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Sample records for hind hinnaregulatsioonile allutatud

  1. Picasso kõrge hind / Riina Robinson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Robinson, Riina

    2007-01-01

    Pablo Picassost, tema loomingust, 2003.a Malagas Picasso muuseumi ja kunstniku sünnikodu avamisest, maailma kallemailt müüdud maalide TOP 10-sse kuuluvatest maalidest "Poiss piibuga" (1905) ja "Dora Maar kassiga" (1941), hindadest. Maailma kalleimad oksjonil müüdud maalid: I - Jackson Pollocki "Nr.5, 1948" (hind:140 miljonit dollarit), II - William De Kooningi "Woman III" (1952-53), III - Gustav Klimti "Adele Bloch-Bauer I portree" (1907)

  2. Bensiini hind tõuseb rekordtasemele / Gert D. Hankewitz

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hankewitz, Gert D.

    2005-01-01

    Toornafta hinnatõus maailmaturul võib lähiajal kaasa tuua bensiinihinna kallinemise. Vt. samas: Läti tanklates kallines kütus. Graafikud: Bensiini hind on tänavu peaaegu kahekordistunud; Hind Eestis järgib maailmaturgu

  3. John Bowlby and ethology: an annotated interview with Robert Hinde.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowlby, John

    2007-12-01

    From the 1950s, John Bowlby, one of the founders of attachment theory, was in personal and scientific contact with leading European scientists in the field of ethology (e.g., Niko Tinbergen, Konrad Lorenz, and especially Robert Hinde). In constructing his new theory on the nature of the bond between children and their caregivers, Bowlby profited highly from their new approach to (animal) behavior. Hinde and Tinbergen in their turn were influenced and inspired by Bowlby's new thinking. On the basis of extensive interviews with bowlby's colleague and lifelong friend Robert Hinde and on the basis of archival materials, both the relationship between John Bowlby and Robert Hinde and the cross-fertilization of ethology and attachment theory are described.

  4. Social rank affects the haematologic profile in red deer hinds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceacero, Francisco; Gaspar-López, Enrique; Landete-Castillejos, Tomás; Gallego, Laureano; García, Andrés J

    2018-01-26

    We studied the effects of social rank on the haematologic profile in a herd of 24 female Iberian red deer hinds. Social rank hierarchy was determined and blood samples were taken and analysed. After adjusting for age and body mass, dominance ranking showed a significant negative effect (ie, lower values in dominant hinds) on white blood cell (WBC) count, haemoglobin and haematocrit. Our results are similar to those reported for stressed individuals due to physical immobilisation, but do not support the predicted enhanced erythropoiesis due to higher levels of androgens. The results for WBC numbers may also reflect that subordinate hinds must allocate a higher amount of resources to immunity as a result of injuries incurred from dominant hinds, while simultaneously facing restricted access to food sources. For red blood cell (RBC) counts, the results may be due to subordinate hinds likely needing increased haematocrit and haemoglobin levels for fast flight responses. Our data show that social rank influences haematologic profile, and thus it should be considered when correctly interpreting blood analyses in social cervid species. © British Veterinary Association (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  5. HD 38452 - J. R. Hind's star that changed colour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Brian; Sneden, Christopher

    1988-01-01

    In 1851, John Russell Hind announced that a star previously observed by him to be very red had become bluish white in color. It is shown that this star, HD 38451, is a ninth magnitude shell star which presumably was ejecting a shell when Hind first observed it. From high dispersion coude spectra, low dispersion IUE spectra, and ground-based photometry, HD 38451 is found to be a normal A21V shell star. Its current values of E(B-V) of about 0.14 is probably caused by interstellar rather than circumstellar reddening. There remains a problem to reconcile the large amount of reddening present when Hind first observed the star with its evidently small diminution in visual brightness at that time.

  6. Mis on papa Jannseni hind ? / Sven Sildnik ; interv. Grete Naaber

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sildnik, Sven, 1964-

    2006-01-01

    Sven Kivisildnik kirjutas Pärnu linnavalitsuse tellimusel Jannseni sünniaastapäeva peoks näidendi "Johann Woldemar Jannsen ehk Rahvavaenlase hind", mis kantakse ette Koidula muuseumi klassitoas 16. mail. Intervjuu näidendi autori ja esitajaga

  7. Scaling and functional morphology in strigiform hind limbs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madan, Meena A.; Rayfield, Emily J.; Bright, Jen A.

    2017-01-01

    Strigiformes are an order of raptorial birds consisting exclusively of owls: the Tytonidae (barn owls) and the Strigidae (true owls), united by a suite of adaptations aiding a keen predatory lifestyle, including robust hind limb elements modified for grip strength. To assess variation in hind limb morphology, we analysed how the dimensions of the major hind limb elements in subfossil and modern species scaled with body mass. Comparing hind limb element length, midshaft width, and robusticity index (RI: ratio of midshaft width to maximum length) to body mass revealed that femoral and tibiotarsal width scale with isometry, whilst length scales with negative allometry, and close to elastic similarity in the tibiotarsus. In contrast, tarsometatarsus width shows strong positive allometry with body mass, whilst length shows strong negative allometry. Furthermore, the tarsometatarsi RI scales allometrically to mass0.028, whilst a weak relationship exists in femora (mass0.004) and tibiotarsi (mass0.004). Our results suggest that tarsometatarsi play a more substantial functional role than tibiotarsi and femora. Given the scaling relationship between tarsometatarsal width and robusticity to body mass, it may be possible to infer the body mass of prehistoric owls by analysing tarsometatarsi, an element that is frequently preserved in the fossil record of owls. PMID:28327549

  8. Vene maagaasi hind kerkis poole võrra / Katre Pilvinski

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pilvinski, Katre

    2008-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Delovõje Vedomosti 2. juuli lk. 4. Venemaa Euroopasse müüdava maagaasi hind tõuseb sel aastal 2007. aastaga võrreldes ligi poole võrra, 410 dollarini tuhande kuupmeetri eest. Kommenteerib Sirje Riivald

  9. Animal Productivity and Health Responses to Hind-Gut Acidosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Microbial fermentation of carbohydrates in the large intestine of dairy cattle is responsible for 5 to 10% of total tract carbohydrate digestion. When dietary, animal, and/or environmental factors contribute to abnormal, excessive flow of fermentable carbohydrates to the large intestine, hind-gut ac...

  10. Acoustic Tonal and Vector Properties of Red Hind Grouper Vocalizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Cameron Anthony

    Vertebrates are the most prodigious vocalizing animals in existence, and the most diverse methods of acoustic communication among vertebrates can be found in the ocean. Relatively many teleost fish are gifted with the ability to communicate acoustically, and the family of serranidae often performs this as a function of the swim bladder. Epinephelus Guttatus (E. guttatus), or more commonly the red hind grouper, is equipped with a drum shaped swim bladder acting as a monopole under typical ocean conditions. This configuration allows for what is understood to be omnidirectional projection of tones approximately centered between 40 and 440 Hz and spanning anywhere from 40 to 200 Hz of bandwidth and modulation effects based on observed data provided by researchers. Prior studies on many other fish show correlation in acoustic communication profile with length, size and sexual identity. In the red hind, sexual dimorphism leads to an inherent female identity in all juvenile fish which converts to male according to environmental factors, recommending at least consistent organs across both sexes be assumed even if not in use. Much research has been performed on male fish vocalization in terms of spectral content. Communication in fish is a complex multi-modal process, with acoustic communication being important for many of the species, particularly those in the littoral regions of the worlds' oceans. If identifying characteristics of the red hind vocalization can be isolated based on detection, classification, tracking and localizing methodologies, then these identifying characteristics may indeed lead to passive feature identification that allows for estimation of individual fish mass. Hypotheses based on vector, cyclostationary and classical tonal mechanics are presented for consideration. A battery of test data collection events, applying pre-recorded fish vocalizations to a geolocated undersea sound source were conducted. The results are supplied with the intent of

  11. Ubx regulates differential enlargement and diversification of insect hind legs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najmus Mahfooz

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Differential enlargement of hind (T3 legs represents one of the hallmarks of insect evolution. However, the actual mechanism(s responsible are yet to be determined. To address this issue, we have now studied the molecular basis of T3 leg enlargement in Oncopeltus fasciatus (milkweed bug and Acheta domesticus (house cricket. In Oncopeltus, the T3 tibia displays a moderate increase in size, whereas in Acheta, the T3 femur, tibia, and tarsus are all greatly enlarged. Here, we show that the hox gene Ultrabithorax (Ubx is expressed in the enlarged segments of hind legs. Furthermore, we demonstrate that depletion of Ubx during embryogenesis has a primary effect in T3 legs and causes shortening of leg segments that are enlarged in a wild type. This result shows that Ubx is regulating the differential growth and enlargement of T3 legs in both Oncopeltus and Acheta. The emerging view suggests that Ubx was co-opted for a novel role in regulating leg growth and that the transcriptional modification of its expression may be a universal mechanism for the evolutionary diversification of insect hind legs.

  12. Ubx Regulates Differential Enlargement and Diversification of Insect Hind Legs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahfooz, Najmus; Turchyn, Nataliya; Mihajlovic, Michelle; Hrycaj, Steven; Popadić, Aleksandar

    2007-01-01

    Differential enlargement of hind (T3) legs represents one of the hallmarks of insect evolution. However, the actual mechanism(s) responsible are yet to be determined. To address this issue, we have now studied the molecular basis of T3 leg enlargement in Oncopeltus fasciatus (milkweed bug) and Acheta domesticus (house cricket). In Oncopeltus, the T3 tibia displays a moderate increase in size, whereas in Acheta, the T3 femur, tibia, and tarsus are all greatly enlarged. Here, we show that the hox gene Ultrabithorax (Ubx) is expressed in the enlarged segments of hind legs. Furthermore, we demonstrate that depletion of Ubx during embryogenesis has a primary effect in T3 legs and causes shortening of leg segments that are enlarged in a wild type. This result shows that Ubx is regulating the differential growth and enlargement of T3 legs in both Oncopeltus and Acheta. The emerging view suggests that Ubx was co-opted for a novel role in regulating leg growth and that the transcriptional modification of its expression may be a universal mechanism for the evolutionary diversification of insect hind legs. PMID:17848997

  13. Bone morphology of the hind limbs in two caviomorph rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Araújo, F A P; Sesoko, N F; Rahal, S C; Teixeira, C R; Müller, T R; Machado, M R F

    2013-04-01

    In order to evaluate the hind limbs of caviomorph rodents a descriptive analysis of the Cuniculus paca (Linnaeus, 1766) and Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris (Linnaeus, 1766) was performed using anatomical specimens, radiography, computed tomography (CT) and full-coloured prototype models to generate bone anatomy data. The appendicular skeleton of the two largest rodents of Neotropical America was compared with the previously reported anatomical features of Rattus norvegicus (Berkenhout, 1769) and domestic Cavia porcellus (Linnaeus, 1758). The structures were analyzed macroscopically and particular findings of each species reported. Features including the presence of articular fibular projection and lunulae were observed in the stifle joint of all rodents. Imaging aided in anatomical description and, specifically in the identification of bone structures in Cuniculus paca and Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris. The imaging findings were correlated with the anatomical structures observed. The data may be used in future studies comparing these animals to other rodents and mammalian species. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  14. Population characteristics of a recovering US Virgin Islands red hind spawning aggregation following protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemeth, Richard S

    2005-02-01

    Many species of groupers form spawning aggregations, dramatic events where 100s to 1000s of individuals gather annually at specific locations for reproduction. Spawning aggregations are often targeted by local fishermen, making them extremely vulnerable to over fishing. The Red Hind Bank Marine Conservation District located in St. Thomas, United States Virgin Islands, was closed seasonally in 1990 and closed permanently in 1999 to protect an important red hind Epinephelus guttatus spawning site. This study provides some of the first information on the population response of a spawning aggregation located within a marine protected area. Tag-and-release fishing and fish transects were used to evaluate population characteristics and habitat utilization patterns of a red hind spawning aggregation between 1999 and 2004. Compared with studies conducted before the permanent closure, the average size of red hind increased mostly during the seasonal closure period (10 cm over 12 yr), but the maximum total length of male red hind increased by nearly 7 cm following permanent closure. Average density and biomass of spawning red hind increased by over 60% following permanent closure whereas maximum spawning density more than doubled. Information from tag returns indicated that red hind departed the protected area following spawning and migrated 6 to 33 km to a ca. 500 km(2) area. Protection of the spawning aggregation site may have also contributed to an overall increase in the size of red hind caught in the commercial fishery, thus increasing the value of the grouper fishery for local fishermen.

  15. New Australovenator hind limb elements pertaining to the holotype reveal the most complete Neovenatorid leg.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matt A White

    Full Text Available We report new skeletal elements pertaining to the same individual which represents the holotype of Australovenator wintonensis, from the 'Matilda Site' in the Winton Formation (Upper Cretaceous of western Queensland. The discovery of these new elements means that the hind limb of Australovenator is now the most completely understood hind limb among Neovenatoridae. The new hind limb elements include: the left fibula; left metatarsal IV; left pedal phalanges I-2, II-1, III-4, IV-2, IV-3; and right pedal phalanges, II-2 and III-1. The detailed descriptions are supported with three dimensional figures. These coupled with the completeness of the hind limb will increase the utility of Australovenator in comparisons with less complete neovenatorid genera. These specimens and the previously described hind limb elements of Australovenator are compared with other theropods classified as neovenatorids (including Neovenator, Chilantaisaurus, Fukuiraptor, Orkoraptor and Megaraptor. Hind limb length proportion comparisons indicate that the smaller neovenatorids Australovenator and Fukuiraptor possess more elongate and gracile hind limb elements than the larger Neovenator and Chilantaisaurus. Greater stride lengths to body size exist in both Fukuiraptor and Australovenator with the femur discovered to be proportionally shorter the rest of the hind limb length. Additionally Australovenator is identified as possessing the most elongate metatarsus. The metatarsus morphology varies with body size. The larger neoventorids possess a metatarsus with greater width but shorter length compared to smaller forms.

  16. Pelvic and hind limb musculature of Staurikosaurus pricei (Dinosauria: Saurischia

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    Orlando N. Grillo

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The study of pelvic and hind limb bones and muscles in basal dinosaurs is important for understanding the early evolution of bipedal locomotion in the group. The use of data from both extant and extinct taxa placed into a phylogenetic context allowed to make well-supported inferences concerning most of the hind limb musculature of the basal saurischian Staurikosaurus pricei Colbert, 1970 (Santa Maria Formation, Late Triassic of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Two large concavities in the lateral surface of the ilium represent the origin of the muscles iliotrochantericus caudalis plus iliofemoralis externus (in the anterior concavity and iliofibularis (in the posterior concavity. Muscle ambiens has only one head and originates from the pubic tubercle. The origin of puboischiofemoralis internus 1 possibly corresponds to a fossa in the ventral margin of the pré-acetabular iliac process. This could represent an intermediate stage prior to the origin of a true pré-acetabular fossa. Muscles caudofemorales longus et brevis were likely well developed, and Staurikosaurus is unique in bearing a posteriorly projected surface for the origin of caudofemoralis brevis.O estudo da musculatura pelvica e do membro posterior em dinossauros basais e importante para entender a evolução inicial do bipedalismo em dinossauros Saurischia. Empregando uma metodologia que tem como base dados obtidos a partir de taxons viventes e extintos posicionados em um contexto filogenetico, foi possivel fazer inferencias bem suportadas relativas a maior parte dos musculos do membro posterior do dinossauro Saurischia basal Staurikosaurus pricei Colbert, 1970 (Formação Santa Maria, Triassico Superior do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. Duas grandes concavidades na superficie lateral do ilio correspondem a origem dos musculos iliotrochantericus caudalis e iliofeoralis externus (compartilhando a concavidade anterior e para o musculo iliofibularis (na concavidade posterior. O musculo ambiens

  17. Sergei Lavrovi demokraatia on allutatud suhtelisusele / Ahto Lobjakas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lobjakas, Ahto, 1970-

    2007-01-01

    Vene välisministri Kirill Lavrovi tülist USA välispoliitikaajakirjaga Foreign Affairs. Autori hinnangul püüab K. Lavrovi artikkel, mis ajakirjas ilmumata jäi, lugejat veenda, et Venemaa ambitsioone ei tohi maailmas n.-ö. kammitseda

  18. Egg binding and hind limb paralysis in an African penguin--a case report

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Crouch, Monique Anamarie

    2009-01-01

    This case report assesses the role acupuncture played in the rehabilitation therapy of an African penguin with bilateral hind limb paresis and paralysis following egg binding and a caesarean section...

  19. Briti tantsufilm küsib, mis on elu hind / Tiit Tuumalu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tuumalu, Tiit, 1971-

    2006-01-01

    Tantsufilm "Elu hind" ("The Cost of Living") : lavastaja ja koreograaf Lloyd Newson : peaosades jalutu tantsija David Toole ja Eddie Kay : Suurbritannia 2004. Filmi aluseks on Londoni tantsuteatri DV 8 Physical Theatre' 2000.a. valminud lavastus

  20. Osteology and Functional Morphology of the Hind Limb of the Marine Sloth Thalassocnus (Mammalia, Tardigrada)

    OpenAIRE

    Amson, Eli; Argot, Christine; McDonald, H. Gregory; de Muizon, Christian

    2014-01-01

    International audience; The anatomy of the skeletal elements of the hind limb of Thalassocnus is described. This genus of “ground sloth” comprises five species represented by Neogene specimens from the coast of Peru and Chile, mostly found in the Pisco Formation. The hind limb of the genus Thalassocnus as a whole is characterized by a small iliac wing, a gracile femur with well-formed femoral neck, teardrop shaped patella, long and slender tibia, triangular tuber calcis, and proximal developm...

  1. Population characteristics of a recovering US Virgin Islands red hind spawning aggregation following protection

    OpenAIRE

    Nemeth, Richard S.

    2005-01-01

    Many species of groupers form spawning aggregations, dramatic events where 100s to 1000s of individuals gather annually at specific locations for reproduction. Spawning aggregations are often targeted by local fishermen, making them extremely vulnerable to over fishing. The Red Hind Bank Marine Conservation District located in St. Thomas, United States Virgin Islands, was closed seasonally in 1990 and closed permanently in 1999 to protect an important red hind Epinephelus guttatus spawning si...

  2. Vee hind Haapsalus võib tuleval aastal kallineda kolmandiku / Lehte Ilves

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ilves, Lehte, 1951-

    2006-01-01

    Haapsalu Veevärk valmistab ette taotlust, et alates 1. jaanuarist 2007 tõsta vee ja kanalisatsiooni hinda ligikaudu 20-30%, mille järgi tuleks uus hind kuni 31,8 kr/m3 praeguse 24,45 kr/m3 asemel. Vt. samas: Haapsalu Veevärk aastal 2005; Vee ja kanalisatsiooni hind Haapsalus, Tallinnas, Viljandis, Jõgeval, Rakveres, Võrus, Keilas

  3. Effects of vaginal Brucella ovis infection of red deer hinds on reproductive performance, and venereal transmission to stags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridler, A L; West, D M; Stafford, K J; Wilson, P R; Collett, M G

    2002-08-01

    To investigate the effects of vaginal Brucella ovis infection on the reproductive performance of red deer (Cervus elaphus) hinds. To determine whether stags may become infected with B. ovis by venereal transmission from mating infected hinds. Thirty mixed-age red deer hinds serologically negative for B. ovis antibodies were synchronised for oestrus on 22 March 2000. B. ovis was inoculated into the vagina of each hind at oestrus and again, 18 days later. At oestrus, hinds were randomly allocated to six groups, each joined with a 16 month-old red deer stag seronegative for B. ovis, for 55 days. Hinds were blood sampled and scanned for pregnancy using rectal ultrasonography at monthly intervals. Six pregnant and four non-pregnant hinds were slaughtered pre-calving and three hinds were slaughtered post-calving. Reproductive tracts and foetuses were examined grossly, histologically and microbiologically. Calves were identified and blood sampled within 3 days of birth. Hinds and calves were blood sampled in February and May 2001 and vaginal swabs were collected from hinds for B. ovis culture. Blood was collected from stags, 5 and 19 days after mating and semen was collected for B. ovis culture. The 17 remaining hinds were mated in 2001 to two mixed-age wapiti (Cervus canadensis) stags. Both stags were blood sampled after mating. Sera were tested in a B. ovis complement fixation test (CFT) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). All 30 hinds developed B. ovis antibody levels, measurable using either the CFT or ELISA, but these did not remain elevated. There was no evidence of infection, either by gross pathology, histopathology or microbiological culture in the ten hinds or six foetuses slaughtered pre-calving. All remaining 20 hinds produced normal calves, 15 of which survived until weaning. Three hinds experienced dystocia and gave birth to dead calves and two calves died within 4 days of birth. One hind which had dystocia was euthanased. Samples from this hind

  4. The Hydraulic Mechanism of the Unfolding of Hind Wings in Dorcus titanus platymelus (Order: Coleoptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiyu Sun

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In most beetles, the hind wings are thin and fragile; when at rest, they are held over the back of the beetle. When the hind wing unfolds, it provides the necessary aerodynamic forces for flight. In this paper, we investigate the hydraulic mechanism of the unfolding process of the hind wings in Dorcus titanus platymelus (Oder: Coleoptera. The wing unfolding process of Dorcus titanus platymelus was examined using high speed camera sequences (400 frames/s, and the hydraulic pressure in the veins was measured with a biological pressure sensor and dynamic signal acquisition and analysis (DSA during the expansion process. We found that the total time for the release of hydraulic pressure during wing folding is longer than the time required for unfolding. The pressure is proportional to the length of the wings and the body mass of the beetle. A retinal camera was used to investigate the fluid direction. We found that the peak pressures correspond to two main cross-folding joint expansions in the hind wing. These observations strongly suggest that blood pressure facilitates the extension of hind wings during unfolding.

  5. The hydraulic mechanism in the hind wing veins of Cybister japonicus Sharp (order: Coleoptera

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    Jiyu Sun

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The diving beetles (Dytiscidae, Coleoptera are families of water beetles. When they see light, they fly to the light source directly from the water. Their hind wings are thin and fragile under the protection of their elytra (forewings. When the beetle is at rest the hind wings are folded over the abdomen of the beetle and when in flight they unfold to provide the necessary aerodynamic forces. In this paper, the unfolding process of the hind wing of Cybister japonicus Sharp (order: Coleoptera was investigated. The motion characteristics of the blood in the veins of the structure system show that the veins have microfluidic control over the hydraulic mechanism of the unfolding process. A model is established, and the hind wing extending process is simulated. The blood flow and pressure changes are discussed. The driving mechanism for hydraulic control of the folding and unfolding actions of beetle hind wings is put forward. This can assist the design of new deployable micro air vehicles and bioinspired deployable systems.

  6. Hox gene expression leads to differential hind leg development between honeybee castes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bomtorin, Ana Durvalina; Barchuk, Angel Roberto; Moda, Livia Maria; Simoes, Zila Luz Paulino

    2012-01-01

    Beyond the physiological and behavioural, differences in appendage morphology between the workers and queens of Apis mellifera are pre-eminent. The hind legs of workers, which are highly specialized pollinators, deserve special attention. The hind tibia of worker has an expanded bristle-free region used for carrying pollen and propolis, the corbicula. In queens this structure is absent. Although the morphological differences are well characterized, the genetic inputs driving the development of this alternative morphology remain unknown. Leg phenotype determination takes place between the fourth and fifth larval instar and herein we show that the morphogenesis is completed at brown-eyed pupa. Using results from the hybridization of whole genome-based oligonucleotide arrays with RNA samples from hind leg imaginal discs of pre-pupal honeybees of both castes we present a list of 200 differentially expressed genes. Notably, there are castes preferentially expressed cuticular protein genes and members of the P450 family. We also provide results of qPCR analyses determining the developmental transcription profiles of eight selected genes, including abdominal-A, distal-less and ultrabithorax (Ubx), whose roles in leg development have been previously demonstrated in other insect models. Ubx expression in workers hind leg is approximately 25 times higher than in queens. Finally, immunohistochemistry assays show that Ubx localization during hind leg development resembles the bristles localization in the tibia/basitarsus of the adult legs in both castes. Our data strongly indicate that the development of the hind legs diphenism characteristic of this corbiculate species is driven by a set of caste-preferentially expressed genes, such as those encoding cuticular protein genes, P450 and Hox proteins, in response to the naturally different diets offered to honeybees during the larval period.

  7. Hox Gene Expression Leads to Differential Hind Leg Development between Honeybee Castes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bomtorin, Ana Durvalina; Barchuk, Angel Roberto; Moda, Livia Maria; Simoes, Zila Luz Paulino

    2012-01-01

    Beyond the physiological and behavioural, differences in appendage morphology between the workers and queens of Apis mellifera are pre-eminent. The hind legs of workers, which are highly specialized pollinators, deserve special attention. The hind tibia of worker has an expanded bristle-free region used for carrying pollen and propolis, the corbicula. In queens this structure is absent. Although the morphological differences are well characterized, the genetic inputs driving the development of this alternative morphology remain unknown. Leg phenotype determination takes place between the fourth and fifth larval instar and herein we show that the morphogenesis is completed at brown-eyed pupa. Using results from the hybridization of whole genome-based oligonucleotide arrays with RNA samples from hind leg imaginal discs of pre-pupal honeybees of both castes we present a list of 200 differentially expressed genes. Notably, there are castes preferentially expressed cuticular protein genes and members of the P450 family. We also provide results of qPCR analyses determining the developmental transcription profiles of eight selected genes, including abdominal-A, distal-less and ultrabithorax (Ubx), whose roles in leg development have been previously demonstrated in other insect models. Ubx expression in workers hind leg is approximately 25 times higher than in queens. Finally, immunohistochemistry assays show that Ubx localization during hind leg development resembles the bristles localization in the tibia/basitarsus of the adult legs in both castes. Our data strongly indicate that the development of the hind legs diphenism characteristic of this corbiculate species is driven by a set of caste-preferentially expressed genes, such as those encoding cuticular protein genes, P450 and Hox proteins, in response to the naturally different diets offered to honeybees during the larval period. PMID:22848371

  8. Hox gene expression leads to differential hind leg development between honeybee castes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Durvalina Bomtorin

    Full Text Available Beyond the physiological and behavioural, differences in appendage morphology between the workers and queens of Apis mellifera are pre-eminent. The hind legs of workers, which are highly specialized pollinators, deserve special attention. The hind tibia of worker has an expanded bristle-free region used for carrying pollen and propolis, the corbicula. In queens this structure is absent. Although the morphological differences are well characterized, the genetic inputs driving the development of this alternative morphology remain unknown. Leg phenotype determination takes place between the fourth and fifth larval instar and herein we show that the morphogenesis is completed at brown-eyed pupa. Using results from the hybridization of whole genome-based oligonucleotide arrays with RNA samples from hind leg imaginal discs of pre-pupal honeybees of both castes we present a list of 200 differentially expressed genes. Notably, there are castes preferentially expressed cuticular protein genes and members of the P450 family. We also provide results of qPCR analyses determining the developmental transcription profiles of eight selected genes, including abdominal-A, distal-less and ultrabithorax (Ubx, whose roles in leg development have been previously demonstrated in other insect models. Ubx expression in workers hind leg is approximately 25 times higher than in queens. Finally, immunohistochemistry assays show that Ubx localization during hind leg development resembles the bristles localization in the tibia/basitarsus of the adult legs in both castes. Our data strongly indicate that the development of the hind legs diphenism characteristic of this corbiculate species is driven by a set of caste-preferentially expressed genes, such as those encoding cuticular protein genes, P450 and Hox proteins, in response to the naturally different diets offered to honeybees during the larval period.

  9. ANATOMICAL DESCRIPTION OF MUSCLES IN THE HIND LIMB AND TAIL OF CEBUS ALBIFRONS

    OpenAIRE

    Quevedo U., Miriam; Laboratorio de Anatomía y Fauna Silvestre, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima; Cisneros S., Jannet; Laboratorio de Anatomía y Fauna Silvestre, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima; Navarette Z., Miluska; Laboratorio de Anatomía y Fauna Silvestre, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima; Torres G., Juan Pablo; Laboratorio de Anatomía y Fauna Silvestre, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima; Sato S., Alberto; Laboratorio de Anatomía y Fauna Silvestre, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to perform the anatomic description of the muscles located in the hind limb and tail of Cebus albifrons. Four adult monkeys older than 3 years of age and castrated were used. The animals were euthanized and embalmed; then, after six days, the dissection of the hind limb and tail was carried out. Muscles were described in comparison with the Rhesus monkey (Maccaca mullata). The pelvis and thigh, leg and foot region presented 18, 12 and 11 muscles respectively. P...

  10. Kõrge kütuse hind seab lennufirmad löögi alla

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2004-01-01

    Rahvusvahelise Lennutranspordi Assotsiatsiooni läbiviidud uuringu kohaselt on lennufirmad edukad, kuid kütuse kõrge hind ohustab nende tegevust. Graafik: SARS-i epideemia põhjustatud langusest on üle saadud. Tabelid: IATA rahvusvahelise lennuliikluse statistika

  11. Lymphadenectomy prior to rat hind limb allotransplantation prevents graft-versus-host disease in chimeric hosts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouha, PCR; Perez-Abadia, G; Francois, CG; Laurentin-Perez, LA; Gorantla, [No Value; Vossen, M; Tai, C; Pidwell, D; Anderson, GL; Stadelmann, WK; Hewitt, CW; Kon, M; Barker, JH; Maldonado, C

    In previous rat studies, the use of mixed allogeneic chimerism (MAC) to induce host tolerance to hind limb allografts has resulted in severe graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). The purpose of this study was to determine if immunocompetent cells in bone marrow (BM) and/or lymph nodes (LNs) of

  12. An Interview with Dan Hind: Media Reform is a Precondition of Social Changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sašo Slaček Brlek

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Dan Hind, an advocate for media reform towards the public tender model, talks about his proposals for media democratization, the entanglement of these proposals in a broader vision of progressive social change, and implications of the digital revolution for citizen participation in the media.

  13. Comparative anatomy and muscle architecture of selected hind limb muscles in the Quarter Horse and Arab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crook, T C; Cruickshank, S E; McGowan, C M; Stubbs, N; Wakeling, J M; Wilson, A M; Payne, R C

    2008-02-01

    The Quarter Horse (bred for acceleration) and the Arab (bred for endurance) are situated at either end of the equine athletic spectrum. Studies into the form and function of the leg muscles in human sprint and endurance runners have demonstrated that differences exist in their muscle architecture. It is not known whether similar differences exist in the horse. Six Quarter Horse and six Arab fresh hind limb cadavers were dissected to gain information on the muscle mass and architecture of the following muscles: gluteus medius; biceps femoris; semitendinosus; vastus lateralis; gastrocnemius; tibialis cranialis and extensor digitorum longus. Specifically, muscle mass, fascicle length and pennation angle were quantified and physiological cross-sectional area (PCSA) and maximum isometric force were estimated. The hind limb muscles of the Quarter Horse were of a significantly greater mass, but had similar fascicle lengths and pennation angles when compared with those of the Arab; this resulted in the Quarter Horse hind limb muscles having greater PCSAs and hence greater isometric force potential. This study suggests that Quarter Horses as a breed inherently possess large strong hind limb muscles, with the potential to accelerate their body mass more rapidly than those of the Arab.

  14. Moments and power generated by the horse (Equus caballus) hind limb during jumping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutto, Darren J; Hoyt, Donald F; Clayton, Hilary M; Cogger, Edward A; Wickler, Steven J

    2004-02-01

    The ability to jump over an obstacle depends upon the generation of work across the joints of the propelling limb(s). The total work generated by one hind limb of a horse and the contribution to the total work by four joints of the hind limb were determined for a jump. It was hypothesized that the hip and ankle joints would have extensor moments performing positive work, while the knee would have a flexor moment and perform negative work during the jump. Ground reaction forces and sagittal plane kinematics were simultaneously recorded during each jumping trial. Joint moment, power and work were determined for the metatarsophalangeal (MP), tarsal (ankle), tibiofemoral (knee) and coxofemoral (hip) joints. The hip, knee and ankle all flexed and then extended and the MP extended and then flexed during ground contact. Consistent with our hypothesis, large extensor moments were observed at the hip and ankle joints and large flexor moments at the knee and MP joints throughout ground contact of the hind limb. Peak moments tended to occur earlier in stance in the proximal joints but peak power generation of the hind limb joints occurred at similar times except for the MP joint, with the hip and ankle peaking first followed by the MP joint. During the first portion of ground contact (approximately 40%), the net result of the joint powers was the absorption of power. During the remainder of the contact period, the hind limb generated power. This pattern of power absorption followed by power generation paralleled the power profiles of the hip, ankle and MP joints. The total work performed by one hind limb was 0.71 J kg(-1). Surprisingly, the knee produced 85% of the work (0.60 J kg(-1)) done by the hind limb, and the positive work performed by the knee occurred during the first 40% of the take-off. There is little net work generated by the other three joints over the entire take-off. Velocity of the tuber coxae (a landmark on the pelvis of the animal) was negative (downward

  15. Steroid hormones profile during an ovarian synchronization procedure in different age categories of red deer hinds (Cervus elaphus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šperanda Marcela

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to compare estradiol/progesterone ratios of different age categories of red deer hinds and use it as a predictor of estrus synchronization success and consequently conception rate. To accomplish this we used 38 red deer hinds to establish serum progesterone and estradiol levels in young (21 animals, mature (10 animals and old (7 animals hinds during the estrus synchronization procedure (transvaginal/cervical AI. The following estrus synchronization was used: at the start of the experiment each hind received a controlled intravaginal drug-releasing device (CIDR, Pharmacia&Upjohn, New Zealand containing 0.3 g of progesterone. The device was removed on day 11, simultaneously with an application of 250 IU of Pregnant Mare Serum Gonadotropin (PMSG, Folligon® Intervet International, Boxmeer, Holland. Transvaginal/ cervical AI (artificial insemination was performed 48 hours after CIDR withdrawal (day 13. Blood samples were obtained from the jugular vein using a Venoject® vacutainer without an anticoagulant for hormonal tests on the same experimental day (0, 11th and 13th day. A statistically (p<0.01 higher progesterone level was found in young hinds on the 11th day after controlled intravaginal drug-releasing device insertion. A significantly higher (p<0.01 estrogen level was observed in the young in regard to mature and old hinds on the expected day of estrus (13th day. Estradiol/progesterone ratios showed a statistically significant difference (p<0.01 on insemination day (13th day between old and young hinds (98.67 : 46.59 and between old and mature hinds (98.67 : 51.79. Out of a total of 38 hinds only 9 had their offspring, 6 of the young and 3 of the mature hinds.

  16. Objective assessment of the compensatory effect of clinical hind limb lameness in horses: 37 cases (2011-2014).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maliye, Sylvia; Marshall, John F

    2016-10-15

    OBJECTIVE To characterize and describe the compensatory load redistribution that results from unilateral hind limb lameness in horses. DESIGN Retrospective case series. ANIMALS 37 client-owned horses. PROCEDURES Medical records were reviewed to identify horses with unilateral hind limb lameness that responded positively (by objective assessment) to diagnostic local anesthesia during lameness evaluation and that were evaluated before and after diagnostic local anesthesia with an inertial sensor-based lameness diagnosis system. Horses were grouped as having hind limb lameness only, hind limb and ipsilateral forelimb lameness, or hind limb and contralateral forelimb lameness. Measures of head and pelvic movement asymmetry before (baseline) and after diagnostic local anesthesia were compared. The effect of group on baseline pelvic movement asymmetry variables was analyzed statistically. RESULTS Maximum pelvic height significantly decreased from the baseline value after diagnostic local anesthesia in each of the 3 lameness groups and in all horses combined. Minimum pelvic height significantly decreased after the procedure in all groups except the hind limb and contralateral forelimb lameness group. Head movement asymmetry was significantly decreased after diagnostic local anesthesia for horses with hind limb and ipsilateral forelimb lameness and for all horses combined, but not for those with hind limb lameness only or those with hind limb and contralateral forelimb lameness. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results supported that hind limb lameness can cause compensatory load redistribution evidenced as ipsilateral forelimb lameness. In this population of horses, contralateral forelimb lameness was not compensatory and likely reflected true lameness. Further studies are needed to investigate the source of the contralateral forelimb lameness in such horses.

  17. Unsteady aerodynamics of flapping flight - A fluid-structure interaction study of fore-hind wing phase difference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasani, M. R.; Shamsudeen, A.; Sulaiman, M. N.

    2016-11-01

    Flights of dragonflies, various insects and birds have been a subject of active research that may offer insight towards enhanced aerodynamic performance at low Reynolds numbers. To that end, we mimick the flapping biomechanics of a dragonfly by two thin flat airfoils plunging in tandem with each other. In the present study, we aim to investigate the effect of difference in flapping phase between fore and hind wings towards their aerodynamic performances. We computationally simulate incompressible, viscous, laminar flow around two thin flat airfoils that are purely plunging, at a Strouhal number of 0.25 and Reynolds number of 6500, using a flow solver in an Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian framework. Kinematics of both fore and hind wing flapping followed a similar sinusoidal function but with relative phase angle difference to each other, that were varied between -50° to +50° including two cases were phase difference is 0° (i.e. in-phase fore-hind wing flapping) and +90° (i.e. fore wing lags hind wing by 90°). Numerical results indicate that maximum lift and drag forces for each fore and hind wings occur at phase angle of -40° and that power efficiency of tandem wings are better at phase angles when hind wing leads the fore wing, with maximum power efficiency occurring at a fore-hind wing phase difference of +30°. The complex fore-hind wing vortex interaction indicate likely benefit on the hind wing as it interacts with the fore wing at different phase angles.

  18. Treatment of lesions of osteomyelitis in the hind flippers of six grey seals (Halichoerus grypus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, R J; Barnett, J; Riley, P

    1999-11-06

    Six rescued grey seal (Halichoerus grypus) pups had traumatic injuries to their hind flippers; three had osteomyelitis without fractures, one had a single fracture and associated osteomyelitis, and two had multiple compound fractures and large open wounds. The medical and surgical methods used to treat these lesions are described. A proprietary waterproof covering appeared to be a better method for dressing the wounds than conventional bandaging.

  19. HindSight: Encouraging Exploration through Direct Encoding of Personal Interaction History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Mi; Deng, Cheng; Peck, Evan M; Harrison, Lane

    2017-01-01

    Physical and digital objects often leave markers of our use. Website links turn purple after we visit them, for example, showing us information we have yet to explore. These "footprints" of interaction offer substantial benefits in information saturated environments - they enable us to easily revisit old information, systematically explore new information, and quickly resume tasks after interruption. While applying these design principles have been successful in HCI contexts, direct encodings of personal interaction history have received scarce attention in data visualization. One reason is that there is little guidance for integrating history into visualizations where many visual channels are already occupied by data. More importantly, there is not firm evidence that making users aware of their interaction history results in benefits with regards to exploration or insights. Following these observations, we propose HindSight - an umbrella term for the design space of representing interaction history directly in existing data visualizations. In this paper, we examine the value of HindSight principles by augmenting existing visualizations with visual indicators of user interaction history (e.g. How the Recession Shaped the Economy in 255 Charts, NYTimes). In controlled experiments of over 400 participants, we found that HindSight designs generally encouraged people to visit more data and recall different insights after interaction. The results of our experiments suggest that simple additions to visualizations can make users aware of their interaction history, and that these additions significantly impact users' exploration and insights.

  20. [Detection of hemophilia A carriers by PCR analysis of hind III polymorphism in the factor VIII gene].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, S; Li, Y; Cui, H; Xie, Y; Zheng, J; Pan, X; Zhang, H; Zhao, R; Zhang, Q

    1998-04-10

    To explore a scheme of using PCR analysis in the detection of carriers of Hind III polymorphism of factor VIII gene of hemophilia A. Implicating intron 19 of the factor VIII gene of 6 patients with the hemophilia A and 207 unrelated X-chromosomes were amplified by PCR and were analysed by means of Amp-RFLPs of Hind III. The incidence of the polymorphic Hind III sites in the given population was found to be 0.29. The frequence of the Hind III heterozygotes in women calculated according to Hardy-Weinberg equation was 0.41, which proved to be informative enough for carrier detection and prenatal diagnosis of hemophilia A. 2 out of 6 families (33%)examined in this study were informative. The new scheme proved to be effective for hemophilia A carrier detection and prenatal diagnosis.

  1. Spatial distribution and conservation of speckled hind and warsaw grouper in the Atlantic Ocean off the southeastern U.S.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas A Farmer

    Full Text Available There is broad interest in the development of efficient marine protected areas (MPAs to reduce bycatch and end overfishing of speckled hind (Epinephelus drummondhayi and warsaw grouper (Hyporthodus nigritus in the Atlantic Ocean off the southeastern U.S. We assimilated decades of data from many fishery-dependent, fishery-independent, and anecdotal sources to describe the spatial distribution of these data limited stocks. A spatial classification model was developed to categorize depth-grids based on the distribution of speckled hind and warsaw grouper point observations and identified benthic habitats. Logistic regression analysis was used to develop a quantitative model to predict the spatial distribution of speckled hind and warsaw grouper as a function of depth, latitude, and habitat. Models, controlling for sampling gear effects, were selected based on AIC and 10-fold cross validation. The best-fitting model for warsaw grouper included latitude and depth to explain 10.8% of the variability in probability of detection, with a false prediction rate of 28-33%. The best-fitting model for speckled hind, per cross-validation, included latitude and depth to explain 36.8% of the variability in probability of detection, with a false prediction rate of 25-27%. The best-fitting speckled hind model, per AIC, also included habitat, but had false prediction rates up to 36%. Speckled hind and warsaw grouper habitats followed a shelf-edge hardbottom ridge from North Carolina to southeast Florida, with speckled hind more common to the north and warsaw grouper more common to the south. The proportion of habitat classifications and model-estimated stock contained within established and proposed MPAs was computed. Existing MPAs covered 10% of probable shelf-edge habitats for speckled hind and warsaw grouper, protecting 3-8% of speckled hind and 8% of warsaw grouper stocks. Proposed MPAs could add 24% more probable shelf-edge habitat, and protect an additional

  2. Coordinated, multi-joint, fatigue-resistant feline stance produced with intrafascicular hind limb nerve stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Normann, R. A.; Dowden, B. R.; Frankel, M. A.; Wilder, A. M.; Hiatt, S. D.; Ledbetter, N. M.; Warren, D. A.; Clark, G. A.

    2012-04-01

    The production of graceful skeletal movements requires coordinated activation of multiple muscles that produce torques around multiple joints. The work described herein is focused on one such movement, stance, that requires coordinated activation of extensor muscles acting around the hip, knee and ankle joints. The forces evoked in these muscles by external stimulation all have a complex dependence on muscle length and shortening velocities, and some of these muscles are biarticular. In order to recreate sit-to-stand maneuvers in the anesthetized feline, we excited the hind limb musculature using intrafascicular multielectrode stimulation (IFMS) of the muscular branch of the sciatic nerve, the femoral nerve and the main branch of the sciatic nerve. Stimulation was achieved with either acutely or chronically implanted Utah Slanted Electrode Arrays (USEAs) via subsets of electrodes (1) that activated motor units in the extensor muscles of the hip, knee and ankle joints, (2) that were able to evoke large extension forces and (3) that manifested minimal coactivation of the targeted motor units. Three hind limb force-generation strategies were investigated, including sequential activation of independent motor units to increase force, and interleaved or simultaneous IFMS of three sets of six or more USEA electrodes that excited the hip, knee and ankle extensors. All force-generation strategies evoked stance, but the interleaved IFMS strategy also reduced muscle fatigue produced by repeated sit-to-stand maneuvers compared with fatigue produced by simultaneous activation of different motor neuron pools. These results demonstrate the use of interleaved IFMS as a means to recreate coordinated, fatigue-resistant multi-joint muscle forces in the unilateral hind limb. This muscle activation paradigm could provide a promising neuroprosthetic approach for the restoration of sit-to-stand transitions in individuals who are paralyzed by spinal cord injury, stroke or disease.

  3. Anisotropy and non-homogeneity of an Allomyrina Dichotoma beetle hind wing membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ha, N S; Jin, T L; Goo, N S; Park, H C, E-mail: nsgoo@konkuk.ac.kr [Biomimetics and Intelligent Microsystem Laboratory, Department of Advanced Technology Fusion, Konkuk University, Seoul 143-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-12-15

    Biomimetics is one of the most important paradigms as researchers seek to invent better engineering designs over human history. However, the observation of insect flight is a relatively recent work. Several researchers have tried to address the aerodynamic performance of flapping creatures and other natural properties of insects, although there are still many unsolved questions. In this study, we try to answer the questions related to the mechanical properties of a beetle's hind wing, which consists of a stiff vein structure and a flexible membrane. The membrane of a beetle's hind wing is small and flexible to the point that conventional methods cannot adequately quantify the material properties. The digital image correlation method, a non-contact displacement measurement method, is used along with a specially designed mini-tensile testing system. To reduce the end effects, we developed an experimental method that can deal with specimens with as high an aspect ratio as possible. Young's modulus varies over the area in the wing and ranges from 2.97 to 4.5 GPa in the chordwise direction and from 1.63 to 2.24 GPa in the spanwise direction. Furthermore, Poisson's ratio in the chordwise direction is 0.63-0.73 and approximately twice as large as that in the spanwise direction (0.33-0.39). From these results, we can conclude that the membrane of a beetle's hind wing is an anisotropic and non-homogeneous material. Our results will provide a better understanding of the flapping mechanism through the formulation of a fluid-structure interaction analysis or aero-elasticity analysis and meritorious data for biomaterial properties database as well as a creative design concept for a micro aerial flapper that mimics an insect.

  4. Ontogenetic scaling of fore- and hind limb posture in wild chacma baboons (Papio hamadryas ursinus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biren A Patel

    Full Text Available Large-scale interspecific studies of mammals ranging between 0.04-280 kg have shown that larger animals walk with more extended limb joints. Within a taxon or clade, however, the relationship between body size and joint posture is less straightforward. Factors that may affect the lack of congruence between broad and narrow phylogenetic analyses of limb kinematics include limited sampling of (1 ranges of body size, and/or (2 numbers of individuals. Unfortunately, both issues are inherent in laboratory-based or zoo locomotion research. In this study, we examined the relationship between body mass and elbow and knee joint angles (our proxies of fore- and hind limb posture, respectively in a cross-sectional ontogenetic sample of wild chacma baboons (Papio hamadryas ursinus habituated in the De Hoop Nature Reserve, South Africa. Videos were obtained from 33 individuals of known age (12 to ≥ 108 months and body mass (2-29.5 kg during walking trials. Results show that older, heavier baboons walk with significantly more extended knee joints but not elbow joints. This pattern is consistent when examining only males, but not within the female sample. Heavier, older baboons also display significantly less variation in their hind limb posture compared to lighter, young animals. Thus, within this ontogenetic sample of a single primate species spanning an order of magnitude in body mass, hind limb posture exhibited a postural scaling phenomenon while the forelimbs did not. These findings may further help explain 1 why younger mammals (including baboons tend to have relatively stronger bones than adults, and 2 why humeri appear relatively weaker than femora (in at least baboons. Finally, this study demonstrates how field-acquired kinematics can help answer fundamental biomechanical questions usually addressed only in animal gait laboratories.

  5. The use of elastic adhesive tape to promote lymphatic flow in the rabbit hind leg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Jae-Yong; Lee, Hye-Ree; Lee, Duk-Chul

    2003-12-30

    Any method that deforms the skin of the extremities may increase lymphatic flow rate, and may be applied to treat peripheral lymphedema. This study was undertaken to investigate whether or not elastic adhesive tape with passive exercise can increase lymph flow in the rabbit hind leg by effective and periodic skin deformation. Cannulation into a pre-popliteal afferent lymphatic vessel in the lower left leg of 22 male New Zealand White rabbits was performed under a stereomicroscope. After stabilization, lymph was collected at rest or during passive exercise with an electric motor at 60 r.p.m. for 15 minutes and was then measured. Lymph flow rate was calculated and expressed as g/hour. Increase of lymph flow rate due to taping was significant only for passive exercise (p=0.0317). The lymph flow rate increased linearly as the area of tape was increased (p=0.0011), and lymph flow rates were significantly different according to site (p=0.0017). Tape on the anterior aspect of the ankle caused salient deformation and tended to increase the lymph flow rate more so than tape on the dorsum of the foot (p=0.0831). Taping with elastic adhesive tape in passive exercise increased the lymph flow rate in the rabbit hind leg by deforming the skin, which suggests a novel therapeutic method in cases of peripheral lymphedema.

  6. Hind limb malformations in free-living northern leopard frogs (Rana pipiens) from Maine, Minnesota, and Vermont suggest multiple etiologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meteyer, C.U.; Loeffler, I.K.; Fallon, J.F.; Converse, K.A.; Green, E.; Helgen, J.C.; Kersten, S.; Levey, R.; Eaton-Poole, L.; Burkhart, J.G.

    2000-01-01

    Background Reports of malformed frogs have increased throughout the North American continent in recent years. Most of the observed malformations have involved the hind limbs. The goal of this study was to accurately characterize the hind limb malformations in wild frogs as an important step toward understanding the possible etiologies. Methods During 1997 and 1998, 182 recently metamorphosed northern leopard frogs (Rana pipiens) were collected from Minnesota, Vermont, and Maine. Malformed hind limbs were present in 157 (86%) of these frogs, which underwent necropsy and radiographic evaluation at the National Wildlife Health Center. These malformations are described in detail and classified into four major categories: (1) no limb (amelia); (2) multiple limbs or limb elements (polymelia, polydactyly, polyphalangy); (3) reduced limb segments or elements (phocomelia, ectromelia, ectrodactyly, and brachydactyly; and (4) distally complete but malformed limb (bone rotations, bridging, skin webbing, and micromelia). Results Amelia and reduced segments and/or elements were the most common finding. Frogs with bilateral hind limb malformations were not common, and in only eight of these 22 frogs were the malformations symmetrical. Malformations of a given type tended to occur in frogs collected from the same site, but the types of malformations varied widely among all three states, and between study sites within Minnesota. Conclusions Clustering of malformation type suggests that developmental events may produce a variety of phenotypes depending on the timing, sequence, and severity of the environmental insult. Hind limb malformations in free-living frogs transcend current mechanistic explanations of tetrapod limb development.

  7. Novel phenanthridine (PHE-4i) derivative inhibits carrageenan-induced rat hind paw oedema through suppression of hydrogen sulfide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Leema; Ramasamy, Tamizhselvi; Manickam, Venkatraman; Iyer, Sathiyanarayanan Kulathu; Radhakrishnan, Vidya

    2016-08-01

    This study was conducted to assess the anti-inflammatory effect of a novel synthesized phenanthridine alkaloid (PHE-4i) and to examine the possible involvement of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) in anti-inflammatory mechanism. The synthesized phenanthridine derivative PHE-4i (2, 5, and 10 mg/kg) was administered intraperitoneally to rats. One hour following treatment, inflammation was induced by intraplantar injection of carrageenan (1 %), in the hind paw. Paw volume as the index of inflammation was measured before and after carrageenan injection. Neutrophil sequestration into the hind paw was quantified by measuring tissue myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity and was compared for the inhibition of H2S production. Pretreatment with PHE-4i significantly reduced carrageenan-induced hind paw weight, MPO activity, leukocyte infiltration, and H2S production in a dose-dependent manner (p H2S.

  8. Utilization of the Denny-Brown collection: differential recovery of forelimb and hind limb stepping after extensive unilateral cerebral lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilensky, J A; Gilman, S; Dunn, E A; Wilson, W J

    1997-01-01

    The Denny-Brown collection of primate lesion material was used to test the hypothesis that there is a difference in the rate of forelimb and hind limb recovery of locomotor movements after major unilateral cerebral ablation (pre/postcentral gyrus, decortication or hemispherectomy). The results indicate that, following major cerebral injury, hind limb recovery precedes that of the forelimb in adolescent and adult primates, but not in infants. This suggests that there is an underlying physiological basis to the widely-held belief that, in humans, lower limb recovery after stroke is generally more complete than that of the upper limb.

  9. Perivertebral B-cell lymphoma in a Queensland koala (Phascolarctos cinereus adustus) with paralytic symptoms in the hind limbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kido, Nobuhide; Edamura, Kazuya; Inoue, Naomi; Shibuya, Hisashi; Sato, Tsuneo; Kondo, Masako; Shindo, Izumi

    2012-08-01

    A male Queensland koala (Phascolarctos cinereus adustus) at Kanazawa Zoological Gardens (Kanagawa, Japan) exhibited paralytic symptoms in the hind limbs. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging revealed a mass on the left ventral side of the 11th to 13th thoracic vertebrae, and the presence of myelitis or edema in the spinal cord. The koala was under anesthesia during the examination and suddenly developed ventricular fibrillation and died. Necropsy revealed a firm flat ovoid hemorrhagic mass on the vertebrae. Following a microscopic examination including immunohistochemistry, the perivertebral mass was diagnosed as B cell lymphoma. Therefore, neoplastic cell infiltration into the spinal cord may cause paralytic symptoms in the hind limbs.

  10. A moderately frequent HindIII polymorphism at the human NGFR locus (17q12 yields 17q22)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, E.C.; Fain, P.R.; Barker, D.F. (Univ. of Utah Research Park, Salt Lake City (USA)); Chao, M.V. (Cornell Univ. Medical College, New York, NY (USA))

    1989-01-25

    The clone Lambda6 contains human NGFR sequences cloned in the vector CH28. HindIII (AAGCTT) reveals allelic bands of 13 kb and 8.3+4.7 kb with a constant band of 8.8 kb. The NGFR locus has been assigned to 17q12->17q22 with somatic cell hybrid analysis and in situ hybridization. The HindIII site polymorphism shows tight genetic linkage to HOX2 and other 17q markers. No significant deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium has been observed. No departure from Mendelian expectations in 39 offspring of segregating matings was found.

  11. HindIII identifies a two allele DNA polymorphism of the human cannabinoid receptor gene (CNR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caenazzo, L.; Hoehe, M.R.; Hsieh, W.T.; Berrettini, W.H.; Bonner, T.I.; Gershon, E.S. (National Inst. of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States))

    1991-09-11

    HCNR p5, a 0.9 kb BamHI/EcoRI fragment from the human cannabinoid receptor gene inserted into pUC19, was used as probe. The fragment is located in an intron approximately 14 kb 5{prime} of the initiation codon. This fragment is a clean single copy sequence by genomic blotting. Hybridization of human genomic DNA digested with HindIII identified a two allele RFLP with bands at 5.5 (A1) and 3.3 kb (A2). The human cannabinoid receptor gene has been genetically mapped in CEPH reference pedigrees to the centromeric/q region of chromosome 6. In situ hybridization localizes it to 6q14-q15. Codominant segregation has been observed in 26 informative two- and three-generation CEPH pedigrees and in 14 medium-sized disease families.

  12. Understanding hind limb lameness signs in horses using simple rigid body mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starke, S D; May, S A; Pfau, T

    2015-09-18

    Hind limb lameness detection in horses relies on the identification of movement asymmetry which can be based on multiple pelvic landmarks. This study explains the poorly understood relationship between hind limb lameness pointers, related to the tubera coxae and sacrum, based on experimental data in context of a simple rigid body model. Vertical displacement of tubera coxae and sacrum was quantified experimentally in 107 horses with varying lameness degrees. A geometrical rigid-body model of pelvis movement during lameness was created in Matlab. Several asymmetry measures were calculated and contrasted. Results showed that model predictions for tubera coxae asymmetry during lameness matched experimental observations closely. Asymmetry for sacrum and comparative tubera coxae movement showed a strong association both empirically (R(2)≥ 0.92) and theoretically. We did not find empirical or theoretical evidence for a systematic, pronounced adaptation in the pelvic rotation pattern with increasing lameness. The model showed that the overall range of movement between tubera coxae does not allow the appreciation of asymmetry changes beyond mild lameness. When evaluating movement relative to the stride cycle we did find empirical evidence for asymmetry being slightly more visible when comparing tubera coxae amplitudes rather than sacrum amplitudes, although variation exists for mild lameness. In conclusion, the rigidity of the equine pelvis results in tightly linked movement trajectories of different pelvic landmarks. The model allows the explanation of empirical observations in the context of the underlying mechanics, helping the identification of potentially limited assessment choices when evaluating gait. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Hind limb ischemic preconditioning induces an anti-inflammatory response by remote organs in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.V.P. Souza Filho

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Ischemic preconditioning (IPC, a strategy used to attenuate ischemia-reperfusion injury, consists of brief ischemic periods, each followed by reperfusion, prior to a sustained ischemic insult. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the local and systemic anti-inflammatory effects of hind limb IPC in male Wistar rat (200-250 g models of acute inflammation. IPC was induced with right hind limb ischemia for 10 min by placing an elastic rubber band tourniquet on the proximal part of the limb followed by 30 min of reperfusion. Groups (N = 6-8 were submitted to right or left paw edema (PE with carrageenan (100 µg or Dextran (200 µg, hemorrhagic cystitis with ifosfamide (200 mg/kg, ip or gastric injury (GI with indomethacin (20 mg/kg, vo. Controls received similar treatments, without IPC (Sham-IPC. PE is reported as variation of paw volume (mL, vesical edema (VE as vesical wet weight (mg, vascular permeability (VP with Evans blue extravasation (µg, GI with the gastric lesion index (GLI; total length of all erosions, mm, and neutrophil migration (NM from myeloperoxidase activity. The statistical significance (P < 0.05 was determined by ANOVA, followed by the Tukey test. Carrageenan or Dextran-induced PE and VP in either paw were reduced by IPC (42-58.7%. IPC inhibited VE (38.8% and VP (54% in ifosfamide-induced hemorrhagic cystitis. GI and NM induced by indomethacin were inhibited by IPC (GLI: 90.3%; NM: 64%. This study shows for the first time that IPC produces local and systemic anti-inflammatory effects in models of acute inflammation other than ischemia-reperfusion injury.

  14. Associations of force plate and body-mounted inertial sensor measurements for identification of hind limb lameness in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Rhodes P; Reed, Shannon K; Schoonover, Mike J; Whitfield, Chase T; Yonezawa, Yoshiharu; Maki, Hiromitchi; Pai, P Frank; Keegan, Kevin G

    2016-04-01

    To investigate associations between inertial sensor and stationary force plate measurements of hind limb lameness in horses. 21 adult horses with no lameness or with mild hind limb lameness. Horses were instrumented with inertial sensors and evaluated for lameness with a stationary force plate while trotting in a straight line. Inertial sensor-derived measurements of maximum and minimum pelvic height differences between right and left halves of the stride were compared with vertical and horizontal ground reaction forces (GRFs). Stepwise linear regression was performed to investigate the strength of association between inertial sensor measurements of hind limb lameness and amplitude, impulse, and time indices of important events in the vertical and horizontal GRF patterns. Difference in minimum pelvic position was moderately (Ra(2) = 0.60) associated with the difference in peak vertical GRF but had little association with any horizontal GRF measurements. Difference in maximum pelvic position was strongly (Ra(2) = 0.77) associated with a transfer of vertical to horizontal ground reaction impulse in the second half of the stance but was not associated with difference in peak vertical GRF. Inertial sensor-derived measurements of asymmetric pelvic fall (difference in minimum pelvic position) indicated a decrease in vertical GRF, but similar measurements of asymmetric pelvis rise (difference in maximum pelvic position) indicated a transfer of vertical to horizontal force impulse in the second half of the stance. Evaluation of both pelvic rise and fall may be important when assessing hind limb lameness in horses.

  15. [Detection of carriers of hemophilia A by testing for HindIII polymorphism in the factor VIII gene by PCR].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surin, V L; Aseev, M V; Zhukova, E L; Baranov, V S; Solov'ev, G Ia; Grineva, N I; Andreeva, T A; Izhevskaia, V L; Likhacheva, E A; Pliushch, O P

    1990-10-01

    Representatives of 62 families from Moscow and Leningrad with haemophilia A observed in the pedigree were tested for HindIII polymorphism in the factor VIII gene. The proposed scheme of investigation was based on intron 19 of the FVIII gene amplification by the PCR technique followed by restriction analysis with the inner control of hydrolysis. 207 unrelated X-chromosomes were analysed, the frequency of the incidence of the polymorphic HindIII site in the given population found to be 0.29. The frequency of incidence of the HindIII heterozygotes calculated according to Hardy-Weinberg equation was 0.41. This value evidences for relatively high informativity of this polymorphism for carrier detection and prenatal diagnosis of haemophilia A. 23 families (37%) out of 62 examined in the study were informative for this criteria. The new scheme proved to be effective in testing HindIII polymorphism for haemophilia A carrier detection and prenatal diagnosis. The whole procedure takes one day, the radiolabelled probes are not used. The scheme described was inculcated in the All-Union Research Center for Haematology, Ministry of Health, USSR, Moscow, Research Institute for Obstetrics and Gynecology, Leningrad, Institute of Medical Genetics, Greifswald, DDR.

  16. Hind bint 'Utba, de 'levereetster'. Verhalen over een invloedrijke vrouw uit de tjd van de profeet Muhammad

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boekhoff-van der Voort, N.A.

    2009-01-01

    According to Islamic sources, Hind bint 'Utba was one of the most influential women in Mecca during the emergence of Islam in the seventh century, when she was a passionate adversary of the prophet Muhammad until she converted to Islam. She is known as the woman who took a bite from the liver of the

  17. Effects of Hind Limb Unloading on Pharmacokinetics of Procainamide in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risin, Semyon A.; Dasgupta, Amitava; Ramesh, Govindarajan T.; Risin, Diana

    2007-01-01

    The pharmacokinetics (PK) of medications administered to astronauts could be altered by the conditions in space. It is prudent to expect that low gravity and free floating (and associated hemodynamic changes) could affect the absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion of the drugs. Knowledge of these alterations is essential for adjusting the dosage and the regimen of drug administration. Among the medications of special interest are the cardiovascular drugs, especially the antiarrhythmic agents. In this study we used hind limb unloaded (HLU) mice as a model to investigate possible changes in the PK of a common antiarrhythmic drug procainamide (PA). Prior to drug administration the experimental animals were tail suspended for 24 hours and the control animals were kept free. PA (150-250 mg per kg) was given orally by a gavage procedure. After that the experimental mice were kept suspended for additional 1, 2, 3 and 6 hours. At these time points the serum concentration of PA and N-acetyl-procainamide (NAPA), an active metabolite which is formed by N-acetyltransferase in the liver, were measured by the fluorescence polarization immunoassay (FPIA) on the AxSYM autoanalyzer (Abbott Laboratories, Abbott Park, IL). The serum level of PA in HLU mice at 1 hour after administration was almost 40% lower than in controls. At 2-3 hours the difference still maintained, however, it was not statistically significant; at 6 hours no difference was detected. The level of NAPA in HLU mice was slightly lower at 1 and 2 hours but the difference did not reach statistical significance. The estimated PA half-life time in HLU mice was almost 55% longer than in control animals. These results confirm that hind limb unloading and related hemodynamic changes significantly alter the PK of PA. The effects are most likely primarily associated with a decrease in the drug absorption, especially within the first two hours after administration. At the same time prolongation of the PA half

  18. Segmentation of digitized histological sections for quantification of the muscularized vasculature in the mouse hind limb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yiwen; Pickering, J Geoffrey; Nong, Zengxuan; Ward, Aaron D

    2017-04-01

    Immunohistochemical tissue staining enhances microvasculature characteristics, including the smooth muscle in the medial layer of the vessel walls that is responsible for regulation of blood flow. The vasculature can be imaged in a comprehensive fashion using whole-slide scanning. However, since each such image potentially contains hundreds of small vessels, manual vessel delineation and quantification is not practically feasible. In this work, we present a fully automatic segmentation and vasculature quantification algorithm for whole-slide images. We evaluated its performance on tissue samples drawn from the hind limbs of wild-type mice, stained for smooth muscle using 3,3'-Diaminobenzidine (DAB) immunostain. The algorithm was designed to be robust to vessel fragmentation due to staining irregularity, and artefactual staining of nonvessel objects. Colour deconvolution was used to isolate the DAB stain for detection of vessel wall fragments. Complete vessels were reconstructed from the fragments by joining endpoints of topological skeletons. Automatic measures of vessel density, perimeter, wall area and local wall thickness were taken. The segmentation algorithm was validated against manual measures, resulting in a Dice similarity coefficient of 89%. The relationships observed between these measures were as expected from a biological standpoint, providing further reinforcement of the accuracy of this system. This system provides a fully automated and accurate means of measuring the arteriolar and venular morphology of vascular smooth muscle. © 2017 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2017 Royal Microscopical Society.

  19. [Evaluation of dermatomes in the hind paw of the rat using retrograde axonal transport].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passagia, J G; Benabid, A L; Chirossel, J P; Bouchet, Y

    1993-12-01

    UV light fluorescent tracers (True Blue and Fast Blue) are placed in contact with sensitive receptors after dermabrasion. The abraded surfaces are limited to two hemidorsal areas and two hemi plantar areas on the animals' foot. A five days survival is allowed to enable the axonal retrograde transport of the tracers, then the animals are sacrificed and perfused with an intracardiac injection of 10% formaldehyde in phosphate buffer at 7.4 pH. The lumbar spinal ganglions are immediately dissected out, examined as a whole with a Leitz Dialux fluorescence microscope, then frozen and cut with a cryotome. The results of this analysis show that: i-only ipsilateral dorsal root ganglions are labeled by blue dye. ii-the number of fluorescent cells varies between 20 to 60 per ganglion. iii-a map of the distribution of the dermatomes on the rat hind foot can be deducted from the study of the labelled ganglions. They spread from L2 to L5 from the cranial to the caudal part, and from the medial to the lateral side of the rat foot, on both dorsal and plantar areas.

  20. A gigantic new dinosaur from Argentina and the evolution of the sauropod hind foot

    Science.gov (United States)

    González Riga, Bernardo J.; Lamanna, Matthew C.; Ortiz David, Leonardo D.; Calvo, Jorge O.; Coria, Juan P.

    2016-01-01

    Titanosauria is an exceptionally diverse, globally-distributed clade of sauropod dinosaurs that includes the largest known land animals. Knowledge of titanosaurian pedal structure is critical to understanding the stance and locomotion of these enormous herbivores and, by extension, gigantic terrestrial vertebrates as a whole. However, completely preserved pedes are extremely rare among Titanosauria, especially as regards the truly giant members of the group. Here we describe Notocolossus gonzalezparejasi gen. et sp. nov. from the Upper Cretaceous of Mendoza Province, Argentina. With a powerfully-constructed humerus 1.76 m in length, Notocolossus is one of the largest known dinosaurs. Furthermore, the complete pes of the new taxon exhibits a strikingly compact, homogeneous metatarsus—seemingly adapted for bearing extraordinary weight—and truncated unguals, morphologies that are otherwise unknown in Sauropoda. The pes underwent a near-progressive reduction in the number of phalanges along the line to derived titanosaurs, eventually resulting in the reduced hind foot of these sauropods.

  1. In vivo phosphorus 31 magnetic resonance spectroscopy of rat hind limb skeletal muscle during sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, D O; Maris, J; Fried, R; Settle, R G; Rolandelli, R R; Koruda, M J; Chance, B; Rombeau, J L

    1988-11-01

    High-energy phosphate metabolism in skeletal muscle is altered during sepsis, although the chronology of events is uncertain. Phosphorus 31 magnetic resonance spectroscopy was used to measure changes in muscle energy stores of the left hind limb musculature of adult male rats during sepsis. Following control scans, cecal ligation and puncture were performed and scanning was repeated 6, 24, and 48 hours after surgery. The ratios of phosphocreatine (PCr) to inorganic phosphate (Pi), a measure of energy stores, and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to Pi ratio, a measure of the energy available for immediate use, were determined from peak heights. Intracellular pH was calculated using the distance between Pi and PCr peaks. In surviving animals, a 40% decrease in PCr/Pi ratio (+/- SEM) was observed by 24 hours (22.3 +/- 3.0 at time 0 vs 13.3 +/- 2.8 at 24 hours), whereas energy availability (beta-ATP/Pi) was statistically unchanged (18.2 +/- 2.2 at time 0 vs 15.2 +/- 1.2 at 48 hours). Intracellular pH did not change. Both PCr/Pi and ATP/Pi ratios were inversely correlated with time. In this model of documented peritonitis, skeletal muscle energy metabolism is rapidly altered following severe infection, and these changes can be detected using 31P magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

  2. Osteology and radiographic anatomy of the pelvis and hind limb of healthy ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makungu, M; Groenewald, H B; du Plessis, W M; Barrows, M; Koeppel, K N

    2014-06-01

    In family Lemuridae, anatomical variations exist. Considering its conservation status (near threatened) and presence of similarities between strepsirrhines and primitive animals, it was thought to be beneficial to describe the gross osteology and radiographic anatomy of the pelvis and hind limb of ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta) as a reference for clinical use and species identification. Radiography was performed in 14 captive adult ring-tailed lemurs. The radiographic findings were correlated with bone specimens from two adult animals. Additionally, computed tomography of the hind limbs was performed in one animal. The pelvic bone has a well-developed caudal ventral iliac spine. The patella has a prominent tuberosity on the cranial surface. The first metatarsal bone and digit 1 are markedly stouter than the other metatarsal bones and digits with medial divergence from the rest of the metatarsal bones and digits. Ossicles were seen in the lateral meniscus, inter-phalangeal joint of digit 1 and in the infrapatellar fat pad. Areas of mineral opacity were seen within the external genitalia, which are believed to be the os penis and os clitoris. Variations exist in the normal osteology and radiographic appearance of the pelvis and hind limb of different animal species. The use of only atlases from domestic cats and dogs for interpretative purposes may be misleading. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  3. MRI in long-term evaluation of reconstructed hind-feet of land-mine trauma patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanal, Hatice Tuba [Department of Radiology, Gulhane Military Medical Academy, Ankara (Turkey)], E-mail: tubasanal@yahoo.com; Bulakbasi, Nail; Kocaoglu, Murat; Yildirim, Duzgun [Department of Radiology, Gulhane Military Medical Academy, Ankara (Turkey)

    2007-08-15

    Introduction: The purpose of this study was to assess the flap reconstructed hind feet of patients with MRI who were traumatized by land-mine. Materials and methods: T1 and T2 weighted images were obtained in 7 patients, 12 months later the reconstruction of their hind feet by myocutaneous flaps after land-mine trauma. Results: In all patients T2 signal intensities of the myocutaneous flaps were slightly high compared to normal undisturbed muscle. Slight vascular engorgement was noted in the vicinity of the flaps in all cases. There were ankle joint ankylose (n = 1), tarsal coalition (n = 3), sklerosis within the calcaneus (n = 1), bone cortex irregularities (n = 3), absence of calcaneus (n = 4), deformity in talus and bone marrow edema (n = 1), navicular edema (n = 2), remodeling in the superior aspect of talus neck (n = 2), absence of talus (n = 2), talocalcaneal ankylose (n = 1), small collection in the superior aspect of flap (n = 1), drenage canules (n = 1). Conclusion: In reconstructed hind feet by myocutaneus flaps done for land-mine traumas, MRI presents useful information by displaying detailed anatomy of the flaps, bones, joints, soft tissues and associated complications.

  4. Three-dimensional kinematics of the pelvis and hind limbs in chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) and human bipedal walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Matthew C; Lee, Leng-Feng; Demes, Brigitte; Thompson, Nathan E; Larson, Susan G; Stern, Jack T; Umberger, Brian R

    2015-09-01

    The common chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) is a facultative biped and our closest living relative. As such, the musculoskeletal anatomies of their pelvis and hind limbs have long provided a comparative context for studies of human and fossil hominin locomotion. Yet, how the chimpanzee pelvis and hind limb actually move during bipedal walking is still not well defined. Here, we describe the three-dimensional (3-D) kinematics of the pelvis, hip, knee and ankle during bipedal walking and compare those values to humans walking at the same dimensionless and dimensional velocities. The stride-to-stride and intraspecific variations in 3-D kinematics were calculated using the adjusted coefficient of multiple correlation. Our results indicate that humans walk with a more stable pelvis than chimpanzees, especially in tilt and rotation. Both species exhibit similar magnitudes of pelvis list, but with segment motion that is opposite in phasing. In the hind limb, chimpanzees walk with a more flexed and abducted limb posture, and substantially exceed humans in the magnitude of hip rotation during a stride. The average stride-to-stride variation in joint and segment motion was greater in chimpanzees than humans, while the intraspecific variation was similar on average. These results demonstrate substantial differences between human and chimpanzee bipedal walking, in both the sagittal and non-sagittal planes. These new 3-D kinematic data are fundamental to a comprehensive understanding of the mechanics, energetics and control of chimpanzee bipedalism. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. 3D reconstruction of digitized histological sections for vasculature quantification in the mouse hind limb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yiwen; Pickering, J. Geoffrey; Nong, Zengxuan; Gibson, Eli; Ward, Aaron D.

    2014-03-01

    In contrast to imaging modalities such as magnetic resonance imaging and micro computed tomography, digital histology reveals multiple stained tissue features at high resolution (0.25μm/pixel). However, the two-dimensional (2D) nature of histology challenges three-dimensional (3D) quantification and visualization of the different tissue components, cellular structures, and subcellular elements. This limitation is particularly relevant to the vasculature, which has a complex and variable structure within tissues. The objective of this study was to perform a fully automated 3D reconstruction of histology tissue in the mouse hind limb preserving the accurate systemic orientation of the tissues, stained with hematoxylin and immunostained for smooth muscle α actin. We performed a 3D reconstruction using pairwise rigid registrations of 5μm thick, paraffin-embedded serial sections, digitized at 0.25μm/pixel. Each registration was performed using the iterative closest points algorithm on blood vessel landmarks. Landmarks were vessel centroids, determined according to a signed distance map of each pixel to a decision boundary in hue-saturation-value color space; this decision boundary was determined based on manual annotation of a separate training set. Cell nuclei were then automatically extracted and corresponded to refine the vessel landmark registration. Homologous nucleus landmark pairs appearing on not more than two adjacent slides were chosen to avoid registrations which force curved or non-sectionorthogonal structures to be straight and section-orthogonal. The median accumulated target registration errors ± interquartile ranges for the vessel landmark registration, and the nucleus landmark refinement were 43.4+/-42.8μm and 2.9+/-1.7μm, respectively (phistology imaging is feasible based on extracted vasculature and nuclei.

  6. Regulation of the properties of rat hind limb muscles following gravitational unloading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohira, Motoko; Hanada, Hagino; Kawano, Fuminori; Ishihara, Akihiko; Nonaka, Ikuya; Ohira, Yoshinobu

    2002-06-01

    The mechanisms responsible for the morphological and metabolic adaptation of skeletal muscles to the removal of antigravity activity were investigated in rats. Significant atrophy relative to the levels before suspension was induced in ankle plantarflexsors, may be due to a reduced tension production caused by decreased muscle length and electromyogram activity. Growth failure was significant in ankle dorsiflexors, although these muscles did not atrophy. Forced muscle contraction through electrical stimulation at 1 or 100 Hz during hind limb suspension generally had detrimental effects. The percent contribution of water loss to the suspension-related change in weight was 85, 88, and 93% in soleus, plantaris, and extensor digitorum longus, respectively. The total levels of both beta-hydroxyacyl CoA dehydrogenase (HAD) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were less in the suspended muscles than in the controls, having high positive correlations with the total protein content. The specific activity of HAD, but not of LDH, of the suspended muscles was lower than in the controls (25-61%). These data suggest that the cause of muscle atrophy and changes in metabolic properties may be a decreased tension development, not necessarily the reduction of electrical or contractile activity. Further, it is clearly suggested that electrical stimulation of a muscle group with different composition of fiber phenotype at a certain pattern or frequency is not suitable for the countermeasure. It is also suggested that the major cause of the decreased muscle weight was loss of water, even though protein content was also lowered after suspension. Moreover, the data suggest that the HAD level was affected more than the total protein content and LDH.

  7. NIRS PREDICTION FOR PROTEIN AND INTRAMUSCULAR FAT CONTENT OF RABBIT HIND LEG MEAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gy. Bázár

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to develop calibration equations to predict the chemical composition of raw, homogenized rabbit meat by means of near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS. 44 Pannon White rabbits were housed in groups in three different pen types (16 anim./m2, and were fed the same diet. Another 45 animals were housed in cages (12 anim./m2 and fed by different feeding regimes. Rabbits were slaughtered at the bodyweight of 2.4-2.5 kg. Homogenized fresh and freeze-dried left total hind leg muscles were investigated by NIRS using a NIRSystem 6500 equipment with small ring cup sample holder. The ether extract and protein content of all samples were determined chemically. Samples 44 of housing experiment were applied in producing LOCAL calibration equations tested on the 45 samples from the separate feeding experiment. Coefficients of determination (R2 of the predictions were 0.89 and 0.99 for fat, 0.85 and 0.96 for protein in fresh and freeze-dried samples, respectively. Results are reassuring, because the equations were applicable, however the analyzed samples were from independent housing and feeding systems. Therefore the chemical compositions differed in the two datasets, i.e. 9.46%, and 11.79% for fat, 85.75% and 83.44% for protein content in calibration and prediction datasets, respectively. The average of NIRS predicted values for fat and protein was 11.36%, 83.88% or 11.54%, 83.45% when using fresh or freeze-dried samples, respectively.

  8. Mitochondrial DNA pattern of the fine shrimp Metapenaeus elegans (De Man, 1907) in the lagoon of Segara Anakan, Central Java, using Hind III

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugraha, Fitra Arya Dwi; Holil, Kholifah; Kurniawan, Nia

    2017-05-01

    Ecological damages to the Lagoon of Segara Anakan, Central Java, as well as large-scale and continuous exploitation are threatening the sustainability of fine shrimp, Metapenaeus elegans, and resources. Information in regards to genetic resources is crucial to establish long-term conservation programs and to preserve germplasm quality. This study aims to evaluate the number and size of the fragment which is digested with restriction enzyme Hind III. Seven individuals of Metapenaeus elegans from the Lagoon of Segara Anakan were examined using Hind III. Amplification of mitochondrial DNA resulted in 950 bp, and the digestion using Hind III generated four fragments consisting of 114 bp, 200 bp, 250 bp, and 386 bp, which formed a monomorphic pattern. The restriction pattern showed the probability of homozygosity of alleles that restricted using Hind III. Homozygosity indicates no variation of DNA sequence.

  9. Hind-foot correction and stabilization by pins in plaster after surgical release of talipes equino varus feet in older children

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Congenital talipes equino varus (CTEV) is a three dimensional deformity and is one of the most common congenital abnormalities affecting the lower limb and can be challenging to manage. Hind-foot deformity is considered the most difficult to treat. Unfortunately, the calcaneus is often small and thus difficult to control during casting after surgical release in severe or relapsed cases. We used three pins to control and maintain the hind foot correction, after surgical release, during casting in 47 cases (59 feet). We introduced a modified, coronal plane, transverse calcaneal pin. This pin is inserted from medial to lateral through the calcaneus to correct the varus mal-positioning of the calcaneus in the sagittal plane and to provide a better control on the small sized, hind-foot during casting. We paid special attention to the final hind-foot deformity after surgery, and the results were favorable after the application of this transverse pin. PMID:20598129

  10. Hind-foot correction and stabilization by pins in plaster after surgical release of talipes equino varus feet in older children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seleem Osama A

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Congenital talipes equino varus (CTEV is a three dimensional deformity and is one of the most common congenital abnormalities affecting the lower limb and can be challenging to manage. Hind-foot deformity is considered the most difficult to treat. Unfortunately, the calcaneus is often small and thus difficult to control during casting after surgical release in severe or relapsed cases. We used three pins to control and maintain the hind foot correction, after surgical release, during casting in 47 cases (59 feet. We introduced a modified, coronal plane, transverse calcaneal pin. This pin is inserted from medial to lateral through the calcaneus to correct the varus mal-positioning of the calcaneus in the sagittal plane and to provide a better control on the small sized, hind-foot during casting. We paid special attention to the final hind-foot deformity after surgery, and the results were favorable after the application of this transverse pin.

  11. The Association of Lipoprotein Lipase Genes, HindIII and S447X Polymorphisms With Coronary Artery Disease in Shiraz City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeinab Ahmadi

    2015-06-01

    Conclusion: In our study, the presence of G allele S447X polymorphism increases the TG level and decrease HDL level, so it increases the susceptibility CAD. Moreover, HindIII polymorphism did not have any significant association with CAD.

  12. Technical note: Effects of attachment of hind teats before cleaning and attachment of front teats on milking characteristics in automatic milking systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besier, J; Schüpbach-Regula, G; Wellnitz, O; Bruckmaier, R M

    2017-04-01

    Milking characteristics differ between the 4 quarters of a dairy cow udder. In particular, milking time is mostly prolonged in hind quarters compared with front quarters because of the usually higher amount of stored milk. The standard milking routine (STDMR) in both conventional and automatic milking systems (AMS) consists of teat preparation of all 4 quarters, followed by attachment of the 4 teat cups, regardless of the distribution of milk between quarters. In the current study, an alternative teat preparation and milking routine (ALTMR) in AMS was tested, which consisted of cleaning and starting the milking of hind teats before cleaning and attachment of front teats. The hypothesis was based on the fact that hind quarters have usually a longer milking time than front quarters. Starting the milking of hind quarters while the front teats are being cleaned may reduce the difference in the end of milking between front and hind quarters and thus reduce total milking time. Both routines were tested on 5 Swedish dairy farms equipped with AMS in a 4-wk experiment in which treatments were alternated weekly. Total milk yield did not differ between treatments. Machine-on time (MOT) was longer in ALTMR than in STDMR because the difference in milking time between hind and front quarters was less than the time needed to prepare the front teats. However, the longer MOT in ALTMR was compensated by a shorter total preparation time, including the attachment of the first teat cup, as only the hind teats (instead of all 4 teats) were cleaned before milking was started. This resulted in a similar total milking time from start of cleaning of the first quarter until the end of milking of the last quarter in both treatments. Because of the prolonged MOT, average milk flow rate was lower in ALTMR than STDMR. Peak flow rate was higher in ALTMR than STDMR, but only in teat cups 1 (first attached, hind quarter) and 3 (third attached, front quarter), whereas main milk flow was higher in

  13. Passive hind-limb cycling improves cardiac function and reduces cardiovascular disease risk in experimental spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Christopher R; Crawford, Mark A; Poormasjedi-Meibod, Malihe-Sadat; Currie, Katharine D; Fallavollita, Andre; Yuen, Violet; McNeill, John H; Krassioukov, Andrei V

    2014-04-15

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) causes altered autonomic control and severe physical deconditioning that converge to drive maladaptive cardiac remodelling. We used a clinically relevant experimental model to investigate the cardio-metabolic responses to SCI and to establish whether passive hind-limb cycling elicits a cardio-protective effect. Initially, 21 male Wistar rats were evenly assigned to three groups: uninjured control (CON), T3 complete SCI (SCI) or T3 complete SCI plus passive hind-limb cycling (SCI-EX; 2 × 30 min day(-1), 5 days week(-1) for 4 weeks beginning 6 days post-SCI). On day 32, cardio-metabolic function was assessed using in vivo echocardiography, ex vivo working heart assessments, cardiac histology/molecular biology and blood lipid profiles. Twelve additional rats (n = 6 SCI and n = 6 SCI-EX) underwent in vivo echocardiography and basal haemodynamic assessments pre-SCI and at days 7, 14 and 32 post-SCI to track temporal cardiovascular changes. Compared with CON, SCI exhibited a rapid and sustained reduction in left ventricular dimensions and function that ultimately manifested as reduced contractility, increased myocardial collagen deposition and an up-regulation of transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGFβ1) and mothers against decapentaplegic homolog 3 (Smad3) mRNA. For SCI-EX, the initial reduction in left ventricular dimensions and function at day 7 post-SCI was completely reversed by day 32 post-SCI, and there were no differences in myocardial contractility between SCI-EX and CON. Collagen deposition was similar between SCI-EX and CON. TGFβ1 and Smad3 were down-regulated in SCI-EX. Blood lipid profiles were improved in SCI-EX versus SCI. We provide compelling novel evidence that passive hind-limb cycling prevents cardiac dysfunction and reduces cardiovascular disease risk in experimental SCI.

  14. Kinetic, kinematic, magnetic resonance and owner evaluation of dogs before and after the amputation of a hind limb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galindo-Zamora, Vladimir; von Babo, Verena; Eberle, Nina; Betz, Daniela; Nolte, Ingo; Wefstaedt, Patrick

    2016-01-25

    The amputation of a limb is a surgical procedure that is regularly performed in small animal practice. In spite of several clinical reports indicating high owner satisfaction after limb amputation in dogs, an amputation is still very critically seen by the owners, and even by some veterinarians, due to the lack of accurate information about the recovery of amputee patients. Thus, the objective of this study was to prospectively evaluate, both objectively and subjectively, the recovery outcome of dogs undergoing a hind limb amputation. Twelve patients in which a hind limb amputation was scheduled were studied. Kinetic and kinematic gait analyses were performed before the amputation, and 10, 30, 90 and 120 days after surgery. Magnetic resonance (MR) examination of the contralateral stifle joint was performed before and 120 days after amputation. The subjective impressions of the owners were gathered at the same examination times of the gait analyses. Kinetic data showed a redistribution of the load to all remaining limbs after the amputation; ten days after the procedure patients had already established their new locomotory pattern. Kinematic data showed significant differences between sessions in the mean angle progression curves of almost all analyzed joints; however, the ranges of motion were very similar before and after the amputation, and remained constant in the subsequent sessions after the amputation. No changes in the signal intensity of the soft tissues evaluated, and no evidence of cartilage damage or osteoarthritis was seen on the MR examination of the contralateral stifle. Owners evaluated the results of the amputation very positively, both during and at the end of the study. Dogs had a quick adaptation after a hind limb amputation, and the adaptation process began before the amputation was performed. This happened without evidence of morphologic changes in the contralateral stifle joint, and with a very positive evaluation from the owner.

  15. DUE AvalRS: Remote Sensing Derive Avalanche Inventory Data for Decision Support and Hind-Cast After Avalanche Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frauenfelder, Regula; Kronholm, Kalle; Solberg, Rune; Larsen, Siri Oyen; Salberg, Arnt-Borre; Larsen, Jan Otto; Bjordal, Heidi

    2010-12-01

    Each year, snow avalanches hit populated areas and parts of the transport network in the Norwegian mountain regions, leading to loss of lives and the damaging of buildings and infrastructure. We present the results of a feasibility study on the operation of a service providing the National Public Roads Administration (NPRA) with hind-cast avalanche inventory data on a local-to-regional scale during the course of the winter season, and as soon as possible after major avalanche events. We have explored the use of imagery from high-resolution and very-high-resolution space-borne satellites applying manual mapping and automated image segmentation.

  16. Morphological and genetic analyses of the first record of the Niger Hind, Cephalopholis nigri (Perciformes: Serranidae, in the Mediterranean Sea and of the African Hind, Cephalopholis taeniops, in Malta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noel Vella

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Non-native marine species, including tropical eastern Atlantic fish species are on the increase in Malta, with shipping activities being the main vector for the movement of these alien species from the Atlantic into the Mediterranean Sea. This calls for cooperation and collaboration between various sea-users and researchers to ensure continuous monitoring of coastal biodiversity. Methods Research methods involving local fishermen cooperation in monitoring efforts to identify and track populations of alien species in the Central Mediterranean has led to new records for the genus Cephalopholis (Perciformes: Serranidae in Malta. Morphological characteristics, meristic counts and mitochondrial DNA sequences from specimens of both species sampled from Maltese waters were analysed to confirm their species identify accurately, essential for tracking their respective population expansions in the Mediterranean. Results and conclusion Results from this study have led to confirmation of the first record of the Niger Hind, Cephalopholis nigri (Günther, 1859, in the Mediterranean Sea and of the establishment of the African Hind, Cephalopholis taeniops (Valenciennes, 1828 in Maltese waters.

  17. Effect of picroside II on hind limb ischemia reperfusion injury in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kılıç Y

    2017-06-01

    . Apoptosis was evaluated by TUNEL experiment.Results: TOS levels were significantly higher in I/R group than that of control and I/R + picroside II groups (P=0.014, P=0.005, respectively. TAS levels were significantly higher in I/R group than that of control and I/R + picroside II groups (P=0.007 P=0.005, respectively. TUNEL assay revealed that picroside II reduced cell necrosis.Conclusion: The results of this study demonstrated that picroside II plays a critical role to prevent I/R injury. Even though our results were found to be satisfactory, it should be encouraging to those who want to conduct future research on this topic. Keywords: ischemia reperfusion, picroside II, hind limb skeletal muscle, TOS, TAS

  18. Hind limb scaling of kangaroos and wallabies (superfamily Macropodoidea): implications for hopping performance, safety factor and elastic savings

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGowan, C P; Skinner, J; Biewener, A A

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine hind limb scaling of the musculoskeletal system in the Macropodoidea, the superfamily containing wallabies and kangaroos, to re-examine the effect of size on the locomotor mechanics and physiology of marsupial hopping. Morphometric musculoskeletal analyses were conducted of 15 species and skeletal specimens of 21 species spanning a size range from 0.8 to 80 kg that included representatives of 12 of the 16 extant genera of macropodoids. We found that unlike other groups, macropodoids are able to match force demands associated with increasing body size primarily through a combination of positive allometry in muscle area and muscle moment arms. Isometric scaling of primary hind limb bones suggests, however, that larger species experience relatively greater bone stresses. Muscle to tendon area ratios of the ankle extensors scale with strong positive allometry, indicating that peak tendon stresses also increase with increasing body size but to a lesser degree than previously reported. Consistent with previous morphological and experimental studies, large macropodoids are therefore better suited for elastic strain energy recovery but operate at lower safety factors, which likely poses an upper limit to body size. Scaling patterns for extant macropodoids suggest that extinct giant kangaroos (∼250 kg) were likely limited in locomotor capacity. PMID:18086129

  19. Hind limb scaling of kangaroos and wallabies (superfamily Macropodoidea): implications for hopping performance, safety factor and elastic savings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGowan, C P; Skinner, J; Biewener, A A

    2008-02-01

    The aim of this study was to examine hind limb scaling of the musculoskeletal system in the Macropodoidea, the superfamily containing wallabies and kangaroos, to re-examine the effect of size on the locomotor mechanics and physiology of marsupial hopping. Morphometric musculoskeletal analyses were conducted of 15 species and skeletal specimens of 21 species spanning a size range from 0.8 to 80 kg that included representatives of 12 of the 16 extant genera of macropodoids. We found that unlike other groups, macropodoids are able to match force demands associated with increasing body size primarily through a combination of positive allometry in muscle area and muscle moment arms. Isometric scaling of primary hind limb bones suggests, however, that larger species experience relatively greater bone stresses. Muscle to tendon area ratios of the ankle extensors scale with strong positive allometry, indicating that peak tendon stresses also increase with increasing body size but to a lesser degree than previously reported. Consistent with previous morphological and experimental studies, large macropodoids are therefore better suited for elastic strain energy recovery but operate at lower safety factors, which likely poses an upper limit to body size. Scaling patterns for extant macropodoids suggest that extinct giant kangaroos (approximately 250 kg) were likely limited in locomotor capacity.

  20. Morphology of the pelvis and hind limb of the red panda (Ailurus fulgens) evidenced by gross osteology, radiography and computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makungu, M; du Plessis, W M; Groenewald, H B; Barrows, M; Koeppel, K N

    2015-12-01

    The red panda (Ailurus fulgens) is a quadrupedal arboreal animal primarily distributed in the Himalayas and southern China. It is a species commonly kept in zoological collections. This study was carried out to describe the morphology of the pelvis and hind limb of the red panda evidenced by gross osteology, radiography and computed tomography as a reference for clinical use and identification of skeletons. Radiography of the pelvis and right hind limb was performed in nine and seven animals, respectively. Radiographic findings were correlated with bone specimens from three adult animals. Computed tomography of the torso and hind limb was performed in one animal. The pelvic bone had a wide ventromedial surface of the ilium. The trochlea of the femur was wide and shallow. The patella was similar to that seen in feline species. The medial fabella was not seen radiographically in any animal. The cochlea grooves of the tibia were shallow with a poorly defined intermediate ridge. The trochlea of the talus was shallow and presented with an almost flattened medial ridge. The tarsal sesamoid bone was always present. The lateral process of the base of the fifth metatarsal (MT) bone was directed laterally. The MT bones were widely spaced. The morphology of the pelvis and hind limb of the red panda indicated flexibility of the pelvis and hind limb joints as an adaptation to an arboreal quadrupedal lifestyle. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  1. Enhanced maximal exercise capacity, vasodilation to electrical muscle contraction, and hind limb vascular density in ASIC1a null mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, Heather A; Xiang, Lusha; Chade, Alejandro R; Hester, Robert

    2017-08-01

    Acid-sensing ion channel (ASIC) proteins form extracellular proton-gated, cation-selective channels in neurons and vascular smooth muscle cells and are proposed to act as extracellular proton sensors. However, their importance to vascular responses under conditions associated with extracellular acidosis, such as strenuous exercise, is unclear. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine if one ASIC protein, ASIC1a, contributes to extracellular proton-gated vascular responses and exercise tolerance. To determine if ASIC1a contributes to exercise tolerance, we determined peak oxygen (O2) uptake in conscious ASIC1a-/- mice during exhaustive treadmill running. Loss of ASIC1a was associated with a greater peak running speed (60 ± 2 vs. 53 ± 3 m·min-1, P = 0.049) and peak oxygen (O2) uptake during exhaustive treadmill running (9563 ± 120 vs. 8836 ± 276 mL·kg-1·h-1, n = 6-7, P = 0.0082). There were no differences in absolute or relative lean body mass, as determined by EchoMRI. To determine if ASIC1a contributes to vascular responses during muscle contraction, we measured femoral vascular conductance (FVC) during a stepwise electrical stimulation (0.5-5.0 Hz at 3 V for 60 sec) of the left major hind limb muscles. FVC increased to a greater extent in ASIC1a-/- versus ASIC1a+/+ mice (0.44 ± 0.03 vs. 0.30 ± 0.04 mL·min-1·100 g hind limb mass-1 · mmHg-1, n = 5 each, P = 0.0009). Vasodilation following local application of external protons in the spinotrapezius muscle increased the duration, but not the magnitude, of the vasodilatory response in ASIC1a-/- mice. Finally, we examined hind limb vascular density using micro-CT and found increased density of 0-80 μm vessels (P < 0.05). Our findings suggest an increased vascular density and an enhanced vasodilatory response to local protons, to a lesser degree, may contribute to the enhanced vascular conductance and increased peak exercise capacity in ASIC1a-/- mice. © 2017 The

  2. The migration and loss of human primordial germ stem cells from the hind gut epithelium towards the gonadal ridge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mamsen, Linn Salto; Brøchner, Christian Beltoft; Byskov, Anne Grete

    2012-01-01

    Human primordial germ cells (PGCs) can be recognized in the yolk sac wall, from 3-4 weeks post conception (wpc), in the hind gut epithelium from week 4 and in the gonadal area from early week 5. The objective of this study was to map the migration route of PGCs and elucidate the role of the nervous...... system in this process. Sixteen human specimens, 5-14 wpc obtained from legal abortions were included. On serial paraffin sections, PGCs were detected immunohistochemically by expression of OCT4 and c-Kit, nerve fibers by ß-III-tubulin and stem cell factor (SCF) as a possible chemoattractive cue for PGC...... germ cell tumors if not eliminated by apoptosis....

  3. Effects of hyperbaric therapy on liver morphofunctional of rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus after hind limb ischemia-reperfusion injury

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    Bambang Sektiari Lukiswanto

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The objective of this research was to study and to prove the effectiveness of hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT starting time on liver morphofunctional changes after ischemia-reperfusion in the hind limb of rabbits. Materials and Methods: This research used a complete randomized design with 4 groups and 6 repetitions on each. After 6 h artery femoral is ligation, reperfusion was performed for 100 min (G1, HBOT for 90 min after 10 min reperfusion (G2, 10 min reperfusion (G3, and HBOT 90 min after 60 min reperfusion (G4. Then, all of the rabbits were sacrificed. The liver and blood were taken for histopathological changes examination as well as for measuring the level of aspartate aminotransferase (AST and alanine aminotransferase (ALT. The statistical test using Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney showed that the score of degeneration, necrosis, and portal inflammation in groups without HBOT (G1 and G3 were not significantly different, as well as in group with HBOT (G2 and G4 (p>0.05. However, the scores of histopathological changes in G1 and G3 were significantly different from those in G2 and G4 (p0.05. Results: Hind limb ischemia injury reperfusion can trigger damage for liver morphology, but not lead to liver dysfunction. Reperfusion can trigger increased activity of neutrophils, while neutrophil infiltration in the organ will lead to dysfunction. HBOT can inhibit the activity of neutrophils and the dysfunction of organs caused by ischemic reperfusion. Conclusion: HBOT for 90 min, both 10 and 60 min after the reperfusion, can protect hepatocytes from damage.

  4. Arboreal Day Geckos (Phelsuma madagascariensis Differentially Modulate Fore- and Hind Limb Kinematics in Response to Changes in Habitat Structure.

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    Mingna V Zhuang

    Full Text Available By using adhesion, geckos can move through incredibly challenging habitats. However, continually changing terrain may necessitate modulation of the adhesive apparatus in order to maximize its effectiveness over a range of challenges. Behaviorally modulating how the adhesive system is applied can occur by altering the alignment of the foot relative to the long axis of the body and/or the angles between the digits (interdigital angle. Given the directionality of the adhesive system, geckos likely vary the application of the system via these mechanisms as they run. We quantified 3D movements (using high-speed video of the day gecko, Phelsuma madagascariensis, running on a range of ecologically relevant inclines (0°, 45°, 90° and perch diameters (1.5 cm, 10 cm and broad. We measured the instantaneous sum of interdigital angles and foot alignment relative to the body, as well as other kinematic variables, throughout each stride and across treatments. Modulation of foot alignment at 45° and 90° was similar between the forelimb and hind limb, but differed at 0°, suggesting that P. madagascariensis is able to exert an adhesive force using multiple strategies. Both the sum of interdigital angles and alignment in the fore- and hind foot were modulated. Differences in modulation between the limbs are likely related to the underlying morphology. The modulation of interdigital angle and foot alignment suggests that aspects other than the mechanism of adhesion, such as joint morphology, are important for arboreal movement in geckos. Our study of foot usage in arboreal locomotion reveals patterns that may be widespread across pad-bearing lizards. In addition to understanding the constraints exerted by the adhesive apparatus, we highlight how biomechanical traits may respond to the evolution of novel adaptations and morphologies.

  5. Fatty liver accompanies an increase of Lactobacillus acidophilus in the hind gut of C57/BL mice fed a high-fat diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    High-fat diets can produce obesity and have been linked to the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), which also induces changes in the gut microbiome. This study tested the hypothesis that high-fat feeding increases certain predominate hind gut bacteria in a C57BL/6 mouse model o...

  6. Effects of 5-hydroxytryptamine on capillary and arteriovenous anastomotic blood flow in the human hand and forearm and in the pig hind leg

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blauw, G.; Bom, A. H.; van Brummelen, P.; Camps, J.; Arndt, J. W.; Verdouw, P. D.; Chang, P. C.; van Zwieten, P. A.; Saxena, P. R.

    1991-01-01

    The effects of intraarterially infused serotonin (5-HT) on capillary and arteriovenous anastomotic (AVA) blood flow were investigated in the hand and forearm of 19 healthy volunteers, and in the hind leg of six anesthetized pigs using radioactive microspheres with a diameter of 15 microns. The

  7. Enhanced angiogenic effect of adipose-derived stromal cell spheroid with low-level light therapy in hind limb ischemia mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, In-Su; Chung, Phil-Sang; Ahn, Jin Chul

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) on transplanted human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hASCs) spheroid in a hind limb ischemia animal model. LLLT, hASCs spheroid and hASCs spheroid transplantation with LLLT (spheroid + LLLT) were applied to the ischemic hind limbs in athymic mice. The survival, differentiation and secretion of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF), and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) of the spheroid ASCs were evaluated by immunohistochemistry and western blots. Spheroid + LLLT group had enhanced the tissue regeneration, including angiogenesis, compared with the ASC group. The spheroid ASCs contributed to tissue regeneration via differentiation and secretion of growth factors. In the spheroid + LLLT group, the survival of spheroid hASCs increased with a concomitant decrease in apoptosis of spheroid hASCs in the ischemic hind limb. The secretion of growth factors was stimulated in the spheroid + LLLT group compared with the ASCs and spheroid group. These data suggested that LLLT is an effective biostimulator of spheroid hASCs in tissue regeneration that enhanced the survival of ASCs and stimulated the secretion of growth factors in the ischemic hind limb. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Kallinev nafta võib hakata majanduskasvu pidurdama. 145dollariline nafta hind on majandusele ohtlik / Katri Soe-Surén

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Soe-Surén, Katri

    2011-01-01

    Ekspertide hinnangul on nafta hinna tõusu taga paranenud majandusnäitajad. Suurema osa majandusuuringu instituutide, pankade ja ekspertide hinnangul on alanud aastal nafta hind 70 ja 90 dollari vahel barrelist, IEA ekspert Fatih Birol ennustab suuremat hinnatõusu ja hoiatab, et tõusvad hinnad võivad muutuda tõsiseks probleemiks maailma majandusele

  9. Insights into the dynamics of hind leg development in honey bee (Apis mellifera L. queen and worker larvae - A morphology/differential gene expression analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Gonçalves Santos

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Phenotypic plasticity is a hallmark of the caste systems of social insects, expressed in their life history and morphological traits. These are best studied in bees. In their co-evolution with angiosperm plants, the females of corbiculate bees have acquired a specialized structure on their hind legs for collecting pollen. In the highly eusocial bees (Apini and Meliponini, this structure is however only present in workers and absent in queens. By means of histological sections and cell proliferation analysis we followed the developmental dynamics of the hind legs of queens and workers in the fourth and fifth larval instars. In parallel, we generated subtractive cDNA libraries for hind leg discs of queen and worker larvae by means of a Representational Difference Analysis (RDA. From the total of 135 unique sequences we selected 19 for RT-qPCR analysis, where six of these were confirmed as differing significantly in their expression between the two castes in the larval spinning stage. The development of complex structures such as the bees’ hind legs, requires diverse patterning mechanisms and signaling modules, as indicated by the set of differentially expressed genes related with cell adhesion and signaling pathways.

  10. Computerized identification and classification of stance phases as made by front og hind feet of walking cows based on 3-dimensional ground reaction forces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjøth, F; Thorup, Vivi Mørkøre; do Nascimento, Omar Feix

    2013-01-01

    Lameness is a frequent disorder in dairy cows and in large dairy herds manual lameness detection is a time-consuming task. This study describes a method for automatic identification of stance phases in walking cows, and their classification as made by a front or a hind foot based on ground reacti...

  11. All-trans-retinoid acid (ATRA) suppresses chondrogenesis of rat primary hind limb bud mesenchymal cells by downregulating p63 and cartilage-specific molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yun-Guo; Xie, Peng; Wang, Yun-Gong; Li, Xue-Dong; Zhang, Tao-Gen; Liu, Zhao-Yong; Hong, Quan; Du, Shi-Xin

    2014-09-01

    P63 null mice have no or truncated limbs and mutations in human p63 cause several skeletal syndromes that also show limb and digit abnormalities, suggesting its essential role in bone development. In the current study, we investigated the effect of ATRA on chondrogenesis using mesenchymal cells from rat hind limb bud and further examined the mRNA and protein expression of Sox9 and Col2a1 and p63 in rat hind limb bud cells. Limb buds were isolated from embryos from euthanized female rats. Growth of hind limb bud mesenchymal cells was determined by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium (MTT) assays. Formation of cartilage nodules was examined by Alcian blue-nuclear fast red staining. The expression of Sox9, Col2al and p63 was determined by Real-time RT-PCR and immunoblotting assays, respectively. Our MTT assays revealed that ATRA at 1 and 10μM significantly suppressed the growth of mesenchymal cells from rat hind limb bud at 24 and 48h (PATRA caused a significant dose-dependent reduction in the area of cartilage nodules (PATRA, the area of cartilage nodules from hind limb bud cells was reduced to 0.05±0.03mm from 0.15±0.01mm in controls. Real-time RT-PCR assays further indicated that 1 and 10μM ATRA markedly reduced the mRNA expression of Sox9, Col2al and p63 in hind limb bud cells (PATRA time-dependently inhibits the mRNA expression of p63, Sox9 and Col2al. Western blotting assays additionally showed that ATRA dose-dependently reduced the expression of Sox9, Col2al and p63 (PATRA suppresses chondrogenesis by modulating the expression of Sox9, Col2al and p63 in primary hind limb bud mesenchymal cells. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Multi-body simulation of a canine hind limb: model development, experimental validation and calculation of ground reaction forces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wefstaedt Patrick

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Among other causes the long-term result of hip prostheses in dogs is determined by aseptic loosening. A prevention of prosthesis complications can be achieved by an optimization of the tribological system which finally results in improved implant duration. In this context a computerized model for the calculation of hip joint loadings during different motions would be of benefit. In a first step in the development of such an inverse dynamic multi-body simulation (MBS- model we here present the setup of a canine hind limb model applicable for the calculation of ground reaction forces. Methods The anatomical geometries of the MBS-model have been established using computer tomography- (CT- and magnetic resonance imaging- (MRI- data. The CT-data were collected from the pelvis, femora, tibiae and pads of a mixed-breed adult dog. Geometric information about 22 muscles of the pelvic extremity of 4 mixed-breed adult dogs was determined using MRI. Kinematic and kinetic data obtained by motion analysis of a clinically healthy dog during a gait cycle (1 m/s on an instrumented treadmill were used to drive the model in the multi-body simulation. Results and Discussion As a result the vertical ground reaction forces (z-direction calculated by the MBS-system show a maximum deviation of 1.75%BW for the left and 4.65%BW for the right hind limb from the treadmill measurements. The calculated peak ground reaction forces in z- and y-direction were found to be comparable to the treadmill measurements, whereas the curve characteristics of the forces in y-direction were not in complete alignment. Conclusion In conclusion, it could be demonstrated that the developed MBS-model is suitable for simulating ground reaction forces of dogs during walking. In forthcoming investigations the model will be developed further for the calculation of forces and moments acting on the hip joint during different movements, which can be of help in context with the in

  13. Solar and planetary oscillation control on climate change: hind-cast, forecast and a comparison with the CMIP5 GCMs

    CERN Document Server

    Scafetta, Nicola

    2013-01-01

    Global surface temperature records (e.g. HadCRUT4) since 1850 are characterized by climatic oscillations synchronous with specific solar, planetary and lunar harmonics superimposed on a background warming modulation. The latter is related to a long millennial solar oscillation and to changes in the chemical composition of the atmosphere (e.g. aerosol and greenhouse gases). However, current general circulation climate models, e.g. the CMIP5 GCMs, to be used in the AR5 IPCC Report in 2013, fail to reconstruct the observed climatic oscillations. As an alternate, an empirical model is proposed that uses: (1) a specific set of decadal, multidecadal, secular and millennial astronomic harmonics to simulate the observed climatic oscillations; (2) a 0.45 attenuation of the GCM ensemble mean simulations to model the anthropogenic and volcano forcing effects. The proposed empirical model outperforms the GCMs by better hind-casting the observed 1850-2012 climatic patterns. It is found that: (1) about 50-60% of the warmin...

  14. Transcriptome changes associated with Tomato spotted wilt virus infection in various life stages of its thrips vector, Frankliniella fusca (Hinds).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Anita; Champagne, Donald E; Culbreath, Albert K; Rotenberg, Dorith; Whitfield, Anna E; Srinivasan, Rajagopalbabu

    2017-08-01

    Persistent propagative viruses maintain intricate interactions with their arthropod vectors. In this study, we investigated the transcriptome-level responses associated with a persistent propagative phytovirus infection in various life stages of its vector using an Illumina HiSeq sequencing platform. The pathosystem components included a Tospovirus, Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV), its insect vector, Frankliniella fusca (Hinds), and a plant host, Arachis hypogaea (L.). We assembled (de novo) reads from three developmental stage groups of virus-exposed and non-virus-exposed F. fusca into one transcriptome consisting of 72 366 contigs and identified 1161 differentially expressed (DE) contigs. The number of DE contigs was greatest in adults (female) (562) when compared with larvae (first and second instars) (395) and pupae (pre- and pupae) (204). Upregulated contigs in virus-exposed thrips had blastx annotations associated with intracellular transport and virus replication. Upregulated contigs were also assigned blastx annotations associated with immune responses, including apoptosis and phagocytosis. In virus-exposed larvae, Blast2GO analysis identified functional groups, such as multicellular development with downregulated contigs, while reproduction, embryo development and growth were identified with upregulated contigs in virus-exposed adults. This study provides insights into differences in transcriptome-level responses modulated by TSWV in various life stages of an important vector, F. fusca.

  15. Biomechanical properties of insect wings: the stress stiffening effects on the asymmetric bending of the Allomyrina dichotoma beetle's hind wing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ngoc San Ha

    Full Text Available Although the asymmetry in the upward and downward bending of insect wings is well known, the structural origin of this asymmetry is not yet clearly understood. Some researchers have suggested that based on experimental results, the bending asymmetry of insect wings appears to be a consequence of the camber inherent in the wings. Although an experimental approach can reveal this phenomenon, another method is required to reveal the underlying theory behind the experimental results. The finite element method (FEM is a powerful tool for evaluating experimental measurements and is useful for studying the bending asymmetry of insect wings. Therefore, in this study, the asymmetric bending of the Allomyrina dichotoma beetle's hind wing was investigated through FEM analyses rather than through an experimental approach. The results demonstrated that both the stressed stiffening of the membrane and the camber of the wing affect the bending asymmetry of insect wings. In particular, the chordwise camber increased the rigidity of the wing when a load was applied to the ventral side, while the spanwise camber increased the rigidity of the wing when a load was applied to the dorsal side. These results provide an appropriate explanation of the mechanical behavior of cambered insect wings, including the bending asymmetry behavior, and suggest an appropriate approach for analyzing the structural behavior of insect wings.

  16. Segment and joint angles of hind limb during bipedal and quadrupedal walking of the bonobo (Pan paniscus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Août, Kristiaan; Aerts, Peter; De Clercq, Dirk; De Meester, Koen; Van Elsacker, Linda

    2002-09-01

    We describe segment angles (trunk, thigh, shank, and foot) and joint angles (hip, knee, and ankle) for the hind limbs of bonobos walking bipedally ("bent-hip bent-knee walking," 17 sequences) and quadrupedally (33 sequences). Data were based on video recordings (50 Hz) of nine subjects in a lateral view, walking at voluntary speed. The major differences between bipedal and quadrupedal walking are found in the trunk, thigh, and hip angles. During bipedal walking, the trunk is approximately 33-41 degrees more erect than during quadrupedal locomotion, although it is considerably more bent forward than in normal human locomotion. Moreover, during bipedal walking, the hip has a smaller range of motion (by 12 degrees ) and is more extended (by 20-35 degrees ) than during quadrupedal walking. In general, angle profiles in bonobos are much more variable than in humans. Intralimb phase relationships of subsequent joint angles show that hip-knee coordination is similar for bipedal and quadrupedal walking, and resembles the human pattern. The coordination between knee and ankle differs much more from the human pattern. Based on joint angles observed throughout stance phase and on the estimation of functional leg length, an efficient inverted pendulum mechanism is not expected in bonobos. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. Accuracy and precision of hind limb foot contact timings of horses determined using a pelvis-mounted inertial measurement unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starke, Sandra D; Witte, Thomas H; May, Stephen A; Pfau, Thilo

    2012-05-11

    Gait analysis using small sensor units is becoming increasingly popular in the clinical context. In order to segment continuous movement from a defined point of the stride cycle, knowledge about footfall timings is essential. We evaluated the accuracy and precision of foot contact timings of a defined limb determined using an inertial sensor mounted on the pelvis of ten horses during walk and trot at different speeds and in different directions. Foot contact was estimated from vertical velocity events occurring before maximum sensor roll towards the contralateral limb. Foot contact timings matched data from a synchronised hoof mounted accelerometer well when velocity minimum was used for walk (mean (SD) difference of 15 (18)ms across horses) and velocity zero-crossing for trot (mean (SD) difference from -4 (14) to 12 (7)ms depending on the condition). The stride segmentation method also remained robust when applied to movement data of hind limb lame horses. In future, this method may find application in segmenting overground sensor data of various species. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Low energy shock wave therapy induces angiogenesis in acute hind-limb ischemia via VEGF receptor 2 phosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holfeld, Johannes; Tepeköylü, Can; Blunder, Stefan; Lobenwein, Daniela; Kirchmair, Elke; Dietl, Marion; Kozaryn, Radoslaw; Lener, Daniela; Theurl, Markus; Paulus, Patrick; Kirchmair, Rudolf; Grimm, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Low energy shock waves have been shown to induce angiogenesis, improve left ventricular ejection fraction and decrease angina symptoms in patients suffering from chronic ischemic heart disease. Whether there is as well an effect in acute ischemia was not yet investigated. Hind-limb ischemia was induced in 10-12 weeks old male C57/Bl6 wild-type mice by excision of the left femoral artery. Animals were randomly divided in a treatment group (SWT, 300 shock waves at 0.1 mJ/mm2, 5 Hz) and untreated controls (CTR), n = 10 per group. The treatment group received shock wave therapy immediately after surgery. Higher gene expression and protein levels of angiogenic factors VEGF-A and PlGF, as well as their receptors Flt-1 and KDR have been found. This resulted in significantly more vessels per high-power field in SWT compared to controls. Improvement of blood perfusion in treatment animals was confirmed by laser Doppler perfusion imaging. Receptor tyrosine kinase profiler revealed significant phosphorylation of VEGF receptor 2 as an underlying mechanism of action. The effect of VEGF signaling was abolished upon incubation with a VEGFR2 inhibitor indicating that the effect is indeed VEGFR 2 dependent. Low energy shock wave treatment induces angiogenesis in acute ischemia via VEGF receptor 2 stimulation and shows the same promising effects as known from chronic myocardial ischemia. It may therefore develop as an adjunct to the treatment armentarium of acute muscle ischemia in limbs and myocardium.

  19. Real-time control of hind limb functional electrical stimulation using feedback from dorsal root ganglia recordings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruns, Tim M.; Wagenaar, Joost B.; Bauman, Matthew J.; Gaunt, Robert A.; Weber, Douglas J.

    2013-04-01

    Objective. Functional electrical stimulation (FES) approaches often utilize an open-loop controller to drive state transitions. The addition of sensory feedback may allow for closed-loop control that can respond effectively to perturbations and muscle fatigue. Approach. We evaluated the use of natural sensory nerve signals obtained with penetrating microelectrode arrays in lumbar dorsal root ganglia (DRG) as real-time feedback for closed-loop control of FES-generated hind limb stepping in anesthetized cats. Main results. Leg position feedback was obtained in near real-time at 50 ms intervals by decoding the firing rates of more than 120 DRG neurons recorded simultaneously. Over 5 m of effective linear distance was traversed during closed-loop stepping trials in each of two cats. The controller compensated effectively for perturbations in the stepping path when DRG sensory feedback was provided. The presence of stimulation artifacts and the quality of DRG unit sorting did not significantly affect the accuracy of leg position feedback obtained from the linear decoding model as long as at least 20 DRG units were included in the model. Significance. This work demonstrates the feasibility and utility of closed-loop FES control based on natural neural sensors. Further work is needed to improve the controller and electrode technologies and to evaluate long-term viability.

  20. A new negroid-specific HindIII polymorphism in the serum amyloid A1 (SAA1) gene increases the usefulness of the SAA locus in linkage studies

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    Stevens, G.; Ramsay, M.; Jenkins, T. (University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg (South Africa)); Kluve-Beckerman, B. (Indiana Univ., Indianapolis (United States))

    1993-01-01

    The cDNA probe pSAA82 detects three serum amyloid A (SAA) loci on chromosome 11p. SAA1 and SAA2 have 90% nucleotide identity in exon and intron sequences (1), whereas SAA3 has an average of 70% identity with SAA1 and SAA2 (3). The chromosomal organization of the loci is not yet known. A two-allele polymorphic HindIII site was found within intron 2 of the SAA2 locus (1) with fragments of 3.0 (a2) and 5.0 kb (a1) (previously sized as 2.8 and 4.6 kb, respectively) which occur in Caucasoids, Negroids, and San (formerly [open quote]Bushmen[close quotes]) (2). The discovery of a further, Negroid-specific, polymorphic HindIII restriction site, detected with the same probe, increases its usefulness. This RFLP is associated with the SAA1 locus (6) and is characterized by the presence of two allelic fragments of 3.6 (b1) and 1.4 kb (b2). This HindIII site is also thought to occur within intron 2 because of the strong evolutionary conservation between the SAA1 and SAA2 genes. The polymorphism may therefore either predate the gene duplication event or be present as a result of gene conversion. 6 refs., 1 fig.

  1. Las reformas del derecho de familia en India: el matrimonio de niños entre derecho hindú tradicional e intervención estatal

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    Domenico Francavilla

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available El artículo analiza la evolución del derecho de India en relación con el matrimonio de niños, considerando algunos aspectos del derecho tradicional hindú, los caracteres de la intervención colonial y las reformas jurídicas posteriores a la independencia. El trabajo resalta la interacción entre las diferentes fuentes de las que emerge el derecho hindú y los conflictos que se presentan entre derecho oficial y no oficial, para, con base en ello, explicar la manera como la modernización del derecho hindú ha encontrado diferentes resistencias que se han traducido en una peculiar separación entre disciplina privatista y penalista del matrimonio de niños, siendo este sancionado penalmente pero considerado válido hasta el Child Marriage Prohibition Act de 2006, cuya eficacia en el contexto indio aún sigue siendo problemática.

  2. Schisandrin B Prevents Hind Limb from Ischemia-Reperfusion-Induced Oxidative Stress and Inflammation via MAPK/NF-κB Pathways in Rats

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    Ning Zhu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Schisandrin B (ScB, isolated from Schisandra chinensis (S. chinensis, is a traditional Chinese medicine with proven cardioprotective and neuroprotective effects. However, it is unclear whether ScB also has beneficial effects on rat hind limb ischemia/reperfusion (I/R injury model. In this study, ScB (20 mg/kg, 40 mg/kg, and 80 mg/kg was administered via oral gavage once daily for 5 days before the surgery. After 6 h ischemia and 24 h reperfusion of left hind limb, ScB reduced I/R induced histological changes and edema. ScB also suppressed the oxidative stress through decreasing MDA level and increasing SOD activity. Moreover, above changes were associated with downregulated TNF-α mRNA expression and reduced level of IL-1β in plasma. Meanwhile, ScB treatment downregulated activation of p38MAPK, ERK1/2, and NF-κB in ischemic skeletal muscle. These results demonstrate that ScB treatment could prevent hind limb I/R skeletal muscle injury possibly by attenuating oxidative stress and inflammation via p38MAPK, ERK1/2, and NF-κB pathways.

  3. A 3D musculoskeletal model of the western lowland gorilla hind limb: moment arms and torque of the hip, knee and ankle.

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    Goh, Colleen; Blanchard, Mary L; Crompton, Robin H; Gunther, Michael M; Macaulay, Sophie; Bates, Karl T

    2017-10-01

    Three-dimensional musculoskeletal models have become increasingly common for investigating muscle moment arms in studies of vertebrate locomotion. In this study we present the first musculoskeletal model of a western lowland gorilla hind limb. Moment arms of individual muscles around the hip, knee and ankle were compared with previously published data derived from the experimental tendon travel method. Considerable differences were found which we attribute to the different methodologies in this specific case. In this instance, we argue that our 3D model provides more accurate and reliable moment arm data than previously published data on the gorilla because our model incorporates more detailed consideration of the 3D geometry of muscles and the geometric constraints that exist on their lines-of-action about limb joints. Our new data have led us to revaluate the previous conclusion that muscle moment arms in the gorilla hind limb are optimised for locomotion with crouched or flexed limb postures. Furthermore, we found that bipedalism and terrestrial quadrupedalism coincided more regularly with higher moment arms and torque around the hip, knee and ankle than did vertical climbing. This indicates that the ability of a gorilla to walk bipedally is not restricted by musculoskeletal adaptations for quadrupedalism and vertical climbing, at least in terms of moment arms and torque about hind limb joints. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Anatomy published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Anatomical Society.

  4. Motor patterns of distal hind limb muscles in walking turtles: Implications for models of limb bone loading.

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    Schoenfuss, Heiko L; Roos, John D; Rivera, Angela R V; Blob, Richard W

    2010-12-01

    Previous studies of limb bone loading in walking turtles indicate that the ground reaction force exerts a flexor moment at the ankle during stance, requiring extensor muscle activity to maintain joint equilibrium. Of four proposed ankle extensors in turtles, two (gastrocnemius medialis, pronator profundus) originate on the tibia and fibula, respectively, while the other two (flexor digitorum longus, gastrocnemius lateralis) originate from the distal femur, crossing the flexor aspect of the knee and potentially eliciting compensatory forces from antagonist knee extensor muscles that could contribute to femoral stress. Published bone stress models assume all four proposed ankle extensors are active during stance in turtles. However, if only the ankle extensors that cross the knee were active then femoral stresses might be higher than predicted by published models, whereas if only extensors that do not cross the knee were active then femoral stresses might be lower than predicted. We analyzed synchronized footfall and electromyographic activity patterns in slider turtles (Trachemys scripta) and found that all four proposed ankle extensors were active during at least part of stance phase in most individuals, corroborating bone stress models. However, activation patterns were complex, with multiple bursts in many ankle extensors that frequently persisted into swing phase. In addition, two hypothesized ankle flexors (tibialis anterior, extensor digitorum communis) were frequently active during stance. This might increase the joint moment that ankle extensors must counter, elevating the forces they transfer across the knee joint and, thereby, raising femoral stress. Recognition of these activity patterns may help reconcile differences between evaluations of loads on turtle limbs based on force platform versus in vivo strain studies. Moreover, while some variation in motor patterns for the distal hind limbs of turtles may reflect functional compartmentalization of muscles

  5. Low-frequency stimulation of group III and IV hind limb afferents evokes reflex pressor responses in decerebrate rats.

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    Harms, Jonathan E; Copp, Steven W; Kaufman, Marc P

    2016-10-01

    Contraction of freely perfused hind limb muscles in decerebrate rats evokes the exercise pressor reflex, resulting in sympathetic activation and increased blood pressure. This reflex is propagated along mechanically sensitive group III and metabolically sensitive group IV afferent nerve fibers. Recent research by our laboratory has focused on the exaggeration of the exercise pressor reflex in decerebrate rats with simulated peripheral artery disease, which was induced by ligating the femoral artery for 72 h before the start of the experiment. Recently, we showed that ligating the femoral artery increased the responses of single fiber group III and IV triceps surae muscle afferents to static contraction. The objective of this study was to determine if electrical stimulation of group III and IV afferents at frequencies approximating those occurring during static contraction was capable of reflexively increasing arterial blood pressure. We directly stimulated muscle afferents in the absence of muscle contraction for both freely perfused and ligated rats. We established 0.25 Hz as the minimal stimulation frequency to observe a sustained blood pressure response. The blood pressure response increased in a graded fashion as both stimulus frequency and motor threshold were increased. Additionally, we observed similar blood pressure responses from both freely perfused and ligated rats, suggesting that spinal and medullary processing of group III and IV afferent input plays no role in augmenting the pressor response to contraction caused by femoral artery ligation. © 2016 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American Physiological Society and The Physiological Society.

  6. Dietary fat content and fiber type modulate hind gut microbial community and metabolic markers in the pig.

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    Hui Yan

    Full Text Available Obesity leads to changes in the gut microbial community which contribute to the metabolic dysregulation in obesity. Dietary fat and fiber affect the caloric density of foods. The impact of dietary fat content and fiber type on the microbial community in the hind gut is unknown. Effect of dietary fat level and fiber type on hindgut microbiota and volatile fatty acid (VFA profiles was investigated. Expression of metabolic marker genes in the gut, adipose tissue and liver was determined. A 2 × 2 experiment was conducted in pigs fed at two dietary fat levels (5% or 17.5% swine grease and two fiber types (4% inulin, fermentable fructo-oligosaccharide or 4% solka floc, non-fermentable cellulose. High fat diets (HFD resulted in a higher (P<0.05 total body weight gain, feed efficiency and back fat accumulation than the low fat diet. Feeding of inulin, but not solka floc, attenuated (P<0.05 the HFD-induced higher body weight gain and fat mass accumulation. Inulin feeding tended to lead to higher total VFA production in the cecum and resulted in a higher (P<0.05 expression of acyl coA oxidase (ACO, a marker of peroxisomal β-oxidation. Inulin feeding also resulted in lower expression of sterol regulatory element binding protein 1c (SREBP-1c, a marker of lipid anabolism. Bacteria community structure characterized by DGGE analysis of PCR amplified 16S rRNA gene fragments showed that inulin feeding resulted in greater bacterial population richness than solka floc feeding. Cluster analysis of pairwise Dice similarity comparisons of the DGGE profiles showed grouping by fiber type but not the level of dietary fat. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA of PCR- DGGE profiles showed that inulin feeding negatively correlated with back fat thickness. This study suggests a strong interplay between dietary fat level and fiber type in determining susceptibility to obesity.

  7. Gene expression patterns in bone after 4 days of hind-limb unloading in two inbred strains of mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Nan; Garman, Russell A; Squire, Maria E; Donahue, Leah Rae; Rubin, Clinton T; Hadjiargyrou, Michael; Judex, Stefan

    2005-06-01

    An improved understanding of the interdependence of transcriptional and genomic control of bone loss is critical for the design of effective and safe countermeasures for osteoporosis in space and on Earth. In an effort to test whether molecular pathways modulating the loss of functional weight bearing are dependent on genetic makeup, we quantified the differential expression of genes critical to the early stages of bone remodeling in two different strains of mice. Adult (4-mo-old) female BALB/cByJ (BALB) and C3H/HeJ (C3H) mice, strains with different sensitivities to unloading, were subjected to hind-limb unloading (HLU) or normal cage activities. RNA was extracted from the tibia following 4 d of HLU and expression levels were determined. In the BALB mice, HLU significantly altered transcriptional levels of osterix (-36%), alkaline phosphatase (-36%), osteonectin (-44%), collagen type 1 (-55%), MMP2 (-36%), osteocalcin (-68%), and osteopontin (+28%). This expression pattern was highly correlated (R2 = 0.75) with altered expression levels in the C3H mice, but the magnitude of altered mRNA levels was less than half of those in the BALB mice. These strain-specific changes in gene expression were consistent with the differential changes in bone formation, as determined in a second group of BALB and C3H mice. These data indicate that genetics may influence the absolute changes in gene expression of genes during spaceflight, but that the molecular pathways targeted by countermeasures of bone loss may not need to be specific to an individual's genetic makeup.

  8. Low energy shock wave therapy induces angiogenesis in acute hind-limb ischemia via VEGF receptor 2 phosphorylation.

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    Johannes Holfeld

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Low energy shock waves have been shown to induce angiogenesis, improve left ventricular ejection fraction and decrease angina symptoms in patients suffering from chronic ischemic heart disease. Whether there is as well an effect in acute ischemia was not yet investigated. METHODS: Hind-limb ischemia was induced in 10-12 weeks old male C57/Bl6 wild-type mice by excision of the left femoral artery. Animals were randomly divided in a treatment group (SWT, 300 shock waves at 0.1 mJ/mm2, 5 Hz and untreated controls (CTR, n = 10 per group. The treatment group received shock wave therapy immediately after surgery. RESULTS: Higher gene expression and protein levels of angiogenic factors VEGF-A and PlGF, as well as their receptors Flt-1 and KDR have been found. This resulted in significantly more vessels per high-power field in SWT compared to controls. Improvement of blood perfusion in treatment animals was confirmed by laser Doppler perfusion imaging. Receptor tyrosine kinase profiler revealed significant phosphorylation of VEGF receptor 2 as an underlying mechanism of action. The effect of VEGF signaling was abolished upon incubation with a VEGFR2 inhibitor indicating that the effect is indeed VEGFR 2 dependent. CONCLUSIONS: Low energy shock wave treatment induces angiogenesis in acute ischemia via VEGF receptor 2 stimulation and shows the same promising effects as known from chronic myocardial ischemia. It may therefore develop as an adjunct to the treatment armentarium of acute muscle ischemia in limbs and myocardium.

  9. Loobumise hind / Andrus Villem

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Villem, Andrus

    2004-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Võrumaa Teataja, 7. aug. 2004, lk. 1; Vooremaa, 7. aug. 2004, lk. 1; Põhjarannik, 6. aug. 2004, lk. 2; Elva Postipoiss, 7. aug. 2004, lk. 4; Nädaline, 10. aug. 2004, lk. 4; Harjumaa, 10. aug. 2004, lk. 2; Hiiu Leht, 10. aug. 2004, lk. 2; Koit, 10. aug. 2004, lk. 6; Meie Maa, 10. aug. 2004, lk. 2; Valgamaalane, 12. aug. 2004, lk. 2; Virumaa Teataja, 12. aug. 2004, lk. 7; Sakala, 13. aug. 2004, lk. 2; Järva Teataja, 17. aug. 2004, lk. 2. Poliitikute eetilise käitumise olulisusest, võimest otsuseid põhjendada

  10. Hind limb unloading of mice modulates gene expression at the protein and mRNA level in mesenchymal bone cells

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    Palmieri Daniela

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We investigated the extent, modalities and reversibility of changes at cellular level in the expression of genes and proteins occurring upon Hind limb unloading (HU in the tibiae of young C57BL/6J male mice. We focused on the effects of HU in chondrogenic, osteogenic, and marrow mesenchymal cells. Methods We analyzed for expression of genes and proteins at two time points after HU (7 and 14 days, and at 14 days after recovery from HU. Levels of mRNAs were tested by in situ hybridization. Protein levels were tested by immunohistochemistry. We studied genes involved in osteogenesis (alkaline phosphatase (AP, osteocalcin (OC, bonesialoprotein (BSP, membrane type1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP, in extracellular matrix (ECM formation (procollagenases (BMP1, procollagenase enhancer proteins (PCOLCE and remodeling (metalloproteinase-9 (MMP9, RECK, and in bone homeostasis (Stro-1, CXCL12, CXCR4, CD146. Results We report the following patterns and timing of changes in gene expression induced by HU: 1 transient or stable down modulations of differentiation-associated genes (AP, OC, genes of matrix formation, maturation and remodelling, (BMP1, PCOLCEs MMP9 in osteogenic, chondrogenic and bone marrow cells; 2 up modulation of MT1-MMP in these same cells, and uncoupling of its expression from that of AP; 3 transient down modulation of the osteoblast specific expression of BSP; 4 for genes involved in bone homeostasis, up modulation in bone marrow cells at distal epiphysis for CXCR4, down modulation of CXCL12, and transient increases in osteoblasts and marrow cells for Stro1. 14 days after limb reloading expression returned to control levels for most genes and proteins in most cell types, except AP in all cells, and CXCL12, only in bone marrow. Conclusions HU induces the coordinated modulation of gene expression in different mesenchymal cell types and microenvironments of tibia. HU also induces specific patterns of expression for

  11. Pig specific vascular anatomy allows acute infrarenal aortic occlusion without hind limb ischemia and stepwise occlusion without clinical signs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haacke, N; Unger, J K; Haidenhein, C; Russ, M; Hiebl, B; Niehues, S M

    2011-01-01

    EGAs for a partial collateral support of an infrarenal aortic occlusion the pig's EGA is a naturally sufficient collateral system capable to cover immediately for an acute infrarenal aortic occlusion. Further collateral enlargement even provides a permanent, sufficient hind limb perfusion in pigs. As the sufficient collateral system probably reduce pressure and shear rates in the infrarenal aortic segment after cross clamping, pigs might have a higher predisposition to produce early thrombosis related graft occlusions tan humans.

  12. Association of the HindIII and S447X Polymorphisms in LPL Gene with Hypertension and Type 2 Diabetes in Mexican Families

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    Salvador Muñoz-Barrios

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Lipoprotein lipase (LPL is a key enzyme in lipid metabolismand is associatedwith obesity, dyslipidemias, hypertension (HTN and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. LPL gene polymorphisms can be related with the development of cardiovascular risk factors. The present study was conducted to analyze the relationship of the HindIII and S447X polymorphisms in LPL gene with cardiovascular risk factors in Mexican families. The study population comprised ninety members of 30 Mexican families, in which an index case had obesity, were included in the study. We evaluated the body composition by bioelectrical impedance. Peripheral blood samples were collected to determine biochemical parameters. Screening for both polymorphisms was made by PCR-RFLPs. In the parents, both polymorphisms were in Hardy-Weinberg’s equilibrium. We found that the genotype T/T of HindIII was associated with diastolic blood pressure ≧ 85 mmHg (OR = 1.1; p = 0.011, whereas the genotype C/C of S447X was associated with systolic blood pressure ≧ 130 mmHg (OR = 1.2; p < 0.001, diastolic blood pressure ≧ 85 mmHg (OR = 1.3; p < 0.001, T2DM (OR = 1.3; p < 0.001 and with increase of total cholesterol (β = 23.6 mg/mL; p = 0.03. These data suggest that the HindIII and S447X LPL gene polymorphisms can confer susceptibility for the development of hypertension and T2DM in Mexican families.

  13. All-trans-retinoid acid (ATRA) may have inhibited chondrogenesis of primary hind limb bud mesenchymal cells by downregulating Pitx1 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yun-guo; Li, Xue-dong; Liu, Zhao-yong; Zhang, Tao-gen; Chen, Bin; Hou, Guo-qing; Hong, Quan; Xie, Peng; Du, Shi-xin

    2014-01-13

    Despite frequently well-established role of all-trans-retinoid acid (ATRA) in congenital limb deformities, its mechanism of action, thus far, is still ambiguous. Pitx1, which is expressed in the hindlimb bud mesenchyme, or its pathways may be etiologically responsible for the increased incidence of clubfoot. Here, we sought to investigate the mechanisms whereby Pitx1 regulated chondrogenesis of hindlimb bud mesenchymal cells in vitro. E12.5 embryonic rat hind limb bud mesenchymal cells were treated with ATRA at appropriate concentrations. Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) assay was performed to evaluate cell proliferation. Hematoxylin-safranin-O-fast-green staining assays were used to observe cartilage nodules, and Pitx1 expression was examined by immunofluorescent microscopy. Real-time quantitative PCR and immunoblotting assays were applied to determine the mRNA expressions of Pitx1, Sox9 and type II collagen (Col2al), respectively. The results showed that ATRA inhibited the proliferation of hind limb bud cells dose-dependently. ATRA also induced a dose-dependent reduction in the number of cartilage nodules and the area of cartilage nodules compared with controls. Our real-time quantitative RT-PCR assays revealed that the mRNA expression of Pitx1, Sox9 and Col2al were significantly downregulated by ATRA. Furthermore, our immunofluorescent microscopy and Western blotting assays indicated that Pitx1 was mainly expressed in the cartilage nodules and the levels of Pitx1, Sox9 and Col2al were also downregulated by ATRA dose-dependently. The results indicated that ATRA may decrease chondrogenesis of hind limb bud mesenchymal cells by inhibiting cartilage-specific molecules, such as Sox9 and Col2al, via downregulating Pitx1 expression. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Relationship of metabolic syndrome and its components with -844 G/A and HindIII C/G PAI-1 gene polymorphisms in Mexican children

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    De la Cruz-Mosso Ulises

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several association studies have shown that -844 G/A and HindIII C/G PAI-1 polymorphisms are related with increase of PAI-1 levels, obesity, insulin resistance, glucose intolerance, hypertension and dyslipidemia, which are components of metabolic syndrome. The aim of this study was to analyze the allele and genotype frequencies of these polymorphisms in PAI-1 gene and its association with metabolic syndrome and its components in a sample of Mexican mestizo children. Methods This study included 100 children with an age range between 6-11 years divided in two groups: a 48 children diagnosed with metabolic syndrome and b 52 children metabolically healthy without any clinical and biochemical alteration. Metabolic syndrome was defined as the presence of three or more of the following criteria: fasting glucose levels ≥ 100 mg/dL, triglycerides ≥ 150 mg/dL, HDL-cholesterol th percentile, systolic blood pressure (SBP and diastolic blood pressure (DBP ≥ 95th percentile and insulin resistance HOMA-IR ≥ 2.4. The -844 G/A and HindIII C/G PAI-1 polymorphisms were analyzed by PCR-RFLP. Results For the -844 G/A polymorphism, the G/A genotype (OR = 2.79; 95% CI, 1.11-7.08; p = 0.015 and the A allele (OR = 2.2; 95% CI, 1.10-4.43; p = 0.015 were associated with metabolic syndrome. The -844 G/A and A/A genotypes were associated with increase in plasma triglycerides levels (OR = 2.6; 95% CI, 1.16 to 6.04; p = 0.02, decrease in plasma HDL-cholesterol levels (OR = 2.4; 95% CI, 1.06 to 5.42; p = 0.03 and obesity (OR = 2.6; 95% CI, 1.17-5.92; p = 0.01. The C/G and G/G genotypes of the HindIII C/G polymorphism contributed to a significant increase in plasma total cholesterol levels (179 vs. 165 mg/dL; p = 0.02 in comparison with C/C genotype. Conclusions The -844 G/A PAI-1 polymorphism is related with the risk of developing metabolic syndrome, obesity and atherogenic dyslipidemia, and the HindIII C/G PAI-1 polymorphism was associated with the

  15. Localization of the gene encoding steroid hydroxylase cytochrome P-450 from Rhizopus nigricans inside a HindIII fragment of genomic DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breskvar, K; Cresnar, B; Plaper, A; Hudnik-Plevnik, T

    1991-08-15

    The gene encoding steroid inducible cytochrome P450 of Rhizopus nigricans ATCC 6227b has been found inside a HindIII fragment of the genomic DNA by hybridization with a partial length cDNA probe. The latter was isolated by immunoscreening a cDNA library prepared in the lambda gt11 expression system and identified on the basis of inducibility and sequence analysis. The nucleotide sequence of the cDNA probe revealed a coding sequence for the heme binding segment characteristic of the P450 gene family.

  16. Characterization of synthesized NANO-encapsulated drug for bone loss on hind limb suspension rat model by NMR and micro-CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Qingwen; Dixon, Hong; Gutierrez, Gloria; Bi, Long; Qin, Yi-Xian

    2013-06-01

    A formulation of nano-encapsulated enantiomer of (+) promethazine with desired release rate has been synthesized for establish a localized drug delivery system. It was tested on a hind limb suspension (HLS) disuse rat model, and by using a non-destructive Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) relaxation technique, and micro computed tomography (Micro-CT) analysis technique to qualitatively evaluate the effectiveness of the new bone formations as well as to compare the current commercial anti-bone loss drug Alendeonate. Our studies suggest that nano-encapsulated (+) promethazine in controlled release formulations conjugating bone-targeting functional groups are effective in promoting bone growth in a disuse rat model.

  17. Fourier analysis of vertical ground reaction forces in dogs with unilateral hind limb lameness caused by degenerative disease of the hip joint and in dogs without lameness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katic, Nikola; Bockstahler, Barbara A; Mueller, Marion; Peham, Christian

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate the applicability of Fourier analysis for assessment of ground reaction forces (GRFs) and differentiation between dogs with unilateral hind limb lameness caused by degenerative joint disease of the hip (DJD-H) and dogs without lameness. 37 dogs with or without unilateral DJD-H. Data were obtained from other studies and analyzed retrospectively. Among the 37 dogs, 20 had unilateral DJD-H and 9 (non-Belgian Malinois breeds) had no lameness; another 8 were nonlame Belgian Malinois (radiographically confirmed Fédération Cinologique International classification A [ie, no hip dysplasia or DJD-H]). Gait data acquisition was performed as dogs walked on a treadmill with integrated force platforms. The peak vertical force, mean vertical force, and vertical impulse were compared among the 3 groups. Fourier analysis was performed on the force-time curves for the vertical GRF, and calculated Fourier coefficients were compared within and between groups. Lameness in the hind limbs with DJD-H was detectable via conventional analysis of the GRF as well as via Fourier analysis. However, subtle gait aberrations in the forelimbs of the dogs with DJD-H were detected solely via Fourier analysis of GRFs and remained undetected via conventional analysis. Results support the applicability of Fourier analysis for evaluation of force-time curves of GRFs. Fourier analysis can reveal subtle alterations of gait that might otherwise remain inapparent; however, further investigation is necessary before this method can be routinely applied for lameness detection in dogs.

  18. Co-injection of mesenchymal stem cells with endothelial progenitor cells accelerates muscle recovery in hind limb ischemia through an endoglin-dependent mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Elisa; Smadja, David; Goyard, Celine; Cras, Audrey; Dizier, Blandine; Bacha, Nour; Lokajczyk, Anna; Guerin, Coralie L; Gendron, Nicolas; Planquette, Benjamin; Mignon, Virginie; Bernabéu, Carmelo; Sanchez, Olivier; Smadja, David M

    2017-10-05

    Endothelial colony-forming cells (ECFCs) are progenitor cells committed to endothelial lineages and have robust vasculogenic properties. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been described to support ECFC-mediated angiogenic processes in various matrices. However, MSC-ECFC interactions in hind limb ischemia (HLI) are largely unknown. Here we examined whether co-administration of ECFCs and MSCs bolsters vasculogenic activity in nude mice with HLI. In addition, as we have previously shown that endoglin is a key adhesion molecule, we evaluated its involvement in ECFC/MSC interaction. Foot perfusion increased on day 7 after ECFC injection and was even better at 14 days. Co-administration of MSCs significantly increased vessel density and foot perfusion on day 7 but the differences were no longer significant at day 14. Analysis of mouse and human CD31, and in situ hybridization of the human ALU sequence, showed enhanced capillary density in ECFC+MSC mice. When ECFCs were silenced for endoglin, coinjection with MSCs led to lower vessel density and foot perfusion at both 7 and 14 days (p<0.001). Endoglin silencing in ECFCs did not affect MSC differentiation into perivascular cells or other mesenchymal lineages. Endoglin silencing markedly inhibited ECFC adhesion to MSCs. Thus, MSCs, when combined with ECFCs, accelerate muscle recovery in a mouse model of hind limb ischemia, through an endoglin-dependent mechanism.

  19. Attenuation of Hind-Limb Ischemia in Mice with Endothelial-Like Cells Derived from Different Sources of Human Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Yau-Chi; Ng, Joyce H. L.; Au, Ka-Wing; Wong, Lai-Yung; Siu, Chung-Wah; Tse, Hung-Fat

    2013-01-01

    Functional endothelial-like cells (EC) have been successfully derived from different cell sources and potentially used for treatment of cardiovascular diseases; however, their relative therapeutic efficacy remains unclear. We differentiated functional EC from human bone marrow mononuclear cells (BM-EC), human embryonic stem cells (hESC-EC) and human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSC-EC), and compared their in-vitro tube formation, migration and cytokine expression profiles, and in-vivo capacity to attenuate hind-limb ischemia in mice. Successful differentiation of BM-EC was only achieved in 1/6 patient with severe coronary artery disease. Nevertheless, BM-EC, hESC-EC and hiPSC-EC exhibited typical cobblestone morphology, had the ability of uptaking DiI-labeled acetylated low-density-lipoprotein, and binding of Ulex europaeus lectin. In-vitro functional assay demonstrated that hiPSC-EC and hESC-EC had similar capacity for tube formation and migration as human umbilical cord endothelial cells (HUVEC) and BM-EC (P>0.05). While increased expression of major angiogenic factors including epidermal growth factor, hepatocyte growth factor, vascular endothelial growth factor, placental growth factor and stromal derived factor-1 were observed in all EC cultures during hypoxia compared with normoxia (P<0.05), the magnitudes of cytokine up-regulation upon hypoxic were more dramatic in hiPSC-EC and hESC-EC (P<0.05). Compared with medium, transplanting BM-EC (n = 6), HUVEC (n = 6), hESC-EC (n = 8) or hiPSC-EC (n = 8) significantly attenuated severe hind-limb ischemia in mice via enhancement of neovascularization. In conclusion, functional EC can be generated from hECS and hiPSC with similar therapeutic efficacy for attenuation of severe hind-limb ischemia. Differentiation of functional BM-EC was more difficult to achieve in patients with cardiovascular diseases, and hESC-EC or iPSC-EC are readily available as “off-the-shelf” format for the treatment of

  20. Attenuation of hind-limb ischemia in mice with endothelial-like cells derived from different sources of human stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wing-Hon Lai

    Full Text Available Functional endothelial-like cells (EC have been successfully derived from different cell sources and potentially used for treatment of cardiovascular diseases; however, their relative therapeutic efficacy remains unclear. We differentiated functional EC from human bone marrow mononuclear cells (BM-EC, human embryonic stem cells (hESC-EC and human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSC-EC, and compared their in-vitro tube formation, migration and cytokine expression profiles, and in-vivo capacity to attenuate hind-limb ischemia in mice. Successful differentiation of BM-EC was only achieved in 1/6 patient with severe coronary artery disease. Nevertheless, BM-EC, hESC-EC and hiPSC-EC exhibited typical cobblestone morphology, had the ability of uptaking DiI-labeled acetylated low-density-lipoprotein, and binding of Ulex europaeus lectin. In-vitro functional assay demonstrated that hiPSC-EC and hESC-EC had similar capacity for tube formation and migration as human umbilical cord endothelial cells (HUVEC and BM-EC (P>0.05. While increased expression of major angiogenic factors including epidermal growth factor, hepatocyte growth factor, vascular endothelial growth factor, placental growth factor and stromal derived factor-1 were observed in all EC cultures during hypoxia compared with normoxia (P<0.05, the magnitudes of cytokine up-regulation upon hypoxic were more dramatic in hiPSC-EC and hESC-EC (P<0.05. Compared with medium, transplanting BM-EC (n = 6, HUVEC (n = 6, hESC-EC (n = 8 or hiPSC-EC (n = 8 significantly attenuated severe hind-limb ischemia in mice via enhancement of neovascularization. In conclusion, functional EC can be generated from hECS and hiPSC with similar therapeutic efficacy for attenuation of severe hind-limb ischemia. Differentiation of functional BM-EC was more difficult to achieve in patients with cardiovascular diseases, and hESC-EC or iPSC-EC are readily available as "off-the-shelf" format for the treatment

  1. Angiogenic properties of sustained release platelet-rich plasma: characterization in-vitro and in the ischemic hind limb of the mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bir, Shyamal Chandra; Esaki, Jiro; Marui, Akira; Yamahara, Kenichi; Tsubota, Hideki; Ikeda, Tadashi; Sakata, Ryuzo

    2009-10-01

    While single growth factor has limitation to induce optimal neovascularization, platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is an autologous reserver of various growth factors. However, little is known about the mechanism of PRP-related neovascularization.The objective of this investigation was to characterize the angiogenic and growth factor content of PRP and to determine, in vitro, its effect on endothelial cell proliferation. Additionally, this experiment sought to determine the effectiveness of different compositions of PRP (solution versus sustained release) on perfusion and neovascularization in a murine model of hind limb ischemia. Different growth factors were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). In vivo study, we used gelatin hydrogel as a sustained release carrier for growth factors in PRP. We induced hind limb ischemia by excising right femoral artery in wild type C57BL6 mice. After surgery, mice were randomly assigned to four experimental groups; control (C), 100 muL of sustained release form of platelet-poor plasma (PPP), 100 muL of solution form of PRP (PRP-sol), 100 muL of sustained release form of PRP (PRP-sr); each formulation was administered via an intramuscular injection to the ischemic hind limb. Endpoint evaluations were blood perfusion by laser Doppler perfusion image, vascular density by anti Von Willebrand factor (vWF), and mature vessel density by anti smooth muscle actin (SMA) antibody. Green fluorescent protein (GFP+) transgenic mice were generated by transplantation of bone marrow derived mononuclear cells to wild type C57BL6 mice, and finally CD34+ cell in the ischemic site of transgenic mice was detected by staining with anti-CD34 antibody. In vitro study showed that PRP containing different growth factors induces endothelial cell proliferation and capillary tube formation. In vivo study demonstrated that sustained release of PRP increased perfusion of ischemic tissue as measured by laser Doppler perfusion imaging (LDPI) (57 +/- 12

  2. Incidence, risk factors and heritability of hind limb lameness in dogs with canine hip dysplasia in a 8 year follow up study of a birth cohort of Dutch boxer dogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagen, van M.A.E.; Ducro, B.J.; Broek, van de J.; Knol, B.W.

    2005-01-01

    Objective-To determine incidence, risk factors, and heritability estimates of hind limb lameness caused by hip dysplasia in a birth cohort of Boxers. Animals-1,733 Boxers from 325 litters. Procedure-Status of Boxers with respect to clinical signs of canine hip dysplasia (cCHD) was registered during

  3. A technique for performing electrical impedance myography in the mouse hind limb: data in normal and ALS SOD1 G93A animals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Li

    Full Text Available To test a method for performing electrical impedance myography (EIM in the mouse hind limb for the assessment of disease status in neuromuscular disease models.An impedance measuring device consisting of a frame with electrodes embedded within an acrylic head was developed. The head was rotatable such that data longitudinal and transverse to the major muscle fiber direction could be obtained. EIM measurements were made with this device on 16 healthy mice and 14 amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS animals. Repeatability was assessed in both groups.The technique was easy to perform and provided good repeatability in both healthy and ALS animals, with intra-session repeatability (mean ± SEM of 5% ± 1% and 12% ± 2%, respectively. Significant differences between healthy and ALS animals were also identified (e.g., longitudinal mean 50 kHz phase was 18 ± 0.6° for the healthy animals and 14 ± 1.0° for the ALS animals, p=0.0025.With this simple device, the EIM data obtained is highly repeatable and can differentiate healthy from ALS animals.EIM can now be applied to mouse models of neuromuscular disease to assess disease status and the effects of therapy.

  4. Sequence analysis of HindIII Q2 fragment of capripoxvirus reveals a putative gene encoding a G-protein-coupled chemokine receptor homologue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, J X; Gershon, P D; Black, D N

    1995-05-10

    The DNA sequence of the HindIII Q2 fragment near the left terminus of the capripoxvirus (KS-1 strain) genome was determined. The sequence contains two complete open reading frames (ORFs) and a part of a third. Analysis of the deduced amino acid sequence of one of these ORFs, Q2/3L, revealed that this gene has the capacity to encode a protein which is related to members of the G-protein coupled chemokine receptor subfamily, the swinepoxvirus K2R and the human cytomegalovirus US28 ORFs. It has the key structural characteristics of the G-protein-coupled receptor superfamily, e.g., seven hydrophobic regions, predicted to span the cell membrane, and the cysteine residues in the first and second extracellular loops that are implicated in formation of a disulfide bond. Southern blot analysis showed that all three species of the Capripoxvirus genus, i.e., sheep pox, goat pox, and lumpy skin disease of cattle, contain copies of this putative G-protein-coupled chemokine receptor homologue.

  5. Kinetic and kinematic analysis of the right hind limb during trotting on a treadmill in Labrador Retrievers presumed predisposed or not predisposed to cranial cruciate ligament disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragetly, Chantal A; Griffon, Dominique J; Hsu, M K Iris; Klump, L Michaela; Hsiao-Wecksler, Elizabeth T

    2012-08-01

    To identify gait characteristics during trotting on a treadmill in nonlame Labrador Retrievers presumed predisposed or not predisposed to cranial cruciate ligament disease (CCLD). Clinically normal Labrador Retrievers presumed predisposed (n = 10) or not predisposed (7) to CCLD. The right hind limb of each dog was classified by use of a predictive score equation that combined tibial plateau angle and femoral anteversion angle as presumed predisposed (high score [> -1.5]) or not predisposed (low score [≤ -1.5]) to CCLD. Tarsal joint, stifle joint, and hip joint kinematics, net moments, and powers were computed. The stifle joint was held at a greater degree of flexion in limbs presumed predisposed to CCLD (130.9° vs 139.3°). More power was generated by muscles acting on the stifle joint in the early stance phase of limbs presumed to be predisposed to CCLD (2.93 vs 1.64 W/kg). The tarsal joint did not reach the same degree of extension in limbs presumed predisposed to CCLD, compared with that in limbs presumed not predisposed to CCLD (179.0° vs 161.0°). Velocity, stance time, vertical and craniocaudal forces, angular velocities, and net joint muscle moments did not differ between groups. Gait mechanics of dogs with high (> -1.5) and low (≤ -1.5) tibial plateau angle and femoral anteversion angle scores were characterized on a treadmill, which may help in the identification of dogs predisposed to CCLD.

  6. Adeno-associated viral vector-mediated neurotrophin gene transfer in the injured adult rat spinal cord improves hind-limb function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blits, B; Oudega, M; Boer, G J; Bartlett Bunge, M; Verhaagen, J

    2003-01-01

    To foster axonal growth from a Schwann cell bridge into the caudal spinal cord, spinal cells caudal to the implant were transduced with adeno-associated viral (AAV) vectors encoding for brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and neurotrophin-3 (AAV-NT-3). Control rats received AAV vectors encoding for green fluorescent protein or saline. AAV-BDNF- and AAV-NT-3-transduced 293 human kidney cells produced and secreted BDNF or NT-3, respectively, in vitro. The secreted neurotrophins were biologically active; they both promoted outgrowth of sensory neurites in vitro. In vivo, transgene expression was observed predominantly in neurons for at least 16 weeks after injection. Compared with controls, a modest though significant improvement in hind-limb function was found in rats that received AAV-BDNF and AAV-NT-3. Retrograde tracing demonstrated that twice as many neurons with processes extending toward the Schwann cell graft were present in the second lumbar cord segment of AAV-BDNF- and AAV-NT-3-injected animals compared with controls. We found no evidence, however, for growth of regenerated axons from the Schwann cell implant into the caudal cord. Our results suggest that AAV vector-mediated overexpression of BDNF and NT-3 in the cord caudal to a Schwann cell bridge modified the local lumbar axonal circuitry, which was beneficial for locomotor function.

  7. Comparative Anatomy of the Hind Limb Vessels of the Bearded Capuchins (Sapajus libidinosus with Apes, Baboons, and Cebus capucinus: With Comments on the Vessels' Role in Bipedalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roqueline A. G. M. F. Aversi-Ferreira

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Capuchin monkeys are known to exhibit sporadic bipedalism while performing specific tasks, such as cracking nuts. The bipedal posture and locomotion cause an increase in the metabolic cost and therefore increased blood supply to lower limbs is necessary. Here, we present a detailed anatomical description of the capuchin arteries and veins of the pelvic limb of Sapajus libidinosus in comparison with other primates. The arterial pattern of the bearded capuchin hind limb is more similar to other quadrupedal Cebus species. Similarities were also found to the pattern observed in the quadruped Papio, which is probably due to a comparable pelvis and the presence of the tail. Sapajus' traits show fewer similarities when compared to great apes and modern humans. Moreover, the bearded capuchin showed unique patterns for the femoral and the short saphenous veins. Although this species switches easily from quadrupedal to bipedal postures, our results indicate that the bearded capuchin has no specific or differential features that support extended bipedal posture and locomotion. Thus, the explanation for the behavioral differences found among capuchin genera probably includes other aspects of their physiology.

  8. Spatio-temporal gait characteristics of the hind-limb cycles during voluntary bipedal and quadrupedal walking in bonobos (Pan paniscus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aerts, P; Van Damme, R; Van Elsacker, L; Duchêne, V

    2000-04-01

    Spatio-temporal gait characteristics (step and stride length, stride frequency, duty factor) were determined for the hind-limb cycles of nine bonobos (Pan paniscus) walking quadrupedally and bipedally at a range of speeds. The data were recalculated to dimensionless quantities according to the principle of dynamic similarity. Lower leg length was used as the reference length. Interindividual variability in speed modulation strategy of bonobos appears to be low. Compared to quadrupedal walking, bipedal bonobos use smaller steps to attain a given speed (differences increase with speed), resulting in shorter strides at a higher frequency. In the context of the ("hybrid") dynamic pattern approach to locomotion (Latach, 1998) we argue that, despite these absolute differences, intended walking speed is the basic control variable which elicits both quadrupedal and bipedal walking kinematics in a similar way. Differences in the initial status of the dynamic system may be responsible for the differences in step length between both gaits. Comparison with data deduced from the literature shows that the effects of walking speed on stride length and frequency are similar in bonobos, common chimpanzees, and humans. This suggests that (at least) within extant homininae, spatio-temporal gait characteristics are highly comparable, and this in spite of obvious differences in mass distribution and bipedal posture. Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  9. Infiltration of plasma rich in growth factors enhances in vivo angiogenesis and improves reperfusion and tissue remodeling after severe hind limb ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anitua, Eduardo; Pelacho, Beatriz; Prado, Roberto; Aguirre, José Javier; Sánchez, Mikel; Padilla, Sabino; Aranguren, Xabier L; Abizanda, Gloria; Collantes, María; Hernandez, Milagros; Perez-Ruiz, Ana; Peñuelas, Ivan; Orive, Gorka; Prosper, Felipe

    2015-03-28

    PRGF is a platelet concentrate within a plasma suspension that forms an in situ-generated fibrin-matrix delivery system, releasing multiple growth factors and other bioactive molecules that play key roles in tissue regeneration. This study was aimed at exploring the angiogenic and myogenic effects of PRGF on in vitro endothelial cells (HUVEC) and skeletal myoblasts (hSkMb) as well as on in vivo mouse subcutaneously implanted matrigel and on limb muscles after a severe ischemia. Human PRGF was prepared and characterized. Both proliferative and anti-apoptotic responses to PRGF were assessed in vitro in HUVEC and hSkMb. In vivo murine matrigel plug assay was conducted to determine the angiogenic capacity of PRGF, whereas in vivo ischemic hind limb model was carried out to demonstrate PRGF-driven vascular and myogenic regeneration. Primary HUVEC and hSkMb incubated with PRGF showed a dose dependent proliferative and anti-apoptotic effect and the PRGF matrigel plugs triggered an early and significant sustained angiogenesis compared with the control group. Moreover, mice treated with PRGF intramuscular infiltrations displayed a substantial reperfusion enhancement at day 28 associated with a fibrotic tissue reduction. These findings suggest that PRGF-induced angiogenesis is functionally effective at expanding the perfusion capacity of the new vasculature and attenuating the endogenous tissue fibrosis after a severe-induced skeletal muscle ischemia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of feeding growing-fattening rabbits a diet supplemented with whole white lupin (Lupinus albus cv. Amiga) seeds on fatty acid composition and indexes related to human health in hind leg meat and perirenal fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volek, Zdeněk; Marounek, Milan

    2011-01-01

    A total of 20 weaned rabbits (33 days old) (10 per treatment) were fed one of two diets that included 150 g of sunflower meal (SF)/kg of diet or 120 g of whole white lupin (WL)/kg of diet for 42 days. The WL diet contained less saturated fatty acids (SFA) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) but more monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) than the SF diet. The WL diet significantly decreased SFA and PUFA content, as well as the PUFA n-6/PUFA n-3 ratio and saturation, atherogenic and thrombogenic indexes in hind leg meat. The fatty acid composition in perirenal fat was similar to that of hind leg meat; however, significantly higher MUFA levels were observed in rabbits fed the WL diet. Thus, feeding rabbits the WL diet affected the fatty acid profile of hind leg meat and perirenal fat in a favourable manner. Copyright © 2010 The American Meat Science Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Raising heels of hind hooves changes the equine coffin, fetlock and hock joint angle: a kinematic evaluation on the treadmill at walk and trot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peham, C; Girtler, D; Kicker, C; Licka, T

    2006-08-01

    Raised heels are commonly recommended for various equine orthopaedic conditions. However, the simultaneous effect of raised heels on the different joint angles of the equine hindlimb throughout the motion cycle has not been previously evaluated. To document the simultaneous effect of raised heels on the joint angles of the equine hindlimb coffin, fetlock and hock joints. Eight sound, adult, Warmblood horses were evaluated barefoot and with a heel wedge of 8 or 16 degrees, walking and trotting on a horizontal treadmill. Markers placed on the dorsal and cranial aspect of the hindlimb were traced using a 3D high speed video system and joint angles calculated. The effects of raising the hindlimb heels by 8 or 16 degrees on the angles of the hindlimb during the stance phase are a reduction of the plantar combined coffin joint and pastern joint angle, a reduction of maximum extension in the fetlock joint, and an increase in maximum hock flexion. The relation between angles did not change significantly during the course of the stance phase in the three measurement situations, with only small differences in time of occurrence of each joint angle maxima and minima. Raising the heels of hind hooves increases flexion of the coffin and hock joints during the stance phases of walk and trot, and a doubling of the angle of the raised heels also doubles the effect on the joint angles investigated. Raised heels reduce the maximum extension of the fetlock joint during the the stance phase at walk and trot. This study provides evidence for the therapeutic use of raised shoes with heels in horses with pain on maximum hock extension, e.g. spavin.

  12. Benthic structure and cryptic mortality in a Caribbean mesophotic coral reef bank system, the Hind Bank Marine Conservation District, U.S. Virgin Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, T. B.; Blondeau, J.; Nemeth, R. S.; Pittman, S. J.; Calnan, J. M.; Kadison, E.; Gass, J.

    2010-06-01

    Coral reef banks may form an important component of mesophotic coral ecosystems (MCEs) in the Caribbean, but remain poorly explored relative to shallower reefs and mesophotic habitats on slopes and walls. Consequently, the processes structuring mesophotic coral reef communities are not well understood, particularly the role of disturbance. A large and regionally important mesophotic system, the Hind Bank Marine Conservation District (MCD), St. Thomas, USVI, was systematically surveyed. Data were used to construct a comprehensive benthic habitat map for the MCD, describe the abiotic and biotic components of the benthos among habitats, and investigate patterns of coral health among habitats. Two-thirds of the MCD (23.6 km2) was found to be dense coral reef (Coral Cover = 24.1%) dominated by the Montastraea annularis species complex. Coral reef ecosystems were topographically complex, but could be classified into distinct habitat types, including high coral banks (35.8% of the MCD) and two large novel coral reef habitat types corresponding to an extremely flat basin (18%) and a highly rugose hillock basin (6.5%), containing thousands of coral knolls (2-10 m high). An extreme disease event with undescribed signs of mortality occurred on 47% of coral reefs and reached a high prevalence in affected areas (42.4% ± 6.3 SE, N = 26). The disease was significantly clustered in the basin habitats of the western MCD (global Moran’s I = 0.32, P < 0.01). Observations of the spatial pattern suggested that the driver was specific to the basin habitats and may have been caused by a coherent abiotic event.

  13. Angiotensin II receptor type 2 activation is required for cutaneous sensory hyperinnervation and hypersensitivity in a rat hind paw model of inflammatory pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarty, Anuradha; Liao, Zhaohui; Smith, Peter G

    2013-10-01

    Many pain syndromes are associated with abnormal proliferation of peripheral sensory fibers. We showed previously that angiotensin II, acting through its type 2 receptor (AT2), stimulates axon outgrowth by cultured dorsal root ganglion neurons. In this study, we assessed whether AT2 mediates nociceptor hyperinnervation in the rodent hind paw model of inflammatory pain. Plantar injection of complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA), but not saline, produced marked thermal and mechanical hypersensitivity through 7 days. This was accompanied by proliferation of dermal and epidermal PGP9.5-immunoreactive (ir) and calcitonin gene-related peptide-immunoreactive (CGRP-ir) axons, and dermal axons immunoreactive for GFRα2 but not tyrosine hydroxylase or neurofilament H. Continuous infusion of the AT2 antagonist PD123319 beginning with CFA injection completely prevented hyperinnervation as well as hypersensitivity over a 7-day period. A single PD123319 injection 7 days after CFA also reversed thermal hypersensitivity and partially reversed mechanical hypersensitivity 3 hours later, without affecting cutaneous innervation. Angiotensin II-synthesizing proteins renin and angiotensinogen were largely absent after saline but abundant in T cells and macrophages in CFA-injected paws with or without PD123319. Thus, emigrant cells at the site of inflammation apparently establish a renin-angiotensin system, and AT2 activation elicits nociceptor sprouting and heightened thermal and mechanical sensitivity. Short-term AT2 activation is a potent contributor to thermal hypersensitivity, whereas long-term effects (such as hyperinnervation) also contribute to mechanical hypersensitivity. Pharmacologic blockade of AT2 signaling represents a potential therapeutic strategy aimed at biologic mechanisms underlying chronic inflammatory pain. Copyright © 2013 American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Colonic inflammation accompanies an increase of β-catenin signaling and Lachnospiraceae/Streptococcaceae bacteria in the hind gut of high-fat diet-fed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Huawei; Ishaq, Suzanne L; Zhao, Feng-Qi; Wright, André-Denis G

    2016-09-01

    Consumption of an obesigenic/high-fat diet (HFD) is associated with a high colon cancer risk and may alter the gut microbiota. To test the hypothesis that long-term high-fat (HF) feeding accelerates inflammatory process and changes gut microbiome composition, C57BL/6 mice were fed HFD (45% energy) or a low-fat (LF) diet (10% energy) for 36 weeks. At the end of the study, body weights in the HF group were 35% greater than those in the LF group. These changes were associated with dramatic increases in body fat composition, inflammatory cell infiltration, inducible nitric oxide synthase protein concentration and cell proliferation marker (Ki67) in ileum and colon. Similarly, β-catenin expression was increased in colon (but not ileum). Consistent with gut inflammation phenotype, we also found that plasma leptin, interleukin 6 and tumor necrosis factor α concentrations were also elevated in mice fed the HFD, indicative of chronic inflammation. Fecal DNA was extracted and the V1-V3 hypervariable region of the microbial 16S rRNA gene was amplified using primers suitable for 454 pyrosequencing. Compared to the LF group, the HF group had high proportions of bacteria from the family Lachnospiraceae/Streptococcaceae, which is known to be involved in the development of metabolic disorders, diabetes and colon cancer. Taken together, our data demonstrate, for the first time, that long-term HF consumption not only increases inflammatory status but also accompanies an increase of colonic β-catenin signaling and Lachnospiraceae/Streptococcaceae bacteria in the hind gut of C57BL/6 mice. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Raha varjatud hind / Peter Singer

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Singer, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Kathleen Vohs, Nicole Mead ja Miranda Goode leidsid eksperimentide kaudu viisi, kuidas panna inimesed mõtlema rahast, ilma et neil seda otseselt teha kästaks. Rahast mõtlema suunatud katsealuste grupi käitumine erines suuresti teise grupi käitumisest

  16. Lihtsa elu hind / Veikko Maripuu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Maripuu, Veikko

    2008-01-01

    Ida-Euroopa on paljude välisinvestorite silmis jälle kõikuv üleminekupiirkond. Ekspordipotentsiaali silmas pidades on Ida-Euroopa, k. a. Eesti olukord keerulisem kui 1990. aastate lõpus, teine tõsine probleem on otsesed krediidikriisi mõjud. Autor on seisukohal, et kõige põletavamad probleemid võivad riike tabada seest-, mitte väljastpoolt, ning kohest tegutsemist vajab raha väljavool pankadest

  17. Pharmacokinetics of Acetaminophen in Hind Limbs Unloaded Mice: A Model System Simulating the Effects of Low Gravity on Astronauts in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Amanda; Risin, Semyon A.; Ramesh, Govindarajan T.; Dasgupta, Amitava; Risin, Diana

    2008-01-01

    The pharmacokinetics (PK) of medications administered to astronauts could be altered by the conditions in Space. Low gravity and free floating (and associated hemodynamic changes) could affect the absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion of the drugs. Knowledge of these alterations is essential for adjusting the dosage and the regimen of drug administration in astronauts. Acquiring of such knowledge has inherent difficulties due to limited opportunities for experimenting in Space. One of the approaches is to use model systems that simulate some of the Space conditions on Earth. In this study we used hind limbs unloaded mice (HLU) to investigate the possible changes in PK of acetaminophen, a widely used analgesic with high probability of use by astronauts. The HLU is recognized as an appropriate model for simulating the effects of low gravity on hemodynamic parameters. Mice were tail suspended (n = 24) for 24-96 hours prior to introduction of acetaminophen (150 - 300 mg/kg). The drug (in aqueous solution containing 10% ethyl alcohol by volume) was given orally by a gavage procedure and after the administration of acetaminophen mice were additionally suspended for 30 min, 1 and 2 hours. Control mice (n = 24) received the same dose of acetaminophen and were kept freely all the time. Blood specimens were obtained either from retroorbital venous sinuses or from heart. Acetaminophen concentration was measured in plasma by the fluorescent polarization immunoassay and the AxSYM analyzer (Abbott Laboratories). In control mice peak acetaminophen concentration was achieved at 30 min. By 1 hour the concentration decreased to less than 50% of the peak level and at 2 hours the drug was almost undetectable in the serum. HLU for 24 hours significantly altered the acetaminophen pharmacokinetic: at 30 min the acetaminophen concentrations were significantly (both statistically and medically significant) lower than in control mice. The concentrations also reduced less

  18. Goniometria dos membros pélvicos de pacas (Cuniculus paca criadas em cativeiro Goniometry of the hind limbs of pacas (Cuniculus paca raised in captivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio André Pinheiro de Araújo

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar por meio de estudos goniométricos os membros pélvicos de pacas criadas em cativeiro. Foram utilizadas oito pacas (Cuniculus paca, sendo três fêmeas e cinco machos, com peso entre 6,0 kg e 8,2 kg, nos quais foi aferido o movimento de extensão e flexão das articulações coxofemoral, joelho e tarsocrural utilizando-se um goniômetro de plástico. Foram realizadas duas aferições para cada membro pelo mesmo avaliador, com intervalo de uma semana entre cada aferição, com os animais sob anestesia dissociativa. Não houve diferença estatística nas aferições dos ângulos entres os momentos. As variações entre as medidas de flexão e extensão, efetuadas em cada momento pelo mesmo avaliador, foi entre 1º e 5º para cada membro. Os valores goniométricos médios foram: flexão de 43,96º±7,62 e extensão de 118,31º±9,79 para a articulação coxofemoral; flexão de 54,25º±10,24 e extensão 131,53º±7,89 para o joelho; flexão de 45,94º±7,16 e extensão de 145,03º±5,06 para a articulação tarsocrural. Sendo assim, observou-se que a amplitude de movimento das pacas é maior na articulação tarsocrural, seguida respectivamente do joelho e da articulação coxofemoral.The aim of this study was to evaluate by goniometry the hind limbs of pacas raised in captivity. Eight mature pacas (Cuniculus paca, three females and five males, weighing 6.0-8.2 kg, were used. The quantity of joint flexion and extension motion of the hip joint, stifle joint and tarsocrural joint was measured using a plastic standard goniometer. Under dissociative anesthesia, two measures were made for each member in each animal by the same observer at an interval of one week. There were no statistical differences of the quantity of joint motion between the moments. The flexion and extension angles varied from 1º to 5º in each moment for the same observer. The mean values of the angles of flexion and extension were, respectively

  19. Bîrûnî’nin “Kitâbu Batenceli'l-Hindî” İsimli Risalesi Yogasutra’nın Bir Çevirisi midir?

    OpenAIRE

    İlhan, Mehmet; ARSLAN, Hammet

    2014-01-01

    Bîrûnî, Hint kültürünün kapılarını Türk-İslam dünyasına açmıştır. O, ön-celikle Hint dillerini öğrenmiş, Hint alt kıtasına yapılan seferlere katılmış ve Hintli bilginlerle müzakereler yapmıştır. O, Hint medeniyetini ele aldığı meşhur eseri Tahkik’in hazırlıklarını yaparken Hint dünyasında ciddi bir öneme sahip olan Patanjali kitabının çevirisini yapmıştır. Böylelikle mistik Hint düşüncesinin özüne vakıf olmayı hedeflemiştir. Aşağıdaki satırlarda ilk olarak onun “Kitâbu Batenceli'l-Hindî”...

  20. Nafta hind langeb bensiinist kiiremini / Hindrek Riikoja

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Riikoja, Hindrek

    2008-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Postimees : na russkom jazõke 4. sept. lk. 5. Bensiinihinna langus on jäänud Eesti tanklates nafta maailmaturu hindadele neli korda alla. Lisa: Bensiin ja nafta on hakanud odavnema. Vt. samas: Hirmu külvanud orkaan Gustav tõi leebudes naftahinna alla

  1. DVD-plaatide hind langeb / Ivar Sild

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sild, Ivar

    2003-01-01

    DVD (Digital Versatile Disk = digitaalne mitmekülgne plaat) kui ka juba Eestis videolindiga edukalt konkureeriv audiovisuaalse info kandja. Ivar Vendelin firmast V&K Holding loodab jõuda DVDga massidesse

  2. Erisused ja elu hind / Rein Tootmaa

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tootmaa, Rein

    2000-01-01

    IV Pimedate Ööde Filmifestivalil linastunud mängufilmidest : Prantsusmaa "Harry aitab sind" : režissöör Dominik Moll, Jaapani "Tabu" ("Gohatto") : režissöör Nagisha Oshima, Prantsusmaa "Vägista mind" ("Baise-moi") : režissöör Coralie Trinh Thi, Soome "Tundra seitse laulu" : režissöör Markku Lehmuskallio ja Prantsusmaa "Dogma 5 : Armastajad" : režissöör Jean-Marc Barri

  3. Menu hind on valu? / Jaak Allik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Allik, Jaak, 1946-

    2004-01-01

    Mõtisklusi "Mosfilmis" 1984 valminud mängufilmi "Menu" ainetel, mis kujutab teatri köögipoolt. Sellega seoses arutleb autor lavastaja- ja näitejatöö üle, kunstinõukogude koosolekute osast lavastuse vastuvõtul, teatritöö eetikast

  4. Elektri hind olgu poliitikast lahus / Ants Pauls

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pauls, Ants, 1940-

    2004-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Koit, 21. sept. 2004, lk. 6; Vali Uudised, 22. sept. 2004, lk. 2; Pärnu Postimees, 22. sept. 2004, lk. 15; Sakala, 22. sept. 2004, lk. 2; Põhjarannik, 22. sept. 2004, lk. 2; Severnoje Poberezhje, 22. sept. 2004, lk. 2; Võrumaa Teataja, 23. sept. 2004, lk. 2; Meie Maa, 23. sept. 2004, lk. 2; Valgamaalane, 25. sept. 2004, lk. 2; Hiiu Leht, 28. sept. 2004, lk. 2. Vastuseks Helir-Valdor Seederi maakonnalehtedes ilmunud art. "Võitlus elektri hinna pärast jätkub"

  5. Afecções ortopédicas dos membros pélvicos em cães: estudo retrospectivo Orthopedic diseases of hind limbs in dogs: retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Moraes Dionysio de Souza

    2011-05-01

    ordem decrescente, as doenças ortopédicas mais prevalentes foram: fraturas por acidentes automobilísticos, displasia coxofemoral, luxação de patela medial, ruptura do ligamento cruzado cranial, polifratura da pélvis e luxação coxofemoral traumática.The aim of this study was to characterize the orthopedic diseases of the hind limbs in dogs examined at the Veterinary Hospital of the School of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science, Univ Estadual Paulista (UNESP - Botucatu (São Paulo - Brasil, during a period of 7-years. A total of 889 dogs were evaluated: 31.9% had fractures of the long bones, 15.1% hip dysplasia, 13% medial patellar luxation, 11.7% cranial cruciate rupture, 11.5% multiple pelvic fractures, and 7.9% hip dislocation. The low-prevalence disorders (4.4%, n=39 were tibiotarsal and tarsometatarsal luxations, avascular necrosis of the femoral head, osteomyelitis and bone tumors, among others. Fractures of the tibia/fibula (14.5% were more common than femoral fractures (14.2%, and males (54.2% were more affected than females (45.8%. Considering the dogs with hip dysplasia, 67.9% were aged between 2 and 12 years, and the most common breed was the German shepherd (21.6% followed by Rottweiler (17.2% and Labrador (11.2%, while the mixed-breed dogs were 15.7% of total. Of the dogs with patellar luxation, 89.6% had medial luxation, and 36.2% were Poodle, 16.4% were mixed-breed and 12.9% were Pinscher. Cranial cruciate rupture was observed especially in Pit Bull (14.4%, Boxer (11.5%, Poodle (10.6% and Rottweiler (10.6% dogs, and mixed-breed dogs constituted 29.8% of the total. According to the age, 62.5% of them had less than 7 years. The most important cause for pelvic fractures was motor vehicle accidents (89.2%, being 52% of the dogs less than 3 years old and 45.1% of them were males. In 86.3% of the cases there were multiple fractures of the pelvis. Considering the dogs with hip dislocation, 57.1% of the cases were associated with motor vehicle accidents

  6. The intestinal tract as the major source of interleukin 6 production during abdominal aortic clamping and hind limb ischaemia-reperfusion injury O trato intestinal como a principal fonte na producao de interleucina 6 durante clampeamento da aorta abdominal e lesão de isquemia/rererfusão de membros inferiores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Benedito Palma Pimenta

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to investigate whether the hind limbs or intestinal tract is the most important initiator of the inflammatory response secondary aortic clamping and hind limb ischemia/reperfusion injury. METHODS: Blood samples of Wistar rats obtained from posterior cava vein, portal vein, and heart cavity during either laparotomy (control group, n=8 or laparotomy + 2 h of aortic clamping and bilateral hind limb ischemia (ischemia group, n=8, or 2 h after ischemia and 2 h of reperfusion (ischemia-reperfusion group, n=8 were assayed for interleukin 6 (IL-6 and C-reactive protein (CRP. RESULTS: Serum IL-6 at the heart (223.6±197.9 [10-832] pg/mL was higher (pOBJETIVO: Investigar qual o principal mediador da resposta inflamatória na lesao de isquemia/reperfusão após clampeamento da aorta abdominal e isquemia dos membros inferiores: o intestine ou as extremidades inferiores. MÉTODOS: amostra de sangue de ratos Wistar coletados da cava posterior, porta e cavidade cardíaca during tanto laparotomia (grupo controle n=8 ou laparotomia + 2 horas de clampeamento aórtico e isquemia bilateral de membros posteriores (grupo isquemia n=8, ou 2 h de isquemia seguido por 2 horas de reperfusão (grupo isquemia/reperfusão n=8, onde foram dosados interleucina 6 e proteína C-reativa. RESULTADOS: Il-6 no coração (223.6±197.9 [10-832] pg/mL foi maior (p<0.001 tanto na veia porta (133.08±108.52 [4-372] pg/mL quanto na veia cava posterior (127.58±109.15 [8-388] pg/mL. PCR não foi significativamente diferente entre os grupos. CONCLUSÃO: o trato intestinal foi responsável pela resposta inflamatória secundária a lesão de isquemia/reperfusão.

  7. Füüsilisest isikust ettevõtja kui ettevõtlusvorm, rõhuasetusega varalise vastutuse problemaatikal : [bakalaureusetöö] / Katri Tomson ; Tartu Ülikool, õigusteaduskond ; juhendaja: Peeter Jerofejev

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tomson, Katri, 1981-

    2003-01-01

    FIE kui ettevõtlusvorm - lihtne, aga vastutusrikas, varalise vastutuse problemaatika (vastutusele allutatud vara, abielulised suhted FIE varalist vastutust mõjutava asjaoluna, vara, millele ei või pöörata sissenõuet)

  8. The concept of text in cultural semiotics / Göran Sonesson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sonesson, Göran, 1951-

    1998-01-01

    "Tekstist" Tartu koolkonna kirjutistes ning Roland Posnerþi rekonstrueeritud teoorias. Tekstuaalsuse sellisest hierarhiast, mis nõuab interpretatsiooni ning mis on seejärel omakorda allutatud interpretatsioonile

  9. The Lipoprotein Lipase HindIII Polymorphism And The Susceptibility ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) enzyme plays a central role in lipid metabolism. The primary function of LPL enzyme is the hydrolysis of the core triglycerides of circulating chylomicron and very low density lipoprotein (VLDL). It releases monoglycerides and free fatty acids, which are taken up by skeletal muscle or adipose tissue.

  10. Introducción a la danza hindú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgardo Salazar Santacoloma

    1967-09-01

    Full Text Available El estilo Kathak nació en la India del Norte por transculturación coreográfica, gracias a la dinastía Moghul cuyo lapso histórico comienza en el siglo XIV y termina en el XVII. No tiene contexto religioso. Los pasos y encadenamientos del estilo Kathak fueron codificados por el Maharaja Binda Din. Dos formas: la recia danza ''tanda va" y la expresiva ''lasya" que se valen de un repertorio facial y manual singularmente verista. Hay Kathak clásico y Kathak popular.

  11. Energiatõhusus ja selle hind / Tõnu Mauring

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mauring, Tõnu, 1968-

    2010-01-01

    Austri arhitekti Georg W. Reinbergi raamatust "Ecological Architecture - Design, Planning, Realization" (2008). Uuringust, mis võttis kokku aastatel 2003-2008 Viini ehitatud elamute valimi andmed ning millest järeldub, et suuremate hoonete puhul võib passiivmaja maksumus olla madalenergiamajadega ühesugune. Vajadusest ehitada Eestis valmis oma näited, leidmaks, kas tõhus energia kasutamine ja inimsõbralik hoone on või ei ole konfliktis selle rajamise hinnaga

  12. Lapse ülalpidamise hind / Ene-Margit Tiit

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tiit, Ene-Margit, 1934-

    2005-01-01

    Tutvustav artikkel sotsiaalministeeriumi tellimusel läbiviidud uuringust, mille eesmärgiks oli välja töötada lapse kõikidest vajadustest lähtuv ühtne metoodika lapse ülalpidamiskulude arvutamiseks ühes kuus. Tabelid. Diagrammid. Vt. ka lk. 15-16: Kaplan, Signe. Metoodika kasutamisvõimalusi

  13. Efeitos da estimulação elétrica neuromuscular sobre o membro posterior imobilizado de ratos durante 15 dias: análises metabólicas e morfométricas Effects of neuromuscular electrical stimulation on rat hind limbs immobilized for 15 days: metabolic and morphometric analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JLQ Durigan

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar o efeito da estimulação elétrica (EE sobre o perfil metabólico e morfométrico dos músculos do membro posterior de ratos submetidos à imobilização durante 15 dias. MÉTODO: Ratos Wistar foram divididos em 3 grupos (n=5: controle, imobilizado por 15 dias e imobilizado associado à EE por 15 dias. Foram avaliados: reserva de glicogênio (RG dos músculos sóleo (S, extensor longo dos dedos (ELD, gastrocnêmio branco (GB, gastrocnêmio vermelho (GV e tibial anterior (TA, além do peso do sóleo, área das fibras e tecido conjuntivo do S. A análise estatística foi feita pelos testes ANOVA e Kruskal-Wallis (pOBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of electrical stimulation on the metabolic and morphometric profile of rat hind limb muscles subjected to immobilization for 15 days. METHOD: Wistar rats were divided into three groups (n=5: control; immobilized for 15 days; and immobilized for 15 days with electrical stimulation. The glycogen reserves of the soleus, extensor digitorum longus (EDL, white gastrocnemius (WG, red gastrocnemius (RG and tibialis anterior (TA muscles were evaluated, along with the weight, fibrous area and conjunctive tissue of the soleus. The statistical analysis was performed using the Anova and Kruskal-Wallis tests (p<0.05. RESULTS: Immobilization promoted significant alterations (p<0.05, such as: reductions in the glycogen reserves (soleus: 44.73%, WG: 47.82%, RG: 46.34%, EDL: 41.66%, TA: 48.38% and in the weight (7.2% and fibrous area (35% of the soleus, and also increased connective tissue density (160%. Electrical stimulation promoted a significant increase (p<0.05 in the glycogen reserves of all the immobilized muscles: (soleus: 90.47%, WG: 62.5%, RG: 95.45%, EDL: 76.19%, TA: 56.25% and in the weight (20.94% and fibrous area (19.65% of the soleus, and also promoted a significant reduction (15.38%, p<0.05 in connective tissue density. CONCLUSION: Electrical stimulation minimized the reduction in

  14. Lääne ideaalid Venemaa tõlgenduses : ettevõtjate tootmine siirdeajal / Oksana Shmuljar Green ; tõlk. Kaarel Tarand

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Shmuljar Green, Oksana

    2008-01-01

    Venemaal tekkinud uuest majandusühiskonnast, mis ei ole enam allutatud Nõukogude riigile nagu enne 1985. aastat, kuid mis pole ka enamikes lääneriikides tuntud kapitalistlik ühiskond. Lääne tegevuse kolmest mõõtmest Venemaa ümberkujundamisel: siirde diskursus, lääne investeeringud ja eraettevõtluse käivitamine

  15. DIGITAL FLOOD INSURANCE RATE MAP DATABASE, HINDS COUNTY, MISSISSIPPI AND INCORPORATED AREAS

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map (DFIRM) Database depicts flood risk information and supporting data used to develop the risk data. The primary risk...

  16. THE FEASIBILITY OF HIND FOOT AMPUTATION IN SELECTED SARCOMAS OF THE FOOT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    HAM, SJ; HOEKSTRA, HJ; EISMA, WH; OLDHOFF, J; KOOPS, HS

    The treatment of foot sarcomas is generally a below knee amputation. In selected sarcomas of the forefoot, however, a transtarsal amputation according to Chopart, a calcaneotibial arthrodesis according to Pirogoff, or a supramalleolar amputation according to Syme can be considered the treatment of

  17. Seasonal and age related changes in size of reproductive structures of red deer hinds (Cervus elaphus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolf Langvatn

    1992-10-01

    Full Text Available Morphometric studies of uteri, ovary weights, and follicle diameters were carried out to investigate possible methodological applications. Size and anatomical appearance of the uterus varied with age and phase in the estrous cycle, both in parous and nulliparous females. The uterus thus may provide valuable information on reproductive status for known-aged animals. Weight of ovaries increased in young, but declined in old females, showing significant covariance with body weight in young and prime ages. Ovary weights increased from low levels shortly after parturition to a maximum towards the end of the gestation period. Ovaries containing a corpus luteum were heavier than those without. Compared to ovary weights, mean diameter of largest ovarian follicle varied in an opposite pattern during the yearly cycle. Maximum follicle diameter was largest in non-ovulated females. Weight of ovaries and follicle size appear to be of limited value as criteria in analysis of reproductive status and performance.

  18. Maksude maksmise lihtsusel on nende märkamatu tõusu hind / Villu Zirnask

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Zirnask, Villu, 1966-

    2007-01-01

    USA-s tasuliste teede maksude muutumist uurinud Amy Finkelsteini väitel on elektroonilise maksukogumise juurutamine tõstnud teemakse 20-40% võrreldes sellega, kui need oleksid olnud endise maksukogumissüsteemi juurde jäädes. Lisa: Sõidumaks igal pool ja igal ajal

  19. Foot strike patterns and hind limb joint angles during running in Hadza hunter-gatherers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herman Pontzer

    2014-06-01

    Conclusion: Unlike other habitually barefoot populations which prefer FFS while running, Hadza men preferred MFS, and Hadza women and juveniles preferred RFS. Sex and age differences in foot strike behavior among Hadza adults may reflect differences in running experience, with men learning to prefer MFS as they accumulate more running experience.

  20. [Arthrodesis with subsequent screw fixation in the treatment of diabetic Charcot hind- and midfoot arthropathy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldecker, U

    2011-08-01

    Surgical reconstruction of Charcot arthropathy in diabetes is characterised by long consolidation periods and extensive osteosynthesis procedures. The different methods of osteosynthesis are difficult to compare. Studies differ in many aspects such as favourable outcome, timing of surgery, clinical features, severity and stage of the disease. Therefore uniformity and comparability of the studies is not given. An evidence-based therapy algorithm for the surgical reconstruction of Charcot feet does not exist. A retrospective study of twelve patients with 13 affected feet who had undergone arthrodesis of the foot to treat Charcot deformity was performed. All surgical procedures were performed at Eichenholtz stage 3. Six patients showed an ulcer of the foot at the time of surgery, six patients were without pedal ulceration. Screw fixation was used for reconstruction and bone grafting was performed in all patients. Radiographic measurements were recorded preoperatively, immediately postoperatively, 3 months postoperatively and at the time of the last follow-up. Patients were evaluated clinically and radiographically at an average of 2.4 years. Complete osseous union was achieved in ten patients at an average of 4.3 months. There was one patient with a postoperative infection and an internal amputation, one patient with an unstable non-union, with recurrence of deformity. All pedal ulcers healed during the period of the osseous consolidation. All patients returned to an ambulatory status within 7 months. Open reduction and arthrodesis with the use of screw fixation alone for the surgical correction of Charcot arthropathy provide a good result compared to other fixation methods. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  1. Bensiini hind lõpuks üle piiri / Christopher Palmeri

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Palmeri, Christopher

    2008-01-01

    Bensiinitarbimise vähenemisest USA-s. Vähenenud on nii maanteede liiklustihedus kui suure kütusekuluga autode müük. Graafik: Pane paak täis. Vt. samas: Michelle Conlin. Bussiga on järsku popp sõita

  2. Reloading partly recovers bone mineral density and mechanical properties in hind limb unloaded rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Fan; Li, Dijie; Arfat, Yasir; Chen, Zhihao; Liu, Zonglin; Lin, Yu; Ding, Chong; Sun, Yulong; Hu, Lifang; Shang, Peng; Qian, Airong

    2014-12-01

    Skeletal unloading results in decreased bone formation and bone mass. During long-term space flight, the decreased bone mass is impossible to fully recover. Therefore, it is necessary to develop the effective countermeasures to prevent spaceflight-induced bone loss. Hindlimb Unloading (HLU) simulates effects of weightlessness and is utilized extensively to examine the response of musculoskeletal systems to certain aspects of space flight. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of a 4-week HLU in rats and subsequent reloading on the bone mineral density (BMD) and mechanical properties of load-bearing bones. After HLU for 4 weeks, the rats were then subjected to reloading for 1 week, 2 weeks and 3 weeks, and then the BMD of the femur, tibia and lumbar spine in rats were assessed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) every week. The mechanical properties of the femur were determined by three-point bending test. Dry bone and bone ash of femur were obtained through Oven-Drying method and were weighed respectively. Serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and serum calcium were examined through ELISA and Atomic Absorption Spectrometry. The results showed that 4 weeks of HLU significantly decreased body weight of rats and reloading for 1 week, 2 weeks or 3 weeks did not recover the weight loss induced by HLU. However, after 2 weeks of reloading, BMD of femur and tibia of HLU rats partly recovered (+10.4%, +2.3%). After 3 weeks of reloading, the reduction of BMD, energy absorption, bone mass and mechanical properties of bone induced by HLU recovered to some extent. The changes in serum ALP and serum calcium induced by HLU were also recovered after reloading. Our results indicate that a short period of reloading could not completely recover bone after a period of unloading, thus some interventions such as mechanical vibration or pharmaceuticals are necessary to help bone recovery.

  3. Maja keskmine hind on 10 000 kr/m2 / Maria Rähn

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rähn, Maria

    2004-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Delovõje Vedomosti 3. märts lk. 16. Benno Ehitus AS-i hinnaspetsialist Ants Mihkelson ja AS-i Gerberos AMS projektijuht Heldur Löve eramu hinna kujunemisest ja seda mõjutavatest teguritest. Diagramm: Vundament ja majakarp moodustavad poole eramu hinnast. Vt. samas: Ehitusfirma praagi vastu aitab kindlustus

  4. Mis on hinge hind ehk Imet ei sündinud / Jaanus Kulli

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kulli, Jaanus, 1955-

    1999-01-01

    Mängufilm "Ristumine peateega" : režissöör ja produtsent Arko Okk : Stsenarist oma näidendi järgi Jaan Tätte : Operaator Dmitri Jermakov : Kunstnik Pille Jänes : Helilooja Jukka Linkola : Acuba Film 1999. Lisa : Arko Oki elu ja loomingu lühikokkuvõte

  5. Eesti rikkaima mehe tütre hind 240 miljonit krooni / Lauri Birkan

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Birkan, Lauri

    2008-01-01

    Politsei tabas kaks meest, kes üritasid röövida ärimees Armin Karu tütart Inest ning nõuda tema eest 15 miljonit eurot lunaraha. Küsimustele vastab Armin Karu. Vt. samas: Pankurid hindavad Armin Karu rikkuseks 5,4 miljardit; 1997. aastal plaanis äripartner Armin Karu tappa

  6. Gait cycle analysis: parameters sensitive for functional evaluation of peripheral nerve recovery in rat hind limbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rui, Jing; Runge, M Brett; Spinner, Robert J; Yaszemski, Michael J; Windebank, Anthony J; Wang, Huan

    2014-10-01

    Video-assisted gait kinetics analysis has been a sensitive method to assess rat sciatic nerve function after injury and repair. However, in conduit repair of sciatic nerve defects, previously reported kinematic measurements failed to be a sensitive indicator because of the inferior recovery and inevitable joint contracture. This study aimed to explore the role of physiotherapy in mitigating joint contracture and to seek motion analysis indices that can sensitively reflect motor function. Data were collected from 26 rats that underwent sciatic nerve transection and conduit repair. Regular postoperative physiotherapy was applied. Parameters regarding step length, phase duration, and ankle angle were acquired and analyzed from video recording of gait kinetics preoperatively and at regular postoperative intervals. Stride length ratio (step length of uninjured foot/step length of injured foot), percent swing of the normal paw (percentage of the total stride duration when the uninjured paw is in the air), propulsion angle (toe-off angle subtracted by midstance angle), and clearance angle (ankle angle change from toe off to midswing) decreased postoperatively comparing with baseline values. The gradual recovery of these measurements had a strong correlation with the post-nerve repair time course. Ankle joint contracture persisted despite rigorous physiotherapy. Parameters acquired from a 2-dimensional motion analysis system, that is, stride length ratio, percent swing of the normal paw, propulsion angle, and clearance angle, could sensitively reflect nerve function impairment and recovery in the rat sciatic nerve conduit repair model despite the existence of joint contractures.

  7. Functional MMP-10 is required for efficient tissue repair after experimental hind limb ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Rodriguez, Violeta; Orbe, Josune; Martinez-Aguilar, Esther; Rodriguez, Jose A; Fernandez-Alonso, Leopoldo; Serneels, Jens; Bobadilla, Miriam; Perez-Ruiz, Ana; Collantes, Maria; Mazzone, Massimiliano; Paramo, Jose A; Roncal, Carmen

    2015-03-01

    We studied the role of matrix metalloproteinase-10 (MMP-10) during skeletal muscle repair after ischemia using a model of femoral artery excision in wild-type (WT) and MMP-10 deficient (Mmp10(-/-)) mice. Functional changes were analyzed by small animal positron emission tomography and tissue morphology by immunohistochemistry. Gene expression and protein analysis were used to study the molecular mechanisms governed by MMP-10 in hypoxia. Early after ischemia, MMP-10 deficiency resulted in delayed tissue reperfusion (10%, P < 0.01) and in increased necrosis (2-fold, P < 0.01), neutrophil (4-fold, P < 0.01), and macrophage (1.5-fold, P < 0.01) infiltration. These differences at early time points resulted in delayed myotube regeneration in Mmp10(-/-) soleus at later stages (regenerating myofibers: 30 ± 9% WT vs. 68 ± 10% Mmp10(-/-), P < 0.01). The injection of MMP-10 into Mmp10(-/-) mice rescued the observed phenotype. A molecular analysis revealed higher levels of Cxcl1 mRNA (10-fold, P < 0.05) and protein (30%) in the ischemic Mmp10(-/-) muscle resulting from a lack of transcriptional inhibition by MMP-10. This was further confirmed using siRNA against MMP-10 in vivo. Our results demonstrate an important role of MMP-10 for proper muscle repair after ischemia, and suggest that chemokine regulation such as Cxcl1 by MMP-10 is involved in muscle regeneration. © FASEB.

  8. Hind brain agenesis a rare imaging findings in cerebro cerebellar lissencephalic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundaganur, Praveen M; Solwalkar, Pradeep; Nimbal, Vishal

    2014-01-01

    A case report of cerebro cerebellar lissencephaly shows complete agenesis of cerebellum and brainstem which is rare imaging finding of group lissencephaly (type I lissencephaly). Though agenesis of cerebellum and brainstem were included in literature, in most of the cases we saw a hypoplasia or atrophy of cerebellum in lissencephaly syndrome. The CT scan findings of this patient shows features of lissencephaly with complete agenesis of brain stem and cerebellum associated with multiple congenital abnormalities.

  9. Gaasi hind küll alaneb, kuid mitte tavatarbijale / Erik Müürsepp

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Müürsepp, Erik

    2008-01-01

    Eesti Gaas taotleb kodutarbijaile 20-protsendilist gaasihinna tõusu, samas langeb äriklientidele gaasihind paari kuu jooksul kümnendiku võrra ning veebruaris-märtsis veel 15%. Eesti Gaasi juhatuse liikme Raul Kotovi selgitus

  10. Taxonomic differences of gut microbiomes drive cellulolytic enzymatic potential within hind-gut fermenting mammals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma C L Finlayson-Trick

    Full Text Available Host diet influences the diversity and metabolic activities of the gut microbiome. Previous studies have shown that the gut microbiome provides a wide array of enzymes that enable processing of diverse dietary components. Because the primary diet of the porcupine, Erethizon dorsatum, is lignified plant material, we reasoned that the porcupine microbiome would be replete with enzymes required to degrade lignocellulose. Here, we report on the bacterial composition in the porcupine microbiome using 16S rRNA sequencing and bioinformatics analysis. We extended this analysis to the microbiomes of 20 additional mammals located in Shubenacadie Wildlife Park (Nova Scotia, Canada, enabling the comparison of bacterial diversity amongst three mammalian taxonomic orders (Rodentia, Carnivora, and Artiodactyla. 16S rRNA sequencing was validated using metagenomic shotgun sequencing on selected herbivores (porcupine, beaver and carnivores (coyote, Arctic wolf. In the microbiome, functionality is more conserved than bacterial composition, thus we mined microbiome data sets to identify conserved microbial functions across species in each order. We measured the relative gene abundances for cellobiose phosphorylase, endoglucanase, and beta-glucosidase to evaluate the cellulose-degrading potential of select mammals. The porcupine and beaver had higher proportions of genes encoding cellulose-degrading enzymes than the Artic wolf and coyote. These findings provide further evidence that gut microbiome diversity and metabolic capacity are influenced by host diet.

  11. Rändluskõne hind alaneb peagi kuni kaks korda / Eric Katskowski

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Katskowski, Eric

    2007-01-01

    30. juunil 2007 jõustunud Euroopa Komisjoni määrusest, mille kohaselt alandatakse alates 30. juulist Euroopa Liidu siseste rändluskõnede (roaming) hinda. Lisatud diagramm: rändluse kõnehinnad alanevad 2009. aastani

  12. Ostukoha valikul pole hind ainus ja tähtsaim argument / Sirje Niitra ; kommenteerinud Tiina Hiob

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Niitra, Sirje, 1948-

    2015-01-01

    Uue kaubakeskuse avamisega sai Viimsi asula keskne ristmik endale kokku viis suurt ostukohta. Artiklis selgub, mille järgi selle kandi inimesed ostukoha valiku teevad. Valiku tegemisel mängivad suurt rolli ka psühholoogilised tegurid, vahel eelistatakse just kõrgemaid hindu, sest olulised on maine ja staatus

  13. Development and Training of a Neural Controller for Hind Leg Walking in a Dog Robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Alexander; Szczecinski, Nicholas; Quinn, Roger

    2017-01-01

    Animals dynamically adapt to varying terrain and small perturbations with remarkable ease. These adaptations arise from complex interactions between the environment and biomechanical and neural components of the animal's body and nervous system. Research into mammalian locomotion has resulted in several neural and neuro-mechanical models, some of which have been tested in simulation, but few “synthetic nervous systems” have been implemented in physical hardware models of animal systems. One reason is that the implementation into a physical system is not straightforward. For example, it is difficult to make robotic actuators and sensors that model those in the animal. Therefore, even if the sensorimotor circuits were known in great detail, those parameters would not be applicable and new parameter values must be found for the network in the robotic model of the animal. This manuscript demonstrates an automatic method for setting parameter values in a synthetic nervous system composed of non-spiking leaky integrator neuron models. This method works by first using a model of the system to determine required motor neuron activations to produce stable walking. Parameters in the neural system are then tuned systematically such that it produces similar activations to the desired pattern determined using expected sensory feedback. We demonstrate that the developed method successfully produces adaptive locomotion in the rear legs of a dog-like robot actuated by artificial muscles. Furthermore, the results support the validity of current models of mammalian locomotion. This research will serve as a basis for testing more complex locomotion controllers and for testing specific sensory pathways and biomechanical designs. Additionally, the developed method can be used to automatically adapt the neural controller for different mechanical designs such that it could be used to control different robotic systems. PMID:28420977

  14. Nafta ja toidu kõrge hind ohustab majandust / Kalev Vilgats

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vilgats, Kalev

    2008-01-01

    G8 avalduses märgiti, et maailmamajanduses valitseb praegu ebakindlus ja püsivad langusriskid, kaheksa riigi liidrid väljendasid muret tõusnud toorainehindade üle, kuna need ohustavad ülemaailmset stabiilset kasvu. Briti The Times'i ja Taani Jyllands-Posteni arvamusi G8-st

  15. 77 FR 25687 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife; 90-Day Finding on a Petition to List Speckled Hind as...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    ... species' extinction risk. For example, our 2007 status review for the Atlantic white marlin (73 FR 843, January 4, 2008; http://sero.nmfs.noaa.gov/pr/endangered%20species/pdf/2007_Atlantic_white_marlin_status...

  16. Microbiome-Metabolome Responses to a High-Grain Diet Associated with the Hind-Gut Health of Goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiyu Tao

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Studies on the effect of a high-concentrate (HC diet on the hindgut microbiota and metabolome of ruminants are rarely reported. We used 454 pyrosequencing of 16S rDNA genes and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to evaluate the effects of long-term feeding (HL or short-term (HS feeding of an HC diet on changes in bacterial microbiota and their metabolites in the hindgut, with Guanzhong goat as a ruminant model. Results indicated that an HC diet decreased bacterial diversity and induced metabolic disorder in the hindgut. The levels of lactate, endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide, LPS, and volatile fatty acid concentrations were higher in the intestinal digesta of the HC goats than in those of the LC goats (P < 0.05. The level of beta-alanine decreased, whereas the levels of stigmasterol and quinic acid decreased in the cecal and colonic digesta of the HC goats. At the genus level, the abundance of Clostridium and Turicibacter was significantly increased in both the colonic and cecal digesta of the HC goats. Several potential relationships between metabolites and several microbial species were revealed in this study. The mRNA expression of the genes functionally associated with nutrients transport, including NHE2, NHE3, MCT1, and MCT4 were significantly downregulated in the colonic mucosa by the HC diet (P < 0.05. The expression levels of the genes related to the inflammatory response, including TLR4, MYD88, TNF-α, and IL-1β were markedly upregulated in the cecal mucosa by the HC diet (P < 0.05. Our results indicate that an HC diet induces microbiota dysbiosis, metabolic disorders, and mucosal damage in the hindgut of goats.

  17. Effect of Shunting of Collateral Flow into the Venous System on Arteriogenesis and Angiogenesis in Rabbit Hind Limb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bao-lin; Wu, Song; Wu, Xiaoqiong; Li, Ming Bo; Zhu, Wu; Guan, Yinglu; Liu, Li-Hua; Luo, Ming-ying; Cai, Wei-Jun; Schaper, Jutta; Schaper, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the vascular remodeling in the external iliac artery (EIA) and the lower leg muscles in a rabbit shunt model created between the distal stump of the occluded femoral artery and the accompanying vein. Histology and immunoconfocal microscopy were used in this study. We found that: 1) both endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and phosphorylated eNOS (P-eNOS) proteins were significantly increased in the shunt-side EIA; 2) matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) expression was 5.5 times in shunt side EIA over that in normal EIA; 3) intercellular adhension molecule-1 (ICAM-1) expression was strongly induced in endothelial cells (EC) and vascular adhension molecule-1 (VCAM-1) expression was significantly increased in both EC and the adventitia of the shunt-side EIA; 4) augmentation of cell proliferation and extracellular proteolysis by macrophage infiltration was observed in shunt-side EIA; 5) cell proliferation was active in shunt side EIA, but quiet in shunt side lower leg’s arterial vessels; 6) capillary density in shunt side lower leg muscles was 2 times over that in normal side. In conclusion, our data demonstrate the paradigm that the power of shear stress takes the reins in arteriogenesis, whereas ischemia in angiogenesis, but not in arteriogenesis. PMID:23554534

  18. Arco Vara aktsia hind sõltub suuraktsionär Tooli käitumisest / Virge Haavasalu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Haavasalu, Virge

    2009-01-01

    Arco Vara aktsionäride koosolekul kokku lepitud aktsia hinna tehniline tõus ei oma SEB Varahalduse juhatuse liikme Sven Kunsingu sõnul tähendust, sest hinnale on ohuks suurima aktsionäri Toomas Tooli käitumine

  19. Bensiini hind tõuseb veel kahe krooni võrra / Heidit Kaio, Liis Kängsepp

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kaio, Heidit, 1971-

    2005-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Delovõje Vedomosti 7. sept. lk. 2. Lähipäevadel on oodata bensiini hinna kallinemist, mis omakorda hakkab mõjutama teiste toodete hindu. Diagramm. Vt. samas: Sirje Rank. Ameerikas pikad bensiinijärjekorrad; Erisoodustuse määr jääb muutmata

  20. Myofascial force transmission also occurs between antagonistic muscles located within opposite compartments of the rat lower hind limb

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijkelijkhuizen, J.M.; Meijer, H.J.M.; Baan, G.C.; Huijing, P.A.J.B.M.

    2007-01-01

    Force transmission via pathways other than myotendinous ones, is referred to as myofascial force transmission. The present study shows that myofascial force transmission occurs not only between adjacent synergistic muscles or antagonistic muscles in adjacent compartments, but also between most

  1. THE EFFECT OF HOUSING ON THE OCCURANCE OF HIND LEG WEAKNESSES IN MARKET PIGS OF THREE GENOTYPES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blaž Šegula

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Degenerative changes of joints due to osteoarthrosis in tarsal joint, peritarsitis, tarsal bursitis and asymmetry of claws was studied on legs of 175 commercial pigs, with prolonged fattening (250 days of age of three genotypes (landrace pigs-11, crosses between landrace females and large white males-12, crosses between female 12 and duroc male- 123 housed either individually on the zincifi ed metal slatted fl oor or in groups of 8-9 pigs on the concrete slatted fl oor. Degenerative changes due to osteoarthrosis (OATD in small joints of the hock - os tarsale tertium (T3, os tarsale quartum (T4, os metatarsale tertium (Mt3 and os metatarsale quatrum (Mt4 and due to the peritarsitis were signifi cantly more important in pigs housed individually (P<0.001. Individually housed pigs grew faster and were signifi cantly heavier for the similar slaughter age (P<0.001. The effect of genotype was only minor; the crosses 12 had lesser asymmetry of claws (P<0.001 than pigs 11 or 123, whereas crosses 123 had signifi cantly (P<0.005 less pronounced degenerative changes due to osteoarthrosis on Mt3 and T3.

  2. Muscular reconstruction and functional morphology of the hind limb of santacrucian (Early Miocene) sloths (Xenarthra, Folivora) of Patagonia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Toledo, Néstor; Bargo, M. Susana; Vizcaíno, Sergio F

    2015-01-01

    ... Cyclopes (∼0.5 kg), the semi‐arboreal Tamandua (∼5 kg) and the ground‐dwelling giant anteater Myrmecophaga (∼35 kg) (Nowak, ). The fossil record of vermilinguans is extremely scarce (McDonald and De Iuliis, ). The sloths (Folivora) are represented by two extant genera (ranging from ∼2 to 10 kg; Nowak, ), mainly folivorous, and arboreal: Choloepus (two‐...

  3. Proteomic analysis of fibroblastema formation in regenerating hind limbs of Xenopus laevis froglets and comparison to axolotl

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background To gain insight into what differences might restrict the capacity for limb regeneration in Xenopus froglets, we used High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC)/double mass spectrometry to characterize protein expression during fibroblastema formation in the amputated froglet hindlimb, and compared the results to those obtained previously for blastema formation in the axolotl limb. Results Comparison of the Xenopus fibroblastema and axolotl blastema revealed several similarities and significant differences in proteomic profiles. The most significant similarity was the strong parallel down regulation of muscle proteins and enzymes involved in carbohydrate metabolism. Regenerating Xenopus limbs differed significantly from axolotl regenerating limbs in several ways: deficiency in the inositol phosphate/diacylglycerol signaling pathway, down regulation of Wnt signaling, up regulation of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins and proteins involved in chondrocyte differentiation, lack of expression of a key cell cycle protein, ecotropic viral integration site 5 (EVI5), that blocks mitosis in the axolotl, and the expression of several patterning proteins not seen in the axolotl that may dorsalize the fibroblastema. Conclusions We have characterized global protein expression during fibroblastema formation after amputation of the Xenopus froglet hindlimb and identified several differences that lead to signaling deficiency, failure to retard mitosis, premature chondrocyte differentiation, and failure of dorsoventral axial asymmetry. These differences point to possible interventions to improve blastema formation and pattern formation in the froglet limb. PMID:25063185

  4. Starch digestion in the rumen, small intestine, and hind gut of dairy cows – A meta-analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moharrery, A; Larsen, Mogens; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis

    2014-01-01

    silage (n = 151), barley (n = 55), wheat (n = 46) and sorghum (n = 23). The meta-analysis of starch digestion was conducted by multiple regression analysis. For groups of starch sources, wheat showed highest and NaOH treated barley lowest dSTtt. dSTtt was affected by starch source but not starch intake...

  5. Consumption of antimicrobial manuka honey does not significantly perturb the microbiota in the hind gut of mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doug Rosendale

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that consuming manuka honey, which contains antimicrobial methylglyoxal, may affect the gut microbiota. We undertook a mouse feeding study to investigate whether dietary manuka honey supplementation altered microbial numbers and their production of organic acid products from carbohydrate fermentation, which are markers of gut microbiota function. The caecum of C57BL/6 mice fed a diet supplemented with antimicrobial UMF® 20+ manuka honey at 2.2 g/kg animal did not show any significantly changed concentrations of microbial short chain fatty acids as measured by gas chromatography, except for increased formate and lowered succinate organic acid concentrations, compared to mice fed a control diet. There was no change in succinate-producing Bacteroidetes numbers, or honey-utilising Bifidobacteria, nor any other microbes measured by real time quantitative PCR. These results suggest that, despite the antimicrobial activity of the original honey, consumption of manuka honey only mildly affects substrate metabolism by the gut microbiota.

  6. Kinetic, kinematic, magnetic resonance and owner evaluation of dogs before and after the amputation of a hind limb

    OpenAIRE

    Galindo-Zamora, Vladimir; von Babo, Verena; Eberle, Nina; Betz, Daniela; Nolte, Ingo; Wefstaedt, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Background The amputation of a limb is a surgical procedure that is regularly performed in small animal practice. In spite of several clinical reports indicating high owner satisfaction after limb amputation in dogs, an amputation is still very critically seen by the owners, and even by some veterinarians, due to the lack of accurate information about the recovery of amputee patients. Thus, the objective of this study was to prospectively evaluate, both objectively and subjectively, the recov...

  7. La magia hindú y su proyección hacia occidente en el mundo antiguo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Teresa Román López

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available La aproximación al hinduismo implica, entre otras cosas, ponerse en contacto con sus orígenes mágicos. Las creencias mágicas prearias son difíciles de describir. No obstante, hallamos ritos védicos que son mágicos a pesar de que forman parte del ámbito del sacrificio. El documento religioso más antiguo de la India es una colección de himnos, los Veda. Los himnos védicos nos muestran la forma más antigua de la religión védica. Es escasa la información que poseemos sobre las creencias mágico-religiosas en la civilización del Valle del Indo, no hablan de: a la persistente disposición a contemplar lo sagrado en función de la maternidad; b el karma o ley de causa y efecto. La religión védica consiste en una mitología muy elaborada. Los dioses estaban ligados con las fuerzas naturales e intervienen sin cesar en los asuntos humanos. Uno de los métodos básicos del hinduismo es el yoga. Se supone que su práctica puede proporcionar, como efecto secundario, la adquisición de unos «poderes milagrosos». De los tiempos védicos se ha conservado el concepto de potencia mágica del mantra o fórmula sagrada. Un conocido diagrama místico es el mándala o círculo mágico.The aproximation to hinduism involve among other things to have contact with its magic origins. The pre-arian magic beliefs are difficult to describe. Althought we found vedies rites that are magic spite of they are part of the sacrifice ambit. The ancient religious document of India is a hymn collection, the Veda. The Vedic hymns show as the most antigüe form of the vedic religión. We have short Information about the magic religious beliefs in the Valley of Indo civilizatlon. This information doesn't talk about: a The persistent aptitude to contémplate the sacred things according to the motherhood. b The karma or cause and effect law. The Veda religión consists on a very elaborated mitology, The gods were tie the natural powers and they constantly medíate in the human matters. One of the hinduism basic methods is the Yoga. It's suppose that its practice may proportion as a second effect, the acquisition of miraculous powers. Of the vedic times has been conserved the concept of magic power of the Mantra or sacred formula. One known mistic diagram is the mándala or magic circle.

  8. Improvement of the aerodynamic performance by wing flexibility and elytra–hind wing interaction of a beetle during forward flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Tuyen Quang; Truong, Tien Van; Park, Soo Hyung; Quang Truong, Tri; Ko, Jin Hwan; Park, Hoon Cheol; Byun, Doyoung

    2013-01-01

    In this work, the aerodynamic performance of beetle wing in free-forward flight was explored by a three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFDs) simulation with measured wing kinematics. It is shown from the CFD results that twist and camber variation, which represent the wing flexibility, are most important when determining the aerodynamic performance. Twisting wing significantly increased the mean lift and camber variation enhanced the mean thrust while the required power was lower than the case when neither was considered. Thus, in a comparison of the power economy among rigid, twisting and flexible models, the flexible model showed the best performance. When the positive effect of wing interaction was added to that of wing flexibility, we found that the elytron created enough lift to support its weight, and the total lift (48.4 mN) generated from the simulation exceeded the gravity force of the beetle (47.5 mN) during forward flight. PMID:23740486

  9. Kas nafta hind kukub 40 dollarile või tõuseb 70-80 dollarini? / John Mauldin

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mauldin, John

    2007-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Finansovõi Menedzhment : infovõpusk nr. 11 veebr. lk. 19. Seoses nafta hinna langemisega soovib OPEC vähendada naftatootmist, kuid seni on soostunud tootmist piirama ainult Saudi Araabia

  10. Effects of supplementing pregnant heifers with methionine or melatonin on the anatomy and other characteristics of their lateral hind claws

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galbraith, H; Rae, M; Omand, T

    2006-01-01

    . These differences were associated with higher concentrations of cysteine and lower concentrations of methionine in samples of horn from the dorsal wall than in samples from the prebulbar region of the sole. There were no significant differences attributable to the dietary supplements in the soft tissue anatomy...

  11. Tõlkepoeetikast teksti ja keele taustal / On the Poetics of Translation

    OpenAIRE

    Anne Lange; Miriam McIlfatrick-Ksenofontov

    2016-01-01

    Teesid: Artikkel käsitleb tõlkeprotsessi ilukirjandusliku teksti tõlkimisel, kus keeleline ja sotsiaalkultuuri­line informatsioon on allutatud kunstilisele struktuurile. Et tekst ei kodeeri tähendust ühemõtteliselt, nõnda et seda saaks de- ja rekodeerida, rakendab tõlkija tähenduse lahti tinglikust keelemärgist ja vormistab selle teisiti, toetudes tekstis ära tuntud tugipunktidele. Tõlge on tõlkija intentsionaalne lausung, mis sõltub tema teadmistest ja kognitiivsest filtrist. Teoreetilise tõ...

  12. Fatty liver accompanies an increase in Lactobacillus species in the hind gut of C57BL/6 mice fed a high-fat diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    High-fat diets can produce obesity and have been linked to the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). They have also been shown to induce changes in the gut microbiome, metabolic products of which have also been linked to NAFLD. This study tested the hypothesis that high-fat fee...

  13. Kas toiduainete hind on õiglane? Ei, isegi odav! / Andres Sooniste, Juhan Särgava, Kristjan Kongo, Kati Kusmin ; intervjueerinud Sulev Oll

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2010-01-01

    Vestlusringis toiduainete hindade üle arutamas on Tarbijakaitse ameti peadirektor Andres Sooniste, Põllumeeste Keskliidu president Juhan Särgava, Fazer Eesti ASi juhatuse esimees Kristjan Kongo ja ETK juhatuse esimees Kati Kusmin

  14. Individually assessed creep food consumption by suckled piglets: influence on post-weaning food intake characteristics and indicators of gut structure and hind-gut fermentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruininx, E.M.A.M.; Schellingerhout, A.B.; Binnendijk, G.P.; Peet-Schwering, van der C.M.C.; Schrama, J.W.; Hartog, den L.A.; Everts, H.; Beynen, A.C.

    2004-01-01

    Individual food intake characteristics and indicators of gut physiology of group-housed weanling pigs were measured in relation to pre-weaning consumption of creep food. Additionally, the effects of creep food consumption on pre-weaning body weight and gain were assessed. A total of 48 litters was

  15. The effect of intrathecal administration of glial activation inhibitors on dorsal horn BDNF overexpression and hind paw mechanical allodynia in spinal nerve ligated rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xin; Xu, Yongming; Wang, Jing; Zhou, Quanhong; Pu, Shaofeng; Jiang, Wei; Du, Dongping

    2012-03-01

    Recent studies have suggested that activated glia in the spinal cord may play a vital role at different times during spinal nerve ligation (SNL)-induced neuropathic pain; therefore, glial activation inhibitors have been used as effective painkillers. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is also known to be a powerful pain modulator, but it remains unclear how it contributes to the glial activation inhibitor-based treatment. This study revealed the following results: (1) intrathecal administration of minocycline (a microglial activation inhibitor) could prevent mechanical allodynia during the initiation of SNL-induced neuropathic pain, and its action was associated with the elimination of BDNF overexpression in the dorsal horn; (2) the spinal injection of fluorocitrate (an astrocytic activation inhibitor) but not minocycline could reverse mechanical allodynia during the maintenance phase of SNL-induced pain, and its action was also related to a decrease in BDNF overexpression in the dorsal horn; and (3) treatment with TrkB/Fc (a BDNF-sequestering protein) had a similar effect during both the early development and maintenance periods. These results led to the following conclusions: (1) elevated BDNF expression in the dorsal horn was required to develop and maintain neuropathic pain; (2) minocycline could only prevent mechanical allodynia in the early stages, possibly by inhibiting BDNF release from microglia; and (3) fluorocitrate could reverse existing mechanical allodynia, and its action was associated with the inhibition of BDNF upregulation induced by astrocytic activation.

  16. MR angiography of collateral arteries in a hind limb ischemia model: comparison between blood pool agent Gadomer and small contrast agent Gd-DTPA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolien Jaspers

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to compare the blood pool agent Gadomer with a small contrast agent for the visualization of ultra-small, collateral arteries (diameter0.10. Inter-observer variation was 24% and 18% for Gadomer and Gd-DTPA, respectively. In conclusion, blood pool agent Gadomer improved vessel conspicuity compared to Gd-DTPA. Steady-state MRA can be considered as an excellent non-invasive alternative to intra-arterial XRA for the visualization of ultra-small collateral arteries.

  17. Intra-arterial tert-Butyl-hydroperoxide infusion induces an exacerbated sensory response in the rat hind limb and is associated with an impaired tissue oxygen uptake.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, E.C.T.H.; Goor, H. van; Bahrami, S.; Kozlov, A.V.; Leixnering, M.; Redl, H.; Goris, R.J.A.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate oxidative stress and oxygen extraction mechanisms in an animal model of continuous intra-arterial infusion of a free radical donor and in an in vitro model using isolated mitochondria. tert-Butyl-hydroperoxide (tert-BuOOH, 25 mM) was infused for 24 h in

  18. Low-Level Laser Therapy (904 nm Counteracts Motor Deficit of Mice Hind Limb following Skeletal Muscle Injury Caused by Snakebite-Mimicking Intramuscular Venom Injection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willians Fernando Vieira

    Full Text Available Myotoxins present in Bothrops venom disrupt the sarcolemma of muscle fibers leading to the release of sarcoplasmic proteins and loss of muscle homeostasis. Myonecrosis and tissue anoxia induced by vascularization impairment can lead to amputation or motor functional deficit. The objective of this study was to investigate the dynamic behavior of motor function in mice subjected to injection of Bothrops jararacussu venom (Bjssu and exposed to low-level laser therapy (LLLT. Male Swiss mice received Bjssu injection (830 μg/kg into the medial portion of the right gastrocnemius muscle. Three hours later the injected region was irradiated with diode semiconductor Gallium Arsenide (GaAs- 904 nm, 4 J/cm² laser following by irradiation at 24, 48 and 72 hours. Saline injection (0.9% NaCl was used as control. Gait analysis was performed 24 hours before Bjssu injection and at every period post-Bjssu using CatWalk method. Data from spatiotemporal parameters Stand, Maximum Intensity, Swing, Swing Speed, Stride Length and Step Cycle were considered. The period of 3 hours post venom-induced injury was considered critical for all parameters evaluated in the right hindlimb. Differences (p<0.05 were concentrated in venom and venom + placebo laser groups during the 3 hours post-injury period, in which the values of stand of most animals were null. After this period, the gait characteristics were re-established for all parameters. The venom + laser group kept the values at 3 hours post-Bjssu equal to that at 24 hours before Bjssu injection indicating that the GaAs laser therapy improved spatially and temporally gait parameters at the critical injury period caused by Bjssu. This is the first study to analyze with cutting edge technology the gait functional deficits caused by snake envenoming and gait gains produced by GaAs laser irradiation. In this sense, the study fills a gap on the field of motor function after laser treatment following snake envenoming.

  19. Human primordial germ cells migrate along nerve fibers and Schwann cells from the dorsal hind gut mesentery to the gonadal ridge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møllgård, Kjeld; Jespersen, Åse; Lutterodt, Melissa Catherine

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the spatiotemporal development of autonomic nerve fibers and primordial germ cells (PGCs) along their migratory route from the dorsal mesentery to the gonadal ridges in human embryos using immunohistochemical markers and electron microscopy. Autonomic nerve...... and their intimate contact with PGCs. PGCs expressed GAGE, MAGE-A4, OCT4 and c-Kit. Serial paraffin sections showed that most PGCs were located inside bundles of autonomic nerve fibers with the majority adjacent to the most peripheral fibers (close to Schwann cells). We also show that both nerve fibers and PGCs...... arrive at the gonadal ridge between 29 and 33 days pc. In conclusion, our data suggest that PGCs in human embryos preferentially migrate along autonomic nerve fibers from the dorsal mesentery to the developing gonad where they are delivered via a fine nerve plexus....

  20. Suhkru hind tõusis ühe müüja luhtunud lepingu tõttu / Ines Kuusik ; kommenteerinud Andres Oopkaup

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kuusik, Ines

    2011-01-01

    Eesti suhkruturu suuremad firmad on AS Antomin, OÜ Montemar (Nordic Sugar) ja AS Haljas. 2010. aastal lõppes AS-i Antomin ja Suedzuckeri vaheline leping ja kuna EL vähendas kõikjal tootjakvoote, siis Suedzuckeril ei jätkunud enam Eesti jaoks suhkrut. AS Antomin müüb praegu Alžeeria suhkrut, millele lisandub EL-i tollimaks. Graafikud, diagrammid

  1. Mice Hemizygous for a Pathogenic Mitofusin-2 Allele Exhibit Hind Limb/Foot Gait Deficits and Phenotypic Perturbations in Nerve and Muscle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Bannerman

    Full Text Available Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 2A (CMT2A, the most common axonal form of hereditary sensory motor neuropathy, is caused by mutations of mitofusin-2 (MFN2. Mitofusin-2 is a GTPase required for fusion of mitochondrial outer membranes, repair of damaged mitochondria, efficient mitochondrial energetics, regulation of mitochondrial-endoplasmic reticulum calcium coupling and axonal transport of mitochondria. We knocked T105M MFN2 preceded by a loxP-flanked STOP sequence into the mouse Rosa26 locus to permit cell type-specific expression of this pathogenic allele. Crossing these mice with nestin-Cre transgenic mice elicited T105M MFN2 expression in neuroectoderm, and resulted in diminished numbers of mitochondria in peripheral nerve axons, an alteration in skeletal muscle fiber type distribution, and a gait abnormality.

  2. J. Leonard Goldner Award 2010. Ligament balancing for total ankle arthroplasty: an in vitro evaluation of the elongation of the hind- and midfoot ligaments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merian, Marc; Glisson, Richard R; Nunley, James A

    2011-05-01

    The changes in length of the hindfoot ligaments in response to alterations in ankle and subtalar joint orientation under physiologic load in eight fresh-frozen cadaver limbs were documented. In eversion, the tibiocalcaneal (11% ± 4%, mean ± SD], calcaneofibular (6% ± 4%), posterior talofibular (7% ± 4%), posterolateral talocalcaneal (21% ± 9%), posteromedial talocalcaneal (33% ± 45%) and calcaneonavicular (bifurcate) (8% ± 7%) ligaments were elongated relative to their lengths in inversion. In inversion, the anterior capsular (talocalcaneal) (5% ± 3%) and the plantar cuboidnavicular (5% ± 6%) ligaments were elongated relative to their everted lengths. In dorsiflexion, the superficial (26% ± 8%) and deep posterior tibiotalar (30% ± 13%), calcaneofibular (8% ± 4%), tibiocalcaneal (4% ± 2%) and lateral talocalcaneal (cervical) (2% ± 1%) ligaments were elongated. In plantarflexion, the tibionavicular (26% ± 5%) and the anterior talofibular (7% ± 4%) ligaments were lengthened. No statistically significant elongation was documented in any ankle position for the anterior tibiotalar, talocalcaneal interosseous, plantar calcaneocuboid, calcaneocuboid (bifurcate), all components of the spring ligament, and the dorsal cuboidnavicular ligaments. Components of the deltoid ligament complex elongated largest at the ankle joint with any hindfoot movement but inversion. Therefore, selective release of components of the deltoid ligament complex may provide a means for achieving optimal ligament balancing in total ankle arthroplasty. Specifically, release of the superficial and deep posterior tibiotalar ligament may improve range of motion in total ankle arthroplasties, whereas the release of the tibiocalcaneal ligament may correct a varus talar tilt.

  3. Phylogenetic Analysis of the Darkfin Hind, Cephalopholis urodeta (Serranidae Using Partial Mitochondrial CO1 Gene Sequences (Analisis Filogenetik Cephalopholis urodeta (Serranidae Menggunakan Runutan Gen CO1 Mitokondria Parsial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanti Ariyanti

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Cephalopholis merupakan salah satu genera terbesar dalam subfamili Epinephelinae yang memiliki banyak species. Secara fenotip, C. urodeta dewasa mirip dengan juvenil C. sonnerati karena memiliki ciri mencolok yaitu garis yang menyudut pada sirip ekor. Untuk memahami hubungan genetik pada spesies ikan ini, maka dilakukan analisis molekuler menggunakan ruas gen CO1. Sejumlah spesies ikan (famili Serranidae dikumpulkan dari wilayah Sulawesi Selatan seperti Sinjai dan Kepulauan Selayar. Karakter fenotip diidentifikasi menggunakan buku katalog spesies kerapu dunia FAO, kemudian sampel yang diduga C. urodeta secara morfologi dipisahkan. Jaringan yang digunakan sebagai sumber DNA adalah jaringan otot bagian dorsal. Berdasarkan sebagian runutan gen CO1, diyakini bahwa sampel tersebut adalah C. urodeta. Runutan basa nukleotida dari sampel dibandingkan dengan 22 runutan basa nukleotida C. urodeta dari GenBank. Berdasarkan rekonstruksi pohon filogeni, C. urodeta dari Sinjai dan Kepulauan Selayar mengelompok dengan C. urodeta dari berbagai tempat seperti Polynesia, Mariana Utara, Filipina, pulau-pulau di sekitar Madagascar (Ouest, St. Gilles, Canyon, Cimetiere, Jaune dan Adaman, sedangkan sampel dari Laut Arab di lepas pantai India berada pada cabang yang terpisah. Penelitian ini menyatakan bahwa C. urodeta yang melibatkan beberapa tempat dari berbagai perairan seperti Samudera Pasifik bagian Selatan (Polynesia, Samudera Pasifik bagian Utara (Northern Mariana, Laut China Selatan (Filipina, Teluk Bengal (Andaman, Laut Laccadive (reunion of Ouest, St. Gilles and Cimetiere, Laut Arab dan Indo Pasifik Barat (Indonesia memiliki perbedaan jarak genetik yang kecil. Hal ini berimplikasi pada pemahaman pola migrasi spesies tersebut dan sebagai bahan pertimbangan pengambilan kebijakan konservasi. Kata kunci: Cephalopholis urodeta, CO1, filogenetik, Serranidae, Sulawesi Selatan Cephalopholis is one of the largest genera belonging to Subfamilly Epinephelinae, which has various species. Phenotypically, an adult C. urodeta similar to a juvenile of C. sonnerati, since both of them have a striking trait, two white oblique stripes or bands on the caudal fins. This work was conducted to investigate the genetic relationships of this species using CO1 gene segment. Fish were collected from several sampling point in South Sulawesi areas such as Sinjai and Selayar Island. The phenotypic characterizations were identified using the FAO species catalogue of groupers of the world, and the species that seemed to have C. urodeta morphology then separated. Tissue samples from dorsal muscle tissue were used as the source of DNA. Using part of the CO1 gene sequence, it can be confirmed that our samples are exactly C. urodeta species. The 22 C. urodeta sequences from GeneBank compared with our sequences. Interestingly, because based on the phylogenetic tree, our sequences clustered with the other C. urodeta sequences from several part of the world except the Arabian Sea off the coast of India, which is a separate branch. The present study reveals less genetic distance in C. urodeta than some other parts of the ocean as follows; South Pacific Ocean (Polynesia, North Pacific Ocean (Northern Mariana, South China Sea (Philippines, Andaman, west coast of Réunion Island, Arabian Sea and Indo West Pacific (Indonesia. This has implications for understanding the migration pattern of the species and may affect conservation policy decisions. Keywords: Cephalopholis urodeta, CO1, phylogenetics, Serranidae, South Sulawesi

  4. Possible living flea beetle fossil in Bolivia: A new genus of flea beetles with modified hind legs (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Galerucinae: Alticini)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new genus (Chanealtica) with three new species (C. cuevas, C. ellimon, and C. maxi) from Bolivia is described and illustrated. It is compared with Aphthonoides Jacoby 1885, Argopistes Motschulsky 1860, Metroserrapha Bechyne 1958, Psylliodes Berthold 1827 and Psyllototus Nadein 2010. Remarkably, ba...

  5. 50 CFR 622.33 - Caribbean EEZ seasonal and/or area closures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... closures—(1) Hind Bank Marine Conservation District (MCD). The following activities are prohibited within the Hind Bank MCD: Fishing for any species, and anchoring by fishing vessels. The Hind Bank MCD is...

  6. 50 CFR Appendix A to Part 635 - Species Tables

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., Lutjanus analis Nurse shark, Ginglymostoma cirratum Queen snapper, Etelis oculatus Red grouper, Epinephelus morio Red hind, Epinephelus guttatus Red snapper, Lutjanus campechanus Rock hind, Epinephelus...

  7. Maternal creatine supplementation during pregnancy prevents acute and long-term deficits in skeletal muscle after birth asphyxia: a study of structure and function of hind limb muscle in the spiny mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaRosa, Domenic A; Ellery, Stacey J; Snow, Rod J; Walker, David W; Dickinson, Hayley

    2016-12-01

    Maternal antenatal creatine supplementation protects the brain, kidney, and diaphragm against the effects of birth asphyxia in the spiny mouse. In this study, we examined creatine's potential to prevent damage to axial skeletal muscles. Pregnant spiny mice were fed a control or creatine-supplemented diet from mid-pregnancy, and 1 d before term (39 d), fetuses were delivered by c-section with or without 7.5 min of birth asphyxia. At 24 h or 33 ± 2 d after birth, gastrocnemius muscles were obtained for ex-vivo study of twitch-tension, muscle fatigue, and structural and histochemical analysis. Birth asphyxia significantly reduced cross-sectional area of all muscle fiber types (P birth protects the muscle from asphyxia-induced damage at birth.

  8. Iranian EFL and Indian ESL College Students' Beliefs about Reading Strategies in L2 Creencias de estudiantes universitarios iraníes EFL e hindúes ESL acerca de las estrategias de lectura en L2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Karbalaei

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The notion of "learner beliefs" has garnered much attention in the field of second language acquisition. Although different studies have been conducted to study learners' beliefs about language learning, little research has looked into the issue of L2 readers' beliefs and their relations to reading strategies. This study investigated whether there are any significant differences between efl and ESL readers in reading awareness of metacognitive strategies use when they are reading in English. 190 undergraduate college students completed the Survey of Reading Strategies questionnaire. The results indicated that the subjects in both groups reported almost similar patterns of strategy awareness while reading; however, Indians reported more awareness of global, support and total metacognitive reading strategies than Iranians while no significant difference was reported when using problem-solving strategies. These results can contribute to the necessity of reading strategies training in both contexts.La noción de "creencias del estudiante" ha ganado mucha atención en el ámbito de la adquisición de la segunda lengua. Aunque se han realizado diferentes estudios sobre las creencias de los estudiantes respecto al aprendizaje de la lengua, poco se ha investigado acerca de las creencias de los lectores de segunda lengua y su relación con estrategias de lectura. Este estudio investigó si había diferencias significativas entre los lectores de inglés como lengua extranjera y los lectores de inglés como segunda lengua en cuanto a la conciencia lectora y el uso de estrategias metacognitivas cuando leen en inglés. Ciento noventa estudiantes de pregrado completaron el cuestionario sobre estrategias lectoras. Los resultados mostraron que los sujetos de los dos grupos reportaron un patrón casi similar al uso de conciencia de estrategia mientras leían. Sin embargo, los estudiantes indios reportaron ser más conscientes respecto a estrategias metacognitivas lectoras totales, globales y de apoyo que los estudiantes iraníes, mientras que no se hallaron diferencias significativas al usar estrategias para la resolución de problemas. Estos resultados pueden contribuir a la necesidad de capacitación en estrategias lectoras en ambos contextos.

  9. Iranian EFL and Indian ESL College Students' Beliefs about Reading Strategies in L2 (Creencias de estudiantes universitarios iraníes EFL e hindúes ESL acerca de las estrategias de lectura en L2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karbalaei, Alireza

    2010-01-01

    The notion of "learner beliefs" has garnered much attention in the field of second language acquisition. Although different studies have been conducted to study learners' beliefs about language learning, little research has looked into the issue of L2 readers' beliefs and their relations to reading strategies. This study investigated…

  10. 77 FR 62463 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; 2012 Commercial Accountability...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-15

    ..., Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; 2012 Commercial Accountability Measure and Closure for South..., 2013. In the South Atlantic, SASWG means gag, black grouper, red grouper, scamp, red hind, rock hind...

  11. Effect of finishing system on carcass characteristics and composition ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Martina Muller

    2013-09-18

    Sep 18, 2013 ... hind-limb length and maximum hind limb width. Tissue ... yield high quantities of meat (Mahgoub et al., 2012). Traits such as ... supplementation improves both composition and carcass quality of goats. ... Panicum maximum.

  12. 78 FR 36113 - Snapper-Grouper Fishery Off the Southern Atlantic States; Regulatory Amendment 13

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-17

    ... snapper, misty grouper, sand tilefish, queen snapper, black snapper, and blackfin snapper); shallow-water groupers (red hind, rock hind, yellowmouth grouper, yellowfin grouper, coney, and graysby); snappers (gray...

  13. Hiinlased seljatasid Bank of America / Tarvo Vaarmets

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vaarmets, Tarvo

    2007-01-01

    Hiina suurpanga Industrial & Commercial Bank of China (ICBC) aktsia hind kerkis Shangai börsil 5,5 protsendi võrra. Diagramm: ICBC aktsia hind; Tabel: 10 suurimat panka maailmas. Kommenteerib Romet Kreek

  14. E*Trade krediidinakkuse küüsis / Tarvo Vaarmets

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vaarmets, Tarvo

    2007-01-01

    Internetimaaklerfirma E*Trade aktsia hind kukkus 59%, aktsiale sai saatuslikuks algselt kõrvalteenusena osutatud pangateenused. Diagramm: Aktsia hind. Vt. samas: Halbu laene 400 miljardit dollarit; Edukas strateegia andis tagasilöögi

  15. Graanul Invest kerkis suurimaks graanulitootjaks / Väinu Rozental

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rozental, Väinu, 1957-

    2007-01-01

    Saepurugraanulitootja Graanul Invest kasvatas 2006. aastal käivet kolm korda ning kasumit viis korda. Diagramm: Graanulitootjate majandusnäitajad. Vt. samas: Toorme hind tõuseb, toodangu hind langeb

  16. Olympicu panused olid liialt õhku täis / Tarvo Vaarmets, Mariliis Pinn

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vaarmets, Tarvo

    2007-01-01

    Olympic Entertainment Groupi kolmanda kvartali kasum kukkus 30%, millele ettevõtte aktsia hind reageeris langusega. Diagrammid: Aktsia hind; Majandusnäitajad. Kommenteerivad Ülo Pärnits ja Henrik Igasta. Lisa: Mis kukutas kasumi?

  17. 90-Day Inhalation Toxicity Study of Bio-Derived Gevo Alcohol-to-Jet (ATJ) Synthetic Paraffinic Kerosene (SPK) in Rats with Neurotoxicity Testing and Genotoxicity Assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-31

    turned and briefly held on its back,  hind leg splay: response to being dropped approximately 30 cm (12 inches). Hind legs were painted to mark the...approximately 30 cm (12 inches). Hind legs are painted to mark the location of the hind legs upon landing. This test is not done if the animal is judged...2007. Assessing toxicity of fine and nanoparticles : Comparing in vitro measurements to in vivo pulmonary toxicity profiles. Toxicol. Sci. 97:163– 180

  18. 77 FR 25407 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Coral and Coral Reefs Off the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-30

    ...); queen snapper (2); red porgy (25); scup (50); sea bass (100); white shrimp (200); pink and brown shrimp...); groupers Epinephelus spp. including, misty, red hind, rock hind, snowy, yellowedge (40); groupers... catch limit of zero (red snapper, warsaw grouper, speckled hind, goliath grouper, and Nassau grouper...

  19. The African elephants' toe nails | Parker | Journal of East African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Toe nails on front and hind feet of 689 culled elephants from three populations, two from Uganda and one from Kenya, were counted. Nineteen combinations were found, recorded as nails present on right front foot/left front foot/right hind foot/left hind foot. In addition, toenails from 33 foetuses are compared with their dams' ...

  20. Tuumaenergeetikale tasub panustada Areva kaudu / Tarmo Tanilas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tanilas, Tarmo

    2009-01-01

    Suurim tuumaenergia infrastruktuuride tootja, Prantsuse energeetikafirma Areva, sobib pikaajalisi invetseerimistrende otsivale investorile. Tabel: Areva turuosad tuumaenergia tootmisahelas. Graafik: Areva aktsia hind

  1. Вклад в атомную энергетику через Areva / Тармо Танилас

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Танилас, Тармо

    2009-01-01

    Suurim tuumaenergia infrastruktuuride tootja, Prantsuse energeetikafirma Areva, sobib pikaajalisi invetseerimistrende otsivale investorile. Tabel: Areva turuosad tuumaenergia tootmisahelas. Graafik: Areva aktsia hind

  2. Vedelgaasi kasutamine parandab energiajulgeolekut / Martin-Peter Kask

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kask, Martin-Peter

    2010-01-01

    Rahvusvahelisel toormeturul on gaasijuhtmete kaudu tarnitavale maagaasile arvestavaks alternatiiviks tekkinud vedelgaas, mille suurimaks tootjaks on Katar ning mille hind kujuneb otseläbirääkimiste tulemusena

  3. Aktsiad, mille peale krediidikriisi hammas ei hakka / Kersti Saar

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Saar, Kersti

    2008-01-01

    Aktsiaturgude madalseisu ajal soovitatakse osta krediidikriisile mittetundlike ettevõtete aktsiaid. Diagramm: Rolls-Royce'i aktsia hind investorile ahvatlev. Lisa: Krediidikriisile mittetundlikud ettevõtted

  4. Ryanair lubab tuua 300 000 turisti ja 300 uut töökohta / Teele Tammeorg, Dannar Leitmaa

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tammeorg, Teele

    2010-01-01

    Odavlennufirma Ryanair teeb esimesed otselennud Tallinnast 13. detsembril, lennuühendus luuakse seitsme Euroopa linnaga. Riiast lendavad Ryanairi lennukid 44 sihtkohta. Keskmine lennupileti hind on 35 eurot

  5. THE AFRICAN ELEPHANTS' TOE NAILS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    L.A

    Loxodonta africana Blumenbach, 1797 to test the contention that the savanna elephant. L. africana has four toe nails on the front foot and three on the hind, which differentiates it from the forest elephant L. cyclotis Matschie, 1900, which has five on the front foot and four on the hind (Frade, 1931). Smithers (1983) was among ...

  6. In vitro and In vivo Characterisation of Piroxicam-Loaded Dika Wax ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP

    minutes post-treatment, oedema was induced by injection of 0.1 ml fresh undiluted egg albumin into the sub plantar region of the right hind paw of the rats. The volume of distilled water displaced by treated right hind paw of the rats were measured using plethysmometer before egg albumin administration and at 30 min, 1, 2,.

  7. Börsitöötajad teevad aktsiad rahaks / Virge Lahe

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lahe, Virge

    2008-01-01

    Dubai börsi aktsiate ülevõtmispakkumise hind OMX-le on 265 Rootsi krooni aktsia eest. Pakkumine puudutab ka tütarfirma Tallinna börsi töötajaid, kes said emafirmalt OMX AB aktsiad kingituseks. Diagramm: OMX-i aktsia hind

  8. Table S1 Basic characteristics of 32 SNPs of neurotransmitter ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    微软用户

    Breeding Farm, Changzhou, China. The pig's body was considered in five separate regions: Ears, Front. (head to back of shoulder), Middle (back of shoulder to hind-quarters), Hind-quarters, and Legs (from the accessory digit upwards). Each region was considered separately according to the standardization in the Welfare ...

  9. 77 FR 44593 - Burlington Coat Factory Warehouse Corporation, Provisional Acceptance of a Settlement Agreement...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-30

    ...; Trendset Originals LLC--Shampoo hooded jackets; Hind Fashions, Inc.--Hind leather and Lil Phat hooded... manufacturers, importers, and retailers of children's upper outerwear. The letter urges them to make certain... outerwear with drawstrings. Prior to 2009, Burlington's management had procedures in place that it...

  10. 75 FR 67247 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Regulatory Amendment to the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-02

    ... authorized fisheries and gear. The intended effect of this rule is to provide further protection for red hind... final rule are to provide further protection for red hind spawning aggregations and large snappers and... from spiny lobster, queen conch, and reef fish, particularly queen snapper and silk snapper. However...

  11. 78 FR 15356 - Caribbean Fishery Management Council; Public Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-11

    ... Council Meeting Verbatim Transcriptions Executive Director's Report Fishery Management Plan for Queen... Jurisdictions: Bajo de Sico and Tourmaline --Seasonal Area Closures Differences in Months SEFSC Queen Snapper and Red Hind Data Evaluation Update SEDAR Update: Red Hind and White Grunt Public Comment Period (5...

  12. 50 CFR Appendix A to Part 622 - Species Tables

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Family Diogenidae Paguristes spp., Hermit crabs P. cadenati, Red reef hermit Family Grapsidae Percnon... aurorubens Unit 2 Queen snapper, Etelis oculatus Wenchman, Pristipomoides aquilonaris Unit 3 Gray snapper..., Epinephelus itajara Unit 3 Red hind, Epinephelus guttatus Coney, Epinephelus fulvus Rock hind, Epinephelus...

  13. 77 FR 15915 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Comprehensive Annual Catch Limit...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-16

    ... grunt, crevalle jack, French grunt, grass porgy, porkfish, puddingwife, queen triggerfish, sheepshead... snapper, misty grouper, sand tilefish, queen snapper, black snapper, and blackfin snapper); shallow-water groupers (red hind, rock hind, yellowmouth grouper, yellowfin grouper, coney, and graysby); snappers (gray...

  14. 76 FR 74757 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Comprehensive Annual Catch Limit...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    ... tilefish, queen snapper, black snapper, and blackfin snapper); shallow-water groupers (red hind, rock hind..., queen triggerfish, sheepshead, smallmouth grunt, Spanish grunt, tiger grouper, and yellow jack from the... reported in state waters. Also, three of these species (porkfish, puddingwife, and queen triggerfish) are...

  15. 75 FR 82280 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery Off the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-30

    ... tilefish, yellowedge grouper, misty grouper, queen snapper, and silk snapper. Both speckled hind and warsaw..., misty grouper, queen snapper, and silk snapper beyond 240 ft (73 m) because recreational fishing in... mentions that the species most commonly caught with speckled hind are vermilion snapper, red grouper, and...

  16. 78 FR 18247 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; 2013 Accountability Measures for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-26

    ... Unit 2 (cardinal and queen snapper), and groupers in Grouper Unit 3 (coney, graysby, red hind, and rock hind), Grouper Unit 4 (black grouper, red grouper, tiger grouper, and yellowfin grouper), and Grouper..., puddingwife, and Spanish hogfish), triggerfish (ocean triggerfish, queen triggerfish, and sargassum...

  17. The Effect of Hypothermia on Prolonged Distal Aortic Balloon Occlusion in a Porcine Model (Sus scrofa) of Hemorrhage

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-12

    significant differences between groups at baseline or after hemorrhage. No histologic differences were observed in hind limb skeletal muscle . Maximum...Conclusion: External cooling during prolonged zone III REBOA decreased ischemic muscle injury and resulted in lower compartment pressures following...Objectives: We hypothesized that simple external cooling of the hind limbs would decrease ischemia-reperfusion injury following prolonged zone III

  18. Home-care treatment of swimmer syndrome in a miniature schnauzer dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sun-A; Na, Ki-Jeong; Cho, Jong-Ki; Shin, Nam-Shik

    2013-09-01

    A 50-day-old, female miniature schnauzer dog was presented for astasia, dorsoventral flattening of the thorax, hypoplasia of hind-limb muscles, stiffness of hind-limb joints, paddling leg motion, and panting. The dog was diagnosed with swimmers syndrome. The dog recovered completely following 40 days of home-care treatment that involved environmental and nutritional management along with intensive physiotherapy.

  19. Arco Vara tegi aegade nõrgima börsidebüüdi / Virge Lahe

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lahe, Virge

    2007-01-01

    Arco Vara aktsia hind langes alla emissioonihinna juba pärast esimest kahtekümmet kauplemisminutit. Diagramm: Aktsia hind; Ettevõtete aktsia hinnad esimese börsipäeva lõpuks; Aktsiate märkijad. Vt. samas: Tagasivaade - õhus oli pingutatud pidulikkus

  20. 50 CFR 622.45 - Restrictions on sale/purchase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Restrictions on sale/purchase. 622.45 Section 622.45 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND... purchase a gag, black grouper, red grouper, scamp, red hind, rock hind, yellowmouth grouper, tiger grouper...

  1. 50 CFR 622.43 - Closures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Closures. 622.43 Section 622.43 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION... hind, rock hind, yellowmouth grouper, tiger grouper, yellowfin grouper, graysby, and coney. (6...

  2. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    using an Analgesimeter (Orchid Scientifics & Innovatives, Nashik, India). Continuously increasing pressure was applied to the dorsal surface of the affected hind paw using the blunt conical probe in Randal Selitto test instrument. On the day before the experiment, nociceptive thresholds of the right or left hind paw of each rat ...

  3. Ericsson käratas taas negatiivse uudise / Tarvo Vaarmets

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vaarmets, Tarvo

    2007-01-01

    Ericsson teatas käibe vähenemisest varasema prognoosi alumisse äärde tänu dollarile ja poliitilistele riskidele, mispeale kukkus aktsia hind nelja aasta madalaimale tasemele. Diagramm: Aktsia hind. Tabel: Novembris Ericssoni aktsiale antud soovitused

  4. Case report - Achondroplastic syndrome in a West African dwarf lamb

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A three week old, male, West African Dwarf (WAD) lamb presented with disproportionate hind limb was diagnosed of having achondroplastic syndrome by physical and radiological examination. Physical examination showed the right hind limb was deformed at the level of the tarsus, metatarsus and phalanges. Radiological ...

  5. Osta General Motorsi aktsiaid / Tõnis Oja

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Oja,Tõnis, 1957-

    2008-01-01

    General Motorsi aktsia hind langes juuli alguses enam kui 50 aasta madalaimale tasemele, 9,38 dollarini. USA autotööstuse suurimaks probleemiks on võimetus konkureerida Jaapani ja Lõuna-Korea autotootjatega, ka Ford Motors on teatanud ajaloo suurimast kvartalikahjumist. Graafik: Aktsia hind kukkus kümnendike tagusele tasemele. Tabel: Viimaseid aastaid iseloomustavad hiigelkahjumid. Lisa

  6. PTA on Balti firmade pioneer Poolas / Virge Lahe

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lahe, Virge

    2007-01-01

    PTA Grupp alustab esimese Baltimaade ettevõttena Varssavi börsil põhinimekirjas noteeritud aktsiatega kauplemist. Diagramm: Alates Varssavi börsile mineku kavast teada andmisest on PTA Grupi aktsia hind tõusnud 37%

  7. Euroopa Liidu kampaania maksab 15 miljonit krooni / Heidit Kaio

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kaio, Heidit, 1971-

    2003-01-01

    Euroopa Liiduga ühinemise valimiskampaaniast, president Arnold Rüütli, peaminister Juhan Partsi ja Riigikogu spiikri Ene Ergma ühisavaldusest. Euroopa Liidu Infosekretariaadi juhataja Hannes Rummi kommentaar. Samas diagramm: ELi referendumikampaania hind võrreldav mainekujunduskampaaniaga

  8. Kivisildnik võttis järgmiseks hambusse Papa Jannseni / Sven Kivisildnik ; interv. Kaarel Kressa

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kivisildnik, Sven, pseud., 1964-

    2006-01-01

    Seoses oma näidendi "Johann Woldemar Jannsen ehk Rahvavaenlase hind" esietendusega 16. mail L. Koidula Muuseumis Mart Viisitamme nimelise Pauerpointi Teatri esituses. Arvamusi Kivisildniku kohta avaldavad Berk Vaher ja Karl Martin Sinijärv

  9. USA ajalehtede tiraazhid vähenevad / Peeter Teder

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Teder, Peeter

    2006-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Delovõje Vedomosti 8. nov. lk. 33. Peaaegu kõik USA suuremad ajalehed kannatasid viimasel aastal tiraazhide vähenemise all. Diagramm: New York Timesi aktsia hind. Vt. samas: Ajakirjandus raskuste lävel

  10. An early diagnostic tool for diabetic peripheral neuropathy in rats

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kambiz, Shoista; Neck, Han; Cosgun, Saniye G; Velzen, M. H N; Janssen, Joseph; Avazverdi, N; Hovius, Steven; Walbeehm, Erik

    2015-01-01

    ... diagnostic methods for diabetic peripheral neuropathy. Computer-assisted infrared thermography was used to assess the rewarming rate after cold exposure on the plantar skin of STZ diabetic rats' hind paws...

  11. Kinopilet kallines : 115 krooni õhtuse filmielamuse eest / Mari Sarv

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sarv, Mari, 1978-

    2005-01-01

    Kinopileti hinna tõstmisest Coca Cola Plaza ja Kosmose kinodes Tallinnas. Lisatud tabelid "Kinopiletite hinnad maailmas keskmist palka arvestades", "Õhtuse pileti hind MPDE kinodes", samuti piletihinna kohta teistes Eesti kinodes

  12. Nafta hinna kõikumine solgutab Euroopa lennufirmade aktsiaid / Annika Matson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Matson, Annika, 1976-

    2004-01-01

    Nafta hinnatõus langetab lennufirmade aktsiate hindasid. Kommenteerib Estonian Air'i asepresident Leela Lilleorg. Graafikud: Euroopa suuremate lennufirmade aktsiad nafta tõmbetuules; Nafta hind rahvusvahelisel naftabörsil Londonis

  13. Studies on the use of Zizyphus spina-christi against pain in rats and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    induced writhing, formalin), mechanical (analgesy-meter) and thermal (tail-flick) analgesic tests with the aim of elucidating both central and peripherally mediated action in rats and mice. Its antiinflammatory action against egg albumin-induced hind ...

  14. Caesar : iiri hiiglane / Aare Ermel

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ermel, Aare, 1957-2013

    2006-01-01

    Iiri päritolu näitleja Ciaran Hinds, kes kehastab ajaloolises teleseriaalis "Rooma" (tootjad Ameerika HBO, inglaste BBC ja itaallaste RAI) Gaius Julius Caesarit. Sama ka : Teleleht nr. 49, lk. 14 : ill

  15. Sciatic nerve block with bupivacaine-loaded microspheres prevents hyperalgesia in an inflammatory animal model

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Estèbe, Jean-Pierre; Gentili, Marc E; Le Corre, Pascal; Le Verge, Roger; Moulinoux, Jacques-Philippe; Ecoffey, Claude

    2002-01-01

    ... model.Inflammation was obtained by injection of carrageenan in the righ hind paw. Hyperalgesia was determined by measuring the threshold of response to increasing mechanical stimuli on the contralateral and on the ipsilateral paw...

  16. В Нарве таксисты хотят платить по счётчику / Ирина Токарева

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Токарева, Ирина

    2011-01-01

    Narva taksojuhid on linnavalitsuse poole pöördunud, kuna ei ole taksosõidu fikseeritud hinna ja piraattaksode olemasoluga rahul. Taksosõidu fikseeritud hind on 1,5 eurot, mis tekitab palju küsimusi

  17. Teatripeegel : Milliseid elamusi pakub lõppev hooaeg Mihkel Mutile / Mihkel Mutt

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mutt, Mihkel, 1953-

    1998-01-01

    William Shakespeare'i 'Kaheteistkümnes öö' Vanemuises (lav. Finn Poulsen); William Shakespeare'i 'Kuningas Richard Kolmanda tragöödia' Eesti Draamateatris (lav. Mati Unt); Arthur Milleri 'Hind' Rakvere teatris (lav. Peeter Raudsepp).

  18. Case series

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    hypertension artérielle? Hind El Aassri1,&, Ghizlane El Mghari1, Nawal El Ansari1 ... prophylactique diminue l'adhérence du patient à son traitement et entrave ..... pressure relates to diabetes mellitus and low HDL cholesterol,.

  19. Dicty_cDB: VHB563 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available y has been constructed from cultivar Cabernet Sauvignon using two different restriction enzymes : HindIII (c...858.1 A BAC library has been constructed from cultivar Cabernet Sauvignon using two different restriction en

  20. Viisnurga poolitus toodab lisaväärtust / Tarvo Vaarmets

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vaarmets, Tarvo

    2007-01-01

    Praegusest Viisnurgast saab kinnisvaraarendusettevõte Trigon Property Development ning sellest eraldatakse mööbli ja ehitusmaterjalide tootmine, mis koondatakse uue ettevõtte alla, mille nimeks saab Viisnurk. Vt. samas: Viisnurk. Diagramm: Viisnurga aktsia hind

  1. Nokia tuleb ühes muusikaga / Kersti Saar

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Saar, Kersti

    2008-01-01

    Nokia plaanib avada uut teenust Comes with Music, mis avab kliendile ligipääsu suurimate plaadifirmade Universal Music Croupi muusikakataloogidele. Diagramm: Nokia aktsia hind. Lisa: Comes with Music

  2. Linnajuhid ei too selgust koolide remondi hindades / Jüri Ratas, Kaia Jäppinen ; interv. Askur Alas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ratas, Jüri, 1978-

    2006-01-01

    Tallinna linnapea ja abilinnapea vastavad küsimustele, kuidas kujunes kooliremondi ja haldusteenuse hind, kuidas saab selle hinna põhjendatuses kindel olla ning kas poleks pidanud esmalt selgitama, kui palju remont maksab

  3. Nokial närvilised kvartalid / Tõnis Oja

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Oja, Tõnis, 1957-

    2008-01-01

    Mobiiltelefonide tootja Nokia avaldatavad majandustulemused on oluliseks indikaatoriks, kui palju on globaalne finantskriis vähendanud tarbimist ning kuidas kujuneb edasine müük. Diagramm: Nokia aktsia hind

  4. Antispasmodic and anti-inflammatory activity of Carrageenan from Hypnea musciformis Wulfen

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Solimabi; Das, B.

    Pharmacological studies on K-carrageenan extracted from Hypnea musciformis have shown that it antagonizes histamine-induced spasm in guineapig ielum and possesses anti-inflammatory activity against rat hind paw oedema induced by commercial...

  5. Epimuscular myofascial force transmission between antagonistic and synergistic muscles can explain movement limitation in spastic paresis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijing, P.A.J.B.M.

    2007-01-01

    Details and concepts of intramuscular, extramuscular and intermuscular myofascial force transmission are reviewed. Some new experimental data are added regarding myofascial force transmission between antagonistic muscles across the interosseal membrane of the lower hind limb of the rat. Combined

  6. Ryanair ei kavatse toetada ebaefektiivset lennujaama / Benny Berger ; interv. Henrik Aavik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Berger, Benny

    2007-01-01

    Ryanairi uute sihtkohtade direktor Benny Berger leiab, et suurim takistus Eestisse lendamisel on hind, mida Tallinna lennujaam neilt küsib. Diagramm: Ryanairi tulek lööks Tallinnas turu sassi. Kommenteerib Oleg Harlamov

  7. "Ostke ise neid, kes Eesti firmad börsilt välja ajasid!" / Benn Steil ; interv. Argo Ideon

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Steil, Benn

    2006-01-01

    USA majandusuurija Benn Steil esines Tallinna Börsi 10. aastapäeva konverentsil. Vananev elanikkond ja väärtpaberiturg, pensionifondid, pensionisäästmine. Nafta hind ja poliitika, transatlantiline börs

  8. Google'i aktsia maksab emissioonis 108-135 dollarit / Romet Kreek

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kreek, Romet, 1972-

    2004-01-01

    Dow Jonesi andmeil on Google'i esmase avaliku aktsiaemissiooni hind 108-135 dollarit aktsia kohta ning pakkumises on 9 protsenti firma aktsiatest. Diagramm: Google'i emissioon ületab teiste netifirmade oma

  9. Parts sõdib Brüsselis põlevkivielektri eest / Juhan Parts ; interv. Andrus Karnau

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Parts, Juhan, 1966-

    2008-01-01

    Majandus- ja kommunikatsiooniminister Juhan Parts sõidab Brüsselisse Euroopa Liidu energeetikaministrite kohtumisele. Valitsus tahab, et Eesti saaks tulevikuski tasuta heitmekvoote ning soovitakse piiranguid Vene elektri impordile. Vt. samas: Elektri hind

  10. Surgical Correction of Patellar Luxation in a Rabbit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Riggs

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A two-and-a-half-year-old giant lop-eared rabbit, weighing 5.1 kg, presented with a one-month history of intermittent right hind limb lameness. The limb locked in extension during hopping. On examination, a grade-2 medial patellar luxation of the right hind was diagnosed, with associated stifle joint swelling. Radiographic findings of the right stifle comprised periarticular osteophyte formation consistent with mild degenerative joint disease and joint effusion. Surgical correction involving right trochlear wedge recession sulcoplasty and lateral imbrication was carried out to stabilise the patella in the trochlear groove. The right hind limb lameness resolved, and the patella was stable at a 6-month postoperative examination. One year postoperatively, the right patella was luxating again concurrent with bilateral stifle effusions. Euthanasia was performed twenty months after surgery due to recurrent lameness in the right hind limb.

  11. Eesti kirjandus Moskvas : ajutine vaikus : [intervjuu] / Vera Ruber, Aleksandr Tomberg ; üles kirjut. Triin Parts

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ruber, Vera, 1925-2011

    1997-01-01

    Emil Tode (T. Õnnepalu) 'Piiririik' ilmub Vera Ruberi tõlkes ajakirja 'Druzhba Narodov' detsembrinumbris. Aleksandr Tombergil on valmis romaani 'Hind' tõlge, kuid seni puuduvad avaldamisvõimalused

  12. Jalutu David tantsib auhinna vääriliselt / Andres Laasik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laasik, Andres, 1960-2016

    2006-01-01

    Tantsufilm "Elu hind" ("The Cost of Living") : lavastaja ja koreograaf Lloyd Newson : peaosades David Toole, Eddie Kay : Suurbritannia 2004. Filmi aluseks on Londoni tantsuteatri DV 8 Physical Theatre' 2000.a. valminud lavastus

  13. Kolmandiku võrra kasvanud Visa kasum jäi ikka napiks / Virge Lahe

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lahe, Virge

    2008-01-01

    Maksekaardivõrgu Visa Inc. kasum kasvas esimeses kvartalis pea kolmandiku, ent aktsia kukkus teate peale 7%, kuna oodati märksa paremaid uudiseid. Diagramm: Visa aktsia hind. Vt. samas: Visa on kaarditasude pärast uurimise all

  14. Balcas Eesti saeveski otsib uusi lahendusi / Taavi Linnamäe

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Linnamäe, Taavi

    2004-01-01

    Balcas Eesti direktori Indrek Palumaa sõnul hakkab ettevõte tegelema tegevussorteeritud konstruktsioonimaterjalide tootmisega. Vt. samas: Indrek Palumaa. Ülikõrgele kerkinud toorme hind sunnib ettevõtjaid arvutama

  15. Peritoneal carcinomatosis, an unusual and only site of metastasis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Peritoneal carcinomatosis, an unusual and only site of metastasis from lung adenocarcinoma. Kloub Hanane, Benhmida Salma, Bellahammou Khadija, Elghissassi Ibrahim, Boutayeb Saber, M'rabti Hind, Errihani Hassan ...

  16. Kiibitootja AMD on võitmas turuosa suure rivaali Inteli käest / Lauri Matsulevitsh

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Matsulevitsh, Lauri

    2006-01-01

    Arvutiprotsessorite tootja Advanced Micro Devices (AMD) näitas oma lõppenud kvartalis teenitud kasumiga, et hakkab konkurent Intelile järgi jõudma. Diagramm: Aktsia hind. Kommenteerib Peeter Teder

  17. Apollo kaotas Arabellale / Veljo Kuivjõgi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kuivjõgi, Veljo, 1951-

    2004-01-01

    Roomassaare-Ruhnu laevaliinide riigihanke konkursi võitis FIE Lauri Kivirai, kellele kuulub laev Arabella. Seoses Eesti astumisega EL-i võib Roomassaare-Ringsu laevaliini pileti hind tõusta kuni 13%

  18. American Express eristub teistest / Romet Kreek

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kreek, Romet, 1972-

    2008-01-01

    American Ekspress ei reklaami end ainult kaardipakkujana, vaid ka pangana, sest annab klientidele omal riisikol ka laenu. Diagramm: Aktsia hind. Tabelid: Majandusnäitajad; Suhtarvud; Analüütikud soovitavad

  19. 75 FR 60515 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-Month Finding on a Petition to List the Pygmy...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-30

    ... other rabbits by its small size, gray color, short rounded ears, small hind legs, and the absence of... subsequently back- filling burrows with soil. Fine grasses, shredded sagebrush bark, and hair were the primary...

  20. Olympic võitleb rasvasemate marginaalide saamise nimel / Kersti Saar

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Saar, Kersti

    2008-01-01

    Järsk marginaali kahanemine põhjustas Olympicule 2007. a. neljandas kvartalis puhaskasumi vähenemise. Kogu aasta puhaskasumiks saadi 381,7 miljonit krooni. Diagramm: Aktsia hind. Tabel: Majandustulemused

  1. Eksminister jäi Citigroupis jänni / Tõnis Oja

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Oja, Tõnis, 1957-

    2009-01-01

    USA endine rahandusminister ja Citigroupi nõukogu liige Robert Rubin teatas, et astub nõuniku kohalt tagasi ning ei lase end enam nõukogu liikmeks tagasi valida. Diagramm: Citigroupi aktsia hind ja majandusnäitajad

  2. Kanada rahastaja tõi Estonian Airi ostu lähemale / Rivo Sarapik ; kommenteerinud Andrus Ansip

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sarapik, Rivo, 1981-

    2010-01-01

    Estonian Air ja Bombardier sõlmisid lennukite hanke lepingu, tingimused ja hind jäid samaks, muutus vaid lennukite tarneaeg. Ostu rahastab Kanada finantseerimisasutus. Uued lennukid saabuvad Eestisse 2011. a. jaanuaris

  3. Infrared thermography of the udder after experimentally induced Escherichia coli mastitis in cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzner, Moritz; Sauter-Louis, Carola; Seemueller, Andrea; Petzl, Wolfram; Zerbe, Holm

    2015-06-01

    The study aimed to use infrared thermography (IRT) to evaluate the changes in udder surface temperature after induction of Escherichia coli mastitis in the right hind quarter. Over a time period of 24 h before to 24 h post-inoculation, thermograms of both hind quarters were taken every 2 h to determine maximum (Tmax) and average (Tavg) temperatures. Differences in both maximum and average temperatures (DTmax and DTavg) were calculated, as well as temperature differences between both hind quarters. All cows developed signs of clinical mastitis with a significant increase in DTmax and DTavg with Tmax at 13 h post-inoculation for the (non-infected) left hind quarters. The results demonstrate that detection of mastitis using IRT is possible if the interval between examinations does not exceed 2 h. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Härra Buffett jagas taas suuniseid / Tarvo Vaarmets

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vaarmets, Tarvo

    2008-01-01

    Warren Buffet rääkis Berkshire Hathaway aktsionäride koosolekul majandusest ja investeerimisvõimalustest. Diagramm: Berkshire'i aktsia hind. Lisa: 200 miljardi dollari ettevõte. Kommenteerib Tarvo Vaarmets

  5. Viron viinatehtaat odottavat suomalaisia / Petri Koskinen

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Koskinen, Petri

    2003-01-01

    Eesti suurima viinatootja Liviko juht Udo Themas ennustab Eesti viinaturule EL-iga liitumisel 20-30% kasvu ning tunnistab, et viinatehased on valmis alustama tööd kolmes vahetuses. Tabel: viina hind Tallinnas augustis 2003

  6. Languse ajal aitab lühikeseks müük / Tarvo Vaarmets

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vaarmets, Tarvo

    2008-01-01

    Aktsiate hinna langemise ajal soovitab Prantsuse suurpank Societe Generale investoritel teenida languselt. Vt. samas: Lühikeseks müümine; Societe Generale ootab langust erinevate harude ettevõtete aktsiatelt. Diagramm: Saksa ajalehekirjastaja Axel Springeri aktsia hind

  7. Naftariigid tõmbavad hinnapidurit / Erik Aru

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Aru, Erik

    2008-01-01

    Investeerimispanga Merrill Lynch tooraineanalüüsi juht Merril Francisco Blanchi prognoosib, et nafta hind langeb madalaimale tasemele 2009. a. esimeses pooles ning alates juunist hakkab hind tõusma. IEA prognoosib, et naftatarbimise kasv aeglustub aastatel 2008-2013 vaid keskmiselt 1,2% võrra. OPEC, kes on viimase kahe kuu jooksul juba vähendanud naftatootmist, võib vastu võtta järjekordse otsuse naftatootmist kärpida. Vt. samas: Naftaspioonide maailm

  8. CLINICAL AND HAEMATO-BIOCHEMICAL ALTERATIONS FOLLOWING TREATMENT WITH INTERFERENTIAL THERAPY IN THE BACK PAIN IN DOGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.K. Sharma

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A total of sixteen clinical cases, comprising of 8 animals each in Group I (animals with hindquarter weakness, which could stand, and had staggering gait and intact pain sensation and Group II (animals with hind quarter paresis, which were unable to stand and dragged hind legs while walking with intact pain sensation were treated with Computerized interferential unit and conventional therapy. Different clinical and haematobiochemical study revealed that the post treatment changes were transient and remains within normal physiological limits.

  9. Use of randomly cloned DNA fragments for identification of Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron.

    OpenAIRE

    Salyers, A A; Lynn, S P; Gardner, J F

    1983-01-01

    Randomly cloned fragments of DNA from Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron were used as hybridization probes for differentiation of B. thetaiotaomicron from closely related Bacteroides species. HindIII digestion fragments of DNA from B. thetaiotaomicron (type strain) were inserted into plasmid pBR322 and labeled with [alpha-32P]dCTP by nick translation. These labeled plasmids were screened for hybridization to HindIII digests of chromosomal DNA from type strains of the following human colonic Bactero...

  10. 12038_2013_9352_ESM_Article 1..3

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sma. Cla. Not. Xba. Spe. Sca. Xmn. Eco. Supplementary figure 2. Construction of ParA2-CFP fusion. The ~850 bp PCR product of drA0001 containing histidine tag sequence of pETA28a+ was cloned in pAMCYAN to yield pA2-CFP. The plasmid (1) DNA was digested with HindIII and. SmaI (3) and HindIII (5) and SmaI (6) ...

  11. Clonality and virulence traits of Escherichia coli associated with hemorrhagic septicaemia in turkeys

    OpenAIRE

    Olsen, Rikke Heidemann; Chadfield, Mark; Christensen, Jens Peter; Scheutz, Flemming; Christensen, Henrik; Bisgaard, Magne

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Fifty-five clinical isolates of avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) from seven outbreaks of acute hemorrhagic septicaemia in turkeys were characterised by serotyping, plasmid profiling including restriction analysis with HindIII, ribotyping with EcoRI and HindIII, multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and virulence profiling. A clonal relationship was demonstrated for each outbreak according to serotype, plasmid profiling, ribotyping, and MLST.In addition, isolates demons...

  12. Suspected disseminated histiocytic sarcoma in a 3-year-old Perro de Presa Canario dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denstedt, Emily

    2014-02-01

    A 3-year-old intact male Perro de Presa Canario dog was presented with acutely inflamed and edematous right hind limb, scrotum, prepuce, and an enlarged left carpus. Two weeks later the dog returned with weight loss, draining tracts in the right hind limb, dermal nodules, a palpable abdominal mass, and uveitis in the left eye. The dog succumbed to his illness 2 days later and a widely disseminated round cell tumor compatible with histiocytic sarcoma was diagnosed following postmortem examination.

  13. Oxidative Damage in Parkinson’s Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    TH Hind III Xba I robe EcoR I Hind pTH Uumn feifltio Moba poly A B 1 2 3 4 5 6 C Il Tg Wt Figure 1. Creation of pTH-Ferrntin Transgentcs (A...Burlin- # game , CA; 1:500 in PBS/0.5%BSA) for 1 h, and (d) avidin- .9100 # # biotin-peroxidase complex (Vector; 1:500 in PBS) for 1 h. 5 The

  14. California pank tõi päikese välja / Tõnis Oja

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Oja, Tõnis, 1957-

    2008-01-01

    USA eluasemelaenu kriisi käes vaevlevas pangandussektoris suutis lääneranniku suurim pank Wells Fargo aktsia hind tõusta pärast 2008. aasta teise kvartali majandustulemuste avaldamist kolmandiku võrra. Graafik: Wells Fargo aktsia hind tegi ühe päevaga mitme kuu kukkumise tasa. Tabel: Dividendid on kasvanud koos tulemustega. Lisa: Tasub teada. Vt. samas: Ajalugu võib olla ka müügiargument

  15. Digital Hive Project: Prototyping a Collaborative Web Portal for the Explosive Ordnance Disposal Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    influences individuals’ behavior ad infinitum. Miller evokes the way in which grasshoppers , agitated by contact with their hind legs, are more likely to...make contact with other grasshoppers ’ hind legs, thereby creating the catalyst for a frenzied plague.90 Similarly, participants of collaborative web...maximizing the cognitive potential of a collaborative web portal—aligning the collective intelligence “ DNA ” to its purpose and the use of visual heuristics

  16. Effects of exogenous melatonin on prolactin secretion, lactogenesis and reproductive seasonality of adult female red deer (Cervus elaphus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asher, G W; Veldhuizen, F A; Morrow, C J; Duganzich, D M

    1994-01-01

    The effects of administration of exogenous melatonin to pregnant red deer hinds on prolactin secretion, lactogenesis and reproductive seasonality were studied. Mature hinds (n = 23) were allocated to one of four treatments. Hinds in treatment 1 (n = 6) each received two subcutaneous melatonin implants (Regulin) at monthly intervals starting on 2 October, about 80 days before expected parturition. Hinds in treatment 2 (n = 6) received similar treatment starting on 2 November, about 40 days before calving, whereas hinds in treatment 3 (n = 5) received treatment starting on the actual day of calving (about 10 December). Final implants were delivered on 1 February, with overall treatment durations of 150, 120 and 90 days for treatments 1-3, respectively. Hinds in treatment 4 (n = 6) served as controls and received no melatonin treatment. Blood samples were taken twice a week from September to May, and plasma was analysed for progesterone and prolactin. Mammary development was assessed by palpation score (0-5) twice a week from October to April inclusive, and liveweights were recorded at least every two weeks throughout the trial. Calving occurred between 28 November and 24 December, with no significant differences among treatments (P > 0.10). Hinds in treatment 1 exhibited significant retardation of mammary gland development and liveweight gain leading up to parturition (P < 0.01). Furthermore, sex-adjusted calf birth weights were on average 3 kg lighter for treatment 1 (P < 0.05), with all calves either removed for bottle-rearing or having died within a few hours of birth.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  17. Immobilization contributes to exaggerated neuropeptide signaling, inflammatory changes, and nociceptive sensitization after fracture in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Tian-Zhi; Wei, Tzuping; Li, Wen-Wu; Li, Xiang-Qi; Clark, J David; Kingery, Wade S

    2014-10-01

    A tibia fracture cast immobilized for 4 weeks can induce exaggerated substance P and calcitonin gene-related peptide signaling and neuropeptide-dependent nociceptive and inflammatory changes in the hind limbs of rats similar to those seen in complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS). Four weeks of hind limb cast immobilization can also induce nociceptive and vascular changes resembling CRPS. To test our hypothesis that immobilization alone could cause exaggerated neuropeptide signaling and inflammatory changes, we tested 5 cohorts of rats: 1) controls; 2) tibia fracture and hind limb casted; 3) hind limb casted, no fracture; 4) tibia fracture with intramedullary pinning, no cast; and 5) tibia fracture with intramedullary pinning and hind limb casting. After 4 weeks, the casts were removed and hind limb allodynia, unweighting, warmth, edema, sciatic nerve neuropeptide content, cutaneous and spinal cord inflammatory mediator levels, and spinal c-Fos activation were measured. After fracture with casting, there was allodynia, unweighting, warmth, edema, increased sciatic nerve substance P and calcitonin gene-related peptide, increased skin neurokinin 1 receptors and keratinocyte proliferation, increased inflammatory mediator expression in the hind paw skin (tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin [IL]-1β, IL-6, nerve growth factor) and cord (IL-1β, nerve growth factor), and increased spinal c-Fos activation. These same changes were observed after cast immobilization alone, except that spinal IL-1β levels were not increased. Treating cast-only rats with a neurokinin 1 receptor antagonist inhibited development of nociceptive and inflammatory changes. Four weeks after fracture with pinning, all nociceptive and vascular changes had resolved and there were no increases in neuropeptide signaling or inflammatory mediator expression. Collectively, these data indicate that immobilization alone increased neuropeptide signaling and caused nociceptive and inflammatory changes similar

  18. Bone structure and quality preserved by active versus passive muscle exercise in 21 days tail-suspended rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luan, Huiqin; Sun, Lian-wen; Fan, Yu-bo

    2012-07-01

    Humans in Space suffer from microgravity-induced attenuated bone strength that needs to be addressed by on-orbit exercise countermeasures. However, exercise prescriptions so far did not adequately counteract the bone loss of astronauts in spaceflight because even active muscle contractions were converted to passive mode during voluntary bouts. We tested our hypothesis in unloaded rat hind limb following twenty-one days of tail-suspension (TS) combined with exercise using a hind limb stepper device designed by our group. Female Sprague Dawley rats (250g b.wt.) were divided into four groups (n=5, each): TS-only (hind limb unloading), TS plus passive mode exercise (TSP) induced by mechanically-forced passive hind limb lifting, TS plus active mode exercise (TSA) entrained by plantar electrostimulation, and control (CON) group. Standard measures of bone (e.g., mineral density, trabecular microstructure, biomechanics and ash weight) were monitored. Results provided that the attenuated properties of unloaded hind limb bone in TS-rats were more effectively supported by active mode than by passive mode motions. We here propose a modified exercise regimen combined with spontaneous muscle contractions thereby considering the biodynamic demands of both muscle and bone during resistive-load exercise in microgravity. Keywords: rat, BMD, DXA, passive exercise, active exercise, bone loss, tail suspension, spaceflight analogue, exercise countermeasure.

  19. Adipose-derived stem cell spheroid treated with low-level light irradiation accelerates spontaneous angiogenesis in mouse model of hindlimb ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, In-Su; Chung, Phil-Sang; Ahn, Jin Chul

    2017-09-01

    We investigated whether low-level light irradiation (LLLI) before adipose-derived stromal cells (ASCs) spheroid transplantation improved hind-limb functional recovery by stimulation of angiogenesis. The spheroid, composed of ASCs, was irradiated with low-level light and expressed angiogenic factors, including vascular endothelial growth factor and basic fibroblast growth factor. From immunochemical staining analysis, the spheroid of ASCs included CD31+, KDR+ and CD34+, whereas monolayer-cultured ASCs were negative for these markers. To evaluate the therapeutic effect of the ASC spheroid treated with LLLI in vivo, phosphate-buffered saline, monolayer ASCs, LLLI-monolayer ASCs, spheroid ASCs and LLLI-spheroid ASCs were transplanted into a hind-limb ischemia model. The LLLI-spheroid ASCs transplanted into the hind-limb ischemia differentiated into endothelial cells and remained differentiated. Transplantation of LLLI-spheroid ASCs into the hind-limb ischemia significantly elevated the density of vascular formations through angiogenic factors released by the ASCs and enhanced tissue regeneration at the lesion site. Consistent with these results, the transplantation of LLLI-spheroid ASCs significantly improved functional recovery compared with ASC or spheroid ASC transplantation and PBS treatment. These findings suggest that transplantation of ASC spheroid treated with LLLI may be an effective stem cell therapy for the treatment of hind-limb ischemia and peripheral vascular disease. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Skeletal indicators of locomotor adaptations in living and extinct rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuels, Joshua X; Van Valkenburgh, Blaire

    2008-11-01

    Living rodents show great diversity in their locomotor habits, including semiaquatic, arboreal, fossorial, ricochetal, and gliding species from multiple families. To assess the association between limb morphology and locomotor habits, the appendicular skeletons of 65 rodent genera from 16 families were measured. Ecomorphological analyses of various locomotor types revealed consistent differences in postcranial skeletal morphology that relate to functionally important traits. Behaviorally similar taxa showed convergent morphological characters, despite distinct evolutionary histories. Semiaquatic rodents displayed relatively robust bones, enlarged muscular attachments, short femora, and elongate hind feet. Arboreal rodents had relatively elongate humeri and digits, short olecranon processes of the ulnae, and equally proportioned fore and hind limbs. Fossorial rodents showed relatively robust bones, enlarged muscular attachments, short antebrachii and digits, elongate manual claws, and reduced hind limb elements. Ricochetal rodents displayed relatively proximal insertion of muscles, disproportionate limbs, elongate tibiae, and elongate hind feet. Gliding rodents had relatively elongate and gracile bones, short olecranon processes of the ulnae, and equally proportioned fore and hind limbs. The morphological differences observed here can readily be used to discriminate extant rodents with different locomotor strategies. This suggests that the method could be applied to extinct rodents, regardless of ancestry, to accurately infer their locomotor ecologies. When applied to an extinct group of rodents, we found two distinct ecomorphs represented in the beaver family (Castoridae), semiaquatic and semifossorial. There was also a progressive trend toward increased body size and increased aquatic specialization in the giant beaver lineage (Castoroidinae).

  1. How do the substrate reaction forces acting on a gecko's limbs respond to inclines?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhouyi; Dai, Zhendong; Li, Wei; Ji, Aihong; Wang, Wenbao

    2015-02-01

    Locomotion is an essential character of animals, and excellent moving ability results from the delicate sensing of the substrate reaction forces (SRF) acting on body and modulating the behavior to adapt the motion requirement. The inclined substrates present in habitats pose a number of functional challenges to locomotion. In order to effectively overcome these challenges, climbing geckos execute complex and accurate movements that involve both the front and hind limbs. Few studies have examined gecko's SRF on steeper inclines of greater than 90°. To reveal how the SRFs acting on the front and hind limbs respond to angle incline changes, we obtained detailed measurements of the three-dimensional SRFs acting on the individual limbs of the tokay gecko while it climbed on an inclined angle of 0-180°. The fore-aft forces acting on the front and hind limbs show opposite trends on inverted inclines of greater than 120°, indicating propulsion mechanism changes in response to inclines. When the incline angles change, the forces exerted in the normal and fore-aft directions by gecko's front and hind limbs are reassigned to take full advantage of limbs' different roles in overcoming resistance and in propelling locomotion. This also ensures that weight acts in the angle range between the forces generated by the front and hind limbs. The change in the distribution of SRF with a change in the incline angle is directly linked to the favorable trade-off between locomotive maneuverability and stability.

  2. Solar keratoma: An atypical case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean M. Miller

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This case report shows that keratomas can occur in both hind feet of equine patients and should be considered as a diagnosis for long-standing, intermittent lameness localised to the hooves. A Thoroughbred racehorse presented with long-standing abscessation of the right hind hoof. Owing to the long-standing nature, the abscess draining tract was surgically explored. A focal mass was found within the solar horn. Histopathology revealed the mass to be a keratoma. A similar mass was removed from the left hind hoof a few months later after similar presenting signs. This case shows that keratomas can occur in more than one hoof within a short period and should be considered a differential diagnosis for long-standing lameness localised to the hoof.

  3. Contrasting effects of environmental factors during larval stage on morphological plasticity in post-metamorphic frogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tejedo, Miguel; Marangoni, Federico; Pertoldi, Cino

    2010-01-01

    positively correlated with growth rate plasticity. However, plasticity of developmental rate was only correlated with head shape plasticity. Overall, these results suggest that environmental trends predicted by global warming projections, such as increasing pond temperature and accelerating pond desiccation...... that some morphological traits are generally insensitive to environmental inductions. We conducted a literature survey to examine the allometric responses in relative hind leg length and head shape of post-metamorphic anuran amphibians to induced environmental (temperature, resource level, predation...... temperatures increased development more than growth rate and induced smaller heads but not overall shifts in hind leg length. In contrast, an increment in resource availability increased growth more than development, with a parallel increase in hind leg length but no change in head shape. Increases...

  4. Clinical and pathological aspects of multicentric hemangiosarcoma in a Pinscher dog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.D.C. Martins

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A 3-year-old female Pinscher dog was presented with a history of lameness and pain in hind limbs for one week which acutely progressed to non-ambulatory paraparesis. The dog had been apathetic and anorexic during the six days prior to presentation. The neurological findings were compatible with upper motor neuron signs to the left hind limb due to a spinal cord compressive mass on the twelfth thoracic vertebral body. On the other hand, signs of lower motor neurons to the right hind limb were due to a mass with a pathological fracture in the right proximal femur, compressing the sciatic nerve. A histopathological analysis of all organs revealedthe proliferation of endothelial cells showingin filtrative growth and organization into vascular structures with a solid pattern. In addition, immunohistochemycal analysis revealed low proliferation index and citoplasmatic positivity for CD-31, confirming the vascular nature of the neoplasm. Clinical, histopathological and immunophenotipical findings were consistent with hemangiosarcoma.

  5. Refinement of the Collagen Induced Arthritis Model in Rats by Infrared Thermography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jasemian, Yousef; Deleuran, Bent Winding; Svendsen, Pia

    2011-01-01

    Aims: Collagen induced arthritis in rats is an important model for human rheumatoid arthritis. This study was designed to improve and refine this model by use of infrared thermography by measuring surface temperature of hind feet. Our hypothesis is that the local temperature on the feet correlates....... Methodology: Arthritis was induced with collagen immunization in sixteen Lewis rats. Four of the animals were treated with dexamethasone to function as negative controls. Clinical scores were based on the magnitude of paw edema. The mean temperature of the hind feet (region covering the metatarsus and tarsus......) was normalized with a reference area on the back of the same rat. The temperature index were compared with the clinical score index, edema index, and bodyweight of the rats Results: The mean hind feet temperatures increased with increasing clinical severity in the acute stage of the disease. There were positive...

  6. Behavior, color change and time for sexual inversion in the protogynous grouper (Epinephelus adscensionis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard J Kline

    Full Text Available Hermaphroditism, associated with territoriality and dominance behavior, is common in the marine environment. While male sex-specific coloration patterns have been documented in groupers, particularly during the spawning season, few data regarding social structure and the context for these color displays are available. In the present study, we define the social structure and male typical behavior of rock hind (Epinephelus adscensionis in the wild. In addition, we detail the captive conditions and time period necessary to induce the onset of the sex-specific coloration and sexual change. At six oil production platform locations in the Gulf of Mexico, rock hind social group size and typical male rock hind social behavior were documented. We observed a rapid temporary color display in rock hind that could be turned on and off within three seconds and was used for confronting territory intruders and displays of aggression towards females. The male-specific "tuxedo" pattern consists of a bright yellow tail, a body with alternating dark brown and white patches and a dark bar extending from the upper mandible to the operculum. Identification and size ranges of male, female and intersex fish collected from oil platforms were determined in conjunction with gonadal histology. Rock hind social order is haremic with one dominant male defending a territory and a linear dominance hierarchy among individuals. In five captive experiments, the largest remaining female rock hind displayed the male specific color pattern within 32d after dominant male removal from the social group. To our knowledge, this is the first evidence in a grouper species of color patterning used to display territoriality and dominance outside of spawning aggregations. The behavioral paradigm described here is a key advance that will enable mechanistic studies of this complex sex change process.

  7. Frequent Changes in the Number of Reiterated Ribosomal RNA Genes Throughout the Life Cycle of the Basidiomycete Coprinus Cinereus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pukkila, P. J.; Skrzynia, C.

    1993-01-01

    We have examined the stability of the tandemly repeated genes that encode the ribosomal RNA in Coprinus cinereus. These genes are contained within two linked HindIII fragments in a 3.0-Mb chromosome. We monitored the size of these fragments in both mitotic and meiotic segregants using the contour-clamped homogeneous electric field (CHEF) method. No length changes were observed in the smaller HindIII fragment (100 kb; 10 repeats) among the DNAs prepared from 46 asexual spore derivatives (oidia) or 128 meiotic segregants (basidiospores from 32 tetrads). However, the larger HindIII fragment (1100 kb; 120 repeats) did exhibit variability. Substantial changes, involving up to 40% of the larger HindIII fragment were recorded in 7 of 46 oidial isolates (including 4 of 22 transformed derivatives). To learn if the changes were confined to the vegetative portion of the life cycle, we examined transmission of HindIII variants through three crosses. In the first two crosses (16 tetrads total), no changes were observed in the large HindIII fragment. However, in the third cross (16 tetrads), each tetrad showed at least one alteration. In half of the tetrads from the third cross, the altered patterns segregated 2:2, suggesting that the changes occurred after mating but prior to premeiotic DNA replication. We conclude that breakage and rejoining reactions within the rDNA are frequent and are not confined to any particular stage of the life cycle. It also appears that certain repeats are sheltered from these events. Finally, marked differences in rDNA stability were observed in the crosses analyzed. PMID:8436270

  8. RECOVERY OF amiRNA3-PARP1 TRANSGENIC MAIZE PLANTS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    NC1300. L'expression de la cassette de la pré-amiRNA3-PARP1 était transférée dans le gène pmi contenant le plasmide ... the SmaI restriction site and the amiRNA reverse primer (5' .... NC1300-ubiamiRNA3Tnos) with HindIII andSpeI restriction enzymes; B: 2 – 3: Digestion of pNOV2819-ubiamiRNA3with HindIII and SpeI ...

  9. [Fundamental biological model for trials of wound ballistics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krajsa, J; Hirt, M

    2006-10-01

    The aim of our experiment was the testing of effects of common ammunition on usable and slightly accessible biological tissue thereby to create fundamental simple biological model for trials of wounded ballistic. Like objective tissue was elected biological material - pork and beef hind-limbs, pork head, pork bodily cavity. It was discovered that objective tissue is able to react to singles types of shots in all spectrum results namely simple smooth penetration wound as well as splintery fracture in dependence on kind of using ammunition. Pork hind-limb was evaluated like the most suitable biological material for given object.

  10. Cell-based therapy and rehabilitation with prosthetic limbs in a dog

    OpenAIRE

    DAS, Jayakrushna; NATH, Indramani; Routray, Padmanav; DAS, Rabindra Kumar; BEHERA, Sidhartha Sankar

    2015-01-01

    A 5-year-old male dog was presented with the complaint of a chronic nonhealing wound on both hind legs. The wound occurred during a serious train accident that caused loss of both hind limbs below the hock joint. Since then, the wound did not respond to any standard treatment for up to 4 months. Again it was dressed for 15 days, but it did not show any improvement. With the consent of the owner, cell-based therapy was conducted by collecting bone marrow from the proximal anteromedial aspect o...

  11. Sponge-seaweed associations in species of Ptilophora (Gelidiaceae, Rhodophyta)

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Tronchin, E

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available sponge supplies the nitrogen requirements of its rhodophyte part- ner. J. Exp. Biol. 205: 3505–11. Grant, A. J. and Hinde, R. T. 1999. Evidence of transfer of photosynthate from a red algal macrophyte to its symbiotic sponge. Mem. Queens. Mus. 44... and its macroalgal symbiont. Mem. Queens. Mus. 44: 606. Trautman, D. A., Hinde, R. and Borowitzka, M. A. 2000. Population dynamics of an association between a coral reef sponge and a red macroalga. J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 244: 67–86. Tronchin, E. M...

  12. The Morphological Characterization of the Forewing of the Manduca sexta Species for the Application of Biomimetic Flapping Wing Micro Air Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    of hovering and forward flight J. Exp. Biol. 2000 2705–22 [24] Wooton R J 1992 Functional morphology of insect wings Annu. Rev. Entomol. 37 113–40...25] Wooton R J, Evans K E, Herber R and Smith C W 2000 The hind wing of the desert locust II. Mechanical properties and functioning of the membrane J...Exp. Biol. 203 2933–43 [26] Wooton R J, Evans K E, Herber R and Smith C W 2003 The hind wing of the desert locust III. A finite element analysis of a deployable structure J. Exp. Biol. 203 2945–55 13

  13. Development of a typing system for epidemiological studies of porcine toxin-producing Pasteurella multocida ssp. multocida in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fussing, V.; Nielsen, Jens; Bisgaard, M.

    1999-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate capsular-typing, plasmid-profiling, phage-typing and ribotyping for epidemiological studies of toxin-producing Pasteurella multocida ssp. multocida in Denmark. The evaluation of methods was based on 68 strains from nasal swabs and 14 strains from...... by HindIII ribotyping, as 85% of isolates from all herds were assigned to one ribotype. In conclusion, HindIII ribotyping seems to represent a useful tool for epidemiological studies of toxigenic P. multocida ssp. multocida....

  14. Yoga en la India antigua

    OpenAIRE

    Román López, María Teresa

    1998-01-01

    Las orientaciones precisas de la religión hindú para desarrollar las capacidades del hombre se hallan bajo el nombre de Yoga. El yoga es un conjunto de técnicas de dominio de sí mismo y meditación, que en el hinduismo adopta distintas modalidades; se puede hablar del yoga hindú, budista, jainista, etc. En sentido más restringido, el término se refiere a una de las seis escuelas ortodoxas de la filosofía india. Asimismo, se designa con la palabra yoga toda instrucción o disciplina encaminada h...

  15. Molecular cloning of lupin leghemoglobin cDNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Konieczny, A; Jensen, E O; Marcker, K A

    1987-01-01

    Poly(A)+ RNA isolated from root nodules of yellow lupin (Lupinus luteus, var. Ventus) has been used as a template for the construction of a cDNA library. The ds cDNA was synthesized and inserted into the Hind III site of plasmid pBR 322 using synthetic Hind III linkers. Clones containing sequences...... its nucleotide sequence was consistent with known amino acid sequence of lupin Lb II. The cloned lupin Lb cDNA hybridized to poly(A)+ RNA from nodules only, which is in accordance with the general concept, that leghemoglobin is expressed exclusively in nodules. Udgivelsesdato: 1987-null...

  16. Cutaneous saphenous nerve graft for the treatment of sciatic neurotmesis in a dog

    OpenAIRE

    Granger, Nicolas; Moissonnier, Pierre; Fanchon, Laurent; Hidalgo, Antoine; Gnirs, Kirsten; Blot, Stephane

    2006-01-01

    Case Description—A 2-year-old Griffon Vendéen was examined because of a 1-month history of right hind limb lameness after a traumatic injury. Clinical Findings—Neurologic examination revealed monoplegia and anesthesia of the right hind limb distal to the stifle (femorotibial) joint except for the area supplied by the cutaneous saphenous nerve. Results of electromyographic testing were consistent with a severe lesion of the tibial and peroneal nerves at the level of the stifle joint. Treatment...

  17. Tropidia rostrata (Diptera, Syrphidae, First Recorded Genus and Species in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suk, Sang-Wook

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We discovered a syrphid species, Tropidia rostrata Shiraki, 1930, for the first time in Korea. This is the first member of the genus Tropidia recorded in Korea. This species can be distinguished from other Palaearctic members of Tropidia by the combination of the following characteristics: lower facial margin strongly protrudes forward; apical 3/4 of hind femur black; and tergites 2 and 3 each with a pair large yellowish brown square spots (not reached hind margin. We here provide a detailed redescription supplemented by the color photographs of external structures including genitalia. We also discussed the status of primary types associated with this taxon.

  18. ATP11B Mediates Platinum Resistance in Ovarian Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    vector ( Invitro gen) between the XhoI/HindIII restriction sites. The Xho1/HindIII fragment was then subcloned into the expression vector pcDNA 3.1...g for 10 minutes. Pellets were washed twice with ice- cold PBS and digested overnight at 60°C with 1 M benzethonium hydroxide (Sigma-Aldrich). A...small aliquot of cell pellet was taken for protein deter- mination before digestion . After digestion , samples were acidified with 1 N HCl, and the

  19. Bilateral Polydactyly in a Nondescript Calf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mudasir Bashir Gugjoo

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A 7 day old non-descript female calf was presented to the Referral Veterinary Polyclinic, Indian Veterinary Research Institute-Izatnagar with a history of limping and unusual appearance of hindlimbs from birth. Physical examination revealed additional digit on the metatarsal regions of both the hind limbs. Radiographic examination confirmed the presence of supernumerary digits unaccompanied by any other congenital malformation. It was diagnosed as Polydactyly type IV. Surgical intervention was done to remove the extra digit in both the hind limbs. This clinical article reports the successful management of bilateral polydactyly in a non-descript calf.

  20. Novel platforms for essential biomolecules: expression of antibodies in plants

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Chikwamba, Rachel K

    2006-02-28

    Full Text Available /alkaloid content making purification expensive Slide 15 © CSIR 2006 www.csir.co.za pRHC14.4.1(35S) 13922 bp Heavy Chain CaMV35S promoter Murine Ig Leader Sequence NOS terminator Bam HI (13830) Eco RI (13567) Eco RV (12021) Sma I... terminator Murine Ig leader sequence Bam HI (13128) BglII (12142) Eco RI (12865) Eco RV (12021) Sac I (12818) Xho I (12205) Nco I (12150) Sal I (13134) Kpn I (12204) HindIII (12518) HindIII (13148) Slide 16 © CSIR 2006 www...

  1. A retrospective study on incidence of lameness in domestic animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mohsina

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To study the incidence of lameness among different species of animals presented to the Veterinary Polyclinic, Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar. Materials and Methods: Outpatient department (OPD records for the period from January 2006 to December 2010 were referred and information was collected regarding number of lameness in different species, breeds, type of injury, limb affected, gender, age at onset, treatment offered, outcome and any reoccurrence. In this study, fractured cases were not included. Results: The incidence of lameness among different species were recorded: canine (56%, equine (21%, caprine (7%, feline (3%, cattle (7%, buffalo (5.47%, sheep (0.6%, monkey (0.39% and swine (0.19%. In dog, the different conditions were reported with hind quarter weakness recording 55% of lameness followed by right hind limb lameness (14.7%, left hind limb lameness (12.6%, left forelimb lameness (12%, hip dislocation (6.3% and hip dysplasia (4.2%. In caprines, important causes of lameness were right forelimb lameness (23%, right hind limb lameness (12%, left forelimb lameness (12%, posterior paresis (9%, left shoulder dislocation (14% and right shoulder dislocation (6%. In cattle, 34.28% of cases with right hind limb lameness, 28.5% cases were due to HQW, 14.28% had hip dysplasia, 8.57% suffered left hind limb lameness, 6% cases were recorded with obturator nerve paralysis and 8.57% cases suffered contracted tendon in calves. In buffaloes, cases reported were right carpal arthritis, foot rot and left hind limb lameness (14.28% each, due to bilateral upward luxation of patella and due bilateral purulent wound in stifle (18% each and hip dislocation (21.4%. In equines, lameness were reported with right hind limb affection (13%, left forelimb affection (11%, right forelimb affection (17%, 4% each due to disease of right shoulder, HQW and both forelimb affection, lateral dislocation of patella (3%, affection of both hind limbs (9%, 5

  2. Effects of Partial Vibration on Morphological Changes in Bone and Surrounding Muscle of Rats Under Microgravity Condition: Comparative Study by Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ji Hyung; Seo, Dong-Hyun; Cho, Seungkwan; Kim, Seo-Hyun; Eom, Sinae; Kim, Han Sung

    2015-09-01

    Musculoskeletal disorders during and after spaceflight are considered as a serious health issue. In space, weight-bearing exercise recognized as the main countermeasure to bone loss, since many anti-resorptive medications have not yet been approved for spaceflight or have been unsuccessful in their limited application. We need to investigate a complementary or alternative way to prevent bone loss and muscle atrophy resulting from microgravity condition. Partial vibration was chosen because it is one of the most feasible ways to adopt safely and effectively. Moreover, although the influence of hind-limb suspension has been studied in both male and female rodents, only rarely are both genders evaluated in the same study. Thus, to further extend our knowledge, the present study performed comparative analysis between genders. A total of 36 12-week-old male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were used and were randomly assigned to control (CON), hind-limb suspension without vibration stimulus (HS), and hind-limb suspension with vibration stimulus (HV) groups. Hind-limb suspension has led to increasing the rate of bone loss and muscle atrophy regardless of gender. The rates of bone loss in male group obviously increased than that of female group. All structural parameters were showed significant difference between HS and HV ( p effects on damaged musculoskeletal tissues that differ based on gender.

  3. Tselluloositehas neelab prognoositust rohkem raha / Väinu Rozental

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rozental, Väinu, 1957-

    2006-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Delovõje Vedomosti 11. okt. lk. 10. Kunda tselluloositehase AS-i Estonian Cell tootmiskulud on äriplaaniga võrreldes osutunud märgatavalt kõrgemaks. Vt. samas: Tootmismahu kasv hoiaks vee peal. Diagramm: Paberipuu hind

  4. A Productivity Enhancement Study of the FMSO (Fleet Material Support Office) Software Effort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-11-01

    a hal aproach . The probl-ms that FISO has are serious enough, and the organiza:ion is enough be- hind the curr.- star9 of the art ;n information...designer cf a car, write the owz.rls manua!, .ssemble -ae car and be respons"Dle for doing maintenance work on it. rhis would -:-quire pereonn l who

  5. Body weight measurements and correlation relationship in Savanna ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of age at castration, type of birth and sex on body weight, body linear measurements and correlation between body weight and body length, chest length, height-at-withers, facial length and fore and hind leg lengths of semi-intensively managed Savanna Brown goats.

  6. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    En-Joy

    range and in captivity. Besides, their conservation status as endangered species demands every effort at management of their surgical conditions. This paper presents a report of a surgical management of a traumatized necrotic hind limb of a captive African dwarf crocodile in the ... prevented the animal from activity. An.

  7. Rétraction: plagiat aggravé dans l'article Aspergillose broncho ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rétraction: plagiat aggravé dans l'article Aspergillose broncho-pulmonaire allergique lors d'un asthme réfractaire: à propos d'un cas clinique. Khalid Lahmadi, Hind El Youssi, Jawad Rochdi, BoughrineNawal, Er-Rami Mohammed. The Pan African Medical Jou.

  8. Rétraction: plagiat aggravé dans l'article Aspergillose broncho ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rétraction: plagiat aggravé dans l'article Aspergillose broncho-pulmonaire allergique lors d'un asthme réfractaire: à propos d'un cas clinique. Khalid Lahmadi, Hind El Youssi, Jawad Rochdi, BoughrineNawal, Er-Rami Mohammed. The Pan African Medical Journal.

  9. The effect of hydrolyzed gardeniae fructus extract hydrogel on the treatment of ecchymoses in a rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Kun; Choi, Hyuk Gyu; Kim, Dae Joong; Hwang, Se Ho

    2009-10-01

    Gardeniae fructus (GF) has been used in traditional medicine for the treatment of inflammatory disease. To evaluate the therapeutic effect of GF gel on the resolution of ecchymoses in rats. Fifty hind limbs (in 25 Sprague-Dawley rats) were evaluated. The ecchymoses were produced by dropping a 100-g weight from a height of 20 cm on the posterior side of the hind limbs 25 times. Then, 0.5 g of hydrolyzed GF extracted gel was applied to the right hind limbs and 0.5 g of gel without GF extract powder was applied to the left hind limbs. The area of the ecchymosis was measured, and histological analysis was performed. The area affected by the ecchymosis after 5 days was 15% in the control group and 2% in the GF gel group (p=.002). The mean duration for the ecchymosis was 5.8 days in the control group and 4.5 days in the GF gel group. The extravasated red blood cells and inflammation were less prominent in the GF gel group than in the control group. The results of this study showed that hydrolyzed gel of GF extract, containing genipin, was effective for the treatment of ecchymoses in a rat model.

  10. TNF-α expression, not iNOS expression, is correlated with NF-κB ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-07-11

    Jul 11, 2011 ... Chronic constriction injury of the sciatic nerve model. Peripheral neuropathy was induced by chronic constriction injury of the sciatic nerve in the right hind paw, according to Bennett and Xie. (1988). Briefly, the rats were anesthetized with chloral hydrate anesthesia (300 mg kg–1 i.p.).The right sciatic nerve ...

  11. A thymic carcinoid in a Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powe, Joshua; Castleman, William; Fiorello, Christine

    2005-09-01

    An 18-yr-old Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris) presented with acute onset hind limb paresis. Radiographic and ultrasonographic imaging revealed a caudal abdominal aortic thrombus and a cranial mediastinal mass. Necropsy confirmed aortic thrombosis. Necrotizing enteritis and multifocal renal thrombosis were also noted. The cranial mediastinum contained a bilobed mass that histologically and ultrastructurally was consistent with a carcinoid.

  12. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 9551 - 9600 of 11090 ... Moradali Fouladvand, Afshin Barazesh, Keivan Zandi, Behrouz Naeimi, Saeed Tajbakhsh. Vol 15, No 20 (2016), Sero-epidemiology of bluetongue in Algerian ruminants, Abstract PDF. Moustafa Kardjadj, Pam Dachung Luka, Meriem Hind Benmadhi. Vol 11, No 67 (2012), Serological and ...

  13. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U11106-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available .022 22 ( EC368367 ) G840P312RD7.T0 Oscarella carmela pSport1 Library ... 54 0.028 1 ( AC116979 ) Dictyostel... Walnut leaf Juglans hinds... 48 1.7 1 ( EC376643 ) G840P38RJ21.T0 Oscarella carmela pSport1 Library ... 48

  14. THE BEHAVIOUR OF HEMIHAPLOCHROMIS PHILANDER, A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cross-breeding, since similar sexual displays were found in several species of the Tilapia they studied. R eprod u ced ..... The aggressor, while in frontal display, races towards the defender, who backs away for a short distance. ...... HINDE, R. A. 1966. Animal Behaviour; a synthesis of ethology and comparative psychology.

  15. Assessment of temperament in Rusa timorensis and its relationship to stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahre, M B; Wahid, H; Rosnina, Y; Jesse, F F A

    2015-03-01

    The delayed domestication of may be associated with their poor temperament and to date there is no published information on the temperament of the farmed Understanding of the temperament and selection program for its evaluation in a breeding herd is important not only for farming but also to other types of animal production. We investigated the temperament of ( = 17) raised in the tropics and determined its relationship with stress. A distance of 13.2 m was fixed for the measurement of flight times. hinds with rapid speed are considered temperamental. Each hind was earmarked for a crush test score between 1 and 5; 1 represents calm and 5 represents highly agitated . Stress was determined by measuring plasma cortisol using a cortisol RIA kit and live weight gain was determined by weighing the animals weekly. The hinds were aged using their date of birth records. We found a strong negative correlation between flight time, crush score, and plasma cortisol concentration ( cortisol level and lower weight gain ( cortisol concentration could be used for selecting hinds based on temperament for the breeding herd. This method is quick and easy to implement on a farm; therefore, it remains the test choice for selecting animals based on temperament for the breeding herd.

  16. Eesti Energia salajased uuringud / Sulev Vedler, Tarmo Vahter

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vedler, Sulev, 1970-

    2007-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Infopress 2. märts nr. 9 lk. 160. Hoitakse salajas Briti konsultatsioonifirma Lexicon Partners poolt koostatud uuringut, mida peaks Eesti riik peale hakkama oma osalusega monopoolses elektriettevõttes Eesti Energia. Majandusminister Edgar Savisaar lasi uuringu ministeeriumisse tuua ning andis juristidele ülesande analüüsida, kui palju saab dokumendist avaldada. Vt. samas: Elektri hind

  17. Hansapanga aktsia vastu ostuhuvi raugenud / Annika Matson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Matson, Annika, 1976-

    2004-01-01

    Analüütikud soovitavad Hansapanga aktsiat ostmise asemel hoida. Graafikud: Kümnekordne võit; Aktsia hind järgib ING soovitusi. Vt. samas: ING on seni oma prognoosidega Hansapanga aktsia trendi loonud. Raivo Sormunen. Hansapanga aktsia on julgest investeerijast teinud miljonäri;

  18. Restriction Inhibition Assay: A Qualitative and Quantitative Method to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rich fractions (PRFs) with high affinity for EcoRI and HindIII restriction .... DNA along with each restriction enzyme was kept to analyze the results of the ..... Puvvada MS, Hartley JA, Jenkins TC, Thurston DE. A quantitative assay to measure the ...

  19. Two mini-preparation protocols to DNA extraction from plants with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJB SERVER

    2006-10-16

    Oct 16, 2006 ... molecular biology standard analysis methods, like enzymatic restriction patterns, ligation, sequencing ... De la Cruz et al. (1997), adapted for mini-preparations. This was optimized to a final volume of 2 ml. Chemicals and solutions: CTAB extraction buffer: 100 mM .... enzymes (HindIII, Sma I and EcoRI).

  20. Fragmentation of bacteriophage S13 replicative from DNA by restriction endonucleases from Hemophilus influenzae and Hemophilus aegyptius.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.G. Grosveld (Frank); K.M. Ojamaa; J.H. Spencer

    1976-01-01

    textabstractThe restriction enzymes Hind from Hemophilus influenzae and HaeIII from Hemophilus aegyptius cleave bacteriophage S13 replicative form (RF) DNA into 13 and 10 specific fragments, respectively. The sizes of these fragments were estimated by gel electrophoresis, electron microscopy, and

  1. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Isolation and restriction endonuolease analysis of genomic. DNA: Genomic DNA was isolated from B. cereus strains according to Ausubel etal(15), and digested with the following restriction enzymes; Hind Ill, EcoRl, Sau3A, Mbo] and DraI. The products of digestion were analysed by gel electrophoresis on a 1% agarose.

  2. The Restriction Endonuclease Cleavage Map of Rat Liver Mitochondrial DNA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, H.; Holtrop, M.; Terpstra, P.

    1977-01-01

    Mitochondrial DNA from rat liver contains six sites for cleavage by the restriction endonucleases Hind III and EcoRI. A large stretch of DNA, comprising about 40% of the mitochondrial genome is not cleaved by either of the enzymes; eight cleavage sites are located on a DNA stretch of 35% of the

  3. AcuI identifies water buffalo CSN3 genotypes by RFLP analysis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    morphism (RFLP) analysis used restriction enzymes HindIII,. HinfI and TaqI, which successfully identify different ... Q-Cycler (Quanta Biotech, England), under the following cycling conditions: 3 min at 94. ◦. C, 35 cycles for 1 ... genotypes using AcuI restriction enzyme (Thermo Scientific. #FD0344) according to manufacturer's ...

  4. Characterization of duck (Anas platyrhynchos) MHC classⅠ gene in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Navya

    on each LB plates were identified by restriction enzyme analysis using EcoR I and. Hind III (Takara Biotechnology, Dalian, China) and positive clones were sequenced by Wuhan genereeat biological engineering Co.Ltd., China. According to the sequence results, consensus sequences of the different clones for each allele ...

  5. Genomic growth hormone, growth hormone receptor and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Biotechnology ... The PCR products from GH, GHR and TGF-b3 loci were digested with SacI, HindIII and BslI restriction endonuclease, respectively. In GH and ... bp fragment not only reduced the expected size of the PCR product, but also, introduced a new restriction site for SacI enzyme at GH marker site.

  6. The preparation of 6x His-tagged granulocyte colony stimulating ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2010-12-13

    Dec 13, 2010 ... African Journal of Biotechnology Vol. ... The use of these methods yielded purified 6xHis-tagged GCSF with a concentration of about 250 µg/ml RTS reaction. Key words: Granulocyte colony stimulating factor, in vitro expression system, .... plasmid was done using Hind III restriction enzyme according to the.

  7. The genus Antemetula Rehder in the Indo- Westpacific area, with the description of two new fossil species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Regteren Altena, van C.O.

    1949-01-01

    Rehder (1943: 199) pointed out, that Buccinum clathratum Adams & Reeve, 1848, is the type of the genus Metula H.& A. Adams, 1858. For the species congeneric with Buccinum metula Hinds, 1844, he proposed the generic name Antemetula, with that species as the type. Bucchium metula was described by

  8. Anatomy of the female reproductive system of Rusa deer ( Rusa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study aims to present baseline data on the reproductive anatomy of a poorly known tropical deer species, Rusa deer (Rusa timorensis). The anatomy of female reproductive system is described using seven uniparous hinds, aged between four and eight years. The various reproductive structures were studied via ...

  9. Nafta hinna tõus kukutab taas lennufirmade aktsiaid / Annika Matson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Matson, Annika, 1976-

    2004-01-01

    USA kaubabörsil rekordilisele tasemele tõusnud nafta hind viis lennukompaniide aktsiad langusse. Prognooside kohaselt võib jätkuv nafta hinnatõus hakata pidurdama maailma majanduskasvu. Diagrammid: Suurima löögi on nafta hinna tõusust saanud USA lennufirmade aktsiad

  10. Nafta hinnatõus sunnib ettevõtteid lahendusi otsima / Anne Oja

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Oja, Anne, 1970-

    2004-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Delovõje Vedomosti 11. aug lk. 4. Ettevõtete juhid kommenteerivad nafta hinnatõusu mõju nende äritegevusele. Diagramm: Nafta hind tõusnud aastaga kolmandiku võrra. Vt. samas: Tõnis Arnover. Nafta ülikõrge hinna langust pole ette näha; Nafta hinna kasv lööb tarbimist

  11. Arco Vara nõukogu pillub juhte järjest üle parda / Sten-Aleks Pihlak

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pihlak, Sten-Aleks

    2008-01-01

    Arco Vara vabastas ametist juhatuse esimehe Aare Tammemäe ja juhatuse liikme Ahto Altjõe, uueks juhatuse esimeheks saab Lembit Tampere. Vt. samas: Taust; CV: Lembit Tampere; Diagrammid: Arco Vara aktsia hind; Majandusnäitajad; Arco Vara omanikud. Kommenteerib Viljar Arakas

  12. The microbial flora of the different gut regions of the variegated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The microbial flora of the gut regions and gut contents of the variegated grasshopper Zonocerus variegatus instars was studied using the pour plate technique. The gut sections (Fore-, mid-, and hind-gut) harboured a variety organisms mainly bacteria, fungi and mould. Yeasts species isolated were Candida, ...

  13. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U12866-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available abditis briggsae genomic... 46 1.7 1 ( DU049266 ) 149103 Tomato HindIII BAC Library Solanum lycoper... 46 1....7 1 ( CZ529327 ) SRAA-aac60e12.g1 Strongyloides ratti whole genome... 46 1.7 1 (

  14. Eesti riigivõlakirjad : jutuks head, tegutseda ei tasu / Villu Zirnask

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Zirnask, Villu, 1966-

    2008-01-01

    Autori sõnul viitab Eesti Energia võlakirjade praegune hind, et Eesti valitsuse võlakirjaemissiooni ei saadaks enam samasugune edu kui 2002. aastal. Eeldustest, mille olemasolu korral õnnestuks valitsuse võlakirjade debüütemissioon (IMF-i töötajate Udaibir Dasi, Michael Papaioannou ja Magdalena Polani uurimuse järgi). Diagramm

  15. Vedelgaasi kasutamine Eestis 2006. aastal / Sandor Tabo

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tabo, Sandor

    2007-01-01

    Eesti vedelgaasiturg, müügikasv vedelgaasi kasutusviisi järgi. Diagramm: Vedelgaasi tarbimine Eestis 2001-2006. a. Tabel: Eesti vedelgaasiäriühingute peamised näitajad 2005-2006. a. Graafik: Vedelgaasi propaan hind maailmaturul 2002-2006. a.

  16. Evaluation of a root extract gel from Urtica dioica (Urticaceae) as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The gel exhibited pseudoplastic rheology, as evidenced by shear thinning with increased shear rate. It was non-irritating to the skin in primary skin irritation test in mice and showed 55.05 % inhibition of paw edema in a carrageenan-induced hind rat paw edema model, comparable to that of the standard gel (53.93 %), after ...

  17. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U05052-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available nom... 34 2.7 3 ( AC149914 ) Strongylocentrotus purpuratus clone R3-12I13, WOR... 36 2.8 9 ( AC146769 ) Carol... HindIII BAC Library Solanum lycoper... 36 5.9 3 ( AC146829 ) Carollia perspicillata clone 9I15, WORKING DRA

  18. Two new species of Hydrodessus from Suriname, with a key to the known species (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Young, Frank N.

    1970-01-01

    The genus Hydrodessus is readily distinguished, from the other small water beetles related to the Old World Bidessus, by the lack of pronotal or elytral plicae, by the structure of the hind coxal processes, and by the simple, unjointed parameres of the male genitalia (Balfour-Browne, 1953). The

  19. Kui õiglane on "õiglane kaubandus"? / Erik Aru

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Aru, Erik

    2007-01-01

    Algatusest Fairtrade, millega püütakse tagada, et arengumaades tegutsevatele tootjatele tasutaks nende kauba eest õiglaselt. Fairtrade'i põhimõtted on: õiglane hind, õiglane kasum, õiglane osa. Fairtrade'is kahtlejate arvamustest. Lisad: Eestis eesmärgiks püsima jääda; Fairtrade tõstab hinda teistelgi

  20. Perforated diverticulitis presenting as necrotising fasciitis of the leg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talbot Robert

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Diverticulosis of the colon is a common condition of increasing age. Complications of diverticulitis including stricture, perforation and fistula formation often require surgery. Perforated diverticulitis may rarely present with spreading superficial sepsis. We describe for the first time, to our knowledge, a case of retroperitoneal diverticula perforation presenting as necrotising fasciitis of the leg necessitating hind-quarter amputation.

  1. The effect of sex and age at slaughter on some carcass and meat quality traits of Boer kids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaić Ana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated some carcass and meat quality traits of Boer kids (17 male and 17 female at two different average slaughter ages (83 and 139 days. Jointed cuts of half carcasses arranged from the greatest to the smallest were: hind leg (28.5%, rib and flank (21.2%, shoulder (19.3%, back (8.5%, loin (7.9%, neck (7.6% and chuck (3.4%. Male kids had significantly higher percentage of the neck cuts (p≤0.001 while females had significantly higher percentage of rib and flank cuts (p≤0.05. At higher slaughter ages neck (p≤0.05 and chuck (p≤0.001 percentages significantly decreased and rib and flank (p≤0.001 percentage significantly increased. On average, hind leg had 72.2 % of muscle, 8.6 % of fat and 18.8 % of bone. Female kids had higher muscle and lower bone hind leg content than males (p≤0.01. Hind leg bone content significantly decreased at higher slaughter age (p≤0.01. Meat from male kids displayed significantly higher cie L*(p≤0.001 and b*(p≤0.05 values than females. At higher slaughter age L* values significantly decreased (p≤0.01 while a* and b* values significantly increased (p≤0.001; p≤0.01.

  2. BAJOPAS_1 - 5_Abbas et al.,

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc

    2017-06-01

    Jun 1, 2017 ... egg albumin (phlogistic agent) in the sub-plantar surface of the left hind-paw. Paw oedema was measured with Venier caliper every 20 minutes for a period of 120 minutes at 20, 40, 60, 80, 100 and 120 minutes after albumin administration. Pedal oedema. (inflammation) was evident within 5 - 8 minutes,.

  3. Anti-inflammatory and anti-ulcerogenic effect of ethanol extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of the ethanol extract of coconut on egg albumin- induced inflammation in rat hind paw, hypotonicity induced haemolysis of human red blood cells and indomethacin – induced gastric ulcer in Wistar rats, was studied. Fifty adult rats of either sex of weight 120-200g were divided into ten experimental groups of five ...

  4. Nig. J. Physiol. Sci.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chigo Okwuosa

    The observations made in different studies were however inconsistent, for example some studies found out that behavioural response thresholds to noxious pressure or electrical stimulation of the hind foot or tail base were lower in P and E (i.e rats were more sensitive in those stages) than during M and. D(Drury and Gold, ...

  5. Low concentrations of ethanol during irradiation drastically reduce ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Harinder Singh

    2018-02-13

    Feb 13, 2018 ... digested with HindIII, it produced a profile (figure 1c, lane. 5) in between what was seen in lanes 3 and 4 (figure 1c). These findings confirmed that while ethanol did not aggre- gate DNA fragments, the radiation induced DNA damage was considerably reduced in the presence of ethanol. The effect of ...

  6. Pramana – Journal of Physics | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics. A Mukherjee. Articles written in Pramana – Journal of Physics. Volume 57 Issue 1 July 2001 pp 195-198 Contributed Papers : Nuclear reactions. Fusion around the barrier forLi +C · A Mukherjee M Dasgupta D J Hinde C R Morton A C Berriman R D Butt J O Newton H Timmers.

  7. Measurement repeatability of tibial tuberosity-trochlear groove offset distance in red fox (Vulpes vulpes) cadavers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miles, J.E.; Jensen, B.R.; Kirpensteijn, J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/189846992; Svalastoga, E.L.; Eriksen, T.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract OBJECTIVE: To describe CT image reconstruction criteria for measurement of the tibial tuberosity-trochlear groove (TT-TG) offset distance, evaluate intra- and inter-reconstruction repeatability, and identify key sources of error in the measurement technique, as determined in vulpine hind

  8. Measurement repeatability of tibial tuberosity-trochlear groove offset distance in red fox (Vulpes vulpes) cadavers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miles, James Edward; Jensen, Bente Rona; Kirpensteijn, Jolle

    2013-01-01

    . Animals-12 red fox (Vulpes vulpes) cadavers. Procedures-CT images of each hind limb in intact cadavers were obtained; at 1-week intervals, 3 reconstructions were performed that were based on 1 plane passing through the centers of the femoral head and medial condyle and parallel to the caudal femoral...

  9. Agreement between anatomic and ultrasound measurements of femoral trochlear depth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miles, James Edward; Westrup, Ulrik; Eriksen, Thomas

    and ultrasonographic measurements of trochlear depth using the red fox hind limb as a canine surrogate, dividing the trochlea into five regions from the origin of the caudal cruciate ligament to the proximal aspect of the trochlea. We found reasonable agreement between anatomic and ultrasonographic measurements...

  10. Energy prices hex consumers, officials / Ksenia Repson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Repson, Ksenia

    2005-01-01

    Kütusehinna rekordiline tõus 45 sendi võrra ületab oodatava inflatsiooni ning toob kaasa hinnatõusud ka kõigis teistes kütusest sõltuvates majandusharudes. Majandusminister Edgar Savisaar hoiatas, et elektrienergia hind võib kümne aasta jooksul tõusta kuni 50%

  11. 755-IJBCS-Article-Dr Miriam Ngwo Ezikpe

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR GATSING

    were obtained From Oxoid, UK, while the molecular reagents; Agarose, Bromophenol blue, Ethidium bromide and Hind III digest of. Lambda DNA were from Promega, USA. All. PAHs had purity ≥ 96%. Isolation and identification of microorganisms. Soil samples were collected from five different engine oil polluted mechanic.

  12. US EPA, Pesticide Product Label, DAVIS KILL-A-BUG I, 11/27 ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-19

    ... b.hind .nd ben •• th c.binet., r.friger.torl, .ink., .tove., .nt oth.r loc.liz.d .r ••• inf.,td .ith inl.cts. ... For .ntl, •• t hilll .nd run •• ,s. Aep •• ts necess.ry. ...

  13. Une métastase intra-thyroïdienne révélant un cancer bronchique ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Une métastase intra-thyroïdienne révélant un cancer bronchique non à petites cellules. Anwar Boukir, Mustapha El Kabous, Ilham Azghari, Saber Boutayeb, Ibrahim El Ghissassi, Hind Mrabti, Hassan Errrihani ...

  14. Vedelgaasi kasutamine Eestis 2005. aastal / Sandor Tabo

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tabo, Sandor

    2006-01-01

    2005. a. kasvas Eestis vedelgaasi tarbimine võrreldes 2004. aastaga 11%. Diagramm: Vedelgaasi tarbimine Eestis 2005. a. tonnides. Graafik: Vedelgaasi propaan maailmaturu hind USD/tonn. Tabel Eesti vedelgaasiäriühingute terminalide võimsuse ja müügiviiside kohta

  15. Eesti Energia juhi küsimus jäi ajapuudusel lahendamata / Villy Paimets

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Paimets, Villy, 1972-

    2005-01-01

    Eesti Energia nõukogu jättis otsustamata, kas ettevõtte juhatuse esimehe kohale kuulutatakse välja avalik konkurss. Vt. samas: Oki valulaps on elektri hind; Kronoloogia: Eesti Energia on Gunnar Oki juhtimisel kõvasti kosunud

  16. Hinnatõus otsib pääsu. Siseturu seis pessimistlik / Tea Taruste ; kommenteerinud Kalev Kõnn, Meelis Einstein, Aldo Unga

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Taruste, Tea

    2011-01-01

    Ehitusmaterjalide tootjate liidu tegevjuhi Enno Rebase hinnangul on ehitusmaterjalide hinnatõus vältimatu, sest sisendid lähevad kallimaks ja kokkuhoidu pole enam võimalik millegi arvel saavutada, kuid suuremat hinnatõusu võib takistada siseturu väike nõudlus. Vineeri hind on tõusnud 20-30%, OSB tõusis 15%

  17. A muscle-specific promoter directs Pitx3 gene expression in skeletal muscle cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coulon, Vincent; L'Honoré, Aurore; Ouimette, Jean-François; Dumontier, Emilie; van den Munckhof, Pepijn; Drouin, Jacques

    2007-01-01

    The Pitx homeobox transcription factor genes have been implicated in different developmental processes, including determination of hind limb identity for Pitx1, left-right asymmetry for Pitx2, and eye development and survival of midbrain dopaminergic neurons for Pitx3. Pitx1 and Pitx2 have partly

  18. Hewlett-Packard tulemas rahva hulka / Tõnis Oja

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Oja, Tõnis, 1957-

    2008-01-01

    Maailma suurima arvutitootja Hewlett-Packard tegevjuht Mark Hurd on otsustanud printerite läbimüügi suurendamiseks reorganiseerida printerite divisjoni kolmeks üksuseks, senisest enam hakkab ettevõte tähelepanu pöörama eraisikutest tarbijatele. Graafik: Aktsia hind on kolme aastaga kahekordistunud. Tabel: Kasum kasvanud võimsalt: Lisad: Mis on mis; Tasub teada

  19. The Periaqueductal Gray In The Cat Projects To Lamina Viii And The Medial Part Of Lamina Vii Throughout The Length Of The Spinal Card.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mouton, Leonora J.; Holstege, Gert

    1994-01-01

    The periaqueductal gray (PAG) plays an important role in analgesia as well as in motor activities, such as vocalization, cardiovascular changes, and movements of the neck, back, and hind limbs. Although the anatomical pathways for vocalization and cardiovascular control are rather well understood,

  20. Restriction Inhibition Assay: A Qualitative and Quantitative Method to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rich fractions (PRFs) with high affinity for EcoRI and HindIII restriction sequences and correlate their interaction to an anticancer activity. Methods: pBR322 linear plasmid DNA was used as a template to screen the sequence-selective inhibition of ...

  1. Spontaneous capital femoral physeal fracture in a cat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Galya

    2013-01-01

    A young neutered male cat was presented with a 1-week history of left hind limb lameness. Pain and crepitus were identified on manipulation of the left coxofemoral joint. Radiographic evaluation led to the diagnosis of physeal dysplasia with slipped capital femoral epiphysis of the left femur, which did not respond to conservative management. PMID:24155467

  2. Spontaneous capital femoral physeal fracture in a cat

    OpenAIRE

    Schwartz, Galya

    2013-01-01

    A young neutered male cat was presented with a 1-week history of left hind limb lameness. Pain and crepitus were identified on manipulation of the left coxofemoral joint. Radiographic evaluation led to the diagnosis of physeal dysplasia with slipped capital femoral epiphysis of the left femur, which did not respond to conservative management.

  3. Ultrasonographic diagnosis of porcupine quill foreign bodies in the plantar flexor tendon sheath region in a heifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulon, Pierre-Yves; Achard, Damien; Babkine, Marie

    2010-01-01

    A 17-month-old Holstein heifer was presented for persistent enlargement above the right hind fetlock of 1-month’s duration. Diffuse plantar soft tissue swelling was present on the radiographs and ultrasonography revealed the presence of multiple porcupine quill extremities embedded in the subcutaneous tissue within the flexor tendon sheath wall. Surgical removal was performed. PMID:21037892

  4. Eestlaste pension kinnisvaraturu meelevallas / Anne Oja

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Oja, Anne, 1970-

    2007-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Delovõje Vedomosti 22. aug. lk. 6. Eesti pensionifondid on kinnisvarasse paigutanud umbes miljard krooni. Kinnisvarafirmade võlakirjade hind võib kujuneda madalaks. Pankade kommentaarid. Vt. samas: Tulevased pensionärid magavad rahulikult. Tabel: Pensionifondide investeeringud kinnisvarasse. Kommenteerivad: Ingmar Mattus, Kalle Palling, Karoli Hindriks, Pertti Rahnel, Andre Nõmm, Urmas Laur, Kristjan Lepik. Kommentaarid ainult eestikeelse art. juures

  5. Alcoa teenis kahe aasta suurima kasumi / Romet Kreek

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kreek, Romet, 1972-

    2011-01-01

    Alumiiniumitootja Alcoa avaldas oma IV kvartali majandustulemused. Ettevõtte käive osutus analüütikute ootustest väiksemaks ja aktsia hind langes. Autor arvab, et teiste metallide tootjate aktsiad pakuvad paremat investeerimisvõimalust

  6. Hindiii and S447x polymorphisms of lipoprotein lipase gene and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Lipoprotein lipase is a key enzyme in lipoprotein metabolism and its gene is a major candidate gene for coronary heart disease. The aim of the present work was to study the association of HindIII and S447X polymorphisms in lipoprotein ...

  7. Seans bõstroi big-magii s posledujushtshim razoblatshenijem / Anastassia Belitshko-Popovitsh

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Belitshko-Popovitsh, Anastassia

    2008-01-01

    Üldise toiduainete hinnatõusu kõrval on Big Mac'i hind jäänud pika aja jooksul samale tasemele. Hesburgeri regioonijuht Toomas Veersalu prognoosib praeguse inflatsioonitempo juures vältimatut hamburgerihinna tõusu, kui lepingud toiduainete tarnijatega lõpevad. Majanduse ja juhtimise instituudi rektor Hanon Barabaner inflatsiooni põhjustest ja plaanimajandusest. Tabelid, graafikud

  8. Dicty_cDB: VHD644 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 468816 5', genomic survey sequence. 52 0.016 1 CT518011 |CT518011.1 A BAC library has been constructed from cultivar Caberne... constructed from cultivar Cabernet Sauvignon using two different restriction enzymes : HindIII (clone prefi

  9. Dynamic Pattern Formation for Wings of Pterygota in an Eclosion ---Pattern Analysis for Wings with the Imago---

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seino, M.; Kakazu, Y.

    The vein and cell patterns for the fore and hind wing of Lepidoptera, Hemiptera, Orthoptera and Odonata are analyzed and discussed. For vein patterns of them, the fractal properties are shown and the inequality between four orders is obtained. The nature of wings observed by mass distributions for fractal dimensions of the vein pattern is presented.

  10. Viktor Levada ostis Olümpia vastas asuvad krundid rekordhinnaga / Askur Alas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Alas, Askur, 1973-

    2006-01-01

    Tallinna linnavolikogu tõstis enne Olümpia hotelli vastas asuvate kruntide enampakkumist kinnistute alghinda üle kolme korra, enampakkumisel tõusis hind veel 2,5 korda. Kinnistud ostnud Viktor Levada kommentaare. Lisa: Viimase aja kallimad kinnistud

  11. Identification of housekeeping genes as references for quantitative ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    XIAOHUA XIA

    2017-11-27

    Nov 27, 2017 ... ribosomal RNA (18S rRNA), in gender difference, effects of tissue type, different developmental stages, chemical treatment of embryos/larvae with commonly used .... Tissues (brain, fore-intestine, hind- intestine, liver, kidney, heart, muscle, ..... normalization in wheat. Plant Mol. Biol. 74, 307–311. Ma L.

  12. Cloning and sequence analysis of the Antheraea pernyi ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    A genomic library was generated using HindIII and the positive clones were sequenced and analysed. The gp64 gene, encoding the baculovirus envelope protein GP64, was found in an insert. The nucleotide sequence analysis indicated that the AnpeNPV gp64 gene consists of a 1530 nucleotide open reading frame ...

  13. Ühemehefirma plaanib Eestisse võimast põlevkiviõlitehast / Harry Tuul

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tuul, Harry

    2006-01-01

    Eesti ärimees Kristjan Järvik peab läbirääkimisi USA gaasi- ja naftauuringute firmaga Mobilestream Oil, et ehitada Eestisse suur põlevkiviõlitehas. Diagramm: Aktsia hind. Kommenteerib Raivo Sormunen. Vt. samas: Tehnoloogia on veevaba

  14. Estimation of Pre-And Post-Weaning Body Weight of Rabbits Using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HS), shoulder-to-tail drop (STD), length of hind limb (LHL), ear length (EL) and height at withers (HTW). Multiple linear regression models were used to obtain the prediction equations. HS, LHL and EL were not good estimators of body weight ...

  15. Morphometric studies on Culex quinquefasciatus and Mansonia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective was to investigate possible morphological differences in populations of Culex quinquefasciatus and Mansonia africana. Six morphological characters namely, wing length, antennal length, proboscis length, foreleg length, mid leg length and hind leg length were measured in the two species. A total of 868 Cx ...

  16. Calceoneal Osteosarcoma: A case report | Mwaka | East and Central ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osteosarcoma of the foot is not common. A case of osteosarcoma of the calcaneum is presented where a patient had a four months history of progressive painful swelling of the right hind foot which was initially diagnosed as Madura foot (mycetoma). However after trying both medical and traditional remedies in his rural ...

  17. Automaattanklad hoiavad bensiini hinna madalal / Toivo Tänavsuu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tänavsuu, Toivo

    2003-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Infopress 28. nov. nr. 48 lk. 132. Kütuse jaemüügifirmad kavandavad 2004. aastal avada kümneid uusi automaattanklaid. Vt. samas: Hinnasõjad uusi kliente ei too. Graafik: Kütuse hind kõigub oluliselt

  18. Carlsberg viib Saku börsilt / Ralf-Martin Soe

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Soe, Ralf-Martin

    2008-01-01

    Saku suuraktsionär Carlsberg valmistub börsilt lahkuma ning ostab tagasi väikeaktsionäride aktsiad. Vt. samas: Carlsbergil on vaja veel kolme protsenti aktsiatest, et börsilt väljuda. Diagramm: Saku Õlletehase aktsia hind börsil. Kommenteerib Mait Koldits

  19. Anti-Inflammatory Effect Of Some Common Nigerian Vegetables ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methanol extracts of four common Nigerian vegetables; A.graveoleus, C.argentia, T. triangulare and T.occidentalis were investigated for anti-inflammatory activity in rats using carrageenan. Carrageenan-induced oedema in the sub-plantar hind paw of vegetable extracts treated rats was significantly inhibited. This finding ...

  20. Molecular cloning of endochitinase 33 (ECH33) gene from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... signal peptide sequence ranges from 1 to 19. The nucleotide sequence analysis using GENETOOL software revealed presence of three exon and four introns, and has unique restriction sites for HindIII, BamHI and SalI, at 881, 308 and 485 positions, respectively. Key words: Trichoderma harzanium, ech33, signal peptide.

  1. The effects of pain sensitivity behaviour on Swiss White Mice ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The tail flick and formalin tests were used to assess pain sensation. In the tail flick test, the latency of tail flick in group 2 and 3 were significantly lower compared to the control group in both phases, thus, showing an increase in pain sensation. In formalin tests, the frequency of right hind paw lick in group 2 was significantly ...

  2. Jahikoerad postmarkidel / Elmo Viigipuu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Viigipuu, Elmo

    2005-01-01

    19. okt. tulevad Eestis ja Kasahstanis käibele kaks uut postmarki, mille motiiviks on eesti hagijas ja kasahstani hurt. Eesti väljaande kujundas Lembit Lõhmus, kaasautor K. Tubli. Kasahhi margi kujundas D. Muhamedzanov. Ühe margi hind on 6.50 krooni

  3. Hiigelraamat Helmut Newtonilt

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    1999-01-01

    Saksa kunstiraamatute kirjastaja Benedikt Taschen annab aastavahetuseks välja kirjastuse arvates suurima raamatu, mis XX sajandil avaldatud. Fotograaf Helmut Newtoni album 'Sumo' on 480 lk., autori poolt signeeritud, 50x70 cm, kaalub 30 kg, hind 22200 Eesti krooni. Aluse raamatule kujundab Philippe Starck

  4. Continuous Digital 12-Lead ST -Segment Monitoring in Acute Myocardial Infarction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.F. Veldkamp (Rolf)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractIn 1787 Aloysio Luigi Galvani (1737-1798), at that time Professor of Anatomy at the University of Bologna, demonstrated that the muscles of the hind limbs of a frog manifested "electromotive phenomena." A partly dissected frog's leg with a metal scalpel accidentally left in contact with

  5. Piltsõnumid - uus massiteenus mobiilside turul? / Andrus Hiiepuu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hiiepuu, Andrus, 1966-

    2003-01-01

    Autor analüüsib erinevaid teenuseid mobiilside turul ning tunnistab, et edu on neist saavutanud vaid kõne ja lühisõnumid. MMS teenuse levikut takistab vastava toetusega telefonide saadavus ja nende hind. Lisa: MMS (Multimedia Messaging Service)

  6. Fulltext PDF

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In summer, the males gather on damp patches and feed in the company of emigrants, grass yellows, lime, etc. While feeding from the wet soil, or when resting, the fore wings are drawn inside the hind wings. The females are observed less often than the males. They keep close to the larval host plants, and probably remain ...

  7. General Motorsis algas streik / Virge Lahe

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lahe, Virge

    2007-01-01

    General Motorsi töötajad alustasid streiki, põhjuseks USA suurima autotootja ja autotööstustöötajate ametiühingu erimeelsused töötajate tervisekindlustuse teemal. Diagramm: General Motorsi aktsia hind; Tervisekindlustuskulud iga USA-s toodetud auto kohta. Vt. samas: GM-i majandustulemused 2006; Olulisemad vaidlusküsimused

  8. Local cryotherapy improves adjuvant-induced arthritis through down-regulation of IL-6 / IL-17 pathway but independently of TNF[alpha

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Xavier Guillot; Hélène Martin; Stéphanie Seguin-Py; Katy Maguin-Gaté; Johnny Moretto; Perle Totoson; Daniel Wendling; Céline Demougeot; Nicolas Tordi

    2017-01-01

    .... In vivo, local cryotherapy was applied twice a day for 14 days in arthritic rats (ice: n = 10, cold gas: n = 9, non-treated: n = 10). At day 24 after the induction of arthritis, cytokine expression levels were measured in grinded hind paws...

  9. Investeerimisfondid on kanda kinnitamas : Eesti börside investeerimisfond kasvas mullu 60% : üheksast fondist investeerib neli välismaale / Merle Raamat

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Raamat, Merle

    1994-01-01

    Tabel: Eestis tegutsevad investeerimisfondid (1994.a. 31. märtsi seisuga); Diagrammid; Scan-Am Fondi portfelli koosseis majandus- ja tööstusharude kaupa 1994.a. 10. veebr. seisuga; Scan-Am Fondi osakute hind (kr.) 9. nov. 1993.a.-14. veebr. 1994

  10. Soviet Frontal Aviation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-06-01

    ircraft has not lost its significance, but rather it is used as a stco) in Iie evolucion to contemporary tactics. lThe 1e51 ’ of Lne Great Patriotic War...Hind is the mainstay of this developing force. It uses an infra- red sensor for detection of vehicles and is armed with a 4-barrel 23 mm gun, Swatter

  11. Synthesis of the human VEGF165 gene based on overlap PCR and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-01-16

    Jan 16, 2012 ... pMDV plasmid was digested by Hind III and Xba I (TaKaRa, Japan) and inserted into the pCAG vector (Wang et al., 2009) digested with the corresponding enzymes, replacing the CAT gene with VEGF165 gene, to generate the resultant plasmid pCGV. The constructs were shown schematically in Figure 2A.

  12. A single-copy galK promoter cloning vector suitable for cloning strong promoters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dandanell, Gert; Court, Donald L.; Hammer, Karin

    1986-01-01

    We report the construction of lambda galK promoter cloning vectors for cloning and characterization of strong promoters. This phage, which contains a unique HindIII cloning site, was applied to the cloning and analysis of transcription initiations of the regulatory region of the deo-operon of...

  13. Microsoft ärkab varjusurmast / Annika Matson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Matson, Annika, 1976-

    2006-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Delovõje Vedomosti 22. märts lk. 29. Microsofti aktsiale oodatakse kiiret kasvu tänu Office'i uue põlvkonna seitsmele tootele, mis tulevad välja 2006. aasta teises pooles. Diagramm: Aktsia hind. Vt. samas: Microsoft Office'il on tulemas seitse uut tarkvarapaketti

  14. Valgevene plaanimajandus variseb / Jaanus Piirsalu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Piirsalu, Jaanus, 1973-

    2011-01-01

    Valgevene devalveeris oma rubla 55%, ekspertide hinnangul pole see veel piir. Kütuse hind on võrreldes aasta algusega kasvanud üle 40%. Venemaa on nõus eraldama Valgevenele Euraasia majandusühenduse kaudu 3 mld. dollarit, kuid sellest võib väheks jääda

  15. Aeg hakata Delli aktsiale mõtlema / Tõnis Oja

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Oja, Tõnis, 1957-

    2008-01-01

    Delli asutaja Michael Dell on uuesti tegevjuhi kohal olles asunud ettevõtte päästmiseks kulusid kärpima ja tegema ümberkorraldusi, vahetades välja mitmed tippjuhid. Diagrammid: Aktsia hind; Majandusnäitajad

  16. Dom dlja milliardera

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    Ajakirja "Forbes" andmetel on maailma kõige kallima eramu ehitanud ameeriklane Tim Blixseth mäesuusakuurorti Yellowstone Club Montana osariigis. Projekteeris arhitekt Jerry Locati. Maja hind on 155 miljonit dollarit. Siiani kõige kallim eramu Updown Court asub Windlesham'is Inglismaal, 139 miljonit dollarit

  17. Influence of faith-based organisations on HIV prevention strategies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-09-03

    Sep 3, 2017 ... Keywords: Faith-based organisations, HIV prevention strategies, systematic review. DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.4314/ahs.v17i3.18. Cite as: Ochillo MA, Teijlingen EV, Hind M. Influence of faith-based organisations on HIV prevention strategies in Africa: a systematic review. .... Business Source Complete. 3. 12.

  18. Hispaania kirjanduse elav keha / Jüri Talvet

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Talvet, Jüri, 1945-

    1996-01-01

    Keha ja kehatus hispaania kirjanduses (Cervantese Dulcinea, Sancho Panza, don Quijote) ja maailmakirjanduses esinevate tegelaskujude näiteil : Ka Tõnu Õnnepalu Joonatanist romaanis 'Hind'. Ilmunud ka kogumikus: Talvet, Jüri. Tõrjumatu äär. Tartu : Ilmamaa, 2005, lk. 469-473

  19. Fulltext PDF

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    and exhaustion. Towards the end, he became very paranoid. He had an abiding distrust of doctors' advice. He developed fears about being poisoned and would not eat. He passed away on. 14 January· 1978 of "malnutrition and inanition caused by personality disturbance", leaving be- hind him an intellectual achievement ...

  20. Inimkonna ainuke võimalus on taastuvate ressursside kasutamine / Taito Mikkonen

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mikkonen, Taito

    2006-01-01

    Enam ei ole aega vaielda, kas tuumajõud või põlevkivi. Energeetika probleemiks pole ainult energia kättesaadavus ja hind, vaid lisaks keskkonnakaitsele terve maailma elukeskkonna säilitamine. Lahendused nõuavad muudatusi mõtlemise alustes ning mõjutavad meie eluviisi, poliitikat ja moraali

  1. COCOS NUCIFERA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2010-10-10

    Oct 10, 2010 ... rat hind paw, hypotonicity induced haemolysis of human red blood cells and indomethacin – induced .... making baskets, masts rope, hats, brushes and broom. The palm leaves are used as a .... evaluated by incubating various concentrations of the extract with red blood cells and distilled water. This assay ...

  2. (Kaner) Flower Extract

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    antibacterial and sedative-hypnotic activities and also affects behavioral pattern in mice. [4]. The dried and fresh flowers of the plant have been reported to exhibit potent antiinflammatory activity against carrageenan hind paw edema model in mice without inducing any gastric damage [5]. Although the leaves and the root ...

  3. "Parema elu indeks" näitab Eesti nõrkusi / Argo Ideon

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ideon, Argo, 1966-

    2011-01-01

    Majanduskoostöö- ja arenguorganisatsiooni (OECD) 50. aastapäeva puhul avaldatud 34 liikmesriigi võrdlus 11 valdkonnas näitab, et vaid 24% Eesti elanikest on oma eluga rahul. Kümnepallisüsteemis saab Eesti OECD riikide võrdluses kehvad hinded. Diagramm

  4. Anti-Nociceptive And Anti-Inflammatory Activities Of Ethanol Extract ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    nociceptive and antiinflammatory effects in mice and Wistar rats which were carried out using acetic acid-induced abdominal contractions in mice and formalin-induced hind paw edema in Wistar rats. Three doses of the ethanol extract (50, 100, ...

  5. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lamghari, Hind. Vol 15, No 4 (2015) - Articles Clinical and genetic data of Huntington disease in Moroccan patients. Abstract PDF. ISSN: 1680-6905. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions of Use ...

  6. Anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic activities of the aqueous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aqueous extract of Hippobromus pauciflorus (L.f) Radlk leaves at 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight were evaluated for anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic activities in male rats. Antiinflammatory activity was studied by using carrageenan and histamine induced oedema right hind paw volume while the ...

  7. Identifying Developmental Cascades among Differentiated Dimensions of Social Competence and Emotion Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Bethany L.; Perry, Nicole B.; O'Brien, Marion; Calkins, Susan D.; Keane, Susan P.; Shanahan, Lilly

    2015-01-01

    This study used data from 356 children, their mothers, teachers, and peers to examine the longitudinal and dynamic associations among 3 dimensions of social competence derived from Hinde's (1987) framework of social complexity: social skills, peer group acceptance, and friendship quality. Direct and indirect associations among each discrete…

  8. Recording and analysis of locomotion in dairy cows with 3D accelerometers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mol, de R.M.; Lammers, R.J.H.; Pompe, J.C.A.M.; Ipema, A.H.; Hogewerf, P.H.

    2009-01-01

    An automated method for lameness detection can be an alternative for detection by regular observations. Accelerometers attached to a leg of the dairy cow can be used to record the locomotion of a dairy cow. In an experiment the 3D acceleration of the right hind leg during walking of three dairy cows

  9. Palgiküllus lükkas saeveskite suveks kavandatud puhkused edasi / Väinu Rozental

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rozental, Väinu, 1957-

    2005-01-01

    Eesti suurimad saeveskid, AS-i Stora Enso Timber Imavere ja Paikuse saeveski lükkasid planeeritud juulipuhkuse toormepuidu külluse tõttu poolteise kuu võrra edasi. Vt. samas: Tormi langetatud palgi hind ootab sügisest tõusu

  10. Argonaute-2-null embryonic stem cells are retarded in self-renewal ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    type ES cells showing hybridization of 5' external probe to a 6.5 kb HindIII fragment. Lane 2 - heterozygous clone showing hybridization to an additional 5.3 kb fragment. Lane 3 - homozygous clone showing hybridization to only 5.3 kb fragment.

  11. Orkaan Katrina kergitas nafta hinna järjekordse rekordini / Annika Matson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Matson, Annika, 1976-

    2005-01-01

    Naftabarreli hind tõusis börsil üle 70 dollari taseme, kui orkaan Katrina sundis kompaniisid katkestama nafta pumpamise Mehhiko lahel. Diagramm. Vt. samas: Martin Hanson. Orkaan ei sunni aktsiisiplaanist loobuma; Tõnis Arnover. Katrina sundis miljon ameeriklast kodust põgenema

  12. Department of Zoology, University of Natal, PietermaritzOOrg ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hind-limbs similar to that used in climbing, and a more specialized fossorial species, L. bocagei, has lost the discs and acquired .... scrape algae off rocks to which the tadpole adheres, the sucker being moved gradually over the surface of the rock. The colouration of Heleophryne tadpoles often matches that of the rocks very.

  13. Väätsa Agro kasvatab väärtust / Tiit Reinberg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Reinberg, Tiit, 1975-

    2005-01-01

    Põllumajandusettevõtte Väätsa Agro väikeaktsionärid müüvad oma osakuid, kuna ettevõtte osaku hind on tõusnud poole aasta jooksul paarikümnest sendist kolme kroonini. Endine väikeaktsionär Kalev Lillepea on kolme krooniseid osakuid ostes saavutanud ettevõttes 15-protsendilise osaluse

  14. Veekeskuse rajamine muutus kahtlaseks / Marko Suurmägi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Suurmägi, Marko, 1975-

    2005-01-01

    Viljandi veekeskuse rajamiseks korraldatud vähempakkumisel osales viis firmat ning nende pakkumised jäid 4 ja 62 miljoni krooni vahele. Linnavalitsus lootis veekeskuse valmis saada 27 miljoni krooni eest. Diagramm: Veekeskuse hind. Arvamust avaldab Facio Ehituse turundusdirektor Ülo Older

  15. Leucémie aiguë myéloblastique et translocation (8;16) (p11;p13 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Leucémie aiguë myéloblastique et translocation (8;16) (p11;p13), premier cas marocain d'une entité clinico- biologique distinct. Adiba Bakkali, Mouna Lemchaheb, Nezha Had, Hind Dehbi, Said Benchekroun, Asma Quessar ...

  16. Multivariate Analysis of Household Decision Making, Contraceptive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nneka Umera-Okeke

    2011), marital status (Fuse, 2010), wealth status (Koj, 2000; Hinde and Mturi, 2000), region (Giusti and Vignoli,2006), type of family head, place of residence and religion. (Uddin et al, 2011); gender roles (Kaufman 2000; Puur, Oláh et al 2008; Goldscheider et al, 2010), multi-partners (Carlson and Furstenberg 2006; Guzzo ...

  17. Type 1 Achilles tendon rupture caused by grooming trauma in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Achilles tendon rupture is uncommon in small animal practice. A 9-month-old, female, mixed breed dog (weighing 2.2kg) was referred to our hospital with a primary complaint of right hind limb lameness. Complete right Achilles tendon rupture was diagnosed by physical examination and radiography. The tendon was ...

  18. Räpased trikid Norma rahaga / Sulev Vedler

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vedler, Sulev, 1970-

    2008-01-01

    Norma suuromanik, Rootsi kompanii Autoliv, kasutab ettevõtet sisuliselt oma taskupangana, kust saab vajadusel mugavalt ja odavalt laenu võtta. Väikeaktsionärid kaaluvad aktsionäride üldkoosoleku kokkukutsumist ja erikontrolli teostamise nõudmist. Lisa: Kuidas töötab rootslaste rahapump. Graafik: Norma aktsia hind Tallinna börsil

  19. Bank of Georgiale jäi Gruusia kitsaks / Romet Kreek

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kreek, Romet, 1972-

    2008-01-01

    Gruusia suurimale pangale Bank of Georgia jäi koduturg kitsaks ning pank teatas Valgevene panga ostmisest ja sealsele turule laienemisest. Diagramm: Bank of Georgia aktsia hind. Vt. samas: Bank of Georgia ja Belarusky Narodny Bank majandusnäitajad; Taust

  20. Nii Finnairil kui ka SASil väga head majandustulemused / Tõnis Arnover

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Arnover, Tõnis, 1952-

    2005-01-01

    Lennukompaniide Finnair ja SAS teise kvartali majandustulemused ületasid nii analüütikute kui ka firmajuhtide prognoosid, kasumit on aidanud tõsta piletihinnatõus ja käibe kasv. Diagrammid: Põhjamaistel lennufirmadel teine kvartal sel aastal selgelt esimesest parem. Vt. samas: Ka SAS tõstab piletihindasid; Põhiline ebakindlustegur - kütuse hind

  1. 3G toob EMT-le praegu veel kahjumikroone / Mikk Salu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Salu, Mikk, 1975-

    2006-01-01

    Mobiilsidefirmal EMT on ligi 6000 3G klienti, sobivate telefonimudelite arv on kasvanud viieteistkümnele, 3G võrgutehnoloogia hind on hüppeliselt langenud - EMT investeerib 3G arendamisse vaid mõnikümmend miljonit krooni, samas kui mõni aasta tagasi kulutasid suured välismaised firmad miljardeid dollareid

  2. Internet nagu postiteenus / Anneli Ammas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ammas, Anneli, 1962-

    2004-01-01

    Majandus- ja kommunikatsiooniminister Meelis Atoneni sõnul peaks Interneti-teenus muutuma sarnaseks postiteenusega, millel on ühtne hind üle Eesti. Bill Gates on huvitatud Eesti ettepanekust pakkuda Eesti kodutarbijale tarkvara tervikpaketist vaid seda osa, mida tarbija tegelikult kasutab

  3. Propulsive force calculations in swimming frogs II. Application of a vortex ring model to DPIV data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stamhuis, E.J.; Nauwelaerts, S.

    Frogs propel themselves by kicking water backwards using a synchronised extension of their hind limbs and webbed feet. To understand this propulsion process, we quantified the water movements and displacements resulting from swimming in the green frog Rana esculenta, applying digital particle image

  4. Fine mapping for Weaver Syndrome in the Brown Swiss breed with the identification of possible casual mutations across NRCAM, PNPLA8, and CTTNBP2 and Developement of a diagnostic SNP haplotype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine Progressive Degenerative Myeloencephalopathy (Weaver Syndrome) is a recessive neurological disease that has been observed in the Brown Swiss cattle breed since the 1970’s in North America and Europe. Bilateral hind leg weakness and ataxia appear in afflicted animals at 6 to 18 months of age,...

  5. Rekordodav dollar pigistab eksportijaid / Lauri Linnamäe

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Linnamäe, Lauri

    2007-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Postimees : na russkom jazõke, 17. juuli 2007, lk. 2. Eelmisel nädalal euro suhtes rekordmadalale langenud dollari hind mõjutab otseselt dollaririikidesse eksportijaid, kuid kaudselt seab löögi alla kõik eksportivad ettevõtted. Vt. samas: Dollari langus: graafik

  6. multiple congenital skeletal malformations in a associated with

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    kyphoscoliosis. Other malformations included patella absence, resulting in bowing of both fore. "and hind limbs with poorly developed muscles associated with these skeletal structure. Dystocia was believed to be a result of fetal monstrosity resulting in abnormal posture. The cause of the congenital malformations was not ...

  7. Multiple congenital skeletal malformations in a lamb associated with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Other malformations included patella absence, resulting in bowing of both fore and hind limbs with poorly developed muscles associated with these skeletal structure. Dystocia was believed to be a result of fetal monstrosity resulting in abnormal posture. The cause of the congenital malformations was not obvious ...

  8. Kallis nafta toob kateldesse Eesti kütuse / Andres Reimer

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Reimer, Andres

    2011-01-01

    Mitmed maa-asulad on hoidnud toasooja hinna madala sellega, et pole investeerinud torustiku soojapidavusse. Põhja-Tallinnas kallines kütte hind septembril ligi kolmandiku võrra, sest Fortum Termest polnud piirkonnas hinda korrigeerinud 2009. aastast. Kõige odavama hinnaga soojus on Narvas. Diagramm: Toasoojuse hinna määrab kasutatav kütus

  9. Wildlife of southern forests habitat & management (Chapter 15): Rabbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    James G. Dickson

    2003-01-01

    Rabbits, or lagomorphs, resemble rodents. But unlike rodents they have relatively large hind legs, large ears, a short fluffy tail, and 2 sets of upper incisors. Like rodents their incisors grow continually. They can either walk or hop, and are fleet and elusive when evading predators. They normally are silent but are capable of several different vocalizations. Rabbits...

  10. Prevalence of claw disorders in Dutch dairy cows exposed to several floor systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Somers, J.G.C.J.; Frankena, K.; Noordhuizen-Stassen, E.N.; Metz, J.H.M.

    2003-01-01

    Claw health was examined in an observational study on Dutch dairy farms with either a slatted floor (SL), slatted floor with manure scraper (SL-SCR), solid concrete floor (SCF), a straw yard (SY), or a zero-grazing feeding system (ZG). Hooves of cows' hind legs were examined for the presence and

  11. 50 CFR 226.214 - Critical habitat for Gulf sturgeon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... in Louisiana and Walthall, Hancock, Pearl River, Marion, Lawrence, Simpson, Copiah, Hinds, Rankin...: Pascagoula River System in Forrest, Perry, Greene, George, Jackson, Clarke, Jones, and Wayne Counties... confluence with the Chickasawhay River, George County, Mississippi is included. The main stem of the...

  12. The defective phosphoribosyl diphosphate synthase in a temperature-sensitive prs-2 mutant of Escherichia coli is compensated by increased enzyme synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Post, David A.; Switzer, Robert L.; Hove-Jensen, Bjarne

    1996-01-01

    An Escherichia coli strain which is temperature-sensitive for growth due to a mutation (prs-2) causing a defective phosphoribosyl diphosphate (PRPP) synthase has been characterized. The temperature-sensitive mutation was mapped to a 276 bp HindIII-BssHII DNA fragment located within the open readi...

  13. Morphometric analysis of the fiber populations of the rat sciatic nerve, its spinal roots, and its major branches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prodanov, D.P.; Feierabend, H.K.P.

    2007-01-01

    Correspondence between the nerve composition and the functional characteristics of its fiber populations is not always evident. To investigate such correspondence and to give a systematic picture of the morphology of the rat hind limb nerves, extensive morphometric study was performed on the sciatic

  14. Bank crisis ousts airBaltic minority owners

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2011-01-01

    Latvijas Krajbanka pakkus riigile osta airBalticu aktsiaid, mida airBalticu osanik Baltijas Aviacijas Sistemas (BAS) on laenude tagatiseks pantinud, tuues põhjuseks selle, et BASi suhtes on algatatud võlgade sissenõudmise protsess. Valitsus ostiski aktsiad ära, kuna nende hind oli soodne. Uue emissiooni võimalusest

  15. The wings of Bombyx mori develop from larval discs exhibiting an ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Lepidopteran insects present a complex organization of appendages which develop by various mechanisms. In the mulberry silkworm, Bombyx mori a pair of meso- and meta-thoracic discs located on either side in the larvae gives rise to the corresponding fore- and hind-wings of the adult. These discs do not experience ...

  16. Big Maci indeksi järgi on kroon alahinnatud / Erkki Erilaid

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Erilaid, Erkki

    2004-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Infopress, 4. juuni, nr. 23, 2004, lk. 31. Eesti kroon on ajakirja The Economist arvutatava Big Mac'i indeksi järgi dollari suhtes 22% alahinnatud, mis tähendab, et vähemalt toidukaupade osas on dollari kurss eestlaste ostujõudu arvestades liiga kõrge. Diagramm: Hamburgeri hind näitab ostujõudu

  17. Anti-inflammatory studies of yam ( Dioscorea esculenta ) extract on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The defatted methanol extract of Dioscorea esculenta tuber was evaluated for anti-inflammatory properties in animal model using Wistar rats. The study was done using the cotton thread method in measuring the right hind paw oedema and granuloma tissue formation in rats. The extract was tested at doses between 100 ...

  18. Transpordifirmad näevad veoautoteeninduse peamist probleemi kõrges hinnas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    Veoautode firmateenindused vastavad küsimustele, mis puudutavad remonditöökodade personali koolitamist, investeeringuid remondibaasi ja personali koolitusse, klientide kaebusi remondi- ja hooldusteeninduse kohta, teenuste hinna tõstmist lähitulevikus. Vastavad Volvo, Iveco, MAN, Sisu/Renault, MercedesBenz ja Scania firmateenindused. Diagramm: Suurt rahulolematust tekitab vaid teenuse hind

  19. Functional evaluation of peripheral nerve regeneration in the rat : walking track analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Varejao, ASP; Meek, MF; Patricio, JAB; Cabrita, AMS

    2001-01-01

    The experimental model of choice for many peripheral nerve investigators is the rat. Walking track analysis is a useful tool in the evaluation of functional peripheral nerve recovery in the rat. This quantitative method of analyzing hind limbs performance by examining footprints, known as the

  20. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    article Aspergillose broncho-pulmonaire allergique lors d'un asthme réfractaire: à propos d'un cas clinique. Khalid Lahmadi, Hind El Youssi, Jawad Rochdi, BoughrineNawal, Er-Rami Mohammed. The Pan African Medical Jou Abstract.

  1. Muscle differentiation after sciatic nerve transection and reinnervation in adult rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ijkema-Paassen, J; Meek, MF; Gramsbergen, A

    Reinnervation after peripheral nerve transections generally leads to poor functional recovery. In order to study whether changes in muscles might be a contributing factor in this phenomenon we studied muscle morphology and fibre type distributions after sciatic nerve transection in the rat hind

  2. PTH (1–34), but not strontium ranelate counteract loss of trabecular thickness and bone strength in disuse osteopenic rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brüel, Annemarie; Vegger, Jens Bay; Raffalt, Anders Christer

    2013-01-01

    R in combination could counteract immobilization-induced bone loss in a rat model.Immobilization was induced by injecting 4IU Botox (BTX) into the muscles of the right hind limb. Seventy-two female Wistar rats, 3-months-old, were divided into the following groups: Baseline, Controls, BTX, BTX+PTH, BTX+SrR, and BTX...

  3. Carbo, coal, ugol zamenit neft i gaz? / Mihhail Tuzhikov

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tuzhikov, Mihhail

    2002-01-01

    Kivisöe kasutamine ja maardlad maailmas ning Venemaal. Kivisöe transiit läbi Baltimaade. Tabelid ja diagrammid: Venemaa energiaressursid; kütuseressursid maailmas; energia eksport, hind ja kasutamine; kivisöe transiit Baltimaades

  4. Olympic - Eesti esimene maailmavallutaja? / Tarvo Vaarmets

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vaarmets, Tarvo

    2008-01-01

    Olympic on väga tugeva juhiga, ambitsioonikas ettevõte, mille aktsia hind on kukkunud tasemele, mida võiks pikaajaline investor tasapisi hakata võtma kui head ostukohta. Vt. samas: Tugevad näitajad sisendavad kindlust. Diagramm: Olympicu aktsia

  5. Nokia aktsia kasvatas eile Eesti investorite vara miljonite võrra / Annika Matson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Matson, Annika, 1976-

    2004-01-01

    Nokia aktsia hinnatõusu põhjustas teade ettevõtte otsusest tõsta III kvartali käibe- ja kasumiprognoose. Diagrammid: Nokia kasumiprognoos jääb mullusele ikka alla; Nokia aktsia hind tõusis prognooside tõttu

  6. Danhong Promotes Angiogenesis in Diabetic Mice after Critical Limb Ischemia by Activation of CSE-H2S-VEGF Axis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Wu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to investigate effect and mechanism of Danhong injection (DH on angiogenesis in the diabetic hind limb ischemia mouse model. Thirty diabetic hind limb ischemic model mice and ten normal mice, established by intraperitoneal (i.p. injection of streptozotocin (STZ or PBS and ligation/excision of femoral artery, and then twenty diabetic hind limb ischemic model mice of all were evenly randomized to saline (control, n=10 and DH i.p. injection (2 mL/kg weight for 7 days, n=10 groups. Limb perfusion recovery and femoral blood hydrogen sulfide (H2S and vessel regeneration and lower limb vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF/cystathionine γ-lyase (CSE expression were evaluated during intervention and after euthanasia, respectively. DH i.p. increased ischemic limb perfusion and promoted collateral circulation generation without decreasing blood glucose level. Increased local CSE-H2S-VEGF expression contributed to beneficial effects of DH injection. In conclusion, activation of local CSE-H2S-VEGF axis might participate in proangiogenesis effects of DH injection in diabetic hind limb ischemia model mice, suggesting a potential therapy for diabetic patients with critical limb ischemia.

  7. Ekspressi turuväärtus kahaneb / Agnes Ojala

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ojala, Agnes

    2008-01-01

    Ekspress Grupi aktsia hind on võrreldes aasta algusega langenud 64,5 protsenti. Ettevõtte turuväärtus on praegu 510 miljonit krooni, võrreldes 1,38 miljardi krooniga aasta alguses. Graafik: Ekspress Grupi aktsia langusteel. Lisa

  8. Ribotyping on small-sized spirochetes isolated from subgingival plaque

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fiehn, N E; Bangsborg, J M; Colding, H

    1995-01-01

    In the present study DNA restriction patterns and corresponding ribotypes of 17 subgingival small-sized spirochetes (1:2:1 and 2:4:2 isolates), 2 Treponema socranskii strains and two Treponema denticola strains were examined. Purified chromosomal DNA was digested by BamHI, HindIII, PstI and ClaI....

  9. Influence of sex, age and body condition score on carcass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Twenty-four half carcasses of small East African goats (8 females 8 entire males and 8 castrated males) were jointed into seven joints namely: hind leg, chump, loin, rib, breast, neck and fore leg. These joints were further dissected into the separable components: muscle, bone and fat. The carcasses of these goats, were ...

  10. Soomlaste imerelv Nokia / Tarmo Virki

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Virki, Tarmo

    2001-01-01

    Lühiülevaade Nokia kontserni ajaloost, toetudes hiljuti ilmunud Martti Häikiö raamatule "Nokia inside story". Diagrammid ja skeem: Nokia aktsia hind börsil 1992-2000; Nokia enda investeeringud ning Soome riigi osa %-des 1981-2000; Nokia tehased ning ettevõtted Soomes aastal 1975

  11. TNF, IL-1 and IL-6 in circulating blood after total-body and localized irradiation in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haveman, J.; Geerdink, A. G.; Rodermond, H. M.

    1998-01-01

    The levels of TNF, IL-1 and IL-6 in circulating blood of female WAG/Rij rats were assessed both after total-body irradiation (TBI) and localized irradiation of the right hind leg. The results show that enhanced levels of IL-1 in the circulation reflect a stress situation presumably resulting from

  12. A new species of Gynothemis and its larva (Odonata, Libellulidae) notes on Odonata of Surinam XII

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geijskes, D.C.

    1972-01-01

    The genus Gynothemis was introduced by Calvert (1909), when describing an aberrant member of the Macrothemini from Brazil. The following characteristics were used for this genus: anal area in hind wing with irregularly arranged cells; one row of cells in Rspl, M2 not undulate; triangle in fore wing

  13. Population Consequences of Acoustic Disturbance of Marine Mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    their hind flippers to compare tag loss and survival-rate estimates with and without the assumption of independent tag loss with respect to age, sex...mass through age two, with smaller and larger animals more likely to lose both tags. Such differences may reflect differences in behavior, flipper

  14. Kes meid söödab tulevikus? / Kuldar Leis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Leis, Kuldar, 1968-

    2008-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Delovõje Vedomosti 24. sept. lk. 10. Suuremad jaeketid pakuvad oma kauplustes odavaid toidukaupu oma märgi all (private label), mis on sisse ostetud odavama hinnaga. Eesti tootjad on tootnud oma märgi all, millega kaasneb kõrge kvaliteet ja hind. Tarbijate ostujõu langedes kaotab aga kodumaine tootja

  15. Teaching English in Two-Year Colleges: Three Successful Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Council of Teachers of English, Urbana, IL.

    This monograph is intended to provide English teachers, department heads, and administrators in two-year colleges with program descriptions and guidelines indicating the variety of materials and methods currently in use. The contents of this monograph include "English at Forest Park Community College,""English at Hinds Junior College,""Reading and…

  16. Field identification of two morphologically similar bats, Miniopterus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We compared cranial and external morphological measurements from museum specimens of the two species, using principal component analysis and discriminant function analysis, to determine which variables could be used to discriminate between them. Length of the hind foot and total body length were identified as the ...

  17. Self-mutilation in rabbits following intramuscular ketamine-xylazine-acepromazine injections.

    OpenAIRE

    Vachon, P

    1999-01-01

    Following hind leg intramuscular injections of ketamine, xylazine, and acepromazine, 4 of 6 rabbits exhibited self-mutilation of the digits. At necropsy, the affected sciatic nerve appeared enlarged. Lymphohistiocytic perineural inflammation and fibrosis were observed, together with nerve degeneration. Neuronal regeneration as the reason for self-mutilation is discussed.

  18. 77 FR 27374 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery Off the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-10

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 622 RIN 0648-BB10 Fisheries of the Caribbean... Ecosystem-Based Amendment 3 (CE-BA 3), considers additional measures to reduce the bycatch of speckled hind... part 622 is amended as follows: PART 622--FISHERIES OF THE CARIBBEAN, GULF, AND SOUTH ATLANTIC 0 1. The...

  19. 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 Suppresses TLR8 Expression and TLR8-Mediated Inflammatory Responses in Monocytes In Vitro and Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis In Vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-14

    paralysis; 4, hind and forelimb paralysis; 5, death . Paralyzed mice were given easy access to food and water. Cell Culture Human monocytic THP-1 cells...Mata-Greenwood (Center for Perinatal Biology, Loma Linda University) for assistance with luciferase measurement. Author Contributions Conceived and

  20. Monitoring ovarian cycles and pregnancy in brown brocket deer (Mazama gouazoubira) by measurement of fecal progesterone metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Ricardo José Garcia; Polegato, Bruna Furlan; de Souza, Simone; Negrão, João Alberto; Duarte, José Maurício Barbanti

    2006-01-20

    In the present study, pregnancy and the estrous cycle were monitored in captive brown brocket deer (Mazama gouazoubira) by measuring fecal progestagens with a commercial enzyme immunoassay (EIA), along with behavioral data. Fecal samples were collected twice a week during pregnancy and daily during the estrous cycle and post-partum period. It was possible to distinguish between inter-luteal and luteal phases of the estrous cycle. Behavioral estrus corresponded with low concentrations of fecal progestagens. Samples from two consecutive cycles were available from five hinds, and the mean estrous cycle (n=10) was 26.9+/-1.7 d (mean+/-S.E.M.). However, when two extreme cycles (34 and 37 d) were deleted, the mean estrous cycle was 24.7+/-1.2 d. Three animals became pregnant (gestation ranged from 208 to 215 d). After fertile breeding, progestagen concentration in these hinds remained among luteal phase concentrations throughout pregnancy, with the exception of a few peaks. Within 4 d post-partum, two hinds reached interluteal phase values, while one hind maintained luteal concentrations for at least 1 week.

  1. [Effects of ablation of the hindlimb on the organization of the ventral horn of the spinal cord in the lumbar region of green lizard embryos (Lacerta viridis Laur.)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raynaud, A; Clairambault, P

    1978-01-01

    After extirpation of an hind limb in embryos of Lacerta viridis, numerous motor neuroblasts degenerate on the operated side, in the ventral horn of the lumbar spinal cord and the corresponding motor column is reduced or disappears. The lumbar spinal ganglia are affected and reduced on the operated side.

  2. Kugelzellen in larval anuran epidermis: an ultrastructural study on tadpoles of Pelobates cultripes (Pelobatidae) and Phyllobates bicolor (Dendrobatidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delfino, G.; Quagliata, S.; Giachi, F.; Malentacchi, C.

    2007-01-01

    Prior to hind limb development, tadpoles of the western spadefoot frog Pelobates cultripes (Pelobatidae) and dart-arrow frog Phyllobates bicolor (Dendrobatidae) possess large clear cells in the basal layer of the epidermis. These cells closely resemble Kugelzellen (KZn) of larval clawed frog,

  3. Ettevalmistus ja meeskonnatöö tagasid eduka börsiletuleku / Ian Plenderleith

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Plenderleith, Ian, 1963-

    2005-01-01

    AS-i Tallinna Vesi finantsdirektor tutvustab ettevalmistustöid ettevõtte edukaks börsile toomiseks 1. juunil 2005. Diagramm: AS Tallinna Vesi aktsia hind Tallinna Börsil. Vt. samas: Sander Kallasmaa. Väärtust loov audit

  4. Assessment of consumers' preference to the use of garlic and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of garlic, cinnamon and combination of garlic and cinnamon oils on storage quality of beef and camel meat Kilishi were determined. Meat from the Longissimus dorsi of the hind limb of camel and cattle were used for the experiment. Kilishi produced from each species was grouped into four parts of 2kg each and ...

  5. Tulemas on Apple'i järjekordne müügihitt / Tõnis Oja

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Oja, Tõnis, 1957-

    2008-01-01

    Suure tõuke Apple'i aktsiahinnale on andnud iPhone'i turuletulek 2007. aasta sügisel, nüüd on müügile tulemas kolmanda põlvkonna mobiiltelefon iPhone. Vt. samas: Apple'i majandusnäitajad; Pürib digikodu valitsejaks. Diagramm: Apple'i aktsia hind

  6. The formalin test: effects of different injection sites on the pattern of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study evaluated the effects of different injection sites on the pattern of nociceptive responses. The responses to forepaw injection was found to be significantly higher than that of hind paw injection in the first phase while the response to plantar injection was found to be significantly higher than that of dorsal injection.

  7. The Restriction Fragment Map of Rat-Liver Mitochondrial DNA : A Reconsideration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pepe, G.; Bakker, H.; Holtrop, M.; Bollen, J.E.; Bruggen, E.F.J. van; Cantatore, P.; Terpstra, P.; Saccone, C.

    1977-01-01

    1. Rat-liver mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) contains at least 8 cleavage sites for the restriction endonuclease Eco RI, 6 for the restriction endonuclease Hind III, 2 for the restriction endonuclease Bam HI and 11 for the restriction endonuclease Hap II. 2. The physical map of the restriction fragments

  8. Arthrobacter luteus restriction endonuclease cleavage map of X174 RF DNA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vereijken, J.M.; Mansfeld, A.D.M. van; Baas, P.D.; Jansz, H.S.

    1975-01-01

    Cleavage of X174 RF DNA with the restriction endonuclease from Arthrobacter luteus (Alu I) produces 23 fragments of approximately 24–1100 base pairs in length. The order of most of these fragments has been established by digestion of Haemophilus influenzae Rd (Hind II) and Haemophilus aegyptius (Hae

  9. A Complete Cleavage Map of Neurospora crassa mtDNA Obtained with Endonucleases Eco RI and Bam HI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terpstra, P.; Holtrop, M.

    1977-01-01

    A physical map of Neurospora crassa mitochondrial DNA has been constructed using specific fragments obtained with restriction endonucleases. The DNA has 5 cleavage sites for endonuclease Bam HI, 12 for endonuclease Eco RI and more than 30 for endonuclease Hind III. The sequence of the Eco RI and Bam

  10. A comparative assessment of ribosomal DNA polymorphisms in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    aureus (MRSA) which included 13 strains from different geographical locations in England and 6 strains from St George's Hospital (SGH), London, with MRSA NCTC 119040 and Oxford S. aureus were digested with the restriction endonucleases, HindIII and HaeIII. Southern blot hybridisation was carried out on the DNA ...

  11. Identification of Campylobacter pyloridis isolates by restriction endonuclease DNA analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langenberg, W.; Rauws, E. A.; Widjojokusumo, A.; Tytgat, G. N.; Zanen, H. C.

    1986-01-01

    Campylobacter pyloridis isolates recovered from gastric biopsy specimens of 16 patients were examined by restriction endonuclease DNA analysis with HindIII. For 8 of these 16 patients two different isolates were compared to study the persistence of the colonizing strains and the stability of their

  12. Identification of some actinomycete species by restrication ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EcoRI, StyI, AvaI, BanI, HindIII, NaeI, AsnI and BanII) to obtain restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs). The PCR/RFLP profiles of SrRNA genes indicated that the actinomycete isolates are polyphylogenetic when digested with BanI ...

  13. A simple method of DNA extraction from coffee seeds suitable for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Quality of DNA was confirmed by digestion using EcoRI, HindIII and PstI restriction endonucleases and complete digestion was observed. PCR with random decamer primers and consensus primers of mitochondria and chloroplast DNA and PCR-RFLP revealed the suitability of the DNA for PCR based marker techniques ...

  14. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Charles S.Wortmann

    World monkeys. Stern (1971) remarked that the muscles of the hind limbs of the cercopithecids exhibit uniformity. Jolly (1967) wrote on the absence of ... Table 1. List of materials (Japan Monkey Centre = A; Primate Research Institute = B; Dokyo. Medical ..... The smallest indices are those of the baboons, including. Papio ...

  15. UEFA ametnik laitis staadionide seisukorda / Nils Niitra

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Niitra, Nils, 1975-

    2004-01-01

    UEFA noorte- ja amatöörjalgpalli projektijuht Claudio Negroni andis Tartu ja selle lähiümbruse staadionidele ebarahuldava hinde. Tamme staadionil tehakse 16 miljonit krooni maksev remont, et seal saaks 2007.a. toimuda 19-aastaste noormeeste Euroopa jalgpalli meistrivõistluste finaalturniir

  16. The nucleotide sequence of the right-hand terminus of adenovirus type 5 DNA: Implications for the mechanism of DNA replication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenbergh, P.H.; Sussenbach, J.S.

    The nucleotide sequence of the right-hand terminal 3% of adenovirus type 5 (Ad5) DNA has been determined, using the chemical degradation technique developed by Maxam and Gilbert (1977). This region of the genome comprises the 1003 basepair long HindIII-I fragment and the first 75 nucleotides of the

  17. Personalihaldusprogramm aitab korrastada töötajate andmed / Heiki Koov

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Koov, Heiki

    2005-01-01

    Personaliarvestuses kasutatava personalihaldusprogrammi (HRM ehk Human Resourse Management) lühike tutvustus. Lisad: Ekraanipilt. Taavi Personali saab sisestada ka töötaja foto; Leia esimese korraga õige programm; Personaliprogrammi lõplik hind sõltub firma spetsiifikast. Vt. samas: Valdo Praust. Personaliprogrammis kasutatavad isikuandmed vajavad hoolikat kaitset

  18. Camel slaughtering practices and meat production in Eastern Ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In these slaughter houses, camels were slaughtered first by immobilizing the camel by cutting the hind leg at the Achilus tendon. Then the animal becomes immobile and guided to slaughtering floor to cut its throat. Subsequently, flying, evisceration and dressing undertaken. Then the meat was transported to butcher house.

  19. Predicting yields of high priced trimmed beef cuts by means of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The total and individual trimmed meat yield of six hind quarter cuts and one fore quarter cut were estimated for 200 carcasses from animals of mixed origin with regard to breed, sex and feeding regimen. The linear models included carcass weight and visual assessment of fatness and conformation by means of seven fat and ...

  20. Sümbiotismi võimalus / Jüri Talvet

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Talvet, Jüri, 1945-

    2004-01-01

    Postmodernistliku kirjandusteaduse ja kirjanduse kriisist. Ka kolmest postmodernistlikust romaanist: Tõnu Õnnepalu "Hind" (1995), Ene Mihkelsoni "Ahasveeruse uni" (2001) ja Javier MarÍase "Coraz̤n tan blanco" (1992, eesti k. "Nii valge süda", 2002). Vastukajad: Toomes, Tarvo, Looming, nr. 7, lk. 1117-1118 ; Vaher, Berk. Papagoi ja koolibri, Vihik, 2004, nr. 7, lk. 2