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Sample records for hindlimb-suspended mouse soleus

  1. Time course changes in [Ca2+]i, force, and protein content in hindlimb-suspended mouse soleus muscles

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    Ingalls, C. P.; Wenke, J. C.; Armstrong, R. B.; Hamilton, S. L. (Principal Investigator)

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Exposure to reduced gravitational forces during spaceflight is associated with significant reductions in skeletal muscle mass and strength. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that increases in resting cytosolic free calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) would precede reductions in protein content and maximal isometric tetanic force (Po) in mouse soleus muscle after initiation of hindlimb suspension. METHODS: Female ICR mice (n = 42) were hindlimb suspended for 1, 2, 3, 5, or 7 d; weight-matched mice were used as controls. Following the hindlimb suspension, the left soleus muscle was used to determine Po in vitro and the right soleus muscle was used to determine protein content and [Ca2+]i via confocal laser scanning microscopy. RESULTS: Compared with controls, [Ca2+]i was elevated by 38% at 2 d, and 117% at 7 d. Compared with controls, soleus muscle total and myofibrillar protein contents were reduced 27-29% and 30-34%, respectively, at 5-7 d after initiation of hindlimb suspension. Compared with controls, soleus muscle Po was decreased by 24% at 3 d, and 38% at 7 d. CONCLUSION: It appears that resting cytosolic Ca2+ homeostasis is disturbed soon after the initiation of hindlimb suspension, and these elevations in [Ca2+]i may play a role in initiating soleus muscle atrophy.

  2. Intracellular Ca2+ transients in mouse soleus muscle after hindlimb unloading and reloading

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    Ingalls, C. P.; Warren, G. L.; Armstrong, R. B.; Hamilton, S. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether altered intracellular Ca(2+) handling contributes to the specific force loss in the soleus muscle after unloading and/or subsequent reloading of mouse hindlimbs. Three groups of female ICR mice were studied: 1) unloaded mice (n = 11) that were hindlimb suspended for 14 days, 2) reloaded mice (n = 10) that were returned to their cages for 1 day after 14 days of hindlimb suspension, and 3) control mice (n = 10) that had normal cage activity. Maximum isometric tetanic force (P(o)) was determined in the soleus muscle from the left hindlimb, and resting free cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)), tetanic [Ca(2+)](i), and 4-chloro-m-cresol-induced [Ca(2+)](i) were measured in the contralateral soleus muscle by confocal laser scanning microscopy. Unloading and reloading increased resting [Ca(2+)](i) above control by 36% and 24%, respectively. Although unloading reduced P(o) and specific force by 58% and 24%, respectively, compared with control mice, there was no difference in tetanic [Ca(2+)](i). P(o), specific force, and tetanic [Ca(2+)](i) were reduced by 58%, 23%, and 23%, respectively, in the reloaded animals compared with control mice; however, tetanic [Ca(2+)](i) was not different between unloaded and reloaded mice. These data indicate that although hindlimb suspension results in disturbed intracellular Ca(2+) homeostasis, changes in tetanic [Ca(2+)](i) do not contribute to force deficits. Compared with unloading, 24 h of physiological reloading in the mouse do not result in further changes in maximal strength or tetanic [Ca(2+)](i).

  3. Stimulation of Myofibrillar Protein Synthesis in Hindlimb Suspended Rats by Resistance Exercise and Growth Hormone

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    Linderman, Jon K.; Whittall, Justen B.; Gosselink, Kristin L.; Wang, Tommy J.; Mukku, Venkat R.; Booth, Frank W.; Grindeland, Richard E.

    1995-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the ability of a single bout of resistance exercise alone or in combination with recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) to stimulate myofibrillar protein synthesis (Ks) in hindlimb suspended (HLS) adult female rats. Plantar flexor muscles were stimulated with resistance exercise, consisting of 10 repetitions of ladder climbing on a 1 m grid (85 deg.), carrying an additional 50% of their body weight attached to their tails. Saline or rhGH (1 mg/kg) was administered 30' prior to exercise, and Ks was determined with a constant infusion of H-3-Leucine at 15', 60', 180', and 360' following exercise. Three days of HLS depressed Ks is approx. equal to 65% and 30-40% in the soleus and gastrocnemius muscles, respectively (p is less than or equal to 0.05). Exercise increased soleus Ks in saline-treated rats 149% 60' following exercise (p less than or equal to 0.05), decaying to that of non-exercised animals during the next 5 hours. Relative to suspended, non-exercised rats rhGH + exercise increased soleus Ks 84%, 108%, and 72% at 15', 60' and 360' following exercise (p is less than or equal to 0.05). Gastrocnemius Ks was not significantly increased by exercise or the combination of rhGH and exercise up to 360' post-exercise. Results from this study indicate that resistance exercise stimulated Ks 60' post-exercise in the soleus of HLS rats, with no apparent effect of rhGH to enhance or prolong exercise-induced stimulation. Results suggests that exercise frequency may be important to maintenance of the slow-twitch soleus during non-weightbearing, but that the ability of resistance exercise to maintain myofibrillar protein content in the gastrocnemius of hindlimb suspended rats cannot be explained by acute stimulation of synthesis.

  4. Microcurrent electrical nerve stimulation facilitates regrowth of mouse soleus muscle.

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    Ohno, Yoshitaka; Fujiya, Hiroto; Goto, Ayumi; Nakamura, Ayane; Nishiura, Yuka; Sugiura, Takao; Ohira, Yoshinobu; Yoshioka, Toshitada; Goto, Katsumasa

    2013-01-01

    Microcurrent electrical nerve stimulation (MENS) has been used to facilitate recovery from skeletal muscle injury. However, the effects of MENS on unloading-associated atrophied skeletal muscle remain unclear. Effects of MENS on the regrowing process of unloading-associated atrophied skeletal muscle were investigated. Male C57BL/6J mice (10-week old) were randomly assigned to untreated normal recovery (C) and MENS-treated (M) groups. Mice of both groups are subjected to continuous hindlimb suspension (HS) for 2 weeks followed by 7 days of ambulation recovery. Mice in M group were treated with MENS for 60 min 1, 3, and 5 days following HS, respectively, under anesthesia. The intensity, the frequency, and the pulse width of MENS were set at 10 μA, 0.3 Hz, and 250 msec, respectively. Soleus muscles were dissected before and immediately after, 1, 3 and 7 days after HS. Soleus muscle wet weight and protein content were decreased by HS. The regrowth of atrophied soleus muscle in M group was faster than that in C group. Decrease in the reloading-induced necrosis of atrophied soleus was facilitated by MENS. Significant increases in phosphorylated levels of p70 S6 kinase and protein kinase B (Akt) in M group were observed, compared with C group. These observations are consistent with that MENS facilitated regrowth of atrophied soleus muscle. MENS may be a potential extracellular stimulus to activate the intracellular signals involved in protein synthesis.

  5. Effect of metformin on glucose metabolism in mouse soleus muscle.

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    Bailey, C J; Puah, J A

    1986-08-01

    To investigate the antihyperglycaemic effect of metformin (dimethylbiguanide), insulin binding and glucose metabolism were examined in soleus muscles isolated from streptozotocin diabetic mice. Treatment with metformin (250 mg/kg/day orally for 3 weeks) reduced by 39% the severity of streptozotocin-induced hyperglycaemia. Soleus muscles of metformin treated mice showed a 41% increase in total insulin receptor number, and a 20% increase in 3-0-methylglucose uptake at both submaximally and maximally stimulating insulin concentrations. Oxidation of U-14C-glucose to 14CO2 and the formation of 14C-glycogen were increased by 25% and 30% respectively at maximally stimulating insulin concentrations, but not at submaximally stimulating concentrations. Lactate formation was not significantly altered. Maximum activity of hexokinase (EC 2.7.1.1) was increased by 35%, and this effect was independent of insulin. The results suggest that the antihyperglycaemic effect of metformin in streptozotocin diabetic mice is related in part to an increase in insulin-mediated glucose uptake and oxidative metabolism in skeletal muscle.

  6. Two weeks of metformin treatment induces AMPK dependent enhancement of insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in mouse soleus muscle

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    Kristensen, Jonas Møller; Treebak, Jonas Thue; Schjerling, Peter

    2014-01-01

    signaling. Methods: Oral doses of metformin or saline treatment were given muscle-specific kinase α2 dead AMPK mice (KD) and wild type (WT) littermates either once or chronically for 2 weeks. Soleus and Extensor Digitorum Longus (EDL) muscles were used for measurements of glucose transport and Western blot......Background: Metformin-induced activation of AMPK has been associated with enhanced glucose uptake in skeletal muscle but so far no direct causality has been examined. We hypothesized that an effect of in vivo metformin treatment on glucose uptake in mouse skeletal muscles is dependent upon AMPK...... analyzes. Results: Chronic treatment with metformin enhanced insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in soleus muscles of WT (45%, P...

  7. Two weeks of metformin treatment induces AMPK-dependent enhancement of insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in mouse soleus muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensen, Jonas Møller; Treebak, Jonas T.; Schjerling, Peter; Goodyear, Laurie

    2014-01-01

    Metformin-induced activation of the 5′-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) has been associated with enhanced glucose uptake in skeletal muscle, but so far no direct causality has been examined. We hypothesized that an effect of in vivo metformin treatment on glucose uptake in mouse skeletal muscles is dependent on AMPK signaling. Oral doses of metformin or saline treatment were given to muscle-specific kinase dead (KD) AMPKα2 mice and wild-type (WT) littermates either once or chronically for 2 wk. Soleus and extensor digitorum longus muscles were used for measurements of glucose transport and Western blot analyses. Chronic treatment with metformin enhanced insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in soleus muscles of WT (∼45%, P metformin treatment. Insulin signaling at the level of Akt and TBC1D4 protein expression as well as Akt Thr308/Ser473 and TBC1D4 Thr642/Ser711 phosphorylation were not changed by metformin treatment. Also, protein expressions of Rab4, GLUT4, and hexokinase II were unaltered after treatment. The acute metformin treatment did not affect glucose uptake in muscle of either of the genotypes. In conclusion, we provide novel evidence for a role of AMPK in potentiating the effect of insulin on glucose uptake in soleus muscle in response to chronic metformin treatment. PMID:24644243

  8. Two weeks of metformin treatment induces AMPK-dependent enhancement of insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in mouse soleus muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensen, Jonas Møller; Treebak, Jonas T; Schjerling, Peter; Goodyear, Laurie; Wojtaszewski, Jørgen F P

    2014-05-15

    Metformin-induced activation of the 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) has been associated with enhanced glucose uptake in skeletal muscle, but so far no direct causality has been examined. We hypothesized that an effect of in vivo metformin treatment on glucose uptake in mouse skeletal muscles is dependent on AMPK signaling. Oral doses of metformin or saline treatment were given to muscle-specific kinase dead (KD) AMPKα2 mice and wild-type (WT) littermates either once or chronically for 2 wk. Soleus and extensor digitorum longus muscles were used for measurements of glucose transport and Western blot analyses. Chronic treatment with metformin enhanced insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in soleus muscles of WT (∼45%, P glucose uptake in muscle of either of the genotypes. In conclusion, we provide novel evidence for a role of AMPK in potentiating the effect of insulin on glucose uptake in soleus muscle in response to chronic metformin treatment. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  9. Recombinant Uncarboxylated Osteocalcin Per Se Enhances Mouse Skeletal Muscle Glucose Uptake in both Extensor Digitorum Longus and Soleus Muscles

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    Xuzhu Lin

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Emerging evidence suggests that undercarboxylated osteocalcin (ucOC improves muscle glucose uptake in rodents. However, whether ucOC can directly increase glucose uptake in both glycolytic and oxidative muscles and the possible mechanisms of action still need further exploration. We tested the hypothesis that ucOC per se stimulates muscle glucose uptake via extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK, adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK, and/or the mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 2 (mTORC2-protein kinase B (AKT-AKT substrate of 160 kDa (AS160 signaling cascade. Extensor digitorum longus (EDL and soleus muscles from male C57BL/6 mice were isolated, divided into halves, and then incubated with ucOC with or without the pretreatment of ERK inhibitor U0126. ucOC increased muscle glucose uptake in both EDL and soleus. It also enhanced phosphorylation of ERK2 (Thr202/Tyr204 and AS160 (Thr642 in both muscle types and increased mTOR phosphorylation (Ser2481 in EDL only. ucOC had no significant effect on the phosphorylation of AMPKα (Thr172. The inhibition of ucOC-induced ERK phosphorylation had limited effect on ucOC-stimulated glucose uptake and AS160 phosphorylation in both muscle types, but appeared to inhibit the elevation in AKT phosphorylation only in EDL. Taken together, ucOC at the physiological range directly increased glucose uptake in both EDL and soleus muscles in mouse. The molecular mechanisms behind this ucOC effect on muscle glucose uptake seem to be muscle type-specific, involving enhanced phosphorylation of AS160 but limitedly modulated by ERK phosphorylation. Our study suggests that, since ucOC increases muscle glucose uptake without insulin, it could be considered as a potential agent to improve muscle glucose uptake in insulin resistant conditions.

  10. Afferent control mechanisms involved in the development of soleus fiber alterations in simulated hypogravity

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    Shenkman, B. S.; Nemirovskaya, T. L.; Shapovalova, K. B.; Podlubnaya, Z. A.; Vikhliantsev, I. M.; Moukhina, A. M.; Kozlovskaya, I. B.

    2007-02-01

    It was recently established that support withdrawal (withdrawal of support reaction force) in microgravity provokes a sequence of functional shifts in the activity of motor units (inactivation of slow ones) and peripheral muscle apparatus which lead to the decline of postural muscle contractility and alterations in fiber characteristics. However, mechanisms involved in inactivation of the slow motor units and appropriate slow-twitch muscle fiber disuse under the supportless conditions remained unknown. We show here that artificial inactivation of muscles-antagonists (which are known to be hyperactive during unloading) counteracts some of the unloading-induced events in the rat soleus (fiber size reduction, slow-to-fast fiber-type transition and decline of titin and nebulin content). It was also demonstrated that direct activation of the muscarinic receptors of the neostriatum neurons prevented slow-to-fast fiber-type transformation in soleus of hindlimb suspended rats.

  11. Slow recovery of the impaired fatigue resistance in postunloading mouse soleus muscle corresponding to decreased mitochondrial function and a compensatory increase in type I slow fibers

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    Feng, Han-Zhong; Chen, Xuequn; Malek, Moh H.

    2015-01-01

    Unloading or disuse rapidly results in skeletal muscle atrophy, switching to fast-type fibers, and decreased resistance to fatigue. The recovery process is of major importance in rehabilitation for various clinical conditions. Here we studied mouse soleus muscle during 60 days of reloading after 4 wk of hindlimb suspension. Unloading produced significant atrophy of soleus muscle with decreased contractile force and fatigue resistance, accompanied by switches of myosin isoforms from IIa to IIx and IIb and fast troponin T to more low-molecular-weight splice forms. The total mass, fiber size, and contractile force of soleus muscle recovered to control levels after 15 days of reloading. However, the fatigue resistance showed a trend of worsening during this period with significant infiltration of inflammatory cells at days 3 and 7, indicating reloading injuries that were accompanied by active regeneration with upregulations of filamin-C, αB-crystallin, and desmin. The fatigue resistance partially recovered after 30–60 days of reloading. The expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1α and mitofusin-2 showed changes parallel to that of fatigue resistance after unloading and during reloading, suggesting a causal role of decreased mitochondrial function. Slow fiber contents in the soleus muscle were increased after 30–60 days of reloading to become significantly higher than the normal level, indicating a secondary adaption to compensate for the slow recovery of fatigue resistance. PMID:26447205

  12. Moderate-intensity rotating magnetic fields do not affect bone quality and bone remodeling in hindlimb suspended rats.

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    Da Jing

    Full Text Available Abundant evidence has substantiated the positive effects of pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMF and static magnetic fields (SMF on inhibiting osteopenia and promoting fracture healing. However, the osteogenic potential of rotating magnetic fields (RMF, another common electromagnetic application modality, remains poorly characterized thus far, although numerous commercial RMF treatment devices have been available on the market. Herein the impacts of RMF on osteoporotic bone microarchitecture, bone strength and bone metabolism were systematically investigated in hindlimb-unloaded (HU rats. Thirty two 3-month-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to the Control (n = 10, HU (n = 10 and HU with RMF exposure (HU+RMF, n = 12 groups. Rats in the HU+RMF group were subjected to daily 2-hour exposure to moderate-intensity RMF (ranging from 0.60 T to 0.38 T at 7 Hz for 4 weeks. HU caused significant decreases in body mass and soleus muscle mass of rats, which were not obviously altered by RMF. Three-point bending test showed that the mechanical properties of femurs in HU rats, including maximum load, stiffness, energy absorption and elastic modulus were not markedly affected by RMF. µCT analysis demonstrated that 4-week RMF did not significantly prevent HU-induced deterioration of femoral trabecular and cortical bone microarchitecture. Serum biochemical analysis showed that RMF did not significantly change HU-induced decrease in serum bone formation markers and increase in bone resorption markers. Bone histomorphometric analysis further confirmed that RMF showed no impacts on bone remodeling in HU rats, as evidenced by unchanged mineral apposition rate, bone formation rate, osteoblast numbers and osteoclast numbers in cancellous bone. Together, our findings reveal that RMF do not significantly affect bone microstructure, bone mechanical strength and bone remodeling in HU-induced disuse osteoporotic rats. Our study indicates

  13. Moderate-intensity rotating magnetic fields do not affect bone quality and bone remodeling in hindlimb suspended rats.

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    Jing, Da; Cai, Jing; Wu, Yan; Shen, Guanghao; Zhai, Mingming; Tong, Shichao; Xu, Qiaoling; Xie, Kangning; Wu, Xiaoming; Tang, Chi; Xu, Xinmin; Liu, Juan; Guo, Wei; Jiang, Maogang; Luo, Erping

    2014-01-01

    Abundant evidence has substantiated the positive effects of pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMF) and static magnetic fields (SMF) on inhibiting osteopenia and promoting fracture healing. However, the osteogenic potential of rotating magnetic fields (RMF), another common electromagnetic application modality, remains poorly characterized thus far, although numerous commercial RMF treatment devices have been available on the market. Herein the impacts of RMF on osteoporotic bone microarchitecture, bone strength and bone metabolism were systematically investigated in hindlimb-unloaded (HU) rats. Thirty two 3-month-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to the Control (n = 10), HU (n = 10) and HU with RMF exposure (HU+RMF, n = 12) groups. Rats in the HU+RMF group were subjected to daily 2-hour exposure to moderate-intensity RMF (ranging from 0.60 T to 0.38 T) at 7 Hz for 4 weeks. HU caused significant decreases in body mass and soleus muscle mass of rats, which were not obviously altered by RMF. Three-point bending test showed that the mechanical properties of femurs in HU rats, including maximum load, stiffness, energy absorption and elastic modulus were not markedly affected by RMF. µCT analysis demonstrated that 4-week RMF did not significantly prevent HU-induced deterioration of femoral trabecular and cortical bone microarchitecture. Serum biochemical analysis showed that RMF did not significantly change HU-induced decrease in serum bone formation markers and increase in bone resorption markers. Bone histomorphometric analysis further confirmed that RMF showed no impacts on bone remodeling in HU rats, as evidenced by unchanged mineral apposition rate, bone formation rate, osteoblast numbers and osteoclast numbers in cancellous bone. Together, our findings reveal that RMF do not significantly affect bone microstructure, bone mechanical strength and bone remodeling in HU-induced disuse osteoporotic rats. Our study indicates potentially

  14. Comparative proteomic profiling of soleus, extensor digitorum longus, flexor digitorum brevis and interosseus muscles from the mdx mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

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    Carberry, Steven; Brinkmeier, Heinrich; Zhang, Yaxin; Winkler, Claudia K; Ohlendieck, Kay

    2013-09-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy is due to genetic abnormalities in the dystrophin gene and represents one of the most frequent genetic childhood diseases. In the X-linked muscular dystrophy (mdx) mouse model of dystrophinopathy, different subtypes of skeletal muscles are affected to a varying degree albeit the same single base substitution within exon 23 of the dystrophin gene. Thus, to determine potential muscle subtype-specific differences in secondary alterations due to a deficiency in dystrophin, in this study, we carried out a comparative histological and proteomic survey of mdx muscles. We intentionally included the skeletal muscles that are often used for studying the pathomechanism of muscular dystrophy. Histological examinations revealed a significantly higher degree of central nucleation in the soleus and extensor digitorum longus muscles compared with the flexor digitorum brevis and interosseus muscles. Muscular hypertrophy of 20-25% was likewise only observed in the soleus and extensor digitorum longus muscles from mdx mice, but not in the flexor digitorum brevis and interosseus muscles. For proteomic analysis, muscle protein extracts were separated by fluorescence two-dimensional (2D) gel electrophoresis. Proteins with a significant change in their expression were identified by mass spectrometry. Proteomic profiling established an altered abundance of 24, 17, 19 and 5 protein species in the dystrophin-deficient soleus, extensor digitorum longus, flexor digitorum brevis and interosseus muscle, respectively. The key proteomic findings were verified by immunoblot analysis. The identified proteins are involved in the contraction-relaxation cycle, metabolite transport, muscle metabolism and the cellular stress response. Thus, histological and proteomic profiling of muscle subtypes from mdx mice indicated that distinct skeletal muscles are differentially affected by the loss of the membrane cytoskeletal protein, dystrophin. Varying degrees of perturbed protein

  15. The effects of elevated levels of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO₃) on the acute power output and time to fatigue of maximally stimulated mouse soleus and EDL muscles.

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    Higgins, M F; Tallis, J; Price, M J; James, R S

    2013-05-01

    This study examined the effects of elevated buffer capacity [~32 mM HCO₃(-)] through administration of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO₃) on maximally stimulated isolated mouse soleus (SOL) and extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles undergoing cyclical length changes at 37 °C. The elevated buffering capacity was of an equivalent level to that achieved in humans with acute oral supplementation. We evaluated the acute effects of elevated [HCO₃(-)] on (1) maximal acute power output (PO) and (2) time to fatigue to 60 % of maximum control PO (TLIM60), the level of decline in muscle PO observed in humans undertaking similar exercise, using the work loop technique. Acute PO was on average 7.0 ± 4.8 % greater for NaHCO₃-treated EDL muscles (P muscles (P muscle performance was variable, suggesting that there might be inter-individual differences in response to NaHCO₃ supplementation. These results present the best indication to date that NaHCO₃ has direct peripheral effects on mammalian skeletal muscle resulting in increased acute power output.

  16. QTL analysis of type I and type IIA fibers in soleus muscle in a cross between LG/J and SM/J mouse strains

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    Andrew Mark Carroll

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Properties of muscle fibers, i.e. their type, number and size, are important determinants of functional characteristics of skeletal muscle, and of the quality of meat in livestock. Genetic factors play an important role in determining variation in fiber properties, however, specific genes remain largely elusive.We examined histological properties of soleus muscle fibers in two strains of mice exhibiting a 2-fold difference in muscle mass, LG/J and SM/J, and their F2 intercross. The total number of muscle fibers (555 ± 106 did not differ between the strains or between males and females. A higher percentage of type I fibers was observed in LG/J than SM/J strain (P<0.001 in both males (45±3% vs 37±4% and females (58±4% vs 41±3%. Across strains, females had a higher percentage of type I fibers than males (P<0.001, and the sex effect was greater in LG/J strain (strain-by-sex interaction, P<0.001. The cross-sectional area (CSA did not differ between type I and type IIA fibers, it was greater in LG/J than SM/J strain (1365±268 μm2 vs 825±229 μm2, P<0.001. Three significant QTL affecting CSA for type I and type IIA fibers mapped to chromosomes 1, 6 and 11 and three suggestive QTL for percentage of type I fibers to chromosomes 2, 3, and 4. Within each significant QTL, regions of conserved synteny were also implicated in variation of similar traits in pig. Our results provide the evidence that the intercross between the SM/J and LG/J strains is a promising model to search for genes affecting muscle fiber properties.

  17. Differential effects of mild therapeutic exercise during a period of inactivity on power generation in soleus type I single fibers with age.

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    Kim, Jong-Hee; Thompson, LaDora V

    2012-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of mild therapeutic exercise (treadmill) in preventing the inactivity-induced alterations in contractile properties (e.g., power, force, and velocity) of type I soleus single fibers in three different age groups. Young adult (5- to 12-mo-old), middle-aged (24- to 31-mo-old), and old (32- to 40-mo-old) F344BNF1 rats were randomly assigned to three experimental groups: weight-bearing control (CON), non-weight bearing (NWB), and NWB with exercise (NWBX). NWB rats were hindlimb suspended for 2 wk, representing inactivity. The NWBX rats were hindlimb suspended for 2 wk and received therapeutic exercise on a treadmill four times a day for 15 min each. Peak power and isometric maximal force were reduced following hindlimb suspension (HS) in all three age groups. HS decreased fiber diameter in young adult and old rats (-21 and -12%, respectively). Specific tension (isometric maximal force/cross-sectional area) was significantly reduced in both the middle-aged (-36%) and old (-23%) rats. The effects of the mild therapeutic exercise program on fiber diameter and contractile properties were age specific. Mild treadmill therapeutic exercise attenuated the HS-induced reduction in fiber diameter (+17%, 93% level of CON group) and peak power (μN·fiber length·s(-1)) (+46%, 63% level of CON group) in young adult rats. In the middle-aged animals, this exercise protocol improved peak power (+60%, 100% level of CON group) and normalized power (kN·m(-2)·fiber length·s(-1)) (+45%, 108% level of CON group). Interestingly, treadmill exercise resulted in a further reduction in shortening velocity (-42%, 67% level of CON group) and specific tension (-29%, 55% level of CON group) in the old animals. These results suggest that mild treadmill exercise is beneficial in attenuating and preventing inactivity-induced decline in peak power of type I soleus single fibers in young adult and middle-aged animals, respectively. However, this

  18. Soleus stretch reflex during cycling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grey, Michael James; Pierce, C. W.; Milner, T. E.

    2001-01-01

    The modulation and strength of the human soleus short latency stretch reflex was investigated by mechanically perturbing the ankle during an unconstrained pedaling task. Eight subjects pedaled at 60 rpm against a preload of 10 Nm. A torque pulse was applied to the crank at various positions durin...

  19. Rat soleus muscle satellite cells during the recovery after gravitational unloading

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    Turtikova, Olga; Shenkman, Boris; Altaeva, Erzhena; Leinsoo, Toomas

    In this study the attempt was made to assess alterations of rat soleus satellite cell (SC) population during muscle regrowth after 14-day gravitational unloading (using the hindlimb suspension model). Myofiber size increases during the recovery period. SCs are supposed to participate in muscle growth by fusion with myofibers and supplying them with new myonuclei [Mitchell PO, Pavlath GK, 2001; Oishi Y., 2008]. Other points of view are known about SC participation in the recovery of atrophied muscle mass during the readaptation period [Bruusgaard J.C. et al., 2011; Jackson JR et al., 2012]. After 2 weeks of hindlimb suspension mki67 expression was fivefold lower as compared to control animals and increased gradually up to 28 times by the day 7 of reloading. Cdh15 was decreased after hindlimb unloading and rose from the 1st day of reloading. The expression reached control level to the day 7th of reloading. Cellular response was going on concurrently with the spike of IGF-1 blood level and the increase in muscle IGF-1 concentration. It is possible that in the early days of reloading period differentiation and fusion of satellite cells which were active by the end of hindlimb suspension occurred. Satellite cell incorporation was assessed by counting the amount of BrdU+ myonuclei under myofiber dystrophin layer. It came more intensively in the 1st day of readaptation. It is in accordance with the 4,5 time increase in myogenin expression as compared to hindlimb suspended animals detected at the same time point. Myogenin expression 3 fold decreased by 3rd day of readaptation. We observed only the tendency of resizing but no significant changes in in myonuclear domain size. The number of myonuclei per myofiber cross section was decreased after hindlimb suspension and was not restored by the day 14th of readaptation. Cdh15 and myogenin expression at some extent stabilized after 7 days of readaptation, but high mki67 level pointed to intensive proliferation, which could

  20. Soleus stretch reflex during cycling.

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    Grey, M J; Pierce, C W; Milner, T E; Sinkjaer, T

    2001-01-01

    The modulation and strength of the human soleus short latency stretch reflex was investigated by mechanically perturbing the ankle during an unconstrained pedaling task. Eight subjects pedaled at 60 rpm against a preload of 10 Nm. A torque pulse was applied to the crank at various positions during the crank cycle, producing ankle dorsiflexion perturbations of similar trajectory. The stretch reflex was greatest during the power phase of the crank cycle and was decreased to the level of background EMG during recovery. Matched perturbations were induced under static conditions at the same crank angle and background soleus EMG as recorded during the power phase of active pedaling. The magnitude of the stretch reflex was not statistically different from that during the static condition throughout the power phase of the movement. The results of this study indicate that the stretch reflex is not depressed during active cycling as has been shown with the H-reflex. This lack of depression may reflect a decreased susceptibility of the stretch reflex to inhibition, possibly originating from presynaptic mechanisms.

  1. Soleus muscle injury: sensitivity of ultrasound patterns

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    Balius, Ramon [Sport Catalan Council, Generalitat de Catalunya, Barcelona (Spain); Clinica CMI Diagonal, Barcelona (Spain); Rodas, Gil [F.C. Barcelona Medical Services, Barcelona (Spain); Pedret, Carles [Clinica CMI Diagonal, Barcelona (Spain); Clinica Mapfre de Medicina del Tenis, Sports Medicine and Imaging Department, Barcelona (Spain); Centre de Diagnostic per Imatge de Tarragona, Tarragona (Spain); Capdevila, Lluis [Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Laboratory of Sport Psychology, Barcelona (Spain); Alomar, Xavier [Clinica Creu Blanca, Barcelona (Spain); Bong, David A. [Instituto Poal de Reumatologia, Barcelona (Spain)

    2014-06-15

    To assess the sensitivity of ultrasound in detecting soleus muscle lesions diagnosed on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and to characterize their location, ultrasound pattern, and evolution. Ultrasound and MRI studies were performed between May 2009 and February 2013 on all patients who presented to the Medical Services Clinic of the Catalan Sport Council with the initial onset of sharp pain in the calf compatible with injury of the soleus muscle. An inter-observer ultrasound reliability study was also performed. A total of 55 cases of soleus injury were studied prospectively (22 with right leg involvement, 33 left) by ultrasound and MRI, which was utilized as the ''gold standard.'' In MRI studies, 24 cases (43.7 %) had myofascial injuries that were localized in the posterior aponeurosis (PMF) in 15 cases (27.3 %) and in the anterior aponeurosis (AMF) in 9 (16.4 %). Thirty-one cases (56.3 %) were musculotendinous injuries, with 9 cases (16.4 %) in the medial aponeurosis (MMT), 11 cases (20 %) in the lateral aponeurosis (LMT), and 11 cases (20 %) in the central tendon (CMT). In comparison to MRI, ultrasound was able to detect injury to the soleus in 27.2 % of cases. No injuries were detected by ultrasound alone. Posterior myofascial injuries were more likely to be detected by ultrasound than anterior myofascial injuries or all types of musculotendinous injuries. Ultrasound patterns for each type of injury were described. Ultrasound is not a sensitive technique for detecting and assessing soleus traumatic tears compared with MRI, although the sensitivity is enhanced by a thorough anatomically based ultrasound examination. Timing of the ultrasound examination may be of importance. Each type of soleus injury appears to have a characteristic ultrasound pattern based on a defect of connective expansions, the existence of small myofascial filiform collections, and the rarefaction of the fibrillar area. (orig.)

  2. Double discharges in human soleus muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Piotrkiewicz

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Double discharges (doublets were recorded from human soleus, where they have never been found before. The data analyzed in this study were collected from 12 healthy volunteers. The subjects were recruited for other studies, concerning: (1 estimation of motoneurons’ afterhyperpolarization duration and (2 analysis of motor unit responses to nerve stimulation, and were not trained to voluntarily evoke doublets. The majority of doublet intervals fell into the commonly accepted range 2–20 ms. However, two soleus motoneurons from one subject presented exceptional doublets of interval about 37 ms. This interval was virtually identical with the interval between second and third discharge in the few triplets recorded from another subject. It is hypothesized that triplets are generated by the delayed depolarization with the second narrow hump, which is the same as the hump responsible for exceptional doublets.

  3. Locomotor adaptation to a soleus EMG-controlled antagonistic exoskeleton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Keith E; Kinnaird, Catherine R; Ferris, Daniel P

    2013-04-01

    Locomotor adaptation in humans is not well understood. To provide insight into the neural reorganization that occurs following a significant disruption to one's learned neuromuscular map relating a given motor command to its resulting muscular action, we tied the mechanical action of a robotic exoskeleton to the electromyography (EMG) profile of the soleus muscle during walking. The powered exoskeleton produced an ankle dorsiflexion torque proportional to soleus muscle recruitment thus limiting the soleus' plantar flexion torque capability. We hypothesized that neurologically intact subjects would alter muscle activation patterns in response to the antagonistic exoskeleton by decreasing soleus recruitment. Subjects practiced walking with the exoskeleton for two 30-min sessions. The initial response to the perturbation was to "fight" the resistive exoskeleton by increasing soleus activation. By the end of training, subjects had significantly reduced soleus recruitment resulting in a gait pattern with almost no ankle push-off. In addition, there was a trend for subjects to reduce gastrocnemius recruitment in proportion to the soleus even though only the soleus EMG was used to control the exoskeleton. The results from this study demonstrate the ability of the nervous system to recalibrate locomotor output in response to substantial changes in the mechanical output of the soleus muscle and associated sensory feedback. This study provides further evidence that the human locomotor system of intact individuals is highly flexible and able to adapt to achieve effective locomotion in response to a broad range of neuromuscular perturbations.

  4. High association between accessory soleus muscle and achilles tendonopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luck, Michael D.; Gordon, Andrew G.; Blebea, Judy S.; Dalinka, Murray K. [Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2008-12-15

    This study investigated the association between accessory soleus muscle and abnormalities of the Achilles tendon. The authors reviewed 15 consecutive cases with a diagnosis of accessory soleus muscle from a computerized database of ankle magnetic resonance (MR) examinations reported between January 1998 and January 2007. On review, two cases were eliminated because of an incorrect initial diagnosis: One patient had a low lying soleus attachment to the Achilles tendon, while the other had a prominent flexor hallucis longus tendon partially obliterating Kager's fat. The remaining 13 cases with accessory soleus muscles were evaluated for Achilles tendon abnormalities. There were 13 cases of accessory soleus muscles in 11 patients; two patients had bilateral accessory soleus muscles (the only study patients with bilateral MR examinations in our sample). There were five male and six female patients ranging from 15 to 81 years of age (mean 48). There were nine cases (69.2%) in which Achilles tendonopathy was associated with accessory soleus muscle, including tendonopathy of each Achilles tendon in the two patients with bilateral accessory muscles. In our small patient population, there was a high association between accessory soleus muscle and Achilles tendonopathy. (orig.)

  5. Morphological Alterations in Gastrocnemius and Soleus Muscles in Male and Female Mice in a Fibromyalgia Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Alejandro Bonaterra

    Full Text Available Fibromyalgia (FM is a chronic musculoskeletal pain disorder, characterized by chronic widespread pain and bodily tenderness and is often accompanied by affective disturbances, however often with unknown etiology. According to recent reports, physical and psychological stress trigger FM. To develop new treatments for FM, experimental animal models for FM are needed to be development and characterized. Using a mouse model for FM including intermittent cold stress (ICS, we hypothesized that ICS leads to morphological alterations in skeletal muscles in mice.Male and female ICS mice were kept under alternating temperature (4 °C/room temperature [22 °C]; mice constantly kept at room temperature served as control. After scarification, gastrocnemius and soleus muscles were removed and snap-frozen in liquid nitrogen-cooled isopentane or fixed for electron microscopy.In gastrocnemius/soleus muscles of male ICS mice, we found a 21.6% and 33.2% decrease of fiber cross sectional area (FCSA, which in soleus muscle concerns the loss of type IIa and IIx FCSA. This phenomenon was not seen in muscles of female ICS mice. However, this loss in male ICS mice was associated with an increase in gastrocnemius of the density of MIF+ (8.6%-, MuRF+ (14.7%-, Fbxo32+ (17.8%-cells, a 12.1% loss of capillary contacts/muscle fiber as well as a 30.7% increase of damaged mitochondria in comparison with male control mice. Moreover, significant positive correlations exist among densities (n/mm(2 of MIF+, MuRF+, Fbxo32+-cells in gastrocnemius/ soleus muscles of male ICS mice; these cell densities inversely correlate with FCSA especially in gastrocnemius muscle of male ICS mice.The ICS-induced decrease of FCSA mainly concerns gastrocnemius muscle of male mice due to an increase of inflammatory and atrogenic cells. In soleus muscle of male ICS and soleus/gastrocnemius muscles of female ICS mice morphological alterations seem to occur not at all or delayed. The sex-specificity of

  6. Gene Expression Profiling in Slow-Type Calf Soleus Muscle of 30 Days Space-Flown Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambara, Guido; Salanova, Michele; Ciciliot, Stefano; Furlan, Sandra; Gutsmann, Martina; Schiffl, Gudrun; Ungethuem, Ute; Volpe, Pompeo; Gunga, Hanns-Christian; Blottner, Dieter

    2017-01-01

    Microgravity exposure as well as chronic disuse are two main causes of skeletal muscle atrophy in animals and humans. The antigravity calf soleus is a reference postural muscle to investigate the mechanism of disuse-induced maladaptation and plasticity of human and rodent (rats or mice) skeletal musculature. Here, we report microgravity-induced global gene expression changes in space-flown mouse skeletal muscle and the identification of yet unknown disuse susceptible transcripts found in soleus (a mainly slow phenotype) but not in extensor digitorum longus (a mainly fast phenotype dorsiflexor as functional counterpart to soleus). Adult C57Bl/N6 male mice (n = 5) flew aboard a biosatellite for 30 days on orbit (BION-M1 mission, 2013), a sex and age-matched cohort were housed in standard vivarium cages (n = 5), or in a replicate flight habitat as ground control (n = 5). Next to disuse atrophy signs (reduced size and myofiber phenotype I to II type shift) as much as 680 differentially expressed genes were found in the space-flown soleus, and only 72 in extensor digitorum longus (only 24 genes in common) compared to ground controls. Altered expression of gene transcripts matched key biological processes (contractile machinery, calcium homeostasis, muscle development, cell metabolism, inflammatory and oxidative stress response). Some transcripts (Fzd9, Casq2, Kcnma1, Ppara, Myf6) were further validated by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). Besides previous reports on other leg muscle types we put forth for the first time a complete set of microgravity susceptible gene transcripts in soleus of mice as promising new biomarkers or targets for optimization of physical countermeasures and rehabilitation protocols to overcome disuse atrophy conditions in different clinical settings, rehabilitation and spaceflight. PMID:28076365

  7. Gene Expression Profiling in Slow-Type Calf Soleus Muscle of 30 Days Space-Flown Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambara, Guido; Salanova, Michele; Ciciliot, Stefano; Furlan, Sandra; Gutsmann, Martina; Schiffl, Gudrun; Ungethuem, Ute; Volpe, Pompeo; Gunga, Hanns-Christian; Blottner, Dieter

    2017-01-01

    Microgravity exposure as well as chronic disuse are two main causes of skeletal muscle atrophy in animals and humans. The antigravity calf soleus is a reference postural muscle to investigate the mechanism of disuse-induced maladaptation and plasticity of human and rodent (rats or mice) skeletal musculature. Here, we report microgravity-induced global gene expression changes in space-flown mouse skeletal muscle and the identification of yet unknown disuse susceptible transcripts found in soleus (a mainly slow phenotype) but not in extensor digitorum longus (a mainly fast phenotype dorsiflexor as functional counterpart to soleus). Adult C57Bl/N6 male mice (n = 5) flew aboard a biosatellite for 30 days on orbit (BION-M1 mission, 2013), a sex and age-matched cohort were housed in standard vivarium cages (n = 5), or in a replicate flight habitat as ground control (n = 5). Next to disuse atrophy signs (reduced size and myofiber phenotype I to II type shift) as much as 680 differentially expressed genes were found in the space-flown soleus, and only 72 in extensor digitorum longus (only 24 genes in common) compared to ground controls. Altered expression of gene transcripts matched key biological processes (contractile machinery, calcium homeostasis, muscle development, cell metabolism, inflammatory and oxidative stress response). Some transcripts (Fzd9, Casq2, Kcnma1, Ppara, Myf6) were further validated by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). Besides previous reports on other leg muscle types we put forth for the first time a complete set of microgravity susceptible gene transcripts in soleus of mice as promising new biomarkers or targets for optimization of physical countermeasures and rehabilitation protocols to overcome disuse atrophy conditions in different clinical settings, rehabilitation and spaceflight.

  8. Gene Expression Profiling in Slow-Type Calf Soleus Muscle of 30 Days Space-Flown Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido Gambara

    Full Text Available Microgravity exposure as well as chronic disuse are two main causes of skeletal muscle atrophy in animals and humans. The antigravity calf soleus is a reference postural muscle to investigate the mechanism of disuse-induced maladaptation and plasticity of human and rodent (rats or mice skeletal musculature. Here, we report microgravity-induced global gene expression changes in space-flown mouse skeletal muscle and the identification of yet unknown disuse susceptible transcripts found in soleus (a mainly slow phenotype but not in extensor digitorum longus (a mainly fast phenotype dorsiflexor as functional counterpart to soleus. Adult C57Bl/N6 male mice (n = 5 flew aboard a biosatellite for 30 days on orbit (BION-M1 mission, 2013, a sex and age-matched cohort were housed in standard vivarium cages (n = 5, or in a replicate flight habitat as ground control (n = 5. Next to disuse atrophy signs (reduced size and myofiber phenotype I to II type shift as much as 680 differentially expressed genes were found in the space-flown soleus, and only 72 in extensor digitorum longus (only 24 genes in common compared to ground controls. Altered expression of gene transcripts matched key biological processes (contractile machinery, calcium homeostasis, muscle development, cell metabolism, inflammatory and oxidative stress response. Some transcripts (Fzd9, Casq2, Kcnma1, Ppara, Myf6 were further validated by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR. Besides previous reports on other leg muscle types we put forth for the first time a complete set of microgravity susceptible gene transcripts in soleus of mice as promising new biomarkers or targets for optimization of physical countermeasures and rehabilitation protocols to overcome disuse atrophy conditions in different clinical settings, rehabilitation and spaceflight.

  9. Hypothyroidism in the rat results in decreased soleus motoneurone soma size

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakels, R; Nijenhuis, Albertine; Mast, L; Kernell, D

    1998-01-01

    Adult female rats were thyroidectomized. After an average of 17 weeks, horseradish peroxidase (HRP) was injected into the right side soleus muscle. Two days later, left side soleus muscle properties were recorded and muscles and spinal cord were removed for further histological measurements. Soleus

  10. Mechanical Stress and Antioxidant Protection in the Retina of Hindlimb Suspended Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Aziza; Theriot, Corey A.; Alway, Stephen E.; Zanello, Susana B.

    2012-01-01

    It has been postulated that hindlimb suspension (HS) causes a cephalad fluid shift in quadrupeds similar to that occurring to humans in microgravity. Therefore, HS may provide a suitable animal model in which to recapitulate the ocular changes observed in the human Visual Impairment and Intracranial Pressure (VIIP) syndrome. This work reports preliminary results from a tissue sharing project using 34 week-old Brown Norway rats. Two different experiments compared normal posture controls and HS rats for 2 weeks and rats exposed to HS for 2 weeks but allowed to recover in normal posture for 2 additional weeks. The effects of two nutritional countermeasures, green tea extract (GT) and plant polyphenol resveratrol (Rv), were also evaluated. Green tea contains the antioxidant epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG). qPCR gene expression analysis of selected targets was performed on RNA from isolated retinas, and histologic analysis was done on one fixed eye per rat. The transcription factor early growth response protein 1 (Egr1) was upregulated almost 2-fold in HS retinas relative to controls (P = 0.059), and its expression returned to control levels after 2 weeks of recovery in normal posture (P = 0.023). HS-induced upregulation of Egr1 was attenuated (but not significantly) in retinas from rats fed an antioxidant rich (GT extract) diet. In rats fed the GT-enriched diet, antioxidant enzymes were induced, evidenced by the upregulation of the gene heme oxygenase 1 (Hmox1) (P = 0.042) and the gene superoxide dismutase 2 (Sod2) (P = 0.0001). Egr1 is a stretch-activated transcription factor, and the Egr1 mechanosensitive response to HS may have been caused by a change in the translaminal pressure and/or mechanical deformation of the eye globe. The observed histologic measurements of the various retinal layers in the HS rats were lower in value than those of the control animal (n = 1), however insufficient data were available for statistical analysis. Aquaporin 4, a water-selective channel involved in interstitial fluid homeostasis, showed an upregulated trend in HS retinas; however, these results are preliminary. Total retinal thickness increased significantly (P = 0.049) in HS rats fed a resveratrol enriched diet compared to HS rats on a normal diet. This change appeared to be reversed during the 2 weeks of recovery post HS, but no differences in retina thickness were observed between HS animals and HS recovered animals when both groups consumed a normal diet. The reversibility of the increase in retinal thickness induced by resveratrol during HS may therefore reflect an interaction between the stress provoked by HS and the cytoprotective mechanisms elicited by resveratrol

  11. Effect of salbutamol on innervated and denervated rat soleus muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ?oic-Vranic T.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present investigation was to perform a 14-day time-course study of treatment with salbutamol, a ß2 adrenoceptor agonist, on rat soleus muscle in order to assess fiber type selectivity in the hypertrophic response and fiber type composition. Male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: control (N = 10, treated with salbutamol (N = 30, denervated (N = 30, and treated with salbutamol after denervation (N = 30. Salbutamol was injected intraperitoneally in the rats of the 2nd and 4th groups at a concentration of 0.3 mg/kg twice a day for 2 weeks. The muscles were denervated using the crush method with pean. The animals were sacrificed 3, 6, 9, 12, and 14 days after treatment. Frozen cross-sections of soleus muscle were stained for myosin ATPase, pH 9.4. Cross-sectional area and percent of muscle fibers were analyzed morphometrically by computerized image analysis. Treatment with salbutamol induced hypertrophy of all fiber types and a higher percentage of type II fibers (21% in the healthy rat soleus muscle. Denervation caused marked atrophy of all fibers and conversion from type I to type II muscle fibers. Denervated muscles treated with salbutamol showed a significantly larger cross-sectional area of type I muscle fibers, 28.2% compared to the denervated untreated muscle. Moreover, the number of type I fibers was increased. These results indicate that administration of salbutamol is able to induce changes in cross-sectional area and fiber type distribution in the early phase of treatment. Since denervation-induced atrophy and conversion from type I to type II fibers were improved by salbutamol treatment we propose that salbutamol, like other ß2 adrenoceptor agonists, may have a therapeutic potential in improving the condition of skeletal muscle after denervation.

  12. Transfection efficiency along the regenerating soleus muscle of the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kósa, Magdolna; Zádor, Ernő

    2013-06-01

    We investigated the efficiency of a single plasmid transfection along the longitudinal axis of the regenerating soleus of young rats. This also reflected transfection efficiency along the fibers because the soleus is a nearly fusiform muscle in young animals. The complete regeneration was induced by notexin and the transfection was made by intramuscular injection of enhanced green fluorescent protein- or Discosoma red-coding plasmids after 4 days. One week after transfection the number of transfected fibers was higher at the place of injection (i.e., in the muscle belly) and lower or absent at the ends of the muscle. The inspection of longitudinal sections and neuromuscular endplates indicated that one of the reasons of uneven transfection might be the shortness of transfected myotubes and the other reason might be the limit of diffusion of transgenic proteins from the expressing nuclei. As a result, the efficiency of transfection in the whole regenerating muscle was much lower than it could be estimated from the most successfully transfected part.

  13. Impaired Translocation of GLUT4 Results in Insulin Resistance of Atrophic Soleus Muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Peng-Tao; Song, Zhen; Zhang, Wen-Cheng; Jiao, Bo; Yu, Zhi-Bin

    2015-01-01

    Whether or not the atrophic skeletal muscle induces insulin resistance and its mechanisms are not resolved now. The antigravity soleus muscle showed a progressive atrophy in 1-week, 2-week, and 4-week tail-suspended rats. Hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp showed that the steady-state glucose infusion rate was lower in 4-week tail-suspended rats than that in the control rats. The glucose uptake rates under insulin- or contraction-stimulation were significantly decreased in 4-week unloaded soleus muscle. The key protein expressions of IRS-1, PI3K, and Akt on the insulin-dependent pathway and of AMPK, ERK, and p38 on the insulin-independent pathway were unchanged in unloaded soleus muscle. The unchanged phosphorylation of Akt and p38 suggested that the activity of two signal pathways was not altered in unloaded soleus muscle. The AS160 and GLUT4 expression on the common downstream pathway also was not changed in unloaded soleus muscle. But the GLUT4 translocation to sarcolemma was inhibited during insulin stimulation in unloaded soleus muscle. The above results suggest that hindlimb unloading in tail-suspended rat induces atrophy in antigravity soleus muscle. The impaired GLUT4 translocation to sarcolemma under insulin stimulation may mediate insulin resistance in unloaded soleus muscle and further affect the insulin sensitivity of whole body in tail-suspended rats. PMID:25713812

  14. Chronic exertional compartment syndrome of the superficial posterior compartment: Soleus syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Christopher E Gross; Bela J Parekh; Samuel B Adams; Selene G Parekh

    2015-01-01

    Chronic exertional compartment syndrome (CECS) represents the second most-common cause of exertional leg pain with incidence of 27-33%. CECS of the superficial posterior compartment, or soleus syndrome, is rare and has only been discussed briefly in the literature. We discuss the management of two patients with bilateral soleus syndrome or CECS of the superficial posterior compartment.

  15. Chronic exertional compartment syndrome of the superficial posterior compartment: Soleus syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Christopher E; Parekh, Bela J; Adams, Samuel B; Parekh, Selene G

    2015-01-01

    Chronic exertional compartment syndrome (CECS) represents the second most-common cause of exertional leg pain with incidence of 27-33%. CECS of the superficial posterior compartment, or soleus syndrome, is rare and has only been discussed briefly in the literature. We discuss the management of two patients with bilateral soleus syndrome or CECS of the superficial posterior compartment.

  16. Lectins binding during alloxan-induced diabetes in rat soleus muscle

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Membrane structural changes of soleus muscle of alloxan-diabetic rats were detected with a panel of six biotinylated lectins. Samples of muscles were obtained from normal and diabetic rats. The biotinylated lectins in staining were detected by avidin-peroxidase complex. Lectin stainning of soleus muscle cryostat sections ...

  17. Elevated interstitial fluid volume in rat soleus muscles by hindlimb unweighting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kandarian, S C; Boushel, Robert Christopher; Schulte, Lars

    1991-01-01

    ) by tail suspension. Soleus muscles were studied after 28 days and compared with those from five age-matched control (C) rats. Interstitial fluid volume ([3H]inulin space) and maximum tetanic tension (Po) were measured in vitro at 25 degrees C. Soleus muscles atrophied 58% because of unweighting (C = 147...

  18. Impaired Translocation of GLUT4 Results in Insulin Resistance of Atrophic Soleus Muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng-Tao Xu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Whether or not the atrophic skeletal muscle induces insulin resistance and its mechanisms are not resolved now. The antigravity soleus muscle showed a progressive atrophy in 1-week, 2-week, and 4-week tail-suspended rats. Hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp showed that the steady-state glucose infusion rate was lower in 4-week tail-suspended rats than that in the control rats. The glucose uptake rates under insulin- or contraction-stimulation were significantly decreased in 4-week unloaded soleus muscle. The key protein expressions of IRS-1, PI3K, and Akt on the insulin-dependent pathway and of AMPK, ERK, and p38 on the insulin-independent pathway were unchanged in unloaded soleus muscle. The unchanged phosphorylation of Akt and p38 suggested that the activity of two signal pathways was not altered in unloaded soleus muscle. The AS160 and GLUT4 expression on the common downstream pathway also was not changed in unloaded soleus muscle. But the GLUT4 translocation to sarcolemma was inhibited during insulin stimulation in unloaded soleus muscle. The above results suggest that hindlimb unloading in tail-suspended rat induces atrophy in antigravity soleus muscle. The impaired GLUT4 translocation to sarcolemma under insulin stimulation may mediate insulin resistance in unloaded soleus muscle and further affect the insulin sensitivity of whole body in tail-suspended rats.

  19. Impaired translocation of GLUT4 results in insulin resistance of atrophic soleus muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Peng-Tao; Song, Zhen; Zhang, Wen-Cheng; Jiao, Bo; Yu, Zhi-Bin

    2015-01-01

    Whether or not the atrophic skeletal muscle induces insulin resistance and its mechanisms are not resolved now. The antigravity soleus muscle showed a progressive atrophy in 1-week, 2-week, and 4-week tail-suspended rats. Hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp showed that the steady-state glucose infusion rate was lower in 4-week tail-suspended rats than that in the control rats. The glucose uptake rates under insulin- or contraction-stimulation were significantly decreased in 4-week unloaded soleus muscle. The key protein expressions of IRS-1, PI3K, and Akt on the insulin-dependent pathway and of AMPK, ERK, and p38 on the insulin-independent pathway were unchanged in unloaded soleus muscle. The unchanged phosphorylation of Akt and p38 suggested that the activity of two signal pathways was not altered in unloaded soleus muscle. The AS160 and GLUT4 expression on the common downstream pathway also was not changed in unloaded soleus muscle. But the GLUT4 translocation to sarcolemma was inhibited during insulin stimulation in unloaded soleus muscle. The above results suggest that hindlimb unloading in tail-suspended rat induces atrophy in antigravity soleus muscle. The impaired GLUT4 translocation to sarcolemma under insulin stimulation may mediate insulin resistance in unloaded soleus muscle and further affect the insulin sensitivity of whole body in tail-suspended rats.

  20. Essential role of satellite cells in the growth of rat soleus muscle fibers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fuminori Kawano; Yoshiaki Takeno; Naoya Nakai; Yoko Higo; Masahiro Terada; Takashi Ohira; Ikuya Nonaka; Yoshinobu Ohira

    2008-01-01

    Effects of gravitational loading or unloading on the growth-associated increase in the cross-sectional area and length of fibers, as well as the total fiber number, in soleus muscle were studied in rats...

  1. Lectins binding during alloxan-induced diabetes in rat soleus muscle

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2008-04-17

    Apr 17, 2008 ... Key words: Diabetes, alloxan, Wistar rat, soleus muscle, lectin staining. ... betes mellitus on skeletal muscle of rats were examined by several authors ..... diagnosis and classification of diabetes mellitus and its complication.

  2. Arterial supply of the soleus muscle: anatomical study of fifty lower limbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raveendran, S S; Kumaragama, K G J L

    2003-05-01

    Soft tissue defects of the lower limb are a formidable challenge to the plastic surgeon but a soleus muscle flap often provides the solution. Various types of soleus muscle flap have been described, based mainly on the vascular supply. The arterial blood supply of the soleus muscle was studied in 50 cadaveric lower limbs. The blood vessels and their branches to the muscle were dissected. The distance of the origin of the perforators was measured from fixed bony landmarks. Branches of the popliteal artery trunk, the posterior tibial artery, and the peroneal artery supplied the soleus muscle. The number of branches to the soleus muscle from these main arteries were analyzed. The medial part of the muscle was supplied throughout its length by perforators arising from the posterior tibial artery. This constant feature makes the medial part of the muscle reliable as a proximally or distally based flap. The average distances of the lower perforators arising from the posterior tibial artery were 6.5 cm, 11.6 cm, and 16.8 cm from the medial malleolus. The branches of the peroneal artery were mostly distributed in the upper half of the muscle. These large pedicles allow a composite transfer of the soleus muscle with the fibula. Lower perforators were demonstrated to arise from the peroneal artery in 60% of the limbs but the scarcity of perforators in this region limits the clinical usefulness of an inferiorly based lateral hemisoleus flap. The study demonstrates the distribution of arteries entering the soleus muscle and how the information may be used in the design of soleus muscle flaps. The average numbers of the perforators arising from the vessels and their distribution have been highlighted. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  3. Stretch Injuries of Skeletal Muscles: Experimental Study in Rats` Soleus Muscle

    OpenAIRE

    PACHIONI, Celia Aparecida Stellutti; Mazzer, Nilton; Barbieri, Claudio Henrique; Camargo, Marcela Regina de [UNESP; Fregonesi, Cristina Elena Prado Teles [UNESP; Carmo, Edna Maria do; NOZABIELLI, Andrea Jeanne Lourenco; Martinelli, Alessandra Rezende

    2009-01-01

    The study aimed to verify the physiological injury behavior by stretching the soleus muscle of rats, using a noninvasive experimental model. Twenty-four rats were used and divided into three groups of eight animals: control group (A), group that performed tetanus followed by electrical stimulation and a sudden dorsiflexion of the left paw performed by a device equipped with a mechanism of muscle soleus rapid stretching (B); and a group that only received the tetanus (C). Three days later, the...

  4. Possible mechanism for changes in glycogen metabolism in unloaded soleus muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriksen, E. J.; Tischler, M. E.

    1985-01-01

    Carbohydrate metabolism has been shown to be affected in a number of ways by different models of hypokinesia. In vivo glycogen levels in the soleus muscle are known to be increased by short-term denervation and harness suspension. In addition, exposure to 7 days of hypogravity also caused a dramatic increase in glycogen concentration in this muscle. The biochemical alterations caused by unloading that may bring about these increases in glycogen storage in the soleus were sought.

  5. Hindlimb unloading induces a collagen isoform shift in the soleus muscle of the rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, T. A.; Lesniewski, L. A.; Muller-Delp, J. M.; Majors, A. K.; Scalise, D.; Delp, M. D.

    2001-01-01

    To determine whether hindlimb unloading (HU) alters the extracellular matrix of skeletal muscle, male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to 0 (n = 11), 1 (n = 11), 14 (n = 13), or 28 (n = 11) days of unloading. Remodeling of the soleus and plantaris muscles was examined biochemically for collagen abundance via measurement of hydroxyproline, and the percentage of cross-sectional area of collagen was determined histologically with picrosirius red staining. Total hydroxyproline content in the soleus and plantaris muscles was unaltered by HU at any time point. However, the relative proportions of type I collagen in the soleus muscle decreased relative to control (Con) with 14 and 28 days HU (Con 68 +/- 5%; 14 days HU 53 +/- 4%; 28 days HU 53 +/- 7%). Correspondingly, type III collagen increased in soleus muscle with 14 and 28 days HU (Con 32 +/- 5%; 14 days HU 47 +/- 4%; 28 days HU 48 +/- 7%). The proportion of type I muscle fibers in soleus muscle was diminished with HU (Con 96 +/- 2%; 14 days HU 86 +/- 1%; 28 days HU 83 +/- 1%), and the proportion of hybrid type I/IIB fibers increased (Con 0%; 14 days HU 8 +/- 2%; 28 days HU 14 +/- 2%). HU had no effect on the proportion of type I and III collagen or muscle fiber composition in plantaris muscle. The data demonstrate that HU induces a shift in the relative proportion of collagen isoform (type I to III) in the antigravity soleus muscle, which occurs concomitantly with a slow-to-fast myofiber transformation.

  6. Passive stretch reduces calpain activity through nitric oxide pathway in unloaded soleus muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Peng-Tao; Li, Quan; Sheng, Juan-Juan; Chang, Hui; Song, Zhen; Yu, Zhi-Bin

    2012-08-01

    Unloading in spaceflight or long-term bed rest induces to pronounced atrophy of anti-gravity skeletal muscles. Passive stretch partially resists unloading-induced atrophy of skeletal muscle, but the mechanism remains elusive. The aims of this study were to investigate the hypotheses that stretch tension might increase protein level of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) in unloaded skeletal muscle, and then nNOS-derived NO alleviated atrophy of skeletal muscle by inhibiting calpain activity. The tail-suspended rats were used to unload rat hindlimbs for 2 weeks, at the same time, left soleus muscle was stretched by applying a plaster cast to fix the ankle at 35° dorsiflexion. Stretch partially resisted atrophy and inhibited the decreased protein level and activity of nNOS in unloaded soleus muscles. Unloading increased frequency of calcium sparks and elevated intracellular resting and caffeine-induced Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]i) in unloaded soleus muscle fibers. Stretch reduced frequency of calcium sparks and restored intracellular resting and caffeine-induced Ca(2+) concentration to control levels in unloaded soleus muscle fibers. The increased protein level and activity of calpain as well as the higher degradation of desmin induced by unloading were inhibited by stretch in soleus muscles. In conclusion, these results suggest that stretch can preserve the stability of sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) release channels which prevents the elevated [Ca(2+)]i by means of keeping nNOS activity, and then the enhanced protein level and activity of calpain return to control levels in unloaded soleus muscles. Therefore, stretch can resist in part atrophy of unloaded soleus muscles.

  7. [Soleus veins: anatomic basis and their role in the origin of deep venous lower limb thrombosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sequeira, Carlos Miguel Gomes; Juliano, Yara; Novo, Neil Ferreira; Mayall, Rubens Carlos; Miranda, Fausto

    2007-01-01

    Study of the number, sectorization and termination of the soleus veins. Meticulous, stratigraphical, anatomical dissections were carried out in the posterior crural region of 100 legs of 50 fresh cadavers. Those belonging to subjects with congenital or acquired pathologies in the lower limbs were disregarded. After the skin was reflected on both sides, dissection of superficial and perforating veins, was performed. Then reflection of the subcutaneous tissue and fascia, detachment and reflection of the gastrocnemius and plantaris muscles, detachment of the tibial origin of the soleus muscle, differentiation of the soleus veins and study of morphometric parameters were carried out. The region was divided into six sectors: superior-medial, superior-lateral, medio-medial, medio-lateral, inferior-medial and inferior-lateral. Data obtained from Wilcoxon and Friedman nonparametric tests were utilized for statistical analysis. In the dissected legs 4679 soleus veins were found. The sector with the greatest number of soleus veins was the superior-lateral (1529 veins - 32.7%), followed by the mediomedial (1.256 veins - 26.8%) and the mediolateral sectors (975 veins - 20.8%). The extremities drained into communicant veins (1.207 veins - 25.8%), posterior tibial veins (964 veins - 20.6%), peroneal veins (709 veins - 15.2%) and into 32 other types (1.799 veins 38.4%). The venous drainage of the soleus muscle is carried out by a great number of soleus veins which are frequently located in the superior-lateral, mediomedial and mediolateral sectors, more often going into the posterior tibial, peroneal and communicant veins.

  8. Glucose transporters and maximal transport are increased in endurance-trained rat soleus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slentz, C. A.; Gulve, E. A.; Rodnick, K. J.; Henriksen, E. J.; Youn, J. H.; Holloszy, J. O.

    1992-01-01

    Voluntary wheel running induces an increase in the concentration of the regulatable glucose transporter (GLUT4) in rat plantaris muscle but not in soleus muscle (K. J. Rodnick, J. O. Holloszy, C. E. Mondon, and D. E. James. Diabetes 39: 1425-1429, 1990). Wheel running also causes hypertrophy of the soleus in rats. This study was undertaken to ascertain whether endurance training that induces enzymatic adaptations but no hypertrophy results in an increase in the concentration of GLUT4 protein in rat soleus (slow-twitch red) muscle and, if it does, to determine whether there is a concomitant increase in maximal glucose transport activity. Female rats were trained by treadmill running at 25 m/min up a 15% grade, 90 min/day, 6 days/wk for 3 wk. This training program induced increases of 52% in citrate synthase activity, 66% in hexokinase activity, and 47% in immunoreactive GLUT4 protein concentration in soleus muscles without causing hypertrophy. Glucose transport activity stimulated maximally with insulin plus contractile activity was increased to roughly the same extent (44%) as GLUT4 protein content in soleus muscle by the treadmill exercise training. In a second set of experiments, we examined whether a swim-training program increases glucose transport activity in the soleus in the presence of a maximally effective concentration of insulin. The swimming program induced a 44% increase in immunoreactive GLUT4 protein concentration. Glucose transport activity maximally stimulated with insulin was 62% greater in soleus muscle of the swimmers than in untrained controls. Training did not alter the basal rate of 2-deoxyglucose uptake.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS).

  9. MRI detection of soleus muscle injuries in professional football players

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pezzotta, G.; Querques, G.; Pecorelli, A.; Nani, R.; Sironi, S. [Papa Giovanni XXIII Hospital, University Milano-Bicocca, Department of Radiology, Bergamo (Italy)

    2017-11-15

    To describe magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) characteristics of soleus muscle injuries in symptomatic professional football players stratified according to both the Munich consensus statement and the British Athletics Muscle Injury Classification (BAMIC), and to investigate the association between specific MRI features and the ''return to play'' (RTP). Professional football players with an episode of acute posterior calf pain and impaired function, subsequent to sports activity, underwent ultrasound followed by MRI examination reviewed by two different radiologists with more than 10 years of experience in the musculoskeletal system. MRI features and RTP outcome were evaluated for all types of injuries. During a 36-month period, a total of 20 professional football players were evaluated. According to the Munich consensus, 11 were type 3A, 8 were type 3B, and 1 was type 4, whereas according to the BAMIC, 11 lesions were considered grade 1, 4 grade 2, 4 grade 3, and 1 grade 4. RTP data were available for all patients (mean 3.3 ± 1.6 weeks). Both the Munich consensus and the BAMIC correlated with RTP (Spearman correlation = 0.982 and p < 0.0001 and 0.886 and p < 0.0001 respectively). Extension of edema was an independent prognostic factor for RTP in two different models of multivariate regression analysis (p = 0.044 model A; p = 0.031 model B). The Munich consensus and BAMIC grading systems are useful tools for defining the patient's prognosis and proper rehabilitation time after injury. The MRI feature that we should carefully look for is the extension of edema, as it seems to significantly affect the RTP. (orig.)

  10. Preliminary Results of Primary Gastrocnemius-Soleus Recession for Midfoot Charcot Arthropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laborde, J Monroe; Philbin, Terrence M; Chandler, Philip J; Daigre, Justin

    2016-04-01

    Background Treatment of Charcot arthopathy of the foot can be challenging. The goal of this investigation was to determine whether primary gastrocnemius-soleus recession could decrease rate of new ulcers, progression of deformity, and amputation in patients with Charcot arthropathy of the midfoot.Methods A retrospective chart review revealed 28 feet in 24 diabetic patients with radiographic evidence of Charcot arthropathy of the midfoot. They were treated with primary gastrocnemius-soleus recession. Eleven feet in 11 patients had concurrent plantar midfoot ulcers. Three feet in 3 patients were lost to follow-up. Twenty-five feet in 21 patients were followed for an average of 37 months postoperatively (range = 18-79).Results A favorable outcome was defined as healing of existing ulcers, no new ulcers, no obvious progression of deformity, and no amputation. Favorable outcomes were obtained in 22 of 25 feet (18 of 21 patients). Only one patient had a persistent ulcer after gastrocnemius-soleus recession. The other 10 patients with preexisting ulcers healed. Deformity of midfoot progressed in one patient, leading ultimately to transtibial amputation. Another patient developed a knee joint infection and had a transfemoral amputation at another institution.Discussion These preliminary data suggest that primary gastrocnemius-soleus recession is followed by a much lower rate of persistent, recurrent, and new ulceration than previously reported studies. Gastrocnemius-soleus recession seems to aid in the treatment of Charcot arthropathy of the midfoot. Level IV. © 2015 The Author(s).

  11. Early alterations in soleus GLUT-4, glucose transport, and glycogen in voluntary running rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriksen, Erik J.; Halseth, Amy E.

    1994-01-01

    Voluntary wheel running (WR) by juvenile female rats was used as a noninterventional model of soleus muscle functional overload to study the regulation of insulin-stimulated glucose transport activity by the glucose transporter (GLUT-4 isoform) protein level and glycogen concentration. Soleus total protein content was significantly greater (+18%;P greater than 0.05) than in age-matched controls after 1 wk of WR, and this hypertrophic response continued in weeks 2-4 (+24-32%). GLUT-4 protein was 39% greater than in controls in 1-wk WR soleus, and this adaptation was accompanied by a similar increase in in vitro insulin-stimulated glucose transport activity(+29%). After 2 and 4 wk of WR, however, insulin-stimulated glucose transport activity had returned to control levels, despite a continued elevation (+25-28%) of GLUT-4 protein. At these two time points, glycogen concentration was significantly enhanced in WR soleus (+21-42%), which coincided with significant reductions in glycogen synthase activity ratios (-23 to-41%). These results indicate that, in this model of soleus muscle functional overload, the GLUT-4 protein level may initially regulate insulin-stimulated glucose transport activity in the absence of changes in other modifying factors. However,this regulation of glucose transport activity by GLUT-4 protein may be subsequently overridden by elevated glycogen concentration.

  12. Soleus muscle in glycosylation-deficient muscular dystrophy is protected from contraction-induced injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumerson, Jessica D; Kabaeva, Zhyldyz T; Davis, Carol S; Faulkner, John A; Michele, Daniel E

    2010-12-01

    The glycosylation of dystroglycan is required for its function as a high-affinity laminin receptor, and loss of dystroglycan glycosylation results in congenital muscular dystrophy. The purpose of this study was to investigate the functional defects in slow- and fast-twitch muscles of glycosylation-deficient Large(myd) mice. While a partial alteration in glycosylation of dystroglycan in heterozygous Large(myd/+) mice was not sufficient to alter muscle function, homozygous Large(myd/myd) mice demonstrated a marked reduction in specific force in both soleus and extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles. Although EDL muscles from Large(myd/myd) mice were highly susceptible to lengthening contraction-induced injury, Large(myd/myd) soleus muscles surprisingly showed no greater force deficit compared with wild-type soleus muscles even after five lengthening contractions. Despite no increased susceptibility to injury, Large(myd/myd) soleus muscles showed loss of dystroglycan glycosylation and laminin binding activity and dystrophic pathology. Interestingly, we show that soleus muscles have a markedly higher sarcolemma expression of β(1)-containing integrins compared with EDL and gastrocnemius muscles. Therefore, we conclude that β(1)-containing integrins play an important role as matrix receptors in protecting muscles containing slow-twitch fibers from contraction-induced injury in the absence of dystroglycan function, and that contraction-induced injury appears to be a separable phenotype from the dystrophic pathology of muscular dystrophy.

  13. Pulsed electromagnetic fields partially preserve bone mass, microarchitecture, and strength by promoting bone formation in hindlimb-suspended rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Da; Cai, Jing; Wu, Yan; Shen, Guanghao; Li, Feijiang; Xu, Qiaoling; Xie, Kangning; Tang, Chi; Liu, Juan; Guo, Wei; Wu, Xiaoming; Jiang, Maogang; Luo, Erping

    2014-10-01

    A large body of evidence indicates that pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMF), as a safe and noninvasive method, could promote in vivo and in vitro osteogenesis. Thus far, the effects and underlying mechanisms of PEMF on disuse osteopenia and/or osteoporosis remain poorly understood. Herein, the efficiency of PEMF on osteoporotic bone microarchitecture, bone strength, and bone metabolism, together with its associated signaling pathway mechanism, was systematically investigated in hindlimb-unloaded (HU) rats. Thirty young mature (3-month-old), male Sprague-Dawley rats were equally assigned to control, HU, and HU + PEMF groups. The HU + PEMF group was subjected to daily 2-hour PEMF exposure at 15 Hz, 2.4 mT. After 4 weeks, micro-computed tomography (µCT) results showed that PEMF ameliorated the deterioration of trabecular and cortical bone microarchitecture. Three-point bending test showed that PEMF mitigated HU-induced reduction in femoral mechanical properties, including maximum load, stiffness, and elastic modulus. Moreover, PEMF increased serum bone formation markers, including osteocalcin (OC) and N-terminal propeptide of type 1 procollagen (P1NP); nevertheless, PEMF exerted minor inhibitory effects on bone resorption markers, including C-terminal crosslinked telopeptides of type I collagen (CTX-I) and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b (TRAcP5b). Bone histomorphometric analysis demonstrated that PEMF increased mineral apposition rate, bone formation rate, and osteoblast numbers in cancellous bone, but PEMF caused no obvious changes on osteoclast numbers. Real-time PCR showed that PEMF promoted tibial gene expressions of Wnt1, LRP5, β-catenin, OPG, and OC, but did not alter RANKL, RANK, or Sost mRNA levels. Moreover, the inhibitory effects of PEMF on disuse-induced osteopenia were further confirmed in 8-month-old mature adult HU rats. Together, these results demonstrate that PEMF alleviated disuse-induced bone loss by promoting skeletal anabolic activities, and imply that PEMF might become a potential biophysical treatment modality for disuse osteoporosis. © 2014 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  14. Short-term locomotor adaptation to a robotic ankle exoskeleton does not alter soleus Hoffmann reflex amplitude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferris Daniel P

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To improve design of robotic lower limb exoskeletons for gait rehabilitation, it is critical to identify neural mechanisms that govern locomotor adaptation to robotic assistance. Previously, we demonstrated soleus muscle recruitment decreased by ~35% when walking with a pneumatically-powered ankle exoskeleton providing plantar flexor torque under soleus proportional myoelectric control. Since a substantial portion of soleus activation during walking results from the stretch reflex, increased reflex inhibition is one potential mechanism for reducing soleus recruitment when walking with exoskeleton assistance. This is clinically relevant because many neurologically impaired populations have hyperactive stretch reflexes and training to reduce the reflexes could lead to substantial improvements in their motor ability. The purpose of this study was to quantify soleus Hoffmann (H- reflex responses during powered versus unpowered walking. Methods We tested soleus H-reflex responses in neurologically intact subjects (n=8 that had trained walking with the soleus controlled robotic ankle exoskeleton. Soleus H-reflex was tested at the mid and late stance while subjects walked with the exoskeleton on the treadmill at 1.25 m/s, first without power (first unpowered, then with power (powered, and finally without power again (second unpowered. We also collected joint kinematics and electromyography. Results When the robotic plantar flexor torque was provided, subjects walked with lower soleus electromyographic (EMG activation (27-48% and had concomitant reductions in H-reflex amplitude (12-24% compared to the first unpowered condition. The H-reflex amplitude in proportion to the background soleus EMG during powered walking was not significantly different from the two unpowered conditions. Conclusion These findings suggest that the nervous system does not inhibit the soleus H-reflex in response to short-term adaption to exoskeleton assistance

  15. Post-activation depression of soleus stretch reflexes in healthy and spastic humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grey, Michael James; Klinge, Klaus; Crone, Clarissa

    2007-01-01

    delivered at different intervals. The magnitude of the stretch reflex and ankle torque response was assessed as a function of the time between perturbations. Soleus stretch reflexes were evoked with constant velocity (175 degrees /s) and amplitude (6 degrees ) plantar flexion perturbations. Soleus H...... of the soleus stretch reflex and H-reflex decreased as the interval between the stimulus/perturbation was decreased. Similarly, the stretch-evoked torque decreased. In the spastic participants, the post-activation depression of both reflexes and the stretch-evoked torque was significantly smaller than...... in healthy participants. These findings demonstrate that post-activation depression is an important factor in the evaluation of stretch reflex excitability and muscle stiffness in spasticity, and they strengthen the hypothesis that reduced post-activation depression plays a role in the pathophysiology...

  16. Facilitation of soleus but not tibialis anterior motor evoked potentials before onset of antagonist contraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geertsen, Svend Sparre; Zuur, Abraham Theodore; Nielsen, Jens Bo

    2008-01-01

    as evidenced by a depression of the soleus H-reflex. The objective of this study was to investigate if motor evoked potentials (MEPs) evoked by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) show a similar depression prior to and at the onset of contraction of muscles that are antagonists to the muscle in which......Objective: It is well documented that corticospinal projections to motoneurons of one muscle inhibit antagonist motoneurons through collaterals to reciprocally organized spinal inhibitory interneurons. During and just prior to dorsiflexion of the ankle, soleus motoneurons are thus inhibited...... the MEP is evoked. Methods: Seated subjects (n=11) were instructed to react to an auditory cue by contracting either the tibialis anterior (TA) or soleus muscle of the left ankle to 30% of their maximal dorsiflexion voluntary contraction (MVC) or plantar flexion MVC, respectively. Focal TMS at 1.2 x motor...

  17. Afferent-mediated modulation of the soleus muscle activity during the stance phase of human walking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nazarena, Mazzaro; Grey, Michael James; do Nascimento, Omar Feix

    2006-01-01

    -mediated contribution from muscle group II afferents, cutaneous and proprioceptive afferents from the foot, and load-sensitive afferents to the soleus EMG. Slow-velocity, small-amplitude ankle trajectory modifications were combined with the pharmaceutical depression of group II polysynaptic pathways with tizanidine......The aim of this study was to investigate the contribution of proprioceptive feedback to the amplitude modulation of the soleus muscle activity during human walking. We have previously shown that slow-velocity, small-amplitude ankle dorsiflexion enhancements and reductions applied during the stance...... hydrochloride, anaesthetic blocking of sensory information from the foot with injections of lidocaine hydrochloride, and modulation of load feedback by increasing and decreasing the body load. The depression of the group II afferents significantly reduced the soleus response to the ankle trajectory...

  18. The soleus syndrome. A cause of medial tibial stress (shin splints).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, R H; Holder, L E

    1985-01-01

    Radionuclide bone scans have demonstrated linear uptake along the posterior medial border of the tibia in patients with shin splints. This area was investigated by anatomical dissection (14 human cadavers), electromyographic (EMG) and muscle stimulation studies (10 patients), and open biopsy (1 patient). Histologically, the increased metabolic activity manifested on the radionuclide scan is due to a periostitis with new bone formation. The soleus muscle and its investing fascia are anatomically and biomechanically implicated in the production of these stress changes, particularly when the heel is in the pronated position. The soleus muscle and fascia form a tough "soleus bridge" over the deep compartment which is thought to be important in patients requiring surgical decompression.

  19. Catalase-positive microperoxisomes in rat soleus and extensor digitorum longus muscle fiber types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Danny A.; Bain, James L. W.; Ellis, Stanley

    1988-01-01

    The size, distribution, and content of catalase-reactive microperoxisomes were investigated cytochemically in three types of muscle fibers from the soleus and the extensor digitorum longus (EDL) of male rats. Muscle fibers were classified on the basis of the mitochondrial content and distribution, the Z-band widths, and the size and shape of myofibrils as the slow-twitch oxidative (SO), the fast-twitch oxidative glycolytic (FOG), and the fast-twitch glycolytic (FG) fibers. It was found that both the EDL and soleus SO fibers possessed the largest microperoxisomes. A comparison of microperoxisome number per muscle fiber area or the microperoxisome area per fiber area revealed following ranking, starting from the largest number and the area-ratio values: soleus SO, EDL SO, EDL FOG, and EDL FG.

  20. Spinal inhibition of descending command to soleus motoneurons is removed prior to dorsiflexion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geertsen, Svend Sparre; van de Ruit, Mark; Grey, Michael James

    2011-01-01

    It has recently been demonstrated that soleus motor evoked potentials (MEPs) are facilitated prior to the onset of dorsiflexion. The purpose of this study was to examine if this could be explained by removal of spinal inhibition of the descending command to soleus motoneurons. To test this, we......, and they were facilitated for CT intervals of 50-55 ms. A similar inhibition of the soleus H-reflex was not observed. To investigate which descending pathways might be responsible for the afferent-evoked inhibition and facilitation, we examined the effect of CPN stimulation on short-latency facilitation (SLF...... are facilitated prior to onset of dorsiflexion contraction. A possible mechanism involves the removal of inhibition of the descending command to the motoneurons at a spinal interneuronal level because the inhibition was seen in LLF and not in SLF and the MEP-inhibition was not observed in the H-reflex. The data...

  1. Intersession reliability of Hoffmann reflex gain and presynaptic inhibition in the human soleus muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Bradley T; Hicks-Little, Charlie A; Harter, Rod A; Widrick, Jeffrey J; Hoffman, Mark A

    2009-12-01

    Hayes BT, Hicks-Little CA, Harter RA, Widrick JJ, Hoffman MA. Intersession reliability of Hoffmann reflex gain and presynaptic inhibition in the human soleus muscle. To determine the day-to-day reliability of Hoffmann reflex (H-reflex) gain and presynaptic inhibition of spinal reflexes in the human soleus muscle. Controlled trial. Research laboratory. Volunteers (N=30; mean +/- SD age, 23.4+/-3.9y; height, 175.64+/-10.87cm; mass, 84.50+/-24.18kg) with no history of lower extremity pathology and/or injury participated. Subjects lay prone with the head, shoulders, arms, and hips supported in a static position by a massage body pillow and the ankle positioned at 90 degrees . Recording electrodes were placed over the soleus and tibialis anterior muscle bellies, and the stimulating electrodes were positioned over the tibial nerve in the popliteal space and the common peroneal nerve near the fibular head. The H-reflex and motor wave recruitment curves were then measured and recorded. Presynaptic inhibition was also assessed in the soleus muscle, and a conditioning stimulation of the common peroneal nerve (1 x motor threshold = motor threshold) was used prior to soleus H-reflex measurement. Two testing sessions took place between 2 and 7 days, and each session occurred at the same time of day. Assessments of H-reflex gain and presynaptic inhibition yielded test-retest reliability of R equal to . 95 and .91, respectively. Measures of presynaptic inhibition and H-reflex gain (H slope/M slope) in the human soleus muscle are consistent and reliable day to day.

  2. Rhythmic arm cycling differentially modulates stretch and H-reflex amplitudes in soleus muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomino, Andres F; Hundza, Sandra R; Zehr, E Paul

    2011-10-01

    During rhythmic arm cycling, soleus H-reflex amplitudes are reduced by modulation of group Ia presynaptic inhibition. This suppression of reflex amplitude is graded to the frequency of arm cycling with a threshold of 0.8 Hz. Despite the data on modulation of the soleus H-reflex amplitude induced by rhythmic arm cycling, comparatively little is known about the modulation of stretch reflexes due to remote limb movement. Therefore, the present study was intended to explore the effect of arm cycling on stretch and H-reflex amplitudes in the soleus muscle. In so doing, additional information on the mechanism of action during rhythmic arm cycling would be revealed. Although both reflexes share the same afferent pathway, we hypothesized that stretch reflex amplitudes would be less suppressed by arm cycling because they are less inhibited by presynaptic inhibition. Failure to reject this hypothesis would add additional strength to the argument that Ia presynaptic inhibition is the mechanism modulating soleus H-reflex amplitude during rhythmic arm cycling. Participants were seated in a customized chair with feet strapped to footplates. Three motor tasks were performed: static control trials and arm cycling at 1 and 2 Hz. Soleus H-reflexes were evoked using single 1 ms pulses of electrical stimulation delivered to the tibial nerve at the popliteal fossa. A constant M-wave and ~6% MVC activation of soleus were maintained across conditions. Stretch reflexes were evoked using a single sinusoidal pulse at 100 Hz given by a vibratory shaker placed over the triceps surae tendon and controlled by a custom-written LabView program. Results demonstrated that rhythmic arm cycling that was effective for conditioning soleus H-reflexes did not show a suppressive effect on the amplitude of the soleus stretch reflex. We suggest this indicates that stretch reflexes are less sensitive to conditioning by rhythmic arm movement, as compared to H-reflexes, due to the relative insensitivity to

  3. Effect of denervation or unweighting on GLUT-4 protein in rat soleus muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriksen, Erik J.; Rodnick, Kenneth J.; Mondon, Carl E.; James, David E.; Holloszy, John O.

    1991-01-01

    The study is intended to test the hypothesis that the decreased capacity for glucose transport in the denervated rat soleus and the increased capacity for glucose transport in the unweighted rat soleus are related to changes in the expression of the regulatable glucose transporter protein in skeletal muscle (GLUT-4). Results obtained indicate that altered GLUT-4 expression may be a major contributor to the changes in insulin-stimulated glucose transport that are observed with denervation and unweighting. It is concluded that muscle activity is an important factor in the regulation of the GLUT-4 expression in skeletal muscle.

  4. Influence of stimulus intensity on the soleus H-reflex amplitude and modulation during locomotion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Erik B; Alkjær, Tine; Raffalt, Peter C

    2013-01-01

    Diverging results have been reported regarding the modulation and amplitude of the soleus H-reflex measured during human walking and running. A possible explanation to this could be the use of too high stimulus strength in some studies while not in others. During activities like walking and runni...

  5. Gastrocnemius vs. soleus strain: how to differentiate and deal with calf muscle injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan Dixon, J

    2009-06-01

    Calf strains are common injuries seen in primary care and sports medicine clinics. Differentiating strains of the gastrocnemius or soleus is important for treatment and prognosis. Simple clinical testing can assist in diagnosis and is aided by knowledge of the anatomy and common clinical presentation.

  6. Gastrocnemius vs. soleus strain: how to differentiate and deal with calf muscle injuries

    OpenAIRE

    Bryan Dixon, J.

    2009-01-01

    Calf strains are common injuries seen in primary care and sports medicine clinics. Differentiating strains of the gastrocnemius or soleus is important for treatment and prognosis. Simple clinical testing can assist in diagnosis and is aided by knowledge of the anatomy and common clinical presentation.

  7. Test-retest reliability of the soleus H-reflex excitability measured during human walking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Erik B; Dyhre-Poulsen, Poul

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate with what accuracy the soleus H-reflex modulation and excitability could be measured during human walking on two occasions separated by days. The maximal M-wave (Mmax) was measured at rest in the standing position. During treadmill walking every stimulu...

  8. DEVELOPMENT OF THE EMG OF THE SOLEUS MUSCLE IN THE RAT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WESTERGA, J; GRAMSBERGEN, A

    1994-01-01

    The EMG of the soleus muscle was recorded with bipolar electrodes chronically implanted in rats aged 10-30 days. Changes in the activity pattern were studied in relation to motor development. The firing pattern and shape of motor units were studied at higher resolution. EMG activity was closely

  9. Spatial facilitation of reciprocal inhibition and crossed inhibitory responses to soleus motoneurons during walking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stevenson, Andrew James Thomas; Geertsen, Svend Sparre; Nielsen, Jens Bo

    2016-01-01

    In humans, short-latency crossed spinal inhibitory reflexes are elicited in the contralateral soleus (cSOL) muscle following stimulation of the ipsilateral posterior tibial nerve (iPTN). To date, the spinal interneurons mediating the cSOL inhibition are unknown. This study investigated whether th...

  10. Human soleus sarcomere lengths measured using in vivo microendoscopy at two ankle flexion angles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xuefeng; Delp, Scott L

    2016-12-08

    The forces generated by the soleus muscle play an important role in standing and locomotion. The lengths of the sarcomeres of the soleus affect its force-generating capacity, yet it is unknown how sarcomere lengths in the soleus change as a function of ankle flexion angle. In this study, we used microendoscopy to measure resting sarcomere lengths at 10° plantarflexion and 20° dorsiflexion in 7 healthy individuals. Mean sarcomere lengths at 10° plantarflexion were 2.84±0.09µm (mean±S.E.M.), near the optimal length for sarcomere force generation. Sarcomere lengths were 3.43±0.09µm at 20° dorsiflexion, indicating that they were longer than optimal length when the ankle was in dorsiflexion and the muscle was inactive. Our results indicate a smaller sarcomere length difference between two ankle flexion angles compared to estimates from musculoskeletal models and suggest why these models frequently underestimate the force-generating capacity of the soleus. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Soleus H-reflex phase-dependent modulation is preserved during stepping within a robotic exoskeleton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knikou, Maria; Hajela, Nupur; Mummidisetty, Chaithanya K; Xiao, Ming; Smith, Andrew C

    2011-07-01

    To investigate to what extent the phase-dependent modulation of the soleus H-reflex is preserved when bilateral leg movements are electromechanically driven by a robotic exoskeleton at different levels of body weight support (BWS) in healthy subjects. The soleus H-reflex was elicited by posterior tibial nerve stimulation with a 1-ms single pulse at an intensity that the M-waves ranged from 4% to 9% of the maximal M-wave across subjects. Stimuli were randomly dispersed across the step cycle which was divided into 16 equal bins. At each bin, a maximal M-wave was elicited 100 ms after the test H-reflex and was used to normalize the associated M-wave and H-reflex. Electromyographic (EMG) activity from major hip, knee, and ankle muscles was recorded with surface bipolar electrodes. For each subject and muscle, the integrated EMG profile was established and plotted as a function of the step cycle phases. The H-reflex gain was determined as the slope of the relationship between the H-reflex and soleus EMG amplitudes at 100 ms before the H-reflex for each bin. During robotic assisted stepping, the phase-dependent soleus H-reflex modulation pattern was preserved and was similar at 25% and 50% BWS, a linear relationship between soleus H-reflex amplitude and background activity was found, and the reflex gain did not change with alterations of the BWS level. EMG amplitudes were smaller at 50% compared to 25% BWS. Body unloading, decreased EMG amplitude of ankle extensors, and reduced ankle movement are not key factors for the soleus H-reflex phasic excitability to be manifested. Robotic devices are utilized for rehabilitation of gait in neurological disorders. Based on our findings, spinal interneuronal circuits involved in the phase-dependent modulation of the soleus H-reflex will be engaged in a physiological manner during robotic assisted stepping in neurological disorders. Copyright © 2010 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland

  12. Balanced Diet-Fed Fat-1 Transgenic Mice Exhibit Lower Hindlimb Suspension-Induced Soleus Muscle Atrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzuca-Nassr, Gabriel Nasri; Martins, Amanda Roque; Vitzel, Kaio Fernando; Crisma, Amanda Rabello; Torres, Rosângela Pavan; Mancini-Filho, Jorge; Kang, Jing Xuan; Curi, Rui

    2017-01-01

    The consequences of two-week hindlimb suspension (HS) on skeletal muscle atrophy were investigated in balanced diet-fed Fat-1 transgenic and C57BL/6 wild-type mice. Body composition and gastrocnemius fatty acid composition were measured. Skeletal muscle force, cross-sectional area (CSA), and signaling pathways associated with protein synthesis (protein kinase B, Akt; ribosomal protein S6, S6, eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E-binding protein 1, 4EBP1; glycogen synthase kinase3-beta, GSK3-beta; and extracellular-signal-regulated kinases 1/2, ERK 1/2) and protein degradation (atrophy gene-1/muscle atrophy F-box, atrogin-1/MAFbx and muscle RING finger 1, MuRF1) were evaluated in the soleus muscle. HS decreased soleus muscle wet and dry weights (by 43% and 26%, respectively), muscle isotonic and tetanic force (by 29% and 18%, respectively), CSA of the soleus muscle (by 36%), and soleus muscle fibers (by 45%). Fat-1 transgenic mice had a decrease in the ω-6/ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) ratio as compared with C57BL/6 wild-type mice (56%, p Fat-1 mice had lower soleus muscle dry mass loss (by 10%) and preserved absolute isotonic force (by 17%) and CSA of the soleus muscle (by 28%) after HS as compared with C57BL/6 wild-type mice. p-GSK3B/GSK3B ratio was increased (by 70%) and MuRF-1 content decreased (by 50%) in the soleus muscle of Fat-1 mice after HS. Balanced diet-fed Fat-1 mice are able to preserve in part the soleus muscle mass, absolute isotonic force and CSA of the soleus muscle in a disuse condition. PMID:28984836

  13. Balanced Diet-Fed Fat-1 Transgenic Mice Exhibit Lower Hindlimb Suspension-Induced Soleus Muscle Atrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Nasri Marzuca-Nassr

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The consequences of two-week hindlimb suspension (HS on skeletal muscle atrophy were investigated in balanced diet-fed Fat-1 transgenic and C57BL/6 wild-type mice. Body composition and gastrocnemius fatty acid composition were measured. Skeletal muscle force, cross-sectional area (CSA, and signaling pathways associated with protein synthesis (protein kinase B, Akt; ribosomal protein S6, S6, eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E-binding protein 1, 4EBP1; glycogen synthase kinase3-beta, GSK3-beta; and extracellular-signal-regulated kinases 1/2, ERK 1/2 and protein degradation (atrophy gene-1/muscle atrophy F-box, atrogin-1/MAFbx and muscle RING finger 1, MuRF1 were evaluated in the soleus muscle. HS decreased soleus muscle wet and dry weights (by 43% and 26%, respectively, muscle isotonic and tetanic force (by 29% and 18%, respectively, CSA of the soleus muscle (by 36%, and soleus muscle fibers (by 45%. Fat-1 transgenic mice had a decrease in the ω-6/ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs ratio as compared with C57BL/6 wild-type mice (56%, p < 0.001. Fat-1 mice had lower soleus muscle dry mass loss (by 10% and preserved absolute isotonic force (by 17% and CSA of the soleus muscle (by 28% after HS as compared with C57BL/6 wild-type mice. p-GSK3B/GSK3B ratio was increased (by 70% and MuRF-1 content decreased (by 50% in the soleus muscle of Fat-1 mice after HS. Balanced diet-fed Fat-1 mice are able to preserve in part the soleus muscle mass, absolute isotonic force and CSA of the soleus muscle in a disuse condition.

  14. Patellar tendon vibration reduces the increased facilitation from quadriceps to soleus in post-stroke hemiparetic individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maupas, Eric; Dyer, Joseph-Omer; Melo, Sibele de Andrade; Forget, Robert

    2017-09-01

    Stimulation of the femoral nerve in healthy people can facilitate soleus H-reflex and electromyography (EMG) activity. In stroke patients, such facilitation of transmission in spinal pathways linking the quadriceps and soleus muscles is enhanced and related to co-activation of knee and ankle extensors while sitting and walking. Soleus H-reflex facilitation can be depressed by vibration of the quadriceps in healthy people, but the effects of such vibration have never been studied on the abnormal soleus facilitation observed in people after stroke. To determine whether vibration of the quadriceps can modify the enhanced heteronymous facilitation of the soleus muscle observed in people with spastic stroke after femoral nerve stimulation and compare post-vibration effects on soleus facilitation in control and stroke individuals. Modulation of voluntary soleus EMG activity induced by femoral nerve stimulation (2×motor threshold) was assessed before, during and after vibration of the patellar tendon in 10 healthy controls and 17 stroke participants. Voluntary soleus EMG activity was facilitated by femoral nerve stimulation in 4/10 (40%) controls and 11/17 (65%) stroke participants. The level of facilitation was greater in the stroke than control group. Vibration significantly reduced early heteronymous facilitation in both groups (50% of pre-vibration values). However, the delay in recovery of soleus facilitation after vibration was shorter for the stroke than control group. The control condition with the vibrator turned off had no effect on the modulation. Patellar tendon vibration can reduce the facilitation between knee and ankle extensors, which suggests effective presynaptic inhibition but decreased post-activation depression in the lower limb of people after chronic hemiparetic stroke. Further studies are warranted to determine whether such vibration could be used to reduce the abnormal extension synergy of knee and ankle extensors in people after hemiparetic

  15. Postfatigue potentiation of the paralyzed soleus muscle: evidence for adaptation with long-term electrical stimulation training

    OpenAIRE

    Shields, Richard K.; Dudley-Javoroski, Shauna; Littmann, Andrew E.

    2006-01-01

    Understanding the torque output behavior of paralyzed muscle has important implications for the use of functional neuromuscular electrical stimulation systems. Postfatigue potentiation is an augmentation of peak muscle torque during repetitive activation after a fatigue protocol. The purposes of this study were 1) to quantify postfatigue potentiation in the acutely and chronically paralyzed soleus and 2) to determine the effect of long-term soleus electrical stimulation training on the potent...

  16. Effect of electromyostimulation training on soleus and gastrocnemii H- and T-reflex properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maffiuletti, Nicola A; Pensini, Manuela; Scaglioni, Gil; Ferri, Alessandra; Ballay, Yves; Martin, Alain

    2003-11-01

    When muscle is artificially activated, as with electromyostimulation (EMS), action potentials are evoked in both intramuscular nerve branches and cutaneous receptors, therefore activating spinal motoneurons reflexively. Maximal soleus and gastrocnemii H- and T-reflex and the respective mechanical output were thus quantified to examine possible neural adaptations induced at the spinal level by EMS resistance training. Eight subjects completed 16 sessions of isometric EMS (75 Hz) over a 4-week period. Maximal soleus and gastrocnemii M wave (M(max)), H reflex (H(max)) and T reflex (T(max)) were compared between before and after training, together with the corresponding plantar flexor peak twitch torque. No significant changes were observed for electromechanical properties of H(max) reflex following EMS. On the other hand, peak twitch torque produced by T(max), but not by equal-amplitude H reflex, significantly increased as a result of training (+21%, P<0.05). These changes were associated with a trend towards a significant increase for normalized gastrocnemii (+21%, P=0.07) but not soleus T(max) reflex. It is concluded that, contrary to results previously obtained after voluntary physical training, EMS training of the plantar flexor muscles did not affect alpha motoneuron excitability and/or presynaptic inhibition, as indicated by H-reflex results. On the other hand, in the absence of change in a control group, T(max) electromechanical findings indicated that: (1). equal-amplitude H- and T-reflex adapted differently to EMS resistance training; and (2). EMS had an effect on gastrocnemii but not on soleus muscle, perhaps because of the differences in respective motor unit characteristics (e.g., axon diameter).

  17. EMG-normalised kinase activation during exercise is higher in human gastrocnemius compared to soleus muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thomas Elbenhardt; Leutert, Robin; Rasmussen, Søren T

    2012-01-01

    In mice, certain proteins show a highly confined expression in specific muscle groups. Also, resting and exercise/contraction-induced phosphorylation responses are higher in rat skeletal muscle with low mitochondrial content compared to muscles with high mitochondrial content, possibly related...... activating soleus and gastrocnemius in a comparable dynamic work-pattern. Hexokinase II and GLUT4 were 46-59% and 26-38% higher (p...

  18. Force-velocity and power characteristics of rat soleus muscle fibers after hindlimb suspension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcdonald, K. S.; Blaser, C. A.; Fitts, R. H.

    1994-01-01

    The effects of 1, 2, and 3 wk of hindlimb suspension (HS) on force-velocity and power characteristics of single rat soleus fibers were determined. After 1, 2, or 3 wk of HA, small fiber bundles were isolated, placed in skinning solution, and stored at -20 C until studied. Single fibers were isolated and placed between a motor arm and force transducer, functional properties were studied, and fiber protein content was subsequently analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Additional fibers were isolated from soleus of control after 1 and 3 wk of HS, and fiber type distribution and myosin light chain stoichiometry were determined from SDS-PAGE analysis. After 1 wk of HS, percent type I fibers declined from 82 to 74%, whereas hybrid fibers increased from 10 to 18%. Percent fast type II fibers increased from 8% in control and 1 wk of HS to 26% by 3 wk of HS. Most fibers showed an increased unloaded maximal shortening velocity (V sub O)), but myosin heavy chain remained entirely slow type I. The mechanism for increased V(sub O) is unknown. There was a progressive decrease in fiber diameter and peak force after 1, 2, and 3 wk of HS, respectively. One week of HS resulted in a shift of the force-velocity curve, and between 2 and 3 wk of HS the curve shifted further such that V(sub O) was higher than control at all relative loads less than 45% peak isometric force. Peak absolute power output of soleus fibers progressively decreased through 2 wk of HS but showed no further change at 3 wk. The results suggest that between 2 and 3 wk the HS-induced alterations in the force-velocity relationship act to maintain the power output of single soleus fibers despite a continued reduction in fiber force.

  19. Metabolic responses to BRL37344 and clenbuterol in soleus muscle and C2C12 cells via different atypical pharmacologies and β2-adrenoceptor mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngala, R A; O'Dowd, J; Wang, S J; Agarwal, A; Stocker, C; Cawthorne, M A; Arch, J R S

    2008-01-01

    Background and purpose: Picomolar concentrations of the β3-adrenoceptor agonist BRL37344 stimulate 2-deoxyglucose uptake in soleus muscle via undefined receptors. Higher concentrations alter uptake, apparently via β2-adrenoceptors. Effects of BRL37344 and β2-adrenoceptor agonists are compared. Experimental approach: Mouse soleus muscles were incubated with 2-deoxy[1-14C]-glucose, [1-14C]-palmitate or [2-14C]-pyruvate, and BRL37344, β2-adrenoceptor agonists and selective β-adrenoceptor antagonists. Formation of 2-deoxy[1-14C]-glucose-6-phosphate or 14CO2 was measured. 2-Deoxy[1-14C]-glucose uptake and β-adrenoceptor mRNA were measured in C2C12 cells. Key results: 10 pM BRL37344, 10 pM clenbuterol and 100 pM salbutamol stimulated 2-deoxyglucose uptake in soleus muscle by 33–54%. The effect of BRL37344 was prevented by 1 μM atenolol but not by 300 nM CGP20712A or IC3118551, or 1 μM SR59230A; that of clenbuterol was prevented by ICI118551 but not atenolol. 10 nM BRL37344 st4mulated 2-deoxyglucose uptake, whereas 100 nM clenbuterol and salbutamol inhibited uptake. These effects were blocked by ICI118551. Similar results were obtained in C2C12 cells, in which only β2-adrenoceptor mRNA could be detected by RT-PCR. 10 nM BRL37344 and 10 pM clenbuterol stimulated muscle palmitate oxidation. In the presence of palmitate, BRL37344 no longer stimulated 2-deoxyglucose uptake and the effect of clenbuterol was not significant. Conclusions and implications: Stimulation of glucose uptake by 10 pM BRL37344 and clenbuterol involves different atypical pharmacologies. Nanomolar concentrations of BRL37344 and clenbuterol, probably acting via β2-adrenoceptors, have opposite effects on glucose uptake. The agonists preferentially stimulate fat rather than carbohydrate oxidation, but stimulation of endogenous fat oxidation cannot explain why 100 nM clenbuterol inhibited 2-deoxyglucose uptake. PMID:18552870

  20. Metabolic responses to BRL37344 and clenbuterol in soleus muscle and C2C12 cells via different atypical pharmacologies and beta2-adrenoceptor mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngala, R A; O'Dowd, J; Wang, S J; Agarwal, A; Stocker, C; Cawthorne, M A; Arch, J R S

    2008-10-01

    Picomolar concentrations of the beta3-adrenoceptor agonist BRL37344 stimulate 2-deoxyglucose uptake in soleus muscle via undefined receptors. Higher concentrations alter uptake, apparently via beta2-adrenoceptors. Effects of BRL37344 and beta2-adrenoceptor agonists are compared. Mouse soleus muscles were incubated with 2-deoxy[1-(14)C]-glucose, [1-(14)C]-palmitate or [2-(14)C]-pyruvate, and BRL37344, beta2-adrenoceptor agonists and selective beta-adrenoceptor antagonists. Formation of 2-deoxy[1-(14)C]-glucose-6-phosphate or (14)CO2 was measured. 2-Deoxy[1-(14)C]-glucose uptake and beta-adrenoceptor mRNA were measured in C2C12 cells. 10 pM BRL37344, 10 pM clenbuterol and 100 pM salbutamol stimulated 2-deoxyglucose uptake in soleus muscle by 33-54%. The effect of BRL37344 was prevented by 1 microM atenolol but not by 300 nM CGP20712A or IC3118551, or 1 microM SR59230A; that of clenbuterol was prevented by ICI118551 but not atenolol. 10 nM BRL37344 stimulated 2-deoxyglucose uptake, whereas 100 nM clenbuterol and salbutamol inhibited uptake. These effects were blocked by ICI118551. Similar results were obtained in C2C12 cells, in which only beta2-adrenoceptor mRNA could be detected by RT-PCR. 10 nM BRL37344 and 10 pM clenbuterol stimulated muscle palmitate oxidation. In the presence of palmitate, BRL37344 no longer stimulated 2-deoxyglucose uptake and the effect of clenbuterol was not significant. Stimulation of glucose uptake by 10 pM BRL37344 and clenbuterol involves different atypical pharmacologies. Nanomolar concentrations of BRL37344 and clenbuterol, probably acting via beta2-adrenoceptors, have opposite effects on glucose uptake. The agonists preferentially stimulate fat rather than carbohydrate oxidation, but stimulation of endogenous fat oxidation cannot explain why 100 nM clenbuterol inhibited 2-deoxyglucose uptake.

  1. Acute rhabdomyolysis of the soleus muscle induced by a lightning strike: magnetic resonance and scintigraphic findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, Naofumi; Inaoka, Tsutomu; Shuke, Noriyuki; Takahashi, Koji; Aburano, Tamio [Asahikawa Medical College, Department of Radiology, Asahikawa (Japan); Chisato, Naoyuki; Go, Kazutomo [Asahikawa Medical College, Department of Emergency Medicine, Asahikawa (Japan); Nochi, Hitoshi [Asahikawa Medical College, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Asahikawa (Japan)

    2007-07-15

    Among natural disasters, a lightning strike is a rare but potentially life-threatening phenomenon. If victims survive a cardiac arrest due to instantaneous passage of an exceptionally high voltage electric charge through the whole body, they may be afflicted with various complications such as muscle necrosis resulting in acute renal failure. In this article, we report a case of a 54-year-old man with acute rhabdomyolysis of the left soleus muscle associated with a lightning strike. T2-weighted and short-tau inversion recovery MR images showed a high signal intensity in the left soleus muscle. A whole-body bone scintigram showed abnormal uptakes in the left soleus muscle and the dorsal aspect of the left foot. MR and scintigraphic evaluations were very useful in depicting the site and extent of muscle damage. Since the patient showed a surprisingly high level of serum creatine kinase, the added information was very valuable for determining the patient's management. (orig.)

  2. Comparative morphometry of fibers and capillaries in soleus following weightlessness (SL-3) and suspension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musacchia, X. J.; Steffen, Joseph M.; Fell, R. D.; Dombrowski, M. J.

    1988-01-01

    This work is a continuation of efforts to assess responses of rat skeletal muscle to weightlessness (W) and earthside laboratory experiments with unloading of hind limbs. The soleus is a slow-twitch, load-bearing (antigravity) muscle. Both exposure to W and to the hypokinesia/hypodynamia of whole-body suspension (WBS) results in soleus atrophy. Cross-sectional areas of both slow- and fast-twitch fibers decrease during 7 days of W or 7 or 14 days of WBS. Density and area changes tended to reverse to control levels during 7 days of recovery (R) following WBS. Capillary density was increased with 7 days of W or 7 or 14 days of WBS. During 7 days of R the capillary density returned toward control levels. In summary, the reduction in fiber cross-sectional areas and the increase in fiber and capillary densities support the hypothesis that in both W and WBS there is a loss in soleus muscle cell mass and not in fiber numbers.

  3. Postfatigue potentiation of the paralyzed soleus muscle: evidence for adaptation with long-term electrical stimulation training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Richard K; Dudley-Javoroski, Shauna; Littmann, Andrew E

    2006-08-01

    Understanding the torque output behavior of paralyzed muscle has important implications for the use of functional neuromuscular electrical stimulation systems. Postfatigue potentiation is an augmentation of peak muscle torque during repetitive activation after a fatigue protocol. The purposes of this study were 1) to quantify postfatigue potentiation in the acutely and chronically paralyzed soleus and 2) to determine the effect of long-term soleus electrical stimulation training on the potentiation characteristics of recently paralyzed soleus muscle. Five subjects with chronic paralysis (>2 yr) demonstrated significant postfatigue potentiation during a repetitive soleus activation protocol that induced low-frequency fatigue. Ten subjects with acute paralysis (stimulation. Seven of these acute subjects completed 2 yr of home-based isometric soleus electrical stimulation training of one limb (compliance = 83%; 8,300 contractions/wk). With the early implementation of electrically stimulated training, potentiation characteristics of trained soleus muscles were preserved as in the acute postinjury state. In contrast, untrained limbs showed marked postfatigue potentiation at 2 yr after spinal cord injury (SCI). A single acute SCI subject who was followed longitudinally developed potentiation characteristics very similar to the untrained limbs of the training subjects. The results of the present investigation support that postfatigue potentiation is a characteristic of fast-fatigable muscle and can be prevented by timely neuromuscular electrical stimulation training. Potentiation is an important consideration in the design of functional electrical stimulation control systems for people with SCI.

  4. Effect of one stretch a week applied to the immobilized soleus muscle on rat muscle fiber morphology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gomes A.R.S.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available We determined the effect of stretching applied once a week to the soleus muscle immobilized in the shortened position on muscle fiber morphology. Twenty-six male Wistar rats weighing 269 ± 26 g were divided into three groups. Group I, the left soleus was immobilized in the shortened position for 3 weeks; group II, the soleus was immobilized in the shortened position and stretched once a week for 3 weeks; group III, the soleus was submitted only to stretching once a week for 3 weeks. The medial part of the soleus muscle was frozen for histology and muscle fiber area evaluation and the lateral part was used for the determination of number and length of serial sarcomeres. Soleus muscle submitted only to immobilization showed a reduction in weight (44 ± 6%, P = 0.002, in serial sarcomere number (23 ± 15% and in cross-sectional area of the fibers (37 ± 31%, P < 0.001 compared to the contralateral muscles. The muscle that was immobilized and stretched showed less muscle fiber atrophy than the muscles only immobilized (P < 0.05. Surprisingly, in the muscles submitted only to stretching, fiber area was decreased compared to the contralateral muscle (2548 ± 659 vs 2961 ± 806 µm², respectively, P < 0.05. In conclusion, stretching applied once a week for 40 min to the soleus muscle immobilized in the shortened position was not sufficient to prevent the reduction of muscle weight and of serial sarcomere number, but provided significant protection against muscle fiber atrophy. In contrast, stretching normal muscles once a week caused a reduction in muscle fiber area.

  5. Abnormalities in the Fiber Composition and Capillary Architecture in the Soleus Muscle of Type 2 Diabetic Goto-Kakizaki Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinichiro Murakami

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes mellitus is linked to impaired skeletal muscle glucose uptake and storage. This study aimed to investigate the fiber type distributions and the three-dimensional (3D architecture of the capillary network in the skeletal muscles of type 2 diabetic rats. Muscle fiber type transformation, succinate dehydrogenase (SDH activity, capillary density, and 3D architecture of the capillary network in the soleus muscle were determined in 36-week-old Goto-Kakizaki (GK rats as an animal model of nonobese type 2 diabetes and age-matched Wistar (Cont rats. Although the soleus muscle of Cont rats comprised both type I and type IIA fibers, the soleus muscle of GK rats had only type I fibers. In addition, total SDH activity in the soleus muscle of GK rats was significantly lower than that in Cont rats because GK rats had no high-SDH activity type IIA fiber in the soleus muscle. Furthermore, the capillary diameter, capillary tortuosity, and microvessel volume in GK rats were significantly lower than those in Cont rats. These results indicate that non-obese diabetic GK rats have muscle fiber type transformation, low SDH activity, and reduced skeletal muscle capillary content, which may be related to the impaired glucose metabolism characteristic of type 2 diabetes.

  6. Effects of teeth clenching on the soleus H reflex during lower limb muscle fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsuyama, Akihiro; Takahashi, Toshiyuki; Ueno, Toshiaki

    2017-04-01

    We assessed whether the soleus H reflex was depressed or facilitated in association with voluntary teeth clenching during muscle fatigue. A total of 13 and 9 healthy adult subjects were instructed to perform right-side tiptoe standing for 5 (TS1) and 10min (TS2) to induce the soleus muscle fatigue. Electromyograms (EMGs) were recorded from the bilateral masseter as well as the right-side soleus muscles. H reflex was evoked using a surface electrode. The isometric muscle strength during plantar flexion was measured. We tested two dental occlusal conditions (1) with maximal voluntary teeth clenching (MVTC) and (2) at mandibular rest position (RP). H reflex was evoked before and after TS1 and TS2. The isometric muscle strength during plantar flexion was measured before and after TS1 and TS2. Mean amplitudes of H reflex with MVTC before and after TS1 were significantly larger than that with RP before and after TS1. The mean peak torque (PT) during isometric plantar flexion was observed significant differences in all subjects. The mean amplitude of H reflex with MVTC before TS2 was significantly larger than that with RP before TS2. No significant difference between RP after TS2 and MVTC after TS2. The mean PT with MVTC before TS2 was significantly larger than that with RP before TS2. There was no significant difference between RP and MVTC after TS2. The present study demonstrated that teeth clenching could facilitate H reflex regardless of the degree of muscle fatigue. Copyright © 2016 Japan Prosthodontic Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Load rather than length sensitive feedback contributes to soleus muscle activity during human treadmill walking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    af Klint, Richard; Mazzaro, Nazarena; Nielsen, Jens Bo

    2010-01-01

    .045), but no significant difference was observed for the SLR (P = 0.13). Similarly, the effect of the BWS was measured on the unload response, i.e., the depression in soleus activity following a plantar-flexion perturbation ( approximately 5.6 degrees, 203-247 degrees/s), quantified over a 50 ms analysis window....... The unload response decreased with decreased load (P > 0.001), but was not significantly affected (P = 0.45) by tizanidine induced depression of the MLR (P = 0.039, n = 6). Since tizanidine is believed to depress the group II afferent pathway, these results are consistent with the idea that force...

  8. Low incoporation of soleus tendon: a potential diagnostic pitfall on MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mellado, J.; Rosenberg, Z.S.; Beltran, J. [Department of Radiology, Hospital for Joint Diseases, 301 E. 17th Street, New York, NY 10003 (United States)

    1998-04-01

    We describe a case of thickening and longitudinal increased signal within the Achilles tendon in a patient denying any recent or previous history of Achilles tendon injury. The MR appearance, while simulating tendinosis or rupture, was compatible with incomplete incorporation of the soleus tendon into the gastrocnemius tendon. This constitutes a normal anatomical variant, not previously described in the radiologic literature, and should not be confused with increased signal and thickening due to disease of the Achilles tendon. (orig.) With 2 figs., 14 refs.

  9. Accessory soleus muscle: a case report and review of the literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palaniappan, M. (Leicester Royal Infirmary (United Kingdom). Dept. of Radiology Royal Liverpool Children' s Hospital (United Kingdom). Dept. of Radiology); Rajesh, A.; Rickett, A. (Leicester Royal Infirmary (United Kingdom). Dept. of Radiology); Kershaw, C.J. (Leicester Royal Infirmary (United Kingdom). Dept. of Orthopaedics)

    1999-08-01

    Accessory soleus muscle is a rare condition which presents as a soft-tissue mass medial to the calcaneum and distal Achilles tendon. Though congenital in origin, it manifests in the second and third decades of life as a soft-tissue mass due to muscle hypertrophy. Patients may be asymptomatic or present with a painful ankle mass. It is important to be aware of this condition when interpreting CT or MRI of the ankle, which show characteristic findings of a normal muscle in an abnormal location. (orig.) With 4 figs., 12 refs.

  10. A simplified immunohistochemical classification of skeletal muscle fibres in mouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kammoun

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The classification of muscle fibres is of particular interest for the study of the skeletal muscle properties in a wide range of scientific fields, especially animal phenotyping. It is therefore important to define a reliable method for classifying fibre types. The aim of this study was to establish a simplified method for the immunohistochemical classification of fibres in mouse. To carry it out, we first tested a combination of several anti myosin heavy chain (MyHC antibodies in order to choose a minimum number of antibodies to implement a semi-automatic classification. Then, we compared the classification of fibres to the MyHC electrophoretic pattern on the same samples. Only two anti MyHC antibodies on serial sections with the fluorescent labeling of the Laminin were necessary to classify properly fibre types in Tibialis Anterior and Soleus mouse muscles in normal physiological conditions. This classification was virtually identical to the classification realized by the electrophoretic separation of MyHC. This immunohistochemical classification can be applied to the total area of Tibialis Anterior and Soleus mouse muscles. Thus, we provide here a useful, simple and time-efficient method for immunohistochemical classification of fibres, applicable for research in mouse

  11. A simplified immunohistochemical classification of skeletal muscle fibres in mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kammoun, M; Cassar-Malek, I; Meunier, B; Picard, B

    2014-06-24

    The classification of muscle fibres is of particular interest for the study of the skeletal muscle properties in a wide range of scientific fields, especially animal phenotyping. It is therefore important to define a reliable method for classifying fibre types. The aim of this study was to establish a simplified method for the immunohistochemical classification of fibres in mouse. To carry it out, we first tested a combination of several anti myosin heavy chain (MyHC) antibodies in order to choose a minimum number of antibodies to implement a semi-automatic classification. Then, we compared the classification of fibres to the MyHC electrophoretic pattern on the same samples. Only two anti MyHC antibodies on serial sections with the fluorescent labeling of the Laminin were necessary to classify properly fibre types in Tibialis Anterior and Soleus mouse muscles in normal physiological conditions. This classification was virtually identical to the classification realized by the electrophoretic separation of MyHC. This immunohistochemical classification can be applied to the total area of Tibialis Anterior and Soleus mouse muscles. Thus, we provide here a useful, simple and time-efficient method for immunohistochemical classification of fibres, applicable for research in mouse.

  12. Myotoxic effects of clenbuterol in the rat heart and soleus muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burniston, Jatin G; Ng, Yeelan; Clark, William A; Colyer, John; Tan, Lip-Bun; Goldspink, David F

    2002-11-01

    Myocyte-specific necrosis in the heart and soleus muscle of adult male Wistar rats was investigated in response to a single subcutaneous injection of the anabolic beta(2)-adrenergic receptor agonist clenbuterol. Necrosis was immunohistochemically detected by administration of a myosin antibody 1 h before the clenbuterol challenge and quantified by using image analysis. Clenbuterol-induced myocyte necrosis occurred against a background of zero damage in control muscles. In the heart, the clenbuterol-induced necrosis was not uniform, being more abundant in the left subendocardium and peaking 2.4 mm from the apex. After position (2.4 mm from the apex), dose (5 mg clenbuterol/kg), and sampling time (12 h) were optimized, maximum cardiomyocyte necrosis was found to be 1.0 +/- 0.2%. In response to the same parameters (i.e., 5 mg of clenbuterol and sampled at 12 h), skeletal myocyte necrosis was 4.4 +/- 0.8% in the soleus. These data show significant myocyte-specific necrosis in the heart and skeletal muscle of the rat. Such irreversible damage in the heart suggests that clenbuterol may be damaging to long-term health.

  13. Changes in soleus H-reflex during walking in middle-aged, healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raffalt, Peter C; Alkjær, Tine; Simonsen, Erik B

    2015-01-01

    -reflex amplitude during walking was affected by aging, and changes during the swing phase could be seen in the middle-aged subjects. Subdividing the 2 age groups into groups of facilitated or suppressed swing-phase H-reflex revealed that the H-reflex amplitude modulation pattern in the group with facilitated swing......INTRODUCTION: To assess the effect of aging on stretch reflex modulation during walking, soleus H-reflexes obtained in 15 middle-aged (mean age 56.4±6.9 years) and 15 young (mean age 23.7±3.9 years) subjects were compared. METHODS: The H-reflex amplitude, muscle activity (EMG) of the soleus...... and tibialis anterior muscles, and EMG/H-reflex gain were measured during 4-km/h treadmill walking. RESULTS: The normalized H-reflex amplitude was lower in the swing phase for the middle-aged group, and there was no difference in muscle activity. EMG/H-reflex gain did not differ between groups. CONCLUSIONS: H...

  14. Reflex response and control of the human soleus and gastrocnemius muscles during walking and running at increasing velocity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Erik B; Alkjær, Tine; Raffalt, Peter C

    2012-01-01

    than the soleus H-reflex. In both muscles the H-reflex increased significantly from walking to running but also with increasing running speed. The peak of EMG activity increased in both muscles with increasing speed. The V-wave of both muscles was absent or rather low during walking, but it increased...... significantly from walking to running with increasing running speed in the soleus but not in the medial gastrocnemius. In both muscles the V-wave was highest just prior to heel strike. It is suggested that this was due to a high firing frequency of the motoneurones in this phase of the movement. It is concluded...

  15. Lecithin Prevents Cortical Cytoskeleton Reorganization in Rat Soleus Muscle Fibers under Short-Term Gravitational Disuse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina V Ogneva

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to prevent the cortical cytoskeleton reorganization of rat soleus muscle fibers under short-term gravitational disuse. Once a day, we injected the right soleus muscle with 0.5 ml lecithin at a concentration of 200 mg/ml and the left soleus muscle with a diluted solution in an equal volume for 3 days prior to the experiment. To simulate microgravity conditions in rats, an anti-orthostatic suspension was used according to the Ilyin-Novikov method modified by Morey-Holton et al. for 6 hours. The following groups of soleus muscle tissues were examined: "C", "C+L", "HS", and "HS+L". The transversal stiffness of rat soleus muscle fibers after 6 hours of suspension did not differ from that of the control group for the corresponding legs; there were no differences between the groups without lecithin «C» and «HS» or between the groups with lecithin "C+L" and "HS+L". However, lecithin treatment for three days resulted in an increase in cell stiffness; in the "C+L" group, cell stiffness was significantly higher by 22.7% (p < 0.05 compared with that of group "C". The mRNA content of genes encoding beta- and gamma-actin and beta-tubulin did not significantly differ before and after suspension in the corresponding groups. However, there was a significant increase in the mRNA content of these genes after lecithin treatment: the beta-actin and gamma-actin mRNA content in group "C+L" increased by 200% compared with that of group "C", and beta-tubulin increased by 100% (as well as the mRNA content of tubulin-binding proteins Ckap5, Tcp1, Cct5 and Cct7. In addition, desmin mRNA content remained unchanged in all of the experimental groups. As a result of the lecithin injections, there was a redistribution of the mRNA content of genes encoding actin monomer- and filament-binding proteins in the direction of increasing actin polymerization and filament stability; the mRNA content of Arpc3 and Lcp1 increased by 3- and 5-fold, respectively

  16. Lecithin Prevents Cortical Cytoskeleton Reorganization in Rat Soleus Muscle Fibers under Short-Term Gravitational Disuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogneva, Irina V; Biryukov, Nikolay S

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to prevent the cortical cytoskeleton reorganization of rat soleus muscle fibers under short-term gravitational disuse. Once a day, we injected the right soleus muscle with 0.5 ml lecithin at a concentration of 200 mg/ml and the left soleus muscle with a diluted solution in an equal volume for 3 days prior to the experiment. To simulate microgravity conditions in rats, an anti-orthostatic suspension was used according to the Ilyin-Novikov method modified by Morey-Holton et al. for 6 hours. The following groups of soleus muscle tissues were examined: "C", "C+L", "HS", and "HS+L". The transversal stiffness of rat soleus muscle fibers after 6 hours of suspension did not differ from that of the control group for the corresponding legs; there were no differences between the groups without lecithin «C» and «HS» or between the groups with lecithin "C+L" and "HS+L". However, lecithin treatment for three days resulted in an increase in cell stiffness; in the "C+L" group, cell stiffness was significantly higher by 22.7% (p lecithin treatment: the beta-actin and gamma-actin mRNA content in group "C+L" increased by 200% compared with that of group "C", and beta-tubulin increased by 100% (as well as the mRNA content of tubulin-binding proteins Ckap5, Tcp1, Cct5 and Cct7). In addition, desmin mRNA content remained unchanged in all of the experimental groups. As a result of the lecithin injections, there was a redistribution of the mRNA content of genes encoding actin monomer- and filament-binding proteins in the direction of increasing actin polymerization and filament stability; the mRNA content of Arpc3 and Lcp1 increased by 3- and 5-fold, respectively, but the levels of Tmod1 and Svil decreased by 2- and 5-fold, respectively. However, gravitational disuse did not result in changes in the mRNA content of Arpc3, Tmod1, Svil or Lcp1. Anti-orthostatic suspension for 6 hours resulted in a decrease in the mRNA content of alpha-actinin-4 (Actn4) and

  17. Coordinate Transcriptomic and Metabolomic Effects of the Insulin Sensitizer Rosiglitazone on Fundamental Metabolic Pathways in Liver, Soleus Muscle, and Adipose Tissue in Diabetic db/db Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Le Bouter

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Rosiglitazone (RSG, developed for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus, is known to have potent effects on carbohydrate and lipid metabolism leading to the improvement of insulin sensitivity in target tissues. To further assess the capacity of RSG to normalize gene expression in insulin-sensitive tissues, we compared groups of 18-day-treated db/db mice with increasing oral doses of RSG (10, 30, and 100 mg/kg/d with untreated non-diabetic littermates (db/+. For this aim, transcriptional changes were measured in liver, inguinal adipose tissue (IAT and soleus muscle using microarrays and real-time PCR. In parallel, targeted metabolomic assessment of lipids (triglycerides (TGs and free fatty acids (FFAs in plasma and tissues was performed by UPLC-MS methods. Multivariate analyses revealed a relationship between the differential gene expressions in liver and liver trioleate content and between blood glucose levels and a combination of differentially expressed genes measured in liver, IAT, and muscle. In summary, we have integrated gene expression and targeted metabolomic data to present a comprehensive overview of RSG-induced changes in a diabetes mouse model and improved the molecular understanding of how RSG ameliorates diabetes through its effect on the major insulin-sensitive tissues.

  18. Aging in Rats Differentially Affects Markers of Transcriptional and Translational Capacity in Soleus and Plantaris Muscle

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    Christopher B. Mobley

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Alterations in transcriptional and translational mechanisms occur during skeletal muscle aging and such changes may contribute to age-related atrophy. Herein, we examined markers related to global transcriptional output (i.e., myonuclear number, total mRNA and RNA pol II levels, translational efficiency [i.e., eukaryotic initiation and elongation factor levels and muscle protein synthesis (MPS levels] and translational capacity (ribosome density in the slow-twitch soleus and fast-twitch plantaris muscles of male Fischer 344 rats aged 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months (n = 9–10 per group. We also examined alterations in markers of proteolysis and oxidative stress in these muscles (i.e., 20S proteasome activity, poly-ubiquinated protein levels and 4-HNE levels. Notable plantaris muscle observations included: (a fiber cross sectional area (CSA was 59% (p < 0.05 and 48% (p < 0.05 greater in 12 month vs. 3 month and 24 month rats, respectively, suggesting a peak lifetime value near 12 months and age-related atrophy by 24 months, (b MPS levels were greatest in 18 month rats (p < 0.05 despite the onset of atrophy, (c while regulators of ribosome biogenesis [c-Myc and upstream binding factor (UBF protein levels] generally increased with age, ribosome density linearly decreased from 3 months of age and RNA polymerase (Pol I protein levels were lowest in 24 month rats, and d 20S proteasome activity was robustly up-regulated in 6 and 24 month rats (p < 0.05. Notable soleus muscle observations included: (a fiber CSA was greatest in 6 month rats and was maintained in older age groups, and (b 20S proteasome activity was modestly but significantly greater in 24 month vs. 3/12/18 month rats (p < 0.05, and (c total mRNA levels (suggestive of transcriptional output trended downward in older rats despite non-significant between-group differences in myonuclear number and/or RNA Pol II protein levels. Collectively, these findings suggest that plantaris, not soleus

  19. Musculus soleus of rats at physical activity and L-carnitine and creatine phosphate effect

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    Irina A. Khutorskaya

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The study of the effect of metabolic drugs on the histochemical characteristics of soleus muscle is relevant for solving the problem of providing the training process in Russia with non-doping drugs for safe correction of the consequences of intense physical activity in athletes. Materials and Methods: Dynamic physical activity in rats (n = 24 was simulated by swimming “to the limit” with weighting of 10 % of body weight (20 days, 1 time per day. The experimental animals were divided into four groups (6 animals each: № 1 – control, № 2 – swimming + isotonic NaCl solution, № 3 and № 4 – swimming + L-carnitine or creatine phosphate 100.0 mg/kg daily intraperitoneally. The object of the study was musculus soleus. Differentiation of muscle fibers was carried out by the intensity of histochemical activity of succinate dehydrogenase (SDG and alkaline stable adenosine triphosphate (ATP of myosin. The percentage of muscle fibers was evaluated and their diameter was defined by the direct morphometry. The obtained data were treated statistically by Student’s T-test. Results: Swimming of the animals “to the limit” do not affect the ratio of fibers with different phenotypes in the soleus muscle. This indicator is genetically determined and was not modified by L-carnitine and creatine phosphate. Dynamic physical activity promotes the development of hypertrophy of muscle fibers of various types. The investigated medicaments of the metabolic type either do not influence on the formation of exerciseinduced hypertrophy (predominantly creatine phosphate or reduce the intensity of the hypertrophic process (predominantly L-carnitine under dynamic physical activity. Discussion and Conclusions: The obtained data indicate L-carnitine and creatine phosphate do not have an anabolic effect. Taking into account the relevant data on ability of L-carnitine and creatine phosphate to effectively correct a negative effects of intensive

  20. STRUCTURAL-CHANGES OF THE SOLEUS AND THE TIBIALIS ANTERIOR MOTONEURON POOL DURING DEVELOPMENT IN THE RAT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WESTERGA, J; GRAMSBERGEN, A

    1992-01-01

    The morphological development of motoneuron pools of two hindlimb muscles of the rat, soleus (SOL) and tibialis anterior (TA), was studied in rats ranging in age between 8 and 30 postnatal days (P8-P30). Motoneurons were retrogradely labelled by injecting a cholera toxin B subunit solution directly

  1. β2-Adrenoceptors and non-β-adrenoceptors mediate effects of BRL37344 and clenbuterol on glucose uptake in soleus muscle: studies using knockout mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngala, Robert A; O'Dowd, Jacqueline; Wang, Steven J; Stocker, Claire; Cawthorne, Michael A; Arch, Jonathan RS

    2009-01-01

    Background and purpose: In previous work, 10 pM BRL37344 and 10 pM clenbuterol stimulated glucose uptake in mouse soleus muscle. Ten nM BRL37344 also stimulated uptake but 100 nM clenbuterol inhibited uptake. Antagonist studies suggested that the opposite effects of 10 nM BRL37344 and 100 nM clenbuterol are mediated by the β2-adrenoceptor. BRL37344 and clenbuterol have been studied in muscles that lack β3-, β2- or all three β-adrenoceptors. Effects of β-adrenoceptor antagonists on responses to the agonists have been studied further using muscles from wild-type mice. Experimental approach: Soleus muscles of wild-type or β-adrenoceptor knockout mice were incubated with 2-deoxy[1-14C]-glucose, and β-adrenoceptor ligands. Formation of 2-deoxy[1-14C]-glucose-6-phosphate was measured. Key results: Concentration–response relationships were similar for BRL37344 and clenbuterol in normal muscle and muscle lacking β3-adrenoceptors. Ten pM BRL37344 and clenbuterol stimulated glucose uptake in muscle lacking β2-adrenoceptors or all three β-adrenoceptors, but 10 nM BRL37344 did not stimulate uptake in either case, and 100 nM clenbuterol stimulated, rather than inhibited, uptake in muscle lacking β2-adrenoceptors. One hundred nM clenbuterol also stimulated glucose uptake in normal muscle when β2-adrenoceptors were blocked with ICI118551, and this was not prevented by antagonism of β1- or β3-adrenoceptors. Conclusions and implications: Ten nM BRL37344 and 100 nM clenbuterol have opposite effects on glucose uptake but both effects are mediated by the β2-adrenoceptor – apparently an example of agonist-directed signalling. Ten pM BRL37344, 10 pM clenbuterol and 100 nM clenbuterol in the presence of ICI118551 stimulate glucose uptake via β-adrenoceptor-independent mechanisms, demonstrating unknown properties for the agonists. PMID:19912225

  2. Beta2-adrenoceptors and non-beta-adrenoceptors mediate effects of BRL37344 and clenbuterol on glucose uptake in soleus muscle: studies using knockout mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngala, Robert A; O'Dowd, Jacqueline; Wang, Steven J; Stocker, Claire; Cawthorne, Michael A; Arch, Jonathan R S

    2009-12-01

    In previous work, 10 pM BRL37344 and 10 pM clenbuterol stimulated glucose uptake in mouse soleus muscle. Ten nM BRL37344 also stimulated uptake but 100 nM clenbuterol inhibited uptake. Antagonist studies suggested that the opposite effects of 10 nM BRL37344 and 100 nM clenbuterol are mediated by the beta(2)-adrenoceptor. BRL37344 and clenbuterol have been studied in muscles that lack beta(3)-, beta(2)- or all three beta-adrenoceptors. Effects of beta-adrenoceptor antagonists on responses to the agonists have been studied further using muscles from wild-type mice. Soleus muscles of wild-type or beta-adrenoceptor knockout mice were incubated with 2-deoxy[1-(14)C]-glucose, and beta-adrenoceptor ligands. Formation of 2-deoxy[1-(14)C]-glucose-6-phosphate was measured. Concentration-response relationships were similar for BRL37344 and clenbuterol in normal muscle and muscle lacking beta(3)-adrenoceptors. Ten pM BRL37344 and clenbuterol stimulated glucose uptake in muscle lacking beta(2)-adrenoceptors or all three beta-adrenoceptors, but 10 nM BRL37344 did not stimulate uptake in either case, and 100 nM clenbuterol stimulated, rather than inhibited, uptake in muscle lacking beta(2)-adrenoceptors. One hundred nM clenbuterol also stimulated glucose uptake in normal muscle when beta(2)-adrenoceptors were blocked with ICI118551, and this was not prevented by antagonism of beta(1)- or beta(3)-adrenoceptors. Ten nM BRL37344 and 100 nM clenbuterol have opposite effects on glucose uptake but both effects are mediated by the beta(2)-adrenoceptor - apparently an example of agonist-directed signalling. Ten pM BRL37344, 10 pM clenbuterol and 100 nM clenbuterol in the presence of ICI118551 stimulate glucose uptake via beta-adrenoceptor-independent mechanisms, demonstrating unknown properties for the agonists.

  3. Decreased contribution from afferent feedback to the soleus muscle during walking in patients with spastic stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mazzaro, Nazarena; Nielsen, Jørgen Feldbæk; Grey, Michael James

    2007-01-01

    We investigated the contribution of afferent feedback to the soleus (SOL) muscle activity during the stance phase of walking in patients with spastic stroke. A total of 24 patients with hemiparetic spastic stroke and age-matched healthy volunteers participated in the study. A robotic actuator...... attached to the foot and leg was used to apply 3 types of ankle perturbations during treadmill walking. First, fast dorsiflexion perturbations were applied to elicit stretch reflexes in the SOL muscle. The SOL short-latency stretch reflex was facilitated in the patients (1.4 +/- 0.3) compared...... with the healthy volunteers (1.0 +/- 0.3, P = .05). Second, fast plantar flexion perturbations were applied during the stance phase to unload the plantar flexor muscles, thus, removing the afferent input from these muscles to the SOL motoneurons. These perturbations produced a distinct decrease in SOL activity...

  4. Effects of muscle activation on shear between human soleus and gastrocnemius muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finni, T; Cronin, N J; Mayfield, D; Lichtwark, G A; Cresswell, A G

    2017-01-01

    Lateral connections between muscles provide pathways for myofascial force transmission. To elucidate whether these pathways have functional roles in vivo, we examined whether activation could alter the shear between the soleus (SOL) and lateral gastrocnemius (LG) muscles. We hypothesized that selective activation of LG would decrease the stretch-induced shear between LG and SOL. Eleven volunteers underwent a series of knee joint manipulations where plantar flexion force, LG, and SOL muscle fascicle lengths and relative displacement of aponeuroses between the muscles were obtained. Data during a passive full range of motion were recorded, followed by 20° knee extension stretches in both passive conditions and with selective electrical stimulation of LG. During active stretch, plantar flexion force was 22% greater (P muscles, at least at flexed knee joint angles, which may serve to facilitate myofascial force transmission. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Altered distribution of mitochondria in rat soleus muscle fibers after spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Gordon J.; Martin, Thomas P.; Il'ina-Kakueva, E. I.; Oganov, V. S.; Edgerton, V. R.

    1992-01-01

    The effect of an exposure to microgravity on the distribution of the succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) activity throughout the soleus muscle fibers was investigated by measuring SDH activity throughout the cross section of 20-30 fibers each of the slow-twitch oxidative and fast-twitch oxidative-glycolytic types of fibers in rats exposed to 12.5 days in space aboard Cosmos 1887. It was found that, after the spaceflight, the entire regional distribution of SDH activity was significantly altered (as compared to ground controls) in the slow-twitch oxidative fibers, whereas the fast-twitch oxidative-glycolytic fibers from muscles of flown rats exhibited a significantly lower SDH activity only in their subsarcolemmal region.

  6. Effects of long-duration bed rest on structural compartments of m. soleus in man

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belozerova, I.; Shenkman, B.; Mazin, M.; Leblanc, A.; LeBlanc, A. D. (Principal Investigator)

    2001-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), histomorphometry and electron microscopy of muscle demonstrate that long-term exposure to actual or simulated weightlessness (including head down bed rest) leads to decreased volume of antigravity muscles in mammals. In muscles interbundle space is occupied by the connective tissue. Rat studies show that hindlimb unloading induces muscle fiber atrophy along with increase in muscle non-fiber connective tissue compartment. Beside that, usually 20% of the muscle fiber volume is comprised by non-contractile (non-myofibrillar) compartment. The aim of the present study was to compare changes in muscle volume, and in muscle fiber size with alterations in myofibrillar apparatus, and in connective tissue compartment in human m. soleus under conditions of 120 day long head down bed rest (HDBR).

  7. Effects of long-term microgravitation exposure on cell respiration of the rat musculus soleus fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veselova, O M; Ogneva, I V; Larina, I M

    2011-07-01

    Cell respiration of the m. soleus fibers was studied in Wistar rats treated with succinic acid and exposed to microgravitation for 35 days. The results indicated that respiration rates during utilization of endogenous and exogenous substrates and the maximum respiration rate decreased in animals subjected to microgravitation without succinate treatment. The respiration rate during utilization of exogenous substrate did not increase in comparison with that on endogenous substrates. Succinic acid prevented the decrease in respiration rate on endogenous substrates and the maximum respiration rate. On the other hand, the respiration rate on exogenous substrates was reduced in vivarium control rats receiving succinate in comparison with intact control group. That could indicate changed efficiency of complex I of the respiratory chain due to reciprocal regulation of the tricarbonic acid cycle.

  8. Contribution of afferent feedback to the soleus muscle activity during human locomotion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mazzaro, Nazarena; Grey, Michael James; Sinkjær, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    During the stance phase of the human step cycle, the ankle undergoes a natural dorsiflexion that stretches the soleus muscle. The afferent feedback resulting from this stretch enhances the locomotor drive. In this study a robotic actuator was used to slightly enhance or reduce the natural ankle...... enhancements was reduced when the group Ia afferents were blocked with peripheral ischemia at the thigh, and during high-frequency Achilles tendon vibration. However, neither ischemia nor tendon vibration affected the decrements in the SOL EMG during the dorsiflexion reductions. These findings give evidence...... of the contribution of afferent feedback to the SOL activity in an ongoing basis during the stance phase. The results suggest that mainly feedback from the group Ia pathways is responsible for the increments in the SOL EMG during the dorsiflexion enhancements. However, the decrements in the SOL activity might...

  9. Unusual extended fibular origin of the human soleus muscle: possible morpho-physiologic significance based on comparative anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barberini, F; Bucciarelli-Ducci, C; Zani, A; Cerasoli, D

    2003-09-01

    A bilateral anomalous extended origin of the soleus muscle was observed in a 73-year-old female cadaver. It arose from the head, neck, and proximal two-thirds of the medial crest of the fibula and ran through the posterior intermuscular septum of the leg, from the lateral border of the fibula. The soleus muscle formed the vault of a muscular tunnel, overcoming the deep flexor muscles of the leg that was about 15 cm in length and directed inferiorly and laterally. The extended fibular origin delimited a blind recess lateral to the muscular tunnel and parallel to the posterior surface of the fibula. This recess measured 6.5 cm in length and extended 3.5 cm above the inferior opening of the muscular tunnel; the superior portion of the flexor hallucis longus was housed within it between the portions of the extended origin from the medial crest of the fibula and posterior intermuscular septum. The neurovascular bundle of the posterior leg coursed in the muscular tunnel. The tibial origin and calcaneal insertion of the soleus muscle were normal. Phylogenetic studies of the muscles of the lower limbs in mammals indicate that the fibular origin of soleus is more constant than the tibial origin and, in primates, the fibular origin is the only one observed in most monkeys. The case reported might be considered a conspicuous enlargement of the fibular origin observed in primates. This large fibular origin of the soleus muscle may prove to be a difficulty during surgery when accessing the proximal two-thirds of the fibula for ligation of the peroneal artery. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  10. Effects of Combined Stretching and Clenbuterol on Disuse Atrophy in Rat Soleus Muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokogawa, Masami; Tachino, Katsuhiko

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background and Purpose: Clinically, disuse muscle atrophy is often seen among patients who are severely debilited and are on prolonged bed rest. Common physical therapy interventions are not successful in preventing disuse muscle atrophy early in the medical treatment of critically ill patients. In situations such as this, the use of a β2-adrenergic agonist such as clenbuterol (Cb) may be of benefit in preventing atrophy. Also, recent studies have suggested that stretching is possible in preventing disuse muscle atrophy and the decline in muscle strength. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of Cb medication combined with stretching (ST) on rat soleus muscle (SOL) during the progression of disuse muscle atrophy. Subjects: Thirty-five male Wistar rats were used in this study. Methods: The rats were divided into five groups: control (CON), hindlimb-unweighting (HU) only, HU+ST, HU+Cb medication, and HU+ST+Cb groups. The right SOL in stretching groups was maintained a stretched position for one hour daily by passively dorsiflexing the ankle joint under non-anesthesia. The experimental period was 2 weeks. Results: In the ST group, peak twitch tension per cross-sectional area in soleus muscle was significantly larger than in the Cb group, while there was no significant difference between the CON and ST groups. The conversion of type I to type II fibers that was observed in the Cb group was not recognized in the combined ST and Cb group. Discussion and Conclusion: Distinct effect of combined stretching and Cb medication was not recognized statistically. The results indicate that Cb affects muscle morphological characteristics while stretching affects contractile properties. These data suggest that a combined ST and Cb intervention considered the type-specificity of muscle fiber may be need more consideration for preventing disuse muscle atrophy and the decline in muscle strength. PMID:25792889

  11. The effect of a low dose of clenbuterol on rat soleus muscle submitted to joint immobilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancelliero, K M; Durigan, J L Q; Vieira, R P; Silva, C A; Polacow, M L O

    2008-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of joint immobilization on morphometric parameters and glycogen content of soleus muscle treated with clenbuterol. Male Wistar (3-4 months old) rats were divided into 4 groups (N = 6 for each group): control, clenbuterol, immobilized, and immobilized treated with clenbuterol. Immobilization was performed with acrylic resin orthoses and 10 microg/kg body weight clenbuterol was administered subcutaneously for 7 days. The following parameters were measured the next day on soleus muscle: weight, glycogen content, cross-sectional area, and connective tissue content. The clenbuterol group showed an increase in glycogen (81.6%, 0.38 +/- 0.09 vs 0.69 +/- 0.06 mg/100 g; P clenbuterol group showed an increase in weight (15.9%; 81.3 +/- 4.6 vs 94.2 +/- 4.3 mg; P < 0.05), glycogen content (92.3%, 0.26 +/- 0.05 vs 0.50 +/- 0.17 mg/100 mg; P < 0.05), and cross-sectional area (19.9%, 1438.1 +/- 352.2 vs 1724.8 +/- 365.5 microm(2); P < 0.05) and a reduction in connective tissue (52.2%, 27.92 +/- 5.36 vs 13.34 +/- 6.86%; P < 0.05). Statistical analysis was performed using Kolmogorov-Smirnov and homoscedasticity tests. For the muscle weight and muscle glycogen content, two-way ANOVA and the Tukey test were used. For the cross-sectional area and connective tissue content, Kruskal-Wallis and Tukey tests were used. This study emphasizes the importance of anabolic pharmacological protection during immobilization to minimize skeletal muscle alterations resulting from disuse.

  12. Musculoskeletal adaptations in chronic spinal cord injury: effects of long-term soleus electrical stimulation training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Richard K; Dudley-Javoroski, Shauna

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether long-term electrical stimulation training of the paralyzed soleus could change this muscle's physiological properties (torque, fatigue index, potentiation index, torque-time integral) and increase tibia bone mineral density. Four men with chronic (>2 years) complete spinal cord injury (SCI; American Spinal Injury Association classification A) trained 1 soleus muscle using an isometric plantar flexion electrical stimulation protocol. The untrained limb served as a within-subject control. The protocol involved ~ 30 minutes of training each day, 5 days a week, for a period of 6 to 11 months. Mean compliance over 11 months of training was 91% for 3 subjects. A fourth subject achieved high compliance after only 5 months of training. Mean estimated compressive loads delivered to the tibia were approximately 110% of body weight. Over the 11 months of training, the muscle plantar flexion torque, fatigue index, potentiation index, and torque-time integral were evaluated periodically. Bone mineral density (dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry) was evaluated before and after the training program. The trained limb fatigue index, potentiation index, and torque-time integral showed rapid and robust training effects (Pelectrical stimulation training yielded no changes to the proximal tibia bone mineral density, as measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. The subject with low compliance experienced fatigue index and torque-time integral improvements only when his compliance surpassed 80%. In contrast, his potentiation index showed adaptations even when compliance was low. These findings highlight the persistent adaptive capabilities of chronically paralyzed muscle but suggest that preventing musculoskeletal adaptations after SCI may be more effective than reversing changes in the chronic condition.

  13. Cell Respiration of Rat Cardiomyocytes and Soleus Muscle Fibers under Ultra-Short-Term Antiorthostatic Suspension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina V. Ogneva

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to analyses rat soleus fibers and left ventricle (LV cardiomyocyte cell respiration after 6, 12, 18, 24 and 72 hours of antiorthostatic suspension by the tail. We measured V0 – basal oxygen consumption rate, V Glu+Mal – respiration velocity over a catalyst of malate and glutamate (5 mM glutamate + 2 mM malate and Vmax – maximal respiratory rate (in the presence of 1 mM ADP using the Saks polarography technique. We also determined the cytochrome c content and expression of its gene (Cycs and the GAPDH gene using Western blotting and real-time PCR. Cell respiration parameters in cardiomyocytes increased after 18 hours of suspension: V0 increased by 35%, VGlu+Mal by 90% and Vmax by 85% in comparison with the control group (p<0.05. Cytochrome c content in a mix of the membrane and mitochondrial fractions grew by 34.6% (p<0.05 compared to control after 18 hours. However, Cycs and Gapdh expression rates remained stable. Protein content increase in this case may result from increased translation efficiency and/or a reduction in the level of proteolysis. Intensity of soleus fiber cell respiration decreased after 72 hours of suspension, V0 decreased by 76%, VGlu+Mal by 59% and Vmax by 53% compared to controls (p<0.05. Cytochrome c content fell after 24 hours of suspension by 15.7% (p<0.05 and by 57.9% (p<0.05 after 72 hours relative to controls. At the same time, Cycs mRNA content decreased after 6 hours of unloading by 23% (p<0.05 and continued to decrease to 59% (p<0.05 of the control level after 72 hours.

  14. Soleus H-reflex gain in humans walking and running under simulated reduced gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferris, D. P.; Aagaard, P.; Simonsen, E. B.; Farley, C. T.; Dyhre-Poulsen, P.

    2001-01-01

    The Hoffmann (H-) reflex is an electrical analogue of the monosynaptic stretch reflex, elicited by bypassing the muscle spindle and directly stimulating the afferent nerve. Studying H-reflex modulation provides insight into how the nervous system centrally modulates stretch reflex responses.A common measure of H-reflex gain is the slope of the relationship between H-reflex amplitude and EMG amplitude. To examine soleus H-reflex gain across a range of EMG levels during human locomotion, we used simulated reduced gravity to reduce muscle activity. We hypothesised that H-reflex gain would be independent of gravity level.We recorded EMG from eight subjects walking (1.25 m s-1) and running (3.0 m s-1) at four gravity levels (1.0, 0.75, 0.5 and 0.25 G (Earth gravity)). We normalised the stimulus M-wave and resulting H-reflex to the maximal M-wave amplitude (Mmax) elicited throughout the stride to correct for movement of stimulus and recording electrodes relative to nerve and muscle fibres. Peak soleus EMG amplitude decreased by 30% for walking and for running over the fourfold change in gravity. As hypothesised, slopes of linear regressions fitted to H-reflex versus EMG data were independent of gravity for walking and running (ANOVA, P > 0.8). The slopes were also independent of gait (P > 0.6), contrary to previous studies. Walking had a greater y-intercept (19.9% Mmax) than running (-2.5% Mmax; P neural mechanisms responsible for spinal modulation of the stretch reflex during human locomotion.

  15. Sympathetic outflow enhances the stretch reflex response in the relaxed soleus muscle in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjortskov, Nis; Skotte, Jørgen; Hye-Knudsen, Christian; Fallentin, Nils

    2005-04-01

    Animal experiments suggest that an increase in sympathetic outflow can depress muscle spindle sensitivity and thus modulate the stretch reflex response. The results are, however, controversial, and human studies have failed to demonstrate a direct influence of the sympathetic nervous system on the sensitivity of muscle spindles. We studied the effect of increased sympathetic outflow on the short-latency stretch reflex in the soleus muscle evoked by tapping the Achilles tendon. Nine subjects performed three maneuvers causing a sustained activation of sympathetic outflow to the leg: 3 min of static handgrip exercise at 30% of maximal voluntary contraction, followed by 3 min of posthandgrip ischemia, and finally during a 3-min mental arithmetic task. Electromyography was measured from the soleus muscle with bipolar surface electrodes during the Achilles tendon tapping, and beat-to-beat changes in heart rate and mean arterial blood pressure were monitored continuously. Mean arterial pressure was significantly elevated during all three maneuvers, whereas heart rate was significantly elevated during static handgrip exercise and mental arithmetic but not during posthandgrip ischemia. The peak-to-peak amplitude of the short-latency stretch reflex was significantly increased during mental arithmetic (P < 0.05), static handgrip exercise (P < 0.001), and posthandgrip ischemia (P < 0.005). When expressed in percent change from rest, the mean peak-to-peak amplitude increased by 111 (SD 100)% during mental arithmetic, by 160 (SD 103)% during static handgrip exercise, and by 90 (SD 67)% during posthandgrip ischemia. The study clearly indicates a facilitation of the short-latency stretch reflex during increased sympathetic outflow. We note that the enhanced stretch reflex responses observed in relaxed muscles in the absence of skeletomotor activity support the idea that the sympathetic nervous system can exert a direct influence on the human muscle spindles.

  16. Intermittent stretch training of rabbit plantarflexor muscles increases soleus mass and serial sarcomere number.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Jaeger, Dominique; Joumaa, Venus; Herzog, Walter

    2015-06-15

    In humans, enhanced joint range of motion is observed after static stretch training and results either from an increased stretch tolerance or from a change in the biomechanical properties of the muscle-tendon unit. We investigated the effects of an intermittent stretch training on muscle biomechanical and structural variables. The left plantarflexors muscles of seven anesthetized New Zealand (NZ) White rabbits were passively and statically stretched three times a week for 4 wk, while the corresponding right muscles were used as nonstretched contralateral controls. Before and after the stretching protocol, passive torque produced by the left plantarflexor muscles as a function of the ankle angle was measured. The left and right plantarflexor muscles were harvested from dead rabbits and used to quantify possible changes in muscle structure. Significant mass and serial sarcomere number increases were observed in the stretched soleus but not in the plantaris or medial gastrocnemius. This difference in adaptation between the plantarflexors is thought to be the result of their different fiber type composition and pennation angles. Neither titin isoform nor collagen amount was modified in the stretched compared with the control soleus muscle. Passive torque developed during ankle dorsiflexion was not modified after the stretch training on average, but was decreased in five of the seven experimental rabbits. Thus, an intermittent stretching program similar to those used in humans can produce a change in the muscle structure of NZ White rabbits, which was associated in some rabbits with a change in the biomechanical properties of the muscle-tendon unit. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  17. Concurrent deficits of soleus and gastrocnemius muscle fascicles and Achilles tendon post stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Heng; Ren, Yupeng; Roth, Elliot J.; Harvey, Richard L.

    2015-01-01

    Calf muscles and Achilles tendon play important roles in functional activities. However, it is not clear how biomechanical properties of the uniarticular soleus (SOL) and biarticular gastrocnemius muscle and Achilles tendon, including the fascicle length, pennation angle, and stiffness, change concurrently post stroke. Biomechanical properties of the medial gastrocnemius (GM) and soleus muscles were evaluated bilaterally in 10 hemiparetic stroke survivors using combined ultrasonography-biomechanical measurements. Biomechanical properties of the Achilles tendon including the length, cross-sectional area (CSA), stiffness, and Young's modulus were evaluated, together with calf muscle biomechanical properties. Gastrocnemius and SOL contributions were separated using flexed and extended knee positions. The impaired side showed decreased fascicle length (GM: 6%, P = 0.002 and SOL: 9%, P = 0.03, at full knee extension and 0° ankle dorsiflexion) and increased fascicular stiffness (GM: 64%, P = 0.005 and SOL: 19%, P = 0.012, at a common 50 N force level). In contrast, Achilles tendon on the impaired side showed changes in the opposite direction as the muscle fascicles with increased tendon length (5%, P tendon CSA (5%, P = 0.04), decreased tendon stiffness (42%, P tendon stiffness changes were correlated negatively to the corresponding fascicle and tendon length changes, and decrease in Achilles tendon stiffness was correlated to the increases of SOL and GM fascicular stiffness (P Achilles tendon biomechanical properties help us better understand concurrent changes of fascicles and tendon as part of the calf muscle-tendon unit and facilitate development of more effective treatments. PMID:25663670

  18. Effects of pleiotrophin overexpression on mouse skeletal muscles in normal loading and in actual and simulated microgravity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camerino, Giulia Maria; Pierno, Sabata; Liantonio, Antonella; De Bellis, Michela; Cannone, Maria; Sblendorio, Valeriana; Conte, Elena; Mele, Antonietta; Tricarico, Domenico; Tavella, Sara; Ruggiu, Alessandra; Cancedda, Ranieri; Ohira, Yoshinobu; Danieli-Betto, Daniela; Ciciliot, Stefano; Germinario, Elena; Sandonà, Dorianna; Betto, Romeo; Camerino, Diana Conte; Desaphy, Jean-François

    2013-01-01

    Pleiotrophin (PTN) is a widespread cytokine involved in bone formation, neurite outgrowth, and angiogenesis. In skeletal muscle, PTN is upregulated during myogenesis, post-synaptic induction, and regeneration after crushing, but little is known regarding its effects on muscle function. Here, we describe the effects of PTN on the slow-twitch soleus and fast-twitch extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles in mice over-expressing PTN under the control of a bone promoter. The mice were maintained in normal loading or disuse condition, induced by hindlimb unloading (HU) for 14 days. Effects of exposition to near-zero gravity during a 3-months spaceflight (SF) into the Mice Drawer System are also reported. In normal loading, PTN overexpression had no effect on muscle fiber cross-sectional area, but shifted soleus muscle toward a slower phenotype, as shown by an increased number of oxidative type 1 fibers, and increased gene expression of cytochrome c oxidase subunit IV and citrate synthase. The cytokine increased soleus and EDL capillary-to-fiber ratio. PTN overexpression did not prevent soleus muscle atrophy, slow-to-fast transition, and capillary regression induced by SF and HU. Nevertheless, PTN exerted various effects on sarcolemma ion channel expression/function and resting cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration in soleus and EDL muscles, in normal loading and after HU. In conclusion, the results show very similar effects of HU and SF on mouse soleus muscle, including activation of specific gene programs. The EDL muscle is able to counterbalance this latter, probably by activating compensatory mechanisms. The numerous effects of PTN on muscle gene expression and functional parameters demonstrate the sensitivity of muscle fibers to the cytokine. Although little benefit was found in HU muscle disuse, PTN may emerge useful in various muscle diseases, because it exerts synergetic actions on muscle fibers and vessels, which could enforce oxidative metabolism and ameliorate muscle

  19. Extracorporeal shock wave therapy of gastroc-soleus trigger points in patients with plantar fasciitis: A randomized, placebo-controlled trial

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    Alireza Moghtaderi

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: The combination of ESWT for both plantar fasciitis and gastroc-soleus trigger points in treating patients with plantar fasciitis is more effective than utilizing it solely for plantar fasciitis.

  20. Effect of a 17 day spaceflight on contractile properties of human soleus muscle fibres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widrick, J. J.; Knuth, S. T.; Norenberg, K. M.; Romatowski, J. G.; Bain, J. L.; Riley, D. A.; Karhanek, M.; Trappe, S. W.; Trappe, T. A.; Costill, D. L.; hide

    1999-01-01

    1. Soleus biopsies were obtained from four male astronauts 45 days before and within 2 h after a 17 day spaceflight. 2. For all astronauts, single chemically skinned post-flight fibres expressing only type I myosin heavy chain (MHC) developed less average peak Ca2+ activated force (Po) during fixed-end contractions (0.78 +/- 0. 02 vs. 0.99 +/- 0.03 mN) and shortened at a greater mean velocity during unloaded contractions (Vo) (0.83 +/- 0.02 vs. 0.64 +/- 0.02 fibre lengths s-1) than pre-flight type I fibres. 3. The flight-induced decline in absolute Po was attributed to reductions in fibre diameter and/or Po per fibre cross-sectional area. Fibres from the astronaut who experienced the greatest relative loss of peak force also displayed a reduction in Ca2+ sensitivity. 4. The elevated Vo of the post-flight slow type I fibres could not be explained by alterations in myosin heavy or light chain composition. One alternative possibility is that the elevated Vo resulted from an increased myofilament lattice spacing. This hypothesis was supported by electron micrographic analysis demonstrating a reduction in thin filament density post-flight. 5. Post-flight fibres shortened at 30 % higher velocities than pre-flight fibres at external loads associated with peak power output. This increase in shortening velocity either reduced (2 astronauts) or prevented (2 astronauts) a post-flight loss in fibre absolute peak power (microN (fibre length) s-1). 6. The changes in soleus fibre diameter and function following spaceflight were similar to those observed after 17 days of bed rest. Although in-flight exercise countermeasures probably reduced the effects of microgravity, the results support the idea that ground-based bed rest can serve as a model of human spaceflight. 7. In conclusion, 17 days of spaceflight decreased force and increased shortening velocity of single Ca2+-activated muscle cells expressing type I MHC. The increase in shortening velocity greatly reduced the impact

  1. The effect of a low dose of clenbuterol on rat soleus muscle submitted to joint immobilization

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    K.M. Cancelliero

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of joint immobilization on morphometric parameters and glycogen content of soleus muscle treated with clenbuterol. Male Wistar (3-4 months old rats were divided into 4 groups (N = 6 for each group: control, clenbuterol, immobilized, and immobilized treated with clenbuterol. Immobilization was performed with acrylic resin orthoses and 10 µg/kg body weight clenbuterol was administered subcutaneously for 7 days. The following parameters were measured the next day on soleus muscle: weight, glycogen content, cross-sectional area, and connective tissue content. The clenbuterol group showed an increase in glycogen (81.6%, 0.38 ± 0.09 vs 0.69 ± 0.06 mg/100 g; P < 0.05 without alteration in weight, cross-sectional area or connective tissue compared with the control group. The immobilized group showed a reduction in muscle weight (34.2%, 123.5 ± 5.3 vs 81.3 ± 4.6 mg; P < 0.05, glycogen content (31.6%, 0.38 ± 0.09 vs 0.26 ± 0.05 mg/100 mg; P < 0.05 and cross-sectional area (44.1%, 2574.9 ± 560.2 vs 1438.1 ± 352.2 µm²; P < 0.05 and an increase in connective tissue (216.5%, 8.82 ± 3.55 vs 27.92 ± 5.36%; P < 0.05. However, the immobilized + clenbuterol group showed an increase in weight (15.9%; 81.3 ± 4.6 vs 94.2 ± 4.3 mg; P < 0.05, glycogen content (92.3%, 0.26 ± 0.05 vs 0.50 ± 0.17 mg/100 mg; P < 0.05, and cross-sectional area (19.9%, 1438.1 ± 352.2 vs 1724.8 ± 365.5 µm²; P < 0.05 and a reduction in connective tissue (52.2%, 27.92 ± 5.36 vs 13.34 ± 6.86%; P < 0.05. Statistical analysis was performed using Kolmogorov-Smirnov and homoscedasticity tests. For the muscle weight and muscle glycogen content, two-way ANOVA and the Tukey test were used. For the cross-sectional area and connective tissue content, Kruskal-Wallis and Tukey tests were used. This study emphasizes the importance of anabolic pharmacological protection during immobilization to minimize skeletal muscle alterations

  2. Slope walking causes short-term changes in soleus H-reflex excitability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabatier, Manning J; Wedewer, Wesley; Barton, Ben; Henderson, Eric; Murphy, John T; Ou, Kar

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that downslope treadmill walking decreases spinal excitability. Soleus H-reflexes were measured in sixteen adults on 3 days. Measurements were taken before and twice after 20 min of treadmill walking at 2.5 mph (starting at 10 and 45 min post). Participants walked on a different slope each day [level (Lv), upslope (Us) or downslope (Ds)]. The tibial nerve was electrically stimulated with a range of intensities to construct the M-response and H-reflex curves. Maximum evoked responses (Hmax and Mmax) and slopes of the ascending limbs (Hslp and Mslp) of the curves were evaluated. Rate-dependent depression (RDD) was measured as the % depression of the H-reflex when measured at a rate of 1.0 Hz versus 0.1 Hz. Heart rate (HR), blood pressure (BP), and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) were measured during walking. Ds and Lv walking reduced the Hmax/Mmax ratio (P = 0.001 & P = 0.02), although the reduction was larger for Ds walking (29.3 ± 6.2% vs. 6.8 ± 5.2%, P = 0.02). The reduction associated with Ds walking was correlated with physical activity level as measured via questionnaire (r = −0.52, P = 0.04). Us walking caused an increase in the Hslp/Mslp ratio (P = 0.03) and a decrease in RDD (P = 0.04). These changes recovered by 45 min. Exercise HR and BP were highest during Us walking. RPE was greater during Ds and Us walking compared to Lv walking, but did not exceed “Fairly light” for Ds walking. In conclusion, in healthy adults treadmill walking has a short-term effect on soleus H-reflex excitability that is determined by the slope of the treadmill surface. PMID:25742955

  3. Acute Gastrocnemius-Soleus Complex Injuries in National Football League Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Brian C.; Belkin, Nicole S.; Kennelly, Steve; Weiss, Leigh; Barnes, Ronnie P.; Potter, Hollis G.; Warren, Russell F.; Rodeo, Scott A.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Lower extremity muscle injuries are common in professional football. Although less common than hamstring or quadriceps injuries in National Football League (NFL) athletes, calf injuries occur with relative frequency and have not previously been studied. Purpose: To evaluate gastrocnemius-soleus complex muscle injuries over the past 13 years from a single NFL team to determine the incidence of such injuries, their imaging characteristics, and return to play after such injuries and any correlation between imaging findings and prolonged return to play. Study Design: Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Methods: A retrospective review of all acute calf muscle injuries on a single NFL team from 2003 to 2015 was performed. Player demographics and return-to-play data were obtained from the medical records. All available magnetic resonance images (MRIs) were reviewed by a musculoskeletal radiologist for specific imaging findings that correlated with return to play. Results: A total of 27 calf injuries in 24 NFL players were reviewed, yielding an incidence of 2.3 acute calf injuries per year on a single NFL team. Of these 27 injuries, 20 (74%) were isolated injuries to the gastrocnemius muscle, 4 (15%) were isolated injuries to the soleus muscle, and the remaining 3 injuries (11%) involved both. Defensive players were more likely to sustain injuries (P = .043). The mean time to return to play for all 27 players was 17.4 ± 14.6 days (range, 3-62 days). MRIs were available in 14 of the 27 injuries. The average size of the fascial defect (P = .032) and the presence of a fluid collection (P = .031) both correlated with return to play of longer than 2 weeks. Conclusion: Although less common than hamstring or quadriceps muscle injuries, calf muscle injuries occur with relative frequency in the NFL, and more so in defensive players. The majority of these injuries occur in the gastrocnemius and result in significant disability, with at least 2 weeks of missed playing

  4. Three-Dimensional Muscle Architecture and Comprehensive Dynamic Properties of Rabbit Gastrocnemius, Plantaris and Soleus: Input for Simulation Studies.

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    Tobias Siebert

    Full Text Available The vastly increasing number of neuro-muscular simulation studies (with increasing numbers of muscles used per simulation is in sharp contrast to a narrow database of necessary muscle parameters. Simulation results depend heavily on rough parameter estimates often obtained by scaling of one muscle parameter set. However, in vivo muscles differ in their individual properties and architecture. Here we provide a comprehensive dataset of dynamic (n = 6 per muscle and geometric (three-dimensional architecture, n = 3 per muscle muscle properties of the rabbit calf muscles gastrocnemius, plantaris, and soleus. For completeness we provide the dynamic muscle properties for further important shank muscles (flexor digitorum longus, extensor digitorum longus, and tibialis anterior; n = 1 per muscle. Maximum shortening velocity (normalized to optimal fiber length of the gastrocnemius is about twice that of soleus, while plantaris showed an intermediate value. The force-velocity relation is similar for gastrocnemius and plantaris but is much more bent for the soleus. Although the muscles vary greatly in their three-dimensional architecture their mean pennation angle and normalized force-length relationships are almost similar. Forces of the muscles were enhanced in the isometric phase following stretching and were depressed following shortening compared to the corresponding isometric forces. While the enhancement was independent of the ramp velocity, the depression was inversely related to the ramp velocity. The lowest effect strength for soleus supports the idea that these effects adapt to muscle function. The careful acquisition of typical dynamical parameters (e.g. force-length and force-velocity relations, force elongation relations of passive components, enhancement and depression effects, and 3D muscle architecture of calf muscles provides valuable comprehensive datasets for e.g. simulations with neuro-muscular models, development of more realistic

  5. Jumping in aquatic environment after sciatic nerve compression: nociceptive evaluation and morphological characteristics of the soleus muscle of Wistar rats

    OpenAIRE

    Malanotte, Jéssica Aline; Kakihata,Camila Mayumi Martin; Karvat, Jhenifer; Brancalhão, Rose Meire Costa; Ribeiro,Lucinéia de Fátima Chasko; Bertolini, Gladson Ricardo Flor

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective To evaluate the effect of jumping in aquatic environment on nociception and in the soleus muscle of trained and not trained Wistar rats, in the treatment of compressive neuropathy of the sciatic nerve. Methods Twenty-five Wistar rats were distributed into five groups: Control, Lesion, Trained + Lesion, Lesion + Exercise, and Trained + Lesion + Exercise. The training was jumping exercise in water environment for 20 days prior to injury, and treatment after the injury. No...

  6. Isoform-Specific Na,K-ATPase Alterations Precede Disuse-Induced Atrophy of Rat Soleus Muscle

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    Violetta V. Kravtsova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the isoform-specific effects of short-term hindlimb suspension (HS on the Na,K-ATPase in rat soleus muscle. Rats were exposed to 24–72 h of HS and we analyzed the consequences on soleus muscle mass and contractile parameters; excitability and the resting membrane potential (RMP of muscle fibers; the electrogenic activity, protein, and mRNA content of the α1 and α2 Na,K-ATPase; the functional activity and plasma membrane localization of the α2 Na,K-ATPase. Our results indicate that 24–72 h of HS specifically decreases the electrogenic activity of the Na,K-ATPase α2 isozyme and the RMP of soleus muscle fibers. This decrease occurs prior to muscle atrophy or any change in contractile parameters. The α2 mRNA and protein content increased after 24 h of HS and returned to initial levels at 72 h; however, even the increased content was not able to restore α2 enzyme activity in the disused soleus muscle. There was no change in the membrane localization of α2 Na,K-ATPase. The α1 Na,K-ATPase electrogenic activity, protein and mRNA content did not change. Our findings suggest that skeletal muscle use is absolutely required for α2 Na,K-ATPase transport activity and provide the first evidence that Na,K-ATPase alterations precede HS-induced muscle atrophy.

  7. Effects of icing or heat stress on the induction of fibrosis and/or regeneration of injured rat soleus muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibaguchi, Tsubasa; Sugiura, Takao; Fujitsu, Takanori; Nomura, Takumi; Yoshihara, Toshinori; Naito, Hisashi; Yoshioka, Toshitada; Ogura, Akihiko; Ohira, Yoshinobu

    2016-07-01

    The effects of icing or heat stress on the regeneration of injured soleus muscle were investigated in male Wistar rats. Bupivacaine was injected into soleus muscles bilaterally to induce muscle injury. Icing (0 °C, 20 min) was carried out immediately after the injury. Heat stress (42 °C, 30 min) was applied every other day during 2-14 days after the bupivacaine injection. Injury-related increase in collagen deposition was promoted by icing. However, the level of collagen deposition in heat-stressed animals was maintained at control levels throughout the experimental period and was significantly lower than that in icing-treated animals at 15 and 28 days after bupivacaine injection. Furthermore, the recovery of muscle mass, protein content, and muscle fiber size of injured soleus toward control levels was partially facilitated by heat stress. These results suggest that, compared with icing, heat stress may be a beneficial treatment for successful muscle regeneration at least by reducing fibrosis.

  8. Astaxanthin Supplementation Delays Physical Exhaustion and Prevents Redox Imbalances in Plasma and Soleus Muscles of Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana G. Polotow

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Astaxanthin (ASTA is a pinkish-orange carotenoid commonly found in marine organisms, especially salmon. ASTA is a powerful antioxidant and suggested to provide benefits for human health, including the inhibition of LDL oxidation, UV-photoprotection, and prophylaxis of bacterial stomach ulcers. Exercise is associated to overproduction of free radicals in muscles and plasma, with pivotal participation of iron ions and glutathione (GSH. Thus, ASTA was studied here as an auxiliary supplement to improve antioxidant defenses in soleus muscles and plasma against oxidative damage induced by exhaustive exercise. Long-term 1 mg ASTA/kg body weight (BW supplementation in Wistar rats (for 45 days significantly delayed time to exhaustion by 29% in a swimming test. ASTA supplementation increased scavenging/iron-chelating capacities (TEAC/FRAP and limited exercise-induced iron overload and its related pro-oxidant effects in plasma of exercising animals. On the other hand, ASTA induced significant mitochondrial Mn-dependent superoxide dismutase and cytosolic glutathione peroxidase antioxidant responses in soleus muscles that, in turn, increased GSH content during exercise, limited oxidative stress, and delayed exhaustion. We also provided significant discussion about a putative “mitochondrial-targeted” action of ASTA based on previous publications and on the positive results found in the highly mitochondrial populated (oxidative-type soleus muscles here.

  9. The immediate effect of soleus trigger point pressure release on restricted ankle joint dorsiflexion: A pilot randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grieve, Rob; Clark, Jonathan; Pearson, Elizabeth; Bullock, Samantha; Boyer, Charlotte; Jarrett, Annika

    2011-01-01

    The primary aim of this study was to investigate the immediate effect on restricted active ankle joint dorsiflexion range of motion (ROM), after a single intervention of trigger point (TrP) pressure release on latent soleus myofascial trigger points (MTrPs). The secondary aim was to assess aspects of the methodological design quality, identify limitations and propose areas for improvement in future research. A pilot randomised control trial. Twenty healthy volunteers (5 men and 15 women; mean age 21.7±2.1 years) with a restricted active ankle joint dorsiflexion. Participants underwent a screening process to establish both a restriction in active ankle dorsiflexion and the presence of active and latent MTrPs in the soleus muscle. Participants were then randomly allocated to an intervention group (TrP pressure release) or control group (no therapy). The results showed a statistically significant (p=0.03) increase of ankle ROM in the intervention compared to the control group. This study identified an immediate significant improvement in ankle ROM after a single intervention of TrP pressure release on latent soleus MTrPS. These findings are clinically relevant, although the treatment effect on ankle ROM is smaller than a clinical significant ROM (5°). Suggestions for methodological improvements may inform future MTrP research and ultimately benefit clinical practice in this under investigated area. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Oedema and fatty degeneration of the soleus and gastrocnemius muscles on MR images in patients with achilles tendon abnormalities

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    Hoffmann, Adrienne [University Hospital Balgrist Zuerich, Radiology Department, Zuerich (Switzerland); Hirslanden Klinik Aarau, Radiology Department, Aarau (Switzerland); Mamisch, Nadja; Buck, Florian M.; Pfirrmann, Christian W.A.; Zanetti, Marco [University Hospital Balgrist Zuerich, Radiology Department, Zuerich (Switzerland); Espinosa, Norman [University Hospital Balgrist Zuerich, Orthopedic Surgery Department, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2011-09-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the frequency of oedema and fatty degeneration of the soleus and gastrocnemius muscles in patients with Achilles tendon abnormalities. Forty-five consecutive patients (mean 51 years; range 14-84 years) with achillodynia were examined with magnetic resonance (MR) images of the calf. The frequency of oedema and fatty degeneration in the soleus and gastrocnemius muscles was determined in patients with normal tendons, tendinopathy and in patients with a partial tear or a complete tear of the Achilles tendon. Oedema was encountered in 35% (7/20) of the patients with tendinopathy (n = 20; range 13-81 years), and in 47% (9/19) of the patients with partial tears or complete tears (n = 19; 28-78 years). Fatty degeneration was encountered in 10% (2/20) of the patients with tendinopathy, and in 32% (6/19) of the patients with tears. The prevalence of fatty degeneration was significantly more common in patients with a partial or complete tear compared with the patients with a normal Achilles tendon (p = 0.032 and p = 0.021, respectively). Oedema and fatty degeneration of the soleus and gastrocnemius muscles are common in patients with Achilles tendon abnormalities. (orig.)

  11. Gluteus maximus and soleus compensate for simulated quadriceps atrophy and activation failure during walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Julie A; Chaudhari, Ajit M W; Schmitt, Laura C; Best, Thomas M; Siston, Robert A

    2013-09-03

    Important activities of daily living, like walking and stair climbing, may be impaired by muscle weakness. In particular, quadriceps weakness is common in populations such as those with knee osteoarthritis (OA) and following ACL injury and may be a result of muscle atrophy or reduced voluntary muscle activation. While weak quadriceps have been strongly correlated with functional limitations in these populations, the important cause-effect relationships between abnormal lower extremity muscle function and patient function remain unknown. As a first step towards determining those relationships, the purpose of this study was to estimate changes in muscle forces and contributions to support and progression to maintain normal gait in response to two sources of quadriceps weakness: atrophy and activation failure. We used muscle-driven simulations to track normal gait kinematics in healthy subjects and applied simulated quadriceps weakness as atrophy and activation failure to evaluate compensation patterns associated with the individual sources of weakness. We found that the gluteus maximus and soleus muscles display the greatest ability to compensate for simulated quadriceps weakness. Also, by simulating two different causes of muscle weakness, this model suggested different compensation strategies by the lower extremity musculature in response to atrophy and activation deficits. Estimating the compensation strategies that are necessary to maintain normal gait will enable investigations of the role of muscle weakness in abnormal gait and inform potential rehabilitation strategies to improve such conditions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Whole-body vibration induces distinct reflex patterns in human soleus muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karacan, Ilhan; Cidem, Muharrem; Cidem, Mehmet; Türker, Kemal S

    2017-06-01

    The neuronal mechanisms underlying whole body vibration (WBV)-induced muscular reflex (WBV-IMR) are not well understood. To define a possible pathway for WBV-IMR, this study investigated the effects of WBV amplitude on WBV-IMR latency by surface electromyography analysis of the soleus muscle in human adult volunteers. The tendon (T) reflex was also induced to evaluate the level of presynaptic Ia inhibition during WBV. WBV-IMR latency was shorter when induced by low- as compared to medium- or high-amplitude WBV (33.9±5.3msvs. 43.8±3.6 and 44.1±4.2ms, respectively). There was no difference in latencies between T-reflex elicited before WBV (33.8±2.4ms) and WBV-IMR induced by low-amplitude WBV. Presynaptic Ia inhibition was absent during low-amplitude WBV but was present during medium- and high-amplitude WBV. Consequently, WBV induces short- or long-latency reflexes depending on the vibration amplitude. During low-amplitude WBV, muscle spindle activation may induce the short- but not the long-latency WBV-IMR. Furthermore, unlike the higher amplitude WBV, low-amplitude WBV does not induce presynaptic inhibition at the Ia synaptic terminals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Soleus H-Reflex Operant Conditioning Changes The H-Reflex Recruitment Curve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Aiko K.; Chen, Xiang Yang; Wolpaw, Jonathan R.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Operant conditioning can gradually change the human soleus H-reflex. The protocol conditions the reflex near M-wave threshold. This study examined its impact on the reflexes at other stimulus strengths. Methods H-reflex recruitment curves were obtained before and after a 24-session exposure to an up-conditioning (HRup) or down-conditioning (HRdown) protocol and were compared. Results In both HRup and HRdown subjects, conditioning affected the entire H-reflex recruitment curve. In 5 of 6 HRup and 3 of 6 HRdown subjects, conditioning elevated (HRup) or depressed (HRdown), respectively, the entire curve. In the other HRup subject or the other 3 HRdown subjects, the curve was shifted to the left or to the right, respectively. Discussion H-reflex conditioning does not simply change the H-reflex to a stimulus of particular strength; it also changes the H-reflexes to stimuli of different strengths. Thus, it is likely to affect many actions in which this pathway participates. PMID:23281107

  14. Establishing between-session reliability of TMS-conditioned soleus H-reflexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, W A; Sabatier, M J; Kesar, T M; Borich, M R

    2017-02-15

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) of the primary motor cortex (M1) can be used to evaluate descending corticomotor influences on spinal reflex excitability through modulation of the Hoffman reflex (H-reflex). The purpose of this study was to characterize between-session reliability of cortical, spinal, and cortical-conditioned spinal excitability measures collected from the soleus muscle. Thirteen able-bodied young adult participants were tested over four sessions. Intraclass correlation coefficients were calculated to quantify between-session reliability of active motor threshold (AMT), unconditioned H-reflexes (expressed as a percentage of Mmax), and conditioned H-reflexes using short-latency facilitation (SLF) and long-latency facilitation (LLF). Pearson correlation coefficients were calculated to assess associations between H-reflex facilitation and unconditioned H-reflex amplitude. Between-session reliability for SLF (ICC=0.71) was higher than for LLF (ICC=0.45), was excellent for AMT (ICC=0.95), and was moderate for unconditioned H-reflexes (ICC=0.63). Our results suggest moderate-to-good reliability of SLF and LLF to evaluate cortical influences on spinal reflex excitability across multiple testing sessions in able-bodied individuals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Possible local stem cells activation by microcurrent application in experimentally injured soleus muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zickri, Maha Baligh

    2014-11-01

    Severe injuries in skeletal muscle result in muscle weakness that delays recovery and contribute to progressive decline in muscle function. Microcurrent therapy (MCT) is a novel treatment method used in soft tissue injury and tissue regeneration therapy. The regenerative capacity of skeletal muscle tissue resides in satellite cells, the quiescent adult stem cells. The present work aimed at investigating the relation between microcurrent therapy and local stem cells in regeneration of induced skeletal muscle injury in albino rat. Twenty six adult male albino rats were divided into Sham group, Injury group (I): subjected to soleus muscle injury and subdivided into subgroups I1 & I2 sacrificed 2 and 4 weeks after injury respectively. Microcurrent group (M): subjected to muscle injury and micro-current was applied. The animals were subdivided into subgroups M1 and M2 sacrificed 2 and 4 weeks after injury. Histological, immunohistochemical and morphometric studies were performed. Atypical fibers widely separated by infiltrating cells and strong acidophilic sarcoplasm with focal vacuolations were found in injury group. In M1 subgroup few atypical fibers were found. In M2 subgroup multiple typical fibers were detected. A significant decrease in the mean area of atypical fibers, a significant increase in the mean area% of alpha SMA+ve cells and that of CD34+ve cells were found in microcurrent group compared to injury group. A definite therapeutic effect of the microcurrent was found on induced skeletal muscle injury. This effect was proved to be related to satellite cell activation.

  16. Electromyographic Activity of Soleus and Tibialis Anterior Muscles during Ascending and Descending Stairs of Different Heights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eteraf Oskouei, Ali; Ferdosrad, Nehzat; Dianat, Iman; Asghari Jafarabadi, Mohamad; Nazari, Jalil

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the electromyographic (EMG) activity of the two leg muscles (Tibialis anterior [TA] and Soleus [SOL]) during ascending and descending stairs with different heights (10 cm, 15.5 cm and 18 cm). Eighteen female university students aged between 20 and 36 yr participated in the study. Data were collected using a ME6000 Biomonitor EMG System (revision MT-M6T16-0) and surface electrodes. The EMG activity of the SOL muscle was significantly higher than the TA muscle activity (P = 0.001). Besides, the muscle activity level of the SOL muscle was significantly higher when ascending compared to descending condi-tion (P = 0.001). The stair height had no significant effect of the EMG activity of the two muscles. These findings highlight that the two muscles are not equally affected by the stair height during ascending and descending condition. The results also indicate that there is no preference between different stair heights in terms of muscular effort.

  17. Carbonic Anhydrase III Is Expressed in Mouse Skeletal Muscles Independent of Fiber Type-Specific Myofilament Protein Isoforms and Plays a Role in Fatigue Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Han-Zhong; Jin, J-P

    2016-01-01

    Carbonic anhydrase III (CAIII) is a metabolic enzyme and a regulator for intracellular pH. CAIII has been reported with high level expression in slow twitch skeletal muscles. Here we demonstrate that CAIII is expressed in multiple slow and fast twitch muscles of adult mouse independent of the expression of myosin isoforms. Expressing similar fast type of myofilament proteins, CAIII-positive tibial anterior (TA) muscle exhibits higher tolerance to fatigue than that of CAIII-negative fast twitch extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle in in situ contractility studies. We further studied the muscles of CAIII knockout ( Car3 -KO) mice. The loss of CAIII in soleus and TA muscles in Car3 -KO mice did not change muscle mass, sarcomere protein isoform contents, and the baseline twitch and tetanic contractility as compared with age-matched wild type (WT) controls. On the other hand, Car3 -KO TA muscle showed faster force reduction at the beginning but higher resistance at the end during a fatigue test, followed by slower post fatigue recovery than that of WT TA muscle. Superfused Car3 -KO soleus muscle also had faster total force reduction during fatigue test than that of WT soleus. However, it showed a less elevation of resting tension followed by a better post fatigue recovery under acidotic stress. CAIII was detected in neonatal TA and EDL muscle, downregulated during development, and then re-expressed in adult TA but not EDL muscles. The expression of CAIII in Tnnt1 -KO myopathy mouse soleus muscle that has diminished slow fiber contents due to the loss of slow troponin T remained high. Car3 -KO EDL, TA, and soleus muscles showed no change in the expression of mitochondria biomarker proteins. The data suggest a fiber type independent expression of CAIII with a role in the regulation of intracellular pH in skeletal muscle and may be explored as a target for improving fatigue resistance and for the treatment of TNNT1 myopathies.

  18. A study of the action of tetanus toxin at rat soleus neuromuscular junctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevan, S; Wendon, L M

    1984-03-01

    Tetanus toxin (TeTX) inhibits the evoked release of acetylcholine (ACh) at rat soleus end-plates. The effects of various procedures which evoke ACh release by raising the level of free intracellular calcium have been investigated at various stages of tetanus intoxication. At all stages studied TeTX has little or no effect on either the frequency or the amplitude of spontaneous miniature end-plate potentials (m.e.p.p.s). After TeTX poisoning, e.p.p. latency is more variable than normal and the slope of the relationship between ln m (quantal content) and ln [Ca]o is reduced from the control value of about 4. Plots of m-1/n against 1/[Ca]o, for n = 1-4, suggest that mmax, the maximum number of quanta releasable by nerve stimulation, is reduced at intoxicated end-plates. Blocking delayed rectification with 3-aminopyridine (1-5 mM) increases m, but has little or no effect on either the slope of ln m-ln [Ca]o plots or estimates of mmax. Several treatments which raise m.e.p.p. rate (high [Ca]o, hyperosmotic medium, addition of lanthanum) are less effective after TeTX poisoning. Some of the tested agents increase m.e.p.p. frequency by a mechanism which is thought to involve a mobilization of calcium from intracellular stores. The decline in m.e.p.p. rate after a period of high-frequency nerve stimulation is different at normal and TeTX-treated end-plates. At tetanus-intoxicated end-plates, the decline differs from that expected if TeTX acted simply to block calcium entry into the terminal. In addition, the increase in m.e.p.p. frequency observed with a high rate of nerve stimulation suggests that considerable amounts of calcium can enter the terminal with each action potential. It is concluded that TeTX blocks transmitter release by acting at a step between calcium influx to the terminal and transmitter release such that the mechanism for ACh release shows a reduced sensitivity to intracellular calcium. The possibility of an additional effect on the presynaptic calcium

  19. Mouse phenotyping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Helmut; Gailus-Durner, Valérie; Adler, Thure; Aguilar-Pimentel, Juan Antonio; Becker, Lore; Calzada-Wack, Julia; Da Silva-Buttkus, Patricia; Neff, Frauke; Götz, Alexander; Hans, Wolfgang; Hölter, Sabine M; Horsch, Marion; Kastenmüller, Gabi; Kemter, Elisabeth; Lengger, Christoph; Maier, Holger; Matloka, Mikolaj; Möller, Gabriele; Naton, Beatrix; Prehn, Cornelia; Puk, Oliver; Rácz, Ildikó; Rathkolb, Birgit; Römisch-Margl, Werner; Rozman, Jan; Wang-Sattler, Rui; Schrewe, Anja; Stöger, Claudia; Tost, Monica; Adamski, Jerzy; Aigner, Bernhard; Beckers, Johannes; Behrendt, Heidrun; Busch, Dirk H; Esposito, Irene; Graw, Jochen; Illig, Thomas; Ivandic, Boris; Klingenspor, Martin; Klopstock, Thomas; Kremmer, Elisabeth; Mempel, Martin; Neschen, Susanne; Ollert, Markus; Schulz, Holger; Suhre, Karsten; Wolf, Eckhard; Wurst, Wolfgang; Zimmer, Andreas; Hrabě de Angelis, Martin

    2011-02-01

    Model organisms like the mouse are important tools to learn more about gene function in man. Within the last 20 years many mutant mouse lines have been generated by different methods such as ENU mutagenesis, constitutive and conditional knock-out approaches, knock-down, introduction of human genes, and knock-in techniques, thus creating models which mimic human conditions. Due to pleiotropic effects, one gene may have different functions in different organ systems or time points during development. Therefore mutant mouse lines have to be phenotyped comprehensively in a highly standardized manner to enable the detection of phenotypes which might otherwise remain hidden. The German Mouse Clinic (GMC) has been established at the Helmholtz Zentrum München as a phenotyping platform with open access to the scientific community (www.mousclinic.de; [1]). The GMC is a member of the EUMODIC consortium which created the European standard workflow EMPReSSslim for the systemic phenotyping of mouse models (http://www.eumodic.org/[2]). Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Baseline muscle mass is a poor predictor of functional overload-induced gain in the mouse model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrius Kilikevicius

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Genetic background contributes substantially to individual variability in muscle mass. Muscle hypertrophy in response to resistance training can also vary extensively. However, it is less clear if muscle mass at baseline is predictive of the hypertrophic response.The aim of this study was to examine the effect of genetic background on variability in muscle mass at baseline and in the adaptive response of the mouse fast- and slow-twitch muscles to overload. Males of eight laboratory mouse strains: C57BL/6J (B6, n=17, BALB/cByJ (n=7, DBA/2J (D2, n=12, B6.A-(rs3676616-D10Utsw1/Kjn (B6.A, n=9, C57BL/6J-Chr10A/J/NaJ (B6.A10, n=8, BEH+/+ (n=11, BEH (n=12 and DUHi (n=12, were studied. Compensatory growth of soleus and plantaris muscles was triggered by a 4-week overload induced by synergist unilateral ablation. Muscle weight in the control leg (baseline varied from 5.2±07 mg soleus and 11.4±1.3 mg plantaris in D2 mice to 18.0±1.7 mg soleus in DUHi and 43.7±2.6 mg plantaris in BEH (p<0.001 for both muscles. In addition, soleus in the B6.A10 strain was ~40% larger (p<0.001 compared to the B6. Functional overload increased muscle weight, however, the extent of gain was strain-dependent for both soleus (p<0.01 and plantaris (p<0.02 even after accounting for the baseline differences. For the soleus muscle, the BEH strain emerged as the least responsive, with a 1.3-fold increase, compared to a 1.7-fold gain in the most responsive D2 strain, and there was no difference in the gain between the B6.A10 and B6 strains. The BEH strain appeared the least responsive in the gain of plantaris as well, 1.3-fold, compared to ~1.5-fold gain in the remaining strains. We conclude that variation in muscle mass at baseline is not a reliable predictor of that in the overload-induced gain. This suggests that a different set of genes influence variability in muscle mass acquired in the process of normal development, growth and maintenance, and in the process of adaptive

  1. Altered mRNA expression after long-term soleus electrical stimulation training in humans with paralysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Christopher M; Suneja, Manish; Dudley-Javoroski, Shauna; Shields, Richard K

    2011-01-01

    In humans, spinal cord injury (SCI) induces deleterious changes in skeletal muscle that may be prevented or reversed by electrical stimulation muscle training. The molecular mechanisms underlying muscle stimulation training remain unknown. We studied two unique SCI subjects whose right soleus received >6 years of training (30 minutes/day, 5 days/week). Training preserved torque, fatigue index, contractile speed, and cross-sectional area in the trained leg, but not the untrained leg. Training decreased 10 mRNAs required for fast-twitch contractions and mRNA that encodes for myostatin, an autocrine/paracrine hormone that inhibits muscle growth. Conversely, training increased 69 mRNAs that mediate the slow-twitch, oxidative phenotype, including PGC-1α, a transcriptional coactivator that inhibits muscle atrophy. When we discontinued right soleus training, training-induced effects diminished slowly, with some persisting for >6 months. Training of paralyzed muscle induces localized and long-lasting changes in skeletal muscle mRNA expression that improve muscle mass and function. Copyright © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Identification of Differentially Expressed Genes and Pathways for Myofiber Characteristics in Soleus Muscles between Chicken Breeds Differing in Meat Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Y F; Ding, Q L; Li, Y M; Fang, W R

    2017-04-03

    In the modern chicken industry, fast-growing broilers have undergone strong artificial selection for muscle growth, which has led to remarkable phenotypic variations compared with slow-growing chickens. However, the molecular mechanism underlying these phenotypes differences remains unknown. In this study, a systematic identification of candidate genes and new pathways related to myofiber development and composition in chicken Soleus muscle (SOL) has been made using gene expression profiles of two distinct breeds: Qingyuan partridge (QY), a slow-growing Chinese breed possessing high meat quality and Cobb 500 (CB), a commercial fast-growing broiler line. Agilent cDNA microarray analyses were conducted to determine gene expression profiles of soleus muscle sampled at sexual maturity age of QY (112 d) and CB (42 d). The 1318 genes with at least 2-fold differences were identified (P meat quality. Large scale analyses are now required to validate the role of the genes identified and ultimately to find molecular markers that can be used for selection or to optimize rearing practices.

  3. Bowman-Birk inhibitor concentrate prevents atrophy, weakness, and oxidative stress in soleus muscle of hindlimb-unloaded mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbogast, Sandrine; Smith, Jacqueline; Matuszczak, Yves; Hardin, Brian J; Moylan, Jennifer S; Smith, Jeffrey D; Ware, Jeffrey; Kennedy, Ann R; Reid, Michael B

    2007-03-01

    Antigravity muscles atrophy and weaken during prolonged mechanical unloading caused by bed rest or spaceflight. Unloading also induces oxidative stress in muscle, a putative cause of weakness. We tested the hypothesis that dietary supplementation with Bowman-Birk inhibitor concentrate (BBIC), a soy protein extract, would oppose these changes. Adult mice were fed a diet supplemented with 1% BBIC during hindlimb unloading for up to 12 days. Soleus muscles of mice fed the BBIC-supplemented diet weighed less, developed less force per cross-sectional area, and developed less total force after unloading than controls. BBIC supplementation was protective, blunting decrements in soleus muscle weight and force. Cytosolic oxidant activity was assessed using 2',7'-dichlorofluorescin diacetate. Oxidant activity increased in unloaded muscle, peaking at 3 days and remaining elevated through 12 days of unloading. Increases in oxidant activity correlated directly with loss of muscle mass and were abolished by BBIC supplementation. In vitro assays established that BBIC directly buffers reactive oxygen species and also inhibits serine protease activity. We conclude that dietary supplementation with BBIC protects skeletal muscle during prolonged unloading, promoting redox homeostasis in muscle fibers and blunting atrophy-induced weakness.

  4. Role(s) of Gravitational Loading on the Growth-Related Transformation of Fiber Phenotype in Rat Soleus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohira, Yoshinobu; Kawano, Fuminori; Goto, Katsumasa; Terada, Masahiro; Ohira, Takashi; Nakai, Naoya; Higo, Yoko; Yoshioka, Toshitada

    2008-06-01

    Effects of gravitational loading or unloading on the gain of the characteristics in soleus muscle fibers were studied in rats. The tail suspension was performed in newborn rats from the postnatal day 4 to month 3 and the reloading was allowed for 3 months in some rats. Single expression of type I myosin heavy chain (MHC) was observed in ~82% fibers in 3month old controls, but fibers expressing multiple MHC iso-forms were noted in the unloaded rats. Responses of fast or slow MHC protein expression to growth and/or unloading were not directly related to mRNA expression. Although 97% fibers in 3month old controls had a single neuromuscular junction at the central region of fiber, fibers with multiple nerve endplates were seen in the unloaded group. Faster contraction speed and lower maximal tension development, even after normalization with fiber size, were observed in the unloaded pure type I MHC fibers. These parameters generally returned to the age-matched control levels after reloading. It was suggested that antigravity-related tonic activity plays an important role in the gain of single neural innervation and of slow contractile properties and phenotype in soleus muscle fibers, which are not directly related to gene expression.

  5. Extracorporeal shock wave therapy of gastroc-soleus trigger points in patients with plantar fasciitis: A randomized, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghtaderi, Alireza; Khosrawi, Saeid; Dehghan, Farnaz

    2014-01-01

    Plantar fasciitis is the most common cause of heel pain. Extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) is an alternative treatment for refractory cases of plantar fasciitis. Studies also demonstrated that ESWT may be an appropriate treatment for myofascial trigger points. This study was designed to evaluate its effectiveness by comparing the ESWT of Gastrocnemius/Soleus (gastroc-soleus) trigger points and heel region with the ESWT of the heel region alone. The study was carried out among 40 patients with a clinical diagnosis of plantar fasciitis, divided randomly to case (n = 20) and control (n = 20) groups. The case group received ESWT for the heel region and for the gastroc-soleus trigger points. The control group received ESWT just for the heel region. The protocol was the same in both groups and they were treated for three sessions every week. The pain score (100 mm visual analog score [VAS]) and the modified Roles and Maudsley score was evaluated before the first session and eight weeks after the last session. Eight weeks after the last session, although the mean VAS had decreased significantly in both groups, this decrement was more significant in the case group. (P = 0.04). According to the modified Roles and Maudsley score, there was a significant improvement in both the case (P plantar fasciitis and gastroc-soleus trigger points in treating patients with plantar fasciitis is more effective than utilizing it solely for plantar fasciitis.

  6. Recovery of the soleus muscle after short- and long-term disuse induced by hindlimb unloading: effects on the electrical properties and myosin heavy chain profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desaphy, Jean-François; Pierno, Sabata; Liantonio, Antonella; De Luca, Annamaria; Didonna, M Paola; Frigeri, Antonio; Nicchia, G Paola; Svelto, Maria; Camerino, Claudia; Zallone, Alberta; Camerino, Diana Conte

    2005-03-01

    The hindlimb unloading (HU) rat is a model of muscle disuse characterized by atrophy and slow-to-fast phenotype transition of the postural muscles, such as the soleus. We previously found that the resting sarcolemmal chloride conductance (gCl) that is typically lower in slow-twitch myofibers than in fast ones increased in soleus fibers following 1 to 3 weeks of HU in accord with the slow-to-fast transition of myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoforms. Nevertheless, the gCl already raised after a 3-day HU, whereas no change in MHC expression was detected. The present work evaluates the ability of soleus muscle to recover on return to normal load after a short (3 days) or long (2 weeks) disuse period. The changes observed after a 2-week HU were slowly reversible, since 3-4 weeks of reloading were needed to completely recover gCl, fiber diameter, MHC expression pattern, as well as the mechanical threshold Rheobase, an index of calcium homeostasis. After 3-day HU, the gCl increased homogeneously in most of the soleus muscle fibers and gCl recovery was rapidly completed after 4-day reloading. These results suggest different induction mechanisms for gCl augmentation after the short and long HU periods, as well as a possible role for gCl in the slow muscle adaptation to disuse.

  7. The effect of tone-reducing orthotic devices on soleus muscle reflex excitability while standing in patients with spasticity following stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibuki, Aileen; Bach, Timothy; Rogers, Douglas; Bernhardt, Julie

    2010-03-01

    Orthoses are commonly prescribed for the management of spasticity but their neurophysiologic effect on spasticity remains unsubstantiated. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of three tone-reducing devices (dynamic foot orthosis, muscle stretch, and orthokinetic compression garment) on soleus muscle reflex excitability while standing in patients with spasticity following stroke. A repeated measures intervention study was conducted on 13 patients with stroke selected from a sample of convenience. A custom-made dynamic foot orthosis, a range of motion walker to stretch the soleus muscle and class 1 and class 2 orthokinetic compression garments were assessed using the ratio of maximum Hoffmann reflex amplitude to maximum M-response amplitude (Hmax:Mmax) to determine their effect on soleus muscle reflex excitability. Only 10 subjects were able to complete the testing. There were no significant treatment effects for the interventions (F=1.208, df=3.232, p=0.328); however, when analyzed subject-by-subject, two subjects responded to the dynamic foot orthosis and one of those two subjects also responded to the class 1 orthokinetic compression garment. Overall, the results demonstrated that the tone-reducing devices had no significant effect on soleus reflex excitability suggesting that these tone-reducing orthotic devices have no significant neurophysiologic effect on spasticity.

  8. Action of vanillin (Vanilla planifolia) on the morphology of tibialis anterior and soleus muscles after nerve injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peretti, Ana Luiza; Antunes, Juliana Sobral; Lovison, Keli; Kunz, Regina Inês; Castor, Lidyane Regina Gomes; Brancalhão, Rose Meire Costa; Bertolini, Gladson Ricardo Flor; Ribeiro, Lucinéia de Fátima Chasko

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the action of vanillin (Vanilla planifolia) on the morphology of tibialis anterior and soleus muscles after peripheral nerve injury. Wistar rats were divided into four groups, with seven animals each: Control Group, Vanillin Group, Injury Group, and Injury + Vanillin Group. The Injury Group and the Injury + Vanillin Group animals were submitted to nerve injury by compression of the sciatic nerve; the Vanillin Group and Injury + Vanillin Group, were treated daily with oral doses of vanillin (150mg/kg) from the 3rd to the 21st day after induction of nerve injury. At the end of the experiment, the tibialis anterior and soleus muscles were dissected and processed for light microscopy and submitted to morphological analysis. The nerve compression promoted morphological changes, typical of denervation, and the treatment with vanillin was responsible for different responses in the studied muscles. For the tibialis anterior, there was an increase in the number of satellite cells, central nuclei and fiber atrophy, as well as fascicular disorganization. In the soleus, only increased vascularization was observed, with no exacerbation of the morphological alterations in the fibers. The treatment with vanillin promoted increase in intramuscular vascularization for the muscles studied, with pro-inflammatory potential for tibialis anterior, but not for soleus muscle. Avaliar a ação da vanilina (Vanilla planifolia) sobre a morfologia dos músculos tibial anterior e sóleo após lesão nervosa periférica. Ratos Wistar foram divididos em quatro grupos, com sete animais cada, sendo Grupo Controle, Grupo Vanilina, Grupo Lesão e Grupo Lesão + Vanilina. Os animais dos Grupos Lesão e Grupo Lesão + Vanilina foram submetidos à lesão nervosa por meio da compressão do nervo isquiático, e os Grupos Vanilina e Grupo Lesão + Vanilina foram tratados diariamente com doses orais de vanilina (150mg/kg) do 3o ao 21o dia após a indução da lesão nervosa. Ao término do

  9. Akt-dependent and Akt-independent pathways are involved in protein synthesis activation during reloading of disused soleus muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzoev, Timur M; Tyganov, Sergey A; Shenkman, Boris S

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of our study was to assess the contribution of insulin growth factor-1-dependent and phosphatidic acid-dependent signaling pathways to activation of protein synthesis (PS) in rat soleus muscle during early recovery from unloading. Wistar rats were divided into: Control, 14HS [14-day hindlimb suspension (HS)], 3R+placebo (3-day reloading + saline administration), 3R+Wort (3-day reloading + wortmannin administration), 3R+But (3-day reloading + 1-butanol administration). SUnSET and Western blot analyses were used in this study. Wortmannin and 1-butanol induced a decrease in protein kinase B (phospho-Akt) and the rate of PS (P Muscle Nerve 55: 393-399, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. [Parameters of fibers cell respiration and desmin content in rat soleus muscle at early stages of gravitational unloading].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzoev, T M; Biriukov, N S; Veselova, O M; Larina, I M; Shenkman, B S; Ogneva, I V

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the work was to study the parameters of fibers cell respiration and desmin content in Wistar rat soleus muscle after 1, 3, 7 and 14 days of gravitational unloading. Gravitational unloading was simulated by antiorthostatic hindlimb suspension. The parameters of cell respiration were determined using the polarography, and desmin content was assessed by means of Western blotting. The results showed that the intensity of cell respiration is reduced after three days of gravitational unloading, reaches a minimum level after seven days and slightly increases by the fourteenth day of hindlimb unloading, as well as the content of desmin, which, however, to the fourteenth day returns to the control level. Taking into account that mitochondrial function depends on the state of cytoskeleton the data allow us to assume that early reduction of the intensity of cell respiration under unloading could be caused by degradation of the protein desmin that determines intracellular localization of mitochondria.

  11. Effects of regular heel-raise training aimed at the soleus muscle on dynamic balance associated with arm movement in elderly women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Katsuo; Toyama, Hiroshi; Asai, Hitoshi; Yaguchi, Chie; Irei, Mariko; Naka, Masami; Kaida, Chizuru

    2011-09-01

    The effects of low-intensity muscle training with heel-raises on dynamic balance associated with bilateral arm flexion were investigated in postmenopausal elderly women. Twenty-six elderly women were evenly grouped into training and control groups. Training group subjects performed 100 heel raises per day for 2 months. The training was aimed at hypertrophy of the soleus muscle, which has a relatively high proportion (ca. 90%) of slow-twitch muscle fibers and is one of the main postural muscles. Dynamic balance was measured while arm flexion was performed in response to a visual stimulus (simple-reaction condition) or at the subjects' own pace (own-timing condition). The following parameters were compared before and after the training period: plantar flexion strength, thicknesses of the gastrocnemius and soleus (by ultrasound), reaction time of the anterior deltoid in the simple-reaction condition, activation onset timing of postural muscles with respect to the deltoid, movement angles of ankle and hip joints, and postural fluctuation. In the training group only, the following training-related effects were demonstrated: (a) increase in plantar flexor strength and thickness of the soleus, (b) shortening of the deltoid reaction time, (c) earlier activation of the erector spinae in the simple-reaction condition and the soleus in the own-timing condition, and (d) increase in ankle movement in the own-timing condition and a decrease in postural fluctuation. This heel-raise training in the elderly can increase soleus thickness within the triceps surae and improve postural control modality and stability that are effectively contributed to by the leg muscle. This training consists of a low-intensity exercise that requires neither special machines nor a specific environment and can be performed safely for all old-aged groups.

  12. Hypertrophy Stimulation at the Onset of Type I Diabetes Maintains the Soleus but Not the EDL Muscle Mass in Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco A. S. Fortes

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus induces a reduction in skeletal muscle mass and strength. Strength training is prescribed as part of treatment since it improves glycemic control and promotes increase of skeletal muscle mass. The mechanisms involved in overload-induced muscle hypertrophy elicited at the establishment of the type I diabetic state was investigated in Wistar rats. The purpose was to examine whether the overload-induced hypertrophy can counteract the hypotrophy associated to the diabetic state. The experiments were performed in oxidative (soleus or glycolytic (EDL muscles. PI3K/Akt/mTOR protein synthesis pathway was evaluated 7 days after overload-induced hypertrophy of soleus and of EDL muscles. The mRNA expression of genes associated with different signaling pathways that control muscle hypertrophy was also evaluated: mechanotransduction (FAK, Wnt/β-catenin, myostatin, and follistatin. The soleus and EDL muscles when submitted to overload had similar hypertrophic responses in control and diabetic animals. The increase of absolute and specific twitch and tetanic forces had the same magnitude as muscle hypertrophic response. Hypertrophy of the EDL muscle from diabetic animals mostly involved mechanical loading-stimulated PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway besides the reduced activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK and decrease of myostatin expression. Hypertrophy was more pronounced in the soleus muscle of diabetic animals due to a more potent activation of rpS6 and increased mRNA expression of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1, mechano-growth factor (MGF and follistatin, and decrease of myostatin, MuRF-1 and atrogin-1 contents. The signaling changes enabled the soleus muscle mass and force of the diabetic rats to reach the values of the control group.

  13. Electrophysiological and biochemical effects of single and multiple doses of the organophosphate diazinon in the mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Blaquière, G E; Waters, L; Blain, P G; Williams, F M

    2000-07-15

    Diazinon is an organophosphorus compound (OP) widely used in pesticides. The relationship between dose of diazinon, inhibition of acetylcholinesterase, and effect on neuromuscular transmission has been studied in a mouse model. Inhibition of acetylcholinesterase activity occurred within 1 h, was maximal by 3 h and remained inhibited for at least 24 h. Blood, brain, diaphragm, and soleus acetylcholinesterase activities were differentially affected by diazinon. Brain and soleus activities were not affected by low doses. Multiple daily dosing of diazinon caused a cumulative decrease in acetylcholinesterase activity, although to a lesser extent in brain and soleus. Diazinon had no effect on the activity of neuropathy target esterase. Plasma and brain levels of diazinon peaked at 15 min after dosing and declined with a half-life of 2.5 h. Metabolic products of diazinon were cleared from the urine within 24 h. Increased miniature end-plate current half decay times occurred in a dose-dependent manner. Single doses of diazinon caused an increase in the jitter (variability of latencies) of evoked action potentials recorded in the diaphragm but did not affect end-plate potential (EPP) jitter. Multiple lower doses of diazinon caused an increase in EPP jitter after 28 days. This effect on nerve function was delayed and occurred when acetylcholinesterase activity had returned to control levels. The results indicate that diazinon produces long-term electrophysiological changes in neurotransmission following repeated dosing in the mouse. This has implications for the current use of diazinon; however, there is a need to further define the mechanism of this effect. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  14. Functional reorganization of soleus H-reflex modulation during stepping after robotic-assisted step training in people with complete and incomplete spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knikou, Maria

    2013-07-01

    Body weight-supported (BWS) robotic-assisted step training on a motorized treadmill is utilized with the aim to improve walking ability in people after damage to the spinal cord. However, the potential for reorganization of the injured human spinal neuronal circuitry with this intervention is not known. The objectives of this study were to determine changes in the soleus H-reflex modulation pattern and activation profiles of leg muscles during stepping after BWS robotic-assisted step training in people with chronic spinal cord injury (SCI). Fourteen people who had chronic clinically complete, motor complete, and motor incomplete SCI received an average of 45 training sessions, 5 days per week, 1 h per day. The soleus H-reflex was evoked and recorded via conventional methods at similar BWS levels and treadmill speeds before and after training. After BWS robotic-assisted step training, the soleus H-reflex was depressed at late stance, stance-to-swing transition, and swing phase initiation, allowing a smooth transition from stance to swing. The soleus H-reflex remained depressed at early and mid-swing phases of the step cycle promoting a reciprocal activation of ankle flexors and extensors. The spinal reflex circuitry reorganization was, however, more complex, with the soleus H-reflex from the right leg being modulated either in a similar or in an opposite manner to that observed in the left leg at a given phase of the step cycle after training. Last, BWS robotic-assisted step training changed the amplitude and onset of muscle activity during stepping, decreased the step duration, and improved the gait speed. BWS robotic-assisted step training reorganized spinal locomotor neuronal networks promoting a functional amplitude modulation of the soleus H-reflex and thus step progression. These findings support that spinal neuronal networks of persons with clinically complete, motor complete, or motor incomplete SCI have the potential to undergo an endogenous

  15. Calcineurin-NFAT Signaling and Neurotrophins Control Transformation of Myosin Heavy Chain Isoforms in Rat Soleus Muscle in Response to Aerobic Treadmill Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenfeng Liu, Gan Chen, Fanling Li, Changfa Tang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study elucidated the role of CaN-NFAT signaling and neurotrophins on the transformation of myosin heavy chain isoforms in the rat soleus muscle fiber following aerobic exercise training. To do so, we examined the content and distribution of myosin heavy chain (MyHC isoforms in the rat soleus muscle fiber, the activity of CaN and expression of NFATc1 in these fibers, and changes in the expression of nerve growth factor (NGF, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF and neutrophin-3 (NT-3 in the soleus and striatum following high-and medium-intensity aerobic treadmill training. Specific pathogen-free 2 month old male Sprague-Dawley (SD rats were randomly divided into three groups: Control group (Con, n = 8, moderate-intensity aerobic exercise group (M-Ex, n = 8 and high-intensity aerobic exercise group (H-Ex, n = 8. We used ATPase staining to identify the muscle fiber type I and II, SDS-PAGE to separate and analyze the isoforms MyHCI, MyHCIIA, MyHCIIB and MyHCIIx, and performed western blots to determine the expression of NFATc1, NGF, BDNF and NT-3. CaN activity was measured using a colorimetric assay. In the soleus muscle, 8 weeks of moderate-intensity exercise can induce transformation of MyHC IIA and MyHC IIB to MyHC IIX and MyHC I (p < 0.01, while high-intensity treadmill exercise can induce transform MyHC IIx to MyHC IIB, MyHC IIA and MyHC I (p < 0.01. In comparison to the control group, CaN activity and NFATcl protein level were significantly increased in both the M-Ex and H-Ex groups (p < 0.05, p < 0.01, with a more pronounced upregulation in the M-Ex group (p < 0.05. Eight weeks of moderate- and high-intensity aerobic exercise induced the expression of NGF, BDNF and NT-3 in the soleus muscle and the striatum (p < 0.01, with the most significant increase in the H-Ex group (p < 0.01. In the rat soleus muscle, (1 CaN–NFATcl signaling contributes to the conversion of MyHC I isoform in response to moderate-intensity exercise; (2

  16. Baseline Muscle Mass Is a Poor Predictor of Functional Overload-Induced Gain in the Mouse Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilikevicius, Audrius; Bunger, Lutz; Lionikas, Arimantas

    2016-01-01

    Genetic background contributes substantially to individual variability in muscle mass. Muscle hypertrophy in response to resistance training can also vary extensively. However, it is less clear if muscle mass at baseline is predictive of the hypertrophic response. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of genetic background on variability in muscle mass at baseline and in the adaptive response of the mouse fast- and slow-twitch muscles to overload. Males of eight laboratory mouse strains: C57BL/6J (B6, n = 17), BALB/cByJ ( n = 7), DBA/2J (D2, n = 12), B6.A-( rs3676616-D10Utsw1 )/Kjn (B6.A, n = 9), C57BL/6J-Chr10 A/J /NaJ (B6.A10, n = 8), BEH+/+ ( n = 11), BEH ( n = 12), and DUHi ( n = 12), were studied. Compensatory growth of soleus and plantaris muscles was triggered by a 4-week overload induced by synergist unilateral ablation. Muscle weight in the control leg (baseline) varied from 5.2 ± 07 mg soleus and 11.4 ± 1.3 mg plantaris in D2 mice to 18.0 ± 1.7 mg soleus in DUHi and 43.7 ± 2.6 mg plantaris in BEH ( p muscles). In addition, soleus in the B6.A10 strain was ~40% larger ( p muscle weight, however, the extent of gain was strain-dependent for both soleus ( p muscle, the BEH strain emerged as the least responsive, with a 1.3-fold increase, compared to a 1.7-fold gain in the most responsive D2 strain, and there was no difference in the gain between the B6.A10 and B6 strains. The BEH strain appeared the least responsive in the gain of plantaris as well, 1.3-fold, compared to ~1.5-fold gain in the remaining strains. We conclude that variation in muscle mass at baseline is not a reliable predictor of that in the overload-induced gain. This suggests that a different set of genes influence variability in muscle mass acquired in the process of normal development, growth, and maintenance, and in the process of adaptive growth of the muscle challenged by overload.

  17. Mouse adhalin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, L; Vachon, P H; Kuang, W

    1997-01-01

    Adhalin, or alpha-sarcoglycan, is a 50-kDa glycoprotein that was originally characterized as a muscle membrane protein. The importance of adhalin is suggested by the diseases associated with its absence, notably the limb-girdle muscular dystrophies. However, the function of adhalin is unknown...... was specifically expressed in striated muscle cells and their immediate precursors, and absent in many other cell types. Adhalin expression in embryonic mouse muscle was coincident with primary myogenesis. Its expression was found to be up-regulated at mRNA and protein levels during myogenic differentiation...... in vitro. The proper localization of adhalin to the muscle cell membrane was observed only in late stages of myotube maturation, coincident with the re-distribution of caveolin-3 and dystrophin. These data suggest that adhalin is highly specific for striated muscle and that it is linked with the formation...

  18. [Effect of arotinolol on the incomplete tetanic contractions of the cat soleus muscle--relation to its anti-tremorgenic action].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Y; Sugimoto, S; Ono, H

    1993-08-01

    The effect of arotinolol on the incomplete tetanic contractions of the cat soleus muscle was studied. Isoproterenol and epinephrine injected intravenously decreased the tension and degree of fusion of incomplete tetanic contractions of the soleus muscle in anesthetized cats. Intravenous arotinolol (> 3 micrograms/kg), propranolol (> 30 micrograms/kg) and pindolol (> 3 micrograms/kg) blocked the effects of isoproterenol and epinephrine, but atenolol (-300 micrograms/kg), prazosin (0.1-10 micrograms/kg) and phentolamine (10, 30 micrograms/kg) did not block them. These results indicate that the receptors involved can be classified as of the beta 2-type. It is proposed that arotinolol may inhibit beta 2-adrenoceptors in the extrafusal muscle fibers of slow muscle, and thereby reduces the amplitude of tremor by changing the incomplete tetanic contractions of the muscle to the complete ones.

  19. Vliv manuální lymfodrenáže na svalové napětí m.soleus u pacientů s chronickou žilní insuficiencí

    OpenAIRE

    Květoňová, Hana

    2012-01-01

    Title: The effect of manual lymphatic drainage on the musculus soleus muscle tension in patients with chronic venous insufficiency. Aims: The aim of this thesis is to summarize theoretical knowledge about chronic venous insufficiency, muscle tension and manual lymphatic drainage and then to perform a pilot study to determine whether people suffering from chronic venous insufficiency have changed muscle tone of musculus soleus and to verify whether the implementation of a single manual lymphat...

  20. Decreased rate of protein synthesis, caspase-3 activity, and ubiquitin-proteasome proteolysis in soleus muscles from growing rats fed a low-protein, high-carbohydrate diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batistela, Emanuele; Pereira, Mayara Peron; Siqueira, Juliany Torres; Paula-Gomes, Silvia; Zanon, Neusa Maria; Oliveira, Eduardo Brandt; Navegantes, Luiz Carlos Carvalho; Kettelhut, Isis C; Andrade, Claudia Marlise Balbinotti; Kawashita, Nair Honda; Baviera, Amanda Martins

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the changes in the rates of both protein synthesis and breakdown, and the activation of intracellular effectors that control these processes in soleus muscles from growing rats fed a low-protein, high-carbohydrate (LPHC) diet for 15 days. The mass and the protein content, as well as the rate of protein synthesis, were decreased in the soleus from LPHC-fed rats. The availability of amino acids was diminished, since the levels of various essential amino acids were decreased in the plasma of LPHC-fed rats. Overall rate of proteolysis was also decreased, explained by reductions in the mRNA levels of atrogin-1 and MuRF-1, ubiquitin conjugates, proteasome activity, and in the activity of caspase-3. Soleus muscles from LPHC-fed rats showed increased insulin sensitivity, with increased levels of insulin receptor and phosphorylation levels of AKT, which probably explains the inhibition of both the caspase-3 activity and the ubiquitin-proteasome system. The fall of muscle proteolysis seems to represent an adaptive response that contributes to spare proteins in a condition of diminished availability of dietary amino acids. Furthermore, the decreased rate of protein synthesis may be the driving factor to the lower muscle mass gain in growing rats fed the LPHC diet.

  1. Decrease of contractile properties and transversal stiffness of single fibers in human soleus after 7-day “dry” immersion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogneva, I. V.; Ponomareva, E. V.; Kartashkina, N. L.; Altaeva, E. G.; Fokina, N. M.; Kurushin, V. A.; Kozlovskaya, I. B.; Shenkman, B. S.

    2011-05-01

    The simulation model of "dry" immersion was used to evaluate the effects of plantar mechanical stimulation (PMS) and high frequency electromyostimulation (EMS) on the mechanical properties of human soleus fibers under the conditions of gravitational unloading. We examined contractile properties of single fibers by means of tensometry, transversal stiffness of sarcolemma and different areas of the contractile apparatus by means of atomic force microscopy. It was shown that there is a reduction of transversal stiffness in single muscle fibers under hypogravitational conditions. Application of different countermeasures could compensate this effect. Meanwhile pneumostimulation and electro stimulation act in quite different way. Therefore, pneumostimulation seems to be more effective. The data obtained can be considered as the evidence of the fact that such countermeasures as PMS and electromyostimulation influence on muscle fibers in quite different ways and PMS efficiency is likely to be higher. On the basis of our experimental data on transverse stiffness of mechanotransductional nodes and the contractile apparatus, we can assume that support stimulation allows prevention of destructive processes in muscle fibers. Electrostimulation seems to stimulate contractile activity only without suppression of impairment of the fiber mechanical properties.

  2. C60 FULLERENE EFFECT ON THE DYNAMICS OF FATIGUE PROCESSES IN RAT SOLEUS MUSCLE AFTER ISCHEMIA-REPERFUSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. M. Nozdrenko

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Effect of pristine C60 fullerene aqueous colloid solution (C60FAS; 1 mg/kg dose on the dynamics of fatigue processes in rat soleus muscle after ischemia-reperfusion injury using the tensiometric method was studied. Experiments were conducted during the first 5 h and for 5 days after ischemia. The changes in maximal strength of muscle contraction and its level of generation between the beginning and end of stimulated irritation after intravenous and intramuscular administration of C60FAS unmodified fullerene aqueous colloid solution were analyzed. The pronounced protective effect of this drug on the dynamics of skeletal muscle contraction was first determined. Protective effect of C60FAS unmodified fullerene aqueous colloid solution relative to changes in the levels of muscle contraction strength generation between the beginning and end of stimulated irritation was 15% in the first 5 h after ischemia and increased to 92% on the 5th day of the experiment. In such a case, the intravenous therapeutic administration of C60 fullerene aqueous colloid solution was the most optimal: the protective effect was 67% versus 49% under intramuscular administration. Thus, the development of biomedical nanotechnology with the application of pristine C60 unmodified fullerene as a strong antioxidant opens up new possibilities in prevention and treatment of ischemic injury in the skeletal muscles.

  3. Localized Semi-LASER Dynamic 31P Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy of the Soleus During and Following Exercise at 7 T

    CERN Document Server

    Fiedler, Georg B; Schmid, Albrecht I; Goluch, Sigrun; Schewzow, Kiril; Laistler, Elmar; Mirzahosseini, Arash; Niess, Fabian; Unger, Ewald; Wolzt, Michael; Moser, Ewald

    2015-01-01

    Object This study demonstrates the applicability of semi-LASER localized dynamic $^{31}$P MRS to deeper lying areas of the exercising human soleus muscle (SOL). The effect of accurate localization and high temporal resolution on data specificity is investigated. Materials and Methods To achieve high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) at a temporal resolution of 6 s, a custom-built calf coil array was used at 7T. The kinetics of phosphocreatine (PCr) and intracellular pH were quantified separately in SOL and gastrocnemius medialis (GM) muscle of 9 volunteers, during rest, plantar flexion exercise and recovery. Results The average SNR of PCr at rest was 64$\\pm$15 in SOL (83$\\pm$12 in GM). End exercise PCr depletion in SOL (19$\\pm$9%) was far lower than in GM (74$\\pm$14%). pH in SOL increased rapidly and, in contrast to GM, remained elevated until the end of exercise. Conclusion $^{31}$P MRS in single-shots every 6 s localized in the deeper lying SOL enabled quantification of PCr recovery times at low depletions and of...

  4. Does ankle joint power reflect type of muscle action of soleus and gastrocnemius during walking in cats and humans?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, Neil J; Prilutsky, Boris I; Lichtwark, Glen A; Maas, Huub

    2013-04-26

    The main objective of this paper is to highlight the difficulties of identifying shortening and lengthening contractions based on analysis of power produced by resultant joint moments. For that purpose, we present net ankle joint powers and muscle fascicle/muscle-tendon unit (MTU) velocities for medial gastrocnemius (MG) and soleus (SO) muscles during walking in species of different size (humans and cats). For the cat, patterns of ankle joint power and MTU velocity of MG and SO during stance were similar: negative power (ankle moment×angular velocitypower (generation of mechanical energy) was found during MTU shortening. This was also found for the general fascicle velocity pattern in SO. In contrast, substantial differences between ankle joint power and fascicle velocity patterns were observed for MG muscle. In humans, like cats, the patterns of ankle joint power and MTU velocity of SO and MG were similar. Unlike the cat, there were substantial differences between patterns of fascicle velocity and ankle joint power during stance in both muscles. These results indicate that during walking, only a small fraction of mechanical work of the ankle moment is either generated or absorbed by the muscle fascicles, thus confirming the contribution of in-series elastic structures and/or energy transfer via two-joint muscles. We conclude that ankle joint negative power does not necessarily indicate eccentric action of muscle fibers and that positive power cannot be exclusively attributed to muscle concentric action, especially in humans. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Efflux of Creatine Kinase from Isolated Soleus Muscle Depends on Age, Sex and Type of Exercise in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juozas Baltusnikas, Tomas Venckunas, Audrius Kilikevicius, Andrej Fokin, Aivaras Ratkevicius

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Elevated plasma creatine kinase (CK activity is often used as an indicator of exercise-induced muscle damage. Our aim was to study effects of contraction type, sex and age on CK efflux from isolated skeletal muscles of mice. The soleus muscle (SOL of adult (7.5-month old female C57BL/6J mice was subjected to either 100 passive stretches, isometric contractions or eccentric contractions, and muscle CK efflux was assessed after two-hour incubation in vitro. SOL of young (3-month old male and female mice was studied after 100 eccentric contractions. For adult females, muscle CK efflux was larger (p < 0.05 after eccentric contractions than after incubation without exercise (698 ± 344 vs. 268 ± 184 mU·h−1, respectively, but smaller (p < 0.05 than for young females after the same type of exercise (1069 ± 341 mU·h−1. Eccentric exercise-induced CK efflux was larger in muscles of young males compared to young females (2046 ± 317 vs 1069 ± 341 mU · h−1, respectively, p < 0.001. Our results show that eccentric contractions induce a significant increase in muscle CK efflux immediately after exercise. Isolated muscle resistance to exercise-induced CK efflux depends on age and sex of mice.

  6. The short-term influence of catecholamines on acid-base balance of rat soleus muscle in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huguenin, F

    1984-07-01

    The short-term influence of catecholamines on surface pH (pHs) and intracellular pH (pHi) of superficial muscle fibres has been investigated in rat soleus in vitro using single-barrelled and double-barrelled glass micro-electrodes. pHs means the pH recorded at the surface of a muscle fibre. All measurements were performed in high-Ca2+ (10 mM) Ringer's solutions. Adrenaline caused an intracellular and surface acidification which increased with concentration in the range 6 X 10(-9)-6 X 10(-6) M. The effect was inhibited by propranolol (10(-5)M) but not by phentolamine (1.5 X 10(-7) M). Noradrenaline and isoproterenol (6 X 10(-6) M) also acidified the intracellular fluid. The relative effect of catecholamines on steady-state pHi was: adrenaline = isoproterenol greater than noradrenaline. Adrenaline (6 X 10(-9)-6 X 10(-6) M) did not accelerate pHi recovery following intracellular acid-loading by NH+4 or CO2. It is concluded that activation of beta-adrenoceptors by catecholamines causes an early intracellular acidosis presumably by enhancing synthesis of metabolic acids. The surface acidification seems at least partly due to non-ionic permeation of sarcolemma by metabolic acids, secondarily inducing accumulation of H+ ions at the cell surface.

  7. Preventive effects of nucleoprotein supplementation combined with intermittent loading on capillary regression induced by hindlimb unloading in rat soleus muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirayama, Yusuke; Nakanishi, Ryosuke; Maeshige, Noriaki; Fujino, Hidemi

    2017-02-01

    Physical inactivity leads to muscle atrophy and capillary regression in the skeletal muscle. Intermittent loading during hindlimb unloading attenuates the muscle atrophy, meanwhile the capillary regression in the skeletal muscle is not suppressed. Nucleoprotein has antioxidant capacity and may prevent capillary regression. Therefore, we assessed the combined effects of intermittent loading with nucleoprotein supplementation on capillary regression induced by hindlimb unloading. Five groups of rats were assigned: control (CON), 7 days hindlimb unloading (HU), HU plus nucleoprotein supplementation (HU + NP), intermittent loading during HU (HU + IL), and intermittent loading combined with nucleoprotein supplementation during HU (HU + IL + NP). Seven days HU resulted in decrease in capillary number-to-fiber number (C/F) ratio accompanied with disuse-associated changes in fetal liver kinase-1 (Flk-1), a proangiogenesis factor, and thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1), an antiangiogenesis factor, in the soleus muscle. In addition, citrate synthase (CS) activity was decreased and protein level of superoxide dismutase (SOD)-2 was increased. Neither nucleoprotein supplementation nor intermittent loading prevented the decrease in the C/F ratio, whereas nucleoprotein supplementation combined with intermittent loading prevented the regression of capillary during unloading. Moreover, the levels of Flk-1, TSP-1, and SOD-2 protein and the CS activity were maintained up to control levels. These results suggested that nucleoprotein supplementation combined with intermittent loading was effective to prevent capillary regression induced by muscle atrophy. © 2017 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the American Physiological Society.

  8. Effect of 12 weeks of Tai Chi training on soleus Hoffmann reflex and control of static posture in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yung-Sheng; Zhou, Shi; Cartwright, Colleen

    2011-06-01

    To investigate the effect of 12 weeks of Tai Chi training on soleus (SOL) Hoffmann reflex (H-reflex) modulation and postural control in standing under 4 sensory conditions in older adults. Experimental research design with pre- and posttraining tests in a training group and a control group. University biomechanics laboratory. Community-dwelling older adults (N=34) were assigned to a training (n=20; mean ± SD age, 72.9±4.4y) and a control (n=14; mean ± SD age, 72.9±6.5y) group. Tai Chi participants attended a 1-hour session of Yang style Tai Chi, 3 sessions a week, for 12 weeks, while control participants maintained their regular daily activities during the same period. SOL H-reflex (maximal amplitudes of H-reflex [H(max)] and M-wave [M(max)] waves) and mean displacement of the center of pressure (COP) in the anterior-posterior (COP(A-P)) and medial-lateral (COP(M-L)) directions were measured during bipedal standing, with the feet placed on a forceplate and the heels 6cm apart, under 4 sensory conditions: stable surface with eyes open, stable surface with eyes closed, unstable surface with eyes open, and unstable surface with eyes closed. SOL H(max)/M(max) ratio in the Tai Chi group was upregulated significantly in all 4 sensory tasks after the 12-week Tai Chi training (PTai Chi or control group after the 12-week period. An increase in SOL H(max)/M(max) ratio during static postural tasks is observed after 12 weeks of Tai Chi training in older adults under all 4 sensory conditions. However, training-induced changes in H-reflex were not accompanied by improvement of performance in the static postural control tasks. Copyright © 2011 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Test-retest reliability of the soleus H-reflex is affected by joint positions and muscle force levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yung-Sheng; Zhou, Shi; Cartwright, Colleen; Crowley, Zachary; Baglin, Robert; Wang, Fang

    2010-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the test-retest reliability of the soleus (SOL) H-reflex during rest and isometric contractions at 10%, 30%, and 50% of the maximal voluntary force (MVC) at the ankle joint angles of neutral (0 degrees), plantarflexion (20 degrees), and dorsiflexion (-20 degrees) respectively, in a sitting position. Ten healthy participants, with mean age of 24.9+/-5.0 (SD) years, height 168.3+/-8.8 cm, weight 62.7+/-12.3 kg, were tested for the SOL H-reflex (H(max)) on two separate occasions within 7 days. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) for the test-retest of the SOL H-reflex during rest was found to be high at ankle joint angle of neutral (ICC=0.92) and plantarflexion (0.96), and moderate at dorsiflexion (0.75). Inconsistent ICC values (range from 0.62 to 0.97) were found during the submaximal voluntary contractions at the three ankle joint positions. High ICCs were also found in H(max)/M(max) ratio at neutral (0.86), plantarflexion (0.96), and dorsiflexion (0.84) positions. It was concluded that the test-retest reliability of the SOL H-reflex was affected by the intensity of voluntary contraction and ankle joint position. The H-reflex demonstrated a higher reliability at the neutral and plantarflexion positions than that at the dorsiflexion position during rest, and a higher reliability at 10% MVC than that at 30% and 50% MVC. Crown Copyright (c) 2009. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Centralized mouse repositories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donahue, Leah Rae; Hrabe de Angelis, Martin; Hagn, Michael; Franklin, Craig; Lloyd, K C Kent; Magnuson, Terry; McKerlie, Colin; Nakagata, Naomi; Obata, Yuichi; Read, Stuart; Wurst, Wolfgang; Hörlein, Andreas; Davisson, Muriel T

    2012-10-01

    Because the mouse is used so widely for biomedical research and the number of mouse models being generated is increasing rapidly, centralized repositories are essential if the valuable mouse strains and models that have been developed are to be securely preserved and fully exploited. Ensuring the ongoing availability of these mouse strains preserves the investment made in creating and characterizing them and creates a global resource of enormous value. The establishment of centralized mouse repositories around the world for distributing and archiving these resources has provided critical access to and preservation of these strains. This article describes the common and specialized activities provided by major mouse repositories around the world.

  11. Insulin Signaling and Glucose Uptake in the Soleus Muscle of 30-Month-Old Rats After Calorie Restriction With or Without Acute Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haiyan; Sharma, Naveen; Arias, Edward B; Cartee, Gregory D

    2016-03-01

    Exercise and calorie restriction (CR) can each improve insulin sensitivity in older individuals, but benefits of combining these treatments on skeletal muscle insulin signaling and glucose uptake are poorly understood, especially in predominantly slow-twitch muscles (eg, soleus). Accordingly, our purpose was to determine independent and combined effects of prior acute exercise and CR (beginning at 14 weeks old) on insulin signaling and glucose uptake in insulin-stimulated soleus muscles of 30-month-old rats. CR alone (but not exercise alone) versus ad libitum sedentary controls induced greater insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. There was a main effect of diet (CR > ad libitum) for insulin-stimulated Akt(Ser473) and Akt(Thr308) phosphorylation. CR alone versus ad libitum sedentary increased Akt substrate of 160 kDa (AS160) Ser(588) phosphorylation and TBC1D1 Thr(596), but not AS160 Thr(642) phosphorylation or abundance of GLUT4, GLUT1, or hexokinase II proteins. Combined CR and exercise versus CR alone did not further increase insulin-stimulated glucose uptake although phosphorylation of Akt(Ser473), Akt(Thr308), TBC1D1(Thr596), and AMPK(Thr172) for the combined group exceeded values for CR and/or exercise alone. These results revealed that although the soleus was highly responsive to a CR-induced enhancement of insulin-stimulated glucose uptake, the exercise protocol did not elevate insulin-stimulated glucose uptake, either alone or when combined with CR. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Myostatin dysfunction impairs force generation in extensor digitorum longus muscle and increases exercise-induced protein efflux from extensor digitorum longus and soleus muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltusnikas, Juozas; Kilikevicius, Audrius; Venckunas, Tomas; Fokin, Andrej; Bünger, Lutz; Lionikas, Arimantas; Ratkevicius, Aivaras

    2015-08-01

    Myostatin dysfunction promotes muscle hypertrophy, which can complicate assessment of muscle properties. We examined force generating capacity and creatine kinase (CK) efflux from skeletal muscles of young mice before they reach adult body and muscle size. Isolated soleus (SOL) and extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles of Berlin high (BEH) mice with dysfunctional myostatin, i.e., homozygous for inactivating myostatin mutation, and with a wild-type myostatin (BEH+/+) were studied. The muscles of BEH mice showed faster (P myostatin dysfunction leads to impairment in muscle force generating capacity in EDL and increases susceptibility of SOL and EDL to protein loss after exercise.

  13. Nandrolone decanoate reduces changes induced by hindlimb suspension in voltage-dependent tension of rat soleus muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouhlel, Aicha; Joumaa, Wissam H; Léoty, Claude

    2003-04-01

    The effect of 8 weeks of nandrolone decanoate treatment (15 mg kg(-1)/week, 5 weeks under normal conditions followed by 3 weeks of unloading) was tested for the voltage-dependence of activation and steady-state inactivation of contraction in isolated small bundles (2-4 cells) of intact slow-twitch skeletal muscle in rats. Twenty-four male rats were divided into three groups (8 rats/group, weight matched) for 8 weeks: (1) control, (2) unloaded, and (3) unloaded-treated. Compared with age-matched control values (unloaded vs. control), suspension induced a shift in the isometric tension characteristics toward fast-twitch types in the soleus muscle. In contrast, nandrolone decanoate treatment of suspended animals reduced unweighting-induced atrophy in the muscle and maintained: (1) the relative amplitude of twitch tension to the maximal Ca(2+) activated in saponin-treated fibers (control: 3.6 +/- 0.4%, unloaded: 6.9 +/- 1.1% and unloaded-treated: 4.6 +/- 0.2%), (2) the time to peak tension (control: 130 +/- 18 ms, unloaded: 85 +/- 12 ms and unloaded-treated: 110 +/- 11 ms), (3) the time constant of relaxation (control: 320 +/- 12 ms, unloaded: 120 +/- 13 ms and unloaded-treated: 349 +/- 20 ms), (4) the relative amplitude of K(+) contracture tension to the maximal Ca(2+) activated in saponin-treated fibers (control: 82.9 +/- 3.1%, unloaded: 65.1 +/- 2.8%, and unloaded-treated: 91.7 +/- 1.9%), (5) the potential at 50% of the activation curve (control: -40.4 +/- 1.2 mV, unloaded: -35.5 +/- 1.6 mV, and unloaded-treated: -48.4 +/- 1.2 mV), and (6) the potential at 50% of the inactivation curve (control: 42.2 +/- 1.9 mV, unloaded: -34.5 +/- 1.1 mV, and unloaded-treated: -37.9 +/- 1.1 mV). This study clearly shows that treatment with anabolic-androgenic steroids can prevent atrophy and functional changes induced by 3 weeks of unweighting in rat skeletal muscles.

  14. [Expression of splice-variants of the insulin-like growth factor I and the condition of the cell-myosatellite pool in the rat m. soleus under conditions of gravitation relief and passive stretching].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomonosova, Iu N; Shenkman, B S; Nemirovskaia, T L

    2009-09-01

    We suggested that satellite proliferation with subsequent incorporation of their nuclei in the fibres was essential for enhancement of the protein synthesis in the rat relieved m. soleus. In passive stretch of the muscle, the number of labelled cells exceeded 2.5-fold their number in hung out animals and 1.7-fold in the control animals. The expression level of the insulin-like growth factor I (IF-1) was determined in the m. soleus after hanging out with stretching, and no changes were revealed as compared with hanging out without stretching in the control group. We believe that the muscle IF-1 and satellite cell incorporation are not essential for preventing atrophy of relieved soleus muscle in stretching.

  15. Jumping in aquatic environment after sciatic nerve compression: nociceptive evaluation and morphological characteristics of the soleus muscle of Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malanotte, Jéssica Aline; Kakihata, Camila Mayumi Martin; Karvat, Jhenifer; Brancalhão, Rose Meire Costa; Ribeiro, Lucinéia de Fátima Chasko; Bertolini, Gladson Ricardo Flor

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of jumping in aquatic environment on nociception and in the soleus muscle of trained and not trained Wistar rats, in the treatment of compressive neuropathy of the sciatic nerve. Twenty-five Wistar rats were distributed into five groups: Control, Lesion, Trained + Lesion, Lesion + Exercise, and Trained + Lesion + Exercise. The training was jumping exercise in water environment for 20 days prior to injury, and treatment after the injury. Nociception was evaluated in two occasions, before injury and seven after injury. On the last day of the experiment, the right soleus muscles were collected, processed and analyzed as to morphology and morphometry. In the assessment of nociception in the injury site, the Control Group had higher average than the rest, and the Lesion Group was larger than the Trained + Lesion and Lesion + Exercise Groups. The Control Group showed higher nociceptive threshold in paw, compared to the others. In the morphometric analysis, in relation to Control Group, all the injured groups showed decreased muscle fiber area, and in the Lesion Group was lower than in the Lesion + Exercise Group and Trained + Lesion Group. Considering the diameter of the muscle fiber, the Control Group had a higher average than the Trained + Lesion Group and the Trained + Lesion + Exercise Group; and the Lesion Group showed an average lower than the Trained + Lesion and Lesion + Exercise Groups. Resistance exercise produced increased nociception. When performed prior or after nerve damage, it proved effective in avoiding hypotrophy. The combination of the two protocols led to decrease in diameter and area of the muscle fiber. Avaliar os efeitos do salto em meio aquático, na nocicepção e no músculo sóleo, em ratos Wistar treinados e não treinados, no tratamento de neuropatia compressiva do nervo isquiático. Foram distribuídos em cinco grupos 25 ratos Wistar: Controle, Lesão, Treinado + Lesão, Lesão + Exercício e Treinado + Lesão + Exerc

  16. In vivo regulation of the beta-myosin heavy chain gene in soleus muscle of suspended and weight-bearing rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giger, J. M.; Haddad, F.; Qin, A. X.; Baldwin, K. M.

    2000-01-01

    In the weight-bearing hindlimb soleus muscle of the rat, approximately 90% of muscle fibers express the beta-myosin heavy chain (beta-MHC) isoform protein. Hindlimb suspension (HS) causes the MHC isoform population to shift from beta toward the fast MHC isoforms. Our aim was to establish a model to test the hypothesis that this shift in expression is transcriptionally regulated through specific cis elements of the beta-MHC promoter. With the use of a direct gene transfer approach, we determined the activity of different length beta-MHC promoter fragments, linked to a firefly luciferase reporter gene, in soleus muscle of control and HS rats. In weight-bearing rats, the relative luciferase activity of the longest beta-promoter fragment (-3500 bp) was threefold higher than the shorter promoter constructs, which suggests that an enhancer sequence is present in the upstream promoter region. After 1 wk of HS, the reporter activities of the -3500-, -914-, and -408-bp promoter constructs were significantly reduced ( approximately 40%), compared with the control muscles. However, using the -215-bp construct, no differences in promoter activity were observed between HS and control muscles, which indicates that the response to HS in the rodent appears to be regulated within the -408 and -215 bp of the promoter.

  17. Contraction-induced muscle fiber damage is increased in soleus muscle of streptozotocin-diabetic rats and is associated with elevated expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor mRNA in muscle fibers and activated satellite cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Copray, S; Liem, R; Brouwer, N; Greenhaff, P; Habens, F; Fernyhough, P

    The expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is elevated in the soleus muscle of streptozotocin-diabetic rats. To determine whether this diabetes-induced elevation was associated with or enhanced by muscle activity we have induced high-intensity muscle contraction by electrically

  18. Mouse models of cataract

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2009-12-31

    Dec 31, 2009 ... Much of our knowledge about the function of genes in cataracts has been derived from the molecular analysis of spontaneous or induced mutations in the mouse. Mutations affecting the mouse lens can be identified easily by visual inspection, and a remarkable number of mutant lines have been ...

  19. Gaze beats mouse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mateo, Julio C.; San Agustin, Javier; Hansen, John Paulin

    2008-01-01

    Facial EMG for selection is fast, easy and, combined with gaze pointing, it can provide completely hands-free interaction. In this pilot study, 5 participants performed a simple point-and-select task using mouse or gaze for pointing and a mouse button or a facial-EMG switch for selection. Gaze po...

  20. Starting position and stretching velocity effects on the reflex threshold angle of stretch reflex in the soleus muscle of normal and spastic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Shih-Wei; Abraham, Lawrence D; Huang, Ing-Shiou; Pei, Yu-Cheng; Lai, Cheng-Hsiu; Wong, Alice M K

    2005-07-01

    Although both starting position and stretching velocity play an important role in reflex response, their interaction with stretch reflexes has not been thoroughly investigated. This study examined the interaction effect of starting position and stretching velocity on the reflex threshold angle (RTA) of the stretch reflex in the soleus muscle of normal and spastic subjects. The spastic group included 11 ankles from 7 subjects with a history of upper motor neuron lesions. Their ages ranged from 22 to 40 years. Another 10 healthy subjects served as the control group. RTAs of the stretch reflex in the soleus muscle were measured for a matrix of starting positions and stretching velocities. The matrix design enabled the use of a 2-way analysis model to investigate the effect of starting position and stretching velocity on the RTA. No interaction effect was found in either the phasic stretch reflex (PSR) or the tonic stretch reflex (TSR) in the spastic group, or in the PSR in the normal group. The RTA of the PSR in both spastic and normal groups was significantly affected by starting position but not by stretching velocity. In contrast, the RTA of the TSR in the spastic group was affected by both starting position and stretching velocity. Stretching velocity and starting position played independent roles in determining the RTA of both the PSR and the TSR of the spastic group and in the PSR of the normal group. The lack of interaction between length-sensitive and velocity-sensitive muscle spindles in both normal and spastic subjects supports the hypothesis that they independently modulate the stretch reflex. Results for the RTA of the TSR demonstrated that spasticity results in disinhibition of motoneuron excitability with different thresholds.

  1. Mouse Genome Informatics (MGI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — MGI is the international database resource for the laboratory mouse, providing integrated genetic, genomic, and biological data to facilitate the study of human...

  2. Mouse Phenome Database (MPD)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Mouse Phenome Database (MPD) has characterizations of hundreds of strains of laboratory mice to facilitate translational discoveries and to assist in selection...

  3. Calcium homeostasis alterations in a mouse model of the Dynamin 2-related centronuclear myopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bodvaël Fraysse

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Autosomal dominant centronuclear myopathy (CNM is a rare congenital myopathy characterized by centrally located nuclei in muscle fibers. CNM results from mutations in the gene encoding dynamin 2 (DNM2, a large GTPase involved in endocytosis, intracellular membrane trafficking, and cytoskeleton regulation. We developed a knock-in mouse model expressing the most frequent DNM2-CNM mutation; i.e. the KI-Dnm2R465W model. Heterozygous (HTZ KI-Dnm2 mice progressively develop muscle atrophy, impairment of contractile properties, histopathological abnormalities, and elevated cytosolic calcium concentration. Here, we aim at better characterizing the calcium homeostasis impairment in extensor digitorum longus (EDL and soleus muscles from adult HTZ KI-Dnm2 mice. We demonstrate abnormal contractile properties and cytosolic Ca2+ concentration in EDL but not soleus muscles showing that calcium impairment is correlated with muscle weakness and might be a determinant factor of the spatial muscle involvement. In addition, the elevated cytosolic Ca2+ concentration in EDL muscles is associated with an increased sarcolemmal permeability to Ca2+ and releasable Ca2+ content from the sarcoplasmic reticulum. However, amplitude and kinetics characteristics of the calcium transient appear unchanged. This suggests that calcium defect is probably not a primary cause of decreased force generation by compromised sarcomere shortening but may be involved in long-term deleterious consequences on muscle physiology. Our results highlight the first pathomechanism which may explain the spatial muscle involvement occurring in DNM2-related CNM and open the way toward development of a therapeutic approach to normalize calcium content.

  4. Alterations in Skeletal Muscle Cell Homeostasis in a Mouse Model of Cigarette Smoke Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caron, Marc-André; Morissette, Mathieu C.; Thériault, Marie-Eve; Nikota, Jake K.; Stämpfli, Martin R.; Debigaré, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Background Skeletal muscle dysfunction is common in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), a disease mainly caused by chronic cigarette use. An important proportion of patients with COPD have decreased muscle mass, suggesting that chronic cigarette smoke exposure may interfere with skeletal muscle cellular equilibrium. Therefore, the main objective of this study was to investigate the kinetic of the effects that cigarette smoke exposure has on skeletal muscle cell signaling involved in protein homeostasis and to assess the reversibility of these effects. Methods A mouse model of cigarette smoke exposure was used to assess skeletal muscle changes. BALB/c mice were exposed to cigarette smoke or room air for 8 weeks, 24 weeks or 24 weeks followed by 60 days of cessation. The gastrocnemius and soleus muscles were collected and the activation state of key mediators involved in protein synthesis and degradation was assessed. Results Gastrocnemius and soleus were smaller in mice exposed to cigarette smoke for 8 and 24 weeks compared to room air exposed animals. Pro-degradation proteins were induced at the mRNA level after 8 and 24 weeks. Twenty-four weeks of cigarette smoke exposure induced pro-degradation proteins and reduced Akt phosphorylation and glycogen synthase kinase-3β quantity. A 60-day smoking cessation period reversed the cell signaling alterations induced by cigarette smoke exposure. Conclusions Repeated cigarette smoke exposure induces reversible muscle signaling alterations that are dependent on the duration of the cigarette smoke exposure. These results highlights a beneficial aspect associated with smoking cessation. PMID:23799102

  5. The effects of treadmill exercise on expression of UCP-2 of brown adipose tissue and TNF-α of soleus muscle in obese Zucker rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong-Hee; Kim, Seok-Hwan; Kim, Won-Hee; Moon, Chae-Ryen

    2013-12-01

    Sorts of abnormal state, obesity and inflammation are involved in a number of serious disease occurring and both of them became important research topics among molecular biologists. UCP-2 and TNF-α respectively reflecting obese and inflammatory status have often been used to evaluate the effects of independent variable, such as exercise, on them. Because exercise has shown its potent control on obesity and inflammation, it is necessary to determine if exercise is working via same bioindices. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of different treadmill exercise intensities on UCP-2 of brown adipose tissue and TNF-α of soleus muscle during 8 weeks in Zucker rat. Zucker rats were divided into four groups (n = 7 in each group): control group, low intensity exercise group, moderate intensity exercise group and high intensity exercise group. Zucker rats of the exercise groups were made to run on a motorized treadmill for 30 minutes once a day during 8 weeks. Rats were sacrificed 24 hours after the last bout of exercise. Blood glucose in Zucker rats were measured by Gluco-Card Ⅱ. Brown adipose tissue were extracted to analyze the level of UCP-2 and TNF-α, respectively. UCP-2 and TNF-α were analyzed using the Western Blotting technique. Statistical techniques for data analysis were repeated measure ANOVA and one way ANOVA to determine the difference between groups, and for post hoc test was Duncan' test. The 5% level of significance was utilized as the critical level for acceptance of hypotheses for the study. The following results were obtained from this study; UCP-2 protein expression of brown adipose tissue in Zucker rats were increased significantly following exercise of the low and moderate intensities compared to those of control group after 8 weeks. It was shown that TNF-α protein expression of soleus muscle in Zucker rats were decreased significantly following exercise of the low and moderate intensities compared to those of control group

  6. D1 and D2 Inhibitions of the Soleus H-Reflex Are Differentially Modulated during Plantarflexion Force and Position Tasks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Henrique Magalhães

    Full Text Available Presynaptic inhibition (PSI has been shown to modulate several neuronal pathways of functional relevance by selectively gating the connections between sensory inputs and spinal motoneurons, thereby regulating the contribution of the stretch reflex circuitry to the ongoing motor activity. In this study, we investigated whether a differential regulation of Ia afferent inflow by PSI may be associated with the performance of two types of plantarflexion sensoriomotor tasks. The subjects (in a seated position controlled either: 1 the force level exerted by the foot against a rigid restraint (force task, FT; or 2 the angular position of the ankle when sustaining inertial loads (position task, PT that required the same level of muscle activation observed in FT. Subjects were instructed to maintain their force/position at target levels set at ~10% of maximum isometric voluntary contraction for FT and 90° for PT, while visual feedback of the corresponding force/position signals were provided. Unconditioned H-reflexes (i.e. control reflexes and H-reflexes conditioned by electrical pulses applied to the common peroneal nerve with conditioning-to-test intervals of 21 ms and 100 ms (corresponding to D1 and D2 inhibitions, respectively were evoked in a random fashion. A significant main effect for the type of the motor task (FT vs PT (p = 0.005, η2p = 0.603 indicated that PTs were undertaken with lower levels of Ia PSI converging onto the soleus motoneuron pool. Additionally, a significant interaction between the type of inhibition (D1 vs D2 and the type of motor task (FT vs PT (p = 0.038, η2p = 0.395 indicated that D1 inhibition was associated with a significant reduction in PSI levels from TF to TP (p = 0.001, η2p = 0.731, whereas no significant difference between the tasks was observed for D2 inhibition (p = 0.078, η2p = 0.305. These results suggest that D1 and D2 inhibitions of the soleus H-reflex are differentially modulated during the performance of

  7. Investigation of the Expression of Myogenic Transcription Factors, microRNAs and Muscle-Specific E3 Ubiquitin Ligases in the Medial Gastrocnemius and Soleus Muscles following Peripheral Nerve Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiberg, Rebecca; Jonsson, Samuel; Novikova, Liudmila N; Kingham, Paul J

    2015-01-01

    Despite surgical innovation, the sensory and motor outcome after a peripheral nerve injury remains incomplete. One contributing factor to the poor outcome is prolonged denervation of the target organ, leading to apoptosis of both mature myofibres and satellite cells with subsequent replacement of the muscle tissue with fibrotic scar and adipose tissue. In this study, we investigated the expression of myogenic transcription factors, muscle specific microRNAs and muscle-specific E3 ubiquitin ligases at several time points following denervation in two different muscles, the gastrocnemius (containing predominantly fast type fibres) and soleus (slow type) muscles, since these molecules may influence the degree of atrophy following denervation. Both muscles exhibited significant atrophy (compared with the contra-lateral sides) at 7 days following either a nerve transection or crush injury. In the crush model, the soleus muscle showed significantly increased muscle weights at days 14 and 28 which was not the case for the gastrocnemius muscle which continued to atrophy. There was a significantly more pronounced up-regulation of MyoD expression in the denervated soleus muscle compared with the gastrocnemius muscle. Conversely, myogenin was more markedly elevated in the gastrocnemius versus soleus muscles. The muscles also showed significantly contrasting transcriptional regulation of the microRNAs miR-1 and miR-206. MuRF1 and Atrogin-1 showed the highest levels of expression in the denervated gastrocnemius muscle. This study provides further insights regarding the intracellular regulatory molecules that generate and maintain distinct patterns of gene expression in different fibre types following peripheral nerve injury.

  8. Similarities and Differences of the Soleus and Gastrocnemius H-reflexes during Varied Body Postures, Foot Positions, and Muscle Function: Multifactor Designs for Repeated Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabbahi Mohamed A

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although the soleus (Sol, medial gastrocnemius (MG, and lateral gastrocnemius (LG muscles differ in function, composition, and innervations, it is a common practice is to investigate them as single H-reflex recording. The purpose of this study was to compare H-reflex recordings between these three sections of the triceps surae muscle group of healthy participants while lying and standing during three different ankle positions. Methods The Sol, MG and LG muscles' H-reflexes were recorded from ten participants during prone lying and standing with the ankle in neutral, maximum dorsiflexion, and maximum plantarflexion positions. Four traces were averaged for each combination of conditions. Three-way ANOVAs (posture X ankle position X muscle with planned comparisons were used for statistical comparisons. Results Although the H-reflex in the three muscle sections differed in latency and amplitude, its dependency on posture and ankle position was similar. The H-reflex amplitudes and maximum H-reflex to M-response (H/M ratios were significantly 1 lower during standing compared to lying with the ankle in neutral, 2 greater during standing with the ankle in plantarflexion compared to neutral, and 3 less with the ankle in dorsiflexion compared to neutral during lying and standing for all muscles (p ≤ .05. Conclusion Varying demands are required for muscles activated during distinctly different postures and ankle movement tasks.

  9. Colonization, mouse-style

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Searle Jeremy B

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Several recent papers, including one in BMC Evolutionary Biology, examine the colonization history of house mice. As well as background for the analysis of mouse adaptation, such studies offer a perspective on the history of movements of the humans that accidentally transported the mice. See research article: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/10/325

  10. Mouse Models of Arteriosclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qingbo

    2004-01-01

    Animal models are designed to be preliminary tools for better understanding of the pathogenesis, improvement in diagnosis, prevention, and therapy of arteriosclerosis in humans. Attracted by the well-defined genetic systems, a number of investigators have begun to use the mouse as an experimental system for arteriosclerosis research. Hundreds of inbred lines have been established, and the genetic map is relatively well defined, and both congenic strains and recombinant strains are available to facilitate genetic experimentation. Because arteriosclerosis is a complicated disease, which includes spontaneous (native) atherosclerosis, transplant arteriosclerosis, vein graft atherosclerosis, and angioplasty-induced restenosis, several mouse models for studying all types of arteriosclerosis have recently been established. Using these mouse models, much knowledge concerning the pathogenesis of the disease and therapeutic intervention has been gained, eg, origins of endothelial and smooth muscle cells in lesions of transplant and vein graft atherosclerosis. This review will not attempt to cover all aspects of mouse models, rather focus on models of arterial injuries, vein grafts, and transplant arteriosclerosis, by which the major progress in understanding the mechanisms of the disease has been made. This article will also point out (dis)advantages of a variety of models, and how the models can be appropriately chosen for different purposes of study. PMID:15215157

  11. Veias soleares: bases anatômicas e seu papel na origem da trombose venosa profunda em membro inferior Soleus veins: anatomic basis and their role in the origin of deep venous lower limb thrombosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Miguel Gomes Sequeira

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estudar o número, a setorização e a terminação das veias soleares. MÉTODOS: Em 100 pernas de 50 cadáveres, excluídos aqueles com alterações congênitas ou adquiridas dos membros inferiores, foram realizadas, a fresco, na região crural posterior, dissecções anatômicas minuciosas, estratigráficas. Após o rebatimento da pele, foram realizadas a individualização das veias superficiais e perfurantes, rebatimento da tela subcutânea e da fáscia, individualização e rebatimento dos músculos gastrocnêmio e plantar, desinserção tibial do músculo sóleo, individualização das veias soleares e o estudo morfométrico. A região foi dividida em seis setores: súpero-medial, súpero-lateral, médio-medial, médio-lateral, ínfero-medial e ínfero-lateral. No estudo estatístico utilizaram-se os testes não-paramétricos Wilcoxon e Friedman. RESULTADOS: Foram encontradas 4.679 veias soleares. O setor com maior número de veias soleares foi o súpero-lateral com 1.529 veias (32,7%, seguido do médio-medial com 1.256 veias (26,8% e do médio-lateral com 975 veias (20,8%. As terminações ocorreram em veias comunicantes (1.207 veias - 25,8%, veias tibiais posteriores (964 veias - 20,6%, veias fibulares (709 veias - 15,2% e em mais 32 tipos (1799 veias - 38,4%. CONCLUSÃO: A drenagem venosa do músculo sóleo é realizada por um grande número de veias soleares, freqüentemente localizadas nos setores súpero-lateral, médio-medial e médio-lateral, terminando comumente em veias tibiais posteriores e fibulares e, em veias comunicantes.OBJECTIVE: Study of the number, sectorization and termination of the soleus veins. METHODS: Meticulous, stratigraphical, anatomical dissections were carried out in the posterior crural region of 100 legs of 50 fresh cadavers. Those belonging to subjects with congenital or acquired pathologies in the lower limbs were disregarded. After the skin was reflected on both sides, dissection of superficial

  12. Occupational mouse allergen exposure among non-mouse handlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtin-Brosnan, Jean; Paigen, Beverly; Hagberg, Karol A; Langley, Stephen; O'Neil, Elise A; Krevans, Mary; Eggleston, Peyton A; Matsui, Elizabeth C

    2010-12-01

    This study assessed mouse allergen exposure across a range of jobs, including non-mouse handling jobs, at a mouse facility. Baseline data from 220 new employees enrolled in the Jackson Laboratory (JAXCohort) were analyzed. The baseline assessment included a questionnaire, allergy skin testing, and spirometry. Exposure assessments consisted of collection of two full-shift breathing zone air samples during a 1-week period. Air samples were analyzed for mouse allergen content, and the mean concentration of the two shifts represented mouse allergen exposure for that employee. The mean age of the 220 participants was 33 years. Ten percent reported current asthma and 56% were atopic. Thirty-eight percent were animal caretakers, 20% scientists, 20% administrative/support personnel, 10% materials/supplies handlers, and 9% laboratory technicians. Sixty percent of the population handled mice. Eighty-two percent of study participants had detectable breathing zone mouse allergen, and breathing zone mouse allergen concentrations were 1.02 ng/m³ (0.13-6.91) (median [interquartile range (IQR)]. Although mouse handlers had significantly higher concentrations of breathing zone mouse allergen than non-handlers (median [IQR]: 4.13 ng/m³ [0.69-12.12] and 0.21 ng/m³ [below detection (BD)-0.63], respectively; p < 0.001), 66% of non-handlers had detectable breathing zone mouse allergen. Mouse allergen concentrations among administrative/support personnel and materials/supplies handlers, jobs that generally do not entail handling mice, were median [IQR]: 0.23 ng/m³ [BD-0.59] and 0.63 ng/m³ [BD-18.91], respectively. Seventy-one percent of administrative/support personnel, and 68% of materials/supplies handlers had detectable breathing zone mouse allergen. As many as half of non-mouse handlers may have levels of exposure that are similar to levels observed among mouse handlers.

  13. Task-dependent inhibition of slow-twitch soleus and excitation of fast-twitch gastrocnemius do not require high movement speed and velocity-dependent sensory feedback

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricky eMehta

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Although individual heads of triceps surae, soleus (SO and medial gastrocnemius (MG muscles, are often considered close functional synergists, previous studies have shown distinct activity patterns between them in some motor behaviors. The goal of this study was to test two hypotheses explaining inhibition of slow SO with respect to fast MG: (1 inhibition occurs at high movement velocities and mediated by velocity-dependent sensory feedback and (2 inhibition depends on the ankle-knee joint moment combination and does not require high movement velocities. The hypotheses were tested by comparing the SO EMG/MG EMG ratio during fast and slow motor behaviors (cat paw shake responses vs. back, straight leg load lifting in humans, which had the same ankle extension-knee flexion moment combination; and during fast and slow behaviors with the ankle extension-knee extension moment combination (human vertical jumping and stance phase of walking in cats and leg load lifting in humans. In addition, SO EMG/MG EMG ratio was determined during cat paw shake responses and walking before and after removal of stretch velocity-dependent sensory feedback by self-reinnervating SO and/or gastrocnemius. We found the ratio SO EMG/MG EMG below 1 (p<0.05 during fast paw shake responses and slow back load lifting, requiring the ankle extension-knee flexion moment combination; whereas the ratio SO EMG/MG EMG was above 1 (p<0.05 during fast vertical jumping and slow tasks of walking and leg load lifting, requiring ankle extension-knee extension moments. Removal of velocity-dependent sensory feedback did not affect the SO EMG/MG EMG ratio in cats. We concluded that the relative inhibition of SO does not require high muscle velocities, depends on ankle-knee moment combinations, and is mechanically advantageous for allowing a greater MG contribution to ankle extension and knee flexion moments.

  14. Treatment with Riluzole Restores Normal Control of Soleus and Extensor Digitorum Longus Muscles during Locomotion in Adult Rats after Sciatic Nerve Crush at Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabaj, Anna M.; Sławińska, Urszula

    2017-01-01

    The effects of sciatic nerve crush (SNC) and treatment with Riluzole on muscle activity during unrestrained locomotion were identified in an animal model by analysis of the EMG activity recorded from soleus (Sol) and extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles of both hindlimbs; in intact rats (IN) and in groups of rats treated for 14 days with saline (S) or Riluzole (R) after right limb nerve crush at the 1st (1S and 1R) or 2nd (2S and 2R) day after birth. Changes in the locomotor pattern of EMG activity were correlated with the numbers of survived motor units (MUs) identified in investigated muscles. S rats with 2–8 and 10–28 MUs that survived in Sol and EDL muscles respectively showed increases in the duration and duty factor of muscle EMG activity and a loss of correlation between the duty factors of muscle activity, and abnormal flexor-extensor co-activation 3 months after SNC. R rats with 5, 6 (Sol) and 15–29 MUs (EDL) developed almost normal EMG activity of both Sol and control EDL muscles, whereas EDL muscles with SNC showed a lack of recovery. R rats with 8 (Sol) and 23–33 (EDL) MUs developed almost normal EMG activities of all four muscles. A subgroup of S rats with a lack of recovery and R rats with almost complete recovery that had similar number of MUs (8 and 24–28 vs 8 and 23–26), showed that the number of MUs was not the only determinant of treatment effectiveness. The results demonstrated that rats with SNC failed to develop normal muscle activity due to malfunction of neuronal circuits attenuating EDL muscle activity during the stance phase, whereas treatment with Riluzole enabled almost normal EMG activity of Sol and EDL muscles during locomotor movement. PMID:28095499

  15. Combination keyboard and mouse

    OpenAIRE

    Cigale, Matej

    2010-01-01

    The object of this thesis is design and construction of a device that can replace a standard keyboard and mouse. The history of the standard keyboard is presented and the most known alternative the Dvorak Simplified Keyboard is described. The basic principals that August Dvorak used in designing his keyboard are also used in our design. In other to achieve this the knowledge of the characteristics of Slovenian language are required. The characteristics that we require to design our keyboar...

  16. Hybrid Sterility, Mouse

    OpenAIRE

    Forejt, J

    2013-01-01

    The review summarizes hybrid sterility as the best studied example of reproductive isolation between closely related species. On the model of infertile hybrids of two domestic mouse subspecies, Mus musculus musculus and Mus musculus domesticus, we have demonstrated interaction of hybrid sterility genes with epigenetic control of transcriptional inactivation of the X and Y sex chromosomes. This leads to the activation of pachytene checkpoint and finally results in the arrest of spermatogenesis.

  17. Effects of 4 weeks of low-load unilateral resistance training, with and without blood flow restriction, on strength, thickness, V wave, and H reflex of the soleus muscle in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colomer-Poveda, David; Romero-Arenas, Salvador; Vera-Ibáñez, Antonio; Viñuela-García, Manuel; Márquez, Gonzalo

    2017-07-01

    To test the effects of 4 weeks of unilateral low-load resistance training (LLRT), with and without blood flow restriction (BFR), on maximal voluntary contraction (MVC), muscle thickness, volitional wave (V wave), and Hoffmann reflex (H reflex) of the soleus muscle. Twenty-two males were randomly distributed into three groups: a control group (CTR; n = 8); a low-load blood flow restriction resistance training group (BFR-LLRT; n = 7), who were an inflatable cuff to occlude blood flow; and a low-load resistance training group without blood flow restriction (LLRT; n = 7). The training consisted of four sets of unilateral isometric LLRT (25% of MVC) three times a week over 4 weeks. MVC increased 33% (P trained leg of both BFR-LLRT and LLRT groups, respectively. The soleus thickness increased 9.5% (P trained leg of both BFR-LLRT and LLRT groups, respectively. However, neither MVC nor thickness changed in either of the legs tested in the CTR group (MVC -1 and -5%, and muscle thickness 1.9 and 1.2%, for the control and trained leg, respectively). Moreover, V wave and H reflex did not change significantly in all the groups studied (V wave /M wave ratio -7.9 and -2.6%, and H max /M max ratio -3.8 and -4%, for the control and trained leg, respectively). Collectively, the present data suggest that in spite of the changes occurring in soleus strength and thickness, 4 weeks of low-load resistance training, with or without BFR, does not cause any change in neural drive or motoneuronal excitability.

  18. Mouse models for cancer research

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Wei; Moore, Lynette; Ji, Ping

    2011-01-01

    Mouse models of cancer enable researchers to learn about tumor biology in complicated and dynamic physiological systems. Since the development of gene targeting in mice, cancer biologists have been among the most frequent users of transgenic mouse models, which have dramatically increased knowledge about how cancers form and grow. The Chinese Journal of Cancer will publish a series of papers reporting the use of mouse models in studying genetic events in cancer cases. This editorial is an ove...

  19. Tongue-mouse for quadriplegics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutt, Wolfgang; Arlanch, Christian; Nigg, Silvio; Staufert, Gerhard

    1998-06-01

    The full replacement of the PC-mouse through the tongue-mouse gives highly handicapped people like quadriplegics new chances in their life. The idea of the tongue-mouse was given high international attention at the inventory show at MUBA 1994 in Basel. At the Neu-Technikum Buchs in the Institute of Microsystem Technology, the development of the sensor system of the tongue-mouse took place. The system is based on piezo-ceramics as sensor material connected with anisotropic conductive adhesives on a flexible printed foil and the chip-on-flex technology. This sensor module is placed on a conventional dental plate fitted to the patient.

  20. Differential half-maximal effects of human insulin and its analogs for in situ glucose transport and protein synthesis in rat soleus muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Randi B.; Eleid, Noura; LeCesne, Catherine; Durando, Bianca; Crawford, Julie T.; Heffner, Michelle; Layton, Christle; O'Keefe, Matthew; Robinson, Jennifer; Rudinsky, Suzy; hide

    2002-01-01

    Analogs of human insulin have been used to discriminate between responses of metabolic and mitogenic (growth-related) pathways. This study compared the stimulatory effects of human insulin (HI) and 2 analogs (X2, B-Asp(9), B-Glu(27) and H2, A-His(8),B-His(4),B-Glu(10), B-His(27)) on glucose uptake and protein synthesis in rat soleus muscle in situ. Glucose uptake, estimated by intramuscular (IM) injection of 2-deoxy[1,2-3H]glucose with or without insulin, was maximally increased at 10(-6) mol/L for HI and X2 and 10(-7) mol/L for H2. HI had a larger effect (318%) than either X2 (156%) or H2 (124%). The half-maximal effect (ED(50)) values for HI, X2, and H2 were 3.3 x10(-8) mol/L, 1.7 x 10(-7) mol/L, and 1.6 x 10(-9) mol/L, respectively. Protein synthesis, estimated by protein incorporation of [(3)H]phenylalanine injected into muscles with or without insulin, was maximally increased at 10(-5) mol/L for HI and 10(-6) for X2 and H2. HI had a larger effect in stimulating protein synthesis (34%) than either X2 (25%) or H2 (19.8%). The ED(50) values for HI, X2, and H2 were 3.0 x 10(-7) mol/L, 3.2 x 10(-7) mol/L, and 1.0 x 10(-9) mol/L, respectively. The biological potency of each analog (ED(50)insulin/ED(50)analog) showed X2 to be less potent than HI for both glucose uptake (0.2) and protein synthesis (0.9), whereas H2 is more potent than HI with ratios of 20 and 300, respectively. These data suggest that this approach for studying insulin responsiveness in a single muscle in situ may be a useful tool for investigating insulin signaling in muscle in vivo. Copyright 2002, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

  1. To Evaluate the Effectiveness of TBTS - A Novel Device to do Self-Stretching of Gastroc-Soleus Muscle in Patients with Equinus Deformity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzaffar, Tufail; Rather, Abdul Hamid; Haque, Kaleem Ul; Ahmad, Sheikh Javeed

    2017-06-01

    Various methods have been used for management of equinus deformity. However, stretching gastroc-soleus muscle and achilles tendon is a difficult task. It is labour intensive, which makes the provision of treatment difficult for many patients. To study the effectiveness of Tension Bar Tendon Stretch (TBTS) compared to conventional stretching in patients with equinus deformity in terms of improvement in equinus angle and spasticity. A prospective randomised case control study was done on 16 patients of both the sexes in the age group four years to 56 years. Patients were stratified based on presence or absence of spasticity. Patients were further randomly allotted to the study or control group. Study group received stretching with TBTS in addition to the conventional rehabilitation programme. Patients were assessed in terms of improvement in equinus deformity and spasticity (modified Ashworth scale). These indices were measured at 0 month (pre-treatment), 1 month (post-treatment), and 6 months (follow up). Equinus deformity in patients with spastic equinus changed from 22.4° to 12° in study group while in control group change was from 21° to 17°. The difference was statistically significant with p-value of 0.001. Non-spastic (post accidental) changed from 30° to 15° in study group while in control group change was from 31° to 23° with p-value of 0.001. Modified Ashworth Score (MAS) was assessed only in spastic equinus, while in study group MAS changed from 2.8 to 1.5 and MAS change was 2.6 to 2 in control group; this difference after six months of therapy was statistically significant with a p-value of 0.001. TBTS can be an effective tool in rehabilitation of patients having equinus deformity; it provides an effective and patient controlled stretching and no need for a physical therapist. TBTS is a novel but simple instrument that can be made locally by the patient or the family.

  2. Soleus Atrophy Is Common After the Nonsurgical Treatment of Acute Achilles Tendon Ruptures: A Randomized Clinical Trial Comparing Surgical and Nonsurgical Functional Treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heikkinen, Juuso; Lantto, Iikka; Flinkkila, Tapio; Ohtonen, Pasi; Niinimaki, Jaakko; Siira, Pertti; Laine, Vesa; Leppilahti, Juhana

    2017-05-01

    It remains controversial whether nonsurgical or surgical treatment provides better calf muscle strength recovery after an acute Achilles tendon rupture (ATR). Recent evidence has suggested that surgery might surpass nonsurgical treatment in restoring strength after an ATR. To assess whether magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings could explain calf muscle strength deficits and the difference between nonsurgical and surgical treatments in restoring calf muscle strength. Randomized controlled trial; Level of evidence, 1. From 2009 to 2013, 60 patients with acute ATRs were randomized to surgery or nonsurgical treatment with an identical rehabilitation protocol. The primary outcome measure was the volume of calf muscles assessed using MRI at 3 and 18 months. The secondary outcome measures included fatty degeneration of the calf muscles and length of the affected Achilles tendon. Additionally, isokinetic plantarflexion strength was measured in both legs. At 3 months, the study groups showed no differences in muscle volumes or fatty degeneration. However, at 18 months, the mean differences between affected and healthy soleus muscle volumes were 83.2 cm(3) (17.7%) after surgery and 115.5 cm(3) (24.8%) after nonsurgical treatment (difference between means, 33.1 cm(3); 95% CI, 1.3-65.0; P = .042). The study groups were not substantially different in the volumes or fatty degeneration of other muscles. From 3 to 18 months, compensatory hypertrophy was detected in the flexor hallucis longus (FHL) and deep flexors in both groups. In the nonsurgical treatment group, the mean difference between affected and healthy FHL muscle volumes was -9.3 cm(3) (12%) and in the surgical treatment group was -8.4 cm(3) (10%) ( P ≤ .001). At 18 months, Achilles tendons were, on average, 19 mm longer in patients treated nonsurgically compared with patients treated surgically ( P Achilles tendon length was 19 mm longer after nonsurgical treatment than after the surgical treatment of ATRs

  3. MouseBook: an integrated portal of mouse resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Andrew; Pickford, Karen; Greenaway, Simon; Thomas, Steve; Pickard, Amanda; Williamson, Christine M.; Adams, Niels C.; Walling, Alison; Beck, Tim; Fray, Martin; Peters, Jo; Weaver, Tom; Brown, Steve D. M.; Hancock, John M.; Mallon, Ann-Marie

    2010-01-01

    The MouseBook (http://www.mousebook.org) databases and web portal provide access to information about mutant mouse lines held as live or cryopreserved stocks at MRC Harwell. The MouseBook portal integrates curated information from the MRC Harwell stock resource, and other Harwell databases, with information from external data resources to provide value-added information above and beyond what is available through other routes such as International Mouse Stain Resource (IMSR). MouseBook can be searched either using an intuitive Google style free text search or using the Mammalian Phenotype (MP) ontology tree structure. Text searches can be on gene, allele, strain identifier (e.g. MGI ID) or phenotype term and are assisted by automatic recognition of term types and autocompletion of gene and allele names covered by the database. Results are returned in a tabbed format providing categorized results identified from each of the catalogs in MouseBook. Individual result lines from each catalog include information on gene, allele, chromosomal location and phenotype, and provide a simple click-through link to further information as well as ordering the strain. The infrastructure underlying MouseBook has been designed to be extensible, allowing additional data sources to be added and enabling other sites to make their data directly available through MouseBook. PMID:19854936

  4. Burn mouse models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calum, Henrik; Høiby, Niels; Moser, Claus

    2014-01-01

    Severe thermal injury induces immunosuppression, involving all parts of the immune system, especially when large fractions of the total body surface area are affected. An animal model was established to characterize the burn-induced immunosuppression. In our novel mouse model a 6 % third-degree b......Severe thermal injury induces immunosuppression, involving all parts of the immune system, especially when large fractions of the total body surface area are affected. An animal model was established to characterize the burn-induced immunosuppression. In our novel mouse model a 6 % third......-degree burn injury was induced with a hot-air blower. The third-degree burn was confirmed histologically. At 48 h, a decline in the concentration of peripheral blood leucocytes was observed in the group of mice with burn wound. The reduction was ascribed to the decline in concentration of polymorphonuclear...... neutrophil leucocytes and monocytes. When infecting the skin with Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a dissemination of bacteria was observed only in the burn wound group. Histological characterization of the skin showed an increased polymorphonuclear neutrophil granulocytes dominated inflammation in the group of mice...

  5. New mouse model of skeletal muscle atrophy using spiral wire immobilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onda, Akiko; Kono, Hajime; Jiao, Qibin; Akimoto, Takayuki; Miyamoto, Toshikazu; Sawada, Yasuhiro; Suzuki, Katsuhiko; Kusakari, Yoichiro; Minamisawa, Susumu; Fukubayashi, Toru

    2016-10-01

    Disuse-induced skeletal muscle atrophy is a serious concern; however, there is not an effective mouse model to elucidate the molecular mechanisms. We developed a noninvasive atrophy model in mice. After the ankle joints of mice were bandaged into a bilateral plantar flexed position, either bilateral or unilateral hindlimbs were immobilized by wrapping in bonsai steel wire. After 3, 5, or 10 days of immobilization of the hip, knee, and ankle, the weight of the soleus and plantaris muscles decreased significantly in both bilateral and unilateral immobilization. MAFbx/atrogin-1 and MuRF1 mRNA was found to have significantly increased in both muscles, consistent with disuse-induced atrophy. Notably, the procedure did not result in either edema or necrosis in the fixed hindlimbs. This method allows repeated, direct access to the immobilized muscle, making it a useful procedure for concurrent application and assessment of various therapeutic interventions. Muscle Nerve 54: 788-791, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Key Markers of mTORC1-Dependent and mTORC1-Independent Signaling Pathways Regulating Protein Synthesis in Rat Soleus Muscle During Early Stages of Hindlimb Unloading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timur Mirzoev

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: The purpose of the study was to assess the amount of rRNA and phosphorylation status of the key markers of mTORC1-dependent (70s6k, 4E-BP1 and mTORC1-independent (GSK-3β, AMPK signaling pathways controlling protein synthesis in rat soleus during early stages of mechanical unloading (hindlimb suspension (HS for 1-, 3- and 7 days. Methods: The content of the key signaling molecules of various anabolic signaling pathways was determined by Western-blotting. The amount of 28S rRNA was evaluated by RT-PCR. The rate of protein synthesis was assessed using in-vivo SUnSET technique. Results: HS for 3 and 7 days induced a significant (pConclusion: Taken together, the results of our study suggest that a decline in the global rate of protein synthesis in rat soleus during early stages of simulated microgravity is associated with impaired ribosome biogenesis as well as reduced activity of mTORC1-independent signaling pathways.

  7. Whole mouse cryo-imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, David; Roy, Debashish; Steyer, Grant; Gargesha, Madhusudhana; Stone, Meredith; McKinley, Eliot

    2008-03-01

    The Case cryo-imaging system is a section and image system which allows one to acquire micron-scale, information rich, whole mouse color bright field and molecular fluorescence images of an entire mouse. Cryo-imaging is used in a variety of applications, including mouse and embryo anatomical phenotyping, drug delivery, imaging agents, metastastic cancer, stem cells, and very high resolution vascular imaging, among many. Cryo-imaging fills the gap between whole animal in vivo imaging and histology, allowing one to image a mouse along the continuum from the mouse -> organ -> tissue structure -> cell -> sub-cellular domains. In this overview, we describe the technology and a variety of exciting applications. Enhancements to the system now enable tiled acquisition of high resolution images to cover an entire mouse. High resolution fluorescence imaging, aided by a novel subtraction processing algorithm to remove sub-surface fluorescence, makes it possible to detect fluorescently-labeled single cells. Multi-modality experiments in Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Cryo-imaging of a whole mouse demonstrate superior resolution of cryo-images and efficiency of registration techniques. The 3D results demonstrate the novel true-color volume visualization tools we have developed and the inherent advantage of cryo-imaging in providing unlimited depth of field and spatial resolution. The recent results continue to demonstrate the value cryo-imaging provides in the field of small animal imaging research.

  8. Forkhead box O1 and muscle RING finger 1 protein expression in atrophic and hypertrophic denervated mouse skeletal muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Forkhead box O (FoxO) transcription factors and E3 ubiquitin ligases such as Muscle RING finger 1 (MuRF1) are believed to participate in the regulation of skeletal muscle mass. The function of FoxO transcription factors is regulated by post-translational modifications such as phosphorylation and acetylation. In the present study FoxO1 protein expression, phosphorylation and acetylation as well as MuRF1 protein expression, were examined in atrophic and hypertrophic denervated skeletal muscle. Methods Protein expression, phosphorylation and acetylation were studied semi-quantitatively using Western blots. Muscles studied were 6-days denervated mouse hind-limb muscles (anterior tibial as well as pooled gastrocnemius and soleus muscles, all atrophic), 6-days denervated mouse hemidiaphragm muscles (hypertrophic) and innervated control muscles. Total muscle homogenates were used as well as separated nuclear and cytosolic fractions of innervated and 6-days denervated anterior tibial and hemidiaphragm muscles. Results Expression of FoxO1 and MuRF1 proteins increased 0.3-3.7-fold in all 6-days denervated muscles studied, atrophic as well as hypertrophic. Phosphorylation of FoxO1 at S256 increased about 0.8-1-fold after denervation in pooled gastrocnemius and soleus muscles and in hemidiaphragm but not in unfractionated anterior tibial muscle. A small (0.2-fold) but statistically significant increase in FoxO1 phosphorylation was, however, observed in cytosolic fractions of denervated anterior tibial muscle. A statistically significant increase in FoxO1 acetylation (0.8-fold) was observed only in denervated anterior tibial muscle. Increases in total FoxO1 and in phosphorylated FoxO1 were only seen in cytosolic fractions of denervated atrophic anterior tibial muscle whereas in denervated hypertrophic hemidiaphragm both total FoxO1 and phosphorylated FoxO1 increased in cytosolic as well as in nuclear fractions. MuRF1 protein expression increased in cytosolic as well

  9. Reactivity of mouse antibodies against bromelain-treated mouse erythrocytes with thrombin-treated mouse platelets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaguchi, S

    1989-01-01

    The reactivity of mouse antibodies against bromelain-treated mouse erythrocytes (BrMRBC) with mouse platelets before and after thrombin treatment was assessed by flow cytometry. Anti-BrMRBC antibodies could bind to thrombin-treated platelets, although normal platelets were also weakly reactive with the antibodies. The binding of anti-BrMRBC antibodies to platelets was confirmed by complement-dependent lysis. It is suggested that thrombin-activated platelets may be a real target for anti-BrMRBC antibodies. PMID:2467876

  10. Hand gestures mouse cursor control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian-Avram Vincze

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the implementation of a human-computer interface for controlling the mouse cursor. The test reveal the fact: a low-cost web camera some processing algorithms are quite enough to control the mouse cursor on computers. Even if the system is influenced by the illuminance level on the plane of the hand, the current study may represent a start point for some studies on the hand tracking and gesture recognition field.

  11. Transversal Stiffness and Beta-Actin and Alpha-Actinin-4 Content of the M. Soleus Fibers in the Conditions of a 3-Day Reloading after 14-Day Gravitational Unloading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Ogneva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the work was to analyze the structural changes in different parts of the sarcolemma and contractile apparatus of muscle fibers by measuring their transversal stiffness by atomic force microscopy in a three-day reloading after a 14-day gravity disuse, which was carried out by hind-limbs suspension. The object of the study was the soleus muscle of the Wistar rat. It was shown that after 14 days of disuse, there was a reduction of transversal stiffness of all points of the sarcolemma and contractile apparatus. Readaptation for 3 days leads to complete recovery of the values of the transversal stiffness of the sarcolemma and to partial value recovery of the contractile apparatus. The changes in transversal stiffness of sarcolemma correlate with beta-actin and alpha-actinin-4 in membrane protein fractions.

  12. Mouse models of Fanconi anemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parmar, Kalindi; D' Andrea, Alan [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, 44 Binney Street, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Niedernhofer, Laura J., E-mail: niedernhoferl@upmc.edu [Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine and Cancer Institute, 5117 Centre Avenue, Hillman Cancer Center, Research Pavilion 2.6, Pittsburgh, PA 15213-1863 (United States)

    2009-07-31

    Fanconi anemia is a rare inherited disease characterized by congenital anomalies, growth retardation, aplastic anemia and an increased risk of acute myeloid leukemia and squamous cell carcinomas. The disease is caused by mutation in genes encoding proteins required for the Fanconi anemia pathway, a response mechanism to replicative stress, including that caused by genotoxins that cause DNA interstrand crosslinks. Defects in the Fanconi anemia pathway lead to genomic instability and apoptosis of proliferating cells. To date, 13 complementation groups of Fanconi anemia were identified. Five of these genes have been deleted or mutated in the mouse, as well as a sixth key regulatory gene, to create mouse models of Fanconi anemia. This review summarizes the phenotype of each of the Fanconi anemia mouse models and highlights how genetic and interventional studies using the strains have yielded novel insight into therapeutic strategies for Fanconi anemia and into how the Fanconi anemia pathway protects against genomic instability.

  13. 10. international mouse genome conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meisler, M.H.

    1996-12-31

    Ten years after hosting the First International Mammalian Genome Conference in Paris in 1986, Dr. Jean-Louis Guenet presided over the Tenth Conference at the Pasteur Institute, October 7--10, 1996. The 1986 conference was a satellite to the Human Gene Mapping Workshop and had approximately 50 attendees. The 1996 meeting was attended by 300 scientists from around the world. In the interim, the number of mapped loci in the mouse increased from 1,000 to over 20,000. This report contains a listing of the program and its participants, and two articles that review the meeting and the role of the laboratory mouse in the Human Genome project. More than 200 papers were presented at the conference covering the following topics: International mouse chromosome committee meetings; Mutant generation and identification; Physical and genetic maps; New technology and resources; Chromatin structure and gene regulation; Rate and hamster genetic maps; Informatics and databases; and Quantitative trait analysis.

  14. Mouse Resource Browser-a database of mouse databases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zouberakis, Michael; Chandras, Christina; Swertz, Morris; Smedley, Damian; Gruenberger, Michael; Bard, Jonathan; Schughart, Klaus; Rosenthal, Nadia; Hancock, John M.; Schofield, Paul N.; Kollias, George; Aidinis, Vassilis

    2010-01-01

    The laboratory mouse has become the organism of choice for discovering gene function and unravelling pathogenetic mechanisms of human diseases through the application of various functional genomic approaches. The resulting deluge of data has led to the deployment of numerous online resources and the

  15. A Reduction in Selenoprotein S Amplifies the Inflammatory Profile of Fast-Twitch Skeletal Muscle in the mdx Dystrophic Mouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig Robert Wright

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Excessive inflammation is a hallmark of muscle myopathies, including Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD. There is interest in characterising novel genes that regulate inflammation due to their potential to modify disease progression. Gene polymorphisms in Selenoprotein S (Seps1 are associated with elevated proinflammatory cytokines, and in vitro SEPS1 is protective against inflammatory stress. Given that SEPS1 is highly expressed in skeletal muscle, we investigated whether the genetic reduction of Seps1 exacerbated inflammation in the mdx mouse. F1 male mdx mice with a heterozygous Seps1 deletion (mdx:Seps1−/+ were generated. The mdx:Seps1−/+ mice had a 50% reduction in SEPS1 protein expression in hindlimb muscles. In the extensor digitorum longus (EDL muscles, mRNA expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (Mcp-1 (P=0.034, macrophage marker F4/80 (P=0.030, and transforming growth factor-β1 (Tgf-β1 (P=0.056 were increased in mdx:Seps1−/+ mice. This was associated with a reduction in muscle fibre size; however, ex vivo EDL muscle strength and endurance were unaltered. In dystrophic slow twitch soleus muscles, SEPS1 reduction had no effect on the inflammatory profile nor function. In conclusion, the genetic reduction of Seps1 appears to specifically exacerbate the inflammatory profile of fast-twitch muscle fibres, which are typically more vulnerable to degeneration in dystrophy.

  16. Uncoordinated transcription and compromised muscle function in the lmna-null mouse model of Emery- Emery-Dreyfuss muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnocchi, Viola F; Scharner, Juergen; Huang, Zhe; Brady, Ken; Lee, Jaclyn S; White, Robert B; Morgan, Jennifer E; Sun, Yin-Biao; Ellis, Juliet A; Zammit, Peter S

    2011-02-22

    LMNA encodes both lamin A and C: major components of the nuclear lamina. Mutations in LMNA underlie a range of tissue-specific degenerative diseases, including those that affect skeletal muscle, such as autosomal-Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy (A-EDMD) and limb girdle muscular dystrophy 1B. Here, we examine the morphology and transcriptional activity of myonuclei, the structure of the myotendinous junction and the muscle contraction dynamics in the lmna-null mouse model of A-EDMD. We found that there were fewer myonuclei in lmna-null mice, of which ∼50% had morphological abnormalities. Assaying transcriptional activity by examining acetylated histone H3 and PABPN1 levels indicated that there was a lack of coordinated transcription between myonuclei lacking lamin A/C. Myonuclei with abnormal morphology and transcriptional activity were distributed along the length of the myofibre, but accumulated at the myotendinous junction. Indeed, in addition to the presence of abnormal myonuclei, the structure of the myotendinous junction was perturbed, with disorganised sarcomeres and reduced interdigitation with the tendon, together with lipid and collagen deposition. Functionally, muscle contraction became severely affected within weeks of birth, with specific force generation dropping as low as ∼65% and ∼27% of control values in the extensor digitorum longus and soleus muscles respectively. These observations illustrate the importance of lamin A/C for correct myonuclear function, which likely acts synergistically with myotendinous junction disorganisation in the development of A-EDMD, and the consequential reduction in force generation and muscle wasting.

  17. Adaptation of mouse skeletal muscle to long-term microgravity in the MDS mission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandonà, Dorianna; Desaphy, Jean-Francois; Camerino, Giulia M; Bianchini, Elisa; Ciciliot, Stefano; Danieli-Betto, Daniela; Dobrowolny, Gabriella; Furlan, Sandra; Germinario, Elena; Goto, Katsumasa; Gutsmann, Martina; Kawano, Fuminori; Nakai, Naoya; Ohira, Takashi; Ohno, Yoshitaka; Picard, Anne; Salanova, Michele; Schiffl, Gudrun; Blottner, Dieter; Musarò, Antonio; Ohira, Yoshinobu; Betto, Romeo; Conte, Diana; Schiaffino, Stefano

    2012-01-01

    The effect of microgravity on skeletal muscles has so far been examined in rat and mice only after short-term (5-20 day) spaceflights. The mice drawer system (MDS) program, sponsored by Italian Space Agency, for the first time aimed to investigate the consequences of long-term (91 days) exposure to microgravity in mice within the International Space Station. Muscle atrophy was present indistinctly in all fiber types of the slow-twitch soleus muscle, but was only slightly greater than that observed after 20 days of spaceflight. Myosin heavy chain analysis indicated a concomitant slow-to-fast transition of soleus. In addition, spaceflight induced translocation of sarcolemmal nitric oxide synthase-1 (NOS1) into the cytosol in soleus but not in the fast-twitch extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle. Most of the sarcolemmal ion channel subunits were up-regulated, more in soleus than EDL, whereas Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channels were down-regulated, consistent with the phenotype transition. Gene expression of the atrophy-related ubiquitin-ligases was up-regulated in both spaceflown soleus and EDL muscles, whereas autophagy genes were in the control range. Muscle-specific IGF-1 and interleukin-6 were down-regulated in soleus but up-regulated in EDL. Also, various stress-related genes were up-regulated in spaceflown EDL, not in soleus. Altogether, these results suggest that EDL muscle may resist to microgravity-induced atrophy by activating compensatory and protective pathways. Our study shows the extended sensitivity of antigravity soleus muscle after prolonged exposition to microgravity, suggests possible mechanisms accounting for the resistance of EDL, and individuates some molecular targets for the development of countermeasures.

  18. Adaptation of mouse skeletal muscle to long-term microgravity in the MDS mission.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorianna Sandonà

    Full Text Available The effect of microgravity on skeletal muscles has so far been examined in rat and mice only after short-term (5-20 day spaceflights. The mice drawer system (MDS program, sponsored by Italian Space Agency, for the first time aimed to investigate the consequences of long-term (91 days exposure to microgravity in mice within the International Space Station. Muscle atrophy was present indistinctly in all fiber types of the slow-twitch soleus muscle, but was only slightly greater than that observed after 20 days of spaceflight. Myosin heavy chain analysis indicated a concomitant slow-to-fast transition of soleus. In addition, spaceflight induced translocation of sarcolemmal nitric oxide synthase-1 (NOS1 into the cytosol in soleus but not in the fast-twitch extensor digitorum longus (EDL muscle. Most of the sarcolemmal ion channel subunits were up-regulated, more in soleus than EDL, whereas Ca(2+-activated K(+ channels were down-regulated, consistent with the phenotype transition. Gene expression of the atrophy-related ubiquitin-ligases was up-regulated in both spaceflown soleus and EDL muscles, whereas autophagy genes were in the control range. Muscle-specific IGF-1 and interleukin-6 were down-regulated in soleus but up-regulated in EDL. Also, various stress-related genes were up-regulated in spaceflown EDL, not in soleus. Altogether, these results suggest that EDL muscle may resist to microgravity-induced atrophy by activating compensatory and protective pathways. Our study shows the extended sensitivity of antigravity soleus muscle after prolonged exposition to microgravity, suggests possible mechanisms accounting for the resistance of EDL, and individuates some molecular targets for the development of countermeasures.

  19. Adaptation of Mouse Skeletal Muscle to Long-Term Microgravity in the MDS Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camerino, Giulia M.; Bianchini, Elisa; Ciciliot, Stefano; Danieli-Betto, Daniela; Dobrowolny, Gabriella; Furlan, Sandra; Germinario, Elena; Goto, Katsumasa; Gutsmann, Martina; Kawano, Fuminori; Nakai, Naoya; Ohira, Takashi; Ohno, Yoshitaka; Picard, Anne; Salanova, Michele; Schiffl, Gudrun; Blottner, Dieter; Musarò, Antonio; Ohira, Yoshinobu; Betto, Romeo; Conte, Diana; Schiaffino, Stefano

    2012-01-01

    The effect of microgravity on skeletal muscles has so far been examined in rat and mice only after short-term (5–20 day) spaceflights. The mice drawer system (MDS) program, sponsored by Italian Space Agency, for the first time aimed to investigate the consequences of long-term (91 days) exposure to microgravity in mice within the International Space Station. Muscle atrophy was present indistinctly in all fiber types of the slow-twitch soleus muscle, but was only slightly greater than that observed after 20 days of spaceflight. Myosin heavy chain analysis indicated a concomitant slow-to-fast transition of soleus. In addition, spaceflight induced translocation of sarcolemmal nitric oxide synthase-1 (NOS1) into the cytosol in soleus but not in the fast-twitch extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle. Most of the sarcolemmal ion channel subunits were up-regulated, more in soleus than EDL, whereas Ca2+-activated K+ channels were down-regulated, consistent with the phenotype transition. Gene expression of the atrophy-related ubiquitin-ligases was up-regulated in both spaceflown soleus and EDL muscles, whereas autophagy genes were in the control range. Muscle-specific IGF-1 and interleukin-6 were down-regulated in soleus but up-regulated in EDL. Also, various stress-related genes were up-regulated in spaceflown EDL, not in soleus. Altogether, these results suggest that EDL muscle may resist to microgravity-induced atrophy by activating compensatory and protective pathways. Our study shows the extended sensitivity of antigravity soleus muscle after prolonged exposition to microgravity, suggests possible mechanisms accounting for the resistance of EDL, and individuates some molecular targets for the development of countermeasures. PMID:22470446

  20. Mouse Models of Diabetic Neuropathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Phillipe D.; Sakowski, Stacey A.; Feldman, Eva L.

    2014-01-01

    Diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) is the most common complication of diabetes and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. DPN is characterized by progressive, distal-to-proximal degeneration of peripheral nerves that leads to pain, weakness, and eventual loss of sensation. The mechanisms underlying DPN pathogenesis are uncertain, and other than tight glycemic control in type 1 patients, there is no effective treatment. Mouse models of type 1 (T1DM) and type 2 diabetes (T2DM) are critical to improving our understanding of DPN pathophysiology and developing novel treatment strategies. In this review, we discuss the most widely used T1DM and T2DM mouse models for DPN research, with emphasis on the main neurologic phenotype of each model. We also discuss important considerations for selecting appropriate models for T1DM and T2DM DPN studies and describe the promise of novel emerging diabetic mouse models for DPN research. The development, characterization, and comprehensive neurologic phenotyping of clinically relevant mouse models for T1DM and T2DM will provide valuable resources for future studies examining DPN pathogenesis and novel therapeutic strategies. PMID:24615439

  1. Mouse Models of Rheumatoid Arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caplazi, P; Baca, M; Barck, K; Carano, R A D; DeVoss, J; Lee, W P; Bolon, B; Diehl, L

    2015-09-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic debilitating autoimmune disorder characterized by synovitis that leads to cartilage and bone erosion by invading fibrovascular tissue. Mouse models of RA recapitulate many features of the human disease. Despite the availability of medicines that are highly effective in many patient populations, autoimmune diseases (including RA) remain an area of active biomedical research, and consequently mouse models of RA are still extensively used for mechanistic studies and validation of therapeutic targets. This review aims to integrate morphologic features with model biology and cover the key characteristics of the most commonly used induced and spontaneous mouse models of RA. Induced models emphasized in this review include collagen-induced arthritis and antibody-induced arthritis. Collagen-induced arthritis is an example of an active immunization strategy, whereas antibody- induced arthritis models, such as collagen antibody-induced arthritis and K/BxN antibody transfer arthritis, represent examples of passive immunization strategies. The coverage of spontaneous models in this review is focused on the TNFΔ (ARE) mouse, in which arthritis results from overexpression of TNF-α, a master proinflammatory cytokine that drives disease in many patients. © The Author(s) 2015.

  2. High-throughput mouse phenotyping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, Hilary; Mallon, Ann-Marie; Brown, Steve D M

    2011-04-01

    Comprehensive phenotyping will be required to reveal the pleiotropic functions of a gene and to uncover the wider role of genetic loci within diverse biological systems. The challenge will be to devise phenotyping approaches to characterise the thousands of mutants that are being generated as part of international efforts to acquire a mutant for every gene in the mouse genome. In order to acquire robust datasets of broad based phenotypes from mouse mutants it is necessary to design and implement pipelines that incorporate standardised phenotyping platforms that are validated across diverse mouse genetics centres or mouse clinics. We describe here the rationale and methodology behind one phenotyping pipeline, EMPReSSslim, that was designed as part of the work of the EUMORPHIA and EUMODIC consortia, and which exemplifies some of the challenges facing large-scale phenotyping. EMPReSSslim captures a broad range of data on diverse biological systems, from biochemical to physiological amongst others. Data capture and dissemination is pivotal to the operation of large-scale phenotyping pipelines, including the definition of parameters integral to each phenotyping test and the associated ontological descriptions. EMPReSSslim data is displayed within the EuroPhenome database, where a variety of tools are available to allow the user to search for interesting biological or clinical phenotypes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Humanized c-Myc mouse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank M Lehmann

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A given tumor is usually dependent on the oncogene that is activated in the respective tumor entity. This phenomenon called oncogene addiction provides the rationale for attempts to target oncogene products in a therapeutic manner, be it by small molecules, by small interfering RNAs (siRNA or by antigen-specific T cells. As the proto-oncogene product is required also for the function of normal cells, this raises the question whether there is a therapeutic window between the adverse effects of specific inhibitors or T cells to normal tissue that may limit their application, and their beneficial tumor-specific therapeutic action. To address this crucial question, suitable mouse strains need to be developed, that enable expression of the human proto-oncogene not only in tumor but also in normal cells. The aim of this work is to provide such a mouse strain for the human proto-oncogene product c-MYC. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We generated C57BL/6-derived embryonic stem cells that are transgenic for a humanized c-Myc gene and established a mouse strain (hc-Myc that expresses human c-MYC instead of the murine ortholog. These transgenic animals harbor the humanized c-Myc gene integrated into the endogenous murine c-Myc locus. Despite the lack of the endogenous murine c-Myc gene, homozygous mice show a normal phenotype indicating that human c-MYC can replace its murine ortholog. CONCLUSIONS: The newly established hc-Myc mouse strain provides a model system to study in detail the adverse effects of therapies that target the human c-MYC protein. To mimic the clinical situation, hc-Myc mice may be cross-bred to mice that develop tumors due to overexpression of human c-MYC. With these double transgenic mice it will be possible to study simultaneously the therapeutic efficiency and adverse side effects of MYC-specific therapies in the same mouse.

  4. Daily supplementation of D-ribose shows no therapeutic benefits in the MHC-I transgenic mouse model of inflammatory myositis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Coley

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Current treatments for idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (collectively called myositis focus on the suppression of an autoimmune inflammatory response within the skeletal muscle. However, it has been observed that there is a poor correlation between the successful suppression of muscle inflammation and an improvement in muscle function. Some evidence in the literature suggests that metabolic abnormalities in the skeletal muscle underlie the weakness that continues despite successful immunosuppression. We have previously shown that decreased expression of a purine nucleotide cycle enzyme, adenosine monophosphate deaminase (AMPD1, leads to muscle weakness in a mouse model of myositis and may provide a mechanistic basis for muscle weakness. One of the downstream metabolites of this pathway, D-ribose, has been reported to alleviate symptoms of myalgia in patients with a congenital loss of AMPD1. Therefore, we hypothesized that supplementing exogenous D-ribose would improve muscle function in the mouse model of myositis. We treated normal and myositis mice with daily doses of D-ribose (4 mg/kg over a 6-week time period and assessed its effects using a battery of behavioral, functional, histological and molecular measures. RESULTS: Treatment with D-ribose was found to have no statistically significant effects on body weight, grip strength, open field behavioral activity, maximal and specific forces of EDL, soleus muscles, or histological features. Histological and gene expression analysis indicated that muscle tissues remained inflamed despite treatment. Gene expression analysis also suggested that low levels of the ribokinase enzyme in the skeletal muscle might prevent skeletal muscle tissue from effectively utilizing D-ribose. CONCLUSIONS: Treatment with daily oral doses of D-ribose showed no significant effect on either disease progression or muscle function in the mouse model of myositis.

  5. Mouse models for methylmalonic aciduria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi L Peters

    Full Text Available Methylmalonic aciduria (MMA is a disorder of organic acid metabolism resulting from a functional defect of methylmalonyl-CoA mutase (MCM. MMA is associated with significant morbidity and mortality, thus therapies are necessary to help improve quality of life and prevent renal and neurological complications. Transgenic mice carrying an intact human MCM locus have been produced. Four separate transgenic lines were established and characterised as carrying two, four, five or six copies of the transgene in a single integration site. Transgenic mice from the 2-copy line were crossed with heterozygous knockout MCM mice to generate mice hemizygous for the human transgene on a homozygous knockout background. Partial rescue of the uniform neonatal lethality seen in homozygous knockout mice was observed. These rescued mice were significantly smaller than control littermates (mice with mouse MCM gene. Biochemically, these partial rescue mice exhibited elevated methylmalonic acid levels in urine, plasma, kidney, liver and brain tissue. Acylcarnitine analysis of blood spots revealed elevated propionylcarnitine levels. Analysis of mRNA expression confirms the human transgene is expressed at higher levels than observed for the wild type, with highest expression in the kidney followed closely by brain and liver. Partial rescue mouse fibroblast cultures had only 20% of the wild type MCM enzyme activity. It is anticipated that this humanised partial rescue mouse model of MMA will enable evaluation of long-term pathophysiological effects of elevated methylmalonic acid levels and be a valuable model for the investigation of therapeutic strategies, such as cell transplantation.

  6. Mouse Models of Gastric Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayakawa, Yoku; Fox, James G.; Gonda, Tamas; Worthley, Daniel L.; Muthupalani, Sureshkumar; Wang, Timothy C.

    2013-01-01

    Animal models have greatly enriched our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of numerous types of cancers. Gastric cancer is one of the most common cancers worldwide, with a poor prognosis and high incidence of drug-resistance. However, most inbred strains of mice have proven resistant to gastric carcinogenesis. To establish useful models which mimic human gastric cancer phenotypes, investigators have utilized animals infected with Helicobacter species and treated with carcinogens. In addition, by exploiting genetic engineering, a variety of transgenic and knockout mouse models of gastric cancer have emerged, such as INS-GAS mice and TFF1 knockout mice. Investigators have used the combination of carcinogens and gene alteration to accelerate gastric cancer development, but rarely do mouse models show an aggressive and metastatic gastric cancer phenotype that could be relevant to preclinical studies, which may require more specific targeting of gastric progenitor cells. Here, we review current gastric carcinogenesis mouse models and provide our future perspectives on this field. PMID:24216700

  7. Mouse embryonic stem cells with a multi-integrase mouse artificial chromosome for transchromosomic mouse generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimura, Yuki; Nakamura, Kazuomi; Endo, Takeshi; Kajitani, Naoyo; Kazuki, Kanako; Kazuki, Yasuhiro; Kugoh, Hiroyuki; Oshimura, Mitsuo; Ohbayashi, Tetsuya

    2015-08-01

    The mouse artificial chromosome (MAC) has several advantages as a gene delivery vector, including stable episomal maintenance of the exogenous genetic material and the ability to carry large and/or multiple gene inserts including their regulatory elements. Previously, a MAC containing multi-integration site (MI-MAC) was generated to facilitate transfer of multiple genes into desired cells. To generate transchromosomic (Tc) mice containing a MI-MAC with genes of interest, the desired genes were inserted into MI-MAC in CHO cells, and then the MI-MAC was transferred to mouse embryonic stem (mES) cells via microcell-mediated chromosome transfer (MMCT). However, the efficiency of MMCT from CHO to mES cells is very low (lines containing a MI-MAC vector to directly insert a gene of interest into the MI-MAC in mES cells via a simple transfection method for Tc mouse generation. The recombination rate of the GFP gene at each attachment site (FRT, PhiC31attP, R4attP, TP901-1attP and Bxb1attP) on MI-MAC was greater than 50% in MI-MAC mES cells. Chimeric mice with high coat colour chimerism were generated from the MI-MAC mES cell lines and germline transmission from the chimera was observed. As an example for the generation of Tc mice with a desired gene by the MI-MAC mES approach, a Tc mouse strain ubiquitously expressing Emerald luciferase was efficiently established. Thus, the findings suggest that this new Tc strategy employing mES cells and a MI-MAC vector is efficient and useful for animal transgenesis.

  8. Characteristics of mastication in the anodontic mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, M; Masuda, Y; Kishino, M; Ishida, T; Maeda, N; Morimoto, T

    2002-09-01

    Teeth and periodontal mechanoreceptors play important roles in regulating jaw movements during mastication. However, little is known concerning how jaw movements develop without tooth eruption. To answer this question, we studied masticatory behavior in the osteopetrotic mouse, where tooth eruption does not occur and periodontal mechanoreceptors are missing. A masticatory sequence of the osteopetrotic mouse was divided into two stages: incision and chewing. Incision is characterized by small amplitude and rapid (7 Hz) open-close jaw movements, while slow (5 Hz) and large amplitude open-close jaw movements characterize chewing. The frequency and properties of jaw movements were comparable with those in the normal mouse, though the osteopetrotic mouse had a higher cycle number during incision than did the normal mouse. These results indicate that conversion from sucking to mastication occurs in the anodontic mouse, and the central pattern generator producing the masticatory rhythm develops almost normally without tooth eruption.

  9. The International Mouse Phenotyping Consortium: past and future perspectives on mouse phenotyping

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Steve D. M.; Moore, Mark W.

    2012-01-01

    Determining the function of all mammalian genes remains a major challenge for the biomedical science community in the 21st century. The goal of the International Mouse Phenotyping Consortium (IMPC) over the next 10 years is to undertake broad-based phenotyping of 20,000 mouse genes, providing an unprecedented insight into mammalian gene function. This short article explores the drivers for large-scale mouse phenotyping and provides an overview of the aims and processes involved in IMPC mouse ...

  10. Therapeutic cloning in the mouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mombaerts, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Nuclear transfer technology can be applied to produce autologous differentiated cells for therapeutic purposes, a concept termed therapeutic cloning. Countless articles have been published on the ethics and politics of human therapeutic cloning, reflecting the high expectations from this new opportunity for rejuvenation of the aging or diseased body. Yet the research literature on therapeutic cloning, strictly speaking, is comprised of only four articles, all in the mouse. The efficiency of derivation of embryonic stem cell lines via nuclear transfer is remarkably consistent among these reports. However, the efficiency is so low that, in its present form, the concept is unlikely to become widespread in clinical practice. PMID:12949262

  11. Mouse Models of Tumor Immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngiow, Shin Foong; Loi, Sherene; Thomas, David; Smyth, Mark J

    2016-01-01

    Immunotherapy is now evolving into a major therapeutic option for cancer patients. Such clinical advances also promote massive interest in the search for novel immunotherapy targets, and to understand the mechanism of action of current drugs. It is projected that a series of novel immunotherapy agents will be developed and assessed for their therapeutic activity. In light of this, in vivo experimental mouse models that recapitulate human malignancies serve as valuable tools to validate the efficacy and safety profile of immunotherapy agents, before their transition into clinical trials. In this review, we will discuss the major classes of experimental mouse models of cancer commonly used for immunotherapy assessment and provide examples to guide the selection of appropriate models. We present some new data concerning the utility of a carcinogen-induced tumor model for comparing immunotherapies and combining immunotherapy with chemotherapy. We will also highlight some recent advances in experimental modeling of human malignancies in mice that are leading towards personalized therapy in patients. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Take care of your mouse!

    CERN Multimedia

    IT Department

    2011-01-01

    “Stop --- Think --- Click" is the basic recommendation for securely browsing the Internet and for securely reading e-mails. Users who have followed this recommendation in the past were less likely to have their computer infected or their computing account compromised. We would like to thank all those who donated their mouse to the CERN Animal Shelter for Computer Mice (http://cern.ch/c-a-s). For those who still use a mouse, please stay vigilant and  alert: do not click on links whose origin you do not trust or which look like gibberish. Do not install untrusted software or plug-ins, since software from untrusted sources may infect or compromise your computer, or violate copyrights. Finally, take particular care with e-mails: Do not open unexpected or suspicious e-mails or attachments. Delete them if they do not concern you or if they appear strange. If in doubt, or if you have questions, please do not hesitate to contact Computer.Security@cern.ch

  13. Drug discovery in prostate cancer mouse models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valkenburg, Kenneth C; Pienta, Kenneth J

    2015-01-01

    The mouse is an important, though imperfect, organism with which to model human disease and to discover and test novel drugs in a preclinical setting. Many experimental strategies have been used to discover new biological and molecular targets in the mouse, with the hopes of translating these discoveries into novel drugs to treat prostate cancer in humans. Modeling prostate cancer in the mouse, however, has been challenging, and often drugs that work in mice have failed in human trials. The authors discuss the similarities and differences between mice and men; the types of mouse models that exist to model prostate cancer; practical questions one must ask when using a mouse as a model; and potential reasons that drugs do not often translate to humans. They also discuss the current value in using mouse models for drug discovery to treat prostate cancer and what needs are still unmet in field. With proper planning and following practical guidelines by the researcher, the mouse is a powerful experimental tool. The field lacks genetically engineered metastatic models, and xenograft models do not allow for the study of the immune system during the metastatic process. There remain several important limitations to discovering and testing novel drugs in mice for eventual human use, but these can often be overcome. Overall, mouse modeling is an essential part of prostate cancer research and drug discovery. Emerging technologies and better and ever-increasing forms of communication are moving the field in a hopeful direction.

  14. Fulltime biometric mouse design for continuous authentication ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We formulate a full-time biometric mouse (FBM) design that would ensure thumb positioning and its ergonomics while ensuring comfort and maximum contact with the scanner to enable continuous authentication of the user in a speedy, easy and non-strenuous way. The mouse employs a simple algorithm that ensures ...

  15. Are You a Man or a Mouse?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrmann, Janne Rothmar

    2008-01-01

    Are you a man or a mouse? This expression is used to encourage someone to be brave when they are frightened of doing something. It is also an expression which bears associations to John Steinbeck's novella Of Mice and Men, the title of which is taken from Robert Burns' poem To a Mouse, which is o...

  16. The wobbler mouse, an ALS animal model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moser, Jakob Maximilian; Bigini, Paolo; Schmitt-John, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    This review article is focused on the research progress made utilizing the wobbler mouse as animal model for human motor neuron diseases, especially the amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The wobbler mouse develops progressive degeneration of upper and lower motor neurons and shows striking...

  17. Apoptotic signaling in mouse odontogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matalova, Eva; Svandova, Eva; Tucker, Abigail S

    2012-01-01

    Apoptosis is an important morphogenetic event in embryogenesis as well as during postnatal life. In the last 2 decades, apoptosis in tooth development (odontogenesis) has been investigated with gradually increasing focus on the mechanisms and signaling pathways involved. The molecular machinery responsible for apoptosis exhibits a high degree of conservation but also organ and tissue specific patterns. This review aims to discuss recent knowledge about apoptotic signaling networks during odontogenesis, concentrating on the mouse, which is often used as a model organism for human dentistry. Apoptosis accompanies the entire development of the tooth and corresponding remodeling of the surrounding bony tissue. It is most evident in its role in the elimination of signaling centers within developing teeth, removal of vestigal tooth germs, and in odontoblast and ameloblast organization during tooth mineralization. Dental apoptosis is caspase dependent and proceeds via mitochondrial mediated cell death with possible amplification by Fas-FasL signaling modulated by Bcl-2 family members.

  18. Ultrasound biomicroscopy in mouse cardiovascular development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnbull, Daniel H.

    2004-05-01

    The mouse is the preferred animal model for studying mammalian cardiovascular development and many human congenital heart diseases. Ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM), utilizing high-frequency (40-50-MHz) ultrasound, is uniquely capable of providing in vivo, real-time microimaging and Doppler blood velocity measurements in mouse embryos and neonates. UBM analyses of normal and abnormal mouse cardiovascular function will be described to illustrate the power of this microimaging approach. In particular, real-time UBM images have been used to analyze dimensional changes in the mouse heart from embryonic to neonatal stages. UBM-Doppler has been used recently to examine the precise timing of onset of a functional circulation in early-stage mouse embryos, from the first detectable cardiac contractions. In other experiments, blood velocity waveforms have been analyzed to characterize the functional phenotype of mutant mouse embryos having defects in cardiac valve formation. Finally, UBM has been developed for real-time, in utero image-guided injection of mouse embryos, enabling cell transplantation and genetic gain-of-function experiments with transfected cells and retroviruses. In summary, UBM provides a unique and powerful approach for in vivo analysis and image-guided manipulation in normal and genetically engineered mice, over a wide range of embryonic to neonatal developmental stages.

  19. Extracellular Ca2+-induced force restoration in K+-depressed skeletal muscle of the mouse involves an elevation of [K+]i: implications for fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cairns, Simeon P; Leader, John P; Loiselle, Denis S; Higgins, Amanda; Lin, Wei; Renaud, Jean-Marc

    2015-03-15

    We examined whether a Ca(2+)-K(+) interaction was a potential mechanism operating during fatigue with repeated tetani in isolated mouse muscles. Raising the extracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]o) from 1.3 to 10 mM in K(+)-depressed slow-twitch soleus and/or fast-twitch extensor digitorum longus muscles caused the following: 1) increase of intracellular K(+) activity by 20-60 mM (raised intracellular K(+) content, unchanged intracellular fluid volume), so that the K(+)-equilibrium potential increased by ∼10 mV and resting membrane potential repolarized by 5-10 mV; 2) large restoration of action potential amplitude (16-54 mV); 3) considerable recovery of excitable fibers (∼50% total); and 4) restoration of peak force with the peak tetanic force-extracellular K(+) concentration ([K(+)]o) relationship shifting rightward toward higher [K(+)]o. Double-sigmoid curve-fitting to fatigue profiles (125 Hz for 500 ms, every second for 100 s) showed that prior exposure to raised [K(+)]o (7 mM) increased, whereas lowered [K(+)]o (2 mM) decreased, the rate and extent of force loss during the late phase of fatigue (second sigmoid) in soleus, hence implying a K(+) dependence for late fatigue. Prior exposure to 10 mM [Ca(2+)]o slowed late fatigue in both muscle types, but was without effect on the extent of fatigue. These combined findings support our notion that a Ca(2+)-K(+) interaction is plausible during severe fatigue in both muscle types. We speculate that a diminished transsarcolemmal K(+) gradient and lowered [Ca(2+)]o contribute to late fatigue through reduced action potential amplitude and excitability. The raised [Ca(2+)]o-induced slowing of fatigue is likely to be mediated by a higher intracellular K(+) activity, which prolongs the time before stimulation-induced K(+) efflux depolarizes the sarcolemma sufficiently to interfere with action potentials. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  20. Humanization of the mouse mammary gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wronski, A; Arendt, L M; Kuperwasser, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    Although mouse models have provided invaluable information on the mechanisms of mammary gland development, anatomical and developmental differences between human and mice limit full understanding of this fundamental process. Humanization of the mouse mammary gland by injecting immortalized human breast stromal cells into the cleared murine mammary fat pad enables the growth and development of human mammary epithelial cells or tissue. This facilitates the characterization of human mammary gland development or tumorigenesis by utilizing the mouse mammary fat pad. Here we describe the process of isolating human mammary stromal and epithelial cells as well as their introduction into the mammary fat pads of immunocompromised mice.

  1. Acute exposure of primary rat soleus muscle to zilpaterol HCl (β2 adrenergic agonist), TNFα, or IL-6 in culture increases glucose oxidation rates independent of the impact on insulin signaling or glucose uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadaret, Caitlin N; Beede, Kristin A; Riley, Hannah E; Yates, Dustin T

    2017-08-01

    Recent studies show that adrenergic agonists and inflammatory cytokines can stimulate skeletal muscle glucose uptake, but it is unclear if glucose oxidation is similarly increased. Thus, the objective of this study was to determine the effects of ractopamine HCl (β1 agonist), zilpaterol HCl (β2 agonist), TNFα, and IL-6 on glucose uptake and oxidation rates in unstimulated and insulin-stimulated soleus muscle strips from adult Sprague-Dawley rats. Effects on phosphorylation of Akt (phospho-Akt), p38 MAPK (phospho-p38), and p44/42 MAPK (phospho-p44/42) was also determined. Incubation with insulin increased (Pglucose uptake by ∼47%, glucose oxidation by ∼32%, and phospho-Akt by ∼238%. Insulin also increased (Pglucose uptake but ∼32% greater (Pglucose oxidation than unstimulated muscle. Moreover, co-incubation with insulin+β2 agonist increased (Pglucose oxidation and phospho-Akt compared to insulin alone. Conversely, β1 agonist did not appear to affect basal or insulin-stimulated glucose metabolism, and neither β agonist affected phospho-p44/42. TNFα and IL-6 increased (Pglucose oxidation by ∼23% and ∼33%, respectively, in the absence of insulin. This coincided with increased (Pglucose oxidation rates that were similar to insulin alone, despite lower (Pglucose oxidation rates were not concomitant with greater glucose uptake. These results show that acute β2 adrenergic stimulation, but not β1 stimulation, directly increases fractional glucose oxidation in the absence of insulin and synergistically increases glucose oxidation when combined with insulin. The cytokines, TNFα and IL-6, likewise directly increased glucose oxidation in the absence of insulin, but were not additive in combination with insulin and in fact appeared to disrupt Akt-mediated insulin signaling. Rather, cytokines appear to be acting through MAPKs to elicit effects on glucose oxidation. Regardless, stimulation of glucose oxidation by these key stress factors did not rely upon

  2. A catalog of the mouse gut metagenome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xiao, Liang; Feng, Qiang; Liang, Suisha

    2015-01-01

    We established a catalog of the mouse gut metagenome comprising ∼2.6 million nonredundant genes by sequencing DNA from fecal samples of 184 mice. To secure high microbiome diversity, we used mouse strains of diverse genetic backgrounds, from different providers, kept in different housing...... laboratories and fed either a low-fat or high-fat diet. Similar to the human gut microbiome, >99% of the cataloged genes are bacterial. We identified 541 metagenomic species and defined a core set of 26 metagenomic species found in 95% of the mice. The mouse gut microbiome is functionally similar to its human...... counterpart, with 95.2% of its Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) orthologous groups in common. However, only 4.0% of the mouse gut microbial genes were shared (95% identity, 90% coverage) with those of the human gut microbiome. This catalog provides a useful reference for future studies....

  3. Persistent poliovirus infection in mouse motoneurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Destombes, J; Couderc, T; Thiesson, D; Girard, S; Wilt, S G; Blondel, B

    1997-01-01

    Poliovirus (PV) is the causal agent of paralytic poliomyelitis. Many survivors of the acute disease, after decades of clinical stability, develop new muscular symptoms called postpolio syndrome. It has been hypothesized that the persistence of PV in the spinal cord is involved in the etiology of this syndrome. To investigate the ability of PV to persist in the spinal cord after the onset of paralysis, we exploited a mouse model in which most animals inoculated with a mouse-adapted mutant survived after the onset of paralysis. Light microscopy and ultrastructural immunohistochemical studies and reverse transcription followed by nested PCR performed on spinal cord from paralyzed mice demonstrated that PV persisted in the mouse spinal cord for at least 12 months after the onset of paralysis. This mouse model provides a new tool for studying poliomyelitis evolution after the onset of paralysis. PMID:8995689

  4. Exploring Mouse Protein Function via Multiple Approaches

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Huang, Guohua; Chu, Chen; Huang, Tao; Kong, Xiangyin; Zhang, Yunhua; Zhang, Ning; Cai, Yu-Dong

    2016-01-01

    .... In this study, we presented a novel approach to predict mouse protein functions. The approach was a sequential combination of a similarity-based approach, an interaction-based approach and a pseudo amino acid composition-based approach...

  5. Optimizing mouse models for precision cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Magnen, Clémentine; Dutta, Aditya; Abate-Shen, Cory

    2016-03-01

    As cancer has become increasingly prevalent, cancer prevention research has evolved towards placing a greater emphasis on reducing cancer deaths and minimizing the adverse consequences of having cancer. 'Precision cancer prevention' takes into account the collaboration of intrinsic and extrinsic factors in influencing cancer incidence and aggressiveness in the context of the individual, as well as recognizing that such knowledge can improve early detection and enable more accurate discrimination of cancerous lesions. However, mouse models, and particularly genetically engineered mouse (GEM) models, have yet to be fully integrated into prevention research. In this Opinion article, we discuss opportunities and challenges for precision mouse modelling, including the essential criteria of mouse models for prevention research, representative success stories and opportunities for more refined analyses in future studies.

  6. A catalog of the mouse gut metagenome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Liang; Feng, Qiang; Liang, Suisha; Sonne, Si Brask; Xia, Zhongkui; Qiu, Xinmin; Li, Xiaoping; Long, Hua; Zhang, Jianfeng; Zhang, Dongya; Liu, Chuan; Fang, Zhiwei; Chou, Joyce; Glanville, Jacob; Hao, Qin; Kotowska, Dorota; Colding, Camilla; Licht, Tine Rask; Wu, Donghai; Yu, Jun; Sung, Joseph Jao Yiu; Liang, Qiaoyi; Li, Junhua; Jia, Huijue; Lan, Zhou; Tremaroli, Valentina; Dworzynski, Piotr; Nielsen, H Bjørn; Bäckhed, Fredrik; Doré, Joël; Le Chatelier, Emmanuelle; Ehrlich, S Dusko; Lin, John C; Arumugam, Manimozhiyan; Wang, Jun; Madsen, Lise; Kristiansen, Karsten

    2015-10-01

    We established a catalog of the mouse gut metagenome comprising ∼2.6 million nonredundant genes by sequencing DNA from fecal samples of 184 mice. To secure high microbiome diversity, we used mouse strains of diverse genetic backgrounds, from different providers, kept in different housing laboratories and fed either a low-fat or high-fat diet. Similar to the human gut microbiome, >99% of the cataloged genes are bacterial. We identified 541 metagenomic species and defined a core set of 26 metagenomic species found in 95% of the mice. The mouse gut microbiome is functionally similar to its human counterpart, with 95.2% of its Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) orthologous groups in common. However, only 4.0% of the mouse gut microbial genes were shared (95% identity, 90% coverage) with those of the human gut microbiome. This catalog provides a useful reference for future studies.

  7. Melatonin receptors: latest insights from mouse models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosini, Gianluca; Owino, Sharon; Guillame, Jean-Luc; Jockers, Ralf

    2014-01-01

    Summary Melatonin, the neuro-hormone synthesized during the night, has recently seen an unexpected extension of its functional implications towards type 2 diabetes development, visual functions, sleep disturbances and depression. Transgenic mouse models were instrumental for the establishment of the link between melatonin and these major human diseases. Most of the actions of melatonin are mediated by two types of G protein-coupled receptors, named MT1 and MT2, which are expressed in many different organs and tissues. Understanding the pharmacology and function of mouse MT1 and MT2 receptors, including MT1/MT2 heteromers, will be of crucial importance to evaluate the relevance of these mouse models for future therapeutic developments. This review will critically discuss these aspects, and give some perspectives including the generation of new mouse models. PMID:24903552

  8. Integration of Mouse Phenome Data Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hancock, John M [MRC Mammalian Genetics Unit, Harwell, Oxfordshire, UK; Adams, Neils [Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, United Kingdom; Aidinis, Vassilis [MRC Mammalian Genetics Unit, Harwell, Oxfordshire, UK; Blake, Judith A [Jackson Laboratory, The, Bar Harbor, ME; Bogue, Molly [Jackson Laboratory, The, Bar Harbor, ME; Brown, Steve D M [MRC Mammalian Genetics Unit, Harwell, Oxfordshire, UK; Chesler, Elissa J [ORNL; Davidson, Duncan [MRC Human Genetics Unit, Edinburgh, UK; Duran, Christopher [MRC Mammalian Genetics Unit, Harwell, Oxfordshire, UK; Eppig, Janan T [Jackson Laboratory, The, Bar Harbor, ME; Gailus-Durner, Valerie [Institute of Experimental Genetics, Neuherberg, Germany; Gkoutos, Georgios V [University of Cambridge; Greenaway, Simon [MRC Mammalian Genetics Unit, Harwell, Oxfordshire, UK; Angelis, Martin Hrabe de [Institute of Experimental Genetics, Neuherberg, Germany; Kollias, George [BSRC Fleming, Athens, Greece; Leblanc, Sophie [Institut Clinique de la Souris, Cedex, France; Lee, Kirsty [MRC Human Genetics Unit, Edinburgh, UK; Lengger, Christoph [Institute of Experimental Genetics, Neuherberg, Germany; Maier, Holger [Institute of Experimental Genetics, Neuherberg, Germany; Mallon, Ann-Marie [MRC Mammalian Genetics Unit, Harwell, Oxfordshire, UK; Masuya, Hiroshi [RIKEN, Japan; Melvin, David [Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, United Kingdom; Muller, Werner [Faculty of Life Sciences, Manchester, UK; Parkinson, Helen [European Bioinformatics Institute, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus; Proctor, Glenn [European Bioinformatics Institute, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus; Reuveni, Eli [Mouse Biology Unit, Rome, Italy; Schofield, Paul [University of Cambridge; Shukla, Aadya [University of Oxford; Smith, Cynthia [Jackson Laboratory, The, Bar Harbor, ME; Toyoda, Tetsuro [RIKEN, Japan; Vasseur, Laurent [Institut Clinique de la Souris, Cedex, France; Wakana, Shigeharu [RIKEN, Japan; Walling, Alison [MRC Mary Lyon Centre, Oxfordshire, UK; White, Jacqui [Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, United Kingdom; Wood, Joe [MRC Mary Lyon Centre, Oxfordshire, UK; Zouberakis, Michalis [BSRC Fleming, Athens, Greece

    2008-01-01

    Understanding the functions encoded in the mouse genome will be central to an understanding of the genetic basis of human disease. To achieve this it will be essential to be able to characterise the phenotypic consequences of variation and alterations in individual genes. Data on the phenotypes of mouse strains are currently held in a number of different forms (detailed descriptions of mouse lines, first line phenotyping data on novel mutations, data on the normal features of inbred lines, etc.) at many sites worldwide. For the most efficient use of these data sets, we have set in train a process to develop standards for the description of phenotypes (using ontologies), and file formats for the description of phenotyping protocols and phenotype data sets. This process is ongoing, and needs to be supported by the wider mouse genetics and phenotyping communities to succeed. We invite interested parties to contact us as we develop this process further.

  9. The Mouse Genome Database (MGD): facilitating mouse as a model for human biology and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eppig, Janan T; Blake, Judith A; Bult, Carol J; Kadin, James A; Richardson, Joel E

    2015-01-01

    The Mouse Genome Database (MGD, http://www.informatics.jax.org) serves the international biomedical research community as the central resource for integrated genomic, genetic and biological data on the laboratory mouse. To facilitate use of mouse as a model in translational studies, MGD maintains a core of high-quality curated data and integrates experimentally and computationally generated data sets. MGD maintains a unified catalog of genes and genome features, including functional RNAs, QTL and phenotypic loci. MGD curates and provides functional and phenotype annotations for mouse genes using the Gene Ontology and Mammalian Phenotype Ontology. MGD integrates phenotype data and associates mouse genotypes to human diseases, providing critical mouse-human relationships and access to repositories holding mouse models. MGD is the authoritative source of nomenclature for genes, genome features, alleles and strains following guidelines of the International Committee on Standardized Genetic Nomenclature for Mice. A new addition to MGD, the Human-Mouse: Disease Connection, allows users to explore gene-phenotype-disease relationships between human and mouse. MGD has also updated search paradigms for phenotypic allele attributes, incorporated incidental mutation data, added a module for display and exploration of genes and microRNA interactions and adopted the JBrowse genome browser. MGD resources are freely available to the scientific community. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  10. Adaptations of mouse skeletal muscle to low intensity vibration training

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeehen, James N.; Novotny, Susan A.; Baltgalvis, Kristen A.; Call, Jarrod A.; Nuckley, David J.; Lowe, Dawn A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose We tested the hypothesis that low intensity vibration training in mice improves contractile function of hindlimb skeletal muscles and promotes exercise-related cellular adaptations. Methods We subjected C57BL/6J mice to 6 wk, 5 d·wk−1, 15 min·d−1 of sham or low intensity vibration (45 Hz, 1.0 g) while housed in traditional cages (Sham-Active, n=8; Vibrated-Active, n=10) or in small cages to restrict physical activity (Sham-Restricted, n=8; Vibrated-Restricted, n=8). Contractile function and resistance to fatigue were tested in vivo (anterior and posterior crural muscles) and ex vivo on the soleus muscle. Tibialis anterior and soleus muscles were evaluated histologically for alterations in oxidative metabolism, capillarity, and fiber types. Epididymal fat pad and hindlimb muscle masses were measured. Two-way ANOVAs were used to determine effects of vibration and physical inactivity. Results Vibration training resulted in a 10% increase in maximal isometric torque (P=0.038) and 16% faster maximal rate of relaxation (P=0.030) of the anterior crural muscles. Posterior crural muscles were unaffected by vibration, with the exception of greater rates of contraction in Vibrated-Restricted mice compared to Vibrated-Active and Sham-Restricted mice (P=0.022). Soleus muscle maximal isometric tetanic force tended to be greater (P=0.057) and maximal relaxation was 20% faster (P=0.005) in Vibrated compared to Sham mice. Restriction of physical activity induced muscle weakness but was not required for vibration to be effective in improving strength or relaxation. Vibration training did not impact muscle fatigability or any indicator of cellular adaptation investigated (P≥0.431). Fat pad but not hindlimb muscle masses were affected by vibration training. Conclusion Vibration training in mice improved muscle contractility, specifically strength and relaxation rates, with no indication of adverse effects to muscle function or cellular adaptations. PMID:23274599

  11. Lymph Node Mapping in the Mouse

    OpenAIRE

    Harrell, Maria I; Iritani, Brian M.; Ruddell, Alanna

    2007-01-01

    Accurate identification of lymph nodes in the mouse is critical for studies of tumor metastasis, and of regional immune responses following immunization. However, these small lymphatic organs are often difficult to identify in mice using standard dissection techniques, so that larger rats have been used to characterize rodent lymphatic drainage. We developed techniques injecting dye into the mouse footpad or tail, to label the lymphatic drainage of the hind leg and flank, pelvic viscera, pros...

  12. Mouse models for filovirus infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradfute, Steven B; Warfield, Kelly L; Bray, Mike

    2012-09-01

    The filoviruses marburg- and ebolaviruses can cause severe hemorrhagic fever (HF) in humans and nonhuman primates. Because many cases have occurred in geographical areas lacking a medical research infrastructure, most studies of the pathogenesis of filoviral HF, and all efforts to develop drugs and vaccines, have been carried out in biocontainment laboratories in non-endemic countries, using nonhuman primates (NHPs), guinea pigs and mice as animal models. NHPs appear to closely mirror filoviral HF in humans (based on limited clinical data), but only small numbers may be used in carefully regulated experiments; much research is therefore done in rodents. Because of their availability in large numbers and the existence of a wealth of reagents for biochemical and immunological testing, mice have become the preferred small animal model for filovirus research. Since the first experiments following the initial 1967 marburgvirus outbreak, wild-type or mouse-adapted viruses have been tested in immunocompetent or immunodeficient mice. In this paper, we review how these types of studies have been used to investigate the pathogenesis of filoviral disease, identify immune responses to infection and evaluate antiviral drugs and vaccines. We also discuss the strengths and weaknesses of murine models for filovirus research, and identify important questions for further study.

  13. Transcriptome map of mouse isochores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pissis Solon P

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The availability of fully sequenced genomes and the implementation of transcriptome technologies have increased the studies investigating the expression profiles for a variety of tissues, conditions, and species. In this study, using RNA-seq data for three distinct tissues (brain, liver, and muscle, we investigate how base composition affects mammalian gene expression, an issue of prime practical and evolutionary interest. Results We present the transcriptome map of the mouse isochores (DNA segments with a fairly homogeneous base composition for the three different tissues and the effects of isochores' base composition on their expression activity. Our analyses also cover the relations between the genes' expression activity and their localization in the isochore families. Conclusions This study is the first where next-generation sequencing data are used to associate the effects of both genomic and genic compositional properties to their corresponding expression activity. Our findings confirm previous results, and further support the existence of a relationship between isochores and gene expression. This relationship corroborates that isochores are primarily a product of evolutionary adaptation rather than a simple by-product of neutral evolutionary processes.

  14. Leukemia inhibitory factor increases glucose uptake in mouse skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Nina; O'Neill, Hayley M; Kleinert, Maximilian

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Members of the interleukin-6 (IL-6) family, IL-6 and ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) have been shown to increase glucose uptake and fatty acid oxidation in skeletal muscle. However, the metabolic effects of another family member, leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF), are not well...... indicated that Mammalian Target of Rapamycin complex (mTORC) 2, but not mTORC1, also is required for LIF-stimulated glucose uptake. In contrast to CNTF, LIF-stimulation did not alter palmitate oxidation. LIF-stimulated glucose uptake was maintained in EDL from obese insulin resistant mice, whereas soleus...

  15. Pathology of Mouse Models of Accelerated Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harkema, L; Youssef, S A; de Bruin, A

    2016-03-01

    Progeroid mouse models display phenotypes in multiple organ systems that suggest premature aging and resemble features of natural aging of both mice and humans. The prospect of a significant increase in the global elderly population within the next decades has led to the emergence of "geroscience," which aims at elucidating the molecular mechanisms involved in aging. Progeroid mouse models are frequently used in geroscience as they provide insight into the molecular mechanisms that are involved in the highly complex process of natural aging. This review provides an overview of the most commonly reported nonneoplastic macroscopic and microscopic pathologic findings in progeroid mouse models (eg, osteoporosis, osteoarthritis, degenerative joint disease, intervertebral disc degeneration, kyphosis, sarcopenia, cutaneous atrophy, wound healing, hair loss, alopecia, lymphoid atrophy, cataract, corneal endothelial dystrophy, retinal degenerative diseases, and vascular remodeling). Furthermore, several shortcomings in pathologic analysis and descriptions of these models are discussed. Progeroid mouse models are valuable models for aging, but thorough knowledge of both the mouse strain background and the progeria-related phenotype is required to guide interpretation and translation of the pathology data. © The Author(s) 2016.

  16. The morphology of the mouse masticatory musculature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baverstock, Hester; Jeffery, Nathan S; Cobb, Samuel N

    2013-01-01

    The mouse has been the dominant model organism in studies on the development, genetics and evolution of the mammalian skull and associated soft-tissue for decades. There is the potential to take advantage of this well studied model and the range of mutant, knockin and knockout organisms with diverse craniofacial phenotypes to investigate the functional significance of variation and the role of mechanical forces on the development of the integrated craniofacial skeleton and musculature by using computational mechanical modelling methods (e.g. finite element and multibody dynamic modelling). Currently, there are no detailed published data of the mouse masticatory musculature available. Here, using a combination of micro-dissection and non-invasive segmentation of iodine-enhanced micro-computed tomography, we document the anatomy, architecture and proportions of the mouse masticatory muscles. We report on the superficial masseter (muscle, tendon and pars reflecta), deep masseter, zygomaticomandibularis (anterior, posterior, infraorbital and tendinous parts), temporalis (lateral and medial parts), external and internal pterygoid muscles. Additionally, we report a lateral expansion of the attachment of the temporalis onto the zygomatic arch, which may play a role in stabilising this bone during downwards loading. The data presented in this paper now provide a detailed reference for phenotypic comparison in mouse models and allow the mouse to be used as a model organism in biomechanical and functional modelling and simulation studies of the craniofacial skeleton and particularly the masticatory system. PMID:23692055

  17. Design and Materials of E-Mouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorissa Joana Esguerra-Buenas

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the design and the materials used in the development of an E-Mouse or the Ergo-Mouse. The proposed engineering design is based on the studies conducted about the risk factors such as having a carpal tunnel syndrome in using the traditional mouse. The concepts of the existing traditional mouse incorporated the features of a touch pad, which is ergonomically designed was considered in the development of the project. The proponent made use of different technologies such as the Bluetooth to connect the E-Mouse to the computer system, the capacitive glass touch screen sensor type which is made of a glass panel, a controller which acts as the interface between the display and the sensor and the software driver to recognize the input. Emphasis is mainly on the kind of materials to be used and to come up with the design that is tailor fit to the needs of the users with the current technology.

  18. The German Mouse Clinic: a platform for systemic phenotype analysis of mouse models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, H; Gailus-Durner, V; Adler, T; Pimentel, J A Aguilar; Becker, L; Bolle, I; Brielmeier, M; Calzada-Wack, J; Dalke, C; Ehrhardt, N; Fasnacht, N; Ferwagner, B; Frischmann, U; Hans, W; Hölter, S M; Hölzlwimmer, G; Horsch, M; Javaheri, A; Kallnik, M; Kling, E; Lengger, C; Maier, H; Mossbrugger, I; Mörth, C; Naton, B; Nöth, U; Pasche, B; Prehn, C; Przemeck, G; Puk, O; Racz, I; Rathkolb, B; Rozman, J; Schäble, K; Schreiner, R; Schrewe, A; Sina, C; Steinkamp, R; Thiele, F; Willershäuser, M; Zeh, R; Adamski, J; Busch, D H; Beckers, J; Behrendt, H; Daniel, H; Esposito, I; Favor, J; Graw, J; Heldmaier, G; Höfler, H; Ivandic, B; Katus, H; Klingenspor, M; Klopstock, T; Lengeling, A; Mempel, M; Müller, W; Neschen, S; Ollert, M; Quintanilla-Martinez, L; Rosenstiel, P; Schmidt, J; Schreiber, S; Schughart, K; Schulz, H; Wolf, E; Wurst, W; Zimmer, A; Hrabé de Angelis, M

    2009-02-01

    The German Mouse Clinic (GMC) is a large scale phenotyping center where mouse mutant lines are analyzed in a standardized and comprehensive way. The result is an almost complete picture of the phenotype of a mouse mutant line--a systemic view. At the GMC, expert scientists from various fields of mouse research work in close cooperation with clinicians side by side at one location. The phenotype screens comprise the following areas: allergy, behavior, clinical chemistry, cardiovascular analyses, dysmorphology, bone and cartilage, energy metabolism, eye and vision, host-pathogen interactions, immunology, lung function, molecular phenotyping, neurology, nociception, steroid metabolism, and pathology. The German Mouse Clinic is an open access platform that offers a collaboration-based phenotyping to the scientific community (www.mouseclinic.de). More than 80 mutant lines have been analyzed in a primary screen for 320 parameters, and for 95% of the mutant lines we have found new or additional phenotypes that were not associated with the mouse line before. Our data contributed to the association of mutant mouse lines to the corresponding human disease. In addition, the systemic phenotype analysis accounts for pleiotropic gene functions and refines previous phenotypic characterizations. This is an important basis for the analysis of underlying disease mechanisms. We are currently setting up a platform that will include environmental challenge tests to decipher genome-environmental interactions in the areas nutrition, exercise, air, stress and infection with different standardized experiments. This will help us to identify genetic predispositions as susceptibility factors for environmental influences.

  19. Infra Red 3D Computer Mouse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harbo, Anders La-Cour; Stoustrup, Jakob

    2000-01-01

    The infra red 3D mouse is a three dimensional input device to a computer. It works by determining the position of an arbitrary object (like a hand) by emitting infra red signals from a number of locations and measuring the reflected intensities. To maximize stability, robustness, and use of bandw......The infra red 3D mouse is a three dimensional input device to a computer. It works by determining the position of an arbitrary object (like a hand) by emitting infra red signals from a number of locations and measuring the reflected intensities. To maximize stability, robustness, and use...

  20. Chemical clearing and dehydration of GFP expressing mouse brains

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Becker, Klaus; Jährling, Nina; Saghafi, Saiedeh; Weiler, Reto; Dodt, Hans-Ulrich

    2012-01-01

    ...) can be applied as a more GFP-friendly clearing medium. Clearing with dibenzyl ether provides improved tissue transparency and strikingly improved fluorescence intensity in GFP expressing mouse brains and other samples as mouse spinal cords, or embryos...

  1. Specific quantification of mouse and human keratin proteins by radioimmunoassay.

    OpenAIRE

    Yuspa, S H; Poirier, M C; Harness, J R; Olsom, D R; Steinert, P. M.

    1980-01-01

    Mouse epidermal keratin proteins were purified and labelled with 125I by chemical techniques. A radioimmunoassay method was established with a rabbit antibody elicited against the mouse keratin. This assay method was utilized to quantify keratin proteins of mouse and human epidermal extracts, both from intact tissues and cells in culture. As little as 30 ng of mouse keratin (0.5 pmol) was quantifiable.

  2. Comparative Anatomy of Mouse and Human Nail Units

    OpenAIRE

    Fleckman, Philip; Jaeger, Karin; Silva, Kathleen A.; Sundberg, John P.

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies of mice with hair defects have resulted in major contributions to the understanding of hair disorders. To use mouse models as a tool to study nail diseases, a basic understanding of the similarities and differences between the human and mouse nail unit is required. In this study we compare the human and mouse nail unit at the macroscopic and microscopic level and use immunohistochemistry to determine the keratin expression patterns in the mouse nail unit. Both species have a pr...

  3. MYH6_MOUSE Myosin-6 OS=Mus musculus

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ATP synthase subunit beta, mitochondrial OS=Mus musculus. GN=Atp5b PE=1 SV=2. MOUSE. 12. 29. 2,08. 16,74. 24 sp|P63260|ACTG_MOUSE. Actin, cytoplasmic 2 OS=Mus musculus GN=Actg1 PE=1 SV=1. MOUSE. 12. 4. 14,24. 14,24. 13,7 sp|Q03265|ATPA_MOUSE. ATP synthase subunit alpha, mitochondrial ...

  4. Agglutination of Mouse Erythrocytes by Eperythrozoon coccoides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iralu, Vichazelhu; Ganong, Kevin D.

    1983-01-01

    Erythrocytes from blood of mice infected with Eperythrozoon coccoides for 3 or 4 days agglutinated spontaneously. Washed E. coccoides particles agglutinated washed erythrocytes of uninfected mice. E. coccoides-mediated agglutination of normal mouse erythrocytes would be an excellent system for studies of bacterial adhesion. Images PMID:6832825

  5. Having Fun with a Cordless Mouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunn, John

    2016-01-01

    A cordless mouse with an added reed switch is used as a wireless data logger to record every time the wheel of a trolley completes a revolution. The limitations of the system in terms of maximum clicking rate and spatial resolution are considered and data obtained from the descent of a trolley down a ramp at various different angles is analysed in…

  6. Pathology of Mouse Models of Accelerated Aging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harkema, L; Youssef, S A; de Bruin, A

    2016-01-01

    Progeroid mouse models display phenotypes in multiple organ systems that suggest premature aging and resemble features of natural aging of both mice and humans. The prospect of a significant increase in the global elderly population within the next decades has led to the emergence of "geroscience,"

  7. Pathology of Mouse Models of Accelerated Aging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harkema, L.; Youssef, S. A.; de Bruin, A.

    Progeroid mouse models display phenotypes in multiple organ systems that suggest premature aging and resemble features of natural aging of both mice and humans. The prospect of a significant increase in the global elderly population within the next decades has led to the emergence of geroscience,

  8. Chemical Aspects of Lesser Mouse Deer Meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djalal Rosyidi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available An experiment aiming for studying chemical aspects of lesser mouse deer meat (Tragulus javanicus. This research explored the chemical aspects of lesser mouse deer meat (Tragulus javanicus. Eight lesser mouse deer (four female and four male were used in chemical aspects of lesser mouse deer meat. The parameters observed included proximate analysis, amino acid, fatty acid, cholesterol and EPA-DHA of the meat. The results showed that average meat chemical composition were content of water, protein, fat, ash and cholesterol were 76.33 %, 21.42 %, 0.51 %, 1.20% and 50.00 mg/100 g, respectively. Fatty acid consist of lauric acid, miristate, palmitate, stearic, oleic, linoleic, and linolenic were 1.04 % 3.09%, 30.97, 0.77%., 59.41%, 3.22% and 1.12%, respectively. The total EPA and DHA was 0.13% and 0.05%,   Keywords: amino acid, fatty acid, cholesterol and EPA-DHA

  9. Genetically Engineered Mouse Models in Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walrath, Jessica C.; Hawes, Jessica J.; Van Dyke, Terry; Reilly, Karlyne M.

    2012-01-01

    Mouse models of human cancer have played a vital role in understanding tumorigenesis and answering experimental questions that other systems cannot address. Advances continue to be made that allow better understanding of the mechanisms of tumor development, and therefore the identification of better therapeutic and diagnostic strategies. We review major advances that have been made in modeling cancer in the mouse and specific areas of research that have been explored with mouse models. For example, although there are differences between mice and humans, new models are able to more accurately model sporadic human cancers by specifically controlling timing and location of mutations, even within single cells. As hypotheses are developed in human and cell culture systems, engineered mice provide the most tractable and accurate test of their validity in vivo. For example, largely through the use of these models, the microenvironment has been established to play a critical role in tumorigenesis, since tumor development and the interaction with surrounding stroma can be studied as both evolve. These mouse models have specifically fueled our understanding of cancer initiation, immune system roles, tumor angiogenesis, invasion, and metastasis, and the relevance of molecular diversity observed among human cancers. Currently, these models are being designed to facilitate in vivo imaging to track both primary and metastatic tumor development from much earlier stages than previously possible. Finally, the approaches developed in this field to achieve basic understanding are emerging as effective tools to guide much needed development of treatment strategies, diagnostic strategies, and patient stratification strategies in clinical research. PMID:20399958

  10. Genetically engineered mouse models of prostate cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nawijn, Martijn C.; Bergman, Andreas M.; van der Poel, Henk G.

    Objectives: Mouse models of prostate cancer are used to test the contribution of individual genes to the transformation process, evaluate the collaboration between multiple genetic lesions observed in a single tumour, and perform preclinical intervention studies in prostate cancer research. Methods:

  11. Agglutination of Mouse Erythrocytes by Eperythrozoon coccoides

    OpenAIRE

    Iralu, Vichazelhu; Ganong, Kevin D.

    1983-01-01

    Erythrocytes from blood of mice infected with Eperythrozoon coccoides for 3 or 4 days agglutinated spontaneously. Washed E. coccoides particles agglutinated washed erythrocytes of uninfected mice. E. coccoides-mediated agglutination of normal mouse erythrocytes would be an excellent system for studies of bacterial adhesion.

  12. Isolation of Mouse salivary gland stem cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pringle, Sarah; Nanduri, Lalitha; van der Zwaag, Marianne; van Os, Ronald; Coppes, Rob

    2011-01-01

    Mature salivary glands of both human and mouse origin comprise a minimum of five cell types, each of which facilitates the production and excretion of saliva into the oral cavity. Serous and mucous acinar cells are the protein and mucous producing factories of the gland respectively, and represent

  13. Candida albicans escapes from mouse neutrophils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ermert, David; Niemiec, Maria J; Röhm, Marc

    2013-01-01

    Candida albicans, the most commonly isolated human fungal pathogen, is able to grow as budding yeasts or filamentous forms, such as hyphae. The ability to switch morphology has been attributed a crucial role for the pathogenesis of C. albicans. To mimic disseminated candidiasis in humans, the mouse...

  14. An update on the mouse liver proteome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borlak Jürgen

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Decoding of the liver proteome is subject of intense research, but hampered by methodological constraints. We recently developed an improved protocol for studying rat liver proteins based on 2-DE-MALDI-TOF-MS peptide mass finger printing. This methodology was now applied to develop a mouse liver protein database. Results Liver proteins were extracted by two different lysis buffers in sequence followed by a liquid-phase IEF pre-fractionation and separation of proteins by 2 DE at two different pH ranges, notably 5-8 and 7-10. Based on 9600 in gel digests a total of 643 mouse liver proteins with high sequence coverage (> 20 peptides per protein could be identified by MALDI-TOF-MS peptide mass finger printing. Notably, 255 proteins are novel and have not been reported so far by conventional two-dimensional electrophoresis proteome mapping. Additionally, the results of the present findings for mouse liver were compared to published data of the rat proteome to compile as many proteins as possible in a rodent liver database. Conclusion Based on 2-DE MALDI-TOF-MS a significantly improved proteome map of mouse liver was obtained. We discuss some prominent members of newly identified proteins for a better understanding of liver biology.

  15. Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer in the Mouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishigami, Satoshi; Wakayama, Teruhiko

    Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) has become a unique and powerful tool for epigenetic reprogramming research and gene manipulation in animals since “Dolly,” the first animal cloned from an adult cell was reported in 1997. Although the success rates of somatic cloning have been inefficient and the mechanism of reprogramming is still largely unknown, this technique has been proven to work in more than 10 mammalian species. Among them, the mouse provides the best model for both basic and applied research of somatic cloning because of its abounding genetic resources, rapid sexual maturity and propagation, minimal requirements for housing, etc. This chapter describes a basic protocol for mouse cloning using cumulus cells, the most popular cell type for NT, in which donor nuclei are directly injected into the oocyte using a piezo-actuated micromanipulator. In particular, we focus on a new, more efficient mouse cloning protocol using trichostatin A (TSA), a histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor, which increases both in vitro and in vivo developmental rates from twofold to fivefold. This new method including TSA will be helpful to establish mouse cloning in many laboratories.

  16. Understanding sex determination in the mouse: genetics ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    sex determination; gonad development; organogenesis; mouse genetics; sex reversal; testis determination. ... One challenge now is to understand how controlled epigenomic changes effect the now familiar sexually dimorphic transcriptomic profiles of the male and female gonads, firstly during primary sex determination, but ...

  17. Hod mice and the mouse set conjecture

    CERN Document Server

    Sargsyan, Grigor

    2015-01-01

    The author develops the theory of Hod mice below AD_{\\mathbb{R}}+ "\\Theta is regular". He uses this theory to show that HOD of the minimal model of AD_{\\mathbb{R}}+ "\\Theta is regular" satisfies GCH. Moreover, he shows that the Mouse Set Conjecture is true in the minimal model of AD_{\\mathbb{R}}+ "\\Theta is regular".

  18. MPHASYS: a mouse phenotype analysis system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mian I

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Systematic, high-throughput studies of mouse phenotypes have been hampered by the inability to analyze individual animal data from a multitude of sources in an integrated manner. Studies generally make comparisons at the level of genotype or treatment thereby excluding associations that may be subtle or involve compound phenotypes. Additionally, the lack of integrated, standardized ontologies and methodologies for data exchange has inhibited scientific collaboration and discovery. Results Here we introduce a Mouse Phenotype Analysis System (MPHASYS, a platform for integrating data generated by studies of mouse models of human biology and disease such as aging and cancer. This computational platform is designed to provide a standardized methodology for working with animal data; a framework for data entry, analysis and sharing; and ontologies and methodologies for ensuring accurate data capture. We describe the tools that currently comprise MPHASYS, primarily ones related to mouse pathology, and outline its use in a study of individual animal-specific patterns of multiple pathology in mice harboring a specific germline mutation in the DNA repair and transcription-specific gene Xpd. Conclusion MPHASYS is a system for analyzing multiple data types from individual animals. It provides a framework for developing data analysis applications, and tools for collecting and distributing high-quality data. The software is platform independent and freely available under an open-source license 1.

  19. ZNF 197L is dispensable in mouse development | Tang | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ZNF 197L is dispensable in mouse development. R Tang, G Xu, A Kimi, J Shen, Z Li, K Yamamura, H Tang. Abstract. The gene trap technique is a newly powerful approach for characterizing and mutating genes in mouse. We used gene trap method to identify mice gene of unknown function and to establish their mouse line ...

  20. The mouse prostate: a basic anatomical and histological guideline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel S.M. Oliveira

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Despite substantial similarities in embryological, cellular and molecular biology features, human and mouse prostates differ in organ morphology and tissue architecture. Thus, a clear understanding of the anatomy and histology of the mouse prostate is essential for the identification of urogenital phenotypes in genetically engineered mice, as well as for the study of the etiology, development, and treatment of human prostatic diseases for which mouse models are used. The purpose of this manuscript is to provide a brief guide for the dissection of the mouse prostate and the identification of its different lobes and histology, to both basic researchers and medical pathologists who are unfamiliar with mouse tissues.

  1. MouseMine: a new data warehouse for MGI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motenko, H; Neuhauser, S B; O'Keefe, M; Richardson, J E

    2015-08-01

    MouseMine (www.mousemine.org) is a new data warehouse for accessing mouse data from Mouse Genome Informatics (MGI). Based on the InterMine software framework, MouseMine supports powerful query, reporting, and analysis capabilities, the ability to save and combine results from different queries, easy integration into larger workflows, and a comprehensive Web Services layer. Through MouseMine, users can access a significant portion of MGI data in new and useful ways. Importantly, MouseMine is also a member of a growing community of online data resources based on InterMine, including those established by other model organism databases. Adopting common interfaces and collaborating on data representation standards are critical to fostering cross-species data analysis. This paper presents a general introduction to MouseMine, presents examples of its use, and discusses the potential for further integration into the MGI interface.

  2. Mouse cell culture - Methods and protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CarloAlberto Redi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The mouse is, out of any doubt, the experimental animal par excellence for many many colleagues within the scientific community, notably for those working in mammalian biology (in a broad sense, from basic genetic to modeling human diseases, starting at least from 1664 Robert Hooke experiments on air’s propertyn. Not surprising then that mouse cell cultures is a well established field of research itself and that there are several handbooks devoted to this discipline. Here, Andrew Ward and David Tosh provide a necessary update of the protocols currently needed. In fact, nearly half of the book is devoted to stem cells culture protocols, mainly embryonic, from a list of several organs (kidney, lung, oesophagus and intestine, pancreas and liver to mention some........

  3. Circadian oscillators in the mouse brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rath, Martin F; Rovsing, Louise; Møller, Morten

    2014-01-01

    The circadian timekeeper of the mammalian brain resides in the suprachiasmatic nucleus of the hypothalamus (SCN), and is characterized by rhythmic expression of a set of clock genes with specific 24-h daily profiles. An increasing amount of data suggests that additional circadian oscillators...... residing outside the SCN have the capacity to generate peripheral circadian rhythms. We have recently shown the presence of SCN-controlled oscillators in the neocortex and cerebellum of the rat. The function of these peripheral brain clocks is unknown, and elucidating this could involve mice...... and granular cell layers of the cerebellar cortex of the mouse brain. Among these, Per1, Per2, Cry1, Arntl, and Nr1d1 exhibit circadian rhythms suggesting that local running circadian oscillators reside within neurons of the mouse neocortex and cerebellar cortex. The temporal expression profiles of clock genes...

  4. Skeletal muscle, but not cardiovascular function, is altered in a mouse model of autosomal recessive hypophosphatemic rickets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Wacker

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Autosomal recessive hypophosphatemic rickets (ARHR is a heritable disorder characterized by hypophosphatemia, osteomalacia, and poor bone development. ARHR results from inactivating mutations in the DMP1 gene with the human phenotype being recapitulated in the Dmp1 null mouse model which displays elevated plasma fibroblast growth factor 23. While the bone phenotype has been well characterized, it is not known what effects ARHR may also have on skeletal, cardiac, or vascular smooth muscle function, which is critical to understand to treat patients suffering from this condition. In this study, the extensor digitorum longus (EDL- fast-twitch muscle, soleus (SOL- slow-twitch muscle, heart, and aorta were removed from Dmp1 null mice and ex-vivo functional tests were simultaneously performed in collaboration by three different laboratories. Dmp1 null EDL and SOL muscles produced less force than wildtype muscles after normalization for physiological cross sectional area of the muscles. Both EDL and SOL muscles from Dmp1 null mice also produced less force after the addition of caffeine (which releases calcium from the sarcoplasmic reticulum which may indicate problems in excitation contraction coupling in these mice. While the body weights of the Dmp1 null were smaller than wildtype, the heart weight to body weight ratio was higher. However, there were no differences in pathological hypertrophic gene expression compared to wildtype and maximal force of contraction was not different indicating that there may not be cardiac pathology under the tested conditions. We did observe a decrease in the rate of force development generated by cardiac muscle in the Dmp1 null which may be related to some of the deficits observed in skeletal muscle. There were no differences observed in aortic contractions induced by PGF2a or 5-HT or in endothelium-mediated acetylcholine-induced relaxations or endothelium-independent sodium nitroprusside-induced relaxations. In

  5. Development of the mouse cochlea database (MCD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santi, Peter A; Rapson, Ian; Voie, Arne

    2008-09-01

    The mouse cochlea database (MCD) provides an interactive, image database of the mouse cochlea for learning its anatomy and data mining of its resources. The MCD website is hosted on a centrally maintained, high-speed server at the following URL: (http://mousecochlea.umn.edu). The MCD contains two types of image resources, serial 2D image stacks and 3D reconstructions of cochlear structures. Complete image stacks of the cochlea from two different mouse strains were obtained using orthogonal plane fluorescence optical microscopy (OPFOS). 2D images of the cochlea are presented on the MCD website as: viewable images within a stack, 2D atlas of the cochlea, orthogonal sections, and direct volume renderings combined with isosurface reconstructions. In order to assess cochlear structures quantitatively, "true" cross-sections of the scala media along the length of the basilar membrane were generated by virtual resectioning of a cochlea orthogonal to a cochlear structure, such as the centroid of the basilar membrane or the scala media. 3D images are presented on the MCD website as: direct volume renderings, movies, interactive QuickTime VRs, flythrough, and isosurface 3D reconstructions of different cochlear structures. 3D computer models can also be used for solid model fabrication by rapid prototyping and models from different cochleas can be combined to produce an average 3D model. The MCD is the first comprehensive image resource on the mouse cochlea and is a new paradigm for understanding the anatomy of the cochlea, and establishing morphometric parameters of cochlear structures in normal and mutant mice.

  6. Mouse Model of Human Hereditary Pancreatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    trypsin-dependent pathway in pancreatitis and to begin testing therapeutic and preventive approaches. Mutations in the digestive enzyme trypsinogen...expression of mutant trypsinogens at the protein level, we will perform chromatographic analysis of the total trypsinogen fraction isolated from mouse...pancreata (Subtask 4a). This subtask has been delayed until homozygous animals could be generated. Homozygous animals are now available and chromatographic

  7. Complex loci in human and mouse genomes

    OpenAIRE

    Engstroem, P.G.; Suzuki, H.; Ninomiya, N.; Akalin, A.; Sessa, L.; Lavorgna, G.; Brozzi, A.; Luzi, L.; Tan, S.L.; Yang, L.; Kunarso, G.; Ng, E.L.C.; Batalov, S.; Wahlestedt, C.; Kai, C.

    2006-01-01

    Mammalian genomes harbor a larger than expected number of complex loci, in which multiple genes are coupled by shared transcribed regions in antisense orientation and/or by bidirectional core promoters. To determine the incidence, functional significance, and evolutionary context of mammalian complex loci, we identified and characterized 5,248 cis–antisense pairs, 1,638 bidirectional promoters, and 1,153 chains of multiple cis–antisense and/or bidirectionally promoted pairs from 36,606 mouse ...

  8. The Mouse Tumor Biology Database: A Comprehensive Resource for Mouse Models of Human Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krupke, Debra M; Begley, Dale A; Sundberg, John P; Richardson, Joel E; Neuhauser, Steven B; Bult, Carol J

    2017-11-01

    Research using laboratory mice has led to fundamental insights into the molecular genetic processes that govern cancer initiation, progression, and treatment response. Although thousands of scientific articles have been published about mouse models of human cancer, collating information and data for a specific model is hampered by the fact that many authors do not adhere to existing annotation standards when describing models. The interpretation of experimental results in mouse models can also be confounded when researchers do not factor in the effect of genetic background on tumor biology. The Mouse Tumor Biology (MTB) database is an expertly curated, comprehensive compendium of mouse models of human cancer. Through the enforcement of nomenclature and related annotation standards, MTB supports aggregation of data about a cancer model from diverse sources and assessment of how genetic background of a mouse strain influences the biological properties of a specific tumor type and model utility. Cancer Res; 77(21); e67-70. ©2017 AACR. ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  9. mouseTube - a database to collaboratively unravel mouse ultrasonic communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torquet, Nicolas; de Chaumont, Fabrice; Faure, Philippe; Bourgeron, Thomas; Ey, Elodie

    2016-01-01

    Ultrasonic vocalisation is a broadly used proxy to evaluate social communication in mouse models of neuropsychiatric disorders. The efficacy and robustness of testing these models suffer from limited knowledge of the structure and functions of these vocalisations as well as of the way to analyse the data. We created mouseTube, an open database with a web interface, to facilitate sharing and comparison of ultrasonic vocalisations data and metadata attached to a recording file. Metadata describe 1) the acquisition procedure, e.g., hardware, software, sampling frequency, bit depth; 2) the biological protocol used to elicit ultrasonic vocalisations; 3) the characteristics of the individual emitting ultrasonic vocalisations ( e.g., strain, sex, age). To promote open science and enable reproducibility, data are made freely available. The website provides searching functions to facilitate the retrieval of recording files of interest. It is designed to enable comparisons of ultrasonic vocalisation emission between strains, protocols or laboratories, as well as to test different analysis algorithms and to search for protocols established to elicit mouse ultrasonic vocalisations. Over the long term, users will be able to download and compare different analysis results for each data file. Such application will boost the knowledge on mouse ultrasonic communication and stimulate sharing and comparison of automatic analysis methods to refine phenotyping techniques in mouse models of neuropsychiatric disorders.

  10. mouseTube – a database to collaboratively unravel mouse ultrasonic communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torquet, Nicolas; de Chaumont, Fabrice; Faure, Philippe; Bourgeron, Thomas; Ey, Elodie

    2016-01-01

    Ultrasonic vocalisation is a broadly used proxy to evaluate social communication in mouse models of neuropsychiatric disorders. The efficacy and robustness of testing these models suffer from limited knowledge of the structure and functions of these vocalisations as well as of the way to analyse the data. We created mouseTube, an open database with a web interface, to facilitate sharing and comparison of ultrasonic vocalisations data and metadata attached to a recording file. Metadata describe 1) the acquisition procedure, e.g., hardware, software, sampling frequency, bit depth; 2) the biological protocol used to elicit ultrasonic vocalisations; 3) the characteristics of the individual emitting ultrasonic vocalisations ( e.g., strain, sex, age). To promote open science and enable reproducibility, data are made freely available. The website provides searching functions to facilitate the retrieval of recording files of interest. It is designed to enable comparisons of ultrasonic vocalisation emission between strains, protocols or laboratories, as well as to test different analysis algorithms and to search for protocols established to elicit mouse ultrasonic vocalisations. Over the long term, users will be able to download and compare different analysis results for each data file. Such application will boost the knowledge on mouse ultrasonic communication and stimulate sharing and comparison of automatic analysis methods to refine phenotyping techniques in mouse models of neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:27830061

  11. A mesoscale connectome of the mouse brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Seung Wook; Harris, Julie A.; Ng, Lydia; Winslow, Brent; Cain, Nicholas; Mihalas, Stefan; Wang, Quanxin; Lau, Chris; Kuan, Leonard; Henry, Alex M.; Mortrud, Marty T.; Ouellette, Benjamin; Nguyen, Thuc Nghi; Sorensen, Staci A.; Slaughterbeck, Clifford R.; Wakeman, Wayne; Li, Yang; Feng, David; Ho, Anh; Nicholas, Eric; Hirokawa, Karla E.; Bohn, Phillip; Joines, Kevin M.; Peng, Hanchuan; Hawrylycz, Michael J.; Phillips, John W.; Hohmann, John G.; Wohnoutka, Paul; Gerfen, Charles R.; Koch, Christof; Bernard, Amy; Dang, Chinh; Jones, Allan R.; Zeng, Hongkui

    2016-01-01

    Comprehensive knowledge of the brain’s wiring diagram is fundamental for understanding how the nervous system processes information at both local and global scales. However, with the singular exception of the C. elegans microscale connectome, there are no complete connectivity data sets in other species. Here we report a brain-wide, cellular-level, mesoscale connectome for the mouse. The Allen Mouse Brain Connectivity Atlas uses enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP)-expressing adeno-associated viral vectors to trace axonal projections from defined regions and cell types, and high-throughput serial two-photon tomography to image the EGFP-labelled axons throughout the brain. This systematic and standardized approach allows spatial registration of individual experiments into a common three dimensional (3D) reference space, resulting in a whole-brain connectivity matrix. A computational model yields insights into connectional strength distribution, symmetry and other network properties. Virtual tractography illustrates 3D topography among interconnected regions. Cortico-thalamic pathway analysis demonstrates segregation and integration of parallel pathways. The Allen Mouse Brain Connectivity Atlas is a freely available, foundational resource for structural and functional investigations into the neural circuits that support behavioural and cognitive processes in health and disease. PMID:24695228

  12. The Gut Microbiome in the NOD Mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Jian; Hu, Youjia; Wong, F Susan; Wen, Li

    2016-01-01

    The microbiome (or microbiota) are an ecological community of commensal, symbiotic, and pathogenic microorganisms that outnumber the cells of the human body tenfold. These microorganisms are most abundant in the gut where they play an important role in health and disease. Alteration of the homeostasis of the gut microbiota can have beneficial or harmful consequences to health. There has recently been a major increase in studies on the association of the gut microbiome composition with disease phenotypes.The nonobese diabetic (NOD) mouse is an excellent mouse model to study spontaneous type 1 diabetes development. We, and others, have reported that gut bacteria are critical modulators for type 1 diabetes development in genetically susceptible NOD mice.Here we present our standard protocol for gut microbiome analysis in NOD mice that has been routinely implemented in our research laboratory. This incorporates the following steps: (1) Isolation of total DNA from gut bacteria from mouse fecal samples or intestinal contents; (2) bacterial DNA sequencing, and (3) basic data analysis.

  13. Digenic Inheritance in Cystinuria Mouse Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meritxell Espino

    Full Text Available Cystinuria is an aminoaciduria caused by mutations in the genes that encode the two subunits of the amino acid transport system b0,+, responsible for the renal reabsorption of cystine and dibasic amino acids. The clinical symptoms of cystinuria relate to nephrolithiasis, due to the precipitation of cystine in urine. Mutations in SLC3A1, which codes for the heavy subunit rBAT, cause cystinuria type A, whereas mutations in SLC7A9, which encodes the light subunit b0,+AT, cause cystinuria type B. By crossing Slc3a1-/- with Slc7a9-/- mice we generated a type AB cystinuria mouse model to test digenic inheritance of cystinuria. The 9 genotypes obtained have been analyzed at early (2- and 5-months and late stage (8-months of the disease. Monitoring the lithiasic phenotype by X-ray, urine amino acid content analysis and protein expression studies have shown that double heterozygous mice (Slc7a9+/-Slc3a1+/- present lower expression of system b0,+ and higher hyperexcretion of cystine than single heterozygotes (Slc7a9+/-Slc3a1+/+ and Slc7a9+/+Slc3a1+/- and give rise to lithiasis in 4% of the mice, demonstrating that cystinuria has a digenic inheritance in this mouse model. Moreover in this study it has been demonstrated a genotype/phenotype correlation in type AB cystinuria mouse model providing new insights for further molecular and genetic studies of cystinuria patients.

  14. Digenic Inheritance in Cystinuria Mouse Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espino, Meritxell; Font-Llitjós, Mariona; Vilches, Clara; Salido, Eduardo; Prat, Esther; López de Heredia, Miguel; Palacín, Manuel; Nunes, Virginia

    2015-01-01

    Cystinuria is an aminoaciduria caused by mutations in the genes that encode the two subunits of the amino acid transport system b0,+, responsible for the renal reabsorption of cystine and dibasic amino acids. The clinical symptoms of cystinuria relate to nephrolithiasis, due to the precipitation of cystine in urine. Mutations in SLC3A1, which codes for the heavy subunit rBAT, cause cystinuria type A, whereas mutations in SLC7A9, which encodes the light subunit b0,+AT, cause cystinuria type B. By crossing Slc3a1-/- with Slc7a9-/- mice we generated a type AB cystinuria mouse model to test digenic inheritance of cystinuria. The 9 genotypes obtained have been analyzed at early (2- and 5-months) and late stage (8-months) of the disease. Monitoring the lithiasic phenotype by X-ray, urine amino acid content analysis and protein expression studies have shown that double heterozygous mice (Slc7a9+/-Slc3a1+/-) present lower expression of system b0,+ and higher hyperexcretion of cystine than single heterozygotes (Slc7a9+/-Slc3a1+/+ and Slc7a9+/+Slc3a1+/-) and give rise to lithiasis in 4% of the mice, demonstrating that cystinuria has a digenic inheritance in this mouse model. Moreover in this study it has been demonstrated a genotype/phenotype correlation in type AB cystinuria mouse model providing new insights for further molecular and genetic studies of cystinuria patients. PMID:26359869

  15. Implementation of the mouse frailty index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Alice E; Ayaz, Omar; Ghimire, Anjali; Feridooni, Hirad A; Howlett, Susan E

    2017-10-01

    Frailty is considered a state of high vulnerability for adverse health outcomes for people of the same age. Those who are frail have higher mortality, worse health outcomes, and use more health care services than those who are not frail. Despite this, little is known about the biology of frailty, the effect of frailty on pharmacological or surgical outcomes, and potential interventions to attenuate frailty. In humans, frailty can be quantified using a frailty index (FI) based on the principle of deficit accumulation. The recent development of an FI in naturally ageing mice provides an opportunity to conduct frailty research in a validated preclinical model. The mouse FI has been successfully used across a wide range of applications; however, there are some factors that should be considered in implementing this tool. This review summarises the current literature, presents some original data, and suggests areas for future research on the current applications of the mouse FI, inter-rater reliability of the FI, the effect of observer characteristics and environmental factors on mouse FI scores, and the individual items that make up the FI assessment. The implementation of this tool into preclinical frailty research should greatly accelerate translational research in this important field.

  16. Changes in the cholinergic system of rat sciatic nerve and skeletal muscle following suspension induced disuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, R. C.; Misulis, K. E.; Dettbarn, W. D.

    1984-01-01

    Muscle disused induced changes in the cholinergic system of sciatic nerve, slow twitch soleus (SOL) and fast twitch extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle were studied in rats. Rats with hindlimbs suspended for 2 to 3 weeks showed marked elevation in the activity of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) in sciatic nerve (38%), in SOL (108%) and in EDL (67%). Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in SOL increased by 163% without changing the molecular forms pattern of 4S, 10S, 12S, and 16S. No significant changes in activity and molecular forms pattern of AChE were seen in EDL or in AChE activity of sciatic nerve. Nicotinic receptor binding of 3H-acetylcholine was increased in both muscles. When measured after 3 weeks of hindlimb suspension the normal distribution of type 1 fibers in SOL was reduced and a corresponding increase in type IIa and IIb fibers is seen. In EDL no significant change in fiber proportion is observed. Muscle activity, such as loadbearing, appears to have a greater controlling influence on the characteristics of the slow twitch SOL muscle than upon the fast twitch EDL muscle.

  17. The Virtual Mouse Brain: A Computational Neuroinformatics Platform to Study Whole Mouse Brain Dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melozzi, Francesca; Woodman, Marmaduke M; Jirsa, Viktor K; Bernard, Christophe

    2017-01-01

    Connectome-based modeling of large-scale brain network dynamics enables causal in silico interrogation of the brain's structure-function relationship, necessitating the close integration of diverse neuroinformatics fields. Here we extend the open-source simulation software The Virtual Brain (TVB) to whole mouse brain network modeling based on individual diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI)-based or tracer-based detailed mouse connectomes. We provide practical examples on how to use The Virtual Mouse Brain (TVMB) to simulate brain activity, such as seizure propagation and the switching behavior of the resting state dynamics in health and disease. TVMB enables theoretically driven experimental planning and ways to test predictions in the numerous strains of mice available to study brain function in normal and pathological conditions.

  18. Germ cell transplantation into mouse testes procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medrano, Jose V; Martínez-Arroyo, Ana M; Sukhwani, Meena; Noguera, Inmaculada; Quiñonero, Alicia; Martínez-Jabaloyas, Jose M; Pellicer, Antonio; Remohí, Jose; Orwig, Kyle E; Simón, Carlos

    2014-10-01

    To illustrate the step-by-step protocol followed to assay germ cell transplantation into the seminiferous epithelium of mouse testes. Video presentation of an animal model for research in reproductive and regenerative medicine. Research laboratory. Male nude mice (NU-Foxn1(nu)). Mice were chemically sterilized with alkylant compounds (busulfan) followed by gonadal microsurgery to inject donor germ cells. Donor cells should be labeled with reporter genes, such as green fluorescent protein (GFP), lactose operon (LacZ), or alternatively design an effective strategy with specific antibodies to track them within the recipient testes. Sperm detection in the ejaculate can also be used as a read out. However, in this case detection of the donor genotype in the sperm is mandatory to elucidate their origin. In the present study we describe the complete protocol for germ cell transplant by efferent duct injection, including the preparation of recipient mice, surgery for the germ cell transplant, and analysis of recipient testes. The main strength of this technique is that it constitutes the gold standard for a functional test of the germ cell potential as only spermatogonial stem cells are able to properly colonize the seminal lumen. Both fresh and frozen/thawed testicular cells are suitable for this technique as donor germ cells. Also, enrichment of living spermatogonial stem cells, previous to the transplant, seems to improve the efficiency of colonization. For proper colonization of germ cells, the niche should be available and thus mouse strains that lack endogenous spermatogenesis such as W/W(v) mutant mice are usually used. In the case of nonmatched donor cells, seminiferous epithelium of immune-suppressed recipient mice should be germ cell depleted before the transplant. One limitation of this technique is that the procedure can take up to 3 months. Also, in contrast to the full recovery of spermatogenesis in mouse-to-mouse transplants, xenotransplantation of germ

  19. Characterization of the mouse rod transducin alpha subunit gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raport, C J; Dere, B; Hurley, J B

    1989-05-05

    A genomic clone spanning the mouse rod transducin alpha subunit (Tr alpha) gene has been isolated by screening a mouse genomic library with a bovine Tr alpha cDNA clone. The coding region of the mouse Tr alpha gene reveals an 88.7% nucleotide identify and 99.7% amino acid identity with bovine Tr alpha. The mouse Tr alpha gene is composed of 8 exons and 7 introns within its coding region. These introns are in the same locations as introns in human Gi alpha genes, that encode G proteins closely related to transducin. Primer extension, RNA sequencing, and S1 nuclease protection analyses indicate that the mouse Tr alpha gene transcription start site is 84 bases upstream of the initiation codon. Northern blot analysis shows that the mouse Tr alpha is expressed in the retina, but not in brain, kidney, liver, or heart.

  20. A report from the Sixth International Mouse Genome Conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, S. [Saint Mary`s Hospital Medical School, London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Biochemistry and Molecular Genetics

    1992-12-31

    The Sixth Annual Mouse Genome Conference was held in October, 1992 at Buffalo, USA. The mouse is one of the primary model organisms in the Human Genome Project. Through the use of gene targeting studies the mouse has become a powerful biological model for the study of gene function and, in addition, the comparison of the many homologous mutations identified in human and mouse have widened our understanding of the biology of these two organisms. A primary goal in the mouse genome program has been to create a genetic map of STSs of high resolution (<1cM) that would form the basis for the physical mapping of the whole mouse genome. Buffalo saw substantial new progress towards the goal of a very high density genetic map and the beginnings of substantive efforts towards physical mapping in chromosome regions with a high density of genetic markers.

  1. Comparative anatomy of mouse and human nail units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleckman, Philip; Jaeger, Karin; Silva, Kathleen A; Sundberg, John P

    2013-03-01

    Recent studies of mice with hair defects have resulted in major contributions to the understanding of hair disorders. To use mouse models as a tool to study nail diseases, a basic understanding of the similarities and differences between the human and mouse nail unit is required. In this study we compare the human and mouse nail unit at the macroscopic and microscopic level and use immunohistochemistry to determine the keratin expression patterns in the mouse nail unit. Both species have a proximal nail fold, cuticle, nail matrix, nail bed, nail plate, and hyponychium. Distinguishing features are the shape of the nail and the presence of an extended hyponychium in the mouse. Expression patterns of most keratins are similar. These findings indicate that the mouse nail unit shares major characteristics with the human nail unit and overall represents a very similar structure, useful for the investigation of nail diseases and nail biology. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Variability in Myosteatosis and Insulin Resistance Induced by High-Fat Diet in Mouse Skeletal Muscles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Collino

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nutrient overload leads to impaired muscle oxidative capacity and insulin sensitivity. However, comparative analyses of the effects of dietary manipulation on skeletal muscles with different fiber composition are lacking. This study aimed to investigate the selective adaptations in the soleus and tibialis anterior muscles evoked by administration of high-fat diet for 12 weeks in 10 mice (HFD mice compared to 10 animals fed with a normal chow diet (control mice. Mice fed with the HFD diet exhibited hyperlipidemia, hyperinsulinemia, hyperglycemia, and lower exercise capacity in comparison to control mice. In control mice, soleus fibers showed higher lipid content than tibialis anterior fibers. In contrast, the lipid content was similar between the two muscles in HFD mice. Significant differences in markers of muscle mitochondrial production and/or activity as well as of lipid synthesis were detected between HFD mice and control mice, especially in the tibialis anterior. Moreover, translocation of GLUT-4 transporter to the plasma membrane and activation of the insulin signaling pathway were markedly inhibited in the tibialis and slightly reduced in the soleus of HFD mice compared to control mice. Overall, these results show that adaptive responses to dietary manipulation occur in a muscle-specific pattern.

  3. The mouse prostate: a basic anatomical and histological guideline

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel S.M. Oliveira; Sijana Dzinic; Alan I Bonfil; Allen D Saliganan; Shijie Sheng; R. Daniel Bonfil

    2016-01-01

    Despite substantial similarities in embryological, cellular and molecular biology features, human and mouse prostates differ in organ morphology and tissue architecture. Thus, a clear understanding of the anatomy and histology of the mouse prostate is essential for the identification of urogenital phenotypes in genetically engineered mice, as well as for the study of the etiology, development, and treatment of human prostatic diseases for which mouse models are used. The purpose of this manus...

  4. Hydrochlorothiazide Potentiates Contractile Activity of Mouse Cavernosal Smooth Muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Gagliano-Jucá, MD, PhD

    2016-06-01

    Conclusion: Hydrochlorothiazide potentiates contraction of smooth muscle from mouse CC. These findings could explain why diuretics such as hydrochlorothiazide are associated with erectile dysfunction.

  5. A humanized mouse model of tuberculosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica E Calderon

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb is the second leading infectious cause of death worldwide and the primary cause of death in people living with HIV/AIDS. There are several excellent animal models employed to study tuberculosis (TB, but many have limitations for reproducing human pathology and none are amenable to the direct study of HIV/M.tb co-infection. The humanized mouse has been increasingly employed to explore HIV infection and other pathogens where animal models are limiting. Our goal was to develop a small animal model of M.tb infection using the bone marrow, liver, thymus (BLT humanized mouse. NOD-SCID/γc(null mice were engrafted with human fetal liver and thymus tissue, and supplemented with CD34(+ fetal liver cells. Excellent reconstitution, as measured by expression of the human CD45 pan leukocyte marker by peripheral blood populations, was observed at 12 weeks after engraftment. Human T cells (CD3, CD4, CD8, as well as natural killer cells and monocyte/macrophages were all observed within the human leukocyte (CD45(+ population. Importantly, human T cells were functionally competent as determined by proliferative capacity and effector molecule (e.g. IFN-γ, granulysin, perforin expression in response to positive stimuli. Animals infected intranasally with M.tb had progressive bacterial infection in the lung and dissemination to spleen and liver from 2-8 weeks post infection. Sites of infection in the lung were characterized by the formation of organized granulomatous lesions, caseous necrosis, bronchial obstruction, and crystallization of cholesterol deposits. Human T cells were distributed throughout the lung, liver, and spleen at sites of inflammation and bacterial growth and were organized to the periphery of granulomas. These preliminary results demonstrate the potential to use the humanized mouse as a model of experimental TB.

  6. Mouse hypospadias: A critical examination and definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, Adriane Watkins; Cao, Mei; Shen, Joel; Cooke, Paul; Risbridger, Gail; Baskin, Laurence; Cunha, Gerald R

    2016-12-01

    Hypospadias is a common malformation whose etiology is based upon perturbation of normal penile development. The mouse has been previously used as a model of hypospadias, despite an unacceptably wide range of definitions for this malformation. The current paper presents objective criteria and a definition of mouse hypospadias. Accordingly, diethylstilbestrol (DES) induced penile malformations were examined at 60 days postnatal (P60) in mice treated with DES over the age range of 12 days embryonic to 20 days postnatal (E12-P20). DES-induced hypospadias involves malformation of the urethral meatus, which is most severe in DES E12-P10, DES P0-P10 and DES P5-P15 groups, and less so or absent in the other treatment groups. A frenulum-like ventral tether between the penis and the prepuce was seen in the most severely affected DES-treated mice. Internal penile morphology was also altered in the DES E12-P10, DES P0-P10 and DES P5-P15 groups (with little effect in the other DES treatment groups). Thus, adverse effects of DES are a function of the period of DES treatment and most severe in the P0-P10 period. In "estrogen mutant mice" (NERKI, βERKO, αERKO and AROM+) hypospadias was only seen in AROM+ male mice having genetically-engineered elevation is serum estrogen. Significantly, mouse hypospadias was only seen distally at and near the urethral meatus where epithelial fusion events are known to take place and never in the penile midshaft, where urethral formation occurs via an entirely different morphogenetic process. Copyright © 2016 International Society of Differentiation. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Significant determinants of mouse pain behaviour.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael S Minett

    Full Text Available Transgenic mouse behavioural analysis has furthered our understanding of the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying damage sensing and pain. However, it is not unusual for conflicting data on the pain phenotypes of knockout mice to be generated by reputable groups. Here we focus on some technical aspects of measuring mouse pain behaviour that are often overlooked, which may help explain discrepancies in the pain literature. We examined touch perception using von Frey hairs and mechanical pain thresholds using the Randall-Selitto test. Thermal pain thresholds were measured using the Hargreaves apparatus and a thermal place preference test. Sodium channel Nav1.7 knockout mice show a mechanical deficit in the hairy skin, but not the paw, whilst shaving the abdominal hair abolished this phenotype. Nav1.7, Nav1.8 and Nav1.9 knockout mice show deficits in noxious mechanosensation in the tail, but not the paw. TRPA1 knockout mice, however, have a loss of noxious mechanosensation in the paw but not the tail. Studies of heat and cold sensitivity also show variability depending on the intensity of the stimulus. Deleting Nav1.7, Nav1.8 or Nav1.9 in Nav1.8-positive sensory neurons attenuates responses to slow noxious heat ramps, whilst responses to fast noxious heat ramps are only reduced when Nav1.7 is lost in large diameter sensory neurons. Deleting Nav1.7 from all sensory neurons attenuates responses to noxious cooling but not extreme cold. Finally, circadian rhythms dramatically influence behavioural outcome measures such as von Frey responses, which change by 80% over the day. These observations demonstrate that fully characterising the phenotype of a transgenic mouse strain requires a range of behavioural pain models. Failure to conduct behavioural tests at different anatomical locations, stimulus intensities, and at different points in the circadian cycle may lead to a pain behavioural phenotype being misinterpreted, or missed altogether.

  8. Mononuclear phagocyte subpopulations in the mouse kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, James F; Lever, Jeremie M; Agarwal, Anupam

    2017-04-01

    Mononuclear phagocytes are the most common cells in the kidney associated with immunity and inflammation. Although the presence of these cells in the kidney has been known for decades, the study of mononuclear phagocytes in the context of kidney function and dysfunction is still at an early stage. The purpose of this review is to summarize the present knowledge regarding classification of these cells in the mouse kidney and to identify relevant questions that would further advance the field and potentially lead to new opportunities for treatment of acute kidney injury and other kidney diseases.

  9. Ovarian abnormalities in the staggerer mutant mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guastavino, Jean-Marie; Boufares, Salima; Crusio, Wim E

    2005-08-24

    Disturbances in several reproductive functions of the staggerer cerebellar mutant mouse have been observed. In this study, reproductive efficiency of staggerer mice was compared to normal mice by recording the number of pups produced and the number of oocytes occurring. It was found that staggerer mothers produced smaller litters than controls and the number of oocytes produced in their ovaries was reduced by the staggerer mutation. These results indicate a pleiotropic effect on fertility of the Rora(sg) gene underlying the cerebellar abnormalities of the staggerer mutant.

  10. Ovarian Abnormalities in the Staggerer Mutant Mouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Marie Guastavino

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Disturbances in several reproductive functions of the staggerer cerebellar mutant mouse have been observed. In this study, reproductive efficiency of staggerer mice was compared to normal mice by recording the number of pups produced and the number of oocytes occurring. It was found that staggerer mothers produced smaller litters than controls and the number of oocytes produced in their ovaries was reduced by the staggerer mutation. These results indicate a pleiotropic effect on fertility of the Rorasg gene underlying the cerebellar abnormalities of the staggerer mutant.

  11. Centromere organization in man and mouse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeppesen, P.; Mitchell, A.; Kipling, D.; Nicol, L. [Western General Hospital, Edinburgh (United Kingdom)

    1993-12-31

    The kinetochore, located at the primary constriction or centromere in mammalian metaphase chromosomes, is the site of attachment of spindle microtubules to the mitotic chromosome, and is thus essential for correct chromosome movement and segregation at anaphase. Errors in organization of the kinetochore and/or centromere may therefore lead to non-disjunction and aneuploidy. The centromeres of most, if not all, mammalian chromosomes contain repetitive DNA sequences, which are observed at the cytogenetic level as heterochromatin. We have combined immunofluorescence with primed in situ hybridization (PRINS) techniques to study the organization of repetitive DNA families in relation to chromosomal proteins located at centromeres in both man and mouse species.

  12. Lineage specification in the early mouse embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanner, Fredrik

    2014-02-01

    Before the mammalian embryo is ready to implant in the uterine wall, the single cell zygote must divide and differentiate into three distinct tissues; trophectoderm (prospective placenta), primitive endoderm (prospective yolk sac), and pluripotent epiblast cells which will form the embryo proper. In this review I will discuss our current understanding of how positional information, cell polarization, signaling pathways, and transcription factor networks converge to drive and regulate the progressive segregation of the first three cell types in the mouse embryo. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Development of Mouse Lung Deposition Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    deposition calculations in each strain of mouse: first by 3/1)TLC/FRC( , where FRC is the functional residual capacity or lung volume at rest and TLC is the...total lung capacity , to adjust airway dimensions to rest conditions, and second by 3/1T )2/V1( + , where TV is the tidal volume , to account for...geometry that was previously developed for humans, rats, and rhesus monkeys [6], [7]. Inputs to the model included lung geometry and volumes , and

  14. Phospholipid epitopes for mouse antibodies against bromelain-treated mouse erythrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaguchi, S

    1987-01-01

    The reactivity of mouse antibodies against bromelain-treated mouse erythrocytes (BrMRBC) with phospholipid epitopes was assessed by ELISA, using four clones of monoclonal anti-BrMRBC antibodies that had idiotypes distinct from one another. The four antibodies could bind to low-density lipoproteins (LDL) from human and chicken, but not to LDL from mouse and rat. As to liposomes of natural phospholipids, all the clones reacted with liposomes of phosphatidylcholine, and some of them could react with liposomes of sphingomyelin, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylic acid or cardiolipin. For liposomes of synthetic phosphatidylcholine with different fatty acids, the length of carbon chains and the number of unsaturated carbon chains of the fatty acids markedly affected the binding of each monoclonal antibody to the liposomes. The addition of dicetyl phosphate or stearylamine to phosphatidylcholine liposomes changed the reactivity of the liposomes. These results support the view that mouse anti-BrMRBC antibodies can recognize appropriately spaced phosphorylcholine residues on the surface of phospholipid liposomes, LDL and cells. The four clones had similar capacities for binding to LDL as well as to BrMRBC, but they had obviously different capacities for binding to phospholipid liposomes; the epitopes on phospholipid liposomes used in the present study were not so perfect as to react well with every anti-BrMRBC antibody. PMID:2443446

  15. Expression of two cross-reactive idiotypes on mouse antibodies against bromelain-treated mouse erythrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaguchi, S

    1987-01-01

    Two cross-reactive anti-idiotype (Id) antibodies were previously prepared from sera of rabbits immunized with mouse monoclonal antibodies against bromelain-treated mouse erythrocytes (BrMRBC). Most of the anti-BrMRBC plaque-forming cells (PFC) were suppressed by either of the two anti-Id antibodies. The Id profiles of anti-BrMRBC PFC were almost identical among various cell populations in a strain, but different among various mouse strains. Mouse sera contained both of the Id-bearing immunoglobulins Ig, and a significant part of the Id-bearing Ig were eliminated by absorption with BrMRBC. Nude BALB/c mice were almost equal to normal BALB/c mice in the Id patterns of anti-BrMRBC PFC and in the concentrations of the Id-bearing Ig. The injections of anti-Id antibodies into suckling mice suppressed, specifically, the development of the B cells to produce the homologous Id-bearing Ig, but the injection of Id-bearing monoclonal antibodies barely affected Id expression. It is suggested that the two Id are encoded in germ-line genes of mice, and are expressed independently of each other and Id-anti-Id regulations by T cells or B cells. PMID:3327804

  16. Effect of BNCT in hairless mouse and C57BL/6 mouse induced skin cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chun, K. J.; Yu, B. K. [KAERI , Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-07-01

    We have carried out animal experiment with neutron irradiation since the completion of BNCT facility at HANARO research reactor recently. As a preliminary test regarding BNCT, skin cancer in hairless mouse was induced using two chemicals ; DMBA as an initiator and TPA as a promotor. Two chemicals were spreaded on the back below the head once a day during 15 weeks. Also skin cancer in C57BL/6 mouse was induced by transplanting with B-16 melanoma cells on the back below the head. BPA was administered by i.p injection with a dose of 750mg/kg body wt. 3hrs before irradiation and then BSH was administered by tail vein injection with a dose of 75mg/kg body wt. 1hr before irradiation. Neutrons were irradiated for 40 minutes in the BNCT facility. After that, we observed the cancer size with naked eyes and measured the size of it with ruler during the experimental period. BNCT treatment resulted in a decrease in the cancer size in the hairless mouse. However, the cancer in the C57BL/6 mouse did not show a decrease in size, even though it was smaller than that of the control. These results will make a great role for preclinical and clinical trials of BNCT. If the experiment is done in combination with various factors, better results can be obtained.

  17. Mouse IDGenes: a reference database for genetic interactions in the developing mouse brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthes, Michaela; Preusse, Martin; Zhang, Jingzhong; Schechter, Julia; Mayer, Daniela; Lentes, Bernd; Theis, Fabian; Prakash, Nilima; Wurst, Wolfgang; Trümbach, Dietrich

    2014-01-01

    The study of developmental processes in the mouse and other vertebrates includes the understanding of patterning along the anterior-posterior, dorsal-ventral and medial- lateral axis. Specifically, neural development is also of great clinical relevance because several human neuropsychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia, autism disorders or drug addiction and also brain malformations are thought to have neurodevelopmental origins, i.e. pathogenesis initiates during childhood and adolescence. Impacts during early neurodevelopment might also predispose to late-onset neurodegenerative disorders, such as Parkinson's disease. The neural tube develops from its precursor tissue, the neural plate, in a patterning process that is determined by compartmentalization into morphogenetic units, the action of local signaling centers and a well-defined and locally restricted expression of genes and their interactions. While public databases provide gene expression data with spatio-temporal resolution, they usually neglect the genetic interactions that govern neural development. Here, we introduce Mouse IDGenes, a reference database for genetic interactions in the developing mouse brain. The database is highly curated and offers detailed information about gene expressions and the genetic interactions at the developing mid-/hindbrain boundary. To showcase the predictive power of interaction data, we infer new Wnt/β-catenin target genes by machine learning and validate one of them experimentally. The database is updated regularly. Moreover, it can easily be extended by the research community. Mouse IDGenes will contribute as an important resource to the research on mouse brain development, not exclusively by offering data retrieval, but also by allowing data input. http://mouseidgenes.helmholtz-muenchen.de. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press.

  18. Involvement of mouse and porcine PLCζ-induced calcium oscillations in preimplantation development of mouse embryos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoneda, Akihiro, E-mail: ayoneda@sci.hokudai.ac.jp [Laboratory of Animal Breeding and Reproduction, Graduate School of Agriculture, Hokkaido University (Japan); Division of Molecular Therapeutics, Center for Food & Medical Innovation, Hokkaido University (Japan); Watanabe, Tomomasa [Laboratory of Animal Breeding and Reproduction, Graduate School of Agriculture, Hokkaido University (Japan)

    2015-05-01

    In mammals, phospholipase Cζ (PLCζ) has the ability to trigger calcium (Ca{sup 2+}) oscillations in oocytes, leading to oocyte activation. Although there is a species-specific difference in the PLCζ-induced Ca{sup 2+} oscillatory pattern, whether PLCζ-induced Ca{sup 2+} oscillations affect preimplantation embryonic development remains unclear. Here, we show that Ca{sup 2+} oscillations in mouse PLCζ cRNA-injected oocytes stopped just before pronuclear formation, while that in porcine PLCζ cRNA-injected oocytes continued for several hours after pronuclei had been formed. This difference of Ca{sup 2+} oscillations in oocytes after pronuclear formation was dependent on the difference in the nuclear localization signal (NLS) sequence of PLCζ between the mouse and pig. However, mouse and porcine PLCζ cRNA-injected oocytes parthenogenetically developed to blastocysts regardless of the absence or presence of Ca{sup 2+} oscillations after pronuclear formation. Furthermore, the developmental rate of mouse or porcine PLCζ-activated oocytes injected with round spermatids to the blastocyst stage was not significantly different from that of strontium-activated oocytes injected with round spermatids. These results suggest that the PLCζ-induced Ca{sup 2+} oscillatory pattern in mouse oocytes is dependent on the NLS sequence of PLCζ and injection of PLCζ may be a useful method for activation of round spermatid-injected and somatic nuclear transferred oocytes. - Highlights: • Porcine PLCζ-induced Ca{sup 2+} oscillations continued after pronuclear formation. • The Ca{sup 2+} oscillatory pattern was dependent on the difference in the NLS sequence of PLCζ. • PLCζ-activated oocytes parthenogenetically developed to blastocysts. • PLCζ-activated oocytes injected with round spermatids developed to blastocysts.

  19. Chimeric elk/mouse prion proteins in transgenic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamgüney, Gültekin; Giles, Kurt; Oehler, Abby; Johnson, Natrina L; DeArmond, Stephen J; Prusiner, Stanley B

    2013-02-01

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD) of deer and elk is a highly communicable neurodegenerative disorder caused by prions. Investigations of CWD are hampered by slow bioassays in transgenic (Tg) mice. Towards the development of Tg mice that will be more susceptible to CWD prions, we created a series of chimeric elk/mouse transgenes that encode the N terminus of elk PrP (ElkPrP) up to residue Y168 and the C terminus of mouse PrP (MoPrP) beyond residue 169 (mouse numbering), designated Elk3M(SNIVVK). Between codons 169 and 219, six residues distinguish ElkPrP from MoPrP: N169S, T173N, V183I, I202V, I214V and R219K. Using chimeric elk/mouse PrP constructs, we generated 12 Tg mouse lines and determined incubation times after intracerebral inoculation with the mouse-passaged RML scrapie or Elk1P CWD prions. Unexpectedly, one Tg mouse line expressing Elk3M(SNIVVK) exhibited incubation times of 250 days for RML prions. Tg(Elk3M,SNIVVK) mice were less susceptible to CWD prions than Tg(ElkPrP) mice. Changing three C-terminal mouse residues (202, 214 and 219) to those of elk doubled the incubation time for mouse RML prions and rendered the mice resistant to Elk1P CWD prions. Mutating an additional two residues from mouse to elk at codons 169 and 173 increased the incubation times for mouse prions to >300 days, but made the mice susceptible to CWD prions. Our findings highlight the role of C-terminal residues in PrP that control the susceptibility and replication of prions.

  20. The mouse resources at the RIKEN BioResource center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshiki, Atsushi; Ike, Fumio; Mekada, Kazuyuki; Kitaura, Yasuyuki; Nakata, Hatsumi; Hiraiwa, Noriko; Mochida, Keiji; Ijuin, Maiko; Kadota, Masayo; Murakami, Ayumi; Ogura, Atsuo; Abe, Kuniya; Moriwaki, Kazuo; Obata, Yuichi

    2009-04-01

    Mice are one of the most important model organisms for studying biological phenomena and diseases processes in life sciences. The biomedical research community has succeeded in launching large scale strategic knockout mouse projects around the world. RIKEN BRC, a comprehensive government funded biological resource center was established in 2001. RIKEN BRC has been acting as the core facility for the mouse resources of the National BioResource Project (NBRP) of the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT), Japan since 2002. RIKEN BRC is a founding member of the Federation of International Mouse Resources (FIMRe) together with the Jackson Laboratory, the European Mouse Mutant Archive, and other centers, and has participated in the International Mouse Strain Resource (IMSR) to distribute mouse strains worldwide. With the support of the scientific community, RIKEN BRC has collected over 3,800 strains including inbred, transgenic, knockout, wild-derived, and ENU-induced mutant strains. Excellent mouse models for human diseases and gene functions from academic organizations and private companies are distributed through RIKEN BRC. To meet research and social needs, our mice will be rederived to a specific pathogen-free state, strictly monitored for their health, and accurately tested for their genetic modifications and backgrounds. Users can easily access our mouse resources through the internet and obtain the mouse strains for a minimal fee. Cryopreservation of embryos and sperm is used for efficient preservation of the increasing number of mouse resources. RIKEN BRC collaborates with FIMRe members to support Japanese scientists in the use of valuable mouse resources from around the world.

  1. The Effects of Ppar Delta and Alpha Agonist on Fatty Acid and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Effects of Ppar Delta and Alpha Agonist on Fatty Acid and Glucose Metabolism in Vivo and in Mouse Isolated Soleus Muscle. ... and GW649003 in ob/ob mice, resulted in an increase uptake of 2-deoxyglucose and palmitate oxidation in mouse isolated so-leus muscle and decreased plasma glucose and insulin levels.

  2. Genetically-defined ovarian cancer mouse models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, Patrice J; Weeraratna, Ashani T

    2016-01-01

    Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC), the deadliest of gynaecological cancers, is a disease that remains difficult to detect early and treat efficiently. A significant challenge for researchers in the field is that the aetiology of EOC and the molecular pathways important for its development are poorly understood. Moreover, precursor lesions have not been readily identifiable, making the mechanisms of EOC progression difficult to delineate. In order to address these issues, several genetically-defined ovarian mouse models have been generated in the past 15 years. However, because of the recent suggestion that most EOCs may not originate from the ovarian surface 'epithelium', but from other tissues of the female genital tract, some models may need to be re-evaluated within this new paradigm. In this review, we examine several genetically-defined EOC models and discuss how the new paradigm may explain some of the features of these models. A better understanding of the strengths and limitations of the current EOC mouse models will undoubtedly allow us to utilize these tools to better understand the biology of the disease and develop new approaches for EOC prevention, detection, and treatment. Copyright © 2015 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Fundamental cryobiology of mouse ova and embryos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leibo, S. P.

    1977-01-01

    An increasing fraction of mouse ova and embryos are killed as the rate at which they are cooled to -196/sup 0/C is increased. The survival of these cells depends not only on cooling rate, but also on the minimum subzero temperature to which the cells are cooled. Low temperature microscopy demonstrates that lethal cooling rates are coincident with those that produce intracellular ice formation, and that the lethal temperature appears to be that at which intracellular ice forms. Furthermore, the microscopy shows that ova do not dehydrate when cooled at rates that produce intracellular ice and cell death, but undergo substantial shrinkage when cooled at rates that produce little intracellular ice and high survival. Measurements of the water permeability of mouse ova and the temperature coefficient of that permeability can be used to test a mathematical model formulated to describe the kinetics of water loss at subzero temperatures from a hypothetical cell. The observed dehydration of ova cooled to subzero temperatures at given rates is approximately predicted by the mathematical model, although there is some quantitative discrepancy between the observed and calculated responses.

  4. Mouse Model of Burn Wound and Infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calum, Henrik; Høiby, Niels; Moser, Claus

    2017-01-01

    The immunosuppression induced by thermal injury renders the burned victim susceptible to infection. A mouse model was developed to examine the immunosuppression, which was possible to induce even at a minor thermal insult of 6% total body surface area. After induction of the burn (48 hr) a depres......The immunosuppression induced by thermal injury renders the burned victim susceptible to infection. A mouse model was developed to examine the immunosuppression, which was possible to induce even at a minor thermal insult of 6% total body surface area. After induction of the burn (48 hr......) a depression of leukocytes in the peripheral blood was found of the burned mice. This depression was due to a reduction in the polymorphonuclear cells. The burned mice were not able to clear a Pseudomonas aeruginosa wound infection, since the infection spread to the blood as compared to mice only infected...... with P. aeruginosa subcutaneously. The burn model offers an opportunity to study infections under these conditions. The present model can also be used to examine new antibiotics and immune therapy. Our animal model resembling the clinical situation is useful in developing new treatments of burn wound...

  5. Mouse Genetic Models of Human Brain Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celeste eLeung

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Over the past three decades, genetic manipulations in mice have been used in neuroscience as a major approach to investigate the in vivo function of genes and their alterations. In particular, gene targeting techniques using embryonic stem cells have revolutionized the field of mammalian genetics and have been at the forefront in the generation of numerous mouse models of human brain disorders. In this review, we will first examine childhood developmental disorders such as autism, intellectual disability, Fragile X syndrome, and Williams-Beuren syndrome. We will then explore psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia and lastly, neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease. We will outline the creation of these mouse models that range from single gene deletions, subtle point mutations to multi-gene manipulations, and discuss the key behavioural phenotypes of these mice. Ultimately, the analysis of the models outlined in this review will enhance our understanding of the in vivo role and underlying mechanisms of disease-related genes in both normal brain function and brain disorders, and provide potential therapeutic targets and strategies to prevent and treat these diseases.

  6. Treatment of D-galactose induced mouse aging with Lycium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The drug was administrated when modelling. Mouse behavioural, learning and memory changes were observed, and the contents of lipid peroxidation (LPO), lipofuscin (LF) and monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B) in mouse brain tissue and the weight of immune organs were measured after 6 weeks. Compared with the control ...

  7. Mouse models for human intestinal microbiota research: a critical evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hugenholtz, Floor; de Vos, Willem M.

    2018-01-01

    Since the early days of the intestinal microbiota research, mouse models have been used frequently to study the interaction of microbes with their host. However, to translate the knowledge gained from mouse studies to a human situation, the major spatio-temporal similarities and differences between

  8. Endonucleases : new tools to edit the mouse genome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijshake, Tobias; Baker, Darren J.; van de Sluis, Bart

    2014-01-01

    Mouse transgenesis has been instrumental in determining the function of genes in the pathophysiology of human diseases and modification of genes by homologous recombination in mouse embryonic stem cells remains a widely used technology. However, this approach harbors a number of disadvantages, as it

  9. Recognizing Student Emotions Using Brainwaves and Mouse Behavior Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azcarraga, Judith; Suarez, Merlin Teodosia

    2013-01-01

    Brainwaves (EEG signals) and mouse behavior information are shown to be useful in predicting academic emotions, such as confidence, excitement, frustration and interest. Twenty five college students were asked to use the Aplusix math learning software while their brainwaves signals and mouse behavior (number of clicks, duration of each click,…

  10. Accesion number Protein name ENOA_MOUSE Alpha-enolase ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sandra Feijoo Bandin

    Mitochondrial inner membrane protein. CMC1_MOUSE. Calcium-binding mitochondrial carrier protein Aralar1. CMC2_MOUSE. Calcium-binding mitochondrial carrier protein Aralar2. Biological process. Metabolic process. Glycolysis. Lipid metabolism. Respiratory electron transport chain. Others. Calcium ion homeostasis.

  11. Mass spectrometry analysis of hepcidin peptides in experimental mouse models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tjalsma, H.; Laarakkers, C.M.; Swelm, R.P. van; Theurl, M.; Theurl, I.; Kemna, E.H.J.M.; Burgt, Y.E. van der; Venselaar, H.; Dutilh, B.E.; Russel, F.G.M.; Weiss, G.; Masereeuw, R.; Fleming, R.E.; Swinkels, D.W.

    2011-01-01

    The mouse is a valuable model for unravelling the role of hepcidin in iron homeostasis, however, such studies still report hepcidin mRNA levels as a surrogate marker for bioactive hepcidin in its pivotal function to block ferroportin-mediated iron transport. Here, we aimed to assess bioactive mouse

  12. Designing Mouse Behavioral Tasks Relevant to Autistic-Like Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawley, Jacqueline N.

    2004-01-01

    The importance of genetic factors in autism has prompted the development of mutant mouse models to advance our understanding of biological mechanisms underlying autistic behaviors. Mouse models of human neuropsychiatric diseases are designed to optimize (1) face validity, i.e., resemblance to the human symptoms; (2) construct validity, i.e.,…

  13. Mouse SNP Miner: an annotated database of mouse functional single nucleotide polymorphisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramensky Vasily E

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The mapping of quantitative trait loci in rat and mouse has been extremely successful in identifying chromosomal regions associated with human disease-related phenotypes. However, identifying the specific phenotype-causing DNA sequence variations within a quantitative trait locus has been much more difficult. The recent availability of genomic sequence from several mouse inbred strains (including C57BL/6J, 129X1/SvJ, 129S1/SvImJ, A/J, and DBA/2J has made it possible to catalog DNA sequence differences within a quantitative trait locus derived from crosses between these strains. However, even for well-defined quantitative trait loci ( Description To help identify functional DNA sequence variations within quantitative trait loci we have used the Ensembl annotated genome sequence to compile a database of mouse single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs that are predicted to cause missense, nonsense, frameshift, or splice site mutations (available at http://bioinfo.embl.it/SnpApplet/. For missense mutations we have used the PolyPhen and PANTHER algorithms to predict whether amino acid changes are likely to disrupt protein function. Conclusion We have developed a database of mouse SNPs predicted to cause missense, nonsense, frameshift, and splice-site mutations. Our analysis revealed that 20% and 14% of missense SNPs are likely to be deleterious according to PolyPhen and PANTHER, respectively, and 6% are considered deleterious by both algorithms. The database also provides gene expression and functional annotations from the Symatlas, Gene Ontology, and OMIM databases to further assess candidate phenotype-causing mutations. To demonstrate its utility, we show that Mouse SNP Miner successfully finds a previously identified candidate SNP in the taste receptor, Tas1r3, that underlies sucrose preference in the C57BL/6J strain. We also use Mouse SNP Miner to derive a list of candidate phenotype-causing mutations within a previously

  14. Transgenic Mouse Models of SV40-Induced Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Amanda L; Colvin, Emily K

    2016-01-01

    The SV40 viral oncogene has been used since the 1970s as a reliable and reproducible method to generate transgenic mouse models. This seminal discovery has taught us an immense amount about how tumorigenesis occurs, and its success has led to the evolution of many mouse models of cancer. Despite the development of more modern and targeted approaches for developing genetically engineered mouse models of cancer, SV40-induced mouse models still remain frequently used today. This review discusses a number of cancer types in which SV40 mouse models of cancer have been developed and highlights their relevance and importance to preclinical research. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Institute for Laboratory Animal Research. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Mouse Models for Down Syndrome-Associated Developmental Cognitive Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chunhong; Belichenko, Pavel V.; Zhang, Li; Fu, Dawei; Kleschevnikov, Alexander M.; Baldini, Antonio; Antonarakis, Stylianos E.; Mobley, William C.; Yu, Y. Eugene

    2011-01-01

    Down syndrome (DS) is mainly caused by the presence of an extra copy of human chromosome 21 (Hsa21) and is a leading genetic cause for developmental cognitive disabilities in humans. The mouse is a premier model organism for DS because the regions on Hsa21 are syntenically conserved with three regions in the mouse genome, which are located on mouse chromosome 10 (Mmu10), Mmu16 and Mmu17. With the advance of chromosomal manipulation technologies, new mouse mutants have been generated to mimic DS at both the genotypic and phenotypic levels. Further mouse-based molecular genetic studies in the future may lead to the unraveling of the mechanisms underlying DS-associated developmental cognitive disabilities, which would lay the groundwork for developing effective treatments for this phenotypic manifestation. In this review, we will discuss recent progress and future challenges in modeling DS-associated developmental cognitive disability in mice with an emphasis on hippocampus-related phenotypes. PMID:21865664

  16. Rats and mice immunised with chimeric human/mouse proteinase 3 produce autoantibodies to mouse Pr3 and rat granulocytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Geld, Ymke M.; Hellmark, Thomas; Selga, Daina; Heeringa, Peter; Huitema, Minke G.; Limburg, Pieter C.; Kallenberg, Cees G. M.

    2007-01-01

    Aim: In this study, we employed chimeric human/ mouse Proteinase 3 ( PR3) proteins as tools to induce an autoantibody response to PR3 in rats and mice. Method: Rats and mice were immunised with recombinant human PR3 ( HPR3), recombinant murine PR3 ( mPR3), single chimeric human/ mouse PR3 ( HHm,

  17. Innovations in phenotyping of mouse models in the German Mouse Clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Helmut; Gailus-Durner, Valérie; Neschen, Susanne; Adler, Thure; Afonso, Luciana Caminha; Aguilar-Pimentel, Juan Antonio; Becker, Lore; Bohla, Alexander; Calzada-Wack, Julia; Cohrs, Christian; Dewert, Anna; Fridrich, Barbara; Garrett, Lillian; Glasl, Lisa; Götz, Alexander; Hans, Wolfgang; Hölter, Sabine M; Horsch, Marion; Hurt, Anja; Janas, Eva; Janik, Dirk; Kahle, Melanie; Kistler, Martin; Klein-Rodewald, Tanja; Lengger, Christoph; Ludwig, Tonia; Maier, Holger; Marschall, Susan; Micklich, Kateryna; Möller, Gabriele; Naton, Beatrix; Prehn, Cornelia; Puk, Oliver; Rácz, Ildikó; Räss, Michael; Rathkolb, Birgit; Rozman, Jan; Scheerer, Markus; Schiller, Evelyn; Schrewe, Anja; Steinkamp, Ralph; Stöger, Claudia; Sun, Minxuan; Szymczak, Wilfried; Treise, Irina; Vargas Panesso, Ingrid Liliana; Vernaleken, Alexandra M; Willershäuser, Monja; Wolff-Muscate, Annemarie; Zeh, Ramona; Adamski, Jerzy; Beckers, Johannes; Bekeredjian, Raffi; Busch, Dirk H; Eickelberg, Oliver; Favor, Jack; Graw, Jochen; Höfler, Heinz; Höschen, Christoph; Katus, Hugo; Klingenspor, Martin; Klopstock, Thomas; Neff, Frauke; Ollert, Markus; Schulz, Holger; Stöger, Tobias; Wolf, Eckhard; Wurst, Wolfgang; Yildirim, Ali Önder; Zimmer, Andreas; Hrabě de Angelis, Martin

    2012-10-01

    Under the label of the German Mouse Clinic (GMC), a concept has been developed and implemented that allows the better understanding of human diseases on the pathophysiological and molecular level. This includes better understanding of the crosstalk between different organs, pleiotropy of genes, and the systemic impact of envirotypes and drugs. In the GMC, experts from various fields of mouse genetics and physiology, in close collaboration with clinicians, work side by side under one roof. The GMC is an open-access platform for the scientific community by providing phenotypic analysis in bilateral collaborations ("bottom-up projects") and as a partner and driver in international large-scale biology projects ("top-down projects"). Furthermore, technology development is a major topic in the GMC. Innovative techniques for primary and secondary screens are developed and implemented into the phenotyping pipelines (e.g., detection of volatile organic compounds, VOCs).

  18. Insights from Human/Mouse genome comparisons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pennacchio, Len A.

    2003-03-30

    Large-scale public genomic sequencing efforts have provided a wealth of vertebrate sequence data poised to provide insights into mammalian biology. These include deep genomic sequence coverage of human, mouse, rat, zebrafish, and two pufferfish (Fugu rubripes and Tetraodon nigroviridis) (Aparicio et al. 2002; Lander et al. 2001; Venter et al. 2001; Waterston et al. 2002). In addition, a high-priority has been placed on determining the genomic sequence of chimpanzee, dog, cow, frog, and chicken (Boguski 2002). While only recently available, whole genome sequence data have provided the unique opportunity to globally compare complete genome contents. Furthermore, the shared evolutionary ancestry of vertebrate species has allowed the development of comparative genomic approaches to identify ancient conserved sequences with functionality. Accordingly, this review focuses on the initial comparison of available mammalian genomes and describes various insights derived from such analysis.

  19. Global Hypertranscription in the Mouse Embryonic Germline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Percharde

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Primordial germ cells (PGCs are vital for inheritance and evolution. Their transcriptional program has been extensively studied and is assumed to be well known. We report here a remarkable global upregulation of the transcriptome of mouse PGCs compared to somatic cells. Using cell-number-normalized genome-wide analyses, we uncover significant transcriptional amplification in PGCs, including mRNAs, rRNA, and transposable elements. Hypertranscription preserves tissue-specific gene expression patterns, correlates with cell size, and can still be detected in E15.5 male germ cells when proliferation has ceased. PGC hypertranscription occurs at the level of nascent transcription, is accompanied by increased translation rates, and is driven by Myc factors n-Myc and l-Myc (but not c-Myc and by P-TEFb. This study provides a paradigm for transcriptional analyses during development and reveals a major global hyperactivity of the germline transcriptome.

  20. A genomic atlas of mouse hypothalamic development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimogori, Tomomi; Lee, Daniel A; Miranda-Angulo, Ana; Yang, Yanqin; Wang, Hong; Jiang, Lizhi; Yoshida, Aya C; Kataoka, Ayane; Mashiko, Hiromi; Avetisyan, Marina; Qi, Lixin; Qian, Jiang; Blackshaw, Seth

    2014-01-01

    The hypothalamus is a central regulator of many behaviors that are essential for survival, such as temperature regulation, food intake and circadian rhythms. However, the molecular pathways that mediate hypothalamic development are largely unknown. To identify genes expressed in developing mouse hypothalamus, we performed microarray analysis at 12 different developmental time points. We then conducted developmental in situ hybridization for 1,045 genes that were dynamically expressed over the course of hypothalamic neurogenesis. We identified markers that stably labeled each major hypothalamic nucleus over the entire course of neurogenesis and constructed a detailed molecular atlas of the developing hypothalamus. As a proof of concept of the utility of these data, we used these markers to analyze the phenotype of mice in which Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) was selectively deleted from hypothalamic neuroepithelium and found that Shh is essential for anterior hypothalamic patterning. Our results serve as a resource for functional investigations of hypothalamic development, connectivity, physiology and dysfunction. PMID:20436479

  1. Characterization of individual mouse cerebrospinal fluid proteomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Jeffrey S.; Angel, Thomas E.; Chavkin, Charles; Orton, Daniel J.; Moore, Ronald J.; Smith, Richard D.

    2014-03-20

    Analysis of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) offers key insight into the status of the central nervous system. Characterization of murine CSF proteomes can provide a valuable resource for studying central nervous system injury and disease in animal models. However, the small volume of CSF in mice has thus far limited individual mouse proteome characterization. Through non-terminal CSF extractions in C57Bl/6 mice and high-resolution liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of individual murine samples, we report the most comprehensive proteome characterization of individual murine CSF to date. Utilizing stringent protein inclusion criteria that required the identification of at least two unique peptides (1% false discovery rate at the peptide level) we identified a total of 566 unique proteins, including 128 proteins from three individual CSF samples that have been previously identified in brain tissue. Our methods and analysis provide a mechanism for individual murine CSF proteome analysis.

  2. LIF signal in mouse embryonic stem cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohtsuka, Satoshi; Nakai-Futatsugi, Yoko; Niwa, Hitoshi

    2015-01-01

    Since the establishment of mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) in the 1980s, a number of important notions on the self-renewal of pluripotent stem cells in vitro have been found. In serum containing conventional culture, an exogenous cytokine, leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF), is absolutely essential for the maintenance of pluripotency. In contrast, in serum-free culture with simultaneous inhibition of Map-kinase and Gsk3 (so called 2i-culture), LIF is no longer required. However, recent findings also suggest that LIF may have a role not covered by the 2i for the maintenance of naïve pluripotency. These suggest that LIF functions for the maintenance of naïve pluripotency in a context dependent manner. We summarize how LIF-signal pathway is converged to maintain the naïve state of pluripotency. PMID:27127728

  3. The Mouse House: a brief history of the ORNL mouse-genetics program, 1947-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Liane B

    2013-01-01

    The large mouse genetics program at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is often remembered chiefly for the germ-cell mutation-rate data it generated and their uses in estimating the risk of heritable radiation damage. In fact, it soon became a multi-faceted research effort that, over a period of almost 60 years, generated a wealth of information in the areas of mammalian mutagenesis, basic genetics (later enriched by molecular techniques), cytogenetics, reproductive biology, biochemistry of germ cells, and teratology. Research in the area of germ-cell mutagenesis explored the important physical and biological factors that affect the frequency and nature of induced mutations and made several unexpected discoveries, such as the major importance of the perigametic interval (the zygote stage) for the origin of spontaneous mutations and for the sensitivity to induced genetic change. Of practical value was the discovery that ethylnitrosourea was a supermutagen for point mutations, making high-efficiency mutagenesis in the mouse feasible worldwide. Teratogenesis findings resulted in recommendations still generally accepted in radiological practice. Studies supporting the mutagenesis research added whole bodies of information about mammalian germ-cell development and about molecular targets in germ cells. The early decision to not merely count but propagate genetic variants of all sorts made possible further discoveries, such as the Y-chromosome's importance in mammalian sex determination and the identification of rare X-autosome translocations, which, in turn, led to the formulation of the single-active-X hypothesis and provided tools for studies of functional mosaicism for autosomal genes, male sterility, and chromosome-pairing mechanism. Extensive genetic and then molecular analyses of large numbers of induced specific-locus mutants resulted in fine-structure physical and correlated functional mapping of significant portions of the mouse genome and constituted a

  4. The Mouse House: A brief history of the ORNL mouse-genetics program, 1947–2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, Liane B.

    2013-10-01

    The large mouse genetics program at the Oak Ridge National Lab is often re-membered chiefly for the germ-cell mutation-rate data it generated and their uses in estimating the risk of heritable radiation damage. In fact, it soon became a multi-faceted research effort that, over a period of almost 60 years, generated a wealth of information in the areas of mammalian mutagenesis, basic genetics (later enriched by molecular techniques), cytogenetics, reproductive biology, biochemistry of germ cells, and teratology. Research in the area of germ-cell mutagenesis explored the important physical and biological factors that affect the frequency and nature of induced mutations and made several unexpected discoveries, such as the major importance of the perigametic interval (the zygote stage) for the origin of spontaneous mutations and for the sensitivity to induced genetic change. Of practical value was the discovery that ethylnitrosourea was a supermutagen for point mutations, making high-efficiency mutagenesis in the mouse feasible worldwide. Teratogenesis findings resulted in recommendations still generally accepted in radiological practice. Studies supporting the mutagenesis research added whole bodies of information about mammalian germ-cell development and about molecular targets in germ cells. The early decision to not merely count but propagate genetic variants of all sorts made possible further discoveries, such as the Y-Chromosome s importance in mammalian sex determination and the identification of rare X-autosome translocations, which, in turn, led to the formulation of the single-active-X hypothesis and provided tools for studies of functional mosaicism for autosomal genes, male sterility, and chromosome-pairing mechanism. Extensive genetic and then molecular analyses of large numbers of induced specific-locus mutants resulted in fine-structure physical and correlated functional mapping of significant portions of the mouse genome and constituted a valuable

  5. Enhanced genetic integrity in mouse germ cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphey, Patricia; McLean, Derek J; McMahan, C Alex; Walter, Christi A; McCarrey, John R

    2013-01-01

    Genetically based diseases constitute a major human health burden, and de novo germline mutations represent a source of heritable genetic alterations that can cause such disorders in offspring. The availability of transgenic rodent systems with recoverable, mutation reporter genes has been used to assess the occurrence of spontaneous point mutations in germline cells. Previous studies using the lacI mutation reporter transgenic mouse system showed that the frequency of spontaneous mutations is significantly lower in advanced male germ cells than in somatic cell types from the same individuals. Here we used this same mutation reporter transgene system to show that female germ cells also display a mutation frequency that is lower than that in corresponding somatic cells and similar to that seen in male germ cells, indicating this is a common feature of germ cells in both sexes. In addition, we showed that statistically significant differences in mutation frequencies are evident between germ cells and somatic cells in both sexes as early as mid-fetal stages in the mouse. Finally, a comparison of the mutation frequency in a general population of early type A spermatogonia with that in a population enriched for Thy-1-positive spermatogonia suggests there is heterogeneity among the early spermatogonial population such that a subset of these cells are predestined to form true spermatogonial stem cells. Taken together, these results support the disposable soma theory, which posits that genetic integrity is normally maintained more stringently in the germ line than in the soma and suggests that this is achieved by minimizing the initial occurrence of mutations in early germline cells and their subsequent gametogenic progeny relative to that in somatic cells.

  6. Global protein quantification of mouse heart tissue based on the SILAC mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konzer, Anne; Ruhs, Aaron; Braun, Thomas; Krüger, Marcus

    2013-01-01

    Metabolic labeling of living organisms with stable isotopes has become a powerful tool for global protein quantitation. The SILAC (stable isotope labeling with amino acids in cell culture) approach is based on the incorporation of nonradioactive-labeled isotopic forms of amino acids into cellular proteins. The effective SILAC labeling of immortalized cells and single-cell organisms (e.g., yeast and bacteria) was recently extended to more complex organisms, including worms, flies, and even rodents. The administration of a (13)C6-lysine (heavy) containing diet for one mouse generation leads to a complete exchange of the natural (light) isotope (12)C6-lysine. SILAC-labeled organisms are mainly used as a heavy "spike-in" standard into nonlabeled counterparts, and the combination with high-performance mass spectrometers allows for global proteomic screening. Here we used the fully labeled SILAC mice to identify proteins based on SILAC pairs from isolated cardiomyocytes, and we analyzed β-parvin-deficient hearts. Our approach confirmed the absence β-parvin and revealed simultaneously a clear up regulation of α-parvin in heart tissue. In this protocol, we describe the generation of a SILAC mouse colony and show two approaches to perform a proteome-wide analysis of heart tissue. Thus, the SILAC mouse spike-in approach is a readily available procedure and allows for a straightforward systematic analysis of disease models and knockout mice.

  7. Transplanting mouse induced pluripotent stem cells into mouse otocysts in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Hiroki; Minoda, Ryosei; Miwa, Toru; Yamada, Takao; Ise, Momoko

    2017-04-24

    The otocyst is an attractive target for studying treatment strategies for genetic hearing loss and for understanding inner ear development. We have previously reported that trans-uterine supplemental gene therapy in vivo into the otocysts of mice, which had a loss of function mutation in a causative gene of deafness, was able to prevent putative hearing loss. We herein set out to clarify the feasibility of allogenic cell transplantation into the mouse otocysts in vivo. We transplanted naive mouse-derived induced pluripotent stem cells (miPSCs) into the otocysts of wild type mice or connexin (Cx) 30 deficient mice, at embryonic day 11.5 (E11.5). The transplanted m-iPSCs survived in the lumens of the inner ears at E13.5 and E15.5 in wild type mice. In the Cx30 deficient mouse, the transplanted cells survived similarly, with some of the transplanted cells migrating into the lining cells of the lumens of the inner ears at E13.5 and showing tumorigenic cell proliferation at E15.5. In addition, engrafted cells appear to be able to differentiate after the cell transplantation. Our results suggest that otocyst transplanted cells survived and differentiated. A Cx30 deficiency may facilitate cell migration. These findings may offer some hope for cell transplantation therapy for profound genetic hearing loss caused by a Cxs deficiency. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of Duplicate Genes on Mouse Genetic Robustness: An Update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhixi Su

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In contrast to S. cerevisiae and C. elegans, analyses based on the current knockout (KO mouse phenotypes led to the conclusion that duplicate genes had almost no role in mouse genetic robustness. It has been suggested that the bias of mouse KO database toward ancient duplicates may possibly cause this knockout duplicate puzzle, that is, a very similar proportion of essential genes (PE between duplicate genes and singletons. In this paper, we conducted an extensive and careful analysis for the mouse KO phenotype data and corroborated a strong effect of duplicate genes on mouse genetics robustness. Moreover, the effect of duplicate genes on mouse genetic robustness is duplication-age dependent, which holds after ruling out the potential confounding effect from coding-sequence conservation, protein-protein connectivity, functional bias, or the bias of duplicates generated by whole genome duplication (WGD. Our findings suggest that two factors, the sampling bias toward ancient duplicates and very ancient duplicates with a proportion of essential genes higher than that of singletons, have caused the mouse knockout duplicate puzzle; meanwhile, the effect of genetic buffering may be correlated with sequence conservation as well as protein-protein interactivity.

  9. Sequence, molecular properties, and chromosomal mapping of mouse lumican

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funderburgh, J. L.; Funderburgh, M. L.; Hevelone, N. D.; Stech, M. E.; Justice, M. J.; Liu, C. Y.; Kao, W. W.; Conrad, G. W.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1995-01-01

    PURPOSE. Lumican is a major proteoglycan of vertebrate cornea. This study characterizes mouse lumican, its molecular form, cDNA sequence, and chromosomal localization. METHODS. Lumican sequence was determined from cDNA clones selected from a mouse corneal cDNA expression library using a bovine lumican cDNA probe. Tissue expression and size of lumican mRNA were determined using Northern hybridization. Glycosidase digestion followed by Western blot analysis provided characterization of molecular properties of purified mouse corneal lumican. Chromosomal mapping of the lumican gene (Lcn) used Southern hybridization of a panel of genomic DNAs from an interspecific murine backcross. RESULTS. Mouse lumican is a 338-amino acid protein with high-sequence identity to bovine and chicken lumican proteins. The N-terminus of the lumican protein contains consensus sequences for tyrosine sulfation. A 1.9-kb lumican mRNA is present in cornea and several other tissues. Antibody against bovine lumican reacted with recombinant mouse lumican expressed in Escherichia coli and also detected high molecular weight proteoglycans in extracts of mouse cornea. Keratanase digestion of corneal proteoglycans released lumican protein, demonstrating the presence of sulfated keratan sulfate chains on mouse corneal lumican in vivo. The lumican gene (Lcn) was mapped to the distal region of mouse chromosome 10. The Lcn map site is in the region of a previously identified developmental mutant, eye blebs, affecting corneal morphology. CONCLUSIONS. This study demonstrates sulfated keratan sulfate proteoglycan in mouse cornea and describes the tools (antibodies and cDNA) necessary to investigate the functional role of this important corneal molecule using naturally occurring and induced mutants of the murine lumican gene.

  10. Sequence and chromosomal localization of the mouse brevican gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rauch, U; Meyer, H; Brakebusch, C

    1997-01-01

    Brevican is a brain-specific proteoglycan belonging to the aggrecan family. Phage clones containing the complete mouse brevican open reading frame of 2649 bp and the complete 3'-untranslated region of 341 bp were isolated from a mouse brain cDNA library, and cosmid clones containing the mouse......-intron structure reflected the structural organization of the multidomain protein brevican. No consensus TATA sequence was found upstream of the first exon, and RNase protection experiments revealed multiple transcriptional start sites for the brevican gene. The first part of the sequence of intron 8 corresponded...

  11. Mouse models for studying the formation and propagation of prions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Joel C; Prusiner, Stanley B

    2014-07-18

    Prions are self-propagating protein conformers that cause a variety of neurodegenerative disorders in humans and animals. Mouse models have played key roles in deciphering the biology of prions and in assessing candidate therapeutics. The development of transgenic mice that form prions spontaneously in the brain has advanced our understanding of sporadic and genetic prion diseases. Furthermore, the realization that many proteins can become prions has necessitated the development of mouse models for assessing the potential transmissibility of common neurodegenerative diseases. As the universe of prion diseases continues to expand, mouse models will remain crucial for interrogating these devastating illnesses. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  12. Cellular and genetic analysis of mouse blastocyst development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedersen, R A; Spindle, A I

    1979-01-01

    The development of mouse embryos was studied by both cellular and genetic approaches. In the cellular analysis, determination of cell fate in blastocysts and in cell populations derived from them was studied in an attempt to estimate the time that these cells become committed to their fate. In the genetic analysis, existing mutations that are lethal to mouse embryos were used to discern essential features of early development. In this review, the timing of cell determination in the inner cell mass and the primary ectoderm, and the manifestation of defects in mouse embryos that are homozygous for the A/sup y/ allele of the agouti locus were considered.

  13. Energy harvesting from mouse click of robot finger using piezoelectrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Youngsu; Hong, Jin; Lee, Jaemin; Park, Jung-Min; Kim, Keehoon

    2017-04-01

    In this paper, we investigate the feasibility of energy harvesting from the mouse click motion using a piezoelectric energy transducer. Specifically, we use a robotic finger to realize repeatable mouse click motion. The robotic finger wears a glove with a pocket for including the piezoelectric material as an energy transducer. We propose a model for the energy harvesting system through the inverse kinematic framework of parallel joints in the finger and the electromechanical coupling equations of the piezoelectric material. Experiments are performed to elucidate the effect of the load resistance and the mouse click motion on energy harvesting.

  14. Communication Framework For the Mionix Naos QG Mouse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wulff-Jensen, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    or be recorded. Another Unity implementation have been developed as well. This was directly connected to the WebSocket, and has the same properties as the first Unity development. Since two nearly identical implementations were made, the quality of their recordings and data communication were tested. Based......The Mionix Naos QG mouse has multiple sensors integrated. It can record all the metrics native to mice: being scroll, clicks and mouse movements. Moreover, this mouse has heart rate (HR) and Galvanic Skin Response (GSR) sensors embedded. Through Mionics API [1] WebSocket can be used to access all...

  15. Meeting Report: The Twelfth International Mouse Genome Conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manolakou, Katerina; Cross, Sally H.; Simpson, Eleanor H.; Jackson, Ian J.

    1998-10-01

    The annual International Mouse Genome Conference (IMGC) is where, scientifically speaking, classical mouse genetics meets the relative newcomer of genomics. The 12th meeting took place last October in the delightful Bavarian village of Garmisch-Partenkirchen, and we were greeted by the sight on the mountains of the first snowfall of the season. However the discussions left little time for exploration. Minds of participants in Garmisch were focused by a recent document produced by the NIH and by discussions within other funding agencies worldwide. If implemented, the proposals will further enhance the status of the mouse as the principal model for study of the function of the human genome.

  16. Vitrification of mouse MII oocytes: Developmental competency using paclitaxel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzaneh Fesahat

    2016-12-01

    Conclusion: A high concentration of paclitaxel, an anticancer drug, interrupted the mouse oocyte competency when supplemented to vitrification media. Consequently, the optimal concentration of this cytoskeleton stabilizer may improve the post-thawed developmental abilities of oocytes.

  17. Decerebrate mouse model for studies of the spinal cord circuits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meehan, Claire Francesca; Mayr, Kyle A; Manuel, Marin

    2017-01-01

    . The protocol also describes an example application for the protocol: the evocation of spontaneous and actively driven stepping, including optimization of these behaviors in decerebrate mice. The time taken to prepare the animal and perform a decerebration takes ∼2 h, and the mice are viable for up to 3-8 h......The adult decerebrate mouse model (a mouse with the cerebrum removed) enables the study of sensory-motor integration and motor output from the spinal cord for several hours without compromising these functions with anesthesia. For example, the decerebrate mouse is ideal for examining locomotor...... behavior using intracellular recording approaches, which would not be possible using current anesthetized preparations. This protocol describes the steps required to achieve a low-blood-loss decerebration in the mouse and approaches for recording signals from spinal cord neurons with a focus on motoneurons...

  18. A comparative encyclopedia of DNA elements in the mouse genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Feng; Cheng, Yong; Breschi, Alessandra; Vierstra, Jeff; Wu, Weisheng; Ryba, Tyrone; Sandstrom, Richard; Ma, Zhihai; Davis, Carrie; Pope, Benjamin D; Shen, Yin; Pervouchine, Dmitri D; Djebali, Sarah; Thurman, Robert E; Kaul, Rajinder; Rynes, Eric; Kirilusha, Anthony; Marinov, Georgi K; Williams, Brian A; Trout, Diane; Amrhein, Henry; Fisher-Aylor, Katherine; Antoshechkin, Igor; DeSalvo, Gilberto; See, Lei-Hoon; Fastuca, Meagan; Drenkow, Jorg; Zaleski, Chris; Dobin, Alex; Prieto, Pablo; Lagarde, Julien; Bussotti, Giovanni; Tanzer, Andrea; Denas, Olgert; Li, Kanwei; Bender, M A; Zhang, Miaohua; Byron, Rachel; Groudine, Mark T; McCleary, David; Pham, Long; Ye, Zhen; Kuan, Samantha; Edsall, Lee; Wu, Yi-Chieh; Rasmussen, Matthew D; Bansal, Mukul S; Kellis, Manolis; Keller, Cheryl A; Morrissey, Christapher S; Mishra, Tejaswini; Jain, Deepti; Dogan, Nergiz; Harris, Robert S; Cayting, Philip; Kawli, Trupti; Boyle, Alan P; Euskirchen, Ghia; Kundaje, Anshul; Lin, Shin; Lin, Yiing; Jansen, Camden; Malladi, Venkat S; Cline, Melissa S; Erickson, Drew T; Kirkup, Vanessa M; Learned, Katrina; Sloan, Cricket A; Rosenbloom, Kate R; Lacerda de Sousa, Beatriz; Beal, Kathryn; Pignatelli, Miguel; Flicek, Paul; Lian, Jin; Kahveci, Tamer; Lee, Dongwon; Kent, W James; Ramalho Santos, Miguel; Herrero, Javier; Notredame, Cedric; Johnson, Audra; Vong, Shinny; Lee, Kristen; Bates, Daniel; Neri, Fidencio; Diegel, Morgan; Canfield, Theresa; Sabo, Peter J; Wilken, Matthew S; Reh, Thomas A; Giste, Erika; Shafer, Anthony; Kutyavin, Tanya; Haugen, Eric; Dunn, Douglas; Reynolds, Alex P; Neph, Shane; Humbert, Richard; Hansen, R Scott; De Bruijn, Marella; Selleri, Licia; Rudensky, Alexander; Josefowicz, Steven; Samstein, Robert; Eichler, Evan E; Orkin, Stuart H; Levasseur, Dana; Papayannopoulou, Thalia; Chang, Kai-Hsin; Skoultchi, Arthur; Gosh, Srikanta; Disteche, Christine; Treuting, Piper; Wang, Yanli; Weiss, Mitchell J; Blobel, Gerd A; Cao, Xiaoyi; Zhong, Sheng; Wang, Ting; Good, Peter J; Lowdon, Rebecca F; Adams, Leslie B; Zhou, Xiao-Qiao; Pazin, Michael J; Feingold, Elise A; Wold, Barbara; Taylor, James; Mortazavi, Ali; Weissman, Sherman M; Stamatoyannopoulos, John A; Snyder, Michael P; Guigo, Roderic; Gingeras, Thomas R; Gilbert, David M; Hardison, Ross C; Beer, Michael A; Ren, Bing

    2014-11-20

    The laboratory mouse shares the majority of its protein-coding genes with humans, making it the premier model organism in biomedical research, yet the two mammals differ in significant ways. To gain greater insights into both shared and species-specific transcriptional and cellular regulatory programs in the mouse, the Mouse ENCODE Consortium has mapped transcription, DNase I hypersensitivity, transcription factor binding, chromatin modifications and replication domains throughout the mouse genome in diverse cell and tissue types. By comparing with the human genome, we not only confirm substantial conservation in the newly annotated potential functional sequences, but also find a large degree of divergence of sequences involved in transcriptional regulation, chromatin state and higher order chromatin organization. Our results illuminate the wide range of evolutionary forces acting on genes and their regulatory regions, and provide a general resource for research into mammalian biology and mechanisms of human diseases.

  19. Modeling Phenotypes of Tuberous Scerosis in the Mouse

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shipley, James M

    2007-01-01

    The overall goal of this project is to generate a mouse model of the smooth muscle-related facets of tuberous sclerosis, specifically in an attempt to model the lung phenotype seen in a subset of TS...

  20. Modeling Phenotypes of Tuberous Sclerosis in the Mouse

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shipley, James M

    2006-01-01

    The overall goal of this project is to generate a mouse model of the smooth muscle-related facets of tuberous sclerosis specifically in an attempt to model the lung phenotype seen in a subset of TS...

  1. Even Your Bones Can Get Fat, Mouse Study Suggests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_166422.html Even Your Bones Can Get Fat, Mouse Study Suggests But running rodents improved their ... the hows and whys behind exercise's impact on bone fat composition remains murky. She said her current focus ...

  2. An Atlas of Combinatorial Transcriptional Regulation in Mouse and Man

    KAUST Repository

    Ravasi, Timothy

    2010-03-01

    Combinatorial interactions among transcription factors are critical to directing tissue-specific gene expression. To build a global atlas of these combinations, we have screened for physical interactions among the majority of human and mouse DNA-binding transcription factors (TFs). The complete networks contain 762 human and 877 mouse interactions. Analysis of the networks reveals that highly connected TFs are broadly expressed across tissues, and that roughly half of the measured interactions are conserved between mouse and human. The data highlight the importance of TF combinations for determining cell fate, and they lead to the identification of a SMAD3/FLI1 complex expressed during development of immunity. The availability of large TF combinatorial networks in both human and mouse will provide many opportunities to study gene regulation, tissue differentiation, and mammalian evolution.

  3. A Mouse Model of Chronic West Nile Virus Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica B Graham

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Infection with West Nile virus (WNV leads to a range of disease outcomes, including chronic infection, though lack of a robust mouse model of chronic WNV infection has precluded identification of the immune events contributing to persistent infection. Using the Collaborative Cross, a population of recombinant inbred mouse strains with high levels of standing genetic variation, we have identified a mouse model of persistent WNV disease, with persistence of viral loads within the brain. Compared to lines exhibiting no disease or marked disease, the F1 cross CC(032x013F1 displays a strong immunoregulatory signature upon infection that correlates with restraint of the WNV-directed cytolytic response. We hypothesize that this regulatory T cell response sufficiently restrains the immune response such that a chronic infection can be maintained in the CNS. Use of this new mouse model of chronic neuroinvasive virus will be critical in developing improved strategies to prevent prolonged disease in humans.

  4. Chlamydia pneumoniae infections in mouse models: relevance for atherosclerosis research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Kruif, Martijn D.; van Gorp, Eric C. M.; Keller, Tymen T.; Ossewaarde, Jacobus M.; ten Cate, Hugo

    2005-01-01

    Mouse models have been frequently used in the study of Chlamydia pneumoniae (also known as Chlamydophila pneumoniae) infections. This gram-negative obligate intracellular bacterium causes respiratory infections, followed by dissemination of the bacterium to various organs throughout the body,

  5. Mouse endometrial stromal cells produce basement-membrane components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wewer, U M; Damjanov, A; Weiss, J

    1986-01-01

    During mouse pregnancy, uterine stromal cells transform into morphologically distinct decidual cells under the influence of the implanting embryo and a proper hormonal environment. Mechanical stimulation of hormonally primed uterine stromal cells leads to the same morphologic alterations. The dec...

  6. Mouse ES cell culture system as a model of development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niwa, Hitoshi

    2010-04-01

    Mouse embryonic stem (mES) cells are pluripotent stem cells derived from pre-implantation embryos. They are regarded as an essential tool for studying mouse development, as they provide a means for generating knock-out mouse lines. This, however, is not the sole utility of the mES cell system. They undergo differentiation in culture, mimicking the morphological differentiation of peri-implantation embryos from epiblast to egg-cylinder stage. Moreover, they retain the capacity to respond to triggers of differentiation toward trophectoderm and primitive endoderm by forced activation. For these reasons, mES cells can be regarded as a useful tool for analyzing molecular mechanisms underlying early mouse development.

  7. Malaria Drug Protected Mouse Fetus from Zika: Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 167128.html Malaria Drug Protected Mouse Fetus From Zika: Study More research is needed on effects in ... A malaria drug protected mice fetuses from the Zika virus, researchers report. In humans, Zika infection during ...

  8. Adaptations of mouse skeletal muscle to low-intensity vibration training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeehen, James N; Novotny, Susan A; Baltgalvis, Kristen A; Call, Jarrod A; Nuckley, David J; Lowe, Dawn A

    2013-06-01

    We tested the hypothesis that low-intensity vibration training in mice improves contractile function of hindlimb skeletal muscles and promotes exercise-related cellular adaptations. We subjected C57BL/6J mice to 6 wk, 5 d·wk, 15 min·d of sham or low-intensity vibration (45 Hz, 1.0g) while housed in traditional cages (Sham-Active, n = 8; Vibrated-Active, n = 10) or in small cages to restrict physical activity (Sham-Restricted, n = 8; Vibrated-Restricted, n = 8). Contractile function and resistance to fatigue were tested in vivo (anterior and posterior crural muscles) and ex vivo on the soleus muscle. Tibialis anterior and soleus muscles were evaluated histologically for alterations in oxidative metabolism, capillarity, and fiber types. Epididymal fat pad and hindlimb muscle masses were measured. Two-way ANOVAs were used to determine the effects of vibration and physical inactivity. Vibration training resulted in a 10% increase in maximal isometric torque (P = 0.038) and 16% faster maximal rate of relaxation (P = 0.030) of the anterior crural muscles. Posterior crural muscles were unaffected by vibration, except greater rates of contraction in Vibrated-Restricted mice compared with Vibrated-Active and Sham-Restricted mice (P = 0.022). Soleus muscle maximal isometric tetanic force tended to be greater (P = 0.057), and maximal relaxation was 20% faster (P = 0.005) in vibrated compared with sham mice. The restriction of physical activity induced muscle weakness but was not required for vibration to be effective in improving strength or relaxation. Vibration training did not affect muscle fatigability or any indicator of cellular adaptation investigated (P ≥ 0.431). Fat pad but not hindlimb muscle masses were affected by vibration training. Vibration training in mice improved muscle contractility, specifically strength and relaxation rates, with no indication of adverse effects to muscle function or cellular adaptations.

  9. Effects of Nandrolone in the Counteraction of Skeletal Muscle Atrophy in a Mouse Model of Muscle Disuse: Molecular Biology and Functional Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camerino, Giulia Maria; Desaphy, Jean-François; De Bellis, Michela; Capogrosso, Roberta Francesca; Cozzoli, Anna; Dinardo, Maria Maddalena; Caloiero, Roberta; Musaraj, Kejla; Fonzino, Adriano; Conte, Elena; Jagerschmidt, Catherine; Namour, Florence; Liantonio, Antonella; De Luca, Annamaria; Conte Camerino, Diana; Pierno, Sabata

    2015-01-01

    Muscle disuse produces severe atrophy and a slow-to-fast phenotype transition in the postural Soleus (Sol) muscle of rodents. Antioxidants, amino-acids and growth factors were ineffective to ameliorate muscle atrophy. Here we evaluate the effects of nandrolone (ND), an anabolic steroid, on mouse skeletal muscle atrophy induced by hindlimb unloading (HU). Mice were pre-treated for 2-weeks before HU and during the 2-weeks of HU. Muscle weight and total protein content were reduced in HU mice and a restoration of these parameters was found in ND-treated HU mice. The analysis of gene expression by real-time PCR demonstrates an increase of MuRF-1 during HU but minor involvement of other catabolic pathways. However, ND did not affect MuRF-1 expression. The evaluation of anabolic pathways showed no change in mTOR and eIF2-kinase mRNA expression, but the protein expression of the eukaryotic initiation factor eIF2 was reduced during HU and restored by ND. Moreover we found an involvement of regenerative pathways, since the increase of MyoD observed after HU suggests the promotion of myogenic stem cell differentiation in response to atrophy. At the same time, Notch-1 expression was down-regulated. Interestingly, the ND treatment prevented changes in MyoD and Notch-1 expression. On the contrary, there was no evidence for an effect of ND on the change of muscle phenotype induced by HU, since no effect of treatment was observed on the resting gCl, restCa and contractile properties in Sol muscle. Accordingly, PGC1α and myosin heavy chain expression, indexes of the phenotype transition, were not restored in ND-treated HU mice. We hypothesize that ND is unable to directly affect the phenotype transition when the specialized motor unit firing pattern of stimulation is lacking. Nevertheless, through stimulation of protein synthesis, ND preserves protein content and muscle weight, which may result advantageous to the affected skeletal muscle for functional recovery.

  10. Effects of Nandrolone in the Counteraction of Skeletal Muscle Atrophy in a Mouse Model of Muscle Disuse: Molecular Biology and Functional Evaluation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia Maria Camerino

    Full Text Available Muscle disuse produces severe atrophy and a slow-to-fast phenotype transition in the postural Soleus (Sol muscle of rodents. Antioxidants, amino-acids and growth factors were ineffective to ameliorate muscle atrophy. Here we evaluate the effects of nandrolone (ND, an anabolic steroid, on mouse skeletal muscle atrophy induced by hindlimb unloading (HU. Mice were pre-treated for 2-weeks before HU and during the 2-weeks of HU. Muscle weight and total protein content were reduced in HU mice and a restoration of these parameters was found in ND-treated HU mice. The analysis of gene expression by real-time PCR demonstrates an increase of MuRF-1 during HU but minor involvement of other catabolic pathways. However, ND did not affect MuRF-1 expression. The evaluation of anabolic pathways showed no change in mTOR and eIF2-kinase mRNA expression, but the protein expression of the eukaryotic initiation factor eIF2 was reduced during HU and restored by ND. Moreover we found an involvement of regenerative pathways, since the increase of MyoD observed after HU suggests the promotion of myogenic stem cell differentiation in response to atrophy. At the same time, Notch-1 expression was down-regulated. Interestingly, the ND treatment prevented changes in MyoD and Notch-1 expression. On the contrary, there was no evidence for an effect of ND on the change of muscle phenotype induced by HU, since no effect of treatment was observed on the resting gCl, restCa and contractile properties in Sol muscle. Accordingly, PGC1α and myosin heavy chain expression, indexes of the phenotype transition, were not restored in ND-treated HU mice. We hypothesize that ND is unable to directly affect the phenotype transition when the specialized motor unit firing pattern of stimulation is lacking. Nevertheless, through stimulation of protein synthesis, ND preserves protein content and muscle weight, which may result advantageous to the affected skeletal muscle for functional recovery.

  11. Estudo morfométrico do músculo sóleo de ratos da linhagem wistar pós–imobilização articular = Morphometric study of post-joint immobilization of soleus muscle on wistar lineage rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sônia Maria Marques Gomes Bertolini

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Todos os tipos de imobilização contribuem para a atrofia muscular e, em apenas alguns dias, os músculos passam por diminuição de volume ou perda de função, conhecidos como atrofia. Assim, com uma ou duas semanas de imobilização, as atividades metabólicas são consideravelmente reduzidas e suas fibras musculares substituídas por tecido cicatricial fibroso denso. Dessa forma, este estudo teve como objetivo analisar o efeito da imobilização articular do músculo sóleo do membro posterior de ratos no perfil morfométrico, em diferentes períodos. Foram utilizados dez Rattus navergicus albinus machos, variedade Wistar, que foram divididos em dois grupos com cinco animais cada, sendo o primeiro grupo submetido à imobilização por sete dias e o segundo por 14 dias. O controle do experimento foi obtido a partir do membro contralateral direito do respectivo animal. A imobilização do membro posterior esquerdo foi por meio de uma órtese adaptada. A análise morfométrica do sóleo foi realizada por meio de cortes transversais não seriados de 5 μm de espessura. Foram analisadas, por meio das imagens obtidas, a área das fibras musculares, juntamente com a densidade do tecido conjuntivo, comparando-as ao Grupo-controle, referentes à perna contralateral. Com sete e 14 dias de imobilização, pode-se observar redução significativa (p All types of immobilization contribute to muscular atrophy and, in a few days, the muscles undergo volume reduction or loss of function, known as atrophy. Thus, with one or two weeks of immobilization, metabolic activities are considerably reduced and muscle fibers are replaced by dense fibrous scar tissue. This study has as objective to analyze the effect of joint immobilization of the soleus muscle of posterior members of rats on morphometric profile view, at periods of 7 and 14 days. Ten male Rattus navergicus albinus, Wistar variety, were used, separated into two groups of 5 animals each, with the first

  12. Avaliação da inibição recíproca em humanos durante contrações isométricas dos músculos tibial anterior e sóleo Assessment of reciprocal inhibition in humans during isometric contractions of the tibialis anterior and soleus muscles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Eduardo Pompeu

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Os objetivos do presente trabalho foram: (1 desenvolver um método para estimar o grau de inibição recíproca (IR entre músculos antagonistas em humanos (sóleo e tibial anterior e (2 comparar os níveis de IR no repouso, na dorsiflexão (DF e na flexão plantar (FP. Participaram nove sujeitos saudáveis com idade entre 20 e 30 anos, quatro homens e cinco mulheres. Os sujeitos permaneceram sentados numa cadeira com o pé direito apoiado e fixo num pedal acoplado a um torquímetro; as medições foram feitas no repouso e durante contração isométrica dos músculos dorsiflexores e flexores plantares do tornozelo. A onda H do músculo sóleo foi captada por eletrodos de superfície. O reflexo H (RH "teste" do músculo sóleo foi medido aplicando-se um estímulo na fossa poplítea (nervo tibial. O reflexo H "condicionado" foi obtido pelo pareamento de dois estímulos: o primeiro aplicado sobre a cabeça da fíbula e o segundo, na fossa poplítea, após 1 a 3 ms.. As amplitudes pico-a-pico dos RH teste e condicionado foram utilizadas para o cálculo da IR. Os valores de IR foram: 16,41%±8,68 no repouso; 21,94%±5,39 na DF e 3,12%±11,84 na FP. Foi constatada menor inibição recíproca na FP quando comparada às demais condições (pThe purposes of the present study were (1 to develop a method to estimate the level of reciprocal inhibition (RI between antagonist (soleus and anterior tibial muscles in humans, and (2 to compare RI levels during rest, dorsiflexion (DF and plantar flexion (PF. Nine healthy subjects (four men, five women aged between 20 and 30 years were assessed. Each subject remained seated with his/her right foot strapped to a rigid foot plate coupled to a torquemeter; measurements were taken at rest and during isometric contraction of the ankle dorsiflexor and plantar flexor muscles. The soleus muscle H-wave was captured by surface electrodes. A "test" H- reflex was elicited by a stimulus (electrical pulse to the popliteal fossa

  13. Magnolol inhibits the inflammatory response in mouse mammary epithelial cells and a mouse mastitis model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Wang; Dejie, Liang; Xiaojing, Song; Tiancheng, Wang; Yongguo, Cao; Zhengtao, Yang; Naisheng, Zhang

    2015-02-01

    Mastitis comprises an inflammation of the mammary gland, which is almost always linked with bacterial infection. The treatment of mastitis concerns antimicrobial substances, but not very successful. On the other hand, anti-inflammatory therapy with Chinese traditional medicine becomes an effective way for treating mastitis. Magnolol is a polyphenolic binaphthalene compound extracted from the stem bark of Magnolia sp., which has been shown to exert a potential for anti-inflammatory activity. The purpose of this study was to investigate the protective effects of magnolol on inflammation in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced mastitis mouse model in vivo and the mechanism of this protective effects in LPS-stimulated mouse mammary epithelial cells (MMECs) in vitro. The damage of tissues was determined by histopathology and myeloperoxidase (MPO) assay. The expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), inhibitory kappa B (IκBα) protein, p38, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) were determined by Western blot. The results showed that magnolol significantly inhibit the LPS-induced TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β production both in vivo and vitro. Magnolol declined the phosphorylation of IκBα, p65, p38, ERK, and JNK in LPS-stimulated MMECs. Furthermore, magnolol inhibited the expression of TLR4 in LPS-stimulated MMECs. In vivo study, it was also observed that magnolol attenuated the damage of mastitis tissues in the mouse models. These findings demonstrated that magnolol attenuate LPS-stimulated inflammatory response by suppressing TLR4/NF-κB/mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling system. Thereby, magnolol may be a therapeutic agent against mastitis.

  14. Rapid genetic algorithm optimization of a mouse computational model: benefits for anthropomorphization of neonatal mouse cardiomyocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bot, Corina T; Kherlopian, Armen R; Ortega, Francis A; Christini, David J; Krogh-Madsen, Trine

    2012-01-01

    While the mouse presents an invaluable experimental model organism in biology, its usefulness in cardiac arrhythmia research is limited in some aspects due to major electrophysiological differences between murine and human action potentials (APs). As previously described, these species-specific traits can be partly overcome by application of a cell-type transforming clamp (CTC) to anthropomorphize the murine cardiac AP. CTC is a hybrid experimental-computational dynamic clamp technique, in which a computationally calculated time-dependent current is inserted into a cell in real-time, to compensate for the differences between sarcolemmal currents of that cell (e.g., murine) and the desired species (e.g., human). For effective CTC performance, mismatch between the measured cell and a mathematical model used to mimic the measured AP must be minimal. We have developed a genetic algorithm (GA) approach that rapidly tunes a mathematical model to reproduce the AP of the murine cardiac myocyte under study. Compared to a prior implementation that used a template-based model selection approach, we show that GA optimization to a cell-specific model results in a much better recapitulation of the desired AP morphology with CTC. This improvement was more pronounced when anthropomorphizing neonatal mouse cardiomyocytes to human-like APs than to guinea pig APs. CTC may be useful for a wide range of applications, from screening effects of pharmaceutical compounds on ion channel activity, to exploring variations in the mouse or human genome. Rapid GA optimization of a cell-specific mathematical model improves CTC performance and may therefore expand the applicability and usage of the CTC technique.

  15. Characterization of the mouse pancreatic islet proteome and comparative analysis with other mouse tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petyuk, Vladislav A.; Qian, Weijun; Hinault, Charlotte; Gritsenko, Marina A.; Singhal, Mudita; Monroe, Matthew E.; Camp, David G.; Kulkarni, Rohit N.; Smith, Richard D.

    2008-08-01

    The pancreatic islets of Langerhans and insulin-producing beta cells in particular play a central role in the maintenance of glucose homeostasis and the islet dysfunction is associated with the pathogenesis of both type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus. To contribute to the understanding of the biology of the pancreatic islets we applied proteomic techniques based on liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. Here as an initial step we present the first comprehensive proteomic characterization of pancreas islets of the mouse, the commonly used animal model for diabetes research. Two-dimensional SCX LC/RP LC-MS/MS has been applied to characterize of the mouse islet proteome, resulting in the confident identification of 17,350 different tryptic peptides covering 2,612 proteins with at least two unique peptide identifications per protein. The dataset also allowed identification of a number of post-translational modifications including several modifications relevant to oxidative stress and phosphorylation. While many of the identified phosphorylation sites corroborates with previous known sites, the oxidative modifications observed on cysteinyl residues potentially reveal novel information related to the role of oxidation stress in islet functions. Comparative analysis of the islet proteome database with 15 available proteomic datasets from other mouse tissues and cells revealed a set of 68 proteins uniquely detected only in the pancreatic islets. Besides proteins with known functions, like islet secreted peptide hormones, this unique set contains a number of proteins with yet unknown functions. The resulting peptide and protein database will be available at ncrr.pnl.gov web site of the NCRR proteomic center (ncrr.pnl.gov).

  16. A Mouse Kindling Model of Perimenstrual Catamenial Epilepsy

    OpenAIRE

    Reddy, Doodipala Samba; Gould, Jordan; Gangisetty, O.

    2012-01-01

    Catamenial epilepsy is caused by fluctuations in progesterone-derived GABAA receptor-modulating anticonvulsant neurosteroids, such as allopregnanolone, that play a significant role in the pathophysiology of epilepsy. However, there is no specific mouse model of catamenial epilepsy. In this study, we developed and characterized a mouse model of catamenial epilepsy by using the neurosteroid-withdrawal paradigm. It is hypothesized that seizure susceptibility decreases when neurosteroid levels ar...

  17. Humanized mouse xenograft models: narrowing the tumor-microenvironment gap

    OpenAIRE

    Morton, J. Jason; Bird, Gregory; Refaeli, Yosef; Jimeno, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Cancer research has long been hampered by the limitations of the current model systems. Both cultured cells and mouse xenografts grow in an environment highly dissimilar to that of their originating tumor, frequently resulting in promising treatments that are ultimately clinically ineffective. The development of highly immunodeficient mouse strains into which human immune systems can be engrafted can help bridge this gap. Humanized mice (HM) allow researchers to examine xenograft growth in th...

  18. End Sequencing and Finger Printing of Human & Mouse BAC Libraries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fraser, C

    2005-09-27

    This project provided for continued end sequencing of existing and new BAC libraries constructed to support human sequencing as well as to initiate BAC end sequencing from the mouse BAC libraries constructed to support mouse sequencing. The clones, the sequences, and the fingerprints are now an available resource for the community at large. Research and development of new metaodologies for BAC end sequencing have reduced costs and increase throughput.

  19. [The behavioral development of the mutant "staggerer" mouse].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guastavino, J M

    1978-01-01

    The behavioural study, in particular rearing environmental conditions, of the mutant mouse staggerer has shown that such animals may live more than 90 days. (he behavioural diagnosis of this mutation has been possible from the second week of life, using specific tests. A typical "bat posture" permits one to recognize the mutant from the normal Mouse. Locomotory and feeding behaviours also present late and various qualitatige particularities.

  20. Endodcytic labelling of visceral endoderm of mouse perigastrulation embryos

    OpenAIRE

    sprotocols

    2015-01-01

    Authors: Yoh Wada, Minako Aoyama, Ge-Hong Sun-Wada, Nobuyuki Kawamura & Hiroyuki Tabata ### Abstract In this protocol we describe methods for observation endocytic activity in the mouse embryos. The methods are optimised for mouse embryos at E5.5~E7.2 pregastrulation/gastrulation stages. We optimise three different experimental schemes for tracing the embryonic endocytosis. In utero labelling scheme, an endocytic tracer is introduced into circulation of a pregnant mother to follow...

  1. No audible wheezing: nuggets and conundrums from mouse asthma models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyce, Joshua A; Austen, K Frank

    2005-06-20

    Mouse models of T helper type 2 (Th2) cell-biased pulmonary inflammation have elucidated mechanisms of sensitization, cell traffic, and induced airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR). Nonetheless, most mice lack intrinsic AHR, a central property of human asthma, and disparities persist regarding the contributions of eosinophils and mast cells and the sensitivity to induced AHR in the commonly used mouse strains. We suggest that these discordances, reflecting methodological and genetic differences, may be informative for understanding heterogeneity of human asthma.

  2. Mouse lung adhesion assay for Bordetella pertussis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burns, K.A.; Freer, J.H. (Department of Microbiology, Alexander Stone Building, Bearsden, Glasgow, Scotland)

    1982-03-01

    The ability of Bordetella pertussis to adhere to cell surfaces has been demonstrated by adhesion to tissue culture cells and adhesion to chicken, hamster or rabbit trachea in organ culture. In this report a mouse lung assay for adhesion is described and the results obtained using two virulent strains of B. pertussis and their avirulent counterparts. These were a C modulation of one of the original virulent strains and a phase IV variant of the other virulent strain. Organisms were radiolabelled by adding 1 ..mu..Ci (37 K Bq) of (/sup 14/C)glutamic acid per 10 ml of culture medium before inoculation and incubation for 5 days. The lungs were washed by perfusion in situ with at least two volumes (1 ml) of sterile 1% (w/v) casamino acids. The percentage of the inoculated organisms retained in the lungs was determined, after removal of the lungs, by one of the following two methods: viable count or radioactive count. Results for both methods were expressed as the percentage of the inoculum retained in the lungs plus or minus one standard deviation.

  3. Mig-6 Mouse Model of Endometrial Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae Hoon; Yoo, Jung-Yoon; Jeong, Jae-Wook

    2017-01-01

    Endometrial cancer is a frequently occurring gynecological disorder. Estrogen-dependent endometrioid carcinoma is the most common type of gynecological cancer. One of the major pathologic phenomena of endometrial cancer is the loss of estrogen (E2) and progesterone (P4) control over uterine epithelial cell proliferation. P4 antagonizes the growth-promoting properties of E2 in the uterus. P4 prevents the development of endometrial cancer associated with unopposed E2 by blocking E2 actions. Mitogen inducible gene 6 (Mig-6, Errfi1, RALT, or gene 33) is an immediate early response gene that can be induced by various mitogens and common chronic stress stimuli. Mig-6 has been identified as an important component of P4-mediated inhibition of E2 signaling in the uterus. Decreased expression of MIG-6 is observed in human endometrial carcinomas. Transgenic mice with Mig-6 ablation in the uterus develop endometrial hyperplasia and E2-dependent endometrial cancer. Thus, MIG-6 has a tumor suppressor function in endometrial tumorigenesis. The following discussion summarizes our current knowledge of Mig-6 mouse models and their role in understanding the molecular mechanisms of endometrial tumorigenesis and in the development of therapeutic approaches for endometrial cancer.

  4. Cockayne syndrome pathogenesis: lessons from mouse models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaarsma, Dick; van der Pluijm, Ingrid; van der Horst, Gijsbertus T J; Hoeijmakers, Jan H J

    2013-01-01

    Cockayne syndrome (CS) is a rare multisystem disorder characterized by cachectic dwarfism, nervous system abnormalities and features of premature aging. CS symptoms are associated with mutations in 5 genes, CSA, CSB, XPB, XPD and XPG encoding for proteins involved in the transcription-coupled subpathway of nucleotide excision DNA repair (NER). Mutant mice have been generated for all CS-associated genes and provide tools to examine how the cellular defects translate into CS symptoms. Mice deficient for Csa or Csb genetically mimic CS in man, and develop mild CS symptoms including reduced fat tissue, photoreceptor cell loss, and mild, but characteristic, nervous system pathology. These mild CS models are converted into severe CS models with short life span, progressive nervous system degeneration and cachectic dwarfism after simultaneous complete inactivation of global genome NER. A spectrum of mild-to-severe CS-like symptoms occurs in Xpb, Xpd, and Xpg mice that genetically mimic patients with a disorder that combines CS symptoms with another NER syndrome, xeroderma pigmentosum. In conclusion, CS mouse models mice develop a range of CS phenotypes and open promising perspectives for testing interventional approaches. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. FETAL ALCOHOL SYNDROME IN FETUS OF MOUSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Nasrollahzadeh

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available litis study is based on embryotoxic effects of ethanol on embryos and discussing the morphologic and hhtahtgic changes and defects an mouse. Tlie female animals were divided in three groups. Hie first group untreated as a control group but the second and third group received 10% and 20% solutions of ethanol respectively. Animals get use to certain level of ethanol solution and in the 10th day, the pregnancy period has been started. Then on the 19th day of gestation, the embryos were taken out from their mother's uterus and were examined for morphologic, histologic and skeletal disorders. In the first examination, the major defect was weight and length reduction in the second and third groups. these deffects, were severe in the second group in compare to third group that might be related to little consumption of the ethanol solution, due to bitter taste. In conclusion the teratogenic effect of alcohol on skeleton and joint is clear.

  6. Computer simulations of the mouse spermatogenic cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debjit Ray

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The spermatogenic cycle describes the periodic development of germ cells in the testicular tissue. The temporal–spatial dynamics of the cycle highlight the unique, complex, and interdependent interaction between germ and somatic cells, and are the key to continual sperm production. Although understanding the spermatogenic cycle has important clinical relevance for male fertility and contraception, there are a number of experimental obstacles. For example, the lengthy process cannot be visualized through dynamic imaging, and the precise action of germ cells that leads to the emergence of testicular morphology remains uncharacterized. Here, we report an agent-based model that simulates the mouse spermatogenic cycle on a cross-section of the seminiferous tubule over a time scale of hours to years, while considering feedback regulation, mitotic and meiotic division, differentiation, apoptosis, and movement. The computer model is able to elaborate the germ cell dynamics in a time-lapse movie format, allowing us to trace individual cells as they change state and location. More importantly, the model provides mechanistic understanding of the fundamentals of male fertility, namely how testicular morphology and sperm production are achieved. By manipulating cellular behaviors either individually or collectively in silico, the model predicts causal events for the altered arrangement of germ cells upon genetic or environmental perturbations. This in silico platform can serve as an interactive tool to perform long-term simulation and to identify optimal approaches for infertility treatment and contraceptive development.

  7. Multistage chemical carcinogenesis in mouse skin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slaga, T.J.; Fischer, S.M.; Weeks, C.E.; Klein-Szanto, A.J.P.

    1979-01-01

    Skin tumors in mice can be induced by the sequential application of a subthreshold dose of a carcinogen (initiation phase) followed by repetitive treatment with a noncarcinogenic tumor promoter. The initiation phase requires only a single application of either a direct acting carcinogen or a procarcinogen which has to be metabolized before being active and is essentially an irreversible step which probably involves a somatic cell mutation. There is a good correlation between the skin tumor initiating activites of several polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and their ability to bind covalently to epidermal DNA. Laboratory results suggest that bay region diol-epoxides are the ultimate carcinogenic form of PAH carcinogens. Potent inhibitors and stimulators of PAH tumor initiation appear to affect the level of the PAH diol-epoxide reacting with specific DNA bases. Reecent data suggests that the tumor promotion stage involves at least three important steps: (1) the induction of embryonic looking cells (dark cells) in adult epidermis; (2) an increased production of epidermal prostaglandins and polyamines; (3) sustained proliferation of dark cells. Retinoic acid specifically inhibits step two whereas the anti-inflammatory steriod fluocinolone acetonide is a potent inhibitor of steps one and three. The mechanism and the importance of a specific sequence for each step in chemical carcinogenesis in mouse skin are detailed.

  8. Mouse Model Resources for Vision Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jungyeon Won

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The need for mouse models, with their well-developed genetics and similarity to human physiology and anatomy, is clear and their central role in furthering our understanding of human disease is readily apparent in the literature. Mice carrying mutations that alter developmental pathways or cellular function provide model systems for analyzing defects in comparable human disorders and for testing therapeutic strategies. Mutant mice also provide reproducible, experimental systems for elucidating pathways of normal development and function. Two programs, the Eye Mutant Resource and the Translational Vision Research Models, focused on providing such models to the vision research community are described herein. Over 100 mutant lines from the Eye Mutant Resource and 60 mutant lines from the Translational Vision Research Models have been developed. The ocular diseases of the mutant lines include a wide range of phenotypes, including cataracts, retinal dysplasia and degeneration, and abnormal blood vessel formation. The mutations in disease genes have been mapped and in some cases identified by direct sequencing. Here, we report 3 novel alleles of Crxtvrm65, Rp1tvrm64, and Rpe65tvrm148 as successful examples of the TVRM program, that closely resemble previously reported knockout models.

  9. Mouse estrous cycle identification tool and images.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon L Byers

    Full Text Available The efficiency of producing timed pregnant or pseudopregnant mice can be increased by identifying those in proestrus or estrus. Visual observation of the vagina is the quickest method, requires no special equipment, and is best used when only proestrus or estrus stages need to be identified. Strain to strain differences, especially in coat color can make it difficult to determine the stage of the estrous cycle accurately by visual observation. Presented here are a series of images of the vaginal opening at each stage of the estrous cycle for 3 mouse strains of different coat colors: black (C57BL/6J, agouti (CByB6F1/J and albino (BALB/cByJ. When all 4 stages (proestrus, estrus, metestrus, and diestrus need to be identified, vaginal cytology is regarded as the most accurate method. An identification tool is presented to aid the user in determining the stage of estrous when using vaginal cytology. These images and descriptions are an excellent resource for learning how to determine the stage of the estrous cycle by visual observation or vaginal cytology.

  10. Sperm Proteome Maturation in the Mouse Epididymis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skerget, Sheri; Rosenow, Matthew A; Petritis, Konstantinos; Karr, Timothy L

    2015-01-01

    In mammals, transit through the epididymis, which involves the acquisition, loss and modification of proteins, is required to confer motility and fertilization competency to sperm. The overall dynamics of maturation is poorly understood, and a systems level understanding of the complex maturation process will provide valuable new information about changes occurring during epididymal transport. We report the proteomes of sperm collected from the caput, corpus and cauda segments of the mouse epididymis, identifying 1536, 1720 and 1234 proteins respectively. This study identified 765 proteins that are present in sperm obtained from all three segments. We identified 1766 proteins that are potentially added (732) or removed (1034) from sperm during epididymal transit. Phenotypic analyses of the caput, corpus and cauda sperm proteomes identified 60 proteins that have known sperm phenotypes when mutated, or absent from sperm. Our analysis indicates that as much as one-third of proteins with known sperm phenotypes are added to sperm during epididymal transit. GO analyses revealed that cauda sperm are enriched for specific functions including sperm-egg recognition and motility, consistent with the observation that sperm acquire motility and fertilization competency during transit through the epididymis. In addition, GO analyses revealed that the immunity protein profile of sperm changes during sperm maturation. Finally, we identified components of the 26S proteasome, the immunoproteasome, and a proteasome activator in mature sperm.

  11. Plantarflexion contracture in the mdx mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garlich, Michael W; Baltgalvis, Kristen A; Call, Jarrod A; Dorsey, Lisa L; Lowe, Dawn A

    2010-12-01

    Contractures are a major clinical issue for patients with muscular dystrophies. However, it is unknown whether contractures are present in the widely used mdx mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to develop methods to measure muscle contractures in mice, to determine whether plantarflexion contractures are present in mdx mice, and to analyze the composition of the major muscles involved. Hindlimbs of eight wild type and six mdx mice were assessed every 2 wks during the course of a 12-wk study. Assessments included range of motion and in vivo torques about the ankle. At the end of the study, mice were euthanized, and muscles were analyzed for composition. The mdx mice had ∼10 degrees less dorsiflexion, increased passive torque moving the ankle into dorsiflexion, and an increased passive-to-active torque ratio relative to wild type mice. Gastrocnemius muscle composition alterations included increased wet mass, decreased protein content, and increased collagen. The results indicate that mdx mice have plantarflexion contractures similar to those seen in children with Duchenne muscular dystrophy. In future studies, these measures can be used to assess strategies to slow the progression of contractures that occur with muscular dystrophies.

  12. Transgenic Mouse Model of Chronic Beryllium Disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordon, Terry

    2009-05-26

    Animal models provide powerful tools for dissecting dose-response relationships and pathogenic mechanisms and for testing new treatment paradigms. Mechanistic research on beryllium exposure-disease relationships is severely limited by a general inability to develop a sufficient chronic beryllium disease animal model. Discovery of the Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) - DPB1Glu69 genetic susceptibility component of chronic beryllium disease permitted the addition of this human beryllium antigen presentation molecule to an animal genome which may permit development of a better animal model for chronic beryllium disease. Using FVB/N inbred mice, Drs. Rubin and Zhu, successfully produced three strains of HLA-DPB1 Glu 69 transgenic mice. Each mouse strain contains a haplotype of the HLA-DPB1 Glu 69 gene that confers a different magnitude of odds ratio (OR) of risk for chronic beryllium disease: HLA-DPB1*0401 (OR = 0.2), HLA-DPB1*0201 (OR = 15), HLA-DPB1*1701 (OR = 240). In addition, Drs. Rubin and Zhu developed transgenic mice with the human CD4 gene to permit better transmission of signals between T cells and antigen presenting cells. This project has maintained the colonies of these transgenic mice and tested the functionality of the human transgenes.

  13. Transcriptional divergence and conservation of human and mouse erythropoiesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pishesha, Novalia; Thiru, Prathapan; Shi, Jiahai; Eng, Jennifer C; Sankaran, Vijay G; Lodish, Harvey F

    2014-03-18

    Mouse models have been used extensively for decades and have been instrumental in improving our understanding of mammalian erythropoiesis. Nonetheless, there are several examples of variation between human and mouse erythropoiesis. We performed a comparative global gene expression study using data from morphologically identical stage-matched sorted populations of human and mouse erythroid precursors from early to late erythroblasts. Induction and repression of major transcriptional regulators of erythropoiesis, as well as major erythroid-important proteins, are largely conserved between the species. In contrast, at a global level we identified a significant extent of divergence between the species, both at comparable stages and in the transitions between stages, especially for the 500 most highly expressed genes during development. This suggests that the response of multiple developmentally regulated genes to key erythroid transcriptional regulators represents an important modification that has occurred in the course of erythroid evolution. In developing a systematic framework to understand and study conservation and divergence between human and mouse erythropoiesis, we show how mouse models can fail to mimic specific human diseases and provide predictions for translating findings from mouse models to potential therapies for human disease.

  14. On Parallel Streams through the Mouse Dorsal Lateral Geniculate Nucleus

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    Daniel eDenman

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The mouse visual system is an emerging model for the study of cortical and thalamic circuit function. To maximize the usefulness of this model system, it is important to analyze the similarities and differences between the organization of all levels of the murid visual system with other, better studied systems (e.g., non-human primates and the domestic cat. While the understanding of mouse retina and cortex has expanded rapidly, less is known about mouse dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN. Here, we study whether parallel processing streams exist in mouse dLGN. We use a battery of stimuli that have been previously shown to successfully distinguish parallel streams in other species: electrical stimulation of the optic chiasm, contrast-reversing stationary gratings at varying spatial phase, drifting sinusoidal gratings, dense noise for receptive field reconstruction, and frozen contrast-modulating noise. As in the optic nerves of domestic cats and non-human primates, we find evidence for multiple conduction velocity groups after optic chiasm stimulation. As in so-called ‘visual mammals’, we find a subpopulation of mouse dLGN cells showing non-linear spatial summation. However, differences in stimulus selectivity and sensitivity do not provide sufficient basis for identification of clearly distinct classes of relay cells. Nevertheless, consistent with presumptively homologous status of dLGNs of all mammals, there are substantial similarities between response properties of mouse dLGN neurons and those of cats and primates.

  15. Novel Transgenic Mouse Model of Polycystic Kidney Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kito, Yusuke; Saigo, Chiemi; Takeuchi, Tamotsu

    2017-09-01

    Transmembrane protein 207 (TMEM207) is characterized as an important molecule for invasiveness of gastric signet-ring cell carcinoma cells. To clarify the pathobiological effects of TMEM207, we generated 13 transgenic mouse strains, designated C57BL/6-transgenic (Tg) (ITF-TMEM207), where the mouse Tmem207 is ectopically expressed under the proximal promoter of the murine intestinal trefoil factor gene. A C57BL/6-Tg (ITF-TMEM207) mouse strain unexpectedly exhibited a high incidence of spontaneous kidney cysts with histopathological features resembling human polycystic kidney disease, which were found in approximately all mice within 1 year. TMEM207 immunoreactivity was found in noncystic kidney tubules and in renal cysts of the transgenic mice. The ITF-TMEM207 construct was inserted into Mitf at chromosome 6. Cystic kidney was not observed in other C57BL/6-Tg (ITF-TMEM207) transgenic mouse strains. Although several genetically manipulated animal models exist, this mouse strain harboring a genetic mutation in Mitf and overexpression of Tmem207 protein was not reported as a model of polycystic kidney disease until now. This study demonstrates that the C57BL/6-Tg (ITF-TMEM207) mouse may be a suitable model for understanding human polycystic kidney disease. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Mouse models to study dengue virus immunology and pathogenesis

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    Raphaël M. Zellweger

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The development of a compelling murine model of dengue virus (DENV infection has been challenging, because dengue virus clinical isolates do not readily replicate or cause pathology in immunocompetent mice. However, research using immunocompromised mice and/or mouse-adapted viruses allows to investigate questions that may be impossible to address in human studies. In this review, we discuss the potential strengths and limitations of existing mouse models of dengue disease. Human studies are descriptive by nature; moreover, the strain, time, and sequence of infection are often unknown. In contrast, in mice, the conditions of infection are well defined and a large number of experimental parameters can be varied at will. Therefore, mouse models offer an opportunity to experimentally test hypotheses that are based on epidemiological observations. In particular, gain-of-function or loss-of-function models can be established to assess how different components of the immune system (either alone or in combination contribute to protection or pathogenesis during secondary infections or after vaccination. In addition, mouse models have been used for pre-clinical testing of antiviral drug or for vaccine development studies. Conclusions based on mouse experiments must be extrapolated to DENV infection in humans with caution due to the inherent limitations of animal models. However, research in mouse models is a useful complement to in vitro and epidemiological data, and may delineate new areas that deserve attention during future human studies.

  17. PGC-1alpha is not mandatory for exercise- and training-induced adaptive gene responses in mouse skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leick, Lotte; Wojtaszewski, Jørgen F P; Johansen, Sune T.

    2008-01-01

    a single treadmill-running exercise bout. Soleus and white gastrocnemius (WG) were obtained immediately, 2 h, or 6 h after exercise. Another group of PGC-1alpha KO and WT mice performed 5-wk exercise training. Soleus, WG, and quadriceps were obtained approximately 37 h after the last training session......The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-gamma coactivator (PGC) 1alpha is required for exercise-induced adaptive gene responses in skeletal muscle. Whole body PGC-1alpha knockout (KO) and littermate wild-type (WT) mice performed....... Resting muscles of the PGC-1alpha KO mice had lower ( approximately 20%) cytochrome c (cyt c), cytochrome oxidase (COX) I, and aminolevulinate synthase (ALAS) 1 mRNA and protein levels than WT, but similar levels of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) alpha1, AMPKalpha2, and hexokinase (HK) II compared...

  18. Visualization of the Expression of HMGN Nucleosomal Binding Proteins in the Developing Mouse Embryo and in Adult Mouse Tissues

    OpenAIRE

    Furusawa, Takashi; Bustin, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Visualization of the expression pattern of specific proteins during development and in adult tissues provides important clues as to their possible role in various cellular processes. Mouse is the organism of choice for obtaining information on gene expression patterns in higher eukaryotes. This chapter describes the protocols we utilized to visualize Hmgn transcripts and HMGN proteins in mouse tissues. HMGN are chromatin-binding proteins that affect chromatin structure and function and play a...

  19. A Progressive Translational Mouse Model of Human VCP Disease: The VCP R155H/+ Mouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalbandian, Angèle; Llewellyn, Katrina J.; Badadani, Mallikarjun; Yin, Hong Z.; Nguyen, Christopher; Katheria, Veeral; Watts, Giles; Mukherjee, Jogeshwar; Vesa, Jouni; Caiozzo, Vincent; Mozaffar, Tahseen; Weiss, John H.; Kimonis, Virginia E.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Mutations in the valosin containing protein (VCP) gene cause hereditary Inclusion Body Myopathy (hIBM) associated with Paget disease of bone (PDB), and frontotemporal dementia (FTD). More recently they have been linked to 2% of familial ALS cases. A knock-in mouse model offers the opportunity to study VCP-associated pathogenesis. Methods The VCPR155H/+ knock-in mouse model was assessed for muscle strength, immunohistochemical, Western, apoptosis, autophagy and MicroPET/CT imaging analyses. Results VCPR155H/+ mice developed significant progressive muscle weakness, and the quadriceps and brain developed progressive cytoplasmic accumulation of TDP-43, ubiquitin-positive inclusion bodies and increased LC3-II staining. MicroCT analyses revealed Paget-like lesions at the ends of long bones. Spinal cord demonstrated neurodegenerative changes, ubiquitin, and TDP-43 pathology of motor neurons. Discussion VCPR155H/+ knock-in mice represent an excellent pre-clinical model for understanding VCP-associated disease mechanisms and future treatments. PMID:23169451

  20. Improved fatigue resistance in Gsα-deficient and aging mouse skeletal muscles due to adaptive increases in slow fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Han-Zhong; Chen, Min; Weinstein, Lee S.

    2011-01-01

    Genetically modified mice with deficiency of the G protein α-subunit (Gsα) in skeletal muscle showed metabolic abnormality with reduced glucose tolerance, low muscle mass, and low contractile force, along with a fast-to-slow-fiber-type switch (Chen M, Feng HZ, Gupta D, Kelleher J, Dickerson KE, Wang J, Hunt D, Jou W, Gavrilova O, Jin JP, Weinstein LS. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 296: C930–C940, 2009). Here we investigated a hypothesis that the switching to more slow fibers is an adaptive response with specific benefit. The results showed that, corresponding to the switch of myosin isoforms, the thin-filament regulatory proteins troponin T and troponin I both switched to their slow isoforms in the atrophic soleus muscle of 3-mo-old Gsα-deficient mice. This fiber-type switch involving coordinated changes of both thick- and thin-myofilament proteins progressed in the Gsα-deficient soleus muscles of 18- to 24-mo-old mice, as reflected by the expression of solely slow isoforms of myosin and troponin. Compared with age-matched controls, Gsα-deficient soleus muscles with higher proportion of slow fibers exhibited slower contractile and relaxation kinetics and lower developed force, but significantly increased resistance to fatigue, followed by a better recovery. Gsα-deficient soleus muscles of neonatal and 3-wk-old mice did not show the increase in slow fibers. Therefore, the fast-to-slow-fiber-type switch in Gsα deficiency at older ages was likely an adaptive response. The benefit of higher fatigue resistance in adaption to metabolic deficiency and aging provides a mechanism to sustain skeletal muscle function in diabetic patients and elderly individuals. PMID:21680879

  1. Characterization of a pneumococcal meningitis mouse model

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    Mook-Kanamori Barry

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background S. pneumoniae is the most common causative agent of meningitis, and is associated with high morbidity and mortality. We aimed to develop an integrated and representative pneumococcal meningitis mouse model resembling the human situation. Methods Adult mice (C57BL/6 were inoculated in the cisterna magna with increasing doses of S. pneumoniae serotype 3 colony forming units (CFU; n = 24, 104, 105, 106 and 107 CFU and survival studies were performed. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF, brain, blood, spleen, and lungs were collected. Subsequently, mice were inoculated with 104 CFU S. pneumoniae serotype 3 and sacrificed at 6 (n = 6 and 30 hours (n = 6. Outcome parameters were bacterial outgrowth, clinical score, and cytokine and chemokine levels (using Luminex® in CSF, blood and brain. Meningeal inflammation, neutrophil infiltration, parenchymal and subarachnoidal hemorrhages, microglial activation and hippocampal apoptosis were assessed in histopathological studies. Results Lower doses of bacteria delayed onset of illness and time of death (median survival CFU 104, 56 hrs; 105, 38 hrs, 106, 28 hrs. 107, 24 hrs. Bacterial titers in brain and CSF were similar in all mice at the end-stage of disease independent of inoculation dose, though bacterial outgrowth in the systemic compartment was less at lower inoculation doses. At 30 hours after inoculation with 104 CFU of S. pneumoniae, blood levels of KC, IL6, MIP-2 and IFN- γ were elevated, as were brain homogenate levels of KC, MIP-2, IL-6, IL-1β and RANTES. Brain histology uniformly showed meningeal inflammation at 6 hours, and, neutrophil infiltration, microglial activation, and hippocampal apoptosis at 30 hours. Parenchymal and subarachnoidal and cortical hemorrhages were seen in 5 of 6 and 3 of 6 mice at 6 and 30 hours, respectively. Conclusion We have developed and validated a murine model of pneumococcal meningitis.

  2. TRPM3 expression in mouse retina.

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    R Lane Brown

    Full Text Available Transient receptor potential (TRP channels constitute a large family of cation permeable ion channels that serve crucial functions in sensory systems by transducing environmental changes into cellular voltage and calcium signals. Within the retina, two closely related members of the melastatin TRP family, TRPM1 and TRPM3, are highly expressed. TRPM1 has been shown to be required for the depolarizing response to light of ON-bipolar cells, but the role of TRPM3 in the retina is unknown. Immunohistochemical staining of mouse retina with an antibody directed against the C-terminus of TRPM3 labeled the inner plexiform layer (IPL and a subset of cells in the ganglion cell layer. Within the IPL, TRPM3 immunofluorescence was markedly stronger in the OFF sublamina than in the ON sublamina. Electroretinogram recordings showed that the scotopic and photopic a- and b-waves of TRPM3(-/- mice are normal indicating that TRPM3 does not play a major role in visual processing in the outer retina. TRPM3 activity was measured by calcium imaging and patch-clamp recording of immunopurified retinal ganglion cells. Application of the TRPM3 agonist, pregnenolone sulfate (PS, stimulated increases in intracellular calcium in ~40% of cells from wild type and TRPM1(‑/‑ mice, and the PS-stimulated increases in calcium were blocked by co-application of mefenamic acid, a TRPM3 antagonist. No PS-stimulated changes in fluorescence were observed in ganglion cells from TRPM3(-/- mice. Similarly, PS-stimulated currents that could be blocked by mefenamic acid were recorded from wild type retinal ganglion cells but were absent in ganglion cells from TRPM3-/- mice.

  3. Radioadaptive Cytoprotective Pathways in the Mouse Retina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanello, Susana B.; Wotring, V.; Theriot, C.; Ploutz-Snyder, R.; Zhang, Y.; Wu, H.

    2010-01-01

    Exposure to cosmic radiation implies a risk of tissue degeneration. Radiation retinopathy is a complication of radiotherapy and exhibits common features with other retinopathies and neuropathies. Exposure to a low radiation dose elicits protective cellular events (radioadaptive response), reducing the stress of a subsequent higher dose. To assess the risk of radiation-induced retinal changes and the extent to which a small priming dose reduces this risk, we used a mouse model exposed to a source of Cs-137-gamma radiation. Gene expression profiling of retinas from non-irradiated control C57BL/6J mice (C) were compared to retinas from mice treated with a low 50 mGy dose (LD), a high 6 Gy dose (HD), and a combined treatment of 50 mGy (priming) and 6 Gy (challenge) doses (LHD). Whole retina RNA was isolated and expression analysis for selected genes performed by RTqPCR. Relevant target genes associated with cell death/survival, oxidative stress, cellular stress response and inflammation pathways, were analyzed. Cellular stress response genes were upregulated at 4 hr after the challenge dose in LHD retinas (Sirt1: 1.5 fold, Hsf1: 1.7 fold, Hspa1a: 2.5 fold; Hif1a: 1.8 fold, Bag1: 1.7). A similar trend was observed in LD animals. Most antioxidant enzymes (Hmox1, Sod2, Prdx1, Cygb, Cat1) and inflammatory mediators (NF B, Ptgs2 and Tgfb1) were upregulated in LHD and LD retinas. Expression of the pro-survival gene Bcl2 was upregulated in LD (6-fold) and LHD (4-fold) retinas. In conclusion, cytoprotective gene networks activation in the retina suggests a radioadaptive response to a priming irradiation dose, with mitigation of the deleterious effects of a subsequent high dose exposure. The enhancement of these cytoprotective mechanisms has potential value as a countermeasure to ocular alterations caused by radiation alone or in combination with other factors in spaceflight environments.

  4. The recombinational anatomy of a mouse chromosome.

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    Kenneth Paigen

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Among mammals, genetic recombination occurs at highly delimited sites known as recombination hotspots. They are typically 1-2 kb long and vary as much as a 1,000-fold or more in recombination activity. Although much is known about the molecular details of the recombination process itself, the factors determining the location and relative activity of hotspots are poorly understood. To further our understanding, we have collected and mapped the locations of 5,472 crossover events along mouse Chromosome 1 arising in 6,028 meioses of male and female reciprocal F1 hybrids of C57BL/6J and CAST/EiJ mice. Crossovers were mapped to a minimum resolution of 225 kb, and those in the telomere-proximal 24.7 Mb were further mapped to resolve individual hotspots. Recombination rates were evolutionarily conserved on a regional scale, but not at the local level. There was a clear negative-exponential relationship between the relative activity and abundance of hotspot activity classes, such that a small number of the most active hotspots account for the majority of recombination. Females had 1.2x higher overall recombination than males did, although the sex ratio showed considerable regional variation. Locally, entirely sex-specific hotspots were rare. The initiation of recombination at the most active hotspot was regulated independently on the two parental chromatids, and analysis of reciprocal crosses indicated that parental imprinting has subtle effects on recombination rates. It appears that the regulation of mammalian recombination is a complex, dynamic process involving multiple factors reflecting species, sex, individual variation within species, and the properties of individual hotspots.

  5. Identification and preliminary characterization of mouse Adam33

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    Hyman Richard W

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The metalloprotease-disintegrin family, or ADAM, proteins, are implicated in cell-cell interactions, cell fusion, and cell signaling, and are widely distributed among metazoan phyla. Orthologous relationships have been defined for a few ADAM proteins including ADAM10 (Kuzbanian, and ADAM17 (TACE, but evolutionary relationships are not clear for the majority of family members. Human ADAM33 refers to a testis cDNA clone that does not contain a complete open reading frame, but portions of the predicted protein are similar to Xenopus laevis ADAM13. Results In a 48 kb region of mouse DNA adjacent to the Attractin gene on mouse chromosome 2, we identified sequences very similar to human ADAM33. A full-length mouse cDNA was identified by a combination of gene prediction programs and RT-PCR, and the probable full-length human cDNA was identified by comparison to human genomic sequence in the homologous region on chromosome 20p13. Mouse ADAM33 is 44% identical to Xenopus laevis ADAM13, however a phylogenetic alignment and consideration of functional domains suggests that the two genes are not orthologous. Mouse Adam33 is widely expressed, most highly in the adult brain, heart, kidney, lung and testis. Conclusions While mouse ADAM33 is similar to Xenopus ADAM13 in sequence, further examination of its embryonic expression pattern, catalytic activity and protein interactions will be required to assess the functional relationship between these two proteins. Adam33 is expressed in the mouse adult brain and could play a role in complex processes that require cell-cell communication.

  6. Architecture, Function, and Assembly of the Mouse Visual System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seabrook, Tania A; Burbridge, Timothy J; Crair, Michael C; Huberman, Andrew D

    2017-07-25

    Vision is the sense humans rely on most to navigate the world, make decisions, and perform complex tasks. Understanding how humans see thus represents one of the most fundamental and important goals of neuroscience. The use of the mouse as a model for parsing how vision works at a fundamental level started approximately a decade ago, ushered in by the mouse's convenient size, relatively low cost, and, above all, amenability to genetic perturbations. In the course of that effort, a large cadre of new and powerful tools for in vivo labeling, monitoring, and manipulation of neurons were applied to this species. As a consequence, a significant body of work now exists on the architecture, function, and development of mouse central visual pathways. Excitingly, much of that work includes causal testing of the role of specific cell types and circuits in visual perception and behavior-something rare to find in studies of the visual system of other species. Indeed, one could argue that more information is now available about the mouse visual system than any other sensory system, in any species, including humans. As such, the mouse visual system has become a platform for multilevel analysis of the mammalian central nervous system generally. Here we review the mouse visual system structure, function, and development literature and comment on the similarities and differences between the visual system of this and other model species. We also make it a point to highlight the aspects of mouse visual circuitry that remain opaque and that are in need of additional experimentation to enrich our understanding of how vision works on a broad scale.

  7. Mass spectrometry analysis of hepcidin peptides in experimental mouse models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tjalsma, Harold; Laarakkers, Coby M M; van Swelm, Rachel P L; Theurl, Milan; Theurl, Igor; Kemna, Erwin H; van der Burgt, Yuri E M; Venselaar, Hanka; Dutilh, Bas E; Russel, Frans G M; Weiss, Günter; Masereeuw, Rosalinde; Fleming, Robert E; Swinkels, Dorine W

    2011-03-08

    The mouse is a valuable model for unravelling the role of hepcidin in iron homeostasis, however, such studies still report hepcidin mRNA levels as a surrogate marker for bioactive hepcidin in its pivotal function to block ferroportin-mediated iron transport. Here, we aimed to assess bioactive mouse Hepcidin-1 (Hep-1) and its paralogue Hepcidin-2 (Hep-2) at the peptide level. To this purpose, Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FTICR) and tandem-MS was used for hepcidin identification, after which a time-of-flight (TOF) MS-based methodology was exploited to routinely determine Hep-1 and -2 levels in mouse serum and urine. This method was biologically validated by hepcidin assessment in: i) 3 mouse strains (C57Bl/6; DBA/2 and BABL/c) upon stimulation with intravenous iron and LPS, ii) homozygous Hfe knock out, homozygous transferrin receptor 2 (Y245X) mutated mice and double affected mice, and iii) mice treated with a sublethal hepatotoxic dose of paracetamol. The results showed that detection of Hep-1 was restricted to serum, whereas Hep-2 and its presumed isoforms were predominantly present in urine. Elevations in serum Hep-1 and urine Hep-2 upon intravenous iron or LPS were only moderate and varied considerably between mouse strains. Serum Hep-1 was decreased in all three hemochromatosis models, being lowest in the double affected mice. Serum Hep-1 levels correlated with liver hepcidin-1 gene expression, while acute liver damage by paracetamol depleted Hep-1 from serum. Furthermore, serum Hep-1 appeared to be an excellent indicator of splenic iron accumulation. In conclusion, Hep-1 and Hep-2 peptide responses in experimental mouse agree with the known biology of hepcidin mRNA regulators, and their measurement can now be implemented in experimental mouse models to provide novel insights in post-transcriptional regulation, hepcidin function, and kinetics.

  8. Mass spectrometry analysis of hepcidin peptides in experimental mouse models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harold Tjalsma

    Full Text Available The mouse is a valuable model for unravelling the role of hepcidin in iron homeostasis, however, such studies still report hepcidin mRNA levels as a surrogate marker for bioactive hepcidin in its pivotal function to block ferroportin-mediated iron transport. Here, we aimed to assess bioactive mouse Hepcidin-1 (Hep-1 and its paralogue Hepcidin-2 (Hep-2 at the peptide level. To this purpose, Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FTICR and tandem-MS was used for hepcidin identification, after which a time-of-flight (TOF MS-based methodology was exploited to routinely determine Hep-1 and -2 levels in mouse serum and urine. This method was biologically validated by hepcidin assessment in: i 3 mouse strains (C57Bl/6; DBA/2 and BABL/c upon stimulation with intravenous iron and LPS, ii homozygous Hfe knock out, homozygous transferrin receptor 2 (Y245X mutated mice and double affected mice, and iii mice treated with a sublethal hepatotoxic dose of paracetamol. The results showed that detection of Hep-1 was restricted to serum, whereas Hep-2 and its presumed isoforms were predominantly present in urine. Elevations in serum Hep-1 and urine Hep-2 upon intravenous iron or LPS were only moderate and varied considerably between mouse strains. Serum Hep-1 was decreased in all three hemochromatosis models, being lowest in the double affected mice. Serum Hep-1 levels correlated with liver hepcidin-1 gene expression, while acute liver damage by paracetamol depleted Hep-1 from serum. Furthermore, serum Hep-1 appeared to be an excellent indicator of splenic iron accumulation. In conclusion, Hep-1 and Hep-2 peptide responses in experimental mouse agree with the known biology of hepcidin mRNA regulators, and their measurement can now be implemented in experimental mouse models to provide novel insights in post-transcriptional regulation, hepcidin function, and kinetics.

  9. Mass Spectrometry Analysis of Hepcidin Peptides in Experimental Mouse Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Swelm, Rachel P. L.; Theurl, Milan; Theurl, Igor; Kemna, Erwin H.; van der Burgt, Yuri E. M.; Venselaar, Hanka; Dutilh, Bas E.; Russel, Frans G. M.; Weiss, Günter; Masereeuw, Rosalinde; Fleming, Robert E.; Swinkels, Dorine W.

    2011-01-01

    The mouse is a valuable model for unravelling the role of hepcidin in iron homeostasis, however, such studies still report hepcidin mRNA levels as a surrogate marker for bioactive hepcidin in its pivotal function to block ferroportin-mediated iron transport. Here, we aimed to assess bioactive mouse Hepcidin-1 (Hep-1) and its paralogue Hepcidin-2 (Hep-2) at the peptide level. To this purpose, fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FTICR) and tandem-MS was used for hepcidin identification, after which a time-of-flight (TOF) MS-based methodology was exploited to routinely determine Hep-1 and -2 levels in mouse serum and urine. This method was biologically validated by hepcidin assessment in: i) 3 mouse strains (C57Bl/6; DBA/2 and BABL/c) upon stimulation with intravenous iron and LPS, ii) homozygous Hfe knock out, homozygous transferrin receptor 2 (Y245X) mutated mice and double affected mice, and iii) mice treated with a sublethal hepatotoxic dose of paracetamol. The results showed that detection of Hep-1 was restricted to serum, whereas Hep-2 and its presumed isoforms were predominantly present in urine. Elevations in serum Hep-1 and urine Hep-2 upon intravenous iron or LPS were only moderate and varied considerably between mouse strains. Serum Hep-1 was decreased in all three hemochromatosis models, being lowest in the double affected mice. Serum Hep-1 levels correlated with liver hepcidin-1 gene expression, while acute liver damage by paracetamol depleted Hep-1 from serum. Furthermore, serum Hep-1 appeared to be an excellent indicator of splenic iron accumulation. In conclusion, Hep-1 and Hep-2 peptide responses in experimental mouse agree with the known biology of hepcidin mRNA regulators, and their measurement can now be implemented in experimental mouse models to provide novel insights in post-transcriptional regulation, hepcidin function, and kinetics. PMID:21408141

  10. Assisting People with Multiple Disabilities and Minimal Motor Behavior to Control Environmental Stimulation through a Mouse Wheel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Ching-Hsiang; Shih, Ching-Tien; Lin, Kun-Tsan; Chiang, Ming-Shan

    2009-01-01

    This study assessed whether two people with profound multiple disabilities and minimal motor behavior would be able to control environmental stimulation using thumb poke ability with a mouse wheel and a newly developed mouse driver (i.e., a new mouse driver replacing standard mouse driver, and turning a mouse into a precise thumb poke detector).…

  11. Differences between mouse and rat myocardial contractile responsiveness to calcium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, W W; Conrad, C H

    1999-10-01

    Genetically altered mice have become an increasingly important tool for the study of mechanisms of cardiac function, and therefore it is vital to characterize the basic contractile properties of the mouse heart. As a first approach to this goal, we first optimized perfusion conditions and characterized the effect of incremental left ventricular balloon inflation on end-diastolic, systolic and developed pressures in the isovolumically-contracting mouse heart. Under constant loading conditions, we determined developed pressure in response to changing perfusate calcium (1.25, 2.5, 3.75 and 5.0 mM) and perfusate temperature (30 and 37 degrees C). We then compared the intrinsic inotropic responsiveness to changes in extracellular calcium of left ventricular myocardium from mouse to that from the rat. In the baseline state (1.25 mM extracellular calcium; [Ca2+]o), both isometric contraction duration and normalized active force at the peak of the active force-length relationship (Lmax) were less in mouse than in rat myocardium. Under isotonic conditions, temporal parameters of shortening and the relative shortening were less in mouse vs rat myocardium. Increasing [Ca2+]o from 1.25 to 2.5 mM markedly increased active isometric force and rate of force development (+dF/dt) in the mouse. However, rat myocardium responded to a lesser extent. Under isotonic conditions, peak shortening and the rate of shortening also increased to a greater extent in mouse relative to rat myocardium. Increasing the bath calcium concentration to 5.0 mM increased isometric force and +dF/dt further in the rat but not the mouse, suggesting that two species operate at different points on the force vs [Ca2+]o relationship. We conclude that mouse myocardium exhibits increased sensitivity to changes in [Ca2+]o within the physiologic range in comparison to rat. These differences do not appear to be due to differences in loading conditions. The data suggest that differences in inotropic responsiveness to

  12. Mouse models for Down syndrome-associated developmental cognitive disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chunhong; Belichenko, Pavel V; Zhang, Li; Fu, Dawei; Kleschevnikov, Alexander M; Baldini, Antonio; Antonarakis, Stylianos E; Mobley, William C; Yu, Y Eugene

    2011-01-01

    Down syndrome (DS) is mainly caused by the presence of an extra copy of human chromosome 21 (Hsa21) and is a leading genetic cause for developmental cognitive disabilities in humans. The mouse is a premier model organism for DS because the regions on Hsa21 are syntenically conserved with three regions in the mouse genome, which are located on mouse chromosome 10 (Mmu10), Mmu16 and Mmu17. With the advance of chromosomal manipulation technologies, new mouse mutants have been generated to mimic DS at both the genotypic and phenotypic levels. Further mouse-based molecular genetic studies in the future may lead to the unraveling of the mechanisms underlying DS-associated developmental cognitive disabilities, which would lay the groundwork for developing effective treatments for this phenotypic manifestation. In this review, we will discuss recent progress and future challenges in modeling DS-associated developmental cognitive disability in mice with an emphasis on hippocampus-related phenotypes. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. A Comprehensive Atlas of the Adult Mouse Penis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Tiffany R.; Wright, David K.; Gradie, Paul E.; Johnston, Leigh A.; Pask, Andrew J.

    2016-01-01

    Mice are routinely used to study the development of the external genitalia and, in particular, the process of male urethral closure. This is because misplacement of the male penile urethra, or hypospadias, is amongst the most common birth defects reported in humans. While mice present a tractable model to study penile development, several structures differ between mice and humans, and there is a lack of consensus in the literature on their annotation and developmental origins. Defining the ontology of the mouse prepuce is especially important for the relevance and interpretation of mouse models of hypospadias to human conditions. We have developed a detailed annotation of the adult mouse penis that addresses these differences and enables an accurate comparison of murine and human hypospadias phenotypes. Through MRI data, gross morphology and section histology, we define the origin of the mouse external and internal prepuces, their relationship to the single human foreskin as well as provide a comprehensive view of the various structures of the mouse penis and their associated muscle attachments within the body. These data are combined to annotate structures in a novel 3D adult penis atlas that can be downloaded, viewed at any angle, and manipulated to examine the relationship of various structures. PMID:26112156

  14. A provisional gene regulatory atlas for mouse heart development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hailin; VanBuren, Vincent

    2014-01-01

    Congenital Heart Disease (CHD) is one of the most common birth defects. Elucidating the molecular mechanisms underlying normal cardiac development is an important step towards early identification of abnormalities during the developmental program and towards the creation of early intervention strategies. We developed a novel computational strategy for leveraging high-content data sets, including a large selection of microarray data associated with mouse cardiac development, mouse genome sequence, ChIP-seq data of selected mouse transcription factors and Y2H data of mouse protein-protein interactions, to infer the active transcriptional regulatory network of mouse cardiac development. We identified phase-specific expression activity for 765 overlapping gene co-expression modules that were defined for obtained cardiac lineage microarray data. For each co-expression module, we identified the phase of cardiac development where gene expression for that module was higher than other phases. Co-expression modules were found to be consistent with biological pathway knowledge in Wikipathways, and met expectations for enrichment of pathways involved in heart lineage development. Over 359,000 transcription factor-target relationships were inferred by analyzing the promoter sequences within each gene module for overrepresentation against the JASPAR database of Transcription Factor Binding Site (TFBS) motifs. The provisional regulatory network will provide a framework of studying the genetic basis of CHD.

  15. A provisional gene regulatory atlas for mouse heart development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hailin Chen

    Full Text Available Congenital Heart Disease (CHD is one of the most common birth defects. Elucidating the molecular mechanisms underlying normal cardiac development is an important step towards early identification of abnormalities during the developmental program and towards the creation of early intervention strategies. We developed a novel computational strategy for leveraging high-content data sets, including a large selection of microarray data associated with mouse cardiac development, mouse genome sequence, ChIP-seq data of selected mouse transcription factors and Y2H data of mouse protein-protein interactions, to infer the active transcriptional regulatory network of mouse cardiac development. We identified phase-specific expression activity for 765 overlapping gene co-expression modules that were defined for obtained cardiac lineage microarray data. For each co-expression module, we identified the phase of cardiac development where gene expression for that module was higher than other phases. Co-expression modules were found to be consistent with biological pathway knowledge in Wikipathways, and met expectations for enrichment of pathways involved in heart lineage development. Over 359,000 transcription factor-target relationships were inferred by analyzing the promoter sequences within each gene module for overrepresentation against the JASPAR database of Transcription Factor Binding Site (TFBS motifs. The provisional regulatory network will provide a framework of studying the genetic basis of CHD.

  16. Interspecies toxicity correlations of rat, mouse and Photobacterium phosphoreum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaiser, K.L.E.; McKinnon, M.B. (National Water Research Inst., Burlington, Ontario (Canada)); Fort, F.L. (Abbott Labs., Abbott Park, IL (United States))

    1994-10-01

    This study investigates quantitatively the interspecies relationships of the acute toxicity of 684 organic chemicals to the rate, the mouse, and the luminescent marine bacterium Photobacterium phosphoreum, commonly known as the Microtox[reg sign] test. The results indicate significant relationships between the Microtox EC50 and rat and mouse LD50 values. The goodness of fit increases strongly from the oral to the intraperitoneal to the intravenous route of administration for each of the mouse and rat. Standard errors of the estimated rat values range from 0.52 to 0.72 log units of toxicity (after and before outlier removal, respectively) over a toxicity range of 4.6 (intraperitoneal) to 5.0 (oral) log units (mmol/kg body weight) of toxicity. For each of the three routes of administration, rat and mouse data are also highly correlated. This allows the computation of rat toxicities from mouse data and vice versa with standard errors of the estimates of 0.28 (intraperitoneal) to 0.30 (oral) log units.

  17. NIH Mouse Metabolic Phenotyping Centers: the power of centralized phenotyping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent Lloyd, K. C.; Cline, Gary W.; Wasserman, David H.

    2013-01-01

    The Mouse Metabolic Phenotyping Centers (MMPCs) were founded in 2001 by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) to advance biomedical research by providing the scientific community with standardized, high-quality phenotyping services for mouse models of diabetes, obesity, and their complications. The intent is to allow researchers to take optimum advantage of the many new mouse models produced in labs and in high-throughput public efforts. The six MMPCs are located at universities around the country and perform complex metabolic tests in intact mice and hormone and analyte assays in tissues on a fee-for-service basis. Testing is subsidized by the NIH in order to reduce the barriers for mouse researchers. Although data derived from these tests belong to the researcher submitting mice or tissues, these data are archived after publication in a public database run by the MMPC Coordinating and Bioinformatics Unit. It is hoped that data from experiments performed in many mouse models of metabolic diseases, using standard protocols, will be useful in understanding the nature of these complex disorders. The current areas of expertise include energy balance and body composition, insulin action and secretion, whole-body and tissue carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, cardiovascular and renal function, and metabolic pathway kinetics. In addition to providing services, the MMPC staff provides expertise and advice to researchers, and works to develop and refine test protocols to best meet the community’s needs in light of current scientific developments. Test technology is disseminated by publications and through annual courses. PMID:22940748

  18. Evidence for dual cyclooxygenases in mouse and rat brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keeting, P.E.; Zweig, A.; Lysz, T.W.

    1986-05-01

    The existence of dual forms of cyclooxygenase (CO) in the whole brain of rat and mouse was investigated. Using microsomes prepared from tissue homogenized in 10 mM EDTA and 1% BSA, they assayed for prostaglandin (PG) in a medium containing 1-(/sup 14/C)-arachidonic acid (AA: 1 ..mu..g; 300,000 cpm) 1.2 mM epinephrine, and 1 mM glutathione. The mouse microsomal PGE/sub 2/ synthesis rose rapidly and plateaued within 5 minutes while PGF/sub 2..cap alpha../ levels continued to rise through the 60 minute incubation. Evidence for the existence of two forms of the CO in the mouse brain came from the observations that (1) 0.4 ..mu..M indomethacin inhibited PGE/sub 2/ production) by 80% while PGF/sub 2..cap alpha../ synthesis decreased only 20% and (2) a 3 minute preincubation of the mouse microsomes with unlabelled AA (1 ..mu.. g) eliminated PGE/sub 2/ synthesis while PGF/sub 2..cap alpha../ synthesis continued. Similar results were obtained with rat brain microsomes. Rat kidney microsomal preparations appear not to have the two CO forms. From these observations, it is concluded that there are PGE/sub 2/ and PGF/sub 2..cap alpha../ associated CO in mouse and rat brain microsomal preparations. The PGF/sub 2..cap alpha../ associated CO is somewhat resistant to arachidonate induced destruction while the PGE/sub 2/ associated CO undergoes autodestruction readily.

  19. Dipole source localization of mouse electroencephalogram using the Fieldtrip toolbox.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chungki Lee

    Full Text Available The mouse model is an important research tool in neurosciences to examine brain function and diseases with genetic perturbation in different brain regions. However, the limited techniques to map activated brain regions under specific experimental manipulations has been a drawback of the mouse model compared to human functional brain mapping. Here, we present a functional brain mapping method for fast and robust in vivo brain mapping of the mouse brain. The method is based on the acquisition of high density electroencephalography (EEG with a microarray and EEG source estimation to localize the electrophysiological origins. We adapted the Fieldtrip toolbox for the source estimation, taking advantage of its software openness and flexibility in modeling the EEG volume conduction. Three source estimation techniques were compared: Distribution source modeling with minimum-norm estimation (MNE, scanning with multiple signal classification (MUSIC, and single-dipole fitting. Known sources to evaluate the performance of the localization methods were provided using optogenetic tools. The accuracy was quantified based on the receiver operating characteristic (ROC analysis. The mean detection accuracy was high, with a false positive rate less than 1.3% and 7% at the sensitivity of 90% plotted with the MNE and MUSIC algorithms, respectively. The mean center-to-center distance was less than 1.2 mm in single dipole fitting algorithm. Mouse microarray EEG source localization using microarray allows a reliable method for functional brain mapping in awake mouse opening an access to cross-species study with human brain.

  20. Genomic responses in mouse models poorly mimic human inflammatory diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seok, Junhee; Warren, H. Shaw; Cuenca, Alex G.; Mindrinos, Michael N.; Baker, Henry V.; Xu, Weihong; Richards, Daniel R.; McDonald-Smith, Grace P.; Gao, Hong; Hennessy, Laura; Finnerty, Celeste C.; López, Cecilia M.; Honari, Shari; Moore, Ernest E.; Minei, Joseph P.; Cuschieri, Joseph; Bankey, Paul E.; Johnson, Jeffrey L.; Sperry, Jason; Nathens, Avery B.; Billiar, Timothy R.; West, Michael A.; Jeschke, Marc G.; Klein, Matthew B.; Gamelli, Richard L.; Gibran, Nicole S.; Brownstein, Bernard H.; Miller-Graziano, Carol; Calvano, Steve E.; Mason, Philip H.; Cobb, J. Perren; Rahme, Laurence G.; Lowry, Stephen F.; Maier, Ronald V.; Moldawer, Lyle L.; Herndon, David N.; Davis, Ronald W.; Xiao, Wenzhong; Tompkins, Ronald G.; Abouhamze, Amer; Balis, Ulysses G. J.; Camp, David G.; De, Asit K.; Harbrecht, Brian G.; Hayden, Douglas L.; Kaushal, Amit; O’Keefe, Grant E.; Kotz, Kenneth T.; Qian, Weijun; Schoenfeld, David A.; Shapiro, Michael B.; Silver, Geoffrey M.; Smith, Richard D.; Storey, John D.; Tibshirani, Robert; Toner, Mehmet; Wilhelmy, Julie; Wispelwey, Bram; Wong, Wing H

    2013-01-01

    A cornerstone of modern biomedical research is the use of mouse models to explore basic pathophysiological mechanisms, evaluate new therapeutic approaches, and make go or no-go decisions to carry new drug candidates forward into clinical trials. Systematic studies evaluating how well murine models mimic human inflammatory diseases are nonexistent. Here, we show that, although acute inflammatory stresses from different etiologies result in highly similar genomic responses in humans, the responses in corresponding mouse models correlate poorly with the human conditions and also, one another. Among genes changed significantly in humans, the murine orthologs are close to random in matching their human counterparts (e.g., R2 between 0.0 and 0.1). In addition to improvements in the current animal model systems, our study supports higher priority for translational medical research to focus on the more complex human conditions rather than relying on mouse models to study human inflammatory diseases. PMID:23401516

  1. Mouse Mos protooncogene product is present and functions during oogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paules, R S; Buccione, R; Moschel, R C; Vande Woude, G F; Eppig, J J

    1989-01-01

    We have identified the mouse Mos-encoded protein product, p39mos, in maturing mouse oocytes and have shown that it is indistinguishable from the product expressed in Mos-transformed NIH 3T3 cells. p39mos is detected in oocytes arrested in the first meiotic prophase, during germinal-vesicle breakdown, metaphase I, anaphase I, and in ovulated eggs. We show that microinjection of three different Mos antisense (but not sense) oligodeoxyribonucleotides into germinal vesicle-stage oocytes prevents first polar-body emission and therefore interrupted the normal progression of meiosis. These results show that in mouse oocytes, as in the amphibian Xenopus [Sagata, N., Oskarsson, M., Copeland, T., Brumbaugh, J. & Vande Woude, G.F. (1988) Nature (London) 335, 519-525], the product of Mos is necessary for normal meiotic maturation. Images PMID:2526337

  2. Ultrastructure of Campylobacter jejuni in gamma-irradiated mouse jejunum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sosula, L.; Nicholls, E.M.; Skeen, M.

    1988-04-01

    This paper describes the ultrastructure of intracellular elongated, transitional and coccoid forms of Campylobacter jejuni, in irradiated mouse jejunum infected both in vitro and in vivo and in cultured human skin fibroblasts. Jejunum of irradiated mouse incubated for 1 hour under conditions favorable to the organisms showed minimal tissue degeneration. The intracellular organisms in this material were free cytoplasmic forms showing inner membrane degeneration, loss of cytoplasmic granules, and absence of flagella. The diameter of the coccoids was up to four times that of the elongated forms, as in plate cultures. Intracellular organisms were not found in challenged unirradiated controls, indicating that irradiation of mouse cells may be required for intracellular infection with human strains of C jejuni. In contrast, challenged human fibroblasts contained typical elongated organisms in cytoplasmic vacuoles. These findings are discussed with reference to Campylobacter strain, host resistance, and natural animal and human Campylobacter infections.

  3. Segregation distortion of mouse t haplotypes the molecular basis emerges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimenti, J

    2000-06-01

    The t haplotype is an ancestral version of proximal mouse chromosome 17 that has evolved mechanisms to persist as an intact genomic variant in mouse populations. t haplotypes contain mutations that affect embryonic development, male fertility and male transmission ratio distortion (TRD). Collectively, these mutations drive the evolutionary success of t haplotypes, a phenomenon that remains one of the longstanding mysteries of mouse genetics. Molecular genetic analysis of TRD has been confounded by inversions that arose to lock together the various elements of this complex trait. Our first molecular glimpse of the TRD mechanism has finally been revealed with the cloning of the t complex responder (Tcr) locus, a chimeric kinase with a genetically cis active effect. Whereas + sperm in a +/t male have impaired flagellar function caused by the deleterious action of trans-active, t-haplotype-encoded 'distorters,' the mutant activity of Tcr counterbalances the distorter effects, maintaining the motility and fertilizing ability of t sperm.

  4. Genetic analysis of Down syndrome facilitated by mouse chromosome engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li; Fu, Dawei; Belichenko, Pavel V.; Liu, Chunhong; Kleschevnikov, Alexander M.; Pao, Annie; Liang, Ping; Clapcote, Steven J.; Mobley, William C.; Yu, Y. Eugene

    2012-01-01

    Human trisomy 21 is the most frequent live-born human aneuploidy and causes a constellation of disease phenotypes classified as Down syndrome, which include heart defects, myeloproliferative disorder, cognitive disabilities and Alzheimer-type neurodegeneration. Because these phenotypes are associated with an extra copy of a human chromosome, the genetic analysis of Down syndrome has been a major challenge. To complement human genetic approaches, mouse models have been generated and analyzed based on evolutionary conservation between the human and mouse genomes. These efforts have been greatly facilitated by Cre/loxP-mediated mouse chromosome engineering, which may result in the establishment of minimal critical genomic regions and eventually new dosage-sensitive genes associated with Down syndrome phenotypes. The success in genetic analysis of Down syndrome will further enhance our understanding of this disorder and lead to better strategies in developing effective therapeutic interventions. PMID:22126738

  5. Initial sequencing and comparative analysis of the mouse genome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waterston, Robert H.; Lindblad-Toh, Kerstin; Birney, Ewan; Rogers, Jane; Abril, Josep F.; Agarwal, Pankaj; Agarwala, Richa; Ainscough, Rachel; Alexandersson, Marina; An, Peter; Antonarakis, Stylianos E.; Attwood, John; Baertsch, Robert; Bailey, Jonathon; Barlow, Karen; Beck, Stephan; Berry, Eric; Birren, Bruce; Bloom, Toby; Bork, Peer; Botcherby, Marc; Bray, Nicolas; Brent, Michael R.; Brown, Daniel G.; Brown, Stephen D.; Bult, Carol; Burton, John; Butler, Jonathan; Campbell, Robert D.; Carninci, Piero; Cawley, Simon; Chiaromonte, Francesca; Chinwalla, Asif T.; Church, Deanna M.; Clamp, Michele; Clee, Christopher; Collins, Francis S.; Cook, Lisa L.; Copley, Richard R.; Coulson, Alan; Couronne, Olivier; Cuff, James; Curwen, Val; Cutts, Tim; Daly, Mark; David, Robert; Davies, Joy; Delehaunty, Kimberly D.; Deri, Justin; Dermitzakis, Emmanouil T.; Dewey, Colin; Dickens, Nicholas J.; Diekhans, Mark; Dodge, Sheila; Dubchak, Inna; Dunn, Diane M.; Eddy, Sean R.; Elnitski, Laura; Emes, Richard D.; Eswara, Pallavi; Eyras, Eduardo; Felsenfeld, Adam; Fewell, Ginger A.; Flicek, Paul; Foley, Karen; Frankel, Wayne N.; Fulton, Lucinda A.; Fulton, Robert S.; Furey, Terrence S.; Gage, Diane; Gibbs, Richard A.; Glusman, Gustavo; Gnerre, Sante; Goldman, Nick; Goodstadt, Leo; Grafham, Darren; Graves, Tina A.; Green, Eric D.; Gregory, Simon; Guigo, Roderic; Guyer, Mark; Hardison, Ross C.; Haussler, David; Hayashizaki, Yoshihide; Hillier, LaDeana W.; Hinrichs, Angela; Hlavina, Wratko; Holzer, Timothy; Hsu, Fan; Hua, Axin; Hubbard, Tim; Hunt, Adrienne; Jackson, Ian; Jaffe, David B.; Johnson, L. Steven; Jones, Matthew; Jones, Thomas A.; Joy, Ann; Kamal, Michael; Karlsson, Elinor K.; Karolchik, Donna; Kasprzyk, Arkadiusz; Kawai, Jun; Keibler, Evan; Kells, Cristyn; Kent, W. James; Kirby, Andrew; Kolbe, Diana L.; Korf, Ian; Kucherlapati, Raju S.; Kulbokas III, Edward J.; Kulp, David; Landers, Tom; Leger, J.P.; Leonard, Steven; Letunic, Ivica; Levine, Rosie; et al.

    2002-12-15

    The sequence of the mouse genome is a key informational tool for understanding the contents of the human genome and a key experimental tool for biomedical research. Here, we report the results of an international collaboration to produce a high-quality draft sequence of the mouse genome. We also present an initial comparative analysis of the mouse and human genomes, describing some of the insights that can be gleaned from the two sequences. We discuss topics including the analysis of the evolutionary forces shaping the size, structure and sequence of the genomes; the conservation of large-scale synteny across most of the genomes; the much lower extent of sequence orthology covering less than half of the genomes; the proportions of the genomes under selection; the number of protein-coding genes; the expansion of gene families related to reproduction and immunity; the evolution of proteins; and the identification of intraspecies polymorphism.

  6. Non-Transgenic Mouse Models of Kidney Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabe, Michael; Schaefer, Franz

    2016-01-01

    Animal models are essential tools to understand the mechanisms underlying the development and progression of renal disease and to study potential therapeutic approaches. Recently, interventional models suitable to induce acute and chronic kidney disease in the mouse have become a focus of interest due to the wide availability of genetically engineered mouse lines. These models differ by their damaging mechanism (cell toxicity, immune mechanisms, surgical renal mass reduction, ischemia, hypertension, ureter obstruction etc.), functional and histomorphological phenotype and disease evolution. The susceptibility to a damaging mechanism often depends on strain and gender. The C57BL/6 strain, the most commonly used genetic background of transgenic mice, appears to be relatively resistant against developing glomerulosclerosis, proteinuria and hypertension. This review serves to provide a comprehensive overview of interventional mouse models of acute and chronic kidney disease. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. mouseTube – a database to collaboratively unravel mouse ultrasonic communication [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Torquet

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasonic vocalisation is a broadly used proxy to evaluate social communication in mouse models of neuropsychiatric disorders. The efficacy and robustness of testing these models suffer from limited knowledge of the structure and functions of these vocalisations as well as of the way to analyse the data. We created mouseTube, an open database with a web interface, to facilitate sharing and comparison of ultrasonic vocalisations data and metadata attached to a recording file. Metadata describe 1 the acquisition procedure, e.g., hardware, software, sampling frequency, bit depth; 2 the biological protocol used to elicit ultrasonic vocalisations; 3 the characteristics of the individual emitting ultrasonic vocalisations (e.g., strain, sex, age. To promote open science and enable reproducibility, data are made freely available. The website provides searching functions to facilitate the retrieval of recording files of interest. It is designed to enable comparisons of ultrasonic vocalisation emission between strains, protocols or laboratories, as well as to test different analysis algorithms and to search for protocols established to elicit mouse ultrasonic vocalisations. Over the long term, users will be able to download and compare different analysis results for each data file. Such application will boost the knowledge on mouse ultrasonic communication and stimulate sharing and comparison of automatic analysis methods to refine phenotyping techniques in mouse models of neuropsychiatric disorders.

  8. Wrist Hypothermia Related to Continuous Work with a Computer Mouse: A Digital Infrared Imaging Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Reste

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Computer work is characterized by sedentary static workload with low-intensity energy metabolism. The aim of our study was to evaluate the dynamics of skin surface temperature in the hand during prolonged computer mouse work under different ergonomic setups. Digital infrared imaging of the right forearm and wrist was performed during three hours of continuous computer work (measured at the start and every 15 minutes thereafter in a laboratory with controlled ambient conditions. Four people participated in the study. Three different ergonomic computer mouse setups were tested on three different days (horizontal computer mouse without mouse pad; horizontal computer mouse with mouse pad and padded wrist support; vertical computer mouse without mouse pad. The study revealed a significantly strong negative correlation between the temperature of the dorsal surface of the wrist and time spent working with a computer mouse. Hand skin temperature decreased markedly after one hour of continuous computer mouse work. Vertical computer mouse work preserved more stable and higher temperatures of the wrist (>30 °C, while continuous use of a horizontal mouse for more than two hours caused an extremely low temperature (<28 °C in distal parts of the hand. The preliminary observational findings indicate the significant effect of the duration and ergonomics of computer mouse work on the development of hand hypothermia.

  9. Metformina minimiza as alterações morfométricas no músculo sóleo de ratos submetidos à imobilização articular Metformin minimizes the morphometric alterations in the soleus muscle of rats submitted to articular immobilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Lima Bosi

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available A proposta deste trabalho foi avaliar o músculo sóleo (S de ratos submetidos à imobilização articular por sete dias, associado ou não ao tratamento com metformina (MET, 1,4mg.ml-1 por meio de análises morfométricas. Ratos adultos Wistar (n = 5 foram divididos nos grupos: controle (C, imobilizado em posição neutra do tornozelo (I, tratado com metformina (M, imobilizado tratado com metformina (I + MET. Foram avaliadas a área das fibras, a densidade de área do tecido conjuntivo intramuscular e a massa muscular do S. A análise estatística foi realizada pelo teste de normalidade, ANOVA e de Tukey (p The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of metformin treatment on the muscle mass, fibers area and connective tissue area density in soleus (S muscle under articular immobilization. METHODS AND RESULTS: Male Wistar rats (250-300g were divided in 4 groups (n=5: control, treated with metformin, immobilized and immobilized treated with metformin. Immobilization was performed by acrylic resin orthoses on the left hindlimb keeping the ankle in neutral position during 7 days. The animals were euthanatized and the S muscle was dissected and weighed. Samples of its ventral portion were treated for inclusion in paraffin and stained in Hematoxylin-Eosin (H:E. The results were obtained through analyses of the muscular fiber area (images analyzed - Image Pró-plus 4,0, as well as of intramuscular connective tissue by means of planimetry. The statistical analysis was performed by normality test followed by ANOVA and Tukey (p<0.05. Hindlimb immobilization during 7 days promoted significant reduction (p<0.05 of 35% in the muscular mass; 44% (p<0.05 in the fiber area and increase of 216% (p<0.05 in the intramuscular connective tissue. The metformin in immobilized group promoted significant alterations (p<0.05 in the muscular mass. In addiction, it was observed significant increase (p<0.05 of 29.6% in the fibers area and significant reduction (p<0

  10. Methods of in-vivo mouse lung micro-CT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recheis, Wolfgang A.; Nixon, Earl; Thiesse, Jacqueline; McLennan, Geoffrey; Ross, Alan; Hoffman, Eric

    2005-04-01

    Micro-CT will have a profound influence on the accumulation of anatomical and physiological phenotypic changes in natural and transgenetic mouse models. Longitudinal studies will be greatly facilitated, allowing for a more complete and accurate description of events if in-vivo studies are accomplished. The purpose of the ongoing project is to establish a feasible and reproducible setup for in-vivo mouse lung micro-computed tomography (μCT). We seek to use in-vivo respiratory-gated μCT to follow mouse models of lung disease with subsequent recovery of the mouse. Methodologies for optimizing scanning parameters and gating for the in-vivo mouse lung are presented. A Scireq flexiVent ventilated the gas-anesthetized mice at 60 breaths/minute, 30 cm H20 PEEP, 30 ml/kg tidal volume and provided a respiratory signal to gate a Skyscan 1076 μCT. Physiologic monitoring allowed the control of vital functions and quality of anesthesia, e.g. via ECG monitoring. In contrary to longer exposure times with ex-vivo scans, scan times for in-vivo were reduced using 35μm pixel size, 158ms exposure time and 18μm pixel size, 316ms exposure time to reduce motion artifacts. Gating via spontaneous breathing was also tested. Optimal contrast resolution was achieved at 50kVp, 200μA, applying an aluminum filter (0.5mm). There were minimal non-cardiac related motion artifacts. Both 35μm and 1μm voxel size images were suitable for evaluation of the airway lumen and parenchymal density. Total scan times were 30 and 65 minutes respectively. The mice recovered following scanning protocols. In-vivo lung scanning with recovery of the mouse delivered reasonable image quality for longitudinal studies, e.g. mouse asthma models. After examining 10 mice, we conclude μCT is a feasible tool evaluating mouse models of lung pathology in longitudinal studies with increasing anatomic detail available for evaluation as one moves from in-vivo to ex-vivo studies. Further developments include automated

  11. Material properties of mouse cervical tissue in normal gestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Kyoko; Mahendroo, Mala; Vink, Joy; Wapner, Ronald; Myers, Kristin

    2016-05-01

    An appropriately timed cervical remodeling process is critical for a healthy delivery, yet little is known about the material property changes of the cervix in pregnancy because obtaining human tissue samples is difficult. Rodent models offer advantages including accurately timed pregnant tissues and genetically altered models. Determining the material properties of the mouse cervix, however, is challenging because of its small size and complex geometry. The aim of this study is to quantify cervical material property changes in a normal mouse pregnancy using a microstructurally-inspired porous fiber composite model. We mechanically test intact, whole, gestation-timed mouse cervix by pulling apart tensioned sutures through its inner canal. To interpret our mechanical testing results, we conduct an inverse finite element analysis, taking into account the combined loading state of the thick-walled cylindrical tissue. We fit the material model to previous osmotic swelling data and load-deformation data from this study using a nonlinear optimization scheme, and validate the model by predicting a separate set of deformation data. Overall, the proposed porous fiber composite model captures the mechanical behavior of the mouse cervix in large deformation. The evolution of cervical material parameters indicates that in a normal mouse pregnancy, the cervix begins to soften between day 6 and day 12 of a 19-day gestation period. The material parameter associated with the collagen fiber stiffness decreases from 3.4MPa at gestation day 6 to 9.7e-4MPa at gestation day 18, while the ground substance stiffness decreases from 2.6e-1MPa to 7.0e-4MPa. Accelerated cervical remodeling can lead to extremely premature births. Little is known, however, about the material property changes of the cervix in pregnancy because pregnant human tissue samples are limited. Rodent models overcome this limitation and provide access to gestation-timed samples. Measuring the material property changes

  12. Expression of casein kinase 2 during mouse embryogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mestres, P; Boldyreff, B; Ebensperger, C

    1994-01-01

    This paper deals with the expression and distribution of casein kinase 2 (CK-2) subunits in mouse embryos at different developmental stages. Expression was investigated at the mRNA level of CK-2 alpha- and beta-subunits by in situ hybridization and distribution at the protein level by immunohisto......This paper deals with the expression and distribution of casein kinase 2 (CK-2) subunits in mouse embryos at different developmental stages. Expression was investigated at the mRNA level of CK-2 alpha- and beta-subunits by in situ hybridization and distribution at the protein level...

  13. Molecular Stability and Function of Mouse Hemoglobins(Biochemistry)

    OpenAIRE

    Kou, Uchida; Michael P., Reilly; Toshio, Asakura; Division of Hematology, The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia

    1998-01-01

    The hemoglobin types of mouse strains can be distinguished according to patterns observed on cellulose acetate electrophoresis. The two common mouse hemoglobin patterns are single and diffuse. The differences in the patterns result from differences in the β-globin chains of the hemoglobin molecules. Mice with the single hemoglobin pattern have one β-globin type identified as β-single (Hbb^s), whereas mice with the diffuse hemoglobin pattern have two different β-globin types identified as β-ma...

  14. Mouse Models for Campylobacter jejuni Colonization and Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, Martin; Graef, Franziska A; Vallance, Bruce A

    2017-01-01

    Relevant animal models for Campylobacter jejuni infection have been difficult to establish due to C. jejuni's inability to cause disease in many common animal research models. Fortunately, recent work has proven successful in developing several new and relevant mouse models of C. jejuni infection, including the SIGIRR-deficient mouse strain that develops acute enterocolitis in response to C. jejuni. Here we describe how to properly infect mice with C. jejuni, as well as a number of accompanying histological techniques to aid in studying C. jejuni colonization and infection in mice.

  15. Mouse Models as Predictors of Human Responses: Evolutionary Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhl, Elizabeth W; Warner, Natalie J

    Mice offer a number of advantages and are extensively used to model human diseases and drug responses. Selective breeding and genetic manipulation of mice have made many different genotypes and phenotypes available for research. However, in many cases, mouse models have failed to be predictive. Important sources of the prediction problem have been the failure to consider the evolutionary basis for species differences, especially in drug metabolism, and disease definitions that do not reflect the complexity of gene expression underlying disease phenotypes. Incorporating evolutionary insights into mouse models allow for unique opportunities to characterize the effects of diet, different gene expression profiles, and microbiomics underlying human drug responses and disease phenotypes.

  16. Endothelial and lipoprotein lipases in human and mouse placenta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindegaard, Marie Louise Skakkebæk; Olivecrona, Gunilla; Christoffersen, Christina

    2005-01-01

    Placenta expresses various lipase activities. However, a detailed characterization of the involved genes and proteins is lacking. In this study, we compared the expression of endothelial lipase (EL) and LPL in human term placenta. When placental protein extracts were separated by heparin...... protein associated with both cell types. In mouse placentas, lack of LPL expression resulted in increased EL mRNA expression. These results suggest that the cellular expression of EL and LPL in human placenta is different. Nevertheless, the two lipases might have overlapping functions in the mouse...... placenta. Our data also suggest that the major portions of both proteins are stored in an inactive form in human term placenta....

  17. AAV-6 mediated efficient transduction of mouse lower airways

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Wuping; Zhang, Liqun; Wu, Zhijian; Pickles, Raymond J.; Samulski, R. Jude

    2011-01-01

    AAV1 and AAV6 are two closely related AAV serotypes. In the present study, we found AAV6 was more efficient in transducing mouse lower airway epithelia in vitro and in vivo than AAV1. To further explore the mechanism of this difference, we found that significantly more AAV1 bound to mouse airway epithelia than AAV6, yet transduction by AAV6 was far superior. Lectin competition assays demonstrated that both AAV1 and AAV6 similarly utilize α-2, 3-, and to a lesser extend α-2, 6- linked sialic a...

  18. In mouse oocytes the mitochondrion-originated germinal body-like structures accumulate mouse Vasa homologue (MVH) protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reunov, Arkadiy A; Reunova, Yulia A

    2015-08-01

    Mouse Vasa homologue (MVH) antibodies were applied to mouse Graafian oocytes to clarify if mitochondrion-originated germinal body-like structures, described previously by conventional electron microscopy, were associated with the germ plasm. It was found that both the mitochondrion-like structures with cristae and the germinal body-like structures that lacked any signs of cristae were labelled specifically by the anti-MVH antibody. Moreover, some granules were MVH-positive ultrastructural hybrids of the mitochondria and germinal body-like structures, the presence of which clearly supported the idea of a mitochondrial origin for the germinal body-like structures. This finding is the first evidence that mitochondrion-originated germinal body-like granules represent mouse germ plasm.

  19. The PPCD1 mouse: characterization of a mouse model for posterior polymorphous corneal dystrophy and identification of a candidate gene.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna L Shen

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The PPCD1 mouse, a spontaneous mutant that arose in our mouse colony, is characterized by an enlarged anterior chamber resulting from metaplasia of the corneal endothelium and blockage of the iridocorneal angle by epithelialized corneal endothelial cells. The presence of stratified multilayered corneal endothelial cells with abnormal patterns of cytokeratin expression are remarkably similar to those observed in human posterior polymorphous corneal dystrophy (PPCD and the sporadic condition, iridocorneal endothelial syndrome. Affected eyes exhibit epithelialized corneal endothelial cells, with inappropriate cytokeratin expression and proliferation over the iridocorneal angle and posterior cornea. We have termed this the "mouse PPCD1" phenotype and mapped the mouse locus for this phenotype, designated "Ppcd1", to a 6.1 Mbp interval on Chromosome 2, which is syntenic to the human Chromosome 20 PPCD1 interval. Inheritance of the mouse PPCD1 phenotype is autosomal dominant, with complete penetrance on the sensitive DBA/2J background and decreased penetrance on the C57BL/6J background. Comparative genome hybridization has identified a hemizygous 78 Kbp duplication in the mapped interval. The endpoints of the duplication are located in positions that disrupt the genes Csrp2bp and 6330439K17Rik and lead to duplication of the pseudogene LOC100043552. Quantitative reverse transcriptase-PCR indicates that expression levels of Csrp2bp and 6330439K17Rik are decreased in eyes of PPCD1 mice. Based on the observations of decreased gene expression levels, association with ZEB1-related pathways, and the report of corneal opacities in Csrp2bp(tm1a(KOMPWtsi heterozygotes and embryonic lethality in nulls, we postulate that duplication of the 78 Kbp segment leading to haploinsufficiency of Csrp2bp is responsible for the mouse PPCD1 phenotype. Similarly, CSRP2BP haploinsufficiency may lead to human PPCD.

  20. Species status assessment report New Mexico meadow jumping mouse (Zapus hudsonius luteus)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The New Mexico meadow jumping mouse (Zapus hudsonius luteus) (jumping mouse) lives in dense riparian herbaceous vegetation along streams from southern Colorado to...

  1. The effects of X-rays on the mitotic activity of mouse epidermis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knowlton, N.P. Jr.; Hempelmann, L.H.; Hoffman, J.G.

    1949-04-19

    This report describes a simplified technique of obtaining the mitotic index of mouse skin and indicates the surprising sensitivity of the mitotic activity of mouse epithelium to the effects of x-rays.

  2. Oxygen sensing and conducted vasomotor responses in mouse cremaster arterioles in situ

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ngo, Thuc Anh; Jensen, Lars Jørn; Riemann, Mads Achen

    2010-01-01

    This study examines mechanisms by which changes in tissue oxygen tension elicit vasomotor responses and whether localized changes in oxygen tension initiates conducted vasomotor responses in mouse cremaster arterioles. Intravital microscopy was used to visualize the mouse cremaster microcirculati...

  3. Soleus H-reflex excitability during pedaling post-stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schindler-Ivens, Sheila; Brown, David A.; Lewis, Gwyn N.

    2008-01-01

    A major contributor to impaired locomotion post-stroke is abnormal phasing of paretic muscle activity, but the mechanisms remain unclear. Previous studies have shown that, in the paretic limb of people post-stroke, Group Ia reflexes are abnormally elevated and fail to decrease in amplitude during...

  4. On the mechanism of nucleolar dominance in mouse-human somatic cell hybrids.

    OpenAIRE

    Onishi, T; Berglund, C; Reeder, R H

    1984-01-01

    The mechanism of nucleolar dominance was studied in two lines of mouse-human somatic hybrids. Both lines had preferentially lost human chromosomes but had retained significant amounts of both mouse and human ribosomal genes (genes coding for the 18S, 5.8S, and 28S RNAs of ribosomes). However, the human ribosomal genes were repressed, and only mouse ribosomal genes were expressed. Soluble transcription extracts from the hybrids were able to initiate RNA synthesis accurately on a cloned mouse r...

  5. A pink mouse reports the switch from red to green fluorescence upon Cre-mediated recombination

    OpenAIRE

    Hartwich Heiner; Satheesh Somisetty V; Nothwang Hans

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Targeted genetic modification in the mouse becomes increasingly important in biomedical and basic science. This goal is most often achieved by use of the Cre/loxP system and numerous Cre-driver mouse lines are currently generated. Their initial characterization requires reporter mouse lines to study the in vivo spatiotemporal activity of Cre. Findings Here, we report a dual fluorescence reporter mouse line, which switches expression from the red fluorescent protein mCherry...

  6. Morphological phenotyping of mouse hearts using optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cua, Michelle; Lin, Eric; Lee, Ling; Sheng, Xiaoye; Wong, Kevin S. K.; Tibbits, Glen F.; Beg, Mirza Faisal; Sarunic, Marinko V.

    2014-11-01

    Transgenic mouse models have been instrumental in the elucidation of the molecular mechanisms behind many genetically based cardiovascular diseases such as Marfan syndrome (MFS). However, the characterization of their cardiac morphology has been hampered by the small size of the mouse heart. In this report, we adapted optical coherence tomography (OCT) for imaging fixed adult mouse hearts, and applied tools from computational anatomy to perform morphometric analyses. The hearts were first optically cleared and imaged from multiple perspectives. The acquired volumes were then corrected for refractive distortions, and registered and stitched together to form a single, high-resolution OCT volume of the whole heart. From this volume, various structures such as the valves and myofibril bundles were visualized. The volumetric nature of our dataset also allowed parameters such as wall thickness, ventricular wall masses, and luminal volumes to be extracted. Finally, we applied the entire acquisition and processing pipeline in a preliminary study comparing the cardiac morphology of wild-type mice and a transgenic mouse model of MFS.

  7. Morphological phenotyping of mouse hearts using optical coherence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cua, Michelle; Lin, Eric; Lee, Ling; Sheng, Xiaoye; Wong, Kevin S K; Tibbits, Glen F; Beg, Mirza Faisal; Sarunic, Marinko V

    2014-01-01

    Transgenic mouse models have been instrumental in the elucidation of the molecular mechanisms behind many genetically based cardiovascular diseases such as Marfan syndrome (MFS). However, the characterization of their cardiac morphology has been hampered by the small size of the mouse heart. In this report, we adapted optical coherence tomography (OCT) for imaging fixed adult mouse hearts, and applied tools from computational anatomy to perform morphometric analyses. The hearts were first optically cleared and imaged from multiple perspectives. The acquired volumes were then corrected for refractive distortions, and registered and stitched together to form a single, high-resolution OCT volume of the whole heart. From this volume, various structures such as the valves and myofibril bundles were visualized. The volumetric nature of our dataset also allowed parameters such as wall thickness, ventricular wall masses, and luminal volumes to be extracted. Finally, we applied the entire acquisition and processing pipeline in a preliminary study comparing the cardiac morphology of wild-type mice and a transgenic mouse model of MFS.

  8. Early stages in human and mouse T-cell development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spits, H.

    1994-01-01

    One important question in lymphopoiesis is where stem cells commit to T-, B- and natural killer (NK)-cell lineages. Recent findings in human and mouse systems suggest that the thymus is seeded by a yet uncommitted progenitor cell. The earliest murine thymic progenitor cells have the capacity to

  9. Study of methyl bromide reactivity with human and mouse hemoglobin

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study has been carried out on in-vitro reactivity of human and mouse hemoglobin spectrophotometrically at physiological pH, using different protein to reagent ratios. Hemoglobin side chains were modified with different concentrations of methyl bromide on agro-soil fumigant. To ascertain if the site of alkylation was the ...

  10. A Mouse Geneticist’s Practical Guide to CRISPR Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Priti; Schimenti, John C.; Bolcun-Filas, Ewelina

    2015-01-01

    CRISPR/Cas9 system of RNA-guided genome editing is revolutionizing genetics research in a wide spectrum of organisms. Even for the laboratory mouse, a model that has thrived under the benefits of embryonic stem (ES) cell knockout capabilities for nearly three decades, CRISPR (Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats)/Cas9 technology enables one to manipulate the genome with unprecedented simplicity and speed. It allows generation of null, conditional, precisely mutated, reporter, or tagged alleles in mice. Moreover, it holds promise for other applications beyond genome editing. The crux of this system is the efficient and targeted introduction of DNA breaks that are repaired by any of several pathways in a predictable but not entirely controllable manner. Thus, further optimizations and improvements are being developed. Here, we summarize current applications and provide a practical guide to use the CRISPR/Cas9 system for mouse mutagenesis, based on published reports and our own experiences. We discuss critical points and suggest technical improvements to increase efficiency of RNA-guided genome editing in mouse embryos and address practical problems such as mosaicism in founders, which complicates genotyping and phenotyping. We describe a next-generation sequencing strategy for simultaneous characterization of on- and off-target editing in mice derived from multiple CRISPR experiments. Additionally, we report evidence that elevated frequency of precise, homology-directed editing can be achieved by transient inhibition of the Ligase IV-dependent nonhomologous end-joining pathway in one-celled mouse embryos. PMID:25271304

  11. Giant renin secretory granules in beige mouse renal afferent arterioles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, B L; Rasch, Ruth; Nyengaard, Jens Randel

    1997-01-01

    The mutant beige mouse (C57BL/6 bg) has a disease characterised by abnormally enlarged cytoplasmic granules in a variety of cells. With the purpose of establishing a suitable cellular model for studying renin secretion, the present study was undertaken to compare renin granule morphology in beige...

  12. Mouse embryos cultured in amniotic fluid | Oettle | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One thousand mouse embryos were collected over a period of 6 weeks·and randomly assigned to either amniotic fluid aspirated during routine amniocentesis from normal 16 weeks pregnant patients or Earle's medium. The embryos were cultured for 72 hours at 37°C in 5% carbon dioxide in air. Osmolarity, pH, partial ...

  13. Somatic structural rearrangements in genetically engineered mouse mammary tumors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Varela, I.; Klijn, C.N.; Stephens, P.J.; Mudie, L.J.; Stebbings, L.; Galappaththige, D.; Van der Gulden, H.; Schut, E.; Klarenbeek, S.; Campbell, P.J.; Wessels, L.F.A.; Stratton, M.R.; Jonkers, J.; Futreal, P.A.; Adams, D.J.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Here we present the first paired-end sequencing of tumors from genetically engineered mouse models of cancer to determine how faithfully these models recapitulate the landscape of somatic rearrangements found in human tumors. These were models of Trp53-mutated breast cancer, Brca1- and

  14. Mesenchymal stem cells promote incision wound repair in a mouse ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    250 cells/cm2. Conclusion: The results suggest that MSC therapies enhance the tissue regeneration capacity in mice, especially in older populations, through effective transdifferentiation into the epithelium. Keywords: Mesenchymal stem cell, wound healing, mouse. Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research is indexed ...

  15. In vitro differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells into functional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In vitro differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells into functional hepatocytes by sodium butyrate, hepatocyte growth factor and dexamethasone under ... under chemically defined conditions, which might be useful as an in vitro system for hepatocyte transplantation therapy and toxicity screening in drug discovery.

  16. ADP-ribosylation of nuclear proteins in mouse testis

    OpenAIRE

    Faraone Mennella, Maria R.; Quesada, Piera; Farina, Benedetta; Leone, Enzo; Jones, Roy

    1982-01-01

    The nuclear acceptor proteins for poly(ADP-ribose) were investigated in mouse liver and testis. In liver, histones are ribosylated preferentially, whereas in testis the major acceptors are non-histone proteins. An analysis of the purified testicular acceptor proteins suggests that they are high- and low-mobility-group-like proteins.

  17. In vitro differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells into functional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-08-22

    Aug 22, 2011 ... Studies have shown that embryonic stem (ES) cells can be successfully differentiated into liver cells, which offer the potential unlimited cell source for a variety of end-stage liver disease. In our study, in order to induce mouse ES cells to differentiate into hepatocyte-like cells under chemically defined.

  18. Preimplantation death of xenomitochondrial mouse embryo harbouring bovine mitochondria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawahara, Manabu; Koyama, Shiori; Iimura, Satomi; Yamazaki, Wataru; Tanaka, Aiko; Kohri, Nanami; Sasaki, Keisuke; Takahashi, Masashi

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondria, cellular organelles playing essential roles in eukaryotic cell metabolism, are thought to have evolved from bacteria. The organization of mtDNA is remarkably uniform across species, reflecting its vital and conserved role in oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS). Our objectives were to evaluate the compatibility of xenogeneic mitochondria in the development of preimplantation embryos in mammals. Mouse embryos harbouring bovine mitochondria (mtB-M embryos) were prepared by the cell-fusion technique employing the haemagglutinating virus of Japan (HVJ). The mtB-M embryos showed developmental delay at embryonic days (E) 3.5 after insemination. Furthermore, none of the mtB-M embryos could implant into the maternal uterus after embryo transfer, whereas control mouse embryos into which mitochondria from another mouse had been transferred developed as well as did non-manipulated embryos. When we performed quantitative PCR (qPCR) of mouse and bovine ND5, we found that the mtB-M embryos contained 8.3% of bovine mitochondria at the blastocyst stage. Thus, contamination with mitochondria from another species induces embryonic lethality prior to implantation into the maternal uterus. The heteroplasmic state of these xenogeneic mitochondria could have detrimental effects on preimplantation development, leading to preservation of species-specific mitochondrial integrity in mammals. PMID:26416548

  19. Monitoring foam coarsening using a computer optical mouse as a ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper, we present an experimental approach to track coarsening process of foam using a computer optical mouse as a dynamic laser speckle measurement sensor. The dynamics of foam coarsening and rearrangement events cause changes in the intensity of laser speckle backscattered from the foam. A strong ...

  20. Monitoring foam coarsening using a computer optical mouse as a ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. In this paper, we present an experimental approach to track coarsening process of foam using a computer optical mouse as a dynamic laser speckle measurement sensor. The dynamics of foam coarsening and rearrangement events cause changes in the intensity of laser speckle backscat- tered from the foam.

  1. In vitro culture of mouse embryos amniotic fluid ID human

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1989-07-15

    Jul 15, 1989 ... Human amniotic fluid was compared with Ham's F-10 culture medium as a possible alternative for use in in vitro fertilisation. The cleavage success of mouse embryos in human amniotic fluid (experimental group) was 92% compared with 86% in. Ham's F-10 medium. It is concluded that human amniotic.

  2. Modeling fragile X syndrome in the Fmr1 knockout mouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazdoba, Tatiana M.; Leach, Prescott T.; Silverman, Jill L.; Crawley, Jacqueline N.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Fragile X Syndrome (FXS) is a commonly inherited form of intellectual disability and one of the leading genetic causes for autism spectrum disorder. Clinical symptoms of FXS can include impaired cognition, anxiety, hyperactivity, social phobia, and repetitive behaviors. FXS is caused by a CGG repeat mutation which expands a region on the X chromosome containing the FMR1 gene. In FXS, a full mutation (> 200 repeats) leads to hypermethylation of FMR1, an epigenetic mechanism that effectively silences FMR1 gene expression and reduces levels of the FMR1 gene product, fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP). FMRP is an RNA-binding protein that is important for the regulation of protein expression. In an effort to further understand how loss of FMR1 and FMRP contribute to FXS symptomology, several FXS animal models have been created. The most well characterized rodent model is the Fmr1 knockout (KO) mouse, which lacks FMRP protein due to a disruption in its Fmr1 gene. Here, we review the behavioral phenotyping of the Fmr1 KO mouse to date, and discuss the clinical relevance of this mouse model to the human FXS condition. While much remains to be learned about FXS, the Fmr1 KO mouse is a valuable tool for understanding the repercussions of functional loss of FMRP and assessing the efficacy of pharmacological compounds in ameliorating the molecular and behavioral phenotypes relevant to FXS. PMID:25606362

  3. Experience-dependent spatial expectations in mouse visual cortex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fiser, Aris; Mahringer, David; Oyibo, Hassana K.

    2016-01-01

    In generative models of brain function, internal representations are used to generate predictions of sensory input, yet little is known about how internal models influence sensory processing. Here we show that, with experience in a virtual environment, the activity of neurons in layer 2/3 of mous...... scene based on spatial location and compares this representation with feed-forward visual input....

  4. Simple and efficient expression of codon-optimized mouse leukemia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To obtain a higher yield of mouse leukemia inhibitory factor to maintain the proliferation potential of pluripotent stem cells at a low cost. Methods: A method was designed to produce recombinant mLIF protein (rmLIF) in Escherichia coli. Through analysis of rmLIF sequence, it was found that rare codons were ...

  5. Oxidative DNA damage in mouse sperm chromosomes: Size matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocer, Ayhan; Henry-Berger, Joelle; Noblanc, Anais; Champroux, Alexandre; Pogorelcnik, Romain; Guiton, Rachel; Janny, Laurent; Pons-Rejraji, Hanae; Saez, Fabrice; Johnson, Graham D; Krawetz, Stephen A; Alvarez, Juan G; Aitken, R John; Drevet, Joël R

    2015-12-01

    Normal embryo and foetal development as well as the health of the progeny are mostly dependent on gamete nuclear integrity. In the present study, in order to characterize more precisely oxidative DNA damage in mouse sperm we used two mouse models that display high levels of sperm oxidative DNA damage, a common alteration encountered both in in vivo and in vitro reproduction. Immunoprecipitation of oxidized sperm DNA coupled to deep sequencing showed that mouse chromosomes may be largely affected by oxidative alterations. We show that the vulnerability of chromosomes to oxidative attack inversely correlated with their size and was not linked to their GC richness. It was neither correlated with the chromosome content in persisting nucleosomes nor associated with methylated sequences. A strong correlation was found between oxidized sequences and sequences rich in short interspersed repeat elements (SINEs). Chromosome position in the sperm nucleus as revealed by fluorescent in situ hybridization appears to be a confounder. These data map for the first time fragile mouse sperm chromosomal regions when facing oxidative damage that may challenge the repair mechanisms of the oocyte post-fertilization. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. New Insights on the Morphology of Adult Mouse Penis1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Esequiel; Weiss, Dana A.; Yang, Jennifer H.; Menshenina, Julia; Ferretti, Max; Cunha, Tristan J.; Barcellos, Dale; Chan, Lok Yun; Risbridger, Gail; Cunha, Gerald R.; Baskin, Laurence S.

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT The adult mouse penis represents the end point of masculine sex differentiation of the embryonic genital tubercle and contains bone, cartilage, the urethra, erectile bodies, several types of epithelium, and many individual cell types arrayed into specific anatomical structures. Using contemporary high-resolution imaging techniques, we sought to provide new insights to the current description of adult mouse penile morphology to enable understanding of penile abnormalities, including hypospadias. Examination of serial transverse and longitudinal sections, scanning electron microscopy, and three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction provided a new appreciation of the individual structures in the adult mouse penis and their 3D interrelationships. In so doing, we discovered novel paired erectile bodies, the male urogenital mating protuberance (MUMP), and more accurately described the urethral meatus. These morphological observations were quantified by morphometric analysis and now provide accurate morphological end points of sex differentiation of mouse penis that will be the foundation of future studies to identify normal and abnormal penile development. PMID:21918128

  7. Withaferin A Suppresses Liver Tumor Growth in a Nude Mouse ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the effect of withaferin A on tumor growth and metastasis in liver in a nude mouse model. Methods: Withaferin A was injected through a portal vein to the orthotopic liver tumor in a nude mice model. Xenogen in vivo imaging system was used to monitor tumor growth and metastasis. The effect of ...

  8. Mouse DNA contamination in human tissue tested for XMRV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Mark J; Erlwein, Otto W; Kaye, Steve; Weber, Jonathan; Cingoz, Oya; Patel, Anup; Walker, Marjorie M; Kim, Wun-Jae; Uiprasertkul, Mongkol; Coffin, John M; McClure, Myra O

    2010-12-20

    We used a PCR-based approach to study the prevalence of genetic sequences related to a gammaretrovirus, xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus, XMRV, in human prostate cancer. This virus has been identified in the US in prostate cancer patients and in those with chronic fatigue syndrome. However, with the exception of two patients in Germany, XMRV has not been identified in prostate cancer tissue in Europe. Most putative associations of new or old human retroviruses with diseases have turned out to be due to contamination. We have looked for XMRV sequences in DNA extracted from formalin-fixed paraffin- embedded prostate tissues. To control for contamination, PCR assays to detect either mouse mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) or intracisternal A particle (IAP) long terminal repeat DNA were run on all samples, owing to their very high copy number in mouse cells. In general agreement with the US prevalence, XMRV-like sequences were found in 4.8% of prostate cancers. However, these were also positive, as were 21.5% of XMRV-negative cases, for IAP sequences, and many, but not all were positive for mtDNA sequences. These results show that contamination with mouse DNA is widespread and detectable by the highly sensitive IAP assay, but not always with less sensitive assays, such as murine mtDNA PCR. This study highlights the ubiquitous presence of mouse DNA in laboratory specimens and offers a means of rigorous validation for future studies of murine retroviruses in human disease.

  9. Measurements of radon activity concentration in mouse tissues and organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishimori, Yuu; Tanaka, Hiroshi; Sakoda, Akihiro; Kataoka, Takahiro; Yamaoka, Kiyonori; Mitsunobu, Fumihiro

    2017-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the biokinetics of inhaled radon, radon activity concentrations in mouse tissues and organs were determined after mice had been exposed to about 1 MBq/m(3) of radon in air. Radon activity concentrations in mouse blood and in other tissues and organs were measured with a liquid scintillation counter and with a well-type HP Ge detector, respectively. Radon activity concentration in mouse blood was 0.410 ± 0.016 Bq/g when saturated with 1 MBq/m(3) of radon activity concentration in air. In addition, average partition coefficients obtained were 0.74 ± 0.19 for liver, 0.46 ± 0.13 for muscle, 9.09 ± 0.49 for adipose tissue, and 0.22 ± 0.04 for other organs. With these results, a value of 0.414 for the blood-to-air partition coefficient was calculated by means of our physiologically based pharmacokinetic model. The time variation of radon activity concentration in mouse blood during exposure to radon was also calculated. All results are compared in detail with those found in the literature.

  10. Endogenous Mouse Dicer Is an Exclusively Cytoplasmic Protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Much

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Dicer is a large multi-domain protein responsible for the ultimate step of microRNA and short-interfering RNA biogenesis. In human and mouse cell lines, Dicer has been shown to be important in the nuclear clearance of dsRNA as well as the establishment of chromatin modifications. Here we set out to unambiguously define the cellular localization of Dicer in mice to understand if this is a conserved feature of mammalian Dicer in vivo. To this end, we utilized an endogenously epitope tagged Dicer knock-in mouse allele. From primary mouse cell lines and adult tissues, we determined with certainty by biochemical fractionation and confocal immunofluorescence microscopy that endogenous Dicer is exclusively cytoplasmic. We ruled out the possibility that a fraction of Dicer shuttles to and from the nucleus as well as that FGF or DNA damage signaling induce Dicer nuclear translocation. We also explored Dicer localization during the dynamic and developmental context of embryogenesis, where Dicer is ubiquitously expressed and strictly cytoplasmic in all three germ layers as well as extraembryonic tissues. Our data exclude a direct role for Dicer in the nuclear RNA processing in the mouse.

  11. Decerebrate mouse model for studies of the spinal cord circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meehan, Claire F; Mayr, Kyle A; Manuel, Marin; Nakanishi, Stan T; Whelan, Patrick J

    2017-04-01

    The adult decerebrate mouse model (a mouse with the cerebrum removed) enables the study of sensory-motor integration and motor output from the spinal cord for several hours without compromising these functions with anesthesia. For example, the decerebrate mouse is ideal for examining locomotor behavior using intracellular recording approaches, which would not be possible using current anesthetized preparations. This protocol describes the steps required to achieve a low-blood-loss decerebration in the mouse and approaches for recording signals from spinal cord neurons with a focus on motoneurons. The protocol also describes an example application for the protocol: the evocation of spontaneous and actively driven stepping, including optimization of these behaviors in decerebrate mice. The time taken to prepare the animal and perform a decerebration takes ∼2 h, and the mice are viable for up to 3-8 h, which is ample time to perform most short-term procedures. These protocols can be modified for those interested in cardiovascular or respiratory function in addition to motor function and can be performed by trainees with some previous experience in animal surgery.

  12. 40 CFR 798.5195 - Mouse biochemical specific locus test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... pattern. Presumed mutants are bred to confirm the genetic nature of the change. (3) Animal selection—(i... SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT (CONTINUED) HEALTH EFFECTS TESTING GUIDELINES Genetic Toxicity § 798.5195 Mouse...) A biochemical specific locus mutation is a genetic change resulting from a DNA lesion causing...

  13. Withaferin A Suppresses Liver Tumor Growth in a Nude Mouse ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Original Research Article. Withaferin A Suppresses Liver Tumor Growth in a Nude. Mouse Model by Downregulation of Cell Signaling Pathway. Leading to Invasion and Angiogenesis. Yu-Xu Wang*, Wei-Bao Ding and Cheng-Wei Dong. Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery, Weifang People's Hospital, Weifang 261041, ...

  14. RBE of fast neutrons for apoptosis in mouse thymocytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warenius, HM; Down, JD

    1995-01-01

    We compared apoptosis in mouse thymocytes following exposure to low doses of high linear energy transfer (LET), 625-MeV (p-->Be+) fast neutrons and low LET, 4-MeV photons by flow cytometric analysis of hypodiploid cells. The incidence of apoptotic cell death rose steeply at very low radiation doses

  15. Peptidomics Analysis of Transient Regeneration in the Neonatal Mouse Heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yi; Zhang, Qijun; Li, Hua; Cheng, Zijie; Li, Xing; Chen, Yumei; Shen, Yahui; Wang, Liansheng; Song, Guixian; Qian, Lingmei

    2017-09-01

    Neonatal mouse hearts have completely regenerative capability after birth, but the ability to regenerate rapidly lost after 7 days, the mechanism has not been clarified. Previous studies have shown that mRNA profile of adult mouse changed greatly compared to neonatal mouse. So far, there is no research of peptidomics related to heart regeneration. In order to explore the changes of proteins, enzymes, and peptides related to the transient regeneration, we used comparative petidomics technique to compare the endogenous peptides in the mouse heart of postnatal 1 and 7 days. In final, we identified 236 differentially expressed peptides, 169 of which were upregulated and 67 were downregulated in the postnatal 1 day heart, and also predicted 36 functional peptides associated with transient regeneration. The predicted 36 candidate peptides are located in the important domains of precursor proteins and/or contain the post-transcriptional modification (PTM) sites, which are involved in the biological processes of cardiac development, cardiac muscle disease, cell proliferation, necrosis, and apoptosis. In conclusion, for the first time, we compared the peptidomics profiles of neonatal heart between postnatal 1 day and postnatal 7 day. This study provides a new direction and an important basis for the mechanism research of transient regeneration in neonatal heart. J. Cell. Biochem. 118: 2828-2840, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. FANTOM5 CAGE profiles of human and mouse samples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noguchi, Shuhei; Arakawa, Takahiro; Fukuda, Shiro; Furuno, Masaaki; Hasegawa, Akira; Hori, Fumi; Ishikawa-Kato, Sachi; Kaida, Kaoru; Kaiho, Ai; Kanamori-Katayama, Mutsumi; Kawashima, Tsugumi; Kojima, Miki; Kubosaki, Atsutaka; Manabe, Ri-ichiroh; Murata, Mitsuyoshi; Nagao-Sato, Sayaka; Nakazato, Kenichi; Ninomiya, Noriko; Nishiyori-Sueki, Hiromi; Noma, Shohei; Saijyo, Eri; Saka, Akiko; Sakai, Mizuho; Simon, Christophe; Suzuki, Naoko; Tagami, Michihira; Watanabe, Shoko; Yoshida, Shigehiro; Arner, Peter; Axton, Richard A.; Babina, Magda; Baillie, J. Kenneth; Barnett, Timothy C.; Beckhouse, Anthony G.; Blumenthal, Antje; Bodega, Beatrice; Bonetti, Alessandro; Briggs, James; Brombacher, Frank; Carlisle, Ailsa J.; Clevers, Hans C.; Davis, Carrie A.; Detmar, Michael; Dohi, Taeko; Edge, Albert S. B.; Edinger, Matthias; Ehrlund, Anna; Ekwall, Karl; Endoh, Mitsuhiro; Enomoto, Hideki; Eslami, Afsaneh; Fagiolini, Michela; Fairbairn, Lynsey; Farach-Carson, Mary C.; Faulkner, Geoffrey J.; Ferrai, Carmelo; Fisher, Malcolm E.; Forrester, Lesley M.; Fujita, Rie; Furusawa, Jun-ichi; Geijtenbeek, Teunis B.; Gingeras, Thomas; Goldowitz, Daniel; Guhl, Sven; Guler, Reto; Gustincich, Stefano; Ha, Thomas J.; Hamaguchi, Masahide; Hara, Mitsuko; Hasegawa, Yuki; Herlyn, Meenhard; Heutink, Peter; Hitchens, Kelly J.; Hume, David A.; Ikawa, Tomokatsu; Ishizu, Yuri; Kai, Chieko; Kawamoto, Hiroshi; Kawamura, Yuki I.; Kempfle, Judith S.; Kenna, Tony J.; Kere, Juha; Khachigian, Levon M.; Kitamura, Toshio; Klein, Sarah; Klinken, S. Peter; Knox, Alan J.; Kojima, Soichi; Koseki, Haruhiko; Koyasu, Shigeo; Lee, Weonju; Lennartsson, Andreas; Mackay-sim, Alan; Mejhert, Niklas; Mizuno, Yosuke; Morikawa, Hiromasa; Morimoto, Mitsuru; Moro, Kazuyo; Morris, Kelly J.; Motohashi, Hozumi; Mummery, Christine L.; Nakachi, Yutaka; Nakahara, Fumio; Nakamura, Toshiyuki; Nakamura, Yukio; Nozaki, Tadasuke; Ogishima, Soichi; Ohkura, Naganari; Ohno, Hiroshi; Ohshima, Mitsuhiro; Okada-Hatakeyama, Mariko; Okazaki, Yasushi; Orlando, Valerio; Ovchinnikov, Dmitry A.; Passier, Robert; Patrikakis, Margaret; Pombo, Ana; Pradhan-Bhatt, Swati; Qin, Xian-Yang; Rehli, Michael; Rizzu, Patrizia; Roy, Sugata; Sajantila, Antti; Sakaguchi, Shimon; Sato, Hiroki; Satoh, Hironori; Savvi, Suzana; Saxena, Alka; Schmidl, Christian; Schneider, Claudio; Schulze-Tanzil, Gundula G.; Schwegmann, Anita; Sheng, Guojun; Shin, Jay W.; Sugiyama, Daisuke; Sugiyama, Takaaki; Summers, Kim M.; Takahashi, Naoko; Takai, Jun; Tanaka, Hiroshi; Tatsukawa, Hideki; Tomoiu, Andru; Toyoda, Hiroo; van de Wetering, Marc; van den Berg, Linda M.; Verardo, Roberto; Vijayan, Dipti; Wells, Christine A.; Winteringham, Louise N.; Wolvetang, Ernst; Yamaguchi, Yoko; Yamamoto, Masayuki; Yanagi-Mizuochi, Chiyo; Yoneda, Misako; Yonekura, Yohei; Zhang, Peter G.; Zucchelli, Silvia; Abugessaisa, Imad; Arner, Erik; Harshbarger, Jayson; Kondo, Atsushi; Lassmann, Timo; Lizio, Marina; Sahin, Serkan; Sengstag, Thierry; Severin, Jessica; Shimoji, Hisashi; Suzuki, Masanori; Suzuki, Harukazu; Kawai, Jun; Kondo, Naoto; Itoh, Masayoshi; Daub, Carsten O.; Kasukawa, Takeya; Kawaji, Hideya; Carninci, Piero; Forrest, Alistair R. R.; Hayashizaki, Yoshihide

    2017-01-01

    In the FANTOM5 project, transcription initiation events across the human and mouse genomes were mapped at a single base-pair resolution and their frequencies were monitored by CAGE (Cap Analysis of Gene Expression) coupled with single-molecule sequencing. Approximately three thousands of samples,

  17. Social organization of the golden brown mouse lemur (Microcebus ravelobensis)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weidt, A.; Hagenah, N.; Randrianambinina, B.; Radespiel, U.

    2004-01-01

    Our study provides the first data on the social organization of the golden brown mouse lemur, a nocturnal primate discovered in northwestern Madagascar in 1994. The study was carried out in two 6-month field periods during the dry season, covering time before and during the mating season. The

  18. In vivo intrinsic optical signal imaging of mouse retinas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Benquan; Yao, Xincheng

    2016-03-01

    Intrinsic optical signal (IOS) imaging is a promising noninvasive method for advanced study and diagnosis of eye diseases. Before pursuing clinical applications, more IOS studies employing animal models are necessary to establish the relationship between IOS distortions and eye diseases. Ample mouse models are available for investigating the relationship between IOS distortions and eye diseases. However, in vivo IOS imaging of mouse retinas is challenging due to the small ocular lens (compared to frog eyes) and inevitable eye movements. We report here in vivo IOS imaging of mouse retinas using a custom-designed functional OCT. The OCT system provided high resolution (3 μm) and high speed (up to 500 frames/s) imaging of mouse retinas. An animal holder equipped with a custom designed ear bar and bite bar was used to minimize eye movement due to breathing and heartbeats. Residual eye movement in OCT images was further compensated by accurate image registration. Dynamic OCT imaging revealed rapid IOSs from photoreceptor outer segments immediately (inner retinal layers with delayed time courses compared to that of photoreceptor IOSs.

  19. A preclinical mouse model of invasive lobular breast cancer metastasis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doornebal, Chris W.; Klarenbeek, Sjoerd; Braumuller, Tanya M.; Klijn, Christiaan N.; Ciampricotti, Metamia; Hau, Cheei-Sing; Hollmann, Markus W.; Jonkers, Jos; de Visser, Karin E.

    2013-01-01

    Metastatic disease accounts for more than 90% of cancer-related deaths, but the development of effective antimetastatic agents has been hampered by the paucity of clinically relevant preclinical models of human metastatic disease. Here, we report the development of a mouse model of spontaneous

  20. Impact of 2-bromopropane on mouse embryonic stem cells and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study shows that 2-BP (5 to 10 μM) induces apoptotic processes in mouse embryonic stem cells (ESC-B5), but exerts no effects at treatment dosages below 5 μM. In ESC-B5 cells, 2-BP directly increased the content of reactive oxygen species (ROS), significantly increased the cytoplasmic free calcium and nitric oxide ...

  1. Automated morphometry of transgenic mouse brains in MR images

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheenstra, Alize Elske Hiltje

    2011-01-01

    Quantitative and local morphometry of mouse brain MRI is a relatively new field of research, where automated methods can be exploited to rapidly provide accurate and repeatable results. In this thesis we reviewed several existing methods and applications of quantitative morphometry to brain MR

  2. In vitro pancreas organogenesis from dispersed mouse embryonic progenitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greggio, Chiara; De Franceschi, Filippo; Figueiredo-Larsen, Evan Manuel

    2014-01-01

    the efficient expansion of dissociated mouse embryonic pancreatic progenitors. By manipulating the composition of the culture medium it is possible to generate either hollow spheres, mainly composed of pancreatic progenitors expanding in their initial state, or, complex organoids which progress to more mature...

  3. A mouse monoclonal antibody against Alexa Fluor 647.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuethrich, Irene; Guillen, Eduardo; Ploegh, Hidde L

    2014-04-01

    Fluorophores are essential tools in molecular and cell biology. However, their application is mostly confined to the singular exploitation of their fluorescent properties. To enhance the versatility and expand the use of the fluorophore Alexa Fluor 647 (AF647), we generated a mouse monoclonal antibody against it. We demonstrate its use of AF647 for immunoblot, immunoprecipitation, and cytofluorimetry.

  4. SIRT1 inhibits the mouse intestinal motility and epithelial proliferation

    Science.gov (United States)

    SIRT1 inhibits the mouse intestinal motility and epithelial proliferation. Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1), a NAD+-dependent histone deacetylase, is involved in a wide array of cellular processes, including glucose homeostasis, energy metabolism, proliferation and apoptosis, and immune response. However, it is un...

  5. Isolation and Proteomic Characterization of the Mouse Sperm Acrosomal Matrix*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyonnet, Benoit; Zabet-Moghaddam, Masoud; SanFrancisco, Susan; Cornwall, Gail A.

    2012-01-01

    A critical step during fertilization is the sperm acrosome reaction in which the acrosome releases its contents allowing the spermatozoa to penetrate the egg investments. The sperm acrosomal contents are composed of both soluble material and an insoluble material called the acrosomal matrix (AM). The AM is thought to provide a stable structure from which associated proteins are differentially released during fertilization. Because of its important role during fertilization, efforts have been put toward isolating the AM for biochemical study and to date AM have been isolated from hamster, guinea pig, and bull spermatozoa. However, attempts to isolate AM from mouse spermatozoa, the species in which fertilization is well-studied, have been unsuccessful possibly because of the small size of the mouse sperm acrosome and/or its fusiform shape. Herein we describe a procedure for the isolation of the AM from caput and cauda mouse epididymal spermatozoa. We further carried out a proteomic analysis of the isolated AM from both sperm populations and identified 501 new proteins previously not detected by proteomics in mouse spermatozoa. A comparison of the AM proteome from caput and cauda spermatozoa showed that the AM undergoes maturational changes during epididymal transit similar to other sperm domains. Together, our studies suggest the AM to be a dynamic and functional structure carrying out a variety of biological processes as implied by the presence of a diverse group of proteins including proteases, chaperones, hydrolases, transporters, enzyme modulators, transferases, cytoskeletal proteins, and others. PMID:22707618

  6. Two-Photon Imaging of the Mouse Eye

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Andrew W.; Ammar, David A.; Kahook, Malik Y.

    2011-01-01

    The authors used two-photon microscopy to image structures of the conventional aqueous humor outflow pathway in an intact mouse eye. This imaging method may be useful for following the progress of animal models of glaucoma in a noninvasive manner.

  7. Rapid Prototyping of Tangibles with a Capacitive Mouse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramos, Juan David Hincapie; Esbensen, Morten; Kogutowska, Magdalena

    2011-01-01

    lays the capacitive surface and communication capa- bilities of a Microsoft TouchMouse, both of which are ap- propriated to fulfill the mentined requirements. Unlike ex- isting approaches for rapid prototyping of tangibles like the Arduino boards, using the Toki toolkit does not require de- velopers...

  8. A fully humanized transgenic mouse model of Huntington disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southwell, Amber L; Warby, Simon C; Carroll, Jeffrey B; Doty, Crystal N; Skotte, Niels H; Zhang, Weining; Villanueva, Erika B; Kovalik, Vlad; Xie, Yuanyun; Pouladi, Mahmoud A; Collins, Jennifer A; Yang, X William; Franciosi, Sonia; Hayden, Michael R

    2013-01-01

    Silencing the mutant huntingtin gene (muHTT) is a direct and simple therapeutic strategy for the treatment of Huntington disease (HD) in principle. However, targeting the HD mutation presents challenges because it is an expansion of a common genetic element (a CAG tract) that is found throughout the genome. Moreover, the HTT protein is important for neuronal health throughout life, and silencing strategies that also reduce the wild-type HTT allele may not be well tolerated during the long-term treatment of HD. Several HTT silencing strategies are in development that target genetic sites in HTT that are outside of the CAG expansion, including HD mutation-linked single-nucleotide polymorphisms and the HTT promoter. Preclinical testing of these genetic therapies has required the development of a new mouse model of HD that carries these human-specific genetic targets. To generate a fully humanized mouse model of HD, we have cross-bred BACHD and YAC18 on the Hdh(-/-) background. The resulting line, Hu97/18, is the first murine model of HD that fully genetically recapitulates human HD having two human HTT genes, no mouse Hdh genes and heterozygosity of the HD mutation. We find that Hu97/18 mice display many of the behavioral changes associated with HD including motor, psychiatric and cognitive deficits, as well as canonical neuropathological abnormalities. This mouse line will be useful for gaining additional insights into the disease mechanisms of HD as well as for testing genetic therapies targeting human HTT.

  9. Morphological analysis of mouse testes following gestational and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Morphological analysis of mouse testes following gestational and lactational alcohol exposure. J.E. Onu, D.N. Ezeasor, E.C. Ihemelandu. Abstract. The effect of maternal alcohol consumption during gestation and lactation on the morphology of the testes of offspring was studied using 180 male mice. The 180 mice were ...

  10. Generation of Mouse Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells without Viral Vectors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Keisuke Okita; Masato Nakagawa; Hong Hyenjong; Tomoko Ichisaka; Shinya Yamanaka

    2008-01-01

    Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells have been generated from mouse and human somatic cells by introducing Oct3/4 and Sox2 with either Klf4 and c-Myc or Nanog and Lin28 using retroviruses or lentiviruses...

  11. AAV-6 mediated efficient transduction of mouse lower airways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wuping; Zhang, Liqun; Wu, Zhijian; Pickles, Raymond J; Samulski, R Jude

    2011-09-01

    AAV1 and AAV6 are two closely related AAV serotypes. In the present study, we found AAV6 was more efficient in transducing mouse lower airway epithelia in vitro and in vivo than AAV1. To further explore the mechanism of this difference, we found that significantly more AAV1 bound to mouse airway epithelia than AAV6, yet transduction by AAV6 was far superior. Lectin competition assays demonstrated that both AAV1 and AAV6 similarly utilize α-2, 3-, and to a lesser extend α-2, 6- linked sialic acids as the receptors for transduction. Furthermore, the rates of AAV endocytosis could not account for the transduction differences of AAV1 and AAV6. Finally, it was revealed that AAV6 was less susceptible to ubiquitin/proteasome-mediated blocks than AAV1 when transducing mouse airway epithelia. Thus compared with AAV1, AAV6 has a unique ability to escape proteasome-mediated degradation, which is likely responsible for its higher transduction efficiency in mouse airway epithelium. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Towards a mouse model of depression : a psychoneuroendocrine approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dalm, Sergiu

    2012-01-01

    Chronic stress is considered a vulnerability factor for depression. A key symptom is anhedonia; a reduced response to positive stimuli. Drugs are effective for only 20-40% of the patients and new drugs are urgently needed. The objective of the research was to develop a mouse model of depression that

  13. Extension of gray-brown mouse lemur ( Microcebus griseorufus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Extension of gray-brown mouse lemur (Microcebus griseorufus) activity period in a disturbed forest in southwestern Madagascar. K Fish ... lemur activity period in the unfenced forest may be due to differences in forest composition resulting in higher travel costs or a loss of canopy cover which may limit their use of torpor.

  14. Phenotypic and functional characterization of Bst+/− mouse retina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamidreza Riazifar

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The belly spot and tail (Bst+/− mouse phenotype is caused by mutations of the ribosomal protein L24 (Rpl24. Among various phenotypes in Bst+/− mice, the most interesting are its retinal abnormalities, consisting of delayed closure of choroid fissures, decreased ganglion cells and subretinal vascularization. We further characterized the Bst+/− mouse and investigated the underlying molecular mechanisms to assess the feasibility of using this strain as a model for stem cell therapy of retinal degenerative diseases due to retinal ganglion cell (RGC loss. We found that, although RGCs are significantly reduced in retinal ganglion cell layer in Bst+/− mouse, melanopsin+ RGCs, also called ipRGCs, appear to be unchanged. Pupillary light reflex was completely absent in Bst+/− mice but they had a normal circadian rhythm. In order to examine the pathological abnormalities in Bst+/− mice, we performed electron microscopy in RGC and found that mitochondria morphology was deformed, having irregular borders and lacking cristae. The complex activities of the mitochondrial electron transport chain were significantly decreased. Finally, for subretinal vascularization, we also found that angiogenesis is delayed in Bst+/− associated with delayed hyaloid regression. Characterization of Bst+/− retina suggests that the Bst+/− mouse strain could be a useful murine model. It might be used to explore further the pathogenesis and strategy of treatment of retinal degenerative diseases by employing stem cell technology.

  15. Using the Scroll Wheel on a Wireless Mouse as a Motion Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Richard S.; Wilson, William R.

    2010-01-01

    Since its inception in the mid-80s, the computer mouse has undergone several design changes. As the mouse has evolved, physicists have found new ways to utilize it as a motion sensor. For example, the rollers in a mechanical mouse have been used as pulleys to study the motion of a magnet moving through a copper tube as a quantitative demonstration…

  16. Determination of alternative pathway of complement activity in mouse serum using rabbit erythrocytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, H. van; Rademaker, P.M.; Willers, J.M.N

    1980-01-01

    Rabbit, mouse and sheep erythrocytes expressing different concentrations of membrane sialic acid were used to study possible modes of activation of the alternative complement (C) pathway in mouse, human and guinea pig serum. Mouse erythrocytes activated only human serum, whereas rabbit erythrocytes

  17. Growth inhibition of mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells on the feeders ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) can be propagated in vitro on the feeders of mouse embryonic fibroblasts. In this study, we found growth inhibition of mESCs cultured on embryonic fibroblast feeders derived from different livestock animals. Under the same condition, mESCs derived from mouse embryonic fibroblast ...

  18. Involvement of platelets in experimental mouse trypanosomiasis: evidence of mouse platelet cytotoxicity against Trypanosoma equiperdum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momi, S; Perito, S; Mezzasoma, A M; Bistoni, F; Gresele, P

    2000-06-01

    Platelets play an important role in the human response to parasites. Trypanosoma equiperdum, a parasite that has the horse as its natural host, is able to induce infection in mice and thus it may represent a simple model for studying the role of platelets in the development of a parasitosis. Although several aspects of the murine response to T. equiperdum infection have been clarified, the precise mechanism of killing of the parasite is still unclear. We have studied the involvement of blood platelets in experimental murine infection with T. equiperdum. Infected mice show a progressive decrease of the number of circulating platelets. The production of thromboxane A2 (TxA2) by platelets stimulated with collagen decreases progressively with the progression of T. equiperdum infection, compatible with in vivo platelet activation or with a possible antagonistic effect by trypanosomes on the production of TxA2. Finally, mouse platelets exert in vitro a direct parasitocidal activity on T. equiperdum at ratios >/=20:1. Complement fractions do not enhance platelet trypanocidal activity, whereas IgM fractions do, at least in short-term coincubation experiments. Our data show that platelets are involved in experimental murine T. equiperdum infection and confirm that platelet parasitocidal activity is a generalized phenomenon in mammals. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  19. How long will my mouse live? Machine learning approaches for prediction of mouse life span.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swindell, William R; Harper, James M; Miller, Richard A

    2008-09-01

    Prediction of individual life span based on characteristics evaluated at middle-age represents a challenging objective for aging research. In this study, we used machine learning algorithms to construct models that predict life span in a stock of genetically heterogeneous mice. Life-span prediction accuracy of 22 algorithms was evaluated using a cross-validation approach, in which models were trained and tested with distinct subsets of data. Using a combination of body weight and T-cell subset measures evaluated before 2 years of age, we show that the life-span quartile to which an individual mouse belongs can be predicted with an accuracy of 35.3% (+/-0.10%). This result provides a new benchmark for the development of life-span-predictive models, but improvement can be expected through identification of new predictor variables and development of computational approaches. Future work in this direction can provide tools for aging research and will shed light on associations between phenotypic traits and longevity.

  20. [Genetically engineered mice: mouse models for cancer research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymańska, Hanna

    2007-10-26

    Genetically engineered mice (GEM) have been extensively used to model human cancer. Mouse models mimic the morphology, histopathology, phenotype, and genotype of the corresponding cancer in humans. GEM mice are created by random integration of a transgene into the genome, which results in gene overexpression (transgenic mice); gene deletion (knock-out mice); or targeted insertion of the transgene in a selected locus (knock-in mice). Knock-out may be constitutive, i.e. total inactivation of the gene of interest in any cell, or conditional, i.e. tissue-specific inactivation of the gene. Gene knock-down (RNAi) and humanization of the mouse are more sophisticated models of GEM mice. RNA interference (RNAi) is a mechanism in which double-stranded RNAs inhibits the respective gene expression by inducing degradation of its mRNA. Humanization is based on replacing a mouse gene by its human counterpart. The alterations in genes in GEM have to be heritable. The opportunities provided by employing GEM cancer models are: analysis of the role of specific cancer genes and modifier genes, evaluation of conventional cancer therapies and new drugs, identification of cancer markers of tumor growth, analysis of the influence of the tumor's microenvironment on tumor formation, and the definition of the pre-clinical, discrete steps of tumorigenesis. The validation of mouse models of human cancer is the task of the MMHCC (Mouse Models of Human Cancer Consortium). The GEM models of breast, pancreatic, intestinal and colon, and prostate cancer are the most actively explored. In contrast, the models of brain tumors and ovary, cervical, and skin cancer are in the early stage of investigation.