WorldWideScience

Sample records for hinge region expulsion

  1. Influence of the cardiac myosin hinge region on contractile activity.

    OpenAIRE

    Margossian, S S; Krueger, J W; Sellers, J R; Cuda, G; Caulfield, J B; Norton, P.; Slayter, H. S.

    1991-01-01

    The participation of cardiac myosin hinge in contractility was investigated by in vitro motility and ATPase assays and by measurements of sarcomere shortening. The effect on contractile activity was analyzed using an antibody directed against a 20-amino acid peptide within the hinge region of myosin. This antibody bound specifically at the hinge at a distance of 55 nm from the S1/S2 junction, was specific to human, dog, and rat cardiac myosins, did not crossreact with gizzard or skeletal myos...

  2. Influence of the cardiac myosin hinge region on contractile activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margossian, S S; Krueger, J W; Sellers, J R; Cuda, G; Caulfield, J B; Norton, P; Slayter, H S

    1991-06-01

    The participation of cardiac myosin hinge in contractility was investigated by in vitro motility and ATPase assays and by measurements of sarcomere shortening. The effect on contractile activity was analyzed using an antibody directed against a 20-amino acid peptide within the hinge region of myosin. This antibody bound specifically at the hinge at a distance of 55 nm from the S1/S2 junction, was specific to human, dog, and rat cardiac myosins, did not crossreact with gizzard or skeletal myosin, and had no effect on ATPase activity of purified S1 and myofibrils. However, it completely suppressed the movement of actin filaments in in vitro motility assays and reduced active shortening of sarcomeres of skinned cardiac myocytes by half. Suppression of motion by the anti-hinge antibody may reflect a mechanical constraint imposed by the antibody upon the mobility of the S2 region of myosin. The results suggest that the steps in the mechanochemical energy transduction can be separately influenced through S2.

  3. Alternative S2 Hinge Regions of the Myosin Rod Affect Myofibrillar Structure and Myosin Kinetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Mark S.; Dambacher, Corey M.; Knowles, Aileen F.; Braddock, Joan M.; Farman, Gerrie P.; Irving, Thomas C.; Swank, Douglas M.; Bernstein, Sanford I.; Maughan, David W.; (RPI); (IIT); (SDSU); (Vermont)

    2009-07-01

    The subfragment 2/light meromyosin 'hinge' region has been proposed to significantly contribute to muscle contraction force and/or speed. Transgenic replacement of the endogenous fast muscle isovariant hinge A (exon 15a) in Drosophila melanogaster indirect flight muscle with the slow muscle hinge B (exon 15b) allows examination of the structural and functional changes when only this region of the myosin molecule is different. Hinge B was previously shown to increase myosin rod length, increase A-band and sarcomere length, and decrease flight performance compared to hinge A. We applied additional measures to these transgenic lines to further evaluate the consequences of modifying this hinge region. Structurally, the longer A-band and sarcomere lengths found in the hinge B myofibrils appear to be due to the longitudinal addition of myosin heads. Functionally, hinge B, although a significant distance from the myosin catalytic domain, alters myosin kinetics in a manner consistent with this region increasing myosin rod length. These structural and functional changes combine to decrease whole fly wing-beat frequency and flight performance. Our results indicate that this hinge region plays an important role in determining myosin kinetics and in regulating thick and thin filament lengths as well as sarcomere length.

  4. Functionalisation of the hinge region in receptor molecules for explosive detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krebs, Frederik C

    2003-01-01

    The functionalisation of the hinge region in a molecular tweezer molecule showing a strong binding to explosives is presented. Two versatile functional groups are introduced, a carboxylic acid and a bromine atom. (C) 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.......The functionalisation of the hinge region in a molecular tweezer molecule showing a strong binding to explosives is presented. Two versatile functional groups are introduced, a carboxylic acid and a bromine atom. (C) 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  5. Regional septal hinge-point injury contributes to adverse biventricular interactions in pulmonary hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Eva Amalie; Okumura, Kenichi; Sun, Mei; Hjortdal, Vibeke E; Redington, Andrew N; Friedberg, Mark K

    2017-07-01

    Death and morbidity in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) are often due to right ventricular (RV) failure and associated left ventricular (LV) dysfunction. We investigated regional myocardial remodeling and function as the basis for adverse ventricular-ventricular interactions in experimental chronic RV pressure overload. Two distinct animal models were studied: A rabbit model of increased RV pressure-load through progressive pulmonary artery banding A rat model of monocrotaline (MCT)-induced pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Regional myocardial function was assessed by speckle-tracking strain echocardiography and ventricular pressures measured by catheterization before termination. Regional RV and LV myocardium was analyzed for collagen content, apoptosis and pro-fibrotic signaling gene and protein expression. Although the RV developed more fibrosis than the LV; in both models the LV was substantially affected. In both ventricles, particularly the LV, fibrosis developed predominantly at the septal hinge-point regions in association with decreased regional and global circumferential strain, reduced global RV and LV function and up-regulation of regional transforming growth factor-β1 (TGFβ1) and apoptosis signaling. A group of PAH rats who received the TGFβ blocker SB431542 showed improved RV function and reduced regional hinge-point myocardial fibrosis. RV pressure-loading and PAH lead to biventricular TGFβ1 signaling, fibrosis and apoptosis, predominantly at the septal hinge-point regions, in association with regional myocardial dysfunction. This suggests that altered geometry and wall stress lead to adverse RV-LV interactions through the septal hinge-points to induce LV fibrosis and dysfunction. © 2017 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the American Physiological Society.

  6. Role of Met93 and Thr96 in the lid hinge region of Rhizopus chinensis lipase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Shan-Shan; Li, Ming; Yu, Xiaowei; Xu, Yan

    2013-05-01

    We engineered Rhizopus chinensis lipase to study its critical amino acid role in catalytic properties. Based on the amino acid sequence and three-dimensional model of the lipase, residues located in its lid hinge region (Met93 and Thr96) were replaced with corresponding amino acid residues (Ile93 and Asn96) found in the lid hinge region of Rhizopus oryzae lipase. The substitutions in the lid hinge region affected not only substrate specificity but also the thermostability of the lipase. Both lipases preferred p-nitrophenyl laurate and glyceryl trilaurate (C12). However, the variant S4-3O showed a slight decline in activity toward long-chain fatty acid (C16-C18). When enzymes activities decreased by half, the temperature of the variant (45 °C) was 22 °C lower than the parent (67 °C), probably substantially destabilized the structure of the lid region. The interfacial kinetic analysis of S4-3O suggested that the lower catalytic efficiency was due to a higher K m* value. According to the lipase structure investigated, Ile93Met played a role of narrowing the size of the hydrophobic patch, which affected the substrate binding affinity, and Asn96Thr destabilized the structure of the lipase by disrupting the H-bond interaction in the lid region.

  7. Characterization of transcriptional activation and DNA-binding functions in the hinge region of the vitamin D receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, Paul L; McDonnell, Donald P; Gewirth, Daniel T

    2005-02-22

    The vitamin D receptor (VDR) is a ligand-responsive transcription factor that forms active, heterodimeric complexes with the 9-cis retinoic acid receptor (RXR) on vitamin D response elements (VDREs). Both proteins consist of an N-terminal DNA-binding domain, a C-terminal ligand-binding domain, and an intervening hinge region. The length requirements of the hinge for both transcriptional regulation and DNA binding have not been studied to date for any member of the steroid hormone superfamily. We have generated a series of internal deletion mutants of the VDR hinge and found that deletion of as few as five amino acids from the C-terminus of the hinge significantly reduces transcriptional activation in vivo. Replacing deleted residues in the C-terminus of the hinge with alanines restored activity, indicating that this section of the hinge acts as a sequence-independent spacer. The hinge region of VDR forms a long helix, and the geometric consequences of this structure may explain the requirement of the hinge region for transcriptional activity. Interestingly, all of the deletion mutants, even those that do not activate transcription, bind VDREs with equal and high affinity, indicating that the defect in these mutants is not their ability to bind VDREs. In contrast to VDR, constructs of RXR containing deletions of up to 14 amino acids in the hinge region exhibit near wild-type transcriptional activity. The ability to delete more of the RXR hinge may be related to the additional plasticity required by its role as the common heterodimer partner for nuclear receptors on differing DNA elements.

  8. Engineering allosteric regulation into the hinge region of a circularly permuted TEM-1 beta-lactamase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathieu, Valéry; Fastrez, Jacques; Soumillion, Patrice

    2010-09-01

    In nature, the activity of many enzymes involved in important biochemical pathways is controlled by binding a ligand in a site remote from the active site. The allosteric sites are frequently located in hinge regulatory subunits, in which a conformational change can occur and propagate to the active site. The enzymatic activity is then enhanced or decreased depending on the type of effectors. Many artificial binding sites have been created to engineer an allosteric regulation. Generally, these sites were engineered near the active site in loops or at the surface of contiguous helices or strands but rarely in hinge regions. This work aims at exploring the possibility of regulating a monomeric enzyme whose active site is located at the interface between two domains. We anticipated that binding of a ligand in the hinge region linking the domains would modify their positioning and, consequently, modulate the activity. Here, we describe the design of two mutants in a circularly permuted TEM-1 (cpTEM-1) beta-lactamase. The first one, cpTEM-1-His(3) was created by a rational design. It shows little regulation upon metal ion binding except for a weak activation with Zn(2+). The second one, cpTEM-1-3M-His(2), was selected by a directed evolution strategy. It is allosterically down-regulated by Zn(2+), Ni(2+) and Co(2+) with binding affinities around 300 microM.

  9. Hinge-Region O-Glycosylation of Human Immunoglobulin G3 (IgG3)*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plomp, Rosina; Dekkers, Gillian; Rombouts, Yoann; Visser, Remco; Koeleman, Carolien A.M.; Kammeijer, Guinevere S.M.; Jansen, Bas C.; Rispens, Theo; Hensbergen, Paul J.; Vidarsson, Gestur; Wuhrer, Manfred

    2015-01-01

    Immunoglobulin G (IgG) is one of the most abundant proteins present in human serum and a fundamental component of the immune system. IgG3 represents ∼8% of the total amount of IgG in human serum and stands out from the other IgG subclasses because of its elongated hinge region and enhanced effector functions. This study reports partial O-glycosylation of the IgG3 hinge region, observed with nanoLC-ESI-IT-MS(/MS) analysis after proteolytic digestion. The repeat regions within the IgG3 hinge were found to be in part O-glycosylated at the threonine in the triple repeat motif. Non-, mono- and disialylated core 1-type O-glycans were detected in various IgG3 samples, both poly- and monoclonal. NanoLC-ESI-IT-MS/MS with electron transfer dissociation fragmentation and CE-MS/MS with CID fragmentation were used to determine the site of IgG3 O-glycosylation. The O-glycosylation site was further confirmed by the recombinant production of mutant IgG3 in which potential O-glycosylation sites had been knocked out. For IgG3 samples from six donors we found similar O-glycan structures and site occupancies, whereas for the same samples the conserved N-glycosylation of the Fc CH2 domain showed considerable interindividual variation. The occupancy of each of the three O-glycosylation sites was found to be ∼10% in six serum-derived IgG3 samples and ∼13% in two monoclonal IgG3 allotypes. PMID:25759508

  10. A Molecular Brake in the Kinase Hinge Region Regulates the Activity of Receptor Tyrosine Kinases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen,H.; Ma, J.; Li, W.; Eliseenkova, A.; Xu, C.; Neubert, T.; Miller, W.; Mohammadi, M.

    2007-01-01

    Activating mutations in the tyrosine kinase domain of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) cause cancer and skeletal disorders. Comparison of the crystal structures of unphosphorylated and phosphorylated wild-type FGFR2 kinase domains with those of seven unphosphorylated pathogenic mutants reveals an autoinhibitory 'molecular brake' mediated by a triad of residues in the kinase hinge region of all FGFRs. Structural analysis shows that many other RTKs, including PDGFRs, VEGFRs, KIT, CSF1R, FLT3, TEK, and TIE, are also subject to regulation by this brake. Pathogenic mutations activate FGFRs and other RTKs by disengaging the brake either directly or indirectly.

  11. The length of a lantibiotic hinge region has profound influence on antimicrobial activity and host specificity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang eZhou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Lantibiotics are ribosomally synthesized (methyllanthionine containing peptides which can efficiently inhibit the growth of Gram-positive bacteria. As lantibiotics kill bacteria efficiently and resistance to them is difficult to be obtained, they have the potential to be used in many applications, e.g. in pharmaceutical industry or food industry. Nisin can inhibit the growth of Gram-positive bacteria by binding to lipid II and by making pores in their membrane. The C-terminal part of nisin is known to play an important role during translocation over the membrane and forming pore complexes. However, as the thickness of bacterial membranes varies between different species and environmental conditions, this property could have an influence on the pore forming activity of nisin. To investigate this, the so-called hinge region of nisin (residues NMK was engineered to vary from one to six amino acid residues and specific activity against different indicators was compared. Antimicrobial activity in liquid culture assays showed that wild type nisin is most active, while truncation of the hinge region dramatically reduced the activity of the peptide. However, one or two amino acids extensions showed only slightly reduced activity against most indicator strains. Notably, some variants (+2, +1, -1, -2 exhibited higher antimicrobial activity than nisin in agar well diffusion assays against Lactococcus lactis MG1363, Listeria monocytogenes, Enterococcus faecalis VE14089, Bacillus sporothermodurans IC4 and Bacillus cereus 4153 at certain temperatures.

  12. The length of a lantibiotic hinge region has profound influence on antimicrobial activity and host specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Liang; van Heel, Auke J; Kuipers, Oscar P

    2015-01-01

    Lantibiotics are ribosomally synthesized (methyl)lanthionine containing peptides which can efficiently inhibit the growth of Gram-positive bacteria. As lantibiotics kill bacteria efficiently and resistance to them is difficult to be obtained, they have the potential to be used in many applications, e.g., in pharmaceutical industry or food industry. Nisin can inhibit the growth of Gram-positive bacteria by binding to lipid II and by making pores in their membrane. The C-terminal part of nisin is known to play an important role during translocation over the membrane and forming pore complexes. However, as the thickness of bacterial membranes varies between different species and environmental conditions, this property could have an influence on the pore forming activity of nisin. To investigate this, the so-called "hinge region" of nisin (residues NMK) was engineered to vary from one to six amino acid residues and specific activity against different indicators was compared. Antimicrobial activity in liquid culture assays showed that wild type nisin is most active, while truncation of the hinge region dramatically reduced the activity of the peptide. However, one or two amino acids extensions showed only slightly reduced activity against most indicator strains. Notably, some variants (+2, +1, -1, -2) exhibited higher antimicrobial activity than nisin in agar well diffusion assays against Lactococcus lactis MG1363, Listeria monocytogenes, Enterococcus faecalis VE14089, Bacillus sporothermodurans IC4 and Bacillus cereus 4153 at certain temperatures.

  13. Rational Design of Coumarin Derivatives as CK2 Inhibitors by Improving the Interaction with the Hinge Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Na; Chen, Wen-Juan; Zhou, Yue; Zhao, Hongtao; Zhong, Ru-Gang

    2016-01-01

    Design of novel coumarin derivatives as CK2 inhibitors were attempted by targeting the interaction with the hinge region. A set of substituents capable of forming a hydrogen bond or halogen bond with the hinge region were screened in silico, and trifluoromethyl emerges as a promising motif by forming favorable electrostatic interaction and a presumable halogen bond with the hinge region. As proof of concept, three trifluoromethyl derivatives of coumarin were synthesized and tested in vitro. The results indicated that replacement of methyl by trifluoromethyl leads to a modest 5-fold improvement in potency, with the most active compound being 0.4 µM. The newly designed compounds were further screened on one lung cancer cell line A549, showing low micromolar anti-proliferative activity.

  14. Secession and Expulsion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sweeney, Richard J.

    2003-01-01

    If secession or expulsion ends in a `velvet divorce,' as with Czechoslovakia, costs areminimal and the split is relatively unimportant. High costs arise if a federation splits into mutuallyhostile, comparably sized regions. Perhaps the majority of splits lead to dangerous hostility. Awell...

  15. High stability of the hinge region in the membrane-active peptide helix of zervamicin: paramagnetic relaxation enhancement studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenkarev, Zakhar O; Paramonov, Alexander S; Balashova, Tamara A; Yakimenko, Zoya A; Baru, Michael B; Mustaeva, Leila G; Raap, Jan; Ovchinnikova, Tatyana V; Arseniev, Alexander S

    2004-12-17

    Zervamicin IIB is a 16 amino acid peptaibol that forms voltage dependent ion channels with multilevel conductance states in planar lipid bilayers and vesicular systems. Stability of the hinge region and intermolecular interactions were investigated in the N- and C-terminally spin-labelled peptide analogues. Intermolecular and intramolecular paramagnetic enhancement indicates that zervamicin behaves as a rigid helical rod in methanol solution. There are no high amplitude hinge-bending motions, and the peptaibol is monomeric up to concentration 1.5 mM. Stability of the hinge region illustrates the helix stabilising propensity of the Pro residue in membrane mimic environments and implies absence of significant conformational rearrangement due to voltage peptaibol activation.

  16. Covalent protein modification with ISG15 via a conserved cysteine in the hinge region.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika N Bade

    Full Text Available The ubiquitin-like protein ISG15 (interferon-stimulated gene of 15 kDa is strongly induced by type I interferons and displays antiviral activity. As other ubiquitin-like proteins (Ubls, ISG15 is post-translationally conjugated to substrate proteins by an isopeptide bond between the C-terminal glycine of ISG15 and the side chains of lysine residues in the substrates (ISGylation. ISG15 consists of two ubiquitin-like domains that are separated by a hinge region. In many orthologs, this region contains a single highly reactive cysteine residue. Several hundred potential substrates for ISGylation have been identified but only a few of them have been rigorously verified. In order to investigate the modification of several ISG15 substrates, we have purified ISG15 conjugates from cell extracts by metal-chelate affinity purification and immunoprecipitations. We found that the levels of proteins modified by human ISG15 can be decreased by the addition of reducing agents. With the help of thiol blocking reagents, a mutational analysis and miRNA mediated knock-down of ISG15 expression, we revealed that this modification occurs in living cells via a disulphide bridge between the substrates and Cys78 in the hinge region of ISG15. While the ISG15 activating enzyme UBE1L is conjugated by ISG15 in the classical way, we show that the ubiquitin conjugating enzyme Ubc13 can either be classically conjugated by ISG15 or can form a disulphide bridge with ISG15 at the active site cysteine 87. The latter modification would interfere with its function as ubiquitin conjugating enzyme. However, we found no evidence for an ISG15 modification of the dynamin-like GTPases MxA and hGBP1. These findings indicate that the analysis of potential substrates for ISG15 conjugation must be performed with great care to distinguish between the two types of modification since many assays such as immunoprecipitation or metal-chelate affinity purification are performed with little or no

  17. Covalent protein modification with ISG15 via a conserved cysteine in the hinge region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bade, Veronika N; Nickels, Jochen; Keusekotten, Kirstin; Praefcke, Gerrit J K

    2012-01-01

    The ubiquitin-like protein ISG15 (interferon-stimulated gene of 15 kDa) is strongly induced by type I interferons and displays antiviral activity. As other ubiquitin-like proteins (Ubls), ISG15 is post-translationally conjugated to substrate proteins by an isopeptide bond between the C-terminal glycine of ISG15 and the side chains of lysine residues in the substrates (ISGylation). ISG15 consists of two ubiquitin-like domains that are separated by a hinge region. In many orthologs, this region contains a single highly reactive cysteine residue. Several hundred potential substrates for ISGylation have been identified but only a few of them have been rigorously verified. In order to investigate the modification of several ISG15 substrates, we have purified ISG15 conjugates from cell extracts by metal-chelate affinity purification and immunoprecipitations. We found that the levels of proteins modified by human ISG15 can be decreased by the addition of reducing agents. With the help of thiol blocking reagents, a mutational analysis and miRNA mediated knock-down of ISG15 expression, we revealed that this modification occurs in living cells via a disulphide bridge between the substrates and Cys78 in the hinge region of ISG15. While the ISG15 activating enzyme UBE1L is conjugated by ISG15 in the classical way, we show that the ubiquitin conjugating enzyme Ubc13 can either be classically conjugated by ISG15 or can form a disulphide bridge with ISG15 at the active site cysteine 87. The latter modification would interfere with its function as ubiquitin conjugating enzyme. However, we found no evidence for an ISG15 modification of the dynamin-like GTPases MxA and hGBP1. These findings indicate that the analysis of potential substrates for ISG15 conjugation must be performed with great care to distinguish between the two types of modification since many assays such as immunoprecipitation or metal-chelate affinity purification are performed with little or no reducing agent

  18. Concrete Hinges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halding, Philip Skov; Hertz, Kristian Dahl; Schmidt, Jacob Wittrup

    2014-01-01

    In the first part of the 20th century concrete hinges developed by Freyssinet and Mesnager were widely tested and implemented in concrete structures. The concrete hinges were used a great deal in closed-spandrel arch bridges. Since such a bridge type has not been competitive for the past 40 years......, the research in concrete hinges has not evolved significantly in that period. But introducing a new state-of-the-art concrete arch bridge solution (Pearl-Chain arches invented at the Technical University of Denmark) creates a necessity of a concrete hinge research based on modern standards. Back when research...... in concrete hinges was more common different designs were proposed for the geometry and reinforcement. Previous research focused on fatigue, multi-axial stresses around the hinge throat, and the relation between rotation- and moment. But many different test-setups were proposed by different researchers...

  19. The Impact of the ‘Austrian’ Mutation of the Amyloid Precursor Protein Transmembrane Helix is Communicated to the Hinge Region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stelzer, Walter; Scharnagl, Christina; Leurs, Ulrike;

    2016-01-01

    destabilizes amide hydrogen bonds in the hinge which connects dimerization and cleavage regions. Weaker intrahelical hydrogen bonds at the hinge may enhance helix bending and thereby affect recognition of the transmembrane substrate by the enzyme and/or presentation of its cleavage sites to the catalytic cleft....

  20. The properties of NodD were affected by mere variation in length within its hinge region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bihe Hou; Fengqing Li; Xiaoer Yang; Cruofan Hong

    2009-01-01

    In Rhizobium leguminosarum by. viciae, NodD, a member of the LysR-type transcriptional regulators, while auto-regulating, activates transcription of other nod genes in the presence of naringenin. A hinge region of NodD was previously identified in our lab-oratory as a functional region independent of its N-terminal DNA-binding and C-terminal regulatory domain. Further study was carried out to see the possible effect of the length variation in the hinge region on NodD's properties. To our surprise, as many as seven classes of phenotypes were observed. Class Ⅰ is deficient of activating nodA transcription and abolishes auto-regulation; class Ⅱ is able to acti-vate nodA transcription independently of naringenin and abolishes auto-regulation; class Ⅲ retains auto-regulating but partial activating ability; class Ⅳ is able to activate transcription independently of narin-genin and retains auto-regulation; in class Ⅴ, nod A is transcribed constitutively but the transcription level is drastically down-regulated in the presence of narin-genin; in class Ⅵ, nodA is transcribed constitutively with higher induction ratio; in class Ⅶ, nodA is tran-scribed constitutively with lower induction ratio. To learn more about the possible mechanism, circular permutation assays were done, which showed that the length variation of the hinge of NodD caused by mutation led to the change in bend angles of nod pro-moter. This finding should help to get an insight into how transcriptional regulation is mediated by NodD at the molecular level as well as to understand the regulatory system of this important family.

  1. De novo design of protein kinase inhibitors by in silico identification of hinge region-binding fragments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urich, Robert; Wishart, Grant; Kiczun, Michael; Richters, André; Tidten-Luksch, Naomi; Rauh, Daniel; Sherborne, Brad; Wyatt, Paul G; Brenk, Ruth

    2013-05-17

    Protein kinases constitute an attractive family of enzyme targets with high relevance to cell and disease biology. Small molecule inhibitors are powerful tools to dissect and elucidate the function of kinases in chemical biology research and to serve as potential starting points for drug discovery. However, the discovery and development of novel inhibitors remains challenging. Here, we describe a structure-based de novo design approach that generates novel, hinge-binding fragments that are synthetically feasible and can be elaborated to small molecule libraries. Starting from commercially available compounds, core fragments were extracted, filtered for pharmacophoric properties compatible with hinge-region binding, and docked into a panel of protein kinases. Fragments with a high consensus score were subsequently short-listed for synthesis. Application of this strategy led to a number of core fragments with no previously reported activity against kinases. Small libraries around the core fragments were synthesized, and representative compounds were tested against a large panel of protein kinases and subjected to co-crystallization experiments. Each of the tested compounds was active against at least one kinase, but not all kinases in the panel were inhibited. A number of compounds showed high ligand efficiencies for therapeutically relevant kinases; among them were MAPKAP-K3, SRPK1, SGK1, TAK1, and GCK for which only few inhibitors are reported in the literature.

  2. Comparative Structural Dynamics of tRNA(Phe) with Respect to Hinge Region Methylated Guanosine: A Computational Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonawane, Kailas D; Bavi, Rohit S; Sambhare, Susmit B; Fandilolu, Prayagraj M

    2016-06-01

    Transfer RNAs (tRNAs) contain various uniquely modified nucleosides thought to be useful for maintaining the structural stability of tRNAs. However, their significance for upholding the tRNA structure has not been investigated in detail at the atomic level. In this study, molecular dynamic simulations have been performed to assess the effects of methylated nucleic acid bases, N (2)-methylguanosine (m(2)G) and N (2)-N (2)-dimethylguanosine (m 2 (2) G) at position 26, i.e., the hinge region of E. coli tRNA(Phe) on its structure and dynamics. The results revealed that tRNA(Phe) having unmodified guanosine in the hinge region (G26) shows structural rearrangement in the core of the molecule, resulting in lack of base stacking interactions, U-turn feature of the anticodon loop, and TΨC loop. We show that in the presence of the unmodified guanosine, the overall fold of tRNA(Phe) is essentially not the same as that of m(2)G26 and m 2 (2) G26 containing tRNA(Phe). This structural rearrangement arises due to intrinsic factors associated with the weak hydrogen-bonding patterns observed in the base triples of the tRNA(Phe) molecule. The m(2)G26 and m 2 (2) G26 containing tRNA(Phe) retain proper three-dimensional fold through tertiary interactions. Single-point energy and molecular electrostatics potential calculation studies confirmed the structural significance of tRNAs containing m(2)G26 and m 2 (2) G26 compared to tRNA with normal G26, showing that the mono-methylated (m(2)G26) and dimethylated (m 2 (2) G26) modifications are required to provide structural stability not only in the hinge region but also in the other parts of tRNA(Phe). Thus, the present study allows us to better understand the effects of modified nucleosides and ionic environment on tRNA folding.

  3. Differences in signal activation by LH and hCG are mediated by the LH/CG receptor`s extracellular hinge region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul eGrzesik

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The human lutropin/choriogonadotropin receptor (LHCGR can be activated by binding two slightly different gonadotropic glycoprotein hormones, choriogonadotropin (CG - secreted by the placenta, and lutropin (LH - produced by the pituitary. They induce different signaling profiles at the LHCGR. This cannot be explained by binding to the receptor's leucine-rich repeat domain (LRRD, as this binding is similar for the two hormones. We therefore speculate that there are previously unknown differences in the hormone/receptor interaction at the extracellular hinge region, which might help to understand functional differences between the two hormones. We have therefore performed a detailed study of the binding and action of LH and CG at the LHCGR hinge region. We focused on a primate-specific additional exon in the hinge region, which is located between LRRD and the serpentine domain. The segment of the hinge region encoded by exon10 was previously reported to be only relevant to hLH signaling, as the exon10-deletion receptor exhibits decreased hLH signaling, but unchanged hCG signaling. We designed an advanced homology model of the hormone/LHCGR complex, followed by experimental characterization of relevant fragments in the hinge region. In addition, we examined predictions of a helical exon10-encoded conformation by block-wise polyalanine (helix supporting mutations. These helix preserving modifications showed no effect on hormone induced signaling. However, introduction of a structure-disturbing double-proline mutant LHCGR-Q303P/E305P within the exon10-helix has, in contrast to exon10 deletion, no impact on hLH, but only on hCG signaling. This opposite effect on signaling by hLH and hCG can be explained by distinct sites of hormone interaction in the hinge region s. In conclusion, our analysis provides details of the differences between hLH- and hCG-induced signaling that are mainly determined in the L2-beta loop of the hormones and in the hinge region

  4. Regional septal hinge-point injury contributes to adverse biventricular interactions in pulmonary hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Eva Amalie; Okumura, Kenichi; Sun, Mei

    2017-01-01

    chronic RV pressure overload. Two distinct animal models were studied: A rabbit model of increased RV pressure-load through progressive pulmonary artery banding A rat model of monocrotaline (MCT)-induced pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Regional myocardial function was assessed by speckle-tracking...

  5. The hinge region of chicken annexin I contains no site for tyrosine phosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidis, Y; Horseman, N D

    1993-08-30

    Annexin I (AnxI) is a calcium-dependent membrane binding protein which has been implicated in various physiological activities. The region of the chicken anxI cDNA encoding the first 130 amino terminal residues was cloned by reverse transcription PCR in order to determine the relationship of its variable amino-terminal regulatory region with other known annexins. This nucleotide sequence shows 86% identity with pigeon AnxI isoforms, and 57% with its human homolog. The protein encoded by the chicken anxI cDNA lacks the canonical epidermal growth factor receptor/kinase phosphorylation site, which is present in AnxI of other species. In contrast, the putative protein kinase C phosphorylation site of the amino-terminus is present in the chicken AnxI. Whereas the pigeon genome contains two anxI genes, genomic Southern analysis shows that in the chicken AnxI is encoded by only a single gene. These data suggest that AnxI has undergone significant sequence variation in the avians, and clarifies the relationships of the avian anxI genes with their ancestral homologs.

  6. The conformational activation of antithrombin. A 2.85-A structure of a fluorescein derivative reveals an electrostatic link between the hinge and heparin binding regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntington, J A; McCoy, A; Belzar, K J; Pei, X Y; Gettins, P G; Carrell, R W

    2000-05-19

    Antithrombin is unique among the serpins in that it circulates in a native conformation that is kinetically inactive toward its target proteinase, factor Xa. Activation occurs upon binding of a specific pentasaccharide sequence found in heparin that results in a rearrangement of the reactive center loop removing constraints on the active center P1 residue. We determined the crystal structure of an activated antithrombin variant, N135Q S380C-fluorescein (P14-fluorescein), in order to see how full activation is achieved in the absence of heparin and how the structural effects of the substitution in the hinge region are translated to the heparin binding region. The crystal structure resembles native antithrombin except in the hinge and heparin binding regions. The absence of global conformational change allows for identification of specific interactions, centered on Glu(381) (P13), that are responsible for maintenance of the solution equilibrium between the native and activated forms and establishes the existence of an electrostatic link between the hinge region and the heparin binding region. A revised model for the mechanism of the allosteric activation of antithrombin is proposed.

  7. Metallic positive expulsion diaphragms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleich, D.

    1972-01-01

    High-cycle life ring-reinforced hemispherical type positive expulsion diaphragm performance was demonstrated by room temperature fluid expulsion tests of 13" diameter, 8 mil thick stainless steel configurations. A maximum of eleven (11) leak-free, fluid expulsions were achieved by a 25 deg cone angle diaphragm hoop-reinforced with .110-inch cross-sectional diameter wires. This represents a 70% improvement in diaphragm reversal cycle life compared to results previously obtained. The reversal tests confirmed analytic predictions for diaphragm cycle life increases due to increasing values of diaphragm cone angle, radius to thickness ratio and material strain to necking capacity. Practical fabrication techniques were demonstrated for forming close-tolerance, thin corrugated shells and for obtaining closely controlled reinforcing ring stiffness required to maximize diaphragm cycle life. A non-destructive inspection technique for monitoring large local shell bending strains was developed.

  8. Influence of the hinge region and its adjacent domains on binding and signaling patterns of the thyrotropin and follitropin receptor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jörg Schaarschmidt

    Full Text Available Glycoprotein hormone receptors (GPHR have a large extracellular domain (ECD divided into the leucine rich repeat (LRR domain for binding of the glycoprotein hormones and the hinge region (HinR, which connects the LRR domain with the transmembrane domain (TMD. Understanding of the activation mechanism of GPHRs is hindered by the unknown interaction of the ECD with the TMD and the structural changes upon ligand binding responsible for receptor activation. Recently, our group showed that the HinR of the thyrotropin receptor (TSHR can be replaced by those of the follitropin (FSHR and lutropin receptor (LHCGR without effects on surface expression and hTSH signaling. However, differences in binding characteristics for bovine TSH at the various HinRs were obvious. To gain further insights into the interplay between LRR domain, HinR and TMD we generated chimeras between the TSHR and FSHR. Our results obtained by the determination of cell surface expression, ligand binding and G protein activation confirm the similar characteristics of GPHR HinRs but they also demonstrate an involvement of the HinR in ligand selectivity indicated by the observed promiscuity of some chimeras. While the TSHR HinR contributes to specific binding of TSH and its variants, no such contribution is observed for FSH and its analog TR4401 at the HinR of the FSHR. Furthermore, the charge distribution at the poorly characterized LRR domain/HinR transition affected ligand binding and signaling even though this area is not in direct contact with the ligand. In addition our results also demonstrate the importance of the TMD/HinR interface. Especially the combination of the TSHR HinR with the FSHR-TMD resulted in a loss of cell surface expression of the respective chimeras. In conclusion, the HinRs of GPHRs do not only share similar characteristics but also behave as ligand specific structural and functional entities.

  9. Recognition of galactose-deficient O-glycans in the hinge region of IgA1 by N-acetylgalactosamine-specific snail lectins: a comparative binding study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Michelle M; Suzuki, Hitoshi; Brooks, Monica T; Tomana, Milan; Moldoveanu, Zina; Mestecky, Jiri; Julian, Bruce A; Novak, Jan; Herr, Andrew B

    2010-07-13

    Aberrancies in IgA1 glycosylation have been linked to the pathogenesis of IgA nephropathy (IgAN), a kidney disease characterized by deposits of IgA1-containing immune complexes in the glomerular mesangium. IgA1 from IgAN patients is characterized by the presence of galactose (Gal)-deficient O-glycans in the hinge region that can act as epitopes for anti-glycan IgG or IgA1 antibodies. The resulting circulating immune complexes are trapped in the glomerular mesangium of the kidney where they trigger localized inflammatory responses by activating mesangial cells. Certain lectins recognize the terminal N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc)-containing O-glycans on Gal-deficient IgA1 and can be potentially used as diagnostic tools. To improve our understanding of GalNAc recognition by these lectins, we have conducted binding studies to assess the interaction of Helix aspersa agglutinin (HAA) and Helix pomatia agglutinin (HPA) with Gal-deficient IgA1. Surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy revealed that both HAA and HPA bind to a Gal-deficient synthetic hinge region glycopeptide (HR-GalNAc) as well as various aberrantly glycosylated IgA1 myeloma proteins. Despite having six binding sites, both HAA and HPA bind IgA1 in a functionally bivalent manner, with the apparent affinity for IgA1 related to the number of exposed GalNAc groups in the IgA1 hinge. Finally, HAA and HPA were shown to discriminate very effectively between the IgA1 secreted by cell lines derived from peripheral blood cells of patients with IgAN and that from cells of healthy controls. These studies provide insight into lectin recognition of the Gal-deficient IgA1 hinge region and lay the groundwork for the development of reliable diagnostic tools for IgAN.

  10. Expulsive choroidal haemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivasan M

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available Expulsive choroidal haemorrhage is a dramatic and serious complication of cataract surgery that occurred in five patients out of ten thousand consecutive cataract surgeries performed by the author during the year 1989 and 1990. Report about this dreaded complication after cataract surgery are scanty and as far as I can remember I have not seen any report in Indian ophthalmic literature recently. Since cataract surgery forms the major part of intra ocular surgeries performed in our country, I thought it would be appropriate to report about this rare complication which may occur to all of us. Out of five cases 3 were males and 2 were females in the age group ranging between 45-72 years. Two eyes regained vision up to 6/12 after intra operative expulsive haemorrhage. All the eyes were salvaged by doing anterior sclerotomy. Diabetes, hypertension, glaucoma and myopia are the commonest predisposing factors.

  11. Engineering a disulfide bond in the lid hinge region of Rhizopus chinensis lipase: increased thermostability and altered acyl chain length specificity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Wei Yu

    Full Text Available The key to enzyme function is the maintenance of an appropriate balance between molecular stability and structural flexibility. The lid domain which is very important for "interfacial activation" is the most flexible part in the lipase structure. In this work, rational design was applied to explore the relationship between lid rigidity and lipase activity by introducing a disulfide bond in the hinge region of the lid, in the hope of improving the thermostability of R. chinensis lipase through stabilization of the lid domain without interfering with its catalytic performance. A disulfide bridge between F95C and F214C was introduced into the lipase from R. chinensis in the hinge region of the lid according to the prediction of the "Disulfide by Design" algorithm. The disulfide variant showed substantially improved thermostability with an eleven-fold increase in the t(1/2 value at 60°C and a 7°C increase of T(m compared with the parent enzyme, probably contributed by the stabilization of the geometric structure of the lid region. The additional disulfide bond did not interfere with the catalytic rate (k(cat and the catalytic efficiency towards the short-chain fatty acid substrate, however, the catalytic efficiency of the disulfide variant towards pNPP decreased by 1.5-fold probably due to the block of the hydrophobic substrate channel by the disulfide bond. Furthermore, in the synthesis of fatty acid methyl esters, the maximum conversion rate by RCLCYS reached 95% which was 9% higher than that by RCL. This is the first report on improving the thermostability of the lipase from R. chinensis by introduction of a disulfide bond in the lid hinge region without compromising the catalytic rate.

  12. Evidence on How a Conserved Glycine in the Hinge Region of HapR Regulates Its DNA Binding Ability: LESSONS FROM A NATURAL VARIANT.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M Dongre; N Singh; C Dureja; N Peddada; A Solanki; F Ashish; S Raychaudhuri

    2011-12-31

    HapR has been recognized as a quorum-sensing master regulator in Vibrio cholerae. Because it controls a plethora of disparate cellular events, the absence of a functional HapR affects the physiology of V. cholerae to a great extent. In the current study, we pursued an understanding of an observation of a natural protease-deficient non-O1, non-O139 variant V. cholerae strain V2. Intriguingly, a nonfunctional HapR (henceforth designated as HapRV2) harboring a substitution of glycine to aspartate at position 39 of the N-terminal hinge region has been identified. An in vitro gel shift assay clearly suggested the inability of HapRV2 to interact with various cognate promoters. Reinstatement of glycine at position 39 restores DNA binding ability of HapRV2 (HapRV2G), thereby rescuing the protease-negative phenotype of this strain. The elution profile of HapRV2 and HapRV2G proteins in size-exclusion chromatography and their circular dichroism spectra did not reflect any significant differences to explain the functional discrepancies between the two proteins. To gain insight into the structure-function relationship of these two proteins, we acquired small/wide angle x-ray scattering data from samples of the native and G39D mutant. Although Guinier analysis and indirect Fourier transformation of scattering indicated only a slight difference in the shape parameters, structure reconstruction using dummy amino acids concluded that although HapR adopts a 'Y' shape similar to its crystal structure, the G39D mutation in hinge drastically altered the DNA binding domains by bringing them in close proximity. This altered spatial orientation of the helix-turn-helix domains in this natural variant provides the first structural evidence on the functional role of the hinge region in quorum sensing-related DNA-binding regulatory proteins of Vibrio spp.

  13. The low binding affinity of D-serine at the ionotropic glutamate receptor GluD2 can be attributed to the hinge region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapken, Daniel; Steffensen, Thomas Bielefeldt; Leth, Rasmus; Kristensen, Lise Baadsgaard; Gerbola, Alexander; Gajhede, Michael; Jørgensen, Flemming Steen; Olsen, Lars; Kastrup, Jette Sandholm

    2017-04-01

    Ionotropic glutamate receptors (iGluRs) are responsible for most of the fast excitatory communication between neurons in our brain. The GluD2 receptor is a puzzling member of the iGluR family: It is involved in synaptic plasticity, plays a role in human diseases, e.g. ataxia, binds glycine and D-serine with low affinity, yet no ligand has been discovered so far that can activate its ion channel. In this study, we show that the hinge region connecting the two subdomains of the GluD2 ligand-binding domain is responsible for the low affinity of D-serine, by analysing GluD2 mutants with electrophysiology, isothermal titration calorimetry and molecular dynamics calculations. The hinge region is highly variable among iGluRs and fine-tunes gating activity, suggesting that in GluD2 this region has evolved to only respond to micromolar concentrations of D-serine.

  14. Analysis of the contribution of the hinge region of human neutrophil collagenase (HNC, MMP-8) to stability and collagenolytic activity by alanine scanning mutagenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knäuper, V; Docherty, A J; Smith, B; Tschesche, H; Murphy, G

    1997-03-17

    Analysis of the hinge region of neutrophil collagenase by alanine scanning mutagenesis revealed that this sequence motif has a pronounced effect on the stability and collagenolytic activity of the active enzyme. The mutagenesis of the amino acid residues in the P1' position of the two autoproteolytically cleaved peptide bonds (Leu243 and Ile248) to Ala showed that the mutant enzymes were more resistant to autoproteolysis. However, these mutants were not completely stable and autoproteolysis occurred mainly at the Ala239-Ile240 peptide bond and the half-life of the active enzyme was increased by 50%. In contrast, mutagenesis of Pro247 --> Ala (P1 of the minor cleavage site Pro247-Ile248) lead to increased susceptibility of the enzyme to autoproteolysis. However, when the other P1 position Gly242 was altered to Ala no effect on stability was observed. The analysis of the ability of the mutant active enzymes to hydrolyse 14C-type I collagen was assessed and our results demonstrate that the hinge sequence motif of neutrophil collagenase is important for collagenolytic activity. The alteration of the Gly242-Leu-Ser-Ser-Asn-Pro-Ile-Gln-Pro247 sequence motif to Gly242-Ala-Ala-Ala-Ala-Pro-Ala-Ala-Pro247 showed that the collagenolytic activity was reduced by 68.4%. In addition, mutagenesis of the downstream sequence motif Pro247-Thr-Gly-Pro-Ser-Thr-Pro-Lys-Pro258 to Pro247-Ala-Ala-Pro-Ala-Ala-Pro-Ala-Pro258 had an even more marked effect on the collagenolytic activity, which was reduced by 87.4%. When the Pro residues in the hinge motif (Pro247, Pro250, Pro253 and Pro256) were altered to Ala the collagenolytic activity dropped to 1.5% of the value observed for wild-type enzyme.

  15. Evidence on how a conserved glycine in the hinge region of HapR regulates its DNA binding ability: lessons from a natural variant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dongre, Mitesh; Singh, Naorem Santa; Dureja, Chetna; Peddada, Nagesh; Solanki, Ashish K; Ashish; Raychaudhuri, Saumya

    2011-04-29

    HapR has been recognized as a quorum-sensing master regulator in Vibrio cholerae. Because it controls a plethora of disparate cellular events, the absence of a functional HapR affects the physiology of V. cholerae to a great extent. In the current study, we pursued an understanding of an observation of a natural protease-deficient non-O1, non-O139 variant V. cholerae strain V2. Intriguingly, a nonfunctional HapR (henceforth designated as HapR(V2)) harboring a substitution of glycine to aspartate at position 39 of the N-terminal hinge region has been identified. An in vitro gel shift assay clearly suggested the inability of HapR(V2) to interact with various cognate promoters. Reinstatement of glycine at position 39 restores DNA binding ability of HapR(V2) (HapR(V2G)), thereby rescuing the protease-negative phenotype of this strain. The elution profile of HapR(V2) and HapR(V2G) proteins in size-exclusion chromatography and their circular dichroism spectra did not reflect any significant differences to explain the functional discrepancies between the two proteins. To gain insight into the structure-function relationship of these two proteins, we acquired small/wide angle x-ray scattering data from samples of the native and G39D mutant. Although Guinier analysis and indirect Fourier transformation of scattering indicated only a slight difference in the shape parameters, structure reconstruction using dummy amino acids concluded that although HapR adopts a "Y" shape similar to its crystal structure, the G39D mutation in hinge drastically altered the DNA binding domains by bringing them in close proximity. This altered spatial orientation of the helix-turn-helix domains in this natural variant provides the first structural evidence on the functional role of the hinge region in quorum sensing-related DNA-binding regulatory proteins of Vibrio spp.

  16. Switch control pocket inhibitors of p38-MAP kinase. Durable type II inhibitors that do not require binding into the canonical ATP hinge region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Yu Mi; Clare, Michael; Ensinger, Carol L; Hood, Molly M; Lord, John W; Lu, Wei-Ping; Miller, David F; Patt, William C; Smith, Bryan D; Vogeti, Lakshminarayana; Kaufman, Michael D; Petillo, Peter A; Wise, Scott C; Abendroth, Jan; Chun, Lawrence; Clark, Robin; Feese, Michael; Kim, Hidong; Stewart, Lance; Flynn, Daniel L

    2010-10-01

    Switch control pocket inhibitors of p38-alpha kinase are described. Durable type II inhibitors were designed which bind to arginines (Arg67 or Arg70) that function as key residues for mediating phospho-threonine 180 dependant conformational fluxing of p38-alpha from an inactive type II state to an active type I state. Binding to Arg70 in particular led to potent inhibitors, exemplified by DP-802, which also exhibited high kinase selectivity. Binding to Arg70 obviated the requirement for binding into the ATP Hinge region. X-ray crystallography revealed that DP-802 and analogs induce an enhanced type II conformation upon binding to either the unphosphorylated or the doubly phosphorylated form of p38-alpha kinase.

  17. Hydrophobic amino acids in the hinge region of the 5A apolipoprotein mimetic peptide are essential for promoting cholesterol efflux by the ABCA1 transporter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sviridov, Denis O; Andrianov, Alexander M; Anishchenko, Ivan V; Stonik, John A; Amar, Marcelo J A; Turner, Scott; Remaley, Alan T

    2013-01-01

    The bihelical apolipoprotein mimetic peptide 5A effluxes cholesterol from cells and reduces inflammation and atherosclerosis in animal models. We investigated how hydrophobic residues in the hinge region between the two helices are important in the structure and function of this peptide. By simulated annealing analysis and molecular dynamics modeling, two hydrophobic amino acids, F-18 and W-21, in the hinge region were predicted to be relatively surface-exposed and to interact with the aqueous solvent. Using a series of 5A peptide analogs in which F-18 or W-21 was changed to either F, W, A, or E, only peptides with hydrophobic amino acids in these two positions were able to readily bind and solubilize phospholipid vesicles. Compared with active peptides containing F or W, peptides containing E in either of these two positions were more than 10-fold less effective in effluxing cholesterol by the ABCA1 transporter. Intravenous injection of 5A in C57BL/6 mice increased plasma-free cholesterol (5A: 89.9 ± 13.6 mg/dl; control: 38.7 ± 4.3 mg/dl (mean ± S.D.); P < 0.05) and triglycerides (5A: 887.0 ± 172.0 mg/dl; control: 108.9 ± 9.9 mg/dl; P < 0.05), whereas the EE peptide containing E in both positions had no effect. Finally, 5A increased cholesterol efflux approximately 2.5-fold in vivo from radiolabeled macrophages, whereas the EE peptide was inactive. These results provide a rationale for future design of therapeutic apolipoprotein mimetic peptides and provide new insights into the interaction of hydrophobic residues on apolipoproteins with phospholipids in the lipid microdomain created by the ABCA1 transporter during the cholesterol efflux process.

  18. Elliptical flexure hinges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Stuart T.; Badami, Vivek G.; Dale, Jami S.; Xu, Ying

    1997-03-01

    This paper presents closed form equations based on a modification of those originally derived by Paros and Weisbord in 1965, for the mechanical compliance of a simple monolithic flexure hinge of elliptic cross section, the geometry of which is determined by the ratio ɛ of the major and minor axes. It is shown that these equations converge at ɛ=1 to the Paros and Weisbord equations for a hinge of circular section and at ɛ ⇒∞ to the equations predicted from simple beam bending theory for the compliance of a cantilever beam. These equations are then assessed by comparison with results from finite element analysis over a range of geometries typical of many hinge designs. Based on the finite element analysis, stress concentration factors for the elliptical hinge are also presented. As a further verification of these equations, a number of elliptical hinges were manufactured on a CNC milling machine. Experimental data were produced by applying a bending moment using dead weight loading and measuring subsequent angular deflections with a laser interferometer. In general, it was found that predictions for the compliance of elliptical hinges are likely to be within 12% for a range of geometries with the ratio βx(=t/2ax) between 0.06 and 0.2 and for values of ɛ between 1 and 10.

  19. [Expulsion proof intrauterine devices].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurpiel, M

    1997-09-01

    The author of this paper presents own new generation of IUDs, named "Antigrav", patented, and used for 14 years. Proper construction of these IUDs prevents expulsion by the uterus, and protects the uterus against injuries. This report comprise 7 year od study performed in two periods. Four size of the antigravs were used during the study. In the first period od study when applied only two sizes of antigravs-size 2, and 3 in parous women, very great different of Pearl index was obtained. In the case of the bigger size 3 of the antigravs-0.5, and for smaller size 2 of the antigravs-2.5. On the base of such differences results, the author of this paper came to the conclusion that efficacy of an IUD depend on paper selection od IUD to the dimension of the uterine cavity. For fulfill such condition the author performed measurements of the uteri cavities in vivo with a uterometer, and revealed great differences in their dimensions. Consequently the uteri were divided into four groups depending on inner length (depth), and four sizes of antigravs were used. Owing to such action in the second period of study was applied 4 size of antigravs selected to the dimension of the uterine cavity, what decreased Pearl index to 0.8. During 7 years of study none of the antigravs fell out of the uterus. Excluding pregnancies, 4 personal, and two clinical reasons requiring removal of antigravs, no others complications were record.

  20. Hinged Dissections Exist

    CERN Document Server

    Abbott, Timothy G; Charlton, David; Demaine, Erik D; Demaine, Martin L; Kominers, Scott D

    2007-01-01

    We prove that any finite collection of polygons of equal area has a common hinged dissection. That is, for any such collection of polygons there exists a chain of polygons hinged at vertices that can be folded in the plane continuously without self-intersection to form any polygon in the collection. This result settles the open problem about the existence of hinged dissections between pairs of polygons that goes back implicitly to 1864 and has been studied extensively in the past ten years. Our result generalizes and indeed builds upon the result from 1814 that polygons have common dissections (without hinges). We also extend our common dissection result to edge-hinged dissections of solid 3D polyhedra that have a common (unhinged) dissection, as determined by Dehn's 1900 solution to Hilbert's Third Problem. Our proofs are constructive, giving explicit algorithms in all cases. For a constant number of planar polygons, both the number of pieces and running time required by our construction are pseudopolynomial...

  1. The Hinge Region of Bovine Zona Pellucida Glycoprotein ZP3 Is Involved in the Formation of the Sperm-Binding Active ZP3/ZP4 Complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Kaori; Tatebe, Nanami; Kojima, Sayuri; Hamano, Ayumi; Orita, Misaki; Yonezawa, Naoto

    2015-01-01

    The zona pellucida (ZP) surrounds the mammalian oocyte and mediates species-selective sperm-oocyte interactions. Bovine ZP consists of glycoproteins ZP2, ZP3, and ZP4. Neither ZP3 nor ZP4 alone shows inhibitory activity for the binding of sperm to the ZP; however, this activity is seen with the ZP3/ZP4 heterocomplex. Here, we constructed a series of bovine ZP3 mutants to identify the ZP4-binding site on ZP3. Each ZP3 mutant was co-expressed with ZP4 using a baculovirus-Sf9 cell expression system and examined for interaction with ZP4 as well as inhibitory activity for sperm-ZP binding. N-terminal fragment Arg-32 to Arg-160 of ZP3 interacted with ZP4 and inhibited sperm-ZP binding, whereas fragment Arg-32 to Thr-155 showed much weaker interaction with ZP4. Mutation of N-glycosylated Asn-146 to Asp in the N-terminal fragment Arg-32 to Glu-178 of ZP3 did not interrupt the interaction of this fragment with ZP4, but it did reduce the inhibitory activity of the complex for sperm-ZP binding. In contrast, mutation of N-glycosylated Asn-124 to Asp did not significantly reduce the activity. Taken together, these results suggest that one of the ZP4 binding sites exists in the flexible hinge region of ZP3 and that the N-glycosylation in this region is involved in the sperm binding.

  2. Specific Conjugation of the Hinge Region for Homogeneous Preparation of Antibody Fragment-Drug Conjugate: A Case Study for Doxorubicin-PEG-anti-CD20 Fab' Synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhan; Zhang, Jing; Zhang, Yan; Ma, Guanghui; Su, Zhiguo

    2016-01-20

    Conventional preparation strategies for antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs) result in heterogeneous products with various molecular sizes and species. In this study, we developed a homogeneous preparation strategy by site-specific conjugation of the anticancer drug with an antibody fragment. The model drug doxorubicin (DOX) was coupled to the Fab' fragment of anti-CD20 IgG at its permissive sites through a heterotelechelic PEG linker, generating an antibody fragment-drug conjugate (AFDC). Anti-CD20 IgG was digested and reduced specifically with β-mercaptoethylamine to generate the Fab' fragment with two free mercapto groups in its hinge region. Meanwhile, DOX was conjugated with α-succinimidylsuccinate ω-maleimide polyethylene glycol (NHS-PEG-MAL) to form MAL-PEG-DOX, which was subsequently linked to the free mercapto containing Fab' fragment to form a Fab'-PEG-DOX conjugate. The dual site-specific bioconjugation was achieved through the combination of highly selective reduction of IgG and introduction of heterotelechelic PEG linker. The resulting AFDC provides an utterly homogeneous product, with a definite ratio of one fragment to two drugs. Laser confocal microscopy and cell ELISA revealed that the AFDC could accumulate in the antigen-positive Daudi tumor cell. In addition, the Fab'-PEG-DOX retained appreciable targeting ability and improved antitumor activity, demonstrating an excellent therapeutic effect on the lymphoma mice model for better cure rate and significantly reduced side effects.

  3. The Hinge Region of Bovine Zona Pellucida Glycoprotein ZP3 Is Involved in the Formation of the Sperm-Binding Active ZP3/ZP4 Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaori Suzuki

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The zona pellucida (ZP surrounds the mammalian oocyte and mediates species-selective sperm-oocyte interactions. Bovine ZP consists of glycoproteins ZP2, ZP3, and ZP4. Neither ZP3 nor ZP4 alone shows inhibitory activity for the binding of sperm to the ZP; however, this activity is seen with the ZP3/ZP4 heterocomplex. Here, we constructed a series of bovine ZP3 mutants to identify the ZP4-binding site on ZP3. Each ZP3 mutant was co-expressed with ZP4 using a baculovirus-Sf9 cell expression system and examined for interaction with ZP4 as well as inhibitory activity for sperm-ZP binding. N-terminal fragment Arg-32 to Arg-160 of ZP3 interacted with ZP4 and inhibited sperm-ZP binding, whereas fragment Arg-32 to Thr-155 showed much weaker interaction with ZP4. Mutation of N-glycosylated Asn-146 to Asp in the N-terminal fragment Arg-32 to Glu-178 of ZP3 did not interrupt the interaction of this fragment with ZP4, but it did reduce the inhibitory activity of the complex for sperm-ZP binding. In contrast, mutation of N-glycosylated Asn-124 to Asp did not significantly reduce the activity. Taken together, these results suggest that one of the ZP4 binding sites exists in the flexible hinge region of ZP3 and that the N-glycosylation in this region is involved in the sperm binding.

  4. Modeling the evolution of climate-sensitive Arctic subsea permafrost in regions of extensive gas expulsion at the West Yamal shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portnov, Alexey; Mienert, Jurgen; Serov, Pavel

    2014-11-01

    Thawing subsea permafrost controls methane release from the Russian Arctic shelf having a considerable impact on the climate-sensitive Arctic environment. Expulsions of methane from shallow Russian Arctic shelf areas may continue to rise in response to intense degradation of relict subsea permafrost. Here we show modeling of the permafrost evolution from the Late Pleistocene to present time at the West Yamal shelf. Modeling results suggest a highly dynamic permafrost system that directly responds to even minor variations of lower and upper boundary conditions, e.g., geothermal heat flux from below and/or bottom water temperature changes from above permafrost. Scenarios of permafrost evolution show a potentially nearest landward modern extent of the permafrost at the West Yamal shelf limited by ~17 m isobaths, whereas its farthest seaward extent coincides with ~100 m isobaths. The model also predicts seaward tapering of relict permafrost with a maximal thickness of 275-390 m near the shoreline. Previous field observations detected extensive emissions of free gas into the water column at the transition zone between today's shallow water permafrost (20 m). The model adapts well to corresponding heat flux and ocean temperature data, providing crucial information about the modern permafrost conditions. It shows current locations of upper and lower permafrost boundaries and evidences for possible release of methane from the seabed to the hydrosphere in a warming Arctic.

  5. Shape Memory Composite Hybrid Hinge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Houfei; Im, Eastwood; Lin, John; Scarborough, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    There are two conventional types of hinges for in-space deployment applications. The first type is mechanically deploying hinges. A typical mechanically deploying hinge is usually composed of several tens of components. It is complicated, heavy, and bulky. More components imply higher deployment failure probability. Due to the existence of relatively moving components among a mechanically deploying hinge, it unavoidably has microdynamic problems. The second type of conventional hinge relies on strain energy for deployment. A tape-spring hinge is a typical strain energy hinge. A fundamental problem of a strain energy hinge is that its deployment dynamic is uncontrollable. Usually, its deployment is associated with a large impact, which is unacceptable for many space applications. Some damping technologies have been experimented with to reduce the impact, but they increased the risks of an unsuccessful deployment. Coalescing strain energy components with shape memory composite (SMC) components to form a hybrid hinge is the solution. SMCs are well suited for deployable structures. A SMC is created from a high-performance fiber and a shape memory polymer resin. When the resin is heated to above its glass transition temperature, the composite becomes flexible and can be folded or packed. Once cooled to below the glass transition temperature, the composite remains in the packed state. When the structure is ready to be deployed, the SMC component is reheated to above the glass transition temperature, and it returns to its as-fabricated shape. A hybrid hinge is composed of two strain energy flanges (also called tape-springs) and one SMC tube. Two folding lines are placed on the SMC tube to avoid excessive strain on the SMC during folding. Two adapters are used to connect the hybrid hinge to its adjacent structural components. While the SMC tube is heated to above its glass transition temperature, a hybrid hinge can be folded and stays at folded status after the temperature

  6. Expulsed myoma in the perimenopause

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia de Arruda Camargo

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Leiomyomas are benign neoplasms that affect the uterine smooth muscle. They result from a complex interplay of hormones, growth factors, cytokines and the presence of a genetic factor, which is believed to be an important factor for its appearance. These tumors most often affect women in reproductive age. Because of this fact, the appearance of leiomyomas in women during the perimenopause is a rare occurrence, exemplified by the paucity of reports in the medical literature and thus, this is a case report of an “expulsed myoma during perimenopause”.

  7. The glycine brace: a component of Rab, Rho, and Ran GTPases associated with hinge regions of guanine- and phosphate-binding loops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neuwald Andrew F

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ras-like GTPases function as on-off switches in intracellular signalling pathways and include the Rab, Rho/Rac, Ran, Ras, Arf, Sar and Gα families. How these families have evolutionarily diverged from each other at the sequence level provides clues to underlying mechanisms associated with their functional specialization. Results Bayesian analysis of divergent patterns within a multiple alignment of Ras-like GTPase sequences identifies a structural component, termed here the glycine brace, as the feature that most distinguishes Rab, Rho/Rac, Ran and (to some degree Ras family GTPases from other Ras-like GTPases. The glycine brace consists of four residues: An aromatic residue that forms a stabilizing CH-π interaction with a conserved glycine at the start of the guanine-binding loop; a second aromatic residue, which is nearly always a tryptophan, that likewise forms stabilizing CH-π and NH-π interactions with a glycine at the start of the phosphate-binding P-loop; and two other residues (typically an aspartate and a serine or threonine that, together with a conserved buried water molecule, form a network of interactions connecting the two aromatic residues. Conclusion It is proposed that the two glycine residues function as hinges and that the glycine brace influences guanine nucleotide binding and release by interacting with these hinges.

  8. Rapid expulsion of microswimmers by a vortical flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolov, Andrey; Aranson, Igor S

    2016-03-23

    Interactions of microswimmers with their fluid environment are exceptionally complex. Macroscopic shear flow alters swimming trajectories in a highly nontrivial way and results in dramatic reduction of viscosity and heterogeneous bacterial distributions. Here we report on experimental and theoretical studies of rapid expulsion of microswimmers, such as motile bacteria, by a vortical flow created by a rotating microparticle. We observe a formation of a macroscopic depletion area in a high-shear region, in the vicinity of a microparticle. The rapid migration of bacteria from the shear-rich area is caused by a vortical structure of the flow rather than intrinsic random fluctuations of bacteria orientations, in stark contrast to planar shear flow. Our mathematical model reveals that expulsion is a combined effect of motility and alignment by a vortical flow. Our findings offer a novel approach for manipulation of motile microorganisms and shed light on bacteria-flow interactions.

  9. Rapid expulsion of microswimmers by a vortical flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolov, Andrey; Aranson, Igor S.

    2016-01-01

    Interactions of microswimmers with their fluid environment are exceptionally complex. Macroscopic shear flow alters swimming trajectories in a highly nontrivial way and results in dramatic reduction of viscosity and heterogeneous bacterial distributions. Here we report on experimental and theoretical studies of rapid expulsion of microswimmers, such as motile bacteria, by a vortical flow created by a rotating microparticle. We observe a formation of a macroscopic depletion area in a high-shear region, in the vicinity of a microparticle. The rapid migration of bacteria from the shear-rich area is caused by a vortical structure of the flow rather than intrinsic random fluctuations of bacteria orientations, in stark contrast to planar shear flow. Our mathematical model reveals that expulsion is a combined effect of motility and alignment by a vortical flow. Our findings offer a novel approach for manipulation of motile microorganisms and shed light on bacteria–flow interactions. PMID:27005581

  10. High accuracy flexural hinge development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, I.; Ortiz de Zárate, I.; Migliorero, G.

    2005-07-01

    This document provides a synthesis of the technical results obtained in the frame of the HAFHA (High Accuracy Flexural Hinge Assembly) development performed by SENER (in charge of design, development, manufacturing and testing at component and mechanism levels) with EADS Astrium as subcontractor (in charge of doing an inventory of candidate applications among existing and emerging projects, establishing the requirements and perform system level testing) under ESA contract. The purpose of this project has been to develop a competitive technology for a flexural pivot, usuable in highly accurate and dynamic pointing/scanning mechanisms. Compared with other solutions (e.g. magnetic or ball bearing technologies) flexural hinges are the appropriate technology for guiding with accuracy a mobile payload over a limited angular ranges around one rotation axes.

  11. Optimal design of an extrusion process for a hinge bracket

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Na, Geum Ju; Jang, Myung Geun; Kim, Jong Bong [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    This study considers process design in forming a hinge bracket. A thin hinge bracket is typically produced by bending a sheet panel or welding a hollow bar into a sheet panel. However, the hinge bracket made by bending or welding does not have sufficient durability in severe operating conditions because of the stress concentration in the bended region or the low corrosion resistance of the welded region. Therefore, this study uses forming to produce the hinge bracket part of a foldable container and to ensure durability in difficult operating conditions. An extrusion process for a T-shaped hinge bracket is studied using finite element analysis. Preliminary analysis shows that a very high forging load is required to form the bracket by forging. Therefore, extrusion is considered as a candidate process. Producing the part through the extrusion process enables many brackets to be made in a single extrusion and through successive cutting of the extruded part, thereby reducing the manufacturing cost. The design focuses on reducing the extrusion load and on ensuring shape accuracy. An initial billet is designed to reduce the extrusion load and to obtain a geometrically accurate part. The extruded part is bent frequently because of uneven material flow. Thus, extrusion die geometries are designed to obtain straight parts.

  12. Spontaneous expulsion of schwannoma of epiglottis

    OpenAIRE

    1997-01-01

    A rare case of spontaneous expulsion of schwannoma of epiglottis is being reported. These are neurogenic tumours arising from the schwan sheath of peripheral, cranial and sympathetic nerves. The great majority of these neurogenic tumours originate from aryepiglottic fold or false vocal cords. However the neurofibroma of the epiglottis are quite uncommon.

  13. An automatic hinge system for leg orthoses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rietman, J.S.; Goudsmit, J.; Meulemans, D.; Halbertsma, J.P.K.; Geertzen, J.H.B.

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes a new, automatic hinge system for leg orthoses, which provides knee stability in stance, and allows knee-flexion during swing. Indications for the hinge system are a paresis or paralysis of the quadriceps muscles. Instrumented gait analysis was performed in three patients, fitte

  14. IUD Expulsion and its Socio-demographic Determinants in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Objective To identify the determinant of the occurrence of IUD expulsionMaterials & Methods Based on 25 733 IUD uses from the Chinese Two-per-Thou-sand Fertility Survey data, this study examines the patterns and differentials of IUDexpulsion rate by characteristics of women, and identifies the socio-demographic deter-minants of IUD expulsion. A Life Table method was used to calculate the cumulativeexpulsion rate and a random-effects discrete-time survival model was employed to as-sess the impact of potential determinants simultaneously on the risk of expelling anIUD.Results Three major findings are observed in this study. First, IUD expulsion wasthe second main reason, after pregnancy during IUD use, for IUD discontinuationduring the first four years of IUD insertion; the expulsion rates were 6. 4%, 9. 1%,10. 8 %, and 12. 0% at 12, 24, 36and 48months, respectively. Second, there was aclustering of IUD expulsion: some women experienced repeated IUD expulsions.Third, some socio-demographic characteristics and fertility history were associatedwith the occurrence of IUD expulsion. In particular, the expulsion rate was highamong young women, among those with two or more children and among those livingin rural areas.Conclusion The above mentioned factors shoald be addressed in order to decrease theIUD expulsion rate and enhance the reprocluctive he alth of women.

  15. Notch flexure hinges: An effective theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseytlin, Yakov M.

    2002-09-01

    This article presents effective tractable equations for rotational compliance (stiffness) of a simple monolithic flexure hinge with circular (radius R and crosspiece thickness t), elliptical [at semiaxis ax, ay, elliptical ratio epsilon (=ax/ay)] and other cross sections. These equations and the method by inverse conformal mapping of circular approximating contour used to derive them are different from the known and widely used theoretical equations originally derived in 1965 by Paros and Weisbord for circular notch hinges. Later it was found that the circular hinge represents the worst case error between known theoretical and finite element models. The conformal mapping equations data presented in this article are likely to be much closer (within less than 10%) to the finite element analysis and experimental data than other theoretical equations. In particular this is the case for circular notch hinges at relative thickness beta(=t/2R) in the range 0.01 to 0.3 and for elliptical hinges at the elliptical ratio epsilon=1 to 10. The derived general equation is common for all types of notch hinges whose profiles can be approximated by two shifted contiguous circles and includes material parameters with Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio. The latter is totally omitted in known theoretical solutions by other authors. New tractable equations are derived from the general equation on the basis of trigonometric functions' simplified series expansion in certain ranges of hinge crosspiece relative thickness. The corresponding graphs are presented. Experimental data were received by holographic interference and autocollimator measurement.

  16. Identification of Fold Hinge Migration in Natural Deformation: A New Technique Using Grain Shape Fabric Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Rose, Kelly Kathleen

    1999-01-01

    Partitioning of finite strains in different domains within the limb and hinge regions of a fold can be used to understand the deformation processes operative during fold formation. Samples taken from the limb and hinge regions of a gently plunging, asymmetric, tight, mesoscale fold in the Erwin formation of the Blue Ridge in North Carolina were analyzed to determine the deformation mechanisms and strains associated with the folding event. Rf/phi grain shape fabric analysis was conducted for...

  17. The polyproline site in hinge 2 influences the functional capacity of truncated dystrophins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glen B Banks

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Mutations in dystrophin can lead to Duchenne muscular dystrophy or the more mild form of the disease, Becker muscular dystrophy. The hinge 3 region in the rod domain of dystrophin is particularly prone to deletion mutations. In-frame deletions of hinge 3 are predicted to lead to BMD, however the severity of disease can vary considerably. Here we performed extensive structure-function analyses of truncated dystrophins with modified hinges and spectrin-like repeats in mdx mice. We found that the polyproline site in hinge 2 profoundly influences the functional capacity of a microdystrophin(DeltaR4-R23/DeltaCT with a large deletion in the hinge 3 region. Inclusion of polyproline in microdystrophin(DeltaR4-R23/DeltaCT led to small myofibers (12% smaller than wild-type, Achilles myotendinous disruption, ringed fibers, and aberrant neuromuscular junctions in the mdx gastrocnemius muscles. Replacing hinge 2 of microdystrophin(DeltaR4-R23/DeltaCT with hinge 3 significantly improved the functional capacity to prevent muscle degeneration, increase muscle fiber area, and maintain the junctions. We conclude that the rigid alpha-helical structure of the polyproline site significantly impairs the functional capacity of truncated dystrophins to maintain appropriate connections between the cytoskeleton and extracellular matrix.

  18. Posterior Dislocation of the Hinge-Post Extension in a Rotating Hinge Total Knee Prosthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Givenchy Manzano

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The rotating hinge knee prosthesis is a popular intervention in patients lacking stability with highly constrained total knee arthroplasty. Despite improvements in design, nonmechanical and mechanical complications continue to be a problem. Dislocation of the hinge has been widely described, mainly due to the component fracture. Few reports describe isolated dislocation of the rotating stem. We report a case of isolated disengagement of the rotating hinge mechanism, due to severe flexion gap imbalance, leading to subsequent posterior dislocation of the hinge and anterior knee dislocation, in a patient with a history of multiple total knee arthroplasty revisions. This case suggests the importance of the soft tissue balancing, the adequate patellar tracking, and use of a long cylindrical, minimally tapered rotating stem in hinge arthroplasty to minimize hinge dislocation.

  19. A New Method for Quantitative Simulating Hydrocarbon Expulsion and Its Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mingcheng Li

    1994-01-01

    @@ Quantitative Simulating Oil Expulsion 1.Traditional method The oil expulsion (QE) can be calculated by subtracting oil residuum (QR) from oil generation (QG) and then making expulsion efficiency (fE) from QE divided by QG, as the following equations:

  20. Expulsion of the intrauterine devices Lippes loop size 30 mm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    el-Zeneiny, A H; Ammar, A R; Badawi, S Z

    1969-01-01

    To determine the factors controlling IUD expulsion (Lippes loop 30 mm), Cairo's Ain-Shams Birth Control Clinic investigated 25 women with regard to the following: 1) detailed obstetric history; 2) hystergram; 3) Lipiodol hysterosalpinography (postmenstrual cases); 4) measurement of uterine cavity; 5) dilation (Hegar's No. 8) to determine internal os integrity. In 40% of the expulsions congenital abnormalities of the uterus was found while another 40% revealed a patulous internal os. In septate and arcuate uteruses, continuous pressure on the upper part of the loop found to cause expulsion. Uterine contractions occurring during menstruation were also seen to increase chances of expulsion, particularly in cases of patulous internal os. In 20% of the cases, no anomoly was detected and expulsion was thought to have resulted from faulty insertion or irrigation of the uterus by a foreign body.

  1. God of the hinge: treating LGBTQIA patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boland, Annie

    2017-11-01

    This paper looks at systems of gender within the context of analysis. It explores the unique challenges of individuation faced by transsexual, transgender, gender queer, gender non-conforming, cross-dressing and intersex patients. To receive patients generously we need to learn how a binary culture produces profound and chronic trauma. These patients wrestle with being who they are whilst simultaneously receiving negative projections and feeling invisible. While often presenting with the struggles of gender conforming individuals, understanding the specifically gendered aspect of their identity is imperative. An analyst's unconscious bias may lead to iatrogenic shaming. The author argues that rigorous, humble inquiry into the analyst's transphobia can be transformative for patient, analyst, and the work itself. Analysis may, then, provide gender-variant patients with their first remembered and numinous experience of authentic connection to self. Conjuring the image of a hinge, securely placed in the neutral region of a third space, creates a transpositive analytic temenos. Invoking the spirit of the Trickster in the construction of this matrix supports the full inclusion of gender-variant patients. Nuanced attunement scaffolds mirroring and the possibility of play. Being mindful that gender is sturdy and delicate as well as mercurial and defined enriches the analyst's listening. © 2017, The Society of Analytical Psychology.

  2. Reassessing the Plastic Hinge Model for Energy Dissipation of Axially Loaded Columns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. Korol

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the energy dissipation potential of axially loaded columns and evaluates the use of a plastic hinge model for analysis of hi-rise building column collapse under extreme loading conditions. The experimental program considered seven axially loaded H-shaped extruded aluminum structural section columns having slenderness ratios that would be typical of floor-to-ceiling heights in buildings. All seven test specimens initially experienced minor-axis overall buckling followed by formation of a plastic hinge at the mid-height region, leading to local buckling of the flanges on the compression side of the plastic hinge, and eventual folding of the compression flanges. The experimental energy absorption, based on load-displacement relations, was compared to the energy estimates based on section plastic moment resistance based on measured yield stress and based on measured hinge rotations. It was found that the theoretical plastic hinge model underestimates a column’s actual ability to absorb energy by a factor in the range of 3 to 4 below that obtained from tests. It was also noted that the realizable hinge rotation is less than 180°. The above observations are based, of course, on actual columns being able to sustain high tensile strains at hinge locations without fracturing.

  3. Dynamic requirements for a functional protein hinge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempf, James G; Jung, Ju-Yeon; Ragain, Christina; Sampson, Nicole S; Loria, J Patrick

    2007-04-20

    The enzyme triosephosphate isomerase (TIM) is a model of catalytic efficiency. The 11 residue loop 6 at the TIM active site plays a major role in this enzymatic prowess. The loop moves between open and closed states, which facilitate substrate access and catalysis, respectively. The N and C-terminal hinges of loop 6 control this motion. Here, we detail flexibility requirements for hinges in a comparative solution NMR study of wild-type (WT) TIM and a quintuple mutant (PGG/GGG). The latter contained glycine substitutions in the N-terminal hinge at Val167 and Trp168, which follow the essential Pro166, and in the C-terminal hinge at Lys174, Thr175, and Ala176. Previous work demonstrated that PGG/GGG has a tenfold higher Km value and 10(3)-fold reduced k(cat) relative to WT with either d-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate or dihyrdroxyacetone phosphate as substrate. Our NMR results explain this in terms of altered loop-6 dynamics in PGG/GGG. In the mutant, loop 6 exhibits conformational heterogeneity with corresponding motional rates hinge design in proteins: structural rigidity is essential for focused motional freedom of active-site loops.

  4. Flux expulsion variation in SRF cavities

    CERN Document Server

    Posen, S; Romanenko, A; Melnychuk, O; Sergatskov, D A; Martinello, M; Checchin, M; Crawford, A C

    2015-01-01

    Treating a cavity with nitrogen doping significantly increases $Q_0$ at medium fields, reducing cryogenic costs for high duty factor linear accelerators such as LCLS II. N-doping also makes cavities more sensitive to increased residual resistance due to trapped magnetic flux, making it critical to either have extremely effective magnetic shielding, or to prevent flux from being trapped in the cavity during cooldown. In this paper, we report on results of a study of flux expulsion. We discuss possible ways in which flux can be pinned in the inner surface, outer surface, or bulk of a cavity, and we present experimental results studying these mechanisms. We show that grain structure appears to play a key role and that a cavity that expelled flux poorly changed to expelling flux well after a high temperature furnace treatment. We further show that after furnace treatment, this cavity exhibited a significant improvement in quality factor when cooled in an external magnetic field. We conclude with implications for ...

  5. Pressurization and expulsion of a flightweight liquid hydrogen tank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandresar, N. T.; Stochl, R. J.

    1993-01-01

    Experimental results are presented for pressurization and expulsion of a flight-weight 4.89 cu m liquid hydrogen storage tank under normal gravity conditions. Pressurization and expulsion times are parametrically varied to study the effects of longer transfer times expected in future space flight applications. It is found that the increase in pressurant consumption with increased operational time is significant at shorter pressurization or expulsion durations and diminishes as the duration lengthens. Gas-to-wall heat transfer in the ullage is the dominant mode of energy exchange, with more than 50 percent of the pressurant energy being lost to tank wall heating in expulsions and the long duration pressurizations. Advanced data analysis will require a multidimensional approach combined with improved measurement capabilities of liquid-vapor interfacial transport phenomena.

  6. Spontaneous expulsive suprachoroidal hemorrhage caused by decompensated liver disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishnagopal Srikanth

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Expulsive suprachoroidal hemorrhage can be surgical or spontaneous. Spontaneous expulsive suprachoroidal hemorrhage (SESCH is a rare entity. Most of the reported cases of SESCH were caused by a combination of corneal pathology and glaucoma. We are reporting a rare presentation of SESCH with no pre-existing glaucoma or corneal pathology and caused by massive intra- and peri-ocular hemorrhage due to decompensated liver disease.

  7. Triangle-hinge models for unoriented membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuma, Masafumi; Sugishita, Sotaro; Umeda, Naoya

    2016-07-01

    Triangle-hinge models [M. Fukuma, S. Sugishita, and N. Umeda, J. High Energy Phys. 1507, 088 (2015)] are introduced to describe worldvolume dynamics of membranes. The Feynman diagrams consist of triangles glued together along hinges and can be restricted to tetrahedral decompositions in a large-N limit. In this paper, after clarifying that all the tetrahedra resulting in the original models are orientable, we define a version of triangle-hinge models that can describe the dynamics of unoriented membranes. By regarding each triangle as representing a propagation of an open membrane of disk topology, we introduce a local worldvolume parity transformation which inverts the orientation of a triangle, and define unoriented triangle-hinge models by gauging the transformation. Unlike two-dimensional cases, this local transformation generally relates a manifold to a nonmanifold, but still is a well-defined manipulation among tetrahedral decompositions. We further show that matter fields can be introduced in the same way as in the original oriented models. In particular, the models will describe unoriented membranes in a target spacetime by taking matter fields to be the target space coordinates.

  8. Activation of complement by an IgG molecule without a genetic hinge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brekke, O H; Michaelsen, T E; Sandin, R; Sandlie, I

    1993-06-17

    The hinge region links the two Fab arms to the Fc portion of the IgG molecule. It mediates flexibility to the molecule and serves as a connecting structure between the two heavy chains. In addition it provides space between the Fab and Fc parts. All three properties have been proposed to be important for the ability of IgG to initiate complement activation leading to complement-mediated cell lysis (CML). Here we report the construction of a hinge-deleted mouse-human chimaeric IgG3 molecule with specificity for the hapten NIP (3-iodo-4-hydroxy-5-nitrophenacetyl), HM-1. HM-1 lacks the genetic hinge, but has an introduced cysteine between Ala 231 (EU numbering) and Pro 232 in the lower hinge encoded by the CH2 exon. The introduced cysteine forms a disulphide bond between the two heavy chains of the molecule. In CML, HM-1 shows a greater activity than IgG3 wild type. This is the first time an IgG molecule without a genetic hinge has been found to be active in CML. We conclude that the hinge functioning as a spacer is not a prerequisite for complement activation. Rather, its major role seems to be to connect the heavy chains to each other in the amino-terminal part of CH2. Because HM-1 is expected to have low Fab-Fc flexibility, this molecular feature is probably of no importance for complement activation.

  9. Extracellular-regulated kinase 2 is activated by the enhancement of hinge flexibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sours, Kevin M; Xiao, Yao; Ahn, Natalie G

    2014-05-01

    Protein motions underlie conformational and entropic contributions to enzyme catalysis; however, relatively little is known about the ways in which this occurs. Studies of the mitogen-activated protein kinase ERK2 (extracellular-regulated protein kinase 2) by hydrogen-exchange mass spectrometry suggest that activation enhances backbone flexibility at the linker between N- and C-terminal domains while altering nucleotide binding mode. Here, we address the hypothesis that enhanced backbone flexibility within the hinge region facilitates kinase activation. We show that hinge mutations enhancing flexibility promote changes in the nucleotide binding mode consistent with domain movement, without requiring phosphorylation. They also lead to the activation of monophosphorylated ERK2, a form that is normally inactive. The hinge mutations bypass the need for pTyr but not pThr, suggesting that Tyr phosphorylation controls hinge motions. In agreement, monophosphorylation of pTyr enhances both hinge flexibility and nucleotide binding mode, measured by hydrogen-exchange mass spectrometry. Our findings demonstrate that regulated protein motions underlie kinase activation. Our working model is that constraints to domain movement in ERK2 are overcome by phosphorylation at pTyr, which increases hinge dynamics to promote the active conformation of the catalytic site.

  10. Hinge Atlas: relating protein sequence to sites of structural flexibility

    OpenAIRE

    Yang Julie; Lu Long J; Flores Samuel C; Carriero Nicholas; Gerstein Mark B

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Relating features of protein sequences to structural hinges is important for identifying domain boundaries, understanding structure-function relationships, and designing flexibility into proteins. Efforts in this field have been hampered by the lack of a proper dataset for studying characteristics of hinges. Results Using the Molecular Motions Database we have created a Hinge Atlas of manually annotated hinges and a statistical formalism for calculating the enrichment of v...

  11. Thin film solar cell inflatable ultraviolet rigidizable deployment hinge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simburger, Edward J. (Inventor); Matsumoto, James H. (Inventor); Giants, Thomas W. (Inventor); Garcia, III, Alec (Inventor); Perry, Alan R. (Inventor); Rawal, Suraj (Inventor); Marshall, Craig H. (Inventor); Lin, John K. H. (Inventor); Day, Jonathan Robert (Inventor); Kerslake, Thomas W. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A flexible inflatable hinge includes curable resin for rigidly positioning panels of solar cells about the hinge in which wrap around contacts and flex circuits are disposed for routing power from the solar cells to the power bus further used for grounding the hinge. An indium tin oxide and magnesium fluoride coating is used to prevent static discharge while being transparent to ultraviolet light that cures the embedded resin after deployment for rigidizing the inflatable hinge.

  12. Hinge(ga) Brand - tõhusaim relv mõrtsukate ja varaste vastu / Hinge Brand ; interv. Kaarel Kressa

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Brand, Hinge, 1940-2007

    2006-01-01

    Intervjuu 40 aastat prokuröriametit pidanud ja pensionile siirduva Hinge Brandiga. Lisatud: Hinge Brandi CV ning Põhja ringkonnaprokuratuuri erisasjade prokuröri Jüri Kasesalu, siseministeeriumi arendusjuhi Lauri Taburi ja keskkriminaalpolitsei politseijuhtivinspektori Margus Maasepa kommentaarid

  13. Hinge(ga) Brand - tõhusaim relv mõrtsukate ja varaste vastu / Hinge Brand ; interv. Kaarel Kressa

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Brand, Hinge, 1940-2007

    2006-01-01

    Intervjuu 40 aastat prokuröriametit pidanud ja pensionile siirduva Hinge Brandiga. Lisatud: Hinge Brandi CV ning Põhja ringkonnaprokuratuuri erisasjade prokuröri Jüri Kasesalu, siseministeeriumi arendusjuhi Lauri Taburi ja keskkriminaalpolitsei politseijuhtivinspektori Margus Maasepa kommentaarid

  14. Magnetic Flux Expulsion Studies in Niobium SRF Cavities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Posen, Sam [Fermilab; Checchin, Mattia [Fermilab; Crawford, Anthony [Fermilab; Grassellino, Anna [Fermilab; Martinello, Martina [Fermilab; Melnychuk, Oleksandr [Fermilab; Romanenko, Alexander [Fermilab; Sergatskov, Dmitri [Fermilab; Trenikhina, Yulia [Fermilab

    2016-06-01

    With the recent discovery of nitrogen doping treatment for SRF cavities, ultra-high quality factors at medium accelerating fields are regularly achieved in vertical RF tests. To preserve these quality factors into the cryomodule, it is important to consider background magnetic fields, which can become trapped in the surface of the cavity during cooldown and cause Q₀ degradation. Building on the recent discovery that spatial thermal gradients during cooldown can significantly improve expulsion of magnetic flux, a detailed study was performed of flux expulsion on two cavities with different furnace treatments that are cooled in magnetic fields amplitudes representative of what is expected in a realistic cryomodule. In this contribution, we summarize these cavity results, in order to improve understanding of the impact of flux expulsion on cavity performance.

  15. On mechanical properties of planar flexure hinges of compliant mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Dirksen

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis of compliant mechanisms yield optimized topologies that combine several stiff parts with highly elastic flexure hinges. The hinges are often represented in finite element analysis by a single node (one-node hinge leaving doubts on the physical meaning as well as an uncertainty in the manufacturing process.

    To overcome this one-node hinge problem of optimized compliant mechanisms' topologies, one-node hinges need to be replaced by real flexure hinges providing desired deflection range and the ability to bear internal loads without failure. Therefore, several common types of planar flexure hinges with different geometries are characterized and categorized in this work providing a comprehensive guide with explicit analytical expressions to replace one-node hinges effectively.

    Analytical expressions on displacements, stresses, maximum elastic deformations, bending stiffness, center of rotation and first natural frequencies are derived in this work. Numerical simulations and experimental studies are performed validating the analytical results. More importance is given to practice-oriented flexure hinge types in terms of cost-saving manufacturability, i.e. circular notch type hinges and rectangular leaf type hinges.

  16. Medical expulsive therapy for distal ureteric stones: tamsulosin versus silodosin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vittorio Imperatore

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To compare the efficacy and safety of tamsulosin and silodosin in the context of medical expulsive therapy (MET of distal ureteric stones. Patients and methods: Observational data were collected retrospectively from patients who received silodosin (N = 50 or tamsulosin (N = 50 as MET from January 2012 to January 2013. Inclusion criteria were: patients aged ≥ 18 years with a single, unilateral, symptomatic, radiopaque ureteric stone of 10 mm or smaller in the largest dimension located between the lower border of the sacroiliac joint and the vesico-ureteric junction. Stone expulsion rate, stone expulsion time, number of pain episodes, need for analgesics use, incidence of side effects were compared. Results: Stone-expulsion rate in the silodosin and in the tamsulosin groups were 88% and 82%, respectively (p not significant. Mean expulsion times were 6.7 and 6.5 days in the silodosin and tamsulosin group, respectively (p not significant. Mean number of pain episodes were 1.6 and 1.7 in the silodosin and tamsulosin group, respectively (p not significant. The mean number of analgesic requirement was 0.84 and 0.9 for the silodosin and tamsulosin group, respectively (p not significant. Overall, incidence of side effects was similar in both groups. Patients taking silodosin experienced an higher incidence of retrograde ejaculation but a lower incidence of side effects related to peripheral vasodilation when compared to patients taking tamsulosin. Subgroup analysis demonstrated significantly lower mean expulsion times and pain episodes in patients with stones ≤ 5 mm in both groups. Conclusions: Tamsulosin and silodosin are equally effective as MET for distal ureteric stones sized 10 mm or smaller. MET with silodosin is associatd with a lower incidence of side effects related to peripheral vasodilation but an higher incidence of retrograde ejaculation when compared to tamsulosin.

  17. Intensive mutagenesis of the nisin hinge leads to the rational design of enhanced derivatives.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Healy

    Full Text Available Nisin A is the most extensively studied lantibiotic and has been used as a preservative by the food industry since 1953. This 34 amino acid peptide contains three dehydrated amino acids and five thioether rings. These rings, resulting from one lanthionine and four methyllanthionine bridges, confer the peptide with its unique structure. Nisin A has two mechanisms of action, with the N-terminal domain of the peptide inhibiting cell wall synthesis through lipid II binding and the C-terminal domain responsible for pore-formation. The focus of this study is the three amino acid 'hinge' region (N 20, M 21 and K 22 which separates these two domains and allows for conformational flexibility. As all lantibiotics are gene encoded, novel variants can be generated through manipulation of the corresponding gene. A number of derivatives in which the hinge region was altered have previously been shown to possess enhanced antimicrobial activity. Here we take this approach further by employing simultaneous, indiscriminate site-saturation mutagenesis of all three hinge residues to create a novel bank of nisin derivative producers. Screening of this bank revealed that producers of peptides with hinge regions consisting of AAK, NAI and SLS displayed enhanced bioactivity against a variety of targets. These and other results suggested a preference for small, chiral amino acids within the hinge region, leading to the design and creation of producers of peptides with hinges consisting of AAA and SAA. These producers, and the corresponding peptides, exhibited enhanced bioactivity against Lactococcus lactis HP, Streptococcus agalactiae ATCC 13813, Mycobacterium smegmatis MC2155 and Staphylococcus aureus RF122 and thus represent the first example of nisin derivatives that possess enhanced activity as a consequence of rational design.

  18. Hinge Atlas: relating protein sequence to sites of structural flexibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Julie

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Relating features of protein sequences to structural hinges is important for identifying domain boundaries, understanding structure-function relationships, and designing flexibility into proteins. Efforts in this field have been hampered by the lack of a proper dataset for studying characteristics of hinges. Results Using the Molecular Motions Database we have created a Hinge Atlas of manually annotated hinges and a statistical formalism for calculating the enrichment of various types of residues in these hinges. Conclusion We found various correlations between hinges and sequence features. Some of these are expected; for instance, we found that hinges tend to occur on the surface and in coils and turns and to be enriched with small and hydrophilic residues. Others are less obvious and intuitive. In particular, we found that hinges tend to coincide with active sites, but unlike the latter they are not at all conserved in evolution. We evaluate the potential for hinge prediction based on sequence. Motions play an important role in catalysis and protein-ligand interactions. Hinge bending motions comprise the largest class of known motions. Therefore it is important to relate the hinge location to sequence features such as residue type, physicochemical class, secondary structure, solvent exposure, evolutionary conservation, and proximity to active sites. To do this, we first generated the Hinge Atlas, a set of protein motions with the hinge locations manually annotated, and then studied the coincidence of these features with the hinge location. We found that all of the features have bearing on the hinge location. Most interestingly, we found that hinges tend to occur at or near active sites and yet unlike the latter are not conserved. Less surprisingly, we found that hinge residues tend to be small, not hydrophobic or aliphatic, and occur in turns and random coils on the surface. A functional sequence based hinge predictor was

  19. Transition of arrestin into the active receptor-binding state requires an extended interdomain hinge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishnivetskiy, Sergey A; Hirsch, Joel A; Velez, Maria-Gabriela; Gurevich, Yulia V; Gurevich, Vsevolod V

    2002-11-15

    Arrestins selectively bind to the phosphorylated activated form of G protein-coupled receptors, thereby blocking further G protein activation. Structurally, arrestins consist of two domains topologically connected by a 12-residue long loop, which we term the "hinge" region. Both domains contain receptor-binding elements. The relative size and shape of arrestin and rhodopsin suggest that dramatic changes in arrestin conformation are required to bring all of its receptor-binding elements in contact with the cytoplasmic surface of the receptor. Here we use the visual arrestin/rhodopsin system to test the hypothesis that the transition of arrestin into its active receptor-binding state involves a movement of the two domains relative to each other that might be limited by the length of the hinge. We have introduced three insertions and 24 deletions in the hinge region and measured the binding of all of these mutants to light-activated phosphorylated (P-Rh*), dark phosphorylated (P-Rh), dark unphosphorylated (Rh), and light-activated unphosphorylated rhodopsin (Rh*). The addition of 1-3 extra residues to the hinge has no effect on arrestin function. In contrast, sequential elimination of 1-8 residues results in a progressive decrease in P-Rh* binding without changing arrestin selectivity for P-Rh*. These results suggest that there is a minimum length of the hinge region necessary for high affinity binding, consistent with the idea that the two domains move relative to each other in the process of arrestin transition into its active receptor-binding state. The same length of the hinge is also necessary for the binding of "constitutively active" arrestin mutants to P-Rh*, dark P-Rh, and Rh*, suggesting that the active (receptor-bound) arrestin conformation is essentially the same in both wild type and mutant forms.

  20. ROV observation of fluid expulsion in Monterey Bay, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orange, D.L.; Barry, J.; Maher, N. [Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute., Pacific Grove, CA (United States)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    ROV dives in Monterey Bay have been used to examine the relationship of fluid flow to tectonic and stratigraphic conduits along an active transpressional continental margin. We used side-scan sonar to identify dive targets for the ROV, since anomalous reflectivity can be caused by the presence of biological {open_quote}cold seep{close_quotes} communities or authigenic carbonate. On a compressional ridge west of the San Gregorio Fault, cold seep clams are found along with extensive fields of authigenic carbonate in an elliptical region of anomalous reflectivity {approximately}400m in diameter. The reflectivity and fluid expulsion suggest that this feature is an active mud volcano. Analyses of push cores from the ridge site indicate high concentrations of both methane and sulfide and the presence of higher-order hydrocarbons. Many carbon isotopic ratios of the carbonate crusts indicate a methane carbon source; some values represent a mixture of methane carbon and normal marine carbon. Fluids charging the seeps west of the San Gregorio Fault may originate in tectonically-compacted sediments affected by residual Pacific-North America plate convergence, and may have an additional component of hydrocarbon charging from the underlying Monterey Formation. At the intersection of the Monterey Fault Zone and the Monterey Canyon a number of cold seeps occur in headless side canyons characterized by intense fracturing. This supports the hypothesis that submarine canyons act as hydrologic sinks for any overpressured fluid flowing toward the surface. On the San Gregorio Fault itself we have found in echelon ridges of carbonate. The fluids seeping out along fault zones may originate deep in the section and utilize the deformation-induced fracture permeability of the fault zone. Alternatively, aquifer-forcing from the uplifted Santa Cruz Mountains may provide a source of fluids venting along these fault zones (aquicludes?) and at seeps east of the fault zones.

  1. ROV observation of fluid expulsion in Monterey Bay, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orange, D.L.; Barry, J.; Maher, N. (Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute., Pacific Grove, CA (United States)) (and others)

    1996-01-01

    ROV dives in Monterey Bay have been used to examine the relationship of fluid flow to tectonic and stratigraphic conduits along an active transpressional continental margin. We used side-scan sonar to identify dive targets for the ROV, since anomalous reflectivity can be caused by the presence of biological [open quote]cold seep[close quotes] communities or authigenic carbonate. On a compressional ridge west of the San Gregorio Fault, cold seep clams are found along with extensive fields of authigenic carbonate in an elliptical region of anomalous reflectivity [approximately]400m in diameter. The reflectivity and fluid expulsion suggest that this feature is an active mud volcano. Analyses of push cores from the ridge site indicate high concentrations of both methane and sulfide and the presence of higher-order hydrocarbons. Many carbon isotopic ratios of the carbonate crusts indicate a methane carbon source; some values represent a mixture of methane carbon and normal marine carbon. Fluids charging the seeps west of the San Gregorio Fault may originate in tectonically-compacted sediments affected by residual Pacific-North America plate convergence, and may have an additional component of hydrocarbon charging from the underlying Monterey Formation. At the intersection of the Monterey Fault Zone and the Monterey Canyon a number of cold seeps occur in headless side canyons characterized by intense fracturing. This supports the hypothesis that submarine canyons act as hydrologic sinks for any overpressured fluid flowing toward the surface. On the San Gregorio Fault itself we have found in echelon ridges of carbonate. The fluids seeping out along fault zones may originate deep in the section and utilize the deformation-induced fracture permeability of the fault zone. Alternatively, aquifer-forcing from the uplifted Santa Cruz Mountains may provide a source of fluids venting along these fault zones (aquicludes ) and at seeps east of the fault zones.

  2. Multiple expulsions. Affective and material evictions in Calais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Ansaloni

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available If we regard expulsions as the abrupt interruption along the territorialisation process of any body in search of refuge, we could see displaced people and migrants as those figures that have to cope with multiple expulsions until they can build a less vulnerable and precarious territory. Drawing on an ethnographic fieldwork in the makeshift camp of Calais known as the Jungle, I outline a relentless movement of expulsion-inclusion, which is both material and affective and operates on different dimensions. In the Jungle of Calais, from March 2015 to October 2016 lived thousands of people coming mainly from Afghanistan, Sudan, Ethiopia, Eritrea, and Pakistan, who created a city-like system together with volunteers from UK and France. Both the French state and the aid groups built their own territories by establishing different kind of relations with the residents of the Jungle, thus contributing to (at least temporarily stabilise or destabilise their search for a territory of their own and engaging in less visible practices of expulsion.

  3. Expulsion of dominant submucosal fibroids after uterine artery embolization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radeleff, Boris, E-mail: Boris_radeleff@med.uni-heidelberg.d [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University of Heidelberg (Germany); Eiers, Michael; Bellemann, Nadine; Ramsauer, Stefanie [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University of Heidelberg (Germany); Rimbach, Stefan [Department of Gynecology, University of Konstanz (Germany); Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University of Heidelberg (Germany); Richter, Goetz M. [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University of Heidelberg (Germany); Clinic of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Katharinenhospital, Stuttgart (Germany)

    2010-07-15

    Purpose: Purpose of this study was to evaluate the frequency, probability, and factors associated with expulsion of submucosal fibroids after uterine artery embolization (UAE) in addition to the technical and clinical results at 1-year follow-up. Materials and methods: We determined the preinterventional volume of each dominant submucosal fibroid using the commonly used ellipsoid formula and a 3D volumetry in the MRI to define a threshold value in milliliters that indicates the probability for a fibroid expulsion. Assessment of fibroid expulsion was done by MRI at 3-month intervals for a year. Assessment of clinical mid term success was achieved by applying questionnaires at 1-year follow-up. Results: Technical success was observed in all 20 patients (mean age of 41.4 {+-} 5.6 years; range: 29.2-51.1 years). Two (10%) minor and one (5%) major complications occurred. 10/20 dominant submucosal fibroids were completely expelled during the follow-up. Using 3D MRI volumetry the preinterventional mean volume of the later expelled fibroids was 56.8 {+-} 57.0 ml (range 2.3-198.0 ml) and the mean volume of non-expelled fibroids was 123.8 {+-} 147.3 ml (range 24.0-531.8 ml). This difference was statistically significant, but weak (p = 0.0494). Fibroids with a volume equal or less than the threshold value (66.0 ml) were 73% likely to be expelled and fibroids larger than 66.0 ml were 78% likely not to be expelled. All 20 patients demonstrated a significant reduction in the fibroid related symptoms. Conclusion: In our study the complication rate was low despite increased rates of fibroid expulsion (50%); simultaneously the rate of treatment satisfaction was very high. Patients with a dominant submucosal fibroid under 66.0 ml should be informed about the probability of fibroid expulsion and the accompanying symptoms.

  4. The effect of litter size, parity and farrowing duration on placenta expulsion and retention in sows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Björkman, S.; Oliviero, C.; Rajala-Schultz, P.J.; Soede, N.M.; Peltoniemi, O.A.T.

    2017-01-01

    The hypothesis was that a prolonged parturition impairs placenta expulsion and can lead to retained placentas in sows. Furthermore, we hypothesized that application of oxytocin around the time of expulsion of the first placental part improves placenta expulsion. We recorded 142 parturitions of 10

  5. Comparison of SEC and CE-SDS methods for monitoring hinge fragmentation in IgG1 monoclonal antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dada, Oluwatosin O; Rao, Romesh; Jones, Natalie; Jaya, Nomalie; Salas-Solano, Oscar

    2017-10-25

    Fragmentation of monoclonal antibodies is a critical quality attribute routinely monitored to assess the purity and integrity of the product from development to commercialization. Cleavage in the upper hinge region of IgG1 monoclonal antibodies is a common fragmentation pattern widely studied by size exclusion chromatography (SEC). Capillary electrophoresis with sodium dodecylsulfate (CE-SDS) is a well-established technique commonly used for monitoring antibody fragments as well, but its comparability to SEC in monitoring hinge fragments has not been established until now. We report a characterization strategy that establishes the correlation between hinge region fragments analyzed by SEC and CE-SDS. Monoclonal antibodies with elevated hinge fragments were generated under low pH stress conditions and analyzed by SEC and CE-SDS. The masses of the fragments generated were determined by LC-MS. Electrophoretic migration of the hinge fragmentation products in CE-SDS were determined based on their mass values. Comparative assessment of fragments by SEC, and CE-SDS showed similar correlation with incubation time. This study demonstrates that CE-SDS can be employed as a surrogate technique to SEC for monitoring hinge region fragments. Most importantly, combination of these techniques can be used to obtain comprehensive understanding of fragment related characteristics of therapeutic protein products. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Precision Hinge Actuator for Advanced Telescope Systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — CTD proposes to investigate the deployment repeatability and microdynamic stability of a hinge and demonstration this repeatability in a deployable mirror test...

  7. Production of biologically active IgG hinge-tag soluble epidermal growth factor receptors (ErbB).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otani, Takayuki; Hashizume, Toshihiro; Nagaoka, Tadahiro; Fukuda, Tomoko; Tang, Careen K; Salomon, David S; Seno, Masaharu

    2010-03-01

    The extracellular domains (ECD) of epidermal growth factor receptors, ErbB1, 2, 3 and 4, were designed as soluble dimeric forms. Each ECD was fused to a short hinge region derived from IgG, such that the stable dimer could be formed with disulfide bridges. This hinge-tagged design minimized the molecular weight to approximately 50% of the conventional Fc-fusion design without an Fc domain of IgG. The refolded dimers could be easily analyzed and characterized by SDS-PAGE. Hinge-tagged soluble ErbBs demonstrated significant affinity for betacellulin and heregulin. The IgG hinge-tag should be a simple method to design soluble dimers that would be useful for high throughput screening of ligands, antagonists or derivatives.

  8. «…In Accordance with Passport Regulations»: Mass Expulsion of «Insecure» Citizens from the Far East of the USSR in 1930s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena N. Chernolutskaya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available . The article, basing on the analysis of the archive published and unpublished data, books of condolence, witnesses’ recollections, presents extended characteristics of mass compulsory expulsions from the Soviet Far East, realized in order to “houseclean” as a preventive security measure. Such acts were not ethnical in nature. Their aim was to grant region the status of secure territory and introduce passport limitations. Three campaigns, involving not less than 150 thousand people in total: 1 population passportization (1933–1934; 2 expulsion of families of the victims of Bolshoi Terror (1937–1939, 3 expulsion of the so-called «insecure» population of the Primorsky Region (1939 was analyzed. The author concludes that they had the form of Stalin’s mass deportations, aimed at the formation of discriminated social groups

  9. Effect of hinge gap width of a St. Jude medical bileaflet mechanical heart valve on blood damage potential--an in vitro micro particle image velocimetry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Brian H; Saikrishnan, Neelakantan; Arjunon, Sivakkumar; Yun, B Min; Yoganathan, Ajit P

    2014-09-01

    The hinge regions of the bileaflet mechanical heart valve (BMHV) can cause blood element damage due to nonphysiological shear stress levels and regions of flow stasis. Recently, a micro particle image velocimetry (μPIV) system was developed to study whole flow fields within BMHV hinge regions with enhanced spatial resolution under steady leakage flow conditions. However, global velocity maps under pulsatile conditions are still necessary to fully understand the blood damage potential of these valves. The current study hypothesized that the hinge gap width will affect flow fields in the hinge region. Accordingly, the blood damage potential of three St. Jude Medical (SJM) BMHVs with different hinge gap widths was investigated under pulsatile flow conditions, using a μPIV system. The results demonstrated that the hinge gap width had a significant influence during the leakage flow phase in terms of washout and shear stress characteristics. During the leakage flow, the largest hinge gap generated the highest Reynolds shear stress (RSS) magnitudes (~1000 N/m²) among the three valves at the ventricular side of the hinge. At this location, all three valves indicated viscous shear stresses (VSS) greater than 30 N/m². The smallest hinge gap exhibited the lowest level of shear stress values, but had the poorest washout flow characteristics among the three valves, demonstrating propensity for flow stasis and associated activated platelet accumulation potential. The results from this study indicate that the hinge is a critical component of the BMHV design, which needs to be optimized to find the appropriate balance between reduction in fluid shear stresses and enhanced washout during leakage flow, to ensure minimal thrombotic complications.

  10. Can ultrasound predict IUD expulsion after medical abortion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimoni, Noa'a; Davis, Anne; Westhoff, Carolyn

    2014-05-01

    Our randomized trial compared early and delayed intrauterine device (IUD) insertion following medical abortion. In this planned substudy, we explore if endometrial thickness and initial IUD position were associated with IUD expulsion. We also describe IUD movement within the uterus during the 6 months after insertion. We recruited women undergoing medical abortion and choosing the copper IUD for contraception (n=156). Participants were randomly assigned to early insertion 1 week after mifepristone or delayed insertion 4-6 weeks later. We measured endometrial thickness by transvaginal sonogram 1 week after abortion and IUD distance from the fundal aspect of the endometrial cavity three times: at insertion, 6-8 weeks later and at 6 months. We analyzed endometrial thickness in 113 women, baseline IUD position in 114 women and IUD movement in 65 women. Women who expelled IUDs (n=15) had slightly thicker endometria (p=.007) and slightly lower baseline IUD positions (p=.03) than those who retained IUDs, but no clear cutoffs emerged in the receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. Retained IUDs commonly moved up and down throughout the 6 months (from 14 mm towards the fundus to 32 mm towards the cervix). Overall, retained IUDs moved a median of 2mm towards the cervix between insertion and exit (pabortion, the risk of IUD expulsion increases with thicker endometria and lower baseline position. Since no clear cutoffs emerged in the analysis and expulsion remained uncommon even with thicker endometria, we do not recommend restricting IUD insertion based on ultrasound data. Copper T IUDs often move within the uterus without expelling. Expulsion is uncommon, and we do not recommend restricting IUD insertion based on ultrasound data. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Synthesis and Optimisation of Large Stroke Flexure Hinges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grootens, Martijn; Aarts, Ronald; Brouwer, Dannis; Wenger, Philippe; Flores, Paulo

    2016-01-01

    Flexure hinges are advantageous for use in high-precision applications because of their lack of hysteresis, friction and backlash. However, their range of motion is limited due to increasing stresses and a decreasing support stiffness at large strokes. Currently available hinges are typically design

  12. The Role of Pharmacology in Ureteral Physiology and Expulsive Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerde, Travis J.; Nakada, Stephen Y.

    2007-04-01

    Research in the field of ureteral physiology and pharmacology has traditionally been directed toward relaxation of ureteral spasm as a mechanism of analgesia during painful ureteral obstruction, most often stone-induced episodes. However, interest in this field has expanded greatly in recent years with the expanded use of alpha-blocker therapy for inducing stone passage, a usage now termed "medical expulsive therapy". While most clinical reports involving expulsive therapy have focused on alpha receptor or calcium channel blockade, there are diverse studies investigating pharmacological ureteral relaxation with novel agents including cyclooxygenase inhibitors, small molecule beta receptor agonists, neurokinin antagonists, and phosphodiesterase inhibitors. In addition, cutting edge molecular biology research is revealing promising potential therapeutic targets aimed at specific molecular changes that occur during the acute obstruction that accompanies stone disease. The purpose of this report is to review the use of pharmacological agents as ureteral smooth muscle relaxants clinically, and to look into the future of expulsive therapy by reviewing the available literature of ureteral physiology and pharmacology research.

  13. Study on the Hinge-joined Plate Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Sha

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to verify and perfect the theory of hinge-joined plate method and make it serve the bridge design better, this paper was written based on an actual bridge, and the ANSYS finite element model was established. Compared the hinge-joined plate method results with the analysis results and through the investigation and data analysis, it could be found that the assumption that the hinge-joined plate theory for the board lateral force transmission is reasonable, but the assuming hinge joints that only withstand shear stress and just have the shear checking is unreasonable. At the same time, this paper also proved that the strength reduction getting from the old and new concrete interface should be taken into account when using the hinge-joined plate method to calculate the transverse distribution coefficient and the effects on overall stiffness that the joint depth and thickness of deck pavement to the beam bridge.

  14. Vibration control of flexible beams using an active hinge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cudney, H. H., Jr.; Inman, D. J.; Horner, G. C.

    1985-01-01

    The use of an active hinge to attenuate the transverse vibrations of a flexible beam is examined. A slender aluminum beam is suspended vertically, cantilevered at the top. An active hinge is placed at the node of the second vibration mode. The active hinge consists of a torque motor, strain gauge, and tachometer. A control law is implemented using both beam-bending strain and the relative angular velocity measured at this hinge, thereby configuring the hinge to act as an active damper. Results from implementing this control law show little improvement in the first mode damping ratio, 130 percent increase in the second mode damping ratio, and 180 percent increase in the third mode damping ratio. The merits of using a motor with a gearbox are discussed.

  15. Hinged distraction of the adolescent arthritic hip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thacker, Mihir M; Feldman, David S; Madan, Sanjeev S; Straight, Joseph J; Scher, David M

    2005-01-01

    From 1996 to 2000, 11 adolescents with hip joint arthritis secondary to osteonecrosis or idiopathic chondrolysis were treated with articulated hinged distraction arthroplasty. Indications for surgery were severe pain and limited ambulation. Charts and radiographs were reviewed. Clinical status was assessed preoperatively and at latest follow-up (mean 4.8 years after surgery) using criteria of pain, range of motion, and ambulation level. Ten patients showed improved clinical status, with seven having an excellent outcome and three a good outcome. One patient failed distraction. Mean joint space was 2.6 mm before surgery and 4.8 mm at latest follow-up. Average duration of fixator use was 4.4 months. Four patients (36.4%) had complications. Articulated hip distraction was effective in eliminating pain, improving function, and preventing progressive degenerative changes in young patients' hips. It should be considered a salvage procedure for arthritic hips and an alternative to arthrodesis in this difficult-to-treat group of patients.

  16. INFLUENCING OF FRICTION IN HINGES FORCE SIZE OF BARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BOHOMAZ V. N.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Formulation of the problem. The size of critical force of bar on the traditional method of calculation is determined in supposition of ideal hinge in the place of fixing of bar. There are both a hinge resistance at the turn of bar ends and their moving in the real hinges. Thus, there is the necessity of influencing character determination of these hinge imperfections on the size of critical force. In the existent scientific labours is devoted the alike problems, influencing of friction in the hinges of bar fastening on the size of critical force was not taken into account. At determination of bars stability with no ideality of hinges friction in them it is possible to take into account by the eccentric appendix of loading or appendix of moment. However at such approach it is difficult enough to define the size of attached force or moment. Purpose. To set influencing of friction in the hinge of bar fastening on of his critical force size in sense of Euler, and also build dependences for determination of bar critical force taking into account mechanical descriptions of hinges materials. Conclusion. For the task of determination the size of bar critical force with the joint fastening on ends are got the dependences which take into account mechanical descriptions of material hinge. The received dependences allow to define more exact meaning of critical force for bars. The examples of calculation of whole bar and bar with undercuting in the middle are resulted that values of critical force, certain on a traditional method are overpriced.

  17. Pivotal role of amino acid at position 138 in the allosteric hinge reorientation of cAMP receptor protein.

    OpenAIRE

    Ryu, S.; KIM, J.; Adhya, S; Garges, S

    1993-01-01

    The cAMP receptor protein (CRP) of Escherichia coli needs cAMP for an allosteric change to regulate gene expression by binding to specific DNA sites. The hinge region connecting the DNA-binding domain to the cAMP-binding domain has been proposed to participate in the cAMP-induced allosteric change necessary to adjust C and D alpha-helices for movement of the DNA-binding F alpha-helix away from the protein surface. The role of the hinge region for a conformation change in CRP was tested by stu...

  18. Expulsion of the swine whipworm, Trichuris suis 

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kringel, Helene

    The whipworm of swine, Trichuris suis, is a gastrointestinal nematode that lives attached to the large intestinal mucosa of its host. Except for when infection levels are high, this parasite rarely causes disease in pigs. Nevertheless, increased interest in T. suis has arisen from studies...... demonstrating the potential use of its eggs as immunomodulators, treating patients suffering from inflammatory bowel disease and possibly other autoimmune diseases. The immune response induced by T. suis in its host and particularly, the resulting expulsion of worms is the focus of this thesis. Whipworms...

  19. Adjustable hinge permits movement of knee in plaster cast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maley, W. E.

    1967-01-01

    Metal knee hinge with an adjustable sleeve worn on the outside of a leg cast facilitates movement of the knee joint. This helps eliminate stiffness of the knee and eliminates bulkiness and adjustment difficulty.

  20. Principle of bio-inspired insect wing rotational hinge design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fei, Fan

    A principle for designing and fabricating bio-inspired miniature artificial insect flapping wing using flexure rotational hinge design is presented. A systematic approach of selecting rotational hinge stiffness value is proposed. Based on the understanding of flapping wing aerodynamics, a dynamic simulation is constructed using the established quasi-steady model and the wing design. Simulations were performed to gain insight on how different parameters affect the wing rotational response. Based on system resonance a model to predict the optimal rotational hinge stiffness based on given wing parameter and flapping wing kinematic is proposed. By varying different wing parameters, the proposed method is shown to be applicable to a wide range of wing designs with different sizes and shapes. With the selected hinge stiffness value, aspects of the rotational joint design is discussed and an integrated wing-hinge structure design using laminated carbon fiber and polymer film is presented. Manufacturing process of such composite structure is developed to achieve high accuracy and repeatability. The yielded hinge stiffness is verified by measurements. To validate the proposed model, flapping wing experiments were conducted. A flapping actuation set up is built using DC motor and a controller is implemented on a microcontroller to track desired wing stroke kinematic. Wing stroke and rotation kinematic were extracted using a high speed camera and the lift generation is evaluated. A total of 49 flapping experiments were presented, experimental data shows good correlation with the model's prediction. With the wing rotational hinge stiffness designed so that the rotational resonant frequency is twice as the stroke frequency, the resulting wing rotation generates near optimal lift. With further simulation, the proposed model shows low sensitivity to wing parameter variation. As a result, giving a design parameter of a flapping wing robot platform, the proposed principle can

  1. Visualization of the hinge flow in a 5:1 scaled model of the medtronic parallel bileaflet heart valve prosthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, T. M.; Fontaine, A. A.; Ellis, J. T.; Walton, S. P.; Yoganathan, A. P.

    In this work, a flow visualization experiment was performed to elucidate features of the retrograde hinge flow through a 5:1 scaled model of the Medtronic Parallel bileaflet heart valve. It was hypothesized that this model would provide detailed flow information facilitating identification of flow structures associated with thrombus formation in this valve. The experimental protocol was designed to ensure fluid dynamic similarity between the model and prototype heart valves. Flow was visualized using dye injection. The detailed flow structures observed showed the hinge's inflow channel was the most suspect region for thrombus formation. Here a complex helical structure was observed.

  2. Use of extinction and reinforcement to increase food consumption and reduce expulsion.

    OpenAIRE

    Coe, D. A.; Babbitt, R L; Williams, K E; Hajimihalis, C; Snyder, A M; Ballard, C; Efron, L A

    1997-01-01

    Extinction and reinforcement contingencies were used to treat 2 children with feeding disorders. Positive reinforcement and avoidance extinction effectively increased food acceptance but also increased food expulsion. Reduced expulsion and increased swallowing were achieved by repeated presentation of expelled food, a second extinction component

  3. One State's Systems Change Efforts to Reduce Child Care Expulsion: Taking the Pyramid Model to Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinh, Megan; Strain, Phil; Davidon, Sarah; Smith, Barbara J.

    2016-01-01

    This article describes the efforts funded by the state of Colorado to address unacceptably high rates of expulsion from child care. Based on the results of a 2006 survey, the state of Colorado launched two complementary policy initiatives in 2009 to impact expulsion rates and to improve the use of evidence-based practices related to challenging…

  4. Chin Prompt Plus Re-Presentation as Treatment for Expulsion in Children with Feeding Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkins, Jonathan W.; Piazza, Cathleen C.; Groff, Rebecca A.; Vaz, Petula C. M.

    2011-01-01

    Expulsion (spitting out food) is a problem behavior observed in many children with feeding disorders. In the current investigation, we identified 4 children diagnosed with a feeding disorder who exhibited high rates of expulsion. Treatment with re-presentation (placing expelled liquids or solids back into the child's mouth) was not effective in…

  5. Out-of-school suspension and expulsion. American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on School Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-11-01

    Suspension and expulsion from school are used to punish students, alert parents, and protect other students and school staff. Unintended consequences of these practices require more attention from health care professionals. Suspension and expulsion may exacerbate academic deterioration, and when students are provided with no immediate educational alternative, student alienation, delinquency, crime, and substance abuse may ensue. Social, emotional, and mental health support for students at all times in all schools can decrease the need for expulsion and suspension and should be strongly advocated by the health care community. This policy statement, however, highlights aspects of expulsion and suspension that jeopardize children's health and safety. Recommendations are targeted at pediatricians, who can help schools address the root causes of behaviors that lead to suspension and expulsion and can advocate for alternative disciplinary policies. Pediatricians can also share responsibility with schools to provide students with health and social resources.

  6. Memetic algorithms for ligand expulsion from protein cavities

    CERN Document Server

    Rydzewski, Jakub

    2015-01-01

    Ligand diffusion through a protein interior is a fundamental process governing biological signaling and enzymatic catalysis. A complex topology of channels in proteins leads often to difficulties in modeling ligand escape pathways by classical molecular dynamics simulations. In this paper two novel memetic methods for searching the exit paths and cavity space exploration are proposed: Memory Enhanced Random Acceleration (MERA) Molecular Dynamics and Immune Algorithm (IA). In MERA, a pheromone concept is introduced to optimize an expulsion force. In IA, hybrid learning protocols are exploited to predict ligand exit paths. They are tested on three protein channels with increasing complexity: M2 muscarinic GPCR receptor, enzyme nitrile hydratase and heme-protein cytochrome P450cam. In these cases, the memetic methods outperform Simulated Annealing and Random Acceleration Molecular Dynamics. The proposed algorithms are general and appropriate in all problems where an accelerated transport of an object through a n...

  7. Infanticide and expulsion of females in a cooperative mammal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clutton-Brock, T H; Brotherton, P N; Smith, R; McIlrath, G M; Kansky, R; Gaynor, D; O'Riain, M J; Skinner, J D

    1998-12-01

    In cooperative groups of suricates (Suricata suricatta), helpers of both sexes assist breeding adults in defending and feeding pups, and survival rises in larger groups. Despite this, dominant breeding females expel subordinate females from the group in the latter half of their (own) pregnancy apparently because adult females sometimes kill their pups. Some of the females that have been expelled are allowed to rejoin the group soon after the dominant female's pups are born and subsequently assist in rearing the pups. Female helpers initially resist expulsion and repeatedly attempt to return to their natal group, indicating that it is unlikely that dominant females need to grant them reproductive concessions to retain them in the group.

  8. Memetic algorithms for ligand expulsion from protein cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rydzewski, J.; Nowak, W.

    2015-09-01

    Ligand diffusion through a protein interior is a fundamental process governing biological signaling and enzymatic catalysis. A complex topology of channels in proteins leads often to difficulties in modeling ligand escape pathways by classical molecular dynamics simulations. In this paper, two novel memetic methods for searching the exit paths and cavity space exploration are proposed: Memory Enhanced Random Acceleration (MERA) Molecular Dynamics (MD) and Immune Algorithm (IA). In MERA, a pheromone concept is introduced to optimize an expulsion force. In IA, hybrid learning protocols are exploited to predict ligand exit paths. They are tested on three protein channels with increasing complexity: M2 muscarinic G-protein-coupled receptor, enzyme nitrile hydratase, and heme-protein cytochrome P450cam. In these cases, the memetic methods outperform simulated annealing and random acceleration molecular dynamics. The proposed algorithms are general and appropriate in all problems where an accelerated transport of an object through a network of channels is studied.

  9. The auto-inhibitory role of the EPAC hinge helix as mapped by NMR.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeevan Selvaratnam

    Full Text Available The cyclic-AMP binding domain (CBD is the central regulatory unit of exchange proteins activated by cAMP (EPAC. The CBD maintains EPAC in a state of auto-inhibition in the absence of the allosteric effector, cAMP. When cAMP binds to the CBD such auto-inhibition is released, leading to EPAC activation. It has been shown that a key feature of such cAMP-dependent activation process is the partial destabilization of a structurally conserved hinge helix at the C-terminus of the CBD. However, the role of this helix in auto-inhibition is currently not fully understood. Here we utilize a series of progressive deletion mutants that mimic the hinge helix destabilization caused by cAMP to show that such helix is also a pivotal auto-inhibitory element of apo-EPAC. The effect of the deletion mutations on the auto-inhibitory apo/inactive vs. apo/active equilibrium was evaluated using recently developed NMR chemical shift projection and covariance analysis methods. Our results show that, even in the absence of cAMP, the C-terminal region of the hinge helix is tightly coupled to other conserved allosteric structural elements of the CBD and perturbations that destabilize the hinge helix shift the auto-inhibitory equilibrium toward the apo/active conformations. These findings explain the apparently counterintuitive observation that cAMP binds more tightly to shorter than longer EPAC constructs. These results are relevant for CBDs in general and rationalize why substrates sensitize CBD-containing systems to cAMP. Furthermore, the NMR analyses presented here are expected to be generally useful to quantitatively evaluate how mutations affect conformational equilibria.

  10. The auto-inhibitory role of the EPAC hinge helix as mapped by NMR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvaratnam, Rajeevan; Mazhab-Jafari, Mohammad T; Das, Rahul; Melacini, Giuseppe

    2012-01-01

    The cyclic-AMP binding domain (CBD) is the central regulatory unit of exchange proteins activated by cAMP (EPAC). The CBD maintains EPAC in a state of auto-inhibition in the absence of the allosteric effector, cAMP. When cAMP binds to the CBD such auto-inhibition is released, leading to EPAC activation. It has been shown that a key feature of such cAMP-dependent activation process is the partial destabilization of a structurally conserved hinge helix at the C-terminus of the CBD. However, the role of this helix in auto-inhibition is currently not fully understood. Here we utilize a series of progressive deletion mutants that mimic the hinge helix destabilization caused by cAMP to show that such helix is also a pivotal auto-inhibitory element of apo-EPAC. The effect of the deletion mutations on the auto-inhibitory apo/inactive vs. apo/active equilibrium was evaluated using recently developed NMR chemical shift projection and covariance analysis methods. Our results show that, even in the absence of cAMP, the C-terminal region of the hinge helix is tightly coupled to other conserved allosteric structural elements of the CBD and perturbations that destabilize the hinge helix shift the auto-inhibitory equilibrium toward the apo/active conformations. These findings explain the apparently counterintuitive observation that cAMP binds more tightly to shorter than longer EPAC constructs. These results are relevant for CBDs in general and rationalize why substrates sensitize CBD-containing systems to cAMP. Furthermore, the NMR analyses presented here are expected to be generally useful to quantitatively evaluate how mutations affect conformational equilibria.

  11. Gas turbine combustor exit piece with hinged connections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charron, Richard C.; Pankey, William W.

    2016-04-26

    An exit piece (66) with an inlet throat (67) that conducts a combustion gas flow (36A) in a path (82) from a combustor (63) to an annular chamber (68) that feeds the first blade section (37) of a gas turbine (26). The exit piece further includes an outlet portion (69) that forms a circumferential segment of the annular chamber. The outlet portion interconnects with adjacent outlet portions by hinges (78A, 78B, 80A, 80B). Each hinge may have a hinge axis (82A, 82B) parallel to a centerline (21) of the turbine. Respective gas flows (36A) are configured by an assembly (60) of the exit pieces to converge on the feed chamber (68) into a uniform helical flow that drives the first blade section with minimal circumferential variations in force.

  12. Adaptive fiber optics collimator based on flexible hinges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhi, Dong; Ma, Yanxing; Ma, Pengfei; Si, Lei; Wang, Xiaolin; Zhou, Pu

    2014-08-20

    In this manuscript, we present a new design for an adaptive fiber optics collimator (AFOC) based on flexible hinges by using piezoelectric stacks actuators for X-Y displacement. Different from traditional AFOC, the new structure is based on flexible hinges to drive the fiber end cap instead of naked fiber. We fabricated a real AFOC based on flexible hinges, and the end cap's deviation and resonance frequency of the device were measured. Experimental results show that this new AFOC can provide fast control of tip-tilt deviation of the laser beam emitting from the end cap. As a result, the fiber end cap can support much higher power than naked fiber, which makes the new structure ideal for tip-tilt controlling in a high-power fiber laser system.

  13. Scaffold mining of kinase hinge binders in crystal structure database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Li; Rai, Brajesh; Lunney, Elizabeth A.

    2014-01-01

    Protein kinases are the second most prominent group of drug targets, after G-protein-coupled receptors. Despite their distinct inhibition mechanisms, the majority of kinase inhibitors engage the conserved hydrogen bond interactions with the backbone of hinge residues. We mined Pfizer internal crystal structure database (CSDb) comprising of several thousand of public as well as internal X-ray binary complexes to compile an inclusive list of hinge binding scaffolds. The minimum ring scaffolds with directly attached hetero-atoms and functional groups were extracted from the full compounds by applying a rule-based filtering procedure employing a comprehensive annotation of ATP-binding site of the human kinase complements. The results indicated large number of kinase inhibitors of diverse chemical structures are derived from a relatively small number of common scaffolds, which serve as the critical recognition elements for protein kinase interaction. Out of the nearly 4,000 kinase-inhibitor complexes in the CSDb we identified approximately 600 unique scaffolds. Hinge scaffolds are overwhelmingly flat with very little sp3 characteristics, and are less lipophilic than their corresponding parent compounds. Examples of the most common as well as the uncommon hinge scaffolds are presented. Although the most common scaffolds are found in complex with multiple kinase targets, a large number of them are uniquely bound to a specific kinase, suggesting certain scaffolds could be more promiscuous than the others. The compiled collection of hinge scaffolds along with their three-dimensional binding coordinates could serve as basis set for hinge hopping, a practice frequently employed to generate novel invention as well as to optimize existing leads in medicinal chemistry.

  14. A large workspace flexure hinge-based parallel manipulator system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong Wei; Du Zhijiang; Sun Lining

    2005-01-01

    Parallel manipulator systems as promising precision devices are used widely in current researches. A novel large workspace flexure parallel manipulator system utilizing wide-range flexure hinges as passive joints is proposed in this paper, which can attain sub-micron-scale precision over the cubic centimeter motion range. This paper introduces the mechanical system architecture based on the wide-range flexure hinges, analyzes the kinematics via stiffness matrices, presents the control system configuration and control strategy, and finally gives the system performance test results.

  15. Kinetics of expulsion of Haemonchus contortus from sheep and jirds after treatment with closantel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothwell, J T; Sangster, N C; Conder, G A; Dobson, R J; Johnson, S S

    1993-11-01

    Experiments were conducted in sheep after intramuscular treatment with closantel and in jirds after oral treatment with closantel to determine when expulsion of established H. contortus commences. Expulsion starts at about 8 h in sheep and coincides with the onset of reduced motility in worms recovered from the abomasum. In jirds, expulsion starts by 2 h after treatment. Experiments also conducted in jirds showed that infective larvae are first killed by circulating closantel 3 days after infection, when blood feeding starts, and that by 8 days 80% of larvae are lost.

  16. Size effects in plastic hinges of reinforced concrete members

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bigaj-van Vliet, A.J.; Walraven, J.C.

    2002-01-01

    Reasons for size dependence of rotation capacity of plastic hinges are discussed. The increase of ductility with decreasing member size is interpreted from the viewpoint of fracture mechanics of concrete. The results of the introductory test series on simply supported slender beams loaded in three-p

  17. Size Effects in Plastic Hinges of Reinforced Concrete Members

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bigaj, A.; Walraven, J.C.

    2002-01-01

    Reasons for size dependence of rotation capacity of plastic hinges are discussed. The increase of ductility with decreasing member size is interpreted from the viewpoint of fracture mechanics of concrete. The results of the introductory test series on simply supported slender beams loaded in three-p

  18. Tartus taas kunstiühing "Pallas" / Enn Lillemets

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lillemets, Enn, 1958-

    1999-01-01

    5. jaan. kanti Tartu Linnakohtus mittetulundusühingute ja sihtasutuste registrisse kunstiühing "Pallas", mis on 1998. a. asutatud Tartu Kunstiühingu uus nimi. "Pallase" kui huviühenduse eesmärgist, kõrgemas kunstikoolis "Pallas" õppinud ühingu liikmeid.

  19. Thermal distortion testing of a 90-degree deployment hinge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lininger, Lance

    2003-09-01

    Virtually all modern spacecraft have at least one (if not many) deployable items, some of which require a high degree of positional accuracy and repeatability. There are many variables that affect the deployment performance, and often the most critical and difficult variable to quantify is the affect of the thermal environment on the deployment mechanisms. Temperature changes before and after deployment can greatly affect the final deployment position and the subsequent thermal distortion of the mechanism, and it is critical to properly quantify these factors. Historically the affects of temperature change on deployment mechanisms have been evaluated via analysis due to the relative cost and difficulty in performing a test. However, during the design process of a recent Lockheed Martin deployment hinge, the engineers wanted to provide their customer with a more reliable empirical assessment. Thus, it was decided to conduct a thermal distortion and repeatability test on the hinge during the qualification phase. Testing of this nature is very rare for relatively inexpensive deployment hinges and is usually reserved for high precision, actively-latched optical hinges. Results of this testing are presented, along with lessons learned when performing the test.

  20. Micro particle image velocimetry measurements of steady diastolic leakage flow in the hinge of a St. Jude Medical® regent™ mechanical heart valve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Brian H; Saikrishnan, Neelakantan; Yoganathan, Ajit P

    2014-03-01

    A number of clinical, in vitro and computational studies have shown the potential for thromboembolic complications in bileaflet mechanical heart valves (BMHV), primarily due to the complex and unsteady flows in the valve hinges. These studies have focused on quantitative and qualitative parameters such as velocity magnitude, turbulent shear stresses, vortex formation, and platelet activation to identify potential for blood damage. However, experimental characterization of the whole flow fields within the valve hinges has not yet been conducted. This information can be utilized to investigate instantaneous damage to blood elements and also to validate numerical studies focusing on the hinge's complex fluid dynamics. The objective of this study was therefore to develop a high-resolution imaging system to characterize the flow fields and global velocity maps in a BMHV hinge. In this study, the steady leakage hinge flow fields representing the diastolic phase during the cardiac cycle in a 23 mm St. Jude Medical regent BMHV in the aortic position were characterized using a two-dimensional micro particle image velocimetry system. Diastolic flow was simulated by imposing a static pressure head on the aortic side. Under these conditions, a reverse flow jet from the aortic to the ventricular side was observed with velocities in the range of 1.47-3.24 m/s, whereas low flow regions were observed on the ventricular side of the hinge with viscous shear stress magnitude up to 60 N/m². High velocities and viscous shearing may be associated with platelet activation and hemolysis, while low flow zones can cause thrombosis due to increased residence time in the hinge. Overall, this study provides a high spatial resolution experimental technique to map the fluid velocity in the BMHV hinge, which can be extended to investigate micron-scale flow domains in various prosthetic devices under different hemodynamic conditions.

  1. Hinged Polysilicon Structures with Integrated CMOS Thin Film Transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pister, Kristofer Stefan Josef

    Micro electromechanical systems (MEMS) have the potential to have a profound impact on both scientific research and commercial products. MEMS have proven to be a commercial success, finding application in such diverse environments as hospital operating rooms and automobile engines. One of the open research problems in MEMS is the fabrication of three dimensional structures using what is essentially a planar process. Several methods exist for making large vertical steps in silicon, but they offer only specific geometries and have limited resolution. The process described here is based on polysilicon surface micromachining, with the addition that micro hinges are built along with other structures. In this approach, polycrystalline silicon structural elements are fabricated in the plane of the wafer, and then rotated out of the plane of the wafer using hinged joints. Individual elements are then assembled together to form more complicated three dimensional structures with high detail in all dimensions. The assembly process has been automated to some degree by the inclusion of spring loaded locks which snap into place once a hinge has reached a critical angle. With these hinged structures and spring locks, thousands of structures can be rotated and locked into place simultaneously in the final step of fabrication. Several examples of hinged three dimensional structures are presented, including a hot wire anemometer, a frog-embryo dynamometer, and a parallel jaw gripper, all of which fit inside a 1 millimeter cube. In addition to the structural elements provided in the process, several electronic elements have been integrated as well. These elements include CMOS thin film transistors integrated directly in the polysilicon structural thin film, piezoresistive strain sensors for measuring force and deflection, and flexible micro ribbon cable which allows electrical wiring to be run between the substrate and the rotated structures.

  2. [A study to lower the expulsion rate of IUDs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J G

    1983-08-01

    The author has been investigating why the shape and size of the IUD must be suitable to the geometric size and shape of the endometrial cavity. Women vary greatly in the shape and size of the endometrial cavity. When any woman needs to use an IUD, one should measure the transverse as well as the longitudinal diameter of the endometrial cavity at the fundus. One cannot simply depend on the longitudinal length of the vertical axis of the endometrial cavity in choosing the diameter of the ring. The author always uses the uterine metrology device of the GCH-I types to select the diameter of the ring. 1561 women who were wearing IUDs were measured and the probe was used to measure the vertical axis of the endometrial cavity for 1355 women. The women were followed for 3 years. The rate of expulsion of IUDs in the former was 3.9%, and in the latter 6.0. Particularly, the rate of removal in the former because of disease was much lower. There was a marked difference between the two.

  3. Medical Expulsive Therapy for Ureterolithiasis: The EAU Recommendations in 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Türk, Christian; Knoll, Thomas; Seitz, Christian; Skolarikos, Andreas; Chapple, Chris; McClinton, Sam

    2017-04-01

    Medical expulsive therapy (MET), in particular α-blockers, have been recommended as supportive medication if observational treatment of a ureteral stone was an option. Over the years, a considerable number of randomized controlled trials (RCT) as well as several meta-analyses have been published on MET, supporting the use of α-blockers. However, several recently published high quality, large, placebo-controlled randomized trials raised serious doubts about the effectiveness of α-blockers. The contradictory results of meta-analyses of small RCTs versus the findings of large, well conducted multicenter trials show the methodological vulnerability of meta-analyses, in particular if small single center, lower quality, papers have been included. Small single center trials, for instance, tend to show larger treatment effects compared to multicenter RCTs. It also shows the responsibility of careful planning when conducting a RCT. Trial registration as a prerequisite for approval by ethics committees could in addition minimize publication bias. Weighting the current evidence on whether to use MET, or not, it seems that in distal ureteral stones larger than 5mm, there may be a potential therapeutic benefit for the use of α-blockers. Patients should be informed about the possible, but as yet unproven benefit of using α-blockers in this situation, as well as their off-label use and potential side effects. Copyright © 2016 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Expulsion characterization in resistance spot welding by means of a hardness mapping technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    H.Ghazanfari; M.Naderi

    2014-01-01

    Expulsion is an undesired event during resistance spot welding because the weld quality deteriorates. It is the ejection of molten metal from the weld nugget which usually occurs due to applying a high current for a short welding time. Expulsion has a significant impact on the final yield strength of the weld, thus the detection and characterization of expulsion events is significant for the quality assurance of resistance spot welds. In this study, hardness mapping, using a scanning hardness machine, was used as a quality assurance technique for re-sistance spot welding. Hardness tests were conducted on a resistance spot welded sample to prepare a hardness map. The test results showed good correlation between the hardness map and metallographic cross sections. The technique also provided further fundamental understand-ing of the resistance spot welding process, especially regarding the occurrence of expulsion in the nugget.

  5. Influence of Surface Condition on Expulsion in Spot Welding AZ31B Magnesium Alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yarong WANG; Jicai FENG; Zhongdian ZHANG

    2005-01-01

    Experiments were carried out to study the influence of surface condition on expulsion during the spot welding of AZ31B Mg alloy. A general electrical contact resistance theory for conductive rough surfaces and the relation between maximum temperature Tm in the contact and voltage-drop V across interface of two surfaces were employed to understand the reason of expulsion in Mg alloy spot welding. The main reason of expulsion is that the high electrical contact resistance induced by large roughness of the surface and oxide film covered on the surface leads to local melting of metal in the interface of two surfaces, and liquid metal of the local area ejected from the specimen under electrode force forms expulsion.

  6. Prokurör nägi inimliku jõhkruse piiritust / Hinge Brand ; interv. Tiiu Põld

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Brand, Hinge, 1940-2007

    2006-01-01

    Intervjuu ametist lahkuva prokurör Hinge Brandiga. Lisatud: Hinge Brandi CV; Hinge Brandi osavõtul peetud kõmulisemad mõrvaprotsessid. Kommenteerivad Aivar Pilv, Elmar Vaher, Alar Kirs, Eda Murak, Dilaila Nahkur-Tammiksaar

  7. Prokurör nägi inimliku jõhkruse piiritust / Hinge Brand ; interv. Tiiu Põld

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Brand, Hinge, 1940-2007

    2006-01-01

    Intervjuu ametist lahkuva prokurör Hinge Brandiga. Lisatud: Hinge Brandi CV; Hinge Brandi osavõtul peetud kõmulisemad mõrvaprotsessid. Kommenteerivad Aivar Pilv, Elmar Vaher, Alar Kirs, Eda Murak, Dilaila Nahkur-Tammiksaar

  8. The effect of litter size, parity and farrowing duration on placenta expulsion and retention in sows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björkman, S; Oliviero, C; Rajala-Schultz, P J; Soede, N M; Peltoniemi, O A T

    2017-04-01

    The hypothesis was that a prolonged parturition impairs placenta expulsion and can lead to retained placentas in sows. Furthermore, we hypothesized that application of oxytocin around the time of expulsion of the first placental part improves placenta expulsion. We recorded 142 parturitions of 101 Yorkshire x Large White sows. We determined parity, gestation length, number of liveborn and stillborn piglets, farrowing duration (time between first and last piglet) and the outcome variables: number of expelled placental parts, placenta expulsion duration (time between first and last placental part), first placental part expulsion (time between last piglet and first placental part) and last placental part expulsion (time between last piglet and last placental part). The relationship between farrowing duration and each of the outcome variables was investigated using four distinct multivariable models. Use of oxytocin (used in 44 out of 142 parturitions) increased number of expelled placental parts (3.8 ± 0.2 vs. 2.9 ± 0.3; P = 0.035), decreased the placenta expulsion duration (172 ± 44 vs. 328 ± 26 min; P = 0.011) and time of last placental part expulsion (148 ± 48 vs. 300 ± 24 min; P = 0.025). If oxytocin was not used, farrowing duration obeyed a quadratic relationship with the number of expelled placental parts (P = 0.001), placenta expulsion duration (P = 0.002) and time of last placental part expulsion (P = 0.024). If oxytocin was used, number of expelled placental parts was positively associated with number of liveborn piglets (β = 0.2 ± 0.1; P = 0.002) and affected by parity. 5th parity sows expelled more placental parts (4.3 ± 0.4) than 4th (3.2 ± 0.3; P = 0.024) and 3rd parity sows (2.7 ± 0.4; P = 0.008). Furthermore, placenta expulsion duration was positively associated with number of liveborn piglets (β = 18 ± 8 min; P = 0.025). First placental part expulsion was negatively correlated with farrowing

  9. Gas expulsion in massive star clusters?. Constraints from observations of young and gas-free objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Martin G. H.; Charbonnel, Corinne; Bastian, Nate; Diehl, Roland

    2016-03-01

    Context. Gas expulsion is a central concept in some of the models for multiple populations and the light-element anti-correlations in globular clusters. If the star formation efficiency was around 30 per cent and the gas expulsion happened on the crossing timescale, this process could preferentially expel stars born with the chemical composition of the proto-cluster gas, while stars with special composition born in the centre would remain bound. Recently, a sample of extragalactic, gas-free, young massive clusters has been identified that has the potential to test the conditions for gas expulsion. Aims: We investigate the conditions required for residual gas expulsion on the crossing timescale. We consider a standard initial mass function and different models for the energy production in the cluster: metallicity-dependent stellar winds, radiation, supernovae and more energetic events, such as hypernovae, which are related to gamma ray bursts. The latter may be more energetic than supernovae by up to two orders of magnitude. Methods: We computed a large number of thin-shell models for the gas dynamics, and calculated whether the Rayleigh-Taylor instability is able to disrupt the shell before it reaches the escape speed. Results: We show that the success of gas expulsion depends on the compactness index of a star cluster C5 ≡ (M∗/ 105 M⊙)/(rh/ pc), with initial stellar mass M∗ and half-mass radius rh. For given C5, a certain critical, local star formation efficiency is required to remove the rest of the gas. Common stellar feedback processes may not lead to gas expulsion with significant loss of stars above C5 ≈ 1. Considering pulsar winds and hypernovae, the limit increases to C5 ≈ 30. If successful, gas expulsion generally takes place on the crossing timescale. Some observed young massive clusters have 1 age. Conclusions: Globular clusters should initially have C5 ≲ 100, if the gas expulsion paradigm was correct. Early gas expulsion, which is

  10. Linux领域新宠Hinge BI 8.0

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    近日,和勤软件有限公司宣布推出Hinge BI 8.0版本。和勤商业智能(Hinge BI)是一个功能完善、性能成熟的企业信息门户及商业智能软件平台,提供安全的信息访问、实时的数据和商业信息分析,并帮助企业充分利用其内外部数据、提高企业的决策能力,最终提高企业的竞争力并降低企业的营运成本。

  11. Hinge Dimension: An Exploration of Enaction in Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Franinovic, Karmen; Wilson, Alexander

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we address issues of technologically mediated enactive experience with and within architectural contexts, and the ways in which it may affect our relationships to constructed surroundings. We present the conceptual ideas and design development of the Hinge Dimension project......, an interactive architecture which is activated and transformed though the actions of its inhabitants. Changing structural, sonic and luminous arrangements continuously produce different spatial experiences as visitors move though the architecture. We summarize the results that we gathered during the public...

  12. Biomechanical Analysis of the Effects of Bilateral Hinged Knee Bracing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hangil; Ha, Dokyeong; Kang, Yeoun-Seung; Park, Hyung-Soon

    2016-01-01

    This research analyzed the effect of bilateral hinged knee braces on a healthy knee from a biomechanical frame in vivo. This was accomplished by fitting a knee brace with two customized wireless force/torque (F/T) sensors that could readily record force and torque during live motion, while the kinetics at the knee were computed using the inverse dynamics of the motion capture and force plate data. Four tasks to test the brace’s effects were drop vertical jumping, pivoting, stop vertical jumping, and cutting. The results showed that the hinges in the knee brace can absorb up to 18% of the force and 2.7% of the torque at the knee during various athletic motions. Thus, the hinges demonstrated minimal effect in reducing the mechanical load on the knee. There were limitations concerning the consistency of the motions performed by the subjects during the trials and the influence of the other portions of the brace to evaluate the overall effectiveness of the brace as a whole. Future works may incorporate a fatigue protocol and injured subjects to better determine the effects of the brace. There is still a need for more research on the biomechanical influence of knee braces to develop safer and more effective products. PMID:27379233

  13. Biomechanical Analysis of the Effects of Bilateral Hinged Knee Bracing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hangil; Ha, Dokyeong; Kang, Yeoun-Seung; Park, Hyung-Soon

    2016-01-01

    This research analyzed the effect of bilateral hinged knee braces on a healthy knee from a biomechanical frame in vivo. This was accomplished by fitting a knee brace with two customized wireless force/torque (F/T) sensors that could readily record force and torque during live motion, while the kinetics at the knee were computed using the inverse dynamics of the motion capture and force plate data. Four tasks to test the brace's effects were drop vertical jumping, pivoting, stop vertical jumping, and cutting. The results showed that the hinges in the knee brace can absorb up to 18% of the force and 2.7% of the torque at the knee during various athletic motions. Thus, the hinges demonstrated minimal effect in reducing the mechanical load on the knee. There were limitations concerning the consistency of the motions performed by the subjects during the trials and the influence of the other portions of the brace to evaluate the overall effectiveness of the brace as a whole. Future works may incorporate a fatigue protocol and injured subjects to better determine the effects of the brace. There is still a need for more research on the biomechanical influence of knee braces to develop safer and more effective products.

  14. Encephalomyocarditis virus Leader protein hinge domain is responsible for interactions with Ran GTPase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacot-Davis, Valjean R; Palmenberg, Ann C

    2013-08-15

    Encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV), a Cardiovirus, initiates its polyprotein with a short 67 amino acid Leader (L) sequence. The protein acts as a unique pathogenicity factor, with anti-host activities which include the triggering of nuclear pore complex hyperphosphorylation and direct binding inhibition of the active cellular transport protein, Ran GTPase. Chemical modifications and protein mutagenesis now map the Ran binding domain to the L hinge-linker region, and in particular, to amino acids 35-40. Large deletions affecting this region were shown previously to diminish Ran binding. New point mutations, especially K35Q, D37A and W40A, preserve the intact L structure, abolish Ran binding and are deficient for nucleoporin (Nup) hyperphosphorylation. Ran itself morphs through multiple configurations, but reacts most effectively with L when in the GDP format, preferably with an empty nucleotide binding pocket. Therefore, L:Ran binding, mediated by the linker-hinge, is a required step in L-induced nuclear transport inhibition.

  15. Direct observation of T4 lysozyme hinge-bending motion by fluorescence correlation spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yirdaw, Robel B; McHaourab, Hassane S

    2012-10-01

    Bacteriophage T4 Lysozyme (T4L) catalyzes the hydrolysis of the peptidoglycan layer of the bacterial cell wall late in the infection cycle. It has long been postulated that equilibrium dynamics enable substrate access to the active site located at the interface between the N- and C-terminal domains. Crystal structures of WT-T4L and point mutants captured a range of conformations that differ by the hinge-bending angle between the two domains. Evidence of equilibrium between open and closed conformations in solution was gleaned from distance measurements between the two domains but the nature of the equilibrium and the timescale of the underlying motion have not been investigated. Here, we used fluorescence fluctuation spectroscopy to directly detect T4L equilibrium conformational fluctuations in solution. For this purpose, Tetramethylrhodamine probes were introduced at pairs of cysteines in regions of the molecule that undergo relative displacement upon transition from open to closed conformations. Correlation analysis of Tetramethylrhodamine intensity fluctuations reveals hinge-bending motion that changes the relative distance and orientation of the N- and C-terminal domains with ≅ 15 μs relaxation time. That this motion involves interconversion between open and closed conformations was further confirmed by the dampening of its amplitude upon covalent substrate trapping. In contrast to the prevalent two-state model of T4L equilibrium, molecular brightness and number of particles obtained from cumulant analysis suggest that T4L populates multiple intermediate states, consistent with the wide range of hinge-bending angles trapped in the crystal structure of T4L mutants.

  16. Pseudo random interpretation of double hinged ALP under aerodynamic loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moazzam Aslam

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Wind produces three different types of effects on structure: static, dynamic and aerodynamic. When the structure deflects in response to wind load then the dynamic and aerodynamic effects should be analysed. The basic mode of an articulated tower is the motion characterized by rigid body sway compliant with a relatively high natural period. The higher modes of oscillation have smaller periods, and their influence is rather insignificant in the overall platform motion. Since the wind velocity spectrum of the fluctuating component has lower frequency energy content, the wind induced vibration of an articulated tower may be significant. The wind induced overturning moment increases linearly with the height of the structure, and thus, as these structures are built in deep and deeper water, the effects of wind drag then become increasingly significant in design. To approach towards the realistic environment, the dynamic analysis of double-hinged articulated tower under the action of wind, waves and current has been carried out. The wave forces with the interaction of current have been computed by the application of Stokes’ fifth order nonlinear wave theory. The sea state with respect to wind speed of 25 m/s (Hs = 18.03 m, Tz = 13.59 s has been considered and standard wind velocity spectrum Ahsan Kareem has been used for the dynamic analysis. The Pierson Moskowitz sea surface elevation spectrum has been used to model the random wave loads. The responses have been obtained under multi-point wind field. The study shows that energy content under combined action of wave and wind forces is more than energy derived under wave alone forces. Results also show that upper hinge is more dynamically active than lower hinge due to wind forces. PSDF shows that wind forces do not practically affect the bending moment, which is predominantly governed by the second mode of frequency; however, the other response parameters like deck displacement, hinge

  17. Immobilization of the distal hinge in the labile serpin plasminogen activator inhibitor 1: identification of a transition state with distinct conformational and functional properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Taeye, Bart; Compernolle, Griet; Dewilde, Maarten; Biesemans, Wouter; Declerck, Paul J

    2003-06-27

    The serpin plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) plays an important role in the regulation of the fibrinolytic activity in blood. In plasma, PAI-1 circulates mainly in the active conformation. However, PAI-1 spontaneously converts to a latent conformation. This conversion comprises drastic conformational changes in both the distal and the proximal hinge region of the reactive center loop. To study the functional and conformational rearrangements associated solely with the mobility of the proximal hinge, disulfide bonds were introduced to immobilize the distal hinge region. These mutants exhibited specific activities comparable with that of PAI-1-wt. However, the engineered disulfide bond had a major effect on the conformational and associated functional transitions. Strikingly, in contrast to PAI-1-wt, inactivation of these mutants yielded a virtually complete conversion to a substrate-like conformation. Comparison of the digestion pattern (with trypsin and elastase) of the mutants and PAI-1-wt revealed that the inactivated mutants have a conformation differing from that of latent and active PAI-1-wt. Unique trypsin-susceptible cleavage sites arose upon inactivation of these mutants. The localization of these exposed residues provides evidence that a displacement of alphahF has occurred, indicating that the proximal hinge is partly inserted between s3A and s5A. In conclusion, immobilization of the distal hinge region in PAI-1 allowed the identification of an "intermediate" conformation characterized by a partial insertion of the proximal hinge region. We hypothesize that locking PAI-1 in this transition state between active and latent conformations is associated with a displacement of alphahF, subsequently resulting in substrate behavior.

  18. Infant mortality in the hierarchical merging scenario: Dependency on gas expulsion timescales

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, Rory; Fellhauer, Michael; Assmann, Paulina

    2012-01-01

    We examine the effects of gas expulsion on initially sub-structured and out-of-equilibrium star clusters. We perform N-body simulations of the evolution of star clusters in a static background potential before adjusting that potential to model gas expulsion. We investigate the impact of varying the rate at which the gas is removed, and the instant at which gas removal begins. Reducing the rate at which the gas is expelled results in an increase in cluster survival. Quantitatively, this dependency is approximately in agreement with previous studies, despite their use of smooth, and virialised initial stellar distributions. However, the instant at which gas expulsion occurs is found to have a strong effect on cluster response to gas removal. We find if gas expulsion occurs prior to one crossing time, cluster response is poorly described by any global parameters. Furthermore in real clusters the instant of gas expulsion is poorly constrained. Therefore our results emphasis the highly stochastic and variable resp...

  19. The expulsion of Jesuits from Nueva Granada in 185Oas key for understanding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José David Cortés Guerrero

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This article shows the confrontation between the liberal ideology of the mid nineteenth century and the conservative positions of the time as a result of the expulsion of the Society of Jesus from the Nueva Granada. The expulsion of the Jesuits encapsulates several key aspects of liberal ideology: the need to break with the colonial past; progress and civilization as attainable objectives; education as a neutral in terms of religious instruction; and the separation of the Catholic Church from the State as an important factor for reaching modernization and modernity. With the expulsion of the Jesuits one can also see the aligning of the nascent political parties, some defended the expulsión, others opposed it vehemently.

  20. Characterization of a Strong Repression Domain in the Hinge Region of Orphan Nuclear Receptor hB1F/hLRH-1%孤儿核受体hB1F/hLRH-1铰链区一个保守结构域对其转录功能的抑制作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐平龙; 单仕芳; 孔玉英; 谢幼华; 汪垣

    2003-01-01

    孤儿核受体hB1F(NR5A2, 也称之为LRH-1、CPF或FTF)在胆汁酸合成代谢、乙肝病毒基因和部分肝特异性基因表达的调控中起着重要的作用.为理解hB1F激活转录的分子机制, 对其铰链区潜在的功能结构域进行了分析.利用GAL4-DBD融合的hB1F缺失片段所进行的报告基因分析, 发现了一个位于铰链区的强烈抑制hB1F反式激活能力的结构域.该结构域核心残基的定点突变导致了hB1F反式激活能力的显著上升, 而且明显地增强hB1F对乙肝病毒增强子II/ 核心启动子的转录激活能力.生物信息学分析显示该结构域不存在明显的二级结构,但有意思的是, 其氨基酸序列在核受体FTZ-F1亚家族的成员中高度保守, 且不见于其他蛋白质中.转染分析发现, 该结构域的抑制活性存在于测试的五个不同细胞株中, 但抑制的强度表现出明显差异.半定量RT-PCR分析表明, 与SF-1不同, 该结构域抑制转录活性的强度与潜在的结合因子DP103的表达水平之间没有相关性.共转染实验还表明, 参与hB1F转录活性调控的辅激活子SRC-1和辅抑制子SMRT与该抑制作用不直接相关.实验结果提示, 孤儿核受体hB1F转录活性可能存在一种新的调控机制.%Human hepatitis B virus enhancer II B1 binding factor (hB1F,also known as NR5A2, LRH-1, FTF or CPF) is an orphan nuclear receptor and belongs to the fushi tarazu factor I (FTZ-F1) subfamily. It plays important roles in the transcriptional regulation of a number of genes involved in bile acid biosynthesis pathway, hepatitis B virus (HBV) replication and liver specific regulatory network. Like other nuclear receptors, hB1F is composed of modular functional domains. We characterized a domain in its hinge region that imposes a strong repression on the transcriptional activity of hB1F, which is important for the function of hB1F on regulating the activity of HBV enhancer II/core promoter. Mutations of the core

  1. The nucleotide addition cycle of RNA polymerase is controlled by two molecular hinges in the Bridge Helix domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weinzierl Robert OJ

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cellular RNA polymerases (RNAPs are complex molecular machines that combine catalysis with concerted conformational changes in the active center. Previous work showed that kinking of a hinge region near the C-terminus of the Bridge Helix (BH-HC plays a critical role in controlling the catalytic rate. Results Here, new evidence for the existence of an additional hinge region in the amino-terminal portion of the Bridge Helix domain (BH-HN is presented. The nanomechanical properties of BH-HN emerge as a direct consequence of the highly conserved primary amino acid sequence. Mutations that are predicted to influence its flexibility cause corresponding changes in the rate of the nucleotide addition cycle (NAC. BH-HN displays functional properties that are distinct from BH-HC, suggesting that conformational changes in the Bridge Helix control the NAC via two independent mechanisms. Conclusions The properties of two distinct molecular hinges in the Bridge Helix of RNAP determine the functional contribution of this domain to key stages of the NAC by coordinating conformational changes in surrounding domains.

  2. Characterization of flexure hinges for the French watt balance experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinot Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the French watt balance experiment, the translation and rotation functions must have no backlash, no friction, nor the need for lubricants. In addition errors in position and movement must be below 100 nm. Flexure hinges can meet all of these criteria. Different materials, profile shapes and machining techniques have been studied. The flexure pivots have been characterized using three techniques: 1 an optical microscope and, if necessary, a SEM to observe the surface inhomogeneities; 2 a mass comparator to determine the bending stiffness of unloaded pivots; 3 a loaded beam oscillating freely under vacuum to study the dynamic behavior of loaded pivots.

  3. Instability of modes in a partially hinged rectangular plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Vanderley; Gazzola, Filippo; Moreira dos Santos, Ederson

    2016-12-01

    We consider a thin and narrow rectangular plate where the two short edges are hinged whereas the two long edges are free. This plate aims to represent the deck of a bridge, either a footbridge or a suspension bridge. We study a nonlocal evolution equation modeling the deformation of the plate and we prove existence, uniqueness and asymptotic behavior for the solutions for all initial data in suitable functional spaces. Then we prove results on the stability/instability of simple modes motivated by a phenomenon which is visible in actual bridges and we complement these theorems with some numerical experiments.

  4. Characterization of flexure hinges for the French watt balance experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinot, Patrick; Genevès, Gérard

    2014-08-01

    In the French watt balance experiment, the translation and rotation functions must have no backlash, no friction, nor the need for lubricants. In addition errors in position and movement must be below 100 nm. Flexure hinges can meet all of these criteria. Different materials, profile shapes and machining techniques have been studied. The flexure pivots have been characterized using three techniques: 1) an optical microscope and, if necessary, a SEM to observe the surface inhomogeneities; 2) a mass comparator to determine the bending stiffness of unloaded pivots; 3) a loaded beam oscillating freely under vacuum to study the dynamic behavior of loaded pivots.

  5. The effect of the dynamical state of clusters on gas expulsion and infant mortality

    CERN Document Server

    Goodwin, Simon P

    2008-01-01

    The star formation efficiency (SFE) of a star cluster is thought to be the critical factor in determining if the cluster can survive for a significant (>50 Myr) time. There is an often quoted critical SFE of ~30 per cent for a cluster to survive gas expulsion. I reiterate that the SFE is not the critical factor, rather it is the dynamical state of the stars (as measured by their virial ratio) immediately before gas expulsion that is the critical factor. If the stars in a star cluster are born in an even slightly cold dynamical state then the survivability of a cluster can be greatly increased.

  6. Putting matters on the triangle-hinge models

    CERN Document Server

    Fukuma, Masafumi; Umeda, Naoya

    2015-01-01

    In a recent paper [arXiv:1503.08812] a new class of models generating three-dimensional random volumes are introduced, where the Boltzmann weight of each configuration is given by the product of values assigned to the triangles and the hinges. These triangle-hinge models are characterized by semisimple associative algebras, and the set of possible diagrams can be reduced such that only and all of the three-dimensional manifolds with tetrahedral decompositions are generated. In this letter, we give a general prescription to put matters on the models. We show that the degrees of freedom representing matter fields can be assigned to simplices of any dimensions (tetrahedra, triangles, edges and vertices) in such a way that they have local interactions. Simple examples include the Ising model, the q-state Potts models and the RSOS models coupled to three-dimensional quantum gravity. We also show that the three-dimensional colored tensor models can be obtained by putting specific matters on both tetrahedra and tria...

  7. Factors affecting duration of the expulsive stage of parturition and piglet birth intervals in sows with uncomplicated, spontaneous farrowings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, van A.D.J.; Rens, van B.T.T.M.; Lende, van der T.; Taverne, M.A.M.

    2005-01-01

    Modern pig farming is still confronted with high perinatal piglet losses which are mainly contributed to factors associated with the progress of piglet expulsion. Therefore the aim of this study was to identify sow- and piglet factors affecting the duration of the expulsive stage of farrowing and pi

  8. Generation and expulsion of oils from Permian coals of the Sydney Basin, Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, M.; Volk, H.; George, S.C.; Faiz, M.; Stalker, L. [CSIRO Petrology, Sydney, NSW (Australia)

    2009-07-15

    Organic geochemical and petrological assessment of coals/coaly shales and fine grained sediments, coupled with organic geochemical analyses of oil samples, all from Permo-Triassic sections of the Southern Sydney Basin (Australia), have enabled identification of the source for the widely distributed oil shows and oil seeps in this region. The Permian coals have higher hydrogen indices, higher liptinite contents, and much higher total organic matter extract yields than the fine grained sediments. A variety of source specific parameters obtained from n-alkanes, regular isoprenoids, terpanes, steranes and diasteranes indicate that the oil shows and seeps were generated and expelled predominantly from higher plant derived organic matter deposited in oxic environments. The source and maturity related biomarkers and aromatic hydrocarbon distributions of the oils are similar to those of the coals. The oil-coal relationship also is demonstrated by similarities in the carbon isotopic composition of the total oils, coal extracts, and their individual n-alkanes. Extracts from the Permo-Triassic fine grained sediments, on the other hand, have organic geochemical signatures indicative of mixed terrestrial and prokaryotic organic matter deposited in suboxic environments, which are significantly different from both the oils and coal extracts. The molecular signatures indicating the presence of prokaryotic organic matter in some of the coal extracts and oils may be due to thin sections of possibly calcareous lithologies interbedded within the coal measures. The genetic relationship between the oils and coals provides new evidence for the generation and expulsion of oils from the Permian coals and raises the possibility for commercial oil accumulations in the Permian and Early Triassic sandstones, potentially in the deeper offshore part of the Sydney Basin.

  9. Static deformation modeling and analysis of flexure hinges made of a shape memory alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Zhijiang; Yang, Miao; Dong, Wei; Zhang, Dan

    2016-11-01

    The flexure hinge is a key element in compliant mechanisms to achieve continuous motion; however the motion range of a flexure hinge is severely restricted by the material’s allowable strain. Due to the superelasticity effect, shape memory alloys (SMAs) can undergo much larger strain than other metals; this means that they are excellent candidates for the fabrication of flexure hinges with a large motion range. In this paper, a simple static deformation modeling approach is proposed for a flexure hinge made of a SMA. The superelastic behavior of the SMA is described by Brinson’s constitutive model. The flexure hinge is considered as a non-prismatic cantilever beam associated with geometrical and material nonlinearities. Govern equations of the flexure hinge are derived and solved numerically by applying the nonlinear bending theory of the Euler-Bernoulli beam. Experimental tests show that the proposed modeling approach can predict the deformation of the flexure hinge precisely; the maximum relative error is less than 6.5%. Based on the static deformation model, the motion capacity, the stiffness characteristic and the rotational error of the flexure hinge are also investigated. The results reveal that the flexure hinge made of a SMA has great potential to construct compliant mechanisms with a large motion range.

  10. Impact of Plastic Hinge Properties on Capacity Curve of Reinforced Concrete Bridges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasim Shatarat

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Pushover analysis is becoming recently the most practical tool for nonlinear analysis of regular and irregular highway bridges. The nonlinear behaviour of structural elements in this type of analysis can be modeled through automated-hinge or user-defined hinge models. The nonlinear properties of the user-defined hinge model for existing highway bridges can be determined in accordance with the recommendations of the Seismic Retrofit Manual by the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA-SRM. Finite element software such as the software SAP2000 offers a simpler and easier approach to determine the nonlinear hinge properties through the automated-hinge model which are determined automatically from the member material and cross section properties. However, the uncertainties in using the automated-hinge model in place of user-defined hinge model have never been addressed, especially for existing and widened bridges. In response to this need, pushover analysis was carried out for four old highway bridges, of which two were widened using the same superstructure but with more attention to seismic detailing requirements. The results of the analyses showed noticeable differences in the capacity curves obtained utilizing the user-defined and automated-hinge models. The study recommends that bridge design manuals clearly ask bridge designers to evaluate the deformation capacities of existing bridges and widened bridges using user-defined hinge model that is determined in accordance with the provisions of the FHWA-SRM.

  11. Indicators for intervention during the expulsive second-stage arrest of labour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Leushuis; M. Tromp; A.C.J. Ravelli; A.M. van Huis; B.W. Mol; G.H.A. Visser; J.A.M. van der Post

    2009-01-01

    Objective To identify antepartum and intrapartum indicators of obstetric interventions during the expulsive second-stage arrest of labour. Design Retrospective cohort study. Setting The Netherlands. Population A cohort of 389 086 women with singleton, cephalic, term, live-birth deliveries from 2002

  12. Effect of UV radiation on the expulsion of Symbiodinium from the coral Pocillopora damicornis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jie; Huang, Hui; Beardall, John; Gao, Kunshan

    2017-01-01

    The variation in density of the symbiotic dinoflagellate Symbiodinum in coral is a basic indicator of coral bleaching, i.e. loss of the symbiotic algae or their photosynthetic pigments. However, in the field corals constantly release their symbiotic algae to surrounding water. To explore the underlying mechanism, the rate of expulsion of zooxanthellae from the coral Pocillopora damicornis was studied over a three-day period under ultraviolet radiation (UVR, 280-400nm) stress. The results showed that the algal expulsion rate appeared 10-20% higher under exposure to UV-A (320-395nm) or UV-B (295-320nm), though the differences were not statistically significant. When corals were exposed to UV-A and UV-B radiation, the maximum expulsion of zooxanthellae occurred at noon (10:00-13:00), and this timing was 1h earlier than in the control without UVR. UVR stress led to obvious decreases in the concentrations of chl a and carotenoids in the coral nubbins after a three-day exposure. Therefore, our results suggested that although the UVR effect on algal expulsion rate was a chronic stress and was not significant within a time frame of only three days, the reduction in chl a and carotenoids may potentially enhance the possibility of coral bleaching over a longer period. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Jewish responses to the decree of expulsion by king Ferdinand and queen Isabella of Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Bekkum, W

    2005-01-01

    The expulsion of the Sephardim - the term for Spain's Jews - was a turning point in the history of the Iberian peninsula. A rising tide of religious fanaticism gradually engulfed Spain, leading to the persecution of 1391 and then, in March 1492, to the decree of the Catholic Monarchs Ferdinand and I

  14. Suspension, Expulsion, and Achievement of English Learner Students in Six Oregon Districts. REL 2015-094

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Arthur

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the rates of exclusionary discipline (i.e., suspensions and expulsions) among English learners and non-English learners in six diverse Oregon districts that serve a third of the state's English learner students. Using 2011/12 databases from the Oregon Department of Education, the study found that differences in suspension and…

  15. Jewish responses to the decree of expulsion by king Ferdinand and queen Isabella of Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Bekkum, W

    2005-01-01

    The expulsion of the Sephardim - the term for Spain's Jews - was a turning point in the history of the Iberian peninsula. A rising tide of religious fanaticism gradually engulfed Spain, leading to the persecution of 1391 and then, in March 1492, to the decree of the Catholic Monarchs Ferdinand and I

  16. Gas expulsion in massive star clusters? Constraints from observations of young and gas-free objects

    CERN Document Server

    Krause, Martin G H; Bastian, Nate; Diehl, Roland

    2015-01-01

    Gas expulsion is a central concept in some of the models for multiple populations and the light-element anticorrelations in globular clusters. If the star formation efficiency was around 30 per cent and the gas expulsion happened on the crossing timescale, this process could expel preferentially stars born with the chemical composition of the proto-cluster gas, while stars with special composition born in the centre would remain bound. Recently, a sample of extragalactic, gas-free, young massive clusters has been identified that has the potential to test the conditions for gas expulsion. We compute a large number of thin shell models, and calculate if the Rayleigh-Taylor instability is able to disrupt the shell before it reaches the escape speed. We show that the success of gas expulsion depends on the compactness index of a star cluster C5, proportionate to stellar mass over half-mass radius. For given C5, a certain critical, local star formation efficiency is required to remove the rest of the gas. Common s...

  17. Contemporary Deportation Raids and Historical Memory: Mexican Expulsions in the Nineteenth Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Jose Angel

    2010-01-01

    The contemporary situation in the United States with respect to Mexican migrants has reached a level of intensity that harkens back to the mass expulsions of the 1930s and the 1950s, when millions were forcefully removed south across the border. Recent deportation raids have targeted food processing plants and other large businesses hiring migrant…

  18. An alternative RNA polymerase I structure reveals a dimer hinge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostrewa, Dirk; Kuhn, Claus-D; Engel, Christoph; Cramer, Patrick

    2015-09-01

    RNA polymerase I (Pol I) is the central, 14-subunit enzyme that synthesizes the ribosomal RNA (rRNA) precursor in eukaryotic cells. The recent crystal structure of Pol I at 2.8 Å resolution revealed two novel elements: the `expander' in the active-centre cleft and the `connector' that mediates Pol I dimerization [Engel et al. (2013), Nature (London), 502, 650-655]. Here, a Pol I structure in an alternative crystal form that was solved by molecular replacement using the original atomic Pol I structure is reported. The resulting alternative structure lacks the expander but still shows an expanded active-centre cleft. The neighbouring Pol I monomers form a homodimer with a relative orientation distinct from that observed previously, establishing the connector as a hinge between Pol I monomers.

  19. A structurally variable hinged tetrahedron framework from DNA origami.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David M; Schüller, Verena; Forthmann, Carsten; Schreiber, Robert; Tinnefeld, Philip; Liedl, Tim

    2011-01-01

    Nanometer-sized polyhedral wire-frame objects hold a wide range of potential applications both as structural scaffolds as well as a basis for synthetic nanocontainers. The utilization of DNA as basic building blocks for such structures allows the exploitation of bottom-up self-assembly in order to achieve molecular programmability through the pairing of complementary bases. In this work, we report on a hollow but rigid tetrahedron framework of 75 nm strut length constructed with the DNA origami method. Flexible hinges at each of their four joints provide a means for structural variability of the object. Through the opening of gaps along the struts, four variants can be created as confirmed by both gel electrophoresis and direct imaging techniques. The intrinsic site addressability provided by this technique allows the unique targeted attachment of dye and/or linker molecules at any point on the structure's surface, which we prove through the superresolution fluorescence microscopy technique DNA PAINT.

  20. Experimental Research on Fatigue Performance of Hinge Joints of Hinged Slab Bridge%铰接板桥铰缝疲劳性能试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐先习; 尹月酉; 国伟; 徐岳

    2015-01-01

    For the research on fatigue performance of hinge joints with different structures ,two hinged slab bridges with deep hinge joints and shallow hinge joints were adopted in the experiments .Based on the results of the transverse strains regularity of hinge joints at the middle span of hinged slab ,the researches on the fatigue performance of the hinge joints were carried out .The transverse strains of hinge joints include the concrete transverse strain at the bottom and the top of hinge joints ,and the transverse strain of the connection steels in hinge joints .The experimental results suggest that , within 2 × 106 times of fatigue load ,due to the relatively small fatigue amplitudes ,the concrete and reinforcement strain values of hinge joints decrease as static load applied after the fatigue cycle of certain numbers ,with the increasing of fa-tigue cycle number ,the changes of the strain values tend to be more stable .When the fatigue cycle number is more than 2 × 106 times ,as the fatigue amplitudes increase ,the influence on the damage of shallow hinge joints by fatigue load is great ,but no obvious influence on deep hinge joints .Therefore ,the fatigue load with certain fatigue amplitude is a major factor which causes the destruction of shallow hinge joints ,and the fatigue damage resistance performance of deep hinge joints is much better than shallow hinge joints .%为研究不同构造的铰接板桥铰缝的疲劳性能,采用深铰缝和浅铰缝两种形式的铰接板桥进行试验研究,通过对跨中铰缝顶底部混凝土的横向应变规律及铰缝内部横向连接钢筋的应变规律进行对比分析,对铰缝的疲劳性能进行研究。试验结果表明,在200万次疲劳荷载以前,由于疲劳幅值相对较小,随着疲劳次数的增加,完成一定疲劳循环后施加静载时铰缝混凝土及钢筋的应变值逐渐减小,应变值的变化趋于更加稳定。当疲劳次数超过200万次后,由于疲劳幅

  1. The Efficacy of Medical Expulsive Therapy (MET) in Improving Stone-free Rate and Stone Expulsion Time, After Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy (SWL) for Upper Urinary Stones: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skolarikos, Andreas; Grivas, Nikolaos; Kallidonis, Panagiotis; Mourmouris, Panagiotis; Rountos, Thomas; Fiamegos, Alexandros; Stavrou, Sotirios; Venetis, Chris

    2015-12-01

    In this meta-analysis, we included randomized studies on medical expulsive therapy implemented following shock wave lithotripsy for renal and ureteral stones. Pooled results demonstrated the efficacy of α-blockers, nifedipine, Rowatinex, and Uriston in increasing stone clearance. In addition, the time to stone elimination, the intensity of pain, the formation of steinstrasse, and the need for auxiliary procedures were reduced mainly with α-blockers. Expulsion rate was not correlated with the type of α-blocker, the diameter, and the location of stone. Our results show that medical expulsive therapy for residual fragments after shock wave lithotripsy should be implemented in clinical practice.

  2. 用于微机电系统的叉形微铰链%Micro Fork Hinge for MEMS Devices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Flexible beams are often used for rotation in MEMS (Micro Electro Mechanical Systems) devices to avoid the friction problems associated with hinge. However, the rotation angle of flexible beam is very limited and not enough for many applications. In this paper, we introduce a quasi hinge structure named as Fork Hinge, which has a larger equivalent rotation angle (e.g.10 times lager) and is more stable than the flexible hinge, while keeping its interesting properties. We develop an analytical model and simulate the Fork hinge behavior with FEM analysis. We find a good correlation with Fork Hinges fabricated using a SOI (Silicon on Insulator) wafer and DRIE (Deep Reactive Ion Etching).

  3. Design of Hierarchically Cut Hinges for Highly Stretchable and Reconfigurable Metamaterials with Enhanced Strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yichao; Lin, Gaojian; Han, Lin; Qiu, Songgang; Yang, Shu; Yin, Jie

    2015-11-25

    Applying hierarchical cuts to thin sheets of elastomer generates super-stretchable and reconfigurable metamaterials, exhibiting highly nonlinear stress-strain behaviors and tunable phononic bandgaps. The cut concept fails on brittle thin sheets due to severe stress concentration in the rotating hinges. By engineering the local hinge shapes and global hierarchical structure, cut-based reconfigurable metamaterials with largely enhanced strength are realized.

  4. Parametric analysis and temperature effect of deployable hinged shells using shape memory polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Ran; Yang, Qing-Sheng; He, Xiao-Qiao; Liew, Kim-Meow

    2016-11-01

    Shape memory polymers (SMPs) are a class of intelligent materials, which are defined by their capacity to store a temporary shape and recover an original shape. In this work, the shape memory effect of SMP deployable hinged shell is simulated by using compiled user defined material subroutine (UMAT) subroutine of ABAQUS. Variations of bending moment and strain energy of the hinged shells with different temperatures and structural parameters in the loading process are given. The effects of the parameters and temperature on the nonlinear deformation process are emphasized. The entire thermodynamic cycle of SMP deployable hinged shell includes loading at high temperature, load carrying with cooling, unloading at low temperature and recovering the original shape with heating. The results show that the complicated thermo-mechanical deformation and shape memory effect of SMP deployable hinge are influenced by the structural parameters and temperature. The design ability of SMP smart hinged structures in practical application is prospected.

  5. Spin transfer driven resonant expulsion of a magnetic vortex core for efficient rf detector

    CERN Document Server

    Menshawy, Samh; Merazzo, Karla J; Vila, Laurent; Ferreira, Ricardo; Cyrille, Marie-Claire; Ebels, Ursula; Bortolotti, Paolo; Kermorvant, Julien; Cros, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    Spin transfer magnetization dynamics have led to considerable advances in Spintronics, including opportunities for new nanoscale radiofrequency devices. Among the new functionalities is the radiofrequency(rf) detection using the spin diode rectification effect in spin torque nano-oscillators (STNOs). In this study, we focus on a new phenomenon, the resonant expulsion of a magnetic vortex in STNOs. This effect is observed when the excitation vortex radius, due to spin torques associated to rf currents, becomes larger than the actual radius of the STNO. This vortex expulsion is leading to a sharp variation of the voltage at the resonant frequency. Here we show that the detected frequency can be tuned by different parameters; furthermore, a simultaneous detection of different rf signals can be achieved by real time measurements with several STNOs having different diameters. This result constitutes a first proof-of-principle towards the development of a new kind of nanoscale rf threshold detector.

  6. The Question of Abelian Higgs Hair Expulsion from Extremal Dilaton Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Moderski, R; Moderski, Rafal; Rogatko, Marek

    1999-01-01

    It has been argued that the extremal dilaton black holes exhibit a flux expulsion of Abelian-Higgs vortices. We re-examine carefully the problem and give analytic proofs for the flux expulsion always takes place. We also conduct numerical analysis of the problem using three initial data sets on the horizon of an extreme dilatonic black hole, namely, core, vacuum and sinusoidal initial conditions. We also show that an Abelian-Higgs vortex can end on the extremal dilaton black hole. Concluding, we calculate the backreaction of the Abelian-Higgs vortex on the geometry of the extremal black hole and drew a conclusion that a straight cosmic string and the extreme dilaton black hole hardly knew their presence.

  7. A Reappraisal of the Expulsion of Illegal Immigrants from Nigeria in 1983

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daouda Gary-Tounkara

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, Nigeria has been quietly expelling more and more immigrants from Niger, Mali, Chad and Cameroon. These foreigners – migrant workers or small traders – face the reinforcement of migration control and the blind fight of the government against Boko Haram. Despite its political instability, Nigeria remains a major immigration destination in West Africa. In this article, I analyze the “undocumented” expulsion of aliens in 1983, officially three million people. I argue that the expulsion was due to the economic crisis but also to a nationalist revenge against Ghana and a political calculation of President Shagari. This implies the exclusion of foreigners from the national labour market and the weakening of the supposed electoral base of his opponents.

  8. Characteristics of hydrocarbon generation and expulsion in matrix and stylolite of carbonate rocks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高岗; 郝石生; 王晖

    1999-01-01

    Characteristics of organic matter content, hydrocarbon generation and expulsion of carbonate rocks are discussed by analysis of organic carbon and pyrolysis. There is a strong inhomogeneity in distribution of organic matter in carbonate rocks. The organic matter abundance is higher in stylolites, carbonate varves or marls, while it is the lowest in matrixes (purer carbonate rocks around stylolites). Because of stable thickness and broad area, marls and carbonate varves may become good source rocks. At the same depth, stylolites, carbonate varves and matrixes generate and expel hydrocarbons almost at the same time. Expulsion efficiency of carbonate varve is the highest; that of matrixes is the lowest and that of stylolites is between marl’s or carbonate varve’s and matrix’ s.

  9. Late Complication after Superficial Femoral Artery (SFA) Aneurysm: Stent-graft Expulsion Outside the Skin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pecoraro, Felice, E-mail: felicepecoraro@libero.it; Sabatino, Ermanno R.; Dinoto, Ettore; Rosa, Giuliana La; Corte, Giuseppe; Bajardi, Guido [University of Palermo, Vascular Surgery Unit (Italy)

    2015-10-15

    A 78-year-old man presented with a 7-cm aneurysm in the left superficial femoral artery, which was considered unfit and anatomically unsuitable for conventional open surgery for multiple comorbidities. The patient was treated with stent-graft [Viabhan stent-graft (WL Gore and Associates, Flagstaff, AZ)]. Two years from stent-graft implantation, the patient presented a purulent secretion and a spontaneous external expulsion through a fistulous channel. No claudication symptoms or hemorrhagic signs were present. The pus and device cultures were positive for Staphylococcus aureus sensitive to piperacillin/tazobactam. Patient management consisted of fistula drainage, systemic antibiotic therapy, and daily wound dressing. At 1-month follow-up, the wound was closed. To our knowledge, this is the first case of this type of stent-graft complication presenting with external expulsion.

  10. Posterior Uterine Rupture Causing Fetal Expulsion into the Abdominal Cavity: A Rare Case of Neonatal Survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Navaratnam

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Uterine rupture is a potentially catastrophic complication of vaginal birth after caesarean section. We describe the sixth case of posterior uterine rupture, with intact lower segment scar, and the first neonatal survival after expulsion into the abdominal cavity with posterior rupture. Case Presentation. A multiparous woman underwent prostaglandin induction of labour for postmaturity, after one previous caesarean section. Emergency caesarean section for bradycardia revealed a complete posterior uterine rupture, with fetal and placental expulsion. Upon delivery, the baby required inflation breaths only. The patient required a subtotal hysterectomy but returned home on day 5 postnatally with her healthy baby. Discussion. Vaginal birth after caesarean section constitutes a trial of labour, and the obstetrician must be reactive to labour events. Posterior uterine rupture is extremely rare and may occur without conventional signs. Good maternal and fetal outcome is possible with a prompt, coordinated team response.

  11. The Path to High Q-Factors in Superconducting Accelerating Cavities: Flux Expulsion and Surface Resistance Optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinello, Martina [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2016-12-01

    causing temperature rising. The physics behind the magnetic flux expulsion is also analyzed, showing that during a fast cooldown the magnetic field structures, called vortices, tend to move in the same direction of the thermal gradient, from the Meissner state region to the mixed state region, minimizing the Gibbs free energy. On the other hand, during a slow cool down, not only the vortices movement is limited by the absence of thermal gradients, but, also, at the end of the superconducting transition, the magnetic field concentrates along randomly distributed normal-conducting region from which it cannot be expelled anymore. The systematic study of the surface resistance components performed for the different surface treatments, reveals that the BCS surface resistance and the trapped flux surface resistance have opposite trends as a function of the surface impurity content, defined by the mean free path. At medium field value, the BCS surface resistance is minimized for nitrogen-doped cavities and significantly larger for standard niobium cavities. On the other hand, Nitrogen-doped cavities show larger dissipation due to trapped flux. This is consequence of the bell-shaped trend of the trapped flux sensitivity as a function of the mean free path. Such experimental findings allow also a better understanding of the RF dissipation due to trapped flux. The best compromise between all the surface resistance components, taking into account the possibility of trapping some external magnetic field, is given by light nitrogen-doping treatments. However, the beneficial effects of the nitrogen-doping is completely lost when large amount of magnetic field is trapped during the cooldown, underlying the importance of both cooldown and magnetic field shielding optimization in high quality factors cryomodules.

  12. Faecal egg counts and expulsion dynamics of the whipworm, Trichuris trichiura following self-infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, E P; Tejedor, A M; Thamsborg, S M

    2015-01-01

    albendazole or 500 mg mebendazole (MBZ) are used in mass drug administration programmes, but this has been shown to be insufficient. In this study, worm expulsion dynamics are described after MBZ treatment, given as a multi-dose and single-dose treatment in two separate T. trichiura self-infection studies...... as the fecundity of female worms, which was around 18,000 eggs/female per day....

  13. Factors affecting duration of the expulsive stage of parturition and piglet birth intervals in sows with uncomplicated, spontaneous farrowings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dijk, A J; van Rens, B T T M; van der Lende, T; Taverne, M A M

    2005-10-15

    Modern pig farming is still confronted with high perinatal piglet losses which are mainly contributed to factors associated with the progress of piglet expulsion. Therefore the aim of this study was to identify sow- and piglet factors affecting the duration of the expulsive stage of farrowing and piglet birth intervals in spontaneous farrowing sows originating from five different breeds. In total 211 litters were investigated. Breed affected duration of the expulsive stage significantly: the shortest duration was found in Large White x Meishan F2 crossbred litters and the longest duration in Dutch Landrace litters. No effect of parity on the duration of the expulsive stage was found. An increase in littersize (Pgestation length (Ppigs.

  14. Faecal egg counts and expulsion dynamics of the whipworm, Trichuris trichiura following self-infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, E P; Tejedor, A M; Thamsborg, S M; Alstrup Hansen, T V; Dahlerup, J F; Nejsum, P

    2016-05-01

    More than 400 million humans are estimated to be infected with the intestinal helminth parasite, Trichuris trichiura. The infection is chronic in nature and high-intensity infection can lead to colitis, anaemia, Trichuris Dysentery Syndrome and reduced cognitive performance. Single doses of 400 mg albendazole or 500 mg mebendazole (MBZ) are used in mass drug administration programmes, but this has been shown to be insufficient. In this study, worm expulsion dynamics are described after MBZ treatment, given as a multi-dose and single-dose treatment in two separate T. trichiura self-infection studies. Worm expulsion dynamics post-treatment showed a similar pattern regardless of the dose regime, with the first worms observed on day 2 and the last worms expelled on days 9 and 13 post-treatment. Establishment of a chronic infection was observed following the inefficient single-dose treatment. The prepatent period was 13-16 weeks in both studies and worms were found to have a lifespan of at least 1 year and 10 months. These self-infection studies provide key information on the chronicity of T. trichiura infections, expulsion dynamics after anthelmintic treatment and the prepatent period, as well as the fecundity of female worms, which was around 18,000 eggs/female per day.

  15. Air curtain development: an energy harvesting solution for hinged doors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayal, Vineed; Lee, Soobum

    2017-04-01

    The paper proposes a fully mechanical air curtain system that will be powered solely by harvested energy from common hinged doors. The average person uses this type of door several times a day with an almost unconscious amount of applied force and effort. This leads to a high potential of energy to be harvested in doorways that see high traffic and frequent operation7 . Frequently opened door entry ways have always been regarded as a major element that causes significant energy loss and contaminated air conditions in buildings6 . Private companies, particularly those with warehouses, have introduced commercial electrical air curtains to block the open entrances from invading cold air11. This project intends to introduce an original design of air curtain which operates fans only when the door opens and closes, by directly converting door motion to fan rotation without any electronic motor or power cable. The air stream created by this device will prevent the transfer of outside air and contaminants. Research will be conducted to determine the most efficient method of harvesting energy from door use, and the prototyping process will be conducted to meet the required performance of current air curtain models.

  16. A Structurally Variable Hinged Tetrahedron Framework from DNA Origami

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David M.; Schüller, Verena; Forthmann, Carsten; Schreiber, Robert; Tinnefeld, Philip; Liedl, Tim

    2011-01-01

    Nanometer-sized polyhedral wire-frame objects hold a wide range of potential applications both as structural scaffolds as well as a basis for synthetic nanocontainers. The utilization of DNA as basic building blocks for such structures allows the exploitation of bottom-up self-assembly in order to achieve molecular programmability through the pairing of complementary bases. In this work, we report on a hollow but rigid tetrahedron framework of 75 nm strut length constructed with the DNA origami method. Flexible hinges at each of their four joints provide a means for structural variability of the object. Through the opening of gaps along the struts, four variants can be created as confirmed by both gel electrophoresis and direct imaging techniques. The intrinsic site addressability provided by this technique allows the unique targeted attachment of dye and/or linker molecules at any point on the structure's surface, which we prove through the superresolution fluorescence microscopy technique DNA PAINT. PMID:21941629

  17. A Structurally Variable Hinged Tetrahedron Framework from DNA Origami

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M. Smith

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanometer-sized polyhedral wire-frame objects hold a wide range of potential applications both as structural scaffolds as well as a basis for synthetic nanocontainers. The utilization of DNA as basic building blocks for such structures allows the exploitation of bottom-up self-assembly in order to achieve molecular programmability through the pairing of complementary bases. In this work, we report on a hollow but rigid tetrahedron framework of 75 nm strut length constructed with the DNA origami method. Flexible hinges at each of their four joints provide a means for structural variability of the object. Through the opening of gaps along the struts, four variants can be created as confirmed by both gel electrophoresis and direct imaging techniques. The intrinsic site addressability provided by this technique allows the unique targeted attachment of dye and/or linker molecules at any point on the structure's surface, which we prove through the superresolution fluorescence microscopy technique DNA PAINT.

  18. The difficult early stages of embedded star clusters and the importance of the pre-gas expulsion virial ratio

    OpenAIRE

    Farias, J. P.; Smith, R; Fellhauer, M.; Goodwin, S.; Candlish, G. N.; Blaña, M.; R. Dominguez

    2015-01-01

    We examine the effects of gas-expulsion on initially substructured distributions of stars. We perform N-body simulations of the evolution of these distributions in a static background potential to mimic the gas. We remove the static potential instantaneously to model gas-expulsion. We find that the exact dynamical state of the cluster plays a very strong role in affecting a cluster's survival, especially at early times: they may be entirely destroyed or only weakly affected. We show that know...

  19. Partial and complete expulsion of the Multiload 375 IUD and the levonorgestrel-releasing IUD after correct insertion

    OpenAIRE

    Merki-Feld, G.S.; Schwarz, D.; Imthurn, B.; Keller, P. J.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The contraceptive efficacy of intrauterine devices (IUD) is thought to relate to the position of the IUD in the uterine cavity. Several trials examined the number of copper IUD expulsions, but none evaluated the partial and complete expulsion rate of the levonorgestrel-releasing device (LNG-IUD). STUDY DESIGN: This retrospective cohort study compares the dislocation rate of the Multiload 375 IUD (ML 375) and the LNG-IUD in 214 women (107 subjects with each IUD). Transvaginal ultras...

  20. Identification of Mitral Annulus Hinge Point Based on Local Context Feature and Additive SVM Classifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianming Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The position of the hinge point of mitral annulus (MA is important for segmentation, modeling and multimodalities registration of cardiac structures. The main difficulties in identifying the hinge point of MA are the inherent noisy, low resolution of echocardiography, and so on. This work aims to automatically detect the hinge point of MA by combining local context feature with additive support vector machines (SVM classifier. The innovations are as follows: (1 designing a local context feature for MA in cardiac ultrasound image; (2 applying the additive kernel SVM classifier to identify the candidates of the hinge point of MA; (3 designing a weighted density field of candidates which represents the blocks of candidates; and (4 estimating an adaptive threshold on the weighted density field to get the position of the hinge point of MA and exclude the error from SVM classifier. The proposed algorithm is tested on echocardiographic four-chamber image sequence of 10 pediatric patients. Compared with the manual selected hinge points of MA which are selected by professional doctors, the mean error is in 0.96 ± 1.04 mm. Additive SVM classifier can fast and accurately identify the MA hinge point.

  1. Identification of Mitral Annulus Hinge Point Based on Local Context Feature and Additive SVM Classifier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianming; Liu, Yangchun; Xu, Wei

    2015-01-01

    The position of the hinge point of mitral annulus (MA) is important for segmentation, modeling and multimodalities registration of cardiac structures. The main difficulties in identifying the hinge point of MA are the inherent noisy, low resolution of echocardiography, and so on. This work aims to automatically detect the hinge point of MA by combining local context feature with additive support vector machines (SVM) classifier. The innovations are as follows: (1) designing a local context feature for MA in cardiac ultrasound image; (2) applying the additive kernel SVM classifier to identify the candidates of the hinge point of MA; (3) designing a weighted density field of candidates which represents the blocks of candidates; and (4) estimating an adaptive threshold on the weighted density field to get the position of the hinge point of MA and exclude the error from SVM classifier. The proposed algorithm is tested on echocardiographic four-chamber image sequence of 10 pediatric patients. Compared with the manual selected hinge points of MA which are selected by professional doctors, the mean error is in 0.96 ± 1.04 mm. Additive SVM classifier can fast and accurately identify the MA hinge point.

  2. A PROSPECTIVE STUDY COMPARING TAMSULOSIN AND SILODOSIN IN MEDICAL EXPULSIVE THERAPY FOR LOWER URETERIC STONES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sreedhar Reddy

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The urinary stone disease is one of the most common afflictions of the modern society and it has been described since antiquity with the westernization of global culture. The efficacy of mini-invasive therapies, such as Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy [ESWL] and ureteroscopy are not risk free, are problematic and are quite expensive. Recently, the use of watchful waiting approach has been extended by using Pharmacotherapy. This can reduce symptoms and facilitate stone expulsion. MATERIALS AND METHODS This prospective randomised study was conducted between September 2015 and May 2016 at Rajarajeshwari Medical College and Hospital, Bangalore. The cohort comprised 100 adult patients (54 men and 46 women who presented with a symptomatic, unilateral, single, uncomplicated lower ureteric stone of ≤ 10 mm. Patients were randomized into two equal groups, 50 (50% patients received a daily single dose of tamsulosin 0.4 mg for 28 days and 50 (50% patients received a daily single dose of silodosin 8 mg for 28 days. Both groups were compared in terms of patient’s demographics, socioeconomic status, stone size and side, type of MET, stone expulsion rate, stone expulsion time, number of pain episodes, need for analgesics use and incidence of side effects. Subgroup analysis was performed according to stone size ≤ or > 5 mm. RESULTS No significant differences among the two groups for patient’s age, gender, stone side and stone size. Spontaneous stone expulsion rate within 28 days was observed in 44 (88% patients in the tamsulosin group and in 45 (90% patients in the silodosin group without statistically significant differences. There were no statistically significant differences observed in terms of mean expulsion time, mean number of pain episodes and need for analgesics. Retrograde ejaculation was significantly higher in the silodosin arm, while the incidence of side effects related to peripheral vasodilation were higher in the tamsulosin arm

  3. Uterine restoration after repeated sloughing of fibroids or vaginal expulsion following uterine artery embolization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hye Ri; Kim, Nack Keun; Lee, Mee Hwa [Pochon CHA University, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Bundang CHA General Hospital, Sungnam-si, Kyonggi-do (Korea); Kim, Man Deuk; Kim, Hee Jin; Yoon, Sang-Wook [Pochon CHA University, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Bundang CHA General Hospital, Sungnam-si, Kyonggi-do (Korea); Park, Won Kyu [Yeungnam University, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Kyongson, Dyongbuk (Korea)

    2005-09-01

    The aim of our study is to present our experience with uterine restoration after repeated sloughing of uterine fibroids or transvaginal expulsion following uterine artery embolization (UAE) and to determine its safety and outcome. One hundred and twenty-four women (mean age, 40.3 years; age range, 29-52 years) with symptomatic uterine fibroids were included in this retrospective study. We performed arterial embolization with poly(vinyl alcohol) particles (250-710 {mu}m). Clinical symptoms and follow-up information for each patient were obtained through medical records. At an average of 3.5 months (range, 1-8 months) after embolization, magnetic resonance imaging examinations with T1- and T2-weighted and gadolinium-enhanced T1-weighted images were obtained for all patients. The mean follow-up duration was 120 days (90-240 days). Eight (6.5%) patients experienced uterine restoration after repeated sloughing of uterine fibroids or spontaneous transvaginal expulsion. The locations of the leiomyomas were submucosal (n=5), intramural (n=2) and transmural (n=1). The maximum diameter of the fibroids ranged from 3.5 to 18.0 cm, with a mean of 8.4 cm. The time interval from embolization to the uterine restoration was 7-150 days (mean 70.5 days). The clinical symptoms before and during vaginal sloughing or expulsion were lower abdominal pain (n=4), vaginal discharges (n=3), infection of necrotic myomas (n=2) and cramping abdominal pain (n=1). Gentle abdominal compression (n=1) and hysteroscopic assistance (n=1) were required to remove the whole fibroid. No other clinical sequelae, either early or delayed, were documented. Magnetic resonance images revealed the disappearance of leiomyomas, intracavitary rupture resulting in transformation of intramural or transmural myomas into submucosal myomas and localized uterine wall defects. Although the small size of this study precludes a strict conclusion, there appear to be few serious complications directly related to vaginal

  4. Effects of sodium chloride salting and substitution with potassium chloride on whey expulsion of Cheddar cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Y; McMahon, D J

    2015-01-01

    A challenge in manufacturing reduced-sodium cheese is that whey expulsion after salting decreases when less salt is applied. Our objectives were (1) to determine whether changing the salting method would increase whey syneresis when making a lower sodium cheese and (2) to better understand factors contributing to salt-induced curd syneresis. Unsalted milled Cheddar curds were salted using different salting intervals (5 or 10 min), different salting levels (20, 25, or 30g/kg), different numbers of applications when using only 20g/kg salt (1, 2, or 3 applications), and salting with the equivalent of 30g/kg NaCl using a 2:1 molar ratio of NaCl and KCl. Whey from these curds was collected every 5 or 10 min until 30 or 40 min after the start of salting, and curds were subsequently pressed for 3h. Additional trials were conducted in which salted milled Cheddar cheese curd was immersed at 22°C for 6h in various solutions to determine how milled curd pieces respond to different levels of salt and Ca. The use of 10-min intervals delayed whey syneresis without influencing total whey expulsion or cheese composition after pressing. Lowering the salt level reduced whey expulsion, resulting in cheeses with higher moisture and slightly lower pH. Adding salt faster did not increase whey expulsion in reduced-salt cheese. Partial substitution with KCl restored the extent of whey expulsion. When salted milled curd was immersed in a 30g/L salt solution, there was a net influx of salt solution into the curd and curd weight increased. When curd was immersed in 60g/L salt solution, a contraction of curd occurred. Curd shrinkage was more pronounced as the salt solution concentration was increased to 90 and 120g/L. Increasing the Ca concentration in test solutions (such that both serum and total Ca in the curd increased) also promoted curd contraction, resulting in lower curd moisture and pH and less weight gain by the curd. The proportion of Ca in the curd that was bound to the para

  5. Tactile efficiency of insect antennae with two hinge joints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Andre F; Dürr, Volker

    2004-09-01

    Antennae are the main organs of the arthropod tactile sense. In contrast to other senses that are capable of retrieving spatial information, e.g. vision, spatial sampling of tactile information requires active movement of the sense organ. For a quantitative analysis of basic principles of active tactile sensing, we use a generic model of arbitrary antennae with two hinge joints (revolute joints). This kind of antenna is typical for Orthoptera and Phasmatodea, i.e. insect orders that contain model species for the study of antennal movements, including cricket, locust and stick insect. First, we analyse the significance of morphological properties on workspace and sampling acuity. It is shown how joint axis orientation determines areas out of reach while affecting acuity in the areas within reach. Second, we assume a parametric set of movement strategies, based on empirical data on the stick insect Carausius morosus, and investigate the role of each strategy parameter on tactile sampling performance. A stochastic environment is used to measure sampling density, and a viscous friction model is assumed to introduce energy consumption and, thus, a measure of tactile efficiency. Up to a saturation level, sampling density is proportional to the range or frequency of joint angle modulation. The effect of phase shift is strong if joint angle modulation frequencies are equal, but diminishes for other frequency ratios. Speed of forward progression influences the optimal choice of movement strategy. Finally, for an analysis of environmental effects on tactile performance, we show how efficiency depends on predominant edge direction. For example, with slanted and non-orthogonal joint axis orientations, as present in the stick insect, the optimal sampling strategy is less sensitive to a change from horizontal to vertical edge predominance than with orthogonal and non-slanted joint axes, as present in a cricket.

  6. The Stress Analysis and Tests on the Hinge Beam of the Diamond Synthesis Cubic Press

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Liang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To deal with the problem of the lug fractures of hinge beam caused by the fatigue and overload during the operation of the cubic press, the analysis methods of finite element are applied to the analysis of the internal stress distributions of the hinge beam. The simulation results show that the internal stress of the hinge beam mainly concentrates on the upper surface of the lug roots connecting the outer cylinder with the both lugs. According to the data of simulation and analysis as well as the actual fracture situations, considering the strain-test methods we have designed the schemes of testing the strain on the lugs of hinge beam. And the strain measurements of the lugs are completed by the repeated loading experiments. Comparing the data of simulation and analysis with the measured data has verified their consistency. It also confirms the model established by the simulation and analysis is reasonable and accurate at the same time.

  7. Meie hõimlased ja naabrid usuvad puusse kui hinge asupaika

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2009-01-01

    Tallinna Ülikooli Eesti Humanitaarinstituudi maastiku ja kultuuri keskuse etnokultuuri vanemteadur Marju Kõivupuu esitles oma monograafiat "Hinged puhkavad puudes", mis on ülevaatlik käsitlus puudega seotud hingeuskumustest lõunaeestlaste matmiskombestikus. Marju Kõivupuu peamistest uurimissuundadest

  8. CALCULATION OF CONTACT TENSIONS IN CONJUGATE SURFACES IN SPHERE GLOBOIDAL RUSK SYNCHRONOUS CARDAN HINGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Saniotsky

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents  a calculation of contact tensions between conjugate surfaces in sphere globoidal rusk synchronous cardan hinge on the condition that there is power balance at the constant torque on the output shaft. The required torque effect on the intake shaft at the constant angular velocity  has been calculated with the help of the Hertz’s theory of contact deformations . The maximum contact pressure has been ascertained through the torque which determines strength of the cardan hinge, its durability, wear rate in  the conjugate friction pair. The paper investigates transmission dependence of the maximum torque while changing  material quality and according to various typical sizes of the cardan hinge. Dependences of the calculated maximum torque value on material strength have been demonstrated graphically  in the logarithmic coordinate system.  A formula for maximum contact pressure value has been derived and it determines  strength of the hinge mechanism, its durability and wear rate  in the conjugate friction pair.The effect of geometrical relationship between a spherical cam radius and a globoidal  surface radius of a hinge contact has been determined with the purpose to analyze optimal design parameters of the sphere globoidal rusk synchronous cardan hinge. It has been established that permissible torque in the hinge mechanism grows with a quadratic dependence while increasing a cam radius and  the torque is proportionally growing while increasing an axis radius of globoidal rusk surface on which spherical cams are set. The maximum permissible torque value grows with a cubic dependence while using qualitative material with thermally treated surface and application of lubrication materials which tolerates significant (up to [σ] = 1000 MPa contact loads.  Two-fold increase of typical size of the sphere globoidal rusk synchronous cardan hinge leads to an 8-fold increase of the permissible transmitted torque.

  9. Nonlinear seismic analysis of concrete buildings considering different models of plastic hinges

    OpenAIRE

    López‐López, Andrés; Tomás, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Congreso celebrado en la Escuela de Arquitectura de la Universidad de Sevilla desde el 24 hasta el 26 de junio de 2015. Pushover analysis is one of the most frequently used methods for the seismic analysis of structures. The accurate modelling of the plastic hinges generated during the pushover analysis is crucial. The response curve of plastic hinges can be defined with empirical expressions that obtain the yielding and ultimate states of the cross‐sections. The main objective of this wor...

  10. Milleks inimesele on antud hing? : [luuletused] / Omel Ladi ; tlk. Arvo Valton

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ladi, Omel

    2006-01-01

    Sisu: Milleks inimesele on antud hing? ; "Tuli Jõhkur..." ; Versdorfi märkmikust ; "Mu sõber on mu hing..." ; "Sõber Armin..." ; "Kas taevas sünnib ilus muusika..." ; "Kui orel mängu alustab..." ; "Dirigent seal toksib sagris rähnina..." ; "Ma kõike, kõike seda oleks nagu näind...". Luuletused paralleelselt udmurdi ja eesti keeles

  11. A connecting hinge represses the activity of endothelial nitric oxide synthase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haque, Mohammad Mahfuzul; Panda, Koustubh; Tejero, Jesús; Aulak, Kulwant S; Fadlalla, Mohammed Adam; Mustovich, Anthony T; Stuehr, Dennis J

    2007-05-29

    In mammals, endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) has the weakest activity, being one-tenth and one-sixth as active as the inducible NOS (iNOS) and the neuronal NOS (nNOS), respectively. The basis for this weak activity is unclear. We hypothesized that a hinge element that connects the FMN module in the reductase domain but is shorter and of unique composition in eNOS may be involved. To test this hypothesis, we generated an eNOS chimera that contained the nNOS hinge and two mutants that either eliminated (P728IeNOS) or incorporated (I958PnNOS) a proline residue unique to the eNOS hinge. Incorporating the nNOS hinge into eNOS increased NO synthesis activity 4-fold, to an activity two-thirds that of nNOS. It also decreased uncoupled NADPH oxidation, increased the apparent K(m)O(2) for NO synthesis, and caused a faster heme reduction. Eliminating the hinge proline had similar, but lesser, effects. Our findings reveal that the hinge is an important regulator and show that differences in its composition restrict the activity of eNOS relative to other NOS enzymes.

  12. Engineering upper hinge improves stability and effector function of a human IgG1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Boxu; Boyd, Daniel; Kaschak, Timothy; Tsukuda, Joni; Shen, Amy; Lin, Yuwen; Chung, Shan; Gupta, Priyanka; Kamath, Amrita; Wong, Anne; Vernes, Jean-Michel; Meng, Gloria Y; Totpal, Klara; Schaefer, Gabriele; Jiang, Guoying; Nogal, Bartek; Emery, Craig; Vanderlaan, Martin; Carter, Paul; Harris, Reed; Amanullah, Ashraf

    2012-02-17

    Upper hinge is vulnerable to radical attacks that result in breakage of the heavy-light chain linkage and cleavage of the hinge of an IgG1. To further explore mechanisms responsible for the radical induced hinge degradation, nine mutants were designed to determine the roles that the upper hinge Asp and His play in the radical reactions. The observation that none of these substitutions could inhibit the breakage of the heavy-light chain linkage suggests that the breakage may result from electron transfer from Cys(231) directly to the heavy-light chain linkage upon radical attacks, and implies a pathway separate from His(229)-mediated hinge cleavage. On the other hand, the substitution of His(229) with Tyr showed promising advantages over the native antibody and other substitutions in improving the stability and function of the IgG1. This substitution inhibited the hinge cleavage by 98% and suggests that the redox active nature of Tyr did not enable it to replicate the ability of His to facilitate radical induced degradation. We propose that the lower redox potential of Tyr, a residue that may be the ultimate sink for oxidizing equivalents in proteins, is responsible for the inhibition. More importantly, the substitution increased the antibody's binding to FcγRIII receptors by 2-3-fold, and improved ADCC activity by 2-fold, while maintaining a similar pharmacokinetic profile with respect to the wild type. Implications of these observations for antibody engineering and development are discussed.

  13. Viscoelastic Fracturing As a Migration and Expulsion Mechanism for Hydrocarbons in Shales: Analog Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Damme, H.

    2014-12-01

    We report the results of simple laboratory experiments aimed at mimicking the generation, migration, and expulsion process of oil or gas from soft clayey sediments, triggered by thermal decomposition of organic matter. In previously published work, we showed that the injection of fluids into a soft sediment layer confined within a quasi-2D Hele-Shaw cell led to the transition from a viscous fingering invasion regime to a viscoelastic fracturing regime. The transition is controlled by the ratio of the characteristic times for the invasion process and for the structural relaxation in the sediment, respectively (Deborah number). Here we show that expulsion is a discontinuous quasi-periodic process, driven by the elastic energy stored in the embedding layers. We report also about two sets of experiments aimed at understanding the conditions in which fluid generation from multiple sources can generate a highly connected network of fractures for expulsion. In a first set of experiments, a Hele-Shaw cell with multiple injection points and multiple outlets was used. It is shown that, due to attractive elastic interactions between cracks, a network spontaneously forms as soon as invasion proceeds in the viscoelastic regime. On the contrary, no network of migration paths is forming in the viscous fingering regime, due to the effective repulsion of the fluid channels. In the second set of analog experiments, we used a thermostated mini-Hele-Shaw cell, the gap of which was filled with a strong clay mud in which microcrystals of reactive organic matter (azoisobutyronitrile, AIBN) are dispersed, or with a mud prepared with clay particles on which the organic matter was pre-impregnated. AIBN decomposes around 70°C, releasing nitrogen gas. It was again observed that, depending on the viscoelastic properties of the clay matrix, gas evolution occurs either by formation and coalescence of bubbles, or by formation of a percolating network of fractures. The length of the fracture

  14. Sushruta in 600 B.C. introduced extraocular expulsion of lens material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzybowski, Andrzej; Ascaso, Francisco J

    2014-03-01

    It is generally accepted that Jacques Daviel introduced in the 18th century the extracapsular technique of extraction of the lens while the couching method of cataract operation had already been practiced since ancient times. Present study analyses the first known cataract surgery description in three translations into English from the original Sanskrit Sushruta textbook and all the available literature on the subject. We found evidences that some sort of extraocular expulsion of lens material through a limbal puncture (paracentesis) was described by the Indian surgeon. Nevertheless, this incision cannot be considered as a classic extracapsular procedure because it was not large enough to allow the extraction of the entire lens.

  15. Spaces of life: Revolt, expulsion and a conceptual rebirth of the educative subject

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Sonja; Bengtsen, Søren Smedegaard; Nørgård, Rikke Toft

    use Kristeva’s notions of revolt and abjection, to argue for the critical transformative functions of constant puzzlement and questioning. Such reformation, through expulsion and re-emergence, we argue, offer hopeful potentialities for a conceptual rebirth of both the educative subject......Beyond knowledge, critical thinking, new ideas, rigorous science and scholarly development, the university is a space of life. It is a place for academic, moral and cultural citizenship, ethically entangled with ways of being, encountering and evolving thought and relationships with the self...

  16. Identification of dynamical hinge points of the L1 ligase molecular switch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giambasu, George M; Lee, Tai-Sung; Sosa, Carlos P; Robertson, Michael P; Scott, William G; York, Darrin M

    2010-04-01

    The L1 ligase is an in vitro selected ribozyme that uses a noncanonically base-paired ligation site to catalyze regioselectively and regiospecifically the 5' to 3' phosphodiester bond ligation, a reaction relevant to origin of life hypotheses that invoke an RNA world scenario. The L1 ligase crystal structure revealed two different conformational states that were proposed to represent the active and inactive forms. It remains an open question as to what degree these two conformers persist as stable conformational intermediates in solution, and along what pathway are they able to interconvert. To explore these questions, we have performed a series of molecular dynamics simulations in explicit solvent of the inactive-active conformational switch in L1 ligase. Four simulations were performed departing from both conformers in both the reactant and product states, in addition to a simulation where local unfolding in the active state was induced. From these simulations, along with crystallographic data, a set of four virtual torsion angles that span two evolutionarily conserved and restricted regions were identified as dynamical hinge points in the conformational switch transition. The ligation site visits three distinct states characterized by hydrogen bond patterns that are correlated with the formation of specific contacts that may promote catalysis. The insights gained from these simulations contribute to a more detailed understanding of the coupled catalytic/conformational switch mechanism of L1 ligase that may facilitate the design and engineering of new catalytic riboswitches.

  17. Trichinella spiralis: differences between early and late rapid expulsion evident from inhibition studies using cortisone and irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, R.G.

    1987-12-01

    Cortisone administered once at 100 mg/kg during the first 3 weeks of infection inhibited rapid expulsion. In rats immunized with an abbreviated infection (T/M regime) inhibition averaged approximately 50%, whereas in rats given a complete infection (C.I.) 14% inhibition occurred. Sensitivity to 400 rad whole-body irradiation was greatest 7 days before a challenge infection in all immune rats. Three days after beginning the T/M infection rats were highly susceptible to cortisone but only weakly so to irradiation. Rats immunized by C.I. were equally, but only weakly, susceptible to either cortisone or irradiation 3 days after infection. Acute administration of cortisone 1 or 4 hr prior to challenge did not inhibit rapid expulsion but 60% inhibition occurred when cortisone was given 24 hr prior to challenge. Inhibition of rapid expulsion by irradiation 7 days prior to challenge was not reversed by immune serum and irradiation did not affect antibody titer in treated rats. It was suggested that irradiation 7 days before challenge compromised the intestinal, and not the immunological, component of rapid expulsion. Differences in sensitivity of early and late rapid expulsion to irradiation and cortisone therapy provide further evidence of functional differences between these rejection processes.

  18. Strongyloides ratti: implication of mast cell-mediated expulsion through FcεRI-independent mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watanabe K.

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to examine whether FcεRI-dependent degranulation of intestinal mast cells is required for expulsion of intestinal nematode Strongyloides ratti, CD45 exon6-deficient (CD45-/- mice were inoculated with S. ratti. In CD45-/- mice, egg excretion in feces persisted for more than 30 days following S. ratti larvae inoculation, whereas in wild-type (CD45+/+ mice, the eggs completely disappeared by day 20 post-infection. The number of intestinal mucosal mast cells, which are known effector cells for the expulsion of S. ratti, was 75% lower in CD45-/- mice compared with that in CD45+/+ mice. Adoptive transfer of wild-type T cells from CD45+/+ mice into CD45-/- mice reduced the duration of S. ratti infection to comparable levels observed in CD45+/+ mice, with concomitant increases in intestinal mucosal mast cells. These results showed that CD45 is not involved in the effector function of intestinal mucosal mast cells against S. ratti infection. Since FcεRI-dependent degranulation of mast cells is completely impaired in these CD45 knockout mice, we conclude that FcεRIdependent degranulation is not required in the protective function of intestinal mucosal mast cells against primary infection of S. ratti.

  19. Spin torque resonant vortex core expulsion for an efficient radio-frequency detection scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cros, V.; Jenkins, A. S.; Lebrun, R.; Bortolotti, P.; Grimaldi, E.; Tsunegi, S.; Kubota, H.; Yakushiji, K.; Fukushima, A.; Yuasa, S.

    It has been proposed by Tulaparkur et al.[1ref] that a high frequency detector based on the so called spin-diode effect in spin transfer oscillators could eventually replace conventional Schottky diodes, due to their nanoscale size, frequency tunability, and large output sensitivity. Although a promising candidate for ICT applications, the output voltage generated from this effect is consistently low. Here we present a scheme for a new type of spintronics-based high frequency detector based on the expulsion of the vortex core of a magnetic tunnel junction. The resonant expulsion of the core leads to a large and sharp change in resistance associated with the difference in magnetoresistance between the vortex ground state and the final C-state, which is predominantly in either the parallel or anti-parallel direction relative to the polariser layer. Interestingly, this reversible effect is independent of the incoming rf current amplitude, offering a compelling perspective for a fast real-time rf threshold detector. REF : EU FP7 Grant (MOSAIC No. ICT-FP7-317950 is acknowledged.

  20. The difficult early stages of embedded star clusters and the importance of the pre-gas expulsion virial ratio

    CERN Document Server

    Farias, J P; Fellhauer, M; Goodwin, S; Candlish, G N; Blaña, M; Dominguez, R

    2015-01-01

    We examine the effects of gas-expulsion on initially substructured distributions of stars. We perform N-body simulations of the evolution of these distributions in a static background potential to mimic the gas. We remove the static potential instantaneously to model gas-expulsion. We find that the exact dynamical state of the cluster plays a very strong role in affecting a cluster's survival, especially at early times: they may be entirely destroyed or only weakly affected. We show that knowing both detailed dynamics and relative star-gas distributions can provide a good estimate of the post-gas expulsion state of the cluster, but even knowing these is not an absolute way of determining the survival or otherwise of the cluster.

  1. Understanding protein lids: kinetic analysis of active hinge mutants in triosephosphate isomerase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, J; Sampson, N S

    1999-08-31

    In previous work we tested what three amino acid sequences could serve as a protein hinge in triosephosphate isomerase [Sun, J., and Sampson, N. S. (1998) Protein Sci. 7, 1495-1505]. We generated a genetic library encoding all 8000 possible 3 amino acid combinations at the C-terminal hinge and selected for those combinations of amino acids that formed active mutants. These mutants were classified into six phylogenetic families. Two families resembled wild-type hinges, and four families represented new types of hinges. In this work, the kinetic characteristics and thermal stabilities of mutants representing each of these families were determined in order to understand what properties make an efficient protein hinge, and why all of the families are not observed in nature. From a steady-state kinetic analysis of our mutants, it is clear that the partitioning between protonation of intermediate to form product and intermediate release from the enzyme surface to form methylglyoxal (a decomposition product) is not affected. The two most impaired mutants undergo a change in rate-limiting step from enediol formation to dihydroxyacetone phosphate binding. Thus, it appears that k(cat)/K(m)'s are reduced relative to wild type as a result of slower Michaelis complex formation and dissociation, rather than increased loop opening speed.

  2. Fabrication of Hinged Mirrors Using a Strain-Driven Self-Assembly Method on a GaAs Substrate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU yan; WANG Hai-Long; MA Chuan-He; GONG Qian; FENG Song-Lin

    2011-01-01

    Hinged mirror arrays are widely utilized for display applications and optical communication. They can be fabricated by an self-assembly technique using the strain in lattice-mismatched epitaxial layers. A multilayer structure including a strain-compensated layer,a digital alloy sacrificial layer and a strain bilayer,is grown by molecular-beam epitaxy.Self-assembly hinged mirrors on a GaAs substrate have been successfully fabricated by photolithography and selective etching.The hinge fabrication method with a strain bilayer is simple and flexible.Structures formed by multiple hinged plates will enable the self-assembly of more complex three-dimensional microstructures.

  3. ATPase-dependent auto-phosphorylation of the open condensin hinge diminishes DNA binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akai, Yuko; Kanai, Ryuta; Nakazawa, Norihiko; Ebe, Masahiro; Toyoshima, Chikashi; Yanagida, Mitsuhiro

    2014-12-01

    Condensin, which contains two structural maintenance of chromosome (SMC) subunits and three regulatory non-SMC subunits, is essential for many chromosomal functions, including mitotic chromosome condensation and segregation. The ATPase domain of the SMC subunit comprises two termini connected by a long helical domain that is interrupted by a central hinge. The role of the ATPase domain has remained elusive. Here we report that the condensin SMC subunit of the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe is phosphorylated in a manner that requires the presence of the intact SMC ATPase Walker motif. Principal phosphorylation sites reside in the conserved, glycine-rich stretch at the hinge interface surrounded by the highly basic DNA-binding patch. Phosphorylation reduces affinity for DNA. Consistently, phosphomimetic mutants produce severe mitotic phenotypes. Structural evidence suggests that prior opening (though slight) of the hinge is necessary for phosphorylation, which is implicated in condensin's dissociation from and its progression along DNA.

  4. Role of uterine forces in intrauterine device embedment, perforation, and expulsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goldstuck ND

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Norman D Goldstuck,1 Dirk Wildemeersch2 1Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University and Tygerberg Hospital, Western Cape, South Africa; 2Gynecological Outpatient Clinic and IUD Training Center, Ghent, Belgium Background: The purpose of this study was to examine factors that could help reduce primary perforation during insertion of a framed intrauterine device (IUD and to determine factors that contribute in generating enough uterine muscle force to cause embedment and secondary perforation of an IUD. The objective was also to evaluate the main underlying mechanism of IUD expulsion. Methods: We compared known IUD insertion forces for “framed” devices with known perforation forces in vitro (hysterectomy specimens and known IUD removal forces and calculated a range of possible intrauterine forces using pressure and surface area. These were compared with known perforation forces. Results: IUD insertion forces range from 1.5 N to 6.5 N. Removal forces range from 1 N to 5.8 N and fracture forces from 8.7 N to 30 N depending upon device. Measured perforation forces are from 20 N to 54 N, and calculations show the uterus is capable of generating up to 50 N of myometrial force depending on internal pressure and surface area. Conclusion: Primary perforation with conventional framed IUDs may occur if the insertion pressure exceeds the perforation resistance of the uterine fundus. This is more likely to occur if the front end of the inserter/IUD is narrow, the passage through the cervix is difficult, and the procedure is complex. IUD embedment and secondary perforation and IUD expulsion may be due to imbalance between the size of the IUD and that of the uterine cavity, causing production of asymmetrical uterine forces. The uterine muscle seems capable of generating enough force to cause an IUD to perforate the myometrium provided it is applied asymmetrically. A physical theory for IUD

  5. 塑性铰在高层建筑结构抗震中的计算分析与应用%Calculation Analysis and Application of the Plastic Hinge in the High-Rise Building Seismic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨露江; 陈功; 李华东

    2013-01-01

    首先简述建筑结构塑性铰的定义及性质;其次将塑性铰与理论铰作理论对比分析,并利用SAP2000引入一例单跨简支梁,分别在简支梁的跨中截面定义塑性铰和理论铰进行有限元分析,证明理论对比分析的结果;最后利用SAP2000对一栋10层建筑结构进行静力弹塑性Pushover抗震分析,得到其塑性铰的发展图,找出结构容易出现塑性铰的抗震薄弱部位,提出结构设计措施、局限性和对未来的展望。%The article briefly describes the definition and nature of the plastic hinge in the building structure;Secondly, the author compare plastic hinge with theory hinge,and analyze their nature,but also give an example of Single span supported beam,we finite element analysis the simply supported beam when the plastic hinge and theory hinge separately appear in the midspan section,resultly it could prove the theory of comparative analysis.Finally,we realize a static force elastic-plastic pushover analysis to a 10-layer frame structure with SAP2000 program,resultly the plastic hinge develop-ment figure is arising,so the weak region can be found out,we should suggest the way in the structural design,also the limitations, future prospects and ending are proposed.

  6. THE GROUNDING OF THE STRUCTURAL PARAMETERS OF THE AREAHLOBOYID RUSK SYNCHRONOUS CARDAN HINGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Saniotskyi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The method of calculation of structural parameters of the areahloboyid rusk synchronous cardan hinge with consideration of contact tensions in the mating surfaces is determined, the required torque in the input wave with a contact by using the Hertz’s theory of contact deformations is determined. The dependence of the maximum torque for different hyposizes of the cardan hinge is investigated. The dependences of the calculated maximum torque to the resistance of the material are demonstrated graphically in the logarithmic coordinate system.

  7. A connecting hinge represses the activity of endothelial nitric oxide synthase

    OpenAIRE

    Haque, Mohammad Mahfuzul; Panda, Koustubh; Tejero, Jesús; Aulak, Kulwant S.; Fadlalla, Mohammed Adam; Mustovich, Anthony T.; Stuehr, Dennis J

    2007-01-01

    In mammals, endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) has the weakest activity, being one-tenth and one-sixth as active as the inducible NOS (iNOS) and the neuronal NOS (nNOS), respectively. The basis for this weak activity is unclear. We hypothesized that a hinge element that connects the FMN module in the reductase domain but is shorter and of unique composition in eNOS may be involved. To test this hypothesis, we generated an eNOS chimera that contained the nNOS hinge and two mutants that e...

  8. Determination of the amino acid requirements for a protein hinge in triosephosphate isomerase.

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, J.; Sampson, N. S.

    1998-01-01

    We have determined the sequence requirements for a protein hinge in triosephosphate isomerase. The codons encoding the hinge at the C-terminus of the active-site lid of triosephosphate isomerase were replaced with a genetic library of all possible 8,000 amino acid combinations. The most active of these 8,000 mutants were selected using in vivo complementation of a triosephosphate isomerase deficient strain of E. coli, DF502. Approximately 3% of the mutants complement DF502 with an activity th...

  9. Proline-induced hinges in transmembrane helices: possible roles in ion channel gating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tieleman, D P; Shrivastava, I H; Ulmschneider, M R; Sansom, M S

    2001-08-01

    A number of ion channels contain transmembrane (TM) alpha-helices that contain proline-induced molecular hinges. These TM helices include the channel-forming peptide alamethicin (Alm), the S6 helix from voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channels, and the D5 helix from voltage-gated chloride (CLC) channels. For both Alm and KvS6, experimental data implicate hinge-bending motions of the helix in an aspect of channel gating. We have compared the hinge-bending motions of these TM helices in bilayer-like environments by multi-nanosecond MD simulations in an attempt to describe motions of these helices that may underlie possible modes of channel gating. Alm is an alpha-helical channel-forming peptide, which contains a central kink associated with a Gly-x-x-Pro motif in its sequence. Simulations of Alm in a TM orientation for 10 ns in an octane slab indicate that the Gly-x-x-Pro motif acts as a molecular hinge. The S6 helix from Shaker Kv channels contains a Pro-Val-Pro motif. Modeling studies and recent experimental data suggest that the KvS6 helix may be kinked in the vicinity of this motif. Simulations (10 ns) of an isolated KvS6 helix in an octane slab and in a POPC bilayer reveal hinge-bending motions. A pattern-matching approach was used to search for possible hinge-bending motifs in the TM helices of other ion channel proteins. This uncovered a conserved Gly-x-Pro motif in TM helix D5 of CLC channels. MD simulations of a model of hCLC1-D5 spanning an octane slab suggest that this channel also contains a TM helix that undergoes hinge-bending motion. In conclusion, our simulations suggest a model in which hinge-bending motions of TM helices may play a functional role in the gating mechanisms of several different families of ion channels.

  10. Hinge-free topology optimization with embedded translation-invariant differentiable wavelet shrinkage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yoon, G. H.; Kim, Y. Y.; Bendsøe, Martin P.;

    2004-01-01

    In topology optimization applications for the design of compliant mechanisms, the formation of hinges is typically encountered. Often such hinges are unphysical artifacts that appear due to the choice of discretization spaces for design and analysis. The objective of this work is to present a new...... in the multiscale design space. To imbed the shrinkage method implicitly in the optimization formulation and thus facilitate sensitivity analysis, the shrinkage method is made differentiable by means of differentiable versions of logical operators. The validity of the present method is confirmed by solving typical...... two-dimensional compliant mechanism design problems....

  11. Maximum Pressure Evaluation during Expulsion of Entrapped Air from Pressurized Pipelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Maria Bucur

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Pressurized pipeline systems may have a wide operating regime. This paper presents the experimental analysis of the transient flow in a horizontal pipe containing an air pocket, which allows the ventilation of the air after the pressurization of the hydraulic system, through an orifice placed at the downstream end. The measurements are made on a laboratory set-up, for different supply pressures and various geometries of water column length, air pocket and expulsion orifice diameter. Dimensional analysis is carried out in order to determine a relation between the parameters influencing the maximum pressure value. A two equations model is obtained and a criterion is established for their use. The equations are validated with experimental data from the present laboratory set-up and with other data available in the literature. The results presented as non-dimensional quantities variations show a good agreement with the previous experimental and analytical researches.

  12. Spontaneous Fracture and Vaginal Expulsion of the Arm of Intra-Uterine Device: Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ižlknur Mutlu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Intrauterine device (IUD is an effective and safe contraceptive method which is commonly used worldwide. However, spontaneous or iatrogenic IUD fracture was rarely occurred during usage. We present the case about spontaneous fracture of one arm of copper IUD and the spontaneous expulsion of the broken piece in a 30-year-old woman 2 years after insertion. The patient recoursed to our clinic due to finding of a foreign body at vaginal outlet. Copper IUD was dislocated in transvaginal ultrasonographic (TVUSG examination and echogenicity of left transverse arm was not identified in transvers section.Although IUD fracture seems rarely, it must be born in mind especially when dislocation exists. Distance to fundus and its location, besides the continuity of its echogenicity and integrity should be observed during routine controls.

  13. Parturition in gilts: duration of farrowing, birth intervals and placenta expulsion in relation to maternal, piglet and placental traits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rens, van B.T.T.M.; Lende, van der T.

    2004-01-01

    Large White×Meishan F2 crossbred gilts (n=57) were observed continuously during farrowing while the placentae of their offspring were labeled in order to examine the duration of farrowing and placenta expulsion in relation to maternal-, piglet- and placental traits and the duration of birth interval

  14. Suspension and Expulsion of Public School Students. ERIC/CEM State-of-the-Knowledge Series, Number Ten.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phay, Robert E.

    This monograph reviews and analyzes decisions dealing with suspension or expulsion of students by public school authorities. The report focuses on recent court cases that reaffirm, amplify, or extend entrenched constitutional and common law principles undergirding the public educational system in the United States. The author considers the…

  15. A study on the expulsion of iodine from spent-fuel solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakurai, Tsutomu; Takahashi, Akira; Ishikawa, Niroh [Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Ibaraki-ken (Japan)] [and others

    1995-02-01

    During dissolution of spent nuclear fuels, some radioiodine remains in spent-fuel solutions. Its expulsion to dissolver off-gas is important to minimize iodine escape to the environment. In our current work, the iodine remaining in spent-fuel solutions varied from 0 to 10% after dissolution of spent PWR-fuel specimens (approximately 3 g each). The amount remaining probably was dependent upon the dissolution time required. The cause is ascribable to the increased nitrous acid concentration that results from NOx generated during dissolution. The presence of nitrous acid was confirmed spectrophotometrically in an NO-HNO{sub 3} system at 100{degrees}C. Experiments examining NOx concentration versus the quantity of iodine in a simulated spent-fuel solution indicate that iodine (I{minus}) in spent fuels is subjected to the following three reactions: (1) oxidation into I{sub 2} by nitric acid, (2) oxidation into I{sub 2} by nitrous acid arising from NOx, and (3) formation of colloidal iodine (AgI, PdI{sub 2}), the major iodine species in a spent-fuel solution. Reaction (2) competes with reaction (3) to control the quantity of iodine remaining in solution. The following two-step expulsion process to remove iodine from a spent-fuel solution was derived from these experiments: Step One - Heat spent-fuel solutions without NOx sparging. When aged colloidal iodine is present, an excess amount of iodate should be added to the solution. Step Two - Sparge the fuel solution with NOx while heating. Effect of this new method was confirmed by use of a spent PWR-fuel solution.

  16. Moderate Thermal Stress Causes Active and Immediate Expulsion of Photosynthetically Damaged Zooxanthellae (Symbiodinium from Corals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Fujise

    Full Text Available The foundation of coral reef biology is the symbiosis between corals and zooxanthellae (dinoflagellate genus Symbiodinium. Recently, coral bleaching, which often results in mass mortality of corals and the collapse of coral reef ecosystems, has become an important issue around the world as coral reefs decrease in number year after year. To understand the mechanisms underlying coral bleaching, we maintained two species of scleractinian corals (Acroporidae in aquaria under non-thermal stress (27°C and moderate thermal stress conditions (30°C, and we compared the numbers and conditions of the expelled Symbiodinium from these corals. Under non-thermal stress conditions corals actively expel a degraded form of Symbiodinium, which are thought to be digested by their host coral. This response was also observed at 30°C. However, while the expulsion rates of Symbiodinium cells remained constant, the proportion of degraded cells significantly increased at 30°C. This result indicates that corals more actively digest and expel damaged Symbiodinium under thermal stress conditions, likely as a mechanism for coping with environmental change. However, the increase in digested Symbiodinium expulsion under thermal stress may not fully keep up with accumulation of the damaged cells. There are more photosynthetically damaged Symbiodinium upon prolonged exposure to thermal stress, and corals release them without digestion to prevent their accumulation. This response may be an adaptive strategy to moderate stress to ensure survival, but the accumulation of damaged Symbiodinium, which causes subsequent coral deterioration, may occur when the response cannot cope with the magnitude or duration of environmental stress, and this might be a possible mechanism underlying coral bleaching during prolonged moderate thermal stress.

  17. RANDOMIZED TRIAL OF THE SAFETY AND EFFICACY OF TAMSULOSIN AND SILODOSIN IN MEDICAL EXPULSIVE THERAPY FOR DISTAL THIRD URETERIC CALCULI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajanna

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Urolithiasis is a common condition that affects approximately 5% to 10% of the population and the incidence of Urolithiasis is rising. Ureteric stones account for 20% of urinary tract stones and about 70% of them are found in the lower third of the ureter at presentation. Recent literatures show the efficacy of various drugs and minimally invasive procedures for the management of lower third ureteral stones. We performed a randomized, prospective study to assess and compare the efficacy of tamsulosin and silodosin as medical expulsive therapy for lower third ureteral stones. SETTING AND DURATION: Department of Surgery, Hassan Institute of Medical Sciences/ Teaching Hospital, Hassan. from August 2013 to August 2014. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The prospective data of 60 symptomatic patients with unilateral, lower third ureteral calculi of less than ≤10 mm were randomly allocated for out- patient treatment with tamsulosin and silodosin groups Patients aged ≥ 18 years with a single, unilateral, symptomatic, radio-opaque ureteric stone of 10 mm or smaller in the largest dimension located between the lower border of the sacroiliac joint and vesico-ureteric junction were included. For Group I tamsulosin a daily single dose of 0.4 mg for 28days and for Group II a daily single dose of silodosin 8mg was given. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs were used on demand for both the groups. All the patients were told to observe passage of stone by filtering urine stream. The primary end point was the expulsion of the stone and the secondary end points were expulsion time, analgesic use, socioeconomic status, need for hospitalization, endoscopic treatment and drug side effects were documented. RESULTS: The stone expulsion rates in patients treated with tamsulosin and silodosin were 83.3% and 86.6% respectively. Mean stone expulsion times in tamsulosin group and silodosin group were 6.8 and 6.2 days respectively. Mean number of pain episodes were

  18. Expulsion of Hymenolepis nana from mice with congenital deficiencies of IgE production or of mast cell development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, N; Nawa, Y; Okamoto, K; Kobayashi, A

    1994-03-01

    The roles of IgE and mast cells on expulsion of adult Hymenolepis nana from the intestine were examined in mice. IgE-dependency was determined by comparing congenitally IgE-deficient SJA/9 and IgE-producing SJL/J mice infected with 50 H. nana eggs. Anti-H. nana IgE antibody was detected at three weeks post infection (p.i.) in SJL but not in SJA mice. The number of adult worms in the intestines of SJA and of SJL mice were similar at two weeks, but significantly more were found in SJA mice at three weeks p.i. Treatment of mice with anti-epsilon antibody also resulted in an increased worm burden at three weeks, suggesting participation of IgE in expulsion of H. nana. Intestinal mastocytosis was induced by infection regardless of the IgE status of the mice. Mast cell-dependency was tested in mast cell-deficient W/Wv and in normal littermate +/+ mice infected with 100 H. nana eggs. Anti-H. nana antibody was detected in both groups of mice at three weeks p.i. Worm expulsion seemed to be mast cell dependent because expulsion was less complete in W/Wv mice at three weeks p.i. Peripheral blood eosinophilia was comparable at three weeks p.i. in both IgE and mast cell sufficient and deficient mice. These results suggest that IgE and mast cells participate in the expulsion of H. nana adults from intestine in mice.

  19. Visualizing Key Hinges and a Potential Major Source of Compliance in the Lever Arm of Myosin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J Brown; V Senthil Kumar; E ONeall-Hennessey; L Reshetnikova; H Robinson; M Nguyen-McCarty; A Szent-Gyorgyi; C Cohen

    2011-12-31

    We have determined the 2.3-{angstrom}-resolution crystal structure of a myosin light chain domain, corresponding to one type found in sea scallop catch ('smooth') muscle. This structure reveals hinges that may function in the 'on' and 'off' states of myosin. The molecule adopts two different conformations about the heavy chain 'hook' and regulatory light chain (RLC) helix D. This conformational change results in extended and compressed forms of the lever arm whose lengths differ by 10 {angstrom}. The heavy chain hook and RLC helix D hinges could thus serve as a potential major and localized source of cross-bridge compliance during the contractile cycle. In addition, in one of the molecules of the crystal, part of the RLC N-terminal extension is seen in atomic detail and forms a one-turn alpha-helix that interacts with RLC helix D. This extension, whose sequence is highly variable in different myosins, may thus modulate the flexibility of the lever arm. Moreover, the relative proximity of the phosphorylation site to the helix D hinge suggests a potential role for conformational changes about this hinge in the transition between the on and off states of regulated myosins.

  20. Delta-n Hinge: rotation-invariant features for writer identification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    He, Sheng; Schomaker, Lambertus

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a method for extracting rotation-invariant features from images of handwriting samples that can be used to perform writer identification. The proposed features are based on the Hinge feature [1], but incorporating the derivative between several points along the ink contours. Fina

  1. Except the negative reverse effect and automatically compensate for wear in the hinge manipulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksei Serebryanskii

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Article is dedicated to increasing the wear resistance joints manipulator process equipment by constructive exclusion reversibility friction and applying mechanisms automatic wear compensation. Such changes can significantly increase the service life of hinges and are recommended for use in the design of process equipment attachments.

  2. Performance optimization of large stroke flexure hinges for high stiffness and eigenfrequency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gunnink, K.; Aarts, R.G.K.M.; Brouwer, D.M.

    2013-01-01

    Two flexure hinge types are optimized for high support stiffness and high first unwanted eigenfrequency for two different working ranges, ±5.7° and ±20°. We show how multiple performance specifications lead to different designs with different performance. The optimization uses efficient parameterize

  3. Capillary origami of micro-machined micro-objects: Bi-layer conductive hinges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Legrain, A.; Berenschot, J.W.; Tas, N.R.; Abelmann, L.

    2015-01-01

    Recently, we demonstrated controllable 3D self-folding by means of capillary forces of silicon-nitride micro-objects made of rigid plates connected to each other by flexible hinges (Legrain et al., 2014). In this paper, we introduce platinum electrodes running from the substrate to the plates over t

  4. Visualizing key hinges and a potential major source of compliance in the lever arm of myosin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, J.H.; Robinson, H.; Senthil Kumar, V. S.; O' Neall-Hennessey, E.; Reshetnikova, L.; Nguyen-McCarty, M.; Szent-Gyorgyi, A. G.; Cohen, C.

    2011-01-04

    We have determined the 2.3-{angstrom}-resolution crystal structure of a myosin light chain domain, corresponding to one type found in sea scallop catch ('smooth') muscle. This structure reveals hinges that may function in the 'on' and 'off' states of myosin. The molecule adopts two different conformations about the heavy chain 'hook' and regulatory light chain (RLC) helix D. This conformational change results in extended and compressed forms of the lever arm whose lengths differ by 10 {angstrom}. The heavy chain hook and RLC helix D hinges could thus serve as a potential major and localized source of cross-bridge compliance during the contractile cycle. In addition, in one of the molecules of the crystal, part of the RLC N-terminal extension is seen in atomic detail and forms a one-turn alpha-helix that interacts with RLC helix D. This extension, whose sequence is highly variable in different myosins, may thus modulate the flexibility of the lever arm. Moreover, the relative proximity of the phosphorylation site to the helix D hinge suggests a potential role for conformational changes about this hinge in the transition between the on and off states of regulated myosins.

  5. The length of a lantibiotic hinge region has profound influence on antimicrobial activity and host specificity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, Liang; van Heel, Auke J; Kuipers, Oscar P

    2015-01-01

    Lantibiotics are ribosomally synthesized (methyl)lanthionine containing peptides which can efficiently inhibit the growth of Gram-positive bacteria. As lantibiotics kill bacteria efficiently and resistance to them is difficult to be obtained, they have the potential to be used in many applications,

  6. The Hinge Region as a Key Regulatory Element of Androgen Receptor Dimerization, DNA Binding and Transactivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-05-01

    l’action des androgènes. Journée d’Endocrinologie Sexuelle Alfred Jost, 7 februari 2004, Hôpital Cochin, Parijs Claessens F. Molecular basis of...R., Pinsky, L. & Trifiro, M. (1998) Nucleic Acids Res. 26, 234–238. 3. Mangelsdorf, D. J., Thummel, C., Beato, M., Herrlich, P., Schutz , G., Ume- sono... Schutz , G. (1995) Cell 83, 851–857. 13. Schwabe, J. W., Chapman, L., Finch, J. T. & Rhodes, D. (1993) Cell 75, 567–578. 14. Strahle, U., Boshart, M

  7. 桥梁转体施工中平面铰与球铰的对比分析%Comparison of Plane Hinge and Spherical Hinge Used in Bridge Rotation Construction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    傅贤超; 唐英; 曹文

    2016-01-01

    Bridge rotation construction is commonly used to date. Hinge is the key structure. Currently,plane hinge and spherical hinge are both used. The latter is more widely applied while the former is mainly used in light bridge. In this paper,these two hinges were compared in terms of hinge structure design,fabrication,installation,and rotation construction. In this case,plane hinge outweighs spherical hinge in terms of mechanic characteristics and operation properties.%我国采用转体施工工艺的桥梁日益增多,转铰是实现其转体功能的关键结构.目前桥梁平转法施工中转铰一般采用球铰和平面铰,球铰运用比较广泛,而平面铰主要运用于轻型桥梁.本文从转铰结构设计、制作安装、转体施工等方面对两种转铰进行对比分析,论证了平面铰的受力特性和使用性能更加合理.

  8. The Effect of an Adjustable Hinged Operating Table on Lumbar Lordosis during Lumbar Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastian, Arjun; Ahmed, Amin; Vernon, Brian; Nguyen, Emily C; Aleem, Ilyas; Clarke, Michelle J; Currier, Bradford L; Anderson, Paul; Bydon, Mohamad; Nassr, Ahmad

    2017-07-24

    Prospective observational study OBJECTIVES.: Quantify the amount of lumbar lordosis achieved on a hinged operative table in neutral, flexion, and extension. Hinged operative tables may allow surgeons to adjust lumbar spine positioning intraoperatively. The amount of lumbar lordosis in neutral, flexion, and extension positions has not been quantified prospectively using a hinged table. Thirty patients undergoing elective lumbar surgery were enrolled. Standing x-rays taken in neutral, maximal flexion, and maximal extension were obtained. Following prone positioning on a hinged operative table, x-rays in neutral, maximal flexion, and maximal extension were taken. Total lumbar lordosis was calculated for all 6 images by two physicians. Disc degeneration was graded using Pfirrmann grades. Lumbar lordosis on the operative table was 56.5 ± 2.1, 43.6 ± 2.2, 63.2 ± 2.0 compared to 46.9 ± 3.1, 33.2 ± 2.8, 52.3 ± 3.3 on the standing films in neutral, flexion, and extension respectively. Average flexion (12.9 ± 1.1) and extension (6.7 ± 1.2) were significantly different from neutral on the table (p < .001). Lumbar lordosis was significantly higher on the operative table (p < .001). Total range of motion was 19.6 ± 1.9 on the table and 19.1 ± 2.0 with standing (p = 0.42). Average Pfirrmann disc grade was 2.77 ± 0.10 which did not correlate with range of motion (p = 0.40). In this cohort, the hinged operative table allowed for a physiologic arc of motion of nearly 20 from flexion to extension. A considerable amount of lumbar sagittal motion can be obtained on hinged operative tables without decreasing overall lumbar lordosis below physiologic levels. 3.

  9. STUDY OF CARRYING CAPACITY OF A CORRUGATED METAL CONSTRUCTION BY CRITERION OF YIELD HINGE DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Y. Luchko

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. This research is aimed to: 1 calculation of equivalent forces caused by rolling stock in winter and summer seasons at different parameters of the irregularities of railway track; 2 research of bearing capacity of corrugated metal constructions (CMC in terms of development of plastic hinge in the top of the metal pipe due to irreversible residual deformation of the vertical and horizontal diameters of the pipe. Methodology. The calculation of equivalent forces is carried out according to the method of calculating the railway track on strength and stability. Further a mathematical algorithm was developed in the software environment of Mathcad 14, with which the calculations were made about the formation of a plastic hinge at the top of the pipe for different values of the irregularities of the railway track and the degree of compaction of soil backfill. In these studies, the calculations were carried out at the design value of the compaction degree of soil backfill and magnitude of dynamic loading on railway rolling stock. Findings. Analysis of multivariate calculations of testing the condition of occurrence of plastic hinge at the top of the pipe arch has revealed that the first plastic hinge, which occurs in the set of CMC is revealed only when there is a simultaneous unfavorable influence of two factors (causes. These are the factors: the assumption of the development of the track irregularities out of the allowable values without the implementation of measures to eliminate or limit the speed of trains (the first cause; reduction of compaction of soil backfill below the 90 % (the second cause. In case of absence of one of the causes the origin of the plastic hinge will not happen. Originality. It was the first time, when the bearing capacity of corrugated metal construction with large diameter (more than 6 m with account of factors complex: the degree of compaction of soil backfill, the magnitude of the dynamic loads from rolling stock

  10. Uptake and expulsion of sup 14 C-xylitol by xylitol-cultured Streptococcus mutans ATCC 25175 in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soederling, E.; Pihlanto-Leppaelae, A. (Department of Biochemistry, Institute of Dentistry, University of Turku, Turku (Finland))

    1989-01-01

    The effect of successive cultivations in the presence of 6% xylitol on the uptake and expulsion of {sup 14}C-xylitol was studied using the cells of Streptococcus mutans 25175. Three sequential cultivations did not alter the growth inhibition percentage (approximately 50%) observed in the presence of 6% xylitol. The {sup 14}C-xylitol uptake experiments performed with growing and resting cells showed that both the uptake and the expulsion of xylitol were enhanced by xylitolculturing. Both xylitol-cultured and resting control cells contained only one major labeled compound which was identified as {sup 14}C-xylitol 5-phosphate. The label subsequently was expelled from the cells as {sup 14}C-xylitol. These results indicate that S. mutans possesses an intracellular xylitol cycle and this cycle is regulated by adding xylitol to the growth medium. (author).

  11. Modelling of maturation, expulsion and accumulation of bacterial methane within Ravneš Member (Pliocene age, Croatia onshore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvetković Marko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial methane is a dominant hydrocarbon component in the Northern Croatia’s Adriatic offshore proven hydrocarbon reservoirs. As onshore reserves are declining the potential of shallow gas accumulation, analogue to the Adriatic ones, are being tested. A part of the Lonja Formation (Pliocene Pleistocene and Holocene, the Ravneš Member (Early Pliocene age is analysed for its maturation and expulsion regarding bacterial methane as potential source and reservoir rocks, especially as it is thermally immature. Two approaches were used for the initial lithology modelling processes - the convergent interpolation and sequential Gaussian simulation. Possibility for trapping and forming of accumulations was also modelled. Results show that selected member has a large source rock potential for bacterial methane with a total volume of 411.53 × 109 m3 for the Convergent interpolation model and 520.56 × 109 m3 for the sequential Gaussian simulation model of expulsed bacterial methane

  12. The importance of hinge sequence for loop function and catalytic activity in the reaction catalyzed by triosephosphate isomerase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, J; Sun, J; Sampson, N S

    2001-04-01

    We have determined the sequence requirements for the N-terminal protein hinge of the active-site lid of triosephosphate isomerase. The codons for the hinge (PVW) were replaced with a genetic library of all possible 8000 amino acid combinations. The most active of these 8000 mutants were selected using in vivo complementation of a triosephosphate isomerase-deficient strain of Escherichia coli, DF502. Approximately 0.3 % of the mutants complement DF502 with an activity that is between 10 and 70 % of wild-type activity. They all contain Pro at the first position. Furthermore, the sequences of these hinge mutants reveal that hydrophobic packing is very important for efficient formation of the enediol intermediate. However, the reduced catalytic activities observed are not due to increased rates of loop opening. To explore the relationship between the N-terminal and C-terminal hinges, three semi-active mutants from the N-terminal hinge selection experiment (PLH, PHS and PTF), and six active C-terminal hinge mutants from previous work (NSS, LWA, YSL, KTK, NPN, KVA) were combined to form 18 "double-hinge" mutants. The activities of these mutants suggest that the N-terminal and C-terminal hinge structures affect one another. It appears that specific side-chain interactions are important for forming a catalytically active enzyme, but not for preventing release of the unstable enediol intermediate from the active site of the enzyme. The independence of intermediate release on amino acid sequence is consistent with the absence of a "universal" hinge sequence in structurally related enzymes.

  13. Computer programs for pressurization (RAMP) and pressurized expulsion from a cryogenic liquid propellant tank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masters, P. A.

    1974-01-01

    An analysis to predict the pressurant gas requirements for the discharge of cryogenic liquid propellants from storage tanks is presented, along with an algorithm and two computer programs. One program deals with the pressurization (ramp) phase of bringing the propellant tank up to its operating pressure. The method of analysis involves a numerical solution of the temperature and velocity functions for the tank ullage at a discrete set of points in time and space. The input requirements of the program are the initial ullage conditions, the initial temperature and pressure of the pressurant gas, and the time for the expulsion or the ramp. Computations are performed which determine the heat transfer between the ullage gas and the tank wall. Heat transfer to the liquid interface and to the hardware components may be included in the analysis. The program output includes predictions of mass of pressurant required, total energy transfer, and wall and ullage temperatures. The analysis, the algorithm, a complete description of input and output, and the FORTRAN 4 program listings are presented. Sample cases are included to illustrate use of the programs.

  14. Importance of both innate immunity and acquired immunity for rapid expulsion of S. venezuelensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koubun eYasuda

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In the first part of this review, we described the relevant roles of endogenous IL-33 for accumulation of ILC2 and eosinophils even in the lungs of Rag2-/- mice. ATII cells express IL-33 in their nucleus and infection with S.venezuelensis induces IL-33 production by increasing the number of ATII cells possibly by the action of chitin. IL-33 from ATII cells induces ILC2 proliferation and at the same time activates them to produce IL-5 and IL-13, which in combination induce lung eosinophilic inflammation, aiding to expel infected worms in the lungs. In the second part, we showed that, although AID-/- mice normally develop Th2 cells and intestinal mastocytosis after infection with S.venezuelensis, they need adoptive transfers of immune sera from S.venezuelensis-infected mice to obtain the capacity to promptly expel S.venezuelensis. Thus, intestinal nematode infection induces various Th2 immune responses (eg., Th2 cell, ILC2, goblet cell hyperplasia, intestinal mastocytosis, smooth muscle cell contraction, local and systemic eosinophilia and high serum level of IgE and IgG1. However, all of them are not necessary for rapid expulsion of intestinal nematodes. Instead, some combinations of Th2 immune responses are essentially required.

  15. Charge Expulsion from Black Brane Horizons, and Holographic Quantum Criticality in the Plane

    CERN Document Server

    D'Hoker, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Quantum critical behavior in 2+1 dimensions is established via holographic methods in a 5+1-dimensional Einstein gravity theory with gauge potential form fields of rank 1 and 2. These fields are coupled to one another via a tri-linear Chern-Simons term with strength k. The quantum phase transition is physically driven by the expulsion of the electric charge from inside the black brane horizon to the outside, where it gets carried by the gauge fields which acquire charge thanks to the Chern-Simons interaction. At a critical value k=k_c, zero temperature, and any finite value of the magnetic field, the IR behavior is governed by a near-horizon Lifshitz geometry. The associated dynamical scaling exponent depends on the magnetic field. For k k_c, the IR flow is towards the purely magnetic brane in AdS_6. Its near-horizon geometry is AdS_4 \\times R^2, so that the entropy density vanishes quadratically with temperature, and all charge is carried by the gauge fields outside of the horizon.

  16. One-Dimensional, Two-Phase Flow Modeling Toward Interpreting Motor Slag Expulsion Phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibbey, Timothy P.

    2012-01-01

    Aluminum oxide slag accumulation and expulsion was previously shown to be a player in various solid rocket motor phenomena, including the Space Shuttle's Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM) pressure perturbation, or "blip," and phantom moment. In the latter case, such un ]commanded side accelerations near the end of burn have also been identified in several other motor systems. However, efforts to estimate the mass expelled during a given event have come up short. Either bulk calculations are performed without enough physics present, or multiphase, multidimensional Computational Fluid Dynamic analyses are performed that give a snapshot in time and space but do not always aid in grasping the general principle. One ]dimensional, two ]phase compressible flow calculations yield an analytical result for nozzle flow under certain assumptions. This can be carried further to relate the bulk motor parameters of pressure, thrust, and mass flow rate under the different exhaust conditions driven by the addition of condensed phase mass flow. An unknown parameter is correlated to airflow testing with water injection where mass flow rates and pressure are known. Comparison is also made to full ]scale static test motor data where thrust and pressure changes are known and similar behavior is shown. The end goal is to be able to include the accumulation and flow of slag in internal ballistics predictions. This will allow better prediction of the tailoff when much slag is ejected and of mass retained versus time, believed to be a contributor to the widely-observed "flight knockdown" parameter.

  17. Soliton Solutions in Bose-Einstein Condensates with Time-Dependent Atomic Scattering Length in an Expulsive Parabolic Potential

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jie-Fang; YANG Qin

    2005-01-01

    @@ We present both the bright and dark solitons of Bose-Einstein condensates with a time-dependent atomic scattering length in an expulsive parabolic potential. As a discussed example, we select the experimental parameter,i.e. the Feshbach-managed nonlinear coefficient reading a(t) = g0 exp(λt), and obtain the results which can be recovered in the literature [Phys. Rev. Lett. 94 (2005) 050402].

  18. Investigation of Motion of Two Hinged Bodies Moored by Mooring Lines in Waves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    纪亨腾; 范菊; 黄祥鹿

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, the motions are studied of a multi-body which is composed of two plates hinged together and mooredby eight mooring lines in regular waves. The experimental results are compared with computational results. The linear po-tential theory and the perturbation method are combined to study this complicated system. The former is used to calculatethe wave forces acting on the plates and the motion responses of them, while the latter is used to describe the dynamiccharacter of the eight mooring lines coupled with the two hinged plates. Some response results of each plate are presentedand comparisons between calculated results and experimental data are given. All the calculations are confined to regularbeam waves.

  19. Possible smoking-gun evidence for initial mass segregation in re-virialized post-gas expulsion globular clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Haghi, Hosein; Kroupa, Pavel; Banerjee, Sambaran; Baumgardt, Holger

    2015-01-01

    We perform a series of direct $N$-body calculations to investigate the effect of residual gas expulsion from the gas-embedded progenitors of present-day globular clusters (GCs) on the stellar mass function (MF). Our models start either tidally filling or underfilling, and either with or without primordial mass segregation. We cover 100 Myr of the evolution of modeled clusters and show that the expulsion of residual gas from initially mass-segregated clusters leads to a significantly shallower slope of the stellar MF in the low- ($m\\leq 0.50 M_\\odot$) and intermediate-mass ($\\simeq 0.50-0.85 M_\\odot$) regime. Therefore, the imprint of residual gas expulsion and primordial mass segregation might be visible in the present-day MF. We find that the strength of the external tidal field, as an essential parameter, influences the degree of flattening, such that a primordially mass-segregated tidally-filling cluster with $r_h/r_t\\geq 0.1$ shows a strongly depleted MF in the intermediate stellar mass range. Therefore, ...

  20. Immune stimulation and Hymenolepis nana cysticercoid expulsion in C3H/He and BALB/c mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriele, F; Ecca, A R; Palmas, C

    1993-12-01

    Adoptive transfer of immunity with heterologous and homologous immune serum, and drug-abbreviated immunizations were used in C3H and BALB/c mice to determine the strain-characteristic time of expulsion of H. nana cysts. Transfer of immune serum did not accelerate worm expulsion in C3H, while elimination of worms was virtually complete by day 8 in BALB/c mice. Loss of worms was also obtained when BALB/c mice were stimulated with abbreviated infections using 20 or 1000 H. nana eggs. The immunizing infection terminated immediately after the tissue phase. After similar immunizations C3H mice again appeared slow responders but were able to affect the intestinal worms population after the higher immunizing infection. The data obtained suggest that the time of worm expulsion was related to the genetically-determined ability of the mice to respond and was independent of the stimulations used for immunization. A quantitative difference in response is proposed to explain the slow responder status of C3H.

  1. Take it or leave: a five-year prospective study of workplace bullying and indicators of expulsion in working life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glambek, Mats; Skogstad, Anders; Einarsen, Ståle

    2015-01-01

    Workplace bullying is often held as a precursor of expulsion in working life, but the claim builds on sparse empirical groundwork. In the present study, bullying is investigated as an antecedent to indicators of expulsion, be it from the workplace (change of employer) or from working life itself (disability benefit recipiency and unemployment), using a nationally representative sample (n=1,613), a five-year time-lag as well as two separate measures of workplace bullying. In line with the hypotheses, logistic regression analyses revealed that both exposure to bullying behaviors and self-labeled bullying are significantly associated with change of employer (OR=1.77 and 2.42, respectively) and disability benefit recipiency (OR=2.81 and 2.95, respectively). Moreover, exposure to bullying behaviors was found to be significantly related to unemployment five years on (OR=4.6). For the self-labeling measure of bullying, this tendency only held true at the 0.1 significance level (OR=3.69, p=0.098). Together, the present results indicate that targets of bullying are at a greater risk of expulsion, both from the workplace and from working life itself, thus representing strong incentives to combat bullying both from the perspective of the individual, the organization and society at large.

  2. Influence of hinge position on the effectiveness of opendoor expansive laminoplasty for cervical spondylotic myelopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WAN Jun

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】Objective: To assess the influence of different hinge positions on clinical results of expansive open-door laminoplasty (EOLP for cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM. Methods: A total of 102 CSM patients who underwent EOLP from February 2006 to February 2007 were enrolled in this randomized controlled trial. Using a random digits table, 57 patients with the hinge located at the inner margin of the lateral mass were classified as wide-open group, while 45 patients with the hinge positioned at the lamina margin served as narrow-open group. All patients were observed over 24 months, and the clinical and radiological results were analyzed statistically. Results: There were no significant differences in operation duration, intraoperative bleeding volume, Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA scores, cervical curvature index, range of motion and neural function recovery rate. The neural functions were satisfactorily improved after surgery in both groups, while the severity of axial symptoms was significantly lower in the narrow-open group than in the wide-open group (P=0.003. The incidence of C5 palsy in the wide-open group was higher than that in the narrowopen group (5.3% vs 0, even though the difference did not reach statistical significance (one tailed Fisher's exact test, P=0.17. Conclusions: Proper inward shift of the hinge can ensure effectiveness of surgical decompression, avoid an excessive backward shift of the spinal cord, decrease the incidence of C5 palsy and alleviate the severity of axial symptoms. Key words: Cervical vertebrae; Spinal cord diseases; Spondylosis; Surgical procedures, operative

  3. Kinematic Research on Hinged Synchronous Universal Joint Applied for Snake-like Manipulator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jian-bin; MA Pei-sun; WU Hai-ping; HAO Ying-ming

    2002-01-01

    The structure and motion principle of a hinged synchronous universal joint (HSUJ) is introduced, also whose kinematics is theoretically analyzed. As a result, a few kinematic characters of the HSUJ are obtained,which establish the foundation of its application for snake-like manipulator. Making use of the HSUJ ss actuating mechauism, the developed snake-like manipulator has the merits of small curve radius, fewer actuator, and small volume etc.

  4. A hinged external fixator for complex elbow dislocations: A multicenter prospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verleisdonk Egbert JMM

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Elbow dislocations can be classified as simple or complex. Simple dislocations are characterized by the absence of fractures, while complex dislocations are associated with fractures of the radial head, olecranon, or coronoid process. The majority of patients with these complex dislocations are treated with open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF, or arthroplasty in case of a non-reconstructable radial head fracture. If the elbow joint remains unstable after fracture fixation, a hinged elbow fixator can be applied. The fixator provides stability to the elbow joint, and allows for early mobilization. The latter may be important for preventing stiffness of the joint. The aim of this study is to determine the effect of early mobilization with a hinged external elbow fixator on clinical outcome in patients with complex elbow dislocations with residual instability following fracture fixation. Methods/Design The design of the study will be a multicenter prospective cohort study of 30 patients who have sustained a complex elbow dislocation and are treated with a hinged elbow fixator following fracture fixation because of residual instability. Early active motion exercises within the limits of pain will be started immediately after surgery under supervision of a physical therapist. Outcome will be evaluated at regular intervals over the subsequent 12 months. The primary outcome is the Quick Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand score. The secondary outcome measures are the Mayo Elbow Performance Index, Oxford Elbow Score, pain level at both sides, range of motion of the elbow joint at both sides, radiographic healing of the fractures and formation of periarticular ossifications, rate of secondary interventions and complications, and health-related quality of life (Short-Form 36. Discussion The outcome of this study will yield quantitative data on the functional outcome in patients with a complex elbow dislocation and who are

  5. Piezoelectric control of the static behaviour of flextensional actuators with constricted hinges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przybylski, Jacek

    2014-06-01

    The objective of this paper is to present the mathematical modelling and computational testing of the static operational performance and effectiveness of flextensional actuators comprised of two rectilinear or initially deflected beams placed equidistantly from a centrally located piezoceramic stack in the form of a rod. The beams are mounted by stiff links with an offset to a piezoelectric transformer. A monolithic hinge lever mechanism is applied by cutting constricted hinges at the links to generate and magnify the in-plane displacement created by the application of a voltage to the piezorod. Structures of such a type have been commonly used as passive or active actuators since the manufacturing of the mechanism’s prototypes in the form of Moonie or cymbal actuators. An analytical model of the actuator is developed on the basis of stationary values of the total potential energy principle with the use of the von Kármán non-linear strains theory. During the numerical computations, the deflection and internal axial force generated by both the externally distributed load and the the application of an electric field are determined by changing the actuator properties such as the distance between the beams and the rod, the amplitude of the beam’s initial displacement as well as the stiffness of the constricted hinges. Additionally, the application of structure prestressing is considered to avoid an undesired stretching of the piezo stack. It has been shown that for the flextensional actuator with a very high flexibility of constricted hinges, the generated transverse displacement is limited by the maximum electric field as the characteristic property for each piezoceramic material. A vast number of numerical results exhibit the mechanical responses of the transducer of different geometrical and physical properties to piezoelectric stimulation; this has potential applications in the design process of such actuators.

  6. Identification of ubiquinol cytochrome c reductase hinge (UQCRH) as a potential diagnostic biomarker for lung adenocarcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Feng; Liu, Qicai; Li, Guoping; Dong, Feng; Qiu, Minglian; Lv, Xiaoting; Zhang, Sheng; Guo, Zheng

    2016-01-01

    Ubiquinol cytochrome c reductase hinge (UQCRH) is a novel protein that localizes in the mitochondrial membrane and induces mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. It had a high expression rate of 87.10% (108/124) in lung adenocarcinoma. Moreover, serum UQCRH level in patients with lung adenocarcinoma was significantly increased compared with that of pneumonia patients (p < 0.0001) and normal control subjects (p < 0.0001). Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis using ...

  7. Optimization of the place of the plastic hinges by steel braces at RC buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatami, Farzad; Ragheb, Mohammad; Namazi, Meysam

    2012-12-01

    Usage of steel braces has become a solution not only for retrofitting of RC structures but as a method in designing of concrete frames in recent years. Although X-braced RC frames have been number of successful studies, but eccentric braced RC frames have not been studied seriously. Maybe it's because of the non ductile behaviour of concrete beams. In this article, a numerical study was conducted to evaluate performance of concrete frames, braced with eccentric steel brace with a vertical steel shear link. Vertical steel shear link eliminated shortcomings of non ductile concrete beam. Therefore 4, 8 and 12 storey concrete frames were designed and subjected to a push over analysis. Life safety level was chose to evaluate the frames and hinges performance. Results were compared with the same frames designed with X braces and moment resisting frame. Results indicated that steel braces shift the place of plastic hinges to be formed on the bracing members instead of columns and beams. Furthermore steel braces delayed the process of formation of first plastic hinge and column failure mechanism.

  8. Biodegradable PLA (polylactic acid) hinged trays keep quality of fresh-cut and cooked spinach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botondi, Rinaldo; Bartoloni, Serena; Baccelloni, Simone; Mencarelli, Fabio

    2015-09-01

    This work examines the effects of packaging using two different polymeric trays with hinged lids, polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and polylactic acid (PLA), on fresh-cut and cooked spinach (Spinacia oleracea). Samples were stored in a cold room for 16 days at 4 °C. Chemical (total pigments, total polyphenols, ascorbic acid, antioxidant activity), physical (water activity), technological (colour evaluation), sensorial (aroma, visual appearance and water accumulation) and microbial (total aerobic mesophilic and psychrotrophic counts) parameters were tested. Both polymeric trays maintained the overall quality of fresh spinach for 6 days but spinach stored in PLA trays maintained its flavour longer. A significant increase in total polyphenols, antiradical activity, total carotenoids as well as a decrease in ascorbic acid in fresh spinach was observed in the first 3 days of storage in both samples. Unfortunately, the PLA package accumulated condensed water. The total microbial load of fresh-cut spinach reached about 6.3-7.3 log CFU g(-1) within 8 days. Cooked spinach packed in PLA and PET polymeric hinged trays showed the same behaviour as fresh spinach in terms of quality and shelf life. In conclusion, PLA plastic hinged trays can be used for packaging fresh-cut and cooked cut spinach, but the problem of condensed water must be solved.

  9. Elasto-Capillary Folding Using Stop-Programmable Hinges Fabricated by 3D Micro-Machining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legrain, Antoine; Berenschot, Erwin J W; Tas, Niels R; Abelmann, Leon

    2015-01-01

    We show elasto-capillary folding of silicon nitride objects with accurate folding angles between flaps of (70.6 ± 0.1)° and demonstrate the feasibility of such accurate micro-assembly with a final folding angle of 90°. The folding angle is defined by stop-programmable hinges that are fabricated starting from silicon molds employing accurate three-dimensional corner lithography. This nano-patterning method exploits the conformal deposition and the subsequent timed isotropic etching of a thin film in a 3D shaped silicon template. The technique leaves a residue of the thin film in sharp concave corners which can be used as an inversion mask in subsequent steps. Hinges designed to stop the folding at 70.6° were fabricated batchwise by machining the V-grooves obtained by KOH etching in (110) silicon wafers; 90° stop-programmable hinges were obtained starting from silicon molds obtained by dry etching on (100) wafers. The presented technique has potential to achieve any folding angle and opens a new route towards creating structures with increased complexity, which will ultimately lead to a novel method for device fabrication.

  10. Treatment of neglected elbow dislocations with the help of hinged external fixator: Report of two cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özgür Karakoyun

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Elbow dislocations are cases that have to be treated in emergency conditions. Neglected elbow dislocations are seen very rarely and the treatment of such cases are more complicated than acute cases. We present two cases of neglected elbow dislocations treated with open reduction and hinged external fixators. Case 1: 23 year old female patient had a neglected posterior dislocation of left elbow with ipsilateral humeral shaft fracture caused by car accident. The patient was treated after 3 months of initial trauma. We have performed open reduction for the joint. After that we fixed the joint whit a hinged external fixator. The humeral shaft fracture was also fixed with the components of the external fixator. Case 2: 33 year male patient had a large bone and soft tissue defect around the left elbow accompanying with neglected medial elbow dislocation. He presented to our clinic with a delay of 2 months. The patient was treated with open reduction and hinged external fixator after reconstruction of bone defect of distal humerus. Conclusion: The treatment of neglected cases is quite challenging. Open reduction and external fixation has satisfactory results in treatment of late cases of elbow dislocation with the possibility of early rehabilitation. This method can be considered as an option for such cases. J Clin Exp Invest 2014; 5 (2: 443-446

  11. Space deployable domed solar concentrator with foldable panels and hinge therefor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grayson, Fred G. (Inventor); Miller, Warren H. (Inventor); Sturgis, James D. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A space deployable solar energy concentrator is formed of a dome-shaped arrangement of compactly stowable flat panel segments mounted on a collapsible, space-deployable support structure of interconnected linear components. The support structure is comprised of a plurality of tensioned, curvilinear edge strips which extend in a radial direction from a prescribed vertex of a surrounding umbrella-like framework of radially extending rib members. Between a respective pair of radially-extending, curvilinear edge strips an individual wedge-shaped panel section is formed of a plurality of multi-segment lens panel strips each of which is supported in tension between the pair of edge strips by a pair of circumferentially extending catenary cord members connected to a pair of ribs of the surrounding umbrella-like framework. A respective lens panel strip is comprised of a plurality of flat, generally rectangular-shaped, energy-directing panels arranged side-by-side in the circumferential direction of the dome. Adjacent panels are interconnected by flexible U-shaped hinges which overlap opposing edges of adjacent panels and engage respective cylindrically-shaped, load distribution bars that slide within the flexible hinges. Because each U-shaped hinge is flexible, it is permitted to shift in the circumferential direction of the panel section to facilitate stowage and deployment of the dome.

  12. On the Roles of Substrate Binding and Hinge Unfolding in Conformational Changes of Adenylate Kinase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brokaw, Jason B.; Chu, Jhih-wei

    2010-11-17

    We characterized the conformational change of adenylate kinase (AK) between open and closed forms by conducting five all-atom molecular-dynamics simulations, each of 100 ns duration. Different initial structures and substrate binding configurations were used to probe the pathways of AK conformational change in explicit solvent, and no bias potential was applied. A complete closed-to-open and a partial open-to-closed transition were observed, demonstrating the direct impact of substrate-mediated interactions on shifting protein conformation. The sampled configurations suggest two possible pathways for connecting the open and closed structures of AK, affirming the prediction made based on available x-ray structures and earlier works of coarse-grained modeling. The trajectories of the all-atom molecular-dynamics simulations revealed the complexity of protein dynamics and the coupling between different domains during conformational change. Calculations of solvent density and density fluctuations surrounding AK did not show prominent variation during the transition between closed and open forms. Finally, we characterized the effects of local unfolding of an important hinge near Pro177 on the closed-to-open transition of AK and identified a novel mechanism by which hinge unfolding modulates protein conformational change. The local unfolding of Pro177 hinge induces alternative tertiary contacts that stabilize the closed structure and prevent the opening transition.

  13. Understanding protein lids: structural analysis of active hinge mutants in triosephosphate isomerase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kursula, I; Salin, M; Sun, J; Norledge, B V; Haapalainen, A M; Sampson, N S; Wierenga, R K

    2004-04-01

    The conformational switch from open to closed of the flexible loop 6 of triosephosphate isomerase (TIM) is essential for the catalytic properties of TIM. Using a directed evolution approach, active variants of chicken TIM with a mutated C-terminal hinge tripeptide of loop 6 have been generated (Sun,J. and Sampson,N.S., Biochemistry, 1999, 38, 11474-11481). In chicken TIM, the wild-type C-terminal hinge tripeptide is KTA. Detailed enzymological characterization of six variants showed that some of these (LWA, NPN, YSL, KTK) have decreased catalytic efficiency, whereas others (KVA, NSS) are essentially identical with wild-type. The structural characterization of these six variants is reported. No significant structural differences compared with the wild-type are found for KVA, NSS and LWA, but substantial structural adaptations are seen for NPN, YSL and KTK. These structural differences can be understood from the buried position of the alanine side chain in the C-hinge position 3 in the open conformation of wild-type loop 6. Replacement of this alanine with a bulky side chain causes the closed conformation to be favored, which correlates with the decreased catalytic efficiency of these variants. The structural context of loop 6 and loop 7 and their sequence conservation in 133 wild-type sequences is also discussed.

  14. Design and Test Analysis of a Solar Array Root Hinge Drive Assembly

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING Xilun; LI Xin

    2014-01-01

    A root hinge drive assembly is preferred in place of the classical viscous damper in a large solar array system. It has advantages including better deployment control and higher reliability. But the traditional single degree of freedom model should be improved. A multiple degrees of freedom dynamics model is presented for the solar arrays deployment to guide the drive assembly design. The established model includes the functions of the torsion springs, the synchronization mechanism and the lock-up impact. A numerical computation method is proposed to solve the dynamics coupling problem. Then considering the drive torque requirement calculated by the proposed model, a root hinge drive assembly is developed based on the reliability engineering design methods, and dual actuators are used as a redundancy design. Pseudo-efficiency is introduced and the major factors influencing the (pseudo-) efficiency of the gear mechanism designed with high reduction ratio are studied for further test data analysis. A ground prototype deployment test is conducted to verify the capacity of the drive assembly. The test device consists of a large-area solar array system and a root hinge drive assembly. The RHDA development time is about 43 s. The theoretical drive torque is compared with the test values which are obtained according to the current data and the reduction efficiency analysis, and the results show that the presented model and the calibration methods are proper enough.

  15. Design and test analysis of a solar array root hinge drive assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Xilun; Li, Xin

    2014-09-01

    A root hinge drive assembly is preferred in place of the classical viscous damper in a large solar array system. It has advantages including better deployment control and higher reliability. But the traditional single degree of freedom model should be improved. A multiple degrees of freedom dynamics model is presented for the solar arrays deployment to guide the drive assembly design. The established model includes the functions of the torsion springs, the synchronization mechanism and the lock-up impact. A numerical computation method is proposed to solve the dynamics coupling problem. Then considering the drive torque requirement calculated by the proposed model, a root hinge drive assembly is developed based on the reliability engineering design methods, and dual actuators are used as a redundancy design. Pseudo-efficiency is introduced and the major factors influencing the (pseudo-) efficiency of the gear mechanism designed with high reduction ratio are studied for further test data analysis. A ground prototype deployment test is conducted to verify the capacity of the drive assembly. The test device consists of a large-area solar array system and a root hinge drive assembly. The RHDA development time is about 43 s. The theoretical drive torque is compared with the test values which are obtained according to the current data and the reduction efficiency analysis, and the results show that the presented model and the calibration methods are proper enough.

  16. Bronchial stump fistula :treatment with covered retrievable hinged metallic stents-preliminary clinical experience

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yong-dong; HAN Xin-wei; WU Gang; LI Ming-hua

    2007-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the preliminaily clinical efficacy and retrievability of a retrievable hinged covered metallic stent in the treatment of the bronchial stump fistula (BSF). Methods Between April 2003 and March 2005, 8 patients with bronchial stump fistula after pneumonectomy or lobectomy were treated with two types (A and B) of retrievable hinged covered metallic stents. Type A stent was placed in 6 patients and type B in 2 under fluoroscopic guidance. The stent was removed with a retrieval set when BSF was healed or complications occurred. Results Stent placement in the bronchial tree was technically successful in all patients, without procedure-related complications. Immediate closure of the BSF was achieved in all patients after the procedure. Stents were removed from all patients but one. Removal of the stents was difficult in two patients due to tissue hyperplasia. Patients were followed up for 6 - 21 months. Placement of the stents remained stable in all patients except one due to severe cough. Permanent closure of BSF was achieved in 7(87.5%) of 8 patients. Conclusion Use of a retrievable hinged covered expandable metallic stent is a simple,safe, and effective procedure for closure of the BSF. Retrieval of the stent seems to be feasible. (J Intervent Radiol, 2007, 16: 253-257)[ Key words ] Fistula, pulmonary; Bronchialpleural fistula; Stents and prostheses; Computed tomography

  17. Efficacy and Safety of Alfuzosin as Medical Expulsive Therapy for Ureteral Stones: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenli Liu

    Full Text Available Alfuzosin has been widely used to treat benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostatitis, and is claimed to be a selective agent for the lower urinary tract with low incidence of adverse side-effects and hypotensive changes. Recently, several randomized controlled trials have reported using Alfuzosin as an expulsive therapy of ureteral stones. Tamsulosin, another alpha blocker, has also been used as an agent for the expulsive therapy for ureteral stones. It is unclear whether alfuzosin has similar efficacy as Tamsulosin in the management of ureteral stones.To perform a systematic review and analysis of literatures comparing Alfuzosin with Tamsulosin or standard conservative therapy for the treatment of ureteral stones less than 10 mm in diameter.A systematic literature review was performed in December 2014 using Pubmed, Embase, and the Cochrane library databases to identify relevant studies. All randomized and controlled trials were included. A subgroup analysis was performed comparing Alfuzosin with control therapy on the management of distal ureteral stones.Alfuzosin provided a significantly higher stone-free rate than the control treatments (RR: 1.85; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.35-2.55; p<0.001, and a shorter stone expulsion time (Weighted mean difference [WMD]: -4.20 d, 95%CI, -6.19 to -2.21; p<0.001, but it has a higher complication rate (RR: 2.02; 95% CI, 1.30-3.15; p<0.01. When Alfuzosin was compared to Tamsulosin, there was no significant difference in terms of stone-free rate (RR: 0.90; 95% CI, 0.79-1.02; p = 0.09 as well as the stone expulsion time (WMD: 0.52 d, 95%CI, -1.61 to 2.64; p = 0.63. The adverse effects of Alfuzosin were similar to those of Tamsulosin (RR: 0.88; 95% CI, 0.61-1.26; p = 0.47.Alfuzosin is a safe and effective agent for the expulsive therapy of ureteral stones smaller than 10 mm in size. It is more effective than therapeutic regiment without alpha blocker. It is equivalent to Tamsulosin in its effectiveness and

  18. Corticosteroids and tamsulosin in the medical expulsive therapy for symptomatic distal ureter stones: single drug or association?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porpiglia, Francesco; Vaccino, Davide; Billia, Michele; Renard, Julien; Cracco, Cecilia; Ghignone, Gianpaolo; Scoffone, Cesare; Terrone, Carlo; Scarpa, Roberto Mario

    2006-08-01

    To assess the clinical role of corticosteroids in the medical expulsive therapy of symptomatic distal ureteral stones. Between January 2004 and September 2005, 114 patients with symptomatic distal ureteral stones with a >/=5mm diameter were enrolled in this prospective study and divided into four groups based on the urologist (of four) who treated them in the emergency unit. Group A (33 patients) received tamsulosin (0.4mg daily), group B (24 patients) received deflazacort (30mg daily), group C (33 patients) received both (0.4mg tamsulosin+30mg deflazacort daily), and control group D (24 patients) received only analgesics. The treatment duration was 10 d to prevent the side-effects of prolonged corticosteroid therapy. The end points were the expulsion rate, analgesic consumption, number of ureteroscopies, and safety. The groups were comparable in terms of age, sex, and stone location. The stone diameter was 5.96+/-0.33mm for group A, 5.83+/-0.4mm for group B, 5.88+/-0.23mm for group C, and 5.71+/-0.5mm (p>0.05) for group D. The rates of expulsion for the four groups were 60%, 37.5%, 84.8%, and 33.3%, respectively. There was a significant difference between group C and the other groups (p<0.001). The mean analgesic consumption was 42.5+/-0.4mg for group A, 50+/-0.3mg for group B, 27.3+/-0.5mg for group C, and 81+/-0.33mg for group D, with a significant difference between group C and the other groups (p<0.001). During the treatment period, only two cases of drug side-effects related to tamsulosin (without any drop-outs) were recorded. When the medical expulsive therapy for symptomatic distal ureteral stones is considered, the use of steroids (deflazacort) proves efficient only when administered together with alpha(1)-blockers (tamsulosin). In addition, tamsulosin used on its own as a medical expulsive therapy can be considered as an alternative treatment for those patients who are not suitable for steroid therapy, as it is generally efficient.

  19. Anomalous water expulsion from carbon-based rods at high humidity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nune, Satish K.; Lao, David B.; Heldebrant, David J.; Liu, Jian; Olszta, Matthew J.; Kukkadapu, Ravi K.; Gordon, Lyle M.; Nandasiri, Manjula I.; Whyatt, Greg; Clayton, Chris; Gotthold, David W.; Engelhard, Mark H.; Schaef, Herbert T.

    2016-06-13

    Managing water is critical for industrial applications including CO2 capture, catalysis, bio-oil separations and energy storage. Various classes of materials have been designed for these applications, achieving specific water adsorption capacities at a given relative humidity (RH). Three water adsorption-desorption mechanisms are common to inorganic materials: (1) chemisorption, which may lead to the modification of the first coordination sphere; (2) simple adsorption, which is reversible in nature; or (3) capillary condensation, which is irreversible in nature. Regardless of sorption mechanism, all materials known today increase water adsorption capacity with increasing RH; none exhibit repeated adsorption of water at low humidity and release at high humidity. We present here a material that breaks from this convention: a new class of nitrogen containing carbon rods along with nonstoichiometric FeXSY that adsorb water at low humidity, and spontaneously expel half of the adsorbed water when the RH exceeds a 50–80% threshold. Monolayers of water form on the surfaces of the carbon rods, with the amount of water adsorbed directly linked to the aspect ratio of the rods and the available surface area. This unprecedented water expulsion is a reversible physical process. Once a complete monolayer is formed, adjacent rods in the bundles begin to adhere together via formation of a bridging monolayer, reducing the surface area available for water to adhere to. We believe the unique surface chemistry of these carbon rods can be used on other functionalized materials. Such behaviour offers a paradigm shift in water purification and separation: water could be repeatedly adsorbed from a low humidity vapour stream and then expelled into a pure water vapour stream, or humidity-responsive membranes could change their water permeance or selectivity as a function of RH.

  20. Hinge and chromoshadow of HP1α participate in recognition of K9 methylated histone H3 in nucleosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishima, Yuichi; Watanabe, Makoto; Kawakami, Toru; Jayasinghe, Chanika D; Otani, Junji; Kikugawa, Yusuke; Shirakawa, Masahiro; Kimura, Hiroshi; Nishimura, Osamu; Aimoto, Saburo; Tajima, Shoji; Suetake, Isao

    2013-01-09

    The majority of the genome in eukaryotes is packaged into transcriptionally inactive chromatin. Heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1) is a major player in the establishment and maintenance of heterochromatin. HP1 specifically recognizes a methylated lysine residue at position 9 in histone H3 through its N-terminal chromo domain (CD). To elucidate the binding properties of HP1α to nucleosomes in vitro, we reconstituted nucleosomes containing histone H3 trimethylated at lysine 9. HP1α exhibited high-affinity binding to nucleosomes containing methylated histone H3 in a nucleosome core-number-dependent manner. The hinge region (HR) connecting the CD and C-terminal chromoshadow domain (CSD), and the CSD contributed to the selective binding of HP1α to histone H3 with trimethylated lysine 9 through weak DNA binding and by suppressing the DNA binding, respectively. We propose that not only the specific recognition of lysine 9 methylation of histone H3 by the CD but also the HR and the CSD cooperatively contribute to the selective binding of HP1α to histone H3 lysine 9 methylated nucleosomes.

  1. Assessing fluid-gas expulsion geology and gas hydrate deposits across the Gulf of Mexico with multicomponent and multifrequency seismic data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardage, B.A.; Sava, D.C.; Murray, P.E.; DeAngelo, M.V.; Backus, M.M.; Graebner, R.J. [Texas Univ., Austin, TX (United States). Bureau of Economic Geology; Roberts, H.H. [Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States). Coastal Studies Inst.

    2008-07-01

    This paper reported on a study of 2 fluid-gas expulsion sites across a portion of the Green Canyon area of the Gulf of Mexico, where deep-water fields and oil and gas seeps are numerous. Hydrates are pervasive across the 2 expulsion sites studied at Typhoon and Genesis Fields. The 2 sites GD 237 and GC 204 are positioned on the flank of an intraslope basin containing a thick sedimentary sequence. Major fluid-gas migration pathways occur near the edges of shallow subsurface salt masses. The two-fluid gas expulsion sites were investigated with 4-component ocean-bottom-cable (4C OBC) seismic data and chirp-sonar data acquired by an autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV). The study examined the near-seafloor geology of the deep-water, fluid-gas expulsion features to estimate hydrate concentrations in strata spanned by the hydrate stability zone local to these expulsion sites. In some units, hydrate concentrations were more than 30 per cent of the available pore space of the host sediment. A free-gas layer was discovered immediately under the base of the hydrate stability zone across each expulsion site area. It was revealed by a reduction in V{sub p} velocity. Although the amount of free-gas in this zone has not been estimated, it is expected that the zone has a gas saturation of only a few percentage points. This free-gas zone was not obviously different from hydrate-bearing zones when examining resistivity logs. It was concluded that interpreting the thickness of a hydrate stability zone from resistivity logs alone could result in an overestimation of the thickness of the hydrate stability zone and the amount of hydrate that exists near deep-water expulsion features. 10 refs., 13 figs.

  2. Numerical Modeling on Hydrodynamic Performance of A Bottom-Hinged Flap Wave Energy Converter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Hai-tao; SUN Zhi-lin; HAO Chun-ling; SHEN Jia-fa

    2013-01-01

    The hydrodynamic performance of a bottom-hinged flap wave energy converter (WEC) is investigated through a frequency domain numerical model.The numerical model is verified through a two-dimensional analytic solution,as well as the qualitative analysis on the dynamic response of avibrating system.The concept of "optimum density" of the bottom-hinged flap is proposed,and its analytic expression is derived as well.The frequency interval in which the optimum density exists is also obtained.The analytic expression of the optimum linear damping coefficient is obtained by a bottom-hinged WEC.Some basic dynamic properties involving natural period,excitation moment,pitch amplitude,and optimum damping coefficient are analyzed and discussed in detail.In addition,this paper highlights the analysis of effects on the conversion performance of the device exerted by some important parameters.The results indicate that "the optimum linear damping period of 5.0 s" is the most ideal option in the short wave sea states with the wave period below 6.0 s.Shallow water depth,large flap thickness and low flap density are advised in the practical design of the device in short wave sea states in order to maximize power capture.In the sea state with water depth of 5.0 m and wave period of 5.0 s,the results of parametric optimization suggest a flap with the width of 8.0 m,thickness of 1.6 m,and with the density as little as possible when the optimum power take-off (PTO) damping coefficient is adopted.

  3. A PROSPECTIVE STUDY TO EVALUATE SAFETY, EFFICACY AND EXPULSION RATE OF POST PLACENTAL INSERTION OF INTRA UTERINE DEVICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunjan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available AIM: This study was conducted to know the factors associated with acceptability of immediate post placental IUCD insertion in women and to know the level of safety efficacy and expulsion of post placental insertion of IUCD. MATERIAL AND METHODS : This study was conducted in Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Department of Gandhi Memorial Hospital, Rewa (M. P. over period of 9 months. Women admitted and delivered at SGMH were counseled regarding IUCD like its advantage side effects and complications. CuT 380A was inserted within 15 minutes of delivery of placenta and membranes in women who had no contraindication for post placental IUCD and gave consent for this. All these women were followed up to 6 months post insertion period. RESULTS: Total number of counseled women was 600 over the period of three months from August 2014 to October 2014. Out of these only 400 women gave consent for PPIUCD insertion, 200 denied. 100 Lost follow - up only 300 women we re followed - up. Among followed - up women 30 women had expulsion, 20 women had only bleeding problem, 20 women had only pain in abdomen, bleeding and abdominal pain together in found in 60 women, thread problem in 5 women and continuation on contraceptive me thod by 230 women, 70 women discontinued IUD because of bleeding, pain in abdomen, missing thread, family pressure etc. CONCLUSION: On the basis of our results it may be concluded that insertion of CuT 380A within 15 minutes after placental delivery has hi gh retention rate, expulsion rate was not very high and it can be reduce with practice. Acceptability of this contraceptive method is high with proper counseling despite of low awareness level.

  4. Bulk Volume Reduction of the Kimmeridge Clay Formation, North Sea (UK Due to Compaction, Petroleum Generation and Expulsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth S. Okiongbo

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effects of petroleum generation and expulsion on shale porosity is explored by evaluating the compaction of the Kimmeridge Clay Formation (KCF within the oil window using log data and shale samples from the KCF within the depth and temperature range of ~1.5-5.0 km and 90-157ºC, respectively. Petrophysical properties e.g porosity and pore-size distribution were measured, and permeability was calculated using empirical models based on the measured porosities. Transit-time values from the sonic logs recorded at depths in the wells were the cores were recovered were calibrated against the porosities determined from the core samples. Bulk geochemical parameters e.g., Total Organic Carbon (TOC, Hydrogen Index (HI were determined. The volume reduction in the KCF within the oil window due to petroleum generation and expulsion, and compaction due to loss of pore space was determined using the geochemical and log derived porosity data emplaced into empirical relations. Porosities above the oil window range from ~15-20%, but decreased to <5% at the end of the oil window. Pore-sizes decrease from ~11 nm to between 6-8 nm at the depth range of 1.5-5.0 km. Permeability decreased from 4.8 nD to ~0.095 nD. The quantitative estimations of volume reduction within the oil window indicate that for ~8.0wt% initial TOC sediment, a bulk volume reduction of 13% of the initial volume is due to oil expulsion, and ~12% is due to loss of pore space.

  5. Quantitative Assessment of Hydrocarbon Expulsion of Petroleum Systems in the Niuzhuang Sag,Bohai Bay Basin,East China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PANG Xiongqi; LI Sumei; JIN Zhijun; BAI Guoping

    2004-01-01

    Based on a detailed survey of the distribution and organic geochemical characteristics of potential source rocks in the South Slope of the Niuzhuang Sag, Bohai Bay Basin, eastern China, a new approach to assess the amount of hydrocarbons generated and expelled has been developed. The approach is applicable to evaluate hydrocarbons with different genetic mechanisms. The results show that the models for hydrocarbon generation and expulsion vary with potential source rocks, depending on thermal maturity, types of organic matter and paleoenvironment. Hydrocarbons are mostly generated and expelled from source rocks within the normal oil window. It was calculated that the special interval (algal-rich shales of the Es4 member formed in brackish environments) in the South Slope of the Niuzhuang Sag has a much higher potential of immature oil generation than the other intervals in the area. This suggests that hydrocarbons can definitely be generated in early diagenesis, especially under certain special geological settings. The proportion of hydrocarbons generated and expelled from the Es4 shales in the early diagenetic stage is up to 26.75% and 17.36%,respectively. It was also observed that laminated shales have a much higher expulsion efficiency than massive mudstones.In contrast, the special interval of the Es4 shales proposed from previous studies is probably not the whole rock for oil in the South Slope of the Niuzhuang Sag because of the small proportion of the gross volume and corresponding low percentage of hydrocarbons generated and expelled. A much lower expulsion efficiency of the source rock during the early stage relative to that within the normal oil window has been calculated. Our results indicate that the Es4 mudstones rather than the shales deposited in the Niuzhuang and Guangli Sag are the main source rocks for the oil discovered.

  6. Design analysis of the hinge support for the ITER vacuum vessel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, B.Y. [ITER Korea, National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, H.J., E-mail: hjahn@nfri.re.kr [ITER Korea, National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Ha, M.S. [DNDE, Busan 612-021 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Y.K. [Hyundai Heavy Industries Co. Ltd., Ulsan 682-792 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, H.S.; Sa, J.W.; Kim, B.C.; Bak, J.S. [ITER Korea, National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, C.H.; Ioki, K.; Wang, X.; Bachmann, C. [ITER Organization, CS 90 046, 13067 St Paul-lez-Durance CEDEX (France)

    2011-10-15

    In order to verify design feasibility and structural integrity of a hinge type support for the ITER VV support system, the design analysis has been performed in detail, which includes heat transfer, elastic stress and limit analyses. The structural analyses were performed to confirm the transfer of forces through the supporting structure and to determine the maximum allowable loads according to the RCC-MR. From the heat transfer analysis for VV baking stage, total heat flow into the support was obtained to confirm the thermal heat flux into the cryostat under baking condition. In addition, the design modification was also discussed to enhance the structural performance of the supporting system.

  7. Paramedian forehead flap combined with hinge flap for nasal tip reconstruction*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerci, Felipe Bochnia; Dellatorre, Gerson

    2016-01-01

    The paramedian forehead flap is a great option for restoration of complex nasal defects. For full-thickness defects, it may be used alone or in combination with other methods. We present a patient with a basal cell carcinoma on the distal nose treated by Mohs micrographic surgery, and a resulting full-thickness defect repaired with paramedian forehead flap combined with a hinge flap. For optimal results with the paramedian forehead flap, adequate surgical planning, patient orientation and meticulous surgical technique are imperative.

  8. Effects of aluminum hinged shoes on the structure of contracted feet in Thoroughbred yearlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Kousuke; Hiraga, Atsushi; Takahashi, Toshiyuki; Kuwano, Atsutoshi; Morrison, Scott Edward

    2015-01-01

    We applied aluminum hinged shoes (AHSs) to the club foot-associated contracted feet of 11 Thoroughbred yearlings to examine the effects of the shoes on the shape of the hoof and third phalanx (P III). After 3 months of AHS use, the size of the affected hooves increased significantly, reaching the approximate size of the healthy contralateral hooves with respect to the maximum lateral width of the foot, the mean ratio of the bearing border width to the coronary band width, and the mean ratio of the solar surface width to the articular surface width. These results suggest that the AHSs corrected the contracted feet in these yearling horses.

  9. Numerical Simulation of Projection Welding Processes for Door Hinge of Automobile Based on Coupled Fields Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIAN Chang-ming; LUO Ai-hui; CHEN Guan-long

    2007-01-01

    Projection welding is a variation of electric resistance welding with the dynamic changes of the flow paths for heat and electrical properties with changing temperature caused by the large plastic deformation collapse of projection. As the joint type between the auto door hinge and the inner plate, projection welding may bring welding distortions and would affect the assembly quality of auto body. A comprehensive electric-thermal-mechanical numerical simulation was performed to quantitatively simulate the processes of projection welding by using a coupled finite element method. The mechanism of projection collapse and the formation process of nugget were discussed and good conclusions have been achieved comparing with the test results.

  10. Mechanism of Epac activation: structural and functional analyses of Epac2 hinge mutants with constitutive and reduced activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsalkova, Tamara; Blumenthal, Donald K; Mei, Fang C; White, Mark A; Cheng, Xiaodong

    2009-08-28

    Epac2 is a member of the family of exchange proteins directly activated by cAMP (Epac). Our previous studies suggest a model of Epac activation in which cAMP binding to the enzyme induces a localized "hinge" motion that reorients the regulatory lobe relative to the catalytic lobe without inducing large conformational changes within individual lobes. In this study, we identified the location of the major hinge in Epac2 by normal mode motion correlation and structural alignment analyses. Targeted mutagenesis was then performed to test the functional importance of hinge bending for Epac activation. We show that substitution of the conserved residue phenylalanine 435 with glycine (F435G) facilitates the hinge bending and leads to a constitutively active Epac2 capable of stimulating nucleotide exchange in the absence of cAMP. In contrast, substitution of the same residue with a bulkier side chain, tryptophan (F435W), impedes the hinge motion and results in a dramatic decrease in Epac2 catalytic activity. Structural parameters determined by small angle x-ray scattering further reveal that whereas the F435G mutant assumes a more extended conformation in the absence of cAMP, the F435W mutant is incapable of adopting the fully extended and active conformation in the presence of cAMP. These findings demonstrate the importance of hinge motion in Epac activation. Our study also suggests that phenylalanine at position 435 is the optimal size side chain to keep Epac closed and inactive in the absence of cAMP while still allowing the proper hinge motion for full Epac extension and activation in the presence of cAMP.

  11. Effects of suture material and ultrasonic transmitter size on survival, growth, wound healing, and tag expulsion in rainbow trout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivasauskas, Tomas J.; Bettoli, P.W.; Holt, T.

    2012-01-01

    We examined the effects of suture material (braided silk versus Monocryl) and relative ultrasonic transmitter size on healing, growth, mortality, and tag retention in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss. In experiment 1, 40 fish (205-281mmtotal length [TL], 106-264 g) were implanted with Sonotronics IBT-96-2 (23??7 mm; weight in air, 4.4 g; weight in water, 2.4 g) or IBT 96-2E (30 ?? 7 mm; weight in air, 4.9 g; weight in water, 2.4 g) ultrasonic telemetry tags. In experiment 2, 20 larger fish (342-405 mm TL; 520-844 g) were implanted with Sonotronics IBT-96-5 ultrasonic tags (36 ?? 11 mm; weight in air, 9.1 g; weight in water, 4.1 g). The tag burdens for all implanted fish ranged from 1.1% to 3.4%, and fish in both studies were held at 10-15??C. At the conclusion of both experiments (65 d after surgery), no mortalities were observed in any of the 60 tagged fish, most incisions were completely healed, and all fish in both experiments grew in length, although tagged fish grew more slowly than control fish in experiment 1. In both experiments, fish sutured with silk expelled tags more frequently than those sutured with Monocryl. Expulsion was observed in 45-50% of the fish sutured with silk and 0-25% of the fish sutured withMonocryl. Tag expulsion was not observed until 25-35 d after surgery. Fish sutured with silk exhibited a more severe inflammatory response 3 weeks after surgery than those sutured with Monocryl. In experiment 1, the rate of expulsion was linked to the severity of inflammation. Although braided silk sutures were applied faster than Moncryl sutures in both experiments, knots tied with either material were equally reliable and fish sutured with Monocryl experienced less inflammation and lower rates of tag expulsion. American Fisheries Society 2012.

  12. Calculating the number of shock waves, expulsion time, and optimum stone parameters based on noncontrast computerized tomography characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foda, Khaled; Abdeldaeim, Hussein; Youssif, Mohamed; Assem, Akram

    2013-11-01

    To define the parameters that accompanied a successful extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL), namely the number of shock waves (SWs), expulsion time (ET), mean stone density (MSD), and the skin-to-stone distance (SSD). A total of 368 patients diagnosed with renal calculi using noncontrast computerized tomography had their MSD, diameter, and SSD recorded. All patients were treated using a Siemens lithotripter. ESWL success meant a stone-free status or presence of residual fragments 934 HUs and SSD >99 mm. The required number of SWs and the expected ET can be anticipated. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. 克拉通盆地构造枢纽带类型及其在碳酸盐岩油气成藏中的作用%Types of tectonic hinge zone and its effect on hydrocarbon accumulation in carbonate reservoirs of cratonic basins in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪泽成; 姜华; 刘伟; 谷志东; 王铜山; 江青春

    2012-01-01

    与北美等大型克拉通盆地相比,中国小型克拉通的构造演化更易受周缘构造活动影响.受构造分异的影响,克拉通坳陷盆地存在2大类构造枢纽带,即同沉积期构造枢纽带和跨构造期构造枢纽带.同沉积期构造枢纽带的形成和演化受同沉积断裂活动的影响,控制了碳酸盐台地边缘礁滩体的分布,与相邻的盆地相烃源岩共同构成良好的源-储配置,具备有利的油气成藏条件.跨构造期构造枢纽带主要有3种类型,即“跷跷板”运动枢纽带、克拉通古隆起一前陆隆起叠合枢纽带、多期古隆起继承性叠合枢纽带,发育岩溶型储层和地层-岩性型圈闭,是油气运聚的有利指向区.构造枢纽带是碳酸盐岩油气富集的有利区带,油气勘探前景广阔.%Compared to large cratonic basins in northern America, small cratonic basins in China are more susceptible to peripheral tectonic activities in terms of tectonic evolution. Due to tectonic differentiation, there are commonly two types of tectonic hinge zone in cratonic depression basins, I. E. Synsedimentary tectonic hinge zone and cross-structure tectonic hinge zone. The formation and e-volution of synsedimentary tectonic hinge zones are affected by activity of synsedimentary faults. These controlled distribution of reefs and shoals on carbonate platform margin and formed an excellent source-storage configuration with adjacent source rocks, providing favorable conditions for hydrocarbon accumulation. The cross-structure tectonic hinge zones can be divided into three types, I. E. , "seesaw" movement hinge zone, cratonic palaeouplift-foreland uplift superimposed hinge zone, and multi-phase palaeouplift inheritance superimposed hinge zone. They develop karst reservoirs and stratigraphic-lithologic traps, and are favorable oriented regions of hydrocarbon migration and accumulation. The tectonic hinge zones are favorable for hydrocarbon enrichment in carbonates with broad

  14. Left ventricle function in patients with ischemic cardiopathy: determination of the expulsion fraction of the left ventricle with gated-SPECT. Experience in the CMN 20 de Noviembre ISSSTE; Funcion ventricular izquierda en pacientes con cardiopatia isquemica: determinacion de la fraccion de expulsion del ventriculo izquierdo con gated-SPECT. Experiencia en el CMN 20 de Noviembre ISSSTE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendoza, L.; Puente, A.; Hernandez, T.; Jimenez, L. [Departamento de Medicina Nuclear y Cardiologia, Hospital CMN 20 de Noviembre, ISSSTE, 03000 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2007-07-01

    The objective of this work is to correlate the expulsion fraction of the left ventricle (FEVI) obtained by means of g-SPECT and other diagnostic methods: ECO 2D and ventriculography for heart catheterization (CTT). (Author)

  15. Study on Utilization of LVL Sengon (Paraserianthes falcataria for Three-Hinged Gable Frame Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Awaludin

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the utilization of non-prismatic LVL members of wood species Sengon (Paraserianthes falcataria for three-hinged gable frame structures. This wood species matures in 6 to 8 years, and the innovative application as LVL product for these structures is evaluated. A full-scale model of a beam-column connection is produced and tested to validate the moment-rotation response predicted by the numerical study using ABAQUS. The FEM results showed a linear-elastic moment-rotation curve response up to a joint rotation of 0.015 radians which is in very good agreement with the experiment. This validated FE model for the beam-column joint was further utilized to generate predictions for the moment-rotation relation using different bolt diameters and configurations. The last part of this study presents an evaluation of the maximum load bearing capacity of three-hinged gable frame timber structures considering a rigid and semi-rigid beam-column joint model. If the load carrying capacity is governed by the yielding of the bolt, the gable frame structure with the rigid beam-column joint overestimates the load bearing capacity by 17% to 25%.

  16. Mid-term results after implantation of rotating-hinge knee prostheses: primary versus revision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turgay Efe

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the mid-term clinical results and survivorship of a rotating-hinge knee prosthesis (LINK® Endo-Model in difficult primary and complex revision situations. Results after primary implantation were compared with those of revision procedures. Forty-nine prostheses in 45 patients were reviewed clinically during follow up. Twenty-one of these were implanted in primary and 28 in revision situations. Outcome was evaluated using commonly used scores (Knee Society, UCLA Activity, Lequesne and a visual analog scale after a mean follow up of 56±37 months for 49 prostheses. Implant survival was analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier method. There were no significant differences in clinical examination and evaluation scores between the two groups (P>0.05. Survival rates at final follow up were 95% after primary implantation and 76% in revision procedures. The risk of prosthesis loss (odds ratio 5.7 was significantly higher after revision procedures (P=0.004. These data suggest that rotating-hinge knee prostheses provided good clinical and functional results in selected cases of advanced primary gonarthrosis associated with severe bone loss, ligamentous instability or comminuted fractures. They also provide good results in revision situations. However, the failure rate was significantly higher in cases of revision surgery.

  17. RAG2’s Acidic Hinge Restricts Repair-Pathway Choice and Promotes Genomic Stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc A. Coussens

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available V(DJ recombination-associated DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs are normally repaired by the high-fidelity classical nonhomologous end-joining (cNHEJ machinery. Previous studies implicated the recombination-activating gene (RAG/DNA postcleavage complex (PCC in regulating pathway choice by preventing access to inappropriate repair mechanisms such as homologous recombination (HR and alternative NHEJ (aNHEJ. Here, we report that RAG2’s “acidic hinge,” previously of unknown function, is critical for several key steps. Mutations that reduce the hinge’s negative charge destabilize the PCC, disrupt pathway choice, permit repair of RAG-mediated DSBs by the translocation-prone aNHEJ machinery, and reduce genomic stability in developing lymphocytes. Structural predictions and experimental results support our hypothesis that reduced flexibility of the hinge underlies these outcomes. Furthermore, sequence variants present in the human population reduce the hinge’s negative charge, permit aNHEJ, and diminish genomic integrity.

  18. Study on the Behavior of Solar Array Deployment with Root Hinge Drive Assembly

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING Xilun; LI Xin; XU Kun; YANG Qiaolong; PU Hailing

    2012-01-01

    In this paper,a method of using a root hinge drive assembly (RHDA) to control the solar array deployment is provided and a multi-DOF mechanism dynamic model of the system is established.In this way,the root hinge torque can be calculated iteratively.Then taking the predicted torque as a reference,a RHDA is designed for a large multiple-stage packaging and deployable solar array system.The control effect of the drive assembly is validated by ground tests.The test results indicate that the solar arrays can be deployed smoothly,and the deployment velocities are restricted by the drive assembly as expected.During the tests,the RHDA output speed and output torque are obtained.In order to examine the impact force when the yoke is lock-up with a hard stop,dynamics simulations are performed according to the actual behavior.The simulation result indicates that the designed RHDA reduces the impact force significantly and improves the lock-up reliability effectively.

  19. Free Vibrations of a Trapezoidal Plate with an Internal Line Hinge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Virginia Quintana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with a general variational formulation for the determination of natural frequencies and mode shapes of free vibrations of laminated thin plates of trapezoidal shape with an internal line hinge restrained against rotation. The analysis was carried out by using the kinematics corresponding to the classical laminated plate theory (CLPT. The eigenvalue problem is obtained by employing a combination of the Ritz method and the Lagrange multipliers method. The domain of the plate is transformed into a rectangular domain in the computational space by using nonorthogonal triangular coordinates and the transverse displacements are approximated with a set of simple polynomials automatically generated and expressed in the triangular coordinates. The developed algorithm allows obtaining approximate analytical solutions for mentioned plate with different geometries, aspect ratio, position of the line hinge, and boundary conditions including translational and rotational elastically restrained edges. It allows studying the influence of the mentioned line on the vibration frequencies and respective mode shapes. The algorithm can easily be programmed and it is numerically stable. Additionally, as a particular case, the results of triangular plates can be easily generated.

  20. Determination of Elevator and Rudder Hinge Forces on the Learjet Model 55 Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boroughs, R. R.; Padmanabhan, V.

    1983-01-01

    The empennage structure on the Learjet 55 aircraft was quite similar to the empennage structure on earlier Learjet models. However, due to an important structural change in the vertical fin along with the new loads environment on the 50 series aircraft, a structural test was required on the vertical fin, but the horizontal tail was substantiated by a comparative analysis with previous tests. NASTRAN analysis was used to investigate empennage deflections, stress levels, and control surface hinge forces. The hinge force calculations were made with the control surfaces in the deflected as well as undeflected configurations. A skin panel buckling analysis was also performed, and the non-linear effects of buckling were simulated in the NASTRAN model to more accurately define internal loads and stress levels. Comparisons were then made between the Model 55 and the Model 35/36 stresses and internal forces to determine which components were qualified by previous tests. Some of the methods and techniques used in this analysis are described.

  1. Multi-objective optimization of flexure hinge mechanism considering thermal–mechanical coupling deformation and natural frequency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lufan Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Flexure hinge mechanism plays a key part in realization of terminal nano-positioning. The performance of flexure hinge mechanism is determined by its positioning design. Based on the actual working conditions, its finite element model is built and calculated in ANSYS. Moreover, change trends of deformation and natural frequency with positioning design parameters are revealed. And sensitivity analysis is performed for exploration response to these parameters. These parameters are used to build four objective functions. To solve it conveniently, the multi-objective optimization problem is transferred to the form of single-objective function with constraints. An optimal mechanism is obtained by an optimization method combining ANSYS with MATLAB. Finite element numerical simulation has been carried out to demonstrate the superiority of the optimal flexure hinge mechanism, and the superiority can be further verified by experiment. Measurements and tests have been conducted at varying accelerations, velocities, and displacements, to quantify and characterize the amount of acceleration responses obtained from flexure hinge mechanism before and after optimization. Both time- and frequency-domain analyses of experimental data show that the optimal flexure hinge mechanism has superior effectiveness. It will provide a basic for realizing high acceleration and high precision positioning of macro–micro motion platform.

  2. The Impacts of Hinged and Solid Ankle-Foot Orthoses on Standing and Walking in Children with Spastic Diplegia

    Science.gov (United States)

    DALVAND, Hamid; DEHGHAN, Leila; FEIZI, Awat; HOSSEINI, Seyed Ali; AMIRSALARI, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to examine the impacts of hinged and solid anklefoot orthoses (AFOs) on standing and walking abilities in children with spastic diplegia. Materials & Methods In a quasi-experimental design, 30 children with spastic diplegia, aged 4-6 years were recruited. They were matched in terms of age, IQ, and level of GMFCS E&R. Children were randomly assigned into 3 groups: a hinged AFO group (n=10) plus occupational therapy (OT), a solid AFO group (n=10) plus OT, a control group who used only OT for three months. Gross motor abilities were measured using Gross Motor Measure Function (GMFM). Results We obtained statistically significant differences in the values between baseline and after treatment in all groups. The groups were also significantly different in total GMFM after intervention. Furthermore, there were differences between hinged AFOs and solid AFOs groups, and between hinged AFOs and control groups. Conclusion We concluded that gross motor function was improved in all groups; however, hinged AFOs group appears to improve the gross motor function better than solid AFOs and control groups. PMID:24665312

  3. The European Convention of Human Rights and the Expulsion of foreigners. The danger of mistreatment in destination countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syméon Karagiannis

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The right of States, for a variety of reasons, to expel aliens has never been disputed by the European Court of Human Rights insofar as a State party to the European Convention on Human Rights continues, quite naturally, to exercise its sovereignty over its territory. However, this right has to be reconciled with the obligation of States parties to the European Convention on Human Rights not to expose aliens and, more generally, persons under their jurisdiction to a risk of violation of the provisions of the Convention. Yet, guaranteeing that no human right recognized as such by the Convention be violated in case of expulsion is too heavy a task for States to assume. Imposing such an obligation would end up in invalidating the sovereign right of States to expel aliens. The Court of Strasbourg retains primarily the risk of Article 3 of the Convention being violated in expulsion cases, a provision according to which inhuman or degrading punishments or treatments and, of course, acts of torture are strictly prohibited. The Court’s case-law, abundant as well as rich in nuances, results in rather a thorough examination of the human rights situation in any country towards which a alien will be (or has already been expelled.

  4. Mortality and dust expulsion in early phases of stellar clusters. Evidence from NIR photometry of nearby, spiral galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Grosboel, P

    2013-01-01

    It is often argued that young stellar clusters suffer a significant infant mortality that is partly related to the expulsion of dust and gas in their early phases caused by radiation pressure from hot stars and supernovae. Near-infrared (J-K)-Mk diagrams of young stellar clusters in nearby spiral galaxies show a bi-modal distribution that is consistent with a fast decline of their intrinsic extinction at an early epoch. The distinct features in the color-magnitude diagrams (CMD) and the fast change of colors for the youngest clusters allow us to place constraints on their early evolutionary phases, including the time scale for the decreasing extinction caused for instance by gas and dust expulsion. Monte Carlo simulations of cluster populations were performed using the power-law distribution function g(M, t) ~ M^a t^gam. Integrated colors were computed from Starburst99 models. The simulated near-infrared CMD were compared with those observed for six grand-design, spiral galaxies using statistical goodness-of-...

  5. Effect of estradiol and cloprostenol combination therapy on expulsion of mummified fetus and subsequent fertility in four crossbred cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arumugam Kumaresan

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Four crossbred cows with mummified fetus were utilized for the study. The cows weresubjected togynecologicalexamination and based on the findings the cases were diagnosed asmummified fetus. The cows were treated with 2 mg estradiol valerate and 500 μg cloprostenoland were examined every 12 hr after 24 hr of the treatment for cervical dilatation and othersigns related to fetal expulsion. The time duration between treatment and starting of cervicaldilatation ranged from 48 to 58h (53.00 ± 2.08 hr. Complete dilatation of cervix was observedafter 70.00 ± 2.94 hr post treatment (Range = 64-76 hr. The mean fetalcrown-rump length(CRL was 31.5 cm, which ranged from 27.5 to 38 cm. The number of cotyledons in pregnanthorn also showed wide variation (Range 24-38 numbers with mean ± SE of 30.3 ± 3.07numbers. In the placenta of three animals irregular shaped large adventitious cotyledons wereobserved in the inter-cotyledonary areas. Out of the four animals treated, three animals wereconceived within three estrous cycles and one animal had cystic ovary in the next cycle and wasnot conceived even after four cycles. It was concluded that the estradiolandprostaglandin F2α(PGF2αcombinationtherapy was effective for expulsion of mummified fetus in crossbred cowswithout affecting much on future fertility.

  6. The dynamical fingerprint of gas-expulsion: Insights into the assembly of the Milky Ways' old GC system

    CERN Document Server

    Marks, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Since the oldest globular clusters (GCs) are early residuals from the formation of the Milky Way (MW), GCs were exposed to the likely evolving potential of our Galaxy. The expulsion of the residual-gas from the GC's embedded progenitors is sensitive to the conditions in the pre-MW gas cloud. By means of N-body computations it is shown that gas throw-out from initially mass-segregated GCs affect the shape of the low-mass stellar mass function (MF) and that its imprint might still be visible in the present-day MF (PDMF). The strength of the tidal-field at birth influences the degree of gas-expulsion driven low-mass-star depletion and therefore the PDMF probes the MW potential at the time of GC formation. It is argued that among the old GC population in the MW, younger GCs show stronger low-mass-star loss than older GCs. This is shown to be consistent with a contracting and self-gravitating cloud in which fluctuations in the pre-MW potential grow with time. An initially relatively smooth tidal field evolved into...

  7. Epithelium-intrinsic NAIP/NLRC4 inflammasome drives infected enterocyte expulsion to restrict Salmonella replication in the intestinal mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellin, Mikael E; Müller, Anna A; Felmy, Boas; Dolowschiak, Tamas; Diard, Médéric; Tardivel, Aubry; Maslowski, Kendle M; Hardt, Wolf-Dietrich

    2014-08-13

    The gut mucosal epithelium separates the host from the microbiota, but enteropathogens such as Salmonella Typhimurium (S.Tm) can invade and breach this barrier. Defenses against such acute insults remain incompletely understood. Using a murine model of Salmonella enterocolitis, we analyzed mechanisms limiting pathogen loads in the epithelium during early infection. Although the epithelium-invading S.Tm replicate initially, this intraepithelial replicative niche is restricted by expulsion of infected enterocytes into the lumen. This mechanism is compromised if inflammasome components (NAIP1-6, NLRC4, caspase-1/-11) are deleted, or ablated specifically in the epithelium, resulting in ∼100-fold higher intraepithelial loads and accelerated lymph node colonization. Interestingly, the cytokines downstream of inflammasome activation, interleukin (IL)-1α/β and IL-18, appear dispensable for epithelial restriction of early infection. These data establish the role of an epithelium-intrinsic inflammasome, which drives expulsion of infected cells to restrict the pathogen's intraepithelial proliferation. This may represent a general defense mechanism against mucosal infections.

  8. Expulsion of symbiotic algae during feeding by the green hydra--a mechanism for regulating symbiont density?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yelena Fishman

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Algal-cnidarian symbiosis is one of the main factors contributing to the success of cnidarians, and is crucial for the maintenance of coral reefs. While loss of the symbionts (such as in coral bleaching may cause the death of the cnidarian host, over-proliferation of the algae may also harm the host. Thus, there is a need for the host to regulate the population density of its symbionts. In the green hydra, Chlorohydra viridissima, the density of symbiotic algae may be controlled through host modulation of the algal cell cycle. Alternatively, Chlorohydra may actively expel their endosymbionts, although this phenomenon has only been observed under experimentally contrived stress conditions. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We show, using light and electron microscopy, that Chlorohydra actively expel endosymbiotic algal cells during predatory feeding on Artemia. This expulsion occurs as part of the apocrine mode of secretion from the endodermal digestive cells, but may also occur via an independent exocytotic mechanism. SIGNIFICANCE: Our results demonstrate, for the first time, active expulsion of endosymbiotic algae from cnidarians under natural conditions. We suggest this phenomenon may represent a mechanism whereby cnidarians can expel excess symbiotic algae when an alternative form of nutrition is available in the form of prey.

  9. Technical Evaluation Summary of the In Situ Vitrification Melt Expulsion at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory on April 21, 1996, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-11-01

    This Technical Evaluation Summary of the In Situ Vitrification Melt Expulsion at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory on April 21, 1996, was prepared at the request of the Department of Energy as a supporting reference document for the Final Unusual Occurrence Report to fully explore the probable causes that lead to the subject incident. This document provides the Environmental Restoration Program with the technical information on the performance of the in situ vitrification treatability study operations at ORNL pit 1 up to and including the time of the melt expulsion incident. This document also attempts to diagnose the causes of the melt expulsion event the consequent damages to equipment the radiological impacts of the event, and the equipment design modifications and procedural changes necessary for future safe ISV operations.

  10. 舱门铰链结构分析和单轴铰链的应用%Hinge Structures Analysis of Compartment Doors and Application of Single-axis Hinge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于敬平; 张跃进

    2012-01-01

    The structure and usage of some hings of the side compartment doors are introduced. The design and ap- plication of a new single-axis hinge which can give references for the designers is presented emphatically.%简析客车用几种舱门铰链的结构、使用状况;重点介绍新型单轴铰链在客车舱门上的开发应用,为同行提供参考。

  11. Modification of Baksi sloppy hinge elbow to minimize the stresses at the humeral bone cement interface- An early experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baksi D

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Baksi sloppy hinge elbow is an all metal prosthesis having 7 0 - 10 0 varus - valgus inherent laxity at the hinge section with minimal motion bearing contact area. Due to the presence of laxity at it′s hinge section, any strain on the prosthesis dissipates primarily to the surrounding soft tissues thus protecting the cement bone interfaces. However, from our long term clinical experiences on the use of our sloppy hinge design since 1984 and the knowledge of literature review of the results of using other semi-constrained (sloppy or unconstrained designs, it was observed that radiolucency or loosening at the bone-cement interface occurred mainly around the humeral stem in the long run due to the continued effect of rotational torque of forearm and hand. Hence, an attempt in the improvement of the design concept is being made. Methods : In this respect one flange each of one cm height and breadth and three mm thickness has been incorporated on either sides of the shank of humeral stem of the sloppy hinge at medio-lateral (coronal plane which will be seated in the corresponding longitudinal groove cut on either side of humeral shaft extending from its transverse cut end to become single assembly during the rotation of humerus. Results : The preliminary results of clinical application of the modified sloppy hinge elbow in ten cases are found satisfactory. Conclusion : The cyclical compression and distraction forces during flexion and extension of the elbow will be distributed over the larger bony area of lower end of humerus where flanges of the humeral shank being seated. The rotational torque effect of forearm and hand particularly with the arm in abduction will be minimised at the humeral bone cement interface as the humerus and the prosthetic stem act as a single assembly by the snugly fitting of the prosthetic flange in the humural shaft

  12. Dynamics of the Peripheral Membrane Protein P2 from Human Myelin Measured by Neutron Scattering--A Comparison between Wild-Type Protein and a Hinge Mutant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laulumaa, Saara; Nieminen, Tuomo; Lehtimäki, Mari; Aggarwal, Shweta; Simons, Mikael; Koza, Michael M; Vattulainen, Ilpo; Kursula, Petri; Natali, Francesca

    2015-01-01

    Myelin protein P2 is a fatty acid-binding structural component of the myelin sheath in the peripheral nervous system, and its function is related to its membrane binding capacity. Here, the link between P2 protein dynamics and structure and function was studied using elastic incoherent neutron scattering (EINS). The P38G mutation, at the hinge between the β barrel and the α-helical lid, increased the lipid stacking capacity of human P2 in vitro, and the mutated protein was also functional in cultured cells. The P38G mutation did not change the overall structure of the protein. For a deeper insight into P2 structure-function relationships, information on protein dynamics in the 10 ps to 1 ns time scale was obtained using EINS. Values of mean square displacements mainly from protein H atoms were extracted for wild-type P2 and the P38G mutant and compared. Our results show that at physiological temperatures, the P38G mutant is more dynamic than the wild-type P2 protein, especially on a slow 1-ns time scale. Molecular dynamics simulations confirmed the enhanced dynamics of the mutant variant, especially within the portal region in the presence of bound fatty acid. The increased softness of the hinge mutant of human myelin P2 protein is likely related to an enhanced flexibility of the portal region of this fatty acid-binding protein, as well as to its interactions with the lipid bilayer surface requiring conformational adaptations.

  13. Biomechanical evaluation of wrist-driven flexor hinge orthosis in persons with spinal cord injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeoun-Seung Kang, MD, PhD, CPO

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The wrist-driven flexor hinge orthosis (WDFHO is a device used to restore hand function in persons with tetraplegic spinal cord injury by furnishing three-point prehension. We assessed the effectiveness and biomechanical properties of the WDFHO in 24 persons with cervical 6 or 7 tetraplegia who have severely impaired hand function. This study introduces a mechanical operating model to assess the efficiency of the WDFHO. Experimental results showed that pinch force increased significantly (p < 0.001 after using the WDFHO and was found to positively correlate with the strength of wrist extensor muscles (r = 0.41, p < 0.001. However, when the strength of the wrist extensors acting on the WDFHO was greater, the reciprocal wrist and finger motion that generates three-point prehension was less effective (r = 0.79, p < 0.001. Reliable and valid biomechanical evaluation of the WDFHO could improve our understanding of its biomechanics.

  14. Adjoint-based optimization of flapping plates hinged with a trailing-edge flap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Xu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available It is important to understand the impact of wing-morphing on aerodynamic performance in the study of flapping-wing flight of birds and insects. We use a flapping plate hinged with a trailing-edge flap as a simplified model for flexible/morphing wings in hovering. The trailing-edge flapping motion is optimized by an adjoint-based approach. The optimized configuration suggests that the trailing-edge flap can substantially enhance the overall lift. Further analysis indicates that the lift enhancement by the trailing-edge flapping is from the change of circulation in two ways: the local circulation change by the rotational motion of the flap, and the modification of vortex shedding process by the relative location between the trailing-edge flap and leading-edge main plate.

  15. Numerical modeling of cold room's hinged door opening and closing processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carneiro, R.; Gaspar, P. D.; Silva, P. D.; Domingues, L. C.

    2016-06-01

    The need of rationalize energy consumption in agrifood industry has fasten the development of methodologies to improve the thermal and energy performances of cold rooms. This paper presents a three-dimensional (3D) transient Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) modelling of a cold room to evaluate the air infiltration rate through hinged doors. A species transport model is used for modelling the tracer gas concentration decay technique. Numerical predictions indicate that air temperature difference between spaces affects the air infiltration. For this case study, the infiltration rate increases 0.016 m3 s-1 per K of air temperature difference. The knowledge about the evolution of air infiltration during door opening/closing times allows to draw some conclusions about its influence on the air conditions inside the cold room, as well as to suggest best practices and simple technical improvements that can minimize air infiltration, and consequently improve thermal performance and energy consumption rationalization.

  16. Distraction arthrodesis of subtalar joint using a laterally placed hinged distractor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibuya, Naohiro; Agarwal, Monica R

    2012-01-01

    Many joint-depressive, neglected calcaneal fractures need distraction arthrodesis of the subtalar joint. Because the calcaneal tuberosity is usually malunited in the varus position, more distraction is required on the medial side to place the tuberosity in the everted position before insertion of a bone graft. Traditionally, a distractor is placed on the medial side to achieve this task. However, the medially placed distractor hinders with the positioning of the extremity and exposure of the main operative site, which is commonly on the lateral side. We introduce a technique to avoid this burden by placing a hinged distractor device on the lateral aspect of the foot while maintaining the correction of the varus deformity. Copyright © 2012 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Design of a Shape Memory Alloy deployment hinge for reflector facets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anders, W. S.; Rogers, C. A.

    1991-01-01

    A design concept for a Shape Memory Alloy (SMA) actuated hinge mechanism for deploying segmented facet-type reflector surfaces on antenna truss structures is presented. The mechanism uses nitinol, a nickel-titanium shape memory alloy, as a displacement-force micro-actuator. An electrical current is used to resistively heat a 'plastically' elongated SMA actuator wire, causing it to contract in response to a thermally-induced phase transformation. The resulting tension creates a moment, imparting rotary motion between two adjacent panels. Mechanical stops are designed into the device to limit its range of motion and to establish positioning accuracy at the termination of deployment. The concept and its operation are discussed in detail, and an analytical dynamic simulation model is presented. The model has been used to perform nondimensionalized parametric design studies.

  18. Biomechanical evaluation of wrist-driven flexor hinge orthosis in persons with spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yeoun-Seung; Park, Yoon-Ghil; Lee, Bum-Suk; Park, Hyung-Soon

    2013-01-01

    The wrist-driven flexor hinge orthosis (WDFHO) is a device used to restore hand function in persons with tetraplegic spinal cord injury by furnishing three-point prehension. We assessed the effectiveness and biomechanical properties of the WDFHO in 24 persons with cervical 6 or 7 tetraplegia who have severely impaired hand function. This study introduces a mechanical operating model to assess the efficiency of the WDFHO. Experimental results showed that pinch force increased significantly (p < 0.001) after using the WDFHO and was found to positively correlate with the strength of wrist extensor muscles (r = 0.41, p < 0.001). However, when the strength of the wrist extensors acting on the WDFHO was greater, the reciprocal wrist and finger motion that generates three-point prehension was less effective (r = 0.79, p < 0.001). Reliable and valid biomechanical evaluation of the WDFHO could improve our understanding of its biomechanics.

  19. Effects of opioids in the formalin test in the Speke's hinged tortoise (Kinixy's spekii)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wambugu, SN; Towett, PK; Kiama, SG

    2010-01-01

    by the formalin test (12.5%, 100 microL) were studied in the Speke's hinged tortoise. Formalin induced a monophasic limb retraction behavioural response and its duration was recorded. The behaviour lasted for 16.4 +/- 0.8 min. Morphine (7.5, 10 and 20 mg/kg) and pethidine (20 and 50 mg/kg) induced significant...... decrease in the duration of limb retraction in the formalin test. The anti-nociceptive effects were naloxone (5 mg/kg) reversible. The data suggest that the formalin test is a good test for studying nociception and anti-nociception in tortoises and that the opioidergic system plays a role in the control...

  20. MIGRATION AND CHINESE ENTREPRENEURS IN MAZATLAN. SINCE ARRIVING IN MID- NINETEENTH CENTURY UNTIL THEIR EXPULSION IN 1930

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Arturo Román Alarcón

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The Chinese migration to Mazatlan and Mexico, began in the mid-nineteenth century, via San Francisco. They were the most important foreign colony from the early decades of the twentieth century. On arrival the Chinese population lacked capital as largely devoted to provide their services as domestic workers, especially farmers and craft activities related to repairing and making shoes. With the advent of the twentieth century and the accumulation of some capital, began its foray into the retail trade, which was the domain of national merchants. The commercial importance of the Chinese was one of the causes of the hostility of Mexican traders, which coupled with the counter-arguments raised by the Labor Law, Health Code, the culmination of the Treaty with China and the effects of the 1929 crisis, served as sustenance for their expulsion in 1932.

  1. The Law of Procedure in Student Suspensions and Expulsions. NOLPE Monograph Series. ERIC/CEM State-of-the-Knowledge Series, Number Thirty-four.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phay, Robert E.

    This state-of-the-knowledge paper, a companion to the author's 1975 monograph on a similar topic, examines the legal ramifications of student suspension, expulsion, and search and seizure of students' property. The author reviews relevant court litigation and state laws pertaining to specific rules on student conduct, the procedures to follow in…

  2. Climate-sensitive subsea permafrost and related gas expulsions on the South Kara Sea shelf. Field studies and modeling results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portnov, Alexey; Mienert, Jurgen; Serov, Pavel

    2015-04-01

    Thawing subsea permafrost controls methane release bearing a considerable impact on the climate-sensitive Arctic environment. Significant expulsion of methane into shallow Russian shelf areas may continue to rise into the atmosphere on the Arctic shelves in response to intense degradation of relict subsea permafrost. The release of formerly trapped gas, essentially methane, is linked to the permafrost evolution. Modeling of the permafrost at the West Yamal shelf allowed describing its evolution from the Late Pleistocene to Holocene. During the previous work we detected extensive emissions of free gas into the water column at the boundary between today's shallow water permafrost and deeper water non-permafrost areas. These gas expulsions formed seismic and hydro-acoustic anomalies on the high-resolution seismic records. We supposed that in the water depths modeling results of relict permafrost distributions with these field data from the South Kara Sea. Modeling results suggest a highly-dynamic permafrost system that directly responds to even minor variations of lower and upper boundary conditions, e.g. heat flux from below and/or bottom water temperature changes from above. We present several scenarios of permafrost evolution and show that potentially minimal modern extent of the permafrost at the West Yamal shelf is limited by ~17 m isobaths, whereas maximal probable extent coincides with ~100 m isobaths. The model also predicts seaward tapering of relict permafrost with its maximal thickness 275-390 m near the shore line. We also present sensitivity analysis which define the wider range of modeling results depending on the changing input parameters (e.g. geothermal heat flux, bottom water temperature, porosity of the sediments). The model adapts well to corresponding field data, providing crucial information about the modern permafrost conditions, current location of the upper and lower permafrost boundaries and its possible impact on both the hydrosphere and

  3. Gas expulsions and biological activity recorded offshore Molene Island, Brittany (France): video supervised recording of OBS data and analogue modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klingelhoefer, F.; Géli, L.; Dellong, D.; Evangelia, B.; Tary, J. B.; Bayrakci, G.; Lantéri, N.; Lin, J. Y.; Chen, Y. F.; Chang, E. T. Y.

    2016-12-01

    Ocean bottom seismometers (OBS) commonly record signals from Short Duration Events (SDEs), having characteristics that are very different from those produced by tectonic earthquakes, e.g.: durations trains, with no identified P- nor S-wave arrivals. SDES were first reported by Burkisk et al (1981) who proposed biological activity as a possible cause. Since then, SDEs have been disregarded or discarded as noise by scientists interested in earthquake studies. Interest in SDEs came back recently, when it was realized that SDEs are commonly found and could be due to gas expulsions from the seafloor. To discriminate between the 2 hypotheses (biological activity vs gas emissions), different tests have been made, including seismic recordings combined with video surveillance and analogue experiments. In May 2016, two OBS (4.5 Hz) were deployed offshore Molene Island, Brittany within the field of view of the EMSO-Molene underwater observatory, at a water depth of 12 m. The camera images and the recordings reveal the presence of crabs, octopus and several species of fish. Other acoustic signals can be related to the presence of moving algae or the influence from bad weather. Tides produce characteristic curves in the noise recorded on the geophones. SDEs have been recorded on both instruments, that may well have been caused by gas expulsions from the seabed into the water. In order to verify this hypothesis, an aquarium was filled with water overlying an even grain-sized quartz sand layer. A constant air supply through a narrow tube produced gas bubbles in a regular manner and an immersed ocean bottom geophone recorded the resulting acoustic signals. The bubbles tend to have a uniform size and to produce a waveform very close to those found on the OBSs. By comparing the number of SDEs and the volume of escaped air, estimates can be made regarding the volume of gas escaping the seafloor in different environments.

  4. THE ESSENTIAL DYNAMICS OF THERMOLYSIN - CONFIRMATION OF THE HINGE-BENDING MOTION AND COMPARISON OF SIMULATIONS IN VACUUM AND WATER

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Aalten, D.M.F.; Amadei, A; Linssen, A.B M; Eijsink, V.G.H.; Vriend, G.; Berendsen, H.J.C.

    1995-01-01

    Comparisons of the crystal structures of thermolysin and the thermolysin-like protease produced by B. cereus have recently led to the hypothesis that neutral proteases undergo a hinge-bending motion. We have investigated this hypothesis by analyzing molecular dynamics simulations of thermolysin in v

  5. Influence of hinge position on the effectiveness of open-door expansive laminoplasty for cervical spondylotic myelopathy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WAN Jun; XU Tian-tong; SHEN Qing-feng; LI Hui-nan; XIA Ying-peng

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To assess the influence of different hinge positions on clinical results of expansive open-door laminoplasty (EOLP) for cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM).Methods: A total of 102 CSM patients who underwent EOLP from February 2006 to February 2007 were enrolled in this randomized controlled trial. Using a random digits table,57 patients with the hinge located at the inner margin of the lateral mass were classified as wide-open group, while 45 patients with the hinge positioned at the lamina margin served as narrow-open group. All patients were observed over 24 months, and the clinical and radiological results were analyzed statistically.Results: There were no significant differences in operation duration, intraoperative bleeding volume, Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) scores, cervical curvature index, range of motion and neural function recovery rate.The neural functions were satisfactorily improved after surgery in both groups, while the severity of axial symptoms was significantly lower in the narrow-open group than in the wide-open group (P=0.003). The incidence of C5 palsy in the wide-open group was higher than that in the narrowopen group (5.3% vs 0), even though the difference did not reach statistical significance (one tailed Fisher's exact test,P=0.17).Conclusions: Proper inward shift of the hinge can ensure effectiveness of surgical decompression, avoid an excessive backward shift of the spinal cord, decrease the incidence of C5 palsy and alleviate the severity of axial symptoms.

  6. A stepwise approach for the management of capsular contraction syndrome in hinge-based accommodative intraocular lenses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Page TP

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Timothy P Page,1 Jeffrey Whitman2 1Department of Ophthalmology, Oakland University William Beaumont School of Medicine, Royal Oak, MI, 2Key-Whitman Eye Center, Dallas, TX, USA Purpose: The aims of this study are to define the various stages of capsular contraction syndrome (CCS and its effect on refractive error with hinge-based accommodating intraocular lenses (IOLs and to describe a systematic approach for the management of the different stages of CCS. Methods: Hinge-based accommodative IOLs function via flexible hinges that vault the optic forward during accommodation. However, it is the flexibility of the IOL that makes it prone to deformation in the event of CCS. The signs of CCS are identified and described as posterior capsular striae, fibrotic bands across the anterior or posterior capsule, and capsule opacification. Various degrees of CCS may affect hinge-based accommodating IOLs in a spectrum from subtle changes in IOL appearance to significant increases in refractive error and loss of uncorrected visual acuity. The signs of CCS and its effect on IOL position and the resulting changes in refractive error are matched to appropriate treatment plans. Results: A surgeon can avoid CCS and manage the condition if familiar with the early signs of CCS. If CCS is identified, yttrium–aluminum–garnet laser capsulotomy should be considered. If moderate CCS occurs, it may be effectively treated with insertion of a capsular tension ring. If CCS is allowed to progress to advanced stages, an IOL exchange may be necessary. Conclusion: Surgeons should be familiar with the stages of CCS and subsequent interventions. The steps outlined in this article help to guide surgeons in the prevention and management of CCS with hinge-based accommodative IOLs in order to provide improved refractive outcomes for patients. Keywords: z-syndrome, pseudophakic tilt, IOL subluxation, CTR, capsular tension ring, capsular fibrosis

  7. Mature and Hydrocarbon Generation-expulsion Histories of Terrestrial Faces Source Rock in Sichuan Basin%四川盆地陆相烃源岩成熟史及生排烃史

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯动军; 肖开华

    2015-01-01

    为了综合评价四川盆地陆相烃源岩,应用含油气盆地数值模拟技术,定量恢复了研究区主要烃源岩层系的成熟和生排烃史。首先,分别建立了盆地的热力学、生烃动力学模式、机制及相关地质模型,其次,选取古热流值、沉积水表面温度、古水深作为模拟参数,对四川盆地重点研究区20多口井进行了模拟。研究表明:四川盆地陆相系烃源岩具有3个生烃高峰期和两个排烃高峰期,成熟及生烃史总体表现为“分区演化、差异成熟、西早东晚”。层位上须三、须五段生、排烃量较大,其次为下侏罗统和须一段,总的排烃效率以须一段和须五段较高。平面上川西地区生烃量最大,其次为川北—川东北地区和川中地区。研究认为:以须家河组和中、下侏罗统为烃源岩的油气系统分别是川西地区和川北—川东北地区油气勘探的主要目标。%In order to evaluate terrestrial faces source rock in Sichuan Basin,we quantitatively recovered the mature and hydro-carbon generation-expulsion histories of the main hydrocarbon source in research area by the numerical simulation technology of oil and gas bearing basin. First,we established the thermodynamic,hydrocarvon-generation dynamic model,mechanis-m and geologic model of the basin. Then,we simulated more than 20 wells in the important areas of the basin with ancient heat flow,sediment water interface and paleobathymetric data being input parameters. The results show that terrestrial faces source rock in Sichuan Basin have three hydrocarbon-generation peaks and two hydrocarbon-expulsion peaks. The character of mature and hydrocarbon-generation histories can be summarized as subregion evolution,diversity maturation and west earlier than east. The quantity of hydrocarbon generation-expulsion in Segment 3 and 5 Xujiahe Formation is that in lower Jurassic and 3 segment Xujiahe Formation. Total hydrocarbon-expulsion

  8. Distal hinge of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 involves its latency transition and specificities toward serine proteases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaltiel Shmuel

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1 spontaneously converts from an inhibitory into a latent form. Specificity of PAI-1 is mainly determined by its reactive site (Arg346-Met347, which interacts with serine residue of tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA with concomitant formation of SDS-stable complex. Other sites may also play roles in determining the specificity of PAI-1 toward serine proteases. Results To understand more about the role of distal hinge for PAI-1 specificities towards serine proteases and for its conformational transition, wild type PAI-1 and its mutants were expressed in baculovirus system. WtPAI-1 was found to be about 12 fold more active than the fibrosarcoma PAI-1. Single site mutants within the Asp355-Arg356-Pro357 segment of PAI-1 yield guanidine activatable inhibitors (a that can still form SDS stable complexes with tPA and urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA, and (b that have inhibition rate constants towards plasminogen activators which resemble those of the fibrosarcoma inhibitor. More importantly, latency conversion rate of these mutants was found to be ~3–4 fold faster than that of wtPAI-1. We also tested if Glu351 is important for serine protease specificity. The functional stability of wtPAI-1, Glu351Ala, Glu351Arg was about 18 ± 5, 90 ± 8 and 14 ± 3 minutes, respectively, which correlated well with both their corresponding specific activities (84 ± 15 U/ug, 112 ± 18 U/ug and 68 ± 9 U/ug, respectively and amount of SDS-stable complex formed with tPA after denatured by Guanidine-HCl and dialyzed against 50 mM sodium acetate at 4°C. The second-order rate constants of inhibition for uPA, plasmin and thrombin by Glu351Ala and Glu351Arg were increased about 2–10 folds compared to wtPAI-1, but there was no change for tPA. Conclusion The Asp355-Pro357 segment and Glu351 in distal hinge are involved in maintaining the inhibitory conformation of PAI-1. Glu351 is a specificity

  9. Effects of smectite on the oil-expulsion efficiency of the Kreyenhagen Shale, San Joaquin Basin, California, based on hydrous-pyrolysis experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewan, Michael D.; Dolan, Michael P.; Curtis, John B.

    2014-01-01

    The amount of oil that maturing source rocks expel is expressed as their expulsion efficiency, which is usually stated in milligrams of expelled oil per gram of original total organic carbon (TOCO). Oil-expulsion efficiency can be determined by heating thermally immature source rocks in the presence of liquid water (i.e., hydrous pyrolysis) at temperatures between 350°C and 365°C for 72 hr. This pyrolysis method generates oil that is compositionally similar to natural crude oil and expels it by processes operative in the subsurface. Consequently, hydrous pyrolysis provides a means to determine oil-expulsion efficiencies and the rock properties that influence them. Smectite in source rocks has previously been considered to promote oil generation and expulsion and is the focus of this hydrous-pyrolysis study involving a representative sample of smectite-rich source rock from the Eocene Kreyenhagen Shale in the San Joaquin Basin of California. Smectite is the major clay mineral (31 wt. %) in this thermally immature sample, which contains 9.4 wt. % total organic carbon (TOC) comprised of type II kerogen. Compared to other immature source rocks that lack smectite as their major clay mineral, the expulsion efficiency of the Kreyenhagen Shale was significantly lower. The expulsion efficiency of the Kreyenhagen whole rock was reduced 88% compared to that of its isolated kerogen. This significant reduction is attributed to bitumen impregnating the smectite interlayers in addition to the rock matrix. Within the interlayers, much of the bitumen is converted to pyrobitumen through crosslinking instead of oil through thermal cracking. As a result, smectite does not promote oil generation but inhibits it. Bitumen impregnation of the rock matrix and smectite interlayers results in the rock pore system changing from water wet to bitumen wet. This change prevents potassium ion (K+) transfer and dissolution and precipitation reactions needed for the conversion of smectite to

  10. Deploying time investigation of automotive active hood lift mechanism with different design parameters of hinge part

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae-Hoon Lee

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates the change in deploying time of an active hood lift mechanism of a passenger vehicle activated by a gunpowder actuator. Especially, in this work, the deploying time is investigated by changing the principal design parameters of the hinge part of the hood mechanism. After briefly introducing the working principle of the active hood lift mechanism operated by the gunpowder actuator, the governing dynamic equations of the active hood lift mechanism are formulated for deploying motion. Subsequently, using the governing equations of motion, the response time for deploying the hood lift mechanism is investigated by changing several geometric locations such as the location of actuator. Then, a comparison is made of the total response time to completely deploy the hood lift mechanism with the existing conventional hood lift mechanism and the proposed active hood lift mechanism. In addition, the workable driving speed of the proposed active hood lift mechanism is compared with the conventional one by changing the powder volume of the actuator.

  11. Aeroelastic deployable wing simulation considering rotation hinge joint based on flexible multibody dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuka, Keisuke; Makihara, Kanjuro

    2016-05-01

    Morphing wings have been developed by several organizations for a variety of applications including the changing of flight ability while in the air and reducing the amount of space required to store an aircraft. One such example of morphing wings is the deployable wing that is expected to be used for Mars exploration. When designing wings, aeroelastic simulation is important to prevent the occurrence of destructive phenomena while the wing is in use. Flutter and divergence are typical issues to be addressed. However, it has been difficult to simulate the aeroelastic motion of deployable wings because of the significant differences between these deployable wings and conventional designs. The most apparent difference is the kinematic constraints of deployment, typically a hinge joint. These constraints lead not only to deformation but also to rigid body rotation. This research provides a novel method of overcoming the difficulties associated with handling these kinematic constraints. The proposed method utilizes flexible multibody dynamics and absolute nodal coordinate formulation to describe the dynamic motion of a deployable wing. This paper presents the simulation of the rigid body rotation around the kinematic constraints as induced by the aeroelasticity. The practicality of the proposed method is confirmed.

  12. Outcomes of Varus Valgus Constrained Versus Rotating-Hinge Implants in Total Knee Arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malcolm, Tennison L; Bederman, S Samuel; Schwarzkopf, Ran

    2016-01-01

    The stability of a total knee arthroplasty is determined by the ability of the prosthesis components in concert with supportive bone and soft tissue structures to sufficiently resist deforming forces transmitted across the knee joint. Constrained prostheses are used in unstable knees due to their ability to resist varus and valgus transformative forces across the knee. Constraint requires inherent rigidity, which can facilitate early implant failure. The purpose of this study was to describe the comparative indications for surgery and postoperative outcomes of varus valgus constrained knee (VVK) and rotating-hinge knee (RHK) total knee arthroplasty prostheses. Seven retrospective observational studies describing 544 VVK and 254 RHK patients with an average follow-up of 66 months (range, 7-197 months) were evaluated. Patients in both groups experienced similar failure rates (P=.74), ranges of motion (P=.81), and Knee Society function scores (P=.29). Average Knee Society knee scores were 4.2 points higher in VVK patients compared with RHK patients, indicating minimal mid-term clinical differences may exist (P<.0001). Absent collateral ligament support is an almost universal indication for RHK implantation vs VVK. Constrained device implantation is routinely guided by inherent stability of the knee, and, when performed, similar postoperative outcomes can be achieved with VVK and RHK prostheses.

  13. Wave Protection Effect of Periodic Row of Bottom-Hinged Flap-Type Wave Energy Converters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王冬姣; 邱守强; 叶家玮; 梁富琳

    2016-01-01

    A flap-type wave energy converter(WEC) is combined with a nearshore breakwater to expand the ap-plication of WECs both economically and environmentally. Based on the linear potential theory, an eigenfunction expansion solution is developed for a periodic row of bottom-hinged flap-type WECs exposed to normal waves. Additionally, the viscous effect is considered using the ship rolling solution method with a viscous damping term included in the equation of motion, and the viscous damping expression is also described. The proposed solution is verified by comparison with published literatures. The results including the wave energy conversion efficiency, the reflected and transmitted proportion of the incident wave energy are presented for a range of wave periods and geometric ratios. It is demonstrated that better wave protection effects can be attained with smaller gaps between the WECs, where the transmitted proportion of the incident wave energy is lower. An optimal geometric ratio thus exists for a given wave power absorption and a specific wave period.

  14. Reconstruction of low hairline microtia of Treacher Collins syndrome with a hinged mastoid fascial flap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, T; Oyama, A; Funayama, E; Yamamoto, Y

    2016-06-01

    Treacher Collins syndrome (TCS) is a rare genetic disorder leading to congenital craniofacial malformations. Although this syndrome presents with various symptoms, corrective surgery for bilateral microtia with low hairline is one of the most challenging operations given the complex contours of the external ear. In this technical note, a novel, simple procedure for dealing with the low hairline by using a hinged mastoid fascial flap simultaneously with costal cartilage grafting is described. Several techniques for the reconstruction of low hairline microtia have been reported previously, such as skin graft, skin flap, and tissue expander, but the high number of repeat operations and residual scars remain problematic. As a simultaneous procedure with framework grafting, the use of a temporoparietal flap with skin grafting is popular; however, its drawbacks include the operative scar, decreased hair growth, and hair thinning. Patients with TCS show anatomical variations of the superficial temporal vessels supplying the temporoparietal flap. In contrast, due to the high vascularity of the mastoid fascia, the mastoid fascial flap can be elevated safely and easily as an anteriorly, posteriorly, superiorly, or inferiorly based flap.

  15. The three-hinged arch as an example of piezomechanic passive controlled structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagnini, Luisa Carlotta; Piccardo, Giuseppe

    2016-09-01

    Although piezoelectric transducers are employed in a variety of fields, their application for vibration control of civil or industrial structures has not yet been fully developed, at the best of authors' knowledge. Thanks to a new generation of ever more performing piezoceramic materials and to the recent development of scientific proposals based on a very simple technology, this paper presents a step forward to engineering applications for the control of structural systems. A three-hinged arch controlled by piezoelectric stack actuators and passive RL electrical circuits is chosen as a simple structural model that may represent the starting point for a generalization to the most common typologies of civil and industrial engineering structures. Based on the concept of electromechanical analogy, the evolution equations are obtained through a consistent Lagrangian approach. A multimodal vibration suppression is guaranteed by the spectral analogy between the mechanical and electrical components. Preliminary applications related to free oscillations, with one or more actuators on each member, seem to lead to excellent performance in terms of multimodal damping and dissipated energy.

  16. A novel genetic mechanism regulates dorsolateral hinge-point formation during zebrafish cranial neurulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyholm, Molly K; Abdelilah-Seyfried, Salim; Grinblat, Yevgenya

    2009-06-15

    During neurulation, vertebrate embryos form a neural tube (NT), the rudiment of the central nervous system. In mammals and birds, a key step in cranial NT morphogenesis is dorsolateral hinge-point (DLHP) bending, which requires an apical actomyosin network. The mechanism of DLHP formation is poorly understood, although several essential genes have been identified, among them Zic2, which encodes a zinc-finger transcription factor. We found that DLHP formation in the zebrafish midbrain also requires actomyosin and Zic function. Given this conservation, we used the zebrafish to study how genes encoding Zic proteins regulate DLHP formation. We demonstrate that the ventral zic2a expression border predicts DLHP position. Using morpholino (MO) knockdown, we show zic2a and zic5 are required for apical F-actin and active myosin II localization and junction integrity. Furthermore, myosin II activity can function upstream of junction integrity during DLHP formation, and canonical Wnt signaling, an activator of zic gene transcription, is necessary for apical active myosin II localization, junction integrity and DLHP formation. We conclude that zic genes act downstream of Wnt signaling to control cytoskeletal organization, and possibly adhesion, during neurulation. This study identifies zic2a and zic5 as crucial players in the genetic network linking patterned gene expression to morphogenetic changes during neurulation, and strengthens the utility of the zebrafish midbrain as a NT morphogenesis model.

  17. Suspension and Expulsion Patterns in Six Oregon School Districts. Summary. REL 2014-028

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Arthur; Nishioka, Vicki

    2014-01-01

    This summary document presents findings from a Regional Educational Laboratory (REL) Northwest study that identifies how frequently students in six selected urban districts received exclusionary discipline during the 2011/12 school year, the most common reasons for such discipline, the percentage of students receiving multiple suspensions, and how…

  18. Suspension and Expulsion Patterns in Six Oregon School Districts. REL 2014-028

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Arthur; Nishioka, Vicki

    2014-01-01

    This Regional Educational Laboratory (REL) Northwest study identifies how frequently students in six selected urban districts received exclusionary discipline during the 2011/12 school year, the most common reasons for such discipline, the percentage of students receiving multiple suspensions, and how many school days students lost to suspensions.…

  19. Controls on methane expulsion during melting of natural gas hydrate systems. Topic area 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flemings, Peter [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)

    2016-01-14

    1.1. Project Goal The project goal is to predict, given characteristic climate-induced temperature change scenarios, the conditions under which gas will be expelled from existing accumulations of gas hydrate into the shallow ocean or directly to the atmosphere. When those conditions are met, the fraction of the gas accumulation that escapes and the rate of escape shall be quantified. The predictions shall be applicable in Arctic regions and in gas hydrate systems at the up dip limit of the stability zone on continental margins. The behavior shall be explored in response to two warming scenarios: longer term change due to sea level rise (e.g. 20 thousand years) and shorter term due to atmospheric warming by anthropogenic forcing (decadal time scale). 1.2. Project Objectives During the first budget period, the objectives are to review and categorize the stability state of existing well-studied hydrate reservoirs, develop conceptual and numerical models of the melting process, and to design and conduct laboratory experiments that dissociate methane hydrate in a model sediment column by systematically controlling the temperature profile along the column. The final objective of the first budget period shall be to validate the models against the experiments. In the second budget period, the objectives are to develop a model of gas flow into sediment in which hydrate is thermodynamically stable, and conduct laboratory experiments of this process to validate the model. The developed models shall be used to quantify the rate and volume of gas that escapes from dissociating hydrate accumulations. In addition, specific scaled simulations characteristic of Arctic regions and regions near the stability limit at continental margins shall be performed. 1.3. Project Background and Rationale The central hypothesis proposed is that hydrate melting (dissociation) due to climate change generates free gas that can, under certain conditions, propagate through the gas hydrate stability

  20. A novel alignment mechanism employing orthogonal connected multi-layered flexible hinges for both leveling and centering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jian; Wang, Hongxi; Gao, Renjing; Hu, Ping; Yang, Yintang

    2012-06-01

    To eliminate the effects of motion coupling for measuring cylindrical work pieces, a novel alignment mechanism integrating functions of both leveling and centering is designed and fabricated by introducing multi-layered orthogonal connected flexible hinges as the key supporting and joining elements. Different from traditional leveling mechanisms with many separate parts fabricated together, all of the flexible hinges were integrated in one three-dimensioned machining part without assembling process, and thus synchronously simplifying the structure and reducing assembly errors. Based on the screw theory, the mathematic model of the proposed alignment mechanism is established for any resolution requirements depending on screw characteristics. A millimeter-sized device is fabricated with the alignment precision of 1.0 μm for centering within the range of ±1 mm and 1 in. for leveling within ±1°. The experiment results are in very close agreement to those obtained by simulation, which validate the feasibility of introducing multi-layered orthogonal flexible hinges in the centering and leveling mechanisms.

  1. A novel alignment mechanism employing orthogonal connected multi-layered flexible hinges for both leveling and centering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jian; Wang, Hongxi; Gao, Renjing; Hu, Ping; Yang, Yintang

    2012-06-01

    To eliminate the effects of motion coupling for measuring cylindrical work pieces, a novel alignment mechanism integrating functions of both leveling and centering is designed and fabricated by introducing multi-layered orthogonal connected flexible hinges as the key supporting and joining elements. Different from traditional leveling mechanisms with many separate parts fabricated together, all of the flexible hinges were integrated in one three-dimensioned machining part without assembling process, and thus synchronously simplifying the structure and reducing assembly errors. Based on the screw theory, the mathematic model of the proposed alignment mechanism is established for any resolution requirements depending on screw characteristics. A millimeter-sized device is fabricated with the alignment precision of 1.0 μm for centering within the range of ±1 mm and 1 in. for leveling within ±1°. The experiment results are in very close agreement to those obtained by simulation, which validate the feasibility of introducing multi-layered orthogonal flexible hinges in the centering and leveling mechanisms.

  2. Investigation of the Three-Dimensional Hinge Moment Characteristics Generated by the ONERA-M6 Wing with an Aileron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Q. Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The hinge moment characteristics for ONERA-M6 wing with aileron configuration have been investigated numerically based on the different gaps and deflecting angles. The results show that the effects on the wing made by the deflecting aileron are notable. Comparing with the nonaileron case, the chordwise pressure coefficient distribution for the wing with aileron has shown the totally different trends. The small gap can force the air flow through and form the extremely strong spraying flow. It can directly destroy the previously formed leading edge vortex (LEV. Due to the presence of the positive deflecting angle, the trailing edge vortex (TEV will begin to generate at the trailing edge of the aileron. The induced secondary LEV will be mixed with the developing TEVs and form the stronger TEVs at the downstream position. Comparing with the subsonic flow, the curve for the supersonic flow has shown a good linear. The corresponding hinge moments are also extremely sensitive to the changing angle of attack, and the slope of curves is also bigger than that of the subsonic flow. The bigger gap and deflecting angle can result in the curve of hinge moment bending upward at high angle of attack. The corresponding pressure cloud and streamlines have also been obtained computationally and analyzed in detail.

  3. Residual Fuel Expulsion from a Simulated 50,000 Pound Thrust Liquid-Propellant Rocket Engine Having a Continuous Rocket-Type Igniter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messing, Wesley E.

    1959-01-01

    Tests have been conducted to determine the starting characteristics of a 50,000-pound-thrust rocket engine with the conditions of a quantity of fuel lying dormant in the simulated main thrust chamber. Ignition was provided by a smaller rocket firing rearwardly along the center line. Both alcohol-water and anhydrous ammonia were used as the residual fuel. The igniter successfully expelled the maximum amount of residual fuel (3 1/2 gal) in 2.9 seconds when the igniter.was equipped with a sonic discharge nozzle operating at propellant flow rates of 3 pounds per second. Lesser amounts of residual fuel required correspondingly lower expulsion times. When the igniter was equipped with a supersonic exhaust nozzle operating at a flow of 4 pounds per second, a slightly less effective expulsion rate was encountered.

  4. Complete Expulsion of Testicular Prosthesis via the Scrotum: A Case-Based Review of the Preventive Surgical Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack Donati-Bourne

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Testicular prostheses are regularly used in urological surgery and are important for postoperative psychological well-being in many patients undergoing orchiectomy. One of the recognised complications of this procedure is graft extrusion, which can result in significant morbidity for patients and require operative reintervention. Whilst most cases of extrusion involve upward graft migration to the external inguinal ring or direct displacement through the scrotal skin, we present an unusual case of complete expulsion of testicular implant three weeks postoperatively through a previously healthy scrotum. During surgical insertion of testicular prostheses, the urological surgeon must carefully consider the different surgical strategies at each step of the operation to prevent future extrusion of the graft. A stepwise review of the preventive surgical strategies to reduce the risk of graft extrusion encompasses the choice of optimal surgical incision, the technique of dissection to create the receiving anatomical pouch, the method of fixation of the implant within the receiving hemiscrotum, and the adoption of good postoperative care measures in line with the principles of sound scrotal surgery.

  5. Technical evaluation of the in situ vitrification melt expulsion at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory on April 21, 1996, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    On April 21, 1996, at 6:12 p.m., approximately 20 tons of molten glass were expelled from a 216-ton body of molten (approximately 1600{degrees}C) radioactively contaminated soil (containing 2.4 Ci of {sup 137}Cs) at a field site at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The melt expulsion was caused by pressurized steam venting rapidly through, rather than by the desired path around, the molten body. During the previous 17 days, an old seepage pit was undergoing in situ vitrification (ISV) to convert it from porous, leachable soil into a monolithic, impermeable vitreous waste form. Approximately 2 MW of electrical power was being delivered to the molten body, which was contained in the ground and covered with a stainless steel hood maintained under negative pressure to collect, filter, scrub, and monitor off-gas. Off-gas into the hood was rapidly heated by the melt expulsion from a typical operating temperature of 250{degrees}C to over 1000{degrees}C with an associated surge of pressure sufficient to lift the 15,000-lb hood approximately 12 in. off the ground. A small pool of molten glass was able to flow up to 3 ft outside the hood while it was raised off the ground. The escaping hot off-gas and molten glass ignited several small fires in combustible components near or attached to the external hood frame (e.g, wire insulation, plastic hose, fiberglass trays). Fire department personnel responded to the emergency notification within minutes but were not needed because the small fires self-extinguished within an hour. Four project personnel were performing tasks at the site at the time of the melt expulsion; none were injured or contaminated during the melt expulsion incident. Air samples taken from the hood perimeter near the small fires failed to detect any airborne contamination.

  6. Effect of Cr and Si Contents on Expulsion Phenomenon in Electric-Resistance Spot Welding of Advanced High-Strength Steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kong, Jong-Pan; Kang, Chung-Yun [Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    An expulsion phenomenon occurred during resistance spot welding of advanced high-strength steel sheets, and the effects of the Cr and Si contents on the expulsion limit current (C{sub E}xp) were investigated. The correlation between C{sub E}xp and the steel properties (e.g., resistivity, melting point, coefficient of thermal expansion, high-temperature yield-strength and viscosity), were evaluated, as were the qualities of the alloying elements. The C{sub E}xp decreased with increasing Si contents. This resulted in a narrow range of acceptable welding current, as well as poor suitability for spot welding. On the other hand, the effects of Cr-contents on the C{sub E}xp, and on the acceptable range of welding current were minimal (with content of 3 wt%). Thus, the suitability for spot welding was not affected by the Cr-Contents (at the experimental concentration). As Si-Contents increased, resistivity also increased and the melting point decreased. This resulted in easy melting of the base metal at a low welding current (low heat input) and in the rapid increase of the pressure due to the increased coefficient of expansion. However, the high-temperature yield-strength of the corona bond, which blocked the expulsion of the molten melt, also decreased. Consequently, the C{sub E}xp of steel containing additional Si was lower than that containing Cr.

  7. Evolution from a hinge actuator mechanism to an antenna deployment mechanism for use on the European large communications satellite (L-SAT/OLYMPUS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Death, M. D.

    1984-01-01

    The evolution of an Antenna Deployment Mechanism (ADM) from a Hinge Actuator Mechanism (HAM) is described as it pertains to the deployment of large satellite antennas. Design analysis and mechanical tests are examined in detail.

  8. Stabilizing a flexible interdomain hinge region harboring the SMB binding site drives uPAR into its closed conformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Baoyu; Gandhi, Sonu; Yuan, Cai; Luo, Zhipu; Li, Rui; Gårdsvoll, Henrik; de Lorenzi, Valentina; Sidenius, Nicolai; Huang, Mingdong; Ploug, Michael

    2015-03-27

    The urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) is a multidomain glycolipid-anchored membrane protein, which facilitates extracellular matrix remodeling by focalizing plasminogen activation to cell surfaces via its high-affinity interaction with uPA. The modular assembly of its three LU (Ly6/uPAR-like) domains is inherently flexible and binding of uPA drives uPAR into its closed conformation, which presents the higher-affinity state for vitronectin thus providing an allosteric regulatory mechanism. Using a new class of epitope-mapped anti-uPAR monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), we now demonstrate that the reciprocal stabilization is indeed also possible. By surface plasmon resonance studies, we show that these mAbs and vitronectin have overlapping binding sites on uPAR and that they share Arg91 as hotspot residue in their binding interfaces. The crystal structure solved for one of these uPAR·mAb complexes at 3.0Å clearly shows that this mAb preselects the closed uPAR conformation with an empty but correctly assembled large hydrophobic binding cavity for uPA. Accordingly, these mAbs inhibit the uPAR-dependent lamellipodia formation and migration on vitronectin-coated matrices irrespective of the conformational status of uPAR and its occupancy with uPA. This is the first study to the best of our knowledge, showing that the dynamic assembly of the three LU domains in uPARwt can be driven toward the closed form by an external ligand, which is not engaging the hydrophobic uPA binding cavity. As this binding interface is also exploited by the somatomedin B domain of vitronectin, therefore, this relationship should be taken into consideration when exploring uPAR-dependent cell adhesion and migration in vitronectin-rich environments. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Stabilizing a flexible interdomain hinge region harboring the SMB binding site drives uPAR into its closed conformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Baoyu; Gandhi, Sonu; Yuan, Cai;

    2015-01-01

    The urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) is a multidomain glycolipid-anchored membrane protein, which facilitates extracellular matrix remodeling by focalizing plasminogen activation to cell surfaces via its high-affinity interaction with uPA. The modular assembly of its three LU ...

  10. The prevention of a lateral hinge fracture as a complication of a medial opening wedge high tibial osteotomy: a case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, H; Matsumoto, K; Akiyama, H

    2017-07-01

    We aimed to investigate factors related to the technique of medial opening wedge high tibial osteotomy which might predispose to the development of a lateral hinge fracture. A total of 71 patients with 82 osteotomies were included in the study. Their mean age was 62.9 years (37 to 80). The classification of the type of osteotomy was based on whether it extended beyond the fibular head. The level of the osteotomy was classified according to the height of its endpoint. At a mean follow-up of 20 months (6 to 52), a total of 15 lateral hinge fractures (18.3%) were identified. A sufficient osteotomy, in which both anterior and posterior tibial cortices were involved with extension into the lateral aspect of the plateau in relation to an anteroposterior line tangential to the medial edge of the fibular head in the CT axial plane, was seen in 48 knees (71.6%) in those without a lateral hinge fracture and in seven (46.7%) in those with a lateral hinge fracture. An osteotomy which ended above the level of the fibular head was seen in nine (13.4%) of the knees without a lateral hinge fracture and seven (46.7%) of the those with a lateral hinge fracture. There was a significant relationship between the absence of a lateral hinge fracture and both a sufficient osteotomy and one whose endpoint was at the level of the fibular head (p = 0.0451 and p = 0.0214, respectively). A sufficient osteotomy involving both the anterior and posterior cortices, whose endpoint is at the level of the fibular head, should be performed when undertaking a medial opening wedge high tibial osteotomy if a lateral hinge fracture is to be avoided as a complication. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2017;99-B:887-93. ©2017 The British Editorial Society of Bone & Joint Surgery.

  11. 2D compositional modeling of petroleum generation, expulsion and migration in the Southern compartment of the Reconcavo Basin, Brazil; Modelisation compositionnelle 2D de la genese, expulsion et migration du petrole dans le compartiment sud du Bassin de Reconcavo, Bresil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barroz Penteado, H.L. de

    1999-01-07

    The Reconcavo Basin is part of a rift formed between the Late Jurassic and the Early Cretaceous in northeastern Brazil. The objective of this thesis was the compositional modeling of petroleum generation, expulsion and migration along a cross-section in the Southern Compartment of the basin with the Temispack basin simulation software. A geochemical study of the lacustrine shales of the Gomo Member (Candelas Fm.) has been performed to determine their petroleum potential, the evolution of maturation with depth and changes in petroleum composition. Hydrogen indices of immature kerogens (400-850 mg/g TOC) were shown to be higher than those of whole rocks, thus indicating a retention of Rock-Eval pyrolysis products in the mineral matrix of these type I source rocks. Saturates (30-50% of organic extracts in the immature zone) increase both in absolute and in relative (60-80%) terms in the oil window (2000-2600 m) because of a partial secondary cracking of NSOs and aromatics. After having tested several scenarios of geodynamic evolution between the Aptian and the Oligocene, a variable thickness of post-rift sediments (maximum of 1200 m) has been shown to be necessary to calibrate maturity parameters. Petroleum migration has been modeled to understand migration pathways as well as the role of faults as drains. Thus, two petroleum migration systems have been identified for the Dom Joao and Cexis accumulations. Petroleum compositional variations have been modeled by coupling the processes of retention and secondary cracking. A good calibration of compositions was obtained with secondary cracking parameters for NSOs and aromatics which are close to those of the main primary cracking reaction of a type I kerogen, coupled with a retention of 50% of NSOs within the source rocks. (author)

  12. How Hinge Positioning in Cross-Country Ski Bindings Affect Exercise Efficiency, Cycle Characteristics and Muscle Coordination during Submaximal Roller Skiing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conor M Bolger

    Full Text Available The purposes of the current study were to 1 test if the hinge position in the binding of skating skis has an effect on gross efficiency or cycle characteristics and 2 investigate whether hinge positioning affects synergistic components of the muscle activation in six lower leg muscles. Eleven male skiers performed three 4-min sessions at moderate intensity while cross-country ski-skating and using a klapskate binding. Three different positions were tested for the binding's hinge, ranging from the front of the first distal phalange to the metatarsal-phalangeal joint. Gross efficiency and cycle characteristics were determined, and the electromyographic (EMG signals of six lower limb muscles were collected. EMG signals were wavelet transformed, normalized, joined into a multi-dimensional vector, and submitted to a principle component analysis (PCA. Our results did not reveal any changes to gross efficiency or cycle characteristics when altering the hinge position. However, our EMG analysis found small but significant effects of hinge positioning on muscle coordinative patterns (P < 0.05. The changed patterns in muscle activation are in alignment with previously described mechanisms that explain the effects of hinge positioning in speed-skating klapskates. Finally, the within-subject results of the EMG analysis suggested that in addition to the between-subject effects, further forms of muscle coordination patterns appear to be employed by some, but not all participants.

  13. How Hinge Positioning in Cross-Country Ski Bindings Affect Exercise Efficiency, Cycle Characteristics and Muscle Coordination during Submaximal Roller Skiing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolger, Conor M; Sandbakk, Øyvind; Ettema, Gertjan; Federolf, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The purposes of the current study were to 1) test if the hinge position in the binding of skating skis has an effect on gross efficiency or cycle characteristics and 2) investigate whether hinge positioning affects synergistic components of the muscle activation in six lower leg muscles. Eleven male skiers performed three 4-min sessions at moderate intensity while cross-country ski-skating and using a klapskate binding. Three different positions were tested for the binding's hinge, ranging from the front of the first distal phalange to the metatarsal-phalangeal joint. Gross efficiency and cycle characteristics were determined, and the electromyographic (EMG) signals of six lower limb muscles were collected. EMG signals were wavelet transformed, normalized, joined into a multi-dimensional vector, and submitted to a principle component analysis (PCA). Our results did not reveal any changes to gross efficiency or cycle characteristics when altering the hinge position. However, our EMG analysis found small but significant effects of hinge positioning on muscle coordinative patterns (P < 0.05). The changed patterns in muscle activation are in alignment with previously described mechanisms that explain the effects of hinge positioning in speed-skating klapskates. Finally, the within-subject results of the EMG analysis suggested that in addition to the between-subject effects, further forms of muscle coordination patterns appear to be employed by some, but not all participants.

  14. Tectonic origin for polygonal normal faults in pelagic limestones of the Cingoli anticline hinge (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petracchini, Lorenzo; Antonellini, Marco; Billi, Andrea; Scrocca, Davide

    2016-04-01

    Polygonal faults are a relatively-recent new class of normal faults which are thought to be formed during early burial and diagenesis as a consequence of heterogeneous lateral volume changes. Polygonal faults are non-systematically oriented and, in map view, they form rhombus-, pentagon-, or hexagon-like pattern, suggesting a non-tectonic origin. Furthermore, polygonal faults are layer bound and they are restricted to particular stratigraphic level. Predicting the pattern of polygonal normal fault results crucial for geofluid exploration and exploitation, but, despite the large number of studies, the origin of these faults remains still largely controversial. One of the main reason for this uncertainty is that they are poorly known in outcrops. Polygonal faults have been identified in few localities within Mesozoic chalk (United Kingdom, France, and Egypt), in Paleogene claystone (Belgium), and in the Cretaceous Khoman Formation (Egypt) where polygonal faults have been observed in an extensive exposure of chalk. In this study, we describe an outcrop in the Cingoli anticline hinge, which is located at external front of the northern Apennines fold-thrust belt (Italy), showing normal faults that we interpreted as syn-tectonically (syn-thrusting) polygonal faults. The outcrop shows three vertical exposures of sub-horizontal fine-grained marly limestones with chert interlayers of Albian-Turonian age. Intraformational short normal faults affect the carbonate and chert beds. These faults are poorly-systematic and they cut through the carbonate beds whereas usually stop against the chert layers. The fault surfaces are often characterized by slickolites, clayey residue, and micro-breccias including clasts of chert and carbonate. Fault displacement is partly or largely accommodated by pressure solution. At the fault tips, the displacement is generally transferred, via a lateral step, to an adjacent similar fault segment. The aim of our study is to understand the nucleation

  15. Surgically Implanted JSATS Micro-Acoustic Transmitters Effects on Juvenile Chinook Salmon and Steelhead Tag Expulsion and Survival, 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodley, Christa M.; Carpenter, Scott M.; Carter, Kathleen M.; Wagner, Katie A.; Royer, Ida M.; Knox, Kasey M.; Kim, Jin A.; Gay, Marybeth E.; Weiland, Mark A.; Brown, Richard S.

    2011-09-16

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate survival model assumptions associated with a concurrent study - Acoustic Telemetry Evaluation of Dam Passage Survival and Associated Metrics at John Day, The Dalles, and Bonneville Dams, 2010 by Thomas Carlson and others in 2010 - in which the Juvenile Salmonid Acoustic Telemetry System (JSATS) was used to estimate the survival of yearling and subyearling Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and steelhead (O. mykiss) migrating through the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS). The micro-acoustic transmitter used in these studies is the smallest acoustic transmitter model to date (12 mm long x 5 mm wide x 4 mm high, and weighing 0.43 g in air). This study and the 2010 study by Carlson and others were conducted by researchers from the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and the University of Washington for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Portland District, to meet requirements set forth by the 2008 FCRPS Biological Opinion. In 2010, we compared survival, tag burden, and tag expulsion in five spring groups of yearling Chinook salmon (YCH) and steelhead (STH) and five summer groups of subyearling Chinook salmon (SYC) to evaluate survival model assumptions described in the concurrent study. Each tagging group consisted of approximately 120 fish/species, which were collected and implanted on a weekly basis, yielding approximately 600 fish total/species. YCH and STH were collected and implanted from late April to late May (5 weeks) and SYC were collected and implanted from mid-June to mid-July (5 weeks) at the John Day Dam Smolt Monitoring Facility. The fish were collected once a week, separated by species, and assigned to one of three treatment groups: (1) Control (no surgical treatment), (2) Sham (surgical implantation of only a passive integrated transponder [PIT] tag), and (3) Tagged (surgical implantation of JSATS micro-acoustic transmitter [AT] and PIT tags). The test fish were held for 30 days in indoor

  16. Structures of BmrR-Drug Complexes Reveal a Rigid Multidrug Binding Pocket And Transcription Activation Through Tyrosine Expulsion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newberry, K.J.; Huffman, J.L.; Miller, M.C.; Vazquez-Laslop, N.; Neyfakh, A.A.; Brennan, R.G.

    2009-05-22

    BmrR is a member of the MerR family and a multidrug binding transcription factor that up-regulates the expression of the bmr multidrug efflux transporter gene in response to myriad lipophilic cationic compounds. The structural mechanism by which BmrR binds these chemically and structurally different drugs and subsequently activates transcription is poorly understood. Here, we describe the crystal structures of BmrR bound to rhodamine 6G (R6G) or berberine (Ber) and cognate DNA. These structures reveal each drug stacks against multiple aromatic residues with their positive charges most proximal to the carboxylate group of Glu-253 and that, unlike other multidrug binding pockets, that of BmrR is rigid. Substitution of Glu-253 with either alanine (E253A) or glutamine (E253Q) results in unpredictable binding affinities for R6G, Ber, and tetraphenylphosphonium. Moreover, these drug binding studies reveal that the negative charge of Glu-253 is not important for high affinity binding to Ber and tetraphenylphosphonium but plays a more significant, but unpredictable, role in R6G binding. In vitro transcription data show that E253A and E253Q are constitutively active, and structures of the drug-free E253A-DNA and E253Q-DNA complexes support a transcription activation mechanism requiring the expulsion of Tyr-152 from the multidrug binding pocket. In sum, these data delineate the mechanism by which BmrR binds lipophilic, monovalent cationic compounds and suggest the importance of the redundant negative electrostatic nature of this rigid drug binding pocket that can be used to discriminate against molecules that are not substrates of the Bmr multidrug efflux pump.

  17. Fatigue Analysis of Corner-Filleted Flexural Hinges%倒圆角直梁型柔性铰链疲劳分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖圣龙

    2014-01-01

    典型柔性铰链研究结果表明,柔性铰链的缺口形状对柔性铰链的疲劳性能具有本质影响,而具有特殊缺口形状的柔性铰链一直缺乏系统研究,其疲劳性能具有重要研究价值。尤其对于复合型柔性铰链,通过有限元仿真实验,计算其疲劳寿命,对于复合型柔性铰链的疲劳性能研究具有重要意义。基于有限元疲劳分析法,在一端固定,另一端承受力矩或力的边界条件下,对倒圆角直梁型柔性铰链进行疲劳分析,得到柔性铰链薄弱环节的寿命情况,进而掌握整个柔性铰链的使用寿命,为新型柔性铰链的工程设计提供了理论依据。%Typical flexible hinge results show that the shape of the flexible hinge gap has essentially influence on the fatigue performance of the flexible hinge, and flexible hinge has a special notch shape has been a lack of systematic research, the fatigue performance has important research value. Especially for complex flexible hinge, Finite element simulations to calculate the fatigue life, the study of fatigue properties of complex flexible hinge significance. Based on finite element fatigue analysis under fixed at one end and the other end to withstand the torque or force boundary conditions, rounded straight flexure hinge fatigue analysis, life circumstances flexible hinge weak link, and then grasp the flexible hinge life, provides a theoretical basis for the engineering design of new flexible hinge.

  18. Improved Method for Rotational Accuracy of Flexure Hinges%柔性铰链的转动精度改进法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    裴旭; 宗光华; 于靖军

    2013-01-01

    传统切口型铰链在转动时存在转动中心的漂移,如果柔性铰链转动角度不是很大,铰链的转动中心在沿轴向的位移远小于在垂直轴线方向的位移时,则可对柔性铰链转动中心漂移模型进行简化.提出了将连接两刚体的两个切口型铰链正交放置且让转动中心轴线重合,以便抑制柔性铰链转动中心漂移的设计方法.引σ了平面虚拟转动中心运动机构,实现了铰链之间的虚拟交叉约束.使用此方法可以对不同切口形状的铰链进行改进,以提高铰链的转动精度.设计了圆弧切口和直角切口的组合铰链,通过有限元仿真与传统形式的铰链进行了比较,仿真结果证明了这种方法的有效性.%The traditional incision type hinge's rotation pivot had center-shift, when it rotated. When the rotation angle of a flexure hinge was small, the axial displacement of the hinge's rotation pivot was far less than the perpendicular displacement. The model of center-shift of flexure hinges was simplified. A way that cross two hinges which connect two rigid body and put the hinges' rotation center on a common axis to restrain the center-shift was brought forward. The planar VCM (Virtual Center of Motion) mechanism was utilized to realize a virtual cross restriction of hinges. By this way, different hinges could be improved, to improve the rotation accuracy. Two flexure structures which respectively consist of leaf and circle hinges were constructed, and compared with traditional flexure hinges by the finite element analysis software. The analysis results show that the method can improve the rotation accuracy.

  19. Computation and analysis of the three models of flexure hinge%柔性铰链的3种模型计算和分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周晓林; 崔长彩; 范伟; 傅师伟; 叶瑞芳

    2011-01-01

    As the flexure hinge, which is the key component for transmits displacement, given by piezoelectric ceramic in Microdisplacement table, it's crucial to analyze the performance of the flexure hinge. In this paper, the impact on rotational stiffness of the flexure hinge by the structure dimension parameters as straight are radius, the thickness of the hinge structure was mainly studied. and the difference among thee different models was analyzed. At the same time. single flexure hinge was analyzed, and the result and the difference among the three different models can be obtained by ANSYS11.0. The conclusion can be achieved from above analysis: when the ratio of the hinge radius to the minimum hinge thickness of the straight are flexure hinges is t/R ∈ (0, 0. 8), the stiffness of flexure hinge can be easily calculated by using Paros and Weisbord simplified models ( PW simplified model). This method has an important significance for actual designing of the flexure hinge.%在微位移工作台中,柔性铰链作为主要传递压电陶瓷给进位移的关键部件,对柔性铰链的性能分析显得至关重要.文中主要研究了直圆弧形柔性铰链的半径、最小铰链厚度等结构尺寸参数对柔性铰链转动刚度的影响,分析了3种不同模型计算结果之间的差别.同时运用ANSYS11.0分析了单柔性铰链的刚度并且和3种模型计算结果相比较,得出了它们之间的差别.通过以上的分析可以得出,在直圆弧形柔性铰链的半径和最小铰链厚度之比在t/R∈(0,0.8)时,采用Paros和Weisbord简化模型(PW简化模型)可以简便计算柔性铰链的刚度.该方法对实际设计柔性铰链具有重要的意义.

  20. Mechanism of Epac Activation: STRUCTURAL AND FUNCTIONAL ANALYSES OF Epac2 HINGE MUTANTS WITH CONSTITUTIVE AND REDUCED ACTIVITIES*

    OpenAIRE

    Tsalkova, Tamara; Blumenthal, Donald K.; Mei, Fang C.; White, Mark A.; Cheng, Xiaodong

    2009-01-01

    Epac2 is a member of the family of exchange proteins directly activated by cAMP (Epac). Our previous studies suggest a model of Epac activation in which cAMP binding to the enzyme induces a localized “hinge” motion that reorients the regulatory lobe relative to the catalytic lobe without inducing large conformational changes within individual lobes. In this study, we identified the location of the major hinge in Epac2 by normal mode motion correlation and structural alignment analyses. Target...

  1. Non-hinge-binding pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidines as potent B-Raf kinase inhibitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berger, Dan M.; Torres, Nancy; Dutia, Minu; Powell, Dennis; Ciszewski, Greg; Gopalsamy, Ariamala; Levin, Jeremy I.; Kim, Kyung-Hee; Xu, Weixin; Wilhelm, James; Hu, YongBo; Collins, Karen; Feldberg, Larry; Kim, Steven; Frommer, Eileen; Wojciechowicz, Donald; Mallon, Robert; (Wyeth)

    2010-11-19

    As part of our research effort to discover B-Raf kinase inhibitors, we prepared a series of C-3 substituted N-(3-(pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidin-7-yl)phenyl)-3-(trifluoromethyl)benzamides. X-ray crystallography studies revealed that one of the more potent inhibitors (10n) bound to B-Raf kinase without forming a hinge-binding hydrogen bond. With basic amine residues appended to C-3 aryl residues, cellular activity and solubility were enhanced over previously described compounds of this class.

  2. A bridge column with superelastic NiTi SMA and replaceable rubber hinge for earthquake damage mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varela, Sebastian; ‘Saiid' Saiidi, M.

    2016-07-01

    This paper reports a unique concept for resilient bridge columns that can undergo intense earthquake loading and remain functional with minimal damage and residual drift. In this concept, the column is designed so that its components can be easily disassembled and reassembled to facilitate material recycling and component reuse. This is meant to foster sustainability of bridge systems while minimizing monetary losses from earthquakes. Self-centering and energy dissipation in the column were provided by unbonded superelastic nickel-titanium (NiTi) shape memory alloy bars placed inside a plastic hinge element made of rubber. This replaceable plastic hinge was in turn attached to a concrete-filled carbon fiber-reinforced polymer tube and a precast concrete footing that were designed to behave elastically. The proposed concept was evaluated experimentally by testing a ¼-scale column model under simulated near-fault earthquake motions on a shake table. After testing, the model was disassembled, reassembled and tested again. The seismic performance of the reassembled model was found to be comparable to that of the ‘virgin’ model. A relatively simple computational model of the column tested that was developed in OpenSees was able to match some of the key experimental response parameters.

  3. Novel hinge-binding motifs for Janus kinase 3 inhibitors: a comprehensive structure-activity relationship study on tofacitinib bioisosteres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehringer, Matthias; Forster, Michael; Pfaffenrot, Ellen; Bauer, Silke M; Laufer, Stefan A

    2014-11-01

    The Janus kinases (JAKs) are a family of cytosolic tyrosine kinases crucially involved in cytokine signaling. JAKs have been demonstrated to be valid targets in the treatment of inflammatory and myeloproliferative disorders, and two inhibitors, tofacitinib and ruxolitinib, recently received their marketing authorization. Despite this success, selectivity within the JAK family remains a major issue. Both approved compounds share a common 7H-pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidine hinge binding motif, and little is known about modifications tolerated at this heterocyclic core. In the current study, a library of tofacitinib bioisosteres was prepared and tested against JAK3. The compounds possessed the tofacitinib piperidinyl side chain, whereas the hinge binding motif was replaced by a variety of heterocycles mimicking its pharmacophore. In view of the promising expectations obtained from molecular modeling, most of the compounds proved to be poorly active. However, strategies for restoring activity within this series of novel chemotypes were discovered and crucial structure-activity relationships were deduced. The compounds presented may serve as starting point for developing novel JAK inhibitors and as a valuable training set for in silico models.

  4. Flexible Helicoids, Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM Cantilevers in High Mode Vibration, and Concave Notch Hinges in Precision Measurements and Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yakov Tseytlin

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Flexible structures are the main components in many precision measuring and research systems. They provide miniaturization, repeatability, minimal damping, low measuring forces, and very high resolution. This article focuses on the modeling, development, and comparison of three typical flexible micro- nano-structures: flexible helicoids, atomic force microscopy (AFM cantilevers, and concave notch hinges. Our theory yields results which allow us to increase the accuracy and functionality of these structures in new fields of application such as the modeling of helicoidal DNA molecules’ mechanics, the definition of instantaneous center of rotation in concave flexure notch hinges, and the estimation of the increase of spring constants and resolution at higher mode vibration in AFM cantilevers with an additional concentrated and end extended mass. We developed the original kinetostatic, reverse conformal mapping of approximating contours, and non-linear thermomechanical fluctuation methods for calculation, comparison, and research of the micromechanical structures. These methods simplify complicated solutions in micro elasticity but provide them with necessary accuracy. All our calculation results in this article and in all corresponding referenced author’s publications are in a good agreement with experimental and finite element modeling data within 10% or less.

  5. 铰链式六面顶液压机之全面观%Overview of the Hinge Type Cubic Press

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆振勤; 王江虹

    2015-01-01

    对铰链式六面顶液压机的过去、现在及将来在超硬材料各方面的应用进行剖析和展望,旨在讨论用全面的观点看待铰链式六面顶液压机在超硬材料各方面的应用,并视之为合成超硬材料的专用设备而非同一品。%The application of hinge type cubic press in different superhard material fields in the past,at present and in the future have been analysized and predicted in order to see the application of hinge type cubic press in different superhard material fields with a com-prehensive view.Meanwhile,the hinge type cubic press is regarded as the dedicated de-vice for synthesis of superhard materials.

  6. The research of PMM hinge in the pushover analysis of structure%结构pushover分析中PMM铰的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆启亮; 翟永梅

    2009-01-01

    根据相关设计规范得出了三条P-M相关曲线,利用根据三条相关曲线定义的三种洲铰对一幢多层钢框架结构进行pushover分析,根据分析结果对三种PMM铰的区别进行了探讨,以便在工程中选择合适的PMM铰.%According to relative designing norms, get three kinds of P-M curve, this paper defines three kinds of PMM hinge after the pushover analysis to multi-layer steel frame structure. According to analysis result, three kinds of PMM hinge are discussed, so as to choose calculated PMM hinge in the project.

  7. Natural Modal Analysis of Deployable Mechanism for Space Hinge Pole%空间铰链杆展开机构固有模态分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘跃进

    2014-01-01

    When the uses material and strengthen ways of the deployable mechanism of space hinge pole are different , its nat-ural frequency is also different.By ANSYS, modal analysis of deployable mechanism for the space hinge pole is carried.The result shows that the density of the material used distinct greatly influence the natural frequency of deployable mechanism for the space hinge pole.The strengthen ways are different, so the natural frequency difference is great too.It is analyzed that the material density and strengthen ways influence natural frequency of deployable mechanism for the space hinge pole.The results supply a theoretical foundation for optimization design of deployable mechanism for the space hinge pole and dynamics study of deployable mechanism for the space hinge pole.%空间铰链杆展开机构所用材料及加固方式不同时,其固有频率是不同的。利用有限元软件ANSYS,对其进行模态分析。结果表明:所用材料的密度对空间铰链杆展开机构固有频率影响较大;加固方式不同,固有频率差别也大。研究材料密度及加固方式对空间铰链杆展开机构固有频率的影响规律,对空间铰链杆展开机构动力学分析及结构进一步优化具有一定的指导作用。

  8. The Impacts of Hinged and Solid Ankle-Foot Orthoses on Standing and Walking in Children with Spastic Diplegia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid DALVAND

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available How to Cite This Article: Dalvand H, Dehghan L, Feizi A, Hosseini SA, Amirsalari S. Iran J Child Neurol. 2013 Autumn; 7(4:12-19.AbstractObjective The purpose of this study was to examine the impacts of hinged and solid anklefoot orthoses (AFOs on standing and walking abilities in children with spastic diplegia.Materials & MethodsIn a quasi-experimental design, 30 children with spastic diplegia, aged 4-6 years were recruited. They were matched in terms of age, IQ, and level of GMFCS E&R. Children were randomly assigned into 3 groups: a hinged AFO group (n=10 plus occupational therapy (OT, a solid AFO group (n=10 plus OT, a control group who used only OT for three months. Gross motor abilities weremeasured using Gross Motor Measure Function (GMFM.ResultsWe obtained statistically significant differences in the values between baseline and after treatment in all groups. The groups were also significantly different in total GMFM after intervention. Furthermore, there were differences between hinged AFOs and solid AFOs groups, and between hinged AFOs and control groups.ConclusionWe concluded that gross motor function was improved in all groups; however, hinged AFOs group appears to improve the gross motor function better than solid AFOs and control groups.ReferencesMiller F. Cerebral palsy. 1st ed. New York: Springer Science & Business Media; 2005.Wren TL, Rethlefsen S, Kay RM. Prevalence of specific gait abnormalities in children with cerebral palsy: Influence of cerebral palsy subtype, age, and previous surgery. J Pediat Orthoped 2005;25(1:79-83.Knutosn L, Clark D. Orthotic devices for ambulation in children with cerebral palsy and myelomeningocele. Phys Ther 1991;71:947-60.Figueiredo EM, Ferreira GB, Maia Moreira RC, Kirkwood R, Fetters L. Efficacy of Ankle-Foot Orthoses on Gait of Children with Cerebral Palsy: Systematic Review of Literature. Pediat Phys Ther 2008; 20(3:207-23.Brehm MA, Harlaar J, Schwartz M. Effect of ankle

  9. Expulsion d’etrangers et Convention européenne des droits de l’homme Le risque de mauvais traitements dans l’Etat de destinatio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syméon Karagiannis

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The right of States, for a variety of reasons, to expel aliens hasnever been disputed by the European Court of Human Rights insofar as aState party to the European Convention on Human Rights continues, quite naturally, to exercise its sovereignty over its territory. However, this right has to be reconciled with the obligation of States parties to the European Convention on Human Rights not to expose aliens and, more generally, persons under their jurisdictionto a risk of violation of the provisions of the Convention. Yet, guaranteeing that no human right recognized as such by the Convention be violated in case of expulsion is too heavy a task for States to assume. Imposing such an obligation would end up in invalidatingthe sovereign right of States to expel aliens. The Court ofStrasbourg retains primarily the risk of Article 3 of the Convention being violated in expulsion cases, a provision according to which inhuman or degrading punishments or treatments and, of course, acts of torture are strictly prohibited. The Court’s case-law, abundant aswell as rich in nuances, results in rather a thorough examination of the human rights situation in any country towards which a alien will be (or has already been expelled.

  10. Evolution de la pêche au lac d'Ayamé depuis l'expulsion des pêcheurs non nationaux (Côte d'Ivoire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanga, AF.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Evolution of Fishing on Lake Ayame since the Deportation of Non National Fishermen. This study was conducted in all landing stages of man made lake Ayame in Ivory Coast. It's about assessing fishing activities a decade after the conflict between indigenous and non national fishermen who led to the final expulsion of the last one from that lake. For the data collecting a questionnaire survey was administered to fishers, and interviews were held with the lake manager, the administrative and custom authorities in the area of the lake. The results showed that since the expulsion of non national fishermen in 1998, the fishing is mainly done by indigenous with 69%. However, we notice the return of some alien with 10%. Regarding the fishing, fish production has decreased from 700 tons in 1998 to 516 tons in 2007. According to the distribution of catches by family and species, the cichlidae are the most catches with 52%. Tilapia Oreochromis niloticus which had nearly disappeared from the lake since 1998 with 3% to the benefit of tilapia Sarotherodon melanotheron with 51%, is reappearing with a proportion of 23% against 29% for second species cited. Regarding the average weight of fish caught, it has varied from 200 grams in 1998 to 400 grams in 2008 for the two main species fished.

  11. Do the bullies survive? A five-year, three-wave prospective study of indicators of expulsion in working life among perpetrators of workplace bullying

    Science.gov (United States)

    GLAMBEK, Mats; SKOGSTAD, Anders; EINARSEN, Ståle

    2015-01-01

    In recent series of studies, we have shown that targets of workplace bullying are at risk of expulsion in working life, both from current employment (e.g. in terms of changing employer) and from working life itself (e.g. becoming unemployed). The most recent of these, Take It or Leave: A Five-Year Prospective Study of Workplace Bullying and Indicators of Expulsion in Working Life was recently published in Industrial Health, and the present short communication aims to follow up that paper, investigating the possible job “survival” of the perpetrators. A nationally representative sample was employed (n=1,613), and responses were gathered at three time points with a two-year and a five-year time-lag. Outcomes were intention to leave and sickness absence at T1, and sickness absence, change of employer, disability benefit recipiency and unemployment at T2 and T3. The results of regression analyses clearly indicate that the perpetrators’ occupational status is largely unchanged, and remains so over time, as opposed to earlier findings regarding the targets of bullying. PMID:26320732

  12. Temperature-dependent kinetics of charge transfer, hydrogen-atom transfer, and hydrogen-atom expulsion in the reaction of CO+ with CH4 and CD4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melko, Joshua J; Ard, Shaun G; Johnson, Ryan S; Shuman, Nicholas S; Guo, Hua; Viggiano, Albert A

    2014-09-18

    We have determined the rate constants and branching ratios for the reactions of CO(+) with CH4 and CD4 in a variable-temperature selected ion flow tube. We find that the rate constants are collisional for all temperatures measured (193-700 K for CH4 and 193-500 K for CD4). For the CH4 reaction, three product channels are identified, which include charge transfer (CH4(+) + CO), H-atom transfer (HCO(+) + CH3), and H-atom expulsion (CH3CO(+) + H). H-atom transfer is slightly preferred to charge transfer at low temperature, with the charge-transfer product increasing in contribution as the temperature is increased (H-atom expulsion is a minor product for all temperatures). Analogous products are identified for the CD4 reaction. Density functional calculations on the CO(+) + CH4 reaction were also conducted, revealing that the relative temperature dependences of the charge-transfer and H-atom transfer pathways are consistent with an initial charge transfer followed by proton transfer.

  13. Calculation and analysis of convex arc flexure hinges%外凸圆弧柔性铰链的计算与分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龙永成; 葛文杰; 张永红; 景藜

    2011-01-01

    By comparing with the common bow flexure hinge with a notch, the convex arc is taken as the basic flexible cell, and the rotational stiffness calculation formulas of these two types of hinges are deducted by introducing the flexure hinge, and the influence on rotational stiffness by dimension parameters was also calculated.Finally, influence on deformation of parallelogram mechanisms by two kinds of hinges was calculated by using the finite element analysis software Ansys 10.0.The result shows that the horizontal output displacement of parallelogram mechanisms of convex arc flexure hinge is 3.9 times of that of the bow flexure hinge under the condition that both overall dimension and stress are same.Under the condition that output displacement is same, the maximum equivalent stress on the parallelogram mechanism of convex arc flexure hinge is 32% that of the bow flexure hinge.%通过与有缺口的普通弓形柔性铰链进行对比,将外凸圆弧作为基本的柔性单元,引入柔性铰链,推导两种铰链的转动刚度公式,并计算了尺寸参数对转动刚度的影响,最后通过有限元计算了两种铰链对平行四边形机构的变形影响.结果表明,在外形尺寸与受力相同的情况下,外凸圆弧柔性铰链四边形机构的水平输出位移是弓形柔性铰链机构的3.9倍,在相同输出位移的情况下.外凸圆弧四边形机构受到的最大等效应力是弓形铰链的32%.

  14. Amino acid sequence requirements in the human IgA1 hinge for cleavage by streptococcal IgA1 proteases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Senior, BW; Batten, MR; Kilian, Mogens

    2002-01-01

    All the IgA1 proteases of the different pathogenic species of Streptococcus cleave the hinge of the alpha chain of human IgA1 only at one proline-threonine peptide bond. In order to study the importance of these amino acids for cleavage, several hinge mutant recombinant IgA1 antibodies were...... constructed. The mutations were found to be without major effect upon the structure or functional abilities of the antibodies. However, they had a major effect upon their sensitivity to cleavage by some of the IgA1 proteases....

  15. Expulsions and adverse events following immediate and later insertion of a levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system after medical termination of late first- and second-trimester pregnancy: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korjamo, R; Mentula, M; Heikinheimo, O

    2017-07-10

    To compare expulsions and adverse events (AEs) between immediate and delayed insertion of a levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system (LNG-IUS) following medical termination of pregnancy (MTOP). Randomised controlled trial. Helsinki University Hospital, Finland, January 2013-December 2014. Cohorts of 102 (gestational age 64-84 days, late first trimester) and 57 (gestational age 85-140 days, second trimester) women requesting MTOP and LNG-IUS contraception. LNG-IUS insertion occurred immediately (same day) or 2-4 weeks following MTOP. Follow-up visits were at 2-4 weeks, 3 months, and 1 year. LNG-IUS expulsion by 3 months and 1 year. AEs and bleeding profiles within 3 months. Following late first-trimester MTOP the LNG-IUS expulsion rates by 3 months were 14 (27.5%) in the immediate-insertion group and two (4.0%) in the delayed-insertion group (risk ratio, RR 6.86; 95% confidence interval, 95% CI 1.64-28.66). By 1 year the expulsion rates were 17 (33.3%) and six (12.0%) (RR 2.78, 95% CI 1.19-6.47). Following second-trimester MTOP LNG-IUS expulsion rates by 3 months and 1 year were five (18.5%) in the immediate-insertion group and one (3.6%) in the delayed-insertion group (RR 5.19, 95% CI 0.65-41.54). No differences in AEs and bleeding profiles emerged between the groups. Immediate LNG-IUS insertion after late first- or second-trimester MTOP is feasible, does not increase the complication rate, or alter the uterine bleeding patterns; however, immediate insertion increased the expulsion rate, which may limit the cost-effectiveness. Immediate insertion of LNG-IUS following MTOP at 9-20 weeks of gestation is feasible and safe. © 2017 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  16. Helix 3 acts as a conformational hinge in Class A GPCR activation: An analysis of interhelical interaction energies in crystal structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lans, Isaias; Dalton, James A R; Giraldo, Jesús

    2015-12-01

    A collection of crystal structures of rhodopsin, β2-adrenergic and adenosine A2A receptors in active, intermediate and inactive states were selected for structural and energetic analyses to identify the changes involved in the activation/deactivation of Class A GPCRs. A set of helix interactions exclusive to either inactive or active/intermediate states were identified. The analysis of these interactions distinguished some local conformational changes involved in receptor activation, in particular, a packing between the intracellular domains of transmembrane helices H3 and H7 and a separation between those of H2 and H6. Also, differential movements of the extracellular and intracellular domains of these helices are apparent. Moreover, a segment of residues in helix H3, including residues L/I3.40 to L3.43, is identified as a key component of the activation mechanism, acting as a conformational hinge between extracellular and intracellular regions. Remarkably, the influence on the activation process of some glutamic and aspartic acidic residues and, as a consequence, the influence of variations on local pH is highlighted. Structural hypotheses that arose from the analysis of rhodopsin, β2-adrenergic and adenosine A2A receptors were tested on the active and inactive M2 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor structures and further discussed in the context of the new mechanistic insights provided by the recently determined active and inactive crystal structures of the μ-opioid receptor. Overall, the structural and energetic analyses of the interhelical interactions present in this collection of Class A GPCRs suggests the existence of a common general activation mechanism featuring a chemical space useful for drug discovery exploration.

  17. Role of a GAG hinge in the nucleotide-induced conformational change governing nucleotide specificity by T7 DNA polymerase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Zhinan; Johnson, Kenneth A

    2011-01-14

    A nucleotide-induced change in DNA polymerase structure governs the kinetics of polymerization by high fidelity DNA polymerases. Mutation of a GAG hinge (G542A/G544A) in T7 DNA polymerase resulted in a 1000-fold slower rate of conformational change, which then limited the rate of correct nucleotide incorporation. Rates of misincorporation were comparable to that seen for wild-type enzyme so that the net effect of the mutation was a large decrease in fidelity. We demonstrate that a presumably modest change from glycine to alanine 20 Å from the active site can severely restrict the flexibility of the enzyme structure needed to recognize and incorporate correct substrates with high specificity. These results emphasize the importance of the substrate-induced conformational change in governing nucleotide selectivity by accelerating the incorporation of correct base pairs but not mismatches.

  18. Comprehensive Analysis of the Therapeutic IgG4 Antibody Pembrolizumab: Hinge Modification Blocks Half Molecule Exchange In Vitro and In Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaoyu; Wang, Fengqiang; Zhang, Ying; Wang, Larry; Antonenko, Svetlana; Zhang, Shuli; Zhang, Yi Wei; Tabrizifard, Mohammad; Ermakov, Grigori; Wiswell, Derek; Beaumont, Maribel; Liu, Liming; Richardson, Daisy; Shameem, Mohammed; Ambrogelly, Alexandre

    2015-12-01

    IgG4 antibodies are evolving as an important class of cancer immunotherapies. However, human IgG4 can undergo Fab arm (half molecule) exchange with other IgG4 molecules in vivo. The hinge modification by a point mutation (S228P) prevents half molecule exchange of IgG4. However, the experimental confirmation is still expected by regulatory agencies. Here, we report for the first time the extensive analysis of half molecule exchange for a hinge-modified therapeutic IgG4 molecule, pembrolizumab (Keytruda) targeting programmed death 1 (PD1) receptor that was approved for advanced melanoma. Studies were performed in buffer or human serum using multiple exchange partners including natalizumab (Tysabri) and human IgG4 pool. Formation of bispecific antibodies was monitored by fluorescence resonance energy transfer, exchange with Fc fragments, mixed mode chromatography, immunoassays, and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. The half molecule exchange was also examined in vivo in SCID (severe combined immunodeficiency) mice. Both in vitro and in vivo results indicate that the hinge modification in pembrolizumab prevented half molecule exchange, whereas the unmodified counterpart anti-PD1 wt showed active exchange activity with other IgG4 antibodies or self-exchange activity with its own molecules. Our work, as an example expected for meeting regulatory requirements, contributes to establish without ambiguity that hinge-modified IgG4 antibodies are suitable for biotherapeutic applications.

  19. Transporditöötajate ametiühing ärkas pärast blokaadiähvardust / Tanel Mazur

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mazur, Tanel, 1971-

    2006-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Narvskaja Gazeta 2. sept. lk. 7. Transporditöötajate ametiühing kavatseb pöörduda Eesti-Vene piiripunktides valitsevate ülipikkade järjekordade pärast välisministeeriumi ja Vene saatkonna poole, kaaludes ühtlasi ka Euroopa Komisjonilt abi palumist

  20. Inducible deletion of CD28 prior to secondary nippostrongylus brasiliensis infection impairs worm expulsion and recall of protective memory CD4⁺ T cell responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hlumani Ndlovu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available IL-13 driven Th2 immunity is indispensable for host protection against infection with the gastrointestinal nematode Nippostronglus brasiliensis. Disruption of CD28 mediated costimulation impairs development of adequate Th2 immunity, showing an importance for CD28 during the initiation of an immune response against this pathogen. In this study, we used global CD28⁻/⁻ mice and a recently established mouse model that allows for inducible deletion of the cd28 gene by oral administration of tamoxifen (CD28(-/loxCre⁺/⁻+TM to resolve the controversy surrounding the requirement of CD28 costimulation for recall of protective memory responses against pathogenic infections. Following primary infection with N. brasiliensis, CD28⁻/⁻ mice had delayed expulsion of adult worms in the small intestine compared to wild-type C57BL/6 mice that cleared the infection by day 9 post-infection. Delayed expulsion was associated with reduced production of IL-13 and reduced serum levels of antigen specific IgG1 and total IgE. Interestingly, abrogation of CD28 costimulation in CD28(-/loxCre⁺/⁻ mice by oral administration of tamoxifen prior to secondary infection with N. brasiliensis resulted in impaired worm expulsion, similarly to infected CD28⁻/⁻ mice. This was associated with reduced production of the Th2 cytokines IL-13 and IL-4, diminished serum titres of antigen specific IgG1 and total IgE and a reduced CXCR5⁺ T(FH cell population. Furthermore, total number of CD4⁺ T cells and B220⁺ B cells secreting Th1 and Th2 cytokines were significantly reduced in CD28⁻/⁻ mice and tamoxifen treated CD28(-/loxCre⁺/⁻ mice compared to C57BL/6 mice. Importantly, interfering with CD28 costimulatory signalling before re-infection impaired the recruitment and/or expansion of central and effector memory CD4⁺ T cells and follicular B cells to the draining lymph node of tamoxifen treated CD28(-/loxCre⁺/⁻ mice. Therefore, it can be concluded that CD28

  1. 倒圆角直梁型柔性铰链应力分析%Analysis of Stress of Corner- filleted Flexural Hinges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任宁; 王长路; 欧开良; 周峰

    2012-01-01

    In order to explore the stress of comer - filleted flexural hinge, according to the basic equations of material mechanics, the design equation for calculating the bending stress and tensile or compressing stress about the flexural hinge is conducted. Based on beam element with variational cross - section, the finite element model of the flexure hinge is established; Under the border condition of fixing one side and bringing to bear moment or force on another side, the calculation of the stress about the flexural hinge is accomplished; In order to validate the correctness of the design equation for calculating the stress, the comparison between the analytic results and the results of finite element method is made. According to the design equation that was conducted, the relationship between the stress of corner -filleted flexural hinge and its geometry parameters is analyzed.%为研究倒圆角直梁型柔性铰链的内部应力,利用材料力学的相关知识推导出该型柔性铰链的弯曲正应力和拉/压应力计算公式.采用变截面梁单元建立该型柔性铰链的有限元模型,在一端固定,另一端承受力矩或力的边界条件下,计算分析该型柔性铰链的应力;将有限元解与所推导出的解析解进行比较,验证所推导应力计算公式的正确性.根据所推导出的应力公式,讨论倒圆角直梁型柔性铰链的内部应力与其各结构参数之间的关系.

  2. Influencing Factor Analysis on Coordinated Working Performance of Hinge Joint in Hollow Slab%空心板铰缝协同工作性能影响因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卫军; 李沛; 徐岳; 董荣珍; 余志武

    2011-01-01

    In order to study the coordinated working performance of hinge joint in hollow slab,based on early hinge joint durability experiment and static experiment, calculation formula of coordinated working performance parameter φ was introduced by factor analysis method.Combined with the frequently-used hinge joint forms in hollow slab, influences of the factors on φ were discussed and sensitivities of φ for the factors were analyzed. Results show that the coordinated working performance of hinge joint is influenced by hinge joint reinforcement ratio,hinge joint form, hinge joint concrete strength ratio and hinge joint destructiveness. The coordinated working performance of deep hinge joint is better than that of shallow and middle hinge joint.%为了研究空心板铰缝协同工作性能,基于前期的铰缝耐久性试验及静载试验,运用因素分析法,提出了表征空心板铰缝协同工作性能的参数φ及其计算公式.结合常用的空心板铰缝形式,讨论了各因素对φ值变化的影响,分析了φ值对各因素的敏感性.结果表明:铰缝配筋率、铰缝形式、铰缝混凝土强度比以及铰缝材料劣化都会影响空心板铰缝的协同工作性能;深铰缝协同工作性能优于浅、中2种铰缝形式.

  3. Deterioration Inspection of Hinge Joints Based on Relative Displacement Method%基于相对位移法的铰缝破损程度检测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱寅泉; 周正茂; 葛玮明; 袁桂芳; 韩光强

    2012-01-01

    针对装配式空心板梁桥铰缝的破损评价,提出相对位移法,通过测量在正常通行荷载作用下一段时间内铰缝的最大相对位移值,判断铰缝的破损程度.设计了测量相对位移的装置,给出了相应的测试方法.通过对9座桥梁259条铰缝的实测结果统计分析发现:仅通过外观检查判定铰缝损伤状态并不可靠;相对位移与铰缝的损伤程度有较强的相关关系;通过相对位移来区分铰缝不同的状态是合理的;使用无量纲参数a可将铰缝划分为完好、损坏和破坏3种状态,3者之间的界限值分别为0.14和0.57.对一座实桥的荷载试验结果表明,采用相对位移判断铰缝损伤状态所得到的结论与通过荷载试验所得结论一致,采用相对位移法判断铰缝的破损程度不仅方便,而且可靠.%In order to evaluate the deterioration of hinge joint in fabricated hollow slab beam bridge, the relative displacement method was proposed to evaluate the deterioration of hinge joint by measuring the largest relative displacement of the hinge joint in a period of time under the action of normal traffic load. The apparatus for measuring the relative displacement was designed and the corresponding testing method was also given. The statistical analysis on the results from the measuring of 259 hinge joints in 9 bridges shows that ( 1) it is unreliable to judge the damage status of hinge joints only through visual inspection; ( 2) there exists a high correlation between relative displacement and damage status of hinge joints; (3 ) it is rational to distinguish different status of hinge joints through relative displacement; (4) the status of hinge joints can be classified into regimes of completeness, damage and fracture according to the value of dimensionless parameter a, whose boundaries are 0. 14 and 0. 25 respectively. The result from an in-situ load test on a bridge shows that the status of hinge joints obtained from relative

  4. 空心板铰缝结构耐用性能的试验研究%Experimental study on durability performance of hollow slab hinged joints

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卫军; 李沛; 张国法; 董荣珍

    2012-01-01

    For a long time there is rarely effective method for quantitative evaluation for the hinged joint durability performance during the operations period, which is always the blind spot for the bridge design and service management. Thus, based on experimental study, coordination coefficient of the hollow slab hinged joint was defined as well as the regression model was established at the same time. Then, the time-varying function of the rate of hinged joint steel corrosion was introduced to the regression model. Finally, the constantly evaluating of the hinged joint durability performance of common used for deep, middle and low hinged joint forms were also carried out. According to the results of this research, the corrosion resistance of low and medium hinged joint is approximately same. The service life of different long-span hollow slab bridges with low and medium hinged joint are about 3 to 16 years. The corrosion resistance of deep hinged joint is better. The service life of different long-span hollow slab bridges with deep hinged joint are about 6 to 29 years.%针对铰缝结构的经时耐用性能缺少有效的定量评价方法,造成铰缝部位成为桥梁结构设计和桥梁服役管理的盲区这一问题,基于试验研究定义了空心板铰缝协同工作系数,用空心板铰缝协同工作系数来评价铰缝结构对相邻空心板协同工作程度.在此基础上,建立了相应的回归计算模型,通过引入铰缝钢筋锈蚀率随时间变化的计算公式,建立了空心板铰缝协同工作系数随时间变化的计算公式.对常用的深、中、浅3种空心板铰缝形式的经时耐用性能进行了评价.结果表明:深、中、浅的排序逐渐恶化;浅、中2种铰缝结构的服役寿命相近,除冰盐环境下不同跨度的空心板梁桥的使用年限大致在3~6a波动;深铰缝结构的抗蚀能力较强,不同跨度的空心板梁桥的使用年限大致在6~29a波动.

  5. RTM Production Monitoring of the A380 Hinge Arm Droop Nose Mechanism: A Multi-Sensor Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiesura, Gabriele; Lamberti, Alfredo; Yang, Yang; Luyckx, Geert; Van Paepegem, Wim; Vanlanduit, Steve; Vanfleteren, Jan; Degrieck, Joris

    2016-06-14

    This research presents a case study of production monitoring on an aerospace composite component: the hinge arm of the droop nose mechanism on the Airbus A380 wing leading edge. A sensor network composed of Fibre Bragg Gratings, capacitive sensors for cure monitoring and thermocouples was embedded in its fibre reinforced lay-up and measurements were acquired throughout its Resin Transfer Moulding production process. Two main challenges had to be overcome: first, the integration of the sensor lines in the existing Resin Transfer Moulding mould without modifying it; second, the demoulding of the component without damaging the sensor lines. The proposed embedding solution has proved successful. The wavelength shifts of the Fibre Bragg Gratings were observed from the initial production stages, over the resin injection, the complete curing of the resin and the cooling-down prior to demoulding. The sensors proved to be sensitive to detecting the resin flow front, vacuum and pressure increase into the mould and the temperature increase caused by the resin curing. Measurements were also acquired during the post-curing cycle. Residual strains during all steps of the process were derived from the sensors' wavelength shift, showing values up to 0.2% in compression. Moreover, the capacitive sensors were able to follow-up the curing degree during the production process. The sensors proved able to detect the resin flow front, whereas thermocouples could not measure an appreciable increase of temperature due to the fact that the resin had the same temperature as the mould.

  6. RTM Production Monitoring of the A380 Hinge Arm Droop Nose Mechanism: A Multi-Sensor Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Chiesura

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This research presents a case study of production monitoring on an aerospace composite component: the hinge arm of the droop nose mechanism on the Airbus A380 wing leading edge. A sensor network composed of Fibre Bragg Gratings, capacitive sensors for cure monitoring and thermocouples was embedded in its fibre reinforced lay-up and measurements were acquired throughout its Resin Transfer Moulding production process. Two main challenges had to be overcome: first, the integration of the sensor lines in the existing Resin Transfer Moulding mould without modifying it; second, the demoulding of the component without damaging the sensor lines. The proposed embedding solution has proved successful. The wavelength shifts of the Fibre Bragg Gratings were observed from the initial production stages, over the resin injection, the complete curing of the resin and the cooling-down prior to demoulding. The sensors proved to be sensitive to detecting the resin flow front, vacuum and pressure increase into the mould and the temperature increase caused by the resin curing. Measurements were also acquired during the post-curing cycle. Residual strains during all steps of the process were derived from the sensors’ wavelength shift, showing values up to 0.2% in compression. Moreover, the capacitive sensors were able to follow-up the curing degree during the production process. The sensors proved able to detect the resin flow front, whereas thermocouples could not measure an appreciable increase of temperature due to the fact that the resin had the same temperature as the mould.

  7. Effects of permafrost thaw on carbon emissions under aerobic and anaerobic environments in the Great Hing'an Mountains, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Changchun; Wang, Xianwei; Miao, Yuqing; Wang, Jiaoyue; Mao, Rong; Song, Yanyu

    2014-07-15

    The carbon (C) pool of permafrost peatland is very important for the global C cycle. Little is known about how permafrost thaw could influence C emissions in the Great Hing'an Mountains of China. Through aerobic and anaerobic incubation experiments, we studied the effects of permafrost thaw on CH4 and CO2 emissions. The rates of CH4 and CO2 emissions were measured at -10, 0 and 10°C. Although there were still C emissions below 0°C, rates of CH4 and CO2 emissions significantly increased with permafrost thaw under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. The C release under aerobic conditions was greater than under anaerobic conditions, suggesting that permafrost thaw and resulting soil environment change should be important influences on C emissions. However, CH4 stored in permafrost soils could affect accurate estimation of CH4 emissions from microbial degradation. Calculated Q10 values in the permafrost soils were significantly higher than values in active-layer soils under aerobic conditions. Our results highlight that permafrost soils have greater potential decomposability than soils of the active layer, and such carbon decomposition would be more responsive to the aerobic environment.

  8. Stiffness of Flapping Hinge of Small Scaled Unmanned Helicopter%某小型无人直升机挥舞约束铰设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马相林; 张呈林

    2012-01-01

    The stiffness of flapping hinge is studied, which contributes to the vibration level through theoretical analysis and experiment. A calculation model of forces which act on the rotor shaft is established to analyze the vibration on helicopter structure. Three different hardness rubbers are chosen as the flapping hinge constraint material, and vibration tests are carried out to find out the influence of the stiffness of flapping hinge. The results show that the increase of stiffness of flapping hinge will reduce the 1 fi vibration.%通过理论分析和试验验证了旋翼挥舞约束铰刚度对机体1Ω振动水平的影响.以某小型无人直升机跷跷板式旋翼系统为研究对象,建立旋翼轴受力分析模型,分析了挥舞约束铰刚度对机体1Ω振动水平的影响.选择3种不同硬度的橡胶作为挥舞铰约束材料,分别进行了旋翼试验台振动测试试验,通过测量旋翼试验台振动量间接判断约束铰材料对机体振动水平的影响.分析和试验结果表明,增加跷跷板式旋翼挥舞约束铰刚度有利于降低机体1Ω振动水平.

  9. 简述隐藏合页式门窗五金及型材%Brief introduction of hardwares and profiles for concealed hinge window and door

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙波

    2009-01-01

    针对最近某些建筑项目中要求合页隐藏的门窗的情况.本文就五金及相关型材进行了讨论.%In recent years, some customers and architects asked the hinges of windows or doors to be concealed. On their request, the author made research on the related profile and hardware.

  10. The bending precision of hinged type precision bending die%铰链式精弯模的弯曲精度分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马维铁

    2012-01-01

    分析了模具设计资料中所介绍的铰链式精弯模结构,证明用这种铰链式精弯模在弯曲工件过程中,不是如资料中所说的工件与铰链凹模之间没有相对滑动,而是存在相对滑动.推导了滑动偏移量△的计算公式,总结了铰链式精弯模的优、缺点.%The structure of hinged type precision bending die which was stated in die design material was analyzed. It is indicated that the text is not true, because relative slip does exist between the workpiece and the hinged type matrix. The formula of sliding off-setA was deduced and the advantages and disadvantages of the hinged type precision bending die were summarized.

  11. Characteristics of hydrocarbon source rocks of No.3 buried-hill region in Nanpu Sag

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ma Guanghua; Zhang Hongchen; Qian Fengyan; Chen Haixia

    2014-01-01

    Based on the data of 44 samples of hydrocarbon source rocks in Nanpu No.3 buried-hill region,the kerogen type is judged through the pyrolysis and microscopic identification. At the same time,organic matter maturity and hydrocarbon generation threshold are studied by using vitrinite reflectance,pyrolysis yield and hy-drocarbon abundance. Meanwhile the hydrocarbon expulsion threshold is calculated. And the characteristics of organic hydrocarbon generation and expulsion are preliminarily revealed and evaluated. The result shows that the No.3 buried-hill region has abundant hydrocarbon source rocks with high content of organic carbon. And the primary types of kerogen areⅡ1 andⅡ2. The hydrocarbon source rocks which passed biochemistry,thermolysis and thermal cracking have developed into the mature-postmature phase of different extents. And plenty of oil and gas were expelled out. It is believed the depth of oil-generating window is 3 600 m and the depth of hydro-carbon-expulsion threshold is 4 100 m. The comprehensive analysis indicates that Nanpu No.3 burried-hill re-gion has a certain condition to generate hydrocarbon which is very promising in oil exploration and thus can be-come an important exploration and development target next.

  12. Syn-thrusting polygonal normal faults exposed in the hinge of the Cingoli anticline, northern Apennines, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo ePetracchini

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The Cingoli arcuate anticline is part of the Apennines fold-thrust belt in Italy. The anticline involves sedimentary carbonate strata generally affected by syn-thrusting contractional structures such as bed-normal pressure solution seams, folds, and reverse faults. An exception is constituted by an outcrop in the anticline hinge, where sub-horizontal carbonate and chert beds are affected by joints and intraformational short normal faults. These faults are poorly-systematic and conceivably polygonal in map view. They cut through the carbonate beds while usually stop against the chert layers that are bent and extended along the faults themselves. At the fault tips, the displacement is generally transferred, via a lateral step, to an adjacent similar fault segment. The fault surfaces are often characterized by slickolites, greenish clayey residue, and micro-breccias including chert and carbonate clasts. Fault displacement is partly or largely accommodated by pressure solution. The faults, in effect, are usually accompanied by bed-parallel pressure solution seams in the two contractional quadrants located at the present or past fault tips. The pressure solution features fade away departing from the faults. This evidence and others are analytically explained with fault tip stress distributions. The faults are interpreted as polygonal normal faults syn-tectonically (syn-thrusting nucleated in response to multi-directional stretching processes occurred at the Cingoli triple-folded anticline extrados. The faults then grew through a four-stage process: (1. stop the faults stopped at the competent chert beds; (2. shrink faulting produced shrinkage (pressure solution of carbonate beds at the fault compressive tips; (3. shrink and step the faults stepped laterally at the competent chert beds; (4. shatter the chert beds were shattered along the fault surfaces. The case presented constitutes the first reported one of syn-thrusting non-diagenetic polygonal

  13. High pressure NMR reveals active-site hinge motion of folate-bound Escherichia coli dihydrofolate reductase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitahara, R; Sareth, S; Yamada, H; Ohmae, E; Gekko, K; Akasaka, K

    2000-10-24

    A high-pressure (15)N/(1)H two-dimensional NMR study has been carried out on folate-bound dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) from Escherichia coli in the pressure range between 30 and 2000 bar. Several cross-peaks in the (15)N/(1)H HSQC spectrum are split into two with increasing pressure, showing the presence of a second conformer in equilibrium with the first. Thermodynamic analysis of the pressure and temperature dependencies indicates that the second conformer is characterized by a smaller partial molar volume (DeltaV = -25 mL/mol at 15 degrees C) and smaller enthalpy and entropy values, suggesting that the second conformer is more open and hydrated than the first. The splittings of the cross-peaks (by approximately 1 ppm on (15)N axis at 2000 bar) arise from the hinges of the M20 loop, the C-helix, and the F-helix, all of which constitute the major binding site for the cofactor NADPH, suggesting that major differences in conformation occur in the orientations of the NADPH binding units. The Gibbs free energy of the second, open conformer is 5.2 kJ/mol above that of the first at 1 bar, giving an equilibrium population of about 10%. The second, open conformer is considered to be crucial for NADPH binding, and the NMR line width indicates that the upper limit for the rate of opening is 20 s(-)(1) at 2000 bar. These experiments show that high pressure NMR is a generally useful tool for detecting and analyzing "open" structures of a protein that may be directly involved in function.

  14. Crystal structure of the E. coli dipeptidyl carboxypeptidase Dcp: further indication of a ligand-dependent hinge movement mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comellas-Bigler, M; Lang, R; Bode, W; Maskos, K

    2005-05-27

    Dcp from Escherichia coli is a 680 residue cytoplasmic peptidase, which shows a strict dipeptidyl carboxypeptidase activity. Although Dcp had been assigned to the angiotensin I-converting enzymes (ACE) due to blockage by typical ACE inhibitors, it is currently grouped into the M3 family of mono zinc peptidases, which also contains the endopeptidases neurolysin and thimet oligopeptidase (TOP). We have cloned, expressed, purified, and crystallized Dcp in the presence of an octapeptide "inhibitor", and have determined its 2.0A crystal structure using MAD methods. The analysis revealed that Dcp consists of two half shell-like subdomains, which enclose an almost closed two-chamber cavity. In this cavity, two dipeptide products presumably generated by Dcp cleavage of the octapeptide bind to the thermolysin-like active site fixed to side-chains, which are provided by both subdomains. In particular, an Arg side-chain backed by a Glu residue, together with two Tyr phenolic groups provide a charged anchor for fixing the C-terminal carboxylate group of the P2' residue of a bound substrate, explaining the strict dipeptidyl carboxypeptidase specificity of Dcp. Tetrapeptidic substrates are fixed only via their main-chain functions from P2 to P2', suggesting a broad residue specificity for Dcp. Both subdomains exhibit very similar chain folds as the equivalent but abducted subdomains of neurolysin and TOP. Therefore, this "product-bound" Dcp structure seems to represent the inhibitor/substrate-bound "closed" form of the M3 peptidases, generated from the free "open" substrate-accessible form by a hinge-bending mechanism. A similar mechanism has recently been demonstrated experimentally for ACE2.

  15. Hinged Hydrostatic Transducers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    around the elements in such a way that it is void free. A flexible electrode must be applied that integrates the travzducers into a single electrical...conformable and had a moderate area of 100 cm2 . Evaluacion of che various one, L-ao or chree dimensionally connecced ?ZT necvorks has indicaced chat

  16. Mentor riietab hinge lahti

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Küsimusele, mida ootavad mentorid neilt, kellele nad toeks astuvad, vastavad Nelli Sudnitsõna, Jaan Allem, Anti Orav, Erkki Susi, Margus Rink, Aavo Kokk, Janeck Uibo. Lisa: Fontese mentoriprogramm - esimene omalaadne Eestis. Kommenteerivad Tiiu Allikvee ja Piret Jamnes. Vt samas: Mida arvavad asjast menteed? Kommenteerivad Kaidi Kuusmaa ja Gristel Tali

  17. Anesthetic management of a parturient with placenta previa totalis undergoing preventive uterine artery embolization before placental expulsion during cesarean delivery: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae Woo; Song, In Ae; Ryu, Junghee; Park, Hee-Pyoung; Jeon, Young-Tae; Hwang, Jung-Won

    2014-10-01

    Placenta previa totalis can cause life-threatening massive postpartum hemorrhage, and careful anesthetic management is essential. Preventive uterine artery embolization (UAE) before placental expulsion was introduced to reduce postpartum bleeding in cases of placenta previa totalis. We describe the case of a 40-year-old woman (gravida 0, para 0) with placenta previa totalis and uterine myomas who underwent intraoperative UAE, which was preoperatively planned at the strong recommendation of the anesthesiologist, immediately after delivery of a fetus and before removal of the placenta during cesarean delivery under spinal-epidural anesthesia. After confirming embolization of both uterine arteries, removal of the placenta resulted in moderate bleeding. The estimated blood loss was 2.5 L, and 5 units of red blood cells were transfused. The parturient was discharged uneventfully on postoperative day 4. This case shows that the bleeding risk is reduced by intraoperative UAE in a patient with placenta previa totalis, and anesthesiologists have an important role in a multidisciplinary team approach.

  18. Technical evaluation summary of the in situ vitrification melt expulsion at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory on April 21, 1996, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-07-01

    On April 21, 1996, at 6:12 PM, about 20 tons of molten glass were expelled from a 216-ton body of molten (1600 C) radioactively contaminated soil (containing 2.4 Ci {sup 137}Cs) at an ORNL site. This was caused by pressurized steam venting rapidly through, rather than around, the molten body. During the previous 17 days, an old seepage pit was undergoing in situ vitrification to convert porous, leachable soil into an impermeable waste form. Analyses revealed that 0.13 {mu}Ci of {sup 137}Cs could have been released and would have delivered a hypothetical, unmeasurable dose of 0.02 {mu}rem to the nearest private residence outside the Oak Ridge Reservation. The expelled glass particles, having a uniform specific activity of 1.2E-08 Ci/g, contained no smearable or transferrable activity. Thus, the overall environmental impact was insignificant. Fire damage was completely limited to the off-gas hood. Techniques were identified to minimize the probability of future melt expulsions.

  19. Micelle-bound structures and dynamics of the hinge deleted analog of melittin and its diastereomer: implications in cell selective lysis by D-amino acid containing antimicrobial peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saravanan, Rathi; Bhunia, Anirban; Bhattacharjya, Surajit

    2010-02-01

    Melittin, the major component of the honey bee venom, is a 26-residue hemolytic and membrane active peptide. Structures of melittin determined either in lipid environments by NMR or by use of X-ray demonstrated two helical regions at the N- and C-termini connected by a hinge or a bend at the middle. Here, we show that deletion of the hinge residues along with two C-terminal terminal Gln residues (Q25 and Q26), yielding a peptide analog of 19-residue or Mel-H, did not affect antibacterial activity but resulted in a somewhat reduced hemolytic activity. A diastereomer of Mel-H or Mel-(d)H containing d-amino acids [(d)V5, (d)V8, (d)L11 and (d)K16] showed further reduction in hemolytic activity without lowering antibacterial activity. We have carried out NMR structures, dynamics (H-D exchange and proton relaxation), membrane localization by spin labeled lipids, pulse-field-gradient (PFG) NMR and isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) in dodecylphosphocholine (DPC) micelles, as a mimic to eukaryotic membrane, to gain insights into cell selectivity of these melittin analogs. PFG-NMR showed Mel-H and Mel-(d)H both were similarly partitioned into DPC micelles. ITC demonstrated that Mel-H and Mel-(d)H interact with DPC with similar affinity. The micelle-bound structure of Mel-H delineated a straight helical conformation, whereas Mel-(d)H showed multiple beta-turns at the N-terminus and a short helix at the C-terminus. The backbone amide-proton exchange with solvent D(2)O demonstrated a large difference in dynamics between Mel-H and Mel-(d)H, whereby almost all backbone protons of Mel-(d)H showed a much faster rate of exchange as compared to Mel-H. Proton T(1) relaxation had suggested a mobile backbone of Mel-(d)H peptide in DPC micelles. Resonance perturbation by paramagnetic lipids indicated that Mel-H inserted deeper into DPC micelles, whereas Mel-(d)H is largely located at the surface of the micelle. Taken together, results presented in this study demonstrated that the

  20. Test Data Report, Low-Speed Wind Tunnel Drag Test of a 2/5 Scale Lockheed AH-56 Cheyenne Door-Hinge Hub

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    SPECIAL REPORT RDMR-AD-16-03 TEST DATA REPORT, LOW-SPEED WIND TUNNEL DRAG TEST OF A 2/5 SCALE LOCKHEED AH-56 CHEYENNE DOOR-HINGE HUB Robert D...TYPE AND DATES COVERED Final 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Test Data Report, Low-Speed Wind Tunnel Drag Test of a 2/5 Scale Lockheed AH-56 Cheyenne...Research, Development and Engineering Center (AMRDEC) conducted a drag test of a non-rotating 2/5 scale Lockheed AH-56 Cheyenne main rotor hub in

  1. Regionalism, Regionalization and Regional Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liviu C. Andrei

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Sustained development is a concept associating other concepts, in its turn, in the EU practice, e.g. regionalism, regionalizing and afferent policies, here including structural policies. This below text, dedicated to integration concepts, will limit on the other hand to regionalizing, otherwise an aspect typical to Europe and to the EU. On the other hand, two aspects come up to strengthen this field of ideas, i.e. the region (al-regionalism-(regional development triplet has either its own history or precise individual outline of terms.

  2. Using maya chair during the expulsive phase of delivery and its relation to the lower incidence of episiotomy or perineal tears

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura López Quirós

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this article is to present the results obtained from the development of a clinical question about using maya obstetric chair during the expulsive phase of delivery and its relation to the lower incidence of episiotomy and perineal tears. In traditional cultures, the women give birth naturally in vertical positions as kneeling, standing, among others. In Western societies, physicians have influenced women will deliver in the supine position, sometimes with legs raised using stirrups. For women of our country is difficult to adopt "alternative" positions that have traditionally been seen as 'normal'. The maya chair is used in the countries of South America, and it appears to be an effective way to prevent perineal tears and the lower incidence of episiotomy duringchildbirth. To carry out this secondary research methodology for clinical practice based on evidence that consists of five steps was used. A question was developed in PICO format (patient, intervention, comparison and observation, then an information search was performed in different databases like Ebsco Host, Google Scholar, PubMed, Medline plus, Embase. 30 articles were found, were analyzed according to the criteria set FCL version 2.0, of which only one was close to answering the clinical question. Information was socialized in a formalpresentation by CIEBE-CR. It is conclude that there is insufficient evidence that the use of maya chair during theexpulsive phase of delivery significantly reduces the risk of perianal tear and lower incidence of episiotomy.

  3. Effect of Molecular Architecture of PDMAEMA-POEGMA Random and Block Copolymers on Their Adsorption on Regenerated and Anionic Nanocelluloses and Evidence of Interfacial Water Expulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuoriluoto, Maija; Orelma, Hannes; Johansson, Leena-Sisko; Zhu, Baolei; Poutanen, Mikko; Walther, Andreas; Laine, Janne; Rojas, Orlando J

    2015-12-10

    Block copolymers of poly(2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate) (PDMAEMA) and poly(oligo(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate) (POEGMA) with varying block sizes were synthesized by consecutive reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization and then exposed to cellulose substrates with different anionic charge density. The extent and dynamics of quaternized PDMAEMA-b-POEGMA adsorption on regenerated cellulose, cellulose nanofibrils (CNF), and (2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidin-1-yl)oxyl (TEMPO)-oxidized cellulose nanofibrils (TOCNF) was determined by using electromechanical and optical techniques, namely, quartz crystal microbalance (QCM-D) and surface plasmon resonance (SPR), respectively. PDMAEMA-b-POEGMA equilibrium adsorption increased with the anionic charge of cellulose, an indication of electrostatic interactions. Such an observation was further confirmed by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Depending on their architecture, adsorption on TOCNF of some of the PDMAEMA-b-POEGMA copolymers produced a significant reduction in QCM frequency, as expected from large mass uptake, while surprisingly, other copolymers induced the opposite effect. This latter, remarkable behavior was ascribed to coupled water expulsion from the interface upon charge neutralization of anionic surface sites with adsorbing cationic polymer segments. These observations were further investigated with SPR and QCM-D measurements using deuterium oxide solvent exchange to determine the amount of coupled water at the TOCNF-block copolymer interface. Finally, random copolymers with similar composition adsorbed to a larger extent compared to the respective block copolymers, revealing the effect of adsorbed loops and tails as well as hydration.

  4. Mafic subvolcanic intrusions and their petrologic relation with the volcanism in the south hinge Torres Syncline, Paraná-Etendeka Igneous Province, southern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarmento, Carla Cecília Treib; Sommer, Carlos Augusto; Lima, Evandro Fernandes

    2017-08-01

    The hypabyssal intrusions investigated in this study are located in the east-central region of the state of Rio Grande do Sul, in the south hinge of the Torres Syncline. The intrusions comprise twenty-four dikes and ten sills, intruding in ponded pahoehoe, compound pahoehoe, rubbly and acidic lava flows of the south sub-Province of the Paraná Igneous Province and the sedimentary rocks of the Botucatu, Pirambóia, Santa Maria and Rio do Rasto Formations, on the edge of the Paraná Basin. The intrusive dikes in the flows have preferred NNW-SSE direction and the intrusive dikes in the sedimentary rocks have preferred NE-SW direction. Regarding the morphology, the dikes were separated into two different groups: symmetrical and asymmetrical. The small variation in facies is characterized by fine to aphanitic equigranular rocks. The rocks were divided into two types: Silica Supersaturated Tholeiite (SST) - dikes and sills consisting of plagioclase and clinopyroxene as essential minerals, with some olivine and felsic mesostasis, predominant intergranular texture and subordinate subophitic texture; and Silica Saturated Olivine Tholeiite (SSOT) - dikes consisting mainly of plagioclase, clinopyroxene and olivine, and predominant ophitic texture. The major and trace element geochemistry allows classifying these hypabyssal bodies as basalts (SSOT), basaltic andesites and trachyandesites (TSS) of tholeiitic affinity. The mineral chemistry data and the REE behavior, combined with the LILE and HFSE patterns, similar to the flows and low-Ti basic intrusions of southern Brazil and northwestern Namibia allow suggesting that these dikes and sills were part of a feeder system of the magmatism in the Paraná-Etendeka Igneous Province. The preferred direction of the intrusive dikes in the sedimentary rocks of the Paraná Basin coincides with tectonic-magmatic lineaments related to extensional processes and faulting systems that served as vents for dike swarms parallel to the Brazilian

  5. 微位移角振动台柔性铰链静动力学分析%The Static and Dynamic Analysis of The Flexure Hinge of The Micro Fisplacement Sngle Vibrator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘亚杰; 张立中

    2015-01-01

    The research object is based on the flexible hinge of the micro displacement angle shaking table. According to the design of flexible hinge for micro displacement angle vibrator, combined flexure hinge strength condition, the static and dynamic simulation of the flexure hinge is carried out by workbench ANSYS finite element analysis software, the stress distribution of the flexure hinge and the natural frequency of the first six order are obtained, the results show that, the structural design of the flexure hinge meets the strength requirement and can effectively avoid the resonance with the workbench. The correctness of the structure design of the flexible hinge is ensured, it has laid the foundation for the future research.%以微位移角振动台的柔性铰链为研究对象,根据微位移角振动台柔性铰链的设计要求,结合柔性铰链强度条件,通过ANSYS Workbench有限元分析软件对柔性铰链进行静动力学仿真,得出了柔性铰链最大受力时应力分布情况和前六阶的固有频率.分析结果表明,柔性铰链的结构设计满足强度要求并能够有效的避免与工作台产生共振,保证了柔性铰链结构设计的正确性,为以后的动力学研究奠定了基础.

  6. The Analysis and Calculation of the Oil Cylinder in Raising Pillar Hinged Shaft Pedestal of Pile Frame%桩架的起架油缸铰座的分析计算

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘振东; 赵文欣; 赵伟民

    2012-01-01

    The article introduces the basic composition and use of pile frame, the way that pillar of pile Frame is raised in, According to the theory of pile frame calculates pillar the hinge point force size,And by MATLAB software movement simulation, Finds the pile frame pillar rising in the process that oil cylinder hinge point of force how to change, Uses Solidworks software to set up the entity model of oil cylinder in raising pillar hinged shaft pedestal, Combines with ANSYS software nonlinear finite element contact analysis, Concludes surface contact of the stress of the hinged shaft pedestal cloud between oil cylinder in raising pillar hinged shaft pedestal and the platform structure, which gives the pile frame pillar hinge point determination and oil cylinder hinged shaft pedesatal a development and application to provide the basis.%系统阐述了桩架的基本组成和用途,桩架立柱的起驾方式.根据理论计算出桩架立柱的铰点力大小,并借助MATLAB软件进行运动仿真,找到了桩架立柱起架过程中起架油缸铰点力的变化情况.运用Solidworks软件建立起架油缸铰座的实体模型.结合ANSYS软件进行接触非线性有限元分析.得出了起架油缸铰座与上平台结构在面与面接触的情况下铰座的应力云图,为桩架立柱的铰点确定和起驾油缸铰座的开发和应用提供了依据.

  7. The low binding affinity of D-serine at the ionotropic glutamate receptor GluD2 can be attributed to the hinge region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tapken, Daniel; Steffensen, Thomas Bielefeldt; Leth, Rasmus

    2017-01-01

    Ionotropic glutamate receptors (iGluRs) are responsible for most of the fast excitatory communication between neurons in our brain. The GluD2 receptor is a puzzling member of the iGluR family: It is involved in synaptic plasticity, plays a role in human diseases, e.g. ataxia, binds glycine and D...

  8. A Flexible Domain-Domain Hinge Promotes an Induced-fit Dominant Mechanism for the Loading of Guide-DNA into Argonaute Protein in Thermus thermophilus

    KAUST Repository

    Zhu, Lizhe

    2016-02-24

    Argonaute proteins (Ago) are core components of the RNA Induced Silencing Complex (RISC) that load and utilize small guide nucleic acids to silence mRNAs or cleave foreign DNAs. Despite the essential role of Ago in gene regulation and defense against virus, the molecular mechanism of guide-strand loading into Ago remains unclear. We explore such a mechanism in the bacterium Thermus thermophilus Ago (TtAgo), via a computational approach combining molecular dynamics, bias-exchange metadynamics, and protein-DNA docking. We show that apo TtAgo adopts multiple closed states that are unable to accommodate guide-DNA. Conformations able to accommodate the guide are beyond the reach of thermal fluctuations from the closed states. These results suggest an induced-fit dominant mechanism for guide-strand loading in TtAgo, drastically different from the two-step mechanism for human Ago 2 (hAgo2) identified in our previous study. Such a difference between TtAgo and hAgo2 is found to mainly originate from the distinct rigidity of their L1-PAZ hinge. Further comparison among known Ago structures from various species indicates that the L1-PAZ hinge may be flexible in general for prokaryotic Agos but rigid for eukaryotic Agos. © 2016 American Chemical Society.

  9. A Flexible Domain-Domain Hinge Promotes an Induced-fit Dominant Mechanism for the Loading of Guide-DNA into Argonaute Protein in Thermus thermophilus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lizhe; Jiang, Hanlun; Sheong, Fu Kit; Cui, Xuefeng; Gao, Xin; Wang, Yanli; Huang, Xuhui

    2016-03-17

    Argonaute proteins (Ago) are core components of the RNA Induced Silencing Complex (RISC) that load and utilize small guide nucleic acids to silence mRNAs or cleave foreign DNAs. Despite the essential role of Ago in gene regulation and defense against virus, the molecular mechanism of guide-strand loading into Ago remains unclear. We explore such a mechanism in the bacterium Thermus thermophilus Ago (TtAgo), via a computational approach combining molecular dynamics, bias-exchange metadynamics, and protein-DNA docking. We show that apo TtAgo adopts multiple closed states that are unable to accommodate guide-DNA. Conformations able to accommodate the guide are beyond the reach of thermal fluctuations from the closed states. These results suggest an induced-fit dominant mechanism for guide-strand loading in TtAgo, drastically different from the two-step mechanism for human Ago 2 (hAgo2) identified in our previous study. Such a difference between TtAgo and hAgo2 is found to mainly originate from the distinct rigidity of their L1-PAZ hinge. Further comparison among known Ago structures from various species indicates that the L1-PAZ hinge may be flexible in general for prokaryotic Ago's but rigid for eukaryotic Ago's.

  10. Calculation of the Ability of Rotation of Plastic Hinge in RC Continuous Beam%钢筋混凝土连续梁塑性铰转动能力的计算

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾德光; 周东华; 韦俊峰

    2012-01-01

    在考虑塑性的结构分析中,结构破坏标志是结构中出现了足够多的塑性铰,结构变成可变体系,从而破坏.因此,结构中出现的第一个塑性铰必须有足够的转动能力,以保证在继续加载后,其他截面也出现塑性铰.利用有限元法对钢筋混凝土连续梁的塑性铰转动能力进行计算,以确定结构出现的第一个塑性铰有足够的转动能力.%In the Structural Plasticity Analysis, the symbol of structural fracture is that there are enough plastic hinges in the structure, the structure is geometrically unstable system and fracture. The first plastic hinge must have the ability of rotation to make sure that there are plastic hinges on the other sections under the load. The ability of rotation of plastic hinge in RC continuous beam with the finite element method to ensure that the ability of rotation of the first plastic hinge is enough.

  11. Mate attraction, retention and expulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miner, Emily J; Shackelford, Todd K

    2010-02-01

    Sexual selection theory and parental investment theory have guided much of the evolutionary psychological research on human mating. Based on these theories, researchers have predicted and found sex differences in mating preferences and behaviors. Men generally prefer that their long-term partners are youthful and physically attractive. Women generally prefer that their long-term partners have existing resources or clear potential for securing resources and display a willingness to invest those resources in children the relationship might produce. Both men and women, however, desire long-term partners who are kind and intelligent. Once a partner is obtained, men and women act in sex-specific ways to ensure the continuation and exclusivity of the relationship. Men, in particular, engage in behaviors designed to prevent, correct, and anticipate their partner's sexual infidelity. Relationships dissolve for evolutionarily-relevant reasons: infidelity, childlessness, and infertility. The discussion addresses directions for future research.

  12. Magma chamber cooling by episodic volatile expulsion as constrained by mineral vein distributions in the Butte, Montana Cu-Mo porphyry deposit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, K.; Karlstrom, L.; Reed, M. H.

    2016-12-01

    enthalpy of each fluid pulse. We then compare with models for conductive cooling and crystallization of the source magma chamber to estimate the importance of hydrothermal fluid expulsion in the total heat budget. Such models should also provide constraints on the timing and ultimately the origin of pulsed volatile release at Butte.

  13. Fluid expulsion at a 3-km long fracture system in the Northern North Sea - geochemical constraints on the origin of gas and water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haeckel, M.; Wallmann, K.; Schmidt, M.; Liebetrau, V.; Sommer, S.; Schroller, D.; Schoenfeld, J.; Karstens, J.; Berndt, C.

    2013-12-01

    Investigating the integrity of the overburden is a key element for assessing the risks involved in geologic CO2 storage. In the course of the ECO2 project, in 2011 colleagues from the University of Bergen have discovered a 3-km long fracture, named Hugin, in the North Sea, about 25 km north of the Utsira CO2 plume. The Hugin fracture is easily identified by extended stretches of bacterial mats at the seafloor, indicating the expulsion of reduced fluids. Geochemical analyses of porewater constituents from push cores and vibrocores, taken during cruises in 2012 and 2013, confirmed the upward advection of anoxic porewater containing dissolved methane of C2+ ratio decreases with decreasing methane concentration. In addition, total alkalinity and sulfate correlate linearly with the d13C of the total dissolved inorganic carbon. However, low amounts of higher alkanes, such as propane, n-/iso-butane, pentane and even hexane, were also found indicating small admixtures of thermogenic gas as well. The likely source of the biogenic methane is a gas-rich horizon of Pliocene age, whereas the thermogenic gas component must have migrated upwards from the known deeper reservoirs, e.g. the underlying Sleipner fields. While biogeochemical indications for upward gas migration, dissolution and oxidation are observed along the entire fracture, at two sites, also active seepage of porewater at comparably high advection velocities of ~50 cm/a was detected. This porewater shows a distinctly lower salinity than today's seawater and is clearly of meteoric origin according to its linear d18O/dD correlation. The porewater is slightly more radiogenic than seawater indicative of weathering of sediments. In addition, this porewater has also seen stronger biogeochemical reactions from anaerobic oxidation of methane and associated authigenic carbonate precipitation as indicated by its higher total alkalinity and stronger depletion in Ca. Overall, we can postulate that the fracture is an active

  14. Shear Calculation of the Hinge of the Fan Floating Gate of the Gate of the Pool River%池河节制闸门扇形浮体门门铰剪力计算

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    简玉祥

    2015-01-01

    池河节制闸门采用扇形浮体门,门体由扇形框架和上下游面板组成;上游圆弧面板的圆心处用铰链固定在门室的后墙上,整个门体绕铰轴旋转升降;本次就浮体闸门的门铰剪力计算供大家参考。%Pool river control valve adopts lfoat fan-shaped gate, the door body is composed of a fan frame and the upper and lower panels; upstream arc panel at the center of the hinges in the room door after the wall and the door body around the hinge shaft rotation and lifting; this is lfoating gate door hinge shear calculation for your reference.

  15. 面向快速伺服刀架的柔性铰链结构优化设计%Structure Optimization Design of Flexure Hinge for Fast Tool Servo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周欢伟

    2013-01-01

    The flexure hinge driven by the piezoelectric is a key part of fast tool servo (FTS) system to ensure efficiency and machining precision for ultra-precision machining in machinery.According to the flexure hinge having some characteristics of high medium frequency,high acceleration in the operation process of this system,the principle to select the gap form was analyzed.After designing the symmetric topologies structure of flexure hinge and establishing a dynamic mathematical model of flexure hinge,the magnification to meet processing requirements was solved by using analytical equations.Finally according to the characteristics of flexure hinge to desire better thermal stability and flexibility,the relationship between the driving force of piezoelectric ceramic and the microdisplacement of flexible hinge is simulated by using the Ansys software.%在机械超精密加工中,以压电陶瓷驱动柔性铰链的快速伺服刀架系统是保证加工精度和效率的关键系统之一.根据柔性铰链在该系统工作过程中频率高、加速度高的特点,分析选择其缺口形式的原则,设计柔性铰链对称的拓扑结构,建立柔性铰链的动态数学模型,利用解析方程求解符合满足加工要求的放大倍数.最后根据柔性铰链要求有较好的热稳定性及柔度等特性,借助Ansys仿真出压电陶瓷的驱动力与柔性铰链的微位移之间的关系.

  16. Structural characterizations of fusion peptide analogs of influenza virus hemagglutinin. Implication of the necessity of a helix-hinge-helix motif in fusion activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Chun-Hua; Wu, Shih-Hsiung; Chang, Ding-Kwo; Chen, Chinpan

    2002-06-21

    Infection by enveloped viruses initially involves membrane fusion between viral and host cell membranes. The fusion peptide plays a crucial role in triggering this reaction. To clarify how the fusion peptide exerts this specific function, we carried out biophysical studies of three fusion peptide analogs of influenza virus hemagglutinin HA2, namely E5, G13L, and L17A. E5 exhibits an activity similar to the native fusion peptide, whereas G13L and L17A, which are two point mutants of the E5 analog, possess much less fusion activity. Our CD data showed that the conformations of these three analogs in SDS micelles are pH-dependent, with higher alpha-helical contents at acidic pH. Tryptophan fluorescence emission experiments indicated that these three analogs insert deeper into lipid bilayers at acidic pH. The three-dimensional structure of the E5 analog in SDS micelles at pH 4.0 revealed that two segments, Leu(2)-Glu(11) and Trp(14)-Ile(18), form amphipathic helical conformations, with Gly(12)-Gly(13) forming a hinge. The hydrophobic residues in the N- and C-terminal helices form a hydrophobic cluster. At neutral pH, however, the C-terminal helix of Trp(14)-Ile(18) reduces dramatically, and the hydrophobic core observed at acidic pH is severely disrupted. We suggest that the disruption of the C-terminal helix renders the E5 analog fusion-inactive at neutral pH. Furthermore, the decrease of the hinge and the reduction of fusion activity in G13L reveal the importance of the hinge in fusion activity. Also, the decrease in the C-terminal helix and the reduction of fusion activity in L17A demonstrates the importance of the C-terminal helix in fusion activity. Based on these biophysical studies, we propose a model that illustrates the structural change of the HA2 fusion peptide analog and explains how the analog interacts with the lipid bilayer at different pH values.

  17. 快速组装大型部件铰接孔销轴方案的新突破%Quickly Assembled Large Hinge Pin Hole Breakthroughs in Programme

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵忠刚; 郭阳阳

    2014-01-01

    本文论证了液压支架、采煤机等部件安装铰接孔销轴的锥形导销引导法,阐述了铰接孔销轴的安装方案及运用锥形导销安装过程中的注意事项。%This article demonstrates, coal mining machine parts, such as the installation of hydraulic powered support hinge hole of a tapered guide pin guide pin method, explains the hinge pin hole of installation scenarios and considerations for using a tapered guide pins during installation.

  18. Solving geometrically nonlinear tasks of the statics of hinged-rod systems basing on finite element method in the form of classical mixed method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignat’ev Aleksandr Vladimirovich

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The most widely used numerical method used in linear calculation of building structures is finite element method in traditional form of displacements. Different software is developed on its basis. Though it is only possible to check the certainty of these numerical solutions, especially of non-linear tasks of engineering structures’ deformation by the coincidence of the results obtained by two different methods. The authors solved geometrically nonlinear task of the static deformation of a flat hinged-rod system consisting of five linear elastic rods undergoing great tension-compression strains. The solution was obtained basing on the finite element method in the form of classical mixed method developed by the authors. The set of all equilibrium states of the system, both stable and unstable, and all the limit points were found. The certainty of the solution was approved by the coincidence of the results obtained by other authors basing on traditional finite element method in displacements.

  19. Computational study of the Risø-B1-18 airfoil with a hinged flap providing variable trailing edge geometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Troldborg, Niels

    2005-01-01

    A comprehensive computational study, in both steady and unsteady flow conditions, has been carried out to investigate the aerodynamic characteristics of the Risø-B1.18 airfoil equipped with variable trailing edge geometry as produced by a hinged flap. The function of such flaps should be to decre...... frequencies, was investigated so that an optimum design can be suggested for application with wind turbine blades. It is concluded that a moderately curved flap with flap chord to airfoil curve ratio between 0.05 and 0.10 would be an optimum choice....... on the baseline airfoil showed excellent agreement with measurements on the same airfoil with the same specified conditions. Furthermore, a more widespread comparison with an advanced potential theory code is presented. The influence of various key parameters, such as flap shape, flap size and oscillating...

  20. Design of remote control system for vertical hinged door%户外遥控平开门控制系统设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈曼龙; 张琦

    2015-01-01

    It can facilitate people ’ s daily life to open or close vertical hinged door by way of remote control.The remote control system of the door is designed, with small power gear motors being installed at the bottom of hinged doors. This system uses PT2262/PT2272 remote control module, together with STC12C5A60S2 microcontroller, to control the door opening and closing;the infrared module is applied to as-sure personal or car security; the microcontroller receives signals from remote control module through timing interruption, and from infrared module through external interruption.Through the field test, the system can not only meet the requirements of opening and closing the outdoor double doors by remote control under various climate conditions, but also satisfy the economic requirements.%遥控启闭平开式户外庭院门实用便捷。通过在平开门下部安装小功率驱动电机,并利用STC12 C5 A60 S2单片机结合PT2262/PT2272遥控模块实现平开门遥控启闭,再使用红外模块进行车体和人身保护,单片机以定时中断方式接收遥控模块发出的指令,以外中断方式接受红外模块信号,设计了遥控平开门系统。经过现场测试,系统既能满足户外双扇门体在各种气候条件下的遥控启闭要求,又符合经济性要求。

  1. 两种斜面修复术治疗楔状缺损临床脱落率疗效观察%Investigation on the expulsion rate of two types of cavities for repairing wedged-shaped defects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    巩蕾; 邱勋定; 郝春波

    2016-01-01

    目的:比较制备短斜面、凹斜面两种洞缘斜配合FiltekA350流体树脂修复楔状缺损后一年内的脱落率。方法收集2011年7月至2012年7月来我科门诊就诊的楔状缺损患者58例,患牙106颗,采用随机数字表将患者随机分为短斜面组和凹斜面组,每组53颗,分别在釉质合面制备短斜面、凹斜面后流体树脂进行充填,观察充填治疗一年内的脱落率。结果凹斜面组与短斜面组患者修复1年内充填体的脱落率分别为4.3%(2/46)和8.0%(4/50),凹斜面组的脱落率低于短斜面组,但差异无统计学意义(P>0.05)。结论凹斜面组配合流体树脂修复楔状缺损,相比短斜面组,修复一年内充填体的脱落率更低。%Objective To investigate the expulsion rate of two restoring methods, the short bevel and the hol-low-ground bevel, using the flowable composite to repair the wedged-shaped defects, within one year after restoring. Methods A total of 58 cases of patients with 106 teeth of wedge-shaped defects, who admitted to Department of Stoma-tology of our hospital from July 2011 to July 2012, were randomly divided into two groups with 53 teeth in each group. After preparing two types of cavities, the short bevel and the hollow-ground bevel, and using the flowable composite to repair the wedged-shaped defects, expulsion rates of two restoring methods during one year after restoring were investi-gated. Results The expulsion rates of the hollow-ground and the short bevel are respectively 8.0% and 4.3%. There was no significant difference between two bevels by using the flowable composite to restore the defect in the expulsion rate. Conclusion Compared with the short bevel, the hollow-ground by using the flowable composite to restore the de-fect has the lower expulsion rate within one year after restoring.

  2. Hollow plate girder bridge damaged hinge joints on the transverse distribution%空心板梁桥铰缝损坏对横向分布的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张立东; 孙全胜

    2015-01-01

    Through the hollow beam superstructure disease research found that very serious damage to the hinge joints. Due to changes in the stiff-ness of the hinge joints caused a bridge overall force changes that may even force the board features. With the help of Midas civil finite element analysis software to establish the finite element model to analyze the impact of the bridge damaged hinge joints transverse distribution can provide a theoretical basis for the kind of bridge maintenance and reinforcement of hinge joints.%通过对空心板梁上部结构病害调查研究发现,铰缝破坏现象十分严重,由于铰缝刚度发生变化造成了桥梁整体受力变化,甚至可能出现单板受力特征,借助Midas civil有限元分析软件建立了有限元模型,分析了铰缝损坏对桥梁横向分布的影响,可为同类桥梁铰缝维修与加固提供理论依据。

  3. Technology Research of Real Flight Test on Hinge Moment of Aircraft's Control Surface%飞机舵面铰链力矩飞行实测技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何发东

    2011-01-01

    测量飞机舵面铰链力矩是飞行试验的一项重要任务.提出了通过测量传力关键件的载荷和利用传力关键件安装的空间位置来测量飞行中舵面铰链力矩的方法.以某型飞机为例,详细描述了如何利用该方法测量舵面铰链力矩的过程.这种方法对飞机舵面铰链力矩的飞行实测有重要的参考价值.%Measuring the hinge moment of aircraft's control surface is a important task for the flight test. Through the measurement of the force transmission key component'load and use of power transmission key-module installation space to measure the hinge moment of control surface in flighting method. To a certain type of aircraft, for example, the process in detail how to use the methods to measure hinge moment of control surface is described. This method of real flight test on hinge moment of aircraft's control surface has important reference value.

  4. Design of control system of glasses hinge based on STC90 C58%采用 STC90 C58的眼镜钉铰机控制系统的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢宇

    2014-01-01

    针对国外进口铰链焊入板材的钉铰设备价格昂贵的问题,选用STC90 C58芯片作为控制核心,采用LCD显示,开发低成本的眼镜钉铰机控制系统。实际使用表明,该系统能在板材铰链焊接领域替代进口设备,具有抗干扰能力强、易于扩展、工作可靠、加工定时准确,以及操作简单等特点。%Plates connected by hinges are widely employed ,which is welded into the plastic frame or temple tip by using micro-computer control ,but the hinging equipment is very expensive .So STC90 C58 is chosen as the control core .A low-cost control sys-tem of glasses hinge with large LCD screen displayer has been developed .The application shows that it can replace imported e-quipments in plate hinge welding and it bears such advantages as high anti-interference ability ,agility and reliability ,precise pro-cessing timing and simple operation .

  5. Normal-Force and Hinge-Moment Characteristics at Transonic Speeds of Flap-Type Ailerons at Three Spanwise Locations on a 4-Percent-Thick Sweptback-Wing-Body Model and Pressure-Distribution Measurements on an Inboard Aileron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runckel, Jack F.; Hieser, Gerald

    1961-01-01

    An investigation has been conducted at the Langley 16-foot transonic tunnel to determine the loading characteristics of flap-type ailerons located at inboard, midspan, and outboard positions on a 45 deg. sweptback-wing-body combination. Aileron normal-force and hinge-moment data have been obtained at Mach numbers from 0.80 t o 1.03, at angles of attack up to about 27 deg., and at aileron deflections between approximately -15 deg. and 15 deg. Results of the investigation indicate that the loading over the ailerons was established by the wing-flow characteristics, and the loading shapes were irregular in the transonic speed range. The spanwise location of the aileron had little effect on the values of the slope of the curves of hinge-moment coefficient against aileron deflection, but the inboard aileron had the greatest value of the slope of the curves of hinge-moment coefficient against angle of attack and the outboard aileron had the least. Hinge-moment and aileron normal-force data taken with strain-gage instrumentation are compared with data obtained with pressure measurements.

  6. A Study on Highway Hinges Planning Based on Node Importance Analysis Theory%基于结点重要度理论的运输枢纽布局方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李海军; 裴华

    2012-01-01

    In the collectivity planning of highway hinges, to confirm the location of highway hinges is not only very important, but also the important condition to determine efficiency of highway transportation system in the area. The node importance analysis is employed for the quantitative description of the comparative importance of the nodes in the area, which serves as support for the planning of highway hinges. The theory of node importance is used in the distribution of highway hinges, and based on correlative condition to filtrate the initial node ,to confirm optimum location ,so as to conductor distribution . The mentioned theory has obtained better effect in the planning of some highway hinges.%在公路运输枢纽总体规划中,枢纽的选址是重要的一环,也是决定区域公路运输系统的重要因素.结点重要度分析是定量描述区域内各结点间的相对重要程度,从而为规划布局提供依据.将结点重要度理论引入公路运输枢纽布局,根据提出的相关指标应用结点重要度分析对枢纽布局备选点逐步筛选,最终确定最佳站址,从而指导运输枢纽的布局.所阐述的方法在部分公路运输枢纽总体规划中收到了良好的效果.

  7. Study on Rotation Capability and Fatigue Strength of Elliptical Flexure Spherical Hinge%椭圆型弹性球铰链转动性能及疲劳强度研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李成刚; 尤晶晶; 吴洪涛

    2011-01-01

    基于卡氏第二定理,推导出椭圆型弹性球铰链柔度、精度的解析表达式.提出弹性球铰链柔度精度比的概念,并以此为性能指标对铰链的设计进行了优化.结果表明:铰链应选用弹性模量大、切变模量小的材料;在保证强度的前提下,应尽量减小椭圆广角、椭圆长短半轴之比以及铰链最小厚度与椭圆短半轴之比.指出在设计弹性铰链时不能仅追求转动性能,还需要考虑其疲劳强度,进而推导出弹性球铰链疲劳强度的校验公式.%Based on the Castigliano's second theorem, the equations were formulated for the compliance and precision of an elliptical flexure spherical hinge. A new concept of compliance accuracy ratio of flexure spherical hinge was proposed, which was used as the performance index of hinges. Optimization was done, and the results show that materials of hinges should be with high elastic modulus and low shear modulus; all of the wide-angle, the ratio of long half axis to short half axis and the ratio of the minimum thickness to short half axis of ellipse should be as little as possible on the premise of ensuring strength. A view point was proposed,that fatigue strength must also be considered except for improving performance while designing the flexure hinges, and the check formula of fatigue strength was derived.

  8. Controlling of Hydrocarbons Expulsion of Source Rock on Buried Hill Hydrocarbon Reservoir in Nanpu Depression by Acoustic Logging Methodology%测井-地化结合法探讨南堡凹陷潜山源控藏作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董月霞; 李素梅; 陈安定; 王政军; 张鹏; 陈君

    2015-01-01

    Industrial petroleum was discovered from Palaeozoic deep horizons in the Nanpu Depression,Bohai Bay Basin,which suggests significant deep petroleum potential in the area.One of the issues in exploration is forecasting favorable place for prospecting in the area.Hydrocarbons expulsion downward from the source rocks immediately overlapped buried hill should be useful in this aspect.Acoustic logging combined with geochemical approaches was utilized in this study to identify hydrocarbons expulsion and evaluate hydrocarbon potential.Af-ter a detailed correlative acoustic logging and geochemical study,a combined hydrocarbons expulsion model of the source rocks in the Nanpu Depression was established,which was used to investigate hydrocarbons expulsion of the source rocks from 33 wells in the Nanpu Depression.The results suggest that the average depths of the source rocks with the hydrocarbons expelled downward into the burial hill in the No.2 and 3 Tectonic Belts are about 248 m and 358 m,respectively,and only 35 m for the No.1 Tectonic Belt.No obvious hydrocarbons ex-pulsion into burial hill was observed in the No.4 and 5 Tectonic Belts in the depression.This result coincides with the hydrocarbons discovered up to now in the burial hills.We suggest that these factors including contact style between the source rock and the burial hill,the position of the hydrocarbon kitchen,the thermal maturity of the source rocks,the volcanic rock acting as barrier bed and faults developed,have a controlling of the amounts and characteristics of the hydrocarbons expelled by the source rocks and charged into the burial hill in the Nanpu Depression.A comprehensive study of hydrocarbons expulsion,migration and accumulation indicate that the No.2 and 3 Tectonic Belts and next the No.1 Tectonic Belt are prospective areas with burial hill hydro-carbons reservoir developed.This study also indicated that acoustic logging could be an important tool identif-ying hydrocarbons expulsion and would

  9. Foxp3⁺ regulatory T cells delay expulsion of intestinal nematodes by suppression of IL-9-driven mast cell activation in BALB/c but not in C57BL/6 mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birte Blankenhaus

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Accumulating evidence suggests that IL-9-mediated immunity plays a fundamental role in control of intestinal nematode infection. Here we report a different impact of Foxp3⁺ regulatory T cells (Treg in nematode-induced evasion of IL-9-mediated immunity in BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice. Infection with Strongyloides ratti induced Treg expansion with similar kinetics and phenotype in both strains. Strikingly, Treg depletion reduced parasite burden selectively in BALB/c but not in C57BL/6 mice. Treg function was apparent in both strains as Treg depletion increased nematode-specific humoral and cellular Th2 response in BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice to the same extent. Improved resistance in Treg-depleted BALB/c mice was accompanied by increased production of IL-9 and accelerated degranulation of mast cells. In contrast, IL-9 production was not significantly elevated and kinetics of mast cell degranulation were unaffected by Treg depletion in C57BL/6 mice. By in vivo neutralization, we demonstrate that increased IL-9 production during the first days of infection caused accelerated mast cell degranulation and rapid expulsion of S. ratti adults from the small intestine of Treg-depleted BALB/c mice. In genetically mast cell-deficient (Cpa3-Cre BALB/c mice, Treg depletion still resulted in increased IL-9 production but resistance to S. ratti infection was lost, suggesting that IL-9-driven mast cell activation mediated accelerated expulsion of S. ratti in Treg-depleted BALB/c mice. This IL-9-driven mast cell degranulation is a central mechanism of S. ratti expulsion in both, BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice, because IL-9 injection reduced and IL-9 neutralization increased parasite burden in the presence of Treg in both strains. Therefore our results suggest that Foxp3⁺ Treg suppress sufficient IL-9 production for subsequent mast cell degranulation during S. ratti infection in a non-redundant manner in BALB/c mice, whereas additional regulatory pathways are functional in

  10. Foxp3+ Regulatory T Cells Delay Expulsion of Intestinal Nematodes by Suppression of IL-9-Driven Mast Cell Activation in BALB/c but Not in C57BL/6 Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenz, Yannick; Eschbach, Marie-Luise; Hartmann, Wiebke; Haben, Irma; Sparwasser, Tim; Huehn, Jochen; Kühl, Anja; Feyerabend, Thorsten B.; Rodewald, Hans-Reimer; Breloer, Minka

    2014-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that IL-9-mediated immunity plays a fundamental role in control of intestinal nematode infection. Here we report a different impact of Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (Treg) in nematode-induced evasion of IL-9-mediated immunity in BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice. Infection with Strongyloides ratti induced Treg expansion with similar kinetics and phenotype in both strains. Strikingly, Treg depletion reduced parasite burden selectively in BALB/c but not in C57BL/6 mice. Treg function was apparent in both strains as Treg depletion increased nematode-specific humoral and cellular Th2 response in BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice to the same extent. Improved resistance in Treg-depleted BALB/c mice was accompanied by increased production of IL-9 and accelerated degranulation of mast cells. In contrast, IL-9 production was not significantly elevated and kinetics of mast cell degranulation were unaffected by Treg depletion in C57BL/6 mice. By in vivo neutralization, we demonstrate that increased IL-9 production during the first days of infection caused accelerated mast cell degranulation and rapid expulsion of S. ratti adults from the small intestine of Treg-depleted BALB/c mice. In genetically mast cell-deficient (Cpa3-Cre) BALB/c mice, Treg depletion still resulted in increased IL-9 production but resistance to S. ratti infection was lost, suggesting that IL-9-driven mast cell activation mediated accelerated expulsion of S. ratti in Treg-depleted BALB/c mice. This IL-9-driven mast cell degranulation is a central mechanism of S. ratti expulsion in both, BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice, because IL-9 injection reduced and IL-9 neutralization increased parasite burden in the presence of Treg in both strains. Therefore our results suggest that Foxp3+ Treg suppress sufficient IL-9 production for subsequent mast cell degranulation during S. ratti infection in a non-redundant manner in BALB/c mice, whereas additional regulatory pathways are functional in Treg-depleted C57BL/6

  11. Design and preliminary test of spherical hinge based on MR fluid%磁流变球铰设计及初步实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨雅嘉; 田煜; 周铭

    2011-01-01

    设计了一种基于磁流变液的扭矩可控的多自由度球铰结构并进行了初步实验研究.研究结合有限元分析对该结构在静态磁场下的磁感应强度分布进行了仿真,变换不同的仿真条件对改变设计参数后结构的性能进行了对比,并搭建了基于拉压力传感器的测试系统,对所设计的结构进行了测试.实验结果表明,使用自制体积比率50%的磁流变液,通过控制外加电流,该球铰扭矩可在0.14到1.85 Nm连续变化.连续工作时可靠性较高,重复性较好,球铰的扭矩相对漂移约4%,在相同条件参数下工作扭矩相对漂移约2%.所设计的结构比与其他扭矩控制结构可更高效提供阻力矩,对该设计的改进方案也进行了讨论.%A multiple DOF spherical hinge structure is designed based on Magnetorheological(MR)-Fluid, whose torque resistant capability can be flexibly controlled.Finite Element Method (FEM)is intro-duced to analyze and simulate the distribution of Magnetic Flux Density( MFD )of such structure under mag-netic fields.Then comparison is made among different simulating conditions far the structure performance after altering the design parameters.And a testing system based on pull pressure sensor is set up for testing the- structure designed,which result indicates that the torque of the spherical hinge can be continuously modulated from 0.14 Nm to 1.8 Nm with appreciable re liability (relative torque drift about 4%)and repeata-bility (relative torque drift about 2%)using MR fluid with 50% self-control volume ratio through controlling impressed current.Thus the structure designed is more efficient in providing resistant torque compared with other torque controllable structure, which improving proposal for the design is discussed as well.

  12. Large Eddy Simulation of Air Escape through a Hospital Isolation Room Single Hinged Doorway--Validation by Using Tracer Gases and Simulated Smoke Videos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saarinen, Pekka E; Kalliomäki, Petri; Tang, Julian W; Koskela, Hannu

    2015-01-01

    The use of hospital isolation rooms has increased considerably in recent years due to the worldwide outbreaks of various emerging infectious diseases. However, the passage of staff through isolation room doors is suspected to be a cause of containment failure, especially in case of hinged doors. It is therefore important to minimize inadvertent contaminant airflow leakage across the doorway during such movements. To this end, it is essential to investigate the behavior of such airflows, especially the overall volume of air that can potentially leak across the doorway during door-opening and human passage. Experimental measurements using full-scale mock-ups are expensive and labour intensive. A useful alternative approach is the application of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) modelling using a time-resolved Large Eddy Simulation (LES) method. In this study simulated air flow patterns are qualitatively compared with experimental ones, and the simulated total volume of air that escapes is compared with the experimentally measured volume. It is shown that the LES method is able to reproduce, at room scale, the complex transient airflows generated during door-opening/closing motions and the passage of a human figure through the doorway between two rooms. This was a basic test case that was performed in an isothermal environment without ventilation. However, the advantage of the CFD approach is that the addition of ventilation airflows and a temperature difference between the rooms is, in principle, a relatively simple task. A standard method to observe flow structures is dosing smoke into the flow. In this paper we introduce graphical methods to simulate smoke experiments by LES, making it very easy to compare the CFD simulation to the experiments. The results demonstrate that the transient CFD simulation is a promising tool to compare different isolation room scenarios without the need to construct full-scale experimental models. The CFD model is able to reproduce

  13. Volcanic Debris Flows in the Elysium Region of Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen, E. H.; Ryan, M. P.

    1985-01-01

    Photogeologic studies of the Elysium volcanic province appear to provide a specific example of the importance of volcanic-ice interaction to produce the channels of Hrad and Granicus Valles. In addition, these studies shows that the channels lie on the surface of a large sedimentary deposit which is interpreted as an accumulation of volcanic debris flows or lahars. In spite of some similarities with Martian outflow channels, this latter difference may distinguish the Elysium channels from other types of Martian channels. Geologic relations are described which demonstrate that the debris flows formed amidst other volcanic activity in the Elysium region thereby suggesting that the magmatism was important to the generation of the mobilizing liquid. The lahars resulted from the melting of ground ice and liquefaction of subsurface materials. The intersection of this fluid reservoir with the regional fracture system lead to the rapid expulsion of a muddy slurry down the steep western slope of the province.

  14. Expulsion illégale d’un étranger gravement malade : le juge des référés enjoint à l’Etat d’organiser son retour en France

    OpenAIRE

    Klausser, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    Le 25 juillet 2016, le juge des référés du tribunal administratif de Limoges a rendu une ordonnance inédite à la suite de l’expulsion d’un Iranien gravement malade par les préfectures de la Haute-Vienne et du Vaucluse. Au regard de la violation du droit à un recours effectif et de la liberté personnelle de l’intéressé, il a été enjoint aux préfectures concernées d’organiser son retour en France dans les meilleurs délais, et de lui permettre de bénéficier des traitements nécessaires à son état...

  15. The SH2 domain regulates c-Abl kinase activation by a cyclin-like mechanism and remodulation of the hinge motion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Dölker

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Regulation of the c-Abl (ABL1 tyrosine kinase is important because of its role in cellular signaling, and its relevance in the leukemiogenic counterpart (BCR-ABL. Both auto-inhibition and full activation of c-Abl are regulated by the interaction of the catalytic domain with the Src Homology 2 (SH2 domain. The mechanism by which this interaction enhances catalysis is not known. We combined computational simulations with mutagenesis and functional analysis to find that the SH2 domain conveys both local and global effects on the dynamics of the catalytic domain. Locally, it regulates the flexibility of the αC helix in a fashion reminiscent of cyclins in cyclin-dependent kinases, reorienting catalytically important motifs. At a more global level, SH2 binding redirects the hinge motion of the N and C lobes and changes the conformational equilibrium of the activation loop. The complex network of subtle structural shifts that link the SH2 domain with the activation loop and the active site may be partially conserved with other SH2-domain containing kinases and therefore offer additional parameters for the design of conformation-specific inhibitors.

  16. Ambulatory Function and Perception of Confidence in Persons with Stroke with a Custom-Made Hinged versus a Standard Ankle Foot Orthosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slijper, Angélique; Danielsson, Anna; Willén, Carin

    2012-01-01

    Objective. The aim was to compare walking with an individually designed dynamic hinged ankle foot orthosis (DAFO) and a standard carbon composite ankle foot orthosis (C-AFO). Methods. Twelve participants, mean age 56 years (range 26-72), with hemiparesis due to stroke were included in the study. During the six-minute walk test (6MW), walking velocity, the Physiological Cost Index (PCI), and the degree of experienced exertion were measured with a DAFO and C-AFO, respectively, followed by a Stairs Test velocity and perceived confidence was rated. Results. The mean differences in favor for the DAFO were in 6MW 24.3 m (95% confidence interval [CI] 4.90, 43.76), PCI -0.09 beats/m (95% CI -0.27, 0.95), velocity 0.04 m/s (95% CI -0.01, 0.097), and in the Stairs Test -11.8 s (95% CI -19.05, -4.48). All participants except one perceived the degree of experienced exertion lower and felt more confident when walking with the DAFO. Conclusions. Wearing a DAFO resulted in longer walking distance and faster stair climbing compared to walking with a C-AFO. Eleven of twelve participants felt more confident with the DAFO, which may be more important than speed and distance and the most important reason for prescribing an AFO.

  17. Understanding the formation of ancient intertropical disjunct distributions using Asian and Neotropical hinged-teeth snakes (Sibynophis and Scaphiodontophis: Serpentes: Colubridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xin; Huang, Song; Guo, Peng; Colli, Guarino R; Nieto Montes de Oca, Adrián; Vitt, Laurie J; Pyron, R Alexander; Burbrink, Frank T

    2013-01-01

    Numerous taxa show ancient intertropical disjunct distributions. Many can be explained by well-known processes of historical vicariance, such as the breakup of Gondwanaland. Others, such as Asian-Neotropical divergences are not as well understood. To clarify the phylogenetic position and understand biogeographic and temporal origins of the geographically disjunct and morphologically unique genera of hinged-teeth snakes, Scaphiodontophis (n=1) and Sibynophis (n=9; Colubridae), we inferred a time-calibrated phylogeny with additional 107 taxa representing the superfamily Colubroidea using four genes (c-mos, cyt-b, ND2, RAG-1; 3085 bp). We used this tree to estimate ancestral areas for the group. The results show that Scaphiodontophis is sister to Sibynophis, both originated in the late Eocene/Oligocene in Asia and likely dispersed through Beringia to the New World, but unlike other snake groups left no extant species in temperate North America. Current recognition of Scaphiodontophiinae renders Colubrinae paraphyletic, and we resurrect the previously named subfamily Sibynophiinae to encompass both genera and use the tribes Sibynophiini (Sibynophis) and Scaphiodontophiini (Scaphiodontophis) to highlight the geographically distinct areas occupied by these taxa. These results suggest that intercontinental dispersal with extinction in intermediate areas can explain puzzling patterns of ancient intertropical disjunct distributions.

  18. 受腐蚀的铰缝结构的受力性能分析%Force capability analysis of hinge joint structure suffering corrosion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭利英; 卫军; 余崇

    2012-01-01

    对受腐蚀的铰缝结构的受力性能进行试验研究和有限元分析.通过考虑材料弹塑性、非线性以及界面接触等的影响,揭示后浇铰缝与预制板之间纵向抗剪黏结力对结构整体性的影响规律.研究结果表明:腐蚀作用造成的后浇铰缝与预制板之间黏结力下降,由此导致铰缝传递水平剪力的能力大大降低,预制板结构体系的受力形式有可能由整体受力向水平面内组合板受力形式转变.%The effect of corrosion environment on mid-hinge joint was studied through experiment and finite element analysis. The plasticity, nonlinear, accurate concrete constitutive model and complex interaction of the new and old concrete were studied to reveal the effect law of horizontal cohesive force on the structure integrity. The results show that recession of the adherent force between old and new concrete has deep influence on the structure integrity deeply- This influence converts the integrated structure to a composite one and results in the capacity recession of transferring horizontal shear.

  19. Crystallographic evidence of a large ligand-induced hinge-twist motion between the two domains of the maltodextrin binding protein involved in active transport and chemotaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharff, A J; Rodseth, L E; Spurlino, J C; Quiocho, F A

    1992-11-10

    The periplasmic maltodextrin binding protein of Escherichia coli serves as an initial receptor for the active transport of and chemotaxis toward maltooligosaccharides. The three-dimensional structure of the binding protein complexed with maltose has been previously reported [Spurlino, J. C., Lu, G.-Y., & Quiocho, F. A. (1991) J. Biol. Chem. 266, 5202-5219]. Here we report the structure of the unliganded form of the binding protein refined to 1.8-A resolution. This structure, combined with that for the liganded form, provides the first crystallographic evidence that a major ligand-induced conformational change occurs in a periplasmic binding protein. The unliganded structure shows a rigid-body "hinge-bending" between the two globular domains by approximately 35 degrees, relative to the maltose-bound structure, opening the sugar binding site groove located between the two domains. In addition, there is an 8 degrees twist of one domain relative to the other domain. The conformational changes observed between this structure and the maltose-bound structure are consistent with current models of maltose/maltodextrin transport and maltose chemotaxis and solidify a mechanism for receptor differentiation between the ligand-free and ligand-bound forms in signal transduction.

  20. The SH2 domain regulates c-Abl kinase activation by a cyclin-like mechanism and remodulation of the hinge motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dölker, Nicole; Górna, Maria W; Sutto, Ludovico; Torralba, Antonio S; Superti-Furga, Giulio; Gervasio, Francesco L

    2014-10-01

    Regulation of the c-Abl (ABL1) tyrosine kinase is important because of its role in cellular signaling, and its relevance in the leukemiogenic counterpart (BCR-ABL). Both auto-inhibition and full activation of c-Abl are regulated by the interaction of the catalytic domain with the Src Homology 2 (SH2) domain. The mechanism by which this interaction enhances catalysis is not known. We combined computational simulations with mutagenesis and functional analysis to find that the SH2 domain conveys both local and global effects on the dynamics of the catalytic domain. Locally, it regulates the flexibility of the αC helix in a fashion reminiscent of cyclins in cyclin-dependent kinases, reorienting catalytically important motifs. At a more global level, SH2 binding redirects the hinge motion of the N and C lobes and changes the conformational equilibrium of the activation loop. The complex network of subtle structural shifts that link the SH2 domain with the activation loop and the active site may be partially conserved with other SH2-domain containing kinases and therefore offer additional parameters for the design of conformation-specific inhibitors.

  1. Better Outcomes in Severe and Morbid Obese Patients (BMI>35 kg/m2 in Primary Endo-Model Rotating-Hinge Total Knee Arthroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis M. Lozano

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Endo-Model rotating-hinge prosthesis is preferably indicated as a primary implant in patients with advanced axial deviation of the lower limbs or unstable knees with severe bone defects. Outcomes were studied in 111 knees, operated in a three-year period; the mean followup was 28 months. Joint balance enhancement and limbs mechanical axis correction were achieved after surgery. There were 6 deep infections and 16 patients referred postoperative anterior knee pain. WOMAC index scores disaggregated by gender and BMI showed better outcomes in obese patients (specifically, those with a BMI of 35–40 kg/m2 and in men. Although the lack of a control group did not allow definite conclusions and despite a nonnegligible complication rate, our results reveal that the Endo-Model total knee arthroplasty can be a useful tool to deal with severe and morbid obese patients affected of severe gonarthrosis associated with marked axial deviations, ligament instability, or bone defects.

  2. Ambulatory Function and Perception of Confidence in Persons with Stroke with a Custom-Made Hinged versus a Standard Ankle Foot Orthosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angélique Slijper

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim was to compare walking with an individually designed dynamic hinged ankle foot orthosis (DAFO and a standard carbon composite ankle foot orthosis (C-AFO. Methods. Twelve participants, mean age 56 years (range 26–72, with hemiparesis due to stroke were included in the study. During the six-minute walk test (6MW, walking velocity, the Physiological Cost Index (PCI, and the degree of experienced exertion were measured with a DAFO and C-AFO, respectively, followed by a Stairs Test velocity and perceived confidence was rated. Results. The mean differences in favor for the DAFO were in 6MW 24.3 m (95% confidence interval [CI] 4.90, 43.76, PCI −0.09 beats/m (95% CI −0.27, 0.95, velocity 0.04 m/s (95% CI −0.01, 0.097, and in the Stairs Test −11.8 s (95% CI −19.05, −4.48. All participants except one perceived the degree of experienced exertion lower and felt more confident when walking with the DAFO. Conclusions. Wearing a DAFO resulted in longer walking distance and faster stair climbing compared to walking with a C-AFO. Eleven of twelve participants felt more confident with the DAFO, which may be more important than speed and distance and the most important reason for prescribing an AFO.

  3. Amino acid sequence requirements in the hinge of human immunoglobulin A1 (IgA1) for cleavage by streptococcal IgA1 proteases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Batten, MR; Senior, BW; Kilian, Mogens

    2003-01-01

    The amino acid sequence requirements in the hinge of human immunoglobulin A1 (IgA1) for cleavage by IgA1 proteases of different species of Streptococcus were investigated. Recombinant IgA1 antibodies were generated with point mutations at proline 227 and threonine 228, the residues lying on either...... side of the peptide bond at which all streptococcal IgA1 proteases cleave wild-type human IgA1. The amino acid substitutions produced no major effect upon the structure of the mutant IgA1 antibodies or their functional ability to bind to Fcalpha receptors. However, the substitutions had a substantial...... effect upon sensitivity to cleavage with some streptococcal IgA1 proteases, with, in some cases, a single point mutation rendering the antibody resistant to a particular IgA1 protease. This effect was least marked with the IgA1 protease from Streptococcus pneumoniae, which showed no absolute requirement...

  4. 钢管折叠门及铰链式插销设计%The Design of Steel-pipe Pull-down Door and Hinge-type latch

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴福明; 赵天婵

    2000-01-01

    介绍了一种钢管折叠门及铰链式插销的设计。该设计解决了门关闭时整体刚度差、门打开时存在死点的问题,可借助铰链式插销锁紧折叠门。%This article introduce a design of steel-pipe Pull-down door and hinge-type latch. This design preferably solves the technical problems when do designing the door in pre-design, such as integral rigidity being not very good, exciting fatal points when opening the door and so on. We can conveniently lock the pull-down doors by the hinge-type latch. The effect has been proved well by trial-manufacture and putting to use.

  5. Replacement of metal hinged shaft on upper part of stacker/reclaimer%堆取料机上部金属结构铰轴更换工艺

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁业

    2012-01-01

    Aiming at the abnormal sound of the metal hinged shaft on the upper part of stacker/reclaimer, the paper proposes the corresponding solutions, and details the replacement process of hinged shaft by using repair frame, with which construction period can be shortened about three days compared with the scheme of making the intersecting support.%针对斗轮堆取料机上部金属结构铰轴出现异响问题,提出解决方案,详细介绍了利用维修架进行铰轴更换的工艺,比制作井字架支撑的施工方案缩短工期约3天.

  6. 开体式挖泥船液压缸及甲板铰链的设计分析%Analysis and Design of Cylinder and Deck Hinge for Split Hopper Dredger

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫桂荣

    2013-01-01

    The design of the split cylinder and deck hinges on split hopper dredger is introduced in this paper.Taking a small 1800m3 split hopper barge for example,the mechanics,the calculation method,the type of structure and the size checking etc.of the split cylinder,deck hinges and the cylinder hinges are described in detail.The paper provides references for the design of the split hopper dredger.%介绍了开体式挖泥船上开体液压缸及主甲板铰链的设计方法,并以某小型1800m3开体泥驳为例,就船上开体液压缸、主甲板铰链、液压缸铰链的力学原理、受力计算、结构型式及尺寸校核等作详细说明,为开体式挖泥船的设计提供了一定的参考价值及借鉴作用.

  7. Proteins Encoded in Genomic Regions Associated with Immune-Mediated Disease Physically Interact and Suggest Underlying Biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossin, Elizabeth J.; Hansen, Kasper Lage; Raychaudhuri, Soumya

    2011-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have defined over 150 genomic regions unequivocally containing variation predisposing to immune-mediated disease. Inferring disease biology from these observations, however, hinges on our ability to discover the molecular processes being perturbed by these r......Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have defined over 150 genomic regions unequivocally containing variation predisposing to immune-mediated disease. Inferring disease biology from these observations, however, hinges on our ability to discover the molecular processes being perturbed......-immune traits to assess its applicability to complex traits in general. We find that genes in loci associated to height and lipid levels assemble into significantly connected networks but did not detect excess connectivity among Type 2 Diabetes (T2D) loci beyond chance. Taken together, our results constitute...

  8. Linear Ultrasonic Motor Clamped by Flexible Hinge%柔性铰链结构夹持的直线型超声电机

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于会民; 陈乾伟; 黄卫清

    2011-01-01

    分析了直线型超声电机理想夹持模型与实际夹持模型的差别,并提出了实际夹持模型应满足的要求.针对南京航空航天大学精密驱动研究所研制的双变幅杆V型直线超声电机提出了基于柔性铰链结构的夹持方案,此方案显著地提高了电机的机械性能及稳定性,电机的最大输出力达28.8 N.通过实验研究了不同弹性元件对直线电机输出性能的影响,并对直线电机所使用的弹性元件提出了要求.%The difference between the ideal clamping model and the actual clamping model of linear ultrasonic motor was analyzed in this paper, and the requirements which the actual clamping model should meet were proposed. A new attachment scheme of flexible hinge for V-shape linear ultrasonic motor based on amplifier pole was proposed, and the linear ultrasonic motor was developed by precision driving laboratory Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics. The scheme can improve the mechanical properties and stability of linear motor significantly, its maximum output force was up to 28.8 N. The effect of different elastic component on the out performance of linear motor was studied by experiment, and the requirements of elastic components were proposed.

  9. Compare Dewey and Kai Hing Steiner Thought of Civic Education%杜威和凯兴斯泰纳公民教育思想之比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵玉环

    2014-01-01

    美国的约翰·杜威和德国的凯兴斯泰纳作为两位影响深远的教育家,都提出了公民教育的思想。虽然他们的公民教育思想侧重点不同,但是有许多相通之处,两位教育家都洞悉了公民教育的重要性,都认为发展公民教育就是培养好公民,并为民主主义而服务。两位教育家的公民教育思想都充满了民主、科学和人文精神。文章力图比较分析二者的公民教育思想,对于廓清当今中国关于公民教育的内涵,更好的开展公民教育提供一定的借鉴意义。%American John Dewey and Germany Kai Hing Steiner as two influential educators have proposed the idea of civic education. Although their different emphases ideological education of citizens, but there are many similarities, two educators have insight into the importance of civic education are that the development of civic education is to develop good citizens and to democratic and services. Citizen Education two educators are full democracy, scientific, and humanistic spirit. The ar-ticle tries to comparative analyze both ideological education of citizens, for the clearance of today's China connotation about civic education, to provide some reference for better civic education.

  10. Abdominal muscle electrical activity during labor expulsive stage: a cross-sectional study Atividade elétrica muscular abdominal durante os esforços expulsivos do parto: um estudo transversal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belisa D. R. Oliveira

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: During the second stage of labor, the progression of the fetal expulsion depends on many factors related to maternal and fetal parameters, including the voluntary abdominal pushing. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to correlate the maternal and fetal parameters that may influence the voluntary maternal pushes during the second stage of labor by using surface electromyography. METHODS: The electromyographic activity of the rectus abdominis and external oblique muscles were measured during the second stage of labor in 24 Brazilian pregnant women. The diastasis of the rectus abdominis, the body mass index and the uterine fundal height were analyzed as maternal parameters and the fetal weight, cephalic circumference, APGAR scores and arterial pH and CO2 were analyzed as fetal parameters. The oxytocin usage and the expulsive phase duration were considered. RESULTS: A negative correlation between the rectus abdominis diastasis and the rectus abdomini muscle electromyographic parameters was found (r=-0.407 p=0.04. No statistically significant correlations were found among the rectus abdominis and external oblique muscles electromyography and the other maternal or fetal parameters, as well as among expulsive phase duration and the oxytocin usage. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that the rectus abdominis diastasis may be an influential parameter in generating voluntary pushes during the second stage of labor, however it cannot be considered the only necessary parameter for a successful labor.CONTEXTUALIZAÇÃO: Durante o segundo estágio do parto, a progressão da expulsão fetal depende de vários fatores ligados a parâmetros maternos e fetais, dentre eles, o esforço abdominal voluntário. OBJETIVOS: Correlacionar os parâmetros maternos e fetais que podem influenciar os esforços voluntários durante a fase do segundo estágio do parto por meio da eletromiografia de superfície. MÉTODOS: As atividades eletromiográficas dos m

  11. Hinge peegel - keha / Margit Adorf

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Adorf, Margit, 1974-

    2006-01-01

    10. PÖFFi filmidest: "Suust suhu" (režissöör Björn Runge; Rootsi - Taani 2005), "Transamerica" (režissöör Duncan Tucer; USA 2005), "Ükski keha pole täiuslik" (režissöör Raphael Sibilla; Prantsusmaa 2006)

  12. Hinged Shields for Machine Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lallande, J. B.; Poland, W. W.; Tull, S.

    1985-01-01

    Flaps guard against flying chips, but fold away for tool setup. Clear plastic shield in position to intercept flying chips from machine tool and retracted to give operator access to workpiece. Machine shops readily make such shields for own use.

  13. 卫星太阳阵展开锁紧过程冲击振动%Vibration and Impact for Deployable Solar Array of Satellite with Locking Hinges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    游斌弟; 王兴贵; 陈军

    2012-01-01

    为了研究铰链副对卫星太阳阵展开过程接触碰撞的扰动影响,针对其链式拓扑结构漂浮基无根树特点,描述其运动学关系,并利用Largrange和Newton方法推导太阳阵系统递推动力学模型,克服了非线性多自由度系统获得解析解的困难;进一步通过动量守恒,并采用非线性弹簧阻尼及摩擦的接触碰撞约束力,构建太阳阵展开过程的广义动力学模型.通过太阳阵展开过程的接触碰撞数值仿真,研究铰链副接触碰撞对卫星太阳阵多体系统的影响,结果较好地预测了太阳阵展开历程及卫星姿态的动态行为,结论对卫星太阳阵展开过程分析与控制具有重要的理论价值及工程实际意义.%Satellite solar arrays are the typical free-floating multi-body system, and their movement can produce strong nonlinearity. In order to study the dynamic characteristics of the system with contact-impact in hinges constraint during deployable solar arrays, the equations of motion are derived with characterization of its chain topology. The forward and inverse dynamic recursive model of satellite solar arrays is deduced by using Lagrange and Newton-Euler method. Therefore, a new systematic approach is developed for the nonlinearity and multi-degree freedom of the system since the difficulty of obtaining the analytical solution. The generalized dynamic model of solar arrays system is established through the constraint equations of conservation of momentum and contact-impact forces, which are evaluated based on the Hertz contact theory and a modified Coulomb's friction law. The dynamic behavior of free-floating satellite solar arrays is analyzed considering contact-impact action in deployment process. The deployment dynamics characterization of solar arrays and satellite attitude motion are fully predicted through simulation results. The conclusion has important academic value and engineering significance.

  14. Sectarians in the USSR in the 1940–1960s (case study: Penza region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larisa A. Koroleva

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article reveals social and demographic characteristics (age, sex, social origin, etc. of the Penza sectarians in the 1940-1960s (Old Believers of the Belokrinitsky consent, Old Believers-bespopovtsy, Old Believers – spasovtsy-netovtsy, true and orthodox Christians, churikovets, switches and others; the geography of their locations in the region is described; their confessional practice (prayer meetings, invitation of priests from other regions, etc. is investigated; appearance of new members, generally through a family and believing relatives; the main directions of the Soviet state and religious policy towards sectarianism on the regional level in 1940-1960s are revealed (refusal in registration of the organization, prosecution, imprisonment, discrediting in the media, expulsion, etc.. Sectarians actually were reluctant to collaborate with authorities, for which they were subjected to severe repressions from power bodies.

  15. Type rotating hinge knee replacement treatment knee bone tumor clinical curative effect analysis%旋转铰链型膝关节置换术治疗膝部骨肿瘤临床疗效分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马伟; 于金华; 曲成明

    2015-01-01

    Objective Analysis of the rotating hinge knee replacement treatment of bone tumors of the knee clinical curative effect. Methods Randomly selected from February 2011 to February 2014 in our hospital USES the rotating hinge knee replacement treatment of bone tumors of the knee of 40 patients as the research object, follow-up and Enneking limb function in patients with postoperative scores, type analysis of rotating hinge knee arthroplasty clinical treatment effect for the treatment of bone tumors of the knee. Results 40 patients after treatment, 2 cases with numbness, dare not walk phenomenon, there are 3 cases of patients with wound infection;Through six months of follow-up, all patients with knee joint movement is good, does not appear when walking limp, and normal body no big difference;Enneking limb function score, at the upper tibia type line of rotating hinge knee arthroplasty patients score for optimal in 29 cases, the bottom line of femoral rotation hinged knee arthroplasty scores for 32 cases of patients, to X-ray examination, all patients were not present prosthesis loosening, sink, etc. Conclusion Type rotating hinge knee replacement treatment effect is good, the knee bone tumors is a good method for limb-salvage knee bone tumors.%目的:分析旋转铰链型膝关节置换术治疗膝部骨肿瘤临床疗效。方法随机选取2011年2月至2014年2月在我院采用旋转铰链型膝关节置换术治疗膝部骨肿瘤的40例患者作为研究对象,对术后患者进行随访和Enneking肢体功能评分,分析旋转铰链型膝关节置换术治疗膝部骨肿瘤的临床治疗效果。结果40例患者经过治疗后,有2例患者出现肢体麻木,不敢行走的现象,有3例肿患者出现伤口感染现象;通过6个月的随访,所有患者的膝关节运动良好,行走时未出现跛行状况,与正常肢体无大差异;Enneking肢体功能评分,在胫骨上端行旋转铰链型膝关节置换

  16. Clinical Study Report to Single Compartment Knee Osteoarthritis Treated with Hinged Splint Therapy%铰链活动夹板治疗早中期单间室狭窄膝骨性关节炎临床研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑茂斌; 周铁军; 曾伟; 黎向锋; 蒋艺生; 丘元; 何焕民; 高志敏; 覃洋海; 郑琼; 岑家定

    2012-01-01

    目的:本课题研究使用自制的外固定支具-铰链活动夹板治疗单间室膝骨关节炎(OA)早中期患者的疗效.方法:本课题对铰链活动夹板与传统中药外治两种治疗方法进行随机对比观察:1.病人自评疼痛改善度;2.KSS膝关节功能评分;3.膝关节单间室狭窄角度矫形度.结果:治疗组(铰链活动夹板)治疗临床疗效评定:优15膝,良10膝,可3膝,差2膝.总有效率为93.3%;优于对照组(传统中药外治法).结论:本课题观察结果证明,铰链活动夹板治疗单间室膝骨关节炎(OA)早中期患者关节畸形角度矫正明显,疼痛改善满意,影象指标满意.%Objective: To observe the early and middle's therapeutic efficacy of single compartment knee osteoarthritis (OA) treated by hinged splint treatment as external fixation brace. Methods: All the patients were treated with hinged splint or the traditional Chinese medicine external applyment Improvement of pain, KSS score and orthopedic degree of single compartment narrow angle of knee were analyzed. Results: 15 knees were excellent, 10 knees were better, 3 knees were good and 2 knees were poor in the treatment group (active hinge splint), compared with the control group and the total effective rate was 93. 3% in the treatment group. Conclusion: This method has obvious correction of joint deformity, relief of pain was satisfactory, and index images were also satisfactory for the hinge splint treatment to single compartment knee osteoarthritis (OA).

  17. 何以轻松驾驭电力企业变革?和勤Hinge e-HR4.0与您共同关注

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ 和勤苦练"内功"蝶化HR王牌 2007年10月15日,具有当今领先地位的企业人力资源管理软件供应商,专注于向企业提供具有垂直行业特色解决方案的和勤软件技术有限公司在北京举行了"轻松驾驭企业变革--和勤新型集团人力资源管理软件(Hinge e-HR 4.0)新品发布会".

  18. Design and Analysis of Virtual Hinged Shaft in Tilted Ballet Stage%芭蕾舞台倾斜台面虚拟铰轴的设计与分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张向勇; 刘斌; 常江江

    2016-01-01

    介绍虚拟铰轴机构在芭蕾舞台倾斜台面中的应用,该机构有效地实现了台面接口在运动过程中始终保持契合,重点对翻转驱动力进行分析,并进一步提出改进与优化措施。%This paper introduces the application of virtual hinged shaft in tilted ballet stage. This structure keeps stage borders effectively fitted during motion. This paper lays emphasis on reversal driving forces, and proposes approaches for further optimization.

  19. Abnormal organic-matter maturation in the Yinggehai Basin, South China Sea: Implications for hydrocarbon expulsion and fluid migration from overpressured systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, F.; Li, S.; Dong, W.; Hu, Z.; Huang, B.

    1998-01-01

    Three superimposed pressure systems are present in the Yinggehai Basin, South China Sea. A number of commercial, thermogenic gas accumulations have been found in an area in which shale diapirs occur. Because the reservoir intervals are shallow and very young, they must have filled with gas rapidly. The thick (up to 17 km) Tertiary and Quaternary sedimentary succession is dominated by shales, and is not disrupted by major faulting in the study area, a factor which seems to have had an important effect on both hydrocarbon generation and fluid migration. Organic-matter maturation in the deepest, most overpressured compartment has been significantly retarded as a result of the combined effects of excess pressure, the presence of large volumes of water, and the retention of generated hydrocarbons. This retardation is indicated by both kerogen-related parameters (vitrinite reflectance and Rock-Eval T(max)); and also by parameters based on the analysis of soluble organic matter (such as the C15+ hydrocarbon content, and the concentration of isoprenoid hydrocarbons relative to adjacent normal alkanes). In contrast to this, organic-matter maturation in shallow, normally-pressured strata in the diapiric area has been enhanced by hydrothermal fluid flow, which is clearly not topography-driven in origin. As a result, the hydrocarbon generation 'window' in the basin is considerably wider than could be expected from traditional geochemical modelling. These two unusual and contrasting anomalies in organic-matter maturation, together with other lines of evidence, suggest that there was a closed fluid system in the overpressured compartment until shale diapirs developed. The diapirs developed as a result of the intense overpressuring, and their growth was triggered by regional extensional stresses. They served as conduits through which fluids (both water and hydrocarbons) retained in the closed system could rapidly migrate. Fluid migration led to the modification of the thermal

  20. Application of the Shield Machine Driving Hinged on Frozen Originating Accident Treatment%盾构机主动铰接在冷冻始发事故处理中的运用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周鸿源

    2013-01-01

    On the basis of Robbins production EPB6460 shie-ld machine actively hinged working principle and structure, th-is paper expands details of when the frozen starting knife dish in shield machine been frozen from, how to use the active hi-nge get out, eliminate accident. The method can ensure the sa-fety of equipment and personnel has the high reference value for accident phenomenon in the same type of construction.%本文依据罗宾斯Robbins生产的EPB6460盾构机主动铰接工作原理及结构形式,详述盾构机在冷冻始发刀盘被冻结时,如何运用主动铰接脱困,消除事故。该方法能确保设备及人员安全,在同类型施工中出现该事故现象具有较高的参考价值。

  1. 基于造型CAS面的车门铰链及车门分缝布置的设计研究%Research of auto door hinge and parting line layout base on CAS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李文玺; 唐淳; 雷学明

    2016-01-01

    Abatract: With the rapid development of Chinese automobile industry and the upgrade of consumer spending levers, consumers require increasing high quality of auto. Be the first part consumers touch in auto, the door quality is vecy important. In the auto design,hinge arrangement on the door has enormous influence on the quality of operation.This paper mainly introduces the door hinge layout method and the evaluation index.And introduces the check method of door parting line feasibility base on the product manufacturing tolerance.%随着中国汽车工业的迅猛发展和国内消费者消费层次升级,消费者对汽车品质要求越来越高,车门作为客户接触汽车本身的第一道系统,对客户感受极其重要。而在汽车正向设计中,汽车车门铰链布置对车门操作品质影响极大。文章重点介绍了在造型设计阶段基于造型CAS面的车门铰链布置方法及其评价指标,同时基于产品制造公差进行车门铰链布置和车门分缝布置分析校核。

  2. 基于次梯度的L1正则化Hinge损失问题求解研究%A Sub-Gadient Based Solver for L1-Rgularization+Hinge-Loss Problem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔康; 陶卿; 汪群山; 储德军

    2012-01-01

    Hinge loss is central to the success of support vector machines (SVM) in the area of machine learning. LI regularization plays a crucial role in sparse learning, which is essentially important for large scale classification problems. However, both hinge loss and LI regularization are non-differentiable, and higher order of gradient information is unavailable. In this paper, the optimization problem in the form of LI regularization plus hinge loss is systematically investigated by using the sub-gradient method. We first describe algorithms for the direct sub-gradient method and the projected sub-gradient method in a stochastic setting. To confirm the algorithms' correctness, we conduct convergence analysis as well as convergence rate of the stochastic projected sub-gradient method. Experimental results on large scale text classification data demonstrate that the stochastic projected sub-gradient method has better convergence rate and high sparsity, and many of the elements in the weight vector are zero, when processing large scale sparse problems. Further, we also demonstrate how the project threshold affects the algorithms' sparsity.%Hinge损失函数是支持向量机(support vector machines,SVM)成功的关键,L1正则化在稀疏学习的研究中起关键作用.鉴于两者均是不可导函数,高阶梯度信息无法使用.利用随机次梯度方法系统研究L1正则化项的Hinge损失大规模数据问题求解.首先描述了直接次梯度方法和投影次梯度方法的随机算法形式,并对算法的收敛性和收敛速度进行了理论分析.大规模真实数据集上的实验表明,投影次梯度方法对于处理大规模稀疏数据具有更快的收敛速度和更好的稀疏性.实验进一步阐明了投影阈值对算法稀疏度的影响.

  3. Partial vaginal expulsion of a leiomyosarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaori Yokochi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Uterine sarcomas are an uncommon and heterogeneous group of tumors that account for 3-7% of the malignant neoplasms of the uterus and approximately 1% of all malignant tumors of the female genital system. The main clinical manifestations are abnormal uterine bleeding in pre- or postmenopausal women. Pelvic pain, abdominal distension, urinary urgency, and profuse and fetid leukorrhea are other frequent complaints. The authors present a case of a 48-year-old patient that was in amenorrhea for 2 years, who sought treatment for vaginal bleeding. On physical examination, the abdomen was distended, painful in the hypogastrium and upon examination of the external genitalia, it was observed the exteriorization of an amorphous “mass”. The patient was submitted to uterine curettage. The results of the histological examination revealed leiomyosarcoma. Staging workup showed an enlarged uterus with endometrial lesion, and non-calcified pulmonary nodules. The patient underwent a pan-hysterectomy and chemotherapy, and is under oncologic treatment. The authors call attention for the unusual form of presentation of this entity.

  4. Forming process and design of forming die for left and right arm of hinge%铰链左右臂零件成形工艺与模具设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田博; 陈西凤; 刘汉雄

    2014-01-01

    The original stamping process scheme for the left and right arm of a car front-klappe hinge was introduced. In order to reduce the production cost, the original stamping process and forming die structure were improved. The improved die structure and working process were stated.%介绍了某轿车机盖铰链左右臂原冲压成形工艺方案,为减少生产成本,对原冲压成形工艺和成形模结构进行改进,叙述了改进工艺后的模具结构与模具工作过程,采用改进后的工艺,降低了零件生产成本,提高了生产效率。

  5. 重庆万盛藻渡大桥竖转施工转动铰受力性能分析%Mechanical Property Analysis of Rotating Hinge in Chongqing Wansheng Zaodu Bridge with Vertical Lifting Rotation Construction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨武; 姚文娟; 刘小渝

    2012-01-01

    拱桥竖转施工是在转体施工基础上发展起来的一种常见的拱桥施工工艺,拱脚转动铰的受力性能对工艺的实施和结构体系转换具有重要作用.本文以重庆万盛藻渡大桥施工转动铰为例,利用相关有限元软件建立了有限元计算模型,通过对其进行受力分析,得到拱脚转动铰节点的应力场及容易出现塑性流动或蠕变的区域;分别分析了受力方向上最大计算应力值产生点到轴孔着力点的距离l与作用力F、钢板厚度t及轴孔直径D三种参数的对应关系,分析表明:l与作用力F呈线性关系,与钢板厚度t呈指数关系,与轴孔直径D关系不大.转动铰设计时应注意留出足够的空间,以防止转轴附近易出现塑性流动或蠕变的区域发生屈服破坏,并应严格控制好轴孔到钢板边缘的距离.%Vertical lifting rotation construction is a common construction technique in the arch bridge which develops based on the twist construction. The mechanical property of rotating hinge in Springer has a decisive effect on the implementation process and structure system transformation. The simulation analysis on the rotating hinge of Chongqing Wansheng Zaodu Bridge were carried out using finite element software in this paper, and the stress fields of rotating hinge nods and the areas of plastic flow and creep have been obtained. The relationship among the I which is the distance from the point of maximum calculation stress to the acting point of axle hole and acting force F, steel thickness t, diameter of axle hole D were analyzed. The results show that the relationship of / and F is linear, I and t demonstrate exponential trend and l shows little correlation with D. In the design of rotating hinge should leave enough space to prevent yield damage in the areas prone to plastic flow and creep near the shaft, and strictly control the distance from the axle hole to the edge of plate.

  6. Rotating-hinge knee autograft-prosthetic composite for giant cell tumor: a primary report%自体骨复合旋转铰链膝关节治疗骨巨细胞瘤初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于秀淳; 徐明; 许宋锋; 付志厚

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the clinical feasibility of rotating - hinge knee autograftprosthetic composite for treatment of giant cell tumors.Methods Seven patients with giant cell tumor adjacent to the knee joint, comprising 5 males and 2 females with a mean age of (30.5±9.57) years old,received knee joint replacement with rotating-hinge knee autograft-prosthesis composite since January 2006.Of these lesions, five located at the distal femur and 2 at the proximal tibia.Three patients were with primary tumor and 4 with recurrent tumor.Pathological fracture was complicated in 3 patients with Campanacci stage Ⅲ disease.During operation, extensive tumor resection was performed, and rotating-hinge knee autograftprosthetic composite was used for repair of tumor-related bone deficiency.Results During the follow-up for 12 to 36 months, no local relapse, metastasis, loosening or rupture of prosthesis were found in these 7 cases.The mean time for healing between autograft and host bone was (5±1.3) months.Active motion range of postoperative knee were 70°to 110°, with a mean of (901±4.82) ° Conclusion Rotating-hinge knee autograft-prosthetic composite is feasible for giant cell tumor that necessitates replacement of knee joint, and its long-term efficacy needs to be followed up.%目的 探讨采用自体骨复合旋转铰链膝关节治疗骨巨细胞瘤的临床可行性.方法 自2006年1月至今,对7例邻膝关节骨巨细胞瘤行自体骨复合旋转铰链膝关节置换术.男5例,女2例,平均年龄(30.50±9.57)岁.股骨远端5例,胫骨近端2例.原发骨巨细胞瘤3例,复发性骨巨细胞瘤4例;并发病理骨折3例;均为Campanacci Ⅲ期.术中行广泛性肿瘤切除,应用自体骨复合旋转铰链关节修复肿瘤骨缺损.结果 7例患者获得12~36个月的近期随访,无局部复发、转移及假体松动和断裂.自体骨和宿主骨平均愈合时间为(5.0±1.3)月.术后膝关节主动活动度为70°~110°,平均(90.00±14.82)

  7. The use of osteochondral allograft with bone marrow-derived mesenchymal cells and hinge joint distraction in the treatment of post-collapse stage of osteonecrosis of the femoral head.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagala, J; Tarczynska, M; Gaweda, K; Matuszewski, L

    2014-09-01

    Osteonecrosis of the femoral head is an entity which occurs mainly in young and active patients aged between 20 and 50. The success of hip joint preserving treatments ranges from 15% to 50% depending on the stage and amount of osteonecrotic lesion. Total hip replacement is indicated in late post-collapse hips but it has unsatisfactory survival because of the wear and osteolysis in young and active patients. Osteochondral allografts have been reported in the treatment of large articular lesions with defects in underlying bone in knee, talus and shoulder. By combining osteoconductive properties of osteochondral allograft with osteogenic abilities of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal cells it has a potential to be an alternative to an autologous graft. The adjunct of hinged joint distraction should minimize stresses in subchondral bone to promote creeping substitution and prevent femoral head collapse. Unlike current treatment modalities, it would provide both structural support and allow bony and articular substitution.

  8. 旋转铰链膝假体在全膝关节置换翻修术后的临床效果%Clinical results of rotating hinged knee prosthesis in total knee arthroplasty revison

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄菲; 郑秋坚

    2016-01-01

    Objective To explore the clinical results of rotating hinged knee prosthesis in total knee arthroplasty ( TKA) revision. Methods A retrospective analysis was carried out on the clinical data of 10 patients ( 10 knees ) with severe knee deformity from department of orthopedics , Guangdong General Hospital .These patients received rotating hinged knee prosthesis for total knee arthroplasty revison because of aseptic loosening or infection and were followed up between October 2008 and May 2013.All the cases adopted first-stage revision or debridement and the home-made antibiotic polymethyl methacrylate ( PMMA) were used in the first stage treatment; the rotating hinged knee prosthesis was used in the second-stage revision.The patients were followed up after the revision , and evaluated by hospital for special surgery ( HSS) knee score and range of motion . Results The patients were followed up from 2 to 57 months with an average time of 29 months.All the ten cases healed well without lower limb phlebothrombosis or pulmonary infection . Clinical evaluation showed that the mean HSS knee score improved from 37 points preoperatively to 85 points postoperatively , and the mean range of motion increased from 65°to 93°. Conclusion In this study the knee function could be improved by the rotating hinged knee prosthesis than other prostheses .%目的:探讨使用旋转铰链膝假体进行全膝关节置换( TKA)术后翻修的临床效果。方法回顾性分析2008年10月至2013年5月,广东省人民医院骨科行人工TKA术后翻修且进行随访的重度膝关节畸形患者,其中采用旋转铰链型膝关节假体为10例(10膝)。收治的10例(10膝) TKA术后因假体松动或膝关节感染而需行全膝关节翻修的患者,采用一期翻修或一期清创加自制含抗生素骨水泥植入,可旋转绞链膝假体二期翻修方法治疗。术后进行随访并采用膝关节协会评分(HSS)及膝关节活动度评估膝关节

  9. 不中断交通维修加固板梁桥铰缝病害处治方案%Treatment Scheme of the Hinge Joint Hazard in the Maintenance and Reinforcement of Plate Girder Bridge without Interrupting Traffic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    左智

    2014-01-01

    Along with the improvement of the life quality of people, people require more for the convenience of traffic tra-vel. In this paper, under the uninterrupted traffic situations, the author discussed the construction technology of repairing the hinge joint of hol ow plate of bridge.%随着全民生活品质的提高,人们对于出行交通的便捷要求更高了。本文对在不中断交通的情况下,如何进行桥梁空心板铰缝修复的施工工艺做了重点阐述。

  10. 弹簧驱动的剪式铰可展开天线设计与分析%Design and analysis of space deployable antennas composed of scissor-like hinges driven by springs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江洁; 李团结; 邓汉卿; 林占超

    2013-01-01

    空间可展开天线是现代卫星通信、地球观测、深空探测等航天和国防领域的关键设备之一,现正朝着高频段、高增益、高精度与大口径的方向发展。剪式铰可展开天线在周边桁架天线的基础上,结合张拉整体结构的特性设计而成,使用弹簧驱动的剪式铰结构形成自驱动展开结构。对其结构设计原理、不同口径下形面精度以及展开过程运动性能的研究和分析表明,该天线收拢体积小、形面精度高、质量轻,可用于制作大口径、高精度的空间可展开天线。%Space deployable antennas are indispensable for future advanced satellite communication, earth observation and deep space exploration systems. The tendency of deployable antennas is large aperture, higher gain and frequency. On the basis of hoop truss deployable antennas, the self-driven deployable structure with scissor-like hinges is designed by in-corporating with tensegrity structure properties. The results of analysis on structure design principles, surface accuracy of different apertures and deployment motion performance show that the self-driven deployable structure with scissor-like hinges can be applied to space deployable antennas with large aperture and higher precision due to the smaller folded volume, high-er surface accuracy and light weight.

  11. The open scars of Latin America: The Bolivian Orocline as a basament-related hinge, and the influence of accreted terranes on the paleomagnetic rotational patterns of the Chilean forearc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña Gomez, M. A.; Arriagada, C.; Gómez, I.; Roperch, P. J.

    2015-12-01

    We made a paleomagnetic study in two separate zones of the Chilean forearc, between 18-22ºS and between 28-32ºS, sampling igneous and sedimentary rocks with ages ranging from Triassic to Miocene. More than 500 samples showed a stable magnetization, with hematite and magnetite being the principal carriers of magnetism. The rotation pattern obtained, added to previously published paleomagnetic data, show a continuous database for the Chilean forearc, between 19 and 35ºS, allowing us to separate distinct patterns in 4 major rotational zones: (1) Between 18-19.5ºS there is a strong anticlockwise rotational pattern, in agreement with the data known in southern Peru. (2) Between 19.5-22.5ºS, there is little to no rotation, with the southern limit being related to a major structural feature: The Antofagasta-Calama Lineament. (3) Between 22.5-29ºS there is a strong clockwise rotation pattern of nearly 30º. (4) Between 29-32ºS there is again a little to non-rotational pattern, in the area of the Pampean flat-slab. Overlapping these zones and the recognized accreted terranes boundaries shows a clear spatial relation between these and the limits of the rotated zones. We propose that the limits of this rotational domains can be linked to basament hinge-like weakness zones that helped to create the margin curvatures observed today. Under this model, the bolivian orocline would be the result of the opening of a hinge, helped by other geodynamics features like sea mountains and ridges, at the limit between the old accreted paleozoic terranes of Antofalla and Arequipa.

  12. Research of Machine Tool for Planning off the Rolling Edge of Hinge Profile Steel%汽车门铰链型钢刨耳子专用机床研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭好强; 孙爱军; 马会民

    2011-01-01

    门铰链型钢是专门为制造汽车门铰链轧制而成的型钢条料.在型钢轧制过程中,由于轧辊辊缝的存在而不可避免地出现耳子(即飞边).原来通过人工使用角磨机来打磨耳子,我们对原来的加工方法进行革新,而设计制造了一种汽车门铰链型钢刨耳子专用机床.文章重点对此机床的总体结构、导向传动结构、压紧结构、刀具结构进行了分析,相信文章对研制同类型的刨耳子专用机床具有一定的参考价值.%Hinge profile steel are used for making automobile door hinge. In the steel rolling process, due to the presence of the gap between rollers, rolling edge is inevitably produced. Orininally the rolling edge is removed by manual grinder, after innovating of the former processing methods, we designed and manufactured a special machine tool for planning off the rolling edge. This text is emphasized on the analysis of overall structure of this machine tool,the structure of transmission and compaction,cutter etc. The research of this paper makes contributions to the designing of familiar machine tool.

  13. Winter Habitat Evaluation of Sableinthe northern region of the Greater Hing'an Mountains%大兴安岭北部地区紫貂冬季生境评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李海军; 朱世兵; 张士芳; 赵雪东; 陈鹏

    2016-01-01

    2013年11月-2015年12月,运用样线法调查了黑龙江双河国家级自然保护区紫貂的分布和生境,基于3S技术,利用最大熵模型,对研究区域的紫貂生境进行了评价,结果表明:适宜生境面积为26033hm2,占总面积的29.3%;不适宜生境面积为62816hm2,占总面积的70.7%;主要道路、居民点及海拔对紫貂生境质量影响显著。%The distribution and habitat of sable in Heilongjiang Shuanghe National Nature Reserve were investigated by the sampleline From November 2013 to December 2015. Based on 3S technology and Maximum entropy model. The habitat of sable was evaluated in the study area, obtained the following results: The suitable habitat area is 26033hm2, and accounting for 29.3% of the total area. The unsuitable habitat area is 62816hm2,and accounting for 70.7% of the total area. The main roads, settlements and altitude are the main influencing factorson the habitat quality of sable.

  14. The Hinge-Helix 1 Region of Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor γ1 (PPARγ1) Mediates Interaction with Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase 5 and PPARγ1 Transcriptional Activation: Involvement in Flow-Induced PPARγ Activation in Endothelial Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Akaike, Masashi; Che, Wenyi; Marmarosh, Nicole-Lerner; Ohta, Shinsuke; Osawa, Masaki; Ding,Bo; Berk, Bradford C.; Yan, Chen; Abe, Jun-ichi

    2004-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR) are ligand-activated transcription factors that form a subfamily of the nuclear receptor gene family. Since both flow and PPARγ have atheroprotective effects and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 5 (ERK5) kinase activity is significantly increased by flow, we investigated whether ERK5 kinase regulates PPARγ activity. We found that activation of ERK5 induced PPARγ1 activation in endothelial cells (ECs). However, we could not detect PPARγ p...

  15. Regional Competition in Maghreb Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    EL AMOURI ALLAL

    2016-01-01

    Great powers focus on cooperation instead of competition in their regions in order to maintain stability and develop the economy of their regions and the world in general. The United States for example created the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFT

  16. Africa Region

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Impact of HIV/AIDS on» Gross Domestic Product (GGP) in the WHO. Africa Region ... methods) and for economic evaluations of treatment, prevention and promotion. , programmes. ..... develop new products), for which we could not find data ...

  17. Regional odontodysplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, D N; Bailoor, D; Patel, B

    2011-01-01

    Regional odontodysplasia is an unusual developmental anomaly in which ectodermal and mesodermal tooth components are affected. We present a rare case of a developmental anomaly called regional odontodysplasia or 'ghost teeth' in a 12-year-old Indian girl. The anomaly affected right maxillary permanent teeth. The mandibular teeth were unaffected. The clinical, radiographic and histological features are reviewed. The management of affected patients is discussed.

  18. Regional odontodysplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D N Mehta

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Regional odontodysplasia is an unusual developmental anomaly in which ectodermal and mesodermal tooth components are affected. We present a rare case of a developmental anomaly called regional odontodysplasia or ′ghost teeth′ in a 12-year-old Indian girl. The anomaly affected right maxillary permanent teeth. The mandibular teeth were unaffected. The clinical, radiographic and histological features are reviewed. The management of affected patients is discussed.

  19. 切开松解联合铰链式外固定支架修复极重度肘关节僵硬%Open release combined with hinged external fixator repairs extremely severe elbow stiffness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘胜平; 刘国强

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Once traumatic arthritis appears, degeneration of the joints wil be inevitable. In the clinical treatment of moderate or less stiff elbow, traditional elbow stiffness release is the preferred repair method. However, its therapeutic effect is controversial in the clinical treatment of very severe elbow stiffness. The focus on conflict is articular surface damage after the implementation of the traditional release of elbow stiffness. OBJECTIVE: To observe the repair effect of open release combined with hinged external fixator on extremely severe elbow stiffness. METHODS:A total of 52 patients with extremely severe elbow joint stiffness were selected from the Third Department of Orthopedics, Yuebei People’s Hospital from May 2012 to July 2014. Al patients signed the informed consent. In accordance with the approval of Hospital Ethics Committee, they were divided into control and study groups (n=26). Control group received the traditional elbow stiffness release. Study group received open release combined with hinged external fixator. The changes in flexion-extension range-of-motion and Mayo elbow joint function score were compared between the two groups. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION:After treatment with open release combined with hinged external fixator, significant differences in excelent and good rate, range-of-motion of flexion-extension and Mayo elbow joint function score were detected between the study group [96%, (117.5±20.5)°, (88.5±11.5) points] and the control group [77%, (93.5±18.5)°, (76.5±9.5) points] (P   目的:观察切开松解联合铰链式外固定支架对极重度肘关节僵硬患者的修复效果。  方法:选取韶关市粤北人民医院骨三科2012年5月至2014年7月收治的52例极重度肘关节僵硬患者为研究对象,在医院伦理委员会批准、所有患者知情下分为对照组与研究组各26例,对照组采用传统肘关节僵硬松解方案进行治疗,研究组采用切开松解联合

  20. 铰链式外固定支架在治疗肘关节骨折术后僵硬中的应用%Application of Hinged External Fixator in the Treatment of Arthrogryposis of the Elbow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜岳武; 毛兆光; 郭亮; 夏欣

    2014-01-01

    [目的]分析比较不同术式治疗肘关节骨折术后僵硬的临床疗效。[方法]2005年2月~2012年6月间43例肘部骨折术后继发关节强直僵硬患者,随机分为2组,其中应用铰链式外固定支架行肘关节松解术者23例为A组,常规肘关节松解者20例为B组。治疗后随访12~26个月,以关节活动度及肘关节功能评分评价疗效,并观察2组并发症发生情况。[结果]治疗后随访12~26个月,A组肘关节平均屈伸活动度达116.5度,肘关节功能评分85.7分;B组肘关节平均屈伸活动度达75.3度,肘关节功能评分61.5分,2组比较差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05)。术后并发症尺神经损伤B组2例,A组无;术后切口感染、皮下血肿、切口愈合不良B组3例,A组无。[结论]采用铰链外固定支架松解术治疗创伤后肘关节僵硬疗效显著,可有效增加僵硬肘关节的活动度及改善关节功能,并减少术后并发症的发生。%[Objective]To review the treatment of 23 cases of elbow arthrogryposis, summarize the experience of the treatment for elbow arthrogryposis releasing and application of hinged external fixator. [Methods] 23 cases of patients with elbow arthrogryposis underwent elbow arthrogryposis releasing and application of hinged external fixation. [Results]The patients with elbow flexion group mean maximum flexion improved from preoperative 20.1 ° to 110.2° after operation, limited group of patients mean maximum extension activity from preoperative 74.5 ° to 22.2° after operation, both flexion and extension in limited group, respectively from preoperative 45.3° and 52° degrees for the improvement of postoperative 20.2° and 100.2°. [Conclusion] With significant effect on treating the post-traumatic elbow arthrogryposis, the technique of treatment elbow arthrogryposis with Hinged external fixator also effectively increased the elbow maximum flexion activity as wel as elbow extension activity.

  1. Efficacy of rotating hinged knee prosthesis replacement for the treatment of malignant bone tumors%旋转铰链式膝关节假体置换治疗恶性骨肿瘤

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张绍岚; 刘红旗; 徐小卒

    2012-01-01

    背景:在新的辅助化疗和人工假体设计的协助下,肢体恶性骨肿瘤的治疗效果得到大幅度提高,关节置换成为恶性骨肿瘤治疗的主要保肢方法目的:观察旋转铰链式膝关节假体在恶性骨肿瘤保肢治疗中的疗效.方法:选择2005-01/2009-10盐城市第一人民医院骨科收治的膝关节恶性骨肿瘤患者15例,均行旋转铰链式膝关节假体置换.置换后采用Enneking肢体肌肉骨骼肿瘤外科治疗重建置换后膝关节功能评估标准进行评估.结果与结论:15例患者置换后获随访7~51个月.1例置换后出现感染并发症,血沉检查结果升高,经清创、关节松解和抗炎治疗后好转,关节功能得到恢复.置换后患者均未出现肿瘤复发和肺转移病例,无假体松动和体断裂出现.Enneking功能评估,肢体功能优7例(47%),良5例(33%),差3例(20%),优良率达80%.提示应用旋转铰链式膝关节假体置换治疗膝关节恶性肿瘤效果良好,可以保留良好的肢体功能,是一种较为满意的保肢方法.%BACKGROUND: Under new adjuvant chemotherapy and artificial false body design help, effects of body malignant bone cancer treatment can be greatly improved, and joint replacement becomes the main limb-salvage method for malignant bone cancer treatment.OBJECTIVE: To observe curative effect of rotating hinged knee prosthesis on malignant bone tumors limb-salvage treatment.METHODS: Totally 15 patients with knee malignant bone tumors were treated with prosthesis rotating hinged replacement from Department of Orthopedics, First People's Hospital of Yancheng between January 2005 and October 2009. Postoperative Enneking musculoskeletal tumor by limb function after knee surgery reconstruction assessment standards were used for evaluation.RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Totally 15 patients were followed-up for 7-51 months. Postoperative complications were found in one patient, check results of erythrocyte sedimentation rate was increased, after

  2. The Mathematical Modeling of Multi-Error Source Based on Bridge Type Flexure Hinge%基于桥式柔性铰链多误差源的数学建模

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周欢伟; 陈新; 陈新度; 李克天

    2014-01-01

    利用快刀伺服系统加工可获得纳米级的微结构,桥式柔性铰链是最关键的零件之一,其柔性铰链的误差度直接影响零件的加工精度。通过对多误差源的分析,探索每个误差源对精度的影响程度。包括过对桥式柔性铰链关键尺寸的加工误差,特别是对敏感度较高的长度、宽度、厚度加工误差的分析,建立起关键尺寸与加工精度的数学模型;分析温度变化,建立基于神经网络的加工误差数学模型,并提出温度补偿的策略;分析重力等原因引起的误差变形,建立由于重力引起变形量与加工精度的数学模型。将上述的多误差源的数学建模运用到设计和制造中,能从源头上减少误差对加工精度的影响程度,提高快刀伺服系统加工微结构零件的尺寸精度和表面粗糙度。%Using fast tool servo system to machine the nanometer grade micro-structure,the bridge flexure hinge is a key part. The error of flexure hinge directly affects the machining accuracy of micro-structure. This paper explores the influence degree on the accuracy through analyzing all kinds of error source. The mathematical model of key dimension and machining accuracy is established including the machining error of bridge flexure hinge, which includes the sensitive size of length, width and thickness. After analyzing temperature change, the mathematical model of machining error is established based on neural network and the temperature compensation strategy is put forward. After Analyzing the reasons of deformation error caused by gravity, the mathematical model of deformation and machining precision is established. The above mathematical modeling applied for the design and manufacturing process can reduce their influence on machining accuracy,and it also can help the fast tool servo system to improve micro-structure size precision and surface roughness.

  3. The Vertical Single Side Extending-Hinging Four-Station Modular Machine Tool for Tappet-hole In Cylinder Body%立式单面四工位扩铰缸体挺柱孔组合机床

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴慧萍; 李前明

    2013-01-01

    This paper provided a vertical single side modular machine tool,which have moving front guiding device and be suitable for multi-species processing,multi-station extending-hinging tappet-hole in cylinder body.The machine positioned workpiece by cylinder base and two pin hole,completed Ⅰ,Ⅲ and Ⅱ,Ⅳ station switching by two groups of activities bolt institutions and two groups of ejecting cylinder,processed two parts simultaneously with moving front guiding device,pawl delivery device and hydraulic clamping mechanism.This can not only save the equipment cost,but also improve production efficiency.%文章介绍了一种带有移动前导向装置,适合一系列多品种加工,多工位扩、铰缸体挺柱孔的组合机床.该机床采用缸体底面和两个销孔的定位方式,运用两组活动插销机构和两组推件油缸同时完成Ⅰ、Ⅲ和Ⅱ、Ⅳ工位的切换,利用移动前导向装置和棘爪输送装置配合液压夹紧,实现两个零件的同时加工.不仅节约了设备成本,而且提高了生产效益.

  4. Optimization analysis on output performance of symmetrical four ban flexure hinge mechanism%对称四杆柔性铰链机构输出性能优化分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄朋涛; 吕传毅; 贺磊

    2012-01-01

    对称四杆柔性铰链机构具有低耦合、输出位移大等特点,为优化其输出性能,采用有限元法分析了不同的切口轮廓对对称四杆机构输出位移的影响,得出了直角型切口更有利于位移输出的结论.在此基础上,研究了主要尺寸参数对直角型对称四杆机构输出位移的影响,并得出了相应结论.%The symmetrical four bar flexure hinge mechanism has the characteristics of low coupling,big output displacement,and so on.And to optimize the output performance,the finite element method was used to analyse different incision contour effect on symmetric four bar mechanism output displacement.The right type of incision is more advantageous to displacement's output,and based on this,the influence of main dimension parameter on the right angle symentric four bar mechanism output displacement is studied,and the corresponding conclusion is obtained.

  5. How to Meet the Demand of the Plastic Hinge Angle of Shear Wall through the Deformation Capacity Design%如何通过变形能力设计满足剪力墙的塑性铰转角需求

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    车建平

    2014-01-01

    作为建筑结构的重要组成部分,剪力墙的变形能力需要满足塑性铰转角的需求。本文将在分析剪力墙塑性铰转角需求的基础上,深入研讨变形能力的设计方法,以提高剪力的变形。%As an important part of building structure, deform-ation capacity of shear wal needs to meet the need of plastic hinge rotation. Based on the plastic hinge angle demand in the analysis of shear wal , this paper makes an in-depth study on the design method of deformation capacity, in order to improve the shear deformation.

  6. 单轴柔性铰链柔度系数试验装置的设计%Design of compliance factor experiment setup for single-axis flexure hinge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李海星; 丁亚林; 惠守文; 田海英; 许永森

    2011-01-01

    To obtain the test data from the experimental research on the compliance factors of the flexure support structure of a large scale reflector used in an airborne image sensor, a compact single-axis flexure hinge experimental setup was proposed and designed. By using this experimental setup, endbending and pure moment bending experiments of the single-axis flexure hinge could be achieved on a common single-axis Material Testing System(MTS). This setup utilizes the leverage principle to realize the pure moment loading on the single-axis MTS and takes the side constraint configuration which is composed of several sets of rigid rollers to constrain the pure moment loading sub-assembly. By these ways, the effect of the friction on the load transmission was reduced greatly. Furthermore, the virtual simulation of the pure moment bending process was performed. It indicates that the side force stemmed from the constraint of "L" pushing component is the main influence factor on the bending processing,and the maximum side force can be controlled at 4. 783 N. In order to verify the test data,Finite Element Analysis(FEA) and theoretical calculation were employed. The comparison shows that the test results are concident with FEA results and theoretical results well,and test results and theoretical results are slightly smaller than FEA results. Compared with FEA, the maximum relative error of the test data is only 3.87 %, which indicates that this experimental setup is a good solution for study of flexure support structures used in optical reflectors.%为了在空间光学遥感器大尺寸反射镜柔性支撑结构的试验研究过程中获得柔度特性试验数据,设计了一种结构紧蹙的单轴柔性铰链试验装置,采用该装置在材料拉伸试验机上同时实现了端部弯曲和纯弯曲试验功能.该装置利用杠杆原理实现纯弯曲加载,并采用由刚性辊子组成的约束通道对纯弯曲组件进行约束,从而降低了摩擦对载荷传

  7. 刚结点转变为铰结点后内力重分布的简捷计算法%A SIMPLIFIED METHOD FOR INTERNAL FORCE REDISTRIBUTION ANALYSIS DUE TO TRANSITION FROM STIFF-JOINT TO HINGE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈棋; 寇新建

    2012-01-01

    基于最小势能原理,建立了刚架结构的间接荷载效应矩阵。将间接荷载效应矩阵转化为约束矩阵后,根据约束矩阵的性质,推导了刚结点转变为铰结点时约束矩阵自身的传递规律。将约束矩阵中导出的重分布弯矩向量与初始弯矩向量进行叠加,即可得到新刚架结构的内力。因为避免了刚度矩阵的再次形成与分解、计算结点位移等中间过程,所以使计算量大幅度减少。算例表明该文提出的简洁方法是正确、可靠和有效的。%Based on the principle of minimum potential energy, the indirect load effect matrix of a rigid frame is established. The transfer law of a constrain matrix due to transition form a stiff-joint to a hinge is deduced according to the property of the constrain matrix transformed from the indirect load effect matrix. Add the redistribution moment vector derived from the constrain matrix to an original moment vector, and the intemal force of the new rigid frame can be obtained immediately. As the simplified method avoids rebuilding and decomposing the total stiffness matrix and the solution of joint displacements, the computation rate is greatly improved. The numerical examples show that the proposed simolified method is correct, reliable and effective

  8. 基于遗传算法的混合驱动铰链五杆机构的优化综合%Optimum synthesis of hybrid-driven hinge five-bar mechanism based on genetic algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯立艳; 刘腾; 李学刚; 田明瑜

    2011-01-01

    Based on verse kinematics and dynamic static force analyzing,optimum synthesis of hy brid-driven hinged five-bar mechanism with preset track and better dynamic performance is realized accurately in two steps.Firstly,assuming that the servo-actuator and the general motor rotate at a constant speed,dimension synthesis for the five-bar mechanism is done. Secondly, the dimension parameters gained from the previous step should be invariant, while at the same time the power of the servo-actuator should maintain the minimum, and optimum synthesis for dynamic performance of the servo-actuator shall be done based on the motion characteristics of the actuator fitted by Bezier curve.Consequently, the example is given to illustrate the effectiveness of the synthesis.%在对铰链五杆机构进行正运动学及动态静力分析的基础上,采用遗传算法,分两步完成了精确实现给定轨迹且具有较好动力性能的混合驱动铰链五杆机构的优化综合.第一步:在假定伺服电机与常规电机匀速转动的前提下,进行五杆机构的尺度综合;第二步:保证第一步所得机构尺度参数不变,兼顾伺服电机的功率最小,运用Bezier曲线拟合伺服电机的运动规律,进行伺服电机动力性能的优化综合.给出的优化综合实例表明了该方法的有效性.

  9. Regional odontodysplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thimma Reddy B

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Regional odontodysplasia (ROD is a rare developmental anomaly involving both mesodermal and ectodermal components in a group of contiguous teeth. It affects the primary and permanent dentitions in the maxilla and the mandible or both, however, the maxilla is frequently involved. Although the etiology of the ROD is uncertain, it has been suggested that numerous other factors play a role. The treatment plan should be based on the degree of involvement as well as the functional and esthetic needs in each case. This article reports the case of a 5-year-old boy presenting a rare anomaly on the right side of the maxillary arch. The treatment performed was rehabilitation with temporary partial acrylic denture and periodic checkups. The extraction was followed by rehabilitation with dental implants. The main aim of this article is to provide valuable information to pediatric dentists about the review and treatment alternatives for ROD.

  10. Vene elu ja vene hing / Janno Põldma

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Põldma, Janno, 1950-

    2005-01-01

    DVD-levis on Vjatsheslav Kotjonotshkini kuulus animaseriaal "Oota sa" ("Nu, pogodi") : stsenaristid Feliks Kamov, Aleksandr Kurljandski, Arkadi Hait : näitlejad Anatoli Papanov, Klara Rumjanova : NSV Liit 1968-1986

  11. Lugu on teksti hing / Ott Karulin

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Karulin, Ott, 1980-

    2008-01-01

    Sellest, mis juhtub näidendi looga lavastusprotsessis. Tähelepanekuid nelja lavastuse kohta: Urmas Lennuki kirjutatud ja lavastatud näidend "Päeva lõpus" ja Andres Keili lavastatud John Osborne'i "Vaata raevus tagasi" Rakvere Teatris, Enn Vetemaa, Erki Aule ja Merle Karusoo dokumentaallavastus "Sigma Tau-C705", lavastaja Merle Karusoo ja Uku Uusbergi William Shakespeare'i aineline diplomietendus "Head ööd, vend" Eesti Draamateatris

  12. Lugu on teksti hing / Ott Karulin

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Karulin, Ott, 1980-

    2008-01-01

    Sellest, mis juhtub näidendi looga lavastusprotsessis. Tähelepanekuid nelja lavastuse kohta: Urmas Lennuki kirjutatud ja lavastatud näidend "Päeva lõpus" ja Andres Keili lavastatud John Osborne'i "Vaata raevus tagasi" Rakvere Teatris, Enn Vetemaa, Erki Aule ja Merle Karusoo dokumentaallavastus "Sigma Tau-C705", lavastaja Merle Karusoo ja Uku Uusbergi William Shakespeare'i aineline diplomietendus "Head ööd, vend" Eesti Draamateatris

  13. Dhyana-thumb-pus hing Manipulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Guo-quan; CUI Xue-jun

    2003-01-01

    @@ The dhyana-thumb-pushing manipulation is the chief one inthe Dhyana Thumb Tuina School; it's also a characteristic manipulation and plays an important role in the TCM Tuina teaching and clinical treatment. The name came from Jingdechuanzhonglu() and was used in the Chan sect of Buddhism. According to the book, in Song Dynansty, Judi Buddhist Monk asked Tianlong Buddhist Monk for the dhyana. Tianlong erected a finger but said nothing, Judi deeply comprehended the dhyana. Later on, if someone asked him for the Buddhism doctrine, he did the same act. Before Judi died, he said: "I accepted a thumb Dhyana from Tianlong and benefited from it all my life."

  14. Veneetsia arhitektuuribiennaal otsib metropoli hinge / Anneli Ammas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ammas, Anneli, 1962-

    2006-01-01

    10.09-19.11.2006 toimuvast Veneetsia arhitektuuribiennaalist, mis on pühendatud globaalsele urbaniseerumisele. Avatseremoonial antakse Elutöö Kuldlõvi inglise arhitektile Richard Rogerile. Eestit esindavad arhitektuuribüroo Urban Mark arhitektid Ülar Mark, Kaja Pae, Indrek Tiigi ja Tartu Ülikooli Geograafia instituudi teadurid Rein Ahas, Anto Aasa, Siiri Silm

  15. Bilingual children's social preferences hinge on accent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeJesus, Jasmine M; Hwang, Hyesung G; Dautel, Jocelyn B; Kinzler, Katherine D

    2017-12-01

    Past research finds that monolingual and bilingual children prefer native speakers to individuals who speak in unfamiliar foreign languages or accents. Do children in bilingual contexts socially distinguish among familiar languages and accents and, if so, how do their social preferences based on language and accent compare? The current experiments tested whether 5- to 7-year-olds in two bilingual contexts in the United States demonstrate social preferences among the languages and accents that are present in their social environments. We compared children's preferences based on language (i.e., English vs. their other native language) and their preferences based on accent (i.e., English with a native accent vs. English with a non-native [yet familiar] accent). In Experiment 1, children attending a French immersion school demonstrated no preference between English and French speakers but preferred American-accented English to French-accented English. In Experiment 2, bilingual Korean American children demonstrated no preference between English and Korean speakers but preferred American-accented English to Korean-accented English. Across studies, bilingual children's preferences based on accent (i.e., American-accented English over French- or Korean-accented English) were not related to their own language dominance. These results suggest that children from diverse linguistic backgrounds demonstrate social preferences for native-accented speakers. Implications for understanding the potential relation between social reasoning and language acquisition are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Mida ihkab mu hing? / Toomas Raudam

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Raudam, Toomas, 1947-

    2003-01-01

    Arvustus: Joyce, James. Pagulased : [näidend] / tõlkinud Jaak Rähesoo. Tallinn : Varrak, 2003. Ilmunud ka: Raudam, Toomas. Väike äratundmiste raamat. Tallinn : Eesti Keele Sihtasutus, 2006. Lk. 124-128

  17. Veneetsia arhitektuuribiennaal otsib metropoli hinge / Anneli Ammas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ammas, Anneli, 1962-

    2006-01-01

    10.09-19.11.2006 toimuvast Veneetsia arhitektuuribiennaalist, mis on pühendatud globaalsele urbaniseerumisele. Avatseremoonial antakse Elutöö Kuldlõvi inglise arhitektile Richard Rogerile. Eestit esindavad arhitektuuribüroo Urban Mark arhitektid Ülar Mark, Kaja Pae, Indrek Tiigi ja Tartu Ülikooli Geograafia instituudi teadurid Rein Ahas, Anto Aasa, Siiri Silm

  18. Highly selective α1 blocker tamsulosin as adjunctive medical expulsion therapy following extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy of renal calculi%坦索罗辛对肾结石体外震波碎石术后辅助排石作用的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶烈夫; 傅长德; 杨泽松; 何延瑜; 詹汉雄; 林玉琴; 许庆均; 张志刚; 黄水通

    2013-01-01

    目的 评估高选择性α1受体阻滞剂坦索罗辛对肾结石体外震波碎石(ESWL)术后辅助排石作用的有效性及安全性.方法 140例单发的非下盏部位的肾结石患者,结石大小6~20 mm,ESWL碎石成功后随机分为两组,每组70例.对照组给予标准治疗包括中成药尿石通丸及司帕沙星,试验组接受标准治疗基础上加用坦索罗辛,随访2个月.结果 试验组(坦索罗辛组)单次ESWL后结石排出率、结石排出时间、石街形成率、肾绞痛发生次数及哌替啶的使用次数等指标均优于对照组(P值分别为0.009,0.000,0.028,0.012,0.002),但两组之间的结石排净率差异无统计学意义(P =0.125).按结石大小进行分组分析,结石≥10 mm患者中,坦索罗辛组的结石排净率高于对照组,差异有统计学意义(P=0.044),且其余各项指标均优于对照组(P<0.05).结石< 10 mm者,坦索罗辛组仅结石排出时间与肾绞痛发生次数两项指标优于对照组(P=0.001,0.026).坦索罗辛组药物副作用发生率与对照组相比差别无统计学意义(P =0.085),且症状轻微,无一例患者因副作用停止治疗.结论 坦索罗辛能够促进并加快肾结石单次ESWL术后碎石排出,减少石街形成并降低肾绞痛发生频率及止痛针使用,对于≥10 mm肾结石患者还能够提高结石排净率,用于辅助排石安全有效.%Objective To define the efficacy and safety of the highly selective α1 blocker tamsulosin as adjunctive expulsion therapy after extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL)in patients with kidney stones.Methods 140 patients with single 6-20 mm non-lower-pole kidney stone were enrolled in this study from March 2009 to October 2011.After one session of successful ESWL,they were randomized into two groups of 70 patients each.Control group received a standard medical therapy which consisted of a traditional Chinese medicine (niaoshitong) and sparfloxacin,while study group was given tamsulosin in

  19. Post-inversion stage of regional metamorphism of coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Proskuryakov, A.Ye.

    1982-01-01

    A study is made of the metamorphism of coals in Kuznetsk Basin. To interpret the stages of coalification, measurements were used of the indicators of vitrinite along the hinges of folds, graphic plottings of isometamorphism of coals, analysis of interrelationships of the isolines of coal metamorphism with isopachites covering their deposits. The elevation of the coal mass of Kuzbass in the post-inversion time was accompanied by the formation of steep linear folds and longitudinal bending of their hinges. As a consequence of this, the hinges of the folds in beds of the same name occurred at different depths from the modern surface, however coal metamorphism along the hinges has not changed. In the Kuznetsk Basin there are no traces of post-inversion coalification.

  20. Joint development normal to regional compression during flexural-flow folding: the Lilstock buttress anticline, Somerset, England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelder, Terry; Peacock, David C. P.

    2001-02-01

    Alpine inversion in the Bristol Channel Basin includes reverse-reactivated normal faults with hanging wall buttress anticlines. At Lilstock Beach, joint sets in Lower Jurassic limestone beds cluster about the trend of the hinge of the Lilstock buttress anticline. In horizontal and gently north-dipping beds, J3 joints ( 295-285° strike) are rare, while other joint sets indicate an anticlockwise sequence of development. In the steeper south-dipping beds, J3 joints are the most frequent in the vicinity of the reverse-reactivated normal fault responsible for the anticline. The J3 joints strike parallel to the fold hinge, and their poles tilt to the south when bedding is restored to horizontal. This southward tilt aims at the direction of σ 1 for Alpine inversion. Finite-element analysis is used to explain the southward tilt of J3 joints that propagate under a local σ 3 in the direction of σ 1 for Alpine inversion. Tilted principal stresses are characteristic of limestone-shale sequences that are sheared during parallel (flexural-flow) folding. Shear tractions on the dipping beds generate a tensile stress in the stiffer limestone beds even when remote principal stresses are compressive. This situation favors the paradoxical opening of joints in the direction of the regional maximum horizontal stress. We conclude that J3 joints propagated during the Alpine compression caused the growth of the Lilstock buttress anticline.

  1. The Valsalva maneuver duration during labor expulsive stage: repercussions on the maternal and neonatal birth condition Duração da manobra de Valsalva durante o período expulsivo do parto: repercussões maternas e nas condições neonatais de nascimento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Lemos

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: This cross-sectional study was designed to examine the effects of the Valsalva Maneuver (VM and its duration on the acid- base equilibrium of the neonate and its maternal repercussions during the expulsive stage of labor, after standard breathing and pushing instructions were given. METHODS: A convenience sample of women with low risk pregnancy (n=33; mean age 22.5±3.7y and gestational age 38.1±1.12wks and their newborns were studied during the expulsive stage of vaginal labor. Coaching consisted of standard recommendations for breathing including prolonged VMs coordinated with pushing. Maternal outcomes included the need for uterus fundal pressure maneuver and episiotomy, perineal trauma and posture. Neonatal outcomes included blood gases sampled from the umbilical cord, and Apgar scores. Data were analyzed with the Fisher's exact test, chi-square test, and Pearson correlation coefficient. RESULTS: None of the maternal outcomes were associated with VM duration. With respect to neonatal outcomes, increased VM duration was associated with reduced venous umbilical pH (r=-0.40; p=0.020, venous base excess (r=-0.42; p=0.014 and with arterial base excess (r=-0.36; p=0.043. Expulsive stage time was negatively associated with umbilical venous and arterial pH. CONCLUSIONS: VM duration during fetal expulsion in labor negatively affects fetal acid-base equilibrium and potentially the wellbeing of the neonate. Our results support the need to consider respiratory strategies during labor, to minimize potential risk to the mother and neonate.OBJETIVOS: O presente estudo de corte transversal teve como objetivo avaliar os efeitos da Manobra de Valsalva (MV e sua duração no equilíbrio ácido-básico fetal e nas repercussões maternas durante o período expulsivo do parto, após instrução respiratória padronizada. MÉTODOS: Uma amostra de conveniência em gestantes de baixo risco (n=33, média de idade 22,5±3.7 anos e idade gestacional 38.1

  2. Tratamento do cotovelo rígido com artroplastia de interposição associada ao fixador externo articulado Stiff elbow treatment by interposing arthroplasty associated to hinged external fixator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Naoki Miyazaki

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar os resultados da técnica de artroplastia de interposição do cotovelo com fascia lata associada ao uso de fixador externo articulado no tratamento do cotovelo rígido. MÉTODOS: Entre 2001 e 2006 foram operados e acompanhados cinco casos de cotovelo rígido pelo Grupo de Ombro e Cotovelo da Faculdade de Ciências Médicas da Santa Casa Misericórdia de São Paulo, tendo como critérios de inclusão: pacientes com arco de movimento do cotovelo menor que o funcional associado a degeneração dessa articulação que não tiveram indicação de prótese total. A idade dos pacientes variou entre 21 e 55 anos (média de 38. Houve predomínio do sexo masculino (quatro casos e, em todos, o membro dominante foi o operado. Quanto à etiologia, houve dois casos de sequela de artrite infecciosa, um de sequela pós-traumática e dois de artrite reumatoide. O arco de movimento no período pré-operatório variou em torno de 20 a 30º de flexoextensão; em dois casos existia contratura fixa em flexão em 30º e 65º. Os pacientes foram avaliados segundo os critérios da AMA modificados por Bruce. RESULTADOS: O seguimento médio foi de 54 meses. Todos os pacientes obtiveram melhora no índice de Bruce, que no pré-operatório era de 43,5 e foi para 88,2 no pós-operatório. Houve dois casos excelentes, um bom, um regular e um ruim. CONCLUSÃO: A artroplastia de interposição com fascia lata associada ao uso de fixador externo dinâmico no cotovelo rígido é uma alternativa viável para pacientes que não têm indicação de artroplastia total de cotovelo.OBJECTIVE: Assess the results of the elbow/ fascia lata interposing arthroplasty technique associated to the use of a hinged external fixator in the treatment of stiff elbow. METHODS: Between 2001 and 2006, five cases of stiff elbow were operated and followed up by the Shoulder and Elbow Group of the Santa Casa Misericórdia de São Paulo Medical Sciences School, establishing the following

  3. Dystrophin hydrophobic regions in the pathogenesis of Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingyin Liang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our study was to determine the role of dystrophin hydrophobic regions in the pathogenesis of Duchenne (DMD and Becker (BMD muscular dystrophies, by the Kyte-Doolittle scale mean hydrophobicity profile and 3D molecular models. A total of 1038 cases diagnosed with DMD or BMD with the in-frame mutation were collected in our hospital and the Leiden DMD information database in the period 2002-2013. Correlation between clinical types and genotypes were determined on the basis of these two sources. In addition, the Kyte-Doolittle scale mean hydrophobicity of dystrophin was analyzed using BioEdit software and the models of the hydrophobic domains of dystrophin were constructed. The presence of four hydrophobic regions is confirmed. They include the calponin homology CH2 domain on the actin-binding domain (ABD, spectrin-type repeat 16, hinge III and the EF Hand domain. The severe symptoms of DMD usually develop as a result of the mutational disruption in the hydrophobic regions I, II and IV of dystrophin – those that bind associated proteins of the dystrophin-glycoprotein complex (DGC. On the other hand, when the hydrophobic region III is deleted, the connection of the ordered repeat domains of the central rod domain remains intact, resulting in the less severe clinical presentation. We conclude that mutational changes in the structure of hydrophobic regions of dystrophin play an important role in the pathogenesis of DMD.

  4. Desenvolvimento regional: a diversidade regional como potencialidade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Odim Degrandi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Throughout the second half of the twentieth century the debate on regional development in Brazil received special attention, especially among economists and geographers. Two main approaches stand out in the debate: one that understands the promotion of regional development from the reduction / elimination of regional inequalities, and the other proposes the understanding of regional diversity and potentiality for developing regions. The first was and still remains hegemonic, being evidenced both in scientific papers and in documents guiding public policies in the area. The latter is evidenced most clearly from the 1990s on, a period when the concept of region is resumed under a new approach. This paper aims to clarify the meaning of each of these concepts in order to contribute to the qualification of the discussion on regional development.

  5. Desenvolvimento regional: a diversidade regional como potencialidade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia Elisabeta Etges

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Ao longo da segunda metade do século XX o debate sobre desenvolvimento regional no Brasil recebeu atenção especial, principalmente, entre economistas e geógrafos. Dois enfoques principais se destacam no debate: um, que entende a promoção do desenvolvimento regional a partir da redução/eliminação das desigualdades regionais; outro, que propõe a compreensão da diversidade regional como potencialidade para o desenvolvimento de regiões. O primeiro foi e continua sendo hegemônico, evidenciado tanto em trabalhos científicos quanto em documentos norteadores das políticas públicas na área. Já o segundo evidencia-se mais claramente a partir da década de 1990, período em que o conceito de região é retomado sob um novo enfoque. Neste trabalho pretende-se explicitar o significado de cada uma dessas concepções, no intuito de contribuir para a qualificação da discussão sobre desenvolvimento regional.Palavras-chave | Desenvolvimento regional; diversidade regional; potencialidades; região.Código JEL | O18; R11; R58. REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT: REGIONAL DIVERSITY AS POTENTIALAbstractThroughout the second half of the twentieth century the debate on regional development in Brazil received special attention, especially among economists and geographers. Two main approaches stand out in the debate: one that understands the promotion of regional development from the reduction / elimination of regional inequalities, and the other proposes the understanding of regional diversity and potentiality for developing regions. The first was and still remains hegemonic, being evidenced both in scientific papers and in documents guiding public policies in the area. The latter is evidenced most clearly from the 1990s on, a period when the concept of region is resumed under a new approach. This paper aims to clarify the meaning of each of these concepts in order to contribute to the qualification of the discussion on regional development.Keywords | Regional

  6. Evaluation of Tamsulosin Combined with Methylprednisolone as Medical Expulsive Therapy after ESWL in Patients with Proximal Ureter Calculi%坦索罗辛联合甲基泼尼松龙对输尿管上段结石体外震波碎石术后辅助排石作用的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶烈夫; 杨泽松; 傅长德; 何延瑜; 詹汉雄; 林玉琴

    2012-01-01

    目的 评估坦索罗辛联合甲基泼尼松龙对输尿管上段结石体外震波碎石(ESWL)术后辅助排石作用的有效性及安全性.方法 109例输尿管上段结石患者ESWL术后,随机分为A组(34例)、B组(33例)及C组(42例),分别应用尿石通、尿石通+坦索罗辛、尿石通+坦索罗辛+甲基泼尼松龙辅助排石,随访2月.结果 A,B,C组的结石排净率分别为50.0%,63.6%,81.0%(C组vs A组,P<0.01),结石排出时间为(3.35±1.16)d,(2.10±1.22)d,(1.54±0.85)d(B组、C组vs A组,P<0.01).石街形成8例,其中A组6例,B组和C组各1例(C组vs A组,P<0.05).3组肾绞痛发生人次分别为(0.38±0.60),(0.15±0.36),(0.10±0.37)(C组vs A组,P<0.05).C组药物副作用发生率为11.9%(5/42),无一例因副作用停药.结论 输尿管上段结石ESWL术后采用坦索罗辛联合甲基泼尼松龙治疗能够增加结石清除率、缩短排石时间、降低石街形成率并减少肾绞痛的发生,用于辅助排石安全有效.%Objective To evaluate the efficacy and safety of tamsulosin combined -with methyl-prednisolone as adjuvant expulsive therapy in patients with upper ureteral calculi after extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL). Methods 109 patients with single upper ureteral calculus who underwent ESWL -were randomly divided into three groups, group A (34 patients)received a traditional chinese medicine(Niaoshitong) , group B(33 patients) received Tamsulosin and Niaoshitong -while group C(42 patients) received Methylprednisolone plus Tamsulosin and Niaoshitong. All patients -were folio-wed up regularly for 2 months, stone free status was confirmed with both a plain X-ray of the urinary tract and urinary ultra-sonography. Results The stone-free rate was 50. 0% , 63. 6%, 81. 0% for group A, B and C, respec-tively(group C vs A, P<0. 01). The mean expulsion time was (3. 35 + 1. 16) days in group A, (2. 10 + 1. 22) days in group B, and (1. 54 + 0. 85) days in group C (group C and B vs A, P<0. 01). Six patients in

  7. 对早中期单间室狭窄膝骨性关节炎患者应用铰链式活动夹板的健教效果评价%On the Early and Mid-single-compartment Stenosis Knee Osteoarthritis Patients Apply with Hinged Activities Plywood Health Evaluation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    覃樱; 郑琼; 甘海滨

    2013-01-01

    Objective: to study the hinged activities early or middle single room splint treatment narrow knee osteoarthritis health ef ect evaluation of teaching. Methods:from function exercise, mental, diet, and complications of 26 cases of application hinged activities of the plywood knee osteoarthritis patients for health mission. Results:in health care in the process of teaching and observation, patients know wearing method and nursing key points, no complications, clinical with satisfactory ef ect. The treatment after a period of treatment evaluation curative ef ect, optimal 14 cases "good" in 9 cases, can be in 2 cases, the dif erence in 1, and the total ef ective rate was 96%. Conclusion: the implementation of the nursing measures and ef ective care coordination and to improve the application hinged activities of the plywood knee osteoarthritis patients curative ef ect and the quality of life have important significance.%目的:探讨铰链式活动夹板治疗早中期单间室狭窄膝骨性关节炎的健教效果评价。方法从功能锻炼、心理、饮食、并发症等方面对26例应用铰链式活动夹板的膝骨性关节炎患者进行健康宣教。结果在护理健教及观察过程中,患者知晓配戴方法及护理要点,无并发症的发生,临床效果满意。本组治疗1个疗程后评定疗效,优14例,良9例,可2例,差1例,总有效率为96%。结论护理措施的落实到位及有效的护理配合和对提高应用铰链式活动夹板的膝骨性关节炎患者疗效及生活质量有重要的意义。

  8. Central Region Regionally Ecological Significant Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This is an analysis of regionally significant Terrestrial and Wetland Ecological Areas in the seven county metropolitan area. Individual forest, grassland and...

  9. Regional variation in the mechanical properties of the vertebral column during lateral bending in Morone saxatilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowroozi, B N; Brainerd, E L

    2012-10-07

    Unlike mammalian, disc-shaped intervertebral joints (IVJs), the IVJs in fishes are biconid structures, filled with fluid and thought to act as hydrostatic hinge joints during swimming. However, it remains unclear which IVJ structures are dominant in mechanical resistance to forces in fishes, and whether variation in these tissues might impact the function of the vertebral column along its length. Here, we measured the dynamic mechanical behaviour of IVJs from striped bass, Morone saxatilis. During lateral bending, angular stiffness was significantly lower in the caudal and cervical regions, relative to the abdominal region. The neutral zone, defined as the range of motion (ROM) at bending moments less than 0.001 Nm, was longer in the caudal relative to the abdominal IVJs. Hysteresis was 30-40% in all regions, suggesting that IVJs may play a role in energy dissipation during swimming. Cutting the vertical septum had no statistically significant effect, but cutting the encapsulating tissues caused a sharp decline in angular stiffness and a substantial increase in ROM and hysteresis. We conclude that stiffness decreases and ROM increases from cranial to caudal in striped bass, and that the encapsulating tissues play a prominent role in mechanical variation along the length of the vertebral column.

  10. The Regional Dimension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eskjær, Mikkel Fugl

    2013-01-01

    is largely dependent on regional media systems, yet the role this regional dimension plays has been largely overlooked. This article presents a comparative study of climate-change coverage in three geo-cultural regions, The Middle East, Scandinavia, and North America, and explores the link between global...... climate-change communication and regional media systems. It finds that regional variations in climate-change communication carry important communicative implications concerning perceptions of climate change's relevance and urgency...

  11. EVALUATING FUNCTIONAL REGIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samo Drobne

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In the paper, we suggest an approach to evaluate the number and composition of functional regions. Suggested approach is based on basic characteristics of functional regions, that are (1 more intensive intra-regional than the inter-regional interactions and (2 internal social and economic heterogeneity. Those characteristics are measured by factors estimated in spatial interaction model. The approach to evaluate functional regions was applied to Slovenia for three time periods.

  12. Acidic Chitinase Limits Allergic Inflammation and Promotes Intestinal Nematode Expulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acidic mammalian chitinase (AMCase) is stereotypically induced during mammalian immune responses to helminths and allergens—yet, its precise role in immunity and inflammation is unclear. Here we show that in the lung, genetic ablation of AMCase failed to diminish type 2 inflammation against helmint...

  13. MEDICAL EXPULSIVE THERAPY OF URETERIC CALCULI - OUR EXPERIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Uretric stones can be treated with multiple modalities including medical therapy, uretroscopy, shockwave lithotripsy (SWS, percutaneous nephrolithotomy, open/laparoscopic stone removal, and/or combinations of these modalities. The aim is to study the effectivene ss of medical management of uretric stones and to compare the effectiveness of Tamsulosin and Tamsulosin with steroid . MATERIALS & METHODS: 120 Patients who came with acute uretric colic were categorized into III categories of less than 5mm, 5mm to 7mm and more than 7mm based on NCCT. They were consecutively allotted to one of the three groups, the group I patients received Anti - Biotics with NSAIDs group II received Tamsulosin in addition Anti - Biotics and NSAIDs and III rd group received Anti - Biotics, Tamsu losin, NSAIDs in addition Deflazacart 30mg for a period of 10 days. The results were evaluated at the end of 10 days medical treatment. RESULTS : 90 out of 120 patients were re - evaluated at the end of 10 days. The calculi of 7mm should be removed as the chances of passage is <20%. The medical treatment with Tamsulosin or Tamsulosin with Deflazacart does not offer significant benefit.

  14. Reflections on refoulement and collective expulsion in the Hirsi case

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Heijer, M.

    2013-01-01

    The Hirsi judgment of the European Court of Human Rights stands out as a beacon for protecting the rights of migrants who attempt to cross the sea in search of a better life elsewhere only to be confronted with measures of interdiction. The European Court not only underscores the point that human

  15. Separation processes using expulsion from dilute supercritical solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochran, Jr., Henry D.

    1993-01-01

    A process for separating isotopes as well as other mixtures by utilizing the behavior of dilute repulsive or weakly attractive elements of the mixtures as the critical point of the solvent is approached.

  16. Regional Alternative Transportation Evaluation, Region 6

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Region 6 (Colorado, Kansas, Montana, Nebraska, North Dakota, South Dakota, Utah, and Wyoming) RATE found that visitors to many stations enjoy activities that...

  17. Region 9 RTOC Charter

    Science.gov (United States)

    U.S. EPA Pacific Southwest (Region 9) Regional Tribal Operations Committee (RTOC) Charter as amended 11/13/2014: Mission, Goals, Scope, Structure & Membership, Meetings, Administration, Charter Amendment/Review, and Current Working Draft.

  18. CONCEPTS OF REGIONALIZATION, REGIONAL SUBSYSTEMS, REGIONAL COMPLEXES AND REGIONAL TRANSFORMATIONS IN CONTEMPORARY IR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexei D. Voskressenski

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The article examines theoretical aspects of regional dimension in international relations and the ways to apply in practice the results of world politics’ analysis from the viewpoint of regional and macro-regional levels. It also considers the key discussion points on regions and macro-regions in the world and Russian research literature. The author concludes that this is exactly the new IR concepts of regional level which should become the prototype of original Russian regional and country studies. These studies need to have a higher degree of theoretical conceptualization of regional level as their basis. Such an approach will enable the researchers to draw deep and unconventional conclusions of practical use especially as far as the non-Western parts of the world which are traditionally less examined by Western researchers, theorists and practitioners are concerned.

  19. Drycleaner Database - Region 7

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — THIS DATA ASSET NO LONGER ACTIVE: This is metadata documentation for the Region 7 Drycleaner Database (R7DryClnDB) which tracks all Region7 drycleaners who notify...

  20. HRM: HII Region Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenger, Trey V.; Kepley, Amanda K.; Balser, Dana S.

    2017-07-01

    HII Region Models fits HII region models to observed radio recombination line and radio continuum data. The algorithm includes the calculations of departure coefficients to correct for non-LTE effects. HII Region Models has been used to model star formation in the nucleus of IC 342.