WorldWideScience

Sample records for hinoki cypress chamaecyparis

  1. Preliminary Investigation on the Useful Chemicals obtained from High-Temperature and High-Pressure Water Treatment of Hinoki (Chamaecyparis Obutus Bark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroyuki Daimon

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of utilizing residual forest biomass to produce valuable chemicals was investigated. An outer layer of a bark of Hinoki (Chamaecyparis obutusa tree, a Japanese cypress, was used as a sample material. Experiments were carried out in a semibatch reactor apparatus that allows the study of the effect of reaction temperatures in a single run. Analysis of the products by GC-MS reveals formation of useful compounds such as furfural, some aromatic compounds (1,3-di-tert-butyl benzene and 2,4-di-tert-butyl phenol, and fatty acids (myristic acid, palmitic acid and stearic acid. Keywords: fatty acids, furfural, high temperature water treatment, hinoki, residual biomass

  2. Prediction of Near-View Scenic Beauty in Artificial Stands of Hinoki (Chamaecyparis obtusa S. et Z.)

    OpenAIRE

    Weiming, Liao; Keiitirou, Nogami; Faculty of Agriculture, Shizuoka University

    1999-01-01

    The Analytic Hierarchy Process was used to identify the evaluation criteria of near-view scenic beauty in artificial hinoki (Chamaecyparis obtusa S. et Z.) forests. A multiple-regression model and a neural-network model were developed to predict near-view scenic beauty with the physical features of forests in this paper. With the multiple-regression model as the benchmark, the neural-network model using genetic algorithms performed better in scenic beauty prediction with respect to the predic...

  3. Effect of aluminum on the growth and nutrient uptake in cryptomeria japonica D.Don and Chamaecyparis obtusa Sieb. et Zucc.; Sugi oyobi hinoki no ikusei to yobun kyushu ni oyobosu aluminium no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kono, Y.; Matsumura, H.; Kobayashi, T. [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan)

    1995-09-10

    Two-year-old seedlings of Sugi (Japanese cedar: Cryptomeria japonica D. Don) and Hinoki (Japanese cypress: Chamaecyparis obtusa Sieb. et Zucc.) were grown for 4 months in 1/5 Hoagland`s No.2 nutrient culture solution containing aluminum chloride in the concentration range of 0.5 to 20 mM within the pH range of 3.5 to 4.0. Aluminium supplied at or below 1 mM of Al had no effect on the mortality of these species. However, the increase Al concentration higher than 2 mM increased the mortality. While they showed significant growth reduction at or higher Al concentration of 5 mM, there were no difference in growth response to Al between the two species in this experiment. While Al contents in leaf and root significantly increased with increasing Al concentration in the solution, contents of Ca, Mg and P in leaf decreased. Roof p content in Sugi increased with the increase of Al concentration in the solution, while no such change was observed in Hinoki root. This result suggests that Al might make phosphate immobile or inviolable form in Sugi root and this might lead to the reduced translocation of P into the leaf. In contrast, Al did not interfere with the uptake of phosphate in the root, however, it might interrupt phosphate transport into leaf from root system in Hinoki. The Al concentration such as 5 mM in the root sphere induced growth reductions in Sugi and Hinoki, with no significant difference in the response between the two species. This concentration was much higher than those reported in the field crops, vegetables and/or herbs. Thus, if soil acidification will be induced by acidic deposition in future, these herbaceous plants will be influenced faster than the conifer trees. This also means that ground vegetation change will be observed earlier than the conifer decline by the soil acidification stress. 23 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. Discovery of potential antiausterity agents from the Japanese cypress Chamaecyparis obtusa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dibwe, Dya Fita; Sun, Sijia; Ueda, Jun-Ya; Balachandran, Chandrasekar; Matsumoto, Kinzo; Awale, Suresh

    2017-11-01

    The chloroform extract of the Japanese cypress Chamaecyparis obtusa was found to kill PANC-1 human pancreatic cancer cells preferentially in the nutrient-deprived medium without causing toxicity in the nutrient rich condition. Phytochemical investigation on this extract led to the isolation of a new sesquiterpene (1), together with the six sesquiterpenes (2-7) and a lignan (8). The isolated compounds were tested for their preferential cytotoxicity activity against five different human pancreatic cancer cell lines [PANC-1, MIA PaCa2, CAPAN-1, PSN-1, and KLM-1] by utilizing an antiausterity strategy. Among them, α-cadinol (2) was identified as the most active constituent. α-Cadinol (2) was found to inhibit the activation of Akt/mTOR pathway, and the hyperactivation of autophagy leading to preferential PANC-1 cell death during nutrient-starvation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Ethanol-based organosolv treatment with trace hydrochloric acid improves the enzymatic digestibility of Japanese cypress (Chamaecyparis obtusa) by exposing nanofibers on the surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hideno, Akihiro; Kawashima, Ayato; Endo, Takashi; Honda, Katsuhisa; Morita, Masatoshi

    2013-03-01

    The effects of adding trace acids in ethanol based organosolv treatment were investigated to increase the enzymatic digestibility of Japanese cypress. A high glucose yield (60%) in the enzymatic hydrolysis was obtained by treating the sample at 170 °C for 45 min in 50% ethanol liquor containing 0.4% hydrochloric acid. Moreover, the enzymatic digestibility of the treated sample was improved to ∼70% by changing the enzyme from acremonium cellulase to Accellerase1500. Field emission scanning electron microscopy revealed the presence of lignin droplets and partial cellulose nanofibers on the surface of the treated sample. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of the treated samples using thermotolerant yeast (Kluyveromyces marxianus NBRC1777) was tested. A high ethanol concentration (22.1 g/L) was achieved using the EtOH50/W50/HCl0.4-treated sample compared with samples from other treatments. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Estimating Tree Height and Diameter at Breast Height (DBH from Digital Surface Models and Orthophotos Obtained with an Unmanned Aerial System for a Japanese Cypress (Chamaecyparis obtusa Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotaro Iizuka

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Methods for accurately measuring biophysical parameters are a key component for quantitative evaluation regarding to various forest applications. Conventional in situ measurements of these parameters take time and expense, encountering difficultness at locations with heterogeneous microtopography. To obtain precise biophysical data in such situations, we deployed an unmanned aerial system (UAS multirotor drone in a cypress forest in a mountainous area of Japan. The structure from motion (SfM method was used to construct a three-dimensional (3D model of the forest (tree structures from aerial photos. Tree height was estimated from the 3D model and compared to in situ ground data. We also analyzed the relationships between a biophysical parameter, diameter at breast height (DBH, of individual trees with canopy width and area measured from orthorectified images. Despite the constraints of ground exposure in a highly dense forest area, tree height was estimated at an accuracy of root mean square error = 1.712 m for observed tree heights ranging from 16 to 24 m. DBH was highly correlated with canopy width (R2 = 0.7786 and canopy area (R2 = 0.7923, where DBH ranged from 11 to 58 cm. The results of estimating forest parameters indicate that drone-based remote-sensing methods can be utilized to accurately analyze the spatial extent of forest structures.

  7. Potassium fertilisation reduces radiocesium uptake by Japanese cypress seedlings grown in a stand contaminated by the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komatsu, Masabumi; Hirai, Keizo; Nagakura, Junko; Noguchi, Kyotaro

    2017-11-15

    We analysed suppressive effects of potassium (K) fertilisation on radiocesium (137Cs) uptake by hinoki cypress (Chamaecyparis obtusa) seedlings from soils contaminated after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. Three-year-old seedlings were planted in a clear-cut forest (ca. 4 ha) during June-July 2014, and potassium chloride fertiliser (83 kg K ha-1) was applied twice (August 2014 and April 2015). 137Cs concentrations in the needles in the fertilised plots were one-eighth of those in the control (unfertilised) plots at the end of the second growing season (October 2015). Our results clearly indicated that K fertilisation reduced radiocesium transfer from soil to planted cypress seedlings. A linear mixed model analysis revealed that 137Cs concentrations in the needles were significantly affected by 137Cs inventory in the soil (Bq m-2) adjacent to the sampled seedlings, exchangeable K concentrations in surface mineral soils (0-5 cm) and fertilisation. The exchangeable K concentrations in surface soils in October 2015 did not differ from those in August 2014 (before fertilisation) in the fertilised plots and in the control plots. These results suggested that the levels of exchangeable K would temporarily increase by fertilisation during the growing season, and radiocesium uptake by tree roots was suppressed.

  8. Japanese Learning Support Systems: Hinoki Project Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bor HODOŠČEK

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this report, we introduce the Hinoki project, which set out to develop web-based Computer-Assisted Language Learning (CALL systems for Japanese language learners more than a decade ago. Utilizing Natural Language Processing technologies and other linguistic resources, the project has come to encompass three systems, two corpora and many other resources. Beginning with the reading assistance system Asunaro, we describe the construction of Asunaro's multilingual dictionary and it's dependency grammar-based approach to reading assistance. The second system, Natsume, is a writing assistance system that uses large-scale corpora to provide an easy to use collocation search feature that is interesting for it's inclusion of the concept of genre. The final system, Nutmeg, is an extension of Natsume and the Natane learner corpus. It provides automatic correction of learners errors in compositions by using Natsume for its large corpus and genre-aware collocation data and Natane for its data on learner errors.-----V poročilu predstavljamo projekt Hinoki, ki je bil zastavljen pred več kot desetimi leti za izdelavo spletnih sistemov za računalniško podprto učenje japonščine kot tujega jezika. Z uporabo jezikovnih tehnologij in drugih jezikovnih virov so bili v okviru projekta razviti trije sistemi, dva korpusa in veliko drugih virov. V nadaljevanju predstavljamo sistem Asunaro za podporo branju, izgradnjo njegovega večjezičnega slovarja in pristop k podpori branju, ki sloni na odvisnostni slovnici; sistem za podporo pisanju Natsume s preprostim vmesnikom za iskanje žanrsko določenih kolokacij v obsežnih korpusih; ter sistem Nutmeg za samodejno popravljanje napak. Nutmeg je nadgradnja sistema Natsume in učnega korpusa Natane, ponuja samodejno popravljanje napak med samim pisanjem z uporabo žanrsko določenih kolokacijskih informacij iz obsežnih korpusov preko sistema Natsume in informacij o napakah piscev, ki se učijo japonščine kot tujega

  9. Runoff Responses to Forest Thinning at Plot and Catchment Scales in a Headwater Catchment Draining Japanese Cypress Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    We examined the effect of forest thinning on runoff generation at plot and catchment scales in headwater basins draining a Japanese cypress (Chamaecyparis obtusa) forest. We removed 58.3% of the stems (corresponding to 43.2% of the basal area) in the treated headwater basin (catc...

  10. Relationships of Chamaecyparis formosensis crown shape and parameters with thinning intensity and age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian-Ming Yen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Taiwan red cypress (Chamaecyparis formosensis Matsum is an indigenousand important cypress conifer with a broad area of natural forests and plantations in Taiwan. Because of the high economic value and multiple uses of the species, numerous researchers have studied its growth and yield within plantation forests. However, few studies have examined how the crown characteristics of the tree respond to different thinning regimes, particularly in the long run. The crown is a dominant outline of aboveground component of a tree that can sensitively reflect competitions from trees located nearby. This study evaluated the crown form of Taiwan red cypress at three different growth stages with different thinning intensities over 20 years. The study began in 1982, when the three plantations examined were aged 7, 15, and 21 years, and when thinning treatments began. In 2002, crown form parameters (CFPs and crown profile equations (CPEs were used to analyze the thinning effects at the tree level. Two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA revealed that age class influenced most CFPs and that thinning treatments influenced all CFPs, indicating that both factors could simultaneously affect the CFPs. Moreover, the CPEs fit the observed data well for all age classes, demonstrating that the equation had a high capacity for predicting crown form. The CPEs were used to determine the mean crown shape profile for each thinning treatment and age class. According to the mean crown profile predicted by CPEs, we found that crown length and width increased with thinning intensity for all aged trees, especially after a heavy thinning treatment.

  11. Diameter Measurement in Bald Cypress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard R. Parresol; James E. Hotvedt

    1990-01-01

    The usual practice of measuring diameter at 4.5 feet ( 1.3 m) or Dbh is meaningless in wetland tree species such as bald cypress (Taxodium distichum (L.) Rich.), due to the presence of fluted basal swells. Since buttress dimensions usually have no consistent relation to volume or form in the tree, the current practice among...

  12. [Pollen dispersion of Japanese cedar and Japanese cypress in Kagawa Medical University of Kagawa Prefecture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Ryuichi; Karaki, Masayuki; Mori, Nozomu

    2003-01-01

    We installed the Durham sampler on the roof (27.4 m on the ground) of Kagawa Medical University in 1989 to survey pollen dispersion in Kagawa prefecture and have investigated the pollen survey from 1989 to 2001. We examined the correlation between the annual variations in the pollen counts of Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) and Cupressaceae, mainly Japanese cypress (Chamaecyparis obtusa) and annual changes in meteorological conditions. The sum of these pollen counts correlated with the highest temperature from 11 July to 10 August in Kagawa prefecture. However, it is difficult to determine the pollen dispersion only based on meteorological factors. Other factors giving influences on the pollen dispersion need to be further analyzed in the future.

  13. Silvical characteristics of Atlantic white-cedar (Chamaecyparis thyoides)

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. Little

    1959-01-01

    Atlantic white-cedar ((Chamaecyparis thyoides (L.) B.S.P.) has been a highly prized species since Colonial times because of the durability and high quality of its wood. The wood has been used for many purposes: boat boards, shingles and lath, framing, house and boat finish, pails and tanks, cabin logs, posts, and poles. Good white-cedar has always...

  14. Evaluating cypress sustainability - "FIA in the hot seat"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark J. Brown

    2009-01-01

    The use of cypress (Taxodium species) for mulch boomed during the 1990s, and its growth in popularity created concerns about the sustainability of cypress forests in the Southern United States. A combination of factors, including Hurricane Katrina, cypress harvesting practices, and the unique requirements for successful regeneration of cypress drew media attention and...

  15. Baseline assessment of physical characteristics, aquatic biota, and selected water-quality properties at the reach and mesohabitat scale for reaches of Big Cypress, Black Cypress, and Little Cypress Bayous, Big Cypress Basin, northeastern Texas, 2010–11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Christopher L.; Moring, James B.

    2013-01-01

    In 2010 and 2011, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Northeast Texas Municipal Water District and the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality, did a baseline assessment of physical characteristics and aquatic biota (fish and mussels) collected at the mesohabitat scale for reaches of Big Cypress, Black Cypress, and Little Cypress Bayous in the Big Cypress Basin in northeastern Texas, and measured selected water-quality properties in isolated pools in Black Cypress and Little Cypress. All of the data were collected in the context of prescribed environmental flows. The information acquired during the course of the study will support the long-term monitoring of biota in relation to environmental flow prescriptions for Big Cypress Bayou, Black Cypress Bayou, and Little Cypress Bayou. Data collection and analysis were done at mesohabitat- and reach-specific scales, where a mesohabitat is defined as a discrete area within a stream that exhibits unique depth, velocity, slope, substrate, and cover.

  16. Characterization of the genome of bald cypress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Wenxuan

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bald cypress (Taxodium distichum var. distichum is a coniferous tree of tremendous ecological and economic importance. It is a member of the family Cupressaceae which also includes cypresses, redwoods, sequoias, thujas, and junipers. While the bald cypress genome is more than three times the size of the human genome, its 1C DNA content is amongst the smallest of any conifer. To learn more about the genome of bald cypress and gain insight into the evolution of Cupressaceae genomes, we performed a Cot analysis and used Cot filtration to study Taxodium DNA. Additionally, we constructed a 6.7 genome-equivalent BAC library that we screened with known Taxodium genes and select repeats. Results The bald cypress genome is composed of 90% repetitive DNA with most sequences being found in low to mid copy numbers. The most abundant repeats are found in fewer than 25,000 copies per genome. Approximately 7.4% of the genome is single/low-copy DNA (i.e., sequences found in 1 to 5 copies. Sequencing of highly repetitive Cot clones indicates that most Taxodium repeats are highly diverged from previously characterized plant repeat sequences. The bald cypress BAC library consists of 606,336 clones (average insert size of 113 kb and collectively provides 6.7-fold genome equivalent coverage of the bald cypress genome. Macroarray screening with known genes produced, on average, about 1.5 positive clones per probe per genome-equivalent. Library screening with Cot-1 DNA revealed that approximately 83% of BAC clones contain repetitive sequences iterated 103 to 104 times per genome. Conclusions The BAC library for bald cypress is the first to be generated for a conifer species outside of the family Pinaceae. The Taxodium BAC library was shown to be useful in gene isolation and genome characterization and should be an important tool in gymnosperm comparative genomics, physical mapping, genome sequencing, and gene/polymorphism discovery. The single

  17. Supercritical CO2 extraction of essential oils from Chamaecyparis obtusa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yinzhe; Han, Dandan; Tian, Minglei; Row, Kyung-Ho

    2010-03-01

    Supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) extraction and hydrodistillation (HD) were used to determine the essential oil composition of the trunks and leaves of Chamaecyparis obtusa. The optimal extraction conditions for the oil yield within the experimental range of variables examined were temperature 50 degrees C, pressure 12 MPa, carbon dioxide flow rate 40 mL/min and extraction time 90 min. The maximum measured extraction yield was 2.9%. Entrainer solvents, such as methanol in water, had no additional effect on the extraction of essential oils. The chemical composition of the essential oils was analyzed by GC-MS. The major components were alpha-terpinyl acetate (>10.9%), 1-muurolol (>13.2%) and elemol (>8.1%). Sesquiterpenoids formed the major class of compounds present.

  18. Flooding effects on stand development in cypress-tupelo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard F. Keim; Thomas J. Dean; Jim L. Chambers

    2013-01-01

    The effects of inundation on growth of cypress (Taxodium spp.) and tupelo (Nyssa spp.) trees have been extensively researched, but conclusions are often complicated by attendant effects on stand development. Flooding affects development of cypress-tupelo stands by limiting seedling germination and survival, truncating species...

  19. Chamaecyparis obtusa Suppresses Virulence Genes in Streptococcus mutans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eun-Hee; Kang, Sun-Young; Park, Bog-Im; Kim, Young-Hoi; Lee, Young-Rae; Hoe, Jin-Hee; Choi, Na-Young; Ra, Ji-Young; An, So-Youn; You, Yong-Ouk

    2016-01-01

    Chamaecyparis obtusa (C. obtusa) is known to have antimicrobial effects and has been used as a medicinal plant and in forest bathing. This study aimed to evaluate the anticariogenic activity of essential oil of C. obtusa on Streptococcus mutans, which is one of the most important bacterial causes of dental caries and dental biofilm formation. Essential oil from C. obtusa was extracted, and its effect on bacterial growth, acid production, and biofilm formation was evaluated. C. obtusa essential oil exhibited concentration-dependent inhibition of bacterial growth over 0.025 mg/mL, with 99% inhibition at a concentration of 0.2 mg/mL. The bacterial biofilm formation and acid production were also significantly inhibited at the concentration greater than 0.025 mg/mL. The result of LIVE/DEAD® BacLight™ Bacterial Viability Kit showed a concentration-dependent bactericidal effect on S. mutans and almost all bacteria were dead over 0.8 mg/mL. Real-time PCR analysis showed that gene expression of some virulence factors such as brpA, gbpB, gtfC, and gtfD was also inhibited. In GC and GC-MS analysis, the major components were found to be α-terpinene (40.60%), bornyl acetate (12.45%), α-pinene (11.38%), β-pinene (7.22%), β-phellandrene (3.45%), and α-terpinolene (3.40%). These results show that C. obtusa essential oil has anticariogenic effect on S. mutans.

  20. Chamaecyparis obtusa Suppresses Virulence Genes in Streptococcus mutans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun-Hee Kim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Chamaecyparis obtusa (C. obtusa is known to have antimicrobial effects and has been used as a medicinal plant and in forest bathing. This study aimed to evaluate the anticariogenic activity of essential oil of C. obtusa on Streptococcus mutans, which is one of the most important bacterial causes of dental caries and dental biofilm formation. Essential oil from C. obtusa was extracted, and its effect on bacterial growth, acid production, and biofilm formation was evaluated. C. obtusa essential oil exhibited concentration-dependent inhibition of bacterial growth over 0.025 mg/mL, with 99% inhibition at a concentration of 0.2 mg/mL. The bacterial biofilm formation and acid production were also significantly inhibited at the concentration greater than 0.025 mg/mL. The result of LIVE/DEAD® BacLight™ Bacterial Viability Kit showed a concentration-dependent bactericidal effect on S. mutans and almost all bacteria were dead over 0.8 mg/mL. Real-time PCR analysis showed that gene expression of some virulence factors such as brpA, gbpB, gtfC, and gtfD was also inhibited. In GC and GC-MS analysis, the major components were found to be α-terpinene (40.60%, bornyl acetate (12.45%, α-pinene (11.38%, β-pinene (7.22%, β-phellandrene (3.45%, and α-terpinolene (3.40%. These results show that C. obtusa essential oil has anticariogenic effect on S. mutans.

  1. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of Chamaecyparis obtusa leaf essential oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jae-Kyung; Choi, Myung-Suk; Seo, Weon-Taek; Rinker, Danny Lee; Han, Sang Woo; Cheong, Gang-Won

    2007-02-01

    The essential oil obtained from the leaves of Chamaecyparis obtusa was analyzed by GC and GC-MS. alpha-Terpinyl acetate, sabinene, isobornyl acetate and limonene were found to be the major components. The oil showed relatively strong antibacterial activities against Gram (+) bacteria and some fungi.

  2. Root and aerial infections of Chamaecyparis lawsoniana by Phytophthora lateralis : a new threat for European countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    C. Robin; D. Piou; N. Feau; G. Douzon; N. Schenck; E.M. Hansen

    2010-01-01

    Phytophthora lateralis has been isolated from root and collar lesions in Port-Orford Cedar (POC) trees (Chamaecyparis lawsoniana) in north-western France (Brittany). These trees, planted in hedgerows, displayed symptoms similar to the typical symptoms of POC root disease. Until now, the disease has been found outside of the...

  3. Antioxidant activity of extracts from the bark of Chamaecyparis lawsoniana (A. Murrary) Parl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heng Gao; Todd F. Shupe; Chung Y. Hse; Thomas L. Eberhardt

    2006-01-01

    The bark of Chamaecyparis lawsoniana (A. Murray) Parl. was extracted with methanol and sequentially partitioned with n-hexane, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and deionized water. The antioxidant activities of the four extracts were evaluated using the DPPH• and ABTS+• methods. The total phenolic...

  4. Big Cypress fox squirrel (Sciurus niger avicennia) ecology and habitat use in a cypress dome swamp-pine forest mosaic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellam, John O.; Jansen, Deborah K.; Johnson, Annette T.; Arwood, Ralph W.; Merrick, Melissa J.; Koprowski, John L.

    2016-01-01

    Forested wetlands are in decline, as are many species that are obligate residents. Big Cypress fox squirrels (BCFS; Sciurus niger avicennia) are a threatened endemic to wet pine and cypress forests in southwestern Florida. The region is characterized by development resulting in habitat loss, habitat fragmentation, and hydrological change that influence the quality of these wet forests. Through radiotelemetry and field observations, we examined the ecology and habitat use of BCFS in a natural cypress dome-pine forest mosaic. BCFS selected cypress domes for food and nests throughout the year. Cypress dome habitats were the only habitat type to be used more than available; however, the availability of nearby pine forest was also important. Home ranges were large relative to other tree squirrels, with male home ranges exceeding female ranges. Males overlapped more females than males, while sharing similar food preferences and use patterns with females, suggesting that the sexual dimorphism in home range size is related to mate searching. Roads and oil extraction pads were used less frequently than expected and were incorporated into home ranges less than randomly generated features. The importance of cypress domes within the wet forests and grasslands of Big Cypress National Preserve demonstrates the value of maintaining this delicate mosaic. PMID:26989265

  5. Cypress Creek National Wildlife Refuge: Annual Narrative: Fiscal year 1997

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Cypress Creek National Wildlife Refuge summarizes refuge activities during fiscal year 1997. The report begins with an introduction...

  6. Recreational Fishing Plan : Cypress Creek National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is the Recreational Fishing Plan for Cypress Creek NWR. The Plan provides an introduction to the Refuge, information about conformance with statutory...

  7. The Lake Drummond Cypress Tree Great Dismal Swamp

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is a report that outlines a correlation between the number of rings of a Cypress tree on Lake Drummond and lake levels. The author researched information dating...

  8. Inventory and Monitoring Plan for Cypress Creek National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Inventory and Monitoring Plan (IMP) documents the inventory and monitoring surveys that will be conducted at Cypress Creek National Wildlife Refuge (CCNWR) from...

  9. Pharmacognostic study of Chamaecyparis lawsoniana (Murr. Parl.: A drug used in Homoeopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anshu Rathi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The pharmacognostic profile of crude drug has a key role in standardization for quality, purity and drug identification. The present study deals with pharmacognostic evaluation of aerial part of Chamaecyparis lawsoniana (Murr. Parl. a drug used in homoeopathic system of medicine for diverse clinical uses such as terrible pain in stomach, tumors, keloid, warts and lipoma of thigh. The study includes collection, identification, macroscopy, microscopy and organoleptic characteristics of aerial part of Chamaecyparis lawsoniana. Anatomically the leaf is distinguishable into a layer of the epidermis followed by parenchymatous mesophyll and resin duct in the parenchymatous cortex. Powder microscopy shows the presence of epidermal cells, parenchymatous cells and tracheids. These observations may be used as pharmacopoeial standards for identification of Cha maecyparis lawsoniana.

  10. 76 FR 64102 - Big Cypress National Preserve Off-Road Vehicle Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-17

    ... National Park Service Big Cypress National Preserve Off-Road Vehicle Advisory Committee AGENCY: National... notice of renewal of the Big Cypress National Preserve Off-Road Vehicle Advisory Committee to offer recommendations, alternatives and possible solutions to management of off-road vehicles at Big Cypress National...

  11. A Volume and Taper Prediction System for Bald Cypress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard R. Parresol; James E. Hotvedt; Quang V. Cao

    1987-01-01

    A volume and taper prediction system based on d10 and consisting of a total volume equation, two volume ratio equations (one for diameter limits, the other for height limits), and a taper equation was developed for bald cypress using sample tree data collected in Louisiana. Normal diameter (dn), a subjective variable-...

  12. Use of NASA Satellite Data to Improve Coastal Cypress Forest Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spurce, Joseph; Graham, William; Barras, John

    2010-01-01

    Problem: Information gaps exist regarding health status and location of cypress forests in coastal Louisiana (LA). Such information is needed to aid coastal forest conservation and restoration programs. Approach to Issue Mitigation: Use NASA data to revise cypress forest cover type maps. Landsat and ASTER data. Use NASA data to identify and track cypress forest change. Landsat, ASTER, and MODIS data. Work with partners and end-users to transfer useful products and technology.

  13. Carbon exchange between the atmosphere and subtropical forested cypress and pine wetlands

    OpenAIRE

    W. B. Shoemaker; Barr, J G; Botkin, D.B.; Graham, S. L.

    2014-01-01

    Carbon dioxide exchange between the atmosphere and forested subtropical wetlands is largely unknown. Here we report a first step in characterizing this atmospheric–ecosystem carbon (C) exchange, for cypress strands and pine forests in the Greater Everglades of Florida as measured with eddy covariance methods at three locations (Cypress Swamp, Dwarf Cypress and Pine Upland) for one year. Links between water and C cycles are examined at these three sites, and methane emissio...

  14. Identifying and inventorying cypress domes in the Florida panhandle using Landsat imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calaminus, Andre Kyle

    Cypress domes are swamp ecosystems dominated by pond cypress (Taxodium ascendens), a conifer native to North America. Cypress domes can be found in flatland depressions throughout the southeast United States, hydrologically separated from other water bodies. Threatened by urbanization and land use change, these unique ecosystems have experienced degradation, destruction, and habitat loss over the past few decades. While many domes have been identified in central and southern Florida, literature is lacking on cypress domes found in the Florida panhandle. Cypress domes within the Florida panhandle were located, inventoried, and analyzed for landscape patterns, including size and shape. Additionally, the cypress dome areas were subject to pixel change detection for temporal comparison of dome size from 2000 to 2013. Using satellite imagery from the Landsat 8 spacecraft, support vector machine classification, and publicly available data, a total of 1,568 cypress domes were found to exist in the Florida panhandle, with a mean area of 1.28 hectares, ranging from a minimum of 0.13 ha to a maximum of 4.95 ha, occupying 19.79 km2, or 0.078% of the panhandle study area. A change detection analysis over the 13 year period show a net gain of 284.63 ha in cypress dome growth.

  15. Plastid DNA diversity is higher in the island endemic Guadalupe cypress than in the continental Tecate cypress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Rosas Escobar

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Callitropsis guadalupensis (Guadalupe cypress is endemic to Guadalupe Island, Mexico, where it is the dominant species of the only forest. The species has suffered declining numbers following the introduction of goats to the island over 150 years ago. Callitropsis guadalupensis is closely related to Callitropsis forbesii (Tecate cypress, distributed in small isolated populations in mainland Baja California and southern California. The objective of the present study was to compare the genetic diversity of the island endemic to the continental species. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We measured genetic diversity in Callitropsis guadalupensis (n =54 from Guadalupe Island and in Callitropsis forbesii (n = 100 from five populations in mainland Baja California. The plastid DNA trnS-trnG spacer and the trnL-trnF region were chosen for characterization. Thirty-four haplotypes were observed, of which six were shared between both species. One of these haplotypes was also shared with three other species, Callitropsis lusitanica, Callitropsis montana, and Callitropsis stephensonii. Haplotype diversity (h and nucleotide diversity (π were significantly higher for Callitropsis guadalupensis (h = 0.698, π = 0.00071 than for Callitropsis forbesii (h = 0.337, π = 0.00024. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Callitropsis guadalupensis shows no evidence of a founder effect or of a genetic bottleneck, and can be added to a growing list of insular species with higher genetic diversity than their mainland relatives.

  16. Mobile Acoustical Bat Monitoring Annual Summary Report CY 2016- Cypress Creek National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — These reports summarize bat calls collected along transects at Cypress Creek National Wildlife Refuge for the CY 2016. Calls were classified using Bat Call ID...

  17. Cypress Creek National Wildlife Refuge annual narrative report: Calendar year 1990

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Cypress Creek National Wildlife Refuge summarizes refuge activities during the 1990 calendar year. The report begins with a summary...

  18. Water Resource Inventory and Assessment (WRIA) - Cypress Creek National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Water Resource Inventory and Assessment (WRIA) Summary Report for Cypress Creek NWR (CCNWR) describes current hydrologic information, provides an assessment of...

  19. Evapotranspiration over spatially extensive plant communities in the Big Cypress National Preserve, southern Florida, 2007-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoemaker, W. Barclay; Lopez, Christian D.; Duever, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    Evapotranspiration (ET) was quantified over plant communities within the Big Cypress National Preserve (BCNP) using the eddy covariance method for a period of 3 years from October 2007 to September 2010. Plant communities selected for study included Pine Upland, Wet Prairie, Marsh, Cypress Swamp, and Dwarf Cypress. These plant communities are spatially extensive in southern Florida, and thus, the ET measurements described herein can be applied to other humid subtropical locations such as the Everglades.

  20. Effects of cypress knee roughness on flow resistance and discharge estimates of the Turkey Creek watershed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslaw-Swiatek Dorota

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Effects of cypress knee roughness on flow resistance and discharge estimates of the Turkey Creek watershed. In this study effects of cypress knees as vegetation resistance factor on Turkey Creek watershed discharge calculation were analyzed. The Turkey Creek watershed is a 3rd order stream system draining an approximate area of 5,240 ha. It is located at 33°08' N latitude and 79°47' W longitude, approximately 60 km north-west of City of Charleston in South Carolina (USA. Turkey Creek (WS 78 is typical of other watersheds in the south Atlantic coastal plain. In the case of Turkey Creek watershed, one of the main channels and riparian floodplain vegetation contains cypress trees. Cypress trees live in moist or swampy regions along the Atlantic coastal plain. The cypress trees are characterized by the unique root system called knees that appear just above the water line, up to 1.2 m above water surface. This study is conducted to examine the effects of roughness of cypress knee as related to its shape (diameter and height on discharge estimates of the Turkey Creek watershed. Hydraulic characteristics of the cypress knees were determined by field inventory in selected cross-section along the main stream channel. The Pasche method was used to calculate the total Darcy–Weisbach friction factor in discharge capacity calculation of the study watershed. The results of this study show that the effect of vegetation shape in the Pasche approach is significant. If the variability of vegetation stem diameter is taken into consideration in the calculations, an increase by 10–32% in the values of friction coefficients occurs.

  1. Phaeoacremonium and Botryosphaeriaceae species associated with cypress (Cupressus sempervirens L. decline in Kerman province (Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid MOHAMMADI

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Common cypress (Cupressus sempervirens L. is an east Mediterranean plant element and one of four native conifers in Iran. During spring and summer of 2012, a field survey was carried out in different areas of Kerman province (south-eastern Iran to study cypress decline diseases. Samples were collected from crowns, trunks and branches of cypress trees showing yellowing, dieback, canker, wilting of leaves and internal wood discoloration. Isolations were made from symptomatic wood tissues. Based on morphological and molecular characteristics, four species of Phaeoacremonium, namely Phaeoacremonium parasiticum, Pm. aleophilum, Pm. iranianum and Pm. rubrigenum, and two species of the Botryosphaeriaceae, Botryosphaeria dothidea and Neofusicoccum parvum, were isolated and identified. Pathogenicity tests were undertaken to determine the role of these species on 2-year-old potted cypress plants and green shoots of grapevine. Neofusicoccum parvum was more virulent than the other species and caused the largest lesions on both hosts. The fungi were re-isolated from margins of lesions and healthy tissue, thus completing Koch’s postulates. This is the first report of B. dothidea, N. parvum, Pm. aleophilum, Pm. rubrigenum and Pm. iranianum as pathogens on Mediterranean cypress trees.

  2. Carbon exchange between the atmosphere and subtropical forested cypress and pine wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoemaker, W. B.; Barr, J. G.; Botkin, D. B.; Graham, S. L.

    2014-11-01

    Carbon dioxide exchange between the atmosphere and forested subtropical wetlands is largely unknown. Here we report a first step in characterizing this atmospheric-ecosystem carbon (C) exchange, for cypress strands and pine forests in the Greater Everglades of Florida as measured with eddy covariance methods at three locations (Cypress Swamp, Dwarf Cypress and Pine Upland) for one year. Links between water and C cycles are examined at these three sites, and methane emission measured only at the Dwarf Cypress site. Each forested wetland showed net C uptake (retained in the soil and biomass or transported laterally via overland flow) from the atmosphere monthly and annually. Net ecosystem exchange (NEE) of carbon dioxide (CO2) (difference between photosynthesis and respiration, with negative values representing net ecosystem uptake) was greatest at the Cypress Swamp (-1000 g C m-2 year-1), moderate at the Pine Upland (-900 g C m-2 year-1), and least at the Dwarf Cypress (-500 g C m-2 year-1). Methane emission was a negligible part of the C (12 g C m-2 year-1) budget when compared to NEE. However, methane (CH4) production was considerable in terms of global warming potential, as about 20 g CH4 emitted per m2 year was equivalent to about 500 g CO2 emitted per m2 year}. Changes in NEE were clearly a function of seasonality in solar insolation, air temperature and water availability from rainfall. We also note that changes in the satellite-derived enhanced-vegetation index (EVI) served as a useful surrogate for changes in net and gross atmospheric-ecosystem C exchange at these forested wetland sites.

  3. Infestations of the cypress bark beetles Phloeosinus rudis, P. bicolor and P. thujae in The Netherlands (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moraal, L.G.

    2010-01-01

    In de zomer van 2004 trad er grote sterfte op bij coniferen in Rotterdam en nabijgelegen steden zoals Ridderkerk, Sleeuwijk, Maassluis, Nieuw-Lekkerland en Dordrecht. De sterfte trad op bij een solitaire 60-jarige Thuja maar ook bij coniferenhagen van Thuja, Chamaecyparis en Juniperus. Na 2004 werd

  4. Growth of chamaecyparis lawsoniana nursery trees with different levels of covering and substrate mineral fertilization / Crescimento de mudas de chamaecyparis lawsoniana em diferentes níveis de adubação mineral do substrato e em cobertura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruy Inacio Neiva de Carvalho

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Two simultaneous experiments were accomplished in the Nursery of Ornamental Plants of the Federal University of Paraná State with the objective of evaluating the effect of mineral fertilization on the growth of nursery trees of Chamaecyparis lawsoniana planted directly in the field and in individual packings. The experimental design was the completely randomized with five combinations of NPK 4-30-10 + urea, in grams (0 + 0; 30 + 10; 60 + 20; 90 + 30 and 120 + 40 for the field and 0 + 0; 10 + 4; 20 + 8; 30 + 12 and 40 + 16 for the packings and four replications. The growth of the plants was observed during one year and the height of plants and the diameter of the trunks were evaluated each two months. The fertilization in covering in the field did not stimulate the growth of the plants. The substrate fertilization promoted significantly higher growth of plants in height and diameter of trunks in the period from September to May. The trunk diameter was more influenced, demonstrating that the secondary growth of the plant is more stimulated by the fertilization. The plant growth in the field was greater than the plant growth in individual packings.Foram realizados dois experimentos simultâneos no Viveiro de Plantas Ornamentais da Universidade Federal do Paraná com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito da adubação mineral sobre o crescimento de mudas de Chamaecyparis lawsoniana plantadas diretamente no campo e em recipientes individuais. Utilizou-se o delineamento completamente casualizado com cinco combinações de NPK (4-30-10 mais uréia, em gramas, (0 + 0; 30 + 10; 60 + 20; 90 + 30 e 120 + 40, respectivamente para o campo e 0 + 0; 10 + 4; 20 + 8; 30 + 12 e 40 + 16, respectivamente para os recipientes e quatro repetições. O crescimento das plantas foi observado durante um ano, realizando-se avaliações de altura da muda e diâmetro do tronco a cada dois meses. A adubação em cobertura a campo não estimulou o crescimento das mudas. A aduba

  5. Cavitation of intercellular spaces is critical to establishment of hydraulic properties of compression wood of Chamaecyparis obtusa seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakaba, Satoshi; Hirai, Asami; Kudo, Kayo; Yamagishi, Yusuke; Yamane, Kenichi; Kuroda, Katsushi; Nugroho, Widyanto Dwi; Kitin, Peter; Funada, Ryo

    2016-03-01

    When the orientation of the stems of conifers departs from the vertical as a result of environmental influences, conifers form compression wood that results in restoration of verticality. It is well known that intercellular spaces are formed between tracheids in compression wood, but the function of these spaces remains to be clarified. In the present study, we evaluated the impact of these spaces in artificially induced compression wood in Chamaecyparis obtusa seedlings. We monitored the presence or absence of liquid in the intercellular spaces of differentiating xylem by cryo-scanning electron microscopy. In addition, we analysed the relationship between intercellular spaces and the hydraulic properties of the compression wood. Initially, we detected small intercellular spaces with liquid in regions in which the profiles of tracheids were not rounded in transverse surfaces, indicating that the intercellular spaces had originally contained no gases. In the regions where tracheids had formed secondary walls, we found that some intercellular spaces had lost their liquid. Cavitation of intercellular spaces would affect hydraulic conductivity as a consequence of the induction of cavitation in neighbouring tracheids. Our observations suggest that cavitation of intercellular spaces is the critical event that affects not only the functions of intercellular spaces but also the hydraulic properties of compression wood. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Phenolic Content and Antioxidant Capacity of Essential Oil Obtained from Sawdust of Chamaecyparis obtusa by Microwave-Assisted Hydrodistillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek K. Bajpai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Reactive oxygen species and free radicals play a major role in food deterioration. Current research is directed towards finding naturally occurring antioxidants of plant origin. In the present study, the chemical composition analysis of the essential oil obtained from sawdust of Chamaecyparis obtusa (COEO was conducted by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectroscopy (GC-MS. Further, the phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of the COEO were investigated using different radical scavenging assays. The COEO obtained from the dried sawdust material using a microwave-assisted hydrodistillation technique resulted in the determination of 46 different compounds by GC-MS analysis, representing 98.94 % of total oil content. The COEO was characterised by the presence of mono- and sesquiterpene hydrocarbons, oxygenated mono- and sesquiterpenes, steroids, diterpenes and indole derivatives. At the highest tested concentration range, the COEO showed antioxidant capacity, i.e. the inhibition of DPPH, nitric oxide, superoxide and hydroxyl radicals of 80.16, 82.93, 72.99 and 71.62 %, respectively. Moreover, the COEO displayed concentration-dependent reducing power ability and remarkable inhibitory effect on ferric ion-induced lipid peroxidation in bovine brain extract. In addition, the COEO yielded (6.13±0.05 mg of gallic acid per g of dry mass. The present study confirms that the C. obtusa essential oil has potent antioxidant, lipid peroxidation inhibition and radical scavenging abilities; therefore, it might be used as a natural antioxidant to prevent food deterioration.

  7. Strong Induction of Minor Terpenes in Italian Cypress, Cupressus sempervirens, in Response to Infection by the Fungus Seiridium cardinale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achotegui-Castells, Ander; Danti, Roberto; Llusià, Joan; Della Rocca, Gianni; Barberini, Sara; Peñuelas, Josep

    2015-03-01

    Seiridium cardinale, the main fungal pathogen responsible for cypress bark canker, is the largest threat to cypresses worldwide. The terpene response of canker-resistant clones of Italian cypress, Cupressus sempervirens, to two differently aggressive isolates of S. cardinale was studied. Phloem terpene concentrations, foliar terpene concentrations, as well as foliar terpene emission rates were analyzed 1, 10, 30, and 90 days after artificial inoculation with fungal isolates. The phloem surrounding the inoculation point exhibited de novo production of four oxygenated monoterpenes and two unidentified terpenes. The concentrations of several constitutive mono- and diterpenes increased strongly (especially α-thujene, sabinene, terpinolene, terpinen-4-ol, oxygenated monoterpenes, manool, and two unidentified diterpenes) as the infection progressed. The proportion of minor terpenes in the infected cypresses increased markedly from the first day after inoculation (from 10% in the control to 30-50% in the infected treatments). Foliar concentrations showed no clear trend, but emission rates peaked at day 10 in infected trees, with higher δ-3-carene (15-fold) and total monoterpene (10-fold) emissions than the control. No substantial differences were found among cypresses infected by the two fungal isolates. These results suggest that cypresses activate several direct and indirect chemical defense mechanisms after infection by S. cardinale.

  8. Methane emissions from bald cypress tree trunks in a bottomland forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schile, L. M.; Pitz, S.; Megonigal, P.

    2013-12-01

    Studies on natural methane emissions predominantly have occurred on wetland soils with herbaceous plant species. Less attention, however, has been placed on the role of woody wetland plant species in the methane cycle. Recent studies on methane emissions from tree trunks document that they are a significant source of emissions that previously has been not accounted for. In this study, we examine methane emissions from trunks of mature bald cypress (Taxodium distichum), which is a dominant tree species in bottomland hardwood forests of the Southeastern United States. To date, little is known about soil methane emissions in these systems, and published tree emissions have been limited to a single study conducted on bald cypress knees. In May 2013, we established a plot in a monospecific bald cypress stand planted approximately 70 years ago on the Chesapeake Bay in Maryland and are monitoring methane emissions on 12 tree trunks, soil chambers, and pore-water over the course of a year. Custom-made 30 cm tall open face rectangular tree chambers were constructed out of white acrylic sheets and secured on each tree at a midpoint of 45 cm above the soil surface. Chambers were lined with neoprene along the tree surface and sealed with an epoxy. On three trees that varied in trunk diameter, chambers were placed at average heights of 95, 145, 195, and 345 cm from the soil surface in order to calculate a decay curve of methane emissions. Once a month, chambers were sealed with lids and head-space samples were collected over the course of an hour. Methane flux was calculated and compared to emissions from soil chambers. Average cypress trunk methane fluxes ranged from 17.7 μmole m-2 hr-1 in May to 49.5 and 116.5 μmole m-2 hr-1 in June and July, respectively. Soil fluxes averaged 28.5 μmole m-2 hr-1 in May and June, and decreased to 13.7 μmole m-2 hr-1 in July. Methane emissions decreased exponentially up the tree trunk, with fluxes of 2 μmole m-2 hr-1 and less calculated

  9. Characterization of soil organic matter in perhumid natural cypress forest: comparison of humification in different particle-size fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jenn-Shing; Chung, Tay-Lung; Tian, Guanglong; Chiu, Chih-Yu

    2013-12-01

    The Chamaecyparis forest is a valuable natural resource in eastern Asia. The characteristics of soil humic substances and the influence of environmental factors in natural Chamaecyparis forests in subtropical mountain regions are poorly understood. The study site of a perhumid Chamaecyparis forest is in the Yuanyang Lake Preserved Area in northcentral Taiwan. We collected samples from organic horizons (Oi, Oe and Oa) and from the surface horizon (O/A horizon) at the summit, footslope and lakeshore to characterize the composition of the soil organic matter. Samples of organic horizons were dried and ground, and those of the O/A horizon were passed through wet sieving for different particle-size fractions before analysis. The C chemical structure in the samples was determined with CP/MAS 13C NMR spectra. The ratios of alkyl-C/O-alkyl-C and aromaticity increased with decomposition of litter from the Oi, Oe, to Oa horizon. The ratio of alkyl-C/O-alkyl-C also increased from coarse (> 250 μm) to very fine (climate conditions may narrow the difference in humification from the summit to lakeshore.

  10. Spread of plant pathogens and insect vectors at the northern range margin of cypress in Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zocca, Alessia; Zanini, Corrado; Aimi, Andrea; Frigimelica, Gabriella; La Porta, Nicola; Battisti, Andrea

    2008-05-01

    The Mediterranean cypress ( Cupressus sempervirens) is a multi-purpose tree widely used in the Mediterranean region. An anthropogenic range expansion of cypress has taken place at the northern margin of the range in Italy in recent decades, driven by ornamental planting in spite of climatic constraints imposed by low winter temperature. The expansion has created new habitats for pathogens and pests, which strongly limit tree survival in the historical (core) part of the range. Based on the enemy release hypothesis, we predicted that damage should be lower in the expansion area. By comparing tree and seed cone damage by pathogens and pests in core and expansion areas of Trentino, a district in the southern Alps, we showed that tree damage was significantly higher in the core area. Seed cones of C. sempervirens are intensively colonized by an aggressive and specific pathogen (the canker fungus Seiridium cardinale, Coelomycetes), associated with seed insect vectors Megastigmus wachtli (Hymenoptera Torymidae) and Orsillus maculatus (Heteroptera Lygaeidae). In contrast, we observed lower tree damage in the expansion area, where a non-aggressive fungus ( Pestalotiopsis funerea, Coelomycetes) was more frequently associated with the same insect vectors. Our results indicate that both insect species have a great potential to reach the range margin, representing a continuous threat of the arrival of fungal pathogens to trees planted at extreme sites. Global warming may accelerate this process since both insects and fungi profit from increased temperature. In the future, cypress planted at the range margin may then face similar pest and pathogen threats as in the historical range.

  11. Influence of partial serotiny of Aleppo pine, Italian, and Arizona cypress on seed germination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grbić Mihailo

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The usability of seeds for the production of seedlings, as well as the utilisation potential of seeds for natural regeneration was assessed by the comparative analysis of seed germination from the cones of different ages of three species with partial serotiny (P. halepensis Mill., Cupressus sempervirens L., Cupressus arizonica Greene. In cypress, serotiny is not so expressed as to be a reserve for extraordinary situations (fire. Fouryearold Aleppo pine cones should be collected for production purposes. Serotinous cones up to ten years old are efficient for natural regeneration of Aleppo pine forest after fire.

  12. Understanding the Mechanism of Cypress Liquefaction in Hot-Compressed Water through Characterization of Solid Residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Run-Cang Sun

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The mechanism of hydrothermal liquefaction of cypress was investigated by examining the effects of temperature and retention time on the characteristics of the solid residues remaining after liquefaction. The solid residues were divided into acid-soluble and acid-insoluble residues. Results showed the polymerization reactions also mainly occurred at low temperatures. The reactive fragments transformed into acid-insoluble solid residue in the form of carbon and oxygen through polymerization reactions. The process of cellulose degradation consists of two steps: an initial hydrolysis of the more solvent- accessible amorphous region and a later hydrolytic attack on the crystalline portion. Hemicelluloses were decomposed into small compounds during the initial stage of the cypress liquefaction process, and then these compounds may rearrange through polymerization to form acid-insoluble solid residues above 240 °C. The higher heating value of the solid residues obtained from liquefaction at 260–300 °C was 23.4–26.3 MJ/kg, indicating that they were suitable for combustion as a solid fuel.

  13. The geography of conflict between elk and agricultural values in the Cypress Hills, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegel, Troy M; Gates, C Cormack; Eslinger, Dale

    2009-01-01

    Complex ecological issues like depredation and its management are determined by multiple factors acting at more than one scale and are interlinked with complex human social and economic behaviour. Depredation by wild herbivores can be a major obstacle to agricultural community support for wildlife conservation. For three decades, crop and fence damage, competition with livestock for native rangeland and tame pasture, and depredation of stored feed by elk (Cervus elaphus canadensis) have been the cause of conflict with agricultural producers in the Cypress Hills, Alberta and Saskatchewan. Tolerance of elk presence on private lands is low because few benefits accrue to private landowners; rather they largely perceive elk as a public resource produced at their expense. Government management actions have focused on abatement inputs (e.g., population reduction; fencing) and compensation, but incentives to alter land use patterns (crop choice and location) in response to damages have not been considered. Nor has there been information on spatial structure of the elk population that would allow targeted management actions instead of attempting to manage the entire population. In this study we analysed the spatial structure of the Cypress Hills elk population, the distribution of the elk harvest in relation to agricultural conflicts, developed models of the spatial patterns of conflict fields, and evaluated compensation patterns for damage by wild herbivores. We propose modifications to current abatement and compensation programs and discuss alternative approaches involving changes to agricultural land use patterns that may reduce the intensity of conflicts with elk, and increase the acceptance capacity of landowners.

  14. Department of the Interior U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service : Final Environmental Assessment for Recreational Fishing Plan : Cypress Creek National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The primary purpose of the proposed action is to consider recreational fishing opportunities on Cypress Creek NWR. This EA analyzes four different fishing...

  15. New Evidence of an Ancient Bald Cypress Forest on the Inner Shelf of Northern Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, J.; DeLong, K. L.; Bentley, S. J.; Xu, K.; Harley, G. L.; Reese, C. A.; Obelcz, J.; Guilderson, T. P.; Gonzalez Rodriguez, S. M.

    2016-02-01

    Climate models suggest cold-adapted trees grew in the southeastern United States (SE US) during glacial intervals yet there is a scarcity of paleoclimate records for marine isotope stages 3 to 5 in this region, limiting our understanding of early glacial oceanic-climatic conditions. Here we describe an offshore site with well-preserved in situ bald cypress stumps (Taxodium distichum) and woody remnants exposed in an eroding swale located 13.5 km from Orange Beach, Alabama in 18 m of seawater. T. distichum grows in warm and humid climates with low elevations (>0-50 m) preferring freshwater riparian environments with frequent flooding. Wood samples from exposed stumps and sediments have good preservation with cellular structure intact and smell like freshly cut cypress indicating preservation in anoxic conditions that suppressed biodegradation. Radiocarbon dating of eight wood subsamples, including an in situ stump, was inconclusive due to detection limits indicating the wood is older than 50,000 years. We conducted high-resolution geophysical surveys and coring operations in August 2015 recovering a total of 17.075 m of sediment cores. The base of these cores contain wood-bearing muddy peat sediments of the Pleistocene terrestrial wetlands. The geophysical surveys reveal the stumps are located around the eroding swale with possible river landforms visible in the side-scan sonar suggesting a paleochannel surrounded by bald cypress trees similar to modern swamps and bayous. Preliminary pollen analysis reveals an abundance of bald cypress (T. distichum), tupelo (Nyssa aquatic), and pine (Pinus spp.) similar to modern SE US wetlands. Ongoing sediment core analysis includes microfossil, palynology, and sedimentology analysis. Our preliminary results from this submerged glacial landscape suggest that coastal T. distichum wetlands were present in the early glacial interval along the northern Gulf Coast.

  16. Antibacterial Mode of Action of the Essential Oil Obtained from Chamaecyparis obtusa Sawdust on the Membrane Integrity of Selected Foodborne Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek K. Bajpai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study examines the possible antibacterial mechanism of action of the essential oil obtained from Chamaecyparis obtusa (COEO sawdust against foodborne pathogenic bacteria. The COEO was obtained by microwave-assisted hydrodistillation of C. obtusa sawdust. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC values of COEO against the tested foodborne pathogens including Bacillus cereus ATCC 13061, Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 7644, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 12600, Salmonella Typhimurium ATCC 43174 and Escherichia coli ATCC 43889 were found in the range from 62.5 to 500 μg/mL and from 125 to 1000 μg/mL, respectively. At the MIC concentrations, the COEO had potential inhibitory effect on the cell viability of the tested bacteria. In addition, the scanning electron microscopic analysis confirmed the inhibitory effect of COEO by revealing significant morphological alterations or rupture of the cell membranes of B. cereus ATCC 13061 and E. coli ATCC 43889. Moreover, the mode of action of COEO on the cell membrane of both Gram-positive B. cereus ATCC 13061 and Gram-negative E. coli ATCC 43889 bacteria was confirmed by marked release of extracellular adenosine 5’-triphosphate (ATP and cellular material that absorbs at 260 nm, and by efflux of potassium ions. These findings suggest that COEO holds a broad-spectrum antibacterial efficacy, confirming its influence on the membrane integrity and morphological characteristics of tested foodborne pathogens.

  17. The characteristics of precipitation observed over Cypress Mountain during the SNOW-V10 campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, H. W. Stephen; Stewart, Ronald E.; Joe, Paul I.

    2017-11-01

    Cypress Mountain, north of Vancouver, is a 1440-m high coastal barrier for moisture-laden onshore airflow and is consequently subject to substantial precipitation. Unprecedented data from various precipitation events were obtained between January and April 2010 during the SNOW-V10 (Science of Nowcasting Olympic Weather for Vancouver 2010) field campaign occurring in conjunction with the 2010 Winter Olympics. Information was collected from specialized radar, enhanced surface weather stations, and operational observing systems. During this period, overall precipitation amounts were similar to long-term averages. Some precipitation events lasted ≥ 24 h, although periods with heavier precipitation rates lasted ≤ 6 h. Temperatures were generally above 0 °C at an observation site near the base of the mountain so snow was almost entirely absent, which was sometimes the case at other sites higher and nearer its peak. Precipitation amounts from some events were similar at the base and near the summit but other events showed much more precipitation at higher elevations. Most of these latter cases were linked with strong, sustained upward particle velocities on the upwind side of the mountain and this flow was also suggested to be a contributing factor for freezing rain occurring near the peak on occasion.

  18. Different allergenicity of pollen extracts of three Mediterranean cypress species accounted for cytological observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barberini, S; Della Rocca, G; Danti, R; Zanoni, D; Mori, B; Ariano, R; Mistrello, G

    2015-09-01

    Cypresses play an important role in the urban landscape of the Mediterranean region, releasing a huge amount of allergenic airborne pollen which causes a specific pollinosis in exposed people. The aim of this work is to evaluate, in vivo and in vitro, the potential allergenicity of Cupressus macrocarpa pollen, and to compare it with the allergenicity observed for C. arizonica and C. sempervirens. Pollen extracts of the three species were prepared, to determine their protein profile through SDS PAGE analysis and to evaluate their allergenic potential through EAST inhibition assays and SPT. Pollen grain composition was evaluated using a cytochemical approach with optical microscopy. SDS PAGE, EAST inhibition and SPT indicated the higher allergenic potential of C. arizonica compared to C. sempervirens and C. macrocarpa. No significant differences in allergenic potential were found between the latter two species. Cytochemical observations reveal higher β-glucans and protein content in the intine of C. arizonica during hydration. The higher protein content found in C. arizonica pollen grains extract may be due to higher enzyme activity leading to the movement of β-glucans and pectins from the intine to the partially developed pollen cell wall during hydration. This could explain the higher potential allergenicity of C.arizonica in respect to C. macrocarpa and C. sempervirens.

  19. Newly-assessed fungicides for the control of cypress canker caused by Seiridium cardinale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianni DELLA ROCCA

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 14 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Normal 0 14 false false false IT ZH-TW X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Bark canker caused by Seiridium cardinale is the most destructive disease of Cupressus and several Cupressaceae in many temperate regions and particularly in the Mediterranean area. Chemical prevention represents the most effective and essential means of control to protect plant production in nurseries and young plantations. The European Directive 2009/128/CE and CE 1107/2009 application have drastically reduced the number of chemicals that can be used in agriculture, including the benzimidazolic compounds that had shown the best results in preventing S. cardinale canker. It is therefore urgent to find alternative fungicides to replace the banned compounds. The purpose of the present work was to assess some fungicides through in vitro tests and pre- and post-inoculation sprayings on Cupressus sempervirens, for the control of S. cardinale. The active ingredients boscalid, fosetyl-aluminium, triadimenol and azoxystrobin were compared with thiophanate-methyl as reference. The effectiveness of thiophanate-methyl in reducing canker development was confirmed especially when it was applied to trees before they were inoculated with S. cardinale. Azoxystrobin was as effective as thiophanate-methyl in the pre-inoculation trials. boscalid prevented conidial germination and mycelial growth of S. cardinale in vitro and appeared a promising contact fungicide for the prevention of cypress canker. Azoxystrobin and boscalid are listed in a less hazardous class than thiophanate-methyl, and has less risk for the environment and for users.

  20. Central Vietnam climate over the past five centuries from cypress tree rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Brendan M.; Stahle, Daniel K.; Luu, Hong Truong; Wang, S.-Y. Simon; Nguyen, Tran Quoc Trung; Thomas, Philip; Le, Canh Nam; Ton, That Minh; Bui, The Hoang; Nguyen, Van Thiet

    2017-06-01

    We present the first crossdated tree ring record from central Vietnam, derived from the growth rings of the rare cypress Fokienia hodginsii from the mountains of Quang Nam Province near the Laos border. The Quang Nam Fokienia hodginsii time series (QNFH), based on the crossdated sequences of 71 increment core samples from 37 mature trees, is the third published dendrochronological record from this species. The record extends 667 years from AD 1347 to 2013 and exhibits a mean series intercorrelation of 0.526, similarly significant with the first two published Fokienia hodginsii records: 0.474 for Mu Cang Chai (MCFH) and 0.578 for Bidoup-Nui Ba National Park (BDFH) in the north and south of Vietnam, respectively. The Expressed Population Signal (EPS) for the QNFH record exceeds the generally accepted threshold of 0.85 back to AD 1567, but remains above 0.8 back to 1550. Similar to the MCFH and BDFH records, QNFH expresses statistically significant linkages to regional hydroclimate metrics and the El Niño-Southern Oscillation. Here we present a reconstruction of the Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index for the month of April, averaged over a large region of Southeast Asia. As with prior studies we demonstrate that cool phase (La Niña) and warm phase (El Niño) events are linked to regional wet and dry conditions, respectively, with linkages to modulation of the surface water temperature over the adjacent sea to the east of Vietnam as well as the Indian Ocean. A late eighteenth century megadrought that is expressed widely across South and Southeast Asia, and notably from the MCFH and BDFH records described above, is not as pronounced in Central Vietnam and we explore the reasons why.

  1. Assessing the Genetic Diversity and Genealogical Reconstruction of Cypress (Cupressus funebris Endl. Breeding Parents Using SSR Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanbo Yang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available To identify genetic diversity, genetic structure and the relationship among accessions, and further establish a core collection for the long-term breeding of cypress (Cupressus funebris Endl., the genealogy of breeding parents was reconstructed using simple sequence repeat (SSR molecular markers. Seventeen SSR markers were used to detect molecular polymorphisms among 290 cypress accessions from five provinces and 53 accessions with unknown origin in China. A total of 92 alleles (Na were detected with 5.412 alleles per locus and an average polymorphism information content (PIC of 0.593. The haplotype diversity (H ranged from 0.021 to 0.832, with an average of 0.406. The number of alleles (Na and the effective number of alleles (Ne ranged from 4.294 to 5.176 and from 2.488 to 2.817 among five populations, respectively. The pairwise population matrix of Nei’s genetic distance ranged from 0.008 to 0.023. Based on the results of unweighted pair group method average (UPGMA cluster and population structure analyses, 343 breeding parents were divided into two major groups. Lower genetic differentiation coefficients and closer genetic relationships were observed among cypress breeding parents, suggesting that the genetic basis was narrow, and the genetic relationship was confused by frequent introduction and wide cultivation. Moreover, we reconstructed the genealogy between breeding parents and 30 accessions of breeding parents from an identified core collection. According to the present study, not only geographic origin but also the relationship of the individuals should be considered in future crossbreeding work.

  2. Investigating spatial variability in gas-flux dynamics within Big Cypress National Preserve, Florida using hydrogeophysical methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirianni, M.; Comas, X.; Shoemaker, B.; Job, M. J.; Cooper, H.

    2016-12-01

    Globally, wetland soils play an important role in regulating climate change by functioning as a source or sink for atmospheric carbon, particularly in terms of methane and carbon dioxide. While many historic studies defined the function of wetland soils in the global carbon budget, the gas-flux dynamics of subtropical wetlands is largely unknown. Big Cypress National Preserve is a collection of subtropical wetlands in southwestern Florida, including extensive forested (cypress, pine, hardwood) and sawgrass ecosystems that dry and flood annually in response to rainfall. The U.S. Geological Survey employs eddy covariance methods at several locations within the Preserve to quantify carbon and methane exchanges at ecosystem scales. While eddy covariance towers are a convenient tool for measuring gas fluxes, their footprint is spatially extensive (hundreds of meters); and thus spatial variability at smaller scales is masked by averaging or even overlooked. We intend to estimate small-scale contributions of organic and calcitic soils to gas exchanges measured by the eddy covariance towers using a combination of geophysical, hydrologic and ecologic techniques. Preliminary results suggest that gas releases from flooded calcitic soils are much greater than organic soils. These results - and others - will help build a better understanding of the role of subtropical wetlands in the global carbon budget.

  3. Effects of Post-Fire Plant Cover in the Performance of Two Cordilleran Cypress ( Austrocedrus chilensis) Seedling Stocktypes Planted in Burned Forests of Northeastern Patagonia, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urretavizcaya, María F.; Gonda, Héctor E.; Defossé, Guillermo E.

    2017-03-01

    Cordilleran cypress ( Austrocedrus chilensis [D.Don] Pic. Serm. et Bizarri) forests occupy 140,000 ha along a sharp environmental gradient of central Andean-Patagonia in Argentina. Every summer, about 3200 ha of these forests are affected by wildfires, taking thereafter long time to recover. To accelerate forest recovery, we determined in xeric and mesic cypress stands burned 5 and 2 year before whether survival and growth of two planted cypress seedling stocktypes are affected by plant cover and contrasting precipitation conditions. Two experiments were conducted on each site, involving 100 replicates of two seedling stocktypes, having each significantly different morphological attributes. The experiments comprised a dry and humid growing season on each site. Both stocktypes performed similarly within stands, but differently between stands. In the xeric stand, plant cover had neutral effects on seedling survival, favored seedling height growth in the dry season, and was negative on collar diameter and stem growth. In the mesic site, high plant cover favored survival and height growth, but was inconsequential for collar diameter and stem growth. In this short-term post-fire period, and independent of precipitation received during both seasons (dry or humid), plant cover appears as playing a facilitative role, having neutral or even positive effects on survival and growth of planted seedlings. During the early post-fire successional stages, and besides seedling stocktype, there was a synergistic balance between light and soil moisture that seems to benefit planted seedling performance in burned cypress forests, and especially in mesic sites.

  4. Cellular fine structures and histochemical reactions in the tissue of a cypress twig preserved in Baltic amber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koller, Barbara; Schmitt, Jürgen M.; Tischendorf, Gilbert

    2005-01-01

    A twig of a cypress plant preserved for ca. 45Myr in Baltic amber was analysed by light and electron microscopy. Cross-sections of the whole plant showed an almost intact tissue of the entire stem and leaves, revealing, to our knowledge, the oldest and most highly preserved tissue from an amber inclusion reported so far. The preparations are based on a new technique of internal imbedding, whereby the hollow spaces within the inclusion are filled with synthetic resin which stabilizes the cellular structures during the sectioning procedure. Cytological stains applied to the sections reacted with cell walls and nuclei. A strong green auto-fluorescence of the cuticle and the resin canals in the leaves was observed. Transmission electron micrographs revealed highly preserved fine structures of cell walls, membranes and organelles. The results were compared with taxonomically related recent Glyptostrobus and Juniperus plants. PMID:15695201

  5. Baseline assessment of physical characteristics, aquatic biota, and selected water-quality properties at the reach and mesohabitat scale for three stream reaches in the Big Cypress Basin, northeastern Texas, 2010-11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Christopher L.; Moring, James B.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Northeast Texas Municipal Water District and the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality, did a baseline assessment in 2010-11 of physical characteristics and selected aquatic biota (fish and mussels) collected at the mesohabitat scale for three stream reaches in the Big Cypress Basin in northeastern Texas for which environmental flows have been prescribed. Mesohabitats are visually distinct units of habitat within the stream with unique depth, velocity, slope, substrate, and cover. Mesohabitats in reaches of Big Cypress, Black Cypress, and Little Cypress Bayous were evaluated to gain an understanding of how fish communities and mussel populations varied by habitat. Selected water-quality properties were also measured in isolated pools in Black Cypress and Little Cypress. All of the data were collected in the context of the prescribed environmental flows. The information acquired during the study will support the long-term monitoring of biota in relation to the prescribed environmental flows.

  6. Geologic Setting and Preservation of a Late Pleistocene Bald Cypress Forest Discovered on the Northern Gulf of Mexico Continental Shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez Rodriguez, S. M.; Bentley, S. J.; DeLong, K. L.; Xu, K.; Harley, G. L.; Reese, C. A.; Obelcz, J.

    2016-02-01

    Following landfall of Hurricane Ivan in 2004, a previously buried bald cypress forest (Taxodium distichum) was discovered on the continental shelf seafloor, offshore of Orange Beach, Alabama, USA, in 20 m of water. The forest is preserved as stumps in life position with little evidence of decay and large pieces of trunks, roots, and branches. Analysis shows the forest is older than can be dated with conventional C-14 methods. Comparison of Pleistocene sea level curves with the study area depth suggests that the forest developed and was likely buried during marine isotope stage 3 or 4, or perhaps older stages. Condition of sampled wood suggests that the forest was buried and preserved in anoxic sediments for millennia, prior to recent exhumation. To better understand the puzzling geological conditions that could allow forest preservation during sea level fall and shelf exposure spanning >30,000 years, submersible vibracores (to 6 m length) and geophysical data (swath bathymetry, sidescan, and chirp subbottom) were collected in August 2015. Cores are being analyzed using a Geotek Multi Sensor Core Logger, granulometric and sediment composition analyses, and a wide range of paleoenvironmental observations. This presentation focuses on the geological setting and mode of forest preservation. Preliminary analysis of sediment types and stratigraphy in cores shows that the local stratigraphy is broadly consistent with previous regional shelf-stratigraphic studies, consisting of (top to bottom) a surface layer of Holocene transgressive sands (to 3 m thick) unconformably overlying Pleistocene terrestrial and coastal deposits. However, the Pleistocene lithofacies (fluvial, backswamp, or possibly delta plain muds) differ considerably in both depositional environment and degree of environmental preservation compared to previous studies. Ongoing analysis will focus on elucidating the succession of events that allows preservation of this unique Pleistocene sedimentary archive.

  7. Rapid isolation, characterization, and glycan analysis of Cup a 1, the major allergen of Arizona cypress (Cupressus arizonica) pollen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alisi, C; Afferni, C; Iacovacci, P; Barletta, B; Tinghino, R; Butteroni, C; Puggioni, E M; Wilson, I B; Federico, R; Schininà, M E; Ariano, R; Di Felice, G; Pini, C

    2001-10-01

    A rapid method for the purification of the major 43-kDa allergen of Cupressus arizonica pollen, Cup a 1, was developed. The salient feature was a wash of the pollen in acidic buffer, followed by an extraction of the proteins and their purification by chromatography. Immunoblotting, ELISA, and lectin binding were tested on both the crude extract and the purified Cup a 1. Biochemical analyses were performed to assess the Cup a 1 isoelectric point, its partial amino-acid sequence, and its glycan composition. Immunochemical analysis of Cup a 1 confirmed that the allergenic reactivity is maintained after the purification process. Partial amino-acid sequencing indicated a high degree of homology between Cup a 1 and allergenic proteins from the Cupressaceae and Taxodiaceae families displaying a similar molecular mass. The purified protein shows one band with an isoelectric point of 5.2. Nineteen out of 33 sera (57%) from patients allergic to cypress demonstrated significant reactivity to purified Cup a 1. MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry indicated the presence of three N-linked oligosaccharide structures: GnGnXF(3) (i.e., a horseradish peroxidase-type oligosaccharide substituted with two nonreducing N-acetylglucosamine residues), GGnXF(3)/GnGXF(3) (i.e., GnGnXF with one nonreducing galactose residue), and (GF)GnXF(3)/Gn(GF)XF(3) (with a Lewisa epitope on one arm) in the molar ratio 67:8:23. The rapid purification process of Cup a 1 allowed some fine studies on its properties and structure, as well as the evaluation of its IgE reactivity in native conditions. The similarities of amino-acid sequences and some complex glycan stuctures could explain the high degree of cross-reactivity among the Cupressaceae and Taxodiaceae families.

  8. Phylogeography and allopatric divergence of cypress species (Cupressus L. in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau and adjacent regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciren Zhaxi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although allopatric speciation is viewed as the most common way in which species originate, allopatric divergence among a group of closely related species has rarely been examined at the population level through phylogeographic analysis. Here we report such a case study on eight putative cypress (Cupressus species, which each have a mainly allopatric distribution in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP and adjacent regions. The analysis involved sequencing three plastid DNA fragments (trnD-trnT, trnS-trnG and trnL-trnF in 371 individuals sampled from populations at 66 localities. Results Both phylogenetic and network analyses showed that most DNA haplotypes recovered or haplotype-clustered lineages resolved were largely species-specific. Across all species, significant phylogeographic structure (NST >GST, P C. duclouxiana and C. chengiana, which are distributed in the eastern QTP region, contained more haplotypes and higher diversity than five species with restricted distributions in the western highlands of the QTP. The remaining species, C. funebris, is widely cultivated and contained very little cpDNA diversity. Conclusions It is concluded that the formation of high mountain barriers separating deep valleys in the QTP and adjacent regions caused by various uplifts of the plateau since the early Miocene most likely promoted allopatric divergence in Cupressus by restricting gene flow and fixing local, species-specific haplotypes in geographically isolated populations. The low levels of intraspecific diversity present in most species might stem from population bottlenecks brought about by recurrent periods of unfavorable climate and more recently by the negative impacts of human activities on species' distributions. Our findings shed new light on the importance of geographical isolation caused by the uplift of the QTP on the development of high plant species diversity in the QTP biodiversity hotspot.

  9. Use of a latitudinal gradient in bald cypress (Taxodium distichum) production to examine physiological controls of biotic boundaries and potential responses to environment change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, B.A.; McKee, K.L.

    2004-01-01

    Aim: Predictions of vegetation change with global warming require models that accurately reflect physiological processes underlying growth limitations and species distributions. However, information about environmental controls on physiology and consequent effects on species boundaries and ecosystem functions such as production is limited, especially for forested wetlands that are potentially important carbon sinks. Location: The bald cypress (Taxodium distichum) region of the south-eastern United States was studied to examine how production of an important forested wetland varies with latitude and temperature as well as local hydrology. Methods: We used published data to analyse litter production across a latitudinal gradient from 26.2 to 37.8?? N to determine how bald cypress swamps might respond to alternate climate conditions and what changes might occur throughout the distributional range. Results: Litterfall rates followed a bell shaped curve, indicating that production was more limited at the distributional boundaries (c. 225 g/m2 year-1) compared to the mid-range (795-1126 g/m2 year-1). This pattern suggests that conditions are sub-optimal near both boundaries and that the absence of populations outside this latitudinal range may be largely due to physiological constraints on the carbon balance of dominant species. While dispersal limitations cannot be totally discounted, competition with other wetland types at the extremes of the range does not seem likely to be important because the relative basal area of bald cypress does not decrease near the edges of the range. Impaired hydrology depressed production across the entire range, but more in the south than the north. Main conclusions: Our findings suggest that (1) physiological limitations constrain biotic boundaries of bald cypress swamps; (2) future changes in global temperature would affect litter production in a nonlinear manner across the distributional range; (3) local changes in hydrology may

  10. Bathymetry and vegetation in isolated marsh and cypress wetlands in the northern Tampa Bay Area, 2000-2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haag, Kim H.; Lee, Terrie M.; Herndon, Donald C.

    2005-01-01

    Wetland bathymetry and vegetation mapping are two commonly used lines of evidence for assessing the hydrologic and ecologic status of expansive coastal and riverine wetlands. For small isolated freshwater wetlands, however, bathymetric data coupled with vegetation assessments are generally scarce, despite the prevalence of isolated wetlands in many regions of the United States and the recognized importance of topography as a control on inundation patterns and vegetation distribution. In the northern Tampa Bay area of west-central Florida, bathymetry was mapped and vegetation was assessed in five marsh and five cypress wetlands. These 10 isolated wetlands were grouped into three categories based on the effects of ground-water withdrawals from regional municipal well fields: natural (no effect), impaired (drier than natural), and augmented (wetlands with artificially augmented water levels). Delineation of the wetland perimeter was a critical component for estimating wetland-surface area and stored water volume. The wetland perimeter was delineated by the presence of Serenoa repens (the 'palmetto fringe') at 9 of the 10 sites. At the 10th site, where the palmetto fringe was absent, hydric-soils indicators were used to delineate the perimeter. Bathymetric data were collected using one or more techniques, depending on the physical characteristics of each wetland. Wetland stage was measured hourly using continuous stage recorders. Wetland vegetation was assessed semiannually for 2 1/2 years in fixed plots located at three distinct elevations. Vegetation assessments were used to determine the community composition and the relative abundance of obligate, facultative wet, and facultative species at each elevation. Bathymetry maps were generated, and stage-area and stage-volume relations were developed for all 10 wetlands. Bathymetric data sets containing a high density of data points collected at frequent and regular spatial intervals provided the most useful stage

  11. Reservoir Characterization of Bridgeport and Cypress Sandstones in Lawrence Field Illinois to Improve Petroleum Recovery by Alkaline-Surfactant-Polymer Flood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seyler, Beverly; Grube, John; Huff, Bryan; Webb, Nathan; Damico, James; Blakley, Curt; Madhavan, Vineeth; Johanek, Philip; Frailey, Scott

    2012-12-21

    were used to better understand porosity and permeability trends in the region and to characterize barriers and define flow units. Diagenetic alterations that impact porosity and permeability include development of quartz overgrowths, sutured quartz grains, dissolution of feldspar grains, formation of clay mineral coatings on grains, and calcite cementation. Many of these alterations are controlled by facies. Mapping efforts identified distinct flow units in the northern part of the field showing that the Pennsylvanian Bridgeport consists of a series of thick incised channel fill sequences. The sandstones are about 75-150 feet thick and typically consist of medium grained and poorly sorted fluvial to distributary channel fill deposits at the base. The sandstones become indistinctly bedded distributary channel deposits in the main part of the reservoir before fining upwards and becoming more tidally influenced near their top. These channel deposits have core permeabilities ranging from 20 md to well over 1000 md. The tidally influenced deposits are more compartmentalized compared to the thicker and more continuous basal fluvial deposits. Fine grained sandstones that are laterally equivalent to the thicker channel type deposits have permeabilities rarely reaching above 250 md. Most of the unrecovered oil in Lawrence Field is contained in Pennsylvanian Age Bridgeport sandstones and Mississippian Age Cypress sandstones. These reservoirs are highly complex and compartmentalized. Detailed reservoir characterization including the development of 3-D geologic and geocellular models of target areas in the field were completed to identify areas with the best potential to recover remaining reserves including unswept and by-passed oil. This project consisted of tasks designed to compile, interpret, and analyze the data required to conduct reservoir characterization for the Bridgeport and Cypress sandstones in pilot areas in anticipation of expanded implementation of ASP flooding in

  12. Saltwater intrusion in the surficial aquifer system of the Big Cypress Basin, southwest Florida, and a proposed plan for improved salinity monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinos, Scott T.

    2013-01-01

    The installation of drainage canals, poorly cased wells, and water-supply withdrawals have led to saltwater intrusion in the primary water-use aquifers in southwest Florida. Increasing population and water use have exacerbated this problem. Installation of water-control structures, well-plugging projects, and regulation of water use have slowed saltwater intrusion, but the chloride concentration of samples from some of the monitoring wells in this area indicates that saltwater intrusion continues to occur. In addition, rising sea level could increase the rate and extent of saltwater intrusion. The existing saltwater intrusion monitoring network was examined and found to lack the necessary organization, spatial distribution, and design to properly evaluate saltwater intrusion. The most recent hydrogeologic framework of southwest Florida indicates that some wells may be open to multiple aquifers or have an incorrect aquifer designation. Some of the sampling methods being used could result in poor-quality data. Some older wells are badly corroded, obstructed, or damaged and may not yield useable samples. Saltwater in some of the canals is in close proximity to coastal well fields. In some instances, saltwater occasionally occurs upstream from coastal salinity control structures. These factors lead to an incomplete understanding of the extent and threat of saltwater intrusion in southwest Florida. A proposed plan to improve the saltwater intrusion monitoring network in the South Florida Water Management District’s Big Cypress Basin describes improvements in (1) network management, (2) quality assurance, (3) documentation, (4) training, and (5) data accessibility. The plan describes improvements to hydrostratigraphic and geospatial network coverage that can be accomplished using additional monitoring, surface geophysical surveys, and borehole geophysical logging. Sampling methods and improvements to monitoring well design are described in detail. Geochemical analyses

  13. A workflow for multiclass determination of 256 pesticides in essential oils by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry using evaporation and dilution approaches: Application to lavandin, lemon and cypress essential oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fillatre, Yoann; Rondeau, David; Daguin, Antoine; Communal, Pierre-Yves

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the determination of 256 multiclass pesticides in cypress and lemon essential oils (EOs) by the way of liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI/MS/MS) analysis using the scheduled selected reaction monitoring mode (sSRM) available on a hybrid quadrupole linear ion trap (QLIT) mass spectrometer. The performance of a sample preparation of lemon and cypress EOs based on dilution or evaporation under nitrogen assisted by a controlled heating were assessed. The best limits of quantification (LOQs) were achieved with the evaporation under nitrogen method giving LOQs≤10µgL(-1) for 91% of the pesticides. In addition the very satisfactory results obtained for recovery, repeatability and linearity showed that for EOs of relatively low evaporation temperature, a sample preparation based on evaporation under nitrogen is well adapted and preferable to dilution. By compiling these results with those previously published by some of us on lavandin EO, we proposed a workflow dedicated to multiresidue determination of pesticides in various EOs by LC-ESI/sSRM. Among the steps involved in this workflow, the protocol related to mass spectrometry proposes an alternative confirmation method to the classical SRM ratio criteria based on a sSRM survey scan followed by an information-dependent acquisition using the sensitive enhanced product ion (EPI) scan to generate MS/MS spectra then compared to a reference. The submitted workflow was applied to the case of lemon EOs samples highlighting for the first time the simultaneous detection of 20 multiclass pesticides in one EO. Some pesticides showed very high concentration levels with amounts greatly exceeding the mgL(-1). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Relations between total phosphorus and orthophosphorus concentrations and rainfall, surface-water discharge, and groundwater levels in Big Cypress Seminole Indian Reservation, Florida, 2014–16

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, W. Scott; Sifuentes, Dorothy F.

    2018-02-06

    The Seminole Tribe of Florida (the Tribe) is partnering with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to develop a numeric phosphorus criterion for the 52,000-acre Big Cypress Seminole Indian Reservation (BCSIR), which is located downgradient of the Everglades Agricultural Area, and of other public and private lands, in southeastern Hendry County and northwestern Broward County in southern Florida. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Tribe, used water-quality data collected between October 2014 and September 2016 by the Tribe and the South Florida Water Management District (SFWMD), along with data from rainfall gages, surface-water stage and discharge gages, and groundwater monitoring wells, to (1) examine the relations between local hydrology and measured total phosphorus (TP) and orthophosphorus (OP) concentrations and (2) identify explanatory variables for TP concentrations. Of particular concern were conditions when TP exceeded 10 parts per billion (ppb) (0.01 milligram per liter [mg/L]) given that the State of Florida and the Miccosukee Tribe of Indians Alligator Alley Reservation (located downstream of the BCSIR) have adopted a 10-ppb maximum TP criterion for surface waters.From October 2014 to September 2016, the Tribe collected 47–52 samples at each of nine water-quality sites for analysis of TP and OP, except at one site where 28 samples were collected. For all sites sampled, concentrations of TP (as phosphorus [P]) ranged from less than 0.002 mg/L (2 ppb) to a maximum of nearly 0.50 mg/L (500 ppb), whereas concentrations of OP (as P), the reactive form of inorganic phosphorus readily absorbed by plants and (or) abiotically absorbed, ranged from less than 0.003 mg/L (3 ppb) to a maximum of 0.24 mg/L (240 ppb). The median and interquartile ranges of concentrations of TP and OP in the samples collected in 2014–16 by the Tribe were similar to the median and interquartile ranges of concentrations in samples collected by the SFWMD at

  15. Archaeological Investigations at Site 45-OK-258, Chief Joseph Dam Project, Washington.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    of the samples. d Chamaecyparis nootkaten5is (D. Don) Sprach ( Alaska cedar, yellow cedar) -, Approximately 0.02 g of yellow cedar charcoal was...samples containing cypress family members, or in samples that have incompletely charred wood. Use of this wood is not reported in the ethnobotanies of...two unit level flotation samples from Zone 3 and 5. The wood is not mentioned in regional ethnobotanies ; its tough and durable character may, however

  16. Effectiveness on mild stress and mixed urinary incontinence and impact on Quality of Life of a phytotherapic product containing astragalus, thyme, lavender, hop, equisetum, red clover, cypress and agrimonia at titrated concentrations. Results from a monocentric study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oreste Risi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To assess any beneficial effect on quality of life of a daily treatment with a phytotherapic product containing astragalus, thyme, lavender, hop, equisetum, red clover, cypress and agrimonia at titrated concentrations in a cohort of female patients complaining mild stress urinary incontinence (SUI or mixed urinary incontinence (MUI. Materials and methods: 42 non-consecutive female out-patients with mild SUI or mild MUI were assessed with a clinical evaluation, International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire Short Form (ICIQ-SF and Patients’ Perception of Intensity of Urgency Scale (PPIUS at baseline the start of the study and after two months of therapy with the phytotherapic product. At the end of the therapy the patients also compiled Patient Global Impression of Improvement (PGI-I. Results: After the completion of the study there was a trend towards better results in each item of ICIQ-SF, but without any statistical significance with an average score in ICIQ-SF-1 of 3.12 ± 0.981 versus 3.21 ± 0.914 (p = 0.556, in ICIQ-SF-2 of 3.69 ± 1.422 versus 3.79 ± 1.372 (p = 0.68 and in ICIQ-SF-3 of 5.95 ± 1.618 versus 6.14 ± 1.670 (p = 0.462. The average reduction of PPIUS was of 0.09 (1.26 ± 1.481 versus 1.357 ± 1.509, p = 0.705. There was a reduction of average consumption of pads/die from 1.69 ± 0.636 to 1.54 ± 0.543 (p = 0.101. In relation to the PGI score, 23/42 patients (54.7% reported no changes after the completion of the therapy, 13/42 (30.9% reported a slight improvement, 5/42 (11.9% were much improved and 1/42 (2.3% was slightly worsened. Only 2/42 (4.7% patients discontinued the treatment before of the completion of the study. We did not observe any adverse effects during the period of the study. Conclusions: The phytotherapic product seems to cause a slight improvement of the symptoms in a good rate of patients. Moreover it has a low rate of withdrawal, due to the lack of adverse events.

  17. Verification of Scaling Relationship Between Litter Production and Biomass in a Near Tropical Montane Cloud Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, K. T.; Huang, C.; Yuan, S. C.; Tai, T. C.

    2016-12-01

    Litterfall plays a crucial role in the carbon and nutrient cycles of forest ecosystems. The amount of litterfall governs the amount of carbon and nutrient to be returned in a forest ecosystem. However, when it comes to quantify forest litterfall, collection of canopy characteristic parameters for existing litterfall models is usually time-consuming and labor-intensive. Recent studies indicated that, in metabolic scaling theory, there is a common relationship between terrestrial plant production and biomass; a major part of the production is contributed by litterfall. Therefore, there could be a relationship between litterfall and biomass, which could facilitate large spatial scale estimation of litterfall since biomass may be assessed using remote sensing. To investigate this relationship, we acquired monthly litterfall of a hinoki (Chamaecyparis spp.) dominant montane forest in the northeastern Taiwan (23.98 N, 120.97 E) across the elevation range of 1267-2080 m a.s.l. Monthly litterfall data were recorded from fifteen 0.09 ha plots and each plot consisted from four randomly arranged 0.5 m2 litterfall traps. In addition, diameter at breast height of each live hinoki trees (n = 1,129) within all plots were measured and total biomass was derived using an in-situ species-specific allometry. We found that the relationship between biomass and litterfall might depend on season. Significant concordance between the ranking of tree size and litter production of different sites (Spearman's rank correlation, rho = 0.60, p = 0.0001) could be found as the growing season started. With the aid of fine grain airborne light detection and ranging (LiDAR) data, we may be able to provide a spatial layer of hinoki biomass and map growing season litterfall over a vast region. Furthermore, the study could help increase our understanding of the mechanism governing the litter production and improve future prediction of the ecosystem function.

  18. 36 CFR 7.86 - Big Cypress National Preserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) Motorized vehicles—(1) Definitions. (i) The term “motorized vehicle” means automobiles, trucks, glades or... during dry periods, that a motorized vehicle or a particular class of motorized vehicle, operated off... the Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, or the 80 percent efficiency level when determined...

  19. Defining old growth in the Southeast: example of cypress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margaret S. Devall; Paul C. van Deusen; Gregory A. Reams

    1999-01-01

    There is a lot of misunderstanding over what comprises an old growth stand, because there is no well accepted definition of old growth. Malcolm Hunter proposed a broad conceptual definition: "old-growth forests are relatively old and relatively undisturbed by humans." Because there can be large differences among forest types, Hunter suggested that specific...

  20. Water Resource References: Cypress Creek National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Reports and publications relevant to the CCNWR Water Resource Inventory and Assessment. List of references involving water quality and/or quantity data that directly...

  1. Spontaneous changes a basis for new ornamental woody plant cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đukić Matilda

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In nursery stock production of some ornamental woody plants the appearance of spontaneous variability was identified in the form of atypical pigmentation of leaves (albinism, variegated, red colored, leaves shape (jaggy and dwarfs. Mutated plants with variegated leaves were observed among hybrid plane (Platanus x acerifolia (Ait. Willd., Siberian elm (Ulmus pumila L., laurel cherry (Prunus laurocerasus L. and Lawson false-cypress (Chamaecyparis lawsoniana (Murr. Parl. Seedlings. The type of variegation and frequency were analyzed. Among plane tree and Siberian elm seedlings there were observed red colored leaves. Atypical, jaggy shaped leaves were found among laurel cherry seedlings. Dwarf growth was identified at Siberian elm and birch (Betula pendula Roth. where also found fruits at one year seedling. There were not significant differences in some morphological and physiological properties in plane tree seedlings with various pigmented leaves. .

  2. Microsatellite Primers for the Pacific Northwest Conifer Callitropsis nootkatensis (Cupressaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tara N. Jennings

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Premise of the study: Microsatellite primers were developed for Nootka cypress (Callitropsis nootkatensis to provide quantitative measures for gene conservation that can assist in guiding management decisions for a species experiencing climate-induced decline. Methods and Results: Using multiplexed massively parallel sequencing, we identified 136,785 microsatellite-containing sequences from 489,625 Illumina paired-end 80-bp reads. After stringent filtering, we selected 144 primer pairs and screened variation at these loci in five populations of C. nootkatensis. Loci show between three and 36 dinucleotide repeats per locus, with an average of 13. Screening of these markers in the Pacific Northwest relative Chamaecyparis lawsoniana demonstrated no marker transferability. This finding highlights the narrow taxonomic utility of microsatellite markers in Callitropsis. Conclusions: These microsatellites show high polymorphism and can be used for routine screening of natural variation in Callitropsis nootkatensis, and will be particularly helpful in identifying clones and inbred relatives at the stand-level.

  3. Mapping reference evapotranspiration from meteorological satellite data and applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Hwi Yao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Reference evapotranspiration (ETo is an agrometeorological variable widely used in hydrology and agriculture. The FAO-56 Penman-Monteith combination method (PM method is a standard for computing ETo for water management. However, this scheme is limited to areas where climatic data with good quality are available. Maps of 10-day averaged ETo at 5 km × 5 km grid spacing for the Taiwan region were produced by multiplying pan evaporation (Epan, derived from ground solar radiation (GSR retrieved from satellite images using the Heliosat-3 method, by a fixed pan coefficient (Kp. Validation results indicated that the overall mean absolute percentage error (MAPE and normalized root-mean-square deviation (NRMSD were 6.2 and 7.7%, respectively, when compared with ETo computed by the PM method using spatially interpolated 10-day averaged daily maximum and minimum temperature datasets and GSR derived from satellite inputs. Land coefficient (KL values based on the derived ETo estimates and long term latent heat flux measurements, were determined for the following landscapes: Paddy rice (Oryza sativa, subtropical cypress forest (Chamaecyparis obtusa var. formosana and Chamaecyparis formosensis, warm-to-temperate mixed rainforest (Cryptocarya chinensis, Engelhardtia roxburghiana, Tutcheria shinkoensis, and Helicia formosana, and grass marsh (Brachiaria mutica and Phragmites australis. The determined land coefficients are indispensable to scale ETo in estimating regional evapotranspiration.

  4. Proton-dependent coniferin transport, a common major transport event in differentiating xylem tissue of woody plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuyama, Taku; Kawai, Ryo; Shitan, Nobukazu; Matoh, Toru; Sugiyama, Junji; Yoshinaga, Arata; Takabe, Keiji; Fujita, Minoru; Yazaki, Kazufumi

    2013-06-01

    Lignin biosynthesis is an essential physiological activity of vascular plants if they are to survive under various environmental stresses on land. The biosynthesis of lignin proceeds in the cell wall by polymerization of precursors; the initial step of lignin polymerization is the transportation of lignin monomers from the cytosol to the cell wall, which is critical for lignin formation. There has been much debate on the transported form of the lignin precursor, either as free monolignols or their glucosides. In this study, we performed biochemical analyses to characterize the membrane transport mechanism of lignin precursors using angiosperms, hybrid poplar (Populus sieboldii × Populus grandidentata) and poplar (Populus sieboldii), as well gymnosperms, Japanese cypress (Chamaecyparis obtusa) and pine (Pinus densiflora). Membrane vesicles prepared from differentiating xylem tissues showed clear ATP-dependent transport activity of coniferin, whereas less than 4% of the coniferin transport activity was seen for coniferyl alcohol. Bafilomycin A1 and proton gradient erasers markedly inhibited coniferin transport in hybrid poplar membrane vesicles; in contrast, vanadate had no effect. Cis-inhibition experiments suggested that this transport activity was specific for coniferin. Membrane fractionation of hybrid poplar microsomes demonstrated that transport activity was localized to the tonoplast- and endomembrane-rich fraction. Differentiating xylem of Japanese cypress exhibited almost identical transport properties, suggesting the involvement of a common endomembrane-associated proton/coniferin antiport mechanism in the lignifying tissues of woody plants, both angiosperms and gymnosperms.

  5. Enhanced concentrations of citric acid in spring aerosols collected at the Gosan background site in East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jinsang; Kawamura, Kimitaka

    2011-09-01

    In order to investigate water-soluble dicarboxylic acids and related compounds in the aerosol samples under the Asian continent outflow, total suspended particle (TSP) samples ( n = 32) were collected at the Gosan site in Jeju Island over 2-5 days integration during 23 March-1 June 2007 and 16-24 April 2008. The samples were analyzed for water-soluble dicarboxylic acids, ketocarboxylic acids, and α-dicarbonyls using a capillary gas chromatography technique. We found elevated concentrations of atmospheric citric acid (range: 20-320 ng m -3) in the TSP samples during mid- to late April of 2007 and 2008. To specify the sources of citric acid, dicarboxylic acids and related compounds were measured in the pollen sample collected at the Gosan site (Pollen_Gosan), authentic pollen samples from Japanese cedar ( Cryptomeria) (Pollen_cedar) and Japanese cypress ( Chamaecyparis obtusa) (Pollen_cypress), and tangerine fruit produced from Jeju Island. Citric acid (2790 ng in unit mg of pollen mass) was found as most abundant species in the Pollen_Gosan, followed by oxalic acid (2390 ng mg -1). Although citric acid was not detected in the Pollen_cedar and Pollen_cypress as major species, it was found as a dominant species in the tangerine juice while malic acid was detected as major species in the tangerine peel, followed by oxalic and citric acids. Since Japanese cedar trees are planted around tangerine farms to prevent strong winds from the Pacific Ocean, citric acid that may be directly emitted from tangerine is likely adsorbed on pollens emitted from Japanese cedar and then transported to the Gosan site. Much lower malic/citric acid ratios obtained under cloudy condition than clear condition suggest that malic acid may rapidly decompose to lower molecular weight compounds such as oxalic and malonic acids (

  6. Fire history of Everglades National Park and Big Cypress National Preserve, southern Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Thomas J.; Foster, Ann M.; Jones, John W.

    2015-01-01

    Fire occurs naturally in the environment on most continents, including Africa (Ryan and Williams, 2011), Asia (Kauhanen, 2008), Australia (Kutt and Woinarski, 2007), Europe (Eshel and others, 2000), South America (Fidelis and others, 2010), and North America (Van Auken, 2000). Antarctica appears to be the only continent that has no reported natural fires, although fire is common in grasslands of Patagonia and on islands in the Subantarctic region (Gonzalez and others, 2005; McGlone and others, 2007).

  7. Management Plan, Part 3 : Hunting chapter : Cypress Creek National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This plan provides guidelines for the administration of hunting activity and for the development, maintenance, and enforcement of regulations and guidelines on...

  8. Archaeological Investigations of The Little Cypress Bayou Site (3CT50) Crittenden County, Arkansas. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    based upon the production of food resources from a limited number of culti- gens. In the Mississippian Stage, this pattern involved high labor ... clima - tic shift to cooler temperatures in North America. The decline of the Hopewell in the northern Mississippi Valley then took place because maize...judicious expense of labor as the program defined midden areas, the extent of which would likely not have been suitably defined by test excavations alone

  9. Determining Minimal Clinically Important Differences in Japanese Cedar/Cypress Pollinosis Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takaya Higaki

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: For T5SS in the diary, T6SS and QOL in JRQLQ, unit differences of 1.5 (0.3 per item, 3.6 (0.6 and 8.2 (0.5, respectively, were considered clinically meaningful by JCCP patients. The MCID for symptoms recorded in the diary was stable irrespective of the dispersed pollen level.

  10. A Contaminants Survey of Three Lentic Systems within the Cypress Creek Watershed, Texas, 1993 - 1995

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In 1993, a study was initiated by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Arlington, Texas, Field Office to determine organic and metal contaminant levels within three...

  11. 214 Cross Reactivity Between Cypress Pollen and Plant Food in Queretaro, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Medina-Hernández, Alejandra; Sosa Ferreyra, Carlos Fancisco; Lelo de Larrea, Guadalupe Zaldívar

    2012-01-01

    Background Food allergy prevalence is growing continuously. Reasons are unknown. It is suggested that environmental factors have a greater impact than genetic. The hay may be responsible for developing food allergy to plants. The geographical and climatological condition of Querétaro city, and having a large industrial corridor are risk factors for development allergic problems. In Mexico there are no prevalence studies on food allergy and therefore the most common food allergens. The objecti...

  12. Restoration of freshwater Cypress-Tupelo Wetlands in the southeastern U.S. following severe hurricanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conner, William H.; Krauss, Ken W.; Shaffer, Gary P.

    2012-01-01

    Freshwater forested wetlands commonly occur in the lower Coastal Plain of the southeastern US with baldcypress (Taxodium distichum [L.] L.C. Rich.) and water tupelo (Nyssa aquatica L.) often being the dominant trees. Extensive anthropogenic activities combined with eustatic sea-level rise and land subsidence have caused widespread hydrological changes in many of these forests. In addition, hurricanes (a common, although aperiodic occurrence) cause wide-spread damage from wind and storm surge events, with impacts exacerbated by human-mediated coastal modifications (e.g., dredging, navigation channels, etc.). Restoration of forested wetlands in coastal areas is important because emergent canopies can greatly diminish wind penetration, thereby reducing the wind stress available to generate surface waves and storm surge that are the major cause of damage to coastal ecosystems and their surrounding communities. While there is an overall paucity of large-scale restoration efforts within coastal forested wetlands of the southeastern US, we have determined important characteristics that should drive future efforts. Restoration efforts may be enhanced considerably if coupled with hydrological enhancement, such as freshwater, sediment, or sewage wastewater diversions. Large-scale restoration of coastal forests should be attempted to create a landscape capable of minimizing storm impacts and maximizing wetland sustainability in the face of climate change. Planting is the preferred regeneration method in many forested wetland sites because hydrological alterations have increased flooding, and planted seedlings must be protected from herbivory to enhance establishment. Programs identifying salt tolerance in coastal forest tree species need to be continued to help increase resilience to repetitive storm surge events.

  13. Host-induced genome alterations in Phytophthora ramorum, I. NA1 lineage on coast live oak in California, II. EU1 lineage on Chamaecyparis lawsoniana in UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takao Kasuga; Mai Bui; Elizabeth Bernhardt; Tedmund Swiecki; Kamyar Aram; Lien Bertier; Jennifer Yuzon; Liliana M. Cano; Joan Webber; Clive Brasier; Caroline Press; Niklaus Grünwald; David Rizzo; Matteo Garbelotto

    2017-01-01

    Rapid phenotypic diversification in clonal invasive populations is often observed, although the underlying genetic mechanisms remain elusive. Lineages of the sudden oak death pathogen Phytophthora ramorum are exclusively clonal, yet isolates of the NA1 lineage from oak (Quercus spp.) frequently exhibit...

  14. Construction of a Learner Corpus for Japanese Language Learners: Natane and Nutmeg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kikuko NISHINA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Japanese language learners aim to acquire reading, listening, writing and speaking skills. We at the Hinoki project (https://hinoki-project.org/ have recently been working on the Natsume collocation search system (https://hinoki-project.org/natsume/, the Natane learner corpus to support Natsume (https://hinoki-project.org/natane/ and the Nutmeg writing support system (http://hinoki-project.org/nutmeg/. In order to test the effectiveness of Nutmeg, we conducted an online experiment with 36 participants who used the system's register misuse identification feature to correct four writing assignments. Results show that Nutmeg can be an effective tool in correcting common register-related errors, especially those involving auxiliary verbs. However, the accuracy of verb and adverb identification was too low, suggesting the need for improvements in the variety of corpora used for identifying register misuse.

  15. Radionuclides deposition and fine sediment transport in a forested watershed, central Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, S.; Gomi, T.; Kato, H.; Tesfaye, T.; Onda, Y.

    2011-12-01

    We investigated radionuclides deposition and fine sediment transport in a 13 ha headwater watershed, Tochigi prefecture, located in 98.94 km north of Tokyo. The study site was within Karasawa experimental forest, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology. We conducted fingerprinting approach, based on the activities of fallout radionuclides, including caesium-134 (Cs-134) caesium-137 (Cs-137) and excess lead-210 (Pb-210ex). For indentifying specific sources of fine sediment, we sampled tree, soil on forested floor, soil on logging road surface, stream bed and stream banks. We investigated the radionuclides (i.e., as Cs-134, Cs-137 and Pb-210ex) deposition on tree after accident of nuclear power plants on March 11, 2011. We sampled fruits, leaves, branches, stems, barks on Japanese cedar (Sugi) and Japanese cypress (Hinoki). To analyze the samples, gammaray spectrometry was performed at a laboratory at the University of Tsukuba (Tsukuba City, Japan) using n-type coaxial low-energy HPGe gamma detectors (EGC-200-R and EGC25-195-R of EURYSIS Co., Lingolsheim, France) coupled with a multichannel analyzer. We also collected soil samples under the forest canopy in various soil depths from 2, 5, 10, 20, 30 cm along transect of hillslopes. Samples at forest road were collected road segments crossing on the middle section of monitoring watersheds. Fine sediment transport in the streams were collected at the outlet of 13 ha watersheds using integrated suspended sediment samplers. This study indicates the some portion of radio nuclide potentially remained on the tree surface. Part of the deposited radionuclides attached to soil particles and transported to the streams. Most of the fine sediment can be transported on road surface and/or near stream side (riparian zones).

  16. In Land of Cypress and Pine: An Environmental History of the Santee Experimental Forest, 1683-1937

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayden R. Smith

    2012-01-01

    The Santee Experimental Forest is a 6,100-acre research facility located within the Francis Marion National Forest, SC. Situated within the Huger Creek watershed in the headwaters of the East Branch of the Cooper River, the Santee Experimental Forest supports research in forest ecology, silviculture, prescribed fire, forest hydrology, ecosystem restoration, and...

  17. Paleoenvironmental interpretation of the paleosols and sediments at the Stampede site (DjOn-26), Cypress Hills, Alberta

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Judith Klassen

    2004-01-01

    A 3.65 m-thick sequence of paleosols and sediments exposed at the Stampede archaeological site provides an opportunity for studying climate change and its impact on ancient site utilization over a 7200-year period...

  18. Paleoenvironmental interpretation of the paleosols and sediments at the Stampede site (DjOn-26), Cypress Hills, Alberta1

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Judith Klassen

    2004-01-01

      A 3.65 m-thick sequence of paleosols and sediments exposed at the Stampede archaeological site provides an opportunity for studying climate change and its impact on ancient site utilization over a 7200-year period...

  19. Archaeological Investigations of the Little Cypress Bayou Site (3CT50) Crittenden County, Arkansas. Volume 2 - Appendices

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    LEAF EPIDERMAL CELLS, FEATURE 659 ......... V-8 V-5. CARBONIZED CONIFEROUS XYLEM CELLS, FEATURE 28 ......... V-9 V-6. CARBONIZED CONIFEROUS XYLEM CELLS...similar wood anatomy . Some species do occur in the area of the site. Cherry was represented in only four features. The wood charcoal listed as "conifer" is...think the area would have been too wet. However, it is a possibility. There are only slight differences in the minute anatomy of the two species. Cane

  20. Pesticide and nutrient contamination in the Cypress Swamp of the A.R.M Loxahatchee National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Surface water and sediment contamination of the Loxahatchee National Wildlife Refuge (Refuge) is a management concern given the proximity of both agriculture and...

  1. Data for herpetofaunal inventories of the national parks of South Florida and the Caribbean: Volume III, Big Cypress National Preserve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Kenneth G.; Waddle, J. Hardin; Crockett, Marquette E.; Jeffery, Brian M.; Percival, H. Franklin

    2017-01-01

    The Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan (CERP) requires the use of ecological indicators to measure the success of restoration efforts. The Everglades amphibian community is ideal because amphibians are present in all habitats and under all hydrologic regimes. During Everglades restoration, hydrologic patterns will change and the response of ecological indicators will determine success. Fourteen amphibian species were detected through visual encounter surveys, vocalization surveys and trapping methods throughout the study and the occurrence information collected in this project database.

  2. Odors, Deployment Stress and Health: A Conditioning Analysis of Gulf War Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-09-01

    studies: asthma, severe seasonal or perennial allergies , chronic sinusitis, deviated septum, a head injury with loss of conscience, cardiovascular (heart...uncommon and dissimilar to odors generally experienced in the environment. Odors that we employ are a blend of hinoki and galbanum, leafy green or...Odor, which was either hinoki/galbanum (CSa) or TEA (CSb). After 10 minutes of preparation, the experimenter announced the end of preparation and the

  3. Effect of tree thinning and skidding trails on hydrological connectivity in two Japanese forest catchments

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Vicente, Manuel; Sun, Xinchao; Onda, Yuichi; Kato, Hiroaki; Gomi, Takashi; Hiraoka, Marino

    2017-09-01

    Land use composition and patterns influence the hydrological response in mountainous and forest catchments. In plantation forest, management operations (FMO) modify the spatial and temporal dynamics of overland flow processes. However, we found a gap in the literature focussed on modelling hydrological connectivity (HC) in plantation forest under different FMO. In this study, we simulated HC in two steep paired forest subcatchments (K2 and K3, 33.2 ha), composed of Japanese cypress (Chamaecyparis obtusa Endl.) and Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica D. Don) plantations (59% of the total area) against a tree thinning intensity of 50% at different time. Additionally, construction of new skidding trails and vegetation recovery was simulated on five thinning-based scenarios that covered a 40-month test period (July 2010 - October 2013). As a future scenario, six check-dams located in the main streams were proposed to reduce sediment and radionuclide delivery. An updated version of Borselli's index of runoff and sediment connectivity was run, using the D-infinity flow accumulation algorithm and exploiting three 0.5-m resolution digital elevation models. On the basis of the pre-FMO scenario, HC increased at catchment scale owing to tree thinning and the new skidding trails. This change was more noticeable within the area affected by the FMO, where HC increased by 11.4% and 10.5% in the cypress and cedar plantations in K2 respectively and by 8.8% in the cedar plantation in K3. At hillslope plot and stream scales, the evolution in the values of HC was less evident, except the increment (by 5.4%) observed in the streams at K2 after the FMO. Progressive vegetation recovery after the FMO triggered a slight reduction of connectivity in all compartments of both subcatchments. Forest roads and especially skidding trails presented the highest values of HC, appearing as the most efficient features connecting the different vegetation patches with the stream network. The spatial

  4. [Clustering Sugi-pollen dispersal patterns for the past 26 years].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Yukiko

    2014-05-01

    Pollinosis caused by the pollen of Sugi (Cryptopmeria japonica) trees is the most significant allergic disease occurring in the spring in Japan. For pollinosis patients and medical staff, it is important to know when the pollen dispersion would reach maximum or when the pollen count would decrease as well as knowing what would the total density of pollen grains be. These sorts of information could be useful for the purpose of disease prevention and deciding on the therapeutic regimen. In this study, we presented the sugi-dispersal patterns and cited several examples of the dispersal pattern. Airborne pollen grains were collected using a Durham sampler. Total annual pollen counts/cm2 were examined. The sugi-dispersal patterns were classified into several groups by cluster analysis using variables of ten days pollen counts distribution from February to April for the past 26 years. (1987-2012). The annual pollen count revealed an alternate rhythm consisting of an "on" year (high pollen count) and an "off" year (low pollen count). The results of the cluster analysis showed eleven off-years classified as one group (group 1), and fifteen on-years classified into three groups (groups 2A, 2B, and 2C). The dispersal pattern in group 1 was almost symmetrical with the pollen count rapidly decreasing until late-March. On the other hand, the patterns in group 2 were asymmetrical. In group 2A and 2B a high rate of dispersion was indicated after maximum dispersion, whereas in group 2C the high rate of dispersion was indicated before maximum dispersion. In group 2A, a major dispersion of almost 3000 grains was noted in late-March, and immediately proceeded to the cypress (Chamaecyparis) pollen season without any decrease seen in pollen dispersion. The periods of dispersion of over 10 pollen grains/cm2 per day were 38, 47, 47 and 51 days in groups 1, 2A, 2B and 2C, respectively. That in group 2 was significantly longer than that in group 1, but there was no significant differences

  5. Calibration of Rainfall-Runoff Model by Referring to Hydrological Separation of Runoff Components using Chemical and Isotopic Characteristics of Discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikamori, H.

    2008-12-01

    Calibration of Rainfall-Runoff Model by Referring to Hydrological Separation of Runoff Components using Chemical and Isotopic Characteristics of Discharge Hidetaka Chikamori Graduate School of Environmental Science, Okayama University, JAPAN A rainfall-runoff model is generally calibrated by minimizing error in calculated runoff using records of hydrological components, that is, observed rainfall, discharge and observed or estimated evapotranpiration. However, calibration using only hydrological components sometimes produces a model with strange structure that does not reflect physical properties of an objective basin. It is probably due to error in referred hydrological records. In this study, the author calibrated a rainfall runoff model using not only hydrological record but also chemical and isotopic data of discharge so as to obtain a reasonably structured model from multiple viewpoints. Besides, the model structure was improved in order to simulate isotopic characteristics well. It is well known that ratio of surface flow in total flow can be estimated by change in concentration of cation or anion. Relative concentration of 18O, δ18O is well used for separating runoff of retained water in soil as "old water" from total runoff. A Long-and-Short Term Tank Model (LST2 Model) was applied to three Hinoki Cypress catchments in Mie experimental basin located in the middle of Japan. One of these catchments is of well-maintained planted forest, and two are of poor-maintained planted. A model was calibrated by Differential Evolution for each catchment using hydrological data, concentration of K+ and δ18O. In these catchments, Gomi et al (2008) showed that concentration of K+ well expresses ratio of surface runoff to total runoff, and that δ18O subsurface runoff to total runoff. The results show that an original version of LST2 Model cannot simulated delayed subsurface flow ratio estimated by δ18O, although it well simulates surface flow ratio estimated by

  6. Antibacterial and Antifungal Effects of Essential Oils from Coniferous Trees

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hong, Eui-Ju; Na, Ki-Jeung; Choi, In-Gyu; Choi, Kyung-Chul; Jeung, Eui-Bae

    2004-01-01

    .... In the present study, we investigated the antibacterial and antifungal effects of essential oils extracted from the coniferous species Pinus densiflora, Pinus koraiensis, and Chamaecyparis obtusa...

  7. Simulating the biogeochemical cycles in cypress wetland-pine upland ecosystems at a landscape scale with the wetland-DNDC model

    Science.gov (United States)

    G. Sun; C. Li; C. Tretting; J. Lu; S.G. McNulty

    2005-01-01

    A modeling framework (Wetland-DNDC) that described forested wetland ecosystem processes has been developed and validated with data from North America and Europe. The model simulates forest photosynthesis, respiration, carbon allocation, and liter production, soil organic matter (SOM) turnover, trace gas emissions, and N leaching. Inputs required by Wetland-DNDC...

  8. Maintenance and Transmission of Keystone Virus by Aedes atlanticus (Diptera: Culicidae) and the Gray Squirrel in the Pocomoke Cypress Swamp, Maryland

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-11-01

    transmission in atlanticus in the maintenance and transmission of the maintenance cycle of KEY virus (Fine & LeDuc this California serogroup virus at the PCS...adensis (Theobold), Culex salinarius Coquillett, vented the development of a viremia. Although and Psorophora ferox (von Humboldt) (Saugstad the viremic...evidence of KEY viral infection in al. 1975c) and for California encephalitis virus in the gray squirrel population was observed from Ae. melanimon (Dyar

  9. Antifungal activities of three supercritical fluid extracted cedar oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tianchuan Du; Todd F. Shupe; Chung Y. Hse

    2009-01-01

    The antifungal activities of three supercritical CO2 (SCC) extracted cedar oils, Port-Orford-cedar (POC) (Chamaecyparis lawsoniana), Alaska yellow cedar (AYC) (Chamaecyparis nootkatensis), and Eastern red cedar (ERC) (Juniperus virginiana L), were evaluated against two common wood decay fungi, brown-rot fungi (...

  10. Host range determination and fungicide resistance assessment of Phytophthora lateralis isolates from horticultural nurseries in Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franziska Rupp; Ebba K. Peterson; Joyce Eberhart; Jennifer L. Parke

    2017-01-01

    Phytophthora lateralis causes root rot of Port-Orford cedar (Chamaecyparis lawsoniana; POC) in native forests of northwest California and southwest Oregon and in landscape plantings of horticultural Chamaecyparis cultivars in the western US and Europe. In spring 2015, following observations of mortality...

  11. AcEST: BP915476 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available (Fragment) OS=Chamaecyparis lawsoniana Align length 139 Score (bit) 142.0 E-value 1.0e-37 Report BLASTX 2.2.... (Fragment) OS=Chamaecyparis lawsoniana GN=chlN PE=4 SV=1 Length = 388 Score = 142 bits (359), Expect(2) = 1

  12. Effects of Long-Term Periodic Submergence on Photosynthesis and Growth of Taxodium distichum and Taxodium ascendens Saplings in the Hydro-Fluctuation Zone of the Three Gorges Reservoir of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chaoying; Li, Changxiao; Wei, Hong; Xie, Yingzan; Han, Wenjiao

    2016-01-01

    Responses of bald cypress (Taxodium distichum) and pond cypress (Taxodium ascendens) saplings in photosynthesis and growth to long-term periodic submergence in situ in the hydro-fluctuation zone of the Three Gorges Dam Reservoir (TGDR) were studied. Water treatments of periodic deep submergence (DS) and moderate submergence (MS) in situ were imposed on 2-year-old bald cypress and pond cypress saplings. The effects of periodic submergence on photosynthesis and growth were investigated after 3 years (i.e. 3 cycles) compared to a control (i.e. shallow submergence, abbreviated as SS). Results showed that pond cypress had no significant change in net photosynthetic rate (Pn) in response to periodic moderate and deep submergence in contrast to a significant decrease in Pn of bald cypress under both submergence treatments, when compared to that of SS. Ratios of Chlorophyll a/b and Chlorophylls/Carotenoid of pond cypress were significantly increased in periodic moderate submergence and deep submergence, while bald cypress showed no significant change. Diameter at breast height (DBH) and tree height of both species were significantly reduced along with submergence depth. Relative diameter and height growth rates of the two species were also reduced under deeper submergence. Moreover, bald cypress displayed higher relative diameter growth rate than pond cypress under deep submergence mainly attributed to higher productivity of the larger crown area of bald cypress. When subjected to deep subergence, both species showed significant reduction in primary branch number, while in moderate submergence, bald cypress but not pond cypress showed significant reduction in primary branch number. These results indicate that both bald cypress and pond cypress are suitbale candidates for reforestation in the TGDR region thanks to their submergence tolerance characteristics, but bald cypress can grow better than pond cypress under deep submergence overall.

  13. Effects of Long-Term Periodic Submergence on Photosynthesis and Growth of Taxodium distichum and Taxodium ascendens Saplings in the Hydro-Fluctuation Zone of the Three Gorges Reservoir of China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaoying Wang

    Full Text Available Responses of bald cypress (Taxodium distichum and pond cypress (Taxodium ascendens saplings in photosynthesis and growth to long-term periodic submergence in situ in the hydro-fluctuation zone of the Three Gorges Dam Reservoir (TGDR were studied. Water treatments of periodic deep submergence (DS and moderate submergence (MS in situ were imposed on 2-year-old bald cypress and pond cypress saplings. The effects of periodic submergence on photosynthesis and growth were investigated after 3 years (i.e. 3 cycles compared to a control (i.e. shallow submergence, abbreviated as SS. Results showed that pond cypress had no significant change in net photosynthetic rate (Pn in response to periodic moderate and deep submergence in contrast to a significant decrease in Pn of bald cypress under both submergence treatments, when compared to that of SS. Ratios of Chlorophyll a/b and Chlorophylls/Carotenoid of pond cypress were significantly increased in periodic moderate submergence and deep submergence, while bald cypress showed no significant change. Diameter at breast height (DBH and tree height of both species were significantly reduced along with submergence depth. Relative diameter and height growth rates of the two species were also reduced under deeper submergence. Moreover, bald cypress displayed higher relative diameter growth rate than pond cypress under deep submergence mainly attributed to higher productivity of the larger crown area of bald cypress. When subjected to deep subergence, both species showed significant reduction in primary branch number, while in moderate submergence, bald cypress but not pond cypress showed significant reduction in primary branch number. These results indicate that both bald cypress and pond cypress are suitbale candidates for reforestation in the TGDR region thanks to their submergence tolerance characteristics, but bald cypress can grow better than pond cypress under deep submergence overall.

  14. The suitability evaluation of lignocellulosic substrate as growing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-04-02

    Apr 2, 2014 ... The use of peat moss (PM) as a growing media is decreasing due to high costs and environmental considerations. ... hinoki wood sawdust and rice hull) in order to evaluate their use as components of growing media. Lignocellulosic ... polyortanphome, zeolite, coco peat and sawdust are used as growth ...

  15. Timber productivity of seven forest ecosystems in southeastern Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willem W.S. van Hees

    1988-01-01

    Observations of growth on Alaska-cedar (Chamaecyparis nootkatensis), mountain hemlock (Tsuga mertensiana), Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis), western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla), and western redcedar (Thuja plicata) on seven forest ecosystems in southeastern Alaska...

  16. Application of line-transect sampling to estimate wintering wood ducks and mallards and availability of natural cavities and nesting success of wood ducks in stands of bald cypress and tupelo gum

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Line-transect sampling, flying-duck counts at dusk, and aerial surveys from fixed-winged aircraft and a helicopter were evaluated for estimating densities of...

  17. 21-Year Growth and Development of Baldcypress Planted on a Flood-Prone Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roger M. Krinard; Robert L. Johnson

    1976-01-01

    Baldcypress is a good species to plant on sites where prolonged flooding is common and few other species can survive. When planted on a site where flooding had repeatedly killed cottonwood plantations, cypress survival at age 21 averaged about 41 percent; average diameter was about 6.1 inches. Some of the cypress was suppressed by other hardwoods such as ash and...

  18. 75 FR 41884 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Georgia Department of Transportation, Atlanta, GA; University of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-19

    ... Oklahoma; Seminole Tribe of Florida (Dania, Big Cypress, Brighton, Hollywood & Tampa Reservations); Shawnee...; Seminole Nation of Oklahoma; Seminole Tribe of Florida (Dania, Big Cypress, Brighton, Hollywood & Tampa... consultation with representatives of the Absentee-Shawnee Tribe of Indians of Oklahoma; Alabama-Coushatta...

  19. Environ: E00302 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00302 Oriental arborvitae kernel Crude drug Fatty oil, Saponin Thuja orientalis [T...AX:58046] Cupressaceae (cypress family) Oriental arborvitae kernel Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Naked-seed plants Cupressaceae (cypress family) E00302 Oriental arborvitae kernel ...

  20. 77 FR 32922 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To Delist or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-04

    ....gov/endangered/ . Santa Cruz cypress is a small-statured tree in the cypress family (Cupressaceae... analysis of comparative anatomical and molecular genetic data for amphibians (Frost et al. 2006, p. 363... small member of the sucker family (Catasomidae), usually reaching only 7 inches (17.8 cm) in total...

  1. Adoption of engineered wood products in Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph A. Roos; Indroneil Ganguly; Allen Brackley

    2009-01-01

    Based on an in-grade testing program, the Ketchikan Wood Technology Center has registered three proprietary grademarks for Alaska species of hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg.), yellow-cedar (Chamaecyparis nootkatensis (D. Don) Spach), and spruce (combined Sitka spruce [Picea sitchensis (Bong.) Carr...

  2. Methods for screening Port-Orford-cedar for resistance to Phytophthora lateralis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everett M. Hansen; Paul Reeser; Wendy Sutton; Richard A. Sniezko

    2012-01-01

    Port-Orford-cedar (Chamaecyparis lawsoniana (A. Murray) Parl.) (POC) is an economically and ecologically valuable tree in the forests of southwest Oregon and northern California and in the horticultural trade worldwide. Phytophthora lateralis, the aggressive, invasive cause of POC root disease, was introduced to the native...

  3. Adaptation to exploit nitrate in surface soils predisposes yellow-cedar to climate-induced decline while enhancing the survival of western redcedar: a new hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    David V. D' Amore; Paul E. Hennon; Paul G. Schaberg; Gary J. Hawley

    2009-01-01

    Yellow-cedar (Chamaecyparis nootkatensis (D. Don) Spach) and western redcedar (Thuja plicata Donn), two valuable tree species of Pacific Northwest forests, are competitive in low productivity forests on wet, nearly saturated soils with low nitrogen (N) availability and turnover. We propose a mechanism where cedar trees survive in...

  4. Influence of simulated snow cover on the cold tolerance and freezing injury of yellow-cedar seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul G. Schaberg; Paul E. Hennon; David V. D' amore; Gary J.  Hawley

    2008-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that yellow-cedar [Chamaecyparis nootkatensis (D. Don) Spach] decline may result from root freezing injury following climate change-induced reductions in protective snow cover. To test this hypothesis, we measured the freezing tolerance and injury expression of yellow-cedar seedlings in three treatments that differed in the...

  5. Nine year survival of 16 Phytophthora lateralis resistant and susceptible Port-Orford-Cedar families in a Southern Oregon field trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard A. Sniezko; Jim Hamlin; Everett M. Hansen; Sunny Lucas

    2012-01-01

    Port-Orford-cedar (Chamaecyparis lawsoniana) has suffered high mortality from the pathogen Phytophthora lateralis in portions of its natural range in southwest Oregon and northwest California, as well as in horticultural plantings in North America, and more recently in Europe. A program to develop genetically resistant...

  6. The current state of knowledge on operational sanitation measures to lower risk of Phytophthora ramorum spread and the need for further study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yana Valachovic; Dave Rizzo; Brendan Twieg

    2013-01-01

    We are working to evaluate risks associated with human spread of the sudden oak death (SOD) pathogen, Phytophthora ramorum, to currently uninfested areas in California. Port-Orford-cedar (Chamaecyparis lawsoniana (A. Murray) Parl.) root disease (POC RD), caused by Phytophthora lateralis, has brought...

  7. Assessing the volume of wood products used to build and maintain recreational structures on the Tongass National Forest: potential opportunities for Alaska wood products substitution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall A. Cantrell

    2004-01-01

    Although the Tongass National Forest (TNF) possesses abundant stands of redcedar (Thuja plicata Donn), yellow-cedar (Chamaecyparis nootkatensis (D. Don) Spach), Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis (Bong.) Carr.), and western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg), most of its buildings, bridges, and trails are constructed from...

  8. Ecology of Buzzards Bay: An Estuarine Profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-09-01

    Atlantic white cedar (Chamaecyparis thyoides), highbush blueberry { Vaccinium corymbosum ), and swamp azalea {Rhododendron viscosum), occur in areas...persistently saturated soils. These bogs are dominated by Sphagnum spp. or "peat" mosses and low-growing shrubs like cranberry ( Vaccinium macrocarpon

  9. Pop / Marek Kallin

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kallin, Marek

    2002-01-01

    Heliplaatidest Mobb Deep "Infamy". Hilmar Örn Hilmarsson & Sigur Ros "Angels Of The Universe". Simple Minds"The Best of". Angie Stone "Mahogany Soul". Cypress Hill "Stoned Raiders". Bebel Gilberto "Tanto Tempo Remixes". Roots Manuva "Run Come Save Me"

  10. 77 FR 77093 - Certain Computer Forensic Devices and Products Containing Same; Commission Determination Not To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-31

    ... ALJ. 19 CFR 210.42(d); see also Certain Video Game Systems and Wireless Controllers and Components..., ``Guidance''); Ji2, Inc. of Cypress, California; MultiMedia Effects, Inc. of Markham, Ontario;Voom...

  11. Plaadid : Pop & rock / Rein Vader

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vader, Rein

    2002-01-01

    Uutest plaatidest Cypress Hill "Stoned raiders", Anastacia "Freak Of Nature", Alicia Keys "Songs In A Minor", Robbie Williams "Swing When You're Winning", "Royal House Dance", Yoko Ono "Blueprint For A Sunrise"

  12. Uusi heliplaate / Kozy

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kozy, pseud.

    2000-01-01

    Uutest plaatidest Cypress Hill "Skull & Bones", Bizarre "Any Day", Steve Ray Vaughan and Double Trouble "Blues at Sunrise", Sweeney "S/T", A-Ha "minor earth, Major Sky", Kadi Toom "3 4", "Randall & Hopkirk"

  13. 78 FR 54221 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-Month Finding on a Petition to Downlist...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-03

    ... sufficient information with your submission (such as scientific journal articles or other publications) to...), Astragalus jaegerianus (Lane Mountain milk-vetch), and Santa Cruz cypress. The petition was based on the...

  14. Hunting Plan for Migratory Birds and Big Game at Hillside National Wildlife Refuge - 1979

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Refuge habitat types are dominated by bottom land hardwoods interspersed with bald cypress/tupelo-sloughs and "brakes" (Type 7 wetlands) in the wetter areas and...

  15. Popmuusika / Mart Juur

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Juur, Mart, 1964-

    2006-01-01

    Uutest heliplaatidest "Walk The Line", "B.B. King & Friends", Green Day "Bullet In A Bible", "It's All Gone Pete Tong O.S.T.", Mogwai "Mr. Beast", Cypress Hill "Greatest Hits From The Bong", Sway "This Is My Demo"

  16. Inference of population structure and demographic history in Taxodium distichum, a coniferous tree in North America, based on amplicon sequence analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikezaki, Yuka; Suyama, Yoshihisa; Middleton, Beth A.; Tsumura, Yoshihiko; Teshima, Kousuke; Tachida, Hidenori; Kusumi, Junko

    2016-01-01

    PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Studies of natural genetic variation can elucidate the genetic basis of phenotypic variation and the past population structure of species. Our study species, Taxodium distichum, is a unique conifer that inhabits the flood plains and swamps of North America. Morphological and ecological differences in two varieties, T. distichum var. distichum (bald cypress) and T. distichum var. imbricarium (pond cypress), are well known, but little is known about the level of genetic differentiation between the varieties and the demographic history of local populations.METHODS: We analyzed nucleotide polymorphisms at 47 nuclear loci from 96 individuals collected from the Mississippi River Alluvial Valley (MRAV), and Gulf Coastal populations in Texas, Louisiana, and Florida using high-throughput DNA sequencing. Standard population genetic statistics were calculated, and demographic parameters were estimated using a composite-likelihood approach.KEY RESULTS: Taxodium distichum in North America can be divided into at least three genetic groups, bald cypress in the MRAV and Texas, bald cypress in Florida, and pond cypress in Florida. The levels of genetic differentiation among the groups were low but significant. Several loci showed the signatures of positive selection, which might be responsible for local adaptation or varietal differentiation.CONCLUSIONS: Bald cypress was genetically differentiated into two geographical groups, and the boundary was located between the MRAV and Florida. This differentiation could be explained by population expansion from east to west. Despite the overlap of the two varieties’ ranges, they were genetically differentiated in Florida. The estimated demographic parameters suggested that pond cypress split from bald cypress during the late Miocene.

  17. The National Environmental Policy Act in DoD: Defending Our Environment’s Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-06-01

    animals. Activists for broad social issues such as global warming , nuclear power, and animal rights often use specific projects to further their causes...Air Force Base, Florida - Restrictions on low- level flights over the Everglades reduced the capability of Homestead Air Force Base to meet its...altitude flight training at the Cypress Military Operating Area (MOA). The Cypress MOA includes airspace over a portion of the Everglades area, 50 miles

  18. TECHNICAL TRAINING SEMINAR

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    Tuesday 3 February 2004 From 09:00 to 13:30 - Training Centre Auditorium - bldg. 593, room 11 USB (Universal Serial Bus) CYPRESS Seminar Claudia Colombini, Field Application Engineer CYPRESS ActiveComp Electronic GmbH D-85077 MANCHING, Germany As a pioneer in USB, CYPRESS sets the standard for cost-effective solutions without sacrificing functionality, performance or reliability. Having shipped over 200 million USB devices, Cypress is the undisputed market leader and demonstrate unmatched USB expertise. With the industry's broadest selection of USB solutions, Cypress has the right silicon, software and support for every USB application, from Low-speed to High-Speed and USB On-The-Go (OTG). • 9:00 - 10:30 Overview of USB systems. USB CYPRESS product overview. Peripherals: Low Speed, Full Speed, High Speed (1.1 and 2.0). Hub Solutions, Embedded Host Solutions, On-The-Go (OTG) and wireless USB. USB Development Tools (first part) • 10:30 - 10:45 coffee • 10:45 - 13:00 (second part)...

  19. Technical Training: Technical Training Seminar

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    TECHNICAL TRAINING Monique Duval tel. 74924 technical.training@cern.ch Tuesday 3 February 2004 From 09:00 to 13:30 - Training Centre Auditorium - bldg. 593, room 11 USB (Universal Serial Bus) CYPRESS Seminar Claudia Colombini, Field Application Engineer CYPRESS ActiveComp Electronic GmbH D-85077 MANCHING, Germany As a pioneer in USB, CYPRESS sets the standard for cost-effective solutions without sacrificing functionality, performance or reliability. Having shipped over 200 million USB devices, Cypress is the undisputed market leader and demonstrates unmatched USB expertise. With the industry's broadest selection of USB solutions, Cypress has the right silicon, software and support for every USB application, from Low-speed to High-Speed and USB On-The-Go (OTG). 9:00 - 10:30 Overview of USB systems. USB CYPRESS product overview. Peripherals: Low Speed, Full Speed, High Speed (1.1 and 2.0). Hub Solutions, Embedded Host Solutions, On-The-Go (OTG) and wireless USB. USB Development Tools (first part) 10:30 -...

  20. TECHNICAL TRAINING SEMINAR

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    Tuesday 3 February 2004 From 09:00 to 13:30 - Training Centre Auditorium - bldg. 593, room 11 USB (Universal Serial Bus) CYPRESS Seminar Claudia Colombini, Field Application Engineer CYPRESS ActiveComp Electronic GmbH D-85077 MANCHING, Germany As a pioneer in USB, CYPRESS sets the standard for cost-effective solutions without sacrificing functionality, performance or reliability. Having shipped over 200 million USB devices, Cypress is the undisputed market leader and demonstrate unmatched USB expertise. With the industry's broadest selection of USB solutions, Cypress has the right silicon, software and support for every USB application, from Low-speed to High-Speed and USB On-The-Go (OTG). • 09:00 - 10:30 Overview of USB systems. USB CYPRESS product overview. Peripherals: Low Speed, Full Speed, High Speed (1.1 and 2.0). Hub Solutions, Embedded Host Solutions, On-The-Go (OTG) and wireless USB. USB Development Tools (first part) • 10:30 - 10:45 coffee • 10:45 - 13:00 (second part)...

  1. Effect of Furnish on Temperature and Vapor Pressure Behavior in the Center of Mat Panels during Hot Pressing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Navis Rofii

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Particleboard achieves its overall performance characteristics during hot pressing process. As this process is influenced by several factors, particularly temperature and pressure, it is very important to understand the behavior of both. This study investigates the effects of furnish materials on temperature and vapor pressure behavior inside particleboard mat panels during hot pressing. Strand type particles from hinoki and ring-flaker recycled wood particles were used as furnish for laboratory-scale particleboard panels with a target density of 0.76 g/cm³. Mat panels with a moisture content of about 10% were hot pressed at a platen temperature of 180°C and an initial pressure of 3 MPa until the mat center reached the same temperature as the platen. A press monitoring device (PressMAN Lite was used for detecting the temperature and vapor pressure change in the center of the mat panels. The study showed that the furnish type affected the temperature and vapor behavior inside the mat panels. Particleboard made of hinoki strand resulted in a longer plateau time, a higher plateau temperature and a higher gas pressure generated during hot pressing than those of ring-flaker recycled wood particles. Mixed board resulted in values between those of the two other furnish materials.

  2. Applications of environmental 14C measured by AMS as a carbon tracer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Toshio; Nakai, Nobuyuki; Ohishi, Shoji

    1987-11-01

    AMS techniques have been applied to measure 14C concentrations, or Δ 14C values, of annual tree rings (1945-1983) of a Kiso hinoki tree grown in Gifu prefecture, and of acid-insoluble carbonaceous compounds extracted from cored sediments (surface to 30 cm deep) of Lake Biwa in Shiga prefecture. An increase in Δ 14C values was found for both tree rings and cored sediments, resulting from 14C artificially produced by nuclear weapon tests. Activities of 210Pb and 214Pb were measured to estimate the sedimentation rate of the Lake Biwa sediments and to provide a temporal control. A primitive model of carbon exchange between the troposphere, surface ocean water, and the biosphere was applied to the annual changes in Δ 14C of the hinoki tree rings and also of coral rings from Florida, USA. The times required to transfer bomb-carbon from the troposphere to surface sea water and to the biosphere were estimated to be about 11 and 23 years, respectively.

  3. Wind Speed Response of Sap Flow in Five Subtropical Trees Based on Wind Tunnel Experiments

    OpenAIRE

    Laplace, Sophie; Kume, Tomonori; Chu, Chia-Ren; Komatsu, Hikaru

    2013-01-01

    Aims: We evaluated the responses of tree sap flow to wind speeds in coniferous and broad-leaved plants under steady and unsteady wind conditions. Study Design: We performed sap flow and micro-meteorological measurements on two conifers, Chamaecyparis obtusa var. formosana and Araucaria cunninghamii, and three broadleaved species, Swietenia mahagoni, Michelia formosana and Plumeria acutifolia in a wind tunnel. Place and Duration of Study: Civil Engineering Department, National Central Universi...

  4. Atlantic white cedar: ecology, restoration, and management: Proceedings of the Arlington Echo symposium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marianne K. Burke; Philip Sheridan

    2005-01-01

    A symposium was held on the globally threatened and coastally restricted tree species, Atlantic white-cedar (Chamaecyparis thyoides (L) B.S.P.) at the Arlington Echo Outdoor Education Center, Millersville, MD, in June 2003. The theme of the symposium was “Uniting Forces for Action,” and participants in the symposium came from throughout the range of this species, from...

  5. DETERMINATION OF WATER AND DRY MATTER IN ORNAMENTAL TREES UNDER THE CLIMATIC CONDITIONS OF IASI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Lamban

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents some results concerning the determination of water and dry matter through the quantitative gravimetric method in ornamental trees (leaves and branches of Juniperus, Thuja, Chamaecyparis, Picea, Pinus, Abies, Pseudotzuga genera, under the climatic conditions of Iasi. The purpose of carrying on this work is to see if moisture of vegetative part remains under normal limits. The success of propagation, planting, transplanting of woody plants is largely dependant on the presence of water.

  6. Soil Microbial Communities in Natural and Managed Cloud Montane Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ed-Haun Chang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Forest management often results in changes in soil microbial communities. To understand how forest management can change microbial communities, we studied soil microbial abundance and community structure in a natural Chamaecyparis (NCP forest, a disturbed Chamaecyparis (DCP forest, a secondary (regenerated Chamaecyparis (SCP forest and a secondary (reforested Cryptomeria (SCD forest. We analyzed soil microbial abundance by measuring phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs and microbial community structure by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE in the studied forest soils. The content of the soil PLFA fungal biomarker decreased from NCP to SCP, DCP and SCD forest soils, associated with the degree of disturbance of forest management. The ratio of soil Gram positive–to-negative bacteria and the stress index (16:1ω7t to 16:1ω7c increased from NCP to SCP and DCP soils; thus, disturbed forests except for SCD showed increased soil microbial stress. Principal component analysis of soil microbial groups by PLFAs separated the four forest soils into three clusters: NCP, DCP and SCP, and SCD soil. The DGGE analysis showed no difference in the microbial community structure for NCP, DCP and SCP soils, but the community structure differed between SCD and the three other forest soils. In cloud montane forests, disturbance due to forest management had only a slight influence on the soil microbial community, whereas reforestation with different species largely changed the soil microbial community structure.

  7. Difference of the crystal structure of cellulose in wood after hydrothermal and aging degradation: a NIR spectroscopy and XRD study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inagaki, Tetsuya; Siesler, Heinz W; Mitsui, Katsuya; Tsuchikawa, Satoru

    2010-09-13

    The change of crystalline structure in hydrothermally treated hinoki wood was investigated by means of Fourier-transform near-infrared spectroscopy in combination with a deuterium exchange method and X-ray diffraction. The results were compared with analogous data of dry-exposed archeological wood taken from an old wooden temple. Although the decomposition of the amorphous regions in cellulose and hemicelluloses, which corresponds to an increase of the degree of crystallinity, was observed for both, archeologically and hydrothermally treated wood, the increase of crystallite thickness was confirmed only for hydrothermally treated wood. The increase of the average size of crystallites corresponds well to the measured decrease of the deuteration accessibility of the crystalline regions. As the accessibility of the crystalline regions decreased for both, D(2)O and t-butanol, it is assumed that due to the expansion of the crystalline domains by hydrothermal treatment several elementary fibrils are arranged at distances below 0.3 nm.

  8. Scientific Opinion on the phytosanitary risk associated with some coniferous species and genera for the spread of pine wood nematode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baker, R.; Candresse, T.; Dormannsné Simon, E.

    2012-01-01

    The European Commission requested the Panel on Plant Health to deliver a scientific opinion on the phytosanitary risk of plants (other than fruits and seeds) of Pinus pinea and of the genera Chamaecyparis, Cryptomeria and Juniperus for the spread of pine wood nematode (PWN) via movement of infested...... plants or untreated plant products or by supporting natural spread of PWN in conjunction with European species of the vector. The Panel analysed the data submitted by Portugal regarding surveys on the Tróia Peninsula where P. pinaster and P. pinea co-occur, and the related laboratory results of Naves et...... require supplementary research....

  9. The U.S. Coast Guard and Joint Operations. Joint Center for Operational Analysis and Lessons Learned: Volume VI, Issue 4, September 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-09-01

    insight into its own capability. CAPT Brad Jacobs , another Coast Guard member on staff at NORTHCOM as the Maritime Operations Division Chief... Harriet Lane conducted boardings off the southern coast to prevent migration attempts there, with the buoy tender Cypress also conducting boardings

  10. Hurricane Andrew Damage in Relation to Wood Decay Fungi and Insects in Bottomland Hardwoods of the Atchafalaya Basin, Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodor D. Leininger; A. Dan Wilson; Donald G. Lester

    1997-01-01

    Hurricane Andrew caused damage to more than 780 sq.km of bottomland hardwood and cypress-tupelo forests in the Atchafalaya Basin of Louisiana in August 1992. Trees in bottomland hardwood sites were examined, in early May 1994, for signs and symptoms of wood decay fungi, and for insect damage, ostensibly present before the hurricane, which may have predisposed trees to...

  11. Depressional wetland vegetation types: a question of plant commmunity development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katherine L. Kirkman; Charles P. Goebel; Larry West; Mark B. Drew; Brian Palik

    2000-01-01

    When wetland restoration includes re-establishing native plant taxa as an objective, an understanding of the variables driving the development of plant communities is necessary. With this in mind, we examined soil and physiographic characteristics of depressional wetlands of three vegetation types (cypressgum swamps, cypress savannas, and grass-sedge marshes) located...

  12. Modeling species’ realized climatic niche space and predicting their response to global warming for several western forest species with small geographic distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus V. Warwell; Gerald E. Rehfeldt; Nicholas L. Crookston

    2010-01-01

    The Random Forests multiple regression tree was used to develop an empirically based bioclimatic model of the presence-absence of species occupying small geographic distributions in western North America. The species assessed were subalpine larch (Larix lyallii), smooth Arizona cypress (Cupressus arizonica ssp. glabra...

  13. Lignin Derivatives Formation In Catalysed Thermal Decomposition ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    denise

    in the heat of gasification and mass fraction of non-combustible volatiles in solid. NaOH-catalysed thermal decomposition of pure and fire-retardant- cellulose. Kuroda and co-workers14 studied the Curie-point pyrolysis of Japanese softwood species of the red pine, cedar and cypress in the presence of inorganic substances ...

  14. Invasion of West Everglades Wetland by Melaleuca quinquenervia Countered by Classical Biological Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    The population dynamics of Melaleuca quinquenervia were monitored over a 5-y period in a cypress-pine wetland while subjected to two levels of herbivory. The trees had been recruited during 1998-1999 after a destructive crown fire. Half of 26 experimental plots were sprayed every 4-6 weeks with an...

  15. 78 FR 22288 - Notice of Inventory Completion: The Florida Department of State, Division of Historical Resources...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-15

    ... consultation with representatives of the Miccosukee Tribe of Indians and the Seminole Tribe of Florida (previously listed as the Seminole Tribe of Florida (Dania, Big Cypress, Brighton, Hollywood & Tampa... represented by two present-day tribes: the Miccosukee Tribe of Indians and the Seminole Tribe of Florida...

  16. 78 FR 25468 - Notice of Inventory Completion for Native American Human Remains and Funerary Objects in the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    ... Preserve is responsible for notifying the Miccosukee Tribe of Indians and Seminole Tribe of Florida (previously listed as the Seminole Tribe of Florida (Dania, Big Cypress, Brighton, Hollywood & Tampa... six sites and the Miccosukee Tribe of Indians. Additional Requestors and Disposition Transfer of...

  17. Report of the International Ice Patrol in the North Atlantic. Bulletin Number 77

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    CONSOLIDATED VENTURE LIBERIA 1 CORNER BROOK LIBERIA 5 CORNIDE DE SAAVEDRA SPAIN 1 3 CRISTOFORO COLOMBO ITALY 1 2 CRYSTAL B CYPRUS 1 3 CYPRESS TRAIL...DENMARK 8 8 ENDEAVOUR UNITED STATES 8 ENDURANCE SINGAPORE 2 1 ENERCHEM ASPHALT CANADA 1 ENIF SINGAPORE 1 ENSOR LUXEMBOURG 2 ERNST HAECKEL GERMANY 1

  18. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    measured leaf litter size which were smaller than 2 mm (on average). Habitat weakness due to history of socio-economic problems, rock protrusions and soil erosion are reasons for this matter. Only one main species (Quercus brantii) was observed in most plots. And only a few plots had natural cypress, Acer cineracens ...

  19. Pine needle abortion biomarker detected in bovine fetal fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pine needle abortion is a naturally occurring condition in free-range cattle caused by the consumption of pine needles from select species of cypress, juniper, pine, and spruce trees. Confirmatory diagnosis of pine needle abortion has previously relied on a combined case history of pine needle cons...

  20. Environmental Assessment for Terminal Area Improvements, Charleston International Airport

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-17

    brackish wetlands and nest In cypress or other wooded swamps Low wet forests with dense saw palmetto or giant cane understory - probably extinct Mature...328-2427 ext. 226, or e- mail caitllnh@ccppcrafts.com. i1’:-~& I. q ef/1 t: ~ Haire ~ Tribal Historic Preservation cer 1) I Aaron Brummitt SM&B

  1. Modeling the climatic and subsurface stratigraphy controls on the hydrology of a Carolina Bay wetland in South Carolina, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge Sun; Timothy J. Callahan; Jennifer E. Pyzoha; Carl C. Trettin

    2006-01-01

    Restoring depressional wetlands or geographically isolated wetlands such as cypress swamps and Carolina bays on the Atlantic Coastal Plains requires a clear understanding of the hydrologic processes and water balances. The objectives of this paper are to (1) test a distributed forest hydrology model, FLATWOODS, for a Carolina bay wetland system using seven years of...

  2. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Damary

    2006-10-01

    Oct 1, 2006 ... 5 8.8. Citrus sp. peels. Orange peels. Peels. 4 7.0. Khaya grandifolia. Mahogany. Leaves. 4 7.0. Cymbopogon citratus. Lemon (fever) grass. Leaves/stems. 2 3.5. Cupressus sp. Cypress. Leaves. 2 3.5. Dacryodes edulis. Bush butter (plum). Gum from tree bark. 2 3.5. Vernonia amygdalina. Bitter leaf. Leaves.

  3. Environ: E00657 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00657 Cedarwood oil (Texas) Essential oil Thujopsene [CPD:C09740], alpha-Cedrol [C... Thujopsene [CPD:C09740] Essential oils [BR:br08321] Naked-seed plants Cupressaceae (cypress family) E00657 Cedarwood oil (Texas) CAS: 68990-83-0 ...

  4. Looking/Learning Drawing: Trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurwitz, Al; Blume, Sharon

    1985-01-01

    Secondary students are asked to study and compare three reproductions--Van Gogh's "Grove of Cypresses," Da Vinci's "Study of a Tree," and Mondrian's "Tree II." The activity will help students develop their powers of observation and analysis, powers that can be applied to their own drawings. (RM)

  5. 76 FR 42136 - In the Matter of Certain Motion-Sensitive Sound Effects Devices and Image Display Devices and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-18

    ... which the complaint is to be served: 3M Company, 3M Center, St. Paul, MN 55144. Bensussen Deutsch & Associates, Inc., d/b/a Power A, 15525 Woodinville- Redmond Road, NE., Woodinville, WA 98072. Casio America..., Cypress, CA 90630. Optoma Corporation, 5F., No. 108, Minchiuan Road, Shindian City, Taipei, Taiwan. Optoma...

  6. Iron Stain on Wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark Knaebe

    2013-01-01

    Iron stain, an unsightly blue–black or gray discoloration, can occur on nearly all woods. Oak, redwood, cypress, and cedar are particularly prone to iron stain because these woods contain large amounts of tannin-like extractives. The discoloration is caused by a chemical reaction between extractives in the wood and iron in steel products, such as nails, screws, and...

  7. The lichens of Fakahatchee Strand Preserve State Park, Florida: Proceedings from the 18th Tuckerman Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert Lucking; Frederick Seavey; Ralph S. Common; Sean Q. Beeching; Othmar Breuss; William R. Buck; Lee Crane; Malcolm Hodges; Brendan P. Hodkinson; Elisabeth Lay; James C. Lendemer; R. Troy McMullin; Joel Mercado

    2011-01-01

    Fakahatchee Strand Preserve State Park is located in Collier County at the extreme southwestern corner of Florida, close to Everglades National Park and Big Cypress National Preserve. The 18th Tuckerman Workshop, an annual gathering of professional and amateur lichenologists and mycologists from the United States and Canada, this time with additional participants from...

  8. Operational restoration of the Pen Branch bottomland hardwood and swamp wetlands - the research setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eric A. Nelson; Neil C. Dulohery; Randall K. Kolka; William H. McKee

    2000-01-01

    The Savannah River swamp, a 3020 ha forested wetland on the floodplain of the Savannah River, USA is located on the Department of Energy's Savannah River site (SRS) near Aiken, SC. Historically, the swamp consisted of approximately 50% bald cypress-water tupelo (Taxodium distichum-Nyssa aquatica) stands, 40% mixed bottomland hardwood stands, and...

  9. Prevalence and Pattern of Back Pain among Pregnant Women ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr S.B. OLALEYE

    Colliton J. (1996). Back pain and Pregnancy: Active management strategies. The Physician and. Sports Medicine. 24(7): 89 - 93. Cypress, B. K. (1983). Characteristics of Physician visits for back symptoms: A National perspective. American Journal of Public Health. 73: 389 - 395. Cyriax, J. (1978). Textbook of Orthopaedic.

  10. Dormancy-breaking and salinity/water stress effects on seed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Atlas cypress (Cupressus atlantica Gaussen) is an endemic coniferous medicinal species geographically restricted to the N'Fis valley river in the High Atlas Mountains in South-Western Morocco. Eight dormancy-breaking treatments, 5 NaCl concentrations, and 5 water potentials were tested on the germination of Altas ...

  11. Life-history traits maintain the genomic integrity of sympatric species of the spruce budworm (Choristoneura fumiferana) group on an isolated forest island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisa M. Lumley; Felix A.H. Sperling

    2011-01-01

    Identification of widespread species collected from islands can be challenging due to the potential for local ecological and phenotypic divergence in isolated populations. We sought to determine how many species of the spruce budworm (Choristoneura fumiferana) complex reside in Cypress Hills, an isolated remnant coniferous forest in western Canada....

  12. Preliminary Guide to the Onsite Identification and Delineation of the Wetlands of the South Atlantic United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-05-01

    Pontederia cordata (Pickerel-weed) Sagitarria spp. (Arrowhead) 28 Scirpus spp. (Sedge) b. Wet Savannahs. Aletris farinosa (Stargrass) Ihex glabra... Pontederia cordata L. Pin oak Quercus palustris Muenchh. Pitcher plant Sarracenia flava L. Pitcher plant Sarracenia spp. Pond cypress Taxodiwn ascendens...Loblolly pine Planera aquatica Walt. Water elm Pluchea purpurascens (Swartz) DC. Camphorweed Pot ygonwn spp. Tearthumb, or Smartweed Pontederia cordata L

  13. Proximity effects of high voltage electric power transmission lines on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    Zeki Demir. Department of Landscape Architecture, Faculty of Forestry, Düzce University. Konuralp, 81620 Düzce, Turkey. E-mail: zekidemir@duzce.edu.tr. Tel: +90-380-5421136. Fax: +90-380-5421136. Accepted 18 August, 2010. The proximity effects of high voltage electric power transmission lines on Leyland Cypress.

  14. (Jacq) Benth (African Locust Bean) on Hypertension in Bogou and

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    2010-09-09

    Sep 9, 2010 ... Minerals. Plasma potassium, sodium, chloride, magnesium and calcium were determined using commercial diagnostic kits (Cypress. Diagnostics Laboratory) on an automated spectrophotometer (Clima Plus, Ral.SA), following the kit manufacturers' guide in each case. For potassium, the absorbance was.

  15. Zettler et al.: Genetics of Pseudococcusmicrocirculus on orchids ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Navya

    ABSTRACT In 2012, the orchid mealybug PseudococcusmicrocirculusMcKenzie was first detected in situ in North America's more diverse orchid region, the Big Cypress Basin (Collier Co FL). A follow-up survey showed that the mealybug is more widespread and was found on epiphytic orchids in two sites (B and F) inboth ...

  16. Habitat-specific foraging of prothonotary warblers: Deducing habitat quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, J.E.

    2005-01-01

    Foraging behavior often reflects food availability in predictable ways. For example, in habitats where food availability is high, predators should attack prey more often and move more slowly than in habitats where food availability is low. To assess relative food availability and habitat quality, I studied the foraging behavior of breeding Prothonotary Warblers (Protonotaria citrea) in two forest habitat types, cypress-gum swamp forest and coastal-plain levee forest. I quantified foraging behavior with focal animal sampling and continuous recording during foraging bouts. I measured two aspects of foraging behavior: 1) prey attack rate (attacks per minute), using four attack maneuvers (glean, sally, hover, strike), and 2) foraging speed (movements per minute), using three types of movement (hop, short flight [???1 m], long flight [>1 m]). Warblers attacked prey more often in cypress-gum swamp forest than in coastal-plain levee forest. Foraging speed, however, was not different between habitats. I also measured foraging effort (% time spent foraging) and relative frequency of attack maneuvers employed in each habitat; neither of these variables was influenced by forest type. I conclude that Prothonotary Warblers encounter more prey when foraging in cypress-gum swamps than in coastal-plain levee forest, and that greater food availability results in higher density and greater reproductive success for birds breeding in cypress-gum swamp.

  17. Constructed microhabitat bundles for sampling fishes and crayfishes in coastal plain streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melvin L. Warren; A.L. Sheldon; W.R. Haag

    2009-01-01

    We investigated fish and crayfish use of standardized, constructed microhabitats (bundles) in three northern Mississippi streams. Cypress Creek and the Little Tallahatchie Canal were channelized and incised and had little woody cover; Puskus Creek was unchannelized and unincised and had abundant woody cover. We constructed three types of bundles (cane, leaf, and string...

  18. First report on the entomopathogenic genus Neozygites (Entomophthoromycota) and Neozygites osornensis on aphids in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    The genus Neozygites has been known in Brazil until now only on mites, and this is its first report on aphids in Brazil. Tree-dwelling aphids (Cinara sp.) on a cypress tree were regularly monitored for entomopathogenic fungi in the city of Terezópolis de Goiás in Central Brazil between July 2014 and...

  19. Characterization and virulence of Chilean Lecanicillium (Hypocreales: Cordycipitaceae) isolates on Cinara cupressi (Hemiptera: Aphididae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The cypress aphid, Cinara cupressi, is considered to be one of the hundred most important invasive pests in the world. In Chile, it was first detected thirteen years ago, and its populations have been expanding throughout the country. In the course of a survey of entomopathogenic fungi of this pest ...

  20. Conservation of Louisiana's coastal wetland forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jim L. Chambers; Richard F. Keim; William H. Conner; John W. Jr. Day; Stephen P. Faulkner; Emile S. Gardiner; Melinda s. Hughes; Sammy L. King; Kenneth W. McLeod; Craig A. Miller; J. Andrew Nyman; Gary P. Shaffer

    2006-01-01

    Large-scale efforts to protect and restore coastal wetlands and the concurrent renewal of forest harvesting in cypress-tupelo swamps have brought new attention to Louisiana's coastal wetland forests in recent years. Our understanding of these coastal wetland forests has been limited by inadequate data and the lack of a comprehensive review of existing information...

  1. Albumid : Sound / Ülo Külm

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Külm, Ülo

    1998-01-01

    Uutest albumitest Smokie "Live.The Concert", Cypress Hill "IV", Pras "Ghetto Supastar", Faith No More "Who Cares A Lot", räpikogumik"Bad Boys Greatest Hits", Meat Loaf "Very Best Of",The Levellers "One Way Of Life.Best Of" Cardigans "Gran Turismo" ja Oasis "Masterplane" ja singlist Metallica "Turn The Page"

  2. Proximity effects of high voltage electric power transmission lines on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The proximity effects of high voltage electric power transmission lines on Leyland Cypress (xCupressocyparis leylandii (Dallim. and A.B. Jacks.) Dallim) and Japanese Privet (Ligustrum japonicum Thunb.) growth were examined in a private nursery located in Sakarya, Turkey. Five transect were randomly chosen in both ...

  3. Joint U.S. Defense Science Board, UK Defence Scientific Advisory Council Task Force on Defense Critical Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-03-01

    Cypress Semi • CA, TX, MN • Freescale Semiconductor • AZ, TX • • • • Hewlett Packard • CA, CO • • • Honeywell • • Plymouth...example, Texas Instruments is a leader in DSPs; IBM and Freescale (formerly Motorola) are leaders in CPUs and Systems on a Chips with embedded

  4. 75 FR 35089 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993; National...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-21

    ... Antitrust Division Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993; National...) of the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993, 15 U.S.C. 4301 et sect. (``the Act... Jersey, New Brunswick, NJ; Scientific Applications & Research Associates, Inc., Cypress, CA; Shalimar...

  5. [Biogeochemical cycles in natural forest and conifer plantations in the high mountains of Colombia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    León, Juan Diego; González, María Isabel; Gallardo, Juan Fernando

    2011-12-01

    Plant litter production and decomposition are two important processes in forest ecosystems, since they provide the main organic matter input to soil and regulate nutrient cycling. With the aim to study these processes, litterfall, standing litter and nutrient return were studied for three years in an oak forest (Quercus humboldtii), pine (Pinus patula) and cypress (Cupressus lusitanica) plantations, located in highlands of the Central Cordillera of Colombia. Evaluation methods included: fine litter collection at fortnightly intervals using litter traps; the litter layer samples at the end of each sampling year and chemical analyses of both litterfall and standing litter. Fine litter fall observed was similar in oak forest (7.5 Mg ha/y) and in pine (7.8 Mg ha/y), but very low in cypress (3.5 Mg ha/y). Litter standing was 1.76, 1.73 and 1.3 Mg ha/y in oak, pine and cypress, respectively. The mean residence time of the standing litter was of 3.3 years for cypress, 2.1 years for pine and 1.8 years for oak forests. In contrast, the total amount of retained elements (N, P, S, Ca, Mg, K, Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn) in the standing litter was higher in pine (115 kg/ha), followed by oak (78 kg/ha) and cypress (24 kg/ha). Oak forests showed the lowest mean residence time of nutrients and the highest nutrients return to the soil as a consequence of a faster decomposition. Thus, a higher nutrient supply to soils from oaks than from tree plantations, seems to be an ecological advantage for recovering and maintaining the main ecosystem functioning features, which needs to be taken into account in restoration programs in this highly degraded Andean mountains.

  6. Biological activity of Pythium oligandrum against Phytophthora species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlikowski, L B

    2001-01-01

    Influence of Pythium oligandrum as an a.i. of Polyversum on population dynamic of Phytophthora cryptogea in peat and development of Phytophtora rot on gerbera, Lawson cypress and yew-tree were evaluated. Drenching of peat, artificially infested with P. cryptogea, with Polyversum immediatelly after gerbera planting resulted in significant decrease of colony forming units number within 4 weeks. Concentrations of the biopreparate used had no significant influence on its greater, biological activity. Drenching of plants with Polyversum at conc. 0.05 or 0.1%, after planting into peat infested with P. cryptogea or P. cinnamomi, resulted in the strong suppression of Phytophthora foot or root and stem rot of gerbera, cypress and yew-tree.

  7. Applications of advanced petroleum production technology and water alternating gas injection for enhanced oil recovery: Mattoon Oil Field, Illinois. Third quarterly report, [July--September 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baroni, M.R.

    1993-12-21

    The objectives of this project are to continue reservoir characterization of the Cypress Sandstone; to identify and map facies-defined waterflood units (FDWS); and to design and implement water-alternating-gas (WAG) oil recovery utilizing carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) The producibility problems are permeability variation and poor sweep efficiency. Part 1 of the project focuses on the development of computer-generated geological and reservoir simulation models that will be used to select sites for the demonstration and implementation of CO{sub 2} displacement programs in Part 2. Included in Part 1 is the site selection and drilling of an infill well, coring of the Cypress interval, and injectivity testing to gather information used to update the reservoir simulation model. Part 2 involves field implementation of WAG. Technology Transfer includes outreach activity such as seminars, workshops, and field trips.

  8. Environmental Impact Analysis Process. Draft Environmental Impact Statement, Winnersville Weapons Range, Lanier and Lowndes Counties, Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-07-01

    e.g., gum-cypress swamp) to occasionally ground-soaked stands of runner oak, myrtle, gallberry, huckleberry, saw - palmetto , and wiregrass. Approximately...shrub, and forested swamp 3806 acres 65% Cultivated or open land 120 acres 2% Total 5856 acres The pine forests are managed for saw timber on an 80-year...loss associated with aging. Permanent hearing loss is generally associated with destruction of the hair cells of the inner ear. Based on EPA criteria

  9. Base Realignment and Closure (BRAC) Cleanup Plan, Ford Ord, Monterey, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-03-25

    6 Oliver P. Bardin and 380.60 / Ada May Bardin 7 Benjamin Rush Bingaman 1,687.74 / 8 Margaret A. Jacks, et al 602.08 1 9 Luisa Guidotti, et al...approximately 120 acres that have not been developed. This area is covered by uneven sand dunes with grass , shrubs, and bushes. The landfills were used... grasses , and wildflowers), coastal chaparral (manzanita, sagebrush, and chamise), oak woodland (native live oak, Monterey pine, and Monterey cypress

  10. Testing alternative designs for a roadside animal detection system using a driving simulator

    OpenAIRE

    Molly K. Grace; Smith, Daniel J.; Reed F. Noss

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: A Roadside Animal Detection System (RADS) was installed in January 2012 along Highway 41 through Big Cypress National Preserve in Florida, USA in an attempt to reduce wildlife-vehicle collisions. The system uses flashing warning signs to alert drivers when a large animal is near the road. However, we suspected that the RADS warning signs could be ignored by drivers because they resemble other conventional signs. We hypothesized that word-based warning signs (current design) are le...

  11. Cultural Resources Investigations of the West Bank Hurricane Protection Project, Jefferson Parish, Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-09-01

    to collect. The clams may have been used as a protein supplement in the prehistoric diet, as well as a seasonal food , or emergency food (Byrd 1976). 63...scandens), pepper-vine (Ampe/opsis arborea), muscadine (Vitis rotundifolia), and hemp -weed (Mikania scandens) are quite abundant in the study area. Some...there. Subsidence is high in these areas, and cypress mortality is quite evident. Many wetland plant species may become relict vegetation as seed

  12. Molecular detection assay of the bud mite Trisetacus juniperinus on Cupressus sempervirens in nurseries of central Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouneb, Mabrouk; de Lillo, Enrico; Roversi, Pio Federico; Simoni, Sauro

    2014-02-01

    Trisetacus juniperinus (Nalepa) sensu Keifer (Acari: Eriophyoidea: Phytoptidae) causes irregular development of buds, shoot deformations and stunted growth of trees, resulting in a serious threat to nurseries and young stands of Cupressus sempervirens L. (Mediterranean cypress). Recently, some cypress clones selected for their resistance to the fungal canker agent Seiridium cardinale (Wag.) have shown high susceptibility to the mite. Considering its tiny body, its hidden lifestyle inside the buds and the probable occurrence of other species (the vagrant Epitrimerus cupressi (Keifer) is common on the Mediterranean cypress in Italy), detection and monitoring of T. juniperinus require taxonomic expertise and are often time-consuming and challenging before serious damage is discernible. In the present study, a rapid, cost-effective PCR-based method was developed and validated to detect T. juniperinus on cypresses. The cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene was amplified with degenerate and specific primers, but the latter were the only ones able to discriminate between T. juniperinus and E. cupressi. PCR products distinguished the two species both in a pool of individuals in a mixed population of both species and in single individuals, indicating the sensitivity of the detection method. PCR-RFLP (restriction fragment length polymorphism) by means of XmnI and XbaI endonucleases separated the two species. Furthermore, a washing-sieving protocol was used to make mite collection from the tree sample faster and simpler; this procedure did not interfere with the molecular detection of the species. The possibility of the routine use of this assay to monitor quarantine eriophyoids infesting plant material is discussed.

  13. Development of an Autonomous Ammonium Fluorescence Sensor (AAFS) with a View Towards In-situ Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    locations near freshwater outflows from the Big Cypress/Southern Everglades. The shipboard system was remotely controlled and monitored from Miami...ammonium may come from freshwaters . Figure 9. Ammonium concentrations are plotted with current direction. Figure 10. Ammonium concentrations are...complete we will be able to deploy such an instrument to monitor in situ ammonium in the coastal and ocean water column to study the variable influx

  14. Conifers in the landscape expositions of the Botanical garden of the Orenburg state University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kukhlevskaya Yuliya

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article describes the introduced conifers that are used in the creation of landscape structures on the territory of the Botanic garden at OSU. Gardens and parks, Orenburg poor decorative forms and varieties of cypress. Increase the range of plants is due to the presence in the city Botanic gardens of OSU. In the garden pays great attention to the creation of landscape compositions with plants of this class.

  15. In vitro anti-diabetic effect and chemical component analysis of 29 essential oils products

    OpenAIRE

    Yen, Hsiu-Fang; Hsieh, Chi-Ting; Hsieh, Tusty-Jiuan; Chang, Fang-Rong; Wang, Chin-Kun

    2015-01-01

    Twenty-nine commercial essential oil (EO) products that were purchased from the Taiwan market, including three different company-made Melissa officinalis essential oils, were assayed on their glucose consumption activity and lipid accumulation activity on 3T3-L1 adipocytes. The EOs of M. officinalis were significantly active in both model assays. By contrast, EOs of peppermint, lavender, bergamot, cypress, niaouli nerolidol, geranium-rose, and revensara did not increase glucose consumption ac...

  16. In vitro ecology of Seiridium cardinale and allied species: the effect of solute stress and water potential on fungal growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena TURCO

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 14 false false false IT ZH-TW X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Defining the potential implications of global climate change on Mediterranean forest ecosystems requires a basic knowledge on the ecology of fungal pathogens under conditions that would stress host plants. The Mediterranean cypress (Cupressus sempervirens-Seiridium spp. pathosystem represents an important case study. In the last century, epidemics of cypress canker have killed historical plantations and the decades-long host resistance will probably break down in the future as a result of both host and pathogen adaptation to increasing temperature and decreasing summer precipitation. In this study, the effect of osmotic water stress on mycelial growth of Seiridium cardinale, S. unicorne and S. cupressi in culture was examined and compared to that of Diplodia cupressi, which is a pathogen of cypress known to be favoured by host water stress. Growth responses were evaluated on potato sucrose agar amended with KCl or NaCl to give water potentials in the range of -0.34 to -15 MPa. Mycelial growth decreased with decreasing water potential and ceased at -15 MPa, although the mycelium remained alive. Histochemical analysis conducted on S. cardinale grown at -12 MPa revealed melanization and thickening of hyphal walls, in addition to abundance of lipid-rich organelles. These results suggest that the three Seiridium spp. might survive drying cycles in cypress wood, but their tolerance is different. Successful survival strategies may partly result from changes in mycelium structure. Furthermore, S. unicorne was positively stimulated by a water potential of -3 MPa, suggesting that it may have high adaptive potential for life in a drier Mediterranean ecosystem, which is predicted to occur under scenarios of global warming. Normal 0 14 MicrosoftInternetExplorer4

  17. Notes on the Occurrence of Oligonychus milleri (McGregor) and Oligonychus ununguis (Jacobi) (Acari: Tetranychidae) in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, E B; Zanardi, O C; Garlet, J; Ochoa, R; Feres, R J F

    2017-08-24

    We verified infestation of Oligonychus milleri (McGregor) on plantations of Pinus caribaea (Pinaceae) and of Oligonychus ununguis (Jacobi) on plantations of Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus grandis (Myrtaceae) in State of Rondônia, Northern region of Brazil. This represents the first record of O. milleri in Brazil. Oligonychus ununguis was recorded previously, on cypress. The damage caused by these two spider mites in the plantations is described herein.

  18. Evaluating the Effectiveness of Flood Control Strategies in Contrasting Urban Watersheds and Implications for Houston's Future Flood Vulnerability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gori, A.; Juan, A.; Bass, B. J.; Bedient, P. B.

    2016-12-01

    In recent years the Greater Houston Region has been hit by a series of severe storms that exceeded the 100-yr recurrence interval. Most notable are the 2015 Memorial Day (May 25-26) and the 2016 Tax Day (April 18) storms, which caused widespread riverine flooding that damaged thousands of properties and debilitated the region's traffic and commercial activities for extended periods. This situation is discouraging, considering that further urban development in the Houston Region will likely exacerbate the flooding impact of future severe storms. Questions arise regarding the efficacy of implemented flood control solutions and the long-term viability of current flood management strategies, especially in heavily impacted watersheds such as Brays Bayou and Cypress Creek. To better understand the effectiveness and limitations of current flood reduction solutions in the Greater Houston Region, this study evaluates the hydrodynamic responses and flood impacts of Brays Bayou watershed and Cypress Creek watershed from the afore-mentioned storm events. Brays Bayou watershed is fully developed with extremely limited options for future flood control projects, while Cypress Creek still has significant portions of undeveloped land that could be utilized for flood mitigation purposes. In order to simulate watershed responses at the time of the storms, the hydrologic model HEC-HMS and unsteady hydraulic model HEC-RAS are used. Additionally, this study evaluates the effectiveness of recently-completed flood control projects in Brays Bayou watershed and proposed flood control strategies in Cypress Creek watershed by conducting a scenario analysis of each watershed. This analysis includes a pre- and post-implementation scenario that represents watershed conditions prior to and after implementation of flood control measures for each watershed. This study demonstrates the benefits and shortcomings of current implemented and proposed flood control projects, and identifies vulnerable

  19. Deepening and Extending Channels for Navigation, Georgetown Harbor, South Carolina. Review of Reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    effects as well as economics. As a result of expanding planning objectives the early 1970’s witnessed the emergence of some fundamental changes in laws...Santee Point 8 Water Quality 9 Shrimp Nursery Areas, 10 MIajor Clam Beds 1 1 Zoning lap APPENDICES A Sediment Analysis B Soil Associations V Section...very abundant in Georgia and North and South Carolina. The sur- rounding forest vegetation is invading the marsh site with cypress trees and seedlings

  20. Universal MOSFET parameter analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klekachev, A. V.; Kuznetsov, S. N.; Pikulev, V. B.; Gurtov, V. A.

    2006-05-01

    MOSFET analyzer is developed to extract most important parameters of transistors. Instead of routine DC transfer and output characteristics, analyzer provides an evaluation of interface states density by applying charge pumping technique. There are two features that outperform the analyzer among similar products of other vendors. It is compact (100 × 80 × 50 mm 3 in dimensions) and lightweight (instrument with ultra low power supply (instrument was designed on the base of component parts from CYPRESS and ANALOG DEVICES (USA).

  1. Multilocus patterns of nucleotide polymorphism and demographic change in Taxodium distichum (Cupressaceae) in the lower Mississippi River alluvial valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusumi, Junko; Zidong, Li; Kado, Tomoyuki; Tsumura, Yoshihiko; Middleton, Beth A.; Tachida, Hidenori

    2010-01-01

    Premise of the Study: Studies of the geographic patterns of genetic variation can give important insights into the past population structure of species. Our study species, Taxodium distichum L. (bald-cypress), prefers riparian and wetland habitats and is widely distributed in southeastern North America and Mexico. We compared the genetic variation of T. distichum with that of its close relative, Cryptomeria japonica, which is endemic to Japan.

  2. Involvement of phenazine-1-carboxylic acid in the interaction between Pseudomonas chlororaphis subsp. aureofaciens strain M71 and Seiridium cardinale in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raio, Aida; Reveglia, Pierluigi; Puopolo, Gerardo; Cimmino, Alessio; Danti, Roberto; Evidente, Antonio

    2017-06-01

    Pseudomonas chlororaphis subsp. aureofaciens encompasses bacterial strains that effectively control phytopathogenic fungi through the production of the natural antibiotics named phenazines. In this work, the involvement of phenazine production in the interaction between the biological control agent P. chlororaphis subsp. aureofaciens M71 and the fungus Seiridium cardinale, a serious cypress pathogen, was investigated. Field trials were carried out to assess the role of phenazines in the control of S. cardinale in vivo. Results showed that P. chlororaphis subsp. aureofaciens M71 and 30-84, both able to produce phenazine-1-carboxylic acid (PCA), drastically reduced the canker development incited by S. cardinale. Conversely, strain M71b, a natural gacA mutant of P. chlororaphis subsp. aureofaciens M71, showed a decrease in PCA production and a reduction in controlling S. cardinale. These results were enforced by the reduction of canker size higher than 94% registered when 6μg of pure PCA was directly applied on each cypress wound. Furthermore, PCA was detected in cypress plant tissues only when P. chlororaphis subsp. aureofaciens M71 was interacting with S. cardinale for 30 days. All these data support that the biological control of S. cardinale achieved by the application of P. chlororaphis subsp. aureofaciens M71 relies mainly on the ability of the bacterial strain to produce PCA in planta. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  3. Fire reinforces structure of pondcypress (Taxodium distichum var. imbricarium) domes in a wetland landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Adam C.; Kobziar, Leda N.; Snyder, James R.

    2012-01-01

    Fire periodically affects wetland forests, particularly in landscapes with extensive fire-prone uplands. Rare occurrence and difficulty of access have limited efforts to understand impacts of wildfires fires in wetlands. Following a 2009 wildfire, we measured tree mortality and structural changes in wetland forest patches. Centers of these circular landscape features experienced lower fire severity, although no continuous patch-size or edge effect was evident. Initial survival of the dominant tree, pondcypress (Taxodium distichum var. imbricarium), was high (>99%), but within one year of the fire approximately 23% of trees died. Delayed mortality was correlated with fire severity, but unrelated to other hypothesized factors such as patch size or edge distance. Tree diameter and soil elevation were important predictors of mortality, with smaller trees and those in areas with lower elevation more likely to die following severe fire. Depressional cypress forests typically exhibit increasing tree size towards their interiors, and differential mortality patterns were related to edge distance. These patterns result in the exaggeration of a dome-shaped profile. Our observations quantify roles of fire and hydrology in determining cypress mortality in these swamps, and imply the existence of feedbacks that maintain the characteristic shape of cypress domes.

  4. [2001 survey of pollen in Wakayama City with a real-time pollen counter].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seno, Satoshi; Dake, Yoshihiro; Sakoda, Takema; Saito, Yuko; Ikeda, Hiroki; Kitano, Hiroya; Kitajima, Kazutomo; Enomoto, Tadao

    2002-03-01

    Self-care is gradually being recognized as important in the treatment of pollinosis, based up to now on data on airborne pollen. To determine the real-time numbers of airborne pollen would be more useful in self-care, however, so we studied the usefulness of the real-time pollen counter. Between Feb. 2, 2001, and Apr. 26, 2001, 4 types of airborne pollen i.e., Japanese cedar, Japanese cypress, black alder, and beech observed in Wakayama City were counted with a Durham pollen counter and a real-time pollen counter (Yamato Manufacturing Co. Ltd.). Correlation between the 2 pollen counters was r = 0.69 for Japanese cedar in March and r = 0.89 for Japanese cypress in April. A high correlation was observed between outcomes of the 2 pollen counters. The amount of pollen from black alder and beech was less than that from Japanese cedar and cypress. Unexpected peaks were observed not related to the pollen number is apparently due to snow. We have taken measure against snow, so we concluded that the real-time pollen counter was useful in counting the amount of airborne pollen over time.

  5. Fiscal 1998 achievement report on regional consortium research and development project. Venture business raising type regional consortium - Small business creation base type (Regional activation and environment conservation by development of hybrid timber using domestic wood - 2nd year); 1998 nendo chiiki hybrid gijutsu kaihatsu ni yoru kankyo hozen to chusankanchi no kassei seika hokokusho (dai 2 nendo)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    For the settlement of problems of near-mountainous regions growing desolate and for contribution to the solution of environmental problems, locally harvested Japanese cryptomeria, Japanese cypress, pine, etc., have to come back again as main industrial materials to eventually restore agreeable relationship between industry and local life. Results attained in fiscal 1998 about the development of high quality structural plywood and LVL (laminated veneer lumber) production are described. To solve problems about relative strength between individual materials and absolute strength in each of them and about their variations, and to eliminate such variations for their conversion into materials higher in strength and less in variation, technologies have been developed for grading individual wood veneers and for constituting high stress plywood using post-sorting wood veneers. By measuring Young's moduli for fabricated wood veneers using a dynamic Young's modulus measuring device, manufacture of LVL with an intended Young's module has become feasible. Concerning the domestically harvested cypress whose effective utilization is much desired, Young's module is measured for each wood veneer for their grading, and high-strength, high-performance LVL is obtained by laminating them. Cypress veneers short of predetermined standards may be hybridized with imported larch high in Young's module for the production of useful lumber. (NEDO)

  6. Recent surveys and researches on pollinosis in Japan; Kafunsho ni kansuru chosa kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shido, T. [The Inst. of Public Health, Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-05-31

    In this paper, recent investigations and researches on pollinosis are summarized as centering on the investigation entrusted by the Ministry of Health and Welfare and executed since 1992, and especially the surveys on Japanese cedar pollinosis during 1995 to 1996. The quantity of pollen surveyed in 1995 is the greatest in the survey history of nationwide flying pollen. Particularly, the quantity of cedar and hinoki pollen is 10 to 40 times as many as that in the year before. Consequently, since the sensitization and onset due to the cedar pollen increased greatly, the objects of the surveys and the researches were mainly in respect to the analysis of onset factors of pollinosis, clarification of its natural process, evaluation on the effectiveness of desensitization therapy, the clinical subjects including the confirmation of pharynx symptom and asthma symptom, and the discovery of naturally sensitizing dog. A fact that the quantity of flying pollen concerns the occurrence and degree of the clinical symptom has already been indicated by a clinical observation carried out for a long period of time. In respect to specific prophylaxis and therapy, for the first time the pollen masks and glasses sold on the market are investigated, and the necessity of the verification thereof is described. 27 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs.

  7. All-cellulose and all-wood composites by partial dissolution of cotton fabric and wood in ionic liquid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Mitsuhiro; Teramoto, Naozumi; Nakamura, Taro; Saitoh, Yoshinobu

    2013-11-06

    After cotton fabric (CF) and hinoki lumber (HL) were dipped in 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (BMIMCl) at 100 °C, the BMIMCl-impregnated CF and HL were hot-pressed to give CF-BMIMCl and HL-BMIMCl composites, respectively. The BMIMCl contained in the composites was removed by Soxhlet extraction, and subsequently annealed to produce all-cellulose and all-wood composites (CF-A and HL-A). The SEM analyses revealed that cellulose fibers combined together for CF-A and the surface of HL-A became smooth, respectively. The XRD measurements indicated that the crystallinity index of cellulose component decreased by the hot press, increased by the extraction, and further increased by the annealing for both the composites. The tensile modulus of CF-A increased with increasing pressure of hot-press. Although tensile strength of HL-A was a little lower than that of original HL, tensile modulus of the former was much higher than that of the latter. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Reconstructing Northeastern United States temperatures using Atlantic white cedar tree rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearl, Jessie K.; Anchukaitis, Kevin J.; Pederson, Neil; Donnelly, Jeffrey P.

    2017-11-01

    Our knowledge of climate variability in the densely populated Northeastern United States is limited to instrumental data of the last century. Most regional paleoclimate proxies reflect a mix of climate responses, which makes reconstructing historical climate a challenge. Here we analyze tree-ring chronologies from Atlantic white cedar (Chamaecyparis thyoides) as a potential regional paleotemperature proxy. We evaluate our tree-ring network for spatiotemporal climate signal strength and reconstruction skill across New England. Atlantic white cedar sites in the northern section of the species’ range exhibit positive significant annual growth relationships with local and regional temperatures. Chronologies constructed from northern sites yield skillful reconstructions of temperature that reproduce centennial, multidecadal, and interannual variability in the instrumental record, providing a novel paleotemperature record for New England.

  9. Conifers in decorative arboretum of Botanic Garden of Petrozavodsk State University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eglacheva Arina

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The transformation that taking place during of spontaneous cultivars introduction have not taken into consideration for last 10 years. The plants introduction in the Botanic Garden PSU have a planned character in a northwest middle taiga. Decorative arboretum was laid in 2000 (Potapova, Prokhorov, 2010. By 2014, the conifers collection includes 159 specimens of 98 cultivars belonging to 28 species, 10 genera and 3 families (Cupressaceae, Pinaceae, Taxaceae. Taxa are presented as species with narrow native habitat (Microbiota decussata, Thujopsis dolabrata, Chamaecyparis pisifera, Picea omorika, and with a wide (Juniperus communis. Plants were planted gradually. Annual plant monitoring include measuring of height, width of the crown, trunk diameter, needles color, seed-bearing, damage. Based on the study was identified plants groups in growth rate, seed-bearing. The number of generative samples are increased from 17 to 53% during 2007-2014. Seed-bearing is not a constant parameter and depends on a complex of abiotic factors.

  10. Morphology, Biology and Control Possibilities of Two Argyresthia species – A. thuiella and A. trifasciata (Lepidoptera: Argyresthiidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hana Konečná

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The bionomics of Argyresthia thuiella (Packard, 1871 and A. trifasciata Staudinger, 1871 was studied on ornamental conifers in southern Moravia, Czech Republic. Argyresthia thuiella overwinters as caterpillar inside twigs and pupates the following spring there. Moths are on the wing during June until the beginning of July. Argyresthia trifasciata adults were observed from mid May till the beginning of June. Its larvae reach the stage of maturity from October to December. They pupate in the debris under trees. Both species develop one generation annually. Argyresthia thuiella was found on Thuja occidentalis, T. plicata and Chamaecyparis lawsoniana; A. trifasciata on Juniperus virginiana, J. chinensis, J. sabina, J. × media, J. squamata and J. horizontalis. Both species cause mainly aesthetic damage to plants. Stronger attack of Argyresthia may cause damage to trees. Control possibilities were tested on both species. The chaetotaxy of these species was first done in this experiment.

  11. Biocidal activity of three wood essential oils against Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae), Xenopsylla cheopis (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae), and Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolan, Marc C; Dietrich, Gabrielle; Panella, Nicholas A; Montenieri, John A; Karchesy, Joseph J

    2007-04-01

    The biocidal activity of three steam distilled wood essential oils-incense cedar, Calocedrus decurrens (Torr.) Florin; Port-Orford-cedar, Chamaecyparis lawsoniana (A. Murr.) Parl.; and western juniper, Juniperus occidentalis (Hook)--were evaluated against adult Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae) and Xenopsylla cheopis (Rothchild) (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae) and nymphal Ixodes scapularis Say (Acari: Ixodidae). In vitro laboratory bioassays were conducted to establish baseline dose-mortality data through 24 h. Incense cedar heartwood was the most toxic to all three vector species followed in order of activity by western juniper and Port-Orford-cedar based on LC50 and LC90 values. Ae. aegypti were substantially more susceptible to the oils than either I. scapularis or X. cheopis.

  12. Statistical Analysis and water Quality Modeling for a Drinking Water Source Watershed for the City of Houston, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teague, A.; Bedient, P.; Vieux, B. E.

    2009-12-01

    Water quality is a problem in Lake Houston, the primary source of drinking water for the City of Houston, due to pollutant loads coming from the influent watersheds, including Cypress Creek. Water quality issues in the watershed that are of concern for the lake include nutrient enrichment bacterial impairment, both of which present operational challenges for the drinking water treatment plant operations. Statistical analysis of the historic water quality data was developed in order to understand the source characterization and seasonality of the watershed. Multivariate analysis including principal component, cluster, and discriminant analysis provided a unique seasonal assessment of the watershed leading to refined loading curves have been analyzed using data collected by the USGS at 3 sites in Cypress Creek with corresponding City of Houston water quality data at the sites for the past 5 years to characterize the behavior of the pollutant source and watershed. A VfloTM hydrologic model from Vieux & Assoc., Inc for the watershed of the influent stream Cypress Creek was developed to predict the watershed flows into Lake Houston. A distributed model of a large scale watershed, it uses finite element analysis to solve the kinematic wave equation. The model incorporates land use relationships to predict runoff from Radar rainfall data. Continuous VfloTM was run for storm events and the distributed discharge of the watershed simulated. From the spatial discharge output, nutrient wash-off and convective transport was simulated. The simulated nutrient transport was then compared to storm sampling data at a downstream location to assess the water quality model and determine needed future refinements.

  13. COLLEMBOLA RICHNESS AND DIVERSITY ALONG A LAND-USE INTENSITY GRADIENT IN TAITA, KENYA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamleck Muturi

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Soil Collembola communities were sampled along a gradient of land use intensification in Taita-Taveta, Wundanyi division, Coast Province during the wet season (October-November 2007 and dry season (February- March 2008. This gradient ranged from Natural undisturbed land use to intensively cultivated (disturbed horticulture fields. The eight land use types (LUTs were stands of (1 Pinus patula, (2 Cypress lusitanica, (3 Indigenous forest, (4 Fallow, (5 Pennisetum purpureum, (6 horticulture fields, (7 Coffea africana and (8 Zea mays intercropped with Phaseolus vulgaris. The dynamic behavioural modified Berlesse funnel technique was used for collembolan extraction from soil. Collembola were identified to genus level. 11462 individuals per m² were identified from 30 genera. Generally, low Collembolan population were recorded in the wet season of 2007 with density of 2618 individuals per m² compared to density of 8844 individuals per m² in the dry season of 2008 sampled in all the land use types (LUUs. The highest Collembolan population was recorded in Cypress lusitanica with a density of 3781 individuals per m² and lowest in Zea mays intercropped with Phaseolus vulgaris with a density of 198 individuals per m². A total of 30 genera in 11 families were recorded. The genus Cryptopygus was the most commonly sampled followed by Thalassaphorura, Parisotoma, Lepidocyrtus and Folsomides (37.2%, 17.7%, 8.5%, 6.1% and 5.5% respectively. Land use type like Pinus patula, Cypress lusitanica, and Pennisetum purpureum had high carbon, nitrogen and acidity, supported high numbers and diverse Collembolan assemblages. The results show that both density and diversity of soil the Collembolan communities were higher in undisturbed sites than in disturbed land use types. In conclusion the Collembolan communities are negatively impacted by land use intensification.

  14. Determinación de los parámetros cinéticos en la pirólisis del pino ciprés Determination of kinetics parameters in the pyrolysis of cypres pine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Acelas Soto

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of pyrolysis is gaining increasing importance, since it is the first step in the gasification or combustion process. In this study, pyrolysis experiments of cypress pine were carried out in a thermogravimetric analyzer at six different heating rates between 5 and 40 ºC / min. Kinetics parameters of pine were determined from TGA by using the differential and the maximum speed methods. Additionally, the distribution of activation energies was also carried out finding the values of 113.57 and 157.32 kJ/mol, which are in the range of activation energies reported for hemicellulose and cellulose, respectively, main components of wood.

  15. Identification of the plant origin of the botanical biomarkers of Mediterranean type propolis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popova, Milena; Trusheva, Boryana; Cutajar, Simone; Antonova, Daniela; Mifsud, David; Farrugia, Claude; Bankova, Vassya

    2012-05-01

    Propolis is a honeybee product which bees produce by collecting resins from various botanical sources. The chemical composition of propolis is directly dependant on the availability of resinous plant materials in different geographic regions. This study was undertaken to evaluate the resinous plant sources used by bees to produce Mediterranean type propolis. Although this propolis type has already been the subject of numerous studies, its major botanical source had not yet been identified. In this study, using GC-MS analysis, we identify the resin of the common cypress, Cupressus_sempervirens, as the major plant source of the characteristic diterpene fingerprint profile of Mediterranean propolis.

  16. A demonstration of wetland vegetation mapping in Florida from computer-processed satellite and aircraft multispectral scanner data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butera, M. K. (Principal Investigator)

    1978-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Major vegetative classes identified by the remote sensing technique were cypress swamp, pine, wetland grasses, salt grass, mixed mangrove, black mangrove, Brazilian pepper. Australian pine and melaleuca were not satisfactorily classified from LANDSAT. Aircraft scanners provided better resolution resulting in a classification of finer surface detail. An edge effect, created by the integration of diverse spectral responses within boundary elements of digital data, affected the wetlands classification. Accuracy classification for aircraft was 68% and for LANDSAT was 74%.

  17. Aquatic Habitat Studies on the Lower Mississippi River, River Mile 480 to 530. Report 5. Fish Studies--Pilot Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-05-01

    extends from river mile 499.1 to 499.7. b. A reach of natural bank extending from river mile 499.7 to 500.4. This section of bank was recently modified ...shiner, and river carp- sucker (Table 8). Cypress minnow, pugnose minnow, spotfin shiner, steel - color shiner, creek chub, and black buffalo were unique...Species Captured with Various Collecting Devices on 5-7 June 1978 from Lake Lee Gear* Species EG12 EG8 T122 T82 HN2 HN4 Paddlefish 7.4 12.5 3.4 Spotted

  18. Volatile composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of Artemisia absinthium growing in Western Ghats region of North West Karnataka, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Rajesh Kumar

    2013-07-01

    Artemisia absinthium L. (Asteraceae) is an aromatic, herbaceous, perennial plant commonly known as wormwood. Artemisia absinthium is traditionally used as an anthelmintic, antiseptic, antispasmodic and for bacillary dysentery, cancers and neurodegenerative diseases. The essential oil composition of the leaves of A. absinthium growing in the Western Ghats region of North West Karnataka, India, is investigated for the first time in this region and the oil was screened for antimicrobial properties. The chemical composition of the hydro-distilled essential oil obtained from the leaves of A. absinthium was analyzed by GC-FID and GC/MS. The oil was tested against five Gram positive and, eight Gram negative bacteria and three fungi by the tube-dilution method at a concentration range of 5000-9 µg/mL. Results demonstrated that the leave oil was found to be rich in oxygenated monoterpenes (39.7% and 41.1%). The major compounds were borneol (18.7% and 16.7%), methyl hinokiate (11.9% and 12.9%), isobornyl acetate (4.0% and 4.7%), β-gurjunene (3.8% and 4.4%) and caryophyllene oxide (3.7% and 4.3%), among 64 identified compounds, comprising 91.7% and 90.1% of the total oil. The organism Micrococcus luteus was found more susceptible to the oil with an MIC value of 25 ± 4 µg/mL, followed by Micrococcus flavus, Bacillus subtilis, Penicillium chrysogenum and Aspergillus fumigatus with MIC values of 58 ± 8, 65 ± 8, 84 ± 15 and 91 ± 13 µg/mL, respectively. The oil showing antimicrobial activity against bacteria and fungi validate the traditional use of the plant as an antiseptic.

  19. The antifungal compound totarol of Thujopsis dolabrata var. hondai seeds selects for fungi on seedling root surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaji, Keiko; Mori, Shigeta; Akiyama, Masaru; Kato, Atsushi; Nakashima, Tadakazu

    2007-12-01

    Hinoki-asunaro (Thujopsis dolabrata Sieb. et Zucc. var. hondai Makino) is a tree endemic in Japan whose seeds produce several terpenoids. We hypothesized that antifungal compounds in seeds might select for fungi on the root surfaces of T. dolabrata var. hondai seedlings. We examined seed and soil fungi, their sensitivity to methanol extracts of the seeds, the fungi on root surfaces of seedlings grown in Kanuma pumice (a model mineral soil) and nursery soil, and the frequency at which each fungus was detected on the seedling root surface. We calculated correlation coefficients between fungal detection frequency on root surfaces and fungal sensitivity to seed extracts. We also isolated from the seeds the antifungal compound totarol that selected for fungi on root surfaces. Species of Alternaria, Cladosporium, Pestalotiopsis, and Phomopsis were the most frequently isolated fungi from seeds. Mortierella and Mucor were the dominant fungi isolated from Kanuma pumice, whereas Umbelopsis and Trichoderma were the main fungi isolated from nursery soil. Alternaria, Cladosporium, Mortierella, Pestalotiopsis, and Phomopsis were the dominant fungi isolated from root surfaces of seedlings grown in Kanuma pumice, and Alternaria, Cladosporium, Pestalotiopsis, Phomopsis, and Trichoderma were the main root-surface fungi isolated from seedlings grown in nursery soil. The fungal detection frequencies on root surfaces in both soils were significantly and negatively correlated with fungal sensitivity to the seed extract. A similar correlation was found between the fungal detection frequency on root surfaces and fungal sensitivity to totarol. We conclude that totarol is one factor that selects for fungi on root surfaces of T. dolabrata var. hondai in the early growth stage.

  20. Reservoir compartmentalization and management strategies: Lessons learned in the Illinois basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grube, J.P.; Crockett, J.E.; Huff, B.G. [and others

    1997-08-01

    A research project jointly sponsored by the US Department of Energy and the Illinois State Geological Survey focused on the Cypress and Aux Vases Formations (Mississippian), major clastic reservoirs in the Illinois Basin. Results from the research showed that understanding the nature and distribution of reservoir compartments, and using effective reservoir management strategies, can significantly improve recovery efficiencies from oil fields in this mature basin. Compartments can be most effectively drained where they are geologically well defined and reservoir management practices are coordinated through unified, compartment-wide, development programs. Our studies showed that the Cypress and Aux Vases reservoirs contain lateral and vertical permeability barriers forming compartments that range in size from isolated, interlaminated sandstone and shale beds to sandstone bodies tens of feet in thickness and more than a mile in length. Stacked or shingled, genetically similar sandstone bodies are commonly separated by thin impermeable intervals that can be difficult to distinguish on logs and can, therefore, cause correlation problems, even between wells drilled on spacing of less than ten acres. Lateral separation of sandstone bodies causes similar problems. Reservoir compartmentalization reduces primary and particularly secondary recovery by trapping pockets of by-passed or banked oil. Compartments can be detected by comparing recovery factors of genetically similar sandstone bodies within a field; using packers to separate commingled intervals and analyzing fluid recoveries and pressures; making detailed core-to-log calibrations that identify compartment boundaries; and analyzing pressure data from waterflood programs.

  1. Environmental assessment: Richton Dome site, Mississippi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    1986-05-01

    In February 1983, the US Department of Energy (DOE) identified the Richton Dome site in Mississippi as one of the nine potentially acceptable sites for a mined geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. To determine their suitability, the Richton Dome site and the eight other potentially acceptable sites have been evaluated in accordance with the DOE's General Guidelines for the Recommendation of Sites for the Nuclear Waste Repositories. These evaluations were reported in draft environmental assessments (EAs), which were issued for public review and comment. After considering the comments received on the draft EAs, the DOE prepared the final EAs. The site is in the Gulf interior region, which is one of five distinct geohydrologic settings considered for the first repository. This setting contains two other potentially acceptable sites--the Cypress Creek Dome site in Mississippi and the Vacherie Dome site in Louisiana. Although the Cypress Creek Dome and the Vacherie Dome sites are suitable for site characterization, the DOE has concluded that the Richton Dome site is the preferred site in the Gulf interior region. On the basis of the evaluations reported in this EA, the DOE has found that the Richton Dome site is not disqualified under the guidelines.

  2. Environmental assessment: Richton Dome Site, Mississippi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    1986-05-01

    In February 1983, the US Department of Energy (DOE) identified the Richton Dome site in Mississippi as one of the nine potentially acceptable sites for a mined geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. To determine their suitability, the Richton Dome site and the eight other potentially acceptable sites have been evaluated in accordance with the DOE's General Guidelines for the Recommendation of Sites for the Nuclear Waste Repositories. These evaluations were reported in draft environmental assessments (EAs), which were issued for public review and comment. After considering the comments received on the draft EAs, the DOE prepared the final EAs. The site is in the Gulf interior region, which is one of five distinct geohydrologic settings considered for the first repository. This setting contains two other potentially acceptable sites--the Cypress Creek Dome site in Mississippi and the Vacherie Dome site in Louisiana. Although the Cypress Creek Dome and the Vacherie Dome sites are suitable for site characterization, the DOE has concluded that the Richton Dome site is the preferred site in the Gulf interior region. On the basis of the evaluations reported in this EA, the DOE has found that the Richton Dome site is not disqualified under the guidelines.

  3. Seasonal Streamflow Reconstructions of the Choctawhatchee River (AL-USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tootle, G. A.; Therrell, M.; Moat, T.; Meko, M.

    2015-12-01

    Tree ring samples were collected from Bald Cypress (Taxodium distichum) species in watersheds adjacent to the Choctawhatchee River (Alabama and Florida - USA). These samples were collected to update an existing tree ring proxy that was developed in the late 1980's and early 1990's (Stahle and Cleaveland, 1992, IGBP PAGES/World Data Center for Paleoclimatology Data Contribution # FL001, Choctawhatchee River. NOAA/NCDC Paleoclimatology Program, Boulder, Colorado, USA). The motivation for updating the tree ring proxy was to determine if recent droughts identified in historic unimpaired Choctawhatchee River streamflow records were reflected in Bald Cypress tree ring growth. Historic streamflow from 1934 to 2013 was obtained for the USGS station at Newton, Alabama and one, five and ten-year droughts were identified and ranked. Many of the most severe droughts were identified in recent (~2000 to present) records (see Figure). Combining the new tree ring proxy with other regional proxies, seasonal streamflow was reconstructed for the Choctawhatchee River Newton, Alabama gage. The reconstructed streamflow allows water managers and planners to observe past wet and dry periods that may exceed magnitude, duration and/or severity of wet and dry periods in observed records.

  4. Antiproliferative, antifungal, and antibacterial activities of endophytic alternaria species from cupressaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltani, Jalal; Hosseyni Moghaddam, Mahdieh S

    2014-09-01

    Recent research has shown the bioprospecting of endophytic fungi from Cupressaceae. Here, we further uncover that the healthy cypress plants such as Cupressus arizonica, Cupressus sempervirens var. cereiformis, and Thuja orientalis host highly bioactive endophytic Alternaria fungal species. Indeed, endophytic Alternaria alternata, Alternaria pellucida, and Alternaria tangelonis were recovered from healthy Cupressaceous trees. Biodiversity and bioactivity of recovered endophytic Alternaria species were a matter of biogeography and host identity. We further extracted such Alternaria's metabolites and highlighted their significant antiproliferative, growth inhibitory, and antibacterial activities against the model target fungus Pyricularia oryzae and the model pathogenic bacteria Bacillus sp., Erwinia amylovora, and Pseudomonas syringae. In vitro assays also indicated that endophytic Alternaria species significantly inhibited the growth of cypress fungal phytopathogens Diplodia seriata, Phaeobotryon cupressi, and Spencermartinsia viticola. In conclusion, since the recovered Alternaria species were originally reported as pathogenic and allergenic fungi, our findings suggest a possible ecological niche for them inside the foliar tissues of Cupressaceous trees. Moreover, in this study, the significant bioactivities of endophytic Alternaria species in association with Cupressaceae plant family are reported.

  5. [Usefulness and practical use of an automatic counter for scattering pollen in spring].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, Toru; Nohara, Osamu; Endo, Tomohiko; Fukaya, Shuji

    2005-06-01

    In this decade some automatic pollen counters have been developed and showed them useful in some reports. However, the results of automatic counting have not been established. We have compared scattering cedar and cypress pollen counts with Durham pollen samplers and a newly developed automatic pollen counter (KH-3000) in the spring from 2000 to 2004 in Tokyo. The relationship between the data of the automatic counter and that of a Durham sampler method is so good that this automatic counter seems useful. The best relationship between two methods was seen from late February to early April in the season of high amounts of pollens scatters. The ratio of pollen counts measured with automatic counter and Durham sampler was about 3.5 on average in the period of enough cedar and cypress pollen dispersion. The avoidance of pollens seems possible with real-time pollen information because reliability of automatic counting is highly evaluated when enough pollens scatter. In future, the standardization of automatic counting should be necessary for the accurate evaluation of scattering pollens.

  6. [A comparative study between real time monitor KH-3000 and conventional Durham sampler measuring airborne pollen].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoda, Shigetoshi; Enomoto, Tadao; Shibano, Akira; Ikeda, Hiroki; Yajin, Shinji; Dake, Yoshihiro; Harada, Tamotsu

    2005-08-01

    Real time monitoring of airborne pollen has gradually increased because monitoring is laborsaving and provides better real-time information. A problem arose, however, due to differences between the KH3000 (Yamato Co. Ltd) monitor and the conventional Durham sampler pointed out in results of airborne pollen monitoring in Wakayama in 2004. We compared the two monitors for airborne pollen in Wakayama in 2004, which less dispersed than usual. The peak monitored by the KH-3000 monitor was not consistent with the prime period of Japanese cedar and cypress pollen dispersion, especially in February and April, although they correlated highly in March. The inconsistency in February is thought to be caused by snow, and that in April by falsely monitoring beech-tree airborne pollen-which is similar in size-in addition to Japanese cedar and cypress pollen. This report points out the need to take these conditions (snow and other plants pollen) into account when a real time monitor is used for collecting pollen information.

  7. Characteristics of laryngeal symptoms induced in patients with allergic rhinitis in an environmental challenge chamber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Takeshi; Okamoto, Yoshitaka; Yonekura, Syuji; Okuma, Yusuke; Sakurai, Toshioki; Sakurai, Daiju

    2016-06-01

    People with allergic rhinitis often have laryngeal symptoms (LSs) in addition to nasal symptoms during the pollen-scattering season. To clarify the characteristics of the LSs induced by pollen exposure using an environmental challenge chamber. Cypress pollen exposure using an environmental challenge chamber for 25 participants with cypress pollen-induced allergic rhinitis was performed for 3 hours for 2 consecutive days in 3 study courses: namely, pollen exposure under normal nasal breathing and pollen or sham pollen exposure with nasal blockage, which eliminated any allergic reactions in the nasal mucosa. The nasal and LSs scores and the levels of serum inflammatory mediators, including eosinophil cationic protein (ECP), were monitored. Laryngeal examinations and physiologic lung tests were also conducted. Various LSs were reported, and these LSs were significantly elevated during pollen exposure and even under sham exposure with artificial nasal blockage. The pollen exposure with artificial nasal blockage exaggerated the LSs in 32% of the participants and also increased the serum ECP levels. The serum ECP levels did not change after sham exposure. The findings of both laryngeal examinations and lung tests failed to reveal any significant changes. Nasal obstruction could induce significant LSs even without pollen exposure. LSs were enhanced by pollen exposure and allergic reactions in the larynx could thus be involved in this enhancement. clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: UMIN000015667. Copyright © 2016 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Possible role of climate changes in variations in pollen seasons and allergic sensitizations during 27 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariano, Renato; Canonica, Giorgio Walter; Passalacqua, Giovanni

    2010-03-01

    Climate changes may affect the quality and amount of airborne allergenic pollens. The direct assessment of such an effect requires long observation periods and a restricted geographic area. To assess variations in pollens and allergic sensitizations across 27 years in relation to climate change in a specific region. We recorded pollen counts, season durations, and prevalences of sensitizations for 5 major pollens (birch, cypress, olive, grass, and Parietaria) in western Liguria between 1981 and 2007. Pollen counts were performed using a Hirst-type trap, and sensitizations were assessed by means of skin prick testing. Meteorologic data for the same period included average temperatures, direct radiation, humidity, number of sunny days, and rainfall. There was a progressive increase in the duration of the pollen seasons for Parietaria (+85 days), olive (+18 days), and cypress (+18 days), with an overall advance of their start dates. For Parietaria, there was an advance of 2 months in 2006 vs 1981. Also, the total pollen load progressively increased for the considered species (approximately 25% on average) except for grasses. Percentages of patients sensitized to the pollens increased throughout the years, whereas the percentage of individuals sensitized to house dust mite remained stable. These behaviors paralleled the constant increase in direct radiation, temperature, and number of days with a temperature greater than 30 degrees C. The progressive climate changes, with increased temperatures, may modify the global pollen load and affect the rate of allergic sensitization across long periods.

  9. Satellite optical and radar data used to track wetland forest impact and short-term recovery from Hurricane Katrina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Elijah W.; Rangoonwala, A.; Middleton, B.; Lu, Zhiming

    2009-01-01

    Satellite Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) and RADARSAT-1 (radar) satellite image data collected before and after the landfall of Hurricane Katrina in the Pearl River Wildlife Management Area on the Louisiana-Mississippi border, USA, were applied to the study of forested wetland impact and recovery. We documented the overall similarity in the radar and optical satellite mapping of impact and recovery patterns and highlighted some unique differences that could be used to provide consistent and relevant ecological monitoring. Satellite optical data transformed to a canopy foliage index (CFI) indicated a dramatic decrease in canopy cover immediately after the storm, which then recovered rapidly in the Taxodium distichum (baldcypress) and Nyssa aquatica (water tupelo) forest. Although CFI levels in early October indicated rapid foliage recovery, the abnormally high radar responses associated with the cypress forest suggested a persistent poststorm difference in canopy structure. Impact and recovery mapping results showed that even though cypress forests experienced very high wind speeds, damage was largely limited to foliage loss. Bottomland hardwoods, experiencing progressively lower wind speeds further inland, suffered impacts ranging from increased occurrences of downed trees in the south to partial foliage loss in the north. In addition, bottomland hardwood impact and recovery patterns suggested that impact severity was associated with a difference in stand structure possibly related to environmental conditions that were not revealed in the prehurricane 25-m optical and radar image analyses.

  10. Development and application of a pollen-based paleohydrologic reconstruction from the lower Roanoke River Basin, North Carolina, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willard, D.; Bernhardt, C.; Brown, R.; Landacre, B.; Townsend, P.

    2011-01-01

    We used pollen assemblages to reconstruct late-Holocene paleohydrologic patterns in floodplain deposits from the lower Roanoke River basin (North Carolina, southeastern USA). Using 120 surface samples from 38 transects, we documented statistical relationships between pollen assemblages, vegetation, and landforms. Backswamp pollen assemblages (long hydroperiods) are dominated by Nyssa (tupelo) and Taxodium (cypress) and have high pollen concentrations. Sediments from elevated levees and seasonally flooded forests (shorter hydroperiods) are characterized by dominant Pinus (pine) pollen, variable abundance of hardwood taxa, and low pollen concentrations. We apply the calibration data set to interpret past vegetation and paleohydrology. Pollen from a radiocarbon-dated sediment core collected in a tupelo-cypress backswamp indicates centennial-scale fluctuations in forest composition during the last 2400 years. Backswamp vegetation has occupied the site since land clearance began ~300 years ago. Recent dam emplacement affected sedimentation rates, but vegetation changes are small compared with those caused by pre-Colonial climate variability. The occurrence of wetter conditions from ~2200 to 1800 cal. yr BP, ~1100 to 750 cal. yr BP, and ~400 to 250 cal. yr BP may indicate changes in cyclonic circulation patterns related to shifts in the position of the Bermuda High and jet stream.

  11. CICLAJE Y PÉRDIDA DE NUTRIENTES DEL SUELO EN BOSQUES ALTOANDINOS DE ANTIOQUIA, COLOMBIA NUTRIENT CYCLING AND NUTRIENT LOSSES IN ANDEAN MONTANE FORESTS FROM ANTIOQUIA, COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Londoño Álvarez

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available El agua gravitacional y su composición química fueron medidos en bosques montanos de Quercus humboldtii y reforestados (Pinus patula y Cupressus lusitanica de la región de Piedras Blancas, Antioquia (Colombia, por un período de tiempo de dos años. Se utilizaron lisímetros sin tensión con el fin de estimar el agua gravitacional y los flujos de nutrientes a diferentes profundidades en el perfil del suelo. El mayor valor anual de agua gravitacional en el nivel más profundo (50- 80 cm, fue hallado en la cobertura de ciprés ( 492,7 mm, seguido por pino pátula ( 14,2 mm y roble ( 2,0 mm. De manera similar ocurrió con la pérdida de nutrientes, mostrando el mismo patrón hallado para el agua gravitacional. Así, para roble, pátula y ciprés, en su orden, se presentaron los siguientes valores de pérdida: Ca: 0,004, 0,084 y 2,270 kg ha-1 año-1; P: 0,008, 0,052 y 1,234 kg ha-1 año-1; Mg: 0,004, 0,022 y 0,667 kg ha-1 año-1. De K se registraron 0,08 y 7,092 kg ha-1 año-1 para roble y ciprés respectivamente. Estos flujos siguieron el siguiente orden según cobertura, roble: K>P>Ca>Mg, pátula: Ca>Fe>P>Mg>Zn>Mn, y ciprés: K>Mn>Ca>P>Fe>Zn>Mg.Gravitational flow and its chemical composition were measured in montane oak forests (Quercus humboldtii, in pine (Pinus patula and cypress (Cupressus lusitanica plantations in Piedras Blancas, Antioquia ( Colombia , over two years. Zero tension lysimeters were used at different depth soil levels. The highest gravitational flow value at highest depth (50- 80 cm was obtained in cypress plot ( 492,7 mm, followed by pine ( 14,2 mm and oak forest ( 2,0 mm. A similar behavior was encountered for nutrient losses, following the same pattern as gravitational flow. Thus, for oak, pine and cypress, nutrient losses were respectively: Ca: 0,004, 0,084 and 2,270 kg ha-1 y-1; P: 0,008, 0,052 and 1,234 kg ha-1 y -1; Mg: 0,004, 0,022 and 0,667 kg ha-1 y-1. K losses were 0,08 and 7,092 kg ha-1 y-1 for oak forest and

  12. Ciclos biogeoquímicos en bosques naturales y plantaciones de coníferas en ecosistemas de alta montaña de Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Diego León

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available La caída y descomposición de hojarasca representan los principales ingresos de materia orgánica y nutrientes a los ecosistemas forestales. Se estudiaron la caída y acumulación de hojarasca fina y el retorno de nutrientes, en un robledal (Quercus humboldtii y en plantaciones de pino (Pinus patula y ciprés (Cupressus lusitanica en tierras altas de Colombia. La caída de hojarasca fina fue similar entre el robledal (7.5Mg/ha.a y el pinar (7.8Mg/ha.a, y muy inferior en el cipresal (3.5Mg/ha.a. El mantillo representó 1.76, 1.73 y 1.3Mg/ha.a en el robledal, pinar y cipresal, respectivamente. El tiempo medio de residencia (TMR del mantillo siguió la secuencia: cipresal (3.3 años>pinar (2.1 años>robledal (1.8 años. La cantidad de nutrientes retenidos en el mantillo siguió la secuencia: pinar (115kg/ ha>robledal (78kg/ha>cipresal (24kg/ha. Los menores TMR de nutrientes se presentaron para la hojarasca foliar del robledal, en su mayoría inferiores a 1.0 años. En términos de la función ecosistémica en el robledal los procesos estudiados son muy superiores vía provisión de nutrientes al suelo y regulación de los ciclos biogeoquímicos, aspectos que deben ser considerados previa implementación de programas de repoblamiento forestal.Biogeochemical cycles in natural forest and conifer plantations in the high mountains of Colombia. Plant litter production and decomposition are two important processes in forest ecosystems, since they provide the main organic matter input to soil and regulate nutrient cycling. With the aim to study these processes, litterfall, standing litter and nutrient return were studied for three years in an oak forest (Quercus humboldtii, pine (Pinus patula and cypress (Cupressus lusitanica plantations, located in highlands of the Central Cordillera of Colombia. Evaluation methods included: fine litter collection at fortnightly intervals using litter traps; the litter layer samples at the end of each sampling year and

  13. MASA TOTAL Y CONTENIDO DE NUTRIENTES EN RAÍCES FINAS DE ECOSISTEMAS FORESTALES (Pinus patula Schltdl y Cham Cupressus lusitanica Mill y Quercus humboldtii Bonpl. DE PIEDRAS BLANCAS, ANTIOQUIA-COLOMBIA TOTAL FINE ROOT MASS AND NUTRIENT CONTENT IN FOREST ECOSYSTEMS (Pinus patula Schltdl and Cham Cupressus lusitanica Mill and Quercus humboldtii Bonpl. FROM PIEDRAS BLANCAS, ANTIOQUIA-COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Hernán Barreto Sánchez

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available En la región de Piedras Blancas, Antioquia - Colombia, se realizó un muestreo de raíces finas (£ 5 mm en tres parcelas permanentes establecidas en bosques de pino pátula (Pinus patula Schltdl y Cham, ciprés (Cupressus lusitanica Mill y roble (Quercus humboldtii Bonpl. a diferentes profundidades: 0-30, 30-50 y 50- 80 cm, con el fin de determinar la masa de raíces, y la concentración y contenido de nutrientes en cada cobertura vegetal. La masa de raíces finas disminuyó rápidamente a medida que aumentaba la profundidad, encontrándose en la parcela de ciprés el 83 % de las raíces en los primeros 30 cm de profundidad, en pino pátula el 75 % y en roble el 68 %. Los elementos con mayor participación en las raíces finas fueron calcio y potasio, siendo el primero de ellos mucho mayor en la cobertura de ciprés con respecto a las parcelas restantes, seguido en abundancia del potasio, a excepción de la parcela de roble en donde la concentración de un oligoelemento como Fe, fue incluso superior a la de calcio. Los elementos Ca, Mg, K, P, Mn, Cu y Zn acumulados en las raíces finas, hasta los 80 cm de profundidad, fueron superiores en la cobertura de ciprés, con la única excepción de Fe, que fue superior en la parcela de roble. En las parcelas de pino pátula y ciprés, el patrón de abundancia siguió la secuencia decreciente Ca > K Mg > Fe > P. En este trabajo se pretendió resaltar la importancia de las raíces finas y la concentración de los elementos, en los ecosistemas forestales naturales y plantados y su relación con el ciclo de nutrientes. Para ello, la aproximación metodológica comprendió la masa total de raíces, esto es raíces vivas y muertas en conjunto.In the Piedras Blancas region, Antioquia-Colombia, a sampling of fine roots (£ 5 mm was conducted in three permanent plots established in forest ecosystems of pine (Pinus patula Schltdl, cypress (Cupressus lusitanica Mill and oak (Quercus humboldtii Bonpl., at

  14. Role of Nurse Logs in Forest Expansion at Timberline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, A. C.; Yeakley, A.

    2008-12-01

    Nurselogs, known to be key sites of forest regeneration in lower elevation temperate forests, may be important sites for seedling establishment at expanding timberline forests. To determine factors associated with seedling establishment and survival on nurselogs at timberline, fourteen sites, located across a precipitation gradient in the Washington North Cascades Mountains, were examined. Site attributes including seedling type and height, disturbance process introducing downed wood, wood decay type, shading, slope gradient, aspect, and temperature and water content of wood and adjacent soil were determined along 60 m long transects. Nurselogs were found at 13 out of 14 sites; sites typically associated with greater than 80% shade and downed wood having a high level of wood decay. Downed wood serving as nurselogs originated from blowdown, snow avalanches, and forest fires. In total, 46 of 136 downed wood pieces observed served as nurselogs. Seedlings on nurselogs included mountain hemlock (Tsuga mertensiana), Pacific silver fir (Abies amabilis), yellow cedar (Chamaecyparis nootkatensis), subalpine fir (Abies lasiocarpa), Engelmann spruce (Picea engelmannii), and western larch (Larix occidentalis). Nurselogs had significantly higher temperatures (p = 0.015) and higher moisture contents (p = 0.019) than the adjacent soil. Per equal volumes weighed, nurselogs had on average of 23.8 g more water than the adjacent soil. Given predictions of climate warming and associated summer drought conditions in Pacific Northwest forests, the moisture provided by nurselogs may be integral for conifer survival and subsequent timberline expansion in some landscapes.

  15. Microclimate and Modeled Fire Behavior Differ Between Adjacent Forest Types in Northern Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Pinto

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Fire severity varies with forest composition and structure, reflecting micrometeorology and the fuel complex, but their respective influences are difficult to untangle from observation alone. We quantify the differences in fire weather between different forest types and the resulting differences in modeled fire behavior. Collection of in-stand weather data proceeded during two summer periods in three adjacent stands in northern Portugal, respectively Pinus pinaster (PP, Betula alba (BA, and Chamaecyparis lawsoniana (CL. Air temperature, relative humidity and wind speed varied respectively as CL < PP < BA, PP < CL < BA, and CL < BA < PP. Differences between PP and the other types were greatest during the warmest and driest hours of the day in a sequence of 10 days with high fire danger. Estimates of daytime moisture content of fine dead fuels and fire behavior characteristics for this period, respectively, from Behave and BehavePlus, indicate a CL < BA < PP gradient in fire potential. High stand density in CL and BA ensured lower wind speed and higher fuel moisture content than in PP, limiting the likelihood of an extreme fire environment. However, regression tree analysis revealed that the fire behavior distinction between the three forest types was primarily a function of the surface fuel complex, and more so during extreme fire weather conditions.

  16. Application of Proteomics to the Study of Pollination Drops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie Prior

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Premise of the study: Pollination drops are a formative component in gymnosperm pollen-ovule interactions. Proteomics offers a direct method for the discovery of proteins associated with this early stage of sexual reproduction. Methods: Pollination drops were sampled from eight gymnosperm species: Chamaecyparis lawsoniana (Port Orford cedar, Ephedra monosperma, Ginkgo biloba, Juniperus oxycedrus (prickly juniper, Larix ×marschlinsii, Pseudotsuga menziesii (Douglas-fir, Taxus ×media, and Welwitschia mirabilis. Drops were collected by micropipette using techniques focused on preventing sample contamination. Drop proteins were separated using both gel and gel-free methods. Tandem mass spectrometric methods were used including a triple quadrupole and an Orbitrap. Results: Proteins are present in all pollination drops. Consistency in the protein complement over time was shown in L. ×marschlinsii. Representative mass spectra from W. mirabilis chitinase peptide and E. monosperma serine carboxypeptidase peptide demonstrated high quality results. We provide a summary of gymnosperm pollination drop proteins that have been discovered to date via proteomics. Discussion: Using proteomic methods, a dozen classes of proteins have been identified to date. Proteomics presents a way forward in deepening our understanding of the biological function of pollination drops.

  17. Influence of electron beam irradiation on growth of Phytophthora cinnamomi and its control in substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    MigdaŁ, Wojciech; Orlikowski, Leszek B.; Ptaszek, Magdalena; Gryczka, Urszula

    2012-08-01

    Very extensive production procedure, especially in plants growing under covering, require methods, which would allow quick elimination or substantial reduction of populations of specific pathogens without affecting the growth and development of the cultivated plants. Among soil-borne pathogens, the Phytophthora species are especially dangerous for horticultural plants. In this study, irradiation with electron beam was applied to control Phytophthora cinnamomi. The influence of irradiation dose on the reduction of in vitro growth and the population density of the pathogen in treated peat and its mixture with composted pine bark (1:1), as well as the health of Chamaecyparis lawsoniana and Lavandula angustifolia plants were evaluated. Application of irradiation at a dose of 1.5 kGy completely inhibited the in vitro development of P. cinnamomi. This irradiation effect was connected with the disintegration of the hyphae and spores of the species. Irradiation of peat and its mixture with composted pine bark with 10 kGy resulted in the inhibition of stem base rot development in Ch. lawsoniana. Symptoms of the disease were not observed when the substrates were treated with 15 kGy. In the case of L. angustifolia, stem root rot was not observed on cuttings transplanted to infected peat irradiated at a dose of 10 kGy. Irradiation of the horticultural substrates did not affect plant growth.

  18. Reconstruction of the springtime East Asian Subtropical Jet and Western Pacific pattern from a millennial-length Taiwanese tree-ring chronology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, W. E.; Guan, B. T.; Tseng, Y.-H.; Cook, E. R.; Wei, K.-Y.; Chang, S.-T.

    2015-03-01

    The East Asian subtropical jet (EAJ) and the closely related Western Pacific pattern (WP) are among the most important features in global atmospheric dynamics, but little is known about their long-term variability. This study presents reconstructions of the Spring EAJ index (EAJI) and the Spring WP index (WPI) based on significant relationships identified between mean values for these features and a millennial length tree-ring width chronology of Chamaecyparis obtusa var. formosana, a high-mountain cloud forest species from northeastern Taiwan. Tree-ring based reconstructions of high pass filtered versions of the EAJI and WPI (EAJI 5YR and WPI 5YR) presented herein explain 42 and 31 % of the WPI 5YR and EAJI 5YR, respectively, and display acceptable reliability back to A.D. 1237. A significant trend present in the long-term variance of the reconstructed EAJI and WPI after A.D. 1860 suggests long-term increasing variability in the spring mean latitudinal placement and/or the strength/breadth of the EAJ core region near Taiwan and Japan and in the trajectory of the EAJ over the North Pacific. Related features affected by changes in the EAJ include the North Pacific storm track and Asian Dust transport.

  19. DISTRIBUCIÓN DEL AGUA LLUVIA EN TRES BOSQUES ALTOANDINOS DE LA CORDILLERA CENTRAL DE ANTIOQUIA, COLOMBIA RAINFALL DISTRIBUTION IN THREE HIGH ANDEAN FORESTS IN THE CENTRAL CORDILLERA OF COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Diego León Peláez

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió la distribución del agua lluvia durante tres años en un bosque climácico de roble (Quercus humboldtii y dos plantaciones forestales, de pino (Pinus patula y ciprés (Cupressus lusitanica ubicados en los Andes colombianos. Los principales ingresos de agua al bosque ocurrieron por la lluvia, cuyo valor medio anual fue 1.700 mm año-1. La precipitación interna tuvo la mayor participación de los flujos hídricos del bosque, siendo máxima en el cipresal (1.486 mm a-1, 90 % y mínima en el pinar (1.389 mm a-1, 81 %, mientras que el escurrimiento cortical fue muy bajo en los tres bosques (1-3 mm a-1, 0,1-0,2 %. La máxima intercepción se presentó en el pinar (329 mm a-1, equivalente al 19 % de la lluvia. A diferencia de estos flujos hídricos del dosel los flujos hídricos del suelo sí mostraron diferencias significativas entre coberturas (P Rainfall distribution was assessed for three years in a mature oak forest (Quercus humboldtii, pine (Pinus patula and cypress (Cupressus lusitanica plantations in the northern part of the colombian Andean mountains. An annual average of 1700 mm was the main water input in the forests, which came from the bulk precipitation. The higher water flows were represented by throughfall, which showed a maximum value in the cypress (1486 mm y¹, 90% and a minimum one in the pine (1389 mm y¹, 81% plantations, respectively. Stemflow was very low in the three forest types (1-3 mm y¹, 0.1-0.2%. The maximum amount of water intercepted by forest crowns was found in the pine plantation (329 mm y¹, which accounted for 19% out of the total rainfall. In opposition to the patterns found for throughfall and stemflow, soil hydric flows did show significant differences among forest types (P<0.05. In the oak forest water infiltration inversely decreased with soil depth; this forest type showed the lowest water losses by deep drainage (2 mm y¹. Finally, throughfall and stemflow were significantly correlated with the

  20. Space-use, movement and dispersal of sub-adult cougars in a geographically isolated population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl D. Morrison

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Cougar (Puma concolor observations have increased in Midwest North America, with breeding populations re-establishing in several regions east of their contemporary range. The Cypress Hills Uplands, located in southwest Saskatchewan and southeast Alberta, was recently re-colonized by cougars and now supports the easternmost confirmed breeding population of cougars in Canada. A number of factors contribute to this cougar range expansion, but it is dispersal that provides the mechanism for re-colonization of historic range. We used GPS-collar data to examine space-use and movement behavior of sub-adult cougars, the age class associated with dispersal, in the Cypress Hills. Conditional logistic regression and a two-stage modeling approach were used to estimate resource selection functions (RSF of sub-adult cougars during two distinct ranging behaviors: transient movements (i.e., dispersal and exploratory forays and localizing movements (i.e., temporary home ranges. Linear regression was used to model movement rates, measured as the distance between consecutive 3-h GPS-relocations, of sub-adult cougars relative to different habitats, times of day and between transient and localizing behavior. All individual sub-adult cougars displayed bouts of transient and localizing behavior. All male cougars dispersed from their natal ranges and travelled considerably farther distances than female cougars. One male dispersed over 750 km eastward through the agricultural belt of northern Montana and southern Saskatchewan. Males occupied temporary home ranges in more open habitats on the fringes of the insular Cypress Hills, while females appeared to be recruited into the adult population, occupying treed habitat that provided more suitable cover. During both ranging behaviors, sub-adult cougars selected for rugged terrain and proximity to hydrological features (likely supporting riparian habitats and avoided open cover types. Differences in habitat selection

  1. Speciation and bioavailability of selenium in yeast-based intervention agents used in cancer chemoprevention studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Erik Huusfeldt; Hansen, Marianne; Paulin, H.

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated the speciation and bioavailability of selenium in yeast-based intervention agents from multiple manufacturers from several time points. Sources of selenized yeast included Nutrition 21 (San Diego, CA), which supplied the Nutritional Prevention of Cancer (NPC) Trial from 1981......-1996; Cypress Systems (Fresno, CA; 1997-1999); and Pharma Nord (Vejle, Denmark; 1999-2000), which supplied the Prevention of Cancer by Intervention by Selenium (PRECISE) Trial pilot studies. The low-molecular-selenium species were liberated from the samples by proteolytic hydrolysis followed by separation...... at 54-60% of the total selenium in the yeasts. One batch of yeast, however (from 1985), which originated from the same producer as the yeast used in the NPC tablets, contained only 27% of selenium in the sample as selenomethionine. Human subjects receiving 200 mug selenium/day in the UK PRECISE Pilot...

  2. Impact of essential oils on mycelial growth of Botrytis cinerea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavko Grgić

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effect of 22 essential oils (anise, thyme, cumin, peppermint, lavender, sage, lemon balm, rosemary, myrtle, cinnamon leaf, basil, white pine, eucalyptus, cedar, bergamot, mandarin, cypress, patchouli, ginger, bitter orange, sandalwood, camphor on the growth of gray mold fungus Botrytis cinerea. The experiment was performed in vitro on PDA medium in 2 repetitions. Oils were applied in three amounts (3, 5 and 7 μl, and the mycelial growth was measured after three and nine days of incubation. All oils, except oils of bitter orange, sandalwood and camphor, have shown a certain antifungal activity. Compared to the water control, thyme and anise oil have shown the best antifungal activity, while for oils of bitter orange, sandalwood and camphor a stimulating effect on a growth of fungus B. cinerea was determined.

  3. Interactions between insects and fungal pathogens of forest and ornamental trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riziero Tiberi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The Authors have analyzed the interactions between insects and fungal pathogens of chestnut, cypress, elm, oak and pine trees in the natural environment and in urban areas. A brief description of the insect's life cycle is provided by relating some of its phases with the vectored fungus. The purpose of this work is to relate the different insect/pathogen associations with their environment in order to bring out the role of such symbioses in determining, together with abiotic factors, the destabilization of forest and urban ecosystems. The ascertained and possible interactions, as well as the ones that might occur in the future between immigrant and resident insects and fungal pathogens as a consequence of new introductions, are treated separately, taking into account the available control strategies, in particular those that are feasible in human-frequented areas.

  4. Geological evaluation of Gulf Coast salt domes: overall assessment of the Gulf Interior Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-10-01

    The three major phases in site characterization and selection are regional studies, area studies, and location studies. This report characterizes regional geologic aspects of the Gulf Coast salt dome basins. It includes general information from published sources on the regional geology; the tectonic, domal, and hydrologic stability; and a brief description the salt domes to be investigated. After a screening exercise, eight domes were chosen for further characterization: Keechi, Oakwood, and Palestine Domes in Texas; Vacherie and Rayburn's domes in North Louisiana; and Cypress Creek and Richton domes in Mississippi. A general description of each, maps of the location, property ownership, and surface geology, and a geologic cross section were presented for each dome.

  5. Estimating how and why Dr Okuda made a complete wooden human skeleton in the Edo era, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baba, Hisao

    2007-03-01

    Probably in 1820 (late Edo era), a human skeleton for medical education was precisely carved from cypress wood, based on a criminal's skeleton, by a craftsman under the supervision of the medical doctor Banri Okuda in Osaka City. By and large, the wooden skeleton shows morphological characteristics usually seen in early middle-aged females of the Edo era. However, the claviculae, distal ends of the femora and the patellae are exceptionally larger than those of a female, implying that the bones of the original model skeleton had already been lost or were deformed before the wooden skeleton was made. Furthermore, the skeleton may not have been used for medical education, but rather for the promotion of European medicine, which was gradually developing in the Edo era.

  6. Innovative Methods for Estimating Densities and Detection Probabilities of Secretive Reptiles Including Invasive Constrictors and Rare Upland Snakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-30

    ground,  vegetated  with Slash Pine and  Palmetto (Pine Rocklands). Along the middle section of the route, the road passes several ‘cypress  domes’ and...tropical hardwood hammocks that  vegetate  lower and higher ground, respectively.  Freshwater marsh gradually gives way to saline glades and eventually...harbor extremely high densities and potentially draw animals from a large  footprint  of the  surrounding landscape. Removal data suggest that canal levees

  7. Variations in tropical cyclone-related discharge in four watersheds near Houston, Texas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laiyin Zhu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We examined a 60-year record of daily precipitation and river discharge related to tropical cyclones (TCs in four watersheds undergoing land use and land cover change near Houston, Texas. Results show that TCs are responsible for ∼20% of the annual maximum discharge events in the four selected watersheds. Although there are no trends in TC precipitation, increasing trends were observed in daily extreme discharge and TC-related discharge. The more developed watersheds (Whiteoak Bayou and Brays Bayou, tend to have higher extreme discharge and steeper trends in extreme discharge than the less developed watersheds (Cypress Creek. Increases in TC-related extreme discharges correspond with increases in developed land and decreases in vegetated land between 1980 and 2006. Therefore, changes in land cover/use in watersheds near Houston are a major cause of the increased flooding risk in recent years.

  8. Ash properties of some dominant Greek forest species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liodakis, S. [Laboratory of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, Department of Chemical Engineering, National Technical University of Athens (NTUA), 9 Iroon Polytechniou Street, Athens 157 73 (Greece)]. E-mail: liodakis@central.ntua.gr; Katsigiannis, G. [Laboratory of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, Department of Chemical Engineering, National Technical University of Athens (NTUA), 9 Iroon Polytechniou Street, Athens 157 73 (Greece); Kakali, G. [Laboratory of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, Department of Chemical Engineering, National Technical University of Athens (NTUA), 9 Iroon Polytechniou Street, Athens 157 73 (Greece)

    2005-10-15

    The elemental and chemical wood ash compositions of six dominant Greek fuels was investigated using a variety of techniques, including thermal gravimetric analysis (TG), differential thermal analysis (DTA), atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). In addition, the alkalinity of wood ash was determined by titration. The ash was prepared by combustion at low (600 deg. C), middle (800 deg. C) and high temperatures (1000 deg. C). The ash composition is very important because thousands of hectares of wildlands are burned annually in Greece. The resulting deposits affect soil properties (i.e., pH) and provide a source of inorganic constituents (i.e., Ca, K, Na, Mg, etc.), while the most soluble compounds (i.e., sodium and potassium hydroxides and carbonates) do not persist through the wet season. The samples selected were: Pinus halepensis (Aleppo pine), Pinus brutia (Calabrian pine), Olea europaea (Olive), Cupressus sempervirens (Italian cypress), Pistacia lentiscus (Mastic tree), Quercus coccifera (Holly oak)

  9. Memories of a visiting scientist

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mytilineou, Eugenia [Physics Department, University of Patras, GR-26500 Patra (Greece)

    2012-10-15

    Stan Ovshinsky, the man who practically started the field of amorphous semiconductors in the West, is 90 years old this year. He always keeps the enthusiasm of a teenager and the slim and tall figure of a cypress tree. Stan's personality actually reminds me of these characteristic trees of the Mediterranean landscape; with their narrow tall figures pointing towards the sky and popping out of any green background surrounding them. Stan feels and behaves as a young man; even at the age of 85, following his old dream for changing the world, he founded a new company. I first met Stan and Iris in 1977. Since then, I have spent several sabbatical leaves in Energy Conversion Devices (ECD), from 1984 to 2004. In the following, our scientific collaboration and the build up of a very deep and sincere friendship will be described. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  10. Applications of advanced petroleum production technology and water alternating gas injection for enhanced oil recovery - Mattoon Oil Field, Illinois. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baroni, M. [American Oil Recovery, Inc., Decatur, IL (United States)

    1995-09-01

    Phase I results of a C0{sub 2}-assisted oil recovery demonstration project in selected Cypress Sandstone reservoirs at Mattoon Field, Illinois are reported. The design and scope of this project included C0{sub 2} injectvity testing in the Pinnell and Sawyer units, well stimulaton treatments with C0{sub 2} in the Strong unit and infill well drilling, completion and oil production. The field activities were supported by extensive C0{sub 2}-oil-water coreflood experiments, CO{sub 2} oil-phase interaction experiments, and integrated geologic modeling and reservoir simulations. The progress of the project was made public through presentations at an industry meeting and a DOEs contractors` symposium, through quarterly reports and one-to-one consultations with interested operators. Phase II of this project was not implemented. It would have been a water-alternating-gas (WAG) project of longer duration.

  11. The Nimitz Freeway Collapse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Bernard J.

    2004-10-01

    One of the most tragic sights created by the Loma Prieta earthquake of Oct. 17, 1989, was the collapse of the double-deck Nimitz Freeway (the Cypress Street Viaduct on Interstate 880) just south and east of the San Francisco-Oakland Bay Bridge in Oakland. Along a 1.4-km north-south stretch, the upper deck of the freeway fell on top of the lower deck of the freeway, killing 42 motorists (see Fig. 1). Even though the earthquake occurred during rush hour (5:04 p.m.), traffic was extremely light that day because the third game of the World Series between the Oakland Athletics and the San Francisco Giants was about to begin and many commuters were already at home in front of their television sets.

  12. Proceedings of the 2013 annual meeting of the Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders Study Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kable, Julie A; Reynolds, James N; Valenzuela, C Fernando; Medina, Alexandre E

    2014-11-01

    The 2013 Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders Study Group (FASDSG) meeting was held in Orlando (Grand Cypress), FL with the theme "Developing Brain-Based Interventions for Individuals with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders." Children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders have significant impairments in cognitive functioning and behavioral regulation skills, which lead to a lifetime of challenges for themselves and their families; thus, developing interventions that remediate or compensate for these deficits is of great importance. The conference included 2 keynote presentations, FASt data talks, award presentations, and updates by government agencies. In addition, a lively panel discussion addressed the challenges faced by FASDSG researchers in the translation of intervention strategies developed in preclinical studies to clinical trials and, ultimately, to clinical practice. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Linking river, floodplain, and vadose zone hydrology to improve restoration of a coastal river affected by saltwater intrusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, D; Muñoz-Carpena, R; Wan, Y; Hedgepeth, M; Zheng, F; Roberts, R; Rossmanith, R

    2010-01-01

    Floodplain forests provide unique ecological structure and function, which are often degraded or lost when watershed hydrology is modified. Restoration of damaged ecosystems requires an understanding of surface water, groundwater, and vadose (unsaturated) zone hydrology in the floodplain. Soil moisture and porewater salinity are of particular importance for seed germination and seedling survival in systems affected by saltwater intrusion but are difficult to monitor and often overlooked. This study contributes to the understanding of floodplain hydrology in one of the last bald cypress [Taxodium distichum (L.) Rich.] floodplain swamps in southeast Florida. We investigated soil moisture and porewater salinity dynamics in the floodplain of the Loxahatchee River, where reduced freshwater flow has led to saltwater intrusion and a transition to salt-tolerant, mangrove-dominated communities. Twenty-four dielectric probes measuring soil moisture and porewater salinity every 30 min were installed along two transects-one in an upstream, freshwater location and one in a downstream tidal area. Complemented by surface water, groundwater, and meteorological data, these unique 4-yr datasets quantified the spatial variability and temporal dynamics of vadose zone hydrology. Results showed that soil moisture can be closely predicted based on river stage and topographic elevation (overall Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient of efficiency = 0.83). Porewater salinity rarely exceeded tolerance thresholds (0.3125 S m(-1)) for bald cypress upstream but did so in some downstream areas. This provided an explanation for observed vegetation changes that both surface water and groundwater salinity failed to explain. The results offer a methodological and analytical framework for floodplain monitoring in locations where restoration success depends on vadose zone hydrology and provide relationships for evaluating proposed restoration and management scenarios for the Loxahatchee River.

  14. Contribution of Soil Fauna to Foliar Litter-Mass Loss in Winter in an Ecotone between Dry Valley and Montane Forest in the Upper Reaches of the Minjiang River.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Peng

    Full Text Available Litter decomposition during winter can provide essential nutrients for plant growth in the subsequent growing season, which plays important role in preventing the expansion of dry areas and maintaining the stability of ecotone ecosystems. However, limited information is currently available on the contributions of soil fauna to litter decomposition during winter in such ecosystems. Therefore, a field experiment that included litterbags with two different mesh sizes (0.04 mm and 3 mm was conducted to investigate the contribution of soil fauna to the loss of foliar litter mass in winter from November 2013 to April 2014 along the upper reaches of the Minjiang River. Two litter types of the dominant species were selected in each ecosystem: cypress (Cupressus chengiana and oak (Quercus baronii in ecotone; cypress (Cupressus chengiana and clovershrub (Campylotropis macrocarpa in dry valley; and fir (Abies faxoniana and birch (Betula albosinensis in montane forest. Over one winter incubation, foliar litter lost 6.0%-16.1%, 11.4%-26.0%, and 6.4%-8.5% of initial mass in the ecotone, dry valley and montane forest, respectively. Soil fauna showed obvious contributions to the loss of foliar litter mass in all of the ecosystems. The highest contribution (48.5%-56.8% was observed in the ecotone, and the lowest contribution (0.4%-25.8% was observed in the montane forest. Compared with other winter periods, thawing period exhibited higher soil fauna contributions to litter mass loss in ecotone and dry valley, but both thawing period and freezing period displayed higher soil fauna contributions in montane forest. Statistical analysis demonstrated that the contribution of soil fauna was significantly correlated with temperature and soil moisture during the winter-long incubation. These results suggest that temperature might be the primary control factor in foliar litter decomposition, but more active soil fauna in the ecotone could contribute more in litter

  15. Testing alternative designs for a roadside animal detection system using a driving simulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molly K. Grace

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: A Roadside Animal Detection System (RADS was installed in January 2012 along Highway 41 through Big Cypress National Preserve in Florida, USA in an attempt to reduce wildlife-vehicle collisions. The system uses flashing warning signs to alert drivers when a large animal is near the road. However, we suspected that the RADS warning signs could be ignored by drivers because they resemble other conventional signs. We hypothesized that word-based warning signs (current design are less effective than picture-based signs at catching drivers’ attention. Methods: We used a driving simulator to test (1 the effects of the RADS on collision rate, driver speed, and latency to brake; and (2 whether the RADS would be more effective if warning signs were picture-based. Participants were randomly assigned to one of three treatments: no warning (control, word-based RADS signs (current design, and picture-based RADS signs (proposed design. During the simulations, a deer entered the road in front of the driver, and we recorded whether drivers “crashed” or not. Results: Both the picture-based and word-based RADS signs resulted in significantly lower crash probabilities. The picture-based RADS signs performed better than the word-based signs in reducing speed and latency to brake, although the effect varied between twilight and night. However, the word-based RADS signs still did produce significant reductions in speed and braking latency. Conclusions: We conclude that the word-based RADS in Big Cypress should help prevent dangerous wildlife-vehicle collisions, but that redesigning the warning signs to be picture-based could yield even greater benefits.

  16. Is the ISAC 112 Microarray Useful in the Diagnosis of Pollinosis in Spain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, B E; Martínez-Aranguren, R; Bernard Alonso, A; Gamboa, P; Feo Brito, F; Bartra, J; Blanca-López, N; Gómez, F; Alvarado, M I; Fernández, J; Alonso, M D; Gonzalez-Mancebo, E; Moya, C; Parra, A; Terrados, S; Sola, L; Goikoetxea, M J; Sanz, M L

    2016-01-01

    Multiple sensitization is frequent among pollen-allergic patients. The goal of this study was to determine the diagnostic accuracy of the ImmunoCAP ISAC 112 (ISAC112) microarray in allergy to pollen from several taxa and its clinical utility in a Spanish population. Specific IgE was determined in 390 pollen-allergic patients using the ISAC112 microarray. Diagnostic accuracy (sensitivity, specificity, predictive values, and area under the ROC curve) was calculated for the diagnosis of allergy to pollen from grass (n=49), cypress (n=75), olive tree (n=33), plane tree (n=63), and pellitory of the wall (n=17) and compared with that of the singleplex ImmunoCAP immunoassay. The sensitivity of the ISAC112 microarray ranged from 68.2% for allergy to plane tree pollen to 93.9% for allergy to grass pollen. The specificity was >90%. The AUC for the diagnosis of allergy to plane tree pollen was 0.798, whereas the AUC for the remaining cases was ≥0.876. The accuracy of ISAC112 was higher than that of ImmunoCAP for plane tree pollen and similar for the remaining pollens. The frequency of sensitization to most species-specific allergenic components and profilins varied between the different geographical regions studied. A total of 73% of pollen-allergic patients were sensitized to species-specific components of more than 1 pollen type. The ISAC112 microarray is an accurate tool for the diagnosis of allergy to pollen from grass, cypress, olive tree, plane tree, and pellitory of the wall. The features of the ISAC112 microarray are similar or superior (in the case of plane tree pollen) to those of ImmunoCAP. This microarray is particularly useful for the etiologic diagnosis of pollinosis in patients sensitized to multiple pollen species whose pollination periods overlap.

  17. Treatment paradigms for cataplexy in narcolepsy: past, present, and future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swick TJ

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Todd J Swick1–4 1Department of Neurology, University of Texas School of Medicine-Houston, Houston; 2The Sleep Center at North Cypress Medical Center, Cypress; 3Apnix Sleep Diagnostics, Houston; 4Neurology and Sleep Medicine Consultants, Houston, TX, USA Abstract: Cataplexy is defined as episodes of sudden loss of voluntary muscle tone triggered by emotions generally lasting <2 minutes. Cataplexy is most commonly associated with and considered pathognomonic for narcolepsy, a sleep disorder affecting ~0.05% of the general population. Knowledge of the pathophysiology of cataplexy has advanced through study of canine, murine, and human models. It is now generally considered that loss of signaling by hypothalamic hypocretin/orexin-producing neurons plays a key role in the development of cataplexy. Although the cause of hypocretin/orexin neuron loss in narcolepsy with cataplexy is unknown, an autoimmune etiology is widely hypothesized. Despite these advances, a literature review shows that treatment of cataplexy remains limited. Multiple classes of antidepressants have been commonly used off-label for cataplexy in narcolepsy and are suggested for this use in expert consensus guidelines based on traditional practice, case reports, and small trials. However, systematic research evidence supporting antidepressants for cataplexy is lacking. The single pharmacotherapy indicated for cataplexy and the guideline-recommended first-line treatment in Europe and the US is sodium oxybate, the sodium salt of gamma-hydroxybutyrate. Clinical trial evidence of its efficacy and safety in cataplexy is robust, and it is hypothesized that its therapeutic effects may occur through gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor type B-mediated effects at noradrenergic, dopaminergic, and thalamocortical neurons. Additional possible mechanisms for cataplexy therapy suggested by preliminary research include antagonism of the histamine H3 autoreceptor with pitolisant and intravenous

  18. [Effects of snow cover on water soluble and organic solvent soluble components during foliar litter decomposition in an alpine forest].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Li-Ya; Yang, Wan-Qin; Li, Han; Ni, Xiang-Yin; He, Jie; Wu, Fu-Zhong

    2014-11-01

    Seasonal snow cover may change the characteristics of freezing, leaching and freeze-thaw cycles in the scenario of climate change, and then play important roles in the dynamics of water soluble and organic solvent soluble components during foliar litter decomposition in the alpine forest. Therefore, a field litterbag experiment was conducted in an alpine forest in western Sichuan, China. The foliar litterbags of typical tree species (birch, cypress, larch and fir) and shrub species (willow and azalea) were placed on the forest floor under different snow cover thickness (deep snow, medium snow, thin snow and no snow). The litterbags were sampled at snow formation stage, snow cover stage and snow melting stage in winter. The results showed that the content of water soluble components from six foliar litters decreased at snow formation stage and snow melting stage, but increased at snow cover stage as litter decomposition proceeded in the winter. Besides the content of organic solvent soluble components from azalea foliar litter increased at snow cover stage, the content of organic solvent soluble components from the other five foliar litters kept a continue decreasing tendency in the winter. Compared with the content of organic solvent soluble components, the content of water soluble components was affected more strongly by snow cover thickness, especially at snow formation stage and snow cover stage. Compared with the thicker snow covers, the thin snow cover promoted the decrease of water soluble component contents from willow and azalea foliar litter and restrain the decrease of water soluble component content from cypress foliar litter. Few changes in the content of water soluble components from birch, fir and larch foliar litter were observed under the different thicknesses of snow cover. The results suggested that the effects of snow cover on the contents of water soluble and organic solvent soluble components during litter decomposition would be controlled by

  19. Human CD1-restricted T cell recognition of lipids from pollens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agea, Elisabetta; Russano, Anna; Bistoni, Onelia; Mannucci, Roberta; Nicoletti, Ildo; Corazzi, Lanfranco; Postle, Anthony D.; De Libero, Gennaro; Porcelli, Steven A.; Spinozzi, Fabrizio

    2005-01-01

    Plant pollens are an important source of environmental antigens that stimulate allergic responses. In addition to acting as vehicles for foreign protein antigens, they contain lipids that incorporate saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, which are necessary in the reproduction of higher plants. The CD1 family of nonpolymorphic major histocompatibility complex–related molecules is highly conserved in mammals, and has been shown to present microbial and self lipids to T cells. Here, we provide evidence that pollen lipids may be recognized as antigens by human T cells through a CD1-dependent pathway. Among phospholipids extracted from cypress grains, phosphatidyl-choline and phosphatidyl-ethanolamine were able to stimulate the proliferation of T cells from cypress-sensitive subjects. Recognition of phospholipids involved multiple cell types, mostly CD4+ T cell receptor for antigen (TCR)αβ+, some CD4−CD8− TCRγδ+, but rarely Vα24i+ natural killer–T cells, and required CD1a+ and CD1d+ antigen presenting cell. The responding T cells secreted both interleukin (IL)-4 and interferon-γ, in some cases IL-10 and transforming growth factor-β, and could provide help for immunoglobulin E (IgE) production. Responses to pollen phospholipids were maximally evident in blood samples obtained from allergic subjects during pollinating season, uniformly absent in Mycobacterium tuberculosis–exposed health care workers, but occasionally seen in nonallergic subjects. Finally, allergic, but not normal subjects, displayed circulating specific IgE and cutaneous weal and flare reactions to phospholipids. PMID:16009719

  20. Hydrogeomorphic and ecological control on carbonate dissolution in a patterned landscape in South Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, X.; Heffernan, J. B.; Murray, A. B.; Cohen, M. J.; Martin, J. B.

    2016-12-01

    The evolution of the critical zone both shapes and reflects hydrologic, geochemical, and ecological processes. These interactions are poorly understood in karst landscapes with highly soluble bedrock. In this study, we used the regular-dispersed wetland basins of Big Cypress National Preserve in Florida as a focal case to model the hydrologic, geochemical, and biological mechanisms that affect soil development in karst landscapes. We addressed two questions: (1) What is the minimum timescale for wetland basin development, and (2) do changes in soil depth feed back on dissolution processes and if so by what mechanism? We developed an atmosphere-water-soil model with coupled water-solute transport, incorporating major ion equilibria and kinetic non-equilibrium chemistry, and biogenic acid production via roots distributed through the soil horizon. Under current Florida climate, weathering to a depth of 2 m (a typical depth of wetland basins) would take 4000 6000 yrs, suggesting that landscape pattern could have origins as recent as the most recent stabilization of sea level. Our model further illustrates that interactions between ecological and hydrologic processes influence the rate and depth-dependence of weathering. Absent inundation, dissolution rate decreased exponentially with distance from the bedrock to groundwater table. Inundation generally increased bedrock dissolution, but surface water chemistry and residence time produced complex and non-linear effects on dissolution rate. Biogenic acidity accelerated the dissolution rate by 50 and 1,000 times in inundated and exposed soils. Phase portrait analysis indicated that exponential decreases in bedrock dissolution rate with soil depth could produce stable basin depths. Negative feedback between hydro-period and total basin volume could stabilize the basin radius, but the lesser strength of this mechanism may explain the coalescence of wetland basins observed in some parts of the Big Cypress Landscape.

  1. Colonial nesting Yellow-crowned Night Herons on the San Antonio River Walk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boal, Clint W.

    2010-01-01

    Yellow-crowned Night Herons (Nyctinassa violacea) typically nest as single pairs or in small colonies of about four pairs with high internest distances. They are also reported as susceptible to disturbance and to avoid habitat with high human use. However, some Yellowcrowned Night Herons habituate to human-dominated landscapes and nest in residential areas. I located a colony of nesting Yellow-crowned Night Herons in San Antonio, Texas on the River Walk, a popular tourist destination with an estimated 2.5 million visitors annually. I located 68 and 71 active nests in 2008 and 2009, respectively. This suggests the breeding population of the colony was 142 adult birds (77 adult herons/linear km of River Walk) in 2009. Herons occurred in a colony with three nesting aggregations situated 241 (±14 SD) m apart. Aggregations averaged 23.7 (±8.7 SD) nests each with one–nine nests per tree; nest trees within each aggregation were usually adjacent. Nests averaged 16.7 m (±4.1 SD) above ground, with 56% of nests over the river, 23% over sidewalks, 17% over dining areas, and 3% over landscaping. Only bald cypress (Taxodium distichum) was used for nest trees, and these were significantly taller and larger in diameter than random bald cypress trees. The herons were habituated to pedestrian activities, often perching only a few meters over sidewalks or dining areas, and foraging along the water’s edge as pedestrians passed within 4–5 m. Nests located over dining areas and sidewalks do impose some management issues. It is apparent the species is capable of habituating to human activities to exploit suitable urban settings for nesting and foraging habitat.

  2. The Monitoring Network of the Vancouver 2010 Olympics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joe, Paul; Scott, Bill; Doyle, Chris; Isaac, George; Gultepe, Ismail; Forsyth, Douglas; Cober, Stewart; Campos, Edwin; Heckman, Ivan; Donaldson, Norman; Hudak, David; Rasmussen, Roy; Kucera, Paul; Stewart, Ron; Thériault, Julie M.; Fisico, Teresa; Rasmussen, Kristen L.; Carmichael, Hannah; Laplante, Alex; Bailey, Monika; Boudala, Faisal

    2012-12-04

    Abstract—An innovative monitoring network was implemented to support the operational and science programs for the Vancouver 2010 Winter Olympics. It consisted of in situ weather stations on custom-designed platforms. The sensors included an HMP45C for temperature, humidity and pressure, a tipping bucket rain gauge, an acoustic snow depth sensor, a Pluvio 1 precipitation gauge and an anemometer placed at gauge height and at 10 m height. Modifications to commercial automated precipitation gauges were necessary for the heavy snowfall conditions. Advanced or emerging technologies were deployed to support scientific and nowcasting studies into precipitation intensity, typing, visibility and wind. The sensors included an FD12P visibility and precipitation sensor, a precipitation occurrence sensing system (POSS) present weather sensor, a Hotplate precipitation sensor and a Parsivel disdrometer. Data were collected at 1 min sampling intervals. A Doppler weather radar was deployed in a valley location and provided critical detailed low-level data. An X-band dual-polarized radar was deployed by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration to monitor Vancouver and Cypress Mountain. Three remote sensing stations for vertical profiling were established. At the base of Whistler Mountain, a micro-rain radar, a 22-channel radiometer, a ceilometer, a Parsivel and a POSS were installed. At the base of Cypress Mountain, a micro-rain radar, a ceilometer, a low cost rain sensor (LCR by ATTEX) and a POSS were installed. At Squamish, a wind profiler and a POSS were installed. Weather sensors were mounted on the Whistler Village Gondola and on the Peak to Peak gondola. Sites were established along the Whistler Mountain slope and at other key locations. The combination of sites and instruments formed a comprehensive network to provide observations appropriate for nowcasting in winter complex terrain and investigate precipitation, visibility and wind processes. The contribution

  3. The Monitoring Network of the Vancouver 2010 Olympics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joe, Paul; Scott, Bill; Doyle, Chris; Isaac, George; Gultepe, Ismail; Forsyth, Douglas; Cober, Stewart; Campos, Edwin; Heckman, Ivan; Donaldson, Norman; Hudak, David; Rasmussen, Roy; Kucera, Paul; Stewart, Ron; Thériault, Julie M.; Fisico, Teresa; Rasmussen, Kristen L.; Carmichael, Hannah; Laplante, Alex; Bailey, Monika; Boudala, Faisal

    2014-01-01

    An innovative monitoring network was implemented to support the operational and science programs for the Vancouver 2010 Winter Olympics. It consisted of in situ weather stations on custom-designed platforms. The sensors included an HMP45C for temperature, humidity and pressure, a tipping bucket rain gauge, an acoustic snow depth sensor, a Pluvio 1 precipitation gauge and an anemometer placed at gauge height and at 10 m height. Modifications to commercial automated precipitation gauges were necessary for the heavy snowfall conditions. Advanced or emerging technologies were deployed to support scientific and nowcasting studies into precipitation intensity, typing, visibility and wind. The sensors included an FD12P visibility and precipitation sensor, a precipitation occurrence sensing system (POSS) present weather sensor, a Hotplate precipitation sensor and a Parsivel disdrometer. Data were collected at 1 min sampling intervals. A Doppler weather radar was deployed in a valley location and provided critical detailed low-level data. An X-band dual-polarized radar was deployed by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration to monitor Vancouver and Cypress Mountain. Three remote sensing stations for vertical profiling were established. At the base of Whistler Mountain, a micro-rain radar, a 22-channel radiometer, a ceilometer, a Parsivel and a POSS were installed. At the base of Cypress Mountain, a micro-rain radar, a ceilometer, a low cost rain sensor (LCR by ATTEX) and a POSS were installed. At Squamish, a wind profiler and a POSS were installed. Weather sensors were mounted on the Whistler Village Gondola and on the Peak to Peak gondola. Sites were established along the Whistler Mountain slope and at other key locations. The combination of sites and instruments formed a comprehensive network to provide observations appropriate for nowcasting in winter complex terrain and investigate precipitation, visibility and wind processes. The contribution provides a

  4. Contribution of Soil Fauna to Foliar Litter-Mass Loss in Winter in an Ecotone between Dry Valley and Montane Forest in the Upper Reaches of the Minjiang River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yan; Yang, Wanqin; Li, Jun; Wang, Bin; Zhang, Chuan; Yue, Kai; Wu, Fuzhong

    2015-01-01

    Litter decomposition during winter can provide essential nutrients for plant growth in the subsequent growing season, which plays important role in preventing the expansion of dry areas and maintaining the stability of ecotone ecosystems. However, limited information is currently available on the contributions of soil fauna to litter decomposition during winter in such ecosystems. Therefore, a field experiment that included litterbags with two different mesh sizes (0.04 mm and 3 mm) was conducted to investigate the contribution of soil fauna to the loss of foliar litter mass in winter from November 2013 to April 2014 along the upper reaches of the Minjiang River. Two litter types of the dominant species were selected in each ecosystem: cypress (Cupressus chengiana) and oak (Quercus baronii) in ecotone; cypress (Cupressus chengiana) and clovershrub (Campylotropis macrocarpa) in dry valley; and fir (Abies faxoniana) and birch (Betula albosinensis) in montane forest. Over one winter incubation, foliar litter lost 6.0%-16.1%, 11.4%-26.0%, and 6.4%-8.5% of initial mass in the ecotone, dry valley and montane forest, respectively. Soil fauna showed obvious contributions to the loss of foliar litter mass in all of the ecosystems. The highest contribution (48.5%-56.8%) was observed in the ecotone, and the lowest contribution (0.4%-25.8%) was observed in the montane forest. Compared with other winter periods, thawing period exhibited higher soil fauna contributions to litter mass loss in ecotone and dry valley, but both thawing period and freezing period displayed higher soil fauna contributions in montane forest. Statistical analysis demonstrated that the contribution of soil fauna was significantly correlated with temperature and soil moisture during the winter-long incubation. These results suggest that temperature might be the primary control factor in foliar litter decomposition, but more active soil fauna in the ecotone could contribute more in litter decomposition and

  5. Diadophis Puntatus Puntatus (Southern Ring-neck Snake) Predation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotte, Steve W.

    2016-01-01

    DIADOPHIS PUNCTATUS PUNCTATUS (Southern Ring-necked Snake). PREDATION. Here I present the first record of Buteo lineatus (Red-shouldered Hawk) predator on a Diadophis p. punctatus. At ca. 1100h on l2 February2 013,I observed a B. lineatus eating a katydid in Corkscrew Swamp Sanctuary (26.2730'N, 81.6079"W;WGS 84), Collier Co., Florida, USA. The hawk was in a Pond Cypress tree on the edge of a small prairie bordered on one side by a cypress swamp and by pine woodland on the other. Immediately upon consuming the katydid, the hawk flew to the ground ca. 1.5 m from an elevated boardwalk to grab an adult D. punctatus. It then flew with the snake in its talons to a branch 3 m high ca. l0 m from the boardwalk. The hawk stretched and otherwise manipulated the struggling snake (Fig.1) before consuming the still moving snake. Although snakes are a well-known component of B. lineatus diet (Clark1 987A. Field Guide to the Hawks of North America. Houghton Mifflin Co. Boston, Massachusetts 198 pp.), I found only one literature reference to Red-shouldered Hawks eating Ring-neck Snakes (Fisher 1893.Hawks and Owls of the United States in their Relation to Agriculture. U.S. Dept. Agric., Div Ornith. Mamm. Bull. 3). That specimen was from Canton, New York (taken 26 Oct IBBB) and would be a D. p. edwardisii (Northern Ring-necked Snake), while the snake reported on here is a Diadophis p. punctatus (USNM Herp Image 2847a -c). Based on evidence presented by Fontanella et al. (2008. Mol. Phylogenet Evol.46:1049-1070), D. p. edwardisii and D. p. punctatus are likely different species.

  6. Dynamics of leaf litter humidity, depth and quantity: two restoration strategies failed to mimic ground microhabitat conditions of a low montane and premontane forest in Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaidett Barrientos

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about how restoration strategies affect aspects like leaf litter’s quantity, depth and humidity. I analyzed leaf litter’s quantity, depth and humidity yearly patterns in a primary tropical lower montane wet forest and two restored areas: a 15 year old secondary forest (unassisted restoration and a 40 year old Cupressus lusitanica plantation (natural understory. The three habitats are located in the Río Macho Forest Reserve, Costa Rica. Twenty litter samples were taken every three months (April 2009-April 2010 in each habitat; humidity was measured in 439g samples (average, depth and quantity were measured in five points inside 50x50cm plots. None of the restoration strategies reproduced the primary forest leaf litter humidity, depth and quantity yearly patterns. Primary forest leaf litter humidity was higher and more stable (x=73.2, followed by secondary forest (x=63.3 and cypress plantation (x=52.9 (Kruskall-Wallis=77.93, n=232, p=0.00. In the primary (Kruskal-Wallis=31.63, n=78, p<0.001 and secondary (Kruskal-Wallis=11.79, n=75, p=0.008 forest litter accumulation was higher during April due to strong winds. In the primary forest (Kruskal-wallis=21.83, n=78, p<0.001 and the cypress plantation (Kruskal-wallis=39.99, n=80, p<0.001 leaf litter depth was shallow in October because heavy rains compacted it. Depth patterns were different from quantity patterns and described the leaf litter’s structure in different ecosystems though the year.

  7. Antifungal activity and ultrastructural alterations in Pseudocercospora griseola treated with essential oils Atividade antifúngica e alterações ultraestruturais em Pseudocercospora griseola tratado com óleos essenciais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julián Mauricio Ágredo Hoyos

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Pseudocercospora griseola, the etiologic agent of angular leaf spot of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris, is an important disease in all bean-producing regions worldwide and may cause extremely high yield losses. The control of this disease is made more difficult by the pathogen's genetic variability and the inefficiency of fungicides. In this study, of 26 essential oils tested at different concentrations, 25 demonstrated efficiency in affecting the germination of strains 63-31 and 63-63 of the pathogen, reaching inhibition levels of between 80% and 100%. Cymbopogon citratus and Cymbopogon martinii inhibited conidia germination at all concentrations; Eugenia caryophyllata, Cinnamomum sp., Thymus vulgaris, Matricaria recutita, Cordia verbenacea, Origanum vulgare, Cymbopogon nardus, at 0.1 and 0.5%; and Zingiber officinale, Mentha arvensis, Chamaecyparis pisifera, Lavandula officinalis, Ocimum basilicum, Pimpinella anisum, Ocimum selloi, Baccharis dracunculifolia, Laurus nobilis, Citrus sinensis, Melaleuca alternifolia and Eucalyptus globulus, at 0.5%. The main constituents identified were cinnamaldehyde in Cinnamomum sp.; eugenol in E. caryophyllata; trans-β-farnesene in M. recutita; pulegone in C. verbenacea; thymol in T. vulgaris; geranial and neral in C. citratus, and geraniol in C. martini. Through transmission electron microscopy (TEM, it was verified that C. citratus, C. martini and E. caryophyllata presented direct fungitoxic action on P. griseola, causing severe damage to the cellular ultrastructure of the conidia, invalidating germination. These results indicated that essential oils are a promising alternative strategy for the control of angular leaf spot in bean, representing less risk to human health and the environment.Pseudocercospora griseola, agente etiológico da mancha angular do feijoeiro comum (Phaseolus vulgaris, é uma doença importante nas regiões produtoras de feijão em todo o mundo e pode causar perdas de produtividade

  8. Connecting long-term changes of tree species with their water competition in Mt. Baegun, Rep. of Korea using stable isotope analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hoontaek; Song, Wookyung; Lee, Minsu; Lee, Boknam; Cho, Sungsik; Park, Juhan; Mun, Leeman; Cho, Seonhee; Lee, Sungjae; Kim, Hyunseok

    2017-04-01

    The species composition of temperate forests changes dramatically under various climate change scenarios. Especially, conifer species at the high mountains will lose their habitats and will be replaced by broadleaf species. One of main reasons for these changes in species could be attributed to the water competition among tree species. Therefore, we investigated the differences in water uptake scheme between conifer and broadleaf species from the temperate forests of Korea using stable isotopes. Six study plots with species under high competition (conifers vs. broadleaf species) were chosen based on 15 years of tree survey data in Mt. Baegun, Rep. of Korea. The species-specific water uptake depth was estimated by measuring hydrogen(δ2H) and oxygen(δ18O) ratio from the xylem sap of individual species and by comparing them with those of soil water from 5 depths, (10, 30, 50, 100 and 120 cm), which extracted by lysimeter. The collection was conducted from April 2016 to Nov 2016. Primary results show the stable isotope signatures of soil water was increased from 10 cm to 30 cm, and then decreased gradually until 120 cm. In addition, current dominant canopy species, Chamaecyparis obtusa absorbed majority of their water from 10 to 30 cm depth. In comparison, current mid canopy but one of upcoming dominant species, Styrax obassia's major water source was 30 cm and deeper of soil. Our results could be essential for the prediction of species composition under climate change by providing species-specific adaptation ability connected to its water uptake scheme.

  9. Detecting Forests Damaged by Pine Wilt Disease at the Individual Tree Level Using Airborne Laser Data and WORLDVIEW-2/3 Images Over Two Seasons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takenaka, Y.; Katoh, M.; Deng, S.; Cheung, K.

    2017-10-01

    Pine wilt disease is caused by the pine wood nematode (Bursaphelenchus xylophilus) and Japanese pine sawyer (Monochamus alternatus). This study attempted to detect damaged pine trees at different levels using a combination of airborne laser scanning (ALS) data and high-resolution space-borne images. A canopy height model with a resolution of 50 cm derived from the ALS data was used for the delineation of tree crowns using the Individual Tree Detection method. Two pan-sharpened images were established using the ortho-rectified images. Next, we analyzed two kinds of intensity-hue-saturation (IHS) images and 18 remote sensing indices (RSI) derived from the pan-sharpened images. The mean and standard deviation of the 2 IHS images, 18 RSI, and 8 bands of the WV-2 and WV-3 images were extracted for each tree crown and were used to classify tree crowns using a support vector machine classifier. Individual tree crowns were assigned to one of nine classes: bare ground, Larix kaempferi, Cryptomeria japonica, Chamaecyparis obtusa, broadleaved trees, healthy pines, and damaged pines at slight, moderate, and heavy levels. The accuracy of the classifications using the WV-2 images ranged from 76.5 to 99.6 %, with an overall accuracy of 98.5 %. However, the accuracy of the classifications using the WV-3 images ranged from 40.4 to 95.4 %, with an overall accuracy of 72 %, which suggests poorer accuracy compared to those classes derived from the WV-2 images. This is because the WV-3 images were acquired in October 2016 from an area with low sun, at a low altitude.

  10. DETECTING FORESTS DAMAGED BY PINE WILT DISEASE AT THE INDIVIDUAL TREE LEVEL USING AIRBORNE LASER DATA AND WORLDVIEW-2/3 IMAGES OVER TWO SEASONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Takenaka

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Pine wilt disease is caused by the pine wood nematode (Bursaphelenchus xylophilus and Japanese pine sawyer (Monochamus alternatus. This study attempted to detect damaged pine trees at different levels using a combination of airborne laser scanning (ALS data and high-resolution space-borne images. A canopy height model with a resolution of 50 cm derived from the ALS data was used for the delineation of tree crowns using the Individual Tree Detection method. Two pan-sharpened images were established using the ortho-rectified images. Next, we analyzed two kinds of intensity-hue-saturation (IHS images and 18 remote sensing indices (RSI derived from the pan-sharpened images. The mean and standard deviation of the 2 IHS images, 18 RSI, and 8 bands of the WV-2 and WV-3 images were extracted for each tree crown and were used to classify tree crowns using a support vector machine classifier. Individual tree crowns were assigned to one of nine classes: bare ground, Larix kaempferi, Cryptomeria japonica, Chamaecyparis obtusa, broadleaved trees, healthy pines, and damaged pines at slight, moderate, and heavy levels. The accuracy of the classifications using the WV-2 images ranged from 76.5 to 99.6 %, with an overall accuracy of 98.5 %. However, the accuracy of the classifications using the WV-3 images ranged from 40.4 to 95.4 %, with an overall accuracy of 72 %, which suggests poorer accuracy compared to those classes derived from the WV-2 images. This is because the WV-3 images were acquired in October 2016 from an area with low sun, at a low altitude.

  11. A comparison of fungal endophytic community diversity in tree leaves of rural and urban temperate forests of Kanto district, eastern Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumura, Emi; Fukuda, Kenji

    2013-03-01

    To clarify the effects of forest fragmentation and a change in tree species composition following urbanization on endophytic fungal communities, we isolated fungal endophytes from the foliage of nine tree species in suburban (Kashiwa City, Chiba) and rural (Mt. Wagakuni, Ibaraki; Mt. Takao, Tokyo) forests and compared the fungal communities between sites and host tree species. Host specificity was evaluated using the index of host specificity (Si), and the number of isolated species, total isolation frequency, and the diversity index were calculated. From just one to several host-specific species were recognized in all host tree species at all sites. The total isolation frequency of all fungal species on Quercus myrsinaefolia, Quercus serrata, and Chamaecyparis obtusa and the total isolation frequency of host-specific species on Q. myrsinaefolia, Q. serrata, and Eurya japonica were significantly lower in Kashiwa than in the rural forests. The similarity indices (nonmetric multidimensional scaling (NMS) and CMH) of endophytic communities among different tree species were higher in Kashiwa, as many tree species shared the same fungal species in the suburban forest. Endophytic fungi with a broad host range were grouped into four clusters suggesting their preference for conifer/broadleaves and evergreen/deciduous trees. Forest fragmentation and isolation by urbanization have been shown to cause the decline of host-specific fungal species and a decrease in β diversity of endophytic communities, i.e., endophytic communities associated with tree leaves in suburban forests were found to be depauperate. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Allergic sensitization prevalence in a children and adolescent population of northeastern Greece region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katotomichelakis, Michael; Danielides, Gerasimos; Iliou, Theodoros; Anastassopoulos, George; Nikolaidis, Christos; Kirodymos, Efthimios; Giotakis, Evangelos; Constantinidis, Theodoros C

    2016-10-01

    To evaluate the prevalence of allergic sensitization in a childhood and adolescent population, to explore age- and gender-specific variations and finally to discover co-sensitivities among allergens. A two-stage cross-sectional survey among school-aged children. The two stages of the study involved enrollment of schools and then skin prick testing (SPT) within schools. A total of 675 school children were included in the study. Of those, 231 were diagnosed with allergic rhinitis (AR), according to the medical history as provided by parental-completed questionnaires and positive SPT results. The antigen panel consisted of common allergens and more specifically house dust mites-HDM (Dermatophagoides farinae and Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus), grass mix, trees (olive, cypress and pine), weeds (Parietaria spp.), cat and dog epithelium and moulds (Alternaria spp., Cladosporium spp.). The SPT sensitivity was graded according to SPT-USA Standards. The overall prevalence rate of AR was 34.22%. In total, 93 school children (40.3%) were mono- and 138 (59.7%) were poly-sensitized. Overall, the most prevalent sensitizations in decreasing order were to HDM (59.74%), to grasses (48.9%), to Alternaria (34.6%) and to olive (14.71%). There were no age- and sex-specific differences, except for Alternaria mould that showed a significant prevalence among primary school-aged children and predominance in the female gender, by contrast to grass pollen allergy that was predominant to males. A 32% of SPT-positive individuals were not aware of their allergy, with no statistically significant differences between ages. Co-sensitivities were detected for grass pollens and pine and olive trees, for Alternaria and Cladosporium moulds, for cypress and pine trees, and finally for dog and cat danders. Given data among school-aged children should be a baseline from which to monitor disease trends and is considered important for the optimal management of AR patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier

  13. Water-quality assessment of southern Florida; an overview of available information on surface-and ground-water quality and ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haag, K.H.; Miller, R.L.; Bradner, L.A.; McCulloch, D.S.

    1996-01-01

    This report summarizes water-quality conditions, issues of concern, and management efforts underway in southern Florida. The report is designed to provide a conceptual framework for the Southern Florida National Water Quality Assessment (NAWQA) study that began in 1994. The report makes reference to the most important water-quality literature pertaining to southern Florida, to water-quality studies that are underway or planned, and to topics which are of high priority in the study unit. These topics include: the availability and suit ability of water for competing demands; nutrient enrichment of the Everglades; transport, degradation, and effects of pesticides; and the sources and cycling of mercury in the ecosystem. The report also includes a retrospective analysis and conceptual presentation of nutrient loading, which is a high priority for the national NAWQA Program and for regional water-quality managers. Nutrient contributions from point and nonpoint sources are estimated for nine basins in the study area and are discussed in relation to land use. Fertilizer is the dominant source of phosphorus in eight basins and the dominant source of nitrogen in at least five basins. Atmospheric sources of nitrogen contribute more than 20 percent of the total nitrogen input to all basins and are the dominant source of nitrogen input to Lake Okeechobee and the Everglades. Nutrient loads are also estimated in selected canal and river outflows in southern Florida to provide a spatial overview of the magnitude of nutrient loading to coastal waters. Annual phosphorus loads from the Peace River are the highest in the study unit; annual phosphorus loads from the Caloosahatchee River and the major Palm Beach canals are also high, compared to other parts of southern Florida. Estimated annual loads of phosphorus from parts of the Big Cypress Basin and the S-12 water-control structures of the Tamiami Canal are low compared with estimated phosphorus loads in outflows in the northern

  14. [Recovery of three tropical forest covers from mid-elevation sites in Costa Rica: oligochaetes, litter and soil analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Molina, Junior Pastor; Cordero Solórzano, Roberto A

    2012-12-01

    In Costa Rica, the region of Rio Macho is a highly fragmented landscape with imminent risk of landslides. This area, which provides important environmental services, has been partially recovered to its original forest through intentional reforestation with exotic species or natural regeneration after abandonment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the bioindicator potential of oligochaete presence as well as some litter and soil characteristics. The ecosystem recovery of the two common restoration modes was measured within three different forest covers. For this, some substrate characteristics were analyzed and compared in a-50 years old secondary forest, a 13 years tacotal, and a 35 years cypress (Cupressus lusitanica) plantation. The three sites studied differed in density, biomass and average mass of oligochaetes, and in some litter (depth, nitrogen, phosphorus and C/N ratio of litter), and soil variables (soil water content (CA), pH, phosphorus, cation exchange capacity, and magnesium). The forest registered the lowest density of earthworms and soil pH, and the highest soil CA and phosphorus. CA was inversely related to the oligochaete density across sites. Besides, there were positive correlations between C/N and C/P ratios from the litter and soil pH, and inverse correlations of litter depth, litter N and P concentrations with soil P. Discriminant Analysis (AD) performed with all soil and litter variables, produced a sharp classification of the three forest cover types. AD suggests that site differences were mostly determined by soil CA and litter nitrogen concentration. Considering all the evaluated parameters, our results suggest in the first place, that oligochaetes are sensitive to changes in some soil and litter characteristics. Secondly, aside from the striking oligochaete differences between the old secondary forest and the other two sites, some soil and litter traits resulted good indicators of the present recovery of the three forest covers. In

  15. ESCORRENTÍA SUPERFICIAL EN BOSQUES MONTANOS NATURALES Y PLANTADOS DE PIEDRAS BLANCAS, ANTIOQUIA (COLOMBIA SURFACE RUNOFF IN NATURAL MONTANE FORESTS AND FOREST PLANTATIONS IN ANTIOQUIA, COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Andrés Ruiz Suescún

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available En bosques montanos naturales de roble (Quercus humboldtii Bonpl. y plantados de pino pátula (Pinus patula Schltdl. & Cham. y ciprés (Cupressus lusitanica Mill. de la región de Piedras Blancas, Antioquia (Colombia, fueron medidos los flujos de escorrentía superficial (ES por un periodo de tiempo de 16 meses. Se implementaron parcelas cerradas de escorrentía superficial de 10 m de largo x 2 m de ancho, tanques colectores y sistemas de registro volumétrico. Los flujos fueron de 23,19 mm año-1 (1,07 % de la precipitación para la cobertura de roble; 35,13 mm año-1 (1,61 % de la precipitación para la cobertura de pino pátula y 230,64 mm año-1 (11,05 % de la precipitación para la cobertura de ciprés. Mediante análisis de componentes principales (ACP se identificaron las relaciones existentes entre las variables hidrológicas y los flujos de ES, y por medio de análisis de regresión lineal múltiple se ajustaron modelos para los flujos de ES por cobertura en función de la precipitación, la precipitación en el bosque y la intensidad de lluvia promedio, variables que mostraron alta relación con la ES según el ACP.In natural montane oak forests (Quercus humboldtii Bonpl., in pine (Pinus patula Schltdl. & Cham. and cypress (Cupressus lusitanica Mill. plantations in Piedras Blancas, Antioquia (Colombia, surface runoff flows (SRF were measured over 16 months. Runoff was measured using 10 m long x 2 m wide runoff bounded plots, collector tanks and a volumetric counter system. SRF were 23,19 mm year -1 (1,07 % of rainfall for oak forest; 35,13 mm year -1 (1,61 % of rainfall for pine and 230,64 mm year-1 (11,05 % of rainfall for cypress plantations. Relationships between hydrological variables and SRF were identified by a principal components analysis (PCA. For each one of the stands, multiple regression analysis was used to fit models of SRF on rainfall, throughfall and mean intensity of rainfall, variables that, according to the PCA

  16. Cross-Cultural Analysis of Medicinal Plants commonly used in Ethnoveterinary Practices at South Waziristan Agency and Bajaur Agency, Federally Administrated Tribal Areas (FATA), Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Muhammad Abdul; Adnan, Muhammad; Khan, Amir Hasan; Sufyan, Muhammad; Khan, Shahid Niaz

    2018-01-10

    having higher F ic values (above 90). Moreover, the current investigation reported new ethnoveterinary uses of medicinal plants from South Waziristan Agency, which were Sideroxylon mascatense, Raphanus sativus, Salix babylonica, Solanum nigrum, Sophora mollis, Taraxacum campylodes and Tulipa stellata. On the other hand from Bajaur Agency, Boerhavia erecta, Celtis australis, Chamaecyparis obtusa var. obtuse, Eryngium biehersteinianum, Gossypium arboreum, Narcissus tazetta, Opuntia littoralis, Streblus asper were reported with new ethnoveterinary uses. The current study has an important contribution towards the preservation of indigenous plants' based knowledge. Several plants are carrying important ethnoveterinary uses being practiced by the local people mostly against the gastrointestinal disorders in both regions. Importantly, the cross-cultural approach has reported some new traditional uses of plants against livestock's diseases. Hence, this is an opportunity to investigate such plants phytopharmacologically and toxicologically for the discovery of new drug sources. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Late Glacial-Holocene Pollen-Based Vegetation History from Pass Lake, Prince of Wales Island, Southeastern Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ager, Thomas A.; Rosenbaum, Joseph G.

    2009-01-01

    A radiocarbon-dated history of vegetation development since late Wisconsin deglaciation has been reconstructed from pollen evidence preserved in a sediment core from Pass Lake on Prince of Wales Island, southeastern Alaska. The shallow lake is in the south-central part of the island and occupies a low pass that was filled by glacial ice of local origin during the late Wisconsin glaciation. The oldest pollen assemblages indicate that pine woodland (Pinus contorta) had developed in the area by ~13,715 cal yr B.P. An abrupt decline in the pine population, coinciding with expansion of alder (Alnus) and ferns (mostly Polypodiaceae) began ~12,875 yr B.P., and may have been a response to colder, drier climates during the Younger Dryas climatic interval. Mountain hemlock (Tsuga mertensiana) began to colonize central Prince of Wales Island by ~11,920 yr B.P. and was soon followed by Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis). Pollen of western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla) began to appear in Pass Lake sediments soon after 11,200 yr B.P. The abundance of western hemlock pollen in the Pass Lake core during most of the Holocene appears to be the result of wind transport from trees growing at lower altitudes on the island. The late Holocene pollen record from Pass Lake is incomplete because of one or more unconformities, but the available record suggests that a vegetation change occurred during the late Holocene. Increases in pollen percentages of pine, cedar (probably yellow cedar, Chamaecyparis nootkatensis), and heaths (Ericales) suggest an expansion of muskeg vegetation occurred in the area during the late Holocene. This vegetation change may be related to the onset of cooler, wetter climates that began as early as ~3,774 yr B.P. in the region. This vegetation history provides the first radiocarbon-dated Late Glacial-Holocene terrestrial paleoecological framework for Prince of Wales Island. An analysis of magnetic properties of core sediments from Pass Lake suggests that unconformities

  18. A Millennial-length Reconstruction of the Western Pacific Pattern with Associated Paleoclimate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, W. E.; Guan, B. T.; Wei, K.

    2010-12-01

    The Western Pacific Pattern (WP) is a lesser known 500 hPa pressure pattern similar to the NAO or PNA. As defined, the poles of the WP index are centered on 60°N over the Kamchatka peninsula and the neighboring Pacific and on 32.5°N over the western north Pacific. However, the area of influence for the southern half of the dipole includes a wide swath from East Asia, across Taiwan, through the Philippine Sea, to the western north Pacific. Tree rings of Taiwanese Chamaecyparis obtusa var. formosana in this extended region show significant correlation with the WP, and with local temperature. The WP is also significantly correlated with atmospheric temperatures over Taiwan, especially at 850hPa and 700 hPa, pressure levels that bracket the tree site. Spectral analysis indicates that variations in the WP occur at relatively high frequency, with most power at less than 5 years. Simple linear regression against high frequency variants of the tree-ring chronology yielded the most significant correlation coefficients. Two reconstructions are presented. The first uses a tree-ring time series produced as the first intrinsic mode function (IMF) from an Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition (EEMD), based on the Hilbert-Huang Transform. The significance of the regression using the EEMD-derived time series was much more significant than time series produced using traditional high pass filtering. The second also uses the first IMF of a tree-ring time series, but the dataset was first sorted and partitioned at a specified quantile prior to EEMD decomposition, with the mean of the partitioned data forming the input to the EEMD. The partitioning was done to filter out the less climatically sensitive tree rings, a common problem with shade tolerant trees. Time series statistics indicate that the first reconstruction is reliable to 1241 of the Common Era. Reliability of the second reconstruction is dependent on the development of statistics related to the quantile partitioning, and

  19. Everglades Depth Estimation Network (EDEN)—A decade of serving hydrologic information to scientists and resource managers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patino, Eduardo; Conrads, Paul; Swain, Eric; Beerens, James M.

    2017-10-30

    IntroductionThe Everglades Depth Estimation Network (EDEN) provides scientists and resource managers with regional maps of daily water levels and depths in the freshwater part of the Greater Everglades landscape. The EDEN domain includes all or parts of five Water Conservation Areas, Big Cypress National Preserve, Pennsuco Wetlands, and Everglades National Park. Daily water-level maps are interpolated from water-level data at monitoring gages, and depth is estimated by using a digital elevation model of the land surface. Online datasets provide time series of daily water levels at gages and rainfall and evapotranspiration data (https://sofia.usgs.gov/eden/). These datasets are used by scientists and resource managers to guide large-scale field operations, describe hydrologic changes, and support biological and ecological assessments that measure ecosystem response to the implementation of the Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan. EDEN water-level data have been used in a variety of biological and ecological studies including (1) the health of American alligators as a function of water depth, (2) the variability of post-fire landscape dynamics in relation to water depth, (3) the habitat quality for wading birds with dynamic habitat selection, and (4) an evaluation of the habitat of the Cape Sable seaside sparrow.

  20. Houston Pre-Freshman Enrichment Program (Houston PREP). Final report, June 9, 1997--July 25, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-10-01

    The 1997 Houston Pre-Freshman Enrichment Program (PREP) was conducted at the campus of the University of Houston-Downtown from June 9 to July 25, 1997. Program participants were recruited from the Greater Houston Area. All participants were identified as high-achieving students with an interest in learning about the engineering and science professions. The goal of the program was to better prepare our pre-college youth prior to entering college as mathematics, science and engineering majors. The program participants were middle school and high school students from the Aldine, Alief, Channel View, Clear Creek, Cypress-Fairbanks, Fort Bend, Galena Park, Houston, Humble, Katy, Klein, North Forest, Pasadena, Private, and Spring Branch Independent School Districts. Of the 194 students starting the program, 165 students were from economically and socially disadvantage groups under-represented in the engineering and science professions, and 118 of the 194 were women. Our First Year group for 1997 composed of 96% minority and women students. Second and Third Year students combined were 96% minority or women. With financial support from the Center for Computational Sciences and Advanced Distributed Simulation, the Fourth Year Program was added to PREP this year. Twelve students completed the program (83% minority or women).

  1. Survey of pollution-resistant plants and their cultivating techniques; Osen busshitsu taisei shokubutsu to sono shokusai gijutsu ni kansuru chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    The reduction of forests due to environmental pollution has been surveyed, to investigate the pollution-resistant plants and solid microorganisms. In Japan, the blight of needle-leaf trees (pine and momi fir) and of Japanese oak has occurred, and blight of some other trees, such as wild cherry trees, Japanese apricot trees, birch, Japanese cedar, cypress and bamboo, has been reported from various regions. In this article, plants reported to be resistant to pollutants are listed, and the physiological features of these plants are described. Furthermore, to develop pollution-resistant plants, reports relating to clarification of the mechanism of resistance development and the genes involved are reviewed. Microorganisms which symbioses for roots support these root functions. They also suppress the activity of pathogenic microorganisms and improve the environment around the roots, thus helping plants to grow normally. The roles played by symbiotic microorganisms and how to utilize these organisms are discussed. Their functions in coping with acid rain and heavy metal pollution, and how to utilize such functions are also discussed. 707 refs., 13 figs., 13 tabs.

  2. Establishment of a Riparian Buffer Strip for Alleviating Lake Eutrophication in Eastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, M.; Naka, K.; Wu, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Riparian buffer strips are a growing conservation practice to control and mitigate non-point source pollution in Asia. China has seen rapid population growth and economic development in the last fifty years, coupled with a rapid increase in environmental pollution. Freshwater ecosystems have been particularly affected. Lake Tai, China's 3rd largest freshwater lake by volume, has seen a severe reduction in water quality since economic reforms began in the 1970s. Thus, significant interest for establishing riparian buffer strips in agricultural watersheds and freshwater systems within China is warranted. Eight 50 m x 20 m plots adjacent to a rice-phragmites farm were cleared within the Lake Tai basin region in Jiangsu Province, China. Seven plots were planted with either a Poplar hybrid, Cypress hybrid or a combination of both at varying densities, while the control and final plot allowed only for local vegetation to grow naturally. Soil, tree and groundwater samples were collected from all plots and analyzed for nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations. At this time in the study, results have been analyzed only for nitrogen concentrations using the ANOVA procedure. Results for both nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations are currently being analyzed.

  3. Sedimentary signature of Hurricane Isaac in a Taxodium swamp on the western margin of Lake Pontchartrain, Louisiana, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.-B. Liu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Compositional and geochemical profiles were established for a 59-cm sediment core extracted from a small pothole pond in a Taxodium (bald cypress swamp 830 m inland from Lake Pontchartrain in south-eastern Louisiana, USA. The core consists of a top organic unit (peat to clayey peat from 0–29 cm above a bottom clay unit at 30–59 cm depth. Four distinct zones, marked by gradual changes in organic content and elemental concentrations, occur in the clay unit. These changes probably reflect two cycles of slowly changing water depths. Hurricane Isaac’s signature, a brown clay band at 3–5 cm, is identified based on the stratigraphic and compositional correspondence with the storm’s event layer, documented from nearby sites. Sedimentary and geochemical similarities between this material and clastic bands at 15–19 and 23–25 cm identify those two intervals as potentially representing earlier floods. The Cl/Br ratio presents a potentially useful method for distinguishing fluvial and marine flooding.

  4. Modeling fish dynamics and effects of stress in a hydrologically pulsed ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeAngelis, Donald L.; Loftus, William F.; Trexler, Joel C.; Ulanowicz, Robert E.

    1997-01-01

    Many wetlands undergo seasonal cycles in precipitation and water depth.This environmental seasonality is echoed in patterns of production of fishbiomass, which, in turn, influence the phenology of other components of thefood web, including wading birds. Human activities, such as drainage orother alterations of the hydrology, can exacerbate these natural cycles andresult in detrimental stresses on fish production and the higher trophic levels dependent on this production. In this paper we model theseasonal pattern of fish production in a freshwater marsh, with specialreference to the Everglades/Big Cypress region of southern Florida.The model illustrates the temporal pattern of production through theyear, which can result in very high densities of fish at the end of ahydroperiod (period of flooding), aswell as the importance of ponds and other deep depressions, both as refugia and sinks during dry periods. The model predicts that: (1) there is an effective threshold in the length of the hydroperiod that must beexceeded for high fish-population densities to be produced, (2) large,piscivorous fishes do not appear tohave a major impact on smaller fishes in the marsh habitat, and (3) therecovery of small-fish populations in the marsh following a major droughtmay require up to a year. The last of these results is relevant toassessing anthropogenic impacts on marsh production, as these effectsmay increase the severity and frequency of droughts.

  5. The skin prick test – European standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Skin prick testing is an essential test procedure to confirm sensitization in IgE-mediated allergic disease in subjects with rhinoconjunctivitis, asthma, urticaria, anapylaxis, atopic eczema and food and drug allergy. This manuscript reviews the available evidence including Medline and Embase searches, abstracts of international allergy meetings and position papers from the world allergy literature. The recommended method of prick testing includes the appropriate use of specific allergen extracts, positive and negative controls, interpretation of the tests after 15 – 20 minutes of application, with a positive result defined as a wheal ≥3 mm diameter. A standard prick test panel for Europe for inhalants is proposed and includes hazel (Corylus avellana), alder (Alnus incana), birch (Betula alba), plane (Platanus vulgaris), cypress (Cupressus sempervirens), grass mix (Poa pratensis, Dactilis glomerata, Lolium perenne, Phleum pratense, Festuca pratensis, Helictotrichon pretense), Olive (Olea europaea), mugwort (Artemisia vulgaris), ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia), Alternaria alternata (tenuis), Cladosporium herbarum, Aspergillus fumigatus, Parietaria, cat, dog, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, Dermatophagoides farinae, and cockroach (Blatella germanica). Standardization of the skin test procedures and standard panels for different geographic locations are encouraged worldwide to permit better comparisons for diagnostic, clinical and research purposes. PMID:23369181

  6. Monosensitization and polysensitization in allergic rhinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciprandi, Giorgio; Cirillo, Ignazio

    2011-12-01

    Polysensitization is common in patients with allergic rhinitis (AR) and may affect clinical feature. However, there are patients who remain monosensitized. This cross-sectional study aimed at evaluating a large cohort of AR patients to define the percentage and the features of mono- and poly-sensitized subjects. This observational cross-sectional study included a large group of AR patients: 2415 subjects (1958 males, mean age 24.6 ± 5 years) were consecutively evaluated. Symptom severity, type and number of sensitizations, and AR duration were considered. 621 patients (25.7%) were monosensitized: 377 to Parietaria, 194 to house dust mites, 19 to birch, 17 to grasses, 12 to molds, 2 to olive, and 1 to cypress. There was no difference between mono- and polysensitized patients concerning the duration of rhinitis (6 ± 2.14 years vs 6 ± 3.7). Severity of symptoms was higher in polysensitized patients than in monosensitized (pParietaria-allergy induces the most severe symptoms. This study conducted in a large AR population might suggest that monosensitized and polysensitized AR patients could constitute two different categories. In addition, the specific type of allergy may condition the clinical feature. Copyright © 2011 European Federation of Internal Medicine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Immunological and Psychological Benefits of Aromatherapy Massage

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    This preliminary investigation compares peripheral blood cell counts including red blood cells (RBCs), white blood cells (WBCs), neutrophils, peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs), CD4+, CD8+ and CD16+ lymphocytes, CD4+/CD8+ ratio, hematocrit, humoral parameters including serum interferon-γ and interleukin-6, salivary secretory immunoglobulin A (IgA). Psychological measures including the State–Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) questionnaire and the Self-rating Depression Scale (SDS) between recipients (n = 11) of carrier oil massage and aromatherapy massage, which includes sweet almond oil, lavender oil, cypress oil and sweet marjoram oil. Though both STAI and SDS showed a significant reduction (P aromatherapy and carrier massage, no difference between the aromatherapy and control massage was observed for STAI and SDS. Aromatherapy, in contrast to control massage, did not significantly reduce RBC count or hematocrit. However, aromatherapy massage showed a significant (P > 0.05) increase in PBLs, possibly due to an increase in CD8+ and CD16+ lymphocytes, which had significantly increased post-treatment (P aromatherapy massage could be beneficial in disease states that require augmentation of CD8+ lymphocytes. While this study identifies the immunological benefits of aromatherapy massage, there is a need to validate the findings prospectively in a larger cohort of patients. PMID:15937558

  8. Immunological and Psychological Benefits of Aromatherapy Massage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroko Kuriyama

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This preliminary investigation compares peripheral blood cell counts including red blood cells (RBCs, white blood cells (WBCs, neutrophils, peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs, CD4+, CD8+ and CD16+ lymphocytes, CD4+/CD8+ ratio, hematocrit, humoral parameters including serum interferon-γ and interleukin-6, salivary secretory immunoglobulin A (IgA. Psychological measures including the State–Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI questionnaire and the Self-rating Depression Scale (SDS between recipients (n = 11 of carrier oil massage and aromatherapy massage, which includes sweet almond oil, lavender oil, cypress oil and sweet marjoram oil. Though both STAI and SDS showed a significant reduction (P 0.05 increase in PBLs, possibly due to an increase in CD8+ and CD16+ lymphocytes, which had significantly increased post-treatment (P < 0.01. Consequently, the CD4+/CD8+ ratio decreased significantly (P < 0.01. The paucity of such differences after carrier oil massage suggests that aromatherapy massage could be beneficial in disease states that require augmentation of CD8+ lymphocytes. While this study identifies the immunological benefits of aromatherapy massage, there is a need to validate the findings prospectively in a larger cohort of patients.

  9. Production of the sesquiterpenoid (+)-nootkatone by metabolic engineering of Pichia pastoris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wriessnegger, Tamara; Augustin, Peter; Engleder, Matthias; Leitner, Erich; Müller, Monika; Kaluzna, Iwona; Schürmann, Martin; Mink, Daniel; Zellnig, Günther; Schwab, Helmut; Pichler, Harald

    2014-07-01

    The sesquiterpenoid (+)-nootkatone is a highly demanded and highly valued aroma compound naturally found in grapefruit, pummelo or Nootka cypress tree. Extraction of (+)-nootkatone from plant material or its production by chemical synthesis suffers from low yields and the use of environmentally harmful methods, respectively. Lately, major attention has been paid to biotechnological approaches, using cell extracts or whole-cell systems for the production of (+)-nootkatone. In our study, the yeast Pichia pastoris initially was applied as whole-cell biocatalyst for the production of (+)-nootkatone from (+)-valencene, the abundant aroma compound of oranges. Therefore, we generated a strain co-expressing the premnaspirodiene oxygenase of Hyoscyamus muticus (HPO) and the Arabidopsis thaliana cytochrome P450 reductase (CPR) that hydroxylated extracellularly added (+)-valencene. Intracellular production of (+)-valencene by co-expression of valencene synthase from Callitropsis nootkatensis resolved the phase-transfer issues of (+)-valencene. Bi-phasic cultivations of P. pastoris resulted in the production of trans-nootkatol, which was oxidized to (+)-nootkatone by an intrinsic P. pastoris activity. Additional overexpression of a P. pastoris alcohol dehydrogenase and truncated hydroxy-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (tHmg1p) significantly enhanced the (+)-nootkatone yield to 208mg L(-1) cell culture in bioreactor cultivations. Thus, metabolically engineered yeast P. pastoris represents a valuable, whole-cell system for high-level production of (+)-nootkatone from simple carbon sources. Copyright © 2014 International Metabolic Engineering Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The Year Without a Ski Season: An Analysis of the Winter of 2015 for Three Ski Resorts in Western Canada Using Historical and Simulation Model Forecasted Climate Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pidwirny, M. J.; Goode, J. D.; Pedersen, S.

    2015-12-01

    The winter of 2015 will go down as "the year without a ski season" for many ski resorts located close to the west coast of Canada and the USA. During this winter season, a large area of the eastern North Pacific Ocean had extremely high sea surface temperatures. These high sea surface temperatures influenced weather patterns on the west coast of North America producing very mild temperatures inland. Further, in alpine environments precipitation that normally arrives in the form of snow instead fell as rain. This research examines the climate characteristics of the winter of 2015 in greater detail for three ski resorts in British Columbia, Canada: Mount Washington, Cypress Mountain and Hemlock Valley. For these resorts, historical (1901 to 2013) and IPCC AR5 climate model forecasted climate data (RCP8.5 for 2025, 2055, and 2085) was generated for the variable winter degree days < 0°C (a measure of winter season coldness) using the spatially interpolated climate database ClimateBC. A value for winter degree days < 0°C was also estimated from recorded climate data at nearby meteorological stations for comparative analysis. For all three resorts, the winter of 2015 proved to be warmer than any individual year in the period 1901 to 2013. Interpolations involving the multi-model ensemble forecast means suggest that the climate associated with winter of 2015 will become the average normal for these resorts in only 35 to 45 years under the RCP8.5 emission scenario.

  11. Lidar-based individual tree species classification using convolutional neural network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizoguchi, Tomohiro; Ishii, Akira; Nakamura, Hiroyuki; Inoue, Tsuyoshi; Takamatsu, Hisashi

    2017-06-01

    Terrestrial lidar is commonly used for detailed documentation in the field of forest inventory investigation. Recent improvements of point cloud processing techniques enabled efficient and precise computation of an individual tree shape parameters, such as breast-height diameter, height, and volume. However, tree species are manually specified by skilled workers to date. Previous works for automatic tree species classification mainly focused on aerial or satellite images, and few works have been reported for classification techniques using ground-based sensor data. Several candidate sensors can be considered for classification, such as RGB or multi/hyper spectral cameras. Above all candidates, we use terrestrial lidar because it can obtain high resolution point cloud in the dark forest. We selected bark texture for the classification criteria, since they clearly represent unique characteristics of each tree and do not change their appearance under seasonable variation and aged deterioration. In this paper, we propose a new method for automatic individual tree species classification based on terrestrial lidar using Convolutional Neural Network (CNN). The key component is the creation step of a depth image which well describe the characteristics of each species from a point cloud. We focus on Japanese cedar and cypress which cover the large part of domestic forest. Our experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposed method.

  12. A novel pulse processing scheme using embedded pulsed reset charge sensitive preamplifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasanna, G.; Jayapandian, J.; Sheela, O. K.; Amarendra, G.

    2016-05-01

    A novel, cost effective pulse height digitization scheme for spectroscopy applications, utilizing a CMOS analog switch as reset element in the feedback of preamplifier stage is designed. The CMOS switch resistance is controlled by a signal generated from a firmware, run in parallel with a digitizer. While the very high open-state resistance of the switch reduces the thermal noise in the preamplifier output, eliminating the need for pulse shaping, it increases the probability of pulse pile-up. A state machine run in conjunction with the firmware eliminates the pile-up event error contribution by prompting the firmware to prevent the piled-up pulse levels from getting registered. The Pulse height digitization and pile up elimination functions are implemented on a single-chip Programmable System on Chip (PSoC) mixed signal platform from Cypress Semiconductor. The digitized pulse heights are communicated to a PC based virtual instrument graphical user interface developed using National Instruments Lab VIEW. The new scheme is functionally verified with Planar PIN diode detectors in obtaining alpha particle spectra.

  13. Terpene arms race in the Seiridium cardinale - Cupressus sempervirens pathosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achotegui-Castells, Ander; Della Rocca, Gianni; Llusià, Joan; Danti, Roberto; Barberini, Sara; Bouneb, Mabrouk; Simoni, Sauro; Michelozzi, Marco; Peñuelas, Josep

    2016-01-22

    The canker-causing fungus Seiridium cardinale is the major threat to Cupressus sempervirens worldwide. We investigated the production of terpenes by canker-resistant and susceptible cypresses inoculated with S. cardinale, the effect of these terpenes on fungal growth, and the defensive biotransformation of the terpenes conducted by the fungus. All infected trees produced de novo terpenes and strongly induced terpenic responses, but the responses were stronger in the canker-resistant than the susceptible trees. In vitro tests for the inhibition of fungal growth indicated that the terpene concentrations of resistant trees were more inhibitory than those of susceptible trees. The highly induced and de novo terpenes exhibited substantial inhibition (more than a fungicide reference) and had a high concentration-dependent inhibition, whereas the most abundant terpenes had a low concentration-dependent inhibition. S. cardinale biotransformed three terpenes and was capable of detoxifying them even outside the fungal mycelium, in its immediate surrounding environment. Our results thus indicated that terpenes were key defences efficiently used by C. sempervirens, but also that S. cardinale is ready for the battle.

  14. Studies on the optical and photoelectric properties of anthocyanin and chlorophyll as natural co-sensitizers in dye sensitized solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nan, Hui; Shen, He-Ping; Wang, Gang; Xie, Shou-Dong; Yang, Gui-Jun; Lin, Hong

    2017-11-01

    Anthocyanin and Chlorophyll extracted from Troll flower and Cypress leaf respectively are used as natural sensitizers in dye sensitized solar cells (DSCs), with their optical and electrochemical properties investigated. UV-Vis absorption measurement showed that the mixture of two dyes enabled an enhanced and wider absorption in the wavelength range of 300 nm-700 nm compared to each single dye. FTIR results proved that anthocyanin is chemically adsorbed onto the TiO2 film, while it is physical adsorption for chlorophyll. The energy level offsets on the TiO2/dye/electrolyte interface for each dye and the dye mixture with different ratios were calculated from the electrochemical analysis, which affect the electron injection and dye regeneration efficiencies. The optimized ratio of the two dyes in the mixture was found to be ∼2:5, inducing both sufficient charge transfer driving force and minimal energy loss. By incorporating this mixture into the solar cell as co-adsorbing sensitizer, the photovoltaic performance was prominently improved compared with the single dye sensitization system.

  15. [Okuda wooden human skeleton made in Edo era, Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baba, Hisao

    2006-03-01

    Probably in 1820 (late Edo era), a human skeleton for medical education was carved from cypress wood, based on a criminal's skeleton under the supervision of a medical doctor, Banri Okuda in Osaka City. The skeleton is called "Okuda wooden skeleton" and is now housed in the National Science Museum, Tokyo. The bones can be assembled into a skeleton by metal pivots or bamboo sticks. The thorax and pelvis were made of several pieces of wood and combined together, respectively. By and large, the wooden skeleton shows morphological characteristics usually seen in early middle-aged females of the Edo era. But the claviculae, distal ends of the femora, and the patellae are exceptionally larger than those of a female, implying that these bones of the original skeleton had already been lost or were deformed before the wooden skeleton was made. Actually the wooden skeleton might not have been used for medical education but rather for the promotion of European medicine, which was gradually developing in the Edo era.

  16. An Adaptive Amplifier System for Wireless Sensor Network Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Lovay

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an adaptive amplifier that is part of a sensor node in a wireless sensor network. The system presents a target gain that has to be maintained without direct human intervention despite the presence of faults. In addition, its bandwidth must be as large as possible. The system is composed of a software-based built-in self-test scheme implemented in the node that checks all the available gains in the amplifiers, a reconfigurable amplifier, and a genetic algorithm (GA for reconfiguring the node resources that runs on a host computer. We adopt a PSoC device from Cypress for the node implementation. The performance evaluation of the scheme presented is made by adopting four different types of fault models in the amplifier gains. The fault simulation results show that GA finds the target gain with low error, maintains the bandwidth above the minimum tolerable bandwidth, and presents a runtime lower than exhaustive search method.

  17. [Medical manuscript of Mihail Plamenac, a priest].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milović, I

    1998-01-01

    It is known that collections of popular medical prescriptions and instructions appeared in areas without educated physicians, and all previously published manuscripts of this kind are inevitably anonymous. The reported manuscript comprises 23 pages written in sepia ink, appendixed to a prayer book published in 1747, containing popular medical instructions and prescriptions collected and practiced by orthodox priest Mihailo Plamenac in Montenegro at the turn of the 18th century. Mihailo Plamenac took an important part in historical events, as documented by numerous domestic historical data and several letters discovered in The Archives of Vienna. Being the only literate persons at the time, priests were both politicians and military officers, but they also offered medical services to the population. The manuscript comprises advices for various common emergencies (snake bites, urinary retention, contusions, fever, burns, eye injuries, rabies, otitis, traumatic wryneck) and diseases(impetigo, scabies, infertility, gastric ulcer, low back pain) as well as for certain poorly defined conditions (chest pain, abdominal discomfort). Besides medically fully adequate treatment, for example, the remedy against scabies containing sulfur, there are numerous examples of magic and ritual pagan elements, including famous medieval SATOR formula against rabies. Most of the herbs used in prescriptions have been identified: fig, dog rose, hyssop, leek, laurel, absinthe, rosemary, mallow, cypress, elder, endive, mangel, orache, ivy. The manuscript is the first manuscript undoubtedly attributed to a well known historical personality, as indicated in the first page of the manuscript: "This is a medical prayer book by Mihailo Plamenac, left to him by his ancestors."

  18. Immune and Metabolic Regulation Mechanism of Dangguiliuhuang Decoction against Insulin Resistance and Hepatic Steatosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Cao

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Dangguiliuhuang decoction (DGLHD is a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM formula, which mainly consists of angelica, radix rehmanniae, radix rehmanniae praeparata, scutellaria baicalensis, coptis chinensis, astragalus membranaceus, and golden cypress, and used for the treatment of diabetes and some autoimmune diseases. In this study, we explored the potential mechanism of DGLHD against insulin resistance and fatty liver in vivo and in vitro. Our data revealed that DGLHD normalized glucose and insulin level, increased the expression of adiponectin, diminished fat accumulation and lipogenesis, and promoted glucose uptake. Metabolomic analysis also demonstrated that DGLHD decreased isoleucine, adenosine, and cholesterol, increased glutamine levels in liver and visceral adipose tissue (VAT of ob/ob mice. Importantly, DGLHD promoted the shift of pro-inflammatory to anti-inflammatory cytokines, suppressed T lymphocytes proliferation, and enhanced regulatory T cells (Tregs differentiation. DGLHD also inhibited dendritic cells (DCs maturation, attenuated DCs-stimulated T cells proliferation and secretion of IL-12p70 cytokine from DCs, and promoted the interaction of DCs with Tregs. Further studies indicated that the changed PI3K/Akt signaling pathway and elevated PPAR-γ expression were not only observed with the ameliorated glucose and lipid metabolism in adipocytes and hepatocytes, but also exhibited in DCs and T cells by DGLHD. Collectively, our results suggest that DGLHD exerts anti-insulin resistant and antisteatotic effects by improving abnormal immune and metabolic homeostasis. And DGLHD may be a novel approach to the treatment of obesity-related insulin resistance and hepatic steatosis.

  19. STS-4 earth observations from space

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    STS-4 earth observations from space. Views include both Florida coasts, with Cape Canaveral visible at the center of the frame. The photo was exposed through the aft window on the flight deck of the Columbia. The vertical tail and both orbital maneuvering systems (OMS) pods are visible in the foreground. Other features on the Earth which are visible include Tampa Bay and several lakes, including Apopka, Tohopekaliga, East Tahopekaliga, Harris, Cypress and a number of small reservoirs (33223); This is a north-easterly looking view toward California's Pacific Coast. The coastal area covered includes San Diego northward to Pismo Beach. Los Angeles is near center. The arc of the Temblor-Tehachapi-Sierra Nevada surrounds the San Joaquin Valley at left. The Mojave desert lies between the San Andres and Garlock Faults (33224); Mexico's Baja California and Sonora state are visible in the STS-4 frame. The islands of Angel de la Guardia and Tiburon stand out above and right of center. Low clouds

  20. Seroprevalence of anti-Chlamydia trachomatis IgM in neonatal respiratory tract infections in Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balla, Eszter; Donders, Gilbert G G; Petrovay, Fruzsina; Urbán, Edit

    2017-08-04

    To determine the seroprevalence of specific IgM indicative of respiratory tract infection (RTI) due to Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) among symptomatic infants. A descriptive study was conducted on young infants up to 5 months old at the Bacterial Sexually Transmitted Infections Reference Laboratory, National Centre for Epidemiology, Budapest, covering the period 2008-2016. Serum samples from infants suffering from RTIs were screened with a micro-immunofluorescence test (Focus, Cypress, USA) for the presence of anti-Chlamydia trachomatis-specific IgM. A parallel Bordetella pertussis screening was performed by an indirect immunofluorescence test (Euroimmun, Lübeck, Germany) that detected specific IgM. The CT-specific serum IgM was highly reactive in 50 (19.1 %) of the 262 neonates with RTIs, while all proved negative for Bordetella pertussis-specific IgM. Vertically transmitted C. trachomatis must be regarded as a common pathogen among symptomatic neonates with RTIs in Hungary. Routine screening and treatment of pregnant women could be one option to help prevent these conditions. Focused laboratory testing based on raised clinical awareness should enable early diagnosis and appropriate therapy for symptomatic infants.

  1. Sustainable Effects of Small Hydropower Substituting Firewood Program in Majiang County, Guizhou Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoxia Zhang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Small hydropower substituting fuel (SHSF is an ecological environment protection program to improve regional ecosystems and alleviate poverty. However, the sustainability of SHSF programs remains controversial due to lingering doubts about its potential for socioeconomic development and its environmental impacts. The sustainability of SHSF was examined based on field investigations and household questionnaire surveys. The results were as follows: (1 Biomass of SHSF protected masson pine (Pinus massoniana and weeping cypress (Platycladus orientalis plantations were 11.06 t·ha−1 and 7.15 t·ha−1 higher than unprotected plantations, respectively. Furthermore, the differences in ecosystem biomass were mainly derived from arbor biomass. While the energy conversion efficiency based on field investigations was merely 1.28 kg (kWh−1, which was only 64% of the empirical value and 54% of the guideline for accounting for the ecological benefit of small hydropower substituting fuel. (2 Households’ total income in SHSF villages was higher than in households with access to a hydropower plant but no substituting fuel or households with no hydropower plant. (3 Most of the households had a positive attitude towards SHSF because of its cheaper electricity and associated ecological environmental improvements. Overall, our results suggest optimistic and sustainable prospects for the SHSF program; however, continued education and policy communications are needed to sustain program success.

  2. Terpene arms race in the Seiridium cardinale - Cupressus sempervirens pathosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achotegui-Castells, Ander; Della Rocca, Gianni; Llusià, Joan; Danti, Roberto; Barberini, Sara; Bouneb, Mabrouk; Simoni, Sauro; Michelozzi, Marco; Peñuelas, Josep

    2016-01-01

    The canker-causing fungus Seiridium cardinale is the major threat to Cupressus sempervirens worldwide. We investigated the production of terpenes by canker-resistant and susceptible cypresses inoculated with S. cardinale, the effect of these terpenes on fungal growth, and the defensive biotransformation of the terpenes conducted by the fungus. All infected trees produced de novo terpenes and strongly induced terpenic responses, but the responses were stronger in the canker-resistant than the susceptible trees. In vitro tests for the inhibition of fungal growth indicated that the terpene concentrations of resistant trees were more inhibitory than those of susceptible trees. The highly induced and de novo terpenes exhibited substantial inhibition (more than a fungicide reference) and had a high concentration-dependent inhibition, whereas the most abundant terpenes had a low concentration-dependent inhibition. S. cardinale biotransformed three terpenes and was capable of detoxifying them even outside the fungal mycelium, in its immediate surrounding environment. Our results thus indicated that terpenes were key defences efficiently used by C. sempervirens, but also that S. cardinale is ready for the battle.

  3. Co-gasification of pelletized wood residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlos A. Alzate; Farid Chejne; Carlos F. Valdes; Arturo Berrio; Javier De La Cruz; Carlos A. Londono [Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Antioquia (Colombia). Grupo de Termodinamica Aplicada y Energias Alternativas

    2009-03-15

    A pelletization process was designed which produces cylindrical pellets 8 mm in length and 4 mm in diameter. These ones were manufactured using a blend of Pinus Patula and Cypress sawdust and coal in proportions of 0%, 5%, 10%, 20%, and 30% v/v of coal of rank sub-bituminous extracted from the Nech mine (Amaga-Antioquia). For this procedure, sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) was used as binder at three different concentrations. The co-gasification experiments were carried out with two kinds of mixtures, the first one was composed of granular coal and pellets of 100% wood and the second one was composed of pulverized wood and granular coal pellets. All samples were co-gasified with steam by using an electrical heated fluidized-bed reactor, operating in batches, at 850{sup o}C. The main components of the gaseous product were H{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, and N{sub 2} with approximate quantities of 59%, 6.0%, 20%, 5.0%, and 9.0% v/v, respectively, and the higher heating values ranged from between 7.1 and 9.5 MJ/Nm{sup 3}.

  4. The skin prick test – European standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heinzerling Lucie

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Skin prick testing is an essential test procedure to confirm sensitization in IgE-mediated allergic disease in subjects with rhinoconjunctivitis, asthma, urticaria, anapylaxis, atopic eczema and food and drug allergy. This manuscript reviews the available evidence including Medline and Embase searches, abstracts of international allergy meetings and position papers from the world allergy literature. The recommended method of prick testing includes the appropriate use of specific allergen extracts, positive and negative controls, interpretation of the tests after 15 – 20 minutes of application, with a positive result defined as a wheal ≥3 mm diameter. A standard prick test panel for Europe for inhalants is proposed and includes hazel (Corylus avellana, alder (Alnus incana, birch (Betula alba, plane (Platanus vulgaris, cypress (Cupressus sempervirens, grass mix (Poa pratensis, Dactilis glomerata, Lolium perenne, Phleum pratense, Festuca pratensis, Helictotrichon pretense, Olive (Olea europaea, mugwort (Artemisia vulgaris, ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia, Alternaria alternata (tenuis, Cladosporium herbarum, Aspergillus fumigatus, Parietaria, cat, dog, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, Dermatophagoides farinae, and cockroach (Blatella germanica. Standardization of the skin test procedures and standard panels for different geographic locations are encouraged worldwide to permit better comparisons for diagnostic, clinical and research purposes.

  5. Correlation between Asian dust storms and worsening asthma in Western Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Masanari; Yamasaki, Akira; Burioka, Naoto; Kurai, Jun; Yoneda, Kazuhiko; Yoshida, Atsushi; Igishi, Tadashi; Fukuoka, Yasushi; Nakamoto, Masaki; Takeuchi, Hiromi; Suyama, Hisashi; Tatsukawa, Toshiyuki; Chikumi, Hiroki; Matsumoto, Shingo; Sako, Takanori; Hasegawa, Yasuyuki; Okazaki, Ryota; Horasaki, Kazunori; Shimizu, Eiji

    2011-09-01

    Severe wind storms during spring in East Asia, called Asian dust storms (ADS), have been assessed in the past for their effect on health in Asian countries. Our objective was to study the ADS association with asthma symptoms in adult patients in Japan. We designed a telephone survey to assess ADS influence on upper and lower respiratory, ocular and cutaneous symptoms in 98 patients with adult asthma from April to May 2007. Peak expiratory flow (PEF) was also measured from February to May. Worsening lower respiratory symptoms were noted by 22 of 98 patients during ADS in April, when Japanese cedar pollen levels also increased. During ADS in May, however, Japanese cedar and cypress pollen levels were not elevated, 11 patients had worsening of lower respiratory symptoms. None required emergency treatment for the exacerbation. Lower respiratory symptoms worsening most were cough and sputum; this was more common in patients with allergic rhinitis or atopy than in those without (P dust dispersion period, defined as the ADS day plus the next 6 days, versus 92.0 ± 5.3% during the 7-day period before a dust storm. We found that ADS aggravated lower respiratory symptoms in adult patients with asthma, but this influence was mild.

  6. Asian monsoon extremes and humanity's response over the past millennium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, B. M.; Lieberman, V. B.; Zottoli, B.

    2012-12-01

    The first decade of the 21st century has seen significant development in the production of paleo proxies for the Asian monsoon, exemplified by the Monsoon Asian Drought Atlas that was comprised of more than 300 tree ring chronologies. Noteworthy among them is the Vietnamese cypress tree-ring record which reveals that the two worst droughts of the past 7 centuries, each more than a decade in length, coincided with the demise of the Khmer civilization at Angkor in the early 15th century CE. The 18th century was nearly as tumultuous a period across Southeast Asia, where several polities fell against a backdrop of epic decadal-scale droughts. At this time all of the region's charter states saw rapid realignment in the face of drought, famine, disease and a raft of related and unrelated social issues. Several other droughts, some more extreme but of lesser duration, punctuate the past millennium, but appear to have had little societal impact. Historical documentation is being used not only to provide corroborative evidence of tree-ring reconstructed climate extremes, but to attempt to understand the dynamics of the coupled human-natural systems involved, and to define what kinds of thresholds need to be reached before societies respond. This paleo perspective can assist our analyses of the role of climate extremes in the collapse or disruption of regional societies, a subject of increasing concern given the uncertainties surrounding projections for future climate across the highly populated areas of Asia.

  7. Museo de Bellas Artes de Castellón

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moreno Mansilla, Luis

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available The Castellón 's "Museo de Bellas Artes ", enclose a gardened cloister, with magnificent cypresses, as a part of the old college "Serra Espadá ". The building housing the Museum Rooms, is like piled up grounds of similar dimensions in which a double high space is moving like cascade voids, with the same elements, turning each ground in a different place. lts slim proportions takes care of the town tressors, like an sphinx protected by a net of alluminium smelting plates, in which, its function is engraved like in the old roman bricks preserved by the Museum: "MUSEU DE CASTELLÓ"El Museo de Bellas Artes de Castellón gira alrededor de un claustro ajardinado con unos magníficos cipreses, perteneciente al antiguo colegio de Serra Espadá. La construcción que alberga las salas es un apilado de plantas de iguales dimensiones, en las que un espacio a doble altura se va desplazando, como una cascada de vacíos que, con los mismos elementos, convierte a cada planta en un lugar diferente. Esbelto de proporciones y mirando al frente, guarda los tesoros de la ciudad como una esfinge, protegido por una malla de placas de fundición de aluminio en las que se graba, como quedaba escrito en los antiguos ladrillos romanos que conserva el museo, su destino: MUSEU DE CASTELLÓ.

  8. [Classification of reduced sense of smell in women with Parkinson's disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seki, Kazuhiko; Tsuruta, Kazuhito; Inatsu, Akemi; Fukumoto, Yasuho; Shigeta, Masahiro

    2013-01-01

    It is well known that patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) prominently experience difficulty in smelling, a nonmotor symptom, without any signs or symptoms from an early stage. However, no study on the classification of the reduced sense of smell has been performed. We compared the classification of reduced sense of smell (bromine) between PD patients and healthy subjects to clarify the disorder profile. The subjects were 14 female neurology outpatients clinically diagnosed with PD (mean age: 71.6 ± 6.1 years) and 11 female elderly healthy subjects without any psychiatric or neurological disorders (mean age: 68.9 ± 6.9 years). In this study, the Japanese odor stick identification test was used. Both the PD patients and the healthy subjects showed a reduced sense of smell for the bromine of lumber, orange, and domestic gas. The PD patients preserved a sense of smell for perfume, but they showed a significantly lower sense of smell than the healthy subjects for the bromine of China ink, menthol, curry, rose, cypress, sweaty socks, and condensed milk; this indicates that bromine can be a supportive diagnostic index for PD. It was considered important to evaluate the reduced sense of smell in PD patients to avoid hazards in their daily lives and to conduct an effective rehabilitation program.

  9. Programmable Ultrasonic Sensing System for Targeted Spraying in Orchards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Hočevar

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This research demonstrates the basic elements of a prototype automated orchard sprayer which delivers pesticide spray selectively with respect to the characteristics of the targets. The density of an apple tree canopy was detected by PROWAVE 400EP250 ultrasound sensors controlled by a Cypress PSOC CY8C29466 microcontroller. The ultrasound signal was processed with an embedded computer built around a LPC1343 microcontroller and fed in real time to electro-magnetic valves which open/close spraying nozzles in relation to the canopy structure. The analysis focuses on the detection of appropriate thresholds on 15 cm ultrasound bands, which correspond to maximal response to tree density, and this was selected for accurate spraying guidance. Evaluation of the system was performed in an apple orchard by detecting deposits of tartrazine dye (TD on apple leaves. The employment of programmable microcontrollers and electro-magnetic valves decreased the amount of spray delivered by up to 48.15%. In contrast, the reduction of TD was only up to 37.7% at some positions within the tree crown and 65.1% in the gaps between trees. For all these reasons, this concept of precise orchard spraying can contribute to a reduction of costs and environmental pollution, while obtaining similar or even better leaf deposits.

  10. Programmable Ultrasonic Sensing System for Targeted Spraying in Orchards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stajnko, Denis; Berk, Peter; Lešnik, Mario; Jejčič, Viktor; Lakota, Miran; Štrancar, Andrej; Hočevar, Marko; Rakun, Jurij

    2012-01-01

    This research demonstrates the basic elements of a prototype automated orchard sprayer which delivers pesticide spray selectively with respect to the characteristics of the targets. The density of an apple tree canopy was detected by PROWAVE 400EP250 ultrasound sensors controlled by a Cypress PSOC CY8C29466 microcontroller. The ultrasound signal was processed with an embedded computer built around a LPC1343 microcontroller and fed in real time to electro-magnetic valves which open/close spraying nozzles in relation to the canopy structure. The analysis focuses on the detection of appropriate thresholds on 15 cm ultrasound bands, which correspond to maximal response to tree density, and this was selected for accurate spraying guidance. Evaluation of the system was performed in an apple orchard by detecting deposits of tartrazine dye (TD) on apple leaves. The employment of programmable microcontrollers and electro-magnetic valves decreased the amount of spray delivered by up to 48.15%. In contrast, the reduction of TD was only up to 37.7% at some positions within the tree crown and 65.1% in the gaps between trees. For all these reasons, this concept of precise orchard spraying can contribute to a reduction of costs and environmental pollution, while obtaining similar or even better leaf deposits. PMID:23202220

  11. Genetic structure of Pseudococcus microcirculus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) populations on epiphytic orchids in south Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zettler, J A; Adams, K; Frederick, B; Gutting, A; Ingebretsen, N; Ragsdale, A; Schrey, A

    2017-03-01

    In 2012, the orchid mealy bug Pseudococcus microcirculus was first detected in situ in North America's more diverse orchid region, the Big Cypress Basin (Collier Co FL). A follow-up survey showed that the mealy bug is more widespread and found on epiphytic orchids in two locations, in both the Fakahatchee Strand State Preserve (sites B and F) and the Florida Panther National Wildlife Refuge (sites M and C). There, we collected mealy bugs (n = 54) from 35 orchid individuals and screened allelic variation at seven microsatellite loci. We estimated genetic diversity and differentiation among all sites and compared the variation among individuals collected on the same plant. Genetic differentiation between sites M and C (F ST = 0.03, P < 0.01) and,Mand B (F ST = 0.04, P < 0.01) was detected.We also detected significantly lower mean pairwise relatedness among individuals from site B compared to all the other locations, and this population had the lowest inbreeding coefficient. Genetic diversity and mean pairwise relatedness were highly variable among plants with multiple individuals; however, plants from sites F and M tend to have collections of individuals with higher mean pairwise relatedness compared to sites B and C. Our results indicate that there is genetic diversity and differentiation among mealy bugs in these locations, and that collections of individuals on the same plant are genetically diverse. As such, the mealy bugs throughout these areas are likely to be genetically diverse and exist in multiple distinct populations.

  12. Advanced camera image data acquisition system for Pi-of-the-Sky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwiatkowski, Maciej; Kasprowicz, Grzegorz; Pozniak, Krzysztof; Romaniuk, Ryszard; Wrochna, Grzegorz

    2008-11-01

    The paper describes a new generation of high performance, remote control, CCD cameras designed for astronomical applications. A completely new camera PCB was designed, manufactured, tested and commissioned. The CCD chip was positioned in a different way than previously resulting in better performance of the astronomical video data acquisition system. The camera was built using a low-noise, 4Mpixel CCD circuit by STA. The electronic circuit of the camera is highly parameterized and reconfigurable, as well as modular in comparison with the solution of first generation, due to application of open software solutions and FPGA circuit, Altera Cyclone EP1C6. New algorithms were implemented into the FPGA chip. There were used the following advanced electronic circuit in the camera system: microcontroller CY7C68013a (core 8051) by Cypress, image processor AD9826 by Analog Devices, GigEth interface RTL8169s by Realtec, memory SDRAM AT45DB642 by Atmel, CPU typr microprocessor ARM926EJ-S AT91SAM9260 by ARM and Atmel. Software solutions for the camera and its remote control, as well as image data acquisition are based only on the open source platform. There were used the following image interfaces ISI and API V4L2, data bus AMBA, AHB, INDI protocol. The camera will be replicated in 20 pieces and is designed for continuous on-line, wide angle observations of the sky in the research program Pi-of-the-Sky.

  13. T cell responses to known allergen proteins are differently polarized and account for a variable fraction of total response to allergen extracts1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oseroff, Carla; Sidney, John; Vita, Randi; Tripple, Victoria; McKinney, Denise M.; Southwood, Scott; Brodie, Tess M.; Sallusto, Federica; Grey, Howard; Alam, Rafeul; Broide, David; Greenbaum, Jason A.; Kolla, Ravi; Peters, Bjoern; Sette, Alessandro

    2012-01-01

    A panel of 133 allergens derived from 28 different sources, including fungi, trees, grasses, weeds and indoor allergens, was surveyed utilizing prediction of HLA class II binding peptides and ELISPOT assays with PBMC from allergic donors, resulting in the identification of 257 T cell epitopes. More than 90% of the epitopes were novel, and for 14 allergen sources were the first ever identified. The epitopes identified in the different allergen sources summed up to a variable fraction of the total extract response. In cases of allergens where the identified T cell epitopes accounted for a minor fraction of the extract response, fewer known protein sequences were available, suggesting that for “low epitope coverage” allergen sources, additional allergen proteins remain to be identified. IL-5 and IFN-γresponses were measured as prototype Th2 and Th1 responses, respectively. While in some cases (e.g., Orchard Grass, Alternaria, Cypress, and Russian Thistle) IL-5 production greatly exceeded IFN-γ, in others (e.g., Aspergillus, Penicillum, and Alder) the production of IFN-γ exceeded IL-5. Thus, different allergen sources are associated with variable polarization of the responding T cells. The present study represents the most comprehensive survey to date of human allergen derived T cell epitopes. These epitopes might be used to characterize T cell phenotype/T cell plasticity as a function of seasonality, or as a result of SIT treatment or varying disease severity (asthma or rhinitis). PMID:22786768

  14. T cell responses to known allergen proteins are differently polarized and account for a variable fraction of total response to allergen extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oseroff, Carla; Sidney, John; Vita, Randi; Tripple, Victoria; McKinney, Denise M; Southwood, Scott; Brodie, Tess M; Sallusto, Federica; Grey, Howard; Alam, Rafeul; Broide, David; Greenbaum, Jason A; Kolla, Ravi; Peters, Bjoern; Sette, Alessandro

    2012-08-15

    A panel of 133 allergens derived from 28 different sources, including fungi, trees, grasses, weeds, and indoor allergens, was surveyed utilizing prediction of HLA class II-binding peptides and ELISPOT assays with PBMC from allergic donors, resulting in the identification of 257 T cell epitopes. More than 90% of the epitopes were novel, and for 14 allergen sources were the first ever identified to our knowledge. The epitopes identified in the different allergen sources summed up to a variable fraction of the total extract response. In cases of allergens in which the identified T cell epitopes accounted for a minor fraction of the extract response, fewer known protein sequences were available, suggesting that for low epitope coverage allergen sources, additional allergen proteins remain to be identified. IL-5 and IFN-γ responses were measured as prototype Th2 and Th1 responses, respectively. Whereas in some cases (e.g., orchard grass, Alternaria, cypress, and Russian thistle) IL-5 production greatly exceeded IFN-γ, in others (e.g., Aspergillus, Penicillum, and alder) the production of IFN-γ exceeded IL-5. Thus, different allergen sources are associated with variable polarization of the responding T cells. The present study represents the most comprehensive survey to date of human allergen-derived T cell epitopes. These epitopes might be used to characterize T cell phenotype/T cell plasticity as a function of seasonality, or as a result of specific immunotherapy treatment or varying disease severity (asthma or rhinitis).

  15. Evaluation of a PfHRP-2 based rapid diagnostic test versus microscopy method among HIV-positive and unknown serology patients in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreoli, Arianna; Giorgetti, Pier Francesco; Pietra, Virginio; Melzani, Alessia; Seni, Wetien; Castelli, Francesco; Simpore, Jaques

    2015-04-01

    We evaluated the performance of a malaria rapid diagnostic test (RDT; Malaria Quick Test(®); Cypress Diagnostic) compared with the standard thick-smear microscopy method using blood samples from human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals and individuals of unknown HIV status collected in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. Our results show that 42.1% of 114 HIV-infected patients were concordantly RDT- and thick smear-positive, and 55.3% were concordantly negative. Sensitivity and specificity of the RDT test were 100.0% and 95.4%, respectively, with 5.9% false-positive results and a total agreement of 97.4%; 127 patients with unknown HIV serology were analyzed; of them, 40.9% were RDT- and thick smear-positive, and 46.4% concordantly negative. Sensitivity and specificity were 100.0% and 78.6%, respectively, with 23.5% false-positive results and a total agreement of 87.4%. Malaria Quick Test(®) is rapid and effective for the diagnosis of malaria and has a high sensitivity, confirming its use in general and HIV patients in particular. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  16. Terpene arms race in the Seiridium cardinale – Cupressus sempervirens pathosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achotegui-Castells, Ander; Della Rocca, Gianni; Llusià, Joan; Danti, Roberto; Barberini, Sara; Bouneb, Mabrouk; Simoni, Sauro; Michelozzi, Marco; Peñuelas, Josep

    2016-01-01

    The canker-causing fungus Seiridium cardinale is the major threat to Cupressus sempervirens worldwide. We investigated the production of terpenes by canker-resistant and susceptible cypresses inoculated with S. cardinale, the effect of these terpenes on fungal growth, and the defensive biotransformation of the terpenes conducted by the fungus. All infected trees produced de novo terpenes and strongly induced terpenic responses, but the responses were stronger in the canker-resistant than the susceptible trees. In vitro tests for the inhibition of fungal growth indicated that the terpene concentrations of resistant trees were more inhibitory than those of susceptible trees. The highly induced and de novo terpenes exhibited substantial inhibition (more than a fungicide reference) and had a high concentration-dependent inhibition, whereas the most abundant terpenes had a low concentration-dependent inhibition. S. cardinale biotransformed three terpenes and was capable of detoxifying them even outside the fungal mycelium, in its immediate surrounding environment. Our results thus indicated that terpenes were key defences efficiently used by C. sempervirens, but also that S. cardinale is ready for the battle. PMID:26796122

  17. In vitro anti-diabetic effect and chemical component analysis of 29 essential oils products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiu-Fang Yen

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-nine commercial essential oil (EO products that were purchased from the Taiwan market, including three different company-made Melissa officinalis essential oils, were assayed on their glucose consumption activity and lipid accumulation activity on 3T3-L1 adipocytes. The EOs of M. officinalis were significantly active in both model assays. By contrast, EOs of peppermint, lavender, bergamot, cypress, niaouli nerolidol, geranium-rose, and revensara did not increase glucose consumption activity from media, but displayed inhibited lipid accumulation activity (65–90% of lipid accumulation vs. the control 100%. Because of the promising activity of M. officinalis EOs, three different products were collected and compared for their gas chromatography chemical profiles and bioactivity. The Western blot data suggest that the key factors of the adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase/acetyl-CoA carboxylase pathway can be mediated by M. officinalis EOs. Together with biodata, gas chromatography–mass spectrometry profiles suggested mixtures of citrals and minor compounds of M. officinalis EOs may play an important role on effect of antidiabetes.

  18. Phytotoxic effects of ozone, sulfur dioxide and fluorides on sensitive cultivated plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naveh, Z.; Chaim, S.

    1976-01-01

    Between 1970-1975 systematic studies were carried out in cooperation with the National Laboratory for Air Pollution, Radiation and Noise Control (Ministry of Health, Tel Aviv) on damage to field crops, ornamental and forestry plants by air pollutants in the Haifa Bay area. In addition to field surveys, plants with typical and consistent responses to ozone (tobacco, Bel W/sub 3/), SO/sub 2/ (lucerne, local Peruvian strain) and fluorides (gladioli ''Snow Princess'' and local strain) were exposed (at different distances and wind directions) to different sources of emission. Leaf injuries, indicative of fluoride damage, were observed on vine, maize, sorghum, Aleppo pines, cypress trees and on the local gladioli strain, exposed in the vicinity of the Deshanim fertilizer factory. Indicators for ozone and SO/sub 2/ responded to atmospheric concentrations below the present Israeli Standard of air quality. Synergistic phytotoxic effects between ozone at concentrations of 0.01-0.2 ppm and SO/sub 2/ in the range of 0.005-0.050 ppm may occur on lucerne plants and may cause reduction in yields.

  19. Estimating canopy fuel parameters for Atlantic Coastal Plain forest types.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parresol, Bernard, R.

    2007-01-15

    Abstract It is necessary to quantify forest canopy characteristics to assess crown fire hazard, prioritize treatment areas, and design treatments to reduce crown fire potential. A number of fire behavior models such as FARSITE, FIRETEC, and NEXUS require as input four particular canopy fuel parameters: 1) canopy cover, 2) stand height, 3) crown base height, and 4) canopy bulk density. These canopy characteristics must be mapped across the landscape at high spatial resolution to accurately simulate crown fire. Currently no models exist to forecast these four canopy parameters for forests of the Atlantic Coastal Plain, a region that supports millions of acres of loblolly, longleaf, and slash pine forests as well as pine-broadleaf forests and mixed species broadleaf forests. Many forest cover types are recognized, too many to efficiently model. For expediency, forests of the Savannah River Site are categorized as belonging to 1 of 7 broad forest type groups, based on composition: 1) loblolly pine, 2) longleaf pine, 3) slash pine, 4) pine-hardwood, 5) hardwood-pine, 6) hardwoods, and 7) cypress-tupelo. These 7 broad forest types typify forests of the Atlantic Coastal Plain region, from Maryland to Florida.

  20. Warm season tree growth and precipitation over Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Therrell, Matthew D.; Stahle, David W.; Cleaveland, Malcolm K.; Villanueva-Diaz, Jose

    2002-07-01

    We have developed a network of 18 new tree ring chronologies to examine the history of warm season tree growth over Mexico from 1780 to 1992. The chronologies include Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) and Montezuma pine (Pinus montezumae Lamb.) latewood width, and Montezuma bald cypress (Taxodium mucronatum Ten.) total ring width. They are located in southwestern Texas, the Sierra Madre Oriental, Sierra Madre Occidental, and southern Mexico as far south as Oaxaca. Seven of these chronologies are among the first precipitation sensitive tree ring records from the American tropics. Principal component analysis of the chronologies indicates that the primary modes of tree growth variability are divided north and south by the Tropic of Cancer. The tree ring data in northern Mexico (PC1) are most sensitive to June-August rainfall, while the data from southern Mexico (PC2) are sensitive to rainfall in April-June. We find that the mode of tree growth variability over southern Mexico is significantly correlated with the onset of the North American Monsoon. Anomalies in monsoon onset, spring precipitation, and tree growth in southern Mexico all tend to be followed by precipitation anomalies of opposite sign later in the summer over most of central Mexico.

  1. Chapter B. The Loma Prieta, California, Earthquake of October 17, 1989 - Highway Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yashinsky, Mark

    1998-01-01

    This paper summarizes the impact of the Loma Prieta earthquake on highway systems. City streets, urban freeways, county roads, state routes, and the national highway system were all affected. There was damage to bridges, roads, tunnels, and other highway structures. The most serious damage occurred in the cities of San Francisco and Oakland, 60 miles from the fault rupture. The cost to repair and replace highways damaged by this earthquake was $2 billion. About half of this cost was to replace the Cypress Viaduct, a long, elevated double-deck expressway that had a devastating collapse which resulted in 42 deaths and 108 injuries. The earthquake also resulted in some positive changes for highway systems. Research on bridges and earthquakes began to be funded at a much higher level. Retrofit programs were started to upgrade the seismic performance of the nation's highways. The Loma Prieta earthquake changed earthquake policy and engineering practice for highway departments not only in California, but all over the world.

  2. 100,000-year-long terrestrial record of millennial-scale linkage between eastern North American mid-latitude paleovegetation shifts and Greenland ice-core oxygen isotope trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litwin, Ronald J.; Smoot, Joseph P.; Pavich, Milan J.; Markewich, Helaine Walsh; Brook, George; Durika, Nancy J.

    2013-01-01

    We document frequent, rapid, strong, millennial-scale paleovegetation shifts throughout the late Pleistocene, within a 100,000+ yr interval (~ 115–15 ka) of terrestrial sediments from the mid-Atlantic Region (MAR) of North America. High-resolution analyses of fossil pollen from one core locality revealed a continuously shifting sequence of thermally dependent forest assemblages, ranging between two endmembers: subtropical oak-tupelo-bald cypress-gum forest and high boreal spruce-pine forest. Sedimentary textural evidence indicates fluvial, paludal, and loess deposition, and paleosol formation, representing sequential freshwater to subaerial environments in which this record was deposited. Its total age"depth model, based on radiocarbon and optically stimulated luminescence ages, ranges from terrestrial oxygen isotope stages (OIS) 6 to 1. The particular core sub-interval presented here is correlative in trend and timing to that portion of the oxygen isotope sequence common among several Greenland ice cores: interstades GI2 to GI24 (≈ OIS2–5 d). This site thus provides the first evidence for an essentially complete series of "Dansgaard"Oeschger" climate events in the MAR. These data reveal that the ~ 100,000 yr preceding the Late Glacial and Holocene in the MAR of North America were characterized by frequently and dynamically changing climate states, and by vegetation shifts that closely tracked the Greenland paleoclimate sequence.

  3. The loss of essential oil components induced by the Purge Time in the Pressurized Liquid Extraction (PLE) procedure of Cupressus sempervirens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawidowicz, Andrzej L; Czapczyńska, Natalia B; Wianowska, Dorota

    2012-05-30

    The influence of different Purge Times on the effectiveness of Pressurized Liquid Extraction (PLE) of volatile oil components from cypress plant matrix (Cupressus sempervirens) was investigated, applying solvents of diverse extraction efficiencies. The obtained results show the decrease of the mass yields of essential oil components as a result of increased Purge Time. The loss of extracted components depends on the extrahent type - the greatest mass yield loss occurred in the case of non-polar solvents, whereas the smallest was found in polar extracts. Comparisons of the PLE method with Sea Sand Disruption Method (SSDM), Matrix Solid-Phase Dispersion Method (MSPD) and Steam Distillation (SD) were performed to assess the method's accuracy. Independent of the solvent and Purge Time applied in the PLE process, the total mass yield was lower than the one obtained for simple, short and relatively cheap low-temperature matrix disruption procedures - MSPD and SSDM. Thus, in the case of volatile oils analysis, the application of these methods is advisable. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Relevance of the Sea Sand Disruption Method (SSDM) for the biometrical differentiation of the essential-oil composition from conifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawidowicz, Andrzej L; Czapczyńska, Natalia B; Wianowska, Dorota

    2013-02-01

    Sea Sand Disruption Method (SSDM) is a simple and cheap sample-preparation procedure allowing the reduction of organic solvent consumption, exclusion of sample component degradation, improvement of extraction efficiency and selectivity, and elimination of additional sample clean-up and pre-concentration step before chromatographic analysis. This article deals with the possibility of SSDM application for the differentiation of essential-oils components occurring in the Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and cypress (Cupressus sempervirens L.) needles from Madrid (Spain), Laganas (Zakhyntos, Greece), Cala Morell (Menorca, Spain), Lublin (Poland), Helsinki (Finland), and Oradea (Romania). The SSDM results are related to the analogous - obtained applying two other sample preparation methods - steam distillation and Pressurized Liquid Extraction (PLE). The results presented established that the total amount and the composition of essential-oil components revealed by SSDM are equivalent or higher than those obtained by one of the most effective extraction technique, PLE. Moreover, SSDM seems to provide the most representative profile of all essential-oil components as no heat is applied. Thus, this environmentally friendly method is suggested to be used as the main extraction procedure for the differentiation of essential-oil components in conifers for scientific and industrial purposes. Copyright © 2013 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  5. Operational restoration of the Pen Branch bottomland hardwood and swamp wetlands - the research setting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, E.A.

    2000-01-05

    The Savannah River Swamp is a 3020 Ha forested wetland on the floodplain of the Savannah River and is located on the Department of Energy's Savannah River Site (SRS) near Aiken, SC. Historically the swamp consisted of approximately 50 percent bald cypress-water tupelo stands, 40 percent mixed bottomland hardwood stands, and 10 percent shrub, marsh, and open water. Creek corridors were typical of Southeastern bottomland hardwood forests. The hydrology was controlled by flooding of the Savannah River and by flow from four creeks that drain into the swamp prior to flow into the Savannah River. Upstream dams have caused some alteration of the water levels and timing of flooding within the floodplain. Major impacts to the swamp hydrology occurred with the completion of the production reactors and one coal-fired powerhouse at the SRS in the early 1950's. Water was pumped from the Savannah River, through secondary heat exchangers of the reactors, and discharged into three of the tributary streams that flow into the swamp. Flow in one of the tributaries, Pen Branch, was typically 0.3 m3 s-1 (10-20) cfs prior to reactor pumping and 11.0 m3 s-1 (400 cfs) during pumping. This continued from 1954 to 1988 at various levels. The sustained increases in water volume resulted in overflow of the original stream banks and the creation of additional floodplains. Accompanying this was considerable erosion of the original stream corridor and deposition of a deep silt layer on the newly formed delta. Heated water was discharged directly into Pen Branch and water temperature in the stream often exceeded 65 degrees C. The nearly continuous flooding of the swamp, the thermal load of the water, and the heavy silting resulted in complete mortality of the original vegetation in large areas of the floodplain. In the years since pumping was reduced, early succession has begun in some affected areas. Most of this has been herbs, grasses, and shrubs. Areas that have seedlings are

  6. HUMEDAD CRÍTICA Y REPELENCIA AL AGUA EN ANDISOLES BAJO COBERTURA DE Cupressus lusitanica y Quercus humboldtii EN LA CUENCA DE LA QUEBRADA PIEDRAS BLANCAS (MEDELLÍN, COLOMBIA CRITICAL MOISTURE AND WATER REPELLENCY ON ANDISOLS UNDER Cupressus lusitanica AND Quercus humboldtii COVER IN THE PIEDRAS BLANCAS WATERSHED ( MEDELLÍN, COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bibiana Caballero Mejía

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available En dos vertientes de la cuenca de la quebrada Piedras Blancas (Medellín, Colombia se estudió la relación humedad - persistencia de la repelencia al agua en la parte superficial de andisoles bajo dos coberturas vegetales: Cupressus lusitanica (ciprés y Quercus humboldtii (roble, en tres posiciones a lo largo de la vertiente de colinas bajas: superior, media e inferior y en dos condiciones de humedad: con la humedad de campo y con la humedad adquirida al equilibrar al aire durante dos días muestras que habían sido secadas a 105 °C. En cada sitio de la vertiente se ubicó una parcela de 6 m x 5 m y en ella se tomaron 60 muestras de suelo en una malla de 1 m x 0,5 m. La persistencia de la repelencia al agua se evaluó con el método del WDPT en muestras tamizadas a 1 mm. Se presentó un alto número de muestras fuertemente repelentes al agua en todas las condiciones de trabajo, siendo mayor la frecuencia en ciprés que en roble. Tanto la repelencia al agua como la humedad presentaron comportamiento diferencial por cobertura y por posición en la vertiente dentro de la misma cobertura. No se pudo establecer una relación consistente entre el contenido de humedad de las muestras y la persistencia de la repelencia al agua que presentaron, así como tampoco se pudo definir una zona de transición de humedad crítica para que se manifestara la repelencia al agua en ellas, en ninguna de las dos coberturas vegetales y en ninguna posición en la vertiente.In two hillside of the Piedras Blancas watershed ( Medellín, Colombia was studied the relation humidity - persistence of the water repellency on the surface of the andisols under two vegetable covers: Cupressus lusitanica (cypress and Quercus humboldtii (oak groves. These were found in three different positions along the side of low hills: upper, middle and lower grounds, as well as in two conditions of humidity: with the humidity acquired when equilibrated with the air during two days (samples

  7. Efecto del Compost de Biosólidos en la producción de plantines de Austrocedrus Chilensis (ciprés de la cordillera Effect of Biosolids Compost on seedling production of Austrocedrus Chilensis (ciprés de la cordillera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Basil

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available La utilización de compost de residuos urbanos como sustrato en contenedores es una alternativa interesante a nivel económico y ambiental, dado que reduciría el uso de turba y «tierra negra» en la producción de plantines, y la disposición de residuos en vertederos. En el presente trabajo se estudió el efecto de 0, 30 y 50% de compost de biosólidos en el crecimiento inicial (primer año de ciprés de la cordillera, y el efecto durante los dos años siguientes de un tratamiento único con 50% de compost en el crecimiento posterior y el estado nutricional de los plantines. Se determinó diámetro y altura a 18, 25 y 37 meses, biomasa aérea y radicular a 25 y 37 meses, y concentración foliar de C, N, P, K, Ca y Mg a 37 meses. A pesar de que los tres tratamientos iniciales fueron homogeneizados al año en un único tratamiento con 50% de compost, se encontraron diferencias significativas de diámetro, altura y biomasa aérea y radicular entre los tratamientos originales en todas las fechas analizadas, correspondiendo los mayores valores a los tratamientos con compost. Al finalizar el ensayo, las concentraciones foliares de nutrientes fueron muy similares en todos los plantines, excepto Mg que fue mayor en el tratamiento original con 50% de compost. Los resultados muestran la importancia de los primeros meses de crecimiento en el desarrollo posterior de los plantines de ciprés y el valor potencial de los compost de biosólidos como sustrato para la producción de esta especie en contenedores.Using composts of urban waste, including biosolids, as substrates for containerized plant production is a sound economic and environmental alternative, since it could reduce the use of peat- and «black earth»-based media, and the disposal of organic wastes in landfills. The objectives of this work were to study the effect of 0, 30 and 50% biosolids compost on the initial growth (first year of cypress (Austrocedrus chilensis D. Don, and the effect

  8. Differences in impacts of Hurricane Sandy on freshwater swamps on the Delmarva Peninsula, Mid−Atlantic Coast, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, Beth A.

    2016-01-01

    Hurricane wind and surge may have different influences on the subsequent composition of forests. During Hurricane Sandy, while damaging winds were highest near landfall in New Jersey, inundation occurred along the entire eastern seaboard from Georgia to Maine. In this study, a comparison of damage from salinity intrusion vs. wind/surge was recorded in swamps of the Delmarva Peninsula along the Pocomoke (MD) and Nanticoke (DE) Rivers, south of the most intense wind damage. Hickory Point Cypress Swamp (Hickory) was closest to the Chesapeake Bay and may have been subjected to a salinity surge as evidenced by elevated salinity levels at a gage upstream of this swamp (storm salinity = 13.1 ppt at Nassawango Creek, Snow Hill, Maryland). After Hurricane Sandy, 8% of the standing trees died at Hickory including Acer rubrum, Amelanchier laevis, Ilex spp., and Taxodium distichum. In Plot 2 of Hickory, 25% of the standing trees were dead, and soil salinity levels were the highest recorded in the study. The most important variables related to structural tree damage were soil salinity and proximity to the Atlantic coast as based on Stepwise Regression and NMDS procedures. Wind damage was mostly restricted to broken branches although tipped−up trees were found at Hickory, Whiton and Porter (species: Liquidamabar styraciflua, Pinus taeda, Populus deltoides, Quercus pagoda and Ilex spp.). These trees fell mostly in an east or east−southeast direction (88o−107o) in keeping with the wind direction of Hurricane Sandy on the Delmarva Peninsula. Coastal restoration and management can be informed by the specific differences in hurricane damage to vegetation by salt versus wind.

  9. Houston prefreshman enrichment program (Houston PREP). Final report, June 10, 1996--August 1, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    The 1996 Houston Pre-freshman Enrichment Program (PREP) was conducted on the campus of the University of Houston-Downtown from June 10 to August 1, 1996. Program Participants were recruited from the Greater Houston area. All participants were identified as high achieving students with an interest in learning about the engineering and science professions. The goal of the program was to better prepare our pre-college youth prior to entering college as mathematics, science and engineering majors. The program participants were middle school and high school students from the Aldine, Alief, Channel View, Crockett, Cypress-Fairbanks, Fort Bend, Galena Park, Houston, Humble, Katy, Klein, North Forest, Pasadena, Private, and Spring Branch Independent School Districts. Of the 197 students starting the program, 170 completed, 142 students were from economically and socially disadvantage groups underrepresented in the engineering and science professions, and 121 of the 197 were female. Our First Year group for 1996 composed of 96% minority and women students. Our Second and Third Year students were 100% and 93.75% minority or women respectively. This gave an overall minority and female population of 93.75%. This year, special efforts were again made to recruit students from minority groups, which caused a significant increase in qualified applicants. However, due to space limitations, 140 applicants were rejected. Investigative and discovery learning were key elements of PREP. The academic components of the program included Algebraic Structures, Engineering, Introduction to Computer Science, Introduction to Physics, Logic and Its Application to Mathematics, Probability and Statistics, Problem Solving Seminar using computers and PLATO software, SAT Preparatory Seminars, and Technical Writing.

  10. Intrathecal pain management: a team-based approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adler JA

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Jeremy A Adler,1 Neona M Lotz2 1Pacific Pain Medicine Consultants, Encinitas, 2Cypress Ambulatory Surgery Center, Santa Maria, CA, USA Objective: Physician assistants (PAs, nurse practitioners (NPs, and registered nurses (RNs provide professional services on pain management teams. This review provides an overview of the practical management of chronic pain with intrathecal (IT therapy using an interprofessional approach (eg, physicians and other health care professionals, with a focus on the contributions of PAs, NPs, and RNs.Methods: Narrative review based on literature searches of the Medline database and treatment guidelines on the use of IT therapy in the management of patients with chronic pain.Results: The specific roles and responsibilities of PAs, NPs, and RNs in the management of patients receiving IT therapy vary by practice. In many pain treatment centers, PAs, NPs, and RNs are responsible for patient education, postimplant maintenance, and ongoing supportive care of patients receiving IT therapy. Topics that we address include patient selection, patient expectations and goal setting, medication selection, outcome assessment, and treatment adjustment. Currently, morphine and ziconotide (a nonopioid, selective N-type calcium channel blocker are the only agents approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for IT analgesia. We provide relevant information on the dosing, titration, and adverse effect management of these medications for PAs, NPs, and RNs responsible for administering IT therapy.Conclusion: PAs, NPs, and RNs are valuable members of IT pain management teams. Treatment success requires ongoing monitoring of efficacy and adverse effects, with corresponding adjustments to medication selection and dosing, in addition to good communication among the health care professionals involved in patient care. Keywords: chronic pain, implantable drug delivery system, morphine, patient education, ziconotide

  11. Short Communication. Comparing flammability traits among fire-stricken (low elevation and non fire-stricken (high elevation conifer forest species of Europe: A test of the Mutch hypothesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. Dimitrakopoulos

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study. The flammability of the main coniferous forest species of Europe, divided into two groups according to their fire regime and altitudinal distribution, was tested in an effort to detect species-specific differences that may have an influence on community-wide fire regimes.Area of study. Conifer species comprising low- and high-elevation forests in Europe.Materials and Methods. The following conifer species were tested: low elevation; Pinus halepensis (Aleppo pine, Pinus brutia (Turkish pine, Pinus pinaster (maritime pine, Pinus pinea (stone pine and Cupressus sempervirens (cypress, high elevation (i.e., above 600 m a.s.l.; Pinus sylvestris (Scots pine, Abies alba (white fir, Picea excelsa (Norway spruce, Abies borissii regis (Macedonian fir and Pinus nigra (black pine. Flammability assessment (time-to-ignition and ignition temperature was conducted by an innovative ignition apparatus, heat content was measured with an IKA Adiabatic Bomb Calorimeter and ash content by heating 5 g of plant material in a muffle furnace at 650ºC for 1 h. Differences among species was statistically analysed by Duncan’s multiple comparison test.Main results. The results did not distinguish separate groups among traits between fire- and non-fire-stricken communities at the individual species level.Research highlights. Differences in fire regimes among low and high elevation conifer forests could be attributed either to differences in flammability of the plant communities as a whole (i.e., fuelbed or canopy properties vs. individual fuel properties or to other factors (climatic or anthropogenic.Key words: flammability; ignitability; heat content; ash content; conifer species; Mutch hypothesis.

  12. Spatially explicit population estimates for black bears based on cluster sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humm, J.; McCown, J. Walter; Scheick, B.K.; Clark, Joseph D.

    2017-01-01

    We estimated abundance and density of the 5 major black bear (Ursus americanus) subpopulations (i.e., Eglin, Apalachicola, Osceola, Ocala-St. Johns, Big Cypress) in Florida, USA with spatially explicit capture-mark-recapture (SCR) by extracting DNA from hair samples collected at barbed-wire hair sampling sites. We employed a clustered sampling configuration with sampling sites arranged in 3 × 3 clusters spaced 2 km apart within each cluster and cluster centers spaced 16 km apart (center to center). We surveyed all 5 subpopulations encompassing 38,960 km2 during 2014 and 2015. Several landscape variables, most associated with forest cover, helped refine density estimates for the 5 subpopulations we sampled. Detection probabilities were affected by site-specific behavioral responses coupled with individual capture heterogeneity associated with sex. Model-averaged bear population estimates ranged from 120 (95% CI = 59–276) bears or a mean 0.025 bears/km2 (95% CI = 0.011–0.44) for the Eglin subpopulation to 1,198 bears (95% CI = 949–1,537) or 0.127 bears/km2 (95% CI = 0.101–0.163) for the Ocala-St. Johns subpopulation. The total population estimate for our 5 study areas was 3,916 bears (95% CI = 2,914–5,451). The clustered sampling method coupled with information on land cover was efficient and allowed us to estimate abundance across extensive areas that would not have been possible otherwise. Clustered sampling combined with spatially explicit capture-recapture methods has the potential to provide rigorous population estimates for a wide array of species that are extensive and heterogeneous in their distribution.

  13. Concentration of trace metals in sediments and soils from protected lands in south Florida: background levels and risk evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Joffre E; Fernandez, Adolfo M; Gonzalez-Caccia, Valentina; Gardinali, Piero R

    2013-08-01

    A comprehensive environmental evaluation was completed on 20 metals: two reference metals (Fe, Al) and several minor trace metals (As, Ba, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, V, and Zn) for surface soils and sediments collected from 50 sites in Everglades National Park (ENP), the coastal fringes of Biscayne National Park (BNP), and Big Cypress National Preserve. Samples were prepared by acid digestion (EPA3050) and analyzed by ICP/MS detection (EPA6020). Although no widespread contamination was detected across the two parks and one preserve, there were some specific areas where metal concentrations exceeded Florida's ecological thresholds, suggesting that some metals were of concern. A screening-level evaluation based on a proposed effect index grouped trace metals by their potential for causing negligible, possible, and probable effects on the biota. For example, Cu in BNP and Cr and Pb in ENP were considered of concern because their adverse effect likelihood to biota was assessed as probable; consequently, these trace metals were selected for further risk characterization. Also, stations were ranked based on a proposed overall contamination index that showed that: site BB10 in BNP and sites E3 and E5 in ENP had the highest scores. The first site was located in a marina in BNP, and the other two sites were along the eastern boundary of ENP adjacent to current or former agricultural lands. An assessment tool for south Florida protected lands was developed for evaluating impacts from on-going Everglades restoration projects and to assist State and Federal agencies with resource management. The tool consists of enrichment plots and statistically derived background concentrations based on soil/sediment data collected from the two national parks and one preserve. Finally, an equally accurate but much simplified approach is offered for developing enrichment plots for other environmental settings.

  14. High Temporal Resolution Measurements to Investigate Carbon Dynamics in Subtropical Peat Soils Using Automated Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) Measurements at the Laboratory Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClellan, M. D.; Wright, W. J.; Job, M. J.; Comas, X.

    2015-12-01

    Peatlands have the capability to produce and release significant amounts of free phase biogenic gasses (CO2, CH4) into the atmosphere and are thus regarded as key contributors of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. Many studies throughout the past two decades have investigated gas flux dynamics in peat soils; however a high resolution temporal understanding in the variability of these fluxes (particularly at the matrix scale) is still lacking. This study implements an array of hydrogeophysical methods to investigate the temporal variability in biogenic gas accumulation and release in high resolution for a large 0.073 m3 peat monolith from the Blue Cypress Preserve in central Florida. An autonomous rail system was constructed in order to estimate gas content variability (i.e. build-up and release) within the peat matrix using a series of continuous, uninterrupted ground penetrating radar (GPR) transects along the sample. This system ran non-stop implementing a 0.01 m shot interval using high frequency (1.2 GHz) antennas. GPR measurements were constrained with an array of 6 gas traps fitted with time-lapse cameras in order to capture gas releases at 15 minute intervals. A gas chromatograph was used to determine CH4 and CO2 content of the gas collected in the gas traps. The aim of this study is to investigate the temporal variability in the accumulation and release of biogenic gases in subtropical peat soils at the lab scale at a high resolution. This work has implications for better understanding carbon dynamics in subtropical freshwater peatlands and how climate change may alter such dynamics.

  15. Specific IgE and IgG measured by the MeDALL allergen-chip depend on allergen and route of exposure: The EGEA study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siroux, Valérie; Lupinek, Christian; Resch, Yvonne; Curin, Mirela; Just, Jocelyne; Keil, Thomas; Kiss, Renata; Lødrup Carlsen, Karin; Melén, Erik; Nadif, Rachel; Pin, Isabelle; Skrindo, Ingebjørg; Vrtala, Susanne; Wickman, Magnus; Anto, Josep Maria; Valenta, Rudolf; Bousquet, Jean

    2017-02-01

    The nature of allergens and route and dose of exposure may affect the natural development of IgE and IgG responses. We sought to investigate the natural IgE and IgG responses toward a large panel of respiratory and food allergens in subjects exposed to different respiratory allergen loads. A cross-sectional analysis was conducted in 340 adults of the EGEA (Epidemiological study of the Genetics and Environment of Asthma, bronchial hyperresponsiveness and atopy) (170 with and 170 without asthma) cohort. IgE and IgG responses to 47 inhalant and food allergen components were analyzed in sera using allergen microarray and compared between 5 French regions according to the route of allergen exposure (inhaled vs food allergens). Overall 48.8% of the population had allergen-specific IgE levels of 0.3 ISAC standardized units (ISU) or more to at least 1 of the 47 allergens with no significant differences across the regions. For ubiquitous respiratory allergens (ie, grass, olive/ash pollen, house dust mites), specific IgE did not show marked differences between regions and specific IgG (≥0.5 ISU) was present in most subjects everywhere. For regionally occurring pollen allergens (ragweed, birch, cypress), IgE sensitization was significantly associated with regional pollen exposure. For airborne allergens cross-reacting with food allergens, frequent IgG recognition was observed even in regions with low allergen prevalence (Bet v 1) or for allergens less frequently recognized by IgE (profilins). The variability in allergen-specific IgE and IgG frequencies depends on exposure, route of exposure, and overall immunogenicity of the allergen. Allergen contact by the oral route might preferentially induce IgG responses. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Allergic conjunctivitis and the most common allergens in Northern Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Ocular allergies affect a great part of the general population and often co exist with other allergic manifestations. In the present study, the prevalence of allergic conjunctivitis and the commonest allergens in allergic patients at an outpatient unit in Thessaloniki, Greece were evaluated. Methods This is a retrospective study regarding allergic patients who referred to an outpatient clinic between the 1st of January of 1996 and the 31st of December 2010. They completed relative questionnaires concerning their allergic condition. The patients who were included in our study had allergic conjunctivitis confirmed by ophthalmologists and were divided into 4 groups. The criteria used were the existence of allergic conjunctivitis alone or with other allergic co- morbidities. The patients then underwent skin prick tests after consent according to current guidelines. Results The archives of 1239 allergic patients were evaluated and 497 patients (40,11%) who manifested eye allergic symptoms were included in our study. 448 patients (90.14%) had allergic conjunctivitis in conjunction with asthma or rhinitis or both. 370 patients underwent skin prick tests and 284 of them (124 males-160 females) were positive for at least 1 of the 8 tested allergens (76.75%). 166 were positive to a grass mix (58.45%), 130 to olea European (45.77%), 124 to dust mites mix (43.66%), 58 to cypress (20.42%), 71 to parietaria officinalis (25.00%), 67 to cat dander (23.59%), 35 to dog dander (12.32%) and 32 to Altenaria (11.26%). Conclusions Symptoms of ocular allergy are very common in patients with allergic rhinitis and asthma. Men had slightly higher percentages of positive skin prick tests, except for dog dander and Altenaria. Conjunctivitis should not be overlooked as an allergic entity when evaluating allergic patients. PMID:23866689

  17. Preparation of a K39sub Recombinant Antigen for the Detection of Leishmania infantum Antibodies in Human: a Comparative Study with an Immunochromatographic Test and Direct Agglu-tina¬tion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Mahmoudi

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Mediterranean type of kala-azar is occurred in different parts of Iran and caused by Leishmania infan¬tum. A rapid and valid test for early detection of visceral leishmaniasis in human would be highly desirable because it could de¬crease mortality rate of the disease. In this study, we aimed to compare the results of K39sub antigen with an commercial immu¬nochromatographic dipstick rk39 test (Cypress Diagnostic Company, Belgium for early detection of L. infantum infec¬tion in human. Methods: K39sub recombinant antigen of L. infantum LON49 was expressed in prokaryotic system and evaluated for the diagno¬sis of human visceral leishmaniasis. This study evaluated the performance of recombinant K39sub antigen by ELISA and an commercial immunochromatographic dipstick rk39 test for the detection of L. infantum antibodies in 43 clinically in¬fected patients with direct agglutination test (DAT at a 1: 3200 cut off titer and higher. Controls included 69 healthy volun¬teers and 28 patients with other diseases including malaria (n=5, tuberculosis (n= 3, toxoplasmosis (n= 4, cystic hydatido¬sis (n= 5 and cutaneous leishmaniasis (n= 11. Results: The sensitivity of the K39sub antigen and an immunochromatographic dipstick rk39 test was 90.7%, and 97.7%, respec¬tively, while the specificity was 95.6% and 97.9%, correspondingly. A good concordance was found between k39sub anti¬gen and commercial dipstick rk39 strips (k= 96.4%. Conclusion: The accuracy of the K39sub antigen in the detection of L. infantum antibodies in human infecetion is confirmed.

  18. Modeling the potential impacts of climate change on the water table level of selected forested wetlands in the southeastern United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Zhu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The southeastern United States hosts extensive forested wetlands, providing ecosystem services including carbon sequestration, water quality improvement, groundwater recharge, and wildlife habitat. However, these wetland ecosystems are dependent on local climate and hydrology, and are therefore at risk due to climate and land use change. This study develops site-specific empirical hydrologic models for five forested wetlands with different characteristics by analyzing long-term observed meteorological and hydrological data. These wetlands represent typical cypress ponds/swamps, Carolina bays, pine flatwoods, drained pocosins, and natural bottomland hardwood ecosystems. The validated empirical models are then applied at each wetland to predict future water table changes using climate projections from 20 general circulation models (GCMs participating in Coupled Model Inter-comparison Project 5 (CMIP5 under the Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs 4.5 and 8.5 scenarios. We show that combined future changes in precipitation and potential evapotranspiration would significantly alter wetland hydrology including groundwater dynamics by the end of the 21st century. Compared to the historical period, all five wetlands are predicted to become drier over time. The mean water table depth is predicted to drop by 4 to 22 cm in response to the decrease in water availability (i.e., precipitation minus potential evapotranspiration by the year 2100. Among the five examined wetlands, the depressional wetland in hot and humid Florida appears to be most vulnerable to future climate change. This study provides quantitative information on the potential magnitude of wetland hydrological response to future climate change in typical forested wetlands in the southeastern US.

  19. Wetlands as principal zones of methylmercury production in southern Louisiana and the Gulf of Mexico region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, B D; Aiken, G R; Krabbenhoft, D P; Marvin-Dipasquale, M; Swarzenski, C M

    2008-07-01

    It is widely recognized that wetlands, especially those rich in organic matter and receiving appreciable atmospheric mercury (Hg) inputs, are important sites of methylmercury (MeHg) production. Extensive wetlands in the southeastern United States have many ecosystem attributes ideal for promoting high MeHg production rates; however, relatively few mercury cycling studies have been conducted in these environments. We conducted a landscape scale study examining Hg cycling in coastal Louisiana (USA) including four field trips conducted between August 2003 and May 2005. Sites were chosen to represent different ecosystem types, including: a large shallow eutrophic estuarine lake (Lake Pontchartrain), three rivers draining into the lake, a cypress-tupelo dominated freshwater swamp, and six emergent marshes ranging from a freshwater marsh dominated by Panicum hemitomon to a Spartina alterniflora dominated salt marsh close to the Gulf of Mexico. We measured MeHg and total Hg (THg) concentrations, and ancillary chemical characteristics, in whole and filtered surface water, and filtered porewater. Overall, MeHg concentrations were greatest in surface water of freshwater wetlands and lowest in the profundal (non-vegetated) regions of the lake and river mainstems. Concentrations of THg and MeHg in filtered surface water were positively correlated with the highly reactive, aromatic (hydrophobic organic acid) fraction of dissolved organic carbon (DOC). These results suggest that DOC plays an important role in promoting the mobility, transport and bioavailability of inorganic Hg in these environments. Further, elevated porewater concentrations in marine and brackish wetlands suggest coastal wetlands along the Gulf Coast are key sites for MeHg production and may be a principal source of MeHg to foodwebs in the Gulf of Mexico. Examining the relationships among MeHg, THg, and DOC across these multiple landscape types is a first step in evaluating possible links between key zones for

  20. Macroinvertebrate and diatom metrics as indicators of water-quality conditions in connected depression wetlands in the Mississippi Alluvial Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justus, Billy; Burge, David; Cobb, Jennifer; Marsico, Travis; Bouldin, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Methods for assessing wetland conditions must be established so wetlands can be monitored and ecological services can be protected. We evaluated biological indices compiled from macroinvertebrate and diatom metrics developed primarily for streams to assess their ability to indicate water quality in connected depression wetlands. We collected water-quality and biological samples at 24 connected depressions dominated by water tupelo (Nyssa aquatica) or bald cypress (Taxodium distichum) (water depths = 0.5–1.0 m). Water quality of the least-disturbed connected depressions was characteristic of swamps in the southeastern USA, which tend to have low specific conductance, nutrient concentrations, and pH. We compared 162 macroinvertebrate metrics and 123 diatom metrics with a water-quality disturbance gradient. For most metrics, we evaluated richness, % richness, abundance, and % relative abundance values. Three of the 4 macroinvertebrate metrics that were most beneficial for identifying disturbance in connected depressions decreased along the disturbance gradient even though they normally increase relative to stream disturbance. The negative relationship to disturbance of some taxa (e.g., dipterans, mollusks, and crustaceans) that are considered tolerant in streams suggests that the tolerance scale for some macroinvertebrates can differ markedly between streams and wetlands. Three of the 4 metrics chosen for the diatom index reflected published tolerances or fit the usual perception of metric response to disturbance. Both biological indices may be useful in connected depressions elsewhere in the Mississippi Alluvial Plain Ecoregion and could have application in other wetland types. Given the paradoxical relationship of some macroinvertebrate metrics to dissolved O2 (DO), we suggest that the diatom metrics may be easier to interpret and defend for wetlands with low DO concentrations in least-disturbed conditions.

  1. Comparison of conventional and component-resolved diagnostics by two different methods (Advia-Centaur/Microarray-ISAC) in pollen allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lizaso, María Teresa; García, Blanca Esther; Tabar, Ana Isabel; Lasa, Eva; Echechipía, Susana; Alvarez, María José; Anda, Marta; Gómez, Belén

    2011-07-01

    Component-resolved diagnostics (CRD) has recently been introduced into clinical allergology. The aim of this study was to assess the contribution that this new diagnostic technique makes to conventional diagnosis in patients with pollen allergy, comparing CRD with conventional technologies, and to compare 2 CRD methods, Advia-Centaur and Microarray-ISAC. Serum samples from 120 pollen-allergic patients were obtained. Immunoglobulin (Ig) E to total extracts (CAP System) and individual allergens using both CRD methods were determined. The 3 diagnostic methods were in agreement in 62.5% of cases. In 30%, the CRD modified the conventional diagnosis either by detecting new relevant sensitizations (mainly to Olea) or by ruling out clinically irrelevant sensitizations caused by panallergens. The main differences between the 2 CRD methods were the deficiency in the ISAC version we used (ISAC-CRD-89) to detect sensitizations to Salsola and Plantago and that Advia-Centaur did not detect sensitizations to cypress. For all allergens except for Par j 1, a significant association in the frequency of sensitization was seen with the 2 CRD techniques and good agreement when comparing the results of the 2 methods in all cases. Significant correlation was found in the concentration of specific IgE in the 2 techniques for the most prevalent allergens in our setting. The results of the different profilins analyzed using Microarray-ISAC were superimposable although somewhat lower in the case of Phl p 12. Component-resolved diagnostics modified the conventional diagnosis in 30% of cases. The results from the 2 CRD methods showed good agreement and correlation for most allergens. Copyright © 2011 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. An investigation of multispectral imaging for the mapping of pigments in paintings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yonghui; Berns, Roy S.; Taplin, Lawrence A.; Coddington, James

    2008-02-01

    Compared with colorimetric imaging, multispectral imaging has the advantage of retrieving spectral reflectance factor of each pixel of a painting. Using this spectral information, pigment mapping is concerned with decomposing the spectrum into its constituent pigments and their relative contributions. The output of pigment mapping is a series of spatial concentration maps of the pigments comprising the painting. This approach was used to study Vincent van Gogh's The Starry Night. The artist's palette was approximated using ten oil pigments, selected from a large database of pigments used in oil paintings and a priori analytical research on one of his self portraits, executed during the same time period. The pigment mapping was based on single-constant Kubelka-Munk theory. It was found that the region of blue sky where the stars were located contained, predominantly, ultramarine blue while the swirling sky and region surrounding the moon contained, predominantly, cobalt blue. Emerald green, used in light bluish-green brushstrokes surrounding the moon, was not used to create the dark green in the cypresses. A measurement of lead white from Georges Seurat's La Grande Jatte was used as the white when mapping The Starry Night. The absorption and scattering properties of this white were replaced with a modern dispersion of lead white in linseed oil and used to simulate the painting's appearance before the natural darkening and yellowing of lead white oil paint. Pigment mapping based on spectral imaging was found to be a viable and practical approach for analyzing pigment composition, providing new insight into an artist's working method, the possibility for aiding in restorative inpainting, and lighting design.

  3. Surface Analysis by Scanning Tunneling Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coury, Louis A., Jr.; Johnson, Mario; Murphy, Tammy J.

    1995-12-01

    In both student projects a Burleigh Instruments ARIS-2200E STM was employed to image polycrystalline gold electrodes before and after deposition of a second metal onto the surface. Students prepared their own tungsten STM tips using an A.C.-etching procedure in 5% NaNO2. The electrodes used were available commercailly (AAI-AbTech, Yardley, PA) and consisted of 1000 of Au over a 100 adhesion layer of Ti on electronics-grade borosilicate glass. Electrodes were affixed to the STM sample holder using conductive carbon tape (SPI, West Chester, PA) and imaged in air. Modified electrodes were prepared by sonochemical deposition of 300 nm-Cu particles onto the Au surface in a procedure described elsewhere (2) or by the electrolytic deposition of various metals used in dental amalgams from acidic media using a Cypress Systems CS-1087 potentiostat. ResultsIn a typical image obtained for an unmodified Au surface (see image below), small crystallites (~500 to 1000 in diameter) of Au formed during the sputtering process during electrode fabrication are clearly visible. Images of modified electrodes (not shown) always show a markedly different morphology, with visible characteristic surface features ranging in size from hundreds of nanometers to several microns. The concepts students learn in these studies include electron tunneling, electroplating, nucleation phenomena, and amalgam chemistry. Although primarily touted as a method for atomic resolution imaging, STM clearly has utility for examining surfaces with features in the 100-nm to 1-micrometer size regime. Because of the recent availability of inexpensive instruments with user-friendly software, we encourage others to consider incorporating STM into the undergraduate curriculum. AcknowledgmentThis project was supported partially by a grant, DUE-9351426, from the National Science Foundation Division of Undergraduate Education Instrumentation and Laboratory Improvement Program. Literature Cited Lederman, L. Science 1991

  4. Florida panther habitat use response to prescribed fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dees, Catherine S.; Clark, Joseph D.; van Manen, Frank T.

    2001-01-01

    The Florida panther (Puma concolor coryi) is one of the most endangered mammals in the world, with only 30-50 adults surviving in and around Florida Panther National Wildlife Refuge and the adjacent Big Cypress National Preserve. Managers at these areas conduct annual prescribed burns in pine (Pinus sp.) as a cost-effective method of managing wildlife habitat. Our objectives were to determine if temporal and spatial relationships existed between prescribed fire an panther use of pine. to accomplish this, we paired fire-event data from the Refuge an the Preserve with panther radiolocations collected between 1989 and 1998, determined the time that had elapsed since burning had occurred in management units associated with the radiolocations, and generated a frequency distribution based on those times. We then generated ant expected frequency distribution, based on random use relative to time since burning. This analysis revealed that panther use of burned pine habitats was greatest during the first year after a management unit was burned. Also, compositional analysis indicated that panthers were more likely to position their home ranges in areas that contained pine. We conclude that prescribed burning is important to panther ecology. We suggest that panthers were attracted to changed caused by the prescribed fires. The strong selection for stands burned within 1 year is a persuasive indication that it is the burning in pine, rather than the pine per se, that most influenced habitat use. Before burning rotation lengths are reduced, however, we suggest managers determine effects of shorter burning intervals on vegetation composition and evaluate the landscape-scale changes that would result. 

  5. Modeling the long-term effects of introduced herbivores on the spread of an invasive tree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bo; DeAngelis, Don; Rayamajhi, Min B.; Botkin, Daniel B.

    2017-01-01

    ContextMelaleuca quinquenervia (Cav.) Blake (hereafter melaleuca) is an invasive tree from Australia that has spread over the freshwater ecosystems of southern Florida, displacing native vegetation, thus threatening native biodiversity. Suppression of melaleuca appears to be progressing through the introduction of insect species, the weevil, Oxiops vitiosa, and the psyllid, Boreioglycaspis melaleucae.ObjectiveTo improve understanding of the possible effects of herbivory on the landscape dynamics of melaleuca in native southern Florida plant communities.MethodsWe projected likely future changes in plant communities using the individual based modeling platform, JABOWA-II, by simulating successional processes occurring in two types of southern Florida habitat, cypress swamp and bay swamp, occupied by native species and melaleuca, with the impact of insect herbivores.ResultsComputer simulations show melaleuca invasion leads to decreases in density and basal area of native species, but herbivory would effectively control melaleuca to low levels, resulting in a recovery of native species. When herbivory was modeled on pure melaleuca stands, it was more effective in stands with initially larger-sized melaleuca. Although the simulated herbivory did not eliminate melaleuca, it decreased its presence dramatically in all cases, supporting the long-term effectiveness of herbivory in controlling melaleuca invasion.ConclusionsThe results provide three conclusions relevant to management: (1) The introduction of insect herbivory that has been applied to melaleuca appears sufficient to suppress melaleuca over the long term, (2) dominant native species may recover in about 50 years, and (3) regrowth of native species will further suppress melaleuca through competition.

  6. Fluke abundance versus host age for an invasive trematode (Dicrocoelium dendriticum of sympatric elk and beef cattle in southeastern Alberta, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa A. Beck

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological parameters such as transmission rate, rate of parasite-induced host mortality, and rate of development of host defenses can be assessed indirectly by characterizing the manner in which parasite burdens change with host age. For parasites that are host generalists, estimates of these important parameters may be host-species dependent. In a cross-sectional study, we determined age–abundance profiles of infection in samples of sympatric free-ranging elk and domestic cattle infected with the lancet liver fluke, Dicrocoelium dendriticum. This parasite was introduced into Cypress Hills Provincial Park in southeastern Alberta, Canada in the mid 1990s, and now occurs in 60–90% of co-grazing elk and beef cattle examined at necropsy. The livers of 173 elk were made available by hunters during the 1997–2011 hunting seasons and livers from 35 cattle were purchased from ranchers. In elk, median worm abundance peaked in 6–24 month-olds (median = 72, range = 0–1006 then significantly declined to <10 worms/host in 10–16 year olds. The decline in fluke burden with age is not consistent with an age-related decline in exposure to metacercariae in intermediate hosts and high rates of fluke-induced host mortality are unlikely. Rather, the pattern of peak fluke burdens in elk calves and juveniles, followed by a decline in older animals is consistent with the development of a protective immune response in older hosts. There was no pattern of worm accumulation or decline in sympatric cattle, although statistical power to detect a significant effect was low. These results highlight the complexity and context-dependent nature of epidemiological processes in multi-host systems.

  7. Modeling the potential impacts of climate change on the water table level of selected forested wetlands in the southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jie; Sun, Ge; Li, Wenhong; Zhang, Yu; Miao, Guofang; Noormets, Asko; McNulty, Steve G.; King, John S.; Kumar, Mukesh; Wang, Xuan

    2017-12-01

    The southeastern United States hosts extensive forested wetlands, providing ecosystem services including carbon sequestration, water quality improvement, groundwater recharge, and wildlife habitat. However, these wetland ecosystems are dependent on local climate and hydrology, and are therefore at risk due to climate and land use change. This study develops site-specific empirical hydrologic models for five forested wetlands with different characteristics by analyzing long-term observed meteorological and hydrological data. These wetlands represent typical cypress ponds/swamps, Carolina bays, pine flatwoods, drained pocosins, and natural bottomland hardwood ecosystems. The validated empirical models are then applied at each wetland to predict future water table changes using climate projections from 20 general circulation models (GCMs) participating in Coupled Model Inter-comparison Project 5 (CMIP5) under the Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) 4.5 and 8.5 scenarios. We show that combined future changes in precipitation and potential evapotranspiration would significantly alter wetland hydrology including groundwater dynamics by the end of the 21st century. Compared to the historical period, all five wetlands are predicted to become drier over time. The mean water table depth is predicted to drop by 4 to 22 cm in response to the decrease in water availability (i.e., precipitation minus potential evapotranspiration) by the year 2100. Among the five examined wetlands, the depressional wetland in hot and humid Florida appears to be most vulnerable to future climate change. This study provides quantitative information on the potential magnitude of wetland hydrological response to future climate change in typical forested wetlands in the southeastern US.

  8. Sensor Network-Based Localization for Continuous Tracking Applications: Implementation and Performance Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco Davoli

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The increasing interest in systems able to provide users with immersive services (e.g., domotics, context-aware applications, and immersive distance learning tools has encouraged the development of cheap and effective platforms aimed at tracking objects and people within a certain space. In this context, wireless sensor networks (WSNs can play a very important role, since specialized sensors can be fruitfully exploited in order to generate/receive signals by means of which the WSN can derive the position of nodes joined to the objects to be tracked. The paper presents an original localization platform that exploits a single-hop WSN, based on a Microchip MCU and a Cypress RF device, to track its moving nodes. Specifically, the nodes of the network are divided into three sets: the first set consists of anchor nodes that, according to the commands from the sink (the central node of the WSN, generate ultrasonic pulses. These pulses are received by the second set of (moving nodes, which estimate the pulse time trip and communicate it to the sink. Finally, the last set is constituted by general purpose nodes that collect any kind of data from the surrounding field. The sink gathers all the data, computes the position of moving nodes, and transfers information to external users on the Internet. The algorithms adopted to manage the network and to localize moving nodes are discussed. A working prototype based upon the hardware platform, software, and protocol described in this paper has been deployed and tested, and some results are shown. Simulation results of the localization system are presented to show system scalability.

  9. Reducing the threat of wildlife-vehicle collisions during peak tourism periods using a Roadside Animal Detection System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, Molly K; Smith, Daniel J; Noss, Reed F

    2017-12-01

    Roadside Animal Detection Systems (RADS) aim to reduce the frequency of wildlife-vehicle collisions. Unlike fencing and wildlife passages, RADS do not attempt to keep animals off the road; rather, they attempt to modify driver behavior by detecting animals near the road and warning drivers with flashing signs. A RADS was installed in Big Cypress National Park (Florida, USA) in 2012 in response to an increased number of Florida panther mortalities. To assess driver response, we measured the speed of individual cars on the road when the RADS was active (flashing) and inactive (not flashing) during the tourist season (November-March) and the off-season (April-October), which vary dramatically in traffic volume. We also used track beds and camera traps to assess whether roadside activity of large mammal species varied between seasons. In the tourist season, the activation of the RADS caused a significant reduction in vehicle speed. However, this effect was not observed in the off-season. Track and camera data showed that the tourist season coincided with peak periods of activity for several large mammals of conservation interest. Drivers in the tourist season generally drove faster than those in the off-season, so a reduction in speed in response to the RADS is more beneficial in the tourist season. Because traffic volume and roadside activity of several species of conservation interest both peak during the tourist season, our study indicates that the RADS has the potential to reduce the number of accidents during this period of heightened risk. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Use of "biokit HSV-2 Rapid Assay" to improve the positive predictive value of Focus HerpeSelect HSV-2 ELISA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, Rhoda Ashley; Friedrich, David; Meier, Amalia; Corey, Lawrence

    2005-10-14

    Commercially available assays to detect antibodies to the herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2)-specific glycoprotein gG-2 have markedly improved serologic diagnosis of HSV-2 infection. However, even tests with high specificity can have low positive predictive values in low prevalence populations. HSV-2 is a chronic, life-long viral infection that requires both medical attention and potential alterations in health care strategy. As such, the concern for false positive diagnoses is high confirmatory testing is routine for other viral serologies such as HIV and hepatitis C. We evaluated such a strategy for HSV-2 serology by using an easily performed commercial test, biokitHSV-2 rapid test ("Biokit"; Biokit USA, Lexington MA) as a confirmatory test for the widely used gG-2 specific serology ("Focus;" HerpeSelect HSV-2 ELISA; Focus Diagnostics, Cypress CA). We tested 782 sera by Focus HSV-2 ELISA, Biokit, and the current gold standard test, Western blot (WB). The positive predictive value of the Focus HSV-2 ELISA increased from 80.5% to 95.6% when Biokit testing was performed on sera that were initially positive by Focus HSV-2 ELISA. Confirmatory testing increased the specificity markedly among sera with Focus EIA values between 1.1 and 3.5: only 35% of low positive (index values 1.1-3.5) Focus HSV-2 ELISA results confirmed as positive by Biokit and WB compared with 92% of those with index values >3.5. Mathematical modeling of the data resulted in expected positive predictive values over 98% for populations with antibody prevalences typical of clinical practices in the US and Europe. Confirmatory Biokit testing of positive Focus HSV-2 ELISA results is fast, easy, and effective in reducing falsely positive HSV-2 antibody results. Patients, clinicians, and laboratories could benefit from the enhanced specificity of this simple HSV-2 serologic test combination.

  11. Use of "biokit HSV-2 Rapid Assay" to improve the positive predictive value of Focus HerpeSelect HSV-2 ELISA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Friedrich David

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Commercially available assays to detect antibodies to the herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2-specific glycoprotein gG-2 have markedly improved serologic diagnosis of HSV-2 infection. However, even tests with high specificity can have low positive predictive values in low prevalence populations. HSV-2 is a chronic, life-long viral infection that requires both medical attention and potential alterations in health care strategy. As such, the concern for false positive diagnoses is high confirmatory testing is routine for other viral serologies such as HIV and hepatitis C. We evaluated such a strategy for HSV-2 serology by using an easily performed commercial test, biokitHSV-2 rapid test ("Biokit"; Biokit USA, Lexington MA as a confirmatory test for the widely used gG-2 specific serology ("Focus;" HerpeSelect HSV-2 ELISA; Focus Diagnostics, Cypress CA. Methods We tested 782 sera by Focus HSV-2 ELISA, Biokit, and the current gold standard test, Western blot (WB. Results The positive predictive value of the Focus HSV-2 ELISA increased from 80.5% to 95.6% when Biokit testing was performed on sera that were initially positive by Focus HSV-2 ELISA. Confirmatory testing increased the specificity markedly among sera with Focus EIA values between 1.1 and 3.5: only 35% of low positive (index values 1.1–3.5 Focus HSV-2 ELISA results confirmed as positive by Biokit and WB compared with 92% of those with index values >3.5. Mathematical modeling of the data resulted in expected positive predictive values over 98% for populations with antibody prevalences typical of clinical practices in the US and Europe. Conclusion Confirmatory Biokit testing of positive Focus HSV-2 ELISA results is fast, easy, and effective in reducing falsely positive HSV-2 antibody results. Patients, clinicians, and laboratories could benefit from the enhanced specificity of this simple HSV-2 serologic test combination.

  12. Can we improve the salinity tolerance of genotypes of Taxodium by using varietal and hybrid crosses?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Lijing; Creech, David L.; Krauss, Ken W.; Yunlong, Yin; Kulhavy, David L.

    2010-01-01

    Taxodium distichum (L.) Rich. var. distichum [baldcypress (BC)], Taxodium distichum var. mexicanum Gordon [Montezuma cypress (MC)], and a Taxodium hybrid (\\'Nanjing Beauty\\': BC x MC cross, T302) were evaluated for salt tolerance in 2006 at Nacogdoches, TX. Plants were irrigated weekly with four levels of salinity [0, 1, 3.5, and 6 ppt (0, 17, 60, and 102 mol*m-3)] for 13 weeks and then 0, 2, 7, and 12 ppt (0, 34, 120, and 204 mol*m-3) for another 12 weeks. Salinity treatments did not have a significant effect on growth rate; however, there were significant differences in growth rate among the three genotypes. Genotype T302 produced the greatest wet weight, whereas MC had stronger apical dominance and exhibited the greatest increase in height over the course of study. As expected, sodium (Na) concentration in Taxodium leaves increased as sea salt concentrations increased but did not tilt Na/potassium (K) ratios to stressful disproportions. Of the three genotypes, BC exhibited the highest leaf content of Na, calcium (Ca), sulfur (S), and iron (Fe); MC had the lowest leaf content of Na, Ca, S, and Fe; and T302 was intermediate. The benefits of using a hybrid cross (T302) that maintains greater biomass than BC or MC across a range of salinities must be weighed against the potential additional pruning and training necessary for cutting-grown clones relative to BC and MC propagated from seed and flood tolerance relative to BC. Still, combining the best characteristics of different varieties of T. distichum should facilitate the production of favorable genotypes tolerant to a number of soil physical and chemical property fluctuations for arboricultural operations.

  13. Atmospheric pollen season in Zagreb (Croatia) and its relationship with temperature and precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peternel, Renata; Srnec, Lidija; Čulig, Josip; Zaninović, Ksenija; Mitić, Božena; Vukušić, Ivan

    . The number of individuals allergic to plant pollen has recently been on a constant increase, especially in large cities and industrial areas. Therefore, monitoring of airborne pollen types and concentrations during the pollen season is of the utmost medical importance. The research reported in this paper aims to determine the beginning, course and end of the pollen season for the plants in the City of Zagreb, to identify allergenic plants, and to assess the variation in airborne pollen concentration as a function of temperature and precipitation changes for the year 2002. A volumetric Hirst sampler was used for airborne pollen sampling. Qualitative and quantitative pollen analysis was performed under a light microscope (magnification ×400). In the Zagreb area, 12 groups of highly allergenic plants (alder, hazel, cypress, birch, ash, hornbeam, grasses, elder, nettles, sweet chestnut, artemisia and ambrosia) were identified. Birch pollen predominated in spring, the highest concentrations being recorded in February and March. Grass pollen prevailed in May and June, and pollen of herbaceous plants of the genus Urtica (nettle) and of ambrosia in July, August and September. Air temperature was mostly higher or considerably higher than the annual average in those months, which resulted in a many days with high and very high airborne pollen concentrations. The exception was April, when these concentrations were lower because of high levels of precipitation. This also held for the first half of August and the second half of September. Pollen-sensitive individuals were at high risk from February till October because of the high airborne pollen concentrations, which only showed a transient decrease when the temperature fell or there was precipitation.

  14. Short communication.Wood identification based on their common name and their transversal surface anatomy.Application to the batch from the expedition of Ruiz and Pavon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dimitrakopoulos, A. P.; Mitsopoulos, I. D.; Kaliva, A.

    2013-05-01

    Aim of study: The flammability of the main coniferous forest species of Europe, divided into two groups according to their fire regime and altitudinal distribution, was tested in an effort to detect species-specific differences that may have an influence on community-wide fire regimes. Area of study: Conifer species comprising low- and high-elevation forests in Europe. Materials and methods: The following conifer species were tested: low elevation; Pinus halepensis (Aleppo pine), Pinus brutia (Turkish pine), Pinus pinaster (maritime pine), Pinus pinea (stone pine) and Cupressus sempervirens (cypress), high elevation (i.e., above 600 m a.s.l.); Pinus sylvestris (Scots pine), Abies alba (white fir), Picea excelsa (Norway spruce), Abies borissii regis (Macedonian fir) and Pinus nigra (black pine). Flammability assessment (time-to-ignition and ignition temperature) was conducted by an innovative ignition apparatus, heat content was measured with an IKA Adiabatic Bomb Calorimeter and ash content by heating 5 g of plant material in a muffle furnace at 650 degree centigrade for 1 h. Differences among species was statistically analysed by Duncan's multiple comparison test. Main results: The results did not distinguish separate groups among the tested flammability traits between fire- and non-fire-stricken communities at the individual species level. Research highlights: Differences in fire regimes among low and high elevation conifer forests could be attributed either to differences in flammability of the plant communities as a whole (i.e., fuelbed or canopy properties vs. individual fuel properties) or to other factors (climatic or anthropogenic). (Author) 22 refs.

  15. Bighorn Basin Coring Project: Palynofloral changes and taphonomy through the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum in the Bighorn Basin, Wyoming, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, G.; Jardine, P.

    2012-12-01

    The early Palaeogene hyperthermals provide an unprecedented opportunity to investigate the biotic responses to rapid and transient global warming events. As part of the Bighorn Basin Coring Project (BBCP), we have analyzed 182 sporomorph (pollen and spore) samples from three newly cored sites in the Bighorn Basin of Wyoming. Two sites, Basin Substation (121 samples) and Polecat Bench (41 samples), contain the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM, ETM1), and one early Eocene site, Gilmore Hill (20 samples), contains the ELMO (ETM2) event. We have focused initially on the Basin Substation section, because it is more organic rich, has demonstrated higher sporomorph recovery potential than the other two sites, and is the main focus of complementary geochemical analyses. Below 90 m core depth sporomorph concentrations are typically 1000 - 10 000 grains/gram, but between 90 and 60 m these decline to gymnosperms Cupressacites hiatipites (cypress, Cupressaceae) and bisaccate pollen (Pinaceae and/or Podocarpaceae), and the angiosperm taxa Polyatriopollenites vermontensis (wingnut or wheel wingnut, Juglandaceae), Caryapollenites spp. (hickory, Juglandaceae), and Alnipollenites spp. (alder, Betulaceae). However, samples are heterogeneous in terms of the dominant taxon, with different taxa having the highest relative abundance in different samples. In the upper part of the core, the assemblage is similar to that in the lower part, but with a more consistent dominance of gymnosperm taxa, and with the addition of Eocene marker taxa Intratriporopollenites instructus (linden, Tilioideae) and Celtis spp. (hackberry, Cannabaceae). These both have their first appearance at 56.14 m in the core, just above the zone of low sporomorph recovery. These results point to (a) a decrease in sporomorph preservation that is linked to environmental change during the PETM event, and (b) repeated reorganizations of plant relative abundances prior to the PETM. Current research is focusing on the

  16. Etiology of genital ulcer disease and association with HIV infection in Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phiri, Sam; Zadrozny, Sabrina; Weiss, Helen A; Martinson, Francis; Nyirenda, Naomi; Chen, Cheng-Yen; Miller, William C; Cohen, Myron S; Mayaud, Philippe; Hoffman, Irving F

    2013-12-01

    The World Health Organization recommends the use of syndromic management for patients presenting with genital ulcer disease (GUD) in developing countries. However, effective treatment guidelines depend on a current country-specific GUD etiological profile, which may change over time. From 2004 to 2006, we conducted a cross-sectional analysis of baseline data from patients presenting with GUD at a reference STI clinic in Lilongwe, Malawi. Participants were enrolled in a randomized clinical trial of acyclovir added to syndromic management and followed up for up to 28 days. Serologies for HIV (using parallel rapid tests), herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2; using Focus HerpeSelect IgG2 ELISA [Focus Technologies, Cypress Hill, CA]), and syphilis (rapid plasma reagin confirmed by Treponema pallidum hemagglutination) were determined, with plasma HIV-1 RNA and CD4 count in HIV-positive patients. Genital ulcer disease etiology was determined by real-time multiplex polymerase chain reaction from lesional swabs. A total of 422 patients with GUD (313 men; 74%) were enrolled. Overall seroprevalence of HIV-1, HSV-2, and syphilis were 61%, 72%, and 5%, respectively. Ulcer etiology was available for 398 patients and showed the following: HSV-2, 67%; Haemophilus ducreyi, 15%; T. pallidum, 6%; lymphogranuloma venereum, 6%; mixed infections, 14%, and no etiology, 20%. Most HSV-2 ulcers were recurrent (75%). Among all patients with HSV-2, HIV prevalence was high (67%) and HIV seroprevalence was higher among patients with recurrent HSV-2 compared with patients with first-episode HSV-2 (78% vs. 39%, P ulcers are highly prevalent in this symptomatic population and strongly associated with HIV. Unlike most locations in sub-Saharan Africa, H. ducreyi remains prevalent in this population and requires periodic monitoring and an appropriate treatment regimen.

  17. Evaluation of Seismic Hazards at California Department of Transportation (CALTRANS)Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merriam, M. K.

    2005-12-01

    The California Department of Transportation (CALTRANS) has responsibility for design, construction, and maintenance of approximately 12,000 state bridges. CALTRANS also provides oversight for similar activities for 12,200 bridges owned by local agencies throughout the state. California is subjected to a M6 or greater seismic event every few years. Recent earthquakes include the 1971 Mw6.6 San Fernando earthquake which struck north of Los Angeles and prompted engineers to begin retrofitting existing bridges and re-examine the way bridges are detailed to improve their response to earthquakes, the 1989 Mw6.9 Loma Prieta earthquake which destroyed the Cypress Freeway and damaged the San Francisco-Oakland Bay Bridge, and the 1994 Mw6.7 Northridge earthquake in the Los Angeles area which heavily damaged four major freeways. Since CALTRANS' seismic performance goal is to ensure life-safety needs are met for the traveling public during an earthquake, estimating earthquake magnitude, peak bedrock acceleration, and determining if special seismic considerationsare needed at specific bridge sites are critical. CALTRANS is currently developing a fourth generation seismic hazard map to be used for estimating these parameters. A deterministic approach has been used to develop this map. Late-Quaternary-age faults are defined as the expected seismic sources. Caltrans requires site-specific studies to determine potential for liquefaction, seismically induced landslides, and surface fault rupture. If potential for one of these seismic hazards exists, the hazard is mitigated by avoidance, removal, or accommodated through design. The action taken, while complying with the Department's "no collapse" requirement, depends upon many factors, including cost.

  18. Transferencia de datos por puerto USB de una tarjeta FPGA Nexys 2 empleando LabWindows CVI v9.0

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Raúl Rodríguez Suárez

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabla normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} En el trabajo se presenta la implementación de la comunicación por puerto USB entre una computadora con sistema operativo Windows y una tarjeta FPGA Nexys2.  Dicha tarjeta posee un microcontrolador Cypress CY7C68013A que maneja un puerto  USB2 de alta velocidad que ha sido programado para emular un puerto paralelo EPP. Se expone el diseño y evaluación  de una interfaz gráfica de usuario con programación LabWindows que maneja la biblioteca DPCUTIL y que posibilita la transferencia y visualización de datos desde la Nexys2. La aplicación permite  la transferencia en tiempo real de un procesador digital de 12bits, de dos canales implementado con frecuencia de muestreo de 1MHz en la FPGA. En el trabajo se evalúa los resultados alcanzados en cuanto a la velocidad de transferencia de datos efectiva.

  19. A solution for measuring accurate reaction time to visual stimuli realized with a programmable microcontroller.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohyanagi, Toshio; Sengoku, Yasuhito

    2010-02-01

    This article presents a new solution for measuring accurate reaction time (SMART) to visual stimuli. The SMART is a USB device realized with a Cypress Programmable System-on-Chip (PSoC) mixed-signal array programmable microcontroller. A brief overview of the hardware and firmware of the PSoC is provided, together with the results of three experiments. In Experiment 1, we investigated the timing accuracy of the SMART in measuring reaction time (RT) under different conditions of operating systems (OSs; Windows XP or Vista) and monitor displays (a CRT or an LCD). The results indicated that the timing error in measuring RT by the SMART was less than 2 msec, on average, under all combinations of OS and display and that the SMART was tolerant to jitter and noise. In Experiment 2, we tested the SMART with 8 participants. The results indicated that there was no significant difference among RTs obtained with the SMART under the different conditions of OS and display. In Experiment 3, we used Microsoft (MS) PowerPoint to present visual stimuli on the display. We found no significant difference in RTs obtained using MS DirectX technology versus using the PowerPoint file with the SMART. We are certain that the SMART is a simple and practical solution for measuring RTs accurately. Although there are some restrictions in using the SMART with RT paradigms, the SMART is capable of providing both researchers and health professionals working in clinical settings with new ways of using RT paradigms in their work.

  20. Allergic conjunctivitis and the most common allergens in Northern Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almaliotis, Diamantis; Michailopoulos, Pavlos; Gioulekas, Dimitrios; Giouleka, Paschalina; Papakosta, Despina; Siempis, Thomas; Karampatakis, Vasileios

    2013-07-16

    Ocular allergies affect a great part of the general population and often co exist with other allergic manifestations. In the present study, the prevalence of allergic conjunctivitis and the commonest allergens in allergic patients at an outpatient unit in Thessaloniki, Greece were evaluated. This is a retrospective study regarding allergic patients who referred to an outpatient clinic between the 1st of January of 1996 and the 31st of December 2010. They completed relative questionnaires concerning their allergic condition. The patients who were included in our study had allergic conjunctivitis confirmed by ophthalmologists and were divided into 4 groups. The criteria used were the existence of allergic conjunctivitis alone or with other allergic co- morbidities. The patients then underwent skin prick tests after consent according to current guidelines. The archives of 1239 allergic patients were evaluated and 497 patients (40,11%) who manifested eye allergic symptoms were included in our study. 448 patients (90.14%) had allergic conjunctivitis in conjunction with asthma or rhinitis or both. 370 patients underwent skin prick tests and 284 of them (124 males-160 females) were positive for at least 1 of the 8 tested allergens (76.75%). 166 were positive to a grass mix (58.45%), 130 to olea European (45.77%), 124 to dust mites mix (43.66%), 58 to cypress (20.42%), 71 to parietaria officinalis (25.00%), 67 to cat dander (23.59%), 35 to dog dander (12.32%) and 32 to Altenaria (11.26%). Symptoms of ocular allergy are very common in patients with allergic rhinitis and asthma. Men had slightly higher percentages of positive skin prick tests, except for dog dander and Altenaria. Conjunctivitis should not be overlooked as an allergic entity when evaluating allergic patients.

  1. Chapter A. The Loma Prieta, California, Earthquake of October 17, 1989 - Lifelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiff, Anshel J.

    1998-01-01

    To the general public who had their televisions tuned to watch the World Series, the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake was a lifelines earthquake. It was the images seen around the world of the collapsed Cypress Street viaduct, with the frantic and heroic efforts to pull survivors from the structure that was billowing smoke; the collapsed section of the San Francisco-Oakland Bay Bridge and subsequent home video of a car plunging off the open span; and the spectacular fire in the Marina District of San Francisco fed by a broken gasline. To many of the residents of the San Francisco Bay region, the relation of lifelines to the earthquake was characterized by sitting in the dark because of power outage, the inability to make telephone calls because of network congestion, and the slow and snarled traffic. Had the public been aware of the actions of the engineers and tradespeople working for the utilities and other lifeline organizations on the emergency response and restoration of lifelines, the lifeline characteristics of this earthquake would have been even more significant. Unobserved by the public were the warlike devastation in several electrical-power substations, the 13 miles of gas-distribution lines that had to be replaced in several communities, and the more than 1,200 leaks and breaks in water mains and service connections that had to be excavated and repaired. Like the 1971 San Fernando, Calif., earthquake, which was a seminal event for activity to improve the earthquake performance of lifelines, the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake demonstrated that the tasks of preparing lifelines in 'earthquake country' were incomplete-indeed, new lessons had to be learned.

  2. Invasioni biologiche. Il caso drammatico delle palme e di due specie di insetti, il Punteruolo rosso delle palme (Rynchophorus ferrugineus, Coleotteri e il castnide delle palme (Paysandisia archon, Lepidotteri in Italia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Di Domenico

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The biological invasions represent today a serious ecological problem, and is one of the main threats to biodiversity, in Italy as in the rest of the world. In the last century several species of palm trees have been introduced in gardens, parks and lanes of great part of Italy, where climate allows their life and growth. Among the others Phoenix canariensis, P. dactylifera, Washingtonia robusta, W. filifera, Jubaea spectabilis and Trachycarpus fortunei. All of these species are exotic, as the only indigenous palm in Italy is the dwarf fan palm (Chamaerops humilis, which occurs along the tirrenian coast from Sicily to Liguria, in Sardinia and most of the smaller islands. Palm trees have become by now part of the Italian landscape, as do pine tree in Rome or cypress in Tuscany. Recently, two different species of exotic insects where recorded for the first time in Italy: the south American moth Paysandisia archon and the chinese beetle Rhynchophorus ferrugineus. Both of them lay their eggs on palm trees, and their larvae feed into the stem and kill the palms. Both arrived in Italy and in other Mediterranean countries as larvae or eggs hidden into the plants imported from the native regions. These insects are rapidly spreading through Italy, following palm plantations, and destroying palms from north to south, with a huge economic damage. Furthermore, they are locally changing probably for ever the Italian landscape. More recently, there is evidence of infestation on dwarf fan palm by both the moth and the beetle. This could cause a local extinction of the palm.

  3. Seroprevalence of toxocariasis among Orang Asli (Indigenous people) in Malaysia using two immunoassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, N; Nor Azah, M O; Rahmah, N; Lim Y, A L; Rohela, M

    2010-12-01

    Toxocariasis is a zoonotic helminthic infection of humans caused by the dog roundworm (Toxocara canis) or cat roundworm (Toxocara cati). There are two main human syndromes: visceral larva migrans (VLM), which are characterized by symptoms associated with major organs and ocular larva migrans (OLM), in which pathological effects on the host are restricted to the eye and the optic nerve. The present study evaluated the seroprevalence of toxocariasis among the Orang Asli with an IgG4-ELISA using recombinant antigens (rTES-26, rTES-30 and rTES-120) and an IgG-ELISA commercial kit (Cypress Diagnostic, Belgium). A total of 188 serum samples were analyzed using IgG4-ELISA recombinant antigens while 83 were tested using IgG-ELISA. Overall, 9 out of 188 (4.8%) samples were positive with the former assay: rTES-26 (2.7%) and rTES-30 (2.1%); and 63 out of 83 (75.9%) were positive with the IgG-ELISA. In general, the seroprevalence of toxocariasis among males (9.5%) was higher compared to females (1%). Children below 12 years (6.3%) have higher seroprevalence rate compared to adults (1.2%). Out of 59 IgG positive samples, 56 (94.9%) were also positive with soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections which may indicate high false positivity. None of the IgG4- ELISA positive samples were positive with STH infections. Of 9 positive samples with IgG4-ELISA, 7 were also positive with IgG-ELISA giving the probability of true cases. The present finding indicated that exposure to Toxocara infection is not unusual among Malaysian aborigines, and it affects both sexes and all age groups. As a prevention strategy, more effective public health programmes to promote better understanding on the consequences of toxocariasis among the Orang Asli communities are deemed necessary.

  4. Parallel nano-assembling of a multifunctional GO/HapNP coating on ultrahigh-purity magnesium for biodegradable implants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, C., E-mail: catarina.santos@estsetubal.ips.pt [EST Setúbal, DEM, Instituto Politécnico de Setúbal, Campus IPS, 2914-508 Setúbal (Portugal); CQE, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Piedade, C. [EST Setúbal, DEM, Instituto Politécnico de Setúbal, Campus IPS, 2914-508 Setúbal (Portugal); Uggowitzer, P.J. [Laboratory of Metal Physics and Technology, ETH Zurich, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Montemor, M.F. [CQE, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Carmezim, M.J. [EST Setúbal, DEM, Instituto Politécnico de Setúbal, Campus IPS, 2914-508 Setúbal (Portugal); CQE, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2015-08-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • A GO/HapNP thin coating was applied on XHP-Mg using a parallel nano-assembling route. • The coating surface wettability can be controlled by adding HapNP and/or GO. • Nanostructured GO/HapNP/phosphate coating promotes the apatite mineralization. • Critical properties, including degradation on SBF, of the coating were studied. - Abstract: This work reports the one-step fabrication of a novel coating on ultra high purity magnesium using a parallel nano assembling process. The multifunctional biodegradable surface was obtained by adding hydroxyapatite nanoparticles (HapNP) plus graphene oxide (GO). The coating was characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM), X-ray diffractometer (XRD), micro-Raman spectroscopy. The thin phosphate coating (thickness of 1 μm) reveals a uniform coverage with cypress like structures. The incorporation of HapNP and GO promotes the hydrophilic behavior of the coating surface. The results revealed that the proposed coating can be used to tailor the surface properties such as wettability by adjusting the contents of HapNP and GO. The in vitro degradation rate of the coated magnesium suggests that the presence of HapNP and GO/HapNP in the phosphate coating decreased the current density compared to the single phosphate coating and uncoated magnesium. This study also reveals the HapNP/GO/phosphate coating induces apatite formation, showing suitable degradability that makes it a promising coating candidate for enhanced bone regeneration.

  5. Cellulose Dynamics during Foliar Litter Decomposition in an Alpine Forest Meta-Ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Yue

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the dynamics and relative drivers of cellulose degradation during litter decomposition, a field experiment was conducted in three individual ecosystems (i.e., forest floor, stream, and riparian zone of an alpine forest meta-ecosystem on the eastern Tibetan Plateau. Four litter species (i.e., willow: Salix paraplesia, azalea: Rhododendron lapponicum, cypress: Sabina saltuaria, and larch: Larix mastersiana that had varying initial litter chemical traits were placed separately in litterbags and then incubated on the soil surface of forest floor plots or in the water of the stream and riparian zone plots. Litterbags were retrieved five times each year during the two-year experiment, with nine replicates each time for each treatment. The results suggested that foliar litter lost 32.2%–89.2% of the initial dry mass depending on litter species and ecosystem type after two-year’s incubation. The cellulose lost 60.1%–96.8% of the initial mass with degradation rate in the order of stream > riparian zone > forest floor. Substantial cellulose degradation occurred at the very beginning (i.e., in the first pre-freezing period of litter decomposition. Litter initial concentrations of phosphorus (P and lignin were found to be the dominant chemical traits controlling cellulose degradation regardless of ecosystems type. The local-scale environmental factors such as temperature, pH, and nutrient availability were important moderators of cellulose degradation rate. Although the effects of common litter chemical traits (e.g., P and lignin concentrations on cellulose degradation across different individual ecosystems were identified, local-scale environmental factors such as temperature and nutrient availability were found to be of great importance for cellulose degradation. These results indicated that local-scale environmental factors should be considered apart from litter quality for generating a reliable predictive framework for the drivers

  6. Foreword

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina HMELJAK SANGAWA

    2012-12-01

    offers automatic glossing of Japanese text with Japanese definitions and examples, and translations into 28 languages. After introducing the system, its development, functionalities and its tools for signalling the level of difficulty of single words, characters, or whole Japanese texts, the author describes its possible uses in language instruction and autonomous learning, and one concrete example of its application to the development of learning material for a specific segment of learners, foreign candidates to the Japanese national examination for certified care workers, mostly Filipino and Indonesian nurses working in Japan. The author concludes with suggestions for fostering autonomous vocabulary learning. The other Japanese language learning support system with an equally long and successful tradition, developed at Tokyo Institute of Technology, is presented by its initiator, Kikuko Nishina, and one of its younger developers, Bor Hodošček, in Japanese Learning Support Systems: Hinoki Project Report. The article presents the many components of this successful system, including Asunaro, a reading support system aimed especially at science and engineering students and speakers of underrepresented Asian languages, Natsume, a writing assistance system using large-scale corpora to support collocation search, Natane, a learner corpus, and Nutmeg, an automatic error correction system for learners' writing. The last project report, by Tomaž Erjavec and myself, introduces resources and tools being developed at the University of Ljubljana and at Jožef Stefan Institute: JaSlo: Integration of a Japanese-Slovene Bilingual Dictionary with a Corpus Search System. The dictionary, corpora and search tools are being developed primarily for Slovene speaking learners of Japanese, but part of the tools, particularly the corpus of sentences from the web-harvested texts, divided into five difficulty levels, can be used by any learner or teacher of Japanese. I hope you will enjoy

  7. Biogeochemistry of plant-soil system in a limestone area: A case study of Mt. Kinsho-zan, Gifu prefecture, central Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, S.; Sugitani, K.; Ono, M.

    2010-12-01

    Limestone contains few of the nutrients essential for plant growth, such as Si, K, and P. Owing to its high concentrations of alkali earth elements and the resulting high pH, P and Fe tend to be sparingly available for plants in soils developed in limestone areas. Because of this limited availability of nutrients in calcareous soils, certain typical calcareous plants are known to occasionally dominate. On Mt. Kinsho-zan, a limestone mountain in Gifu prefecture, central Japan, however, typical calcareous plants are not seen; various non-calcareous plants appear and do not seem to be malnourished. In addition to the nutrients supplied by precipitation and eolian dusts, litter decomposition may supply nutrients, which could circulate in the plant-soil system. In this study, the soil properties (water content, loss on ignition, and pH) and the chemical compositions of soils, plant leaves (Chamaecyparis obtusa), and parental rocks (limestone) were analyzed to clarify the biogeochemical cycle of the plant-soil system on Mt. Kinsho-zan. A mountain composed of sandstone and mudstone, which lies near the main research area, was chosen for comparison. Chemical compositions were analyzed using an X-ray fluorescence spectrometer (Spectris Co., Ltd Panalytical Division Axios-N system). Ten major elements were analyzed in all samples, and 13 and 4 trace elements were analyzed for soils and plants and for limestones, respectively. In the limestone samples, the concentrations were as follows: SiO2 = 0.12-0.22wt%, Al2O3 = 0.054-0.13wt%, Fe2O3 = 0.021-0.057wt%, CaO = 55.12-55.33wt%, K2O = 40-55 ppm, TiO2 = 29-48 ppm, and Zr = 12-14 ppm. In soils developed in the limestone area, SiO2 = 43.48-55.46wt%, Al2O3 = 25.47-34.92wt%, Fe2O3 = 10.75-13.64wt%, CaO = 0.46-5.61wt%, K2O = 1.30-1.72wt%, TiO2 = 1.02-1.36wt%, and Zr = 240-319 ppm. Concentrations of Fe2O3, MnO, and P2O5 in soils from the limestone area are two times higher than those in soils from the sandstone-mudstone area; the

  8. Production and Composition of Dissolved Black Carbon from Various Biochars and Environmentally-aged Charcoals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostick, K. W.; Zimmerman, A. R.; Hatcher, P.; Mitra, S.; Wozniak, A. S.

    2016-12-01

    Pyrogenic organic matter, or black carbon (BC), is the solid carbonaceous product of biomass pyrolysis. While solid BC represents a long-lived portion of the C cycle, it releases pyrogenic dissolved organic matter (py-DOM) which may be more susceptible to mineralization and transformation. This py-DOM may impact environmental and public health and likely controls exchange between terrestrial and aquatic BC pools. Benzene polycarboxylic acids (BPCAs), produced by acid digestion of samples, are used as molecular markers for pyrogenic organic matter. Yet, we currently have a poor understanding of the controls on the production of py-DOM and its yield of BPCA compounds. In response, aqueous leaching time series experiments were carried out using a series of laboratory-made biochars and environmentally-aged charcoals. While non-charred oak biomass released 31.8 mg C/g (45% C loss), oak biochars prepared at low temperatures (250 and 400ºC), produced 9.9 and 2.6 mg C/g (11 and 2.3% C loss), respectively. Oak chars prepared at a higher temperatures (650ºC) leached only 1.85 mg C/g (1.5% C loss). In contrast, an environmentally-aged charcoal (30 y old cypress charcoal) leached 10.9% of its C. On average, 59% (ranging 38-80%) of oak pyrogenic DOC was converted into BPCAs, suggesting that oak py-DOM has a variably condensed aromatic proportion. However, much less BPCAs were generated by BC parent solids. In addition, trace amounts of BPCA were generated from non-pyrolyzed grass, oak wood, and compost leachates; these lend concern to the use of BPCAs as exclusive pyrogenic molecular markers. As expected, BPCA molecular distribution showed that condensation increased with pyrolysis temperature of solid biochars and their corresponding leachates. The comparison of these findings to 13C and 1H NMR spectra of charcoal parent solids and their leachates will further elucidate the chemistry and production mechanisms of py-DOM.

  9. Forest Gaps Inhibit Foliar Litter Pb and Cd Release in Winter and Inhibit Pb and Cd Accumulation in Growing Season in an Alpine Forest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie He

    Full Text Available The release of heavy metals (such as Pb and Cd from foliar litter play an important role in element cycling in alpine forest ecosystems. Although natural forest gaps could play important roles in the release of heavy metals from foliar litter by affecting the snow cover during the winter and solar irradiation during the growing season, few studies have examined these potential roles. The objectives of this study were to document changes in Pb and Cd dynamics during litter decomposition in the center of gaps and under closed canopies and to investigate the factors that controlled these changes during the winter and growing seasons.Senesced foliar litter from six dominant species, including Kangding willow (Salix paraplesia, Masters larch (Larix mastersiana, Mingjiang fir (Abies faxoniana, Alpine azalea (Rhododendron lapponicum, Red birch (Betula albosinensis and Mourning cypress (Sabina saltuaria, was placed in litterbags and incubated between the gap center and closed canopy conditions in an alpine forest in the eastern region of the Tibetan Plateau. The litterbags were sampled at the snow formation stage, snow coverage stage, snow melt stage and during the growing season. The Pb and Cd concentrations in the sampled foliar litter were determined by acid digestion (HNO3/HClO4.Over one year of decomposition, Pb accumulation and Cd release from the foliar litter occurred, regardless of the foliar litter species. However, Pb and Cd were both released from the foliar litter during the winter and accumulated during the growing season. Compared with the gap center and the canopy gap edge, the extended gap edge and the closed canopy showed higher Pb and Cd release rates in winter and higher Pb and Cd accumulation rates during the growing season, respectively. Statistical analyses indicate that the dynamics of Pb were significantly influenced by frequent freeze-thaw cycles in winter and appropriate hydrothermal conditions during the growing season, the

  10. PRODUCCIÓN DE HOJARASCA FINA EN BOSQUES ALTO ANDINOS DE ANTIOQUIA, COLOMBIA FINE LITTER PRODUCTION IN HIGH ANDEAN FORESTS FROM ANTIOQUIA, COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Marcela Zapata Duque

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available En bosques montanos naturales de Quercus humboldtii y reforestados (Pinus patula y Cupressus lusitanica de la región de Piedras Blancas, Antioquia (Colombia, fue evaluada la producción de hojarasca por un periodo de 2 años. Se utilizaron trampas de hojarasca con el fin de recoger el material desprendido del dosel para su posterior separación en fracciones y pesado respectivo. El promedio de caída de hojarasca anual para Q. humboldtii, P. patula y C. lusitanica fue de 7877,20; 8362,47 y 3725,97 kg ha-1año-1 respectivamente; siendo la fracción foliar la que mayor participación tuvo en la producción total. Mediante análisis de regresión lineal múltiple se ajustaron modelos de producción de hojarasca según fracciones por cobertura en función de diferentes variables hidrológicas, tales como la intensidad y la cantidad de lluvia del período simultáneo a la recolección de la hojarasca o inmediatamente anterior.Litter production was measured over two years in a montane oak forest (Quercus humboldtii and in pine (Pinus patula and cypress (Cupressus lusitanica plantations in Piedras Blancas, Antioquia ( Colombia . Litter traps were used in order to collect litterfall to be subsequently separated into fractions and weighed. Annual mean litterfall for Q. humboldtii, P. patula and C. lusitanica was of 7877,20; 8362,47 and 3725,97 kg ha-1year-1 respectively; being the leaf fraction of highest participation in total production. Multiple linear regression models were used to fit litter production for each fraction and forest cover as a function of different hydrological variables such as intensity and quantity of precipitation, both during the period when the leaf litter was collected and immediately preceding one.

  11. Full-Scale Experimental Investigation to Quantify Building Component Ignition Vulnerability from Mulch Beds Attacked by Firebrand Showers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzello, Samuel L; Suzuki, Sayaka; Nii, Daisaku

    2017-03-01

    Structure ignition by wind-driven firebrand showers is an important fire spread mechanism in large outdoor fires. Experiments were conducted with three common mulch types (shredded hardwood mulch, Japanese Cypress wood chips, and pine bark nuggets) placed adjacent to realistic-scale reentrant corners. In the first series of experiments, mulch beds were placed adjacent to a re-entrant corner constructed with wood studs and lined with oriented strand board (OSB) as the sheathing. The premise behind conducting experiments with no siding treatments applied was predicated on the notion that bare OSB mulch contact would be a worst-case scenario, and therefore, a wall assembly in the most vulnerable state to mulch ignition. In the second series of experiments, vinyl siding was applied to the re-entrant corner assemblies (wood studs/OSB/moisture barrier/vinyl siding), and the influence of vertical separation distance (102 mm or 203 mm) on wall ignition from adjacent mulch beds was determined. The vertical separation distance was maintained by applying gypsum board to the base of the re-entrant corner. The siding itself did not influence the ignition process for the mulch beds, as the mulch beds were the first to ignite from the firebrand showers. In all experiments, it was observed that firebrands produced smoldering ignition in the mulch beds, this transitioned to flaming ignition, and the re-entrant corner assembly was exposed to the flaming mulch beds. With no siding treatments applied, the flaming mulch beds ignited the re-entrant corner, and ignition was observed to propagate to the back side of re-entrant corner assembly under all wind speeds (6 m/s to 8 m/s). With respect to the re-entrant corners fitted with vinyl siding, the mulch type, vertical separation distance, and wind speed were important parameters as to whether flaming ignition was observed to propagate to the back-side of a reentrant corner assembly. Mulches clearly pose an ignition hazard to structures

  12. Conceptual design of an apparatus for measuring frequency-dependent streaming potential of porous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tardif, Eric; Walker, Emilie; Glover, Paul; Ruel, Jean

    2010-05-01

    of 4.5 MPa and is made from stainless steel and nylon. The pressures on each side of the sample are measured using specialized dynamic pressure transducers with a frequency range of 80 mHz to 170 kHz. The streaming potentials are measured with miniature non-polarising Ag/AgCl electrodes from Cypress Systems. This apparatus is currently being evaluated.

  13. Spatial and temporal distributions of hexabromocyclododecanes in the vicinity of an expanded polystyrene material manufacturing plant in Tianjin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hongkai; Zhang, Kai; Sun, Hongwen; Wang, Fei; Yao, Yiming

    2017-03-01

    To investigate the environmental fate of 3 main hexabromocyclododecane diastereoisomers (α-, β-, and γ-HBCDs), samples from various environmental media, including outdoor settled dust, soil, sediment, plant tissues (holly, cypress and pine) and marine species (shrimp, crab and fish) were obtained around an expanded polystyrene material manufacturing plant in Tianjin, China. The 3 main HBCD diastereoisomers were detected with the total concentrations ranging from 328 to 31,752 ng/g dry weight (dw), 2.91-1730 ng/g dw, 23.5-716 ng/g dw, 3.45-2494 ng/g dw, and 0.878-44.8 ng/g dw in the dust, soil, sediment, plant tissues, and marine species, respectively. This indicated that a point source of HBCDs could bring wide impact on its vicinal environment. A significant increasing trend of HBCDs concentrations was noted, as indicated by 12.9-41.6% of increasing rates in total concentrations of HBCDs at four sediment sites in the past five years. The diastereoisomer profiles were sorted into 3 groups: dust, soil and sediment, which had no statistical difference from commercial EPS-products (p > 0.05); plant tissues, which showed a moderate increase of α-isomer (22.9 ± 3.3%); and marine species, which were dominated by α-isomer (62.6 ± 2.8%). For α- and β-isomers, the results of enantiomeric analysis showed a preferential accumulation of the (+)-enantiomer in part of plant tissues and all marine organisms (p  0.05). Besides, marine food web magnification is observed for HBCDs, with trophic magnification factors close to 2. The daily intakes of HBCDs were estimated to be 0.058-5.84 ng/kg-bw/day for local residents through dust and soil ingestion and 0.048-8.43 ng/kg-bw/day for Tianjin citizens through seafood consumption. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Leaf wax composition and carbon isotopes vary among major conifer groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diefendorf, Aaron F.; Leslie, Andrew B.; Wing, Scott L.

    2015-12-01

    Leaf waxes (e.g. n-alkanes, n-alkanoic acids) and their carbon isotopes (δ13C) are commonly used to track past changes in the carbon cycle, water availability, and plant ecophysiology. Previous studies indicated that conifers have lower n-alkane concentrations than angiosperms and that 13C fractionation during n-alkane synthesis (εn-alkane) is smaller than in angiosperms. These prior studies, however, sampled a limited phylogenetic and geographic subset of conifers, leaving out many important subtropical and Southern Hemisphere groups that were once widespread and common components of fossil assemblages. To expand on previous work, we collected 43 conifer species (and Ginkgo biloba) from the University of California Botanical Garden at Berkeley, sampling all extant conifer families and almost two-thirds of extant genera. We find that Pinaceae, including many North American species used in previous studies, have very low or no n-alkanes. However, other conifer groups have significant concentrations of n-alkanes, especially Southern Hemisphere Araucariaceae and Podocarpaceae (monkey puzzles, Norfolk Island pines, and yellowwoods), and many species of Cupressaceae (junipers and relatives). Within the Cupressaceae, we find total n-alkane concentrations are high in subfamilies Cupressoideae and Callitroideae, but significantly lower in the early diverging taxodioid lineages (including bald cypress and redwood). Individual n-alkane chain lengths have a weak phylogenetic signal, except for n-C29 alkane, but when combined using average chain length (ACL), a strong phylogenetic signal emerges. The strong phylogenetic signal in ACL, observed in the context of a common growth environment for all plants we sampled, suggests that ACL is strongly influenced by factors other than climate. An analysis of εn-alkane indicates a strong phylogenetic signal in which the smallest biosynthetic fractionation occurs in Pinaceae and the largest in Taxaceae (yews and relatives). The

  15. Wetlands as principal zones of methylmercury production in southern Louisiana and the Gulf of Mexico region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, B.D. [Environmental Chemistry and Technology Program, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Department of Biology, University of Regina, 3737 Wascana Parkway, Regina, SK, S4S 0A2 (Canada)], E-mail: britt.hall@uregina.ca; Aiken, G.R. [United States Geological Survey, 3215 Marine Street, Boulder, CO 80303 (United States); Krabbenhoft, D.P. [United States Geological Survey, 8505 Research Way, Middleton, WI 53562 (United States); Marvin-DiPasquale, M. [United States Geological Survey, 345 Middlefield Road, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Swarzenski, C.M. [United States Geological Survey, Suite 120, 3535 S. Sherwood Forest Blvd., Baton Rouge, LA 70816 (United States)

    2008-07-15

    It is widely recognized that wetlands, especially those rich in organic matter and receiving appreciable atmospheric mercury (Hg) inputs, are important sites of methylmercury (MeHg) production. Extensive wetlands in the southeastern United States have many ecosystem attributes ideal for promoting high MeHg production rates; however, relatively few mercury cycling studies have been conducted in these environments. We conducted a landscape scale study examining Hg cycling in coastal Louisiana (USA) including four field trips conducted between August 2003 and May 2005. Sites were chosen to represent different ecosystem types, including: a large shallow eutrophic estuarine lake (Lake Pontchartrain), three rivers draining into the lake, a cypress-tupelo dominated freshwater swamp, and six emergent marshes ranging from a freshwater marsh dominated by Panicum hemitomon to a Spartina alterniflora dominated salt marsh close to the Gulf of Mexico. We measured MeHg and total Hg (THg) concentrations, and ancillary chemical characteristics, in whole and filtered surface water, and filtered porewater. Overall, MeHg concentrations were greatest in surface water of freshwater wetlands and lowest in the profundal (non-vegetated) regions of the lake and river mainstems. Concentrations of THg and MeHg in filtered surface water were positively correlated with the highly reactive, aromatic (hydrophobic organic acid) fraction of dissolved organic carbon (DOC). These results suggest that DOC plays an important role in promoting the mobility, transport and bioavailability of inorganic Hg in these environments. Further, elevated porewater concentrations in marine and brackish wetlands suggest coastal wetlands along the Gulf Coast are key sites for MeHg production and may be a principal source of MeHg to foodwebs in the Gulf of Mexico. Examining the relationships among MeHg, THg, and DOC across these multiple landscape types is a first step in evaluating possible links between key zones for

  16. Making astronomy incredibly easy, engaging and affordable for anyone with a desire to see outer space for themselves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paolucci, Michael

    2015-08-01

    We have built a social interface and funding model based on collaborative consumption to empower public access to powerful telescopes.Slooh’s robotic observatories put anyone with a desire to look up and wonder in the driver’s seat of powerful mountaintop telescopes. Our members have taken millions of images of over 50,000 objects in the night sky, from tracking asteroids for NASA to discovering supernovae. Slooh launched December 25th, 2003 from our flagship observatory at the Institute of Astrophysics of the Canary Islands and in the ensuing decade we’ve built a network of 20+ observatory partners around the world to capture every magical moment in outer space. We are the world’s largest community of people peering into space together.About SloohSlooh makes astronomy incredibly easy, engaging and affordable for anyone with a desire to see outer space for themselves. Since 2003 Slooh has connected telescopes to the Internet for access by the broader public. Slooh’s automated observatories develop celestial images in real-time for broadcast to the Internet. Slooh’s technology is protected by Patent No.: US 7,194,146 B2 which was awarded in 2006. Slooh members have taken over 3m photos/150,000 FITS of over 50,000 celestial objects, participated in numerous discoveries with leading astronomical institutions and made over 2,000 submissions to the Minor Planet Center. Slooh’s flagship observatories are situated on Mt. Teide, in partnership with the Institute of Astrophysics of the Canary Islands (IAC), and in Chile, in partnership with the Catholic University. Slooh has also broadcast live celestial events from partner observatories in Arizona, Japan, Hawaii, Cypress, Dubai, South Africa, Australia, New Zealand and Norway. Slooh’s free live broadcasts of potentially hazardous asteroids (PHAs), comets, transits, eclipses, solar activity etc. feature narration by astronomy experts Will Gater, Bob Berman, Paul Cox and Eric Edelman and are syndicated to

  17. Clinical aspects of Japanese cedar pollinosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minoru Okuda

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Japanese cedar pollinosis (JCPsis is a major national health problem in Japan. The present review provides an update on information on JCPsis based on clinical data from our research group, through the support of the Department of Health and Welfare (Japanese Government, during the period from 1988 to 1997, because this disease is infrequently documented internationally despite a large number of publications from Japan. The information on JCPsis presented here may be of use in the management of various kinds of pollinosis prevalent in other countries. The prevalence rates of JCPsis vary from district to district and also depend on the age of the subjects, the method of analysis and the year of examination in population. Yet, on an average, the incidence of JCPsis is presumed to be 10-20% in adults and 5-10% in children. The risk factors for sensitization and the onset of symptoms seem to be dependent on the amount of air-borne pollen, the age of school children, hereditary disposition, including human leukocyte antigen type and the high levels of specific IgE in childhood. Because pollen counts also vary depending on many factors, such as the type of pollen samplers used, yearly variations, the number of pollen count stations, the atmospheric temperature and solar radiation in the previous year of the season, accurate predictions of daily and seasonal pollen counts are rather difficult. Commercial crude extracts and purified allergenic substances Cry j I and II correlate well with the skin test and the radioallergosorbent test. Japanese cedar pollen has an allergenic component that is cross-reactive with Japanese cypress. In many patients, the onset of symptoms occurs on the day when the air-borne pollen count is 10/cm2 (the Durham method and, if severe symptoms occur due to intense exposure to pollen, the symptoms will last for a long time despite variations in the pollen count (priming effect. Eye glasses, face masks and keeping windows and

  18. Forested floristic quality index: An assessment tool for forested wetland habitats using the quality and quantity of woody vegetation at Coastwide Reference Monitoring System (CRMS) vegetation monitoring stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, William B.; Shaffer, Gary P.; Visser, Jenneke M.; Krauss, Ken W.; Piazza, Sarai C.; Sharp, Leigh Anne; Cretini, Kari F.

    2017-02-08

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Coastal Protection and Restoration Authority of Louisiana and the Coastal Wetlands Planning, Protection and Restoration Act, developed the Forested Floristic Quality Index (FFQI) for the Coastwide Reference Monitoring System (CRMS). The FFQI will help evaluate forested wetland sites on a continuum from severely degraded to healthy and will assist in defining areas where forested wetland restoration can be successful by projecting the trajectories of change. At each CRMS forested wetland site there are stations for quantifying the overstory, understory, and herbaceous vegetation layers. Rapidly responding overstory canopy cover and herbaceous layer composition are measured annually, while gradually changing overstory basal area and species composition are collected on a 3-year cycle.A CRMS analytical team has tailored these data into an index much like the Floristic Quality Index (FQI) currently used for herbaceous marsh and for the herbaceous layer of the swamp vegetation. The core of the FFQI uses basal area by species to assess the quality and quantity of the overstory at each of three stations within each CRMS forested wetland site. Trees that are considered by experts to be higher quality swamp species like Taxodium distichum (bald cypress) and Nyssa aquatica (water tupelo) are scored higher than tree species like Triadica sebifera (Chinese tallow) and Salix nigra (black willow) that are indicators of recent disturbance. This base FFQI is further enhanced by the percent canopy cover in the overstory and the presence of indicator species at the forest floor. This systemic approach attempts to differentiate between locations with similar basal areas that are on different ecosystem trajectories. Because of these varying states of habitat degradation, paired use of the FQI and the FFQI is useful to interpret the vegetative data in transitional locations. There is often an inverse relation between the health of the

  19. Measuring organic matter in Everglades wetlands and the Everglades Agricultural Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, Alan L. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Hanlon, Edward A. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Here, organic matter is a complex material that represents the long-term decay products from plants and other organisms in the soil. When organic matter is allowed to build up in a soil, the soil color at the surface usually turns a darker color, often with a red or brown hue. Typically in Florida mineral soils, organic matter content is quite low, within the range of 1 to 5%. However, in some soils that remain flooded for most of the year, organic matter can build up with time and actually become the soil. Such is the case for the organic soils, or histosols, found in southern Florida. These organic soils comprise much of the Water Conservation Areas, Everglades National Park (ENP), Big Cypress Basin, and the Everglades Agricultural Area (EAA). It is important to document organic matter accumulation in the Everglades to gauge the effectiveness of wetland creation and succession. For the EAA, the drained soils lose organic matter due to oxidation, so measurement of the organic matter content of these soils over the course of time indicates the oxidation potential and mineral incorporation from bedrock. Due to the wide diversity of soil types and methods of measuring soil organic matter, there is a need to devise a more universal method applicable to many types of histosols in south Florida. The intent of this publication is: 1.To describe a simple laboratory method for determining the organic matter content of the organic soils of southern Florida and demonstrate the importance of using this new procedure for improved accuracy and precision; 2.To utilize this updated laboratory procedure for field sites across Everglades wetlands and the EAA; and 3. To recommend this procedure be used by growers, state and federal agencies, and university and agency researchers dealing with the management of organic soils in southern Florida. Growers can use this improvement to organic matter measurement to keep lab testing costs low while getting a better, more quantitative

  20. Role and rationale for the use of milnacipran in the management of fibromyalgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay D Kranzler

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Jay D Kranzler, R Michael GendreauCypress Bioscence, San Diego, CA, USAAbstract: Fibromyalgia (FM is a complex syndrome characterized by chronic widespread musculoskeletal pain which is often accompanied by multiple other symptoms, including fatigue, sleep disturbances, decreased physical functioning, and dyscognition. Due to these multiple symptoms, as well as high rates of comorbidity with other related disorders, patients with FM often report a reduced quality of life. Although the pathophysiology of FM is not completely understood, patients with FM experience pain differently from the general population, most likely due to dysfunctional pain processing in the central nervous system leading to both hyperalgesia and allodynia. In many patients with FM, this aberrant pain processing, or central sensitization, appears to involve decreased pain inhibition within the spinal tract, which is mediated by descending pathways that utilize serotonin, norepinephrine, and other neurotransmitters. The reduced serotonin and norepinephrine levels observed in patients with FM suggest that medications which increase the levels of these neurotransmitters, such as serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs, may have clinically beneficial effects in FM and other chronic pain conditions. Milnacipran is an SNRI that has been approved for the management of FM. In clinical trials, treatment with milnacipran for up to 1 year has been found to improve the pain and other symptoms of FM. Because FM is characterized by multiple symptoms that all contribute to the decreased quality of life and ability to function, the milnacipran pivotal trials implemented responder analyses. These utilized a single composite endpoint to identify the proportion of patients who reported simultaneous and clinically significant improvements in pain, global disease status, and physical function. Other domains assessed during the milnacipran trials include fatigue, multidimensional

  1. Community-Based Wetland Restoration Workshop in the Lower Ninth Ward, New Orleans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H. F.; Craig, L.; Ross, J. A.; Zepeda, L.; Carpenter, Q.

    2010-12-01

    Since 2007 a workshop class of University of Wisconsin-Madison students has participated in a community-based project in New Orleans to investigate the feasibility of restoring the Bayou Bienvenue Wetland Triangle (BBWT), which is adjacent to the Lower 9th Ward in New Orleans. This 440-acre region is currently open water but was a cypress forest until the 1970s. Restoration would provide protection from storm surges, restored ecological services, and recreational use. The workshop introduced students to the multidisciplinary skills needed to work effectively with the complex and interconnected issues within a project involving many stakeholders. The stakeholders included the Center for Sustainable Engagement and Development (CSED), Lower 9th Ward residents, non-profits (e.g., Sierra Club, Environmental Defense, Lake Pontchartrain Basin Foundation, National Wildlife Federation), government agencies (e.g., New Orleans Sewerage and Water Board, Army Corps of Engineers), neighborhood groups (e.g., Holy Cross Neighborhood Association, The Village), and universities (Tulane, U. of New Orleans, LSU, U. Colorado-Denver, Southeastern Louisiana). The course ran initially as a Water Resources Management practicum in the first two summers and then as a broader multidisciplinary project with student expertise in hydrology, social science, law, planning, policy analysis, community development, GIS, public health, environmental education and ecological restoration. The project divided into three main components: wetland science, social science, and land tenure and planning. Principal activities in wetland science were to monitor water levels and water quality, inventory flora and fauna, and plant grasses on small “floating islands.” The principal social science activity was to conduct a neighborhood survey about knowledge of the wetland and interest in its restoration. The land tenure and planning activity was to investigate ownership and transfer of property within the

  2. American black bears and bee yard depredation at Okefenokee Swamp, Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, J.D.; Dobey, S.; Masters, D.V.; Scheick, B.K.; Pelton, M.R.; Sunquist, M.E.

    2005-01-01

    We studied American black bears (Ursus americanus), on the northwest periphery of Okefenokee Swamp in southeast Georgia, to assess landowner attitudes toward bears, estimate the extent of damage to commercial honey bee operations by bears, and evaluate methods to reduce bear depredations to apiaries. We collected 8,351 black bear radiolocations and identified 51 bee yards on our study area. Twenty-seven of 43 home ranges contained ≥1 bee yard, averaging 11.3 and 5.1 bee yards/home range of males (n = 7) and females (n = 20), respectively. From 1996 to 1998, we documented 7 instances of bears raiding bee yards within our study area and 6 instances in adjacent areas. All but 1 of the 13 raided yards were enclosed by electric fencing. In the 12 cases of damage to electrically fenced yards, however, the fences were not active because of depleted batteries. Based on compositional analysis, bear use of areas 800–1,400 m from bee yards was disproportionately greater than use 0–800 m from bee yards. Bears disproportionately used bay (red bay: Persea borbonia, loblolly bay: Gordonia lasianthus, and southern magnolia: Magnolia virginia), gum (water tupelo: Nyssa aquatic and black gum: N. sylvatica), and cypress (Taxodium spp.) and loblolly bay habitats, however, compared with slash pine (Pinus elliottii) or pine–oak (Quercus spp.), where bee yards usually were placed. The distribution of bear radiolocations likely reflected the use of those swamp and riparian areas, rather than avoidance of bee yards. Distances to streams from damaged bee yards (x̄ = 1,750 m) were less than from undamaged yards (x̄ = 4,442 m), and damaged bee yards were closer to unimproved roads (x̄ = 134 m) than were undamaged bee yards (x̄ = 802 m). Our analysis suggests that bee yard placement away from bear travel routes (such as streams and unimproved roads) can reduce bear depredation problems. Our results strongly indicate that working electric fences are effective deterrents to bear

  3. Modeling greenhouse gas emissions (CO2, N2O, CH4) from managed arable soils with a fully coupled hydrology-biogeochemical modeling system simulating water and nutrient transport and associated carbon and nitrogen cycling at catchment scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klatt, Steffen; Haas, Edwin; Kraus, David; Kiese, Ralf; Butterbach-Bahl, Klaus; Kraft, Philipp; Plesca, Ina; Breuer, Lutz; Zhu, Bo; Zhou, Minghua; Zhang, Wei; Zheng, Xunhua; Wlotzka, Martin; Heuveline, Vincent

    2014-05-01

    The use of mineral nitrogen fertilizer sustains the global food production and therefore the livelihood of human kind. The rise in world population will put pressure on the global agricultural system to increase its productivity leading most likely to an intensification of mineral nitrogen fertilizer use. The fate of excess nitrogen and its distribution within landscapes is manifold. Process knowledge on the site scale has rapidly grown in recent years and models have been developed to simulate carbon and nitrogen cycling in managed ecosystems on the site scale. Despite first regional studies, the carbon and nitrogen cycling on the landscape or catchment scale is not fully understood. In this study we present a newly developed modelling approach by coupling the fully distributed hydrology model CMF (catchment modelling framework) to the process based regional ecosystem model LandscapeDNDC for the investigation of hydrological processes and carbon and nitrogen transport and cycling, with a focus on nutrient displacement and resulting greenhouse gas emissions in a small catchment at the Yanting Agro-ecological Experimental Station of Purple Soil, Sichuan province, China. The catchment hosts cypress forests on the outer regions, arable fields on the sloping croplands cultivated with wheat-maize rotations and paddy rice fields in the lowland. The catchment consists of 300 polygons vertically stratified into 10 soil layers. Ecosystem states (soil water content and nutrients) and fluxes (evapotranspiration) are exchanged between the models at high temporal scales (hourly to daily) forming a 3-dimensional model application. The water flux and nutrients transport in the soil is modelled using a 3D Richards/Darcy approach for subsurface fluxes with a kinematic wave approach for surface water runoff and the evapotranspiration is based on Penman-Monteith. Biogeochemical processes are modelled by LandscapeDNDC, including soil microclimate, plant growth and biomass allocation

  4. Modeling greenhouse gas emissions and nutrient transport in managed arable soils with a fully coupled hydrology-biogeochemical modeling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Edwin; Klatt, Steffen; Kiese, Ralf; Butterbach-Bahl, Klaus; Kraft, Philipp; Breuer, Lutz

    2015-04-01

    The use of mineral nitrogen fertilizer sustains the global food production and therefore the livelihood of human kind. The rise in world population will put pressure on the global agricultural system to increase its productivity leading most likely to an intensification of mineral nitrogen fertilizer use. The fate of excess nitrogen and its distribution within landscapes is manifold. Process knowledge on the site scale has rapidly grown in recent years and models have been developed to simulate carbon and nitrogen cycling in managed ecosystems on the site scale. Despite first regional studies, the carbon and nitrogen cycling on the landscape or catchment scale is not fully understood. In this study we present a newly developed modelling approach by coupling the fully distributed hydrology model CMF (catchment modelling framework) to the process based regional ecosystem model LandscapeDNDC for the investigation of hydrological processes and carbon and nitrogen transport and cycling, with a focus on nutrient displacement and resulting greenhouse gas emissions in various virtual landscapes / catchment to demonstrate the capabilities of the modelling system. The modelling system was applied to simulate water and nutrient transport at the at the Yanting Agro-ecological Experimental Station of Purple Soil, Sichuan province, China. The catchment hosts cypress forests on the outer regions, arable fields on the sloping croplands cultivated with wheat-maize rotations and paddy rice fields in the lowland. The catchment consists of 300 polygons vertically stratified into 10 soil layers. Ecosystem states (soil water content and nutrients) and fluxes (evapotranspiration) are exchanged between the models at high temporal scales (hourly to daily) forming a 3-dimensional model application. The water flux and nutrients transport in the soil is modelled using a 3D Richards/Darcy approach for subsurface fluxes with a kinematic wave approach for surface water runoff and the

  5. HIDROFOBICIDAD EN ANDISOLES BAJO ROBLEDAL (Quercus humboldtii Y PLANTACIONES FORESTALES (Pinus patula y Cupressus lusitanica EN LA CUENCA DE LA QUEBRADA PIEDRAS BLANCAS (MEDELLÍN, COLOMBIA HYDROPHOBICITY OF ANDISOLS OF OAK GROVES (Quercus humboldtii AND TREE PLANTATIONS (Pinus patula and Cupressus lusitanica IN THE PIEDRAS BLANCAS WATERSHED ( MEDELLÍN, COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Raúl Duque Zapata

    2004-12-01

    three vegetative coverings. The soils under cypress were those that presented the highest WDPT values in all measurement conditions, this being the first report in the literature of soil water repellency under this vegetative covering supported by adequate sampling. In none of the cases was sample humidity the parameter that explained the observed behavior of the water repellency of the soils studied.

  6. Historic simulation of net ecosystem carbon balance for the Great Dismal Swamp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleeter, Rachel

    2017-01-01

    Estimating ecosystem carbon (C) balance relative to natural disturbances and land management strengthens our understanding of the benefits and tradeoffs of carbon sequestration. We conducted a historic model simulation of net ecosystem C balance in the Great Dismal Swamp, VA. for the 30-year time period of 1985-2015. The historic simulation of annual carbon flux was calculated with the Land Use and Carbon Scenario Simulator (LUCAS) model. The LUCAS model utilizes a state-and-transition simulation model coupled with a carbon stock-flow accounting model to estimate net ecosystem C balance, and long term sequestration rates under various ecological conditions and management strategies. The historic model simulation uses age-structured forest growth curves for four forest species, C stock and flow rates for 8 pools and 14 fluxes, and known data for disturbance and management. The annualized results of C biomass are provided in this data release in the following categories: Growth, Heterotrophic Respiration (Rh), Net Ecosystem Production (NEP), Net Biome Production (NBP), Below-ground Biomass (BGB) Stock, Above-ground Biomass (AGB) Stock, AGB Carbon Loss from Fire, BGB Carbon Loss from Fire, Deadwood Carbon Loss from Management, and Total Carbon Loss. The table also includes the area (annually) of each forest type in hectares: Atlantic white cedar Area (hectares); Cypress-gum Area (hectares); Maple-gum Area (hectares); Pond pine Area (hectares). Net ecosystem production for the Great Dismal Swamp (~ 54,000 ha), from 1985 to 2015 was estimated to be a net sink of 0.97 Tg C. When the hurricane and six historic fire events were modeled, the Great Dismal Swamp became a net source of 0.89 Tg C. The cumulative above and belowground C loss estimated from the South One in 2008 and Lateral West fire in 2011 totaled 1.70 Tg C, while management activities removed an additional 0.01 Tg C. The C loss in below-ground biomass alone totaled 1.38 Tg C, with the balance (0.31 Tg C

  7. Conservation and ecofriendly utilization of wetlands associated with the Three Gorges Reservoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willison, J H Martin; Li, Ruoxi; Yuan, Xingzhong

    2013-10-01

    The Three Gorges Dam on the Yangtze River in China has created a major reservoir in which the water level fluctuates annually by about 30 m, generating a drawdown zone of up to 350 km(2) in summer. Since construction of the dam, there has been scientific and public interest in how to use the drawdown zone resources in environmentally sustainable ways. To this end, and with government support, an international conference was held in Chongqing Municipality (China) in October 2011 on the subject of conservation and ecofriendly utilization of wetlands in the Three Gorges Reservoir. The conference proceedings were subsequently published in the Journal of Chongqing Normal University. The proceedings reports are reviewed here in the context of other relevant literature. The proceedings included papers on ecology, ecodesign and ecological engineering, erosion control, plant production and carbon sequestration, phytoremediation of pollution, hydrosystem management, and others. Several of the reports derive from experimental work conducted at a research field station on the Three Gorges Reservoir situated in Kaixian County, Chongqing Municipality. Plant communities in the drawdown zone are declining in diversity and evolving. Experimental plantings of flood-tolerant edible hydrophytes in a dike-pond system reveal their potential to provide economic returns for farmers, and flooding-tolerant trees, such as cypresses, also show promising results for stabilizing soils in the drawdown zone. Flood-tolerant natural plant communities vary strongly with depth and their composition provides useful indicators for revegetation strategies. In the region surrounding the reservoir, remnant natural broad-leaved evergreen forests are most effective in sequestering carbon, and within the drawdown zone, carbon is mostly stored below ground. There is strong interest in the potential of aquatic plants for removal of pollutants, notably N and P, from the reservoir water by means of floating beds

  8. Aortic Stiffness, Ambulatory Blood Pressure, and Predictors of Response to Antihypertensive Therapy in Hemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgianos, Panagiotis I; Agarwal, Rajiv

    2015-08-01

    Arterial stiffness is associated with elevated blood pressure (BP), but it is unclear whether it also makes hypertension more resistant to treatment. Among hypertensive dialysis patients, this study investigated whether aortic stiffness determines ambulatory BP and predicts its improvement with therapy. Post hoc analysis of the Hypertension in Hemodialysis Patients Treated With Atenolol or Lisinopril (HDPAL) trial. 179 hypertensive hemodialysis patients with echocardiographic left ventricular hypertrophy. Baseline aortic pulse wave velocity (PWV). Baseline and treatment-induced change in 44-hour ambulatory BP at 3, 6, and 12 months. Aortic PWV was assessed with an echocardiographic-Doppler technique (ACUSON Cypress, Siemens Medical), and 44-hour interdialytic ambulatory BP monitoring was performed with a Spacelabs 90207 monitor. Mean baseline aortic PWV was 7.6±2.7 (SD) m/s. Overall treatment-induced changes in ambulatory systolic BP (SBP) were -15.6±20.4, -18.9±22.5, and -20.0±19.7 mmHg at 3, 6, and 12 months. Changes in SBP were no different among tertiles of baseline PWV. Aortic PWV was associated directly with baseline ambulatory SBP and pulse pressure (PP) and inversely with diastolic BP (DBP). After adjustment for several cardiovascular risk factors, each 1-m/s higher PWV was associated with 1.34-mm Hg higher baseline SBP (β=1.34±0.46; P=0.004) and 1.02-mm Hg higher PP (β=1.02±0.33; P=0.002), whereas the association with DBP was no longer significant. Baseline PWV did not predict treatment-induced changes in SBP (Wald test, P=0.3) and DBP (Wald test, P=0.7), but was a predictor of an overall improvement in PP during follow-up (Wald test, P=0.03). Observational design; predominantly black patients were studied. Because aortic PWV is not a predictor of treatment-induced change in ambulatory BP among hypertensive dialysis patients, it indicates that among these patients, hypertension can be controlled successfully regardless of aortic stiffness

  9. Simulating Everglades Carbon Fluxes and GHG Emission of Different Landscapes Under Present and Future Climate Conditions by Applying Community Land Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Y.; Gerber, S.

    2016-12-01

    Carbon flux in wetland distinguishes from that in other types of ecosystems due to special soil and hydrological processes. Understanding the dynamic of soil hydrology is necessary to explore the responses of the plants, the fate of massive carbon storage and greenhouse gas emissions under different climate conditions. However, contrary findings were published regarding the relationship between CO2 emission and water level variations. Both positive and negative conclusions were reached regarding the warming mitigation ability of wetland. By parameterizing the Community Land Model (CLM), our research focuses on simulating the CO2/CH4 fluxes of different landscapes in Everglades, a subtropical wetland in Florida, to explore the following questions: 1) Is it a sink or source for CO2? 2) How may the CO2/CH4 dynamics be altered with water table and soil water content? 3) What environmental factors mainly control CO2/CH4 process? 4) Does this ecosystem contribute or mitigate cliamte warming? 5) What is the difference between landscapes regarding the CO2/CH4 dynamic? We performed several simulations with CLM that address the variation of water table in soil layers and the elevated temperature to compare the impact on the carbon fluxes and GHG emission in the study area. Our results suggest the variation on water table depth has significant influence on the carbon cycle in Everglades. Deeper water table results in a higher CO2 but lower CH4 emission, partly due to the CH4 oxidization and the rapid decomposition of organic carbon. In the wet season, more CH4 is produced when the water table is shallower. Slightly elevated temperature causes a water loss through evapotranspiration which deepens the water table. However, the induced carbon loss is partly offset by the enhanced productivity of vegetation. Both long and short hydroperiod marshes are small carbon sinks in most of years but cannot mitigate the climate warming if considering CH4 emissions. Cypress swamp shows high

  10. Effect of milnacipran on body weight in patients with fibromyalgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnold LM

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Lesley M Arnold,1 Robert H Palmer,2 Michael R Hufford,3 Wei Chen21Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Neuroscience, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH, 2Medical Affairs, Forest Research Institute Inc, Jersey City, NJ, 3Clinical Development, Cypress Bioscience Inc, San Diego, CA, USABackground: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of milnacipran on body weight in patients with fibromyalgia.Methods: Analyses were conducted in the following groups: patients from three double-blind, placebo-controlled milnacipran trials (3 months, n = 2096; 6 months, n = 1008; 354 patients receiving milnacipran in placebo-controlled trials and double-blind extension studies (total ≥ 12 months of treatment; and 1227 patients in a long-term (up to 3.25 years open-label milnacipran study.Results: In placebo-controlled trials, 77% of patients were overweight or obese at baseline (body mass index ≥ 25 kg/m2. Mean weight loss was found with milnacipran at 3 months (100 mg/day, —1.14 kg; 200 mg/day, —0.97 kg; placebo, —0.06 kg; P > 0.001 and 6 months (100 mg/day, -1.01 kg; 200 mg/day, -0.71 kg; placebo, —0.04 kg; P > 0.05. Approximately twice as many milnacipran-treated patients had ≥5% weight loss from baseline compared with placebo (3 and 6 months, P > 0.01. In extension studies, mean weight loss in patients receiving ≥12 months of milnacipran was —1.06 kg. In patients receiving ≥3 years of treatment in the open-label study, mean changes at 12, 24, 30, and 36–38 months were —1.16, —0.76, —0.19, and +0.11 kg, respectively. Among milnacipran-treated patients, rates of nausea (the most common adverse event were lower among patients who lost weight than among those who did not (3 months, P = 0.02.Conclusion: The majority of patients with fibromyalgia in the milnacipran studies were overweight or obese. Milnacipran was associated with mean weight loss at 3 and 6 months (P < 0.05 versus placebo and at

  11. Dissolved Organic Carbon and Mercury Exports during Extreme Flooding in South Carolina induced by Hurricane Joaquin, 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, A. T.; Bao, S.; Zhang, H.; Tsui, M. T. K.; Ruecker, A.; Uzun, H.; Karanfil, T.

    2016-12-01

    Seasonally flooded, freshwater cypress-tupelo wetlands are commonly found in coastal regions of the southeastern United States, from Texas to North Carolina. These wetlands are the main sources of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) causing yellowish tea-color like water in the coastal blackwater rivers such as Waccamaw River in South Carolina (SC). Similar to rivers in other regions, concentration of DOC is highly correlated with concentrations of total Hg (THg) and methyl Hg (MeHg) in the Waccamaw River. On October 1-4, 2015, the torrential rain caused extensive flooding in a short period in the coast of SC, resulting in a large volume of water exported from the forested wetlands into the coastal blackwater rivers. To estimate the total loadings of C and Hg mobilized and exported by floodwater, we applied a hydrological model, WRF-Hydro, to simulate the flooding event. Precipitation rate derived from radar reflectivity was used as the main meteorological forcing input, along with near surface air temperature, humidity, and wind speed, pressure and incoming shortwave and longwave radiations data from NASA's Land Data Assimilation Systems (NLDAS). A high-resolution terrain routing grid was created using the National Hydrography Dataset (NHD). Surface flow due to surface runoff, baseflow due to underground runoff, and the stream flow rate on the routing grid along rivers were modeled. We also collected water samples along the hydrograph of the flooding event in Waccamaw river and the first water samples were collected on Oct 4, 2015, representing the rising limb of the hydrograph. Since then, samples were collected daily for the first week and several times per week in the following weeks. Samples were promptly analyzed for general water chemistry, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and total Hg (THg). We observed that concentrations of DOC and THg started to rise with the river discharge in an unsynchronized pattern, reaching the highest (32 mg/L and 7.5 ng/L, respectively

  12. Recuperación de tres coberturas forestales de altura media en Costa Rica: análisis de los oligoquetos, el mantillo y suelo Recovery of three tropical forest covers from mid-elevation sites in Costa Rica: oligochaetes, litter and soil analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junior Pastor Pérez-Molina

    2012-12-01

    characteristics were analyzed and compared in a 50 years old secondary forest, a 13 years tacotal, and a 35 years cypress (Cupressus lusitanica plantation. The three sites studied differed in density, biomass and average mass of oligochaetes, and in some litter (depth, nitrogen, phosphorus and C/N ratio of litter, and soil variables (soil water content (CA, pH, phosphorus, cation exchange capacity, and magnesium. The forest registered the lowest density of earthworms and soil pH, and the highest soil CA and phosphorus. CA was inversely related to the oligochaete density across sites. Besides, there were positive correlations between C/N and C/P ratios from the litter and soil pH, and inverse correlations of litter depth, litter N and P concentrations with soil P. Discriminant Analysis (AD performed with all soil and litter variables, produced a sharp classification of the three forest cover types. AD suggests that site differences were mostly determined by soil CA and litter nitrogen concentration. Considering all the evaluated parameters, our results suggest in the first place, that oligochaetes are sensitive to changes in some soil and litter characteristics. Secondly, aside from the striking oligochaete differences between the old secondary forest and the other two sites, some soil and litter traits resulted good indicators of the present recovery of the three forest covers. In addition, comparing soil nutrients content (organic carbon, nitrogen, calcium, potassium and sulfur among the three sites, our findings indicate that the cypress plantation had reached soil nutrient conditions similar to the old secondary forest, presumably by the accumulation of nutrients, as a result of low nutrient recirculation. In conclusion, ecosystem level studies throughout simple evaluation criteria (soils, oligochaetes and ground litter can be used as rapid indicators of the state of some of the many and complex forest ecosystem compartments.

  13. Hydrology and water quality of lakes and streams in Orange County, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    German, Edward R.; Adamski, James C.

    2005-01-01

    Orange County, Florida, is continuing to experience a large growth in population. In 1920, the population of Orange County was less than 20,000; in 2000, the population was about 896,000. The amount of urban area around Orlando has increased considerably, especially in the northwest part of the County. The eastern one-third of the County, however, had relatively little increase in urbanization from 1977-97. The increase of population, tourism, and industry in Orange County and nearby areas changed land use; land that was once agricultural has become urban, industrial, and major recreation areas. These changes could impact surface-water resources that are important for wildlife habitat, for esthetic reasons, and potentially for public supply. Streamflow characteristics and water quality could be affected in various ways. As a result of changing land use, changes in the hydrology and water quality of Orange County's lakes and streams could occur. Median runoff in 10 selected Orange County streams ranges from about 20 inches per year (in/yr) in the Wekiva River to about 1.1 in/yr in Cypress Creek. The runoff for the Wekiva River is significantly higher than other river basins because of the relatively constant spring discharge that sustains streamflow, even during drought conditions. The low runoff for the Cypress Creek basin results from a lack of sustained inflow from ground water and a relatively large area of lakes within the drainage basin. Streamflow characteristics for 13 stations were computed on an annual basis and examined for temporal trends. Results of the trend testing indicate changes in annual mean streamflow, 1-day high streamflow, or 7-day low streamflow at 8 of the 13 stations. However, changes in 7-day low streamflow are more common than changes in annual mean or 1-day high streamflow. There is probably no single reason for the changes in 7-day low streamflows, and for most streams, it is difficult to determine definite reasons for the flow

  14. Prefazione al volume 9 di Gerbertus in Transitu Mercurii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigismondi, Costantino

    2016-05-01

    The papers published in this volume deal with historical and contemporary themes of physics and astronomy, always with the focus in didactics, as in the style of Gerbert of Aurillac, "rogatus a pluribus" (required by several students to write down the basics of new sciences). 1. Christopher Columbus in the voyage to America of 1492 discovered the deviation of the Magnetic North from the Celestial North; his measurements could have been done with the technology available to Gerbert, here we present the astronomical aspects of them. 2. On the meridian line of Santa Maria degli Angeli (1702) we repeated the experiences of Cassini in characterizing the refraction of the atmosphere by the difference between observed and calculated positions of the center of the Sun: 3. The collection of astronomical instruments in the Vatican Museums gives the opportunity to present the role of Astronomy in Catholic Church, starting from the calculation of Easter, present in the Chair of Hyppolitus. 4. The Eucharistic Miracle in Lanciano is dated VIII century AD, and the recognition of 1574 found the miracle of weights, where the five drops weigthed like one only. A discussion on that result is made on the light of sensibility of the scales of that time, which does not depart from the one of Gerbert's time. 5. The climate of X century allowed crossing the Alps: Luigi Mariani presents parallel evidences. 6. A list of 44 questions aswered by Paolo Rossi on modern physics/astrophysics is presented as a wish list of the level of culture of a secondary student. Three decades ago these topics were achievable only to University students: now are part of the public opinion, and a new framework has to be set by the teachers. 7. The dynamics of a micro-probe sent to alpha Centauri in 20 years is studied numerically. 8. The azimut of the Pyramid Cestia and 9. the height of the Vatican obelisk are studied exploiting solar ephemerides 10. The phases of pollen production of Cypress for 2016 are

  15. Overland flow connectivity in a forest plantation before and after tree thinning (Tochigi Prefecture, central Japan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Vicente, Manuel; Onda, Yuichi; Sun, Xinchao; Kato, Hiroaki; Gomi, Takashi; Hiraoka, Marino

    2016-04-01

    Overland flow connectivity is a key factor to understand the redistribution dynamics of sediments, nutrients, radiotracers, etc., in the different compartments at channel, hillslope and catchment scales. Human organization of landscape elements has a significant control on runoff and soil redistribution processes. Construction of trails, forest roads and firewalls influence runoff connectivity (RC) in forested catchments. In this study we simulated RC in two forested catchments, called K2 (19.3 ha) and K3 (13.6 ha), located on the Mount Karasawa, in the Tochigi Prefecture in central Japan. Forest plantation includes Japanese cypress and cedar and covers 59% of the total area. Native broad-leaved trees (28%) and mixed forest occupy the rest of the study area. We selected the Index of runoff and sediment Connectivity (IC) of Borselli et al. (2008) to simulate three temporal scenarios: i) Sc-2011, before tree thinning (TT); ii) Sc-2012 after TT in most part of the forest plantation in K2 (32% of the total area); and iii) Sc-2013 after TT in some areas of the K3 catchment, affecting 38% of the total area. The study areas were defined from the coalescence point (139⁰ 36' 04" E, 36⁰ 22' 03" N) of both catchments upslope. Elevation ranges from 75 to 287 m a.s.l. and the mean slope steepness is of 67 and 65% in K2 and K3. Three different high resolution DEM-LiDAR maps at 0.5 x 0.5 m of cell size were used to run the IC model in each scenario. The permanent streams in the study area have a total length of 2123 m. The mean C-RUSLE factor was of 0.0225 in Sc-2011 and 21% and 25% higher in Sc-2012 and Sc-2013. The total length of the landscape linear elements incremented from 2482 m in Sc-2011 to 3151 m in Sc-2012 and Sc-2013 due to the construction of new skid trails in K2. The mean RC in the study area was of -4.536 in Sc-2011 and increased 7.4% and 8.9% in the Sc-2012 and Sc-2013, respectively, due to the tree thinning operations and the construction of new skid trails

  16. Contribution of electromagnetic and tomographic technique to the study of the impact of salinity in soils of the experimental station of Al Ain Atti (Errachidia, Morocco)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benamara, A.; El Harnafi, M.; Ammar, A.

    2017-03-01

    Soil salinity is widespread particularly in arid areas. Much work has been done to remedy this natural contamination and make them more favorable to receive experimental soil of vegetation adapted to grow in these contrasting environments of scarce water resources. Over the 80 years, Morocco has experienced excessive dryness whose effects have been severely felt in the region of Errachidia. The depletion of the Quaternary alluvial aquifer has required the exploitation of deep reservoirs. In order to optimize the use of salt water in arid, the Institute of Agricultural Research tested soil experimenting three plant species; the Triplex, Acacia and Cypress. This experiment was not only economic objectives; increasing agricultural yields and production, but also reduce the impact of desertification in this region. So these are environmental reasons which have led researchers to realize this experiment whose purpose is to examine the ability of these plants to grow and adapt to irrigation by saline water from the deep aquifer in place. The experimental site is located on the left bank of the national road to Erfoud (Errachidia). In its entirety, the redesigned covering about 10 hectares. The studies that have been conducted mainly concerned pedogenetic analyzes and observations the development height of the plantation tested, regardless of the experimental ground heterogeneity. This is why we undertook a geophysical survey which aims to provide information on the quality of the tested soils and accumulation of salinity at different depths of the experimental ground. To achieve our goal, we used the technique of electrical and electromagnetic investigation in order to identify the main lines of a possible spatial heterogeneity. Recall that the work of OKAY (2010) on an experiment coring by examining the evolution of the newly formed fracturing have proved that the result of resistivity measurement is correlated with that of the chargeability. The electrical resistivity

  17. Evapotranspiration data at Starkey pasture site, Pasco County, Florida, January 2010 - April 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swancar, Amy

    2017-01-01

    tree (Baccharis halimifolia). Forested wetlands are present on the margins of Sandy Branch, a tributary to the Anclote River southwest of the site, and a small cypress dome (40 m diameter) is located east of the site. The effects of these forested areas are assumed to be negligible, because the pasture area extends 175 m away from the site in all directions and satisfies upwind fetch requirements for the height of the eddy covariance sensors (more than 100 times the final height of 1.5 m).0 The soils at the site are Pomona fine sands with less than 5 percent organic content. For the 13 years of record at this site, the water table was always within 2 m of land surface.

  18. An Assessment of Geological Carbon Storage Options in the Illinois Basin: Validation Phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finley, Robert

    2012-12-01

    Indiana, and an immiscible CO{sub 2} flood pilot was conducted in the Jackson sandstone (Mississippian System Big Clifty Sandstone Member) at the Sugar Creek Field in Hopkins County, western Kentucky. Up to 12% incremental oil recovery was estimated based on these pilots. A CO{sub 2} huff puff (HNP) pilot project was conducted in the Cypress Sandstone in the Loudon Field. This pilot was designed to measure and record data that could be used to calibrate a reservoir simulation model. A pilot project at the Tanquary Farms site in Wabash County, southeastern Illinois, tested the potential storage of CO{sub 2} in the Springfield Coal Member of the Carbondale Formation (Pennsylvanian System), in order to gauge the potential for large-scale CO{sub 2} storage and/or enhanced coal bed methane recovery from Illinois Basin coal beds. The pilot results from all four sites showed that CO{sub 2} could be injected into the subsurface without adversely affecting groundwater. Additionally, hydrocarbon production was enhanced, giving further evidence that CO{sub 2} storage in oil reservoirs and coal beds offers an economic advantage. Results from the MVA program at each site indicated that injected CO{sub 2} did not leave the injection zone. Topical reports were completed on the Middle and Late Devonian New Albany Shale and Basin CO{sub 2} emissions. The efficacy of the New Albany Shale as a storage sink could be substantial if low injectivity concerns can be alleviated. CO{sub 2} emissions in the Illinois Basin were projected to be dominated by coal-fired power plants.

  19. Influence of 13 different biochars on N2O production and its sources during rewetting-drying cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrage-Mönnig, Nicole; Fiedler, Sebastian; Fuertes-Mendizábal, Teresa; Estavillo, José-Maria; Ippolito, Jim A.; Borchard, Nils; Cayuela, Maria Luz; Spokas, Kurt; Novak, Jeff; Kammann, Claudia

    2017-04-01

    Biochars have been found to have variable impacts on nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions. The variability has been attributed to differences in soil - biochar properties and microbial communities. While some information exists on biochar and soil properties, the effect of biochars on microbial sources of N2O is still a matter of speculation. In this study, we tested these effects for12 biochars prepared from cypress, loblolly pine and grape wood produced at four different controlled temperatures (350, 500, 700 and 900˚ C), respectively, plus a grapevine Kontiki biochar (600-700˚ C). The biochars were added (2%) to a loamy sand brought to pH 7.1 with CaO. The treatments plus one control were pre-incubated at 40% water holding capacity (WHC) for four days. Then, they were brought to 80% WHC and 15N-nitrate was added (50 mg NO3-N kg-1 soil, 10% enriched in 15N). All treatments were set up with four replicates. In total, three cycles of (re)wetting - drying (80 to 40% WHC, total duration 20 days) were monitored. Samples for analyses of N2O concentrations and stable isotope signatures were taken daily (except for weekends) after closing the incubation vessels for 90 minutes. N2O emissions increased with each addition of water and decreased during drying to background values. Each rewetting led to larger emissions than measured in the previous cycle for all treatments including controls. All biochars decreased total N2O emissions compared to the control treatments. The higher the production temperature of the biochar, the larger usually the emission reduction. Largest effects were found for the grape wood and the Kontiki biochars. Interestingly, the addition of biochars also changed the isotopic signatures of the emitted N2O. Whereas emissions in the controls were enriched to about 5 atom% 15N excess at peak emissions, the enrichment was usually less after addition of biochars (1-5 atom% excess). Again, this effect tended to be larger at higher production temperatures of the

  20. Ecological implications of Laurel Wilt infestation on Everglades Tree Islands, southern Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, James R.

    2014-01-01

    , laurel wilt disease also kills other native trees that are members of the laurel family, including swamp bay (Persea palustris), silk bay (Persea borbonia var. humilis), and sassafras (Sassafras albidum), as well as the economically important cultivated avocado (Persea americana) (Fraedrich and others, 2008). This paper is concerned primarily with swamp bay, an important component of Everglades tree islands.The spread of the redbay ambrosia beetle and its fungal symbiont has been very rapid, exceeding model predictions (Koch and Smith, 2008); by 2011, laurel wilt disease was found from the southern coastal plain of North Carolina to southern peninsular Florida. The first redbay ambrosia beetle was trapped in Miami-Dade County in March 2010, and laurel wilt disease was discovered in swamp bays in February 2011 and in commercial avocado groves about a year later (Kendra and others, 2013). By 2013, laurel wilt disease was seen in swamp bays throughout the southern Everglades in Everglades National Park, Big Cypress National Preserve, and Water Conservation Areas (WCAs) 3A and 3B (Rodgers and others, 2014).

  1. La fertilidad química del suelo y el «mal del ciprés» en Patagonia, Argentina Soil chemical fertility and austrocedrus chilensis disease in Patagonia, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Morales

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Los bosques de Austrocedrus chilensis sufren un proceso de mortalidad conocido como «mal del ciprés», cuya causa es aún discutida. Estudios previos sugieren la presencia de Phytophthora austrocedrae como agente causal de la mortalidad; sin embargo, el origen de la enfermedad continúa en estudio, dado que existen áreas afectadas no vinculadas con Phytophthora. El suelo, principalmente a través de sus características físicas y morfológicas, fue evidenciado como un factor asociado con la aparición y desarrollo de la enfermedad. En este trabajo, se evaluó la fertilidad química del suelo en relación al «mal del ciprés». Se seleccionaron cuatro sectores ubicados en el Valle «16 de Octubre» de la provincia del Chubut correspondientes a bosques puros y densos de A. chilensis. En cada sector se instalaron parcelas en áreas del bosque con síntomas severos de la enfermedad y en áreas sin síntomas. A su vez se incorporaron al estudio ocho parcelas control, ubicadas en bosques completamente sanos. Se tomaron muestras del horizonte A y se caracterizaron las propiedades químicas del suelo. No se encontraron deficiencias nutricionales y se observó un buen estado nutricional en todos los suelos analizados, aún en los bosques afectados, reflejándose en valores adecuados de materia orgánica, nitrógeno, bases y capacidad de intercambio catiónico. Se manifestaron diferencias entre los suelos bajo bosque afectado y suelos bajo bosques control en los contenidos de suma de bases, saturación de bases, calcio, pH NaF y fósforo. Estas diferencias podrían estar asociadas tanto a las condiciones de drenaje como a la presencia de Phytophthora.Austrocedrus chilensis forests suffer a widespread mortality locally known as «mal del ciprés» (cypress disease whose cause remains controversial. Previous studies suggested Phytophthora austrocedrae as the biotic cause; however, the origin of the mortality is still being studied since there are

  2. Kidney toxicity related to herbs and dietary supplements: Online table of case reports. Part 3 of 5 series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Amy Christine

    2017-09-01

    No tabular summary of potentially life-threatening, kidney-toxic dietary supplements (DS; includes herbs) based on PubMed case reports is currently available online and continually updated to forewarn United States consumers, clinicians, and companies manufacturing DS. The purpose of this review was to create an online research summary table of kidney toxicity case reports related to DS. Documented PubMed case reports (1966 to May 2016, and cross-referencing) of DS appearing to contribute to kidney toxicity were listed in "DS Toxic Tables." Keywords included "herb" or "dietary supplement" combined with "kidney" to generate an overview list, and possibly "toxicity" to narrow the selection. Case reports were excluded if they involved herb combinations (some exceptions), Chinese herb mixtures, teas of mixed herb contents, mushrooms, poisonous plants, self-harm, excessive doses (except vitamins/minerals), legal or illegal drugs, drug-herbal interactions, and confounders of drugs or diseases. Since commercial DS often include a combination of ingredients, they were treated separately; so were foods. A few foods with kidney-toxic effects were listed in a fourth table. The spectrum of herbal or DS-induced kidney injuries included kidney stones, nephritis, nephrotic syndrome, necrosis, acute kidney injury (AKI; previously known as acute renal failure [ARF]), chronic kidney disease, kidney transplant, and death. Approximately 7 herbs (minus 4 no longer for sale) and 10 dietary supplements (minus 3 excluded due to excessive doses + germanium that is no longer sold) have been related to kidney injury case reports published in PubMed (+crosslisting) in the last 50 + years (1966 to May 2016). The implicated herbs include Chinese yew (Taxus celbica) extract, impila (Callilepis laureola), morning cypress (Cupressus funebris Endl), St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum), thundergod vine (Tripterygium wilfordii hook F), tribulus (Tribulus terrestris) and wormwood (Artemisia

  3. Mechanisms of nitrate capture in biochar: Are they related to biochar properties, post-treatment and soil environment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimo, Giulia; Haller, Andreas; Spokas, Kurt; Novak, Jeff; Ippolito, Jim; Löhnertz, Otmar; Kammann, Claudia

    2017-04-01

    Biochar use in soils is assumed to increase soil fertility and the efficiency of nutrient use, particularly nitrogen. It was demonstrated recently that biochar is able to capture considerable amounts of the mobile anion nitrate which was observed in co-composted as well as field aged biochar1,2. Moreover the nitrate was not sufficiently extractable with standard methods from biochar particles; extractions had to be repeated to effectively remove the nitrate1. Subsequently the co-composted nitrate-enriched biochar stimulated plant growth due to N supply to the plants2. However, in a field study in sandy soil in Germany, a different biochar also captured nitrate, increasing the topsoil nitrate concentration and likely reducing nitrate leaching to subsoils1. This was particularly seen after a dry year in the re-picked and analysed particles. However, in the field experiment this aged, nitrate-enriched biochar did not improve crop yields3. To better understand the way biochar interacts with nitrate we undertook several laboratory experiments with 13 well characterized biochars produced from cypress, pine and grapewood at 350, 500, 700 and 900 °C including one Kon-Tiki produced grapewood biochar (600-700°C). Our results showed that (1) pure, pristine (not post-treated) biochar captured more nitrate when they were air-moist and not totally dry; that (2) letting biochar particles dry in nitrate solution forces more nitrate into biochar particles than incubating them in the solution, but (3) that shaking during drying nevertheless caused a higher nitrate uptake into biochar particles; that(4) the counter ion K+ in nitrate solution was more effective than Na+ for N-loading of biochar; (5)that drying a soil-biochar mix in nitrate solution produced a higher nitrate loading of the mixture (i.e. the biochar) than drying both components separately in the same solution; (6)that a higher biochar production temperature caused higher nitrate capture up to 700-900°C. Furthermore

  4. Hydrology and Ecology of Freshwater Wetlands in Central Florida - A Primer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haag, Kim H.; Lee, Terrie M.

    2010-01-01

    Freshwater wetlands are an integral part of central Florida, where thousands are distributed across the landscape. However, their relatively small size and vast numbers challenge efforts to characterize them collectively as a statewide water resource. Wetlands are a dominant landscape feature in Florida; in 1996, an estimated 11.4 million acres of wetlands occupied 29 percent of the area of the State. Wetlands represent a greater percentage of the land surface in Florida than in any other state in the conterminous United States. Statewide, 90 percent of the total wetland area is freshwater wetlands and 10 percent is coastal wetlands. About 55 percent of the freshwater wetlands in Florida are forested, 25 percent are marshes and emergent wetlands, 18 percent are scrub-shrub wetlands, and the remaining 2 percent are freshwater ponds. Freshwater wetlands are distributed differently in central Florida than in other parts of the State. In the panhandle and in northern Florida, there are fewer isolated wetlands than in the central and southern parts of the State, and few of those wetlands are affected by activities such as groundwater withdrawals. In southern Florida, the vast wetlands of the Everglades and the Big Cypress Swamp blanket the landscape and form contiguous shallow expanses of water, which often exhibit slow but continuous flow toward the southwestern coast. In contrast, the wetlands of central Florida are relatively small, numerous, mostly isolated, and widely distributed. In many places, wetlands are flanked by uplands, generating a mosaic of contrasting environments-unique wildlife habitat often adjacent to dense human development. As the population of central Florida increases, the number of residents living near wetlands also increases. Living in close proximity to wetlands provides many Floridians with an increased awareness of nature and an opportunity to examine the relationship between people and wetlands. Specifically, these residents can observe

  5. Drier Forest Composition Associated with Hydrologic Change in the Apalachicola River, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darst, Melanie R.; Light, Helen M.

    2008-01-01

    when the median age of surviving 2004 subcanopy trees will reach the median age (99 years) of the 2004 large canopy trees. The change will be greatest for forests in the upper reach (45.0 percent). Forest composition changes from pre-1954 to 2085 were calculated using Floodplain Indices from 1976 and 2004 tree-size classes and replicate plots. Species composition in high bottomland hardwood forests is expected to continue to change, and some low bottomland hardwood forests are expected to become high bottomland hardwood forests. Organisms associated with floodplain forests will be affected by the changes in tree species, which will alter the timing of leaf-out, fruiting, and leaf-drop, the types of fruit and debris produced, and soil chemistry. Swamps will contain more bottomland hardwood species, but will also have an overall loss of tree density. The density of trees in swamps significantly decreased by 37 percent from 1976 to 2004. Of the estimated 4.3 million (17 percent) fewer trees that existed in the nontidal floodplain in 2004 than in 1976, 3.3 million trees belonged to four swamp species: popash, Ogeechee tupelo, water tupelo, and bald cypress. Water tupelo, the most important tree in the nontidal floodplain in terms of basal area and density, has declined in number of trees by nearly 20 percent since 1976. Ogeechee tupelo, the species valuable to the tupelo honey industry, has declined in number of trees by at least 44 percent. Greater hydrologic variability in recent years may be the reason swamps have had a large decrease in tree density. Drier conditions are detrimental for the growth of swamp species, and periodic large floods kill invading bottomland hardwood trees. The loss of canopy density in swamps may result in the swamp floor being exposed to more light with an increase in the amount of ground cover present, which in turn, would reduce tree replacement. The microclimate of the swamp floor would become wa

  6. JUDAS TREE (ERGUVAN IN DIWAN POETRY DİVAN ŞİİRİNDE ERGUVÂN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şener DEMİREL

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Nature is one of the main topics of Diwan Poetry and it is also accepted as the inspiration sources of poets. The explanations of poets related to nature are mainly seen in cases of symbolist and sometimes impressionistic perceptions depending on the existing circumstances. Poems which have been written on the various pecularities of nature have also been created by many wealthy and colourful imaginations and as a consequence of that perceptions they have been appeared. The most valuable and noticeable factors of nature such as rose, tulip, hyacinth and cypress (flowers and plants are tackled as the beauty impressionists towards lovers. As it is pointed through the passage, Erguvan (Judas Tree is one of the mentioned flowers upwards is pinky nearly to reddish colour and it is the main topic of this study. Erguvan (Judas Tree has been the inspiration source of Diwan Poetry and it is mainly mentioned about lovers’ lips, cheeks and face and also many other various and colourful connotations. It has taken its mystical value from the colourful world of Diwan Poetry because of those charateristics. Throughout this work, firstly the name, meaning, colour and beliefs of Erguvan will be shortly determined and evaluated and then it will be tried to show in what imaginations and connotations poets have written their poems through the selected poems of Diwan will be clear. Divan şiirinin belli başlı konularından ve aynı zamanda şairlerinin ilham kaynaklarından biri de tabiattır. Divan şairlerinin tabiatı yorumlamaları daha çok sembolist, yer yer empresyonist sayılabilecek bir algılamanın ürünü olarak karşımıza çıkar. Tabiatın çeşitli unsurları üzerine kurulmuş çok zengin ve renkli tasavvurlardan meydana gelmiş olan şiirler, işte bu algılamanın ürünü olarak ortaya çıkmışlardır. Tabiata ait unsurların en dikkate değer olanlarından gül, lâle, sümbül, nergis, servî gibi çiçek veya ağaçların büyük

  7. Kinetic energy of throughfall in a highly diverse forest ecosystem in the humid subtropics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geißler, Christian; Kühn, Peter; Scholten, Thomas

    2010-05-01

    a disdrometer. Journal of Geophysical Research (D10), 98: 18465-18470. Mosley, M.P., 1982. The effect of a New Zealand beech forest canopy on the kinetic energy of water drops and on surface erosion. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, 7: 103-107. Nakanishi, H., 2002. Splash dispersal by raindrops. Ecological research, 17: 663-671. Nanko, K., Hotta, N., Suzuki, M., 2006. Evaluating the influence of canopy species and meteorological factors on throughfall drop size distribution. Journal of Hydrology, 329: 422-431. Nanko, K., Mizugaki, S., Onda, Y., 2008. Estimation of soil splash detachment rates on the forest floor of an unmanaged Japanese cypress plantation based on field measurements of throughfall drop sizes and velocities. Catena, 72: 348-361. Vis, M., 1986. Interception, drop size distribution and rainfall kinetic energy in four Columbian forest ecosystems. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, 11: 591-603.

  8. Genre of khaghani’s elegies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Shanazari

    2016-02-01

    the metaphor. In addition to simile and metaphor among literary verses, hyperbole is of high frequency. This craft was so effective in making and activating marvelous tone. In courtier elegies, the poet tires to compensate lack of emotional burden by the help of exaggeration and where there is high emotional, aspect of exaggeration has no space or it is not suitable. After hyperbole, allegory is of high frequency among Khaghani’s elegies. Khaghani had basically used allegory in his uncle’s elegy and Imam Mohammad Yahya, Abu Mansoor hafade and Naser od-Din Ibrahim. In most of elegies, Khaghani starts his ode with an introduction on world transience and disloyalty of the day. Khaghani basically gives speech about universe transience and disloyalty at the beginning of men’s courtier and religious elegies.   Some of Khaghani’s elegies starts with poet’s mournful mood and the beaten poem. Khaghani started composing all his elegies about her wife’s mourning with description of his unpleasant mood. The beginning of Khaghani’s odes which he had composed, was followed by the addressee’s invitation to unanimity. All the factors are at the service of content in Khaghani’s elegies and they are used to activate the meaning of mourning and sorrowful space. One of these factors is row. Row is at the service of elegy content in accordance with the aspect of proportion in long vowel as well as semantic proportion. Of other factors used in relation with elegy one can name the adjectival proportion and similes for the deceased. For example, Khaghani used items like garden sight, cypress- figure and brilliant sun and in mourning of his wife, and in the morning of prophet’s names as well as religious men in making-image.

  9. Calendar

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-04-01

    MAY 2004 GARP's 3rd Credit & Counterparty Risk Summit, London, UK 21-23 May 2004 Andreas Simou (andreas.simou@garp.com), +44 (0)20 7626 9301, www.garp.com/events/3rdcred IMA Workshop 9: Financial Data Analysis and Applications, University of Minnesota, MN, USA 24-28 May 2004 www.ima.umn.edu/complex/spring/c9.html Global Derivatives & Risk Management 2004, NH Eurobuilding, Madrid, Spain 25-28 May 2004 Aden Watkins, ICBI (awatkins@iirltd.co.uk), +44 (0)20 7915 5198, www.icbi-uk.com/globalderivatives/ WEHIA'04 9th Workshop on Economics and Heterogeneous Interacting Agents, Kyodai-Kaikan, Kyoto, Japan 27-29 May 2004 www.nda.ac.jp/cs/AI/wehia04/ JUNE 2004 Semimartingale Theory and Practice in Finance, Pacific Institute for the Mathematical Sciences, Vancouver, BC, Canada 5-10 June 2004 www.pims.math.ca/birs/workshops/2004/04w5032/ MC2QMC 2004 International Conference on Monte Carlo and Quasi-Monte Carlo Methods, Juan-les-Pins, Côte d'Azur, France 7-10 June 2004 Monique Simonetti (Monique.Simonetti@sophia.inria.fr), +33 4 92 38 78 64, www-sop.inria.fr/omega/MC2QMC2004/ GAIM'04 10th Annual Global Alternative Investment Management Forum, The Beaulieu Centre, Lausanne, Switzerland 8-11 June 2004 +44 (0)20 7915 5103, www.icbi-uk.com/gaim/ 3rd Annual Conference Ri$k Management 2004, Fairmont Hotel, Dubai, United Arab Emirates 12-15 June 2004 www.iirme.com/risk/ 10th Annual Risk USA Congress, Boston, MA, USA 21-24 June 2004 Aristotle Liu (aliu@riskwaters.com), +44 (0)207 484 9700, www.riskusa.com Mannheim Empirical Research Summer School, Mannheim University, Germany 22 June-2 July 2004 oliver@kirchkamp.de, www.sfb504.uni-mannheim.de/merss 9th Annual Conference on Econometric Modelling for Africa, Cape Town, South Africa 30 June-2 July 2004 aesinfo@commerce.uct.ac.za, www.commerce.uct.ac.za/economics/AES2004Conference/ 4th Congress of Nonlinear Analysts. Special Session on Mathematical Methods in Theoretical Finance, Hyatt Grand Cypress Resort, Orlando, FL, USA 30 June-7 July

  10. Genre of khaghani’s elegies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Shanazari

    2016-01-01

    is presented more than other imaginations in Khaghani’s elegies. Next step belongs to the metaphor. In addition to simile and metaphor among literary verses, hyperbole is of high frequency. This craft was so effective in making and activating marvelous tone. In courtier elegies, the poet tires to compensate lack of emotional burden by the help of exaggeration and where there is high emotional, aspect of exaggeration has no space or it is not suitable. After hyperbole, allegory is of high frequency among Khaghani’s elegies. Khaghani had basically used allegory in his uncle’s elegy and Imam Mohammad Yahya, Abu Mansoor hafade and Naser od-Din Ibrahim. In most of elegies, Khaghani starts his ode with an introduction on world transience and disloyalty of the day. Khaghani basically gives speech about universe transience and disloyalty at the beginning of men’s courtier and religious elegies.   Some of Khaghani’s elegies starts with poet’s mournful mood and the beaten poem. Khaghani started composing all his elegies about her wife’s mourning with description of his unpleasant mood. The beginning of Khaghani’s odes which he had composed, was followed by the addressee’s invitation to unanimity. All the factors are at the service of content in Khaghani’s elegies and they are used to activate the meaning of mourning and sorrowful space. One of these factors is row. Row is at the service of elegy content in accordance with the aspect of proportion in long vowel as well as semantic proportion. Of other factors used in relation with elegy one can name the adjectival proportion and similes for the deceased. For example, Khaghani used items like garden sight, cypress- figure and brilliant sun and in mourning of his wife, and in the morning of prophet’s names as well as religious men in making-image.