ARAN-NM is provided. Diagnostic criteria of the disease are presented.

  7. Mälestustahvel Oslo valitsusele / Peep Pillak

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pillak, Peep, 1957-

    2016-01-01

    Otsustati tähistada Oslos asuv hoone, kus 1953. aastal nimetati ametiise Eesti Vabariigi valitsus eksiilis. Sõjajärgsetel aastatel organiseerusid eestlased Rootsis. Kuna Rootsis oli pagulaste poliitiline tegevus keelatud, siis toimus eksiilvalitsuse ametisse määramine Oslos. Kui 20. augustil 1991 taastati iseseisev Eesti riik, siis tunnustas seda ka Eesti Vabariigi valitsus eksiilis. Vabariigi valitsus eksiilis lõpetas oma tegevuse 7. oktoobril 1992. aastal. 2. oktoobril 2015 toimunud mälestustahvli avamisest

  8. Tartu Ülikooli õigusteaduskond / Peep Pruks

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pruks, Peep, 1963-

    1996-01-01

    Tartu Ülikooli õigusteaduskonna ülesanded, töökorraldus, struktuur, osa õigusloomes, üliõpilaste vastuvõtu- ja lõpetamistingimused, teaduskraadide omandamine. Lisatud 1993-1996 teaduskonnas kaitstud magistritööde loetelu, 1991-1996 publitseeritud õppematerjalide loetelu, andmed teaduskonna akadeemilise personali ja materiaalsete ressursside kohta, õigusteaduskonna põhimäärus ja õppekava

  9. Midagi enamat kui hea film / Peep Pedmanson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pedmanson, Peep

    2006-01-01

    Mängufilm "Libahundi needus" : stsenaristid Margus Kasterpalu, Ilmar Raag ja Rainer Sarnet : režissöör Rainer Sarnet : osades Katariina Lauk, Rene Reinumägi : Shop of Dreams - Eesti Televisioon 2005

  10. President Ilves laulis Kristinale medalilaulu / Peep Pahv

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pahv, Peep, 1970-

    2010-01-01

    Suusataja Kristina Šmigun-Vähi võitis Vancouveri taliolümpiamängudel hõbemedali. Medalivõidu tähistamise peol osalesid president Toomas Hendrik Ilves ja proua Evelin Ilves. Töövisiit Vancouverisse 12.-17.02.2010

  11. Väsimus tapab / Peep Peterson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Peterson, Peep, 1975-

    2005-01-01

    Transpordi Ametiühingu poolt 10.-15. oktoobrini Eestis läbi viidud rahvusvahelisest aktsioonipäevast "Väsimus tapab". Ametiühingupatrullid koostöös politsei ja tolli esindajatega korraldasid ühisreidi, mille käigus kontrolliti 438 sõidukit, sõidu- ja puhkeaja ning sõidumeerikuga seotud rikkumisi avastati 32 juhul

  12. Eesti mood esitles end Stockholmis / Peep Sooman

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sooman, Peep, 1978-

    1999-01-01

    Eesti moepäevadel Stockholmis esitleti moeshow'l üle 80 rõivakollektsiooni, osalesid: Baltika, Klementi, Sangar, Zik-Zak (Ivo Nikkolo), Katrin Kuldma Moemaja, Arne Studio, Hipo, Uljas & Tütred, Virulane, Althea.

  13. Production of Energy Efficient Preform Structures (PEEPS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. John A. Baumann

    2012-06-08

    Due to its low density, good structural characteristics, excellent fabrication properties, and attractive appearance, aluminum metal and its alloys continue to be widely utilized. The transportation industry continues to be the largest consumer of aluminum products, with aerospace as the principal driver for this use. Boeing has long been the largest single company consumer of heat-treated aluminum in the U.S. The extensive use of aluminum to build aircraft and launch vehicles has been sustained, despite the growing reliance on more structurally efficient carbon fiber reinforced composite materials. The trend in the aerospace industry over the past several decades has been to rely extensively on large, complex, thin-walled, monolithic machined structural components, which are fabricated from heavy billets and thick plate using high speed machining. The use of these high buy-to-fly ratio starting product forms, while currently cost effective, is energy inefficient, with a high environmental impact. The widespread implementation of Solid State Joining (SSJ) technologies, to produce lower buy-to-fly ratio starting forms, tailored to each specific application, offers the potential for a more sustainable manufacturing strategy, which would consume less energy, require less material, and reduce material and manufacturing costs. One objective of this project was to project the energy benefits of using SSJ techniques to produce high-performance aluminum structures if implemented in the production of the world fleet of commercial aircraft. A further objective was to produce an energy consumption prediction model, capable of calculating the total energy consumption, solid waste burden, acidification potential, and CO2 burden in producing a starting product form - whether by conventional or SSJ processes - and machining that to a final part configuration. The model needed to be capable of computing and comparing, on an individual part/geometry basis, multiple possible manufacturing pathways, to identify the best balance of energy consumption and environmental impact. This model has been created and populated with energy consumption data for individual SSJ processes and process platforms. Technology feasibility cases studies were executed, to validate the model, and confirm the ability to create lower buy-to-fly ratio performs and machine these to final configuration aircraft components. This model can now be used as a tool to select manufacturing pathways that offer significant energy savings and, when coupled with a cost model, drive implementation of the SSJ processes.

  14. Poliitikauuringud ja õiguspoliitika kujundamine Eestis / Peep Pruks

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pruks, Peep, 1963-

    2000-01-01

    Poliitikauuringutest lääneriikides (USA-s) ning Ida- ja Kesk-Euroopa üleminekuühiskondades. Mõttekeskustest (think tank), Eesti poliitikauuringute keskusest PRAXIS ning projektidest "Avaliku sektori ja kolmanda sektori õigusloome alane koostöö" ja "Eesti kriminaalmenetluse optimeerimine"

  15. Reformierakond pole valimislubadusi unustanud / Peep Aru

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Aru, Peep, 1953-

    2004-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Põhjarannik, 14. dets. 2004, lk. 2; Severnoje Poberezhje, 14. dets. 2004, lk. 2; Harjumaa, 17. dets. 2004, lk. 2; Meie Maa, 17. dets. 2004, lk. 2; Pärnu Postimees, 21. dets. 2004, lk. 15; Hiiu Leht, 21. dets. 2004, lk. 2; Sakala, 22. dets. 2004, lk. 2; Paremad Uudised, nr. 11, dets. 2004, lk. 3. Autori sõnul on Reformierakond veendunud, et kehtiv koalitsioonileping tagab Eesti riigile kõige parema tuleviku

  16. Efeitos da compressão torácica manual versus a manobra de PEEP-ZEEP na complacência do sistema respiratório e na oxigenação de pacientes submetidos à ventilação mecânica invasiva

    OpenAIRE

    Flavio Renato Antunes dos Santos; Luiz Carlos Schneider Júnior; Luiz Alberto Forgiarini Junior; Jefferson Veronezi

    2009-01-01

    OBJETIVOS: Os pacientes com incapacidade de desempenhar suas funções ventilatórias podem ser submetidos à ventilação mecânica invasiva. A fisioterapia respiratória atua no tratamento destes pacientes com a finalidade de melhorar sua função pulmonar. O objetivo do estudo foi avaliar os efeitos da compressão torácica manual versus a manobra de pressão expiratória final positiva-pressão expiratória final zero (PEEP-ZEEP) na complacência do sistema respiratório e na oxigenação de pacientes em ven...

  17. Adherence to cervical cancer screening guidelines for U.S. women aged 25-64: data from the 2005 Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Wendy; Moser, Richard P; Gaffey, Allison; Waldron, William

    2009-11-01

    Although it is widely accepted that Papanicolaou (Pap) screening can reduce cervical cancer mortality, many women still do not maintain regular cervical cancer screenings. To describe the prevalence of cervical cancer screening and the demographic, behavioral, psychological, and cancer-related knowledge factors associated with adherence to U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) cervical cancer screening guidelines among women in the United States. Data for women aged 25-64 were obtained from the National Cancer Institute's (NCI) 2005 Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS). Women were considered adherent to screening guidelines if they had two consecutive, on-schedule screenings and planned to have another within the next 3 years. The sample comprised 2070 women. Ninety-eight percent of women reported ever having a Pap smear, 90% reported having had a recent Pap smear (within 3 years), and 84% were adherent to USPSTF screening guidelines. Maintaining regular cervical cancer screening was significantly associated with having health insurance, normal body mass index (BMI), smoking status (nonsmoker), mood (absence of a mood disturbance), and being knowledgeable about cervical cancer screening and human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. Based on the observation that women who were current smokers, obese, or experiencing a substantial degree of psychological distress were significantly less likely to adhere to recommended screening guidelines, we suggest that healthcare providers pay particular attention to the screening needs of these more vulnerable women.

  18. Antik Hint ve Yunan Uygarlıkları Arasında Bir Etkileşim Örneği: Krishna – Herakles

    OpenAIRE

    KÜÇÜKLER, Ali

    2011-01-01

    Hindoloji alanında yapılan incelemeler yalnızca Hindistan’ın kültür, tarih ve dillerinin değil, aynı zamanda etkileşim içerisinde olduğu uygarlıkların da izini sürmemizi sağlar. Bu konuda bize tarihi belgelerin yanı sıra semboller, masallar ya da mitolojik destanlar da yol gösterebilir. Yapılacak karşılaştırmalı çalışmalarla Hint uygarlığının diğer uygarlıklarla etkileşimini gösteren örnekler bulmak mümkün olacaktır. Bu makalede, Hinduizmin en önemli tanrılarından birisi olan Krishna ve Yunan...

  19. Heterogeneity-related anticancer therapy response differences in metastatic colon carcinoma: new hints to tumor-site-based personalized cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Weihuo; Huang, Shuru; Zhang, Jianwei; Zhao, Bo; Wang, Haohao; Liu, Fanlong; Jin, Ketao; Mou, Xiaozhou

    2013-01-01

    Heterogeneity in primary tumor and related metastases may result in different response to anticancer therapy. Previous work revealed that there were heterogeneity in primary colon carcinoma and matched lymphatic and hepatic metastases. Whether such heterogeneity in primary colon carcinoma and corresponding lymphatic and hepatic metastases would result in different response to anticancer therapy is unknown. To investigate whether the heterogeneity in primary colon carcinoma and matched lymphatic and hepatic metastases would result in different response to anticancer therapy, patient-derived tumor tissue (PDTT) xenograft models of colon carcinoma with lymphatic and hepatic metastases were used to evaluate the response to VEGF-targeted therapy (bevacizumab) in combination with chemotherapy (capecitabine). All xenografts of primary colon carcinoma and corresponding lymphatic and hepatic metastases in nude mice responded to VEGF-targeted therapy in combination with chemotherapy. However, chemotherapy alone resulted in significantly higher tumor growth inhibition rate in xenogfafts of primary colon carcinoma than that of corresponding lymphatic and hepatic metastasis (p response rate to chemotherapy and to VEGF-targeted therapy in combination with chemotherapy. This study provides us new hints to tumor-site-based personalized cancer therapy in metastatic colon carcinoma.

  20. Dr. Heinz von zur Mühlen - teenekas Tallinna ajaloo uurija / Peep Pillak ; foto: Peep Pillak

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pillak, Peep

    2003-01-01

    ülevaade üheks paremaks Eesti ja Liivimaa, eriti aga Tallinna keskaja asjatundjaks peetava baltisakslasest ajaloolase eluteest ja teaduslikest uurimustöödest, mille eest pälvis 11. sept. 2002 Tallinna teenetemärgi

  1. South Africa's Future Knowledge Workers: A Peep into their Goals ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The demand for knowledge workers is on the increase, yet little is known about their career perceptions and what motivate them to innovate. This article explores issues with regard to perceptions and motivations for creativity and innovation in knowledge work. A survey was conducted amongst a sample of knowledge ...

  2. Schaulust und Horror Soziokulturelle - Perspektiven auf PEEPING TOM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Ballhausen

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Die Geschichte des Kinos und des Films ist mindestens ebenso sehr eine Geschichte des Schreckens (und der damit verbundenen Schaulust wie sie eine Geschichte des Dokumentarischen zu sein scheint. Es sind die außergewöhnlichen Körper und deren Bewegungen, die das Publikum zu allen Zeiten faszinierten, schockierten und zum Schauen und Sehen lockten. Besonders das Genre des Horrorfilms ist mit diesem zentralen Aspekt des Kinos besonders deutlich verbunden.

  3. "Scientific peep show": the human body in contemporary science museums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canadelli, Elena

    2011-01-01

    The essay focuses on the discourse about the human body developed by contemporary science museums with educational and instructive purposes directed at the general public. These museums aim mostly at mediating concepts such as health and prevention. The current scenario is linked with two examples of past museums: the popular anatomical museums which emerged during the 19th century and the health museums thrived between 1910 and 1940. On the museological path about the human body self-care we went from the emotionally involving anatomical Venuses to the inexpressive Transparent Man, from anatomical specimens of ill organs and deformed subjects to the mechanical and electronic models of the healthy body. Today the body is made transparent by the new medical diagnostics and by the latest discoveries of endoscopy. The way museums and science centers presently display the human body involves computers, 3D animation, digital technologies, hands-on models of large size human parts.

  4. Eesti rallis valitseb hea, kuid segane seis / Peep Pahv

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pahv, Peep, 1970-

    2007-01-01

    Pikki aastaid Eesti ralliparemikus püsinud Margus Murakas ei küündinud tänavu Eesti meistrivõistluste medalile, ent samas tundis ta rahulolu kõrgemaid astmeid vallutanud noore põlvkonna pealekasvust

  5. Erik Tender : 10. IV 1902 - 7. II 1991 / Peep Pillak

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pillak, Peep, 1957-

    2001-01-01

    Ajaloolane ja arhivaar. Tartu linnaarhivaar 1927–1940, Riigi Keskarhiivi juhataja 1941–1944, Balti Ülikooli ajalooprofessor 1946–1949. Eesti Teadusliku Seltsi Rootsis juhatuse liige 1956–1976.

  6. Suurstreigi oht kasvab iga päevaga / Peep Peterson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Peterson, Peep, 1975-

    2005-01-01

    Ilmunud ka Harjumaa 4. veebr., lk. 2, Põhjarannik 4. veebr., lk. 2, Severnoje Poberezhje 4. veebr. lk. 2, Elva Postipoiss 5. veebr., lk. 4, Järva Teataja 5. veebr., lk. 2, Valgamaalane 5. veebr. lk. 4,2,2, Lääne Elu, Hiiu Leht 8. veebr. lk. 2,2, Pärnu Postimees 11. veebr. lk. 15. Transpordi Ametiühingu esimehe sõnul on transporditöötajate uue üleriikliku palgaleppe sõlmimine jõudnud ummikusse, seetõttu ollakse vajadusel valmis oma nõudmisi kaitsma seaduslike aktsioonidega

  7. See uus, kiire ja mugav bussisõit / Peep Peterson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Peterson, Peep, 1975-

    2005-01-01

    Tartu linnavolikogusse kandideeriv Transpordi Ametiühingu esimees tutvustab sotsiaaldemokraatide ettepanekuid linna bussiliikluse parandamiseks. Diagrammid: Mis sind häirib bussisõidu juures kõige rohkem?; Kui palju võiks maksta pilet?

  8. Kolm jääaegset triumfi / Peep Pedmanson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pedmanson, Peep

    2002-01-01

    Tallinnas ja Tartus tuli ekraanile USA joonisfilm "Jääaeg" ("Ice Age"), mille dubleerimisse on režissöör Janno Põldma juhtimisel kaasatud parimad eesti näitlejad. Eriti Anu Lambi meisterlikkusest laisklooma dubleerimisel ning arvutianimatsiooni kõrgest tasemest

  9. Eesti nimekaim ilukirurg jagab enesekindlust / Peep Pree ; intevjueerinud Priit Pullerits

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pree, Peep, 1958-

    2006-01-01

    Vestlus Tartu esteetilise kirurgia erakliiniku Clinica juhatajaga tööst, vastutustundest, ebaõnnestumistest. Kommenteerivad Tartu linnapea Laine Jänes ja Tartu Ülikooli arstiteaduskonna emeriitprofessor Ennu Sepp

  10. Jõgi kuivab, meri tõuseb, ori maksab / Peep Pedmanson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pedmanson, Peep, 1963-

    2009-01-01

    5. juunil maailma eri riikide internetis ja televisioonis esilinastunud Yann Arthus-Bertrandi dokumentaalfilmist "Home" ("Kodu", Prantsusmaa 2009), produtsent Luc Besson, mis räägib meie planeedi keskkonnast

  11. PEEP in non invasive ventilatory treatment of worsened BPCO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Lari

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Acute respiratory failure due to exacerbation of chronic pulmonary disease is usually treated with bilevel pressure non invasive ventilation. An high inspiratory pressure is used to improve tidal volume, a lower expiratory pressure is used to neutralize end expiratory positive pressure of patient (PEEPi caused by flow limitation and airway trapping. When ventilators for bilevel pressure ventilation are not available, is useful to administer to patient an external low (5cmH2O positive pressure with simple CPAP systems (Continuous Positive Airway Pressure, such as Venturi like flow generator largely available and well known everywhere.

  12. Rokkari droog ja šamaani seened / Peep Pedmanson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pedmanson, Peep

    1999-01-01

    Muusikaline dokumentaalfilm soome rokkmuusikust Antti Hulkkost alias Andy McCoy'st "The Real McCoy": režissöör Pekka Lehto : Soome-Suurbritannia-Rootsi, 1999. KinoFinlandia Oy (filmistuudio), Aurora Films Ltd. (filmistuudio), Little Big Productions Ab (filmistuudio)

  13. Ettevaatust, bussid jäävad seisma! / Peep Peterson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Peterson, Peep, 1975-

    2004-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Severnoje Poberezhje, 23. okt. 2004, lk. 2; Narva Postiljon, 23. okt. 2004, lk. 5; Narvskaja Gazeta, 23. okt. 2004, lk. 4; Sakala, 26. okt. 2004, lk. 2; Võrumaa Teataja, 26. okt. 2004, lk. 2; Vooremaa, 26. okt. 2004, lk. 2; Meie Maa, 26. okt. 2004, lk. 2; Harjumaa, 26. okt. 2004, lk. 2; Järva Teataja, 28. okt. 2004, lk. 2; Hiiu Leht, 29. okt. 2004, lk. 2; Pärnu Postimees, 29. okt. 2004, lk. 15; Linnaleht : Pärnu, 29. okt. 2004, lk. A4; Valgamaalane, 6. nov. 2004, lk. 2. Transpordi ametiühing andis autoettevõtete liidule üle nõudmise, milles taotleb kõigile bussijuhtidele lisatasudeta Eesti keskmist palka. Kokkuleppele tuleb jõuda enne 2005. aasta 1. jaanuari

  14. Eesti arhiivid Euroopa kontekstis / Lea Kõiv, Peep Pillak

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kõiv, Lea, 1961-

    2013-01-01

    2005. aastal toimus konverents "Eesti arhiivid Euroopa kontekstis". Selle konverentsil esitatud ettekannete baasil ilmunud kogumikust "Die Archive Estlands im Europäischen Kontxt/Estonian Archives in the European Context". Kogumikus sisalduvatest artiklitest

  15. [Modifying our "obesogenic" environment: which hints?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masciangelo, M L; Golay, A

    2006-03-29

    Overweight is nowadays a major problem of public health in Switzerland. Swiss people eat too much, too much fat, sugar and salt! Most efficient public health strategies are global and also apply to environmental modifications, an important determinant to change individual behaviours. Today, our environment is "obesogenic": unlimited access to food, food industry marketing, lifestyle changes. As global programmes for smoking cessation and cardiovascular diseases prevention, it is urgent to propose interventions taking into account all environmental factors which could support individuals in their efforts of changes.

  16. Sisekujundus Harley Davidsoni auks / Gitte Hint

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hint, Gitte

    2004-01-01

    Puhkeruum 1930-ndatel ehitatud majas. Sisearhitektid Krista Areni ja Raul Vaiksoo, nende kommentaarid. Külalistele eksponeeritakse ka mootorratast Harley Davidsoni. Diivani kohal on põhjataevas. Heigo Jelle valmistas kaminasepised, tõmbekapi ja grillimispaiga. Ill.: plaan, 10 värv. vaadet

  17. Recommender System for Learning SQL Using Hints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavbic, Dejan; Matek, Tadej; Zrnec, Aljaž

    2017-01-01

    Today's software industry requires individuals who are proficient in as many programming languages as possible. Structured query language (SQL), as an adopted standard, is no exception, as it is the most widely used query language to retrieve and manipulate data. However, the process of learning SQL turns out to be challenging. The need for a…

  18. Nursing knowledge: hints from the placebo effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanotti, Renzo; Chiffi, Daniele

    2017-07-01

    Nursing knowledge stems from a dynamic interplay between population-based scientific knowledge (the general) and specific clinical cases (the particular). We compared the 'cascade model of knowledge translation', also known as 'classical biomedical model' in clinical practice (in which knowledge gained at population level may be applied directly to a specific clinical context), with an emergentist model of knowledge translation. The structure and dynamics of nursing knowledge are outlined, adopting the distinction between epistemic and non-epistemic values. Then, a (moderately) emergentist approach to nursing knowledge is proposed, based on the assumption of a two-way flow from the general to the particular and vice versa. The case of the 'placebo effect' is analysed as an example of emergentist knowledge. The placebo effect is usually considered difficult to be explained within the classical biomedical model, and we underscore its importance in shaping nursing knowledge. In fact, nurses are primarily responsible for administering placebo in the clinical setting and have an essential role in promoting the placebo effect and reducing the nocebo effect. The beliefs responsible for the placebo effect are as follows: (1) interactive, because they depend on the relationship between patients and health care professionals; (2) situated, because they occur in a given clinical context related to certain rituals; and (3) grounded on higher order beliefs concerning what an individual thinks about the beliefs of others. It is essential to know the clinical context and to understand other people's beliefs to make sense of the placebo effect. The placebo effect only works when the (higher order) beliefs of doctors, nurses and patients interact in a given setting. Finally, we argue for a close relationship between placebo effect and nursing knowledge. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Lasers and Physics: A Pretty Good Hint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schawlow, Arthur L.

    1982-01-01

    The monochromaticity, directionality, and intensity of laser light make possible spectroscopic investigations of previously unimagined precision. Several of these investigations and their applications are discussed. (Author/JN)

  20. An Impending geomagnetic transition? Hints from the past.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo eLAJ

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The rapid decrease of the geomagnetic field intensity in the last centuries has led to speculations that an attempt to a reversal or an excursion might be under way. Here we investigate this hypothesis by examining past records of geomagnetic field intensity obtained from sedimentary cores and from the study of cosmogenic nuclides. The selected records describe geomagnetic changes with an unprecedented temporal resolution between 20 and 75 kyr B.P. We find that some aspects of the present-day geomagnetic field have some similarities with those documented for the Laschamp excursion 41 kyr ago. Under the assumption that the dynamo processes for an eventual future reversal or excursion would be similar to those of the Laschamp excursion, we tentatively suggest that, whilst irreversible processes that will drive the geodynamo into a polarity change may have already started, a reversal or an excursion should not be expected before 500 to 1000 years.

  1. Brotze väljaande filoloogilisi probleeme / Mati Hint

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hint, Mati

    2007-01-01

    Rets. rmt. : Johann Christoph Brotze. Estonica. Koostanud / Herausgegeben von Ants Hein, Ivar Leimus, Raimo Pullat, Ants Viires. Projektijuht ja vastutav toimetaja : Raimo Pullat. tõlge eesti keelde: Tõnis Liibek, Ivar Leimus, tõlge saksa keelde: Aigi Heero, Ene Rõngelep. Kujundus: Andres Tali. Tallinn : Estopol OÜ, 2006. XXXVI, 619 lk. Teoses esinevaid keele- ja kohanimeprobleeme

  2. Mari Koger : "Arhitekte on palju. Tuleb leida õige" / Gitte Hint

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hint, Gitte

    2003-01-01

    Mari Koger (sünd. 1973) kodu kujundamisest, planeerimisest, valgustusest, värvidest, suhtlemisest kliendiga. Mari Kogerist, loetletud tema tehtud ühiskondlike ruumide sisekujundused aastast 2002. M. Koger töötab Boom.ee OÜ-s. Ill.: M. Kogeri värv. portree

  3. Mari Koger : seina sisse ehitatud akvaariumiga poissmehekodu / Gitte Hint

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hint, Gitte

    2003-01-01

    80-ruutmeetrine poissmehekorter Viimsi uues elamus. Elutoa ja vannitoa vahelises seinas paikneb kahelt poolt vaadeldav akvaarium. Magamistoa üks seintest on ehitatud vanadest tellistest. Sisearhitekt Mari Koger, tema kommentaarid. Ill.: plaan, 9 värv. vaadet

  4. Form Substance Difference. Brief hints on "Bateson's epistemology"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Demozzi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on some key-concepts of Gregory Bateson's thought. Among philosopher there has always been a sort of dichotomy between the concepts of “form” and “substance” since ancient Greece; concerning this topic, Gregory Bateson (influenced by his studies on biology, communication and by the birth of Cybernetics presents what - in his opinion - is the only possible statement able to describe reality: the map is not the territory. The article, then, attempts to define what for Gregory Bateson is considered as an “eco-mental system” and, finally, discusses about its ethics implications.

  5. Lack of thermal energy in superbubbles: hint of cosmic rays?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Siddhartha; Nath, Biman B.; Sharma, Prateek; Eichler, David

    2018-01-01

    Using analytic methods and 1D two-fluid simulations, we study the effect of cosmic rays (CRs) on the dynamics of interstellar superbubbles (ISBs) driven by multiple supernovae (SNe)/stellar winds in OB associations. In addition to CR advection and diffusion, our models include thermal conduction and radiative cooling. We find that CR injection at the reverse shock or within a central wind-driving region can affect the thermal profiles of ISBs and hence their X-ray properties. Even if a small fraction (10-20 per cent) of the total mechanical power is injected into CRs, a significant fraction of the ram pressure at the reverse shock can be transferred to CRs. The energy transfer becomes efficient if (1) the reverse shock gas Mach number exceeds a critical value (Mth ≳ 12) and (2) the CR acceleration time-scale τacc ∼ κcr/v2 is shorter than the dynamical time, where κcr is a CR diffusion coefficient and v is the upstream velocity. We show that CR affected bubbles can exhibit a volume-averaged hot gas temperature 1-5 × 106 K, lower by a factor of 2 - 10 than without CRs. Thus, CRs can potentially solve the long-standing problem of the observed low ISB temperatures.

  6. DEMYSTIFYING QUANTUM MECHANICS: Will there be hints from LHC?

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2007-01-01

    All modern theories for particles, forces and even space-time itself, use the framework provided by quantum mechanics. The Standard Model is a quantized field theory. Even superstring theory is based on quantum mechanics. There is something odd about quantum mechanics: it brilliantly allows us to predict the outcome of experiments, yet it gives confusing statements about what really is going on inside particles and fields. Suppose we would be asking for a theory that allows us to describe what actually happens in less ambiguous terms, without destroying the magnificent successes of quantum mechanics, would this help us to answer some of the great mysteries of theoretical elementary particle physics?Organiser(s): L. Alvarez-Gaume / PH-THNote: * Tea & coffee will be served at 16:00.

  7. Kaardistajaid kaardistamas / Anna Hints, Marja-Liisa Plats

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hints, Anna, 1982-

    2006-01-01

    Autorid toovad ära Tartu kunstigümnaasiumi õpilaste hinnangud projekt-näituse "Kunstnik kaardil" tööde ja Kalev Vapperi installatsiooni "Kaunistagem Eesti kojad Savisaare pildiga" kohta. Näitused toimusid Y-galeriis ja Rael Artel Gallery's Tartus

  8. HINT Brasil : estudo em portadores de perdas auditivas

    OpenAIRE

    Aline de Moraes Arieta

    2013-01-01

    Resumo: A investigação do reconhecimento da fala na presença de ruído competidor, em situações de escuta assemelhadas às do dia a dia, torna-se cada vez mais necessária. Atualmente, na rotina audiológica nacional, esta avaliação ainda é realizada sem ruído, limitando as informações sobre o desempenho dos indivíduos em condições de vida real. Este problema se agrava nas perdas auditivas sensorioneurais, de alta ocorrência na sociedade. O objetivo desta pesquisa é avaliar o reconhecimento da fa...

  9. Rules of Thumb: Hints for the psychiatric nursing student.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karshmer, J F

    1982-03-01

    The eight "rules of thumb" offered here are representative of numerous more that have been helpful stimulators for psychiatric nursing students. The suggest to the students a consistent approach based upon a rationale and do not encourage rote memorization of techniques. Students are encouraged to critically analyze the reasons and conceptual underpinnings for each encounter they have with patients. The "rules of thumb" encourage this self-exploration and attention to "What is it I'm really asking, or feeling, or thinking?" Only with this sort of continuous evaluation and reassessment can even the most novice of students begin to establish a therapeutic treatment approach with psychiatric patients.

  10. Observational hints of radial migration in disc galaxies from CALIFA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Lara, T.; Pérez, I.; Florido, E.; Sánchez-Blázquez, P.; Méndez-Abreu, J.; Sánchez-Menguiano, L.; Sánchez, S. F.; Lyubenova, M.; Falcón-Barroso, J.; van de Ven, G.; Marino, R. A.; de Lorenzo-Cáceres, A.; Catalán-Torrecilla, C.; Costantin, L.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Galbany, L.; García-Benito, R.; Husemann, B.; Kehrig, C.; Márquez, I.; Mast, D.; Walcher, C. J.; Zibetti, S.; Ziegler, B.; Califa Team

    2017-07-01

    Context. According to numerical simulations, stars are not always kept at their birth galactocentric distances but they have a tendency to migrate. The importance of this radial migration in shaping galactic light distributions is still unclear. However, if radial migration is indeed important, galaxies with different surface brightness (SB) profiles must display differences in their stellar population properties. Aims: We investigate the role of radial migration in the light distribution and radial stellar content by comparing the inner colour, age, and metallicity gradients for galaxies with different SB profiles. We define these inner parts, avoiding the bulge and bar regions and up to around three disc scale lengths (type I, pure exponential) or the break radius (type II, downbending; type III, upbending). Methods: We analysed 214 spiral galaxies from the CALIFA survey covering different SB profiles. We made use of GASP2D and SDSS data to characterise the light distribution and obtain colour profiles of these spiral galaxies. The stellar age and metallicity profiles were computed using a methodology based on full-spectrum fitting techniques (pPXF, GANDALF, and STECKMAP) to the Integral Field Spectroscopic CALIFA data. Results: The distributions of the colour, stellar age, and stellar metallicity gradients in the inner parts for galaxies displaying different SB profiles are unalike as suggested by Kolmogorov-Smirnov and Anderson-Darling tests. We find a trend in which type II galaxies show the steepest profiles of all, type III show the shallowest, and type I display an intermediate behaviour. Conclusions: These results are consistent with a scenario in which radial migration is more efficient for type III galaxies than for type I systems, where type II galaxies present the lowest radial migration efficiency. In such a scenario, radial migration mixes the stellar content, thereby flattening the radial stellar properties and shaping different SB profiles. However, in light of these results we cannot further quantify the importance of radial migration in shaping spiral galaxies, and other processes, such as recent star formation or satellite accretion, might play a role. Based on observations collected at the Centro Astronómico Hispano Alemán (CAHA) at Calar Alto, operated jointly by the Max-Planck Institut für Astronomie and the Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (CSIC).Table 1 is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/604/A4

  11. "To Improve upon Hints of Things": Illustrating Isaac Newton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilt, Cornelis J

    2016-01-01

    When Isaac Newton died in 1727 he left a rich legacy in terms of draft manuscripts, encompassing a variety of topics: natural philosophy, mathematics, alchemy, theology, and chronology, as well as papers relating to his career at the Mint. One thing that immediately strikes us is the textuality of Newton's legacy: images are sparse. Regarding his scholarly endeavours we witness the same practice. Newton's extensive drafts on theology and chronology do not contain a single illustration or map. Today we have all of Newton's draft manuscripts as witnesses of his working methods, as well as access to a significant number of books from his own library. Drawing parallels between Newton's reading practices and his natural philosophical and scholarly work, this paper seeks to understand Newton's recondite writing and publishing politics.

  12. Using peer instruction with hints in introductory business statistics.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dr. N. Ding; X. Xu

    2014-01-01

    Abstract:Purpose – Peer instruction has been widely adopted as an instructional method in higher education. However, due to students' different preconceptions, the authors argued that peer instruction is not a panacea in international business education when students' prior knowledge extensively

  13. A "g" beyond "Homo Sapiens"? Some Hints and Suggestions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, James J.

    2007-01-01

    This article proposes that a complete account of cognitive evolution may have to accommodate a domain-general source of variance in mental abilities accounting for differences among primate taxa. Deaner, van Schaik, and Johnson [Deaner, R.O., van Schaik, C.P. and Johnson, V.E. (2006). Do some taxa have better domain-general cognition than others?…

  14. Angiosperm Plant Desiccation Tolerance: Hints from Transcriptomics and Genome Sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giarola, Valentino; Hou, Quancan; Bartels, Dorothea

    2017-08-01

    Desiccation tolerance (DT) in angiosperms is present in the small group of resurrection plants and in seeds. DT requires the presence of protective proteins, specific carbohydrates, restructuring of membrane lipids, and regulatory mechanisms directing a dedicated gene expression program. Many components are common to resurrection plants and seeds; however, some are specific for resurrection plants. Understanding how each component contributes to DT is challenging. Recent transcriptome analyses and genome sequencing indicate that increased expression is essential of genes encoding protective components, recently evolved, species-specific genes and non-protein-coding RNAs. Modification and reshuffling of existing cis-regulatory promoter elements seems to play a role in the rewiring of regulatory networks required for increased expression of DT-related genes in resurrection species. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Tiina Mang : vanalinna korter muutus visuaalselt suuremaks / Gitte Hint

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hint, Gitte

    2003-01-01

    74-ruutmeetrine vanalinna korter, mõeldud kahele inimesele, kellest üks töötab kodus. Enamik mööblist on valmistatud eritellimusel. Sisearhitekt Tiina Mang, tema kommentaarid. Ill.: plaan, 3 värv. vaadet

  16. Taso Mähar : avatud vannitoaga vanalinna korter / Gitte Hint

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hint, Gitte

    2003-01-01

    Modernne korter (220 m2). Sisearhitekt Taso Mähar, tema kommentaarid. Kogu korteri ulatuses on sisekujundusmaterjalidena kasutatud väärispuitu, metalli, marmorit ja klaasi. T. Mähari projekteeritud on trepp ja piirded, kamin, baarilett ja õhukesed alumiiniumraamidel mattklaasidega uksed. Ill.: I ja II korruse plaan, 8 värv. vaadet

  17. Hints for Leptonic CP Violation or New Physics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forero, David V; Huber, Patrick

    2016-07-15

    One of the major open questions in the neutrino sector is the issue of leptonic CP violation. Current global oscillation data show a mild preference for a large, potentially maximal value for the Dirac CP phase in the neutrino mixing matrix. In this Letter, we point out that new physics in the form of neutral-current-like nonstandard interactions with real couplings would likely yield a similar conclusion even if CP in the neutrino sector were conserved. Therefore, the claim for a discovery of leptonic CP violation will require a robust ability to test new physics scenarios.

  18. PSHA after a strong earthquake: hints for the recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Peruzza

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We perform aftershock probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (APSHA of the ongoing aftershock sequence following the Amatrice August 24th, 2016 Central Italy earthquake. APSHA is a time-dependent PSHA calculation where earthquake occurrence rates decrease after the occurrence of a mainshock following an Omori-type decay. In this paper we propose a fault source model based on preliminary evidence of the complex fault geometry associated with the mainshock. We then explore the possibility that the aftershock seismicity is distributed either uniformly or non-uniformly across the fault source. The hazard results are then computed for short-intermediate exposure periods (1-3 months, 1 year. They are compared to the background hazard and intended to be useful for post-earthquake safety evaluation.

  19. Dynamic testing in practice : shall I give you a hint?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosma, Tirza

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation contains studies concerning dynamic testing and graduated prompt techniques of children in elementary (special) education. The focus of the studies concerned teacher' opinions and teaching practice in particular from the perspective of needs based assessment

  20. Aet Piel : oluline sisekujunduselement on viltune sein / Gitte Hint

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hint, Gitte

    2003-01-01

    Poolkaares ehitatud korterelamus on Aet Pieli kujundatud korteris üks sein viltu. Esmapilgul häirivana mõjunud sein sai oluliseks sisekujunduselemendiks. Eritellimusel valmistatud mööbel on tammepuidust. A. Pieli kommentaarid. Ill.: plaan enne ja nüüd, 9 värv. vaadet

  1. Tiina Mang : "Vahel tekib tahtmine krutsk sisse visata" / Gitte Hint

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hint, Gitte

    2003-01-01

    Tiina Mang (sünd. 1957) oma eelistustest sisearhitektuuris, professionaalide kaasamisest kodukujundusse, hea sisekujundusega ruumist, mööblidisainist. T. Mangist, tema osalemisest välismessidel ja näitustel. T. Mang omab aastast 1990 mööbli disaini ja tootmisega tegelevat firmat T&T Mang AS. Ill.: värv. foto T. Mangist

  2. 200 more puzzling physics problems with hints and solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Gnädig, Péter; Vigh, Máté

    2016-01-01

    Like its predecessor, 200 Puzzling Physics Problems, this book is aimed at strengthening students' grasp of the laws of physics by applying them to situations that are practical, and to problems that yield more easily to intuitive insight than to brute-force methods and complex mathematics. The problems are chosen almost exclusively from classical, non-quantum physics, but are no easier for that. They are intriguingly posed in accessible non-technical language, and require readers to select an appropriate analysis framework and decide which branches of physics are involved. The general level of sophistication needed is that of the exceptional school student, the good undergraduate, or the competent graduate student; some physics professors may find some of the more difficult questions challenging. By contrast, the mathematical demands are relatively minimal, and seldom go beyond elementary calculus. This further book of physics problems is not only instructive and challenging, but also enjoyable.

  3. New planet hints at life in the stars

    CERN Multimedia

    Dalton, A W

    2002-01-01

    Astronomers have detected a distant planet 100 light years from Earth, circling Tau1 Gruis, its star, in the constellation of Grus (the crane). The planet, similar in appearance to Jupiter, is three times as far away from its star as the Earth is from the Sun and takes four years to revolve around the star, in a roughly circular orbit. Scientists believe this type of planetary orbit is the most promising for finding worlds that contain life (1 page).

  4. Food Safety and Quality Control: Hints from Proteomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo D'Alessandro

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decade, proteomics has been successfully applied to the study of quality control in production processes of food (including meat, wine and beer, transgenic plants and milk and food safety (screening for food-derived pathogens. Indeed, food quality and safety and their influence on the health of end consumers have growingly become a founding principle in the international agenda of health organizations. The application of proteomics in food science was at first characterized by exploratory analyses of food of various origin (bovine, swine, chicken or lamb meat, but also transgenic food such as genetically modified maize, for example and beverages (beer, wine, in parallel to the genomic and transcriptomic approaches seeking determination of quantitative trait loci. In the last few years, technical improvements such as microbial biotyping strategies have growingly allowed proteomicists to address the safety issue as well. The newly introduced technical improvements (instrumentation characterized by higher sensitivity such as mass spectrometers have paved the way for the individuation of food-contaminating pathogens in a fast and efficient workflow which is mandatory in industrial food production chains.

  5. Prediction horizon effects on stochastic modelling hints for neural networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drossu, R.; Obradovic, Z. [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The objective of this paper is to investigate the relationship between stochastic models and neural network (NN) approaches to time series modelling. Experiments on a complex real life prediction problem (entertainment video traffic) indicate that prior knowledge can be obtained through stochastic analysis both with respect to an appropriate NN architecture as well as to an appropriate sampling rate, in the case of a prediction horizon larger than one. An improvement of the obtained NN predictor is also proposed through a bias removal post-processing, resulting in much better performance than the best stochastic model.

  6. Ageing collider throws up hint or dark matter

    CERN Multimedia

    Ananthaswamy, Anil

    2008-01-01

    "Never mind the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, its ageing predecessor may have discovered a new and unexpected kind of particle. The announcement last week from the Tevatron particle accelerator at Fermilab in Batavai, Illinois, provided some excitement amid the frustration of ongoing repairs to the LHC."

  7. Keskerakond - erakond nagu Eesti erakond muistegi / Mati Hint

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hint, Mati, 1937-

    2003-01-01

    Tiit Kärneri artiklist "Keskkonna fenomen kui kultuurinähtus" 9. mai Sirbis ja Jaan Kaplinski artiklist "Keskerakond ja need teised" 23. mai Sirbis. Autori sõnul saab Keskerakonda süüdistada pigem liigses koostöövalmiduses, mitte aga põhimõttelises kompromissidest keeldumises

  8. Remembering Multiple Passwords by Way of Minimal-Feedback Hints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertzum, Morten

    2004-01-01

    Passwords are a prominent mechanism for user authentication but entail a conflict between ease of use and security in that passwords must be both easy to remember for the password holder and difficult to guess for everybody else. To support users in remembering their passwords minimal-feedback hi......, for example a word followed by one or more digits, and vulnerable to dictionary attacks....

  9. Tarmo Piirmets : "Idealism aitab teostada suuri ideid" / Gitte Hint

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hint, Gitte

    2004-01-01

    Tarmo Piirmets (sünd. 1974) magistriõppest Hollandis, töötamisest asjade nimel, millesse usud, sisearhitektuuri erialst, kliendi võimalustest, huvitavatest ruumidest. T. Piirmetsast, omistatud preemiad, tehtud tööde loetelu. Ill.: T. Piirmetsa värv. portree

  10. HINT for Squint: A Computer Reliant Diagnostic Aid for Strabismus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gieszl, Louis R.; Morris, Jacqueline; Guyton, David L.

    1983-01-01

    This paper provides an outline of methods used for the implementation of a computer reliant diagnostic aid in the medical specialty of Ophthalmology. Some problems have been associated with many previous diagnostic models. A careful review indicates that the most serious problems were: • inability to handle: - multiple diseases coexistent in the patient - partially described diseases - extraneous input symptoms - quantitative signs along with symptoms • inflexible and non-extendible prototype models • lack of inclusive physician-approved data banks The use of computer techniques developed for large scale wargaming has allowed the construction of an extendable prototype model. The hierarchical searching techniques used provided the necessary partial matching solution to the above set of computational problems. An active physician-analyst dialogue permitted the avoidance of the last problem, since the actual data and diagnostic logic was physician input.

  11. Phenomenological Hints from a Class of String Motivated Model Constructions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Peter Nilles

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We use string theory constructions towards the generalisation of the supersymmetric standard model of strong and electroweak interactions. Properties of the models depend crucially on the location of fields in extradimensional compact space. This allows us to extract some generic lessons for the phenomenological properties of the low energy effective action. Within this scheme we present a compelling model based on local grand unification and mirage mediation of supersymmetry breakdown. We analyse the properties of the specific model towards its possible tests at the LHC and the complementarity to direct dark matter searches.

  12. Help Hints for the Management of Other Health Impaired Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Mary Lee; And Others

    The manual is designed to provide information to teachers, parents, and school administrators about health impaired children with medically diagnosed physical conditions. Definitions, common symptoms, incidence, age of onset, prognosis, most typical treatment, educational significance, educational adaptations, and symptoms to look out for are…

  13. Politsei on tsiviilühiskonna lihased / Ignar Fjuk ; interv. Peep Lillemägi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Fjuk, Ignar, 1953-

    2001-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Nädaline, 18. sept. 2001, lk. 6; Meie Maa, 18. sept. 2001, lk. 2; Virumaa Teataja, 20. sept. 2001, lk. 7; Valgamaalane, 20. sept. 2001, lk. 2; Vooremaa, 25. sept. 2001, lk. 2. Hinnang politseireformi sildi all toimunud koondamistele. Autor: Reformierakond. Parlamendisaadik

  14. Tööst Venemaa arhiivides aastail 1989-1994 : Hilda Sabbo / Peep Varju

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Varju, Peep

    2007-01-01

    Ida-eestlaste Seltsi represseeritute komisjoni juhina alustas Hilda Sabbo andmete kogumist Venemaal hukatud eestlaste kohta. Pr. Sabbo tööst Moskva arhiivides. 1994. aasta alguseks oli Hilda Sabbol kogutud uskumatult rikkalik materjal. Ilmus 7-köiteline sari "Võimatu vaikida" (1996-2005). Kõige märkimisväärsemana võib esile tuua juuniküüditamise täpse kajastamise algallikate järgi

  15. Peeping through heart′s window: A case report of Fallots tetralogy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhowate R

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Tetralogy of Fallot is a congenital heart defect. A combination of four abnormalities in heart allow oxygen rich and oxygen-depleted blood to mix. The resulting low-oxygen blood then circulates through the body. A child with the condition tends to develop slowly, eat poorly and grow slowly and may experience "blue" spells on crying and dyspnea on exertion. A 12 year old child with this congenital heart defect and cleft palate with cleft lip is discussed. Details of the latest diagnostic and treatment procedures are also presented.

  16. Johan Kõpu pärand on mitmekülgne / Peep Pillak

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pillak, Peep

    2008-01-01

    rets. rmt.: Rohtmets, Priit. Rektor Johan Kõpp / toimetaja Mart Orav; resümeede tõlge: saksa keelde Reet Bender, inglise keelde Saskia Kangro, vene keelde A & A Lingua; kujundus Kalle Toompere. Tallinn : Aasta Raamat, 2007. 144 lk.

  17. A Peep at the Blacks: A History of Tourism at Coranderrk Aboriginal Station, 1863-1924

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Clark, Ian

    This book is concerned with the history of tourism at the Coranderrk Aboriginal Station at Healesville, northeast of Melbourne, which functioned as a government reserve from 1863 until its closure in 1924...

  18. Millised mõtted on peidus parimate töösturite peas? / Peep Talimaa

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Talimaa, Peep

    2008-01-01

    Ettevõtluse Auhind 2008 parima tööstusettevõtte tiitli võitnud AS Favor edu põhjustest, tulevikuperspektiividest ja ootustest riigile. Vt. samas: Eesti parimad ettevõtted on ABB ja Tallink Grupp. Lisa: Konkursi "Ettevõtluse auhind 2008" laureaadid ja kandidaadid

  19. Peeping at peers: A cross-national study of professionalism in social work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ma Martijn van Van Lanen

    2008-01-01

    Contemporary social work is subjected to ongoing questions in terms of its effectiveness and accountability. It appears to be problematic for social workers to defend themselves in a proper manner. When they do so, they often seem to rely primarily on a rhetoric of good intentions and are thus

  20. Remo Holsmer: mees Kalevi pingi taga / Remo Holsmer ; interv. Peep Lillemägi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Holsmer, Remo, 1980-

    2009-01-01

    Reformierakonna Tallinna piirkonnajuht Remo Holsmer vastab küsimustele, mis puudutavad tema tööd Kalevi korvpalliklubi managerina, korvpalli taset Eestis, Kalevisse välismängijate leidmist, Tallinna Kalev-Tartu Rock vastasseisu ning suhteid Jaak Salumetsaga

  1. Port: komisjoni vältimine näitab nii mõndagi / Peep Pahv

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pahv, Peep, 1970-

    2014-01-01

    Tartu arsti Vitali Bernatski dopinguainete vahendamise uurimiseks moodustad komisjoni esimees Kristjan Port loodab, et mai lõpuks on töö lõpetatud ja Eesti Olümpiakomitee saab anda juhtunule omapoolse hinnangu

  2. Rastotshitelstvo - glavnaja problema tsentristskoi upravõ / Remo Holsmer ; interv. Peep Lillemägi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Holsmer, Remo, 1980-

    2008-01-01

    Tallinna linnavolikogu Eesti Reformierakonna fraktsiooni esimehe hinnangul ajab Keskerakond Tallinnas riigi omale vastandlikku poliitikat, tähelepanu on suunatud vaid Lasnamäel ja Põhja-Tallinnas elavatele toetajatele. Reformierakonna fraktsioon on algatanud eelnõu lasteaedadele makstava nn. pearaha tõstmise kohta 2009. a. ja teinud ettepaneku vähendada maamaksu

  3. Model-based respiratory mechanics to titrate PEEP and monitor disease state for experimental ARDS subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Drunen, Erwin J; Chiew, Yeong Shiong; Chase, J Geoffrey; Lambermont, Bernard; Janssen, Nathalie; Desaive, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Modelling the respiratory mechanics of mechanically ventilated (MV) patients can provide useful information to guide MV therapy. Two model-based methods were evaluated based on data from three experimental acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) induced piglets and validated against values available from ventilators. A single compartment lung model with integral-based parameter identification was found to be effective in capturing fundamental respiratory mechanics during inspiration. The trends matched clinical expectation and provided better resolution than clinically derived linear model metrics. An expiration time constant model also captured the same trend in respiratory elastance. However, the assumption of constant resistance and a slightly higher fitting error results in less insight than the single compartment model. Further research is required to confirm its application in titrating to optimal MV settings.

  4. Kinnisvaraturg on tardunud liiga kõrgete ootuste tõttu / Peep Sooman

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sooman, Peep, 1978-

    2008-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Den za Dnjom 14. märts lk. 62. Seisaku kinnisvaraturul on põhjustanud kinnisvara müüjad, kelle hinnasoovid on liiga kõrged. Kinnisvaraturg on pakkumistest üleküllastunud, kuid ostjad ülehinnatud varale tähelepanu ei pööra. Keskmine ülehinnang on 4000-6000 krooni m2 kohta. Tuleb eristada müügipakkumiste ja tehingute hindu

  5. Kuulus velotuur võib jõuda Eesti teedele / Peep Pahv

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pahv, Peep, 1970-

    2007-01-01

    Vt. ka Postimees : na russkom jazõke 29. nov., lk. 12. Maailma mainekaima velotuuri Tour de France korraldajad on pöördunud Eesti kultuuriministeeriumi poole ettepanekuga alustada 2018. aasta võidusõitu Tallinnast

  6. Üliõpilasteater käis maailma parimatega lava jagamas / Lennart Peep

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Peep, Lennart

    2008-01-01

    Belgias toimunud 25. rahvusvahelisest üliõpilasteatrite festivalist, kus osales Tartu Üliõpilasteater Eugene Ionesco "Ninasarvikuga" (lavastaja Kalev Kudu). Festivali korraldas Liege'i Kuninglik Ülikool

  7. Kuusalus saab rattad alla autotreileritööstus / Peep Talimaa

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Talimaa, Peep

    2008-01-01

    OÜ-le Trucks & Trailers kuuluvast Kuusalu treileritehasest. Lisa: Kuusalu treileritehase ajalugu ja eellugu; Autotreileri valmimine; Üldandmeid treilerite kohta; Kuusalu treileritehase ajalugu ja eellugu

  8. Kuues üritus tõi Roman Šebrlele maailmameistritiitli / Raigo Pajula, Peep Pahv

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pajula, Raigo, 1971-

    2007-01-01

    32-aastane tšehh Roman Šeberle on nüüd mitmevõistlejana triumfeerinud kõikidel tiitlivõistlustel. Jaapanis Osakas sai ta MMi kuldmedali. Esimest korda suurvõistlusel osalenud Andres Raja sai 16. koha

  9. El moep y el Peep Luces amarillas en el tablero de las decisiones empresariales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Kaplan

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Entre la variada gama de posibilidades que debe manejar uma organizacion, en el momento de tomar decisiones o politicas con respecto a lineas de producto, puntos de yenta etc., es posible que se plantee la eleccion de continuar con la produccion o comercializacion de un determinado producto o servicio.

  10. Effects of different PEEP levels on respiratory mechanics and oxygenation after coronary artery bypass grafting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Daniel Lago; Nina, Vinícius José da Silva; Costa, Marina de Albuquerque Gonçalves; Baldez, Thiago Eduardo Pereira; Santos, Natália Pereira dos; Lima, Ilka Mendes; Figuerêdo, Eduardo Durans; Lula, Josimary Lima da Silva

    2013-01-01

    To compare the effects of different levels of positive end-expiratory pressure on respiratory mechanics and oxygenation indexes in the immediate postoperative period of coronary artery bypass grafting. Randomized clinical trial in which 136 patients underwent coronary artery bypass grafting between January 2011 and March 2012 were divided into three groups and admitted to mechanical ventilation with different positive end-expiratory pressure levels: Group A, 5 cmH2O (n=44), Group B, 8 cmH2O (n=47) and Group C, 10 cmH2O (n=45). Data about respiratory mechanics were obtained from mechanical ventilator monitor and oxygenation indexes from arterial blood gas samples, collected twenty minutes after intensive care unit admission. Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and patients submitted to off-pump, emergency or combined operations were not included. For statistical analysis, we used Kruskal-Wallis, G and Chi-square tests, considering results significant when Pventilated with positive end-expiratory pressure of 10 cmH2O (Group C) had best compliance (P=0.04) and airway resistance values, this, however, without statistical significance. They also had best oxygenation indexes, with statistical difference in all analyzed variables, and lower frequency of hypoxemia (P=0.03). Higher levels of positive end-expiratory pressure in immediate postoperative period of coronary artery bypass grafting improved pulmonary compliance values and increased oxygenation indexes, resulting in lower frequency of hypoxemia.

  11. Effects of different PEEP levels on respiratory mechanics and oxygenation after coronary artery bypass grafting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Lago Borges

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare the effects of different levels of positive end-expiratory pressure on respiratory mechanics and oxygenation indexes in the immediate postoperative period of coronary artery bypass grafting. METHODS: Randomized clinical trial in which 136 patients underwent coronary artery bypass grafting between January 2011 and March 2012 were divided into three groups and admitted to mechanical ventilation with different positive end-expiratory pressure levels: Group A, 5 cmH2O (n=44, Group B, 8 cmH2O (n=47 and Group C, 10 cmH2O (n=45. Data about respiratory mechanics were obtained from mechanical ventilator monitor and oxygenation indexes from arterial blood gas samples, collected twenty minutes after intensive care unit admission. Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and patients submitted to off-pump, emergency or combined operations were not included. For statistical analysis, we used Kruskal-Wallis, G and Chi-square tests, considering results significant when P<0.05. RESULTS: Groups were homogeneous in terms of demographic, clinical and surgical variables. Patients ventilated with positive end-expiratory pressure of 10 cmH2O (Group C had best compliance (P=0.04 and airway resistance values, this, however, without statistical significance. They also had best oxygenation indexes, with statistical difference in all analyzed variables, and lower frequency of hypoxemia (P=0.03. CONCLUSION: Higher levels of positive end-expiratory pressure in immediate postoperative period of coronary artery bypass grafting improved pulmonary compliance values and increased oxygenation indexes, resulting in lower frequency of hypoxemia.

  12. Võit toob Hadadile 25 autot ja 60 kg kulda / Ann Hiiemaa, Peep Pahv

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hiiemaa, Ann

    2008-01-01

    Vt. ka Postimees : na russkom jazõke 3. juuni, lk. 13. Kettaheite valitsejate trooni kõigutaval iraanlasel Ehsan Hadadil on põhjust ränkadel treeningutel rügada. Pekingi olümpialt kuldmedaliga naasmine tähendaks talle kogu edasise elu kindlustamist

  13. Tunni analüüs - mis see on? / Peep Leppik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Leppik, Peep

    2001-01-01

    Tunni analüüs, õppe-kasvatustöö eesmärgid. Tunni analüüs on hinnangu andmine protsessidele, mille kutsub esile õpetaja tegevus (või tegevusetus) tunnis. Tunni läbiviimise protsessi mõjutavad õpilaste koosseis klassis, erinevate õppevormide ja õppemeetodite kasutamine, kasutatud õppevõtete otstarbekus, erinevad metoodikad ja õppesüsteemid

  14. Giving peeps to my props: Using 3D printing to shed new light on particle transport in fractured rock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, S. D.; Du Frane, W. L.; Vericella, J. J.; Aines, R. D.

    2014-12-01

    Smart tracers and smart proppants promise new methods for sensing and manipulating rock fractures. However, the correct use and interpretation of these technologies relies on accurate models of their transport. Even for less exotic particles, the factors controlling particle transport through fractures are poorly understood. In this presentation, we will describe ongoing research at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory into the transport properties of particles in natural rock fractures. Using three dimensional printing techniques, we create clear-plastic reproductions of real-world fracture surfaces, thereby enabling direct observation of the particle movement. We will also discuss how particle tracking of dense particle packs can be further enhanced by using such specially tailored flow cells in combination with micro-encapsulated tracer particles. Experimental results investigating the transport behavior of smart tracers and proppants close to the neutrally buoyant limit will be presented and we will describe how data from these experiments can be used to improve large-scale models of particle transport in fractures. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  15. Marek Lemsalu : kehv tunne, et väravat ei suutnud lüüa / Andres Kalvik, Peep Pahv

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kalvik, Andres, 1982-

    2006-01-01

    Vt. ka Postimees : na russkom jazõke 15. sept., lk. 10. Tallinna Levadia jalgpallimeeskond esitas UEFA karikasarja esimese ringi avakohtumiseks nimeka Inglise klubi Newcastle Unitedi vastu nauditava partii, kuid pidi sellegipoolest vastu võtma napi 0:1 kaotuse

  16. Complejo residencial económico y popular - P.E.E.P. - Nueva Liguria – Italia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceroni, Eugenio

    1979-03-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the construction of a building compound, built with government funds. This group contains, besides the housing units, both in 21 m-high tower form and in 18 m-high elongated building, a series of public and private services, namely: — Parking lots. — Underground garages. — Landscaped areas. — Play and sports grounds. — Religious, social, medical, cultural, and shopping centres, etc.

    Se describe en este artículo la realización de un complejo de edificios, construidos con ayuda estatal. Este complejo, además de los edificios destinados a viviendas —cuya tipología varía desde edificios-torre, con una altura de 21 m, hasta edificios lineales con una altura de 18 m—, está dotado de una serie de servicios públicos y privados tales como: — Aparcamientos. — Garajes subterráneos. — Zonas verdes. — Campos de juego. — Centros religioso, social, médico, cultural, comercial, etc.

  17. IMF soovitab uue töölepinguseaduse kiiresti vastu võtta / Peep Lillemägi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lillemägi, Peep, 1967-

    2008-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Tallinnskii Vestnik juuli 2008, lk. 3. Eestis viibinud IMF-i delegatsiooni hinnangul sõltub Eesti majanduskasvu taastumine suurel määral majanduse konkurentsivõimest, delegatsioon toetab kavatsust leida edasisi võimalusi kokkuhoiuks ning soovitab töölepinguseaduse eelnõu kiiresti vastu võtta ja ellu viia. Rahandusminister Ivari Padari arvamus IMF-i hinnangute kohta

  18. Ametiühing ei karda juhtide töötuksjäämist / Peep Peterson ; interv. Nils Niitra

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Peterson, Peep, 1975-

    2005-01-01

    Tartu linnaliinide üleminek AS-ilt Connex Tartu bussifirmale Tarbus puudutab 130 Connexi bussijuhti. Transpordi- ja teetöötajate ametiühingu juhatuse esimees väidab, et kõik Connexi bussijuhid leiavad töö Tarbuses, kuna riigihange näeb ette Tartu linna liiniveomahu suurendamise

  19. Kolonel Arthur von Buxhoevedeni (VR 1/2) ja tema abikaasa Kira ümbermatmine kodumaa mulda / Peep Pillak

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pillak, Peep, 1957-

    2015-01-01

    Vabadusristi kavaler kolonel Arthur von Buxhoeveden ja tema abikaasa Kira sängitati sõjaväeliste austusavaldustega kodumaa mulda Tallinna Kaitseväe kalmistul 12. septembril. Kolonel Arthur von Buxhoeveden'i elukäigust

  20. Riigikontrolli ja parlamendi koostöö on paranenud / Mihkel Oviir ; inter. Peep Lillemägi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Oviir, Mihkel, 1942-

    2008-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Tallinna Teataja : Haabersti, Kristiine ja Põhja-Tallinn märts, lk. 6, Tallinna Teataja : Kesklinn, Lasnamäe ja Pirita märts, lk. 6. Taas ametisse nimetatud riigikontrolör rääkis sellest, mida ta oma ametis oluliseks peab ja mida uuel ametiajal teisiti teha soovib

  1. Peeping into human renal calcium oxalate stone matrix: characterization of novel proteins involved in the intricate mechanism of urolithiasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanu Priya Aggarwal

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The increasing number of patients suffering from urolithiasis represents one of the major challenges which nephrologists face worldwide today. For enhancing therapeutic outcomes of this disease, the pathogenic basis for the formation of renal stones is the need of hour. Proteins are found as major component in human renal stone matrix and are considered to have a potential role in crystal-membrane interaction, crystal growth and stone formation but their role in urolithiasis still remains obscure. METHODS: Proteins were isolated from the matrix of human CaOx containing kidney stones. Proteins having MW>3 kDa were subjected to anion exchange chromatography followed by molecular-sieve chromatography. The effect of these purified proteins was tested against CaOx nucleation and growth and on oxalate injured Madin-Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK renal epithelial cells for their activity. Proteins were identified by Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF MS followed by database search with MASCOT server. In silico molecular interaction studies with CaOx crystals were also investigated. RESULTS: Five proteins were identified from the matrix of calcium oxalate kidney stones by MALDI-TOF MS followed by database search with MASCOT server with the competence to control the stone formation process. Out of which two proteins were promoters, two were inhibitors and one protein had a dual activity of both inhibition and promotion towards CaOx nucleation and growth. Further molecular modelling calculations revealed the mode of interaction of these proteins with CaOx at the molecular level. CONCLUSIONS: We identified and characterized Ethanolamine-phosphate cytidylyltransferase, Ras GTPase-activating-like protein, UDP-glucose:glycoprotein glucosyltransferase 2, RIMS-binding protein 3A, Macrophage-capping protein as novel proteins from the matrix of human calcium oxalate stone which play a critical role in kidney stone formation. Thus, these proteins having potential to modulate calcium oxalate crystallization will throw light on understanding and controlling urolithiasis in humans.

  2. Tractatus terribiles : artiklikogumik professor Jaan Sootaki 60. juubeliks / koost.: Andres Parmas, Peep Pruks ; eess.: Märt Rask

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2009-01-01

    Sisu: Õigus(e)rikkumine - ühe mõiste iseseisev elu / Tristan Ploom. Täideviija mõiste laienemine - organisatsiooniline teovalitsemine / Paavo Randma. Kriminaalvastutus juriidilise isiku jagunemisel / Ramon Rask, Marko Kairjak. Inimsusevastased kuriteod eile ja täna / Rait Maruste. Mõistatuslik karistuste liitmine / Priit Pikamäe. Karistusõigus versus kriminaalmenetlusõigus : mõned põgusad väited, näited ja ettepanekud / Eerik Kergandberg. Kas põhiseadus lubab süüdimõistetu kinnipidamist ühiskonna ohutuse tagamiseks? / Sten Lind. Jälitustegevuse seaduslikkuse kontroll / Saale Laos. Kriminaalõiguse muutumisest 1889. a reformi käigus / Toomas Anepaio. Advokaadi kutse-eetika teoreetilised alused / Ain Alvin. Null on number - karistusõiguses / Marju Luts-Sootak. Jaan Sootak : bibliograafia 1968-2008 / koost. Maia Ruttu

  3. Eesti tagalamehed tegid Euroopa superliigas kiiduväärset tööd / Peep Pahv, Deivil Tserp

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pahv, Peep, 1970-

    2007-01-01

    Euroopa mitmevõistluse karikavõistlustest Tallinnas. Individuaalselt isikliku rekordiga kuuendaks tulnud Andres Raja täitis Osaka MMi normi, Tarmo Riitmuru püstitas samuti isikliku rekordi ja Päärn Brauer võitles haige jala kiuste vapralt lõpuni. Vt. samas: Mitmevõistleja Indrek Turi vintsutused jätkuvad

  4. Omavalitsuste ühinemine väärib tähelepanu ja toetust / Peep Aru

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Aru, Peep, 1953-

    2004-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Võrumaa Teataja, 27. märts 2004, lk. 2; Harjumaa, 30. märts 2004, lk. 2; Hiiu Leht, 30. märts 2004, lk. 2; Koit, 30. märts 2004, lk. 6; Vali Uudised, 31. märts 2004, lk. 2; Valgamaalane, 1. apr. 2004, lk. 2; Sakala, 2. apr. 2004, lk. 2; Põhjarannik, 2. apr. 2004, lk. 2; Severnoje Poberezhje, 2. apr. 2004, lk. 2; Nädaline, 6. apr. 2004, lk. 4; Vooremaa, 13. apr. 2004, lk. 2; Meie Maa, 13. apr. 2004, lk. 2. Reformierakonna toetusest omavalitsuste kiirele ühinemisele

  5. 'Just a little hint': bisexual-specific microaggressions and their connection to epistemic injustices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostwick, Wendy; Hequembourg, Amy

    2014-01-01

    A growing body of evidence indicates disproportionate rates of mental health disorders among bisexual women compared to both heterosexual and lesbian women. Such disparities are often attributed to stressors related to minority status, including experiences of prejudice and discrimination. Prior research has made little distinction between the prejudicial experiences of bisexual groups as compared to lesbian/gay groups. Based on qualitative data gathered in focus groups with 10, predominantly White, bisexual-identified women, which occurred in a large city in the USA, we posit that differences in prejudicial experiences do exist for bisexual groups, and that such differences reside in the realms of the epistemic, yet have very real implications for bisexual women's daily lived experiences. We discuss everyday slights and insults, also known as microaggressions, reported by the participants vis-à-vis their bisexual identity. These bisexual-specific microaggressions include hostility; denial/dismissal; unintelligibility; pressure to change; lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender legitimacy; dating exclusion; and hypersexuality. We consider how such microaggressions may adversely impact mental health and well-being and may assist in explaining the mental health disparities among bisexual women.

  6. Temporomandibular joint disorder complaints in tinnitus: further hints for a putative tinnitus subtype.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Vielsmeier

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Tinnitus is considered to be highly heterogeneous with respect to its etiology, its comorbidities and the response to specific interventions. Subtyping is recommended, but it remains to be determined which criteria are useful, since it has not yet been clearly demonstrated whether and to which extent etiologic factors, comorbid states and interventional response are related to each other and are thus applicable for subtyping tinnitus. Analyzing the Tinnitus Research Initiative Database we differentiated patients according to presence or absence of comorbid temporomandibular joint (TMJ disorder complaints and compared the two groups with respect to etiologic factors. METHODS: 1204 Tinnitus patients from the Tinnitus Research Initiative (TRI Database with and without subjective TMJ complaints were compared with respect to demographic, tinnitus and audiological characteristics, questionnaires, and numeric ratings. Data were analysed according to a predefined statistical analysis plan. RESULTS: Tinnitus patients with TMJ complaints (22% of the whole group were significantly younger, had a lower age at tinnitus onset, and were more frequently female. They could modulate or mask their tinnitus more frequently by somatic maneuvers and by music or sound stimulation. Groups did not significantly differ for tinnitus duration, type of onset (gradual/abrupt, onset related events (whiplash etc., character (pulsatile or not, hyperacusis, hearing impairment, tinnitus distress, depression, quality of life and subjective ratings (loudness etc.. CONCLUSION: Replicating previous work in tinnitus patients with TMJ complaints, classical risk factors for tinnitus like older age and male gender are less relevant in tinnitus patients with TMJ complaints. By demonstrating group differences for modulation of tinnitus by movements and sounds our data further support the notion that tinnitus with TMJ complaints represents a subgroup of tinnitus with clinical features that are highly relevant for specific therapeutic management.

  7. HEALTH INFO SANTE ANNUAL DEDUCTIBLE AND REIMBURSEMENT CLAIMS: HINTS FOR USE

    CERN Multimedia

    1999-01-01

    Information from the CHIS Board and the Personnel DivisionOne should bear in mind that the annual deductible is an amount (currently CHF 100) charged automatically by the Administrator of the scheme for every adult aged 18 and above. This is what happens: The amount is deducted annually for all medical services received over a calendar year.It is triggered by the date of the treatment and not by the date of the bill nor that of the reimbursement claim.In other words, if you receive medical treatment in December for the first time in a given year, the CHF 100 will be deducted from the claim for that treatment. So, except for urgent cases, it would be better to wait till the following month, thus avoiding one annual deductible.It is also worth remembering that the cost of processing our reimbursement claims - and there were 55, 000 in 1998 - is part of the cost of our insurance.Help keep administrative costs down : do not submit reimbursement claims for amounts less than the annual deductible unless your claims...

  8. Multitask electrical stimulation for cortical language mapping: hints for necessity and economic mode of application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellmer, Jörg; Weber, Christian; Mende, Meinhard; von der Groeben, Ferdinand; Urbach, Horst; Clusmann, Hans; Elger, Christian E; Helmstaedter, Christoph

    2009-10-01

    Electrical stimulation mapping (ESM) is the gold standard for identifying language-relevant cortex prior to neurosurgical resections near the eloquent cortex. However, its application mode is not standardized, as some procedures rely on a single task, whereas others depend on task batteries. In this study, we examine whether multitask ESM is necessary, quantify the information loss that occurs from restricting the number of applied tasks, and search for a procedure that allows for time-efficient, multitask ESM. Thirty-eight epilepsy and 11 brain tumor patients with subdural grid electrodes receive extraoperative ESM for language cortex at 1,890 stimulation sites. The applied test battery includes counting, naming, repeating, reading, Token Test, and body commands. Correlation analysis and principal component analysis are used to identify the functional overlap between tasks. Sensitivity analysis is the basis for determining the optimal task order, which requires a minimum number of stimulations for identifying language loci. Correlation coefficients between tasks are -0.17 to 0.63; frontal and temporoparietal language cortex are organized differently. Naming is the most sensitive task, but 31% (temporoparietal) to 43% (frontal) of language sites remained undetected after naming alone. The optimal procedure starts with naming and the Token Test and differs thereafter between frontal and temporoparietal cortex. Omitting the Token Test and body commands from the battery results in up to 26% information loss. Despite considerable overlap between different tasks, multitask ESM appears necessary to avoid missing language relevant cortex. Applying the tasks in an optimal order allows economizing the procedure.

  9. The nature of very faint X-ray binaries: hints from light curves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heinke, C.O.; Bahramian, A.; Degenaar, N.; Wijnands, R.

    2015-01-01

    Very faint X-ray binaries (VFXBs), defined as having peak luminosities LX of 1034-1036 erg s−1, have been uncovered in significant numbers, but remain poorly understood. We analyse three published outburst light curves of two transient VFXBs using the exponential and linear decay formalism of King &

  10. Multiple magma emplacement and its effect on the superficial deformation: hints from analogue models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montanari, Domenico; Bonini, Marco; Corti, Giacomo; del Ventisette, Chiara

    2017-04-01

    To test the effect exerted by multiple magma emplacement on the deformation pattern, we have run analogue models with synchronous, as well as diachronous magma injection from different, aligned inlets. The distance between injection points, as well as the activation in time of injection points was varied for each model. Our model results show how the position and activation in time of injection points (which reproduce multiple magma batches in nature) strongly influence model evolution. In the case of synchronous injection at different inlets, the intrusions and associated surface deformation were elongated. Forced folds and annular bounding reverse faults were quite elliptical, and with the main axis of the elongated dome trending sub-parallel to the direction of the magma input points. Model results also indicate that the injection from multiple aligned sources could reproduce the same features of systems associated with planar feeder dikes, thereby suggesting that caution should be taken when trying to infer the feeding areas on the basis of the deformation features observed at the surface or in seismic profiles. Diachronous injection from different injection points showed that the deformation observed at surface does not necessarily reflect the location and/or geometry of their feeders. Most notably, these experiments suggest that coeval magma injection from different sources favor the lateral migration of magma rather than the vertical growth, promoting the development of laterally interconnected intrusions. Recently, some authors (Magee et al., 2014, 2016; Schofield et al., 2015) have suggested that, based on seismic reflection data analysis, interconnected sills and inclined sheets can facilitate the transport of magma over great vertical distances and laterally for large distances. Intrusions and volcanoes fed by sill complexes may thus be laterally offset significantly from the melt source. Our model results strongly support these findings, by reproducing in the laboratory a strong lateral magma migration, and suggesting a possible mechanism. The models also confirmed that lateral magma migration could take place with little or no accompanying surface deformation. The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Community's Seventh Framework Programme under grant agreement No. 608553 (Project IMAGE). References: Magee et al., 2014. Basin Research, v. 26, p. 85-105, doi: 10 .1111 /bre.12044. Magee et al., 2016. Geosphere, v. 12, p. 809-841, ISSN: 1553-040X. Schofield et al., 2015. Basin Research, v. 29, p. 41-63, doi:10.1111/bre.12164.

  11. Health Numeracy Confidence among Racial/ Ethnica Minorities in HINTS 2007: Sociodemographic, Attitudinal, and Knowledge Correlates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Huang

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Health numeracy skills help people interpret health risks, and make effective medical decisions. Lower health numeracy confidence was observed for blacks and Hispanic groups than whites. Little is known about the important factors that explain racial differences in health numeracy confidence. For this study, we used a nationally representative, cross-sectional data sample of 4,610 U.S. adults from the National Cancer Institute’s 2007 Health Information National Trends Survey. Bivariate (Chi-squares and multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted to identify the contribution factors that predict health numeracy confidence. Non-linear Fairlie decompositions were used to quantify the factor contributions to racial differences in health numeracy confidence. The priority rankings of the important factors to explain the health numeracy confidence racial and ethnic disparities are different depending on the particular racial and ethnic group. Diverse, culturally appropriate approaches are needed to improve numeracy confidence for specific racial and ethnic groups.

  12. "A hint of it, with initials": adultery, textuality and publicity in Jane Austen's Lady Susan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Gillian

    2010-01-01

    In spite of Jane Austen's professed “eye” for an adulteress, comparatively little attention has been paid to adultery and divorce as themes and contexts of her fiction. Her unpublished epistolary novel Lady Susan has a distinctive status in Austen's oeuvre, recognized as being exemplary of her “style” and yet atypical of her later achievement. A neglected context for the novel is the extensive reporting of adultery trials in contemporary print culture and the moral panic concerning adultery in the 1780s and 1790s, focusing initially on the adulteress as the brazen woman of fashion and later as a figure of sentimentalized abjection. A particularly notorious case, that involving Lady Henrietta Grosvenor and George III's brother, the Duke of Cumberland, is directly alluded to in Lady Susan. The textual strategies of adultery trial literature, particularly its emphasis on indirection through the use of detail or “hint”, had a long-term influence on the development of Austen's fiction and her positioning of herself as a professional writer after the 1790s.

  13. Andro Kööp : "Püüan ruumi tunnet maalida" / Gitte Hint

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hint, Gitte

    2003-01-01

    Andro Kööp (sünd. 1967) sellest, kuidas ta sattus sisearhitektuuriga tegelema, oma eelistustest ja harmooniast sisekujunduses, kodu kujundusest jm. A. Kööbist, tema loomingust, omistatud preemiad, valik A. Kööbi kujundatud ühiskondlikke interjööre. Ill.: värv. foto A. Kööbist

  14. Light hydrocarbons in hydrothermal and magmatic fumaroles: hints of catalytic and thermal reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capaccioni, Bruno; Martini, Marino; Mangani, Filippo

    1995-02-01

    Volcanic gaseous mixtures emitted from active volcanoes frequently show variable amounts of saturated (alkanes), unsaturated (alkenes) and aromatic volatile hydrocarbons. Three major patterns of distributions can be recognized, apparently related to the chemical-physical environment of formation of the gas exhalations: alkane-rich, low-temperature gas emissions from recently active volcanic areas; aromatic-rich hydrothermal manifestations; and alkene-rich, ‘magmatic’ fumaroles on active volcanoes. Thermodynamic data, together with theoretical and practical findings from the petroleum industry, point to two main types of reactions occurring in these volcanic environments: cracking and reforming. Cracking processes, mainly caused by thermal effects, occur when hydrocarbon-bearing hydrothermal fluids enter and mix with a hot and dry, rapidly rising magmatic gas phase. The most probable products are light alkenes with carbon numbers decreasing with increasing reaction temperatures. The presence of aromatic species in hydrothermal fluids can be linked to reforming processes, catalysed by several possible agents, such as smectites and zeolites, generally present in the hydrothermally altered volcanic terranes, and facilitated by long residence times in a hydrothermal envelope.

  15. Design of sweet protein based sweeteners: hints from structure-function relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rega, Michele Fortunato; Di Monaco, Rossella; Leone, Serena; Donnarumma, Federica; Spadaccini, Roberta; Cavella, Silvana; Picone, Delia

    2015-04-15

    Sweet proteins represent a class of natural molecules, which are extremely interesting regarding their potential use as safe low-calories sweeteners for individuals who need to control sugar intake, such as obese or diabetic subjects. Punctual mutations of amino acid residues of MNEI, a single chain derivative of the natural sweet protein monellin, allow the modulation of its taste. In this study we present a structural and functional comparison between MNEI and a sweeter mutant Y65R, containing an extra positive charge on the protein surface, in conditions mimicking those of typical beverages. Y65R exhibits superior sweetness in all the experimental conditions tested, has a better solubility at mild acidic pH and preserves a significant thermal stability in a wide range of pH conditions, although slightly lower than MNEI. Our findings confirm the advantages of structure-guided protein engineering to design improved low-calorie sweeteners and excipients for food and pharmaceutical preparations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Human airway epithelial cells investigated by atomic force microscopy: A hint to cystic fibrosis epithelial pathology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lasalvia, Maria [Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Foggia, Foggia (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Bari, Bari (Italy); Castellani, Stefano [Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences, University of Foggia, Foggia (Italy); D’Antonio, Palma [Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Foggia, Foggia (Italy); Perna, Giuseppe [Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Foggia, Foggia (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Bari, Bari (Italy); Carbone, Annalucia [Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences, University of Foggia, Foggia (Italy); Colia, Anna Laura; Maffione, Angela Bruna [Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Foggia, Foggia (Italy); Capozzi, Vito [Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Foggia, Foggia (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Bari, Bari (Italy); Conese, Massimo, E-mail: massimo.conese@unifg.it [Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences, University of Foggia, Foggia (Italy)

    2016-10-15

    The pathophysiology of cystic fibrosis (CF) airway disease stems from mutations in the CF Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR) gene, leading to a chronic respiratory disease. Actin cytoskeleton is disorganized in CF airway epithelial cells, likely contributing to the CF-associated basic defects, i.e. defective chloride secretion and sodium/fluid hypersorption. In this work, we aimed to find whether this alteration could be pointed out by means of Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) investigation, as roughness and Young's elastic module. Moreover, we also sought to determine whether disorganization of actin cytoskeleton is linked to hypersoption of apical fluid. Not only CFBE41o- (CFBE) cells, immortalized airway epithelial cells homozygous for the F508del CFTR allele, showed a different morphology in comparison with 16HBE14o- (16HBE) epithelial cells, wild-type for CFTR, but also they displayed a lack of stress fibers, suggestive of a disorganized actin cytoskeleton. AFM measurements showed that CFBE cells presented a higher membrane roughness and decreased rigidity as compared with 16HBE cells. CFBE overexpressing wtCFTR became more elongated than the parental CFBE cell line and presented actin stress fibers. CFBE cells absorbed more fluid from the apical compartment. Study of fluid absorption with the F-actin-depolymerizing agent Latrunculin B demonstrated that actin cytoskeletal disorganization increased fluid absorption, an effect observed at higher magnitude in 16HBE than in CFBE cells. For the first time, we demonstrate that actin cytoskeleton disorganization is reflected by AFM parameters in CF airway epithelial cells. Our data also strongly suggest that the lack of stress fibers is involved in at least one of the early step in CF pathophysiology at the levels of the airways, i.e. fluid hypersorption. - Highlights: • CF bronchial epithelial (CFBE) cells show a disorganized actin cytoskeleton. • CFBE cells present high roughness and low rigidity in the plasmamembrane. • CFTR overexpression changes morphology and actin organization. • CFBE cells absorb more apical fluid than wild type bronchial epithelial cells. • Fluid absorption is increased by disorganization of actin cytoskeleton.

  17. Altered motor cortex excitability in tinnitus patients: a hint at crossmodal plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langguth, Berthold; Eichhammer, Peter; Zowe, Marc; Kleinjung, Tobias; Jacob, Peter; Binder, Harald; Sand, Philipp; Hajak, Göran

    2005-06-03

    Idiopathic tinnitus is a frequent and often debilitating auditory phantom perception of largely unknown pathological conditions. In electrophysiological and functional neuroimaging studies, affected subjects have shown excessive spontaneous activity in the central auditory system. To further investigate the underlying central nervous component, we assessed motor cortex excitability in 19 patients with chronic tinnitus by means of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). When results were compared with data from 19 healthy controls matched for age and sex, we found significantly enhanced intracortical facilitation in tinnitus patients. These findings parallel excitability changes after limb amputation and experimental deafferentation. Our results give further support to crossmodal interactions involving neuroplastic changes in some forms of tinnitus and may help to better understand mechanisms of maladaptive cortical reorganisation involved in phantom perceptions.

  18. Galactic Halo Stars in Phase Space: A Hint of Satellite Accretion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brook, Chris B.; Kawata, Daisuke; Gibson, Brad K.; Flynn, Chris

    2003-03-01

    The present-day chemical and dynamical properties of the Milky Way bear the imprint of the Galaxy's formation and evolutionary history. One of the most enduring and critical debates surrounding Galactic evolution is that regarding the competition between ``satellite accretion'' and ``monolithic collapse'' the apparent strong correlation between orbital eccentricity and metallicity of halo stars was originally used as supporting evidence for the latter. While modern-day unbiased samples no longer support the claims for a significant correlation, recent evidence has been presented by Chiba & Beers for the existence of a minor population of high-eccentricity metal-deficient halo stars. It has been suggested that these stars represent the signature of a rapid (if minor) collapse phase in the Galaxy's history. Employing velocity and integrals of motion phase-space projections of these stars, coupled with a series of N-body/smoothed particle hydrodynamic chemodynamical simulations, we suggest that an alternative mechanism for creating such stars may be the recent accretion of a polar orbit dwarf galaxy.

  19. Avalikustamiskohustuse rikkumine Eesti väärtpaberituruõiguses : tsiviilõiguslikud kaitsevahendid / Meelis Hint

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hint, Meelis, 1981-

    2003-01-01

    Väärtpaberite avalikustamiskohustusest, tehingu tühistamisest, kahju hüvitamisest, väärtpaberite müügist, kahju hüvitamisest rikkumiste korral ja tehingu tühistamisest väärtpaberite järelturul

  20. Hints against the cold and collisionless nature of dark matter from the galaxy velocity function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Aurel; Trujillo-Gomez, Sebastian; Papastergis, Emmanouil; Reed, Darren S.; Lake, George

    2017-09-01

    The observed number of dwarf galaxies as a function of rotation velocity is significantly smaller than predicted by the standard model of cosmology. This discrepancy cannot be simply solved by assuming strong baryonic feedback processes, since they would violate the observed relation between maximum circular velocity (vmax) and baryon mass of galaxies. A speculative but tantalizing possibility is that the mismatch between observation and theory points towards the existence of non-cold or non-collisionless dark matter (DM). In this paper, we investigate the effects of warm (WDM), mixed (MDM, i.e. warm plus cold), and self-interacting DM (SIDM) scenarios on the abundance of dwarf galaxies and the relation between observed H I line width and maximum circular velocity. Both effects have the potential to alleviate the apparent mismatch between the observed and theoretical abundance of galaxies as a function of vmax. For the case of WDM and MDM, we show that the discrepancy disappears, even for lukewarm models that evade stringent bounds from the Lyman-α forest. SIDM scenarios can also provide a solution as long as they lead to extended (≳1.5 kpc) DM cores in the density profiles of dwarf galaxies. Only models with velocity-dependent cross-sections can yield such cores without violating other observational constraints at larger scales.

  1. Benzodiazepine discontinuation with prolonged-release melatonin: hints from a German longitudinal prescription database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunz, Dieter; Bineau, Sébastien; Maman, Khaled; Milea, Dominique; Toumi, Mondher

    2012-01-01

    Prolonged-release (PR) melatonin is approved in Europe for the treatment of insomnia in patients aged 55 years and above. The objective of the study was to describe its prescription patterns and its impact on hypnotics use in routine clinical practice. This is a retrospective study analyzing PR melatonin prescription data from a German longitudinal database (IMS(®) Disease Analyzer). All patients initiating PR melatonin over the 10 months after approval (April 2008 - February 2009) were included. Patients were classified according to their use of hypnotic benzodiazepines or benzodiazepine-like drugs (BZD/Z) in the 3-month period before and after PR melatonin initiation. Of the 512 eligible patients, 380 (74%) were aged ≥ 55 years, 344 (67%) women and 112 (22%) previous BZD/Z users. Most of the latter (79/99, 79.8%) had used BZD/Z for at least 180 days. Approximately one-third (35/112, 31%) discontinued BZD/Z after PR melatonin initiation, and the BZD/Z discontinuation rate was higher in patients receiving two or three PR melatonin prescriptions than in patients receiving only one prescription (10/24 = 42% vs 25/88 = 28%, p = 0.21). Of the 400 patients without prior BZD/Z use, 39 (10%) received BZD/Z during the follow-up. Based on the observed 31% discontinuation rate, PR melatonin may help to facilitate BZD/Z discontinuation in older insomniacs.

  2. Implementation of a surgical safety checklist: interventions to optimize the process and hints to increase compliance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerald Sendlhofer

    Full Text Available A surgical safety checklist (SSC was implemented and routinely evaluated within our hospital. The purpose of this study was to analyze compliance, knowledge of and satisfaction with the SSC to determine further improvements.The implementation of the SSC was observed in a pilot unit. After roll-out into each operating theater, compliance with the SSC was routinely measured. To assess subjective and objective knowledge, as well as satisfaction with the SSC implementation, an online survey (N = 891 was performed.During two test runs in a piloting unit, 305 operations were observed, 175 in test run 1 and 130 in test run 2. The SSC was used in 77.1% of all operations in test run 1 and in 99.2% in test run 2. Within used SSCs, completion rates were 36.3% in test run 1 and 1.6% in test run 2. After roll-out, three unannounced audits took place and showed that the SSC was used in 95.3%, 91.9% and 89.9%. Within used SSCs, completion rates decreased from 81.7% to 60.6% and 53.2%. In 2014, 164 (18.4% operating team members responded to the online survey, 160 of which were included in the analysis. 146 (91.3% consultants and nursing staff reported to use the SSC regularly in daily routine.These data show that the implementation of new tools such as the adapted WHO SSC needs constant supervision and instruction until it becomes self-evident and accepted. Further efforts, consisting mainly of hands-on leadership and training are necessary.

  3. Taevo Gans : "Alati on võimalusi rohkem kui üks" / Gitte Hint

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hint, Gitte

    2004-01-01

    Taevo Gans (sünd. 1941) kodumaiste materjalide ja tootjate eelistamisest, sisearhitekti valikust, proportsiooni- ja värvitaju vajalikkusest sisekujunduse loomisel, oma eelistustest ruumikujunduses jm. T. Gansist, osalemisest mööbli- ja sisustusmessidel, 1991. a. loodud perefirmast Stuudio Gadis AS, omistatud preemiad, teostatud interjööri ja mööbli projektid aastatel 1968-2002. Ill.: foto T. Gansist

  4. SPINS OF LARGE ASTEROIDS: A HINT OF A PRIMORDIAL DISTRIBUTION IN THEIR SPIN RATES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinberg, Elad; Sari, Re’em [The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem (Israel)

    2015-04-15

    The Asteroid Belt and the Kuiper Belt are relics from the formation of our solar system. Understanding the size and spin distribution of the two belts is crucial for a deeper understanding of the formation of our solar system and the dynamical processes that govern it. In this paper, we investigate the effect of collisions on the evolution of the spin distribution of asteroids and KBOs. We find that the power law nature of the impactors’ size distribution leads to a Lévy distribution of the spin rates. This results in a power law tail in the spin distribution, in stark contrast to the usually quoted Maxwellian distribution. We show that for bodies larger than 10 km, collisions alone lead to spin rates peaking at 0.15–0.5 revolutions per day. Comparing that to the observed spin rates of large asteroids (R > 50 km), we find that the spins of large asteroids, peaking at ∼1–2 revolutions per day, are dominated by a primordial component that reflects the formation mechanism of the asteroids. Similarly, the Kuiper Belt has undergone virtually no collisional spin evolution, assuming current densities. Collisions contribute a spin rate of ∼0.01 revolutions per day, thus the observed fast spin rates of KBOs are also primordial in nature.

  5. Melatonin, Noncoding RNAs, Messenger RNA Stability and Epigenetics—Evidence, Hints, Gaps and Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardeland, Rüdiger

    2014-01-01

    Melatonin is a highly pleiotropic regulator molecule, which influences numerous functions in almost every organ and, thus, up- or down-regulates many genes, frequently in a circadian manner. Our understanding of the mechanisms controlling gene expression is actually now expanding to a previously unforeseen extent. In addition to classic actions of transcription factors, gene expression is induced, suppressed or modulated by a number of RNAs and proteins, such as miRNAs, lncRNAs, piRNAs, antisense transcripts, deadenylases, DNA methyltransferases, histone methylation complexes, histone demethylases, histone acetyltransferases and histone deacetylases. Direct or indirect evidence for involvement of melatonin in this network of players has originated in different fields, including studies on central and peripheral circadian oscillators, shift work, cancer, inflammation, oxidative stress, aging, energy expenditure/obesity, diabetes type 2, neuropsychiatric disorders, and neurogenesis. Some of the novel modulators have also been shown to participate in the control of melatonin biosynthesis and melatonin receptor expression. Future work will need to augment the body of evidence on direct epigenetic actions of melatonin and to systematically investigate its role within the network of oscillating epigenetic factors. Moreover, it will be necessary to discriminate between effects observed under conditions of well-operating and deregulated circadian clocks, and to explore the possibilities of correcting epigenetic malprogramming by melatonin. PMID:25310649

  6. Association of tinnitus and electromagnetic hypersensitivity: hints for a shared pathophysiology?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Landgrebe

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Tinnitus is a frequent condition with high morbidity and impairment in quality of life. The pathophysiology is still incompletely understood. Electromagnetic fields are discussed to be involved in the multi-factorial pathogenesis of tinnitus, but data proofing this relationship are very limited. Potential health hazards of electromagnetic fields (EMF have been under discussion for long. Especially, individuals claiming themselves to be electromagnetic hypersensitive suffer from a variety of unspecific symptoms, which they attribute to EMF-exposure. The aim of the study was to elucidate the relationship between EMF-exposure, electromagnetic hypersensitivity and tinnitus using a case-control design. METHODOLOGY: Tinnitus occurrence and tinnitus severity were assessed by questionnaires in 89 electromagnetic hypersensitive patients and 107 controls matched for age-, gender, living surroundings and workplace. Using a logistic regression approach, potential risk factors for the development of tinnitus were evaluated. FINDINGS: Tinnitus was significantly more frequent in the electromagnetic hypersensitive group (50.72% vs. 17.5% whereas tinnitus duration and severity did not differ between groups. Electromagnetic hypersensitivity and tinnitus were independent risk factors for sleep disturbances. However, measures of individual EMF-exposure like e.g. cell phone use did not show any association with tinnitus. CONCLUSIONS: Our data indicate that tinnitus is associated with subjective electromagnetic hypersensitivity. An individual vulnerability probably due to an over activated cortical distress network seems to be responsible for, both, electromagnetic hypersensitivity and tinnitus. Hence, therapeutic efforts should focus on treatment strategies (e.g. cognitive behavioral therapy aiming at normalizing this dysfunctional distress network.

  7. Robustness of circadian clocks to daylight fluctuations: hints from the picoeucaryote Ostreococcus tauri.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quentin Thommen

    Full Text Available The development of systemic approaches in biology has put emphasis on identifying genetic modules whose behavior can be modeled accurately so as to gain insight into their structure and function. However, most gene circuits in a cell are under control of external signals and thus, quantitative agreement between experimental data and a mathematical model is difficult. Circadian biology has been one notable exception: quantitative models of the internal clock that orchestrates biological processes over the 24-hour diurnal cycle have been constructed for a few organisms, from cyanobacteria to plants and mammals. In most cases, a complex architecture with interlocked feedback loops has been evidenced. Here we present the first modeling results for the circadian clock of the green unicellular alga Ostreococcus tauri. Two plant-like clock genes have been shown to play a central role in the Ostreococcus clock. We find that their expression time profiles can be accurately reproduced by a minimal model of a two-gene transcriptional feedback loop. Remarkably, best adjustment of data recorded under light/dark alternation is obtained when assuming that the oscillator is not coupled to the diurnal cycle. This suggests that coupling to light is confined to specific time intervals and has no dynamical effect when the oscillator is entrained by the diurnal cycle. This intriguing property may reflect a strategy to minimize the impact of fluctuations in daylight intensity on the core circadian oscillator, a type of perturbation that has been rarely considered when assessing the robustness of circadian clocks.

  8. Human melody singing by bullfinches (Pyrrhula pyrrula) gives hints about a cognitive note sequence processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolai, Jürgen; Gundacker, Christina; Teeselink, Katharina; Güttinger, Hans Rudolf

    2014-01-01

    We studied human melody perception and production in a songbird in the light of current concepts from the cognitive neuroscience of music. Bullfinches are the species best known for learning melodies from human teachers. The study is based on the historical data of 15 bullfinches, raised by 3 different human tutors and studied later by Jürgen Nicolai (JN) in the period 1967-1975. These hand-raised bullfinches learned human folk melodies (sequences of 20-50 notes) accurately. The tutoring was interactive and variable, starting before fledging and JN continued it later throughout the birds' lives. All 15 bullfinches learned to sing alternately melody modules with JN (alternate singing). We focus on the aspects of note sequencing and timing studying song variability when singing the learned melody alone and the accuracy of listening-singing interactions during alternatively singing with JN by analyzing song recordings of 5 different males. The following results were obtained as follows: (1) Sequencing: The note sequence variability when singing alone suggests that the bullfinches retrieve the note sequence from the memory as different sets of note groups (=modules), as chunks (sensu Miller in Psychol Rev 63:81-87, 1956). (2) Auditory-motor interactions, the coupling of listening and singing the human melody: Alternate singing provides insights into the bird's brain melody processing from listening to the actually whistled part of the human melody by JN to the bird's own accurately singing the consecutive parts. We document how variable and correctly bullfinches and JN alternated in their singing the note sequences. Alternate singing demonstrates that melody-singing bullfinches did not only follow attentively the just whistled note contribution of the human by auditory feedback, but also could synchronously anticipate singing the consecutive part of the learned melody. These data suggest that both listening and singing may depend on a single learned human melody representation (=coupling between perception and production).

  9. F-MAP: A Bayesian approach to infer the gene regulatory network using external hints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahdoust, Maryam; Pezeshk, Hamid; Mahjub, Hossein; Sadeghi, Mehdi

    2017-01-01

    The Common topological features of related species gene regulatory networks suggest reconstruction of the network of one species by using the further information from gene expressions profile of related species. We present an algorithm to reconstruct the gene regulatory network named; F-MAP, which applies the knowledge about gene interactions from related species. Our algorithm sets a Bayesian framework to estimate the precision matrix of one species microarray gene expressions dataset to infer the Gaussian Graphical model of the network. The conjugate Wishart prior is used and the information from related species is applied to estimate the hyperparameters of the prior distribution by using the factor analysis. Applying the proposed algorithm on six related species of drosophila shows that the precision of reconstructed networks is improved considerably compared to the precision of networks constructed by other Bayesian approaches.

  10. Mari Kurismaa : "Kodu kujundamine vajab isiklikku põhjust" / Gitte Hint

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hint, Gitte

    2004-01-01

    Mari Kurismaa (sünd. 1956) värvide valikust, kodu kujundamisest, praegusest arhitektuurist ja sisearhitektuurist. Mari Kurismaast, autasud (2002. a. Mies van der Rohe preemia EALi-poolne nominent Jaak Huimerinna ja Indrek Saareperaga Järve Selveri projekti töögrupis). Ill.: neli värv. portreed M. Kurismaast

  11. A simple technique for the direct bonding of a lingual retainer: a clinical hint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabrish, Sharanya; Kumar, Shravan; Shetty, K Sadashiva

    2014-11-01

    The direct bonding of a fixed wire retainer often poses clinical difficulties. While there are several possible techniques, the present paper describes a simple method employing a ball clasp (S handle) to assist in the stabilisation of the wire to be attached. The advantages and disadvantages are indicated.

  12. Immunoglobulin gene repertoire in ocular adnexal lymphomas: hints on the nature of the antigenic stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagklis, A; Ponzoni, M; Govi, S; Cangi, M G; Pasini, E; Charlotte, F; Vino, A; Doglioni, C; Davì, F; Lossos, I S; Ntountas, I; Papadaki, T; Dolcetti, R; Ferreri, A J M; Stamatopoulos, K; Ghia, P

    2012-04-01

    Evidence from certain geographical areas links lymphomas of the ocular adnexa marginal zone B-cell lymphomas (OAMZL) with Chlamydophila psittaci (Cp) infection, suggesting that lymphoma development is dependent upon chronic stimulation by persistent infections. Notwithstanding that, the actual immunopathogenetical mechanisms have not yet been elucidated. As in other B-cell lymphomas, insight into this issue, especially with regard to potential selecting ligands, could be provided by analysis of the immunoglobulin (IG) receptors of the malignant clones. To this end, we studied the molecular features of IGs in 44 patients with OAMZL (40% Cp-positive), identifying features suggestive of a pathogenic mechanism of autoreactivity. Herein, we show that lymphoma cells express a distinctive IG repertoire, with electropositive antigen (Ag)-binding sites, reminiscent of autoantibodies (auto-Abs) recognizing DNA. Additionally, five (11%) cases of OAMZL expressed IGs homologous with autoreactive Abs or IGs of patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia, a disease known for the expression of autoreactive IGs by neoplastic cells. In contrast, no similarity with known anti-Chlamydophila Abs was found. Taken together, these results strongly indicate that OAMZL may originate from B cells selected for their capability to bind Ags and, in particular, auto-Ags. In OAMZL associated with Cp infection, the pathogen likely acts indirectly on the malignant B cells, promoting the development of an inflammatory milieu, where auto-Ags could be exposed and presented, driving proliferation and expansion of self-reactive B cells.

  13. Looking at learning communities with the appropriate glasses: hints and ideas from network sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Nascimbeni

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available 0 0 1 229 1263 USAL 10 2 1490 14.0 Normal 0 21 false false false ES JA X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabla normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-ansi-language:ES; mso-fareast-language:EN-US;} The level of network thinking within education – intended as the capacity to look at learning systems and communities by focussing on the relations among the involved actors (primarily teachers and learners and not only on the actors characteristics – is growing, with different speeds depending on the educational sector, but not at the pace needed to keep up with the increasingly network nature of our societies. We claim that educational research and practices should increase their capacity to look at learning communities through appropriate “networking-sensitive” glasses, and get equipped with tools and methods – such as Social network Analysis - to properly understand and support these networks. The application of Social Network Analysis to education, especially in the case of distance learning, can allow understanding the patterns of interactions between teachers and learners, and can facilitate the consolidation of new approaches to understand collaboration mechanisms. The paper presents and discusses - from a learning viewpoint - a brief overview of the main theoretical and practical contributions coming from Social Network Analysis – such as the “random graphs”, the “small-worlds” or the “weak-ties” theories – together with some general properties and dynamics of networks, believing that mastering these dynamics is extremely important for educational researchers and practitioners, when it comes to understanding and supporting meaningful collaborative learning.

  14. Eesti identiteedi kasv ja kasvatus 2006. aastal - Kumust Brotzeni / Mati Hint

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hint, Mati, 1937-

    2006-01-01

    Tallinna Ülikooli emeriitprofessori loetletud tippsündmused Eesti kunsti ja ajaloo valdkonnas 2006. a. - Kumu Kunstimuuseumi avamine, Kristjan ja Paul Raua näitus Kumus ning Riias tegutsenud baltisaksa kultuuriloolase Johann Christoph Brotze joonistuste kogumiku "Johann Christoph Brotze. Estonica." Koostanud Ants Hein, Ivar Leimus, Raimo Pullat, Ants Viires. Estopol OÜ 2006, ilmumine Tallinnas, peatoimetaja Raimo Pullat. Pikemalt eesti nüüdisaegsest kunstist Kumus ja rahvuslikust identiteedist

  15. Dark matter searches from the galaxy to the LHC - recent hints and coming progress

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2008-01-01

    We discuss the possible galactic positron excess and constraints on interpreting it as dark matter annihilation. We consider wino and higgsino wimps that provide the local relic density and a positron excess (which implies the relic density is non-thermal in origin and important consequences for cosmological history and underlying theories), comment on how to confirm and study these issues at LHC, and on the relation to direct detection experiments.

  16. Hints of a Charge Asymmetry in the Electron and Positron Cosmic-Ray Excesses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Masina, Isabella; Sannino, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    By combining the recent data from AMS-02 with those from Fermi-LAT, we show the emergence of a charge asymmetry in the electron and positron cosmic-ray excesses, slightly favoring the electron component. Astrophysical and dark matter inspired models introduced to explain the observed excesses can...

  17. Kaire Kemp-Tishler: "Igatsen luua midagi kole-ilusat" / Gitte Hint

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hint, Gitte

    2003-01-01

    Kaire Kemp-Tishler (sünd. 1964) kodu sisekujunduse projekteerimisest, tasakaalust sisearhitektuuris, oma kodust. Kaire Kemp-Tishlerist, tema tehtud tööde loetelu. 1998. aastast teeb K. Kemp-Tishler koostööd Ea Andlaga, kellega koos asutas 2001. a. OÜ sisearhitektuuribüroo ArtAku. Ill.: K. Kemp-Tishleri värv. portree

  18. Bulk Comptonization: new hints from the luminous blazar 4C+25.05

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kammoun, E. S.; Nardini, E.; Risaliti, G.; Ghisellini, G.; Behar, E.; Celotti, A.

    2018-01-01

    Blazars are often characterized by a spectral break at soft X-rays, whose origin is still debated. While most sources show a flattening, some exhibit a blackbody-like soft excess with temperatures of the order of ∼0.1 keV, similar to low-luminosity, non-jetted Seyferts. Here, we present the analysis of the simultaneous XMM-Newton and NuSTAR observations of the luminous flat-spectrum radio quasar 4C+25.05 (z = 2.368). The observed 0.3-30 keV spectrum is best described by the sum of a hard X-ray power law (Γ = 1.38_{-0.03}^{+0.05}) and a soft component, approximated by a blackbody with kT_BB = 0.66_{-0.04}^{+0.05} keV (rest frame). If the spectrum of 4C+25.05 is interpreted in the context of bulk Comptonization by cold electrons of broad-line region photons emitted in the direction of the jet, such an unusual temperature implies a bulk Lorentz factor of the jet of Γbulk ∼ 11.7. Bulk Comptonization is expected to be ubiquitous on physical grounds, yet no clear signature of it has been found so far, possibly due to its transient nature and the lack of high-quality, broad-band X-ray spectra.

  19. Hints of a second explosion (a quark nova) in Cassiopeia A supernova

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyed, Rachid; Leahy, Denis; Koning, Nico

    2015-04-01

    We show that the explosive transition of the neutron star (NS) to a quark star (QS) (a Quark Nova) in Cassiopeia A (Cas A) a few days following the supernova (SN) proper can account for several of the puzzling kinematic and nucleosynthetic features that are observed. The observed decoupling between Fe and 44Ti and the lack of Fe emission within 44Ti regions is expected in the QN model owing to the spallation of the inner SN ejecta by relativistic QN neutrons. Our model predicts the 44Ti to be more prominent to the NW of the central compact object (CCO) than in the SE and little of it along the NE-SW jets, in agreement with NuStar observations. Other intriguing features of Cas A are addressed, such as the lack of a pulsar wind nebula and the reported few percent drop in the CCO temperature over a period of 10 yr.

  20. Observational hints of a real age spread in the young LMC star cluster NGC 1971

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piatti, Andrés E.; Cole, Andrew

    2017-09-01

    We report that the serendipitous young Large Magellanic Cloud cluster NGC 1971 exhibits an extended main-sequence turn-off (eMSTO) possibly originated mostly by a real age spread. We used CT1 Washington photometry to produce a colour-magnitude diagram (CMD) with the fiducial cluster features. From its eMSTO, we estimated an age spread of ˜170 Myr (observed age range 100-280 Myr), once observational errors, stellar binarity, overall metallicity variations and stellar rotation effects were subtracted in quadrature from the observed age width.

  1. Can formulation affect tryptophan depletion results? Hints from studies in experimental panic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobczak, Sjacko; Schruers, Koen

    2014-05-01

    Acute Tryptophan Depletion (ATD) is a specific serotonergic challenge tool. Central serotonergic effects of different ATD procedures are possibly not those that are usually assumed. In this paper we review data of ATD in an experimental fear model to investigate whether and how methodological differences may affect fear outcomes. Next we point to discrepancies of studies in our laboratory in order to test the hypotheses formulated in the review. Literature was searched in PubMed and MEDLINE and studies of our laboratory were compared. Eight studies were included in the review: five in patients with panic disorder, three in healthy individuals. Methodologically the studies in our laboratory were quite similar except for the applied ATD mixtures. ATD exerts fear-enhancing effects in patients with panic disorders, more than in healthy individuals. However, our findings are inconclusive. The discrepant findings of studies in our laboratory can possibly be explained by differences in the ATD mixtures used. We suggest mechanisms as to how these might have affected the central availability of tryptophan and hence serotonin.

  2. Origin and evolution of retinoid isomerization machinery in vertebrate visual cycle: hint from jawless vertebrates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenia Poliakov

    Full Text Available In order to maintain visual sensitivity at all light levels, the vertebrate eye possesses a mechanism to regenerate the visual pigment chromophore 11-cis retinal in the dark enzymatically, unlike in all other taxa, which rely on photoisomerization. This mechanism is termed the visual cycle and is localized to the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE, a support layer of the neural retina. Speculation has long revolved around whether more primitive chordates, such as tunicates and cephalochordates, anticipated this feature. The two key enzymes of the visual cycle are RPE65, the visual cycle all-trans retinyl ester isomerohydrolase, and lecithin:retinol acyltransferase (LRAT, which generates RPE65's substrate. We hypothesized that the origin of the vertebrate visual cycle is directly connected to an ancestral carotenoid oxygenase acquiring a new retinyl ester isomerohydrolase function. Our phylogenetic analyses of the RPE65/BCMO and N1pC/P60 (LRAT superfamilies show that neither RPE65 nor LRAT orthologs occur in tunicates (Ciona or cephalochordates (Branchiostoma, but occur in Petromyzon marinus (Sea Lamprey, a jawless vertebrate. The closest homologs to RPE65 in Ciona and Branchiostoma lacked predicted functionally diverged residues found in all authentic RPE65s, but lamprey RPE65 contained all of them. We cloned RPE65 and LRATb cDNAs from lamprey RPE and demonstrated appropriate enzymatic activities. We show that Ciona ß-carotene monooxygenase a (BCMOa (previously annotated as an RPE65 has carotenoid oxygenase cleavage activity but not RPE65 activity. We verified the presence of RPE65 in lamprey RPE by immunofluorescence microscopy, immunoblot and mass spectrometry. On the basis of these data we conclude that the crucial transition from the typical carotenoid double bond cleavage functionality (BCMO to the isomerohydrolase functionality (RPE65, coupled with the origin of LRAT, occurred subsequent to divergence of the more primitive chordates (tunicates, etc. in the last common ancestor of the jawless and jawed vertebrates.

  3. Spleen histology in children with sickle cell disease and hereditary spherocytosis: hints on the disease pathophysiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzi, Marco; Fuligni, Fabio; Santoro, Luisa; Sabattini, Elena; Ichino, Martina; De Vito, Rita; Zucchetta, Pietro; Colombatti, Raffaella; Sainati, Laura; Gamba, Piergiorgio; Alaggio, Rita

    2017-02-01

    Hereditary spherocytosis (HS) and sickle cell disease (SCD) are associated with splenomegaly and spleen dysfunction in pediatric patients. Scant data exist on possible correlations between spleen morphology and function in HS and SCD. This study aimed to assess the histologic and morphometric features of HS and SCD spleens, to get possible correlations with disease pathophysiology. In a large series of spleens from SCD, HS, and control patients, the following parameters were considered: (i) macroscopic features, (ii) lymphoid follicle (LF) density, (iii) presence of perifollicular marginal zones, (iv) presence of Gamna-Gandy bodies, (v) density of CD8-positive sinusoids, (vi) density of CD34-positive microvessels, (vii) presence/distribution of fibrosis and smooth muscle actin (SMA)-positive myoid cells, and (viii) density of CD68-positive macrophages. SCD and HS spleens had similar macroscopic features. SCD spleens had lower LF density and fewer marginal zones than did HS spleens and controls. SCD also showed lower CD8-positive sinusoid density, increased CD34-positive microvessel density and SMA-positive myoid cells, and higher prevalence of fibrosis and Gamna-Gandy bodies. HS had lower LF and CD8-positive sinusoid density than did controls. No significant differences were noted in red pulp macrophages. By multivariate analysis, most HS spleens clustered with controls, whereas SCD grouped separately. A multiparametric score could predict the degree of spleen changes irrespective of the underlying disease. In conclusion, SCD spleens display greater histologic effacement than HS, and SCD-related changes suggest impaired function due to vascular damage. These observations may contribute to guide the clinical management of patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Mari Koger : avatud magamistoaga korter pööningukorrusel / Gitte Hint

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hint, Gitte

    2003-01-01

    Korter Nõmmel renoveeritud puumajas (arhitekt Hannes Niineväli). Sisearhitekt Mari Koger, tema kommentaarid. Söögilaua alumiiniumist valatud jalgade autor on Taavi Aunre. Söögilauda valgustab Alberto Meda ja Paolo Rizzatto disainitud lamp Titania. Ill.: plaan, 8 värv. vaadet

  5. Tiina Mang : eramu liikumises väljast sisse / Gitte Hint

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hint, Gitte

    2003-01-01

    Emil Urbeli projekteeritud Tabasalus asuva rannaäärse 410 m2 suuruse kahekordse eramu sisekujundus. Sisearhitekt Tiina Mang, tema kommentaarid. Interjööris on kasutatud suures osas eritellimusel valmistatud mööblit, pehme mööblina T&T Mangi toodangut. Ill.: plaan, 7 värv. vaadet

  6. Taso Mähar : maali ümber ehitatud maja / Gitte Hint

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hint, Gitte

    2003-01-01

    220-ruutmeetrise ühekorde eramu sisekujundus. Arhitekt Emil Urbel. Sisearhitekt Taso Mähar, tema kommentaarid. Köögimööbel on T. Mähari projekteeritud. Elutoas mööblifirma T&T Mang pehme mööbel, seinal Lemming Nageli maal "Punane joon all - Burn Out". Ill.: plaan, 17 värv. vaadet

  7. Human airway epithelial cells investigated by atomic force microscopy: A hint to cystic fibrosis epithelial pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasalvia, Maria; Castellani, Stefano; D'Antonio, Palma; Perna, Giuseppe; Carbone, Annalucia; Colia, Anna Laura; Maffione, Angela Bruna; Capozzi, Vito; Conese, Massimo

    2016-10-15

    The pathophysiology of cystic fibrosis (CF) airway disease stems from mutations in the CF Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR) gene, leading to a chronic respiratory disease. Actin cytoskeleton is disorganized in CF airway epithelial cells, likely contributing to the CF-associated basic defects, i.e. defective chloride secretion and sodium/fluid hypersorption. In this work, we aimed to find whether this alteration could be pointed out by means of Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) investigation, as roughness and Young's elastic module. Moreover, we also sought to determine whether disorganization of actin cytoskeleton is linked to hypersoption of apical fluid. Not only CFBE41o- (CFBE) cells, immortalized airway epithelial cells homozygous for the F508del CFTR allele, showed a different morphology in comparison with 16HBE14o- (16HBE) epithelial cells, wild-type for CFTR, but also they displayed a lack of stress fibers, suggestive of a disorganized actin cytoskeleton. AFM measurements showed that CFBE cells presented a higher membrane roughness and decreased rigidity as compared with 16HBE cells. CFBE overexpressing wtCFTR became more elongated than the parental CFBE cell line and presented actin stress fibers. CFBE cells absorbed more fluid from the apical compartment. Study of fluid absorption with the F-actin-depolymerizing agent Latrunculin B demonstrated that actin cytoskeletal disorganization increased fluid absorption, an effect observed at higher magnitude in 16HBE than in CFBE cells. For the first time, we demonstrate that actin cytoskeleton disorganization is reflected by AFM parameters in CF airway epithelial cells. Our data also strongly suggest that the lack of stress fibers is involved in at least one of the early step in CF pathophysiology at the levels of the airways, i.e. fluid hypersorption. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Cancer Fatalism and Preferred Sources of Cancer Information: an Assessment Using 2012 HINTS Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinky, Tassnym H; Faith, Jennifer; Lindly, Olivia; Thorburn, Sheryl

    2018-02-01

    Cancer fatalism is associated with lower participation in cancer screening, nonadherence to cancer screening guidelines, and avoidance of medical care. Few studies, however, have examined the relationship between cancer fatalism and health information seeking. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between endorsement of fatalistic beliefs regarding cancer and preferred sources of cancer information. We analyzed data from the Health Information National Trends Survey 4 Cycle 2, which were collected in late 2012 and early 2013 (N = 3630). When weighted, the data are representative of the non-institutionalized US population aged 18 or older. In bivariate and multivariate analyses, we assessed three cancer fatalism beliefs as predictors of preferred use of healthcare provider versus preferred use of the Internet for cancer information. Results indicate the majority of US adults endorse one or more fatalistic beliefs about cancer. Unadjusted results indicate endorsing the fatalistic belief that "there's not much you can do to lower your chances of getting cancer" was significantly associated with lower odds of preferring the Internet (versus healthcare providers) as the source of cancer information (OR: 0.70; CI: 0.50, 0.98). In the adjusted model, however, none of the three cancer fatalism measures were significantly associated with preferred source of cancer information. In conclusion, fatalistic beliefs about cancer are common, and further research is warranted to understand cancer fatalism and whether and how it may impact health information-seeking behaviors.

  9. Procedural versus Content-Related Hints for Word Problem Solving: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kock, W. D.; Harskamp, E. G.

    2016-01-01

    For primary school students, mathematical word problems are often more difficult to solve than straightforward number problems. Word problems require reading and analysis skills, and in order to explain their situational contexts, the proper mathematical knowledge and number operations have to be selected. To improve students' ability in solving…

  10. Succeeding in Undergraduate Student Research: A Few Helpful Hints for Advisors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billings, Lora

    2013-01-01

    This article offers some insights into successfully engaging students in research. While most schools encourage undergraduate research, there is little guidance specific to mathematics on how to make it a rewarding experience for both the student and the advisor. With a small support group and a goal-oriented time line, students will be able to…

  11. Fusion RNA profiling provides hints on cell of origin of mysterious tumor

    OpenAIRE

    Xie, Zhongqiu; Li, Hui

    2016-01-01

    Biological samples can be grouped into separate clusters based on their gene expression profiles. This approach has yielded meaningful biological insights and facilitated biomarker discoveries. Recently, we developed another approach to study connections between biological samples based on their fusion RNA expression. We have used this approach to provide insights into the cell of origin for a mysterious tumor, alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma.

  12. Hint-seeking behaviour of western scrub-jays in a metacognition task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Arii; Clayton, Nicola S

    2016-01-01

    Metacognitive processes during memory retrieval can be tested by examining whether or not animals can assess their knowledge state when they are faced with a memory test. In a typical foraging task, food is hidden in one of the multiple tubes and the subjects are given an opportunity to check the contents of the tubes before choosing the one that they thought contained food. Following the findings from our previous study that western scrub-jays (Aphelocoma californica) can make prospective metacognition judgements, this study tested the scrub-jays' concurrent metacognition judgements. In a series of experiments, uncertainty about the food location was induced in three ways: by making the baiting process visibly unavailable, by inserting a delay between the baiting and food retrieval, and by moving the location of the bait. The jays looked into the tubes more often during the conditions that were consistent with high uncertainty. In addition, their looking behaviour was associated not with the sight of food but with information about the location of the food. These findings suggest that the jays can differentiate the states of knowing and not knowing about certain information and take appropriate action to complement their missing knowledge.

  13. A 3.55 keV hint for decaying axion-like particle dark matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaeckel, Joerg [Heidelberg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Redondo, Javier [Muenchen Univ. (Germany). Arnold Sommerfeld Center; Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany); Ringwald, Andreas [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2014-02-15

    Recently, indications for an emission line at 3.55 keV have been found in the combined spectra of a large number of galaxy clusters and also in Andromeda. This line could not be identified with any known spectral line. It is tempting to speculate that it has its origin in the decay of a particle contributing all or part of the dark matter. In this note we want to point out that axion-like particles being all or part of the dark matter are an ideal candidate to produce such a feature. More importantly the parameter values necessary are quite feasible in extensions of the Standard Model based on string theory and could be linked up to a variety of other intriguing phenomena, which also potentially allow for new tests of this speculation.

  14. How Parents Influence School Grades: Hints from a Sample of Adoptive and Biological Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Wendy; McGue, Matt; Iacono, William G

    2007-01-01

    Using the biological and adoptive families in the Minnesota-based Sibling Interaction and Behavior Study, we investigated the associations among genetic and environmental influences on IQ, parenting, parental expectations for offspring educational attainment, engagement in school, and school grades. All variables showed substantial genetic influence, and very modest shared environmental influence. No gender differences were evident. There were significant genetic influences common to IQ and parental expectations of educational attainment, parenting and engagement in school, school grades and engagement in school, parental expectations for offspring educational attainment and school grades, and IQ and school grades. A possible interpretation of the common genetic influences involving parenting is that parents use their own experience with school in shaping the ways in which they parent their offspring.

  15. Ultra high energy cosmic rays above 10 11 GeV: Hints to new ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The observed cosmic ray events above 1011 GeV are difficult to explain within the context of known physics of propagation of known particles in the Universe and within the standard acceleration mechanisms that are likely to operate in powerful astrophysical objects. Several ideas of possible new physics beyond the ...

  16. The infrared medium-deep survey. II. How to trigger radio AGNs? Hints from their environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karouzos, Marios; Im, Myungshin; Kim, Jae-Woo; Lee, Seong-Kook; Jeon, Yiseul; Choi, Changsu; Hong, Jueun; Hyun, Minhee; Jun, Hyunsung David; Kim, Dohyeong; Kim, Yongjung; Kim, Ji Hoon; Kim, Duho; Park, Won-Kee; Taak, Yoon Chan; Yoon, Yongmin [CEOU—Astronomy Program, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Chapman, Scott [Department of Physics and Atmospheric Science, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada); Pak, Soojong [School of Space Research, Kyung Hee University, Yongin-si, Gyeonggi-do 446-701 (Korea, Republic of); Edge, Alastair, E-mail: mkarouzos@astro.snu.ac.kr [Department of Physics, University of Durham, South Road, Durham, DH1 3LE (United Kingdom)

    2014-12-10

    Activity at the centers of galaxies, during which the central supermassive black hole is accreting material, is nowadays accepted to be rather ubiquitous and most probably a phase of every galaxy's evolution. It has been suggested that galactic mergers and interactions may be the culprits behind the triggering of nuclear activity. We use near-infrared data from the new Infrared Medium-Deep Survey and the Deep eXtragalactic Survey of the VIMOS-SA22 field and radio data at 1.4 GHz from the FIRST survey and a deep Very Large Array survey to study the environments of radio active galactic nuclei (AGNs) over an area of ∼25 deg{sup 2} and down to a radio flux limit of 0.1 mJy and a J-band magnitude of 23 mag AB. Radio AGNs are predominantly found in environments similar to those of control galaxies at similar redshift, J-band magnitude, and (M{sub u} – M{sub r} ) rest-frame color. However, a subpopulation of radio AGNs is found in environments up to 100 times denser than their control sources. We thus preclude merging as the dominant triggering mechanism of radio AGNs. By fitting the broadband spectral energy distribution of radio AGNs in the least and most dense environments, we find that those in the least dense environments show higher radio-loudness, higher star formation efficiencies, and higher accretion rates, typical of the so-called high-excitation radio AGNs. These differences tend to disappear at z > 1. We interpret our results in terms of a different triggering mechanism for these sources that is driven by mass loss through winds of young stars created during the observed ongoing star formation.

  17. Maximum Number of Habitable Planets at the Time of Earth's Origin: New Hints for Panspermia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Bloh, Werner; Franck, Siegfried; Bounama, Christine; Schellnhuber, Hans-Joachim

    2003-04-01

    New discoveries have fuelled the ongoing discussion of panspermia, i.e. the transport of life from one planet to another within the solar system (interplanetary panspermia) or even between different planetary systems (interstellar panspermia). The main factor for the probability of interstellar panspermia is the average density of stellar systems containing habitable planets. The combination of recent results for the formation rate of Earth-like planets with our estimations of extrasolar habitable zones allows us to determine the number of habitable planets in the Milky Way over cosmological time scales. We find that there was a maximum number of habitable planets around the time of Earth's origin. If at all, interstellar panspermia was most probable at that time and may have kick-started life on our planet.

  18. Perceptual strategies of pigeons to detect a rotational centre--a hint for star compass learning?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca Alert

    Full Text Available Birds can rely on a variety of cues for orientation during migration and homing. Celestial rotation provides the key information for the development of a functioning star and/or sun compass. This celestial compass seems to be the primary reference for calibrating the other orientation systems including the magnetic compass. Thus, detection of the celestial rotational axis is crucial for bird orientation. Here, we use operant conditioning to demonstrate that homing pigeons can principally learn to detect a rotational centre in a rotating dot pattern and we examine their behavioural response strategies in a series of experiments. Initially, most pigeons applied a strategy based on local stimulus information such as movement characteristics of single dots. One pigeon seemed to immediately ignore eccentric stationary dots. After special training, all pigeons could shift their attention to more global cues, which implies that pigeons can learn the concept of a rotational axis. In our experiments, the ability to precisely locate the rotational centre was strongly dependent on the rotational velocity of the dot pattern and it crashed at velocities that were still much faster than natural celestial rotation. We therefore suggest that the axis of the very slow, natural, celestial rotation could be perceived by birds through the movement itself, but that a time-delayed pattern comparison should also be considered as a very likely alternative strategy.

  19. Immunotherapeutic Potential of Oncolytic H-1 Parvovirus: Hints of Glioblastoma Microenvironment Conversion towards Immunogenicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assia L. Angelova

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Glioblastoma, one of the most aggressive primary brain tumors, is characterized by highly immunosuppressive microenvironment. This contributes to glioblastoma resistance to standard treatment modalities and allows tumor growth and recurrence. Several immune-targeted approaches have been recently developed and are currently under preclinical and clinical investigation. Oncolytic viruses, including the autonomous protoparvovirus H-1 (H-1PV, show great promise as novel immunotherapeutic tools. In a first phase I/IIa clinical trial (ParvOryx01, H-1PV was safe and well tolerated when locally or systemically administered to recurrent glioblastoma patients. The virus was able to cross the blood–brain (tumor barrier after intravenous infusion. Importantly, H-1PV treatment of glioblastoma patients was associated with immunogenic changes in the tumor microenvironment. Tumor infiltration with activated cytotoxic T cells, induction of cathepsin B and inducible nitric oxide (NO synthase (iNOS expression in tumor-associated microglia/macrophages (TAM, and accumulation of activated TAM in cluster of differentiation (CD 40 ligand (CD40L-positive glioblastoma regions was detected. These are the first-in-human observations of H-1PV capacity to switch the immunosuppressed tumor microenvironment towards immunogenicity. Based on this pilot study, we present a tentative model of H-1PV-mediated modulation of glioblastoma microenvironment and propose a combinatorial therapeutic approach taking advantage of H-1PV-induced microglia/macrophage activation for further (preclinical testing.

  20. Electric field fluctuations in liquid tellurium alloys a hint to bond character

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paulick, C.A.; Brinkmann, R.; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt; von Hartrott, M.; Kiehl, M.; Maxim, P.; Quitmann, D.

    1985-01-01

    Atomic scale electric field fluctuations in liquid tellurium alloys are detected as they induce nuclear spin relaxation rate RQ in noble gas impurity atoms, via quadrupolar interaction. Results for Xe in liquid Ag, Ga, In, Tl, Ge, Sn---Te alloys are discussed, assuming that bonding in these alloys

  1. An overview of MR arthrography with emphasis on the current technique and applicational hints and tips

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahin, Guelden [Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Ankara University, Samanpazari, 06100 Ankara (Turkey)]. E-mail: gsahin@medicine.ankara.edu.tr; Demirtas, Mehmet [Department of Hand Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Ankara University, Samanpazari, 06100 Ankara (Turkey)

    2006-06-15

    Magnetic resonance (MR) arthrography has been investigated in every major peripheral joint of the body, and has been proven to be effective in determining the integrity of intraarticular ligamentous and fibrocartilaginous structures and in the detection or assessment of osteochondral lesions and loose bodies in selected cases. Several methods could be used to create arthrogram effect during MR imaging, however, direct MR arthrography using diluted gadolinium as the contrast agent is the most commonly used technique and is the most reliable of all. MR arthrography is useful for demonstrating labrocapsular-ligamentous abnormalities and distinguishing partial thickness rotator cuff tears from focal full thickness tears in the shoulder, identifying or excluding recurrent tears following meniscal operations in the knee, demonstrating perforations of the triangular fibrocartilage complex (TFCC) and ligaments in the wrist, showing labral tears in the hip, diagnosing ligament tears in the ankle and identifying osteochondral lesions or loose bodies in any of the aforementioned joints. In this article, an overview of techniques of MR arthrography is provided with emphasis on direct MR arthrography using diluted gadolinium as the contrast agent. The current applications of the technique in major peripheral joints are reviewed, with emphasis given to the shoulder joint where the role of this technique has become well established.

  2. Melatonin, Noncoding RNAs, Messenger RNA Stability and Epigenetics—Evidence, Hints, Gaps and Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rüdiger Hardeland

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Melatonin is a highly pleiotropic regulator molecule, which influences numerous functions in almost every organ and, thus, up- or down-regulates many genes, frequently in a circadian manner. Our understanding of the mechanisms controlling gene expression is actually now expanding to a previously unforeseen extent. In addition to classic actions of transcription factors, gene expression is induced, suppressed or modulated by a number of RNAs and proteins, such as miRNAs, lncRNAs, piRNAs, antisense transcripts, deadenylases, DNA methyltransferases, histone methylation complexes, histone demethylases, histone acetyltransferases and histone deacetylases. Direct or indirect evidence for involvement of melatonin in this network of players has originated in different fields, including studies on central and peripheral circadian oscillators, shift work, cancer, inflammation, oxidative stress, aging, energy expenditure/obesity, diabetes type 2, neuropsychiatric disorders, and neurogenesis. Some of the novel modulators have also been shown to participate in the control of melatonin biosynthesis and melatonin receptor expression. Future work will need to augment the body of evidence on direct epigenetic actions of melatonin and to systematically investigate its role within the network of oscillating epigenetic factors. Moreover, it will be necessary to discriminate between effects observed under conditions of well-operating and deregulated circadian clocks, and to explore the possibilities of correcting epigenetic malprogramming by melatonin.

  3. The Fusarium graminearum Genome Reveals More Secondary Metabolite Gene Clusters and Hints of Horizontal Gene Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Philip; Münsterkötter, Martin; Mewes, Hans-Werner; Schmeitzl, Clemens; Varga, Elisabeth; Berthiller, Franz; Adam, Gerhard; Güldener, Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    Fungal secondary metabolite biosynthesis genes are of major interest due to the pharmacological properties of their products (like mycotoxins and antibiotics). The genome of the plant pathogenic fungus Fusarium graminearum codes for a large number of candidate enzymes involved in secondary metabolite biosynthesis. However, the chemical nature of most enzymatic products of proteins encoded by putative secondary metabolism biosynthetic genes is largely unknown. Based on our analysis we present 67 gene clusters with significant enrichment of predicted secondary metabolism related enzymatic functions. 20 gene clusters with unknown metabolites exhibit strong gene expression correlation in planta and presumably play a role in virulence. Furthermore, the identification of conserved and over-represented putative transcription factor binding sites serves as additional evidence for cluster co-regulation. Orthologous cluster search provided insight into the evolution of secondary metabolism clusters. Some clusters are characteristic for the Fusarium phylum while others show evidence of horizontal gene transfer as orthologs can be found in representatives of the Botrytis or Cochliobolus lineage. The presented candidate clusters provide valuable targets for experimental examination. PMID:25333987

  4. Magic, Nostalgia and a Hint of Greatness in the Workaday World of the Building Types Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Charles W.; Oliver, Richard B.

    1977-01-01

    The Architectural Record's Building Types Studies, now forty years old, exist as a compendium of raw material for an esthetic, stylistic, sociopolitical, and technological evaluation of contemporary U.S. architecture as it actually was built. (Author/MLF)

  5. Considering Homeschooling Your Child on the Autism Spectrum? Some Helpful Hints and Suggestions for Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurlbutt, Karen

    2010-01-01

    With the increase in the numbers of diagnosed children on the autism spectrum, schools are being challenged to provide proper educational services for these children. In Educating Children with Autism, the National Research Council recommended that educational programs for students with autism include three basic components. These are direct…

  6. Supportive hints in a digital environment to foster adolescents’ expository text comprehension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Beek, Marlies; Brummer, Leonie; Donker-Bergstra, Anouk; Opdenakker, Marie-Christine

    2017-01-01

    Over the last decades the research focus in the domain of learning and instruction has shifted towards digital applications and environments. With the use of new technologies and web 2.0 most ICT programs seem promising, but often empirical research to prove their effectiveness is lacking. After

  7. Building Models to Predict Hint-or-Attempt Actions of Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Francisco Enrique Vicente; Adjei, Seth; Colombo, Tyler; Heffernan, Neil

    2015-01-01

    A great deal of research in educational data mining is geared towards predicting student performance. Bayesian Knowledge Tracing, Performance Factors Analysis, and the different variations of these have been introduced and have had some success at predicting student knowledge. It is worth noting, however, that very little has been done to…

  8. Challenge of liver disease in systemic lupus erythematosus: Clues for diagnosis and hints for pathogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessone, Fernando; Poles, Natalia; Roma, Marcelo G

    2014-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) encompass a broad spectrum of liver diseases. We propose here to classify them as follows: (1) immunological comorbilities (overlap syndromes); (2) non-immunological comorbilities associated to SLE; and (3) a putative liver damage induced by SLE itself, referred to as “lupus hepatitis”. In the first group, liver injury can be ascribed to overlapping hepatopathies triggered by autoimmune mechanisms other than SLE occurring with higher incidence in the context of lupus (e.g., autoimmune hepatitis, primary biliary cirrhosis). The second group includes non-autoimmune liver diseases, such as esteatosis, hepatitis C, hypercoagulation state-related liver lesions, hyperplasic parenchymal and vascular lesions, porphyria cutanea tarda, and drug-induced hepatotoxicity. Finally, the data in the literature to support the existence of a hepatic disease produced by SLE itself, or the occurrence of a SLE-associated prone condition that increases susceptibility to acquire other liver diseases, is critically discussed. The pathological mechanisms underlying each of these liver disorders are also reviewed. Despite the high heterogeneity in the literature regarding the prevalence of SLE-associated liver diseases and, in most cases, lack of histopathological evidence or clinical studies large enough to support their existence, it is becoming increasingly apparent that liver is an important target of SLE. Consequently, biochemical liver tests should be routinely carried out in SLE patients to discard liver disorders, particularly in those patients chronically exposed to potentially hepatotoxic drugs. Diagnosing liver disease in SLE patients is always challenging, and the systematization of the current information carried out in this review is expected to be of help both to attain a better understanding of pathogenesis and to build an appropriate work-up for diagnosis. PMID:25018850

  9. Hints for Hidden Planetary Companions to Hot Jupiters in Stellar Binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamers, Adrian S.

    2017-02-01

    Searches for stellar companions to hot Jupiters (HJs) have revealed that planetary systems hosting an HJ are approximately three times more likely to have a stellar companion with a semimajor axis between 50 and 2000 au, compared to field stars. This correlation suggests that HJ formation is affected by the stellar binary companion. A potential model is high-eccentricity migration, in which the binary companion induces high-eccentricity Lidov-Kozai (LK) oscillations in the proto-HJ orbit, triggering orbital migration driven by tides. A pitfall of this “binary-LK” model is that the observed stellar binaries hosting HJs are typically too wide to produce HJs in sufficient numbers because of suppression by short-range forces. We propose a modification to the binary-LK model in which there is a second giant planet orbiting the proto-HJ at a semimajor axis of several tens of au. Such companions are currently hidden to observations, but their presence could be manifested by a propagation of the perturbation of the stellar binary companion inward to the proto-HJ, thereby overcoming the barrier imposed by short-range forces. Our model does not require the planetary companion orbit to be eccentric and/or inclined with respect to the proto-HJ, but its semimajor axis should lie in a specific range given the planetary mass and binary semimajor axis, and the inclination with respect to the binary should be near 40° or 140°. Our prediction for planetary companions to HJs in stellar binaries should be testable by future observations.

  10. VizieR Online Data Catalog: CALIFA galaxies observational hints (Ruiz-Lara+, 2017)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Lara, T.; Perez, I.; Florido, E.; Sanchez-Blazquez, P.; Mendez-Abreu, J.; Sanchez-Menguiano, L.; Sanchez, S. F.; Lyubenova, M.; Falcon-Barroso, J.; van de Ven, G.; Marino, R. A.; de Lorenzo-Caceres, A.; Catalan-Torrecilla, C.; Costantin, L.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Galbany, L.; Garcia-Benito, R.; Husemann, B.; Kehrig, C.; Marquez, I.; Mast, D.; Walcher, C. J.; Zibetti, S.; Ziegle, B.; Califa Team

    2017-05-01

    Characterisation of the sample of galaxies under analysis in the paper. The sample comprises 214 galaxies from the CALIFA survey. For each galaxy the name, equatorial coordinates, morphological type, presence of a bar, surface brightness profile type, inner disc scale length (kpc), outer disc scale length (kpc), and break radius in units of the inner disc scale length are given. Columns (1), (2), (3), and (4) from the CALIFA general sample characterisation (Walcher et al., 2014A&A...569A...1W). Columns (5), (6), (7), (8), (9), and (10) from the 2D decomposition performed in Mendez-Abreu et al. (2017, Cat. J/A+A/598/A32). (1 data file).

  11. 76 FR 22714 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Health Information National Trends Survey 4 (HINTS 4) (NCI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-22

    ... publish periodic summaries of proposed projects to be submitted to the Office of Management and Budget... understand vital cancer prevention messages. More importantly, this NCI survey will couple knowledge-related questions with inquiries into the communication channels through which understanding is being obtained, and...

  12. Hints on the high-energy seesaw mechanism from the low-energy neutrino spectrum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casas, J.A.; Jimenez-Alburquerque, F. [Univ. Autonoma de Madrid (Spain). IFT-UAM/CSIC, C-XVI; Ibarra, A. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2006-12-15

    It is an experimental fact that the mass ratio for the two heavier neutrinos, h=m{sub 3}/m{sub 2}> m{sub 3}/m{sub 2}, so m{sub 1} should be extremely tiny. Also, the V{sub R} matrix associated to the neutrino Yukawa couplings has a far from random structure, naturally resembling V{sub CKM}. In fact we show that identifying V{sub R} and V{sub CKM}, as well as neutrino and u-quark Yukawa couplings can reproduce h{sup exp} in a highly non-trivial way, which is very suggestive. The physical implications of these results are also discussed. (orig.)

  13. Hints for Small Disks around Very Low Mass Stars and Brown Dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendler, Nathanial P.; Mulders, Gijs D.; Pascucci, Ilaria; Greenwood, Aaron; Kamp, Inga; Henning, Thomas; Ménard, François; Dent, William R. F.; Evans, Neal J., II

    2017-06-01

    The properties of disks around brown dwarfs and very low mass stars (hereafter VLMOs) provide important boundary conditions on the process of planet formation and inform us about the numbers and masses of planets than can form in this regime. We use the Herschel Space Observatory PACS spectrometer to measure the continuum and [O I] 63 μm line emission toward 11 VLMOs with known disks in the Taurus and Chamaeleon I star-forming regions. We fit radiative transfer models to the spectral energy distributions of these sources. Additionally, we carry out a grid of radiative transfer models run in a regime that connects the luminosity of our sources with brighter T Tauri stars. We find that VLMO disks with sizes 1.3-78 au, smaller than typical T Tauri disks, fit well the spectral energy distributions assuming that disk geometry and dust properties are stellar mass independent. Reducing the disk size increases the disk temperature, and we show that VLMOs do not follow previously derived disk temperature-stellar luminosity relationships if the disk outer radius scales with stellar mass. Only 2 out of 11 sources are detected in [O I] despite a better sensitivity than was achieved for T Tauri stars, suggesting that VLMO disks are underluminous. Using thermochemical models, we show that smaller disks can lead to the unexpected [O I] 63 μm nondetections in our sample. The disk outer radius is an important factor in determining the gas and dust observables. Hence, spatially resolved observations with ALMA—to establish if and how disk radii scale with stellar mass—should be pursued further. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.

  14. Estimating Dynamical Systems: Derivative Estimation Hints from Sir Ronald A. Fisher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deboeck, Pascal R.

    2010-01-01

    The fitting of dynamical systems to psychological data offers the promise of addressing new and innovative questions about how people change over time. One method of fitting dynamical systems is to estimate the derivatives of a time series and then examine the relationships between derivatives using a differential equation model. One common…

  15. Are You a Gut Responder? Hints on Coping with an Irritable Bowel

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Upper GI Disorders Lower GI Disorders Other Disorders Kids & Teens Manage Your Health Finding a Doctor The Digestive ... Upper GI Disorders Lower GI Disorders Other Disorders Kids & Teens Manage Your Health Finding a Doctor The Digestive ...

  16. Hints of 5d fixed point theories from non-Abelian T-duality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lozano, Yolanda; Colgáin, Eoin Ó; Rodríguez-Gómez, Diego [Department of Physics, University of Oviedo,Avda. Calvo Sotelo 18, 33007 Oviedo (Spain)

    2014-05-05

    In this paper we investigate the properties of the putative 5d fixed point theory that should be dual, through the holographic correspondence, to the new supersymmetric AdS{sub 6} solution constructed in http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.110.231601. This solution is the result of a non-Abelian T-duality transformation on the known supersymmetric AdS{sub 6} solution of massive Type IIA. The analysis of the charge quantization conditions seems to put constraints on the global properties of the background, which, combined with the information extracted from considering probe branes, suggests a 2-node quiver candidate for the dual CFT.

  17. The Fusarium graminearum genome reveals more secondary metabolite gene clusters and hints of horizontal gene transfer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian M K Sieber

    Full Text Available Fungal secondary metabolite biosynthesis genes are of major interest due to the pharmacological properties of their products (like mycotoxins and antibiotics. The genome of the plant pathogenic fungus Fusarium graminearum codes for a large number of candidate enzymes involved in secondary metabolite biosynthesis. However, the chemical nature of most enzymatic products of proteins encoded by putative secondary metabolism biosynthetic genes is largely unknown. Based on our analysis we present 67 gene clusters with significant enrichment of predicted secondary metabolism related enzymatic functions. 20 gene clusters with unknown metabolites exhibit strong gene expression correlation in planta and presumably play a role in virulence. Furthermore, the identification of conserved and over-represented putative transcription factor binding sites serves as additional evidence for cluster co-regulation. Orthologous cluster search provided insight into the evolution of secondary metabolism clusters. Some clusters are characteristic for the Fusarium phylum while others show evidence of horizontal gene transfer as orthologs can be found in representatives of the Botrytis or Cochliobolus lineage. The presented candidate clusters provide valuable targets for experimental examination.

  18. Flexibility of approach in art practice as research: Hints in Omabe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reflecting on a doctoral research, in which sculpture forms in installation were extracted from the contemporary conceptions of Omabe tradition to enhance practice, this paper demonstrates that method and approach to research in art practice is flexible. In the research, multiple instruments of participatory observation, ...

  19. Evidence of earlier thyroid dysfunction in newly diagnosed oral lichen planus patients: a hint for endocrinologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arduino, Paolo G; Karimi, Dora; Tirone, Federico; Sciannameo, Veronica; Ricceri, Fulvio; Cabras, Marco; Gambino, Alessio; Conrotto, Davide; Salzano, Stefano; Carbone, Mario; Broccoletti, Roberto

    2017-11-01

    The association between oral lichen planus (OLP) and hypothyroidism has been debated with conflicting results: some authors detected a statistically significant association between these two, while others did not confirm it. The aim of this study was to evaluate the thyroid status in patients with newly diagnosed OLP to test the null hypothesis that thyroid disease is not associated with an increased incidence of oral lesions, with a prospective case-control approach. A total of 549 patients have been evaluated, of whom 355 were female. Odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were obtained. Patients suffering from thyroid diseases were associated with an almost 3-fold increased odds of having OLP (OR 2.85, 95% CI: 1.65-4.94), after adjusting this analysis for age, gender, body mass index, smoking status, diabetes, hypertension and hepatitis C infection. It would be appropriate to further investigate the possible concomitance of OLP among patients with thyroid disorder; endocrinologists should be aware of this association, especially because OLP is considered a potentially malignant oral disorder. © 2017 The authors.

  20. The Tsenkher structure in the Gobi-Altai, Mongolia: Geomorphological hints of an impact origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komatsu, Goro; Olsen, John W.; Ormö, Jens; di Achille, Gaetano; Kring, David A.; Matsui, Takafumi

    2006-03-01

    The Tsenkher structure, in the Gobi-Altai region of Mongolia, was studied using a wide array of remote sensing data and field observations. The structure has a shallow, 3.6 km wide, central depression bordered by a near-circular ridge (putative crater rim) with breaches to the northwest. The central depression is obliterated partially by fluvial infill through these breaches. Outside the ridge, the western side is a rugged terrain, but the eastern half is characterized by a concentric outer ridge that occurs at about one radius distance from the inner ridge. Although intrusion, salt tectonics and maar crater hypotheses cannot be completely ruled out, its morphology strongly implies an impact origin for the Tsenkher structure. If of impact origin, it has a well-preserved morphology and its position in the basin fills indicates that the formation may have occurred relatively recently, sometime during the late Tertiary or Quaternary. The outer ridge morphology is similar to rampart craters on Mars, whose formation has been attributed to fluidization of a water-rich target layer and ejecta materials, or to atmospheric entrainment and deposition of ejected materials. However, other hypotheses including erosional remnant of ejecta blanket, erosional scarp of structural rim uplift, multi-ring or deeply eroded crater rim of a peak-ring crater are also possible at this stage. A complex fluvial and probable lacustrine history is envisaged within the Tsenkher structure. The structure is also associated with archaeology, including Paleolithic and Bronze Age remains.

  1. The 2011 Tohoku-oki earthquake: a hint for structural control on the rupture process?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabrizio, R.; Trasatti, E.; Lorito, S.; Piromallo, C.; Ito, Y.; Piatanesi, A.; Zhao, D.; Lanucara, P.; Hirata, K.; Cocco, M.

    2013-05-01

    The Great 2011 Tohoku-oki earthquake, due to the exceptional amount of data and the unexpected rupture features characterizing this event, represents a great opportunity for the scientific community to better understand the physical processes underlying the genesis of mega-thrust earthquakes and try to provide future guidelines useful for mitigate the tsunami risk. Actually, this event has been extensively studied by using an unprecedented collection of high-quality geophysical data. In particular, different source models have been published by modeling seismological, geodetic and tsunami data with a resulting general agreement about the main features of the rupture process (a patch of nearly 50 meters of slip located around and up-dip from the hypocenter), while the slip pattern at shallow depths near the trench exhibits some variability among these models, likely due to the different resolving power of distinct data sets and to the adopted fault geometry. However, these features, particularly the very concentrated rupture area (with respect to the magnitude 9) and the very high slip in a zone typically considered aseismic, due to their unexpected nature are still under investigation. Here we use a 3-D structural model to account for the effects of both the geometrical variations of the plate interface and the elastic contrasts between the subducting plate and the continental lithosphere, within a 3-D Finite Element (FE) model of the Tohoku-oki area. We infer the slip distribution of the 2011 earthquake by performing a joint inversion of geodetic (GPS and seafloor observations) and tsunami (ocean bottom pressure sensors, DART and GPS buoys) data. We find a pattern of slip mainly extending up-dip from the hypocenter and reaching the trench, with maximum slip of about 52 meters. We observe that the resulting rupture image of the Tohoku event exhibits a striking correlation with the distribution of lateral heterogeneities in seismic wave velocities around the plate interface. We then speculate on the causes of a possible structural control on the rupture propagation and arrest, which might have relevant implications in terms of earthquake and tsunami hazard assessment in this region.

  2. FTIR spectroscopy offers hints towards widespread molecular changes in cobalt-acclimated freshwater bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kardas, Mehmet; Gozen, Ayse Gul; Severcan, Feride

    2014-10-01

    High concentrations of heavy metals can be toxic for bacteria. However, after prolonged exposure, bacteria can become acclimated and begin to be able to grow in the presence of heavy metals. Acclimation can involve alterations of metabolism and molecular structures. Our aim was to examine these alterations in cobalt-acclimated bacteria via attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy on viable samples. Bacillus sp. and Pseudomonas sp. isolated from a temperate shallow lake and a well-established strain of E. coli were investigated. Our results revealed consistent, wide-spread changes in cell membrane and cell wall dynamics of Bacillus sp. and E. coli, including a decrease in peptidoglycan content of Bacillus sp. and increased lipid ordering of the membrane in both bacteria. Furthermore, a decrease in RNA and protein concentrations of Bacillus sp. was measured. All three bacteria studied showed a decrease in conformational freedom of proteins following cobalt acclimation. Interestingly, both Bacillus sp. and E. coli showed slight but significant alterations in their DNA conformations which might imply a methylation-mediated memory formation leading to epigenetic modulation for cobalt adaptation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Issue Brief #2: Metrics for Improving Cost Accountability (Hint: Not More Detailed Cost Accounting...)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delta Project on Postsecondary Education Costs, Productivity and Accountability, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Most fiscal reporting focuses on revenues (whether or not they go to core purposes), tuition and fees, and financial aid. "How" the money is spent is something that remains shrouded in too much mystery. Several national efforts to address this problem have largely come to naught--probably because those common methodologies are simultaneously not…

  4. Tüüne-Kristin & Urmo Vaikla : kodu, mis kujuneb aastatega / Gitte Hint

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hint, Gitte

    2003-01-01

    Pirita-Kosel asuva Tüüne-Kristin ja Urmo Vaikla eramu (arhitektid Vilen Künnapu, Ain Padrik) sisekujundus, mis pälvis 2000. a. Eesti Sisearhitektide Liidu aastapreemia. T.-K. ja U. Vaikla kommentaarid. Ill.: I ja II korruse plaan, 13 värv. vaadet

  5. Supportive hints in a digital learning environment : Effects on students' motivation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Beek, Marlies; Brummer, Leonie; Donker-Bergstra, Anouk; Opdenakker, Marie-christine

    2017-01-01

    Reading skills are developed across the lifespan. However, little is known about the development of reading comprehension skills and materials in secondary education, where students do not learn to read, but read to learn. When students read informational textbooks, domain knowledge (e.g., about

  6. “Don Juan-Fracture” as a Hint to Aortic Isthmus Rupture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirilak Suksompong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of thoracic aortic rupture after blunt trauma in a 23-year-old male patient. The initial investigation found no external injury or bleeding, only a slightly widened mediastinum and a broken left calcaneus. Abdominal lavage was negative, biochemistry was normal, and breathing and oxygenation were not compromised. When changing his position during diagnostics, the patient all of a sudden developed cardiac arrest and typical signs of hypovolemic shock. An immediate sternotomy was done without any further diagnostics on suspicion of aortic isthmus injury. A circular avulsion at the ligamentum arteriosum was found as assumed and repaired under cardiopulmonary bypass. The patient left the hospital for rehabilitation after 12 days in adequate health status. Biodynamics of blunt trauma after high-speed frontal impact and the relationship between calcaneus fracture, called “Don-Juan fracture,” and aortic rupture at the site of ligamentum arteriosum are discussed.

  7. Hints About Some Baseful but Indispensable Elements in Speech Recognition and Reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Costin

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available The cochlear implant (CI is a device used to reconstruct the hearing capabilities of a person diagnosed with total cophosis. This impairment may occur after some accidents, chemotherapy etc., the person still having an intact hearing nerve. The cochlear implant has two parts: a programmable, external part, the Digital Signal Processing (DSP device which process and transform the speech signal, and another surgically implanted part, with a certain number of electrodes (depending on brand used to stimulate the hearing nerve. The speech signal is fully processed in the DSP external device resulting the ``coded'' information on speech. This is modulated with the support of the fundamental frequency F0 and the energy impulses are inductively sent to the hearing nerve. The correct detection of this frequency is very important, determining the manner of hearing and making the difference between a "computer'' voice and a natural one. The results are applicable not only in the medical domain, but also in the Romanian speech synthesis.

  8. Sigma-2 receptor agonists as possible antitumor agents in resistant tumors: hints for collateral sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niso, Mauro; Abate, Carmen; Contino, Marialessandra; Ferorelli, Savina; Azzariti, Amalia; Perrone, Roberto; Colabufo, Nicola Antonio; Berardi, Francesco

    2013-12-01

    With the aim of contributing to the development of novel antitumor agents, high-affinity σ2 receptor agonists were developed, with 6,7-dimethoxy-2-[4-[1-(4-fluorophenyl)-1H-indol-3-yl]butyl]-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline (15) and 9-[4-(6,7-dimethoxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinolin-2-yl)butyl]-9H-carbazole (25) showing exceptional selectivity for the σ2 subtype. Most of the compounds displayed notable antiproliferative activity in human MCF7 breast adenocarcinoma cells, with similar activity in the corresponding doxorubicin-resistant MCF7adr cell line. Surprisingly, a few compounds, including 25, displayed enhanced activity in MCF7adr cells over parent cells, recalling the phenomenon of collateral sensitivity, which is under study for the treatment of drug-resistant tumors. All of the compounds showed interaction with P-glycoprotein (P-gp), and 15 and 25, with the greatest activity, were able to revert P-gp-mediated resistance and reestablish the antitumor effect of doxorubicin in MCF7adr cells. We therefore identified a series of σ2 receptor agonists endowed with intriguing antitumor properties; these compounds deserve further investigation for the development of alternate strategies against multidrug- resistant cancers. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Taso Mähar : "Ma ei kujunda endale ausammast" / Gitte Hint

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hint, Gitte

    2003-01-01

    Taso Mähar (sünd. 1962) kodu ja ühiskondlike ruumide sisekujunduse projekteerimisest, sisekujunduses tema jaoks olulisest, klientidest, arhitektuurialastest teadmistest Eestis. T. Mäharist, omistatud preemiad. 2000. aastast töötab arhitektuuribüroos Emil Urbel. Ill.: T. Mähari värv. portree

  10. Understanding Public Engagement in Water Conservation Behaviors and Knowledge of Water Policy: Promising Hints for Extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Pei-wen; Lamm, Alexa J.

    2015-01-01

    Sustaining water resources is a primary issue facing Florida Extension. The study reported here identified how experience with water issues and familiarity with water policies affected individuals' engagement in water conservation behaviors. A public opinion survey was conducted online to capture Florida residents' responses. The findings…

  11. Õun. Minu kõige mõttetum ost : [jutt] / Anna Hints

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hints, Anna

    2006-01-01

    Sisu: Juuli 2004 ; August 2004 ; September 2004 ; September 2004, kuskil keskel ; September 2004, lõpus ; Oktoober 2004, 1. nädal ; Oktoober 2004, 2. nädal ; Oktoober 2004, 3. nädala alguses ; Oktoober 2004, 3. nädala lõpupoole ; Oktoober 2004, 4. nädal ; November 2004, 1. nädal ; November 2004, lõpp ; Jaanuar 2005, täna

  12. Search for Z′, vacuum (instability and hints of high-energy structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Accomando Elena

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the high-energy behaviour of a class of anomaly-free abelian extensions of the Standard Model. We focus on the interplay among the phenomenological characterisation of the model and the use of precise renormalisation group methods. Using as boundary conditions regions of the parameter space at the verge of current LHC probe, interesting unification patterns emerge linked to thresholds belonging to a SO(10 grand unification theory (GUT. We stress how the evolution of the mixing between the two abelian factors may provide a valuable tool to address the candidate high-energy embedding. The emerging unification scenarios are then challenged to be perturbative and to allow for a stable vacuum.

  13. Gene expression analysis in ovarian cancer – faults and hints from DNA microarray study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Marta Lisowska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of microarray techniques to cancer research brought great expectations for finding biomarkers that would improve patients treatment; however, the results of such studies are poorly reproducible, and critical analyses of these methods are rare. In this study we examined gene expression in 97 ovarian cancer samples. Validation of results by quantitative RT-PCR was performed also on 30 additional ovarian cancer samples. We carried out a number of systematic analyses in relation to several defined clinicopathological features. The main goal of our study was to delineate the molecular background of ovarian cancer chemoresistance and find biomarkers suitable for prediction of patients prognosis. Histological tumor type was the major source of variability in genes expression, except for serous and undifferentiated tumors that showed nearly identical profiles. Analysis of clinical endpoints (tumor response to chemotherapy, overall survival, disease-free survival, DFS brought results that were not confirmed by validation either on the same group or on the independent group of patients. CLASP1 was the only gene that was found as important for DFS in the independent group, while in the preceding experiments it showed associations with other clinical endpoints and with BRCA1 gene mutation; thus, it may be worth of further testing. Our results confirm that histological tumor type is a strong confounding factor and gene expression studies of ovarian carcinomas should be performed on histologically homogeneous groups. Relatively small and unequal patients groups, may be a reason of poor reproducibility of statistical results, as well as the fact that the patients were treated with different chemotherapies. In addition, clinical endpoints may depend on subtle changes in many alternative molecular pathways, and this may be difficult to demonstrate by the methods applied. Also, arbitrarily performed division of samples may not reflect their true biological diversity

  14. Continuous photodetection model: quantum jumps engineering and hints for experimental verification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dodonov, A V [Departamento de Fisica, CCET, Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos, Via Washington Luiz km 235, 13565-905, Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil); Mizrahi, S S [Departamento de Fisica, CCET, Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos, Via Washington Luiz km 235, 13565-905, Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil); Dodonov, V V [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de BrasIlia, PO Box 04455, 70910-900, BrasIlia, DF (Brazil)

    2007-10-15

    We examine some aspects of the continuous photodetection model for photocounting processes in cavities. First, we work out a microscopic model that describes the field-detector interaction and deduce a general expression for the Quantum Jump Superoperator (QJS), that shapes the detector's post-action on the field upon a detection. We show that in particular cases our model recovers the QJSs previously proposed ad hoc in the literature and point out that by adjusting the detector parameters one can engineer QJSs. Then we set up schemes for experimental verification of the model. By taking into account the ubiquitous non-idealities, we show that by measuring the lower photocounts moments and the mean waiting time one can check which QJS better describes the photocounting phenomenon.

  15. Hints on the nature of dark matter from the properties of Milky Way satellites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderhalden, Donnino; Diemand, Juerg [Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Zürich, Winterthurerstrasse 190, 8057 Zürich (Switzerland); Schneider, Aurel [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Sussex, Brighton, BN1 9QH (United Kingdom); Macciò, Andrea V. [Max-Planck-Institute for Astronomy, Königstuhl 17, 69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Bertone, Gianfranco, E-mail: donninoa@physik.uzh.ch, E-mail: aurel.schneider@sussex.ac.uk, E-mail: maccio@mpia.de, E-mail: diemand@physik.uzh.ch, E-mail: gf.bertone@gmail.com [GRAPPA Institute, University of Amsterdam, Science Park 904, 1090 GL Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2013-03-01

    The nature of dark matter is still unknown and one of the most fundamental scientific mysteries. Although successfully describing large scales, the standard cold dark matter model (CDM) exhibits possible shortcomings on galactic and sub-galactic scales. It is exactly at these highly non-linear scales where strong astrophysical constraints can be set on the nature of the dark matter particle. While observations of the Lyman-α forest probe the matter power spectrum in the mildly non-linear regime, satellite galaxies of the Milky Way provide an excellent laboratory as a test of the underlying cosmology on much smaller scales. Here we present results from a set of high resolution simulations of a Milky Way sized dark matter halo in eight distinct cosmologies: CDM, warm dark matter (WDM) with a particle mass of 2 keV and six different cold plus warm dark matter (C+WDM) models, varying the fraction, f{sub wdm}, and the mass, m{sub wdm}, of the warm component. We used three different observational tests based on Milky Way satellite observations: the total satellite abundance, their radial distribution and their mass profile. We show that the requirement of simultaneously satisfying all three constraints sets very strong limits on the nature of dark matter. This shows the power of a multi-dimensional small scale approach in ruling out models which would be still allowed by large scale observations.

  16. Õigushariduse akrediteerimise õiguslikest alustest ja protsessist Eestis (Tartu Ülikooli õigusteaduskonna näitel) / Kalle Merusk, Raul Narits, Peep Pruks

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Merusk, Kalle, 1949-

    1998-01-01

    Õigusteaduse õppekavade akrediteerimisest eri kõrgkoolides ning Tartu Ülikooli õigusteaduskonna tegevusest. Lisatud ülevaade olulisematest teadustöödest Tartu Ülikooli avaliku õiguse instituudis ja eraõiguse instituudis 1997. a. ning Tartu Ülikooli õigusteaduskonnas 1993.-1998. a. kaitstud magistritööde ja teaduskonna õppejõudude poolt mujal kaitstud tööde nimekiri

  17. On legal bases and process of accreditation of teaching of law in Estonia (University of Tartu Faculty of Law case) / Kalle Merusk, Raul Narits, Peep Pruks

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Merusk, Kalle, 1949-

    1998-01-01

    Õigusharidust andvate õppeasutuste akrediteerimisest; Tartu Ülikooli õigusteaduskonnast ning selle avaliku õiguse ja eraõiguse instituutidest, õppeprogrammist, magistri- ja doktoriõppest ning teadustegevusest. Lisatud andmed 1993.-1998. a. kaitstud teadustööde kohta, õppejõudude osalemise kohta seaduseelnõude ettevalmistamisel ning publikatsioonide kohta

  18. Väljaspool Eestit asuvate silmapaistvate Eesti kultuuri- ja ühiskonnategelaste matmispaikade kaardistamine ja andmebaasi koostamine / Peep Pillak, Mati Strauss

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pillak, Peep, 1957-

    2008-01-01

    Eesti Muinsuskaiste Seltsi juurde moodustati 2007. aastal ümarlaud, mis tegeleb väljaspool Eestit asuvate kaasmaalaste haudade ja matmispaikade väljaselgitamise, säilitamise, tähistamise ja korrastamisega seotud probleemidega

  19. Juridica minevikust, tulevikust ja veebist 200. numbri künnisel / Peep Pruks ; komment. Hanno Pevkur, Priit Pikamäe, Norman Aas ...[jt.

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pruks, Peep, 1963-

    2013-01-01

    Vastused küsimusele, mida on Juridica seni andnud kasulikku ja mida ootaksite ajakirjalt tulevikus rohkem. Valiku statistilistest andmetest, mida Google Analyticsi abil on võimalik veebis Juridica kasutamise kohta tuvastada. Tabel. Graafikud

  20. A randomized pilot study comparing the role of PEEP, O2flow, and high-flow air for weaning of ventilatory support in very low birth weight infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chang-Yo; Yang, Mei-Chin; Chu, Shih-Ming; Chiang, Ming-Chou; Lien, Reyin

    2017-09-06

    There is a lack of evidence to guide step-wise weaning of positive pressure respiratory support for premature infants. This study sought to compare the efficacy of three weaning protocols we designed to facilitate weaning of very low birth weight (VLBW, less than 1500 g) preterm infants from nasal continuous positive airway pressure (NCPAP) support. This was a prospective, randomized, controlled trial of VLBW preterm infants who received positive pressure ventilatory support in our neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) from April 2008 through March 2009. When these infants were weaned to CPAP as their last step of respiratory support, they would be randomly assigned to one of the following three groups as their further weaning methods (M): (M1) CPAP group, (M2) O 2 flow group, and (M3) air flow group. The time period they needed to wean off any kind of respiratory support, as well as the likelihood of developing relevant prematurity related morbidities, were compared among patients using different weaning modalities. 181 patients were enrolled in the study. Their gestational age (GA) and birth weight (BW) were 29.1 ± 2.5, 28.7 ± 2.4, 28.7 ± 2.4 (mean ± SD) weeks and 1142 ± 232, 1099 ± 234, 1083 ± 219 g, in M1, M2 and M3, respectively. The time (period) needed to wean off support was 16.0 ± 10.0 days (M1), 11.6 ± 6.4 days (M2), and 15.0 ± 8.9 days (M3), respectively (p = .033). Incidence of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) and bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) were both significantly higher in the O 2 flow group (p = .048). Although using low oxygen flow significantly shortens CPAP weaning time, it may increase risks of BPD and ROP, both known to be related to oxygen toxicity. Unless the infant has BPD and is O 2 -dependent, clinicians should consider using air flow or just splinting with no support at all when weaning NCPAP. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Morphological Differences between Larvae of the Ciona intestinalis Species Complex: Hints for a Valid Taxonomic Definition of Distinct Species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Pennati

    Full Text Available The cosmopolitan ascidian Ciona intestinalis is the most common model species of Tunicata, the sister-group of Vertebrata, and widely used in developmental biology, genomics and evolutionary studies. Recently, molecular studies suggested the presence of cryptic species hidden within the C. intestinalis species, namely C. intestinalis type A and type B. So far, no substantial morphological differences have been identified between individuals belonging to the two types. Here we present morphometric, immunohistochemical, and histological analyses, as well as 3-D reconstructions, of late larvae obtained by cross-fertilization experiments of molecularly determined type A and type B adults, sampled in different seasons and in four different localities. Our data point to quantitative and qualitative differences in the trunk shape of larvae belonging to the two types. In particular, type B larvae exhibit a longer pre-oral lobe, longer and relatively narrower total body length, and a shorter ocellus-tail distance than type A larvae. All these differences were found to be statistically significant in a Discriminant Analysis. Depending on the number of analyzed parameters, the obtained discriminant function was able to correctly classify > 93% of the larvae, with the remaining misclassified larvae attributable to the existence of intra-type seasonal variability. No larval differences were observed at the level of histology and immunohistochemical localization of peripheral sensory neurons. We conclude that type A and type B are two distinct species that can be distinguished on the basis of larval morphology and molecular data. Since the identified larval differences appear to be valid diagnostic characters, we suggest to raise both types to the rank of species and to assign them distinct names.

  2. MD Simulations of Papillomavirus DNA-E2 Protein Complexes Hints at a Protein Structural Code for DNA Deformation

    OpenAIRE

    Falconi, M.; Oteri, F.; Eliseo, T.; Cicero, D. O.; Desideri, A.

    2008-01-01

    The structural dynamics of the DNA binding domains of the human papillomavirus strain 16 and the bovine papillomavirus strain 1, complexed with their DNA targets, has been investigated by modeling, molecular dynamics simulations, and nuclear magnetic resonance analysis. The simulations underline different dynamical features of the protein scaffolds and a different mechanical interaction of the two proteins with DNA. The two protein structures, although very similar, show differences in the re...

  3. When can Empirical Green Functions be computed from Noise Cross-Correlations? Hints from different Geographical and Tectonic environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matos, Catarina; Silveira, Graça; Custódio, Susana; Domingues, Ana; Dias, Nuno; Fonseca, João F. B.; Matias, Luís; Krueger, Frank; Carrilho, Fernando

    2014-05-01

    Noise cross-correlations are now widely used to extract Green functions between station pairs. But, do all the cross-correlations routinely computed produce successful Green Functions? What is the relationship between noise recorded in a couple of stations and the cross-correlation between them? During the last decade, we have been involved in the deployment of several temporary dense broadband (BB) networks within the scope of both national projects and international collaborations. From 2000 to 2002, a pool of 8 BB stations continuously operated in the Azores in the scope of the Memorandum of Understanding COSEA (COordinated Seismic Experiment in the Azores). Thanks to the Project WILAS (West Iberia Lithosphere and Astenosphere Structure, PTDC/CTE-GIX/097946/2008) we temporarily increased the number of BB deployed in mainland Portugal to more than 50 (permanent + temporary) during the period 2010 - 2012. In 2011/12 a temporary pool of 12 seismometers continuously recorded BB data in the Madeira archipelago, as part of the DOCTAR (Deep Ocean Test Array Experiment) project. Project CV-PLUME (Investigation on the geometry and deep signature of the Cape Verde mantle plume, PTDC/CTE-GIN/64330/2006) covered the archipelago of Cape Verde, North Atlantic, with 40 temporary BB stations in 2007/08. Project MOZART (Mozambique African Rift Tomography, PTDC/CTE-GIX/103249/2008), covered Mozambique, East Africa, with 30 temporary BB stations in the period 2011 - 2013. These networks, located in very distinct geographical and tectonic environments, offer an interesting opportunity to study seasonal and spatial variations of noise sources and their impact on Empirical Green functions computed from noise cross-correlation. Seismic noise recorded at different seismic stations is evaluated by computation of the probability density functions of power spectral density (PSD) of continuous data. To assess seasonal variations of ambient noise sources in frequency content, time-series of PSD at different frequency bands have been computed. The influence of the spatial and seasonal variation is evaluated by analysis of the one-day length cross-correlations, stacked with a 30-day moving window and with an overlap of 30 days. To inspect the effects of frequency content variations, 30-day cross-correlograms have also been computed at different frequency bands. This work is supported by project QuakeLoc-PT (PTDC/GEO-FIQ/3522/2012) and a contribution to project AQUAREL (PTDC/CTE-GIX/116819/2010).

  4. MULTI-FREQUENCY, MULTI-EPOCH STUDY OF Mrk 501: HINTS FOR A TWO-COMPONENT NATURE OF THE EMISSION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shukla, A.; Chitnis, V. R.; Singh, B. B.; Acharya, B. S. [Department of High Energy Physics, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai 400005 (India); Anupama, G. C.; Prabhu, T. P.; Vishwanath, P. R. [Indian Institute of Astrophysics, II Block, Koramangala, 560 034, Bangalore (India); Bhattacharjee, P.; Britto, R. J.; Saha, L. [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF, Bidhannagar, 700 064, Kolkata (India); Mannheim, K. [Universität Würzburg, 97074 Würzburg (Germany)

    2015-01-01

    Since the detection of very high energy (VHE) γ-rays from Mrk 501, its broadband emission of radiation was mostly and quite effectively modeled using the one zone emission scenario. However, broadband spectral and flux variability studies enabled by the multi-wavelength campaigns carried out during the recent years have revealed the rather complex behavior of Mrk 501. The observed emission from Mrk 501 could be due to a complex superposition of multiple emission zones. Moreover, new evidence of detection of very hard intrinsic γ-ray spectra obtained from Fermi-LAT observations has challenged the theories about the origin of VHE γ-rays. Our studies based on Fermi-LAT data indicate the existence of two separate components in the spectrum, one for low-energy γ-rays and the other for high-energy γ-rays. Using multi-waveband data from several ground- and space-based instruments, in addition to HAGAR data, the spectral energy distribution of Mrk 501 is obtained for various flux states observed during 2011. In the present work, this observed broadband spectral energy distribution is reproduced with a leptonic, multi-zone synchrotron self-Compton (SSC) model.

  5. Neighbourhood deprivation and outlet density for tobacco, alcohol and fast food: first hints of obesogenic and addictive environments in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Sven; Gruber, Johannes

    2013-07-01

    The current discussion regarding ‘place effects on health’ is increasingly focusing on the characteristics of a specific physical environment. Our study investigated whether socially deprived residential areas are more likely than affluent neighbourhoods to provide access to addictive substances and fast food. In this ecological study the total number of tobacco, alcohol and fastfood outlets was recorded and visualized using a geographic information system. Area affluence was measured through the percentage of parents with children of kindergarten or school age with joint annual taxable income ,h12 272. Eighteen social areas in Cologne, Germany. All social areas in four districts in Cologne, Germany, with a total of 92 000 inhabitants, were analysed. In the investigation area, 339 tobacco, 353 alcohol and sixty-seven fastfood outlets were identified. As area affluence declined the availability of the following potentially health damaging sources increased: cigarettes (Kendall’s tau50?433; P50?012), alcohol (Kendall’s tau50?341, P50?049) and fast food (Kendall’s tau50?473; P50?009). The availability of addictive substances and fast food can be seen to have a contextual influence on an individual’s lifestyle and can, in the form of physical exposure to obesogenic and addictive environments, contribute to a culmination of health risks.

  6. Factors Influencing Communication with Doctors via the Internet: A Cross-Sectional Analysis of 2014 HINTS Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Shaohai; Street, Richard L

    2017-02-01

    Based on Street's (2003) ecological framework of communication in medical encounters, this study examined personal, interpersonal, and media factors that could influence patients' use of the Internet to communicate with doctors. Results from data analysis of responses from the 2014 Health Information National Trends Survey showed that patient activation and ease of Internet access were two positive predictors of online doctor-patient communication. In addition, patients' trust in doctors positively moderated the relationships between patient activation and online doctor-patient communication, and between perceived health status and online doctor-patient communication. Finally, the quality of patients' past experiences communicating with doctors had a positive moderation effect on the association between health information seeking behavior and online doctor-patient communication. Implications and limitations are discussed.

  7. Light scattering observations and simulations, as hints about the media encountered by future rendezvous missions to comets and asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levasseur-Regourd, Anny-Chantal

    The success of future rendezvous mission to comets (i.e. Rosetta, which will explore the innermost coma of 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko, before deploying a lander on its nucleus in 2014) and asteroids (e.g. Marco-Polo candidate mission for ESA Cosmic Vision) require some understanding of the physical properties of the dust particles encountered in the coma (if any) and on the solid surface. Analysis of observations of the linear polarization of solar light scattered by such media may provide clues to their properties [1]. The polarization is actually a dimension-less ratio, which only varies with the geometry of the observations (i.e. phase angle), with the wavelength, and with the properties of the scattering medium. Comparisons between the shapes of the polarimetric phase curves of asteroids [2] and comets [3] provide a classification with respect to the dust properties. As far as asteroids are concerned, this classification is reminiscent of the taxonomic classes, and more information is expected from detailed studies of the wavelength dependence. As far as comets are concerned, an extensive programme of numerical and laboratory simulations with various irregular compact grains and aggregates has been developed in the past years [4,5]. Comparisons of the results with observations (tentatively on a large range of phase angles and wavelengths) have allowed us to suggest that cometary dust particles are built of both very fluffy aggregates and of more compact grains, with significant proportions of both rather transparent silicates and absorbing materials [6]. These estimations are confirmed by the analysis of Stardust samples, with, e.g. evidence for dense grains and aggregates with low bulk density within the coma of comet Wild 2 [7]. It may thus be concluded that the analysis of remote light scattering observations allows us to infer some properties of the scattering media, to point out some similarities and discrepancies between small solar system bodies, and to contribute to the success of future space missions. [1] Levasseur-Regourd and Hadamcik, J. Quant. Spectros. Radiat. Transfer 79, 903-910, 2003. [2] Pentill¨ et al., Astron. Astrophys. 432, 1081-1090, 2005. [3] Levasseur-Regourd a et al., Astron. Astrophys. 313, 327-333, 1996. [4] Lasue and Levasseur-Regourd, J. Quant. Spectros. Radiat. Transfer 100, 220-236, 2006. [5] Hadamcik et al., Icarus 190, 660-671, 2007. [6] Levasseur-Regourd et al., Planet. Space Sci. 55, 1010-1020, 2007. [7] H¨rz et al., Science o 314, 1716-1719 (2006).

  8. The Effect of Hints and Model Answers in a Student-Controlled Problem-Solving Program for Secondary Physics Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pol, Henk J.; Harskamp, Egbert G.; Suhre, Cor J. M.; Goedhart, Martin J.

    2008-01-01

    Many students experience difficulties in solving applied physics problems. Most programs that want students to improve problem-solving skills are concerned with the development of content knowledge. Physhint is an example of a student-controlled computer program that supports students in developing their strategic knowledge in combination with…

  9. Semantic Priming with Homonymous Nouns: Hints of Clarifying the Issue of Selective vs. Non-Selective Priming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus T. Jansen

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, ways of accessing information about ambiguous words were tested. The non-selective access hypothesis states that all meanings of an ambiguous word are activated for retrieval. In contrast the selective access hypothesis predicates that only the meaning that fits the semantic context is accessed. To test this, 29 students (Age: 21.7 years ['SD' = 3.09]; 12 males, 17 females were given a lexical decision task in order to record reaction times. Each trial had three stimuli while the second stimulus consists of a lexical ambiguity (e.g., bank. We found no difference in reaction times and error rates between conditions with and without semantic association, which favours the non-selective access hypothesis.

  10. Simple heuristics in over-the-counter drug choices: a new hint for medical education and practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Riva

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Silvia Riva1–3, Marco Monti2, Alessandro Antonietti11Department of Psychology, Catholic University of the Sacred Heart of Milan, Milan, Italy; 2Department for Adaptive Behaviour and Cognition, Max Planck Institute for Human Development Berlin, Germany; 3Department of Medicine and Medical Specialities, ABB Centre, University of Milan and IRCCS Ca’ Granda Foundation, Maggiore Hospital, Milan, ItalyIntroduction: Over-the-counter (OTC drugs are widely available and often purchased by consumers without advice from a health care provider. Many people rely on self-management of medications to treat common medical conditions. Although OTC medications are regulated by the National and the International Health and Drug Administration, many people are unaware of proper dosing, side effects, adverse drug reactions, and possible medication interactions.Purpose: This study examined how subjects make their decisions to select an OTC drug, evaluating the role of cognitive heuristics which are simple and adaptive rules that help the decision-making process of people in everyday contexts.Subjects and methods: By analyzing 70 subjects’ information-search and decision-making behavior when selecting OTC drugs, we examined the heuristics they applied in order to assess whether simple decision-making processes were also accurate and relevant. Subjects were tested with a sequence of two experimental tests based on a computerized Java system devised to analyze participants’ choices in a virtual environment.Results: We found that subjects’ information-search behavior reflected the use of fast and frugal heuristics. In addition, although the heuristics which correctly predicted subjects’ decisions implied significantly fewer cues on average than the subjects did in the information-search task, they were accurate in describing order of information search. A simple combination of a fast and frugal tree and a tallying rule predicted more than 78% of subjects’ decisions.Conclusion: The current emphasis in health care is to shift some responsibility onto the consumer through expansion of self medication. To know which cognitive mechanisms are behind the choice of OTC drugs is becoming a relevant purpose of current medical education. These findings have implications both for the validity of simple heuristics describing information searches in the field of OTC drug choices and for current medical education, which has to prepare competent health specialists to orientate and support the choices of their patients.Keywords: fast and frugal heuristics treatment, OTC drugs, decision-tree, decision making 

  11. Simple heuristics in over-the-counter drug choices: a new hint for medical education and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riva, Silvia; Monti, Marco; Antonietti, Alessandro

    2011-01-01

    Over-the-counter (OTC) drugs are widely available and often purchased by consumers without advice from a health care provider. Many people rely on self-management of medications to treat common medical conditions. Although OTC medications are regulated by the National and the International Health and Drug Administration, many people are unaware of proper dosing, side effects, adverse drug reactions, and possible medication interactions. This study examined how subjects make their decisions to select an OTC drug, evaluating the role of cognitive heuristics which are simple and adaptive rules that help the decision-making process of people in everyday contexts. By analyzing 70 subjects' information-search and decision-making behavior when selecting OTC drugs, we examined the heuristics they applied in order to assess whether simple decision-making processes were also accurate and relevant. Subjects were tested with a sequence of two experimental tests based on a computerized Java system devised to analyze participants' choices in a virtual environment. We found that subjects' information-search behavior reflected the use of fast and frugal heuristics. In addition, although the heuristics which correctly predicted subjects' decisions implied significantly fewer cues on average than the subjects did in the information-search task, they were accurate in describing order of information search. A simple combination of a fast and frugal tree and a tallying rule predicted more than 78% of subjects' decisions. The current emphasis in health care is to shift some responsibility onto the consumer through expansion of self medication. To know which cognitive mechanisms are behind the choice of OTC drugs is becoming a relevant purpose of current medical education. These findings have implications both for the validity of simple heuristics describing information searches in the field of OTC drug choices and for current medical education, which has to prepare competent health specialists to orientate and support the choices of their patients.

  12. The Puzzling Early Detection of Low Velocity 56Ni Decay Lines in SN 2014J: Hints of a Compact Remnant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyed, Rachid; Leahy, Denis; Koning, Nico; Staff, Jan

    2015-03-01

    We show that the low-velocity 56Ni decay lines detected earlier than expected in the type Ia SN 2014J find an explanation in the quark-nova Ia model, which involves the thermonuclear explosion of a tidally disrupted sub-Chandrasekhar white dwarf (WD) in a tight neutron-star-WD binary system. The explosion is triggered by impact from the quark-nova (QN) ejecta on the WD material; the QN is the explosive transition of the neutron star to a quark star (QS) triggered by accretion from a CO torus (the circularized WD material). The presence of a compact remnant (the QS) provides: (1) an additional energy source (spin-down power) which allows us to fit the observed light-curve including the steep early rise; (2) a central gravitational potential which slows down some of the 56Ni produced to velocities of a few 103 km s-1. In our model, the 56Ni decay lines become optically visible at ~20 days from explosion time in agreement with observations. We list predictions that can provide important tests for our model.

  13. Stress in School. Some Empirical Hints on the Circadian Cortisol Rhythm of Children in Outdoor and Indoor Classes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich Dettweiler

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This prospective longitudinal survey compared the stress levels of students taught using an outdoor curriculum in a forest, with children in a normal school setting. We were especially interested in the effect outdoor teaching might have on the children’s normal diurnal cortisol rhythm. 48 children (mean age = 11.23; standard deviation (SD = 0.46 were enrolled, with 37 in the intervention group (IG, and 11 in the control group (CG. The intervention consisted of one full school day per week in the forest over the school year. Stress levels were measured in cortisol with three samples of saliva per day. Furthermore, the data allowed for statistical control of physical activity (PA values. For data analysis, we used a linear mixed-effects model (LMM with random intercept and general correlation matrix for the within-unit residuals. The LMM yields that IG have expected greater decline of cortisol compared to CG; rate 0.069 µg/L vs. 0.0102 µg/L (log-units/2 h, p = 0.009. PA does not show a statistically significant interaction with cortisol (p = 0.857, despite being higher in the intervention group (p < 0.001. The main effect in our measures was that the IG had a steady decline of cortisol during the school day. This is in accordance with a healthy child’s diurnal rhythm, with a significant decline of cortisol from morning to noon. This effect is constant over the school year. The CG does not show this decline during either measurement day. Further research is needed to fully explain this interesting phenomenon.

  14. HMGB1 protein does not mediate the inflammatory response in spontaneous spinal cord regeneration: a hint for CNS regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yingying; Gu, Yun; Huan, Youjuan; Wang, Yingjie; Liu, Yan; Liu, Mei; Ding, Fei; Gu, Xiaosong; Wang, Yongjun

    2013-06-21

    Uncontrolled, excessive inflammation contributes to the secondary tissue damage of traumatic spinal cord, and HMGB1 is highlighted for initiation of a vicious self-propagating inflammatory circle by release from necrotic cells or immune cells. Several regenerative-competent vertebrates have evolved to circumvent the second damages during the spontaneous spinal cord regeneration with an unknown HMGB1 regulatory mechanism. By genomic surveys, we have revealed that two paralogs of HMGB1 are broadly retained from fish in the phylogeny. However, their spatial-temporal expression and effects, as shown in lowest amniote gecko, were tightly controlled in order that limited inflammation was produced in spontaneous regeneration. Two paralogs from gecko HMGB1 (gHMGB1) yielded distinct injury and infectious responses, with gHMGB1b significantly up-regulated in the injured cord. The intracellular gHMGB1b induced less release of inflammatory cytokines than gHMGB1a in macrophages, and the effects could be shifted by exchanging one amino acid in the inflammatory domain. Both intracellular proteins were able to mediate neuronal programmed apoptosis, which has been indicated to produce negligible inflammatory responses. In vivo studies demonstrated that the extracellular proteins could not trigger a cascade of the inflammatory cytokines in the injured spinal cord. Signal transduction analysis found that gHMGB1 proteins could not bind with cell surface receptors TLR2 and TLR4 to activate inflammatory signaling pathway. However, they were able to interact with the receptor for advanced glycation end products to potentiate oligodendrocyte migration by activation of both NFκB and Rac1/Cdc42 signaling. Our results reveal that HMGB1 does not mediate the inflammatory response in spontaneous spinal cord regeneration, but it promotes CNS regeneration.

  15. Effects of layered crust on the coseismic slip inversion and related CFF variations: Hints from the 2012 Emilia Romagna earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nespoli, Massimo; Belardinelli, Maria E.; Anderlini, Letizia; Bonafede, Maurizio; Pezzo, Giuseppe; Todesco, Micol; Rinaldi, Antonio P.

    2017-12-01

    The 2012 Emilia Romagna (Italy) seismic sequence has been extensively studied given the occurrence of two mainshocks, both temporally and spatially close to each other. The recent literature accounts for several fault models, obtained with different inversion methods and different datasets. Several authors investigated the possibility that the second event was triggered by the first mainshock with elusive results. In this work, we consider all the available InSAR and GPS datasets and two planar fault geometries, which are based on both seismological and geological constraints. We account for a layered, elastic half-space hosting the dislocation and compare the slip distribution resulting from the inversion and the related changes in Coulomb Failure Function (CFF) obtained with both a homogeneous and layered half-space. Finally, we focus on the interaction between the two main events, discriminating the contributions of coseismic and early postseismic slip of the mainshock on the generation of the second event and discuss the spatio-temporal distribution of the seismic sequence. When accounting for both InSAR and GPS geodetic data we are able to reproduce a detailed coseismic slip distribution for the two mainshocks that is in accordance with the overall aftershock seismicity distribution. Furthermore, we see that an elastic medium with depth dependent rigidity better accounts for the lack of the shallow seismicity, amplifying, with respect to the homogeneous case, the mechanical interaction of the two mainshocks.

  16. Implications of social media use on health information technology engagement: Data from HINTS 4 cycle 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Devlon N; Chou, Wen-Ying Sylvia; Coa, Kisha I; Oh, April; Hesse, Bradford

    2016-12-01

    Little is known about the association between Internet/social media use and health information technology (HIT) engagement. This study examines patterns of social media use and HIT engagement in the U.S.A. using data from the 2013 Health Information National Trends Survey (N = 3,164). Specifically, predictors of two HIT activities (i.e., communicating with a healthcare provider using the Internet or email and tracking personal health information electronically) are examined. Persons who were females, higher education, non-Hispanic others, having a regular healthcare provider, and ages 35-44 were more likely to participate in HIT activities. After controlling for sociodemographics and health correlates, social media use was significantly associated with HIT engagement. To our knowledge, this is one of the first studies to systematically examine the use and relationships across multiple types of health-related online media.

  17. Eesti foneetika möödunud hiilgus ja möödumata viletsus / Mati Hint

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hint, Mati, 1937-

    1997-01-01

    Eesti foneetikauurimise ajaloost ja praegusest seisust, ning fonoloogia ja morfofonoloogia käsitlemisest "Eesti keele grammatikas" (1995) ja Henn Saari kirjutises "Üks häälikuõpetus" (Keel ja Kirjandus, 1995, nr. 2). Artikkel järgneb: Keel ja Kirjandus, 1997, nr. 3

  18. Different distal-proximal movement balances in right- and left-hand writing may hint at differential premotor cortex involvement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Potgieser, A. R. E.; de Jong, B. M.

    2011-01-01

    Right-handed people generally write with their right hand. Language expressed in script is thus performed with the hand also preferred for skilled motor tasks. This may suggest an efficient functional interaction between the language area of Broca and the adjacent ventral premotor cortex (PMv) in

  19. Synchrotron FT-IR analyses of microstructured biomineral domains: Hints to the biomineralization processes in freshwater cultured pearls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soldati, A. L.; Vicente-Vilas, V.; Gasharova, B.; Jacob, D. E.

    2009-04-01

    Recent investigations in freshwater cultured pearls (bio-carbonate) by micro-Raman spectroscopy (Wehrmeister et al., 2008; Soldati et al., 2008), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) imaging (Jacob et al., 2008) show that the pearl biomineralisation starts with a self assembling process in which an existing gel matrix of amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC) and organic substances reorganizes and conglomerates in small domains; these conglomerates then form prisms and mature nacreous tablets of aragonite or vaterite. Raman spectroscopy shows that the calcium carbonate polymorphs have decreasing luminescence in the order ACC>Vaterite>Aragonite, coinciding with decreasing quantities of S and P (related to the organic matrix) measured by Laser Ablation Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy (LA-ICP-MS) and Electron Probe Micro Analyzer (EPMA). Although little is known about the process of transformation of the ACC gel into vaterite and aragonite, it is speculated that this probably involves dehydration and change of the accompanying organic matrix. This is also supported by our laboratory FT-IR analysis. However, due to the small size of the areas of ACC (about 10 ?m) and the biogenic crystals an in-situ high spatially resolved IR-method is needed to record how the water content and organic matrix change in the biomineralisation sequence, to understand which processes take place in the self-organization. The beamline IR-1 at the ANKA synchrotron source (Karlsruhe, Germany) was used for this experiment. Freshwater cultured pearls from China cultured in Hyriopsis cumingii mussels by tissue nucleation methods (so-called beadless pearls) as well as by bead implantation methods (aragonite nucleus) were studied. The pearls were cut in half with a diamond-plated saw and polished with diamond paste on a copper plate. Micro-Raman spectroscopy maps (Department of Geosciences, at the Johannes Gutenberg-University, Mainz) were generated to identify and pre-select those pearls containing ACC. Infrared absorption spectra were measured using a Ge ATR objective on 100-200 ?m thin sections and polished pearl sections. Attenuated total reflectance spectroscopy gives the opportunity to measure the infrared absorption in a reflectance mode directly without necessity to apply Kramers-Kronig transformation. The spectral range available is 650-5000 cm-1when using a Ge ATR crystal with the MCT detector at the ANKA-IR microscope and allowed the detection of the ?4 in-plane bending band (around 750 cm-1 in vaterite and 710 cm-1 in aragonite), the ?1 symmetric stretching bands (1070-7085 cm-1 for vaterite4 and 1082-1084 cm-1 in aragonite5), the ?2 out-of-plane bending vibration of the CO3 groups (855 cm-1 for vaterite and 857-877 cm-1 in aragonite) and the ?3 asymmetric stretching (1420-1490 cm-1 in vaterite and 1480 cm-1 in aragonite) respectively (Sato and Masuda, 1969; Yamoto et al., 1974).Water was detected by the presence of the O-H stretching at around 3500 cm-1. Proteins and sugars included in the biogenic carbonates were recognized through the N-H and C-H bands, for example 1717-1575 cm-1 for aspartic acid, 1712-1558 cm-1 for glutamic acid, 1500 to 2000 cm-1 amide I and II (Dauphin et al., 2006). References WEHRMEISTER U., JACOB D.E., SOLDATI A.L., HÄGER T. & HOFMEISTER W. 2007. Vaterite in freshwater cultured pearls from China and Japan. The Journal of Gemmology; 31: 269-276. SOLDATI A.L., JACOB D.E., WEHRMEISTER U.& HOFMEISTER W. 2008. Structural characterization and chemical composition of aragonite and vaterite in freshwater cultured pearls. Mineralogical Magazine 72: 577-590. JACOB, D.E., SOLDATI, A.L., WIRTH, R., HUTH, J., WEHRMEISTER, U. & HOFMEISTER, W. 2008. Nanostructure, composition and mechanisms of bivalve shell growth. Geochimica et Coscmochimica Acta 72: 5401-5415. SATO M. & MATSUDA S. 1969. Structure of vaterite and infrared spectra. Z. Kistalography 129: 405-410. YAMAMOTO A, SHIRO Y & MURATA H. 1974 Optically-active vibrations and elastic constants of calcite and aragonite. Bulletin Chemical Society Japan, 47:265-273. DAUPHIN Y. 2006. Structure and composition of steptal nacreous layer of Nautilus macromphalus L. (Mollusca, Cephalopoda). Zoology 109: 95-95.

  20. Walking down memory lane: where walkers look as they descend stairs provides hints about how they control their walking behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbaum, David A

    2009-01-01

    Walking down stairs is a challenging perceptual-motor activity, as indicated by the large number of documented falls on stairs each year. The present study suggests that descending stairs is also a challenging memorial activity. A total of 147 people were videotaped as they descended a staircase. When the walkers were in the middle of the stairs, they looked down every third step on average, but as they neared the bottom, they looked down with high probability on or around the fourth step. The trigger for the last look down, by hypothesis, was disappearance of the stairs from the lower visual field. A model is proposed in which mid-stair walking is controlled primarily on the basis of visual guidance, whereas end-stair walking is controlled primarily on the basis of memory.

  1. Phenotypic and molecular diversity of Meyerozyma guilliermondii strains isolated from food and other environmental niches, hints for an incipient speciation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corte, Laura; di Cagno, Raffaella; Groenewald, Marizeth; Roscini, Luca; Colabella, Claudia; Gobbetti, Marco; Cardinali, Gianluigi

    Meyerozyma guilliermondii is a yeast species widely isolated from several natural environments and from fruit; in medical microbiology it is known as the teleomorph of the opportunistic pathogen Candida guilliermondii, which causes about 2% of the human blood infections. This yeast is also promising

  2. Detecting and removing electrosmog. Information and practical hints for protection; Elektrosmog erkennen und beseitigen. Praktische Ratschlaege und Tips fuer Schutzmassnahmen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freyer, U.

    1998-09-01

    Electromagnetic waves and fields are invisible and are perceivable only via their effects. Apart from the wanted effects, there are a number of unwanted effects that can be induced. These are generally known by the term electrosmog, and a distinction is made between effects on man and effects on electrical equipment or systems. The clearly arranged information of the book explains the mechanisms of interaction between electromagnetic fields and biological or electrical systems and the relevant ways and means of protection from the practical angle, referring to conditions of everyday life. The theoretical and physical aspects of electromagnetic waves and their effects are presented only to the extent necessary for fully understanding the mechanisms. (orig./CB) [Deutsch] Elektromagnetische Wellen und Felder kann man nicht sehen, sondern nur deren Wirkung feststellen. Neben den gewollten Effekten sind dabei auch stoerende Einfluesse moeglich. Fuer diese hat sich der Begriff Elektrosmog eingebuergert. Dabei muss zwischen Auswirkungen auf den Menschen und auf elektrische Anlagen unterschieden werden. Dieses Buch zeigt in ueberschaubarer Form den Wirkungsmechanismus des Elektrosmogs unter verschiedenen Bedingungen auf und beschreibt die moeglichen Abhilfemassnahmen. Dabei wird praxisorientiert vorgegangen. Theoretische Betrachtungen erfolgen nur in dem fuer das Verstaendnis der Zusammenhaenge erforderlichen Umfang. (orig./MG)

  3. Increased human defensine levels hint at an inflammatory etiology of bisphosphonate-associated osteonecrosis of the jaw: An immunohistological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trabert Susanne

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human β-defensins (hBD are antimicrobial peptides that are an integral part of bone innate immunity. Recently, it could be shown that expression of hBD-1, -2 and -3 were upregulated in cases of osteomyelitis of the jaws. In order to gain insight into the possible impairment of hBD metabolism in bisphosphonate-associated osteonecrosis of the jaws (BONJ, the present exploratory study was designed so as to determine the qualitative and quantitative expression of afore mentioned hBDs in BONJ and infected osteoradionecrosis (ORN, both of which represent inflammatory bone diseases. Methods Bone samples were collected from patients with BONJ (n = 20 and ORN (n = 20. Non-infected healthy bone samples (n = 20 were included as controls. Immunohistological staining in an autostainer was carried out by the (Strept-ABC-method against hBD-1,-2,-3. Specific positive vs. negative cell reaction of osteocytes (labeling index near the border of bony resection was determined and counted for quantitative analysis. Number of vital osteocytes vs. empty osteocytes lacunae was compared between groups. Results hBD-1,-2 and -3 could be detected in BONJ as well as ORN and healthy bone samples. Immunoreactivity against hBD-2 and -3 was significantly higher in BONJ than in ORN and healthy jaw bone samples. Number of empty osteocyte lacunae was significantly higher in ORN compared with BONJ (P = 0.001. Conclusion Under the condition of BONJ an increased expression of hBD-1,-2,-3 is detectable, similarly to the recently described upregulation of defensins in chronically infected jaw bones. It remains still unclear how these findings may relate to the pathoetiology of these diseases and whether this is contributing to the development of BONJ and ORN or simply an after effect of the disease.

  4. Riia Oja : maja läbi kolme korruse ja kahe tänava / Gitte Hint

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hint, Gitte

    2003-01-01

    Tallinnas Uuel tänaval asuva eramu sisekujundus. Hoone on ehitatud 19. sajandi lõpul Pikal tänaval asuva elamu pesuköögiks. Sisearhitekt Riia Oja, kes projekteeris ka köögimööbli. vitraažid tegi Kaie Pärn. Renoveerimistöid teostas Hard Restauraator. Riia Oja ja omaniku kommentaarid. Ill.: korruste plaanid, 7 värv. vaadet

  5. 76 FR 37356 - Submission for OMB review; comment request Health Information National Trends Survey 4 (HINTS 4...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-27

    ... Health (NIH), has submitted to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) a request to review and approve.... More importantly, this NCI survey will couple knowledge-related questions with inquiries into the communication channels through which understanding is being obtained, and assessment of cancer-related behavior...

  6. The Effect of Hints and Model Answers in a Student-Controlled Problem-Solving Program for Secondary Physics Education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pol, Henk J.; Harskamp, Egbert G.; Suhre, Cor J. M.; Goedhart, Martin J.

    Many students experience difficulties in solving applied physics problems. Most programs that want students to improve problem-solving skills are concerned with the development of content knowledge. Physhint is an example of a student-controlled computer program that supports students in developing

  7. Stress in School. Some Empirical Hints on the Circadian Cortisol Rhythm of Children in Outdoor and Indoor Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dettweiler, Ulrich; Becker, Christoph; Auestad, Bjørn H.; Simon, Perikles; Kirsch, Peter

    2017-01-01

    This prospective longitudinal survey compared the stress levels of students taught using an outdoor curriculum in a forest, with children in a normal school setting. We were especially interested in the effect outdoor teaching might have on the children’s normal diurnal cortisol rhythm. 48 children (mean age = 11.23; standard deviation (SD) = 0.46) were enrolled, with 37 in the intervention group (IG), and 11 in the control group (CG). The intervention consisted of one full school day per week in the forest over the school year. Stress levels were measured in cortisol with three samples of saliva per day. Furthermore, the data allowed for statistical control of physical activity (PA) values. For data analysis, we used a linear mixed-effects model (LMM) with random intercept and general correlation matrix for the within-unit residuals. The LMM yields that IG have expected greater decline of cortisol compared to CG; rate 0.069 µg/L vs. 0.0102 µg/L (log-units/2 h), p = 0.009. PA does not show a statistically significant interaction with cortisol (p = 0.857), despite being higher in the intervention group (p school day. This is in accordance with a healthy child’s diurnal rhythm, with a significant decline of cortisol from morning to noon. This effect is constant over the school year. The CG does not show this decline during either measurement day. Further research is needed to fully explain this interesting phenomenon. PMID:28468292

  8. Estimation of Directed Effective Connectivity from fMRI Functional Connectivity Hints at Asymmetries of Cortical Connectome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthieu Gilson

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The brain exhibits complex spatio-temporal patterns of activity. This phenomenon is governed by an interplay between the internal neural dynamics of cortical areas and their connectivity. Uncovering this complex relationship has raised much interest, both for theory and the interpretation of experimental data (e.g., fMRI recordings using dynamical models. Here we focus on the so-called inverse problem: the inference of network parameters in a cortical model to reproduce empirically observed activity. Although it has received a lot of interest, recovering directed connectivity for large networks has been rather unsuccessful so far. The present study specifically addresses this point for a noise-diffusion network model. We develop a Lyapunov optimization that iteratively tunes the network connectivity in order to reproduce second-order moments of the node activity, or functional connectivity. We show theoretically and numerically that the use of covariances with both zero and non-zero time shifts is the key to infer directed connectivity. The first main theoretical finding is that an accurate estimation of the underlying network connectivity requires that the time shift for covariances is matched with the time constant of the dynamical system. In addition to the network connectivity, we also adjust the intrinsic noise received by each network node. The framework is applied to experimental fMRI data recorded for subjects at rest. Diffusion-weighted MRI data provide an estimate of anatomical connections, which is incorporated to constrain the cortical model. The empirical covariance structure is reproduced faithfully, especially its temporal component (i.e., time-shifted covariances in addition to the spatial component that is usually the focus of studies. We find that the cortical interactions, referred to as effective connectivity, in the tuned model are not reciprocal. In particular, hubs are either receptors or feeders: they do not exhibit both strong incoming and outgoing connections. Our results sets a quantitative ground to explore the propagation of activity in the cortex.

  9. Media exposure and tobacco product addiction beliefs: Findings from the 2015 Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS-FDA 2015).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson, Elisabeth A; Hoffman, Allison C; Zandberg, Izabella; Blake, Kelly D

    2017-09-01

    Addiction beliefs about tobacco use are associated with intentions to use and use of tobacco products. Exposure to information about tobacco products in media sources may affect addiction beliefs. To examine the relationship between media exposure and tobacco product addiction beliefs. A nationally representative sample of US adults (n=3738) from the 2015 National Cancer Institute's Health Information National Trends Survey was used to examine addiction beliefs about cigarettes, cigars, smokeless tobacco, electronic cigarettes, hookah/waterpipe tobacco, and roll-your-own cigarettes. We used logistic regression to examine the relationship between media exposure and addiction beliefs. We defined media exposure by hours exposed, as well as exposure to tobacco use health effects information through media sources including social media. We categorized media sources by whether respondents actively or passively engaged with the source. A majority (60.6% to 87.3%) of respondents believed that cigarettes, cigars, roll-your-own cigarettes and smokeless tobacco are addictive. Less than half of respondents believed that electronic cigarettes or hookah/waterpipes are addictive (45.2% and 49.8%, respectively). Respondents exposed to messages about tobacco use health effects on active media channels (e.g., social media) had greater odds of believing that smokeless tobacco (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]=1.48), hookah/waterpipe (AOR=1.69), and roll-your-own cigarettes (AOR=1.61) are addictive. Respondents exposed to tobacco use health effects messages on passive media channels (e.g., television), had greater odds of believing that cigarettes (AOR=2.76) and electronic cigarettes (AOR=2.12) are addictive. US adult exposure to information about the health effects of tobacco use was associated with addiction beliefs about tobacco products. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Public Schools Should Learn to Ski...And Other Helpful Hints for Educating in the 21st Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Stephen E.

    Due to the different rates of learning expressed by greatly differing students, a recent educational trend has developed that responds to different learner needs through the introduction of programed or individualized instruction. The consequence of the use of instructional packets is that the learners must frequently teach themselves while…

  11. Hints for Metal-Preference Protein Sequence Determinants: Different Metal Binding Features of the Five Tetrahymena thermophila Metallothioneins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espart, Anna; Marín, Maribel; Gil-Moreno, Selene; Palacios, Òscar; Amaro, Francisco; Martín-González, Ana; Gutiérrez, Juan C.; Capdevila, Mercè; Atrian, Sílvia

    2015-01-01

    The metal binding preference of metallothioneins (MTs) groups them in two extreme subsets, the Zn/Cd- and the Cu-thioneins. Ciliates harbor the largest MT gene/protein family reported so far, including 5 paralogs that exhibit relatively low sequence similarity, excepting MTT2 and MTT4. In Tetrahymena thermophila, three MTs (MTT1, MTT3 and MTT5) were considered Cd-thioneins and two (MTT2 and MTT4) Cu-thioneins, according to gene expression inducibility and phylogenetic analysis. In this study, the metal-binding abilities of the five MTT proteins were characterized, to obtain information about the folding and stability of their cognate- and non-cognate metal complexes, and to characterize the T. thermophila MT system at protein level. Hence, the five MTTs were recombinantly synthesized as Zn2+-, Cd2+- or Cu+-complexes, which were analyzed by electrospray mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), circular dichroism (CD), and UV-vis spectrophotometry. Among the Cd-thioneins, MTT1 and MTT5 were optimal for Cd2+ coordination, yielding unique Cd17- and Cd8- complexes, respectively. When binding Zn2+, they rendered a mixture of Zn-species. Only MTT5 was capable to coordinate Cu+, although yielding heteronuclear Zn-, Cu-species or highly unstable Cu-homometallic species. MTT3 exhibited poor binding abilities both for Cd2+ and for Cu+, and although not optimally, it yielded the best result when coordinating Zn2+. The two Cu-thioneins, MTT2 and MTT4 isoforms formed homometallic Cu-complexes (major Cu20-MTT) upon synthesis in Cu-supplemented hosts. Contrarily, they were unable to fold into stable Cd-complexes, while Zn-MTT species were only recovered for MTT4 (major Zn10-MTT4). Thus, the metal binding preferences of the five T. thermophila MTs correlate well with their previous classification as Cd- and Cu-thioneins, and globally, they can be classified from Zn/Cd- to Cu-thioneins according to the gradation: MTT1>MTT5>MTT3>MTT4>MTT2. The main mechanisms underlying the evolution and specialization of the MTT metal binding preferences may have been internal tandem duplications, presence of doublet and triplet Cys patterns in Zn/Cd-thioneins, and optimization of site specific amino acid determinants (Lys for Zn/Cd- and Asn for Cu-coordination). PMID:25798065

  12. Paralog-divergent Features May Help Reduce Off-target Effects of Drugs: Hints from Glucagon Subfamily Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhining Sa

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Side effects from targeted drugs remain a serious concern. One reason is the nonselective binding of a drug to unintended proteins such as its paralogs, which are highly homologous in sequences and have similar structures and drug-binding pockets. To identify targetable differences between paralogs, we analyzed two types (type-I and type-II of functional divergence between two paralogs in the known target protein receptor family G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs at the amino acid level. Paralogous protein receptors in glucagon-like subfamily, glucagon receptor (GCGR and glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R, exhibit divergence in ligands and are clinically validated drug targets for type 2 diabetes. Our data showed that type-II amino acids were significantly enriched in the binding sites of antagonist MK-0893 to GCGR, which had a radical shift in physicochemical properties between GCGR and GLP-1R. We also examined the role of type-I amino acids between GCGR and GLP-1R. The divergent features between GCGR and GLP-1R paralogs may be helpful in their discrimination, thus enabling the identification of binding sites to reduce undesirable side effects and increase the target specificity of drugs.

  13. Hints of the Existence of Axion-Like-Particles From the Gamma-Ray Spectra of Cosmological Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez-Conde, M.A.; /IAA, Granada /SLAC; Paneque, D.; Bloom, E.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Prada, F.; /IAA, Granada /UC, Santa Cruz; Dominguez, A.; /IAA, Granada /Seville U.

    2009-06-23

    Axion Like Particles (ALPs) are predicted to couple with photons in the presence of magnetic fields. This effect may lead to a significant change in the observed spectra of gamma-ray sources such as AGNs. Here we carry out a detailed study that for the first time simultaneously considers in the same framework both the photon/axion mixing that takes place in the gamma-ray source and that one expected to occur in the intergalactic magnetic fields. An efficient photon/axion mixing in the source always means an attenuation in the photon flux, whereas the mixing in the intergalactic medium may result in a decrement and/or enhancement of the photon flux, depending on the distance of the source and the energy considered. Interestingly, we find that decreasing the value of the intergalactic magnetic field strength, which decreases the probability for photon/axion mixing, could result in an increase of the expected photon flux at Earth if the source is far enough. We also find a 30% attenuation in the intensity spectrum of distant sources, which occurs at an energy that only depends on the properties of the ALPs and the intensity of the intergalactic magnetic field, and thus independent of the AGN source being observed. Moreover, we show that this mechanism can easily explain recent puzzles in the spectra of distant gamma-ray sources, like the possible detection of TeV photons from 3C 66A (a source located at z=0.444) by MAGIC and VERITAS, which should not happen according to conventional models of photon propagation over cosmological distances. Another puzzle is the recent published lower limit to the EBL intensity at 3.6 {micro}m (which is almost twice larger as the previous one), which implies very hard spectra for some detected TeV gamma-ray sources located at z=0.1-0.2. The consequences that come from this work are testable with the current generation of gamma-ray instruments, namely Fermi (formerly known as GLAST) and imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes like CANGAROO, HESS, MAGIC and VERITAS.

  14. Chlorophyll-a Estimation Around the Antarctica Peninsula Using Satellite Algorithms: Hints from Field Water Leaving Reflectance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Chen; Xu, Huiping; Fischer, Andrew M

    2016-12-07

    Ocean color remote sensing significantly contributes to our understanding of phytoplankton distribution and abundance and primary productivity in the Southern Ocean (SO). However, the current SO in situ optical database is still insufficient and unevenly distributed. This limits the ability to produce robust and accurate measurements of satellite-based chlorophyll. Based on data collected on cruises around the Antarctica Peninsula (AP) on January 2014 and 2016, this research intends to enhance our knowledge of SO water and atmospheric optical characteristics and address satellite algorithm deficiency of ocean color products. We collected high resolution in situ water leaving reflectance (±1 nm band resolution), simultaneous in situ chlorophyll-a concentrations and satellite (MODIS and VIIRS) water leaving reflectance. Field samples show that clouds have a great impact on the visible green bands and are difficult to detect because NASA protocols apply the NIR band as a cloud contamination threshold. When compared to global case I water, water around the AP has lower water leaving reflectance and a narrower blue-green band ratio, which explains chlorophyll-a underestimation in high chlorophyll-a regions and overestimation in low chlorophyll-a regions. VIIRS shows higher spatial coverage and detection accuracy than MODIS. After coefficient improvement, VIIRS is able to predict chlorophyll a with 53% accuracy.

  15. Chlorophyll-a Estimation Around the Antarctica Peninsula Using Satellite Algorithms: Hints from Field Water Leaving Reflectance

    OpenAIRE

    Chen Zeng; Huiping Xu; Andrew M. Fischer

    2016-01-01

    Ocean color remote sensing significantly contributes to our understanding of phytoplankton distribution and abundance and primary productivity in the Southern Ocean (SO). However, the current SO in situ optical database is still insufficient and unevenly distributed. This limits the ability to produce robust and accurate measurements of satellite-based chlorophyll. Based on data collected on cruises around the Antarctica Peninsula (AP) on January 2014 and 2016, this research intends to enhanc...

  16. Chlorophyll-a Estimation Around the Antarctica Peninsula Using Satellite Algorithms: Hints from Field Water Leaving Reflectance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Zeng

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Ocean color remote sensing significantly contributes to our understanding of phytoplankton distribution and abundance and primary productivity in the Southern Ocean (SO. However, the current SO in situ optical database is still insufficient and unevenly distributed. This limits the ability to produce robust and accurate measurements of satellite-based chlorophyll. Based on data collected on cruises around the Antarctica Peninsula (AP on January 2014 and 2016, this research intends to enhance our knowledge of SO water and atmospheric optical characteristics and address satellite algorithm deficiency of ocean color products. We collected high resolution in situ water leaving reflectance (±1 nm band resolution, simultaneous in situ chlorophyll-a concentrations and satellite (MODIS and VIIRS water leaving reflectance. Field samples show that clouds have a great impact on the visible green bands and are difficult to detect because NASA protocols apply the NIR band as a cloud contamination threshold. When compared to global case I water, water around the AP has lower water leaving reflectance and a narrower blue-green band ratio, which explains chlorophyll-a underestimation in high chlorophyll-a regions and overestimation in low chlorophyll-a regions. VIIRS shows higher spatial coverage and detection accuracy than MODIS. After coefficient improvement, VIIRS is able to predict chlorophyll a with 53% accuracy.

  17. How to identify pastoralism in Prehistory? Some hints from recent studies in Veneto and Friuli Venezia Giulia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mara Migliavacca

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The comparison of experiences carried out in different areas of Northern Italy has allowed to evaluate potentialities and limits of direct and indirect indicators of pastoralism. In the Trieste Karst prehistoric pastoralism was focused on in the late '90s by geo-archaeological studies of cave deposits, based on sedimentological and soil micromorphological analyses of samples collected in previous excavations; further evidence was then found essentially by reviewing old data. In the eastern and north-eastern part of Friuli Venezia Giulia, a similar situation of absence of new fieldwork suggested the adoption of a similar approach, integrated by a specific attention to ethnography, through interviews to the few shepherds still active in the area. Ethnography has played an even more important role in the interdisciplinary field investigations carried out since the ‘80s in Veneto, in particular in the Lessini highlands, where hundreds of abandoned pastoral buildings were detected, and in the Polowland where the last shepherds were interviewed. Soil chemistry has also proved to be effective in the Veneto experience. Il confronto fra le esperienze maturate in due aree distinte del Nord Italia ha permesso di considerare potenzialità e limiti degli indicatori diretti e indiretti delle attività pastorali. Per il Carso triestino gli studi sulla pastorizia preistorica sono iniziati sul fi nire degli anni ‘90, con un approccio geoarcheologico basato su analisi sedimentologiche e micromorfologiche di campioni di suolo prelevati durante lo scavo di alcune grotte. Ulteriori indicatori sono stati dedotti principalmente da dati pregressi. Nella parte orientale e nordorientale del Friuli Venezia Giulia, una situazione simile di mancanza di scavi in anni recenti, ha spinto verso l’adozione di un approccio simile, integrando anche i dati etnografici, tramite le interviste ai pochi pastori ancora attivi nell’area. L’etnografia ha giocato un ruolo ancor più importante nelle indagini di campo interdisciplinari condotte in Veneto a partire dagli anni ‘80, specialmente negli alti pascoli dei Lessini, dove sono state individuate centinaia di strutture pastorali abbandonate, e nella bassa pianura padana, dove sono stati intervistati gli ultimi pastori di ovini. Anche l’analisi chimica dei suoli si è dimostrata efficace nell’esperienza  veneta.

  18. Stress in School. Some Empirical Hints on the Circadian Cortisol Rhythm of Children in Outdoor and Indoor Classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dettweiler, Ulrich; Becker, Christoph; Auestad, Bjørn H; Simon, Perikles; Kirsch, Peter

    2017-04-30

    This prospective longitudinal survey compared the stress levels of students taught using an outdoor curriculum in a forest, with children in a normal school setting. We were especially interested in the effect outdoor teaching might have on the children's normal diurnal cortisol rhythm. 48 children (mean age = 11.23; standard deviation (SD) = 0.46) were enrolled, with 37 in the intervention group (IG), and 11 in the control group (CG). The intervention consisted of one full school day per week in the forest over the school year. Stress levels were measured in cortisol with three samples of saliva per day. Furthermore, the data allowed for statistical control of physical activity (PA) values. For data analysis, we used a linear mixed-effects model (LMM) with random intercept and general correlation matrix for the within-unit residuals. The LMM yields that IG have expected greater decline of cortisol compared to CG; rate 0.069 µg/L vs. 0.0102 µg/L (log-units/2 h), p = 0.009. PA does not show a statistically significant interaction with cortisol (p = 0.857), despite being higher in the intervention group (p morning to noon. This effect is constant over the school year. The CG does not show this decline during either measurement day. Further research is needed to fully explain this interesting phenomenon.

  19. Stress in School. Some Empirical Hints on the Circadian Cortisol Rhythm of Children in Outdoor and Indoor Classes

    OpenAIRE

    Ulrich Dettweiler; Christoph Becker; Auestad, Bjørn H.; Perikles Simon; Peter Kirsch

    2017-01-01

    This prospective longitudinal survey compared the stress levels of students taught using an outdoor curriculum in a forest, with children in a normal school setting. We were especially interested in the effect outdoor teaching might have on the children’s normal diurnal cortisol rhythm. 48 children (mean age = 11.23; standard deviation (SD) = 0.46) were enrolled, with 37 in the intervention group (IG), and 11 in the control group (CG). The intervention consisted of one full school day per wee...

  20. Automated Erosion System to Protect Highway Bridge Crossings at Abutments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    A new instrument (Photo-Electronic Erosion Pin, or PEEP) was examined in collecting field data and remotely monitoring bank erosion near bridge abutments during floods. The performance of PEEPs was evaluated through a detailed field study to determin...

  1. A randomized trial of noninvasive positive end expiratory pressure in patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome and hypoxemic respiratory failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anjos, Carlos Frederico Dantas; Schettino, Guilherme Paula Pinto; Park, Marcelo; Souza, Vladimir Silva; Scalabrini Neto, Augusto

    2012-02-01

    Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a pandemic disease commonly associated with respiratory infections, hypoxemia, and death. Noninvasive PEEP has been shown to improve hypoxemia. In this study, we evaluated the physiologic effects of different levels of noninvasive PEEP in hypoxemic AIDS patients. Thirty AIDS patients with acute hypoxemic respiratory failure received a randomized sequence of noninvasive PEEP (5, 10, or 15 cm H(2)O) for 20 min. PEEP was provided through a facial mask with pressure-support ventilation (PSV) of 5 cm H(2)O and an F(IO(2)) of 1. Patients were allowed to breathe spontaneously for a 20-min washout period in between each PEEP trial. Arterial blood gases and clinical variables were recorded after each PEEP treatment. The results indicate that oxygenation improves linearly with increasing levels of PEEP. However, oxygenation levels were similar regardless of the first PEEP level administered (5, 10, or 15 cm H(2)O), and only the subgroup that received an initial treatment of the lowest level of PEEP (ie, 5 cm H(2)O) showed further improvements in oxygenation when higher PEEP levels were subsequently applied. The P(aCO(2)) also increased in response to PEEP elevation, especially with the highest level of PEEP (ie, 15 cm H(2)O). PSV of 5 cm H(2)O use was associated with significant and consistent improvements in the subjective sensations of dyspnea and respiratory rate reported by patients treated with any level of PEEP (from 0 to 15 cm H(2)O). AIDS patients with hypoxemic respiratory failure improve oxygenation in response to a progressive sequential elevation of PEEP (up to 15 cm H(2)O). However, corresponding elevations in P(aCO(2)) limit the recommended level of PEEP to 10 cm H(2)O. At a level of 5 cm H(2)O, PSV promotes an improvement in the subjective sensation of dyspnea regardless of the PEEP level employed.

  2. Variable positive end-expiratory pressure can maintain oxygenation in experimental acute respiratory distress syndrome induced by oleic acid in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.C. Lanza

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The use of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP or lung recruitment maneuvers (RM to improve oxygenation in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS is used but it may reduce cardiac output (CO. Intermittent PEEP may avoid these complications. Our objective was to determine if variable PEEP compared with constant PEEP is capable of maintaining arterial oxygenation and minimizing hemodynamic alterations with or without RM. Eighteen dogs with ARDS induced by oleic acid were randomized into three equal groups: group 1, low variable PEEP; group 2, high variable PEEP, and group 3, RM + high variable PEEP. All groups were submitted to constant PEEP, followed by variable PEEP (PEEP was increased from 5 to 10 cmH2O in group 1, and from 5 to 18 cmH2O in the other two groups. PaO2 was higher in group 3 (356.2 ± 65.4 mmHg than in group 1 (92.7 ± 29.7 mmHg and group 2 (228.5 ± 72.4 mmHg, P 0.05. Variable PEEP is able to maintain PaO2 when performed in combination with RM in dogs with ARDS. After RM, CO was reduced and there was no relevant difference between the variable and constant PEEP periods.

  3. Monitoring of optimal oxygen Transport by the transcutaneous oxygen tension method in the pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haldén, E

    1982-06-01

    The validity of the transcutaneous oxygen tension (PaO2) method as opposed to measurement of arterial oxygen tension (PaO2) and mixed venous oxygen saturation (SVO2), for monitoring optimal oxygen transport, was studied in six mechanically ventilated pigs with an oleic acid lung injury. With stepwise increments in positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) from zero to 20 cmH2O maximum oxygen flux was found at a PEEP of 8 cmH2O and named "optimal PEEP". With increasing PEEP, cardiac output (CO) was maintained up to a PEEP of 8 cmH2O, when it began to decline, while venous admixture decreased at all respiratory settings up to a PEEP of 16, when it was about one-fourth of the value (38.7%) at a PEEP of zero. PaO2 increased with rising PEEP and reached a steady level at a PEEP of 16 cmH2O. PtCO2 and SVO2 parallelled each other and rose steeply up to a PEEP of 8 cmH2O. They showed a further slight increase up to a PEEP of 12 and after that a tendency to decrease. It is concluded that PtCO2 and SVO2 both seem to distinguish the optimal PEEP and give more adequate information than does PaO2. The PtCO2 method has the advantage of being non-invasive.

  4. Effect of Supplementing Oxygen with Positive end Expiratory Pressure During Elective Caesarean Section under Spinal Anaesthesia on Foetus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhu, Ramesh; Jayaraj; Shenoy, U Kailasanath

    2010-01-01

    Background: It is known fact that pre-oxygenation with positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) improves the Partial pressure of oxygen (PO 2). In this regard not many studies have been done in pregnant women to know its effect on foetus. In this randomised double blind controlled study, we analysed effect of pre-oxygenation with PEEP during caesarean section on foetal umbilical venous PO 2. Patients & Methods: 40 term pregnant women, ASA I or II, undergoing elective Caesarean section under spinal anaes-thesia were randomly divided into PEEP and Non-PEEP groups of 20 each. PEEP group received oxygen flow of 6 L/minute with PEEP of 5 cmH 2O using a modified Mapleson A circuit with fixed unidirectional PEEP valve at the expiratory port during pre-oxygenation and Non PEEP group received same fresh gas flow of oxygen using same breathing circuit without PEEP. Maternal arterial blood samples were collected before applying PEEP and at the end of 5 minutes of facemask application for oxygen analysis. Immediately after baby was delivered umbilical venous samples were taken for blood gas analysis. Results: Both groups were comparable in terms of maternal baseline oxygen saturation (Spo 2) and base line Po 2. After 5 minutes PO 2was higher in PEEP Group than non PEEP group (491.65 + 49.96 vs. 452.08 + 77.61). Umbilical venous Po 2in PEEP group was higher than non PEEP group (34.22 + 6.50 vs. 28.29 + 6.10 mm of Hg). Conclusion: Application of PEEP during pre-oxygenation for spinal anaesthesia can increase foetal umbilical venous PO2. PMID:21547172

  5. Rein Lang: Eesti kõige väärtuslikum ressurss on mõistus / Rein Lang ; interv. Peep Lillemägi ; komment. Siim Kallas, Jüri Pihl, Väino Linde

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lang, Rein, 1957-

    2009-01-01

    Justiitsminister Rein Lang vastab küsimustele, mis puudutavad Ameerika Ühendriike kui vabaduse kantsi, ettevõtlusvabadust Ameerika Ühendriikides ja Eestis, tööd justiitsministrina, varasemat karjääri, Eesti põhiseaduse loomist, Euroopa Liidu aluslepingu välja töötamist, avaliku võimu rolli tänapäeva maailmas ning Eesti jõudmist Euroopa rikkamate riikide hulka

  6. Changes in Positive End-Expiratory Pressure Alter the Distribution of Ventilation within the Lung Immediately after Birth in Newborn Rabbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitchen, Marcus J.; Siew, Melissa L.; Wallace, Megan J.; Fouras, Andreas; Lewis, Robert A.; Yagi, Naoto; Uesugi, Kentaro; te Pas, Arjan B.; Hooper, Stuart B.

    2014-01-01

    Current recommendations suggest the use of positive end-expiratory pressures (PEEP) to assist very preterm infants to develop a functional residual capacity (FRC) and establish gas exchange at birth. However, maintaining a consistent PEEP is difficult and so the lungs are exposed to changing distending pressures after birth, which can affect respiratory function. Our aim was to determine how changing PEEP levels alters the distribution of ventilation within the lung. Preterm rabbit pups (28 days gestation) were delivered and mechanically ventilated with one of three strategies, whereby PEEP was changed in sequence; 0-5-10-5-0 cmH2O, 5-10-0-5-0 cmH2O or 10-5-0-10-0 cmH2O. Phase contrast X-ray imaging was used to analyse the distribution of ventilation in the upper left (UL), upper right (UR), lower left (LL) and lower right (LR) quadrants of the lung. Initiating ventilation with 10PEEP resulted in a uniform increase in FRC throughout the lung whereas initiating ventilation with 5PEEP or 0PEEP preferentially aerated the UR than both lower quadrants (pventilation at 10PEEP, the distribution of air at end-inflation was uniform across all quadrants and remained so regardless of the PEEP level. Uniform distribution of ventilation can be achieved by initiating ventilation with a high PEEP. After the lungs have aerated, small and stepped reductions in PEEP result in more uniform changes in ventilation. PMID:24690890

  7. A Eukaryotic green alga, Picocystis, dominates Mono Lake, California in an algal bloom - Hints at cryptic oxygen cycle in euxinic waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tookmanian, E. M.; Bauer, K. W.; Thompson, K.; Waldeck, A.; Berelson, W.; Stevenson, B. S.; Stamps, B. W.; Johnson, H.; Sessions, A. L.; Miller, L. G.; Oremland, R. S.; Rosen, M. R.; Corsetti, F. A.; Spear, J. R.

    2016-12-01

    Mono Lake is a closed-basin stratified soda lake (pH = 9.8; salinity = 60 g/L) that supports high rates of primary productivity (annual average of 100 mmol C m-2 d-1), and is dominated by a eukaryotic alga, Picocystis strain ML. To further investigate the unique biology of the lake, we sampled the water column during an algal bloom when productivity was on the order of 1500 mmol C m-2 d-1 at 2 m depth. Picocystis was abundant at all depths in SSU rRNA gene sequencing libraries. Interestingly, the relative abundance of Picocystis was greatest at 20 m depth. This part of the water column was well below the oxycline (12 m) and detectable photosynthetically active radiation (5 m). Sulfide concentrations from previous work increased just below 20 m to millimolar concentrations; however, analysis of metatranscriptomic data indicated that genes involved in both photosystem I and II were expressed at 25 m. This suggests that photosynthesis was active despite euxinic waters and light conditions below our detectable limit. Metagenomes and metatranscriptomes at 20 and 25 m depth also revealed an abundance of sulfide oxidizing genes (soxA and soxB). These metabolisms are often mixotrophic, using oxygen as their electron acceptor, presenting further support for photosynthetic oxygen production at depth. We suggest that Picocystis may be producing oxygen through photosynthesis in the euxinic bottom waters of Mono Lake. The oxygen produced would be extremely transient, consumed in either abiotic or microbially-mediated oxidation of sulfide, or both. This potential cryptic oxygen cycle in the euxinic bottom waters of Mono Lake could explain the fate of large sulfide fluxes from sediments, as well as offer an opportunity to explore the biogeochemistry of this site to inform how we approach the rise of oxygen and early evolution of life.

  8. A Novel Relationship for Schizophrenia, Bipolar and Major Depressive Disorder Part 6: A Hint from Chromosome 6 High Density Association Screen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, X; Long, F; Cai, B; Chen, X H; Chen, G

    2016-01-01

    Convergent evidence from genetics, symptomatology and psychopharmacology imply that there are intrinsic connections between schizophrenia (SCZ), bipolar disorder (BPD) and major depressive disorder (MDD), for example, any two or even three of these disorders could co-exist in some families. To screen out the susceptibility genes on chromosome 6 comprehensively for SCZ, BPD and MDD in a relative homogenous population in China. A total of 56.400 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs) on chromosome 6 were genotyped by Affymetrix Genome-Wide Human SNP array 6.0 on 119 SCZ, 253 BPD (type- I), 177 MDD patients and 1000 controls. Associated SNP loci on chromosome 6 were comprehensively revealed and outstanding susceptibility genes were identified including JARID2 (Homo sapiens jumonji, AT rich interactive domain 2) which plays an essential role in embryonic development and neural tube fusion process. Unexpectedly, flanking genes for all associated SNPs were replicated in an enlarged cohort of 986 SCZ patients. Considering all evidence, our results imply that both of bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder are subtypes of schizophrenia. Furthermore, JARID2 is an important psychosis gene in this population. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  9. Tüüne-Kristin & Urmo Vaikla : "Oleme mõlemad friigid. Kaitseme oma nägemust mõistliku ajalimiidini" / Gitte Hint

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hint, Gitte

    2003-01-01

    Tüüne-Kristin ja Urmo Vaikla interjööri olulistest osadest, harmooniast sisekujunduses, sellest, mida peaks kodu omanikule pakkuma jm. T.-K. ja U. Vaiklast, esinemised näitustel, olulisemate kujundatud ühiskondlike ruumide nimistu, omistatud preemia. 1992. aastast töötavad mõlemad Vaikla Stuudios. Ill.: värv. foto T.-K. ja U. Vaiklast

  10. HIV testing in non-traditional settings--the HINTS study: a multi-centre observational study of feasibility and acceptability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Rayment

    Full Text Available UK guidelines recommend routine HIV testing in healthcare settings if the local diagnosed HIV prevalence >2/1000 persons. This prospective study assessed the feasibility and acceptability, to patients and staff, of routinely offering HIV tests in four settings: Emergency Department, Acute Care Unit, Dermatology Outpatients and Primary Care. Modelling suggested the estimated prevalence of undiagnosed HIV infection in attendees would exceed 1/1000 persons. The prevalence identified prospectively was not a primary outcome.Permanent staff completed questionnaires assessing attitudes towards routine HIV testing in their workplace before testing began. Subsequently, over a three-month period, patients aged 16-65 were offered an HIV test by study staff. Demographics, uptake, results, and departmental activity were collected. Subsets of patients completed questionnaires. Analyses were conducted to identify factors associated with test uptake.Questionnaires were received from 144 staff. 96% supported the expansion of HIV testing, but only 54% stated that they would feel comfortable delivering testing themselves, with 72% identifying a need for training. Of 6194 patients offered a test, 4105 (66·8% accepted (61·8-75·4% across sites. Eight individuals were diagnosed with HIV (0-10/1000 across sites and all transferred to care. Younger people, and males, were more likely to accept an HIV test. No significant associations were found between uptake and ethnicity, or clinical site. Questionnaires were returned from 1003 patients. The offer of an HIV test was acceptable to 92%. Of respondents, individuals who had never tested for HIV before were more likely to accept a test, but no association was found between test uptake and sexual orientation.HIV testing in these settings is acceptable, and operationally feasible. The strategy successfully identified, and transferred to care, HIV-positive individuals. However, if HIV testing is to be included as a routine part of patients' care, additional staff training and infrastructural resources will be required.

  11. Binding interface between the Salmonella σ(S)/RpoS subunit of RNA polymerase and Crl: hints from bacterial species lacking crl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavaliere, Paola; Sizun, Christina; Levi-Acobas, Fabienne; Nowakowski, Mireille; Monteil, Véronique; Bontems, François; Bellalou, Jacques; Mayer, Claudine; Norel, Françoise

    2015-09-04

    In many Gram-negative bacteria, including Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium), the sigma factor RpoS/σ(S) accumulates during stationary phase of growth, and associates with the core RNA polymerase enzyme (E) to promote transcription initiation of genes involved in general stress resistance and starvation survival. Whereas σ factors are usually inactivated upon interaction with anti-σ proteins, σ(S) binding to the Crl protein increases σ(S) activity by favouring its association to E. Taking advantage of evolution of the σ(S) sequence in bacterial species that do not contain a crl gene, like Pseudomonas aeruginosa, we identified and assigned a critical arginine residue in σ(S) to the S. Typhimurium σ(S)-Crl binding interface. We solved the solution structure of S. Typhimurium Crl by NMR and used it for NMR binding assays with σ(S) and to generate in silico models of the σ(S)-Crl complex constrained by mutational analysis. The σ(S)-Crl models suggest that the identified arginine in σ(S) interacts with an aspartate of Crl that is required for σ(S) binding and is located inside a cavity enclosed by flexible loops, which also contribute to the interface. This study provides the basis for further structural investigation of the σ(S)-Crl complex.

  12. Exploring the predictive value of the evoked potentials score in MS within an appropriate patient population: a hint for an early identification of benign MS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaritella Nicolò

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prognostic value of evoked potentials (EPs in multiple sclerosis (MS has not been fully established. The correlations between the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS at First Neurological Evaluation (FNE and the duration of the disease, as well as between EDSS and EPs, have influenced the outcome of most previous studies. To overcome this confounding relations, we propose to test the prognostic value of EPs within an appropriate patient population which should be based on patients with low EDSS at FNE and short disease duration. Methods We retrospectively selected a sample of 143 early relapsing remitting MS (RRMS patients with an EDSS Results The Evoked Potentials score (EP score and the Time to EDSS 2.0 (TT2 were the best predictors of worsening in our sample (Odds Ratio 1.10 and 0.82 respectively, p=0.001. Low EP score (below 15–20 points, short TT2 (lower than 3–5 years and their interaction resulted to be the most useful for the identification of worsening patterns. Moreover, in patients with an EP score at FNE below 6 points and a TT2 greater than 3 years the probability of worsening was 10% after 4–5 years and rapidly decreased thereafter. Conclusions In an appropriate population of early RRMS patients, the EP score at FNE is a good predictor of disability at low values as well as in combination with a rapid buildup of disability. Interestingly, an EP score at FNE under the median together with a clinical stability lasting more than 3 years turned out to be a protective pattern. This finding may contribute to an early identification of benign patients, well before the term required to diagnose Benign MS (BMS.

  13. A potential determinant role of adiponectin and receptors for the early embryo development in PCOS patients with obesity hinted by quantitative profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ning; Hao, Cuifang; Liu, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Shouxin; Zhang, Fengrong; Zhuang, Lili; Zhao, Dongmei

    2017-02-01

    To identify the quantitative profiling of adiponectin and its receptors (AdipoR1, AdipoR2, and T-cadherin) in cumulus cells (CCs) and to evaluate their roles in the early embryo development of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) patients, in part, with obesity. Fifty-five subjects were divided into two groups according to the body mass index. Oocytes were further inseminated and only mature and normal fertilized oocytes (2PN) were included in this research. Real-time PCR and western blot were performed to identify adiponectin and its receptors in CCs. Adiponectin and receptors were ubiquitously expressed in CCs of PCOS and non-PCOS patients. The level of AdipoR2 in CCs from the oocytes yielding blastocyst after 5/6 days in vitro culture was markedly higher than in those from oocytes could not develop to blastocyst stage after Day 6, for non-obese or obese PCOS patients (0.1647 ± 0.0161 versus 0.0783 ± 0.0385, 0.1948 ± 0.0307 versus 0.1057 ± 0.0236, respectively, p < 0.05). In addition, only in patients with PCOS and concurrent obesity the AdipoR1 in CCs was considerably increased in CC-B+ compared with CC-B- subgroup (0.5162 ± 0.0371 versus 0.2448 ± 0.0333, p < 0.01). The development of early embryo was associated with the up-regulation of AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 in PCOS patients. Our results suggested that adiponectin could positively modulate embryo development in humans. Further investigations should be carried out to unlock the crucial role that adiponectin plays in embryo development.

  14. Energy efficiency by remote management of buildings. Hints to enhance the energy balance of existing buildings; Energieeffizienz durch Gebaeude-Fernmanagement. Tipps zur Verbesserung der Energiebilanz von Bestandsgebaeuden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rader, M. [CentraLine Honeywell GmbH, Schoenaich (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    Increasing energy cost and ever more rigid legal specifications have made energy efficiency an issue among builder-owners, planners, and owners and users of buildings. According to the EU action plan of the EU Commission, the biggest potential for savings - in the range of 27 - 30 percent by 2020 - is in the field of existing buildings. This contribution shows some of the options available for assessing and utilising the energy conservation potential. (orig.)

  15. The first toxicological study of the antiozonant and research tool ethylene diurea (EDU) using a Lemna minor L. bioassay: Hints to its mode of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agathokleous, Eugenios; Mouzaki-Paxinou, Akrivi-Chara; Saitanis, Costas J; Paoletti, Elena; Manning, William J

    2016-06-01

    The antiozonant and research tool ethylene diurea (EDU) is widely studied as a phytoprotectant against the widespread pollutant ground-surface ozone. Although it has been extensively used, its potential toxicity in the absence of ozone is unknown and its mode of action is unclear. The purpose of this research was to toxicologically assess EDU and to further investigate its mode of action using Lemna minor L. as a model organism. Application of EDU concentrations greater than 593 mg L(-1) (practically 600 mg L(-1)) resulted in adverse inhibition of colony growth. As no-observed-toxic-effects concentration (NOEL) we recommend a concentration of 296 mg L(-1) (practically 300 mg L(-1)). A hormetic response was detected, i.e. stimulatory effects of low EDU concentrations, which may indicate overcompensation in response to disruption in homeostasis. Growth inhibition and suppressed biomass were associated with impacted chlorophyll a fluorescence (ΦPSII, qP and ETR). Furthermore, EDU increased mesophyll thickness, as indicated by frond succulence index. Applications of concentrations ≥593 mg L(-1) to uncontrolled environments should be avoided due to potential toxicity to sensitive organisms and the environment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The Role of Insulin C-Peptide in the Coevolution Analyses of the Insulin Signaling Pathway: A Hint for Its Functions

    OpenAIRE

    Shuai Wang; Wei Wei; Yadong Zheng; Junling Hou; Yongxi Dou; Shaohua Zhang; Xuenong Luo; Xuepeng Cai

    2012-01-01

    As the linker between the A chain and B chain of proinsulin, C-peptide displays high variability in length and amino acid composition, and has been considered as an inert byproduct of insulin synthesis and processing for many years. Recent studies have suggested that C-peptide can act as a bioactive hormone, exerting various biological effects on the pathophysiology and treatment of diabetes. In this study, we analyzed the coevolution of insulin molecules among vertebrates, aiming at explorin...

  17. The role of insulin C-peptide in the coevolution analyses of the insulin signaling pathway: a hint for its functions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuai Wang

    Full Text Available As the linker between the A chain and B chain of proinsulin, C-peptide displays high variability in length and amino acid composition, and has been considered as an inert byproduct of insulin synthesis and processing for many years. Recent studies have suggested that C-peptide can act as a bioactive hormone, exerting various biological effects on the pathophysiology and treatment of diabetes. In this study, we analyzed the coevolution of insulin molecules among vertebrates, aiming at exploring the evolutionary characteristics of insulin molecule, especially the C-peptide. We also calculated the correlations of evolutionary rates between the insulin and the insulin receptor (IR sequences as well as the domain-domain pairs of the ligand and receptor by the mirrortree method. The results revealed distinctive features of C-peptide in insulin intramolecular coevolution and correlated residue substitutions, which partly supported the idea that C-peptide can act as a bioactive hormone, with significant sequence features, as well as a linker assisting the formation of mature insulin during synthesis. Interestingly, the evolution of C-peptide exerted the highest correlation with that of the insulin receptor and its ligand binding domain (LBD, implying a potential relationship with the insulin signaling pathway.

  18. The role of insulin C-peptide in the coevolution analyses of the insulin signaling pathway: a hint for its functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuai; Wei, Wei; Zheng, Yadong; Hou, Junling; Dou, Yongxi; Zhang, Shaohua; Luo, Xuenong; Cai, Xuepeng

    2012-01-01

    As the linker between the A chain and B chain of proinsulin, C-peptide displays high variability in length and amino acid composition, and has been considered as an inert byproduct of insulin synthesis and processing for many years. Recent studies have suggested that C-peptide can act as a bioactive hormone, exerting various biological effects on the pathophysiology and treatment of diabetes. In this study, we analyzed the coevolution of insulin molecules among vertebrates, aiming at exploring the evolutionary characteristics of insulin molecule, especially the C-peptide. We also calculated the correlations of evolutionary rates between the insulin and the insulin receptor (IR) sequences as well as the domain-domain pairs of the ligand and receptor by the mirrortree method. The results revealed distinctive features of C-peptide in insulin intramolecular coevolution and correlated residue substitutions, which partly supported the idea that C-peptide can act as a bioactive hormone, with significant sequence features, as well as a linker assisting the formation of mature insulin during synthesis. Interestingly, the evolution of C-peptide exerted the highest correlation with that of the insulin receptor and its ligand binding domain (LBD), implying a potential relationship with the insulin signaling pathway.

  19. THE PUZZLING EARLY DETECTION OF LOW VELOCITY {sup 56}Ni DECAY LINES IN SN 2014J: HINTS OF A COMPACT REMNANT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ouyed, Rachid; Leahy, Denis; Koning, Nico [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Calgary, 2500 University Drive NW, Calgary, Alberta, T2N 1N4 (Canada); Staff, Jan [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Macquarie University, Sydney (Australia)

    2015-03-01

    We show that the low-velocity {sup 56}Ni decay lines detected earlier than expected in the type Ia SN 2014J find an explanation in the quark-nova Ia model, which involves the thermonuclear explosion of a tidally disrupted sub-Chandrasekhar white dwarf (WD) in a tight neutron-star-WD binary system. The explosion is triggered by impact from the quark-nova (QN) ejecta on the WD material; the QN is the explosive transition of the neutron star to a quark star (QS) triggered by accretion from a CO torus (the circularized WD material). The presence of a compact remnant (the QS) provides: (1) an additional energy source (spin-down power) which allows us to fit the observed light-curve including the steep early rise; (2) a central gravitational potential which slows down some of the {sup 56}Ni produced to velocities of a few 10{sup 3} km s{sup –1}. In our model, the {sup 56}Ni decay lines become optically visible at ∼20 days from explosion time in agreement with observations. We list predictions that can provide important tests for our model.

  20. Nonenzymatic Oligomerization of 3',5'-Cyclic CMP Induced by Proton and UV Irradiation Hints at a Nonfastidious Origin of RNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costanzo, Giovanna; Giorgi, Alessandra; Scipioni, Anita; Timperio, Anna Maria; Mancone, Carmine; Tripodi, Marco; Kapralov, Michail; Krasavin, Eugene; Kruse, Holger; Šponer, Jiří; Šponer, Judit E; Ranc, Václav; Otyepka, Michal; Pino, Samanta; Di Mauro, Ernesto

    2017-08-04

    We report that 3',5'-cyclic CMP undergoes nonenzymatic di- and trimerization at 20 °C under dry conditions upon proton or UV irradiation. The reaction involves stacking of the cyclic monomers and subsequent polymerization through serial transphosphorylations between the stacked monomers. Proton- and UV-induced oligomerization of 3',5'-cyclic CMP demonstrates that pyrimidines-similar to purines-might also have taken part in the spontaneous generation of RNA under plausible prebiotic conditions as well as in an extraterrestrial context. The observed polymerization of naturally occurring 3',5'-cyclic nucleotides supports the possibility that the extant genetic nucleic acids might have originated by way of a straight Occamian path, starting from simple reactions between plausibly preactivated monomers. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Novel papillomaviruses in free-ranging Iberian bats: no virus-host co-evolution, no strict host specificity, and hints for recombination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Pérez, Raquel; Ibáñez, Carlos; Godínez, Jose M; Aréchiga, Nidia; Garin, Inazio; Pérez-Suárez, Gonzalo; de Paz, Oscar; Juste, Javier; Echevarría, Juan E; Bravo, Ignacio G

    2014-01-01

    Papillomaviruses (PVs) are widespread pathogens. However, the extent of PV infections in bats remains largely unknown. This work represents the first comprehensive study of PVs in Iberian bats. We identified four novel PVs in the mucosa of free-ranging Eptesicus serotinus (EserPV1, EserPV2, and EserPV3) and Rhinolophus ferrumequinum (RferPV1) individuals and analyzed their phylogenetic relationships within the viral family. We further assessed their prevalence in different populations of E. serotinus and its close relative E. isabellinus. Although it is frequent to read that PVs co-evolve with their host, that PVs are highly species-specific, and that PVs do not usually recombine, our results suggest otherwise. First, strict virus-host co-evolution is rejected by the existence of five, distantly related bat PV lineages and by the lack of congruence between bats and bat PVs phylogenies. Second, the ability of EserPV2 and EserPV3 to infect two different bat species (E. serotinus and E. isabellinus) argues against strict host specificity. Finally, the description of a second noncoding region in the RferPV1 genome reinforces the view of an increased susceptibility to recombination in the E2-L2 genomic region. These findings prompt the question of whether the prevailing paradigms regarding PVs evolution should be reconsidered.

  2. Novel Papillomaviruses in Free-Ranging Iberian Bats: No Virus–Host Co-evolution, No Strict Host Specificity, and Hints for Recombination

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Pérez, Raquel; Ibáñez, Carlos; Godínez, Jose M.; Aréchiga, Nidia; Garin, Inazio; Pérez-Suárez, Gonzalo; de Paz, Oscar; Juste, Javier; Echevarría, Juan E.; Bravo, Ignacio G.

    2014-01-01

    Papillomaviruses (PVs) are widespread pathogens. However, the extent of PV infections in bats remains largely unknown. This work represents the first comprehensive study of PVs in Iberian bats. We identified four novel PVs in the mucosa of free-ranging Eptesicus serotinus (EserPV1, EserPV2, and EserPV3) and Rhinolophus ferrumequinum (RferPV1) individuals and analyzed their phylogenetic relationships within the viral family. We further assessed their prevalence in different populations of E. serotinus and its close relative E. isabellinus. Although it is frequent to read that PVs co-evolve with their host, that PVs are highly species-specific, and that PVs do not usually recombine, our results suggest otherwise. First, strict virus–host co-evolution is rejected by the existence of five, distantly related bat PV lineages and by the lack of congruence between bats and bat PVs phylogenies. Second, the ability of EserPV2 and EserPV3 to infect two different bat species (E. serotinus and E. isabellinus) argues against strict host specificity. Finally, the description of a second noncoding region in the RferPV1 genome reinforces the view of an increased susceptibility to recombination in the E2-L2 genomic region. These findings prompt the question of whether the prevailing paradigms regarding PVs evolution should be reconsidered. PMID:24391150

  3. Multifractality in individual honeybee behavior hints at colony-specific social cascades: Reanalysis of radio-frequency identification data from five different colonies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carver, Nicole S.; Kelty-Stephen, Damian G.

    2017-02-01

    Honeybees (Apis mellifera) exhibit complex coordination and interaction across multiple behaviors such as swarming. This coordination among honeybees in the same colony is remarkably similar to the concept of informational cascades. The multifractal geometry of cascades suggests that multifractal measures of individual honeybee activity might carry signatures of these colony-wide coordinations. The present work reanalyzes time stamps of entrances to and exits from the hive captured by radio-frequency identification (RFID) sensors reading RFID tags on individual bees. Indeed, both multifractal spectrum width for individual bees' inter-reading interval series and differences of those widths from surrogates significantly predicted not just whether the individual bee's hive had a mesh enclosure but also predicted the specific membership of individual bees in one of five colonies. The significant effects of multifractality in matching honeybee activity to type of colony and, further, matching individual honeybees to their exact home colony suggests that multifractality quantifies key features of the colony-wide interactions across many scales. This relevance of multifractality to predicting colony type or colony membership adds additional credence to the cascade metaphor for colony organization. Perhaps, multifractality provides a new tool for exploring the relationship between individual organisms and larger, more complex social behaviors.

  4. Hints of the early Jehol Biota: important dinosaur footprint assemblages from the Jurassic-Cretaceous boundary Tuchengzi Formation in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Lida; Zhang, Jianping; Lockley, Martin G; McCrea, Richard T; Klein, Hendrik; Alcalá, Luis; Buckley, Lisa G; Burns, Michael E; Kümmell, Susanna B; He, Qing

    2015-01-01

    New reports of dinosaur tracksites in the Tuchengzi Formation in the newly established Yanqing Global Geopark, Beijing, China, support previous inferences that the track assemblages from this formation are saurischian-dominated. More specifically, the assemblages appear theropod-dominated, with the majority of well-preserved tracks conforming to the Grallator type (sensus lato), thus representing relatively small trackmakers. Such ichnofaunas supplement the skeletal record from this unit that lacks theropods thus far, proving a larger diversity of dinosaur faunas in that region. Sauropods are represented by medium to large sized and narrow and wide-gauge groups, respectively. The latter correspond with earlier discoveries of titanosauriform skeletons in the same unit. Previous records of ornithischian tracks cannot be positively confirmed. Purported occurrences are re-evaluated here, the trackways and imprints, except of a single possible specimen, re-assigned to theropods. Palecologically the Tuchengzi ichnofauna is characteristic of semi-arid fluvio-lacustrine inland basins with Upper Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous deposits in northern China that all show assemblages with abundant theropod and sauropod tracks and minor components of ornithopod, pterosaur and bird tracks.

  5. Hints of the early Jehol Biota: important dinosaur footprint assemblages from the Jurassic-Cretaceous boundary Tuchengzi Formation in Beijing, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lida Xing

    Full Text Available New reports of dinosaur tracksites in the Tuchengzi Formation in the newly established Yanqing Global Geopark, Beijing, China, support previous inferences that the track assemblages from this formation are saurischian-dominated. More specifically, the assemblages appear theropod-dominated, with the majority of well-preserved tracks conforming to the Grallator type (sensus lato, thus representing relatively small trackmakers. Such ichnofaunas supplement the skeletal record from this unit that lacks theropods thus far, proving a larger diversity of dinosaur faunas in that region. Sauropods are represented by medium to large sized and narrow and wide-gauge groups, respectively. The latter correspond with earlier discoveries of titanosauriform skeletons in the same unit. Previous records of ornithischian tracks cannot be positively confirmed. Purported occurrences are re-evaluated here, the trackways and imprints, except of a single possible specimen, re-assigned to theropods. Palecologically the Tuchengzi ichnofauna is characteristic of semi-arid fluvio-lacustrine inland basins with Upper Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous deposits in northern China that all show assemblages with abundant theropod and sauropod tracks and minor components of ornithopod, pterosaur and bird tracks.

  6. Some hints concerning phosphorus release and phosphorus uptake properties in enhanced biological phophorus removal; Empfehlungen zur Durchfuehrung und Auswertung von Phosphatrueckloese- und -aufnahmeversuchen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheer, H. [Hannover Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Siedlungswasserwirtschaft und Abfalltechnik

    1996-01-01

    Reproducible methods of analysis are necessary for the estimation of phosphorus release and phosphorus uptake properties of activated sludges in wastewater treatment plants using enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR). These methods have to allow for comparisons and evaluations of different activated sludges impressed by EBPR. A phosphorus release and phosphorus uptake attempt modified for different operation facilities and conditions in wastewater treatment plants was developed. Using these methods phosphorus release and phosphorus uptake properties of activated sludges can be described qualitativley and quantitatively. (orig.) [Deutsch] Zur Abschaetzung der Phosphatrueckloese- und -aufnahmeeigenschaften eines belebten Schlammes bei Klaeranlagen mit vermehrter biologischer Phosphorelimination (BIO-P) bedarf es reproduzierbarer Untersuchungsmethoden, die einen Vergleich und eine Beurteilung hierzu durchgefuehrter Untersuchungen ermoeglichen. Hierzu wurde ein fuer klaeranlagenspezifische Betriebsbedingungen modifizierter Phosphatrueckloese- und -aufnahmeversuche entwickelt, mit dem die Phosphatrueckloese- und -aufnahmeeigenschaften eines belebten Schlammes qualitativ und quantitativ beschrieben werden koennen. (orig.)

  7. The Climber's Pocket Book Rock-Climbing Accidents, with Hints on First Aid to the Injured, some Uses of the Rope, Methods of Rescue and Transport

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1908-01-01

    .... He explains and illustrates by photographs the different modes of using the rope, and how, by means of it, the disabled man may be lowered down precipitous rocks, transported across snow slopes, and carried on a stretcher, readily improvised, when the going becomes easy.

  8. Application of 3D models of palatal rugae to personal identification: hints at identification from 3D-3D superimposition techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibelli, Daniele; De Angelis, Danilo; Pucciarelli, Valentina; Riboli, Francesco; Ferrario, Virgilio F; Dolci, Claudia; Sforza, Chiarella; Cattaneo, Cristina

    2017-11-20

    Palatal rugae are known in literature as individualizing anatomical structures with a strong potential for personal identification. However, a 3D assessment of their uniqueness has not yet been performed. The present study aims at verifying the uniqueness of 3D models of the palate. Twenty-six subjects were recruited among the orthodontic patients of a private dental office; from every patient, at least two dental casts were taken in different time periods, for a total of 62 casts. Dental casts were digitized by a 3D laser scanner (iSeries, Dental Wings©, Montreal, Canada). The palatal area was identified, and a series of 250 superimpositions was then performed automatically through VAM©software in order to reach the minimum point-to point distance between two models. In 36 matches the models belonged to the same individual, whereas in 214 mismatches they came from different subjects. The RMS (root mean square) of point-to-point distances was then calculated by 3D software. Possible statistically significant differences were assessed through Mann-Whitney test (p identification.

  9. Distribution patterns of the cold adapted bumblebee Bombus alpinus in the Alps and hints of an uphill shift (Insecta: Hymenoptera: Apidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Biella, Paolo; Bogliani, G.; Cornalba, M.; Manino, A.; Neumayer, J.; Porporato, M.; Rasmont, P.; Milanesi, P.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 2 (2017), s. 357-366 ISSN 1366-638X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GP14-10035P Grant - others:GA JU(CZ) 152/2016/P Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : climate change * specialist * rare species Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour OBOR OECD: Ecology Impact factor: 1.462, year: 2016 https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10841-017-9983-1

  10. Mesenchymal stromal cells having inactivated RB1 survive following low irradiation and accumulate damaged DNA: Hints for side effects following radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alessio, Nicola; Capasso, Stefania; Di Bernardo, Giovanni; Cappabianca, Salvatore; Casale, Fiorina; Calarco, Anna; Cipollaro, Marilena; Peluso, Gianfranco; Galderisi, Umberto

    2017-02-01

    Following radiotherapy, bone sarcomas account for a significant percentage of recurring tumors. This risk is further increased in patients with hereditary retinoblastoma that undergo radiotherapy. We analyzed the effect of low and medium dose radiation on mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) with inactivated RB1 gene to gain insights on the molecular mechanisms that can induce second malignant neoplasm in cancer survivors. MSC cultures contain subpopulations of mesenchymal stem cells and committed progenitors that can differentiate into mesodermal derivatives: adipocytes, chondrocytes, and osteocytes. These stem cells and committed osteoblast precursors are the cell of origin in osteosarcoma, and RB1 gene mutations have a strong role in its pathogenesis. Following 40 and 2000 mGy X-ray exposure, MSCs with inactivated RB1 do not proliferate and accumulate high levels of unrepaired DNA as detected by persistence of gamma-H2AX foci. In samples with inactivated RB1 the radiation treatment did not increase apoptosis, necrosis or senescence versus untreated cells. Following radiation, CFU analysis showed a discrete number of cells with clonogenic capacity in cultures with silenced RB1. We extended our analysis to the other members of retinoblastoma gene family: RB2/P130 and P107. Also in the MSCs with silenced RB2/P130 and P107 we detected the presence of cells with unrepaired DNA following X-ray irradiation. Cells with unrepaired DNA may represent a reservoir of cells that may undergo neoplastic transformation. Our study suggests that, following radiotherapy, cancer patients with mutations of retinoblastoma genes may be under strict controls to evaluate onset of secondary neoplasms following radiotherapy.

  11. Examining the Role of Ideological and Political Education on University Students' Civic Perceptions and Civic Participation in Mainland China: Some Hints from Contemporary Citizenship Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chong; Fagan, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    A long existing compulsive curriculum of ideological and political education is employed by the Chinese government to promote citizenship education among Chinese university students. This article builds on the findings of a mixed-methods research that examined the role of ideological and political education on university students' civic…

  12. Neutron effective single-particle energies above 78Ni: A hint from lifetime measurements in the N =51 isotones 85Se and 87Kr

    Science.gov (United States)

    Didierjean, F.; Verney, D.; Duchêne, G.; Litzinger, J.; Sieja, K.; Dewald, A.; Goasduff, A.; Lozeva, R.; Fransen, C.; de Angelis, G.; Aydin, S.; Bazzacco, D.; Bracco, A.; Bottoni, S.; Corradi, L.; Crespi, F.; Ellinger, E.; Farnea, E.; Fioretto, E.; Franchoo, S.; Gottardo, A.; Grocutt, L.; Hackstein, M.; Ibrahim, F.; Kolos, K.; Leoni, S.; Lenzi, S.; Lunardi, S.; Menegazzo, R.; Mengoni, D.; Michelagnoli, C.; Mijatovic, T.; Modamio, V.; Möller, O.; Montagnoli, G.; Montanari, D.; Morales, A. I.; Napoli, D.; Niikura, M.; Recchia, F.; Sahin, E.; Scarlassara, F.; Sengele, L.; Szilner, S.; Smith, J. F.; Stefanini, A. M.; Ur, C.; Valiente-Dobón, J. J.; Vandone, V.

    2017-10-01

    Background: While the N =50 shell-gap evolution towards 78Ni is presently in the focus of nuclear structure research, experimental information on the neutron effective single-particle energy sequence above the 78Ni core remain scarce. Direct nucleon-exchange reactions are indeed difficult with presently available post-accelerated radioactive-ion beams (especially for high orbital-momentum orbitals) in this exotic region. Purpose: In this study we probe the evolution of the ν 1 g7 /2 effective single-particle energy which is a key to understanding the possible evolution of the spin-orbit splitting due to the proton-neutron interaction in the 78Ni region. To achieve this goal, a method based on lifetime measurements is used for the first time. The obtained lifetimes of the 7 /21+ states in 87Kr and 85Se are used to investigate the ν 1 g7 /2 evolution. Method: Yrast and near-yrast states in the light N =51 isotones 85Se and 87Kr were populated via multinucleon transfer reactions, using a 82Se beam and a 238U target at the LNL tandem-ALPI facility. The prompt γ rays were detected by the AGATA Demonstrator and particle identification was performed using the PRISMA spectrometer. Lifetime measurements were performed by using the Cologne plunger device for deep inelastic reactions and the Recoil Distance Doppler Shift technique. Results: We obtain τ(7 /21+)=0 .4-0.4+1.6 ps for 87Kr. In the case of 85Se an upper limit of 3(2) ps is obtained for the τ7 /21+ value. Conclusion: For 87Kr, the measured (7 /21+) lifetime is consistent with a core-coupled 2+⊗ν 2 d5 /2 configuration for this state. This result is consistent with that obtained by direct reaction, which validates our method. For 85Se, the measured 7 /21+ lifetime limit indicates a very small contribution of the ν 1 g7 /2 configuration to the wave function of this state.

  13. Reconceputualizing Self-Expression as Part of the Curriculum for Teacher Education in Art : Hints from 'Interactive Communication: Expression' by Joetsu University of Education

    OpenAIRE

    佐藤, 賢司

    2002-01-01

    Interactive Communication, a new course that Joetsu University of Education introduced in 2000 is intended as a model for a future teacher education curriculum. The new conceptualization of expression suggested by this course is expected to serve as a important clue to the makeup of the curriculum. The implementation of the new course is however, not without problems: The most biggest problem would be how to integrate the new course with more traditional specialized courses such as music and ...

  14. TCP J05074264+2447555 as a bright microlensing event due to a binary system with very low mass ratio component: hint for a new planetary system?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nucita, A. A.; Licchelli, D.; De Paolis, F.; Ingrosso, G.; Strafella, F.

    2017-11-01

    The transient event labeled as TCP J05074264+2447555 (RA 05h07m42.64s, DEC +24°47'55.5" (J2000.0)) was first discovered by Kojima on UT 2017-10-25.688 in the Taurus region and suddenly recognized as something peculiar.

  15. Clustering of malaria treatment failure (TF) in Daraweesh: hints for host genetic susceptibility to TF with emphasis on immune-modulating SNPs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giha, Hayder A; ElGhazali, Gehad; Nasr, Amre

    2010-01-01

    In malaria, drug resistance and treatment failure (TF) are not synonymous, although are escalating together. Over 9 years of surveillances for malaria morbidity and TF in Daraweesh village in eastern Sudan (1991-2004), 136 donors (15-78 years) from 43 households, treated for 278 malaria episodes...

  16. The 2012-2016 eruptive cycle at Copahue volcano (Argentina) versus the peripheral gas manifestations: hints from the chemical and isotopic features of fumarolic fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tassi, F.; Agusto, M.; Lamberti, C.; Caselli, A. T.; Pecoraino, G.; Caponi, C.; Szentiványi, J.; Venturi, S.; Vaselli, O.

    2017-10-01

    This study presents the chemical and isotopic compositions of hydrothermal gases from fumaroles discharging around Copahue volcano (Argentina). Gas samples, including those from two fumaroles at the active summit crater, were collected during 13 surveys carried out by different research teams from 1976 to February 2016. The time-series of H2, CO and light hydrocarbons showed episodic increases related to the main events of the last eruptive cycle that started on 19 July 2012. Concentration peaks were likely caused by enhanced input of hot magmatic fluids affecting the hydrothermal reservoir. These data contrast with the temporal variations shown by Rc/ Ra and δ13C-CO2 values in 2012-2014, which indicated an increasing input from a crustal fluid source. In 2015-2016, however, these isotopic parameters showed opposite trends; their composition became closer to that of the two summit fumaroles, which possibly corresponds to that of the deep magmatic-related end-member. The delayed and reduced compositional changes in the peripheral hydrothermal fluid discharge in response to the 2012-2016 eruptive events suggest that geochemical surveys of these emissions are unlikely to provide premonitory signals of volcanic unrest if the volcanic activity remains centered in the main crater. Instead, an instrument which is able to provide measurements of volcanic gases in the air (e.g. MultiGAS) may be used to detect changes at the summit crater. Otherwise, monitoring of seismic activity and ground deformation, as well as the periodic measurement of the chemistry of the water in the Rio Agrio, which is fed by thermal discharge from the summit crater, seem to represent the most reliable means of monitoring at Copahue. However, the relative compositional stability of the hydrothermal reservoir is a great advantage in terms of geothermal resource exploitation and could encourage new investments in the Copahue geothermal project which was abandoned in the 1990s.

  17. Long-term sonographic and serological follow-up of inactive echinococcal cysts of the liver: hints for a "watch-and-wait" approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Piccoli

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Human cystic echinococcosis is a chronic, complex and neglected infection. Its clinical management has evolved over decades without adequate evaluation of efficacy. Recent expert opinion recommends that uncomplicated inactive cysts of the liver should be left untreated and solely monitored over time ("watch-and-wait" approach. However, clinical data supporting this approach are still scant and published mostly as conference proceedings. In this study, we report our experience with long-term sonographic and serological follow-up of inactive cysts of the liver. From March 1994 to October 2013, 38 patients with 47 liver cysts, diagnosed as inactive without any previous treatment history, were followed with ultrasound and serology at 6-12 months intervals for a period of at least 24 months (median follow-up 51.95 months in our outpatient clinic. In 97.4% of patients, the cysts remained inactive over time and in only one case was reactivation of the cyst detected. No complications occurred during the time of monitoring. During follow-up, serology tests for CE were negative at diagnosis or became negative in 74.1% and were positive or became positive in 25.9% of cases. Patients with inactive cysts on ultrasound but positive serological tests were also investigated by CT scan (chest and abdomen to rule out extra-hepatic cyst localization. This study confirms the importance of a stage-specific approach to the management of cystic echinococcosis and supports the use of a monitoring-only approach to inactive, uncomplicated cysts of the liver. It also confirms that serology plays only an ancillary role in the clinical management of these patients, compared to ultrasound and other imaging techniques. The implications of these findings for clinical management and natural history of cystic echinococcosis are discussed.

  18. Long-term Sonographic and Serological Follow-up of Inactive Echinococcal Cysts of the Liver: Hints for a “Watch-and-Wait” Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattaneo, Federico; Mariconti, Mara; Filice, Carlo; Bruno, Antonella; Brunetti, Enrico

    2014-01-01

    Human cystic echinococcosis is a chronic, complex and neglected infection. Its clinical management has evolved over decades without adequate evaluation of efficacy. Recent expert opinion recommends that uncomplicated inactive cysts of the liver should be left untreated and solely monitored over time (“watch-and-wait” approach). However, clinical data supporting this approach are still scant and published mostly as conference proceedings. In this study, we report our experience with long-term sonographic and serological follow-up of inactive cysts of the liver. From March 1994 to October 2013, 38 patients with 47 liver cysts, diagnosed as inactive without any previous treatment history, were followed with ultrasound and serology at 6–12 months intervals for a period of at least 24 months (median follow-up 51.95 months) in our outpatient clinic. In 97.4% of patients, the cysts remained inactive over time and in only one case was reactivation of the cyst detected. No complications occurred during the time of monitoring. During follow-up, serology tests for CE were negative at diagnosis or became negative in 74.1% and were positive or became positive in 25.9% of cases. Patients with inactive cysts on ultrasound but positive serological tests were also investigated by CT scan (chest and abdomen) to rule out extra-hepatic cyst localization. This study confirms the importance of a stage-specific approach to the management of cystic echinococcosis and supports the use of a monitoring-only approach to inactive, uncomplicated cysts of the liver. It also confirms that serology plays only an ancillary role in the clinical management of these patients, compared to ultrasound and other imaging techniques. The implications of these findings for clinical management and natural history of cystic echinococcosis are discussed. PMID:25122222

  19. Long-term sonographic and serological follow-up of inactive echinococcal cysts of the liver: hints for a "watch-and-wait" approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccoli, Luca; Tamarozzi, Francesca; Cattaneo, Federico; Mariconti, Mara; Filice, Carlo; Bruno, Antonella; Brunetti, Enrico

    2014-08-01

    Human cystic echinococcosis is a chronic, complex and neglected infection. Its clinical management has evolved over decades without adequate evaluation of efficacy. Recent expert opinion recommends that uncomplicated inactive cysts of the liver should be left untreated and solely monitored over time ("watch-and-wait" approach). However, clinical data supporting this approach are still scant and published mostly as conference proceedings. In this study, we report our experience with long-term sonographic and serological follow-up of inactive cysts of the liver. From March 1994 to October 2013, 38 patients with 47 liver cysts, diagnosed as inactive without any previous treatment history, were followed with ultrasound and serology at 6-12 months intervals for a period of at least 24 months (median follow-up 51.95 months) in our outpatient clinic. In 97.4% of patients, the cysts remained inactive over time and in only one case was reactivation of the cyst detected. No complications occurred during the time of monitoring. During follow-up, serology tests for CE were negative at diagnosis or became negative in 74.1% and were positive or became positive in 25.9% of cases. Patients with inactive cysts on ultrasound but positive serological tests were also investigated by CT scan (chest and abdomen) to rule out extra-hepatic cyst localization. This study confirms the importance of a stage-specific approach to the management of cystic echinococcosis and supports the use of a monitoring-only approach to inactive, uncomplicated cysts of the liver. It also confirms that serology plays only an ancillary role in the clinical management of these patients, compared to ultrasound and other imaging techniques. The implications of these findings for clinical management and natural history of cystic echinococcosis are discussed.

  20. Ligand induced conformational change in Lys{sup 49}-phospholipase A{sub 2} hints at a molecular mechanism for membrane damaging activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ambrosio, A.L.B.; Souza, D.H.F. de; Garratt, R.C. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil); Nonato, M.C.; Ward, R.J. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil); Selistre de Araujo, H.S. [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCar), SP (Brazil); Arni, R. [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Sao Jose do Rio Preto, SP (Brazil); Ownby, C.L. [Oklahoma State Univ., OK (United States)

    2004-07-01

    An activation mechanism for Lys{sup 49}-phospholipase A{sub 2} is proposed based on structural evidence gathered from 3 different crystal forms of the ACL myotoxin, together with other available structures from the same subclass of enzymes. This provides for the first time, a direct structural connection between the phospholipase 'active site' and the C-terminal 'myotoxic site', justifying the otherwise enigmatic conservation of the residues of the former in supposedly catalytically inactive molecules. (author)

  1. Preliminary Results from the AIDP-2 and AIDP-3 Drill Cores Hint at Systematic Mo Enrichments in the ~2.65 Ga Roy Hill Shale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, M.; Ostrander, C. M.; Lyons, T. W.; Olson, S. L.; Buick, R.; Anbar, A. D.

    2014-12-01

    In order to better understand the timing of the earliest oxygenation of Earth's surface environment, we are pursuing a multi-proxy investigation of paleoredox conditions in diamond drill cores through sedimentary rocks of the Archean Fortescue & Hamersley Groups. These cores were recovered in 2012 by the Agouron Institute from the Pilbara Craton of Western Australia. The AIDP-2 core samples a stratigraphic succession of carbonate and sulfidic, organic-rich shale in the Carawine Dolomite and Jeerinah Formation representing a shallow near-shore depositional setting. Core AIDP-3 samples a transition from BIF in the Marra Mamba Formation to organic-rich shales in the underlying Jeerinah Formation representing a deeper offshore depositional setting. We have analyzed 322 black shale samples from the Roy Hill Member of the Jeerinah Formation deposited just before the transition from the Fortescue to Hamersley Group. Roy Hill black shale units are mostly pyritic in AIDP-3, but are less so in AIDP-2. The Roy Hill Member of AIDP-3 extends from 2.629 Ga to2.676 Ga and contains the 2.632Ga Jeerinah impact layer, whereas the Roy Hill member of AIDP-2 is slightly older, lying beneath the Jeerinah impact layer, and has been dated to 2.636 Ga to >2.643 Ga [1]. Our initial findings reveal that Mo concentrations range between 0.7 and 7 ppm in the Roy Hill black shale member of AIDP-2 and AIDP-3. Corresponding Mo/Al ratios range between 1-9×10-5 ppm/ppm, indicating slight Mo enrichment relative to average continental crust. These results are consistent with a previous study by Scott et al. [2], which suggested little or no Mo enrichment. However, the higher resolution sampling in this study allows us to clearly resolve the Mo/Al depth profiles in these late Archean cores. These data suggest that the variations we see are not due to analytical scatter or sample variability, but instead represent real variations in Mo scavenged into these sediments. Ongoing work is focused on obtaining additional complementary datasets including Fe-speciation, TOC, and traditional and non-traditional isotopes. These data will provide the additional constraints needed to understand the origin and significance of Mo enrichments in these Archean sediments. [1] Rasmussen & Fletcher (2010) Geology, 38: 299-302 [2] Scott et al. (2011) Geology, 39:119-122.

  2. Soil-dwelling polychaetes: enigmatic as ever? Some hints on their phylogenetic relationships as suggested by a maximum parsimony analysis of 18S rRNA gene sequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rota, Emilia; Martin, Patrick; Erséus, Christer

    2001-01-01

    To re-evaluate the various hypotheses on the systematic position of Parergodrilus heideri Reisinger, 1925 and Hrabeiella periglandulata Pizl & Chalupský, 1984, the sole truly terrestrial non-clitellate annelids known to date, their phylogenetic relationships were investigated using a data set of new

  3. A new look inside Planetary Nebula LoTr 5: A long-period binary with hints of a possible third component

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aller, A.; Lillo-Box, J.; Vučković, M.; Van Winckel, H.; Jones, D.; Montesinos, B.; Zorotovic, M.; Miranda, L. F.

    2018-01-01

    LoTr 5 is a planetary nebula with an unusual long-period binary central star. As far as we know, the pair consists of a rapidly rotating G-type star and a hot star, which is responsible for the ionization of the nebula. The rotation period of the G-type star is 5.95 days and the orbital period of the binary is now known to be ˜2700 days, one of the longest in central star of planetary nebulae. The spectrum of the G central star shows a complex Hα double-peaked profile which varies with very short time scales, also reported in other central stars of planetary nebulae and whose origin is still unknown. We present new radial velocity observations of the central star which allow us to confirm the orbital period for the long-period binary and discuss the possibility of a third component in the system at ˜129 days to the G star. This is complemented with the analysis of archival light curves from SuperWASP, ASAS and OMC. From the spectral fitting of the G-type star, we obtain a effective temperature of Teff = 5410±250 K and surface gravity of log g = 2.7±0.5, consistent with both giant and subgiant stars. We also present a detailed analysis of the Hα double-peaked profile and conclude that it does not present correlation with the rotation period and that the presence of an accretion disk via Roche lobe overflow is unlikely.

  4. Spontaneous symmetry breaking approach to La{sub 2}CuO{sub 4} properties: Hints for matching the Mott and Slater pictures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabo-Bizet, Alejandro [Departamento de Fisica, Centro de Aplicaciones Tecnologicas y Desarrollo, Nuclear (CEADEN), Calle 30, esq. a 5ta, La Habana (Cuba); Cabo Montes de Oca, Alejandro [Grupo de Fisica Teorica, Instituto de Cibernetica Matematematica y Fisica (ICIMAF), Calle E, No. 309, entre 13 y 15, Vedado, La Habana (Cuba)], E-mail: cabo@icmf.inf.cu

    2009-05-04

    Special solutions of the Hartree-Fock (HF) problem for Coulomb interacting electrons described by a simple model of the Cu-O planes in La{sub 2}CuO{sub 4} are presented. One of the mean field states obtained, is able to predict some of the most interesting properties of this material, such as its insulator character and the antiferromagnetic order. The natural appearance of pseudogaps in some states of this material is also indicated by another of the HF states obtained. These surprising results follow after eliminating spin and crystal symmetry restrictions usually imposed on the single particle HF orbitals, by employing the rotational invariant formulation of the HF scheme originally introduced by Dirac. Therefore, it is exemplified here, how up to know considered strong correlation effects, can be described by improving the HF solution of the considered system. In other words, it has been argued, that defining correlation effects as the ones shown by the system and not predicted by the HF best (lowest energy) solution, allows to explain important, up to know considered as strong correlation properties, as simple mean field ones. The discussion also helps to clarify the role of the antiferromagnetism and pseudogaps in the physical properties of the HTSC materials and indicates a promising way to start conciliating the Mott and Slater pictures in the physics of the transition metal oxides and other strongly correlated electron systems.

  5. The MeCP2/YY1 interaction regulates ANT1 expression at 4q35: novel hints for Rett syndrome pathogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forlani, Greta; Giarda, Elisa; Ala, Ugo; Di Cunto, Ferdinando; Salani, Monica; Tupler, Rossella; Kilstrup-Nielsen, Charlotte; Landsberger, Nicoletta

    2010-01-01

    Rett syndrome is a severe neurodevelopmental disorder mainly caused by mutations in the transcriptional regulator MeCP2. Although there is no effective therapy for Rett syndrome, the recently discovered disease reversibility in mice suggests that there are therapeutic possibilities. Identification of MeCP2 targets or modifiers of the phenotype can facilitate the design of curative strategies. To identify possible novel MeCP2 interactors, we exploited a bioinformatic approach and selected Ying Yang 1 (YY1) as an interesting candidate. We demonstrate that MeCP2 interacts in vitro and in vivo with YY1, a ubiquitous zinc-finger epigenetic factor regulating the expression of several genes. We show that MeCP2 cooperates with YY1 in repressing the ANT1 gene encoding a mitochondrial adenine nucleotide translocase. Importantly, ANT1 mRNA levels are increased in human and mouse cell lines devoid of MeCP2, in Rett patient fibroblasts and in the brain of Mecp2-null mice. We further demonstrate that ANT1 protein levels are upregulated in Mecp2-null mice. Finally, the identified MeCP2–YY1 interaction, together with the well-known involvement of YY1 in the regulation of D4Z4-associated genes at 4q35, led us to discover the anomalous depression of FRG2, a subtelomeric gene of unknown function, in Rett fibroblasts. Collectively, our data indicate that mutations in MeCP2 might cause the aberrant overexpression of genes located at a specific locus, thus providing new candidates for the pathogenesis of Rett syndrome. As both ANT1 mutations and overexpression have been associated with human diseases, we consider it highly relevant to address the consequences of ANT1 deregulation in Rett syndrome. PMID:20504995

  6. Sink or swim: Updated knowledge on marine fungi associated with wood substrates in the Mediterranean Sea and hints about their potential to remediate hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garzoli, Laura; Gnavi, Giorgio; Tamma, Federica; Tosi, Solveig; Varese, Giovanna C.; Picco, Anna M.

    2015-09-01

    This paper provides the first update in more than twenty years on the available knowledge about lignicolous marine fungi in the Mediterranean Sea. Fungi found on collected wood samples were analyzed using a combination of morphological and molecular techniques. Almost 90% of the samples were colonized by fungi. The total number of recorded taxa, which amounted to 57 in the late 1990s, has now risen to 93. Wood-inhabiting marine fungi are good producers of ligninolytic enzymes, which can degrade several aromatic and recalcitrant environmental pollutants. In light of bioremediation technologies, this study also evaluated the potential of the isolated strains to remediate complex hydrocarbon substrates. Seventeen isolates were shown to be able to grow on hydrocarbon media as a sole carbon source; enhanced performances were achieved in the presence of NaCl, suggesting that these fungi adapt well to marine conditions and confirming that salt can trigger specific metabolic pathways in marine fungi.

  7. Hartee Fock Symmetry Breaking Effects in La2CuO4: Hints for connecting the Mott and Slater Pictures and Pseudogap Prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Cabo Montes de Oca

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This work expands the results and derivations presented in a recent letter. It is argued that symmetry breaking Hartree-Fock (HF solutions of a simple model of the Cu-O planes in La2CuO4, are able to describe the insulator and antiferromagnetic characters of this material. Then, this classical primer of a Mott insulator is alternatively obtained here as an exact Slater insulator within the simplest of the first principles schemes. Moreover, pseudogap HF states are also predicted. The maximal energy gap of 100 meV over the Fermi surface of this wavefunction, reasonably well matches the ARPES upper pseudogap measurements for La2CuO4 in the zero doping limit. These surprising results followed after eliminating spin and crystal symmetry constraints usually imposed on the HF orbitals. The discussion helps to clarify the role of the antiferromagnetism and pseudogaps in the physics of the HTSC materials and indicates a promising way to start conciliating the Mott and Slater pictures for the description of the transition metal oxides.

  8. Positive expiratory pressure improves oxygenation in healthy subjects exposed to hypoxia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Nespoulet

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP is commonly used in critical care medicine to improve gas exchange. Altitude sickness is associated with exaggerated reduction in arterial oxygenation. We assessed the effect of PEEP and pursed lips breathing (PLB on arterial and tissue oxygenation under normobaric and hypobaric hypoxic conditions. METHODS: Sixteen healthy volunteers were exposed to acute normobaric hypoxia (Laboratory study, FiO₂=0.12. The protocol consisted in 3-min phases with PEEPs of 0, 5 or 10 cmH₂O, PLB or similar ventilation than with PEEP-10, interspaced with 3-min phases of free breathing. Arterial (pulse oximetry and quadriceps (near-infrared spectroscopy oxygenation, ventilation, cardiac function, esophageal and gastric pressures and subjects' subjective perceptions were recorded continuously. In addition, the effect of PEEP on arterial oxygenation was tested at 4,350 m of altitude in 9 volunteers breathing for 20 min with PEEP-10 (Field study. RESULTS: During the laboratory study, PEEP-10 increased arterial and quadriceps oxygenation (arterial oxygen saturation +5.6±5.0% and quadriceps oxyhemoglobin +58±73 µmol.cm compared to free breathing; p0.05 compared to PEEP-0. During the field study, PEEP-10 increased arterial oxygen saturation by +6.7±6.0% after the 3(rd minute with PEEP-10 without further significant increase until the 20(th minute with PEEP-10. Subjects did not report any significant discomfort with PEEP. CONCLUSIONS: These data indicate that 10-cmH₂O PEEP significantly improves arterial and muscle oxygenation under both normobaric and hypobaric hypoxic conditions in healthy subjects. PEEP-10 could be an attractive non-pharmacological tool to limit blood oxygen desaturation and possibly symptoms at altitude.

  9. Clinical assessment of auto-positive end-expiratory pressure by diaphragmatic electrical activity during pressure support and neurally adjusted ventilatory assist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellani, Giacomo; Coppadoro, Andrea; Patroniti, Nicolò; Turella, Marta; Arrigoni Marocco, Stefano; Grasselli, Giacomo; Mauri, Tommaso; Pesenti, Antonio

    2014-09-01

    Auto-positive end-expiratory pressure (auto-PEEP) may substantially increase the inspiratory effort during assisted mechanical ventilation. Purpose of this study was to assess whether the electrical activity of the diaphragm (EAdi) signal can be reliably used to estimate auto-PEEP in patients undergoing pressure support ventilation and neurally adjusted ventilatory assist (NAVA) and whether NAVA was beneficial in comparison with pressure support ventilation in patients affected by auto-PEEP. In 10 patients with a clinical suspicion of auto-PEEP, the authors simultaneously recorded EAdi, airway, esophageal pressure, and flow during pressure support and NAVA, whereas external PEEP was increased from 2 to 14 cm H2O. Tracings were analyzed to measure apparent "dynamic" auto-PEEP (decrease in esophageal pressure to generate inspiratory flow), auto-EAdi (EAdi value at the onset of inspiratory flow), and IDEAdi (inspiratory delay between the onset of EAdi and the inspiratory flow). The pressure necessary to overcome auto-PEEP, auto-EAdi, and IDEAdi was significantly lower in NAVA as compared with pressure support ventilation, decreased with increase in external PEEP, although the effect of external PEEP was less pronounced in NAVA. Both auto-EAdi and IDEAdi were tightly correlated with auto-PEEP (r = 0.94 and r = 0.75, respectively). In the presence of auto-PEEP at lower external PEEP levels, NAVA was characterized by a characteristic shape of the airway pressure. In patients with auto-PEEP, NAVA, compared with pressure support ventilation, led to a decrease in the pressure necessary to overcome auto-PEEP, which could be reliably monitored by the electrical activity of the diaphragm before inspiratory flow onset (auto-EAdi).

  10. Accuracy and precision of end-expiratory lung-volume measurements by automated nitrogen washout/washin technique in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dellamonica, Jean; Lerolle, Nicolas; Sargentini, Cyril; Beduneau, Gaetan; Di Marco, Fabiano; Mercat, Alain; Richard, Jean-Christophe M; Diehl, Jean-Luc; Mancebo, Jordi; Rouby, Jean-Jacques; Lu, Qin; Bernardin, Gilles; Brochard, Laurent

    2011-01-01

    End-expiratory lung volume (EELV) is decreased in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), and bedside EELV measurement may help to set positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP). Nitrogen washout/washin for EELV measurement is available at the bedside, but assessments of accuracy and precision in real-life conditions are scant. Our purpose was to (a) assess EELV measurement precision in ARDS patients at two PEEP levels (three pairs of measurements), and (b) compare the changes (Δ) induced by PEEP for total EELV with the PEEP-induced changes in lung volume above functional residual capacity measured with passive spirometry (ΔPEEP-volume). The minimal predicted increase in lung volume was calculated from compliance at low PEEP and ΔPEEP to ensure the validity of lung-volume changes. Thirty-four patients with ARDS were prospectively included in five university-hospital intensive care units. ΔEELV and ΔPEEP volumes were compared between 6 and 15 cm H2O of PEEP. After exclusion of three patients, variability of the nitrogen technique was less than 4%, and the largest difference between measurements was 81 ± 64 ml. ΔEELV and ΔPEEP-volume were only weakly correlated (r2 = 0.47); 95% confidence interval limits, -414 to 608 ml). In four patients with the highest PEEP (≥ 16 cm H2O), ΔEELV was lower than the minimal predicted increase in lung volume, suggesting flawed measurements, possibly due to leaks. Excluding those from the analysis markedly strengthened the correlation between ΔEELV and ΔPEEP volume (r2 = 0.80). In most patients, the EELV technique has good reproducibility and accuracy, even at high PEEP. At high pressures, its accuracy may be limited in case of leaks. The minimal predicted increase in lung volume may help to check for accuracy.

  11. Positive end expiratory pressure during one-lung ventilation: Selecting ideal patients and ventilator settings with the aim of improving arterial oxygenation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoftman Nir

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP in treating intraoperative hypoxemia during one-lung ventilation (OLV remains in question given conflicting results of prior studies. This study aims to (1 evaluate the efficacy of PEEP during OLV, (2 assess the utility of preoperative predictors of response to PEEP, and (3 explore optimal intraoperative settings that would maximize the effects of PEEP on oxygenation. Forty-one thoracic surgery patients from a single tertiary care university center were prospectively enrolled in this observational study. After induction of general anesthesia, a double-lumen endotracheal tube was fiberoptically positioned and OLV initiated. Intraoperatively, PEEP = 5 and 10 cmH 2 O were sequentially applied to the ventilated lung during OLV. Arterial oxygenation, cardiovascular performance parameters, and proposed perioperative variables that could predict or enhance response to PEEP were analysed. T-test and c2 tests were utilized for continuous and categorical variables, respectively. Multivariate analyses were carried out using a classification tree model of binary recursive partitioning. PEEP improved arterial oxygenation by ≥20% in 29% of patients (n = 12 and failed to do so in 71% (n = 29; however, no cardiovascular impact was noted. Among the proposed clinical predictors, only intraoperative tidal volume per kilogram differed significantly between responders to PEEP and non-responders (mean 6.6 vs. 5.7 ml/kg, P = 0.013; no preoperative variable predicted response to PEEP. A multivariate analysis did not yield a clinically significant model for predicting PEEP responsiveness. PEEP improved oxygenation in a subset of patients; larger, although still protective tidal volumes favored a positive response to PEEP. No preoperative variables, however, could be identified as reliable predictors for PEEP responders.

  12. Effects of positive end-expiratory pressure titration and recruitment maneuver on lung inflammation and hyperinflation in experimental acid aspiration-induced lung injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrosio, Aline M; Luo, Rubin; Fantoni, Denise T; Gutierres, Claudia; Lu, Qin; Gu, Wen-Jie; Otsuki, Denise A; Malbouisson, Luiz M S; Auler, Jose O C; Rouby, Jean-Jacques

    2012-12-01

    In acute lung injury positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) and recruitment maneuver are proposed to optimize arterial oxygenation. The aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of such a strategy on lung histological inflammation and hyperinflation in pigs with acid aspiration-induced lung injury. Forty-seven pigs were randomly allocated in seven groups: (1) controls spontaneously breathing; (2) without lung injury, PEEP 5 cm H2O; (3) without lung injury, PEEP titration; (4) without lung injury, PEEP titration + recruitment maneuver; (5) with lung injury, PEEP 5 cm H2O; (6) with lung injury, PEEP titration; and (7) with lung injury, PEEP titration + recruitment maneuver. Acute lung injury was induced by intratracheal instillation of hydrochloric acid. PEEP titration was performed by incremental and decremental PEEP from 5 to 20 cm H2O for optimizing arterial oxygenation. Three recruitment maneuvers (pressure of 40 cm H2O maintained for 20 s) were applied to the assigned groups at each PEEP level. Proportion of lung inflammation, hemorrhage, edema, and alveolar wall disruption were recorded on each histological field. Mean alveolar area was measured in the aerated lung regions. Acid aspiration increased mean alveolar area and produced alveolar wall disruption, lung edema, alveolar hemorrhage, and lung inflammation. PEEP titration significantly improved arterial oxygenation but simultaneously increased lung inflammation in juxta-diaphragmatic lung regions. Recruitment maneuver during PEEP titration did not induce additional increase in lung inflammation and alveolar hyperinflation. In a porcine model of acid aspiration-induced lung injury, PEEP titration aimed at optimizing arterial oxygenation, substantially increased lung inflammation. Recruitment maneuvers further improved arterial oxygenation without additional effects on inflammation and hyperinflation.

  13. The effect of positive end-expiratory pressure on pulse pressure ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Method: Patients were anaesthetised by means of a standard technique and ventilated with a tidal volume of 9 ml/kg ideal body mass. The PPV was calculated at PEEP levels of 2, 5, 8 and 10 cmH2O. PPV was compared at the various PEEP levels. Results: PPV at a PEEP of 8 cmH2O and 10 cmH2O was significantly larger ...

  14. Lung-protective perioperative mechanical ventilation

    OpenAIRE

    Hemmes, S.N.T.

    2015-01-01

    Intraoperative ventilation has the potential to cause lung injury and possibly increase risk of pulmonary complications after surgery. Use of large tidal volumes could cause overdistension of lung tissue, which can be aggravated by too high levels of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP). Too low levels of PEEP, though, could result in repetitive opening and closing of lung tissue. The main aim of this thesis was to investigate the effect of intraoperative use of higher levels of PEEP and r...

  15. Changes in positive end-expiratory pressure alter the distribution of ventilation within the lung immediately after birth in newborn rabbits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus J Kitchen

    Full Text Available Current recommendations suggest the use of positive end-expiratory pressures (PEEP to assist very preterm infants to develop a functional residual capacity (FRC and establish gas exchange at birth. However, maintaining a consistent PEEP is difficult and so the lungs are exposed to changing distending pressures after birth, which can affect respiratory function. Our aim was to determine how changing PEEP levels alters the distribution of ventilation within the lung. Preterm rabbit pups (28 days gestation were delivered and mechanically ventilated with one of three strategies, whereby PEEP was changed in sequence; 0-5-10-5-0 cmH2O, 5-10-0-5-0 cmH2O or 10-5-0-10-0 cmH2O. Phase contrast X-ray imaging was used to analyse the distribution of ventilation in the upper left (UL, upper right (UR, lower left (LL and lower right (LR quadrants of the lung. Initiating ventilation with 10PEEP resulted in a uniform increase in FRC throughout the lung whereas initiating ventilation with 5PEEP or 0PEEP preferentially aerated the UR than both lower quadrants (p<0.05. Consequently, the relative distribution of incoming VT was preferentially directed into the lower lobes at low PEEP, primarily due to the loss of FRC in those lobes. Following ventilation at 10PEEP, the distribution of air at end-inflation was uniform across all quadrants and remained so regardless of the PEEP level. Uniform distribution of ventilation can be achieved by initiating ventilation with a high PEEP. After the lungs have aerated, small and stepped reductions in PEEP result in more uniform changes in ventilation.

  16. Aaviksoo võistleb Donald Trumpiga

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    Peep Aaviksoole ja tema äripartneritele kuuluv IPC Investment tegeleb Rumeenias lisaks kinnisvarainvesteeringutele ka ehitusmaterjalide tootmisega. USA kinnisvaramagnaat Donald Trump on otsustanud riiki investeerida miljard eurot

  17. Influence of Positive End-Expiratory Pressure on Myocardial Strain Assessed by Speckle Tracking Echocardiography in Mechanically Ventilated Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Franchi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The effects of mechanical ventilation (MV on speckle tracking echocardiography- (STE-derived variables are not elucidated. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP ventilation on 4-chamber longitudinal strain (LS analysis by STE. Methods. We studied 20 patients admitted to a mixed intensive care unit who required intubation for MV and PEEP titration due to hypoxia. STE was performed at three times: (T1 PEEP = 5 cmH2O; (T2 PEEP = 10 cmH2O; and (T3 PEEP = 15 cmH2O. STE analysis was performed offline using a dedicated software (XStrain MyLab 70 Xvision, Esaote. Results. Left peak atrial-longitudinal strain (LS was significantly reduced from T1 to T2 and from T2 to T3 (. Right peak atrial-LS and right ventricular-LS showed a significant reduction only at T3 (. Left ventricular-LS did not change significantly during titration of PEEP. Cardiac chambers’ volumes showed a significant reduction at higher levels of PEEP (. Conclusions. We demonstrated for the first time that incremental PEEP affects myocardial strain values obtained with STE in intubated critically ill patients. Whenever performing STE in mechanically ventilated patients, care must be taken when PEEP is higher than 10 cmH2O to avoid misinterpreting data and making erroneous decisions.

  18. End-Expiratory Lung Volume in Patients with Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome: A Time Course Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalenka, Armin; Gruner, Felix; Weiß, Christel; Viergutz, Tim

    2016-08-01

    Lung injury can be caused by ventilation and non-physiological lung stress (transpulmonary pressure) and strain [inflated volume over functional residual capacity ratio (FRC)]. FRC is severely decreased in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). End-expiratory lung volume (EELV) is FRC plus lung volume increased by the applied positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP). Measurement using the modified nitrogen multiple breath washout technique may help titrating PEEP during ARDS and allow determining dynamic lung strain (tidal volume over EELV) in patients ventilated with PEEP. In this observational study, we measured EELV for up to seven consecutive days in patients with ARDS at different PEEP levels. Thirty sedated patients with ARDS (10 mild, 14 moderate, 6 severe) underwent decremental PEEP testing (20, 15, 10, 5 cm H2O) for up to 7 days after inclusion. At all PEEP levels examined, over a period of 7 days the measured absolute EELVs showed no significant change over time [PEEP 20 cm H2O 2464 ml at day 1 vs. 2144 ml at day 7 (p = 0.78), PEEP 15 cm H2O 2226 ml vs. 1990 ml (p = 0.36), PEEP 10 1835 ml vs. 1858 ml (p = 0.76) and PEEP 5 cm H2O 1487 ml vs. 1612 ml (p = 0.37)]. In relation to the predicted body weight (pbw), no significant change in EELV/kg pbw over time could be detected either at any PEEP level or over time [PEEP 20 36 ml/kg pbw at day 1 vs. 33 ml/kg pbw at day 7 (p = 0.66); PEEP 15 33 vs. 29 ml/kg pbw (p = 0.32); PEEP 10 27 vs. 27 ml/kg pbw (p = 0.70) and PEEP 5 22 vs. 24 ml/kg pbw (p = 0.70)]. Oxygenation significantly improved over time from PaO2/FiO2 of 169 mmHg at day 1 to 199 mmHg at day 7 (p lung-protective ventilation on the basis of calculation of dynamic strain as the ratio of VT to EELV.

  19. Dynamics of end expiratory lung volume after changing positive end-expiratory pressure in acute respiratory distress syndrome patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnero, Aude; Tuxen, David; Corno, Gaëlle; Durand-Gasselin, Jacques; Hodgson, Carol; Arnal, Jean-Michel

    2015-09-18

    Lung recruitment maneuvers followed by an individually titrated positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) are the key components of the open lung ventilation strategy in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). The staircase recruitment maneuver is a step-by-step increase in PEEP followed by a decremental PEEP trial. The duration of each step is usually 2 minutes without physiologic rationale. In this prospective study, we measured the dynamic end-expiratory lung volume changes (ΔEELV) during an increase and decrease in PEEP to determine the optimal duration for each step. PEEP was progressively increased from 5 to 40 cmH2O and then decreased from 40 to 5 cmH2O in steps of 5 cmH2O every 2.5 minutes. The dynamic of ΔEELV was measured by direct spirometry as the difference between inspiratory and expiratory tidal volumes over 2.5 minutes following each increase and decrease in PEEP. ΔEELV was separated between the expected increased volume, calculated as the product of the respiratory system compliance by the change in PEEP, and the additional volume. Twenty-six early onset moderate or severe ARDS patients were included. Data are expressed as median [25th-75th quartiles]. During the increase in PEEP, the expected increased volume was achieved within 2[2-2] breaths. During the decrease in PEEP, the expected decreased volume was achieved within 1 [1-1] breath, and 95 % of the additional decreased volume was achieved within 8 [2-15] breaths. Completion of volume changes in 99 % of both increase and decrease in PEEP events required 29 breaths. In early ARDS, most of the ΔEELV occurs within the first minute, and change is completed within 2 minutes, following an increase or decrease in PEEP.

  20. Patient-controlled positive end-expiratory pressure with neuromuscular disease: effect on speech in patients with tracheostomy and mechanical ventilation support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garguilo, Marine; Leroux, Karl; Lejaille, Michèle; Pascal, Sophie; Orlikowski, David; Lofaso, Frédéric; Prigent, Hélène

    2013-05-01

    Communication is a major issue for patients with tracheostomy who are supported by mechanical ventilation. The use of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) may restore speech during expiration; however, the optimal PEEP level for speech may vary individually. We aimed to improve speech quality with an individually adjusted PEEP level delivered under the patient's control to ensure optimal respiratory comfort. Optimal PEEP level (PEEPeff), defined as the PEEP level that allows complete expiration through the upper airways, was determined for 12 patients with neuromuscular disease who are supported by mechanical ventilation. Speech and respiratory parameters were studied without PEEP, with PEEPeff, and for an intermediate PEEP level. Flow and airway pressure were measured. Microphone speech recordings were subjected to both quantitative and qualitative assessments of speech, including an intelligibility score, a perceptual score, and an evaluation of prosody determined by two speech therapists blinded to PEEP condition. Text reading time, phonation flow, use of the respiratory cycle for phonation, and speech comfort significantly improved with increasing PEEP, whereas qualitative parameters remained unchanged. This resulted mostly from the increase of the expiratory volume through the upper airways available for speech for all patients combined, with a rise in respiratory rate for nine patients. Respiratory comfort remained stable despite high levels of PEEPeff (median, 10.0 cm H2O; interquartile range, 9.5-12.0 cm H₂O). Patient-controlled PEEP allowed for the use of high levels of PEEP with good respiratory tolerance and significant improvement in speech (enabling phonation during the entire respiratory cycle in most patients). The device studied could be implemented in home ventilators to improve speech and, therefore, autonomy of patients with tracheostomy. ClinicalTrials.gov; No.: NCT01479959; URL: clinicaltrials.gov.

  1. Positive end-expiratory pressure improves survival in a rodent model of cardiopulmonary resuscitation using high-dose epinephrine.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McCaul, Conán

    2009-10-01

    Multiple interventions have been tested in models of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) to optimize drug use, chest compressions, and ventilation. None has studied the effects of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) on outcome. We hypothesized that because PEEP can reverse pulmonary atelectasis, lower pulmonary vascular resistance, and potentially improve cardiac output, its use during CPR would increase survival.

  2. Päkapikk, porgand ja barbarid / Mart Rummo

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rummo, Mart

    2003-01-01

    Nukufilm näitas kinos "Sõprus" 3 uut nukufilmi : "Barbarid" (stsenaristid Andrus Kivirähk ja Hardi Volmer, režissöör H. Volmer), "Porgand" (stsenarist Peep Pedmanson, režissöör Pärtel Tall), "Miriam" (stsenaristid Leelo Tungal ja Peep Pedmanson", režissöör Mait Laas)

  3. Pharmacologic Interventions to Improve Splanchnic Oxygenation During Ventilation with Positive End-Expiratory Pressure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fournell, A.; Scheeren, T. W. L.; Picker, O.; Schwarte, L. A.; Wolf, M; Bucher, HU; Rudin, M; VanHuffel, S; Wolf, U; Bruley, DF; Harrison, DK

    2012-01-01

    Mechanical ventilation with positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) is an indispensable tool in the management of respiratory failure to preserve or improve lung function and systemic oxygenation. However, PEEP per se may also, as has been shown in experimental animals, impair regional

  4. Barbi, Päkapikk ja Porgand / Jürgen Rooste, Tarmo Teder

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rooste, Jürgen, 1979-

    2003-01-01

    Nukufilm näitas kinos "Sõprus" 3 uut nukufilmi : "Barbarid" (stsenaristid Andrus Kivirähk ja Hardi Volmer, režissöör H. Volmer), plastiliinianimatsioon "Porgand" (stsenarist Peep Pedmanson, režissöör Pärtel Tall), "Miriam" (stsenaristid Leelo Tungal ja Peep Pedmanson", režissöör Mait Laas)

  5. Suvilast saab armas maja / Milla Mägi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mägi, Milla, 1949-

    2005-01-01

    Võistlustantsijate Ave (sünd. 1971) ja Peep (sünd. 1967) Vardja suvilast ehitatud kodu Kakumäel. Maja planeering ja sisekujundus: Ave ja Peep Vardja. Vahetatavad diivani- ja padjakatted võimaldavad muuta sisekujunduse värvilahendust. 2 välis- ja 6 sisevaadet

  6. Salt Lake Cityst Torinoni / Olev Remsu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Remsu, Olev, 1947-

    2006-01-01

    Dokumentaalfilm Eesti suusameeskonna valmistumisest Torino olümpiamängudeks "Tiim" : idee autorid Peep Puks, Hans Roosipuu : režissöör Peep Puks : F-Seitse 2006. Esilinastus toimus 26. mail Otepääl, ETVs 31. mail

  7. Gas exchange and lung mechanics in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome: comparison of three different strategies of positive end expiratory pressure selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentini, Ricardo; Aquino-Esperanza, José; Bonelli, Ignacio; Maskin, Patricio; Setten, Mariano; Danze, Florencia; Attie, Shiry; Rodriguez, Pablo O

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare gas exchange and lung mechanics between different strategies to select positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). In 20 consecutive ARDS patients, 3 PEEP selection strategies were evaluated. One strategy was based on oxygenation using the ARDS network PEEP/fraction of inspired oxygen (Fio2) table; and two were based on lung mechanics, either PEEP titrated to reach a plateau pressure of 28 to 30 cm H2O as in the ExPress trial or best respiratory compliance method during a derecruitment maneuver. Gas exchange, airway pressures, stress index (SI), and end-expiratory transpulmonary pressure (P(tpe)) and end-inspiratory transpulmonary pressure (P(tpi)) values were assessed. Data are expressed as median (interquartile range [IQR]). Lower total PEEP levels were observed with the use of the PEEP/Fio2 table (8.7 [6-10] cm H2O); intermediate PEEP levels, with the Best Compliance approach (13.0 [10.2-13.8] cm H2O); and higher PEEP levels, with the ExPress strategy (16.5 [15.0-18.5] cm H2O) (P respiratory compliance approach resulted in better oxygenation levels without risk of overdistension according to SI and P(tpi), achieving a mild risk of lung collapse according to P(tpe). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Intraoperative low tidal volume ventilation strategy has no benefits during laparoscopic cholecystectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vandna Arora

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: Strategy using 6 ml/kg tidal volume along with 10 cmH2O of PEEP was not associated with any significant improvement in gas exchange, hemodynamic parameters, or systemic inflammatory response over ventilation with 10 ml/kg volume without PEEP during laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

  9. Männik ohverdas Aaviksoo

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2003-01-01

    Eesti Telekomi nõukogu otsusest vabastada ametist EMT juhatuse esimees Peep Aaviksoo, uuest kandidaadist Valdo Kalmust ning EMT ja Elioni võimalikust ühinemisest. Diagramm: EMT turuosa libiseb Tele2-le. Vt. samas: EMT lahkuva juhi Peep Aaviksoo avalik kiri. Kommenteerivad Sami Seppänen, Üllar Jaaksoo, Monika Salu, Jaak Aaviksoo, Toomas Tamsar

  10. Physiological Effects of Positive Pressure Ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-05-01

    treated by mechanical ventilatory support.. This paper presents the more common forms of mechanical ventilatory support with the adjuncts of PEEP and CPAP ...44 Researcher .......... .............. 46 Consultant . .............. 49 Educator .......... ............... 51 Manager...similar to continuous positive pressure ventilation ( CPAP ) except that PEEP pressure is maintained at end-expiration only and CPAP is maintained

  11. Protective intraoperative ventilation with higher versus lower levels of positive end-expiratory pressure in obese patients (PROBESE): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bluth, T; Teichmann, R; Kiss, T; Bobek, I; Canet, J; Cinnella, G; De Baerdemaeker, L; Gregoretti, C; Hedenstierna, G; Hemmes, S N; Hiesmayr, M; Hollmann, M W; Jaber, S; Laffey, J G; Licker, M J; Markstaller, K; Matot, I; Müller, G; Mills, G H; Mulier, J P; Putensen, C; Rossaint, R; Schmitt, J; Senturk, M; Serpa Neto, A; Severgnini, P; Sprung, J; Vidal Melo, M F; Wrigge, H; Schultz, M J; Pelosi, P; Gama de Abreu, M

    2017-04-28

    Postoperative pulmonary complications (PPCs) increase the morbidity and mortality of surgery in obese patients. High levels of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) with lung recruitment maneuvers may improve intraoperative respiratory function, but they can also compromise hemodynamics, and the effects on PPCs are uncertain. We hypothesized that intraoperative mechanical ventilation using high PEEP with periodic recruitment maneuvers, as compared with low PEEP without recruitment maneuvers, prevents PPCs in obese patients. The PRotective Ventilation with Higher versus Lower PEEP during General Anesthesia for Surgery in OBESE Patients (PROBESE) study is a multicenter, two-arm, international randomized controlled trial. In total, 2013 obese patients with body mass index ≥35 kg/m2 scheduled for at least 2 h of surgery under general anesthesia and at intermediate to high risk for PPCs will be included. Patients are ventilated intraoperatively with a low tidal volume of 7 ml/kg (predicted body weight) and randomly assigned to PEEP of 12 cmH2O with lung recruitment maneuvers (high PEEP) or PEEP of 4 cmH2O without recruitment maneuvers (low PEEP). The occurrence of PPCs will be recorded as collapsed composite of single adverse pulmonary events and represents the primary endpoint. To our knowledge, the PROBESE trial is the first multicenter, international randomized controlled trial to compare the effects of two different levels of intraoperative PEEP during protective low tidal volume ventilation on PPCs in obese patients. The results of the PROBESE trial will support anesthesiologists in their decision to choose a certain PEEP level during general anesthesia for surgery in obese patients in an attempt to prevent PPCs. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02148692. Registered on 23 May 2014; last updated 7 June 2016.

  12. Setting individualized positive end-expiratory pressure level with a positive end-expiratory pressure decrement trial after a recruitment maneuver improves oxygenation and lung mechanics during one-lung ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrando, Carlos; Mugarra, Ana; Gutierrez, Andrea; Carbonell, Jose Antonio; García, Marisa; Soro, Marina; Tusman, Gerardo; Belda, Francisco Javier

    2014-03-01

    We investigated whether individualized positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) improves oxygenation, ventilation, and lung mechanics during one-lung ventilation compared with standardized PEEP. Thirty patients undergoing thoracic surgery were randomly allocated to the study or control group. Both groups received an alveolar recruitment maneuver at the beginning and end of one-lung ventilation. After the alveolar recruitment maneuver, the control group had their lungs ventilated with a 5 cm·H2O PEEP, while the study group had their lungs ventilated with an individualized PEEP level determined by a PEEP decrement trial. Arterial blood samples, lung mechanics, and volumetric capnography were recorded at multiple timepoints throughout the procedure. The individualized PEEP values in study group were higher than the standardized PEEP values (10 ± 2 vs 5 cm·H2O; P ventilation was switched to one-lung ventilation and increased after the alveolar recruitment maneuver. During one-lung ventilation, oxygenation was maintained in the study group but decreased in the control group. After one-lung ventilation, arterial oxygenation was significantly higher in the study group (306 vs 231 mm·Hg, P = 0.007). Static compliance decreased in both groups when bilateral-lung ventilation was switched to one-lung ventilation. Static compliance increased significantly only in the study group (P ventilation, the improvements in oxygenation and lung mechanics after an alveolar recruitment maneuver were better preserved by ventilation by using individualized PEEP with a PEEP decrement trial than with a standardized 5 cm·H2O of PEEP.

  13. Kaks kaptenit / Krister Kivi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kivi, Krister, 1975-

    2007-01-01

    Väliseestlased Mart ja Peter Hint on teinud silmapaistvat karjääri Ameerika Lennunduses. Mart Hint töötab Boening 767 kaptenina lennukompaniis Delta, Peter Hint töötab lennukompaniis American Airlines

  14. Methodology for the Model-based Small Area Estimates of Cancer-Related Knowledge - Small Area Estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    The HINTS is designed to produce reliable estimates at the national and regional levels. GIS maps using HINTS data have been used to provide a visual representation of possible geographic relationships in HINTS cancer-related variables.

  15. Ma armtub säda ŷdugt, kus mytk līb pūtumi : ehk Ma armastan seda õhtut, kus mõttest saab puudutus / Mati Hint

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hint, Mati, 1937-

    2014-01-01

    Arvustus: Ķempi Kārl. Toini sina = Teine sina / tõlge eesti keelde ja järelsõna: Karl Pajusalu. Tallinn : Eesti Keele Sihtasutus, 2013 ; Ķempi Kārl. Salats joug kolm aģa = Salatsi jõe kolm kallast = Salacas upes trīs krasti / tõlge eesti keelde: Karl Pajusalu, tõlge läti keelde: Valts Ernštreits. Tartu : Liivi Sõprade Selts, 2013

  16. Thermodynamic and structural consensus principle predicts mature miRNA location and structure, categorizes conserved interspecies miRNA subgroups, and hints new possible mechanisms of miRNA maturization

    OpenAIRE

    Tao, Molei

    2007-01-01

    Although conservation of thermodynamics is much less studied than of sequences and structures, thermodynamic details are biophysical features different from but as important as structural features. As a succession of previous research which revealed the important relationships between thermodynamic features and miRNA maturization, this article applies interspecies conservation of miRNA thermodynamics and structures to study miRNA maturization. According to a thermodynamic and structural conse...

  17. Sub-proteome S-nitrosylation analysis in Brassica juncea hints at the regulation of Brassicaceae specific as well as other vital metabolic pathway(s) by nitric oxide and suggests post-translational modifications cross-talk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehrawat, Ankita; Deswal, Renu

    2014-12-01

    Abiotic stress affects the normal physiology of the plants and results in crop loss. Brassica juncea is an oil yielding crop affected by abiotic stress. In future, over 30% yield loss by abiotic stress is predicted in India. Understanding the mechanism of plant response to stress would help in developing stress tolerant crops. Nitric oxide (NO) is now viewed as a remarkably important signaling molecule, involved in regulating stress responses. S-Nitrosylation is a NO based post-translational modification (PTM), linked with the regulation of many physiologically relevant targets. In the last decade, over 700 functionally varied S-nitrosylated proteins were identified, which suggested broad-spectrum regulation. To understand the physiological significance of S-nitrosylation, it was analyzed in cold stress. Functional categorization and validation of some of the B. juncea S-nitrosylated targets, suggested that NO produced during stress regulates cellular detoxification by modulating enzymes of ascorbate glutathione cycle, superoxide dismutase, glutathione S-transferase and glyoxalase I by S-nitrosylation in crude, ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RuBisCO) depleted and apoplastic fractions. Interestingly, S-nitrosylation of enzymes associated with glucosinolate hydrolysis pathway, suggests a novel regulation of this Brassicaceae specific pathway by NO. Moreover, identification of enzymes of Glycolysis and Calvin cycle in crude and RuBisCO depleted fractions showed the regulation of metabolic as well as photosynthetic pathways by S-nitrosylation. S-Nitrosylation of cell wall modifying and proteolytic enzymes in the apoplast suggested differential and spatial regulation by S-nitrosylation. To have an overview of physiological role(s) of NO, collective information on NO based signaling (mainly by S-nitrosylation) is presented in this review. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Impact of Different Ventilation Strategies on Driving Pressure, Mechanical Power, and Biological Markers During Open Abdominal Surgery in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, Lígia de A; Samary, Cynthia S; Oliveira, Milena V; Santos, Cintia L; Huhle, Robert; Capelozzi, Vera L; Morales, Marcelo M; Schultz, Marcus J; Abreu, Marcelo G; Pelosi, Paolo; Silva, Pedro L; Rocco, Patricia Rieken Macedo

    2017-10-01

    Intraoperative mechanical ventilation may yield lung injury. To date, there is no consensus regarding the best ventilator strategy for abdominal surgery. We aimed to investigate the impact of the mechanical ventilation strategies used in 2 recent trials (Intraoperative Protective Ventilation [IMPROVE] trial and Protective Ventilation using High versus Low PEEP [PROVHILO] trial) on driving pressure (ΔPRS), mechanical power, and lung damage in a model of open abdominal surgery. Thirty-five Wistar rats were used, of which 28 were anesthetized, and a laparotomy was performed with standardized bowel manipulation. Postoperatively, animals (n = 7/group) were randomly assigned to 4 hours of ventilation with: (1) tidal volume (VT) = 7 mL/kg and positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) = 1 cm H2O without recruitment maneuvers (RMs) (low VT/low PEEP/RM-), mimicking the low-VT/low-PEEP strategy of PROVHILO; (2) VT = 7 mL/kg and PEEP = 3 cm H2O with RMs before laparotomy and hourly thereafter (low VT/moderate PEEP/4 RM+), mimicking the protective ventilation strategy of IMPROVE; (3) VT = 7 mL/kg and PEEP = 6 cm H2O with RMs only before laparotomy (low VT/high PEEP/1 RM+), mimicking the strategy used after intubation and before extubation in PROVHILO; or (4) VT = 14 mL/kg and PEEP = 1 cm H2O without RMs (high VT/low PEEP/RM-), mimicking conventional ventilation used in IMPROVE. Seven rats were not tracheotomized, operated, or mechanically ventilated, and constituted the healthy nonoperated and nonventilated controls. Low VT/moderate PEEP/4 RM+ and low VT/high PEEP/1 RM+, compared to low VT/low PEEP/RM- and high VT/low PEEP/RM-, resulted in lower ΔPRS (7.1 ± 0.8 and 10.2 ± 2.1 cm H2O vs 13.9 ± 0.9 and 16.9 ± 0.8 cm H2O, respectively; Pmechanical power (63 ± 7 and 79 ± 20 J/min vs 110 ± 10 and 120 ± 20 J/min, respectively; P = .007). Low VT/high PEEP/1 RM+ was associated with less alveolar collapse than low VT/low PEEP/RM- (P = .03). E-cadherin expression was higher in

  19. Eesti Vabariigi põhiseadus : kommenteeritud väljaanne / toimetuskolleegium: Eerik-Juhan Truuväli, Berit Aaviksoo, Oliver Kask, Lasse Lehis, Lauri Madise, Ülle Madise, Kalle Merusk, Lauri Mälksoo, Raul Narits, Vallo Olle, Peep Pruks

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Kommentaaride autorid ja sisu: Sissejuhatus / Raul Narits, Lauri Madise, Heinrich Schneider. Preambul / Raul Narits, Heinrich Schneider. I ptk. / Kalle Merusk, Taavi Annus, Madis Ernits, Heiki Lindpere, Lauri Madise. II ptk. / Oliver Kask, Madis Ernits, Taavi Annus, Peeter Roosma, Rait Maruste, Eerik Kergandberg, Ivo Pilving, Uno Lõhmus, Merilin Kiviorg, Einar Vene, Ülle Madise. III ptk. / Oliver Kask. IV ptk. / Lauri Madise, Aaro Mõttus, Jüri Põld, Tiina Runthal. V ptk. / Eerik-Juhan Truuväli, Ülle Madise, Jüri Põld, Urmas Reinsalu. VI ptk. / Kalle Merusk, Jüri Põld. VII ptk. / Eerik-Juhan Truuväli, Jüri Liventaal, Jüri Põld. VIII ptk. / Lasse Lehis. IX ptk. / Kristi Land, Heiki Lindpere, Lauri Madise, Heiki Pisuke. X ptk. / Oliver Kask, Enn Markvart, Jüri Põld. XI ptk. / Ülle Madise, Janek Laidvee, Heinrich Schneider. XII ptk. / Berit Aaviksoo, Mihkel Allik, Enn Markvart, Raul Narits, Aare Reenumägi, Peeter Roosma. XIII ptk. / Raul Narits, Uno Lõhmus, Madis Ernits, Jüri Põld. XIV ptk. / Vallo Olle, Arno Almann, Jüri Liventaal, Ülle Madise. XV ptk. / Eerik-Juhan Truuväli, Aaro Mõttus. Eesti Vabariigi põhiseaduse rakendamise seadus / Oliver Kask, Raul Narits, Peeter Roosma. Eesti Vabariigi põhiseaduse täiendamise seadus / Berit Aaviksoo, Julia Laffranque, Ülle Madise, Jüri Põld. Eesti Vabariigi põhiseadus 1990-2008 : bibliograafia (seisuga september 2008) / koost. Maia Ruttu

  20. Condicionantes del efecto de la presión positiva al final de la espiración (peep): los mecanismos de la lesión pulmonar y la adecuada determinación de las propiedades mecánicas del sistema respiratorio

    OpenAIRE

    Piacentini Gomez, Enrique

    2012-01-01

    Para los pacientes con fracaso ventilatorio, el uso de la ventilación mecánica es un procedimiento imprescindible para mantenerlos con vida. Sin embargo, desde que la ventilación mecánica comenzó a utilizarse la posibilidad de que la misma pudiera lesionar los pulmones ha sido motivo de preocupación. La lesión pulmonar inducida por el ventilador (VILI) es la culminación de un proceso donde interactúan procesos físicos y bioquímicos. Estos fenómenos dependen no sólo de la sobre-distensión asoc...

  1. Effects of different levels of end-expiratory pressure on hemodynamic, respiratory mechanics and systemic stress response during laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Oznur; Erdogan Doventas, Yasemin

    General anesthesia causes reduction of functional residual capacity. And this decrease can lead to atelectasis and intrapulmonary shunting in the lung. In this study we want to evaluate the effects of 5 and 10cmH2O PEEP levels on gas exchange, hemodynamic, respiratory mechanics and systemic stress response in laparoscopic cholecystectomy. American Society of Anesthesiologist I-II physical status 43 patients scheduled for laparoscopic cholecystectomy were randomly selected to receive external PEEP of 5cmH2O (PEEP 5 group) or 10cmH2O PEEP (PEEP 10 group) during pneumoperitoneum. Basal hemodynamic parameters were recorded, and arterial blood gases (ABG) and blood sampling were done for cortisol, insulin and glucose level estimations to assess the systemic stress response before induction of anesthesia. Thirty minutes after the pneumoperitoneum, the respiratory and hemodynamic parameters were recorded again and ABG and sampling for cortisol, insulin, and glucose levels were repeated. Lastly hemodynamic parameters were recorded; ABG analysis and sampling for stress response levels were taken after 60minutes from extubation. There were no statistical differences between the two groups about hemodynamic and respiratory parameters except mean airway pressure (Pmean). Pmean, compliance and PaO2; pH values were higher in 'PEEP 10 group'. Also, PaCO2 values were lower in 'PEEP 10 group'. No differences were observed between insulin and lactic acid levels in the two groups. But postoperative cortisol level was significantly lower in 'PEEP 10 group'. Ventilation with 10cmH2O PEEP increases compliance and oxygenation, does not cause hemodynamic and respiratory complications and reduces the postoperative stress response. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of positive end-expiratory pressure titration on gas exchange, respiratory mechanics and hemodynamics in anesthetized horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrósio, Aline M; Ida, Keila K; Souto, Maria Tmr; Oshiro, Alexandre H; Fantoni, Denise T

    2013-11-01

    To assess if positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) titration improves gas exchange and respiratory mechanics, without hemodynamic impairment in horses during anesthesia. Prospective, randomized study. Thirteen isoflurane-anesthetized healthy horses. After 60 minutes of anesthesia with spontaneous breathing, mechanical ventilation was initiated with an inspiratory-expiratory ratio of 1:2, PEEP of 5 cmH2O, tidal volume of 10-20 mL kg(-1) and respiratory rate adjusted to maintain normocapnia. Constant PEEP of 5 cmH2O was continued (control group; n = 6) or titrated (PEEP group; n = 7) by increasing and decreasing PEEP from 5 to 20 cmH2O at 15-minute intervals. The horses were instrumented with an arterial catheter to measure blood pressure and allow collection of blood for pH and blood gas analysis and a Swan-Ganz catheter for measurement of cardiac output (CO) using thermodilution. Cardiopulmonary assessment was recorded before PEEP titration and after 15 minutes at each PEEP value. In the PEEP group, static compliance (range) (Cst 278-463 mL cmH2O(-1)) was significantly higher and the shunt fraction (Q·s/Q·t 7-20%) and the alveolar-arterial oxygen difference [P(A-a)O2 95-325 mmHg] were significantly lower than in the control group [Cst of 246-290 mL cmH2O(-1), Q·s/Q·t of 16-19%, P(A-a)O2 of 253-310 mmHg; p respiratory mechanics impairment during inhalation anesthesia can be treated using PEEP titration from 5 to 20 cmH2O, without clinically important hemodynamic effects in healthy horses. © 2013 Association of Veterinary Anaesthetists and the American College of Veterinary Anesthesia and Analgesia.

  3. [Effects of different levels of end-expiratory pressure on hemodynamic, respiratory mechanics and systemic stress response during laparoscopic cholecystectomy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Oznur; Erdogan Doventas, Yasemin

    General anesthesia causes reduction of functional residual capacity. And this decrease can lead to atelectasis and intrapulmonary shunting in the lung. In this study we want to evaluate the effects of 5 and 10cmH2O PEEP levels on gas exchange, hemodynamic, respiratory mechanics and systemic stress response in laparoscopic cholecystectomy. American Society of Anesthesiologist I-II physical status 43 patients scheduled for laparoscopic cholecystectomy were randomly selected to receive external PEEP of 5cmH2O (PEEP 5 group) or 10cmH2O PEEP (PEEP 10 group) during pneumoperitoneum. Basal hemodynamic parameters were recorded, and arterial blood gases (ABG) and blood sampling were done for cortisol, insulin and glucose level estimations to assess the systemic stress response before induction of anesthesia. Thirty minutes after the pneumoperitoneum, the respiratory and hemodynamic parameters were recorded again and ABG and sampling for cortisol, insulin, and glucose levels were repeated. Lastly hemodynamic parameters were recorded; ABG analysis and sampling for stress response levels were taken after 60minutes from extubation. There were no statistical differences between the two groups about hemodynamic and respiratory parameters except mean airway pressure (Pmean). Pmean, compliance and PaO2; pH values were higher in 'PEEP 10 group'. Also, PaCO2 values were lower in 'PEEP 10 group'. No differences were observed between insulin and lactic acid levels in the two groups. But postoperative cortisol level was significantly lower in 'PEEP 10 group'. Ventilation with 10cmH2O PEEP increases compliance and oxygenation, does not cause hemodynamic and respiratory complications and reduces the postoperative stress response. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  4. Effects of positive end-expiratory pressure and 30% inspired oxygen on pulmonary mechanics and atelectasis in cats undergoing non-bronchoscopic bronchoalveolar lavage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhard, Christa; Masseau, Isabelle; Dodam, John; Outi, Hilton; Krumme, Stacy; Bishop, Kaitlin; Graham, Amber; Reinero, Carol

    2017-06-01

    Objectives The objective of this study was to determine if modification of inspired oxygen concentration or positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) would alter bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL)-induced changes in pulmonary mechanics or atelectasis, as measured using ventilator-acquired pulmonary mechanics and thoracic CT. Methods Six experimentally asthmatic cats underwent anesthesia and non-bronchoscopic BAL, each under four randomized treatment conditions: 100% oxygen, zero PEEP; 30% oxygen, zero PEEP; 100% oxygen, PEEP 2 cmH2O; and 30% oxygen, PEEP 2 cmH2O. Pulse oximetry was used to estimate oxygen saturation (SpO2). Ventilator-acquired pulmonary mechanics and thoracic CT scans were collected prior to BAL and at 1, 5 and 15 mins post-BAL. Results While receiving 100% oxygen, no cat had SpO2 90% by 1 min later. There was a significant increase in airway resistance and a decrease in lung compliance following BAL, but there was no significant difference between treatment groups. Cats receiving no PEEP and 30% oxygen conserved better aeration of the lung parenchyma in BAL-sampled areas than those receiving no PEEP and 100% oxygen. Conclusions and relevance Alterations in pulmonary mechanics or atelectasis may not be reflected by SpO2 following BAL. The use of 30% inspired oxygen concentration failed to show any significant improvement in pulmonary mechanics but did diminish atelectasis. In some cats, it was also associated with desaturation of hemoglobin. The use of PEEP in this study did not show any effect on our outcome parameters. Further studies using higher PEEP (5-10 cmH2O) and intermediate inspired oxygen concentration (40-60%) are warranted to determine if they would confer clinical benefit in cats undergoing diagnostic BAL.

  5. Positive end expiratory pressure for preterm infants requiring conventional mechanical ventilation for respiratory distress syndrome or bronchopulmonary dysplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamat, Nicolas; Millar, David; Suh, Sanghee; Kirpalani, Haresh

    2012-01-18

    Conventional mechanical ventilation (CMV) of neonates has been used as a treatment of respiratory failure for over 30 years. While CMV facilitates gas exchange, it may simultaneously damage the lung. Positive end expiratory pressure (PEEP) has received less attention than other ventilation parameters when considering this balance of benefit and possible harm. While an appropriate level of PEEP may exert substantial benefits in ventilation, both inappropriately low or high levels may lead to harm. An appropriate level of PEEP for neonates may also be best achieved by an individualized approach. 1. To compare the effects of different levels of PEEP in preterm newborn infants requiring CMV for respiratory distress syndrome (RDS).2. To compare the effects of different levels of PEEP in preterm infants requiring CMV for bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD).3. To compare the effects of different methods for individualizing PEEP to an optimal level in preterm newborn infants requiring CMV for RDS. The search was performed in accordance with the standard search strategy for the Cochrane Neonatal Review Group. The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library), Ovid MEDLINE, EMBASE, study references and experts were utilized for study identification. All randomized and quasi-randomized controlled trials studying preterm infants (less than 37 weeks gestational age) requiring CMV with endotracheal intubation and undergoing randomization to either different PEEP levels (RDS or BPD) or two or more alternative methods for individualizing PEEP levels (RDS only) were included. Cross-over trials were included but we limited the findings to those in the first cross-over period. Data collection and analysis were performed in accordance with the recommendations of the Cochrane Neonatal Review Group. An initial evaluation identified 10 eligible articles. Ultimately, a single study met our inclusion criteria. The study addressed the effects of different

  6. Extrapolation of a non-linear autoregressive model of pulmonary mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langdon, Ruby; Docherty, Paul D; Chiew, Yeong Shiong; Chase, J Geoffrey

    2017-02-01

    For patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), mechanical ventilation (MV) is an essential therapy in the intensive care unit (ICU). Suboptimal PEEP levels in MV can cause ventilator induced lung injury, which is associated with increased mortality, extended ICU stay, and high cost. The ability to predict the outcome of respiratory mechanics in response to changes in PEEP would thus provide a critical advantage in personalising and improving care. Testing the potentially dangerous high pressures would not be required to assess their impact. A nonlinear autoregressive (NARX) model was used to predict airway pressure in 19 data sets from 10 mechanically ventilated ARDS patients. Patient-specific NARX models were identified from pressure and flow data over one, two, three, or four adjacent PEEP levels in a recruitment manoeuvre. Extrapolation of NARX model elastance functions allowed prediction of patient responses to PEEP changes to higher or lower pressures. NARX model predictions were more successful than those using a well validated first order model (FOM). The most clinically important results were for extrapolation up one PEEP step of 2cmH2O from the highest PEEP in the training data. When the NARX model was trained on one PEEP level, the mean RMS residual for the extrapolation PEEP level was 0.52 (90% CI: 0.47-0.57) cmH2O, compared to 1.50 (90% CI: 1.38-1.62) cmH2O for the FOM. When trained on four PEEP levels, the NARX result was 0.50 (90% CI: 0.42-0.58) cmH2O, and was 1.95 (90% CI: 1.71-2.19) cmH2O for the FOM. The results suggest that a full recruitment manoeuvre may not be required for the NARX model to obtain a useful estimate of the pressure waveform at higher PEEP levels. The methodology could thus allow clinicians to make informed decisions about ventilator PEEP settings while reducing the risk associated with high PEEP, and subsequent high peak airway pressures. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. The effects of positive end-expiratory pressure on respiratory system mechanics and hemodynamics in postoperative cardiac surgery patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.O.C. Auler Jr.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available We prospectively evaluated the effects of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP on the respiratory mechanical properties and hemodynamics of 10 postoperative adult cardiac patients undergoing mechanical ventilation while still anesthetized and paralyzed. The respiratory mechanics was evaluated by the inflation inspiratory occlusion method and hemodynamics by conventional methods. Each patient was randomized to a different level of PEEP (5, 10 and 15 cmH2O, while zero end-expiratory pressure (ZEEP was established as control. PEEP of 15-min duration was applied at 20-min intervals. The frequency dependence of resistance and the viscoelastic properties and elastance of the respiratory system were evaluated together with hemodynamic and respiratory indexes. We observed a significant decrease in total airway resistance (13.12 ± 0.79 cmH2O l-1 s-1 at ZEEP, 11.94 ± 0.55 cmH2O l-1 s-1 (P<0.0197 at 5 cmH2O of PEEP, 11.42 ± 0.71 cmH2O l-1 s-1 (P<0.0255 at 10 cmH2O of PEEP, and 10.32 ± 0.57 cmH2O l-1 s-1 (P<0.0002 at 15 cmH2O of PEEP. The elastance (Ers; cmH2O/l was not significantly modified by PEEP from zero (23.49 ± 1.21 to 5 cmH2O (21.89 ± 0.70. However, a significant decrease (P<0.0003 at 10 cmH2O PEEP (18.86 ± 1.13, as well as (P<0.0001 at 15 cmH2O (18.41 ± 0.82 was observed after PEEP application. Volume dependence of viscoelastic properties showed a slight but not significant tendency to increase with PEEP. The significant decreases in cardiac index (l min-1 m-2 due to PEEP increments (3.90 ± 0.22 at ZEEP, 3.43 ± 0.17 (P<0.0260 at 5 cmH2O of PEEP, 3.31 ± 0.22 (P<0.0260 at 10 cmH2O of PEEP, and 3.10 ± 0.22 (P<0.0113 at 15 cmH2O of PEEP were compensated for by an increase in arterial oxygen content owing to shunt fraction reduction (% from 22.26 ± 2.28 at ZEEP to 11.66 ± 1.24 at PEEP of 15 cmH2O (P<0.0007. We conclude that increments in PEEP resulted in a reduction of both airway resistance and respiratory elastance. These results

  8. Meeleavaldajad rõhutavad Bonnis kliimaleppe olulisust / Merit Kopli

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kopli, Merit, 1969-

    2001-01-01

    Bonnis peetaval kliimakonverentsil pole seni kasvuhoonegaaside vähendmist sätestava Kyoto lepingu osas edu saavutatud. Eesti Rohelise Liikumise koordinaator Peep Mardiste meeleavaldusest Bonnis. Eesti keskkonnaministeeriumi ametnik Andres Kratonits Bonni kliimakonverentsist

  9. "Oravad" tõmbavad Eesti Energia börsileminekule piduri peale / Raimo Poom

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Poom, Raimo

    2010-01-01

    Riigikogu Reformierakonna fraktsiooni kohtumisest Eesti Energia juhi Sandor Liive ning majandus- ja kommunikatsiooniministeeriumi esindajatega. Fraktsiooni esimees Peep Aru räägib küsimustest, mis on seotud Eesti Energia börsilemineku kavaga

  10. Prima Vista toob pargiraamatukogu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    5. ja 6. mail 2005 toimub teine Tartu kirjandusfestival "Prima Vista". Avatakse pargiraamatukogu, kus esinevad 5. mail Jürgen Rooste, Merca, Aapo Ilves, Peep Ilmet, Marko Martinson, Jüri Kaldmaa, Jaan Pehk

  11. Metsanduse lisandväärtused vajavad teadvustamist / Ain Alvela, Kairi Oja

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Alvela, Ain, 1967-

    2013-01-01

    Oma seisukohti tutvustavad keskkonnaministeeriumi asekantsler Marku Lamp, AS-i Arco Real Estate põllu- ja metsamaade maakler Margus Põld, RMK juht Aigar Kallas, OÜ Metsaekspert juhataja Peep Põntson, EMÜ professor Hardi Tullus, Hiiumaa metsaseltsi eestvedaja Aira Toss

  12. Samaja bolshaja stroiploshtshadka v Estonii / Konstantin Morenko

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Morenko, Konstantin

    2004-01-01

    Tallinna linnavalitsus korraldas ümarlaua linna rannaalade hetkeseisu ja arenguvõimaluste hindamiseks, mille töös osalesid ka Euroopa tuntud linnaplaneerimise konsultandid. Arvamust avaldavad Peep Aaviksoo, Lutz Schleich, Giorgio Risicaris ja Stefan Boltz

  13. Eesti animafilmid võitsid Raumas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    pPIK mare 2010

    1999-01-01

    VI Sinise Mere filmifestivalil Raumas jagasid A-sarjas esikohta Mait Laasi "Päevavalgus" ja Peep Pedmansoni "Just Märried", teiseks jäi Märt Sildvee "Guardian Angel" ja kolmandaks Riho Undi - Hardi Volmeri "Primavera"

  14. Vastuolud annavad märku muutuste vajadusest / Marit Pukk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pukk, Marit

    2002-01-01

    Kiiresti areneva firma struktuur vajab muutmist. Kommenteerivad gasellettevõtete juhid Argo Schneider (OÜ Albion Reisid), Peep Nork (AS Euro Truck Trade Center), Riinu Värk (AS Meditsiinigrupp) ja Tiit Elenurm

  15. Tallinna Sakala keskuse projekt kütab kirgi / Aivo Vahemets

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vahemets, Aivo

    2004-01-01

    Raine Karbi projekteeritud hoone ümberehituse projekt telliti Inglismaalt büroost Burrow&Cave, OÜ Arhitektuuriagentuuri projektist loobuti. Eesti Arhitektide Liidu esinaise Margit Mutso ja arhitektuurinõukogu esimehe Peep Aaviksoo kommentaar

  16. Liitmine pole võimalus, vaid suisa kohustus : valitsuse aktiivsus regionaalhaldusreformi läbiviimisel ei ole põhiseadusvastane / Värner Lootsmann

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lootsmann, Värner, 1945-

    2008-01-01

    Haldusreformi läbiviimisest ja vastavatest sätetest põhiseaduses, kohaliku omavalitsuse korralduse seaduses ja Eesti territooriumi haldusjaotuse seaduses. Lisatud Siim Kiisleri, Kajar Lemberi, Marek Strandbergi, Peep Aru ja Kalvi Kõva arvamused

  17. Vene kriis kukutas Norma juhid / Raul Ranne

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ranne, Raul

    1998-01-01

    AS Norma vallandas ettevõtte tegevjuhi Peep Aaviksoo, sest ei olnud rahul ettevõtte tegevusega Venemaal. Tabelid: Norma aktsia on kukkunud, Norma kuukasum miinuses. Ilmunud ka: Delovõje Vedomosti, 9. sept. 1998, lk. 10

  18. Bravocom süüdistab Tele2 ja EMT-d alatus konkurentsivõitluses / Kristiina Viiron

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Viiron, Kristiina, 1971-

    2007-01-01

    Kallines Tele2 ja EMT võrgust Bravocomi mobiilinumbritele helistamise minutihind. Bravocomi juhatuse esimees Peep Põldsamm peab nii kalli hinna - 4.50 minut - kehtestamist konkurentsivõitluseks. Tabelid: Hinnavõrdlus. Lisa: Tele2 ja EMT kommentaarid

  19. Kersti Kracht - naine, kes teab, mida tahab / Raimo Ülavere

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ülavere, Raimo, 1970-

    2005-01-01

    Konsultatsioonifirma Kermon üks omanikke Kersti Kracht õpetab inimesi positiivselt mõtlema, kasutades selleks Silva meetodit. Lisa: Kersti Kracht. Vt. samas: Silva meetod harjutab positiivsust. Kommenteerivad Peep Vain ja Alar Tamming

  20. Kunst sai pronksist maski / Johannes Saar

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Saar, Johannes, 1965-

    2005-01-01

    Dokumentaalfilm skulptuurinäitusest Kunstihoones "Pronksiaeg" : režissöör ja produtsent Peeter Brambat : stsenaristid Juta Kivimäe ja Peeter Brambat : operaator Peep Laansalu : AD Oculos Film 2002

  1. Väljaspool iseennast / Aita Kivi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kivi, Aita, 1954-

    2000-01-01

    Sisu : Jaan Kaplinski. Silm. Hektor; John Grisham. Aguliadvokaat; Kerttu Rakke. Kalevipoeg; luulekogu "Armastuse valgus", koost. Peep Ilmet; James Woodall. John Lennon ja Yoko Ono; Donald Braider. El Greco eraelu; Åke Edwardson. Tants ingliga

  2. Nukufilm lasi käiku pooletunnise 3D-seiklusfilmi / Tiit Tuumalu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tuumalu, Tiit, 1971-

    2009-01-01

    Stuudios Nukufilm algasid pooletunnise 3D-nukufilmi "Lisa Limone ja Maroc Orange'i tormakas armulugu" võtted. Filmi režissöör on Mait Laas, stsenaristid Kati Kovacs ja Peep Pedmanson, produtsent Arvo Nuut

  3. Hüvasti, Arco! / Anne Oja

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Oja, Anne, 1970-

    2007-01-01

    Kinnisvarafirma Arco Vara juhatuse esimehe Viljar Araka lahkumisest ja senise nõukogu esimehe Arti Araka taandumisest nõukogu lihtliikmeks. Vt. samas: Uued juhid panustavad Balkanile ja Ukrainale. Kommenteerivad Peep Sooman, Arti Arakas ja Tõnis Oja

  4. Arco Vara läheb Balkanile / Virge Lahe

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lahe, Virge

    2007-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Delovõje Vedomosti 6. juuni lk. 3. Arco Vara juhid usuvad firma edukasse tegevusse Bulgaarias ja Rumeenias. Kommenteerib Maris Lauri. Vt. samas: Peep Aaviksoo: ruumi jätkub; Diagramm: Majandusnäitajad

  5. TOPi omanikud ähvardavad Pirita sadama osaliselt sulgeda / Urmas Seaver

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Seaver, Urmas, 1973-

    2007-01-01

    Tallinna Olümpiapurjespordikeskus rajati Pirita jõe suudmesse 1980. aastal. Hoone arhitektid on Peep Jänes, Ants Raid, Henno Sepmann, Avo-Himm Looveer. Avariiolukorras olevad kaid vajavad renoveerimist. Ala detailplaneeringu kehtestamisest

  6. 40 aastat uurivat õpetajat / Raivo Juurak

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Juurak, Raivo, 1949-

    2001-01-01

    ÜPUI asutamisest, minevikust ja ka tulevikust. Vestlusringis on Ühiskondliku Pedagoogika Uurimise Instituudi asutajad ja eestvedajad - Helme kutsekooli õpetaja Peep Leppik, TÜ kasvatusteaduste dotsent Inger Kraav, TPÜ emeriitprofessor Inge Unt, TPÜ dotsent Viivi Maanso

  7. Kirjanik filmis / Arvo Valton Vallikivi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Valton, Arvo, pseud., 1935-

    2014-01-01

    V Maailmafilmi festivalist Eesti dokumentaalfilmide programmiga “Kirjanik filmis”. Peep Puksi loodud filmidest, mis portreteerivad viit Eesti kirjanikku läbi aegade: Friedebert Tuglast, Juhan Liivi, Elin Toonat, Hilja Rüütlit ja Kalju Lepikut

  8. Verba volant, scripta manent / Milvi Tedremaa

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tedremaa, Milvi, 1937-2012

    1999-01-01

    Rets. rmt.: Meie õppisime raamatukogundust Tartu Ülikoolis / koost. Maare Kümnik, Kaja Noodla. Tartu, 1998. Vastukaja: Peep, Laine. Mitte ainult Milvi Tedremaale // Raamatukogu (1999) nr. 4, lk. 44

  9. Titanic või turist? / Karin Paulus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Paulus, Karin, 1975-

    2006-01-01

    Tallinnas Tartu maanteel asuva endise Turisti poe (arhitektid Peep Jänes, Henno Sepmann) asemele tahavad hoone omanikud ehitada kõrghoone nimega Titanic. Hoone ajutine võtmine muinsuskaitse alla on põhjustanud kohtuvaidluse

  10. Kas eesti keelt kummitab sõnavaravaegus? / Virve Liivanõmm

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Liivanõmm, Virve

    2009-01-01

    Terminoloogiakonverentsist "Eestikeelne ülikool" Tartus ning Eesti teaduskeele konverentsist Tallinna Ülikoolis. Konverentsidel võtsid sõna Peeter Päll, Mats Estonius, Peeter Saari, Igor Gräzin, Peep Nemvalts, Krista Kerge, Toomas Silk

  11. Nedvizhimost na Severo-Vostoke budjet postepenno dorozhat / Dmitri Zvjagintsev

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Zvjagintsev, Dmitri

    2004-01-01

    Eesti liitumine Euroopa Liiduga ja üldine inflatsioon toob analüütikute hinnangul paratamatult kaasa kinnisvara hindade tõusu ka väheköitvates Kirde-Eesti regioonides. Kommenteerivad Peep Sooman ja Aleksei Sergejev

  12. Takistusriba avalikule teabele / Ivar Tallo

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tallo, Ivar, 1964-

    2004-01-01

    Autori arvates on riiklike registrite poolt jagatava teabe eest tasu võtmine avaliku teabe seadusega vastuolus ega vasta kaasaegsetele infotehnoloogilistele lahendustele. Vastuseks vt.Viljar Peep. Registritest 6.aug. Postimees lk. 10

  13. Norma majandustulemuste ootused käivad üksteisele vastu / Gea Velthut-Sokka

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Velthut-Sokka, Gea, 1977-

    2004-01-01

    LHV ja Hansapanga analüütikud ennustavad Normale suurenenud kasumit ja aktsiahinna tõusu, Suprema ennustab nii käibe kui ka kasumi vähenemist. Kommenteerib Norma tegevdirektor Peep Siimon. Diagramm

  14. [Positive end-expiratory pressure and tidal volume titration after recruitment maneuver in a canine model of acute respiratory distress syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Qing-Yuan; Wang, Chen; Sun, Bing; Pang, Bao-sen

    2005-11-01

    To investigate the mechanisms of alveolar derecruitment and titration of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) and tidal volume (V(T)) after recruitment maneuver (RM) in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Eighteen dogs with oleic acid induced ARDS were ventilated with volume controlled ventilation [VCV, PEEP 16 cm H2O, V(T) 10 ml/kg, respiratory rate (RR) 30 breaths/min] and the steady state in this mode was defined as baseline (0 min). All animals accepted RM by using pressure controlled ventilation [PEEP 35 cm H2O and peak inspiratory pressure (PIP) 50 cm H2O for 1 min] and then randomly assigned into three groups and ventilated by VCV for 4 h: low V(T) and moderate PEEP group (LVMP group, V(T) 10 ml/kg, PEEP 16 cm H2O, RR 30 breaths/min), low V(T) and low PEEP group (LVLP group, V(T) 10 ml/kg, PEEP 10 cm H2O, RR 30 breaths/min) and moderate V(T) and low PEEP group (MVLP group, V(T) 15 ml/kg, PEEP 10 cm H2O, RR 20 breaths/min). Oxygenation, lung mechanics, hemodynamics and lung injury score were measured. (1) The average lower inflection pressure (LIP) was identified as (16.0 +/- 2.1) cm H2O. (2) PaO(2) in the LVMP group [(371 +/- 64) mm Hg at 30 min and (365 +/- 51) mm Hg at 60 min] was higher than that in the LVLP and the MVLP group [(243 +/- 112), (242 +/- 97) mm Hg at 30 min and (240 +/- 108), (232 +/- 87) mm Hg at 60 min, respectively; all P experiment. Better ventilation profiles were observed in the MVLP group. (3) Compared with baseline, marked cardiac compromise with higher airway plateau pressure (Pplat) and lower static respiratory compliance (Cst) were found in the LVMP group, while improvement was observed in other two groups. Cst in the MVLP group was slightly higher than that in the LVLP group. (4) No significant differences of lung injury were found from bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) analysis. Higher PEEP close to LIP maybe useful in preventing alveolar recollapse and improving oxygenation, but harmful to hemodynamics and may

  15. Positive end expiratory pressure titrated by transpulmonary pressure improved oxygenation and respiratory mechanics in acute respiratory distress syndrome patients with intra-abdominal hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yi; Li, Yang; Liu, Song-Qiao; Liu, Ling; Huang, Ying-Zi; Guo, Feng-Mei; Qiu, Hai-Bo

    2013-01-01

    Intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) is common in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) patients and when resulting in decrease of chest wall compliance will weaken the effect of positive end expiratory pressure (PEEP). We investigated the effect of PEEP titrated by transpulmonary pressure (Ptp) on oxygenation and respiratory mechanics in ARDS patients with IAH compared with PEEP titrated by ARDSnet protocol. ARDS patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) of the Zhongda Hospital were enrolled. Patients were ventilated with volume control mode with tidal volume of 6 ml/kg under two different PEEP levels titrated by Ptp method and ARDSnet protocol. Respiratory mechanics, gas exchange and haemodynamics were measured after 30 minutes of ventilation in each round. IAH was defined as intra-abdominal pressure of 12 mmHg or more. Seven ARDS patients with IAH and 8 ARDS patients without IAH were enrolled. PEEP titrated by Ptp were significant higher than PEEP titrated by ARDSnet protocol in both ARDS patients with IAH ((17.3 ± 2.6) cmH2O vs. (6.3 ± 1.6) cmH2O and without IAH ((9.5 ± 2.1) cmH2O vs. (7.8 ± 1.9) cmH2O). Arterial pressure of O2/fraction of inspired oxygen (PaO2/FiO2) was much higher under PEEP titrated by Ptp when compared with PEEP titrated by ARDSnet protocol in ARDS patients with IAH ((27.2 ± 4.0) cmHg vs. (20.9 ± 5.0) cmHg. But no significant difference of PaO2/FiO2 between the two methods was found in ARDS patients without IAH. In ARDS patients with IAH, static compliance of lung and respiratory system were higher under PEEP titrated by Ptp than by ARDSnet protocol. In ARDS patients with IAH, central venous pressure (CVP) was higher during PEEP titrated by Ptp than by ARDSnet protocol. Positive end expiratory pressure titrated by transpulmonary pressure was higher than PEEP titrated by ARDSnet protocol and improved oxygenation and respiratory mechanics in ARDS patients with IAH.

  16. Tidal Volume Delivery and Endotracheal Tube Leak during Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation in Intubated Newborn Piglets with Hypoxic Cardiac Arrest Exposed to Different Modes of Ventilatory Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendler, Marc R; Weber, Claudia; Hassan, Mohammad A; Huang, Li; Mayer, Benjamin; Hummler, Helmut D

    2017-01-01

    There are few data available on the interaction of inflations, chest compressions (CC), and delivery of tidal volumes in newborn infants undergoing resuscitation in the presence of endotracheal tube (ET) leaks. To determine the effects of different respiratory support strategies along with CC on changes in tidal volume and ET leaks in hypoxic newborn piglets with cardiac arrest. Asphyxiated newborn piglets, intubated with weight-adapted uncuffed ET, were randomized into three groups and resuscitated according to ILCOR 2010 guidelines: (1) T-piece resuscitator (TPR) group = peak inspiratory pressure (PIP)/positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) 25/5 cm H2O, rate 30/min, inflations interposed between CC (3:1 ratio); (2) self- inflating bag (SIB) group = PIP 25 cm H2O without PEEP, rate 30/min, inflations interposed between CC (3:1 ratio), and (3) ventilator group = PIP/PEEP of 25/5 cm H2O, rate 30/min. CC were applied with a rate of 120/min without synchrony to inflations. We observed a significant increase of leak (average increase 11.4%) when CC was added to respiratory support (p = 0.0001). Expired tidal volume was larger in the SIB group than in the two other modes which both applied PEEP. However, tidal volumes caused by CC only were larger in the two groups with PEEP than in the SIB group (without PEEP). There is interaction between lung inflations and CC affecting leak and delivery of tidal volume, which may be influenced by the mode/device used for respiratory support. Leak is larger in the presence of PEEP. However, CC cause additional tidal volume which is larger in the presence of PEEP. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Neli uut nukufilmi korraga / T.T.

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    T.T.

    2003-01-01

    Nukufilm näitab täna kinos "Sõprus" 4 uut filmi : "Barbarid" (stsenaristid Andrus Kivirähk ja Hardi Volmer, režissöör H. Volmer), "Porgand" (stsenarist Peep Pedmanson, režissöör Pärtel Tall), "Miriam" (stsenaristid Leelo Tungal ja Peep Pedmanson", režissöör Mait Laas), "Kuuvaatleja" (reklaamitreiler Frank Mulleri kellafirmale ; stsenarist, režissöör, kunstnik Mati Kütt)

  18. Barbarid, plastiliinijänes, Miriam ja Frank Muller / Annika Koppel

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Koppel, Annika

    2003-01-01

    Nukufilm näitab 4 uut filmi : "Barbarid" (stsenaristid Andrus Kivirähk ja Hardi Volmer, režissöör H. Volmer), "Porgand" (stsenarist Peep Pedmanson, režissöör Pärtel Tall), "Miriami jõulupäkapikk" (stsenaristid Leelo Tungal ja Peep Pedmanson, režissöör Mait Laas), "Kuuvaatleja" (reklaamitreiler Frank Mulleri kellafirmale ; stsenarist, režissöör, kunstnik Mati Kütt)

  19. Combined effects of ventilation mode and positive end-expiratory pressure on mechanics, gas exchange and the epithelium in mice with acute lung injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thammanomai, Apiradee; Hamakawa, Hiroshi; Bartolák-Suki, Erzsébet; Suki, Béla

    2013-01-01

    The accepted protocol to ventilate patients with acute lung injury is to use low tidal volume (V(T)) in combination with recruitment maneuvers or positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP). However, an important aspect of mechanical ventilation has not been considered: the combined effects of PEEP and ventilation modes on the integrity of the epithelium. Additionally, it is implicitly assumed that the best PEEP-V(T) combination also protects the epithelium. We aimed to investigate the effects of ventilation mode and PEEP on respiratory mechanics, peak airway pressures and gas exchange as well as on lung surfactant and epithelial cell integrity in mice with acute lung injury. HCl-injured mice were ventilated at PEEPs of 3 and 6 cmH(2)O with conventional ventilation (CV), CV with intermittent large breaths (CV(LB)) to promote recruitment, and a new mode, variable ventilation, optimized for mice (VV(N)). Mechanics and gas exchange were measured during ventilation and surfactant protein (SP)-B, proSP-B and E-cadherin levels were determined from lavage and lung homogenate. PEEP had a significant effect on mechanics, gas exchange and the epithelium. The higher PEEP reduced lung collapse and improved mechanics and gas exchange but it also down regulated surfactant release and production and increased epithelial cell injury. While CV(LB) was better than CV, VV(N) outperformed CV(LB) in recruitment, reduced epithelial injury and, via a dynamic mechanotransduction, it also triggered increased release and production of surfactant. For long-term outcome, selection of optimal PEEP and ventilation mode may be based on balancing lung physiology with epithelial injury.

  20. Cardiac effects of positive pressure ventilation in ARDS assessed by NT-proBNP, Troponin T and Troponin I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasser Sadek Nassar

    2013-01-01

    Although the increase in cardiac markers are insignificant, yet they point to the potentially harmful role played by high PEEP, low PH and low PaO2/FiO2 ratio on the heart. Currently, no clinically relevant conclusion can be drawn apart from the recommendation to attempt to lower PEEP and shorten the duration of positive pressure ventilation, even in patients with structurally normal hearts.

  1. Increasing positive end-expiratory pressure (re-)improves intraoperative respiratory mechanics and lung ventilation after prone positioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaeth, J; Daume, K; Goebel, U; Wirth, S; Schumann, S

    2016-06-01

    Turning a patient prone, changes the respiratory mechanics and potentially the level of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) that is necessary to prevent alveolar collapse. In this prospective clinical study we examined the impact of PEEP on the intratidal respiratory mechanics and regional lung aeration in the prone position. We hypothesized that a higher PEEP is required to maintain compliance and regional ventilation in the prone position. After ethical approval, 45 patients with healthy lungs undergoing lumbar spine surgery were examined in the supine position at PEEP 6 cm H2O and in the prone position at PEEP (6, 9 and 12 cm H2O). Dynamic compliance (CRS) and intratidal compliance-volume curves were determined and regional ventilation was measured using electrical impedance tomography. The compliance-volume curves were classified to indicate intratidal derecruitment, overdistension, or neither. CRS did not differ between postures and PEEP levels (P>0.28). At a PEEP of 6 cm H2O a compliance-volume profile indicating neither derecruitment nor overdistension was observed in 38 supine, but only in 20 prone positioned patients (Pventilation significantly. Respiratory system mechanics change substantially between supine and prone posture, which is not demonstrated in routine measurements. The intratidal compliance analysis suggests that in most patients a PEEP above commonly used settings is necessary to avoid alveolar collapse in the prone position. DRKS 00005692. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Journal of Anaesthesia. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Combined Effects of Ventilation Mode and Positive End-Expiratory Pressure on Mechanics, Gas Exchange and the Epithelium in Mice with Acute Lung Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thammanomai, Apiradee; Hamakawa, Hiroshi; Bartolák-Suki, Erzsébet; Suki, Béla

    2013-01-01

    The accepted protocol to ventilate patients with acute lung injury is to use low tidal volume (VT) in combination with recruitment maneuvers or positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP). However, an important aspect of mechanical ventilation has not been considered: the combined effects of PEEP and ventilation modes on the integrity of the epithelium. Additionally, it is implicitly assumed that the best PEEP-VT combination also protects the epithelium. We aimed to investigate the effects of ventilation mode and PEEP on respiratory mechanics, peak airway pressures and gas exchange as well as on lung surfactant and epithelial cell integrity in mice with acute lung injury. HCl-injured mice were ventilated at PEEPs of 3 and 6 cmH2O with conventional ventilation (CV), CV with intermittent large breaths (CVLB) to promote recruitment, and a new mode, variable ventilation, optimized for mice (VVN). Mechanics and gas exchange were measured during ventilation and surfactant protein (SP)-B, proSP-B and E-cadherin levels were determined from lavage and lung homogenate. PEEP had a significant effect on mechanics, gas exchange and the epithelium. The higher PEEP reduced lung collapse and improved mechanics and gas exchange but it also down regulated surfactant release and production and increased epithelial cell injury. While CVLB was better than CV, VVN outperformed CVLB in recruitment, reduced epithelial injury and, via a dynamic mechanotransduction, it also triggered increased release and production of surfactant. For long-term outcome, selection of optimal PEEP and ventilation mode may be based on balancing lung physiology with epithelial injury. PMID:23326543

  3. Variation of poorly ventilated lung units (silent spaces) measured by electrical impedance tomography to dynamically assess recruitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spadaro, Savino; Mauri, Tommaso; Böhm, Stephan H; Scaramuzzo, Gaetano; Turrini, Cecilia; Waldmann, Andreas D; Ragazzi, Riccardo; Pesenti, Antonio; Volta, Carlo Alberto

    2018-01-31

    Assessing alveolar recruitment at different positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) levels is a major clinical and research interest because protective ventilation implies opening the lung without inducing overdistention. The pressure-volume (P-V) curve is a validated method of assessing recruitment but reflects global characteristics, and changes at the regional level may remain undetected. The aim of the present study was to compare, in intubated patients with acute hypoxemic respiratory failure (AHRF) and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), lung recruitment measured by P-V curve analysis, with dynamic changes in poorly ventilated units of the dorsal lung (dependent silent spaces [DSSs]) assessed by electrical impedance tomography (EIT). We hypothesized that DSSs might represent a dynamic bedside measure of recruitment. We carried out a prospective interventional study of 14 patients with AHRF and ARDS admitted to the intensive care unit undergoing mechanical ventilation. Each patient underwent an incremental/decremental PEEP trial that included five consecutive phases: PEEP 5 and 10 cmH 2 O, recruitment maneuver + PEEP 15 cmH 2 O, then PEEP 10 and 5 cmH 2 O again. We measured, at the end of each phase, recruitment from previous PEEP using the P-V curve method, and changes in DSS were continuously monitored by EIT. PEEP changes induced alveolar recruitment as assessed by the P-V curve method and changes in the amount of DSS (p Recruited volume measured by the P-V curves significantly correlated with the change in DSS (r s  = 0.734, p recruitment measured using the P-V curve technique. EIT might provide useful information to titrate personalized PEEP. ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02907840 . Registered on 20 September 2016.

  4. Potential hazard of the Neopuff T-piece resuscitator in the absence of flow limitation.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hawkes, C P

    2012-01-31

    OBJECTIVE: (1) To assess peak inspiratory pressure (PIP), positive end expiratory pressure (PEEP) and maximum pressure relief (P(max)) at different rates of gas flow, when the Neopuff had been set to function at 5 l\\/min. (2) To assess maximum PIP and PEEP at a flow rate of 10 l\\/min with a simulated air leak of 50%. DESIGN: 5 Neopuffs were set to a PIP of 20, PEEP of 5 and P(max) of 30 cm H(2)O at a gas flow of 5 l\\/min. PIP, PEEP and P(max) were recorded at flow rates of 10, 15 l\\/min and maximum flow. Maximum achievable pressures at 10 l\\/min gas flow, with a 50% air leak, were measured. RESULTS: At gas flow of 15 l\\/min, mean PEEP increased to 20 (95% CI 20 to 21), PIP to 28 (95% CI 28 to 29) and the P(max) to 40 cm H(2)O (95% CI 38 to 42). At maximum flow (85 l\\/min) a PEEP of 71 (95% CI 51 to 91) and PIP of 92 cm H(2)O (95% CI 69 to 115) were generated. At 10 l\\/min flow, with an air leak of 50%, the maximum PEEP and PIP were 21 (95% CI 19 to 23) and 69 cm H(2)O (95% CI 66 to 71). CONCLUSIONS: The maximum pressure relief valve is overridden by increasing the rate of gas flow and potentially harmful PIP and PEEP can be generated. Even in the presence of a 50% gas leak, more than adequate pressures can be provided at 10 l\\/min gas flow. We recommend the limitation of gas flow to a rate of 10 l\\/min as an added safety mechanism for this device.

  5. Personalizing mechanical ventilation according to physiologic parameters to stabilize alveoli and minimize ventilator induced lung injury (VILI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieman, Gary F; Satalin, Joshua; Andrews, Penny; Aiash, Hani; Habashi, Nader M; Gatto, Louis A

    2017-12-01

    It has been shown that mechanical ventilation in patients with, or at high-risk for, the development of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) can be a double-edged sword. If the mechanical breath is improperly set, it can amplify the lung injury associated with ARDS, causing a secondary ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI). Conversely, the mechanical breath can be adjusted to minimize VILI, which can reduce ARDS mortality. The current standard of care ventilation strategy to minimize VILI attempts to reduce alveolar over-distension and recruitment-derecruitment (R/D) by lowering tidal volume (Vt) to 6 cc/kg combined with adjusting positive-end expiratory pressure (PEEP) based on a sliding scale directed by changes in oxygenation. Thus, Vt is often but not always set as a "one-size-fits-all" approach and although PEEP is often set arbitrarily at 5 cmH2O, it may be personalized according to changes in a physiologic parameter, most often to oxygenation. However, there is evidence that oxygenation as a method to optimize PEEP is not congruent with the PEEP levels necessary to maintain an open and stable lung. Thus, optimal PEEP might not be personalized to the lung pathology of an individual patient using oxygenation as the physiologic feedback system. Multiple methods of personalizing PEEP have been tested and include dead space, lung compliance, lung stress and strain, ventilation patterns using computed tomography (CT) or electrical impedance tomography (EIT), inflection points on the pressure/volume curve (P/V), and the slope of the expiratory flow curve using airway pressure release ventilation (APRV). Although many studies have shown that personalizing PEEP is possible, there is no consensus as to the optimal technique. This review will assess various methods used to personalize PEEP, directed by physiologic parameters, necessary to adaptively adjust ventilator settings with progressive changes in lung pathophysiology.

  6. Comparative effects of helium-oxygen and external positive end-expiratory pressure on respiratory mechanics, gas exchange, and ventilation-perfusion relationships in mechanically ventilated patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolliet, Philippe; Watremez, Christine; Roeseler, Jean; Ngengiyumva, J C; de Kock, Marc; Clerbaux, Thierry; Tassaux, Didier; Reynaert, Marc; Detry, Bruno; Liistro, Giuseppe

    2003-09-01

    To compare the effects of He/O(2) and external PEEP (PEEPe) on intrinsic PEEP (PEEPi), respiratory mechanics, gas exchange, and ventilation/perfusion (V(A)/Q) in mechanically ventilated COPD patients. Prospective, interventional study in the intensive care unit of a university hospital. Ten intubated, sedated, paralyzed, mechanically ventilated COPD patients studied in the following conditions: (a) baseline settings made by clinician in charge, air/O(2), ZEEP; (b) He/O(2), ZEEP; (c) air/O(2), ZEEP; (d) air/O(2), PEEPe 80% of PEEPi. Measurements at each condition included V(A)/Q by the multiple inert gas elimination technique (MIGET). PEEPi and trapped gas volume were comparably reduced by He/O(2) (4.2+/-4 vs. 7.7+/-4 cmH(2)O and 98+/-82 vs. 217+/-124 ml, respectively) and PEEPe (4.4+/-1.3 vs. 7.8+/-3.6 cmH(2)O and 120+/-107 vs. 216+/-115 ml, respectively). He/O(2) reduced inspiratory and expiratory respiratory system resistance (15.5+/-4.4 vs. 20.7+/-6.9 and 19+/-9 vs. 28.8+/-15 cmH(2)O l(-1)s(-1), respectively) and plateau pressure (13+/-4 vs. 17+/-6 cmH(2)O). PEEPe increased airway pressures, including total PEEP, and elastance. PaO(2)/FIO(2) was slightly reduced by He/O(2) (225+/-83 vs. 245+/-82) without significant V(A)/Q change. He/O(2) and PEEPe comparably reduced PEEPi and trapped gas volume. However, He/O(2) decreased airway resistance and intrathoracic pressures, at a small cost in arterial oxygenation. He/O(2) could offer an attractive option in COPD patients with PEEPi/dynamic hyperinflation.

  7. Oleic acid vs saline solution lung lavage-induced acute lung injury: effects on lung morphology, pressure-volume relationships, and response to positive end-expiratory pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luecke, Thomas; Meinhardt, Juergen P; Herrmann, Peter; Weiss, Andreas; Quintel, Michael; Pelosi, Paolo

    2006-08-01

    To compare two lung injury models (oleic acid [OA] and saline solution washout [SW]) regarding lung morphology, regional inflation, and recruitment during static pressure-volume (PV) curves, and the effects of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) below and above the lower inflection point (Pflex). Fourteen adult pigs underwent OA or SW lung injury. Lung volumes were measured using CT. PV curves were obtained with simultaneous CT scanning at lung apex and base. Fractional inflation and recruitment were compared to data on PEEP above and below Pflex. Severity of lung injury was comparable. At zero PEEP, SW showed an increased amount of edema and poorly aerated lung volume, recruitment during inspiration, and a better oxygenation response with PEEP. Whole-lung PV curves were similar in both models, reflecting changes in alveolar inflation or deflation. On the inspiratory PV limb, recruitment and inflation were on the same line, while there was a substantial difference between deflation and derecruitment on the expiratory limb. PEEP-induced recruitment at lung apex and base was at or above the derecruitment line on the expiratory limb and showed no relationship to the whole-lung expiratory PV curve. The following conclusions were made: (1) OA and SW models are comparable in mechanics but not in lung injury characteristics; (2) neither inspiratory nor expiratory whole-lung PV curves are useful to select PEEP in order to optimize recruitment; and (3) after recruitment, there is no difference in derecruitment between the models at high PEEP, while more collapse occurs at lower PEEP in the basal sections of SW lungs.

  8. Optimization of pressure settings during adaptive servo-ventilation support using real-time heart rate variability assessment: initial case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imamura, Teruhiko; Nitta, Daisuke; Kinugawa, Koichiro

    2017-01-05

    Adaptive servo-ventilation (ASV) therapy is a recent non-invasive positive pressure ventilation therapy that was developed for patients with heart failure (HF) refractory to optimal medical therapy. However, it is likely that ASV therapy at relatively higher pressure setting worsens some of the patients' prognosis compared with optimal medical therapy. Therefore, identification of optimal pressure settings of ASV therapy is warranted. We present the case of a 42-year-old male with HF, which was caused by dilated cardiomyopathy, who was admitted to our institution for evaluating his eligibility for heart transplantation. To identify the optimal pressure setting [peak end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) ramp test], we performed an ASV support test, during which the PEEP settings were set at levels ranging from 4 to 8 mmHg, and a heart rate variability (HRV) analysis using the MemCalc power spectral density method. Clinical parameters varied dramatically during the PEEP ramp test. Over incremental PEEP levels, pulmonary capillary wedge pressure, cardiac index and high-frequency level (reflecting parasympathetic activity) decreased; however, the low-frequency level increased along with increase in plasma noradrenaline concentrations. An inappropriately high PEEP setting may stimulate sympathetic nerve activity accompanied by decreased cardiac output. This was the first report on the PEEP ramp test during ASV therapy. Further research is warranted to determine whether use of optimal pressure settings using HRV analyses may improve the long-term prognosis of such patients.

  9. High versus low positive end-expiratory pressure during general anaesthesia for open abdominal surgery (PROVHILO trial): a multicentre randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmes, Sabrine N T; Gama de Abreu, Marcelo; Pelosi, Paolo; Schultz, Marcus J

    2014-08-09

    The role of positive end-expiratory pressure in mechanical ventilation during general anaesthesia for surgery remains uncertain. Levels of pressure higher than 0 cm H2O might protect against postoperative pulmonary complications but could also cause intraoperative circulatory depression and lung injury from overdistension. We tested the hypothesis that a high level of positive end-expiratory pressure with recruitment manoeuvres protects against postoperative pulmonary complications in patients at risk of complications who are receiving mechanical ventilation with low tidal volumes during general anaesthesia for open abdominal surgery. In this randomised controlled trial at 30 centres in Europe and North and South America, we recruited 900 patients at risk for postoperative pulmonary complications who were planned for open abdominal surgery under general anaesthesia and ventilation at tidal volumes of 8 mL/kg. We randomly allocated patients to either a high level of positive end-expiratory pressure (12 cm H2O) with recruitment manoeuvres (higher PEEP group) or a low level of pressure (≤2 cm H2O) without recruitment manoeuvres (lower PEEP group). We used a centralised computer-generated randomisation system. Patients and outcome assessors were masked to the intervention. Primary endpoint was a composite of postoperative pulmonary complications by postoperative day 5. Analysis was by intention-to-treat. The study is registered at Controlled-Trials.com, number ISRCTN70332574. From February, 2011, to January, 2013, 447 patients were randomly allocated to the higher PEEP group and 453 to the lower PEEP group. Six patients were excluded from the analysis, four because they withdrew consent and two for violation of inclusion criteria. Median levels of positive end-expiratory pressure were 12 cm H2O (IQR 12-12) in the higher PEEP group and 2 cm H2O (0-2) in the lower PEEP group. Postoperative pulmonary complications were reported in 174 (40%) of 445 patients in the higher

  10. Respiratory oscillation mechanics in infants with bronchiolitis during mechanical ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauthier, R; Beyaert, C; Feillet, F; Peslin, R; Monin, P; Marchal, F

    1998-01-01

    The aim of the study was to describe the pattern of respiratory oscillation mechanics and responses to positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) in bronchiolitis. Six infants were studied during the course of mechanical ventilation. A 20 Hz sinusoidal pressure variation was applied at the endotracheal tube where flow was measured with a pneumotachograph. Resistance and reactance obtained from the complex pressure-flow ratio were separated during inspiration (R(rs,i); X(rs,i)) and expiration (R(rs,e); X(rs,e)), and the differences between R(rs,i) and R(rs,e) (deltaR(rs)) and X(rs,i) and X(rs,e) (deltaX(rs)) were calculated. The data were corrected for the mechanical characteristics of the endotracheal tube. The measurements were repeated while PEEP was varied between 0 and 8 hPa. Two infants were found to have normal R(rs) and near-zero X(rs) and both parameters exhibited little change within the respiratory cycle or with varying PEEP. Four infants had high R(rs) at zero PEEP. In two, R(rs,i) was markedly elevated (108.5 and 85.2 hPa.s/L, respectively), and X(rs,i) was markedly negative (-25.0 and -22.5 hPa.s/L, respectively) at zero PEEP, while deltaR(rs) and deltaX(rs) were small. R(rs,i) and the absolute value of X(rs,i) decreased with increasing PEEP. This pattern of oscillation mechanics was consistent with low lung volumes and atelectasis, being reversed by increasing PEEP. In the remaining two subjects, R(rs,i) was moderately elevated (57.8 and 53.6 hPa.s/L, respectively) and X(rs,i) moderately negative (-12.5 and -7.7 hPa.s/L, respectively) at zero PEEP. DeltaR(rs) (-59.8 and -56.5 hPa.s/L, respectively) and delta(rs) (28.1 and 48.7 hPa.s/L, respectively) were large, but were dramatically reduced by increasing PEEP. These patterns were consistent with expiratory airflow limitation. Measurements of respiratory impedance are, therefore, informative in regard to the pathophysiological mechanisms occurring in bronchiolitis during mechanical ventilation, and they

  11. How does positive end-expiratory pressure reduce intrapulmonary shunt in canine pulmonary edema?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malo, J; Ali, J; Wood, L D

    1984-10-01

    We ventilated separately the right and left lungs of seven dogs having thoracotomies and catheters in both lower lobe veins. Two hours after right atrial injection of oleic acid, shunt (Qs/QT) in each lower lobe increased from 0.10 to 0.47. Ten minutes after positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) was increased from 3 to 13 cmH2O in one lung, mean lobar Qs/QT decreased to 0.06 with no change in its fraction of pulmonary blood flow measured by microsphere techniques. At the same time mean Qs/QT in the other lower lobe was 0.48. At end expiration each lower lobe hilum was then clamped, and the excised lobe was quickly frozen over liquid N2. There was no difference in the extravascular lung liquid per gram blood-free dry lobe between the lower lobes (7.5 +/- 2.6 ml/g), but perivascular cuff liquid was greater in the lower lobe with PEEP (3.8 +/- 2.8 ml/g) than in the lower lobes without PEEP (2.4 +/- 1.7 ml/g). Light microscopy revealed that 77.8 +/- 9.0% of the alveoli were flooded in the lobe without PEEP, but only 22.2 +/- 11.8% were flooded in the lobe with PEEP. The mean linear intercepts of the flooded alveoli were not different between lower lobes, and both were reduced to about 50% of the size of adjacent unflooded units in the same lobe. Alveolar septum thickness was greater without PEEP. We conclude that PEEP reduces Qs/QT by inflating previously flooded and collapsed air spaces and by redistributing the excess alveolar water into the compliant perivascular space, thus eliminating the obstacle to pulmonary O2 transfer.

  12. Capnodynamic assessment of effective lung volume during cardiac output manipulations in a porcine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hällsjö Sander, Caroline; Lönnqvist, Per-Arne; Hallbäck, Magnus; Sipmann, Fernando Suarez; Wallin, Mats; Oldner, Anders; Björne, Håkan

    2016-12-01

    A capnodynamic calculation of effective pulmonary blood flow includes a lung volume factor (ELV) that has to be estimated to solve the mathematical equation. In previous studies ELV correlated to reference methods for functional residual capacity (FRC). The aim was to evaluate the stability of ELV during significant manipulations of cardiac output (CO) and assess the agreement for absolute values and trending capacity during PEEP changes at different lung conditions. Ten pigs were included. Alterations of alveolar carbon dioxide were induced by cyclic reoccurring inspiratory holds. The Sulphur hexafluoride technique for FRC measurements was used as reference. Cardiac output was altered by preload reduction and inotropic stimulation at PEEP 5 and 12 cmH2O both in normal lung conditions and after repeated lung lavages. ELV at baseline PEEP 5 was [mean (SD)], 810 (163) mL and decreased to 400 (42) mL after lavage. ELV was not significantly affected by CO alterations within the same PEEP level. In relation to FRC the overall bias (limits of agreement) was -35 (-271 to 201) mL, and percentage error 36 %. A small difference between ELV and FRC was seen at PEEP 5 cmH2O before lavage and at PEEP 12 cmH2O after lavage. ELV trending capability between PEEP steps, showed a concordance rate of 100 %. ELV was closely related to FRC and remained stable during significant changes in CO. The trending capability was excellent both before and after surfactant depletion.

  13. [A comparison of leak compensation in six acute care ventilators during non-invasive ventilation].

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    Hu, X S; Wang, Y; Wang, Z T; Yan, P; Zhang, X G; Zhao, S F; Xie, F; Gu, H J; Xie, L X

    2017-02-12

    Objective: To compare the ability of leak compensation in 6 medical ventilators during non-invasive ventilation. Methods: Six medical ventilators were selected, including 3 non-invasive ventilators (V60, Flexo and Stellar150), and 3 invasive ventilators(Avea, Servo I and BellaVist). Using a lung simulator, the ability of leak compensation was evaluated during triggering and cycling in 2 respiratory mechanics conditions (high airway resistance condition and high elastance resistance condition), and each condition was performed under 2 PEEP levels (4, and 8 cmH(2)O, 1 mmHg=0.098 kPa) at 4 air leak level conditions (L0: 2-3 L/min, L1: 8-10 L/min, L2: 22-27 L/min, L3: 35-40 L/min). Results: In the high elastance resistance condition (L2, L3)with different leak levels, the number of auto-triggering and miss-triggering of the non-invasive ventilator Flexo was significantly less than those of the others (L2: 1, 1; L3: 1.67, 1.33, P L2: 2.33, 2.33; L3: 3.33, 3.33, P L1 leak levels and PEEP levels [ARDS, PEEP=4: (109.8±1.8) ms, (112.0±0.6) ms; ARDS, PEEP=8: (103.1±0.7) ms, (109.7±0.7) ms; COPD, PEEP=4: (207.3±1.1) ms, (220.8±1.1) ms; COPD, PEEP=8: (195.6±6.7) ms, (200.0±1.2) ms , P <0.01]. Stellar150 had the shortest trigger delay time in high airway resistance condition with PEEP 4 cmH(2)O and high leak level L3[(262.8±0.8) ms , P <0.01]. V60 had a good performance on trigger delay time in high elastance resistance condition with PEEP 4 and 8 cmH(2)O, and also was most stable in increasing leak levels. Conclusion: In high airway resistance and high elastance resistance conditions with different PEEP levels and leak levels, V60, Stellar150, Flexo and BellaVista ventilators could be synchronized, among which V60, Stellar150 and Flexo presented a good performance features in specific conditions.

  14. A Recruiting Maneuver Algorithm in Patients with Early Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome

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    D. I. Levikov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to evaluate the efficiency of a recruiting maneuver (RM and adjustment of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP in patients with early acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS. Subjects and methods. The study enrolled 16 patients (14 men and 2 women aged 46 to 78 years (range 62±5.6 years with ARDS of various genesis. RM was made, by stepwisely increasing PEEP and inspiratory pressure under the control of dynamic lung compliance and hemodynamic parameters. The values of blood gas composition and hemodynamics were determined during the study. Results. RM caused an increase in oxygenation index (OI from 153.5±48.3 to 348.5±53.2 mm Hg. Oxygenation values returned to the baseline levels 30—40 min after the PEEP was set at the closure point of +2 cm H2O. If the set PEEP was 8—10 cm H2O higher than the objective, the effect of RM was retained for as long as 24 hours. When RM was performed using the maximum pressure of 50—60 cm H2O, the cardiac index (CI was lower in all the patients and 30—50% of the baseline values were achieved in all cases, which required the optimization of cardiotonic therapy. The time of this pronounced reduction in cardiac output with RM was not longer than 5 min. After RM, during mechanical ventilation with 18—26 cm H2O PEEP, the CI did not practically differ from the baseline values (3.31±0.41 and 3.37±0.36 l/min/m2, respectively, though the dopamine dose required to maintain normal hemodynamics was somewhat higher (7.5±2.3 and 6.3±2.6 ^g/kg/min. Conclusion. Analysis of the given cases suggests that RM is highly effective in patients at the early stages of acute lung injury. The duration of RM effects may depend on the set PEEP level in individual cases. Setting PEEP at a level of +2—4 cm H2O fails to prevent repeated alveolar derecruitment in a number of patients. In these cases, it is expedient to individually adjust PEEP levels, by taking into account the long-term changes in OI and Cdyn. In

  15. Positive end-expiratory pressure attenuates hemodynamic effects induced by an overload of inspiratory muscles in patients with COPD

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    Schaper-Magalhães F

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Flavia Schaper-Magalhães,1 José Felippe Pinho,1 Carolina Andrade Bragança Capuruço,2 Maria Glória Rodrigues-Machado1 1Medical Sciences Faculty of Minas Gerais, Post-Graduation Program in Health Sciences, Belo Horizonte, Brazil; 2Department of Cardiology, Clinics Hospital, Federal University of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Brazil Background: Inspiratory muscle training (IMT using a Threshold® device is commonly used to improve the strength and endurance of inspiratory muscles. However, the effect of IMT, alone or with positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP, on hemodynamic parameters in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD remains unknown.Objective: To assess the effects of an overload of inspiratory muscles using IMT fixed at 30% of the maximal inspiratory pressure (MIP, and IMT associated with 5 cmH2O of PEEP (IMT + PEEP, on the echocardiographic parameters in healthy subjects and patients with COPD.Methods: Twenty patients with COPD (forced expiratory volume in 1 second 53.19±24.71 pred% and 15 age-matched healthy volunteers were evaluated using spirometry, MIP, the COPD assessment test (CAT, and the modified Medical Research Council (mMRC dyspnea scale. The E- (fast-filling phase and A- (atrial contraction phase waves were evaluated at the tricuspid and mitral valves during inspiration and expiration in the following sequence: at basal conditions, using IMT, and using IMT + PEEP.Results: Patients with COPD had reduced MIPs versus the control group. Ten patients had CAT scores <10 and 12 patients had mMRC scores <2. E-wave values at the mitral valve were significantly decreased with IMT during the inspiratory phase in both groups. These effects were normalized with IMT + PEEP. During the expiratory phase, use of IMT + PEEP normalized the reduction in E-wave values in the COPD group. During inspiration at the tricuspid valve, reduction in E-wave values during IMT was normalized by IMT + PEEP in COPD group. During the

  16. Lung stress and strain calculations in mechanically ventilated patients in the intensive care unit.

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    Blankman, P; Hasan, D; Bikker, I G; Gommers, D

    2016-01-01

    Stress and strain are parameters to describe respiratory mechanics during mechanical ventilation. Calculations of stress require invasive and difficult to perform esophageal pressure measurements. The hypothesis of the present study was: Can lung stress be reliably calculated based on non-invasive lung volume measurements, during a decremental Positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) trial in mechanically ventilated patients with different diseases? Data of 26 pressure-controlled ventilated patients admitted to the ICU with different lung conditions were retrospectively analyzed: 11 coronary artery bypass graft (CABG), 9 neurology, and 6 lung disorders. During a decremental PEEP trial (from 15 to 0 cmH2 O in three steps) end-expiratory lung volume (EELV) measurements were performed at each PEEP step, without interruption of mechanical ventilation. Strain, specific elastance, and stress were calculated for each PEEP level. Elastance was calculated as delta PEEP divided by delta PEEP volume, whereas specific elastance is elastance times the FRC. Stress was calculated as specific elastance times the strain. Global strain was divided into dynamic (tidal volume) and static (PEEP) strain. Strain calculations based on FRC showed mainly changes in static component, whereas calculations based on EELV showed changes in both the static and dynamic component of strain. Stress calculated from EELV measurements was 24.0 ± 2.7 and 13.1 ± 3.8 cmH2 O in the lung disorder group at 15 and 5 cmH2 O PEEP. For the normal lungs, the stress values were 19.2 ± 3.2 and 10.9 ± 3.3 cmH2 O, respectively. These values are comparable to earlier publications. Specific elastance calculations were comparable in patients with neurologic and lung disorders, and lower in the CABG group due to recruitment in this latter group. Stress and strain can reliably be calculated at the bedside based on non-invasive EELV measurements during a decremental PEEP trial in patients with different diseases.

  17. Leak during manual neonatal ventilation and its effect on the delivered pressures and volumes: an in vitro study.

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    Hartung, J C; te Pas, A B; Fischer, H; Schmalisch, G; Roehr, C C

    2012-01-01

    Mask leak is a frequent problem during manual ventilation. Our aim was to investigate the effect of predefined leaks on delivered peak inflation pressure (PIP), positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) and tidal volume (V(t)) when using different neonatal manual ventilation devices. A neonatal-lung model was ventilated at different respiratory rates (RRs, 40, 60, 80/min) using a mechanically operated self-inflating bag (SIB) and a manually operated T-piece resuscitator (PIP = 20 cm H(2)O, PEEP = 5 cm H(2)O). Four open tubes of different lengths, which produced up to 90% leak, were consecutively attached between the ventilation device and the lung model. A pneumotachograph was used to measure pressures, flow and volume. With increasing leak (0-90%) PIP and PEEP decreased significantly (p piece resuscitator, PIP dropped independent of RRs from 20.3 ± 0.5 to 18.5 ± 0.6 cm H(2)O and PEEP from 5.1 ± 0.4 to 4.0 ± 0 cm H(2)O, while Δp and V(t) did not differ significantly. The decrease in PIP and PEEP with increasing leak is RR dependent and distinctly higher when using an SIB compared to a T-piece device. In contrast to V(t) delivered with the SIB, V(t) delivered by the T-piece resuscitator was nearly constant even for leaks up to 90%. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Impact of mechanical ventilation and fluid load on pulmonary glycosaminoglycans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriondo, Andrea; Marcozzi, Cristiana; Bianchin, Francesca; Reguzzoni, Marcella; Severgnini, Paolo; Protasoni, Marina; Raspanti, Mario; Passi, Alberto; Pelosi, Paolo; Negrini, Daniela

    2012-05-31

    The combined effect of mechanical ventilation and fluid load on pulmonary glycasaminoglycans (GAGs) was studied in anaesthetized rats ((BW 290±21.8 (SE)g) mechanically ventilated for 4h: (a) at low (∼7.5mlkg(-1)) or high (∼23mlkg(-1)) tidal volume (V(T)) and zero alveolar pressure; (b) at low or high V(T) at 5cmH(2)O positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP); (c) with or without 7mlkg(-1)h(-1) intravenous infusion of Phosphate Buffer Solution (PBS). Compared to spontaneous breathing, GAGs extractability decreased by 52.1±1.5% and 42.2±7.3% in not-infused lungs mechanically ventilated at low V(T) or at high V(T) and PEEP, respectively. In contrast, in infused lungs, GAGs extractability increased by 56.1±4.0% in spontaneous ventilation and PEEP and up to 81.1% in all mechanically ventilated lungs, except at low V(T) without PEEP. In the absence of an inflammatory process, these results suggest that PEEP was protective at low but not at high V(T) when alveolar structures experience exceedingly high stresses. When combined to mechanical ventilation, fluid load might exacerbate edema development and lung injury. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Effects of Mechanical Ventilation on Heart Geometry and Mitral Valve Leaflet Coaptation During Percutaneous Edge-to-Edge Mitral Valve Repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patzelt, Johannes; Zhang, Yingying; Seizer, Peter; Magunia, Harry; Henning, Andreas; Riemlova, Veronika; Patzelt, Tara A E; Hansen, Marc; Haap, Michael; Riessen, Reimer; Lausberg, Henning; Walker, Tobias; Reutershan, Joerg; Schlensak, Christian; Grasshoff, Christian; Simon, Dan I; Rosenberger, Peter; Schreieck, Juergen; Gawaz, Meinrad; Langer, Harald F

    2016-01-25

    This study sought to evaluate a ventilation maneuver to facilitate percutaneous edge-to-edge mitral valve repair (PMVR) and its effects on heart geometry. In patients with challenging anatomy, the application of PMVR is limited, potentially resulting in insufficient reduction of mitral regurgitation (MR) or clip detachment. Under general anesthesia, however, ventilation maneuvers can be used to facilitate PMVR. A total of 50 consecutive patients undergoing PMVR were included. During mechanical ventilation, different levels of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) were applied, and parameters of heart geometry were assessed using transesophageal echocardiography. We found that increased PEEP results in elevated central venous pressure. Specifically, central venous pressure increased from 14.0 ± 6.5 mm Hg (PEEP 3 mm Hg) to 19.3 ± 5.9 mm Hg (PEEP 20 mm Hg; p 4.9 mm at PEEP of 10 mm Hg resulted in a significant reduction of PMVR procedure time (152 ± 49 min to 116 ± 26 min; p = 0.05). In this study, we describe a novel ventilation maneuver improving mitral valve coaptation length during the PMVR procedure, which facilitates clip positioning. Our observations could help to improve PMVR therapy and could make nonsurgical candidates accessible to PMVR therapy, particularly in challenging cases with functional MR. Copyright © 2016 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Setting ventilation parameters guided by electrical impedance tomography in an animal trial of acute respiratory distress syndrome

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    Czaplik, Michael; Biener, Ingeborg; Leonhardt, Steffen; Rossaint, Rolf

    2014-03-01

    Since mechanical ventilation can cause harm to lung tissue it should be as protective as possible. Whereas numerous options exist to set ventilator parameters, an adequate monitoring is lacking up to date. The Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT) provides a non-invasive visualization of ventilation which is relatively easy to apply and commercially available. Although there are a number of published measures and parameters derived from EIT, it is not clear how to use EIT to improve clinical outcome of e.g. patients suffering from acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), a severe disease with a high mortality rate. On the one hand, parameters should be easy to obtain, on the other hand clinical algorithms should consider them to optimize ventilator settings. The so called Global inhomogeneity (GI) index bases on the fact that ARDS is characterized by an inhomogeneous injury pattern. By applying positive endexpiratory pressures (PEEP), homogeneity should be attained. In this study, ARDS was induced by a double hit procedure in six pigs. They were randomly assigned to either the EIT or the control group. Whereas in the control group the ARDS network table was used to set the PEEP according to the current inspiratory oxygen fraction, in the EIT group the GI index was calculated during a decremental PEEP trial. PEEP was kept when GI index was lowest. Interestingly, PEEP was significantly higher in the EIT group. Additionally, two of these animals died ahead of the schedule. Obviously, not only homogeneity of ventilation distribution matters but also limitation of over-distension.