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Sample records for himatanthus sucuuba spruce

  1. Ésteres triterpênicos de Himatanthus sucuuba (Spruce Woodson

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    Silva Jefferson Rocha de A.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Bioactivity-guided fractionation from hexane extract of Himatanthus sucuuba barks utilizing Cladosporium sphaerospermum led to the isolation of iridoids plumericin and isoplumericin, which showed higher inhibition against C. sphaerospermum than the antibiotic nistatin. Besides bioactive iridoids were isolated the inactive triterpenes lupeol cinnamate, alpha-amyrin cinnamate and lupeol acetate.

  2. Contribuição ao estudo anatômico do caule de Himatanthus sucuuba (Spruce ex Müll. Arg.) Woodson, Apocynaceae

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    Larrosa,C.R.R.; Duarte,M.R.

    2005-01-01

    Himatanthus sucuuba (Spruce ex Müll. Arg.) Woodson, Apocynaceae, denominada comumente de sucuuba ou janaguba, é uma espécie arbórea, latescente, da região amazônica, cujo tronco é ereto e a casca rugosa. As atividades antiinflamatória e analgésica e a baixa toxicidade foram estabelecidas em diferentes pesquisas. Com o objetivo de estabelecer caracteres anatômicos aplicáveis à identificação da planta e da droga vegetal, analisou-se o caule em estrutura secundária, que consiste da casca e da re...

  3. 15-demethylisoplumieride acid, a new iridoid isolated from the bark of Plumeria rubra and latex of Himatanthus sucuuba; Acido 15-desmetilisoplumierideo, um novo iridoide isolado das cascas de Plumeria rubra e do latex de Himatanthus sucuuba

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    Barreto, Alaide de Sa; Amaral, Ana Claudia F. [Fundacao Inst. Oswaldo Cruz (FIOCRUZ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Instituto de Tecnologia em Farmacos -Farmanguinhos. Lab. de Plantas Medicinais e Derivados; Silva, Jefferson Rocha de A. [Universidade Federal do Amazonas, Manaus, AM (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica]. E-mail: jrocha_01@ufam.edu.br; Schripsema, Jan [Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense (UENF), Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ (Brazil). Setor de Quimica de Produtos Naturais; Rezende, Claudia M.; Pinto, Angelo C. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica

    2007-09-15

    Himatanthus sucuuba and Plumeria rubra are used in folk medicine in Brazil to treat various ailments. The isolation of the new iridoid 15-demethylisoplumieride from the bark of Plumeria rubra L. var. acutifolia (Ait) Woodson and latex of Himatanthus sucuuba (Spruce) Woodson is reported. Other iridoid glycosides were obtained from both plants. The structures of these substances were elucidated by spectral analysis and comparison with data already reported. (author)

  4. Spirolactone iridoids might be responsible for the antileishmanial activity of a Peruvian traditional remedy made with Himatanthus sucuuba (Apocynaceae).

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    Castillo, D; Arevalo, J; Herrera, F; Ruiz, C; Rojas, R; Rengifo, E; Vaisberg, A; Lock, O; Lemesre, J-L; Gornitzka, H; Sauvain, M

    2007-06-13

    Extracts of seven medicinal plants used specifically against cutaneous leishmaniasis in the Madre de Dios region of Peru were evaluated in vitro against promastigote and axenic amastigote forms of Leishmania amazonensis. One of them showed interesting leishmanicidal activities (IC(50)=5 microg/ml in amastigotes). Bio-guided isolation of the stem bark's ethanol extract of Himatanthus sucuuba (Spruce ex Müll. Arg.) Woodson (Apocynaceae) afforded the spirolactone iridoids isoplumericin and plumericin. The latter showed a reduction of macrophage infection similar to that of the reference drug Amphotericin B (IC(50)=0.9 and 1 microM, respectively). These findings validate the traditional use of Himatanthus sucuuba in the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis (Uta) in Peru.

  5. Germinação de sementes e sobrevivência de plântulas de Himatanthus sucuuba (Spruce Wood. em resposta ao alagamento, nas várzeas da Amazônia Central Seed germination and seedling survival of Himatanthus sucuuba(Spruce Wood., in response to flooding in the varzeas of the Central Amazon

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    Cristiane da Silva Ferreira

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Himatanthus sucuuba é uma espécie que coloniza as várzeas na Amazônia Central. O objetivo desse trabalho foi estudar as estratégias de adaptação da planta ao alagamento prolongado dessas áreas. Para tanto, foram acompanhados a germinação das sementes e o desenvolvimento das plântulas, simulando as condições naturais de campo (seca e alagamento. A germinação foi realizada em dois substratos: areia+serragem (não-alagado, e em água (alagado. Durante 120 dias, as plântulas geradas foram submetidas a três tratamentos: controle (irrigação diária, submersão parcial (sistema radicular e submersão total. Foram analisadas as alterações na morfologia das plântulas, na anatomia das raízes e a atividade da enzima álcool desidrogenase (ADH, nos tempos: 0, 15, 30, 60, 90 e 120 dias. Foi constatado que a espécie apresenta elevada taxa de germinação e produção de plântulas, ambas acima de 80%, mesmo para sementes em água. Sob submersão parcial foram formadas lenticelas hipertrofiadas, raízes adventícias e aerênquima radicular. A atividade da ADH se manteve elevada até o 60º dia, com decréscimo após esse período. Plântulas sob submersão total perderam as folhas, não formaram raízes adventícias ou lenticelas, mas desenvolveram aerênquima. Estas plântulas apresentaram os maiores valores da ADH, que permaneceram altos até o término do experimento, indicando o desvio do metabolismo anaeróbico para produção de etanol como principal via para a manutenção da carga energética. Apesar de ter ocorrido a morte de algumas plântulas no tratamento de submersão total, o percentual de sobreviventes foi alto com 70% ao final dos 120 dias de duração do período experimental. Desta maneira, as plântulas de H. sucuuba modulam morfo-fisiologicamente a tolerância ao alagamento em função do tempo de exposição ao estresse e altura da coluna de água.Himatanthus sucuuba is a tree which colonizes the varzeas of Central

  6. Tolerância de Himatanthus sucuuba Wood. (Apocynaceae ao alagamento na Amazônia Central Tolerance of Himatanthus sucuuba Wood. (Apocynaceae to the flooding regime in the Central Amazonian

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    Cristiane Ferreira

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Himatanthus sucuuba é uma espécie arbórea de reputado valor fitoterápico, que coloniza regiões de várzea e de terra firme na Amazônia Central. Objetivou-se verificar durante quatro meses, em casa de vegetação, a germinação e o desenvolvimento inicial de plântulas da espécie, oriundas de sementes dos dois diferentes ecossistemas. Não houve diferença significativa em relação ao peso de matéria seca de sementes da várzea e da terra firme. Entretanto, a taxa de germinação da espécie variou de acordo com o substrato e o local de procedência das sementes. No substrato areia+serragem (não-alagado a germinação da espécie foi alta, independente do ambiente (várzea 94% e terra firme 91%. No substrato constituído apenas por água (alagado, as sementes provenientes da várzea tiveram a maior taxa de germinação (96% e de formação de plântulas (84%, quando relacionadas às da terra firme, que apresentaram taxa de germinação de 64%, e nenhuma das sementes germinadas formou plântulas. Neste tratamento foi verificado o apodrecimento da radícula poucos dias após sua emissão, indicando que as sementes oriundas da várzea apresentam características adaptativas ao ambiente inundado em relação às da mesma espécie oriundas da terra firme.Himatanthus sucuuba is a tree species with known phytotherapic value which colonizes both white-water floodplains (várzea and upland forests (terra firme in Central Amazonian. The objective of this study was to compare germination and initial seedling development from seeds collected in both the ecosystems. There was no significant difference between dry seed mass, but in a four month period in a glasshouse in Manaus, Brazil, germination rate differed according to the substrate and origin of the seeds. In the substrate sand + sawdust (non-flooded germination rate was high, independent of seed origin (várzea 94% and terra firme 91%. In the substrate constituted only by water (flooded, the

  7. Cytotoxicity and antibacterial studies of iridoids and phenolic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The latex of Himatanthus sucuuba (Spruce) Woodson, used popularly in the Amazon for the treatment of tumors, gastritis, inflammations and infections, was evaluated for cytotoxicity and antibacterial activities. The iridoid lactones, plumericin and isoplumericin were isolated from latex by bioassay fractionation and were ...

  8. Himatanthus Willd. ex Schult. (Apocynaceae): Review

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    Soares, Fabiana P.; Cavalcante, Larissa F.; Romero, Nirla Rodrigues; Bandeira, Mary A.M.

    2016-01-01

    The genus Himatanthus Wild. ex Schult. (Apocynaceae) includes about 13 species and five subspecies widely distributed in South America, especially Brazil. The phytochemical reports on this genus have revealed mainly triterpenes and iridoids. The plants are traditionally used as anthelmintic, antitumor, and antiinflammatory agents. The most used parts of the plant are its bark, leaves, and latex. This review emphasizes the phytochemical constituents and medicinal properties, which may help in future research. The research was conducted with data obtained from books about medicinal plants, theses, dissertations, and articles in refereed journals. PMID:27041869

  9. The antigenotoxic activity of latex from Himatanthus articulatus

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    Sebastião de O. Rebouças

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Himatanthus articulatus (Vahl Woodson (Apocynaceae is a native plant to the Amazon popularly used to treat ulcers, tumors, inflammations, cancer, syphilis and malaria. The aim of the present study was to investigate the in vivo genotoxic/antigenotoxic and mutagenic potential of this plant, using the comet and the micronucleus assays in mice. Female and male adult mice were treated with different doses of H. articulatus latex by gavage for two consecutive days. For the experiments, the latex was serially diluted with water to 1:2 (D1; 1:4 (D½ and 1:8 (D¼ and administered to the animals. The blood slides were exposed to hydrogen peroxide (ex vivo to evaluate antigenotoxic effect. Under the experimental conditions used in this study, the latex of H. articulatus did not increase the frequency of DNA damage as measured by the comet assay and micronucleus test in treated mice, indicating a non-genotoxic and non-mutagenic activity. In relation to the antigenotoxicity, latex exerted protective effect against DNA damage induced by hydrogen peroxide. Therefore, our results add new information about the antigenotoxic potential of H. articulatus latex, which is popularly used in the Amazon to treat different pathologies.

  10. Effects of alkaloids of Himatanthus lancifolius (Muell. Arg.) Woodson, Apocynaceae, on smooth muscle responsiveness.

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    Rattmann, Yanna D; Terluk, Márcia R; Souza, Wesley M; Santos, Cid A M; Biavatti, Maique W; Torres, Luce B; Mesia-Vela, Sonia; Rieck, Lia; da Silva-Santos, José E; Marques, Maria C de A

    2005-09-14

    Himatanthus lancifolius, popularly known as "agoniada" in Brazil, is largely used in folk medicine against asthma, dysmenorrhea and as an emenagogue and abortive. This study reveals the effects of an alkaloid rich fraction (AlkF) obtained from the bark of Himatanthus lancifolius in vascular and non-vascular smooth muscle responsiveness. Incubation of AlkF (3-30 microg/ml) during 15 min generates a concentration-related and fully reversible reduction in maximal contractile responses evoked by acetylcholine and phenylephrine in rat jejune and aorta preparations, respectively. Exposition of endothelium-denuded pre-contracted rat aorta rings to AlkF results in a complete relaxation, with EC(50) of 22.2 (16.2-28.2 microg/ml). AlkF is also able to induce a concentration-related rightward shift of cumulative concentration curves for calcium in uterus and aorta rings maintained in depolarizing nutritive solution. Moreover, addition of AlkF in calcium-free solution also reduces, in a concentration-dependent manner, the ability of caffeine and phenylephrine to contract aorta rings. This study reveals that the bark of Himatanthus lancifolius possesses one or more indole alkaloids able to alter non-vascular and vascular smooth muscle responsiveness, an event that may involve the blocking of calcium entry or changes on intracellular calcium utilization or mobilization.

  11. Antitumor effect of laticifer proteins of Himatanthus drasticus (Mart.) Plumel - Apocynaceae.

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    Mousinho, Kristiana C; Oliveira, Cecília de C; Ferreira, José Roberto de O; Carvalho, Adriana A; Magalhães, Hemerson Iury F; Bezerra, Daniel P; Alves, Ana Paula N N; Costa-Lotufo, Letícia V; Pessoa, Claúdia; de Matos, Mayara Patrícia V; Ramos, Márcio V; Moraes, Manoel O

    2011-09-01

    Himatanthus drasticus (Mart.) Plumel - Apocynaceae is a medicinal plant popularly known as Janaguba. Its bark and latex have been used by the public for cancer treatment, among other medicinal uses. However, there is almost no scientific research report on its medicinal properties. The aim of this study was to investigate the antitumor effects of Himatanthus drasticus latex proteins (HdLP) in experimental models. The in vitro cytotoxic activity of the HdLP was determined on cultured tumor cells. HdLP was also tested for its ability to induce lysis of mouse erythrocytes. In vivo antitumor activity was assessed in two experimental models, Sarcoma 180 and Walker 256 carcinosarcoma. Additionally, its effects on the immunological system were also investigated. HdLP did not show any significant in vitro cytotoxic effect at experimental exposure levels. When intraperitoneally administered, HdLP was active against both in vivo experimental tumors. However, it was inactive by oral administration. The histopathological analysis indicates that the liver and kidney were only weakly affected by HdLP treatment. It was also demonstrated that HdLP acts as an immunomodulatory agent, increasing the production of OVA-specific antibodies. Additionally, it increased relative spleen weight and the incidence of megakaryocyte colonies. In summary, HdLP has some interesting anticancer activity that could be associated with its immunostimulating properties. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  12. Characterization of microsatellite loci in Himatanthus drasticus (Apocynaceae), a medicinal plant from the Brazilian savanna.

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    Baldauf, Cristina; Ciampi, Maísa B; Vigna, Bianca B Z; Mori, Gustavo M; Guedes, Julian P P; De Souza, Anete P; Dos Santos, Flavio A M

    2011-09-01

    We developed a new set of microsatellite markers for studying the genome of the janaguba tree, Himatanthus drasticus (Mart.) Plumel, which is used in folk medicine in northeastern Brazil. These novel markers are being used to evaluate the effect of harvesting on the genetic structure and diversity of natural populations of this species. • Microsatellite loci were isolated from an enriched H. drasticus genomic library. Nine primer pairs successfully amplified polymorphic microsatellite regions, with an average of 8.5 alleles per locus. The average values of observed and expected heterozygosity were 0.456 and 0.601, respectively. • The microsatellite markers described here are valuable tools for population genetics studies of H. drasticus. The majority of the primers also amplified sequences in the genome of another species of the same genus. This new set of markers may be useful in designing a genetic conservation strategy and a sustainable management plan for the species.

  13. Himatanthus drasticus Leaves: Chemical Characterization and Evaluation of Their Antimicrobial, Antibiofilm, Antiproliferative Activities

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    Cristiane Santos Silva e Silva Figueiredo

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Plant-derived products have played a fundamental role in the development of new therapeutic agents. This study aimed to analyze antimicrobial, antibiofilm, cytotoxicity and antiproliferative potentials of the extract and fractions from leaves of Himatanthus drasticus, a plant from the Apocynaceae family. After harvesting, H. drasticus leaves were macerated and a hydroalcoholic extract (HDHE and fractions were prepared. Antimicrobial tests, such as agar-diffusion, Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC and Minimal Bactericidal Concentration (MBC were carried out against several bacterial species. Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Listeria monocytogenes and Klebsiella pneumoniae were inhibited by at least one extract or fraction in the agar-diffusion assay (inhibition halos from 12 mm to 30 mm. However, the lowest MIC value was found for HDHE against K. pneumoniae. In addition, HDHE and its fractions were able to inhibit biofilm formation at sub-inhibitory concentrations (780 µg/mL and 1.56 µg/mL. As the best activities were found for HDHE, we selected it for further assays. HDHE was able to increase ciprofloxacin (CIP activity against K. pneumoniae, displaying synergistic (initial concentration CIP + HDHE: 2 µg/mL + 600 µg/mL and 2.5 µg/mL + 500 µg/mL and additive effects (CIP + HDHE: 3 µg/mL + 400 µg/mL. This action seems to be associated with the alteration in bacterial membrane permeability induced by HDHE (as seen by propidium iodide labeling. This extract was non-toxic for red blood cell or human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs. Additionally, it inhibited the lipopolysaccharide-induced proliferation of PBMCs. The following compounds were detected in HDHE using HPLC-ESI-MS analysis: plumieride, plumericin or isoplumericin, rutin, quercetin and derivatives, and chlorogenic acid. Based on these results we suggest that compounds from H. drasticus have antimicrobial and antibiofilm activities against K. pneumoniae

  14. Spruce budworm returns to Northeast

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    Lloyd Irland; William H. McWilliams

    2014-01-01

    Thinking of the Northern Forest brings to mind spruce/fir (S/F) forests, cool climates, and high elevations: not to mention fishing and canoe trips: however, spruce and fir are also very important to the northern timber economy and rural development. Considering new concerns over the spruce budworm, an update on the status of this critically important forest resource...

  15. SPRUCE Mashup London

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    Edward M. Corrado

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available SPRUCE digital preservation mashups are a series of unique events that are being organized in the United Kingdom to bring together digital preservation practitioners and developers to work on real-world digital preservation challenges. During the 3-day event the digital preservation developers work to create practical solutions to real-world challenges the practitioners are having related to digital preservation. Meanwhile, the practitioners work to create compelling business cases for digital preservation at their institution. This article describes the SPRUCE Mashup London event held in September 2012.

  16. Estudo etnofarmacológico e etnobotânico de Himatanthus drasticus (Mart. Plumel (janaguba

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    F.P. SOARES

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO Himatanthus drasticus (Mart. Plumel, janaguba, produz um látex em seu caule que é usado para o tratamento de alguns tipos de câncer, vermes intestinais, febre, menstruações irregulares, infertilidade feminina e úlceras gástricas. Estudos fitoquímicos revelaram a presença de acetato de lupeol e proteínas; e estudos farmacológicos, os efeitos antiúlcera, antitumoral, imunomodulador, analgésico e anti-inflamatório. O presente trabalho objetivou realizar levantamento etnobotânico e etnofarmacológico sobre H. drasticus como contribuição ao conhecimento científico da referida espécie. Foi elaborado um questionário, que foi aplicado em entrevista a 21 raizeiros nos mercados das cidades de Crato, Fortaleza e Pacajus do estado do Ceará (CE. Observou-se que 38,1% dos raizeiros têm mais de 10 anos de serviço e 47,6%, estão na faixa etária de 40 a 59 anos, o que representa um fator positivo quanto à experiência com plantas medicinais. Aproximadamente 85,7% dos raizeiros relataram o uso do látex da H. drasticus para tratamento de úlcera; 66,7% para inflamação; 66,7% para câncer. Verificou-se que as principais indicações terapêuticas relatadas pelos raizeiros sobre esta espécie estão de acordo com as informações científicas. Os levantamentos etnobotânicos e etnofarmacológicos exercem um papel primordial no resgate do conhecimento tradicional, nos meios rurais e urbanos, tanto por seu valor histórico-cultural, como também pela necessidade de confirmação das indicações de uso.

  17. Development of spruce-fir stands following spruce beetle outbreaks

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    J. M. Schmid; T. E. Hinds

    1974-01-01

    Logged and unlogged stands of Engelmann spruce-subalpine fir were evaluated in spruce beetle outbreak areas infested about 15, 25, 50, and 100 years ago. Seedling regeneration was generally adequate except in heavily logged areas, although seedlings were often damaged, apparently by animals. Species composition was dramatically altered in favor of fir in the unlogged...

  18. Pelletizing properties of torrefied spruce

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stelte, Wolfgang; Clemons, Craig; Holm, Jens K.

    2011-01-01

    analysis revealed a cohesive failure mechanism due to strong inter-particle bonding in spruce pellets as a resulting from a plastic flow of the amorphous wood polymers, forming solid polymer bridges between adjacent particles. Fracture surfaces of pellets made from torrefied spruce possessed gaps and voids...

  19. The effect of management systems and ecosystem types on bark regeneration in Himatanthus drasticus (Apocynaceae): recommendations for sustainable harvesting.

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    Baldauf, Cristina; Maës dos Santos, Flavio Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Bark and exudates are widely commercialized non-timber forest products. However, the ecological impacts of the harvesting of these products have seldom been studied. The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship of tree resilience to harvesting intensity in Himatanthus drasticus, a tree that is highly exploited in the Brazilian savanna (Cerrado) for its medicinal latex. Although the traded product is the latex, the traditional harvesting systems involve the removal of the bark of the trees to allow exploitation. A 3-year experiment was conducted in two different Cerrado ecosystems (open savanna and savanna woodland). Trees were debarked at four debarking intensities to simulate the effects of traditional management systems. Measurements of bark growth were taken every 6 months, and quantitative and qualitative indexes of bark regeneration were obtained. The mortality of the debarked trees was low and could not be related to the intensity of harvesting. No signs of attack by fungi or insects were recorded. Compared with other species exploited for bark, H. drasticus is very resilient to harvesting; however, bark regeneration is relatively slow. In both analyzed ecosystems, the regeneration indexes showed higher values in the controls than in the treatments, indicating that 3 years is not sufficient for total recovery of the rhytidome. Bark regeneration occurred primarily by sheet growth and was more rapid in open savanna than in savanna woodland. No differences in the rate of bark recovery were found among management treatments. Based on the results, sustainable harvesting guidelines are suggested for the species.

  20. White spruce meets black spruce: dispersal, postfire establishment, and growth in a warming climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    C. Wirth; J.W. Lichstein; J. Dushoff; A. Chen; F.S.III. Chapin

    2008-01-01

    Local distributions of black spruce (Picea mariana) and white spruce (Picea glauca) are largely determined by edaphic and topographic factors in the interior of Alaska, with black spruce dominant on moist permafrost sites and white spruce dominant on drier upland sites. Given the recent evidence for climate warming and...

  1. Mice and voles prefer spruce seeds

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    Herschel G. Abbott; Arthur C. Hart

    1961-01-01

    When spruce-fir stands in the Northeast are cut, balsam fir seedlings often predominate in the regeneration that follows. Most landowners would prefer to have the spruce; but they do not get it, and they wonder why.

  2. Modelling spruce bark beetle infestation probability

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    Paulius Zolubas; Jose Negron; A. Steven Munson

    2009-01-01

    Spruce bark beetle (Ips typographus L.) risk model, based on pure Norway spruce (Picea abies Karst.) stand characteristics in experimental and control plots was developed using classification and regression tree statistical technique under endemic pest population density. The most significant variable in spruce bark beetle...

  3. Ambientes de ocorrência e flora acompanhante do gênero Himatanthus em Alcântara, Maranhão, Brasil Occurrence environments and accompanying vegetation of genus Himatanthus in Alcântara, Maranhão, Brazil

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    J.F.P. Linhares

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A janaúba (Himatanthus spp., ocorre em populações naturais em ecossistemas florestais e apresenta amplo espectro de usos na medicina popular que vai desde o tratamento de inflamações uterinas, gastrite, uso veterinário, complemento alimentar, até tratamento de câncer. O extrativismo de látex de janaúba em Alcântara vem adquirindo importância crescente como alternativa de renda. Sendo assim, o estabelecimento de estudos que viabilizem o manejo sustentado em seu ambiente natural é necessário. O objetivo deste trabalho foi de caracterizar os ambientes de ocorrência de Himatanthus no município de Alcântara, Maranhão, Brasil, e identificar a flora acompanhante. As amostragens foram definidas por indicação de informantes, e aparente frequência na comunidade vegetal; os ambientes foram descritos considerando as unidades de paisagem e histórico de uso. Como resultados, a maior área de ocorrência foi a terra firme seguida por várzeas de restinga; a principal tipologia vegetacional foi a mata secundária. O bacuri (Platonia insignis Mart., tucum (Astrocaryum vulgare Mart. e a murta verdadeira (Myrcia selloi (Spreng. N. Silveira, foram às principais espécies associadas.The Frangipani (Himatanthus spp. occur in natural populations in forest ecosystems and present a wide spectrum of uses. in folk medicine ranging from the treatment of uterine inflammation, gastritis, veterinary, food supplement to medicinal treatment of cancer. The extraction of latex Janaúba Alcantara has been gaining increasing importance as an alternative income. Therefore, the establishment of studies that enable sustainable management in their natural environment is necessary. The overall objective of this study was to characterize the occurrence of Himatanthus environments in the municipality of Alcântara, Maranhão, Brazil, and identify the accompanying vegetation. The samples were defined by word of informants, and apparent frequency in the plant

  4. Anti-inflammatory effects and possible mechanism of action of lupeol acetate isolated from Himatanthus drasticus (Mart. Plumel

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    Alves Victor CC

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The species Himatanthus drasticus is popularly known in Northeast Brazil as "janaguba" and belongs to the family Apocynaceae. The latex collected from its stem bark is used for several purposes including anti-inflammatory properties and presents among its bioactive constituents the pentacyclic triterpene lupeol. The objective of the present work was to study in vivo and in vitro the lupeol acetate (LA isolated from the plant latex, in several models of inflammation. Methods Male Swiss mice (25-30 g, 6-24 animals per group were administered with LA, 30 min before the test initiation. In the evaluation of analgesic activity the formalin test was used. The anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated by the following tests: paw edema induced by carrageenan and dextran, and the carrageenan-induced neutrophil migration into peritoneal cavities. Furthermore, the effect of LA on the myeloperoxidase release (MPO, an inflammation biomarker from human neutrophils was also determined, as well as its antioxidant potential by the DPPH assay. Results In the formalin test, LA (10, 25 and 50 mg/kg, i.p. inhibited both the 1st (neurogenic, 0-5 min and mainly the 2nd (inflammatory, 20-25 min phase. Naloxone completely reversed the LA effect, indicating the participation of the opioid system. LA also significantly inhibited carrageenan- and dextran-induced paw edemas, as well as the neutrophil migration to the peritoneal cavity evaluated by the carrageenan-induced pleurisia. In this model, the effect of a very low dose of LA (0.1 mg/kg was potentiated by the same dose of pentoxifylline (PTX, a known TNF-alpha inhibitor. LA (25 and 50 μg/ml was also very effective in inhibiting MPO released from stimulated human neutrophils, and significantly decreased the number of cells expressing iNOS activity in the paw of mice submitted to carrageenan-induced edema, suggesting a drug involvement with the NO system. Conclusions The anti-inflammatory effect of

  5. Ammonium assmilation in spruce ectomycorrhizas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chalot, M.; Brun, A.; Botton, B. (Univ. of nancy, Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France)); Stewart, G. (University College, London (England))

    1990-05-01

    Assimilation of labelled NH{sub 4}{sup +} into amino acids has been followed in ectomycorrhizal roots of spruce. Over an 18 h period of NH{sub 4}{sup +} feeding, Gln, Glu and Ala became the most abundant amino acids. Gln was also the most highly labelled amino acid during the experiment, followed by Glu and Ala. This result indicates that Gln synthesis is an important ammonium utilization reaction in spruce mycorrhizas. Addition of MSX to NH{sub 4}{sup +} fed mycorrhizas caused an inhibition of Gln accumulation with a corresponding increase in Glu, Ala and Asn levels. The supply of MSX induced a sharp diminution of {sup 15}N enrichment in both amino and amido groups of glutamine. In contrast, the {sup 15}N incorporation into Glu and derivatives (Ala and Asp) remained very high. This study demonstrates that the fungal glutamate dehydrogenase is quite operative in spruce ectomycorrhizas since it is able to sustain ammonium assimilation when glutamine synthetase is inhibited.

  6. Nutrient imbalance in Norway spruce

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thelin, Gunnar

    2000-11-01

    The studies presented in my thesis indicate that growing Norway spruce in monoculture does not constitute sustainable forest management in a high N and S deposition environment, such as in southern Sweden. The combination of N-induced high growth rates and leaching due to soil acidification causes soil reserves of nutrients to decrease. This will increase the risk of nutrient imbalance within the trees when nutrient demands are not met. The development of nutrient imbalance in Scania, southern Sweden, was shown as negative trends in needle and soil nutrient status from the mid-80s to the present in Norway spruce and Scots pine stands. This imbalance appears to be connected to high levels of N and S deposition. Clear negative effects on tree vitality were found when using a new branch development method. Today, growth and vitality seems to be limited by K, rather than N, in spruce stands older than 40 years. However, younger stands appear to be able to absorb the deposited N without negative effects on growth and vitality. When investigating effects of nutrient stress on tree vitality, indicators such as branch length and shoot multiplication rate, which include effects accumulated over several years, are suitable. Countermeasures are needed in order to maintain the forest production at a high level. Positive effects on tree nutrient status after vitality fertilization (N-free fertilization) was shown in two micronutrient deficient stands in south-central Sweden. In addition, tree vitality was positively affected after the application of a site-adapted fertilizer to the canopy. Site-adaption of fertilizers will most likely improve the possibilities of a positive response on tree growth and vitality in declining stands. In a survey of Norway spruce in mixtures with beech, birch, or oak compared to monocultures it was shown that spruce nutrient status was higher in mixtures with deciduous species than in monocultures. By using mixed-species stands the need for

  7. Silvical characteristics of red spruce (Picea rubens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur C. Hart

    1959-01-01

    Red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.) is not only the most important of the spruces; it is also one of the most important of all the conifers in northeastern North America. It is a tree of many uses. The paper industry relies heavily on it for pulpwood; in the variety of its other uses it rivals white pine.

  8. Spruce aphid (Elatobium abietinum Walker) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) [Chapter XXIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ann M. Lynch

    2014-01-01

    Elatobium abietinum Walker is a spruce-feeding aphid that in Europe is referred to as the green spruce aphid (Day et al., 1998a) (Fig. 1). However, in North America E. abietinum is known simply as the spruce aphid, while the common name "green spruce aphid" refers to a different species, Cinara fornacula Hottes (Hemiptera: Aphididae) (http://www.entsoc.org/...

  9. Damage by the Sitka spruce weevil (Pissodes strobi) and growth patterns for 10 spruce species and hybrids over 26 years in the Pacific Northwest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russel G. Mitchell; Kenneth H. Wright; Norman E. Johnson

    1990-01-01

    Ten species and hybrids of spruce (Picea spp.) were planted and observed annually for 26 years at three coastal locations in Oregon and Washington to evaluate growth rates and susceptibility to the Sitka spruce weevil (= white pine weevil), Pissodes strobi The 10 spruce were: Sitka spruce, Norway spruce, Lutz spruce, black...

  10. N cycling in SPRUCE (Spruce Peatlands Response Under ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peatlands located in boreal regions make up a third of global wetland area and are expected to have the highest temperature increases in response to climate change. As climate warms, we expect peat decomposition may accelerate, altering the cycling of nitrogen. Alterations in the nitrogen cycle can have consequences on NO3, NH4 availability or pollution, and potentially increase nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions, a persistent greenhouse gas (GHG). These consequences can cascade to altering whole ecosystem functions and effecting human health.We are investigating nitrogen cycling response to elevated temperature and CO2 in a boreal peatland. Spruce and Peatland Responses Under Climate and Environmental Change (SPRUCE) project initiated soil warming in 2014 in ten peatland mesocosms (five temperature treatments from ambient (+0°C) to +9°C) and elevated CO2 in half of the mesocosms in 2016. Peat cores at three depths (acrotelm, catotelm, deep peat) were analyzed in the laboratory for denitrification, nitrification, and ammonification. We expect denitrification, nitrification, and ammonification rates to increase, and denitrification efficiency to decrease with rising temperatures- potentially contaminating water resources with NO3, NH4 and increase N2O concentrations in our atmosphere. This research will enhance the scientific understanding of how nitrogen cycling, an important functional eco-service, responds under environmental conditions including elevated CO2

  11. Perfil farmacológico e fitoquímico de plantas indicadas pelos caboclos do Parque Nacional do Jaú (AM como potenciais analgésicas: parte I Phytochemical and pharmacological profile of plants indicated by caboclos of Jaú National Park (AM as potential analgesic: part I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Rodrigues

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Muitos estudos de plantas medicinais baseiam-se em informações etnofarmacológicas, na intenção de encurtar o tempo e diminuir os recursos financeiros no desenvolvimento de novas drogas. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo realizar estudos de farmacologia pré-clínica e fitoquímica com três extratos vegetais, obtidos de duas das 42 plantas com potenciais efeitos analgésico e/ou antiinflamatório, indicadas pelos moradores do Parque Nacional do Jaú, AM. Os extratos hidroalcoólicos foram submetidos à caracterização fitoquímica por meio de cromatografia em camada delgada (CCD. Os testes de farmacologia pré-clínica empregados foram: screening inicial, rota rod, atividade motora, placa quente, tail flick e contorções abdominais, nas doses de 300 e 500 mg/kg. Os três extratos foram obtidos a partir das cascas da cumandá: Campsiandra comosa Benth., Fabaceae (EHCC e das folhas (EHSF e cascas (EHSC da sucuuba: Himatanthus sucuuba (Spruce ex Müll. Arg. Woodson, Apocynaceae. As análises fitoquímicas revelaram a presença de flavonóides, taninos, iridóides e triterpenos nos diferentes extratos; enquanto os alcalóides e cumarinas não foram detectados. A investigação farmacológica demonstrou atividade analgésica discreta apenas no teste de contorções abdominais para os extratos EHSF e EHCC; nenhuma alteração foi observada no aparelho de rota rod e de modo geral, observou-se diminuição da atividade motora em todos os extratos nas diferentes doses testadas. Diferentes extratos destas plantas estão sendo testados em outros modelos, pelo mesmo grupo de trabalho, a fim de aprofundar os conhecimentos acerca do perfil farmacológico destas espécies.This work aimed to study the pre-clinical pharmacology and phytochemistry of three plant extracts, obtained from two of the 42 plants with potential analgesic and / or anti-inflammatory, indicated by the residents of the National Park of Jaú, AM. The hydroalcoholic extracts were

  12. Avaliação da qualidade de amostras comerciais de leite de janaguba (Himatanthus drasticus (Mart. Plumel em Fortaleza – Ceará

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.P. SOARES

    Full Text Available RESUMO Os fitoterápicos à base de leite de janaguba (Himatanthus drasticus (Mart. Plumel, usados para o tratamento de câncer, úlcera gástrica e outras doenças, são muito vendidos em mercados públicos de Fortaleza (CE. No entanto, registros mencionam que é comum a troca deste leite por látex de mangabeira (Hancornia speciosa Gomes. O trabalho objetivou avaliar a qualidade físico-química, química e microbiológica de amostras comerciais do leite de janaguba. Dez amostras comerciais foram adquiridas de um mercado de Fortaleza; quatro amostras autênticas de látex de janaguba foram obtidas da chapada do Araripe e uma amostra de látex de mangabeira foi obtida em Paracuru (CE. Foram determinados o aspecto geral, densidade, pH, resíduo seco, volume de sedimentação, perfil cromatográfico e qualidade microbiológica das amostras. Os resultados mostraram elevada contaminação microbiológica nas preparações comerciais e adulteração em seis destas amostras, o que aponta a urgente implantação de uma efetiva farmacovigilância dos fitoterápicos a fim de tornar seu consumo mais seguro e racional.

  13. Biomass of Sacrificed Spruce/Aspen (SNF)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Dimension analysis (diameter at breast high, tree height, depth of crown), estimated leaf area, and total aboveground biomass for sacrificed spruce and aspens in...

  14. Biomass of Sacrificed Spruce/Aspen (SNF)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: Dimension analysis (diameter at breast high, tree height, depth of crown), estimated leaf area, and total aboveground biomass for sacrificed spruce and...

  15. AvaliaÃÃo do potencial farmacoquÃmico de derivado vegetal originÃrio da Floresta Nacional do Araripe - Cariri: lÃtex de janaguba (Himatanthus drasticus (Mart.) Plumel)

    OpenAIRE

    Fabiana Pereira Soares

    2015-01-01

    A Floresta Nacional do Araripe (CearÃ) à uma unidade de conservaÃÃo brasileira que possui diversas espÃcies da flora nativa que originam produtos de uso popular e cientÃfico. Destas, destaca-se a Himatanthus drasticus (Mart.) Plumel (janaguba), cujo lÃtex do caule à um derivado vegetal popularmente empregado no tratamento de algumas doenÃas como cÃncer, Ãlcera gÃstrica e reumatismo. Segundo a literatura, o lÃtex possui acetato de lupeol e proteÃnas, alÃm dos efeitos antiÃlcera, imunomodulador...

  16. Spectral evidence of early-stage spruce beetle infestation in Engelmann spruce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adrianna C. Foster; Jonathan A. Walter; Herman H. Shugart; Jason Sibold; Jose Negron

    2017-01-01

    Spruce beetle (Dendroctonus rufipennis (Kirby)) outbreaks cause widespread mortality of Engelmann spruce (Picea engelmannii (Parry ex Engelm)) within the subalpine forests of the western United States. Early detection of infestations could allow forest managers to mitigate outbreaks or anticipate a response to tree mortality and the potential effects on ecosystem...

  17. An analytical method to assess spruce beetle impacts on white spruce resources, Kenai Peninsula, Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willem W.S. van Hees

    1992-01-01

    Forest inventory data collected in 1987 fTom sample plots established on the Kenai Peninsula were analyzed to provide point-in-time estimates of the trend and current status of a spruce beetle infestation. Ground plots were categorized by stage of infestation. Estimates of numbers of live and dead white spruce trees, cubic-foot volume in those trees, and areal extent...

  18. Himatanthus lancifolius (Müll. Arg. Woodson, Apocynaceae: estudo farmacobotânico de uma planta medicinal da Farmacopeia brasileira 1ª edição Himatanthus lancifolius (Müll. Arg. Woodson, Apocynaceae: morpho-anatomical study of a medicinal plant described in the Brazilian Pharmacopoeia 1st edition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leopoldo C. Baratto

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Himatanthus lancifolius (Müll. Arg. Woodson é um arbusto nativo do Brasil, latescente, popularmente conhecido como agoniada e utilizado principalmente para distúrbios menstruais. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo caracterizar morfoanatomicamente a folha, o caule e a casca caulinar dessa planta medicinal, a fim de contribuir para o controle de qualidade e a autenticidade dessa espécie. O material vegetal foi fixado e submetido às microtécnicas usuais. A folha é simples, glabra e obovado-lanceolada. A epiderme é uniestratificada, revestida por cutícula estriada e possui estômatos anisocíticos na face abaxial. O mesofilo é dorsiventral. A nervura central é biconvexa e o pecíolo é circular, ambos apresentando feixes vasculares bicolaterais. Laticíferos, amiloplastos e idioblastos fenólicos estão presentes no parênquima fundamental da nervura central e do pecíolo. O sistema vascular do caule é tipicamente bicolateral. Laticíferos e idioblastos fenólicos ocorrem no córtex, no floema e na medula. Esses caracteres morfoanatômicos, em conjunto, podem ser utilizados como parâmetros para o controle de qualidade dessa espécie.Himatanthus lancifolius (Müll. Arg. Woodson is a Brazilian native shrub, laticiferous, popularly known as "agoniada" and it is mainly used for uterine disorders. The present work aimed to study the leaf, stem and stem bark morpho-anatomy of this medicinal plant, in order to contribute to its quality control and identification. The plant material was fixed and submitted to standard microtechniques. The leaf is simple, glabrous and obovate-lanceolate. The epidermis is uniseriate, coated with striated cuticle and it has anysocitic stomata on the abaxial surface. The mesophyll is dorsiventral. The midrib is biconvex and the petiole is circular, both presenting bicollateral vascular bundles. Laticiferous ducts, amyloplasts and phenolic idioblasts are found in ground parenchyma of the midrib and petiole. The

  19. Old lower stem bark lesions apparently caused by unsuccessful spruce beetle attacks still evident on live spruce trees years later

    Science.gov (United States)

    John S. Hard; Ken P. Zogas

    2010-01-01

    We examined old bark lesions on Lutz spruce in young stands on the Kenai Peninsula, Alaska, to determine their cause. Distribution of these lesions along lower stems was similar to the distribution of spruce beetle attacks during epidemics. These lesions apparently resulted from unsuccessful attacks by spruce beetles during the late 1980s and early 1990s and appear to...

  20. Effect of increasing temperatures on the distribution of spruce beetle in Engelmann spruce forests of the Interior West, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Justin DeRose; Barbara J. Bentz; James N. Long; John D. Shaw

    2013-01-01

    The spruce beetle (Dendoctronus rufipennis) is a pervasive bark beetle indigenous to spruce (Picea spp.) forests of North America. In the last two decades outbreaks of spruce beetle have increased in severity and extent. Increasing temperatures have been implicated as they directly control beetle populations, potentially inciting endemic populations to build to...

  1. Effectiveness of polyethylene sheeting in controlling spruce beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) in infested stacks of spruce firewood in Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edward H. Holsten; Richard A. Werner

    1993-01-01

    Covering stacks of spruce firewood with either clear or black polyethylene sheeting does not raise log temperatures high enough to kill spruce beetle brood in the logs. Based on the results of this study, we do not recommend the use of polyethylene sheeting as a remedial measure for the reduction of spruce beetle brood in infested firewood or log decks in south-central...

  2. Spruce aphid, Elatobium abietinum (Walker): Life history and damage to Engelmann spruce in the Pinaleno Mountains, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ann M. Lynch

    2009-01-01

    Spruce aphid is an exotic insect recently introduced to the Pinaleno Mountains. It feeds on dormant Engelmann spruce, and possible effects include tree-growth suppression, tree mortality, and reduction in seed and cone production. Potential longer-term effects include changes in forest structure and species composition - primarily through reduction in Engelmann spruce...

  3. Photosynthetic capacity of red spruce during winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    P.G. Schaberg; J.B. Shane; P.F. Cali; J.R. Donnelly; G.R. Strimbeck

    1998-01-01

    We measured the photosynthetic capacity (Pmax) of plantation-grown red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.) during two winter seasons (1993-94 and 1994-95) and monitored field photosynthesis of these trees during one winter (1993-94). We also measured Pmax for mature montane trees from January through May 1995....

  4. Prospecção fitoquímica de Himatanthus drasticus Plumel (Apocynaceae, da mesorregião leste maranhense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.S. Luz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available O uso indiscriminado de Himatanthus drasticus (Janaúba por pequenos caprinocultores no controle de verminose em pequenos ruminantes foi o que motivou a realização do estudo fitoquímico do mesmo. Cascas da janaúba foram coletadas na mesorregião Leste do Maranhão e conduzidas aos laboratórios de Nutrição da Universidade Estadual do Maranhão e de Produtos Naturais da Universidade Federal do Maranhão para a identificação botânica e fitoquímica pela metodologia da Prospecção Preliminar e CCD, realizando testes para as diversas classes de metabólitos secundários. A partir das cascas do vegetal moído e desidratado foi realizado o preparo do extrato bruto (EB. O material foi colocado em uma mistura hidroalcoólica de EtOH: H2O (7:3 v:v, e submetido a agitação mecânica esporádica. Os Subextratos foram obtidos a partir do EBHA pelo processo de partição líquido-líquido, ETOH: H2O (2:1, v:v. As misturas foram preparadas com os seguintes solventes orgânicos de polaridades crescentes: hexano, acetato de etila e butanol. As análises cromatográficas evidenciaram a presença de grupos de metabólitos secundários no extrato e nos subextratos. As classes de metabólitos secundários que apresentaram maior expressividade na análise de prospecção foram os alcaloides e taninos, enquanto que na analise por CCD foram os flavonoides e terpenos, indicando o potencial da ação farmacológica das cascas de H. drasticus.

  5. Organic halogens in spruce forest throughfall

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Öberg, G.; Johansen, C.; Grøn, C.

    1998-01-01

    Deposition of dissolved organic halogens by throughfall was determined in a small spruce forest site in Denmark (56 degrees 28'N, 8 degrees 24'E). The mean annual deposition of dissolved organic halogens was 377 g ha(-1)yr(-1), and larger than the general deposition by precipitation....... No relationship between the position of the collectors and the forest edge or dominating wind-direction was found, suggesting that dry deposition was not a major source. The concentration of organic halogens was related to that of organic carbon and decreased from the tree-trunk and outwards. In addition......, the concentrations were higher during the growing season than during the dormant season. This indicates that the major part of the organic carbon and organic halogens in spruce forest throughfall originates from canopy leachates or other internal sources. (C) 1998 Elsevier Science Ltd....

  6. DTA Evaluation of Spruce Wood Degradation Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrušovský, Ivan; Rantuch, Peter; Martinka, Jozef; Dzíbelová, Simona

    2017-06-01

    The decomposition stages of spruce wood sawdust were analyzed by means of sequential differential calorimetry. Two stages of decomposition were identified and activation energy of one stage was calculated using the Kissinger method. The DTA was conducted by means of SEDEX safety calorimeter. Sample was analyzed under three heating rates of 10, 20 and 45 °C/h in temperature range from room temperature to 400 °C. The calculated activation energy for the last and most clear decomposition peak was 122.63 KJ/mol. The results are comparable with the data calculated by J.V. Rissanen et al., who calculated activation energy for Spruce hemicellulose as 120 KJ/mol.

  7. Taxonomy Icon Data: Sitka spruce [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Sitka spruce Picea sitchensis Picea_sitchensis_L.png Picea_sitchensis_NL.png Picea_sitchen...sis_S.png Picea_sitchensis_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Picea+sitchensis&t...=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Picea+sitchensis&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_i...con/icon.cgi?i=Picea+sitchensis&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Picea+sitchensis&t=NS ...

  8. Comparison of Bt formulations against the spruce budworm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lew McCreery; Imants Millers; Dennis Souto; Bruce Francis

    1985-01-01

    The Passamaquoddy Indian Forestry Department treated 40,300 acres in Maine in 1983 using Bt to protect red spruce and eastern hemlock from spruce budworm damage. The post treatment evaluation indicated that the protection objectives were achieved. In cooperation between the Passamaquoddy Indian Forestry Department and two commercial Bt suppliers, Abbott Laboratories...

  9. Fertilization of black spruce or poor site peatland in Minnesota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David H. Alban; Richard F. Watt

    1981-01-01

    Fertilization of poor site black spruce on organic soil with various rates of nitrogen and phosphorus increased height and diameter growth from 2 to 4 times. The growth response declined with time but was still apparent 16 years after fertilization. Shrub biomass and coverage, and nutrient levels of spruce foliage were strongly affected by fertilization.

  10. Analyses of Great Smoky Mountain Red Spruce Tree Ring Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul C. van Deusen; [Editor

    1988-01-01

    Four different analyses of red spruce tree ring data from the Great Smoky Mountains are presented along with a description of the spruce/fir ecosystem.The analyses use several techniques including spatial analysis, fractals, spline detrending, and the Kalman filter.

  11. Impacts of site effects on losses of oriental spruce during ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-08-18

    Aug 18, 2009 ... developed for oriental spruce and depends on the relation of stand mean diameter and number of trees in a hectare. Wood loss determination. The volume of the damaged, infested and cut trees because of the beetle damage was calculated in 158 experimental plots in 4.74 ha area in spruce forests.

  12. Spruce reproduction dynamics on Alaska's Kenai Peninsula, 1987-2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willem W.S. van Hees

    2005-01-01

    During the past 30 years, spruce forests of Alaska’s Kenai Peninsula have undergone dramatic changes resulting from widespread spruce bark beetle(Dendroctonus rufipennis (Kirby)) infestation. In 1987 and again in 2000, the Pacific Northwest Research Station's Forest Inventory and Analysis Program conducted initial and remeasurement inventories...

  13. Putting community data to work: some understory plants indicate red spruce regeneration habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alison C. Dibble; John C. Brissette; Malcolm L. Hunter

    1999-01-01

    When harvested, red spruce (Picea rubens) at low elevations is vulnerable to temporary displacement by balsam fir (Abies balsamea) and hardwoods. If indicator plants can be found by which to assess spruce regeneration habitat, then biota dependent on red spruce dominance could benefit. Associations between spruce seedlings (0.1-0.5...

  14. Development of White and Norway Spruce Trees from Several Seed Sources 29 Years After Planting

    Science.gov (United States)

    James P. King; Paul O. Rudolf

    1969-01-01

    A 29-year-old test of trees grown from seven white spruce and six Norway spruce seed sources and planted in Wisconsin and Minnesota demonstrates the importance of seed-source selection and indicates that trees from some Norway spruce sources equal or surpass the native white spruce.

  15. Norway spruce and spruce shoot aphid as indicators of traffic pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viskari, E-L.; Koessi, S. [Kuopio Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Ecology and Environmental Science; Holopainen, J.K. [Kuopio Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Ecology and Environmental Science; Agricultural Research Centre, Plant Production Research, Jokioinen (Finland)

    2000-07-01

    Two-year-old Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst) seedlings were exposed to traffic emissions along roadsides with three different traffic densities and speed limits; highway, street and a quiet local road. The responses of the exposed seedlings as a host plant and those of spruce shoot aphid (Cinara pilicornis Hartig) were studied. The concentrations of soluble N and free amino acids, defence chemicals (total phenolics, monoterpenes) were analysed, and aphid growth and reproduction were studied. Along the highway, street and at the local road control site, the atmospheric concentrations of black carbon (BC) and oxides of N (NO{sub x}) were measured for 1 week during the experiment. The BC data indicate deposition of organic particulate compounds along the highway and street. The NO{sub x} concentrations along the highway and street showed great diurnal variation, but the average NO{sub x} concentrations were relatively low. Thus, no changes in N metabolism or growth of the exposed Norway spruce seedlings were found. Along the street, the concentrations of many individual free amino acids, such as proline, as well as total amino acid concentrations, were lower than at the associated control site. Correspondingly, there was also no increase in spruce shoot aphid mean relative growth rate. The aphid reproduction, however, increased along the highway and is suggested to be due to more conducive microclimatic conditions at the exposure site or lack of natural enemies. No changes in defence chemicals (total phenolics, monoterpenes) in relation to the traffic exposure were found. Instead, the microclimatic conditions (temperature, solar irradiation) seemed to affect the concentration of total phenolics. (Author)

  16. Factors influencing the spatial and temporal dynamics of engelmann spruce mortality during a spruce beetle outbreak on the Markagunt Plateau, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Justin DeRose; James N. Long

    2012-01-01

    Host conditions are known to influence spruce beetle population levels, but whether they influence the spatial and temporal patterns of beetle-caused mortality during an outbreak is unknown. Using dendrochronological techniques, we quantified the spatiotemporal dynamics of a modern (late 1980s through the early 2000s) spruce beetle outbreak in Engelmann spruce on the...

  17. Spruce needles used as radioecological biotracers; Fichtennadeln als radiooekologische Bioindikatoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seidel, C.; Gruber, V.; Baumgartner, A. [BOKU - Univ. fuer Bodenkultur Wien (Austria). LLC-Labor Arsenal; Idinger, J. [Technische Univ. Wien (Austria). Atominst.; Fuerst, A. [BFW - Bundesforschungs- und Ausbildungszentrum fuer Wald, Naturgefahren und Landschaft, Wien (Austria). Inst. fuer Waldschutz, Pflanzenanalyse; Maringer, F.J. [BOKU - Univ. fuer Bodenkultur Wien (Austria). LLC-Labor Arsenal; BEV - Bundesamt fuer Eich- und Vermessungswesen, Wien (Austria)

    2009-07-01

    In a two years project spruce needle samples of the Austrian Bioindicator Grid were analysed by gamma-ray spectrometry to investigate the spatial and temporal distribution of radionuclides in spruce needles of the last 25 years with the main focus on the radioactive contamination before and after the Chernobyl fallout 1986. More than 600 spruce needle samples at selected locations of the Bioindicator Grid were analysed for different natural and anthropogenic radionuclides: {sup 137}Cs, {sup 40}K, {sup 210}Pb, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra, {sup 238}U. Additionally, soil samples were taken at selected sites to study the soil-to-plant transfer. This radioecological evaluation is an important part of an existing environmental surveillance programme in Upper Austria in order to gain basic information on the impact of environmental changes on the radioecological behaviour of spruce trees. (orig.)

  18. Animal vectors of eastern dwarf mistletoe of black spruce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael E. Ostry; Thomas H. Nicholls; D.W. French

    1983-01-01

    Describes a study to determine the importance of animals in the spread of eastern dwarf mistletoe of black spruce. Radio telemetry, banding, and color-marking techniques were used to study vectors of this forest pathogen.

  19. Yellowheaded spruce sawfly--its ecology and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steven A. Katovich; Deborah G. McCullough; Robert A. Haack

    1995-01-01

    Presents the biology and ecology of the yellowheaded spruce sawfly, and provides survey techniques and management strategies. In addition, it provides information on identification, classification, host range, and the historical records of outbreaks in the Lake States.

  20. The vegetation of spruce forests in the Pinega State Reserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Yu. Popov

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The Pinega Natural State Reserve is located in the Arkhangelsk Province in the northern taiga subzone. Spruce forests represent the dominant vegetation formation of its territory. The vegetation of this forest is classified, based on 192 phytosociological descriptions. It reveals 12 associations, which represent 7 groups of associations. Detailed characteristics of these syntaxa, including analysis of their biodiversity, are provided. The revealed syntaxa differ both in species composition and environmental conditions: moisture, nutrition, nitrogen availability and acidity. Most poor conditions in terms of mineral nutrition occupy sphagnous spruce forests and bilberry-dominated spruce forests, while under the richest conditions varioherbaceous, humidoherbaceous and nemoral-herbaceous spruce forests occur. The Pinega Reserve is the only locality, where the Piceetum rubo saxatilis-vacciniosum association occurs in the northern taiga subzone.

  1. Formation of ectomycorrhizae following inoculation of containerized Sitka spruce seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    C.G. Shaw; R. Molina

    1980-01-01

    Containerized Sitka spruce, [Picea sitchensis (Bong.) Carr.] were inoculated at sowing with pure cultures of either Pisolithus tinctorius (Pers.) Coker & Couch, Laccaria laccata (Scop. ex Fr.) Berk. & Br., Astraeus pteridis (Shear) Feller, Amanita pantherina...

  2. Adaptive Evolution and Demographic History of Norway Spruce (Picea Abies)

    OpenAIRE

    Källman, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    One of the major challenges in evolutionary biology is to determine the genetic basis of adaptive variation. In Norway spruce (Picea abies) the timing of bud set shows a very strong latitudinal cline despite a very low genetic differentiation between populations. The timing of bud set in Norway spruce is under strong genetic control and triggered by changes in photoperiod, but no genes controlling this response have so far been described. In this thesis we used a combination of functional stu...

  3. Spruce budworm weight and fecundity: means, frequency distributions, and correlations for two populations (Lepidoptera: tortricidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nancy Lorimer; Leah S. Bauer

    1983-01-01

    Pupal weights and fecundities of spruce budworm from Minnesota had different means, coefficients of variation, and frequency distributions than spruce budworm from New Hampshire. The two variables were correlated in one of the populations but not the other.

  4. Xylem sap flow of Norway spruce after inoculation with the blue‐stain fungus Ceratocystis polonica

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kirisits, T; Offenthaler, I

    2002-01-01

    In a field experiment, the sap flow of Norway spruce ( Picea abies ) was measured in response to inoculation with Ceratocystis polonica , a virulent fungal associate of the spruce bark beetle Ips typographus...

  5. Morphogenetic Litter Types of Bog Spruce Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. T. Efremova

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available For the first time the representation of moss litter morphogenetic structure of valley-riverside and streamside spruce forests was determined for the wetland intermountain area of Kuznetsk Alatau. In general, the litter of (green moss-hypnum spruce forest can be characterized as medium thickness (9–17 cm with high storage of organic matter (77–99 t/ha, which differs in neutral environmental conditions pH 6.8–7.0 and high percentage of ash 11–28 %. Formation litter types were identified, which depend on the content of mineral inclusions in organogenic substrate and the degree of its drainage. The differentiation of litter subhorizons was performed, visual diagnostic indicators of fermentative layers were characterized, and additional (indexes to indicate their specificity were developed. Peat- and peaty-fermentative, humified-fermentative and (black mold humus-fermentative layers were selected. Peat- and peaty-fermentative layers are characterized by content of platy peat macroaggregates of coarse vegetable composition, the presence of abundant fungal mycelium and soil animals are the primary decomposers – myriopoda, gastropoda mollusks. Humified-fermentative layers are identified by including the newly formed amorphous humus-like substances, nutty-granular structural parts of humus nature and soil animals’ humificators – enchytraeids and earthworms. (Black mold humus-fermentative layers are diagnosed by indicators with similar humified-fermentative, but differ from them in clay-humus composition of nutty-granular blue-grey parts. The nomenclature and classification of moss litter were developed on the basis of their diagnostic characteristics of fermentative layers – peat, peaty, reduced peaty, (black mold humus-peaty, reduced (black mold humus-peaty. Using the method of discriminant analysis, we revealed that the physical-chemical properties, mainly percentage of ash and decomposition degree of plant substrate, objectively

  6. Photosynthesis in black and red spruce and their hybrid derivatives: ecological isolation and hybrid adaptive inferiority

    Science.gov (United States)

    S.A.M Manley; F. Thomas Ledig

    1979-01-01

    Photosynthetic response5 of black and red spruce were used to define parameters of their fundamental niches. Grown at warm temperature, black spruce had highest rates of CO2 uptake at high light intensities, fitting it for a pioneering role, while red spruce had the lowest light compensation point, fitting it for a late successional role. Black...

  7. The current distribution, predictive modeling, and restoration potential of red spruce in West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory Nowacki; Dan. Wendt

    2010-01-01

    The environmental relationships of red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.) were assessed in east-central West Virginia. Although many significant relationships existed, red spruce was most strongly associated with elevation, climate, and soil moisture factors. Specifically, red spruce was positively associated with elevation, number of frost days, mean...

  8. Integrated permanent plot and aerial monitoring for the spruce budworm decision support system

    Science.gov (United States)

    David A. MacLean

    2000-01-01

    Spruce budworm (Choristoneura fumiferana Clem.) outbreaks cause severe mortality and growth loss of spruce and fir forest over ranch of eastern North America. The Spruce Budworm Decision Support System (DSS) links prediction and interpretation models to the ARC/1NFO GIS, under an ArcView graphical user interface. It helps forest managers predict...

  9. Effects of forest management legacies on spruce budworm (Choristoneura fumiferana) outbreaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louis-Etienne Robert; Daniel Kneeshaw; Brian R. Sturtevant

    2012-01-01

    The "silvicultural hypothesis" of spruce budworm (Choristoneura fumiferana Clem.) dynamics postulates that increasing severity of spruce budworm outbreaks over the last century resulted from forest conditions created by past management activities. Yet, definitive tests of the hypothesis remain elusive. We examined spruce budworm outbreak...

  10. Diapause and overwintering of two spruce bark beetle species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schebeck, Martin; Hansen, E Matthew; Schopf, Axel; Ragland, Gregory J; Stauffer, Christian; Bentz, Barbara J

    2017-09-01

    Diapause, a strategy to endure unfavourable conditions (e.g. cold winters) is commonly found in ectothermic organisms and is characterized by an arrest of development and reproduction, a reduction of metabolic rate, and an increased resistance to adversity. Diapause, in addition to adaptations for surviving low winter temperatures, significantly influences phenology, voltinism and ultimately population growth. We review the literature on diapause and overwintering behaviour of two bark beetle species that affect spruce-dominated forests in the northern hemisphere, and describe and compare how these strategies can influence population dynamics. The European spruce bark beetle Ips typographus (L.) (Coleoptera, Curculionidae) is the most important forest pest of Norway spruce in Europe. It enters an adult reproductive diapause that might be either facultative or obligate. Obligate diapausing beetles are considered strictly univoltine, entering this dormancy type regardless of environmental cues. Facultative diapausing individuals enter diapause induced by photoperiod, modified by temperature, thus being potentially multivoltine. The spruce beetle Dendroctonus rufipennis (Kirby) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) infests all spruce species in its natural range in North America. A facultative prepupal diapause is averted by relatively warm temperatures, resulting in a univoltine life cycle, whereas cool temperatures induce prepupal diapause leading to a semivoltine cycle. An adult obligate diapause in D. rufipennis could limit bi- or multivoltinism. We discuss and compare the influence of diapause and overwinter survival on voltinism and population dynamics of these two species in a changing climate and provide an outlook on future research.

  11. Experimental warming delays autumn senescence in a boreal spruce bog: Initial results from the SPRUCE experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Andrew; Furze, Morgan; Aubrecht, Donald; Milliman, Thomas; Nettles, Robert; Krassovski, Misha; Hanson, Paul

    2016-04-01

    Phenology is considered one of the most robust indicators of the biological impacts of global change. In temperate and boreal regions, long-term data show that rising temperatures are advancing spring onset (e.g. budburst and flowering) and delaying autumn senescence (e.g. leaf coloration and leaf fall) in a wide range of ecosystems. While warm and cold temperatures, day length and insolation, precipitation and water availability, and other factors, have all been shown to influence plant phenology, the future response of phenology to rising temperatures and elevated CO2 still remains highly uncertain because of the challenges associated with conducting realistic manipulative experiments to simulate future environmental conditions. At the SPRUCE (Spruce and Peatland Responses Under Climatic and Environmental Change) experiment in the north-central United States, experimental temperature (0 to +9° C above ambient) and CO2 (ambient and elevated) treatments are being applied to mature, and intact, Picea mariana-Sphagnum spp. bog communities in their native habitat through the use of ten large (approximately 12 m wide, 10 m high) open-topped enclosures. We are tracking vegetation green-up and senescence in these chambers, at both the individual and whole-community level, using repeat digital photography. Within each chamber, digital camera images are recorded every 30 minutes and uploaded to the PhenoCam (http://phenocam.sr.unh.edu) project web page, where they are displayed in near-real-time. Image processing is conducted nightly to extract quantitative measures of canopy color, which we characterize using Gcc, the green chromatic coordinate. Data from a camera mounted outside the chambers (since November 2014) indicate strong seasonal variation in Gcc for both evergreen shrubs and trees. Shrub Gcc rises steeply in May and June, and declines steeply in September and October. By comparison, tree Gcc rises gradually from March through June, and declines gradually from

  12. Response of Lutz, Sitka, and white spruce to attack by Dendroctonus rufipennis (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) and blue stain fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard A. Werner; Barbara L. Illman

    1994-01-01

    Mechanical wounding and wounding plus inoculation with a blue-stain fungus, Leptographium abietinum (Peck), associated with the spruce beetle, Dendroctonus rufipennis (Kirby), caused an induced reaction zone or lesion around the wound sites in Lutz spruce, Picea lutzii Little, Sitka spruce, P. sitchensis (Bong.) Carr., and white spruce, P. glauca (Moench) Voss, in...

  13. Climate-Induced Mortality of Spruce Stands in Belarus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharuk, Viacheslav I.; Im, Sergei T.; Dvinskaya, Maria L.; Golukov, Alexei S.; Ranson, Kenneth J.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work is an analysis of the causes of spruce (Picea abies L.) decline and mortality in Belarus. The analysis was based on forest inventory and Landsat satellite (land cover classification, climate variables (air temperature, precipitation, evaporation, vapor pressure deficit, SPEI drought index)), and GRACE-derived soil moisture estimation (equivalent of water thickness anomalies, EWTA). We found a difference in spatial patterns between dead stands and all stands (i.e., before mortality). Dead stands were located preferentially on relief features with higher water stress risk (i.e., higher elevations, steeper slopes, south and southwestern exposure). Spruce mortality followed a series of repeated droughts between 1990 and 2010. Mortality was negatively correlated with air humidity (r = -0.52), and precipitation (r = -0.57), and positively correlated with the prior year vapor pressure deficit (r = 0.47), and drought increase (r = 0.57). Mortality increased with the increase in occurrence of spring frosts (r = 0.5), and decreased with an increase in winter cloud cover (r = -0.37). Spruce mortality was negatively correlated with snow water accumulation (r = -0.81) and previous year anomalies in water soil content (r = -0.8). Weakened by water stress, spruce stands were attacked by pests and phytopathogens. Overall, spruce mortality in Belarussian forests was caused by drought episodes and drought increase in synergy with pest and phytopathogen attacks. Vast Picea abies mortality in Belarus and adjacent areas of Russia and Eastern Europe is a result of low adaptation of that species to increased drought. This indicates the necessity of spruce replacement by drought-tolerant indigenous (e.g., Pinus sylvestris, Querqus robur) or introduced (e.g., Larix sp. or Pseudotsuga menzieslii) species to obtain sustainable forest growth management.

  14. Mixing birch in Norway spruce stands. Impact on forest floor chemistry with implications for the buffering of acidity and the nutrition of spruce

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandtberg, Per-Olov [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Ecology and Environmental Research

    2001-07-01

    This thesis focuses on the effects on forest floor chemistry of mixing birch (Betula pendula Roth. and B. pubescens Ehrh.) in Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst) stands. The mechanism behind effects and the implications they have for the nutrition of Norway spruce at an increased availability of nitrogen are also examined. Compared to pure spruce stands, mixed stands of birch and spruce had higher base saturation and lower concentrations of exchangeable and complex-bound aluminium in the forest floor. The pH did not differ between mixed and pure spruce stands except at an older site, where the pH was higher in mixed stands than in pure stands. An investigation of the fine root distribution in the H layer of the forest floor and in the upper mineral soil horizons in mixed and pure spruce stands at one site did not reveal any differences between birch and spruce as regards the distribution of fine roots. Spruce fine root distribution was not affected by the presence of birch, i.e. it was similar in mixed and pure stands. Application of radioactive isotopes or analogues of several nutrients (P, Ca and K) in the H layer and upper mineral soil around birch and spruce did not reveal a proportionally higher uptake from the mineral soil by birch. The P and K nutrition was improved for spruce when growing in mixed stands with birch. This was partly due to a lower competition for these elements by birch and partly to an increase in total available amounts of P and K by birch. However, in the mixed stands birch had a suboptimal P and K nutrition. It was concluded that birch in mixed stands with Norway spruce has a positive influence on the chemical status of the forest floor, influencing surface water quality and the ability of Norway spruce to resist negative impacts from a high deposition of atmospheric nitrogen.

  15. The western spruce budworm model: structure and content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    K.A. Sheehan; W.P. Kemp; J.J. Colbert; N.L. Crookston

    1989-01-01

    The Budworm Model predicts the amounts of foliage destroyed annually by the western spruce budworm, Choristoneura occidentalis Freeman, in a forest stand. The model may be used independently, or it may be linked to the Stand Prognosis Model to simulate the dynamics of forest stands. Many processes that affect budworm population dynamics are...

  16. Indicators and associated decay of Engelmann spruce in Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas E. Hinds; Frank G. Hawksworth

    1966-01-01

    Average cull deductions for 11 cull indicators were determined from over 2,000 abnormalities on 1,027 merchantable Engelmann spruce in 21 stands throughout Colorado. On a board-foot basis, Fomes pini punk knots or sporophores caused an 81 percent deduction. Deduction for broken tops or dead tops with adjacent dead rust brooms amounted to 24 percent....

  17. On mycorrhiza development of spruces and firs in damaged stands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ritter, T.; Weber, G.; Kottke, I.; Oberwinkler, F.

    1989-02-01

    The authors studied the very fine roots of sick spruces and firs and established the following: 1. a surprising stability of mycorrhiza development, 2. differences in the dynamism of development and 3. modifications in the composition of the accompanying microfungi. The results suggest connections in the chain of causes of forest disease which have received little attention so far.

  18. Animal damage to young spruce and fir in Maine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton M. Blum

    1977-01-01

    The loss of terminal buds on small balsam fir (Abies balsamea (L.) Mill.) and spruce (Picea spp.) trees because of nipping by mammals or birds has increased on the Penobscot Experimental Forest in recent years. The cut stem is smooth and slightly angled; there is no sign of tearing. Unnipped trees grew about 13 percent more than...

  19. Reproductive compatibility within and among spruce budworm (Lepidoptera: tortricidae) populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nancy Lorimer; Leah S. Bauer

    1983-01-01

    Spruce budworm moths collected as larvae from two species of host trees in four populations were mated in single pairs in two years. In 1980 but not 1981, more of the intra-population matings than the inter-population matings were fertile. Host tree origin was not a significant factor in the level of sterility.

  20. Carbon sources in vertical profile of Norway spruce stand

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pavelka, Marian; Janouš, Dalibor; Urban, Otmar; Acosta, Manuel; Pokorný, Radek; Havránková, Kateřina; Formanek, P.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 30 (2003), s. 199-206 ISSN 1336-5266 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LN00A141; GA ČR(CZ) GA526/03/1021 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6087904 Keywords : Carbon stock * respiration * Norway spruce Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  1. Putrescine: a marker of stress in red spruce trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakesk Minocha; Walter C. Shortle; Gregory B. Lawrence; Mark B. David; Subhash C. Minocha

    1996-01-01

    Aluminum (Al) has been suggested to be an important stress factor in forest decline due to its mobilization in soil following atmospheric deposition of acidic pollutants. A major goal of our research is to develop physiological and biochemical markers of stress in trees using cell cultures and whole plants. Needles of red spruce (Picea rubens)...

  2. Red spruce/hardwood ecotones in the central Appalachians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harold S. Adams; Steven L. Stephenson; David M. Lawrence; Mary Beth Adams; John D. Eisenback

    1995-01-01

    We are currently investigating patterns of species composition and distribution, ecologically important population processes, and microenvironmental gradients along ten permanent transects (each consisting of a series of. contiguous 10 x 10 m quadrats) established across the typically abrupt and narrow spruce/hardwood ecotone at seven localities in the mountains of...

  3. Mountain Norway spruce forests: Needle supply and its nutrient content

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kovářová, Marcela; Vacek, S.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 49, - (2003), s. 327-332 ISSN 1212-4834 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK6005114; GA ČR GA206/99/1416 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6005908 Keywords : Šumava Mts. * Mountain Norway spruce forest * needle mass Subject RIV: EF - Botanics

  4. Controls on moss evaporation in a boreal black spruce forest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijmans, M.M.P.D.; Arp, W.J.; Chapin, F.S.

    2004-01-01

    [1] Mosses are an important component of the boreal forest, but little is known about their contribution to ecosystem carbon, water, and energy exchange. We studied the role of mosses in boreal forest evapotranspiration by conducting two experiments in a black spruce forest in Fairbanks, Alaska.

  5. Diapause and overwintering of two spruce bark beetle species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, E. Matthew; Schopf, Axel; Ragland, Gregory J.; Stauffer, Christian; Bentz, Barbara J.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Diapause, a strategy to endure unfavourable conditions (e.g. cold winters) is commonly found in ectothermic organisms and is characterized by an arrest of development and reproduction, a reduction of metabolic rate, and an increased resistance to adversity. Diapause, in addition to adaptations for surviving low winter temperatures, significantly influences phenology, voltinism and ultimately population growth. We review the literature on diapause and overwintering behaviour of two bark beetle species that affect spruce‐dominated forests in the northern hemisphere, and describe and compare how these strategies can influence population dynamics. The European spruce bark beetle Ips typographus (L.) (Coleoptera, Curculionidae) is the most important forest pest of Norway spruce in Europe. It enters an adult reproductive diapause that might be either facultative or obligate. Obligate diapausing beetles are considered strictly univoltine, entering this dormancy type regardless of environmental cues. Facultative diapausing individuals enter diapause induced by photoperiod, modified by temperature, thus being potentially multivoltine. The spruce beetle Dendroctonus rufipennis (Kirby) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) infests all spruce species in its natural range in North America. A facultative prepupal diapause is averted by relatively warm temperatures, resulting in a univoltine life cycle, whereas cool temperatures induce prepupal diapause leading to a semivoltine cycle. An adult obligate diapause in D. rufipennis could limit bi‐ or multivoltinism. We discuss and compare the influence of diapause and overwinter survival on voltinism and population dynamics of these two species in a changing climate and provide an outlook on future research. PMID:28979060

  6. Physiological and environmental causes of freezing injury in red spruce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul G. Schaberg; Donald H. DeHayes

    2000-01-01

    For many, concerns about the implications of "environmental change" conjure up scenarios of forest responses to global warming, enrichment of greenhouse gases, such as carbon dioxide and methane, and the northward migration of maladapted forests. From that perspective, the primary focus of this chapter, that is, causes of freezing injury to red spruce (

  7. Pulp and paper production from Spruce wood with kraft and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-03-15

    Mar 15, 2010 ... Full Length Research Paper. Pulp and paper production from Spruce wood with kraft and modified kraft methods. Ahmet Tutus1*, Saim Ates2 and Ilhan Deniz3. 1Department of Forest Industrial Engineering, Faculty of Forestry, Kahramanmaras Sutcu Imam University (KSU) 46100,. Kahramanmaras, Turkey.

  8. Leaf area dynamics of a boreal black spruce fire chronosequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond-Lamberty, B; Wang, C; Gower, S T; Norman, J

    2002-10-01

    Specific leaf area (SLA) and leaf area index (LAI) were estimated using site-specific allometric equations for a boreal black spruce (Picea mariana (Mill.) BSP) fire chronosequence in northern Manitoba, Canada. Stands ranged from 3 to 131 years in age and had soils that were categorized as well or poorly drained. The goals of the study were to: (i) measure SLA for the dominant tree and understory species of boreal black spruce-dominated stands, and examine the effect of various biophysical conditions on SLA; and (ii) examine leaf area dynamics of both understory and overstory for well- and poorly drained stands in the chronosequence. Overall, average SLA values for black spruce (n = 215), jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb., n = 72) and trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx., n = 27) were 5.82 +/- 1.91, 5.76 +/- 1.91 and 17.42 +/- 2.21 m2 x kg-1, respectively. Foliage age, stand age, vertical position in the canopy and soil drainage had significant effects on SLA. Black spruce dominated overstory LAI in the older stands. Well-drained stands had significantly higher overstory LAI (P 40%) of total leaf area in all stands except the oldest.

  9. Development of soil water regime under spruce stands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tužinský Ladislav

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyse the water regime of soils under spruce ecosystems in relation to long-lasting humid and drought periods in the growing seasons 1991-2013. The dominant interval humidity in observing growing seasons is semiuvidic interval with soil moisture between hydro-limits maximal capillary capacity (MCC and point of diminished availability (PDA. Gravitationally seepage concentrated from accumulated winter season, water from melting snow and existing atmospheric precipitation occurs in the soil only at the beginning of the growing season. The supplies of soil water are significantly decreasing in the warm climate and precipitant deficient days. The greatest danger from drought threatens Norway spruce during the summer months and it depends on the duration of dry days, water supply at the beginning of the dry days, air temperature and the intensity of evapotranspiration. In the surface layers of the soil, with the maximum occurrence of active roots, the water in semiarid interval area between hydro-limits PDA and wilting point (WP decreases during the summer months. In the culminating phase occurs the drying to moisture state with capillary stationary and the insufficient supply of available water for the plants. Physiological weakening of Norway spruce caused by set of outlay components of the water balance is partially reduced by delivering of water by capillary action from deeper horizons. In extremely dry periods, soil moisture is decreasing also throughout the soil profile (0-100 cm into the bottom third of the variation margin hydro-limits MCC-PDA in the category of capillary less moving and for plants of low supply of usable water (60-90 mm. The issue of deteriorated health state of spruce ecosystems is considered to be actual. Changes and developments of hydropedological conditions which interfere the mountain forests represent the increasing danger of the drought for the spruce.

  10. Atmospheric nitrous oxide uptake in boreal spruce forest soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siljanen, Henri; Welti, Nina; Heikkinen, Juha; Biasi, Christina; Martikainen, Pertti

    2017-04-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) uptake from the atmosphere has been found in forest soils but environmental factors controlling the uptake and its atmospheric impact are poorly known. We measured N2O fluxes over growing season in a boreal spruce forest having control plots and plots with long nitrogen fertilization history. Also methane (CH4) fluxes were measured to compare the atmospheric impact of N2O and CH4fluxes. Soil chemical and physical characteristics and climatic conditions were measured as background data. Nitrous oxide consumption and uptake mechanisms were measured in complementary laboratory incubation experiments using stable isotope approaches. Gene transcript numbers of nitrous oxide reductase (nosZ) I and II genes were quantified along the incubation with elevated N2O atmosphere. The spruce forests without fertilization history showed highest N2O uptake rates whereas pine forest had low emissions. Nitrous oxide uptake correlated positively with soil moisture, high soil silt content, and low temperature. Nitrous oxide uptake varied seasonally, being highest in spring and autumn when temperature was low and water content was high. The spruce forest was sink for CH4.Methane fluxes were decoupled from the N2O fluxes (i.e. when the N2O uptake was high the CH4 uptake was low). By using GWP approach, the cooling effect of N2O uptake was on average 30% of the cooling effect of CH4 uptake in spruce forest without fertilization. Anoxic conditions promoted higher N2O consumption rates in all soils. Gene transcription of nosZ-I genes were activated at beginning of the incubation. However, atypical/clade-II nosZ was not detected. These results suggests, that also N2O uptake rates have to be considered when accounting for the GHG budget of spruce forests.

  11. Lessons from native spruce forests in Alaska: managing Sitka spruce plantations worldwide to benefit biodiversity and ecosystem services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert L. Deal; Paul Hennon; Richard O' Hanlon; David D' Amore

    2014-01-01

    There is increasing interest worldwide in managing forests to maintain or improve biodiversity, enhance ecosystem services and assure long-term sustainability of forest resources. An important goal of forest management is to increase stand diversity, provide wildlife habitat and improve forest species diversity. We synthesize results from natural spruce forests in...

  12. Performance of the Forest Vegetation Simulator in managed white spruce plantations influenced by eastern spruce budworm in northern Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew B. Russell; Anthony W. D' Amato; Michael A. Albers; Christopher W. Woodall; Klaus J. Puettmann; Michael R. Saunders; Curtis L. VanderSchaaf

    2015-01-01

    Silvicultural strategies such as thinning may minimize productivity losses from a variety of forest disturbances, including forest insects. This study analyzed the 10-year postthinning response of stands and individual trees in thinned white spruce (Picea glauca [Moench] Voss) plantations in northern Minnesota, USA, with light to moderate defoliation...

  13. Can spruce beetle (Dendroctonus rufipennis Kirky) pheromone trap catches or stand conditions predict Engelmann spruce (Picea engelmannii Parry ex Engelm.) tree mortality in Colorado?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jose F. Negron; John B. Popp

    2017-01-01

    1) Bark beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) can cause extensive tree mortality in forests dominated by their hosts. Among these, the spruce beetle (Dendroctonus rufipennis) is one of the most important beetles in western North America causing Engelmann spruce (Picea engelmannii) tree mortality. 2) Although pheromone traps with attractants are commonly used...

  14. Detecting climatically driven phylogenetic and morphological divergence among spruce (Picea) species worldwide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guo-Hong; Li, He; Zhao, Hai-Wei; Zhang, Wei-Kang

    2017-05-01

    This study aimed to elucidate the relationship between climate and the phylogenetic and morphological divergence of spruces (Picea) worldwide. Climatic and georeferenced data were collected from a total of 3388 sites distributed within the global domain of spruce species. A phylogenetic tree and a morphological tree for the global spruces were reconstructed based on DNA sequences and morphological characteristics. Spatial evolutionary and ecological vicariance analysis (SEEVA) was used to detect the ecological divergence among spruces. A divergence index (D) with (0, 1) scaling was calculated for each climatic factor at each node for both trees. The annual mean values, extreme values and annual range of the climatic variables were among the major determinants for spruce divergence. The ecological divergence was significant (P drought over land areas in the next 30-90 years, our findings shed light on the prediction of spruce distribution under future climate change.

  15. Ecology of beech regeneration in the allochthonous spruce stands – a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lumír Dobrovolný

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the successional process of beech in a allochthonous spruce monocultures. In the natural regeneration of the predominatly spruce stand (area: 14.28 ha, age: 110 years with single mother beech trees admixture the spruce regeneration occupies the most part of the study area. However, about one quarter of area is occupied relatively regular by beech regeneration. The spruce density was at all times higher than that of beech while the spruce height grow was by contrast at all times lower than that of beech. Mean distance of beech seedlings dispersion is 12.7; at a distance greater than 40 m, the density already neared zero. Density of spruce increases with increasing light intensity, the density of beech decreases – the competition point was found about 19% of diffuse radiation or about 14% of canopy openness. The both species respond to increase of light intensity with increase of height grow (by beech only weekly – the spruce starts to dominate the beech at about 32% of diffuse radiation or about 22% of canopy openness. The silvicultural goal in the next stand generation – converting of spruce forest into mixed forest, i.e. achievement of the legal proportion of beech as a soil-improving and reinforcing tree species (proportion about 30% and more in the spruce stand can be reliably realized by natural way only using a combination of more intensive shelterwood or border felling with group selection system.

  16. Highly informative single-copy nuclear microsatellite DNA markers developed using an AFLP-SSR approach in black spruce (Picea mariana and red spruce (P. rubens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Zhong Shi

    Full Text Available Microsatellites or simple sequence repeats (SSRs are highly informative molecular markers for various biological studies in plants. In spruce (Picea and other conifers, the development of single-copy polymorphic genomic microsatellite markers is quite difficult, owing primarily to the large genome size and predominance of repetitive DNA sequences throughout the genome. We have developed highly informative single-locus genomic microsatellite markers in black spruce (Picea mariana and red spruce (Picea rubens using a simple but efficient method based on a combination of AFLP and microsatellite technologies.A microsatellite-enriched library was constructed from genomic AFLP DNA fragments of black spruce. Sequencing of the 108 putative SSR-containing clones provided 94 unique sequences with microsatellites. Twenty-two of the designed 34 primer pairs yielded scorable amplicons, with single-locus patterns. Fourteen of these microsatellite markers were characterized in 30 black spruce and 30 red spruce individuals drawn from many populations. The number of alleles at a polymorphic locus ranged from 2 to 18, with a mean of 9.3 in black spruce, and from 3 to 15, with a mean of 6.2 alleles in red spruce. The polymorphic information content or expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.340 to 0.909 (mean = 0.67 in black spruce and from 0.161 to 0.851 (mean = 0.62 in red spruce. Ten SSR markers showing inter-parental polymorphism inherited in a single-locus Mendelian mode, with two cases of distorted segregation. Primer pairs for almost all polymorphic SSR loci resolved microsatellites of comparable size in Picea glauca, P. engelmannii, P. sitchensis, and P. abies.The AFLP-based microsatellite-enriched library appears to be a rapid, cost-effective approach for isolating and developing single-locus informative genomic microsatellite markers in black spruce. The markers developed should be useful in black spruce, red spruce and other Picea species for

  17. PEI detoxification of pretreated spruce for high solids ethanol fermentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cannella, David; Sveding, Per Viktor; Jørgensen, Henning

    2014-01-01

    .e. spruce) this has been difficult to reach. The main reason behind this difference is the higher recalcitrance of woody substrates which require harsher pretreatment conditions, thus generating higher amounts of inhibitory compounds, ultimately lowering fermentation performances. In this work we studied...... ethanol production from spruce performing the whole process, from pretreatment to hydrolysis and fermentation, at 30% dry matter (equivalent to similar to 20% WIS). Hydrolysis and fermentation was performed in a horizontal free fall mixing reactor enabling efficient mixing at high solids loadings....... In batch simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF), up to 76% cellulose to ethanol conversion was achieved resulting in a concentration of 51 g/kg of ethanol. Key to obtaining this high ethanol yield at these conditions was the use of a detoxification technology based on applying a soluble...

  18. Population dynamics of Physokermes hemicryphus in variously diseased spruce stands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ludwig, W.; Smietana, P.; Liebig, G.; Horsch, F.; Filby, W.G.; Fund, N.; Gross, S.; Hanisch, B.; Kilz, E.; Seidel, A. (comps.)

    1987-04-01

    The coccid Physokermes hemicryphus is one of the most important honeydew producers on the spruce. 1984-1986 at 4 places in Baden-Wuerttemberg investigations have been made on its population dynamics and on the supply of nutrients of the host tree. The observed spruce plantations were variously diseased; therefore it was checked whether the disease of spruces had an influence on the population dynamics of Ph. hemicryphus. During the time of investigations the population density decreased at all places. It was found, that the population density was always higher at two places than at the others. These differences between the places could not be explained with the loose of needles, with the supply of nutrients and with other characteristics of the places (altitude, geological formation). When the statistical analyses were made with the individual dates of every tree, there were some correlations between the loose of needles on the one side and the supply and the weight of needles on the other side and between the population density and the characteristics of the trees. The results of the different places did not agree.

  19. Growth strategy of Norway spruce under air elevated [CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokorny, R.; Urban, O.; Holisova, P.; Sprtova, M.; Sigut, L.; Slipkova, R.

    2012-04-01

    Plants will respond to globally increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration ([CO2]) by acclimation or adaptation at physiological and morphological levels. Considering the temporal onset, physiological responses may be categorized as short-term and morphological ones as long-term responses. The degree of plant growth responses, including cell division and cell expansion, is highly variable. It depends mainly on the specie's genetic predisposition, environment, mineral nutrition status, duration of CO2 enrichment, and/or synergetic effects of other stresses. Elevated [CO2] causes changes in tissue anatomy, quantity, size, shape and spatial orientation and can result in altered sink strength. Since, there are many experimental facilities for the investigation of elevated [CO2] effects on trees: i) closed systems or open top chambers (OTCs), ii) semi-open systems (for example glass domes with adjustable lamella windows - DAWs), and iii) free-air [CO2] enrichments (FACE); the results are still unsatisfactory due to: i) relatively short-term duration of experiments, ii) cultivation of young plants with different growth strategy comparing to old ones, iii) plant cultivation under artificial soil and weather conditions, and iv) in non-representative stand structure. In this contribution we are discussing the physiological and morphological responses of Norway spruce trees cultivated in DAWs during eight consecutive growing seasons in the context with other results from Norway spruce cultivation under air-elevated [CO2] conditions. On the level of physiological responses, we discuss the changes in the rate of CO2 assimilation, assimilation capacity, photorespiration, dark respiration, stomatal conductance, water potential and transpiration, and the sensitivity of these physiological processes to temperature. On the level of morphological responses, we discuss the changes in bud and growth phenology, needle and shoot morphology, architecture of crown and root system, wood

  20. Minimal approaches to genetic improvement of growth rates in white spruce

    Science.gov (United States)

    D.T. Lester

    1973-01-01

    Several features of central importance to genetic improvement of white spruce have been demonstrated by tree breeders. First, white spruce is genetically a highly variable species and much of the existent variation can be readily incorporated in planting stock (Jeffers 1969, Holst and Teich 1969). Second, local seed often is not the best for rapid growth (Nienstaedt...

  1. Prepupal diapause and instar IV developmental rates of the spruce beetle, Dendroctonus rufipennis (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    E. Matthew Hansen; Barbara J. Bentz; James A. Powell; David R. Gray; James C. Vandygriff

    2011-01-01

    The spruce beetle, Dendroctonus rufipennis (Kirby), is an important mortality agent of native spruces throughout North America. The life-cycle duration of this species varies from 1 to 3 years depending temperature. The univoltine cycle (one generation per year) is thought to maximize outbreak risk and accelerate host mortality in established outbreaks. Prepupal...

  2. Using maximum entropy modeling to identify and prioritize red spruce forest habitat in West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathan R. Beane; James S. Rentch; Thomas M. Schuler

    2013-01-01

    Red spruce forests in West Virginia are found in island-like distributions at high elevations and provide essential habitat for the endangered Cheat Mountain salamander and the recently delisted Virginia northern flying squirrel. Therefore, it is important to identify restoration priorities of red spruce forests. Maximum entropy modeling was used to identify areas of...

  3. Acidic deposition, cation mobilization, and biochemical indicators of stress in healthy red spruce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter C. Shortle; Kevin T. Smith; Rakesh Minocha; Gregory B. Lawrence; Mark B. David

    1997-01-01

    Dendrochemical and biochemical markers link stress in apparently healthy red spruce trees (Picea rubens) to acidic deposition. Acidic deposition to spruce forests of the northeastern USA increased sharply during the 1960s. Previous reports related visible damage of trees at high elevations to root and soil processes. In this report, dendrochemical...

  4. Ips typographus and Ophiostoma polonicum versus Norway spruce: joint attack and host defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erik Christiansen

    1991-01-01

    During the years 1971 to 1982, major epidemics of the spruce bark beetle, Ips typographus L., occurred in southeastern Norway and adjoining parts of Sweden. The outbreaks were triggered by large-scale wind-felling and long-lasting drought (Worrell 1983). This "epidemic of the century," hitting our important timber tree, Norway spruce,

  5. Effect of soil and vegetation on growth of planted white spruce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald A. Perala

    1987-01-01

    White spruce container stock grew better on a sandy loam soil than on a silty clay, and much better without herbaceous competitions. Herbaceous competition was less vigorous on the sandy loam soil following glyphosate treatment, but was more vigorous on the silty clay. Certain spruce genotypes excelled under different field environments.

  6. Hydrolytic stability of water-soluble spruce O-acetyl galactoglucomannans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xu, C.; Pranovich, A.; Hemmimg, J.; Holmbom, B.; Albrecht, S.A.; Schols, H.A.; Willfor, S.

    2009-01-01

    Water-soluble native O-acetyl galactoglucomannan (GGM) from spruce is a polysaccharide that can be produced in an industrial scale. To develop GGM applications, information is needed on its stability, particularly under acidic conditions. Therefore, acid hydrolysis of spruce GGM was investigated at

  7. Development of epicormic sprouts in Sitka spruce following thinning and pruning in south-east Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert L. Deal; R. James Barbour; Michael H. McClellan; Dean L. Parry

    2003-01-01

    The frequency and size of epicormic sprouts in Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis (Bong.) Carr.) were assessed in five 23-29 year-old mixed Sitka spruce-western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg.) stands that were uniformly thinned and pruned to 2.4, 3.7 and 5.2 m lift heights. Six to nine years after treatment sprouts were...

  8. A density management diagram for Norway spruce in the temperate Europe montane region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giorgio Vacchiano; R. Justin DeRose; John D. Shaw; Miroslav Svoboda; Renzo Motta

    2013-01-01

    Norway spruce is one of the most important conifer tree species in Europe, paramount for timber provision, habitat, recreation, and protection of mountain roads and settlements from natural hazards. Although natural Norway spruce forests exhibit diverse structures, even-aged stands can arise after disturbance or as the result of common silvicultural practice, including...

  9. Early red spruce restoration research by the Appalachian Forest Experiment Station, 1922-1954

    Science.gov (United States)

    James S. Rentch; Thomas M. Schuler

    2017-01-01

    This photograph (Fig. 1), taken in June of 1923 by E.S. Ship, depicts a red spruce (Picea rubens) stand with advanced reproduction near the summit of Mount Mitchell in the Pisgah National Forest of North Carolina. According to Hopkins (1899), the original extent of red spruce encompassed as much as 1,500,000 ac in the southern Appalachians; by 1895...

  10. Expression of the β‐glucosidase gene Pgβglu‐1 underpins natural resistance of white spruce against spruce budworm

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mageroy, Melissa H; Parent, Geneviève; Germanos, Gaby; Giguère, Isabelle; Delvas, Nathalie; Maaroufi, Halim; Bauce, Éric; Bohlmann, Joerg; Mackay, John J

    2015-01-01

    .... Using a genomics approach, we discovered a β‐glucosidase gene, Pgβglu‐1 , whose expression levels and function underpin natural resistance to SBW in mature white spruce ( Picea glauca ) trees...

  11. Mechanical properties of timber from wind damaged Norway spruce

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmeyer, Preben

    2003-01-01

    A storm may subject a tree to such bending stresses that extensive compression damage develops in the lee side. The tree may survive the wind load or it may be thrown. However, the damage is inherent and it may be of a magnitude to influence the mechanical properties of boards sawn from the stem....... The paper reports on a investigation of the relation between degree of damage and mechanical proper-ties of sawn timber from wind damaged Norway spruce. The project included about 250 bolts from wind damaged trees. The majority of bolts were cut to deliver a full-diameter plank containing the pith...

  12. Experimental Whole-Ecosystem Warming Alters Vegetation Phenology in a Boreal Spruce Bog: Initial Results from the SPRUCE Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, A. D.

    2016-12-01

    Phenology is one of the most robust indicators of the biological impacts of global change. However, the response of phenology to future environmental conditions still remains highly uncertain because of the challenges associated with conducting realistic manipulative experiments. At the SPRUCE (Spruce and Peatland Responses Under Climatic and Environmental Change) experiment in the north-central United States, experimental temperature (0 to +9°C above ambient) and CO2 (ambient and elevated) treatments are being applied to mature, and intact, Picea mariana-Sphagnum spp. bog communities in their native habitat through the use of ten large (approximately 12 m wide, 10 m high) open-topped enclosures. We are tracking vegetation green-up and senescence in these chambers using repeat digital photography. Within each chamber, images are recorded every 30 minutes and uploaded to PhenoCam (http://phenocam.sr.unh.edu), where processed to yield quantitative measures of canopy color. These data are complemented by on-the-ground phenological data collected by human observers. Air warming treatments at SPRUCE began in August 2015. We observed a delay in senescence during autumn 2015 (2-5 days per degree of warming) and an advance in onset during spring 2016 (1-4 days per degree of warming). These patterns are robust across species and methods of phenological observation (i.e. camera-based vs. human observer). And, our results show very little evidence for photoperiod acting as a constraint on the response to warming. Early spring onset and consequent loss of frost hardiness in the warmest chambers proved disadvantageous when a brief period of extreme cold (to -12°C in the control chambers, to -3°C in the +9°C chambers) followed a month of generally mild weather. Foliage mortality for both Larix and Picea was immediate and severe, although both species subsequently re-flushed. These results give support for the hypothesis that warming may enhance the likelihood of spring frost

  13. Primary succession and dynamics of Norway spruce coastal forests on land-uplift ground moraine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svensson, J.S.; Jeglum, J.K. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Umeaa (Sweden). Dept of Forest Ecology

    2000-07-01

    This paper is an overview of primary succession on the rising coastlines of the Gulf of Bothnia, which emphasises Norway spruce succession and forest development and identifies topics for research. It is concluded that continuing postglacial rebound provides excellent successional sequences, and an exceptional opportunity to add new and important knowledge on original forest ecosystem development. First, long-term undisturbed forest seres, terminating in climax-like Norway spruce forest, exist. Secondly, a well-stocked, old growth spruce forest can develop on the (generally) fairly productive mesic ground-moraine sites in a short ecological time. Thirdly, undisturbed successional sequences, which go back to original soil formation, permit reconstruction of ecosystems' developmental history. Fourthly, the relationship between ground elevation and land-uplift rate facilitates estimates of ground age, and consequently permits a four-dimensional study approach. Fifthly, in view of extensive anthropogenic influence in boreal Fennoscandian forests, the few remaining natural spruce forests should be recognised and carefully documented. From our review of the literature, we conclude that present knowledge of the succession of Norway spruce on emerging shorelines, and the part played by land uplift and other factors, is fragmentary. Attention should be given to initial spruce seedling colonisation relative to factors such as sea-water level, exposure (winds, fetch), parent material, seedbed types, potential seed source (isolation), and island size. Possible multiple pathways of Norway spruce primary succession relative to temporal changes in exposure and other factors, have so far received little research effort. Attention also should be paid to the response of spruce populations to site maturation, i.e. to increasing ground age based on land-uplift rate and elevation above sea level. Finally, attention should be paid to autogenic processes in spruce-dominated stages

  14. Hydraulic adjustment in jack pine and black spruce seedlings under controlled cycles of dehydration and rehydration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Terence J.; Li, Jiyue

    2003-04-01

    Drought adjustments were compared in black spruce (Picea mariana[Mill] B.S.P), and jack pine (Pinus banksiana[Lamb.]) by subjecting seedlings to five cycles of dehydration and rehydration. A computer-controlled root misting chamber system, supplied low (-1.5 MPa), moderate (-2.0 MPa), and severe (-2.5 MPa) dehydration, respectively, in cycles 1, 3 and 5. Although cell water relations failed to adjust to chronic dehydration, there was limited osmotic adjustment in black spruce (cycle 3), and water was re-allocated from the apoplast to the symplast in jack pine (cycles 1 and 3). Dehydration postponement was more important than dehydration tolerance. Jack pine was better able to postpone dehydration than black spruce. Specific conductivity, the hydraulic conductivity per unit stem cross-sectional area, was lower in jack pine and slower to decline during chronic dehydration. When specific conductivity was corrected for the greater leaf area in black spruce, the leaf-specific conductivity did not differ in the two species. There was no increase in needle leakage in jack pine and stomata in jack pine seedlings reopened fully after rehydration. Black spruce was more of a 'water spender', and less water stress (-2.0 MPa, cycle 3) was required to lower specific conductivity, compared to jack pine (-2.5 MPa, cycle 5). Leakage from needle membranes increased in black spruce, and stomata failed to reopen after rewatering (cycles 3 and 5). A greater needle area, smaller root system, and a higher specific conductivity lowered the water stress threshold for cavitation in black spruce, which is confined to moister sites in the boreal forest. Jack pine had a larger root system, smaller needle area and lower specific conductivity than black spruce. Because of these static features, jack pine is more drought tolerant and it is often found on sites that are too hot and dry for black spruce.

  15. Light Use Efficiency of Aboveground Biomass Production of Norway Spruce Stands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Bellan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Light use efficiency (LUE or photosynthetically active radiation use efficiency in production of young spruce stands aboveground biomass was determined at the study sites Rájec (the Drahanská vrchovina Highland and Bílý Kříž (the Moravian‑Silesian Beskids Mountains in 2014 and 2015. The LUE value obtained for the investigated spruce stands were in the range of 0.45 – 0.65 g DW MJ–1. The different LUE values were determined for highland and mountain spruce stand. The differences were caused by growth and climatic conditions and by the amount of assimilatory apparatus (LAI.

  16. Influence of oviposition preference in reduced susceptibility of Ottawa Valley white spruce (picea glauce) to spruce budmoth (zeiraphera canadensis) in New Brunswick: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quiring, D.T.; Butterworth, E.W.

    1995-12-31

    In New Brunswick, efforts to control populations of spruce budmoth by spraying adults with insecticides or pheromones have produced encouraging results. An alternative technique, the selection of less-susceptible spruce, would aid in the development of an integrated management program for this insect pest. Differences in spruce damage as revealed in previous studies could be due to oviposition choice and/or to host suitability. However, researchers must determine the distribution of eggs laid by the spruce budmoth before they can determine whether some families of spruce have low levels of damage because they are avoided by ovipositing females and/or because they are less suitable for egg and larval development. This report presents results from studies carried out to quantify the number of eggs laid on trees from different families. Investigators collected tree branch samples from plantations and a seed orchard in May, before bud burst or egg hatching commenced. They analysed variations in oviposition parameters (such as number of eggs and egg masses, number of eggs parasitized by Trichogramma minutum, and number of viable eggs) using analysis of variance. To determine whether differences in egg density were related to plant morphology, they also measured such parameters as shoot length and diameter, needle length, shot type, and needle density.

  17. NACP Soil Organic Matter of Burned Boreal Black Spruce Forests, Alaska, 2009-2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides organic soil layer characteristics, estimated carbon content, and soil depth measurements made at four black spruce stands in interior Alaska...

  18. Response of Spruce Budworm (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) Infected with Nosema fumiferanae (Microsporida) to Bacillus thuringiensis Treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leah S. Bauer; Gerald L. Nordin

    1989-01-01

    Diease in spruce budworm, Choristoneura fumiferana (Clemens), caused by the microsporidian Nosema fumiferanae (Thomson), increase larval susceptibility to mortality by bacillus thuringlensis (Berliner) treatments compared with larvae free of N. fumiferanae disease. The median lethal...

  19. Varying selection differential throughout the climatic range of Norway spruce in Central Europe

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kapeller, Stefan; Dieckmann, Ulf; Schueler, Silvio

    2017-01-01

    .... To understand the genetic capacity of Norway spruce populations in Central Europe, we analyzed the variation in tree heights at the juvenile stage in common garden experiments established from the species' warm‐dry to cold...

  20. Clinal Variation at Phenology-Related Genes in Spruce: Parallel Evolution in FTL2 and Gigantea?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jun; Tsuda, Yoshiaki; Stocks, Michael; Källman, Thomas; Xu, Nannan; Kärkkäinen, Katri; Huotari, Tea; Semerikov, Vladimir L.; Vendramin, Giovanni G.; Lascoux, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Parallel clines in different species, or in different geographical regions of the same species, are an important source of information on the genetic basis of local adaptation. We recently detected latitudinal clines in SNPs frequencies and gene expression of candidate genes for growth cessation in Scandinavian populations of Norway spruce (Picea abies). Here we test whether the same clines are also present in Siberian spruce (P. obovata), a close relative of Norway spruce with a different Quaternary history. We sequenced nine candidate genes and 27 control loci and genotyped 14 SSR loci in six populations of P. obovata located along the Yenisei river from latitude 56°N to latitude 67°N. In contrast to Scandinavian Norway spruce that both departs from the standard neutral model (SNM) and shows a clear population structure, Siberian spruce populations along the Yenisei do not depart from the SNM and are genetically unstructured. Nonetheless, as in Norway spruce, growth cessation is significantly clinal. Polymorphisms in photoperiodic (FTL2) and circadian clock (Gigantea, GI, PRR3) genes also show significant clinal variation and/or evidence of local selection. In GI, one of the variants is the same as in Norway spruce. Finally, a strong cline in gene expression is observed for FTL2, but not for GI. These results, together with recent physiological studies, confirm the key role played by FTL2 and circadian clock genes in the control of growth cessation in spruce species and suggest the presence of parallel adaptation in these two species. PMID:24814465

  1. Patterns of total ecosystem carbon storage with changes in soil temperature in boreal black spruce forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    E.S. Kane; J.G. Vogel

    2009-01-01

    To understand how carbon (C) pools in boreal ecosystems may change with warming, we measured above- and belowground C pools and C increment along a soil temperature gradient across 16 mature upland black spruce (Picea mariana Mill. [B•S.P]) forests in interior Alaska. Total spruce C stocks (stand and root C) increased from 1.3 to 8.5 kg C m

  2. Rubidium and cesium in spruce needles. Concentrations and biodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobler, L; Bucher, J; Furrer, V; Schleppi, P; Wyttenbach, A

    1994-01-01

    The endogenous concentrations of Rb and Cs have been determined in needles of 56 trees (Norway spruce, Picea abies) from eight different sites. Analysis was done by instrumental neutron activation. Concentrations were found to have a very large range (3-28,000 ng Cs/g and 1-190 micrograms Rb/g). The values on a given site have a tendency toward a log-normal distribution. There is a significant correlation between Rb and Cs, but the correlation is not linear. The concentrations of both elements are a function of the needle age. They decrease smoothly, approaching a constant value, when going from needle age class 1 to 5. It is shown that one algebraic function describes this biodynamic behavior on all sites and at all concentration levels. The function and its parameters are discussed.

  3. Vitamin E in spruces. Vitamin E in Fichten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franzen, J.

    1990-05-01

    The distribution of vitamin E in spruce and the change of its concentration in the needles under oxidative or dark stress are studied in this thesis. [gamma]-tocopherol is found in seeds only, and [beta]-tocopherol and [alpha]-tocotrienol are found in seddlings only, but [alpha]-tocopherol is found in all living organs. The age groups of needles exhibit on asymptotic, age-dependent accumulation. Etiolation in consequence of artifical dark stress and oxidative stress result in an increase in vitamin E, while monoterpene fumigation and high light intensity entail a decrease in vitam E. Field investigations reveal a connection between the degree of injury in trees and their vitamin E content. On the whole, vitamin E seems to be an essential, stabilizing component of vegetable membranes. (UWA).

  4. MICROSTRUCTURE MODIFICATIONS INDUCED IN SPRUCE WOOD BY FREEZING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Bernadett SZMUTKU

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM is amodern, non-invasive method for objective andspecialized image analysis of anatomical materialfeatures at microscopic level. Referring to wood, itoffers the possibility to view in 3D a bunch ofneighboring cells, in all three grain directions.This allows the imaging of modifications thatmight appear in the structure of the wood cellmembrane (e.g. micro-fissures caused by differentfactors, including temperature variations. This paperpresents the results of the SEM analysis performedon European spruce (Picea abies samples, cut fromboards which were subjected to freezing and thawingunder different conditions of temperature variationand time of exposure.The main aim of this research was to reveal theconditions which determine the occurrence of microfissuresin the cell wall and consequently lead tostrength losses in wood.

  5. Nocardia aciditolerans sp. nov., isolated from a spruce forest soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golinska, Patrycja; Wang, Dylan; Goodfellow, Michael

    2013-05-01

    Actinomycetes growing on acidified starch-casein agar seeded with suspensions of litter and mineral soil from a spruce forest were provisionally assigned to the genus Nocardia based upon colonial properties. Representative isolates were found to grow optimally at pH 5.5, have chemotaxonomic and morphological features consistent with their assignment to the genus Nocardia and formed two closely related subclades in the Nocardia 16S rRNA gene tree. DNA:DNA relatedness assays showed that representatives of the subclades belong to a single genomic species. The isolates were distantly associated with their nearest phylogenetic neighbour, the type strain of Nocardia kruczakiae, and were distinguished readily from the latter based on phenotypic properties. On the basis of these data it is proposed that the isolates merit recognition as a new species, Nocardia aciditolerans sp. nov. The type strain is isolate CSCA68(T) (=KACC 17155(T) = NCIMB 14829(T) = DSM 45801(T)).

  6. Tensile strength of glulam laminations of Nordic spruce

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmeyer, Preben; Bräuner, Lise; Boström, Lars

    1999-01-01

    Design of glulam according to the European timber code Eurocode 5 is based on the standard document prEN1194 , according to which glulam beam strength is to be established either by full scale testing or by calculation. The calculation must be based on a knowledge of lamination tensile strength....... This knowledge may be obtained either by adopting a general rule that the characteristic tensile strength is sixty percent of the characteristic bending strength, or by performing tensile tests on an adequate number of laminations representative of the whole population. The present paper presents...... an investigation aimed at establishing such an adequate experimental background for the assignment of strength classes for glulam made of visually strength graded laminations from Nordic sawmills. The investigation includes more than 1800 boards (laminations) of Norway spruce (Picea abies) sampled from eight...

  7. Films from Glyoxal-Crosslinked Spruce Galactoglucomannans Plasticized with Sorbitol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsi S. Mikkonen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Films were prepared from a renewable and biodegradable forest biorefinery product, spruce O-acetyl-galactoglucomannans (GGMs, crosslinked with glyoxal. For the first time, cohesive and self-standing films were obtained from GGM without the addition of polyol plasticizer. In addition, glyoxal-crosslinked films were prepared using sorbitol at 10, 20, 30, and 40% (wt.-% of GGM. Glyoxal clearly strengthened the GGM matrix, as detected by tensile testing and dynamic mechanical analysis. The elongation at break of films slightly increased, and Young's modulus decreased with increasing sorbitol content. Interestingly, the tensile strength of films was constant with the increased plasticizer content. The effect of sorbitol on water sorption and water vapor permeability (WVP depended on relative humidity (RH. At low RH, the addition of sorbitol significantly decreased the WVP of films. The glyoxal-crosslinked GGM films containing 20% sorbitol exhibited the lowest oxygen permeability (OP and WVP of the studied films and showed satisfactory mechanical performance.

  8. Vertical structure of evapotranspiration at a spruce forest site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staudt, K.; Falge, E.; Serafimovich, A.; Pyles, D.; Foken, T.

    2009-12-01

    The Advanced Canopy-Atmosphere-Soil Algorithm (ACASA) was used to model the turbulent fluxes of heat, water vapor and momentum as well as the carbon dioxide exchange within and above a spruce canopy at the FLUXNET-station Waldstein-Weidenbrunnen (DE-Bay) in the Fichtelgebirge mountains in northern Bavaria, Germany. ACASA is a multilayer canopy-surface-layer model that incorporates a third-order closure method to calculate turbulent transfer within and above the canopy and was developed at the University of California, Davis. Within the EGER (ExchanGE processes in mountainous Regions) project, comprehensive micrometeorological and plant physiological measurements were performed during two intensive observation periods in fall 2007 and summer 2008. This data base allowed us to extensively test the ability of the ACASA model to simulate the exchange of energy and matter at our site. Here, the vertical structure of evapotranspiration within and above the canopy for a few days is investigated in detail. The ACASA model provides profiles of all components of evapotranspiration, such as transpiration and evaporation from the soil, and estimates the interception of precipitation and the corresponding evaporation from wet plant surfaces. Fluxes of momentum, heat, carbon dioxide and water vapor were measured with six eddy-covariance systems below, within and above the canopy on a 36 m high tower. Furthermore, xylem sapflow measurements at six heights within the canopy were performed for the determination of canopy transpiration. This combination of multilevel measurements allowed us to estimate all components of evapotranspiration of and within the spruce forest. Model results and measurements of evapotranspiration are analyzed with regard to the partitioning between its components as well as between the canopy layers. Furthermore, the ability of the ACASA model to reproduce evapotranspiration profiles for different exchange regimes of the subcanopy and the canopy is

  9. Genetical genomics identifies the genetic architecture for growth and weevil resistance in spruce.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilga Porth

    Full Text Available In plants, relationships between resistance to herbivorous insect pests and growth are typically controlled by complex interactions between genetically correlated traits. These relationships often result in tradeoffs in phenotypic expression. In this study we used genetical genomics to elucidate genetic relationships between tree growth and resistance to white pine terminal weevil (Pissodes strobi Peck. in a pedigree population of interior spruce (Picea glauca, P. engelmannii and their hybrids that was growing at Vernon, B.C. and segregating for weevil resistance. Genetical genomics uses genetic perturbations caused by allelic segregation in pedigrees to co-locate quantitative trait loci (QTLs for gene expression and quantitative traits. Bark tissue of apical leaders from 188 trees was assayed for gene expression using a 21.8K spruce EST-spotted microarray; the same individuals were genotyped for 384 SNP markers for the genetic map. Many of the expression QTLs (eQTL co-localized with resistance trait QTLs. For a composite resistance phenotype of six attack and oviposition traits, 149 positional candidate genes were identified. Resistance and growth QTLs also overlapped with eQTL hotspots along the genome suggesting that: 1 genetic pleiotropy of resistance and growth traits in interior spruce was substantial, and 2 master regulatory genes were important for weevil resistance in spruce. These results will enable future work on functional genetic studies of insect resistance in spruce, and provide valuable information about candidate genes for genetic improvement of spruce.

  10. Volatiles from a mite-infested spruce clone and their effects on pine weevil behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kännaste, Astrid; Nordenhem, Henrik; Nordlander, Göran; Borg-Karlson, Anna-Karin

    2009-10-01

    Induced responses by Norway spruce (Picea abies) seedlings to feeding damage by two mite species were studied by analyzing the volatiles emitted during infestation. Four specimens of a Norway spruce (Picea abies L.) clone were infested with mites of Nalepella sp., another four with Oligonychus ununguis, and four were kept mite-free as controls. After a year of infestation, spruce volatiles were collected, analyzed, and identified using SPME-GC-MS. In addition, enantiomers of chiral limonene and linalool were separated by two-dimensional GC. Methyl salicylate (MeSA), (-)-linalool, (E)-beta-farnesene, and (E,E)-alpha-farnesene were the main volatiles induced by both species of mites, albeit in different proportions. The ability of the main compounds emitted by the mite-infested spruces to attract or repel the pine weevil, Hylobius abietis (L.), was tested. (E)-beta-farnesene was found to be attractive in the absence of spruce odor, whereas methyl salicylate had a deterrent effect in combination with attractive spruce odor. The other tested compounds had no significant effects on the behavior of the weevils.

  11. Beat sampling accuracy in estimating spruce spider mite (Acari: Tetranychidae) populations and injury on juniper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrewsbury, Paula M; Hardin, Mark R

    2004-08-01

    The use of a standardized beat sampling method for estimating spruce spider mite, Oligonychus ununguis (Jacobi) (Acari: Tetranychidae), densities on a widely used evergreen ornamental plant species, Juniperus chinensis variety 'Sargentii' A. Henry (Cupressaceae), was examined. There was a significant positive relationship between total spruce spider mite densities and spider mite densities from beat sampling on juniper. The slope and intercept of the relationship may be used by pest managers to predict total spider mite densities on plants from beat sample counts. Beat sampling dramatically underestimates the total number of spider mites on a foliage sample. The relationships between spruce spider mite feeding injury and spider mite density estimates from beat sampling juniper foliage and total spider mite counts on foliage were also examined. There was a significant positive relationship between spruce spider mite density as estimated from beat sampling and injury to the plants. There was a similar positive relationship between the total number of spruce spider mites and injury to the plants, suggesting that a pest manager could use beat sampling counts to estimate plant injury and related thresholds. These findings have important implications to decision-making for spruce spider mite control, especially as it relates to threshold levels and determining rates of predator releases. Further assessment of the effectiveness of beat and other sampling methods across multiple spider mite- host plant associations needs to be examined to enable pest managers to select sampling plans that are feasible and reliable.

  12. Evidence of compounded disturbance effects on vegetation recovery following high-severity wildfire and spruce beetle outbreak

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Amanda R Carlson; Jason S Sibold; Timothy J Assal; Jose F Negrón

    2017-01-01

    Spruce beetle (Dendroctonus rufipennis) outbreaks are rapidly spreading throughout subalpine forests of the Rocky Mountains, raising concerns that altered fuel structures may increase the ecological severity of wildfire...

  13. Transcriptome mining, functional characterization, and phylogeny of a large terpene synthase gene family in spruce (Picea spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dullat Harpreet K

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In conifers, terpene synthases (TPSs of the gymnosperm-specific TPS-d subfamily form a diverse array of mono-, sesqui-, and diterpenoid compounds, which are components of the oleoresin secretions and volatile emissions. These compounds contribute to defence against herbivores and pathogens and perhaps also protect against abiotic stress. Results The availability of extensive transcriptome resources in the form of expressed sequence tags (ESTs and full-length cDNAs in several spruce (Picea species allowed us to estimate that a conifer genome contains at least 69 unique and transcriptionally active TPS genes. This number is comparable to the number of TPSs found in any of the sequenced and well-annotated angiosperm genomes. We functionally characterized a total of 21 spruce TPSs: 12 from Sitka spruce (P. sitchensis, 5 from white spruce (P. glauca, and 4 from hybrid white spruce (P. glauca × P. engelmannii, which included 15 monoterpene synthases, 4 sesquiterpene synthases, and 2 diterpene synthases. Conclusions The functional diversity of these characterized TPSs parallels the diversity of terpenoids found in the oleoresin and volatile emissions of Sitka spruce and provides a context for understanding this chemical diversity at the molecular and mechanistic levels. The comparative characterization of Sitka spruce and Norway spruce diterpene synthases revealed the natural occurrence of TPS sequence variants between closely related spruce species, confirming a previous prediction from site-directed mutagenesis and modelling.

  14. Transcriptome mining, functional characterization, and phylogeny of a large terpene synthase gene family in spruce (Picea spp.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background In conifers, terpene synthases (TPSs) of the gymnosperm-specific TPS-d subfamily form a diverse array of mono-, sesqui-, and diterpenoid compounds, which are components of the oleoresin secretions and volatile emissions. These compounds contribute to defence against herbivores and pathogens and perhaps also protect against abiotic stress. Results The availability of extensive transcriptome resources in the form of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) and full-length cDNAs in several spruce (Picea) species allowed us to estimate that a conifer genome contains at least 69 unique and transcriptionally active TPS genes. This number is comparable to the number of TPSs found in any of the sequenced and well-annotated angiosperm genomes. We functionally characterized a total of 21 spruce TPSs: 12 from Sitka spruce (P. sitchensis), 5 from white spruce (P. glauca), and 4 from hybrid white spruce (P. glauca × P. engelmannii), which included 15 monoterpene synthases, 4 sesquiterpene synthases, and 2 diterpene synthases. Conclusions The functional diversity of these characterized TPSs parallels the diversity of terpenoids found in the oleoresin and volatile emissions of Sitka spruce and provides a context for understanding this chemical diversity at the molecular and mechanistic levels. The comparative characterization of Sitka spruce and Norway spruce diterpene synthases revealed the natural occurrence of TPS sequence variants between closely related spruce species, confirming a previous prediction from site-directed mutagenesis and modelling. PMID:21385377

  15. Effect of stand edge on the natural regeneration of spruce, beech and Douglas-fir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lumír Dobrovolný

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Our work aimed at studying the strategy of woody plants regeneration during the regeneration of a spruce stand with the admixture of beech and Douglas-fir by border cutting (NW-SE aspect on acidic sites of higher elevations in the Bohemian-Moravian Upland. Spruce is better adapted to bear shade than Douglas-fir. Nevertheless, in optimal light conditions up to a distance of ca. 35 m (about 16% DIFFSF from the stand edge, the Douglas-fir can put the spruce into danger as to height growth. By contrast to beech, the density of spruce is significantly higher within the distance of 45 m (about 15% DIFFSF from the stand edge but further on the situation would change to the benefit of beech. The density of Douglas-fir significantly dominates over beech within a distance of 35 m from the stand edge; from 55 m (less than 15% DIFFSF, the situation changes in favour of beech. Beech can survive in full shade deep in the stand core waiting for its opportunity to come. As compared to spruce and Douglas-fir, the height growth of beech was at all times significantly greater at a distance of 25 m from the stand edge. Converted to practical conditions, spruce and Douglas-fir with individually admixed beech seedlings showed good prosperity approximately up to a distance of one stand height from the edge. A mixture of spruce and beech did well at a greater distance but good prosperity at a distance of 2–3 stand heights was shown only by beech. Thus, border regeneration eliminates disadvantages of the climatic extremes of clear-cutting and specifics of shelterwood felling during which one – usually shade-tolerant tree species dominates in the natural regeneration (e.g. beech.

  16. Long-term landscape changes in a subalpine spruce-fir forest in central Utah, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesse L. Morris1

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: In Western North America, increasing wildfire and outbreaks of native bark beetles have been mediated by warming climate conditions. Bioclimatic models forecast the loss of key high elevation species throughout the region. This study uses retrospective vegetation and fire history data to reconstruct the drivers of past disturbance and environmental change. Understanding the relationship among climate, antecedent disturbances, and the legacy effects of settlement-era logging can help identify the patterns and processes that create landscapes susceptible to bark beetle epidemics. Methods: Our analysis uses data from lake sediment cores, stand inventories, and historical records. Sediment cores were dated with radiometric techniques (14C and 210Pb/137Cs and subsampled for pollen and charcoal to maximize the temporal resolution during the historical period (1800 CE to present and to provide environmental baseline data (last 10,500 years. Pollen data for spruce were calibrated to carbon biomass (C t/ha using standard allometric equations and a transfer function. Charcoal samples were analyzed with statistical models to facilitate peak detection and determine fire recurrence intervals. Results: The Wasatch Plateau has been dominated by Engelmann spruce forests for the last ~10,500 years, with subalpine fir becoming more prominent since 6000 years ago. This landscape has experienced a dynamic fire regime, where burning events are more frequent and of higher magnitude during the last 3000 years. Two important disturbances have impacted Engelmann spruce in the historical period: 1 high-grade logging during the late 19th century; and (2 a high severity spruce beetle outbreak in the late 20th century that killed >90 % of mature spruce (>10 cm dbh. Conclusions: Our study shows that spruce-dominated forests in this region are resilient to a range of climate and disturbance regimes. Several lines of evidence suggest that 19th century logging

  17. Use of artificial trees to assess dry deposition in spruce stands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dambrine, E.; Pollier, B.; Bonneau, M.; Ignatova, N.

    In order to quantify the contribution of dry deposition to net throughfall composition in spruce, plastic Christmas trees were set up next to real spruce trees of approximately similar height in clearings of the Strengbach catchment (Vosges Mountains, France). Bulk precipitation and throughfall chemistry under the artificial trees, the real spruce trees, and in 3 spruce stands aged 15, 35 and 90 yr were monitored for 8.5 months. Fluxes of base cations in net throughfall below plastic trees were, on average, 1.5 times higher (Ca, Mg), 1.3 times higher (Na) or close (K, Mn) to those in bulk precipitation. Ratios in net throughfall between the fluxes of Ca, Mg, K and Mn, on the one hand, and Na on the other hand, were considered as representative of the composition of dry deposition. Assuming that foliar leaching of Na was negligible, the ratio between Na fluxes in net throughfall under living and plastic canopies was used as a particle deposition index. Using this index, particulate deposition was computed for the real spruce trees in the clearings as well as in the 3 closed stands. Results confirmed that the Ca and Mg flux in net throughfall was mainly supplied by dry deposition whereas K and Mn originated from foliar leaching. The increase in net throughfall fluxes of Ca and Mg with stand age appeared mainly related to an increase in dry deposition.

  18. Drought-triggered western spruce budworm outbreaks in the Interior Pacific Northwest: A multi-century dendrochronological record

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. Flower; D. G. Gavin; E. K. Heyerdahl; R. A. Parsons; G. M. Cohn

    2014-01-01

    Douglas-fir forests in the interior Pacific Northwest are subject to sporadic outbreaks of the western spruce budworm, a species widely recognized as the most destructive defoliator in western North America. Outbreaks of the western spruce budworm often occur synchronously over broad regions and lead to widespread loss of leaf area and decrease in growth rates in...

  19. Effects of calcium fertilization and acid mist on calcium concentration and cold tolerance of red spruce needles

    Science.gov (United States)

    G. R. Strimbeck; David R. Vann; Arthur H. Johnson

    1996-01-01

    Several studies have shown that exposure to acid mist impairs cold tolerance of red spruce foliage, predisposing it to winter injury, which appears to be a major factor in the decline of montane populations of the species. Other studies have shown increases in calcium (Ca) concentration in canopy throughfall in montane spruce-fir forests, and decreases in foliar Ca...

  20. Reproductive barriers and hybridity in two spruces, Picea rubens and Picea mariana, sympatric in eastern North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    John E. Major; Alex Mosseler; Kurt H. Johnsen; Om P. Rajora; Debby C. Barsi; K.-H. Kim; J.-M. Park; Moira Campbell

    2005-01-01

    Hybridization between red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.) and black spruce (Picea mariana (Mill.) BSP), lateand early-successional species, respectively, has resulted in identification and management problems. We investigated the nature and magnitude of reproductive and life-cycle success barriers in controlled intra- and inter-...

  1. Changes in downed and dead woody material following a spruce beetle outbreak on the Kenai Peninsula, Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bethany. Schulz

    2003-01-01

    The forests of the Kenai Peninsula, Alaska, underwent a major spruce beetle(Dendroctonus rufipennis (Kirby)) outbreak in the 1990s. A repeated inventory of forest resources was designed to assess the effects of the resulting widespread mortality of spruce trees, the dominant component of the Kenai forests. Downed woody materials, fuel heights, and...

  2. Establishment and growth of white spruce on a boreal forest floodplain: interactions between microclimate and mammalian herbivory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amy C. Angell; Knut. Kielland

    2009-01-01

    White spruce (Picea glauca (Moench) Voss) is a dominant species in late-successional ecosystems along the Tanana River, interior Alaska, and the most important commercial timber species in these boreal floodplain forests. Whereas white spruce commonly seed in on young terraces in early primary succession, the species does not become a conspicuous...

  3. Vulnerability of white spruce tree growth in interior Alaska in response to climate variability: dendrochronological, demographic, and experimental perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    A.D. McGuire; R.W. Ruess; A. Lloyd; J. Yarie; J.S. Clein; G.P. Juday

    2010-01-01

    This paper integrates dendrochronological, demographic, and experimental perspectives to improve understanding of the response of white spruce (Picea glauca (Moench) Voss) tree growth to climatic variability in interior Alaska. The dendrochronological analyses indicate that climate warming has led to widespread declines in white spruce growth...

  4. Spruce colonization at treeline: where do those seeds come from?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piotti, A; Leonardi, S; Piovani, P; Scalfi, M; Menozzi, P

    2009-08-01

    At treeline, selection by harsh environmental conditions sets an upward limit to arboreal vegetation. Increasing temperatures and the decline of traditional animal raising have favoured an upward shift of treeline in the last decades. These circumstances create a unique opportunity to study the balance of the main forces (selection and gene flow) that drive tree migration. We conducted a parentage analysis sampling and genotyping with five microsatellite markers in all Norway spruce individuals (342 juveniles and 23 adults) found in a recently colonized treeline area (Paneveggio forest, Eastern Alps, Italy). Our goal was to evaluate local reproductive success versus gene flow from the outside. We were able to identify both parents among local adults for only 11.1% of the juveniles. In the gamete pool we sampled, two-thirds were not produced locally. Effective seed dispersal distance distribution was characterized by a peak far from the seed source (mean 344.66 m+/-191.02 s.d.). Reproductive success was skewed, with six local adults that generated almost two-thirds (62.4%) of juveniles with local parents. Our findings indicate that, although a few local adults seem to play an important role in the colonization process at treeline, large levels of gene flow from outside were maintained, suggesting that the potential advantages of local adults (such as local adaptation, proximity to the colonization area, phenological synchrony) did not prevent a large gamete immigration.

  5. Rainfall interception and spatial variability of throughfall in spruce stand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dohnal Michal

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The interception was recognized as an important part of the catchment water balance in temperate climate. The mountainous forest ecosystem at experimental headwater catchment Liz has been subject of long-term monitoring. Unique dataset in terms of time resolution serves to determine canopy storage capacity and free throughfall. Spatial variability of throughfall was studied using one weighing and five tipping bucket rain gauges. The basic characteristics of forest affecting interception process were determined for the Norway spruce stand at the experimental area - the leaf area index was 5.66 - 6.00 m2 m-2, the basal area was 55.7 m2 ha-1, and the crown closure above individual rain gauges was between 19 and 95%. The total interception loss in both growing seasons analyzed was 34.5%. The mean value of the interception capacity determined was about 2 mm. Throughfall exhibited high variability from place to place and it was strongly affected by character of rainfall. On the other hand, spatial pattern of throughfall in average showed low variability.

  6. Developmental Trends of Black Spruce Fibre Attributes in Maturing Plantations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter F. Newton

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed the temporal developmental patterns of commercially relevant fibre attributes (tracheid length and diameters, wall thickness, specific surface area, wood density, microfibril angle, fibre coarseness, and modulus of elasticity and their interrelationships within maturing black spruce (Picea mariana (Mill. B.S.P. plantations. A size-based stratified random sample procedure within 5 semimature plantations located in the Canadian Boreal Forest Region was used to select 50 trees from which radial cross-sectional xylem sequences at breast-height (1.3 m were cut and analyzed. Statistically, the graphical and linear correlation analyses indicated that the attributes exhibited significant (p≤0.05 relationships among themselves and with morphological tree characteristics. Relative variation of each annually measured attribute declined with increasing size class (basal area quintile. The transitional shifts in temporal correlation patterns occurring at the time of approximate crown closure where suggestive of intrinsic differences in juvenile and mature wood formation processes. The temporal cumulative development patterns of all 8 of the annually measured attributes varied systematically with tree size and exhibited the most rapid rates of change before the trees reached a cambial age of 20 years. At approximately 50 years after establishment, plantation mean attribute values were not dissimilar from those reported for more mature natural-origin stands.

  7. Behavioral and Reproductive Response of White Pine Weevil (Pissodes strobi to Resistant and Susceptible Sitka Spruce (Picea sitchensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeanne A. Robert

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available White pine weevil (Pissodes strobi, Peck. is a native forest insect pest in the Pacific Northwest of North America that attacks species of spruce (Picea spp. and pine (Pinus spp.. Young Sitka spruce [Picea sitchensis (Bong. Carr.] trees are particularly susceptible to weevil attack. Pockets of naturally occurring Sitka spruce resistance have been identified in high weevil hazard areas in coastal British Columbia. In this study, we characterize behavioral, physiological and reproductive responses of weevils to an extremely resistant Sitka spruce genotype (H898 in comparison to a highly susceptible genotype (Q903. The experiments relied on a large number of three-year-old clonally propagated trees and were therefore restricted to two contrasting Sitka spruce genotypes. When exposed to resistant trees, both male and female weevils were deterred during host selection and mating, females showed delayed or reduced ovary development, and successful reproduction of weevils was prevented on resistant trees.

  8. Polarized infrared microspectroscopy of single spruce fibers: hydrogen bonding in wood polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Martin; Gierlinger, Notburga; Schade, Ulrich; Rogge, Tilmann; Grunze, Michael

    2006-12-05

    We studied wood polymers in their native composite structure using mechanically isolated single spruce (Picea abies [L.] Karst.) fibers. Dichroic infrared spectra of fibers placed in a custom-built microfluidic cuvette were acquired in air, in liquid (heavy) water, and in liquid dimethylacetamide using a novel combination of synchrotron-based Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy with polarization modulation. Differences were observed in the O-H stretching frequency region of the spruce spectra upon changing the ambient conditions. Analysis of these spectral variations provides information on hydrogen bonding, orientation, and accessibility of structural units of the wood polymers in the spruce cell walls. Our in situ approach contributes to a further understanding of the structural details of wood polymers in their native setting. (c) 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Optimization of ultrasound-assisted extraction of polyphenols from spruce wood bark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghitescu, Roxana-Elena; Volf, Irina; Carausu, Constantin; Bühlmann, Ana-Maria; Gilca, Iulian Andrei; Popa, Valentin I

    2015-01-01

    Here we describe the ultrasound-assisted extraction of the phenolic compounds from spruce wood bark and present a straight-forward experimental planning method, allowing the optimisation of the process. The effect of ethanol concentration, temperature and extraction time were evaluated through a 3(2)·2 experimental planning. The efficiency of the extraction process was appreciated based on factorial ANOVA results. The maximum extraction yield of total polyphenols (13.232mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/g of spruce bark tested) was obtained using a process time of 60min, an extraction temperature of 54°C and a concentration of ethanol of 70% respectively. These results indicate that an important quantity of bioactive compounds can be extracted from spruce wood bark by ultrasound assisted extraction technology. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Isoprenoid emission variation of Norway spruce across a European latitudinal transect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Meeningen, Ylva; Wang, Min; Karlsson, Tomas

    2017-01-01

    Norway spruce (Picea abies) is one of the dominant tree species in the European boreal zone with the capacity to grow over large areas within Europe. It is an important emitter of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs), which can act as precursors of photochemical smog and ozone and contribute...... to the formation and growth of secondary organic aerosols (SOA) in the atmosphere. Isoprenoid emissions were measured from Norway spruce trees at seven different sites, distributed from Ljubljana in Slovenia to Piikkiö in Finland. Four of the sites were part of a network of genetically identical spruce trees...... of potential influences of all three factors. However, due to different experimental setups between measurement campaigns, it is difficult to draw any robust conclusions....

  11. Bionomy of spruce bud scale, Physokermes piceae (schrank (Hemiptera: Coccidae in the Belgrade area, Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graora Draga

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Spruce bud scale, Physokermes piceae, develops on the genus Picea. Large colonies of this species are constantly present on Picea abies in green areas in the Belgrade territory, causing the drying of needles, branches and whole plants. Therefore, Ph. piceae is a significant spruce pest. Spruce scales attract many entomophagous insects able to reduce pest population. Parasitoid wasps Coccophagus lycimnia (Walk (Aphelinidae and Microterys lunatus (Dalm. (Encyrtidae were reared. Predators Exochomus quadripustulatus L., Scymnus abietis Paykull (Coccinellidae and Anthribus nebulosus Forster (Anthribidae were determined. Both species of ladybird were confirmed as predators of Ph. piceae for the first time in Serbia, while S. abietis is a new species for the fauna of Serbia. The most effective natural enemy of Ph. piceae was A. nebulosus, reducing populations by 68-80%.

  12. Pollution Critical Load Exceedance and an Extended Growing Season as Modulators of Red Spruce Radial Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosiba, A. M.; Schaberg, P. G.; Engel, B. J.; Rayback, S. A.; Hawley, G. J.; Pontius, J.; Miller, E. K.

    2016-12-01

    Acidic sulfur (S) and nitrogen (N) deposition depletes cations such as calcium (Ca) from forest soils and has been linked to increases in foliar winter injury that led to the decline of red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.) in the northeastern United States. We used results from a 30 m resolution steady-state S and N critical load exceedance model for New England to better understand the spatial connections between Ca depletion and red spruce productivity. To calculate exceedance, atmospheric deposition was estimated for a 5-year period (1984-1988) because tree health and productivity declines were expected to be most responsive to high acid loading. We examined how radial growth (basal area increment) of 441 dominant and co-dominant red spruce trees from 37 sites across Vermont and New Hampshire was related to modeled estimates of S and N critical load exceedance. We assessed growth using statistical models with exceedance as a source of variation, but which also included "year" and "elevation class" (to help account for climatic variability) and interactions among factors. Exceedance was significantly and negatively associated with mean growth for the study period (1951-2010) overall, and particularly for the 1980s and 2000s - periods of numerous and/or severe foliar winter injury events. However, climate-related sources of variation (year and elevation) accounted for most of the differences in growth over the chronology. Interestingly, recent growth for red spruce is now the highest recorded over our dendrochronological record for the species - suggesting that the factors shaping growth may be changing. Because red spruce is a temperate conifer that has the capacity to photosynthesize year-round, it is possible that warmer temperatures may be extending the functional growing season of the species thereby fostering increased growth. Data from elevational transects on Mount Mansfield (Vermont's tallest mountain) indicate that warmer spring, summer, fall and even winter

  13. Negative feedbacks on bark beetle outbreaks: widespread and severe spruce beetle infestation restricts subsequent infestation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah J Hart

    Full Text Available Understanding disturbance interactions and their ecological consequences remains a major challenge for research on the response of forests to a changing climate. When, where, and how one disturbance may alter the severity, extent, or occurrence probability of a subsequent disturbance is encapsulated by the concept of linked disturbances. Here, we evaluated 1 how climate and forest habitat variables, including disturbance history, interact to drive 2000s spruce beetle (Dendroctonus rufipennis infestation of Engelmann spruce (Picea engelmannii across the Southern Rocky Mountains; and 2 how previous spruce beetle infestation affects subsequent infestation across the Flat Tops Wilderness in northwestern Colorado, which experienced a severe landscape-scale spruce beetle infestation in the 1940s. We hypothesized that drought and warm temperatures would promote infestation, whereas small diameter and non-host trees, which may reflect past disturbance by spruce beetles, would inhibit infestation. Across the Southern Rocky Mountains, we found that climate and forest structure interacted to drive the 2000s infestation. Within the Flat Tops study area we found that stands infested in the 1940s were composed of higher proportions of small diameter and non-host trees ca. 60 years later. In this area, the 2000s infestation was constrained by a paucity of large diameter host trees (> 23 cm at diameter breast height, not climate. This suggests that there has not been sufficient time for trees to grow large enough to become susceptible to infestation. Concordantly, we found no overlap between areas affected by the 1940s infestation and the current infestation. These results show a severe spruce beetle infestation, which results in the depletion of susceptible hosts, can create a landscape template reducing the potential for future infestations.

  14. Pervasive growth reduction in Norway spruce forests following wind disturbance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rupert Seidl

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In recent decades the frequency and severity of natural disturbances by e.g., strong winds and insect outbreaks has increased considerably in many forest ecosystems around the world. Future climate change is expected to further intensify disturbance regimes, which makes addressing disturbances in ecosystem management a top priority. As a prerequisite a broader understanding of disturbance impacts and ecosystem responses is needed. With regard to the effects of strong winds--the most detrimental disturbance agent in Europe--monitoring and management has focused on structural damage, i.e., tree mortality from uprooting and stem breakage. Effects on the functioning of trees surviving the storm (e.g., their productivity and allocation have been rarely accounted for to date. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we show that growth reduction was significant and pervasive in a 6.79 million hectare forest landscape in southern Sweden following the storm Gudrun (January 2005. Wind-related growth reduction in Norway spruce (Picea abies (L. Karst. forests surviving the storm exceeded 10% in the worst hit regions, and was closely related to maximum gust wind speed (R(2 = 0.849 and structural wind damage (R(2 = 0.782. At the landscape scale, wind-related growth reduction amounted to 3.0 million m(3 in the three years following Gudrun. It thus exceeds secondary damage from bark beetles after Gudrun as well as the long-term average storm damage from uprooting and stem breakage in Sweden. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We conclude that the impact of strong winds on forest ecosystems is not limited to the immediately visible area of structural damage, and call for a broader consideration of disturbance effects on ecosystem structure and functioning in the context of forest management and climate change mitigation.

  15. A Bayesian Analysis Shows That a Spruce Beetle Outbreak Reduces Snow Interception and Sublimation in a Subalpine Spruce-Fir Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, J. M.; Massman, W. J.; Ewers, B. E.; Williams, D. G.

    2016-12-01

    Sublimation is a key component in the water cycle of cold, snow dominated ecosystems. In many high elevation spruce-fir forests of western North America, recent spruce beetle outbreaks have caused widespread tree mortality, opened the canopy, and potentially altered the processes that control sublimation. This study evaluates three hypotheses: in these ecosystems the dominant source for sublimation originates from canopy intercepted snow, the loss of canopy following a beetle disturbance leads to significantly less sublimation, and major sublimation events are driven by the flow of sensible heat into the canopy. Bayesian analysis is used to evaluate a two source energy and canopy mass model that explains seventeen years (2000-2016) of winter eddy-covariance flux data at the GLEES AmeriFlux sites where a spruce beetle outbreak caused 75-85% basal area mortality. The model estimated that the resistance to snow sublimation from the canopy was an order of magnitude less than from the snowpack and that the maximum snow loading in the canopy was reduced to 25-56% of its pre-outbreak capacity. Comparing model results obtained using the observed decrease in leaf area index versus a "no beetle" condition, there has been a significant decrease in ecosystem sublimation since 2011. In the past few years, a 5-11% increase in snowpack sublimation has been offset by 28-32% less sublimation from canopy intercepted snow, with the net being 17-25% less total sublimation. This is equivalent to 3-6% of the total precipitation. Informing the model with information other than the above-canopy fluxes indicates that a near snowpack eddy covariance system decreases the canopy contribution to sublimation, including observed sensible heat fluxes requires a correction to resolve the surface energy imbalance, and stable isotopes of water vapor extend sublimation events. Because tree growth and ecological succession are slow in spruce-fir forests, these results could persist for decades.

  16. Long-term development of nursing mixtures of Sitka spruce and larch species in an experiment in northern Scotland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William L. Mason

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study: An experiment was established in 1966 to compare the growth and development of 50: 50 mixtures of Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis with either Japanese larch (Larix kaempferi or tamarack (L. laricina with that found in pure plots of Sitka spruce. The site was one of moderate nitrogen availability where the presence of heather (Calluna vulgaris could be expected to limit the growth ofSitka spruce.Area of the study: North-east Scotland.Material and methods: There were different patterns of spruce growth in the pure plots and in the mixtures, with faster spruce growth in mixture in the years approaching and immediately following canopy closure (i.e. ages 15-25. Foliage analysis suggested that this was linked with improved nitrogen status of spruce trees in the mixed compared to the pure plots.Main results: At years 20 and 25 there were significant differences in height, diameter, and basal area between treatments, with the largest basal area being found in the Japanese larch/Sitka spruce mixtures, indicative of overyielding in the mixed plots. However, when the experiment was clearfelled at 41 years of age, all treatments had self-thinned to produce spruce dominated stands of similar height with only an occasional larch tree surviving in plots that were originally 50:50 mixtures.Research highlights: There were no differences between treatments in basal area, harvested volume or sawlog outturn after 41 years. These results can be interpreted as showing facilitation between the larch and the spruce during the establishment phase followed by competition for light once canopy closure had occurred.Keywords: Mixed stand dynamics; facilitation; nitrogen status; product outturn.

  17. Bark beetles and fungal associates colonizing white spruce in the Great Lakes region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsten E. Haberkern; Barbara L. Illman; Kenneth F. Raffa

    2002-01-01

    We examined the major bark beetles and associated fungi colonizing subcortical tissues of white spruce (Picea glauca (Moench) Voss) in the Great Lakes region. Trees were felled at one northwestern Wisconsin site in a preliminary study in 1997 and at 10 sites throughout northern Wisconsin, Minnesota, and Michigan in 1998. Fungal isolations were made from beetles...

  18. Using silviculture to influence carbon sequestration in southern Appalachian spruce-fir forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick T. Moore; R. Justin DeRose; James N. Long; Helga. van Miegroet

    2012-01-01

    Enhancement of forest growth through silvicultural modification of stand density is one strategy for increasing carbon (C) sequestration. Using the Fire and Fuels Extension of the Forest Vegetation Simulator, the effects of even-aged, uneven-aged and no-action management scenarios on C sequestration in a southern Appalachian red spruce-Fraser fir forest were modeled....

  19. Haloperoxidase-like activity in spruce forest soil. A source of volatile halogenated organic compounds?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laturnus, F.; Mehrtens, G.; Grøn, C.

    1995-01-01

    Haloperoxidase-like activity was monitored in samples from a podzol soil in an uncontaminated spruce forest at Klosterhede, Denmark. Activity for the oxidation of chloride and bromide was found. The pH optima for chlorination and bromination ranged between pH 2.5 and 4: Very high activity, up to ...

  20. Direct, indirect, and residual, toxicities of insecticide sprays to western spruce, budworm, Chroistoneura occidentalis (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacqueline L. Robertson; Nancy L. Rappaport

    1979-01-01

    The toxicities of acephate, aminocarb, carbaryl, chlorpyrifos, chlorpyrifos-methyl, methomyl, mexacarbate, permethrin, and trichlorfon to last instar wetern spruce budworm, Choristoneura occidentalis Freeman, were significantly altered by the presence of hostplant foliage. The pyrethroid permethrin was significantly more toxic when sprayed directly...

  1. Efflux of CO2 from soil in Norway Spruce stands of different ages: a case study

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dařenová, Eva; Fabiánek, Tomáš; Pavelka, Marian

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 2 (2016), s. 98-102 ISSN 1805-0174 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1415 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : spruce forest * Picea abies * soil temperatures * moisture * respiration Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  2. Seasonal Changes of Coefficient Q10 in CO2 Flux from Soil Under Spruce Stand

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pavelka, Marian; Janouš, Dalibor

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 15, č. 15 (2002), s. 43-48. ISBN 80-7157-297-7 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA526/00/0485 Grant - others:EVK2(XE) CT-1999-00032 Keywords : soil CO2 efflux * Norway spruce * Q10 * respiration * soil Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  3. Root uptake of lead by Norway spruce grown on Pb-210 spiked soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hovmand, M.F.; Nielsen, Sven Poul; Johnsen, I.

    2009-01-01

    The root uptake of lead (Pb) by trees and the transfer of Pb by leaf litter deposition to the forest floor were investigated through a pot experiment with Norway spruce. Natural Pb and radio isotopic lead (210Pb) were determined in needles and twigs and in the pot soil spiked with 210Pb...

  4. Female strobili incidence in a Minnesota population of black spruce: heritability and correlation with height growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    C. Dana Nelson; C. A. Mohn

    1989-01-01

    Significant family variation in female strobili incidence, ripeness-to-flower and production were found in a Minnesota black spruce (Picea mariana (Mill.) B.S.P.) population tested at four locations. Heritability estimates indicated that gain in early flowering from selection would be possible. Height growth through age 12 years was positively correlated (genetic and...

  5. Raman imaging of lignin and cellulose distribution in black spruce wood (Picea mariana) cell walls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umesh P. Agarwal

    2005-01-01

    A detailed understanding of wood cell wall structure and organization is important from both fundamental and practical point of views. A state-of- the-art 633-nm laser based confocal Raman microscope was used in situ to investigate the cell wall organization of black spruce wood. Chemical information on lignin and cellulose from morphologically distinct cell wall...

  6. Taxonomic identity of a galling adelgid (Hemiptera: Adelgidae) from three spruce species in central Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masakazu Sano; Nathan P. Havill; Kenichi. Ozaki

    2011-01-01

    Gall-forming insects are commonly highly host-specific, and galling species once thought to be oligo- or polyphagous are often found to represent a complex of host-specific races or cryptic species. A recent DNA barcoding study documented that an unidentified species of the genus Adelges is a gall-former associated with four spruce species (...

  7. Postfire seed rain of black spruce, a semiserotinous conifer, in forests of interior Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jill Johnstone; Leslie Boby; Emily Tissier; Michelle Mack; Dave Verbyla; Xanthe. Walker

    2009-01-01

    The availability of viable seed can act as an important constraint on plant regeneration following disturbance. This study presents data on seed quantity and quality for black spruce (Picea mariana (Mill.) B.S.P.), a semiserotinous conifer that dominates large areas of North American boreal forest. We sampled seed rain and viability for 2 years...

  8. Two Years Necessary for Successful Natural Seeding in Nonbrushy Black Spruce Bogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elon S. Verry; Arthur E. Elling

    1978-01-01

    Natural seeding in a strip-cut black spruce bog was adequate, averaging 1,800 stems per acre and 80 percent milacre stocking. natural seeding in a completely cut bog was inadequate, averaging 630 stems per acre and 40 percent milacre stocking. Slash was removed to expose sphagnum seedbeds in both cases. Progressive cutting every other year is recommended.

  9. Effect of seedbed preparation on natural reproduction of spruce and hemlock under dense shade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant Davis; Arthur C. Hart

    1961-01-01

    The cutting practices commonly recommended for spruce-fir stands in the Northeast involve uneven-aged management. The success of this type of management is predicated upon stand structures that have a range of size classes from seedlings to mature trees in intimate mixture. This kind of stand structure requires a continuous supply of reproduction of desirable species....

  10. The relationship between potential solar radiation and spruce bark beetle catches in pheromone traps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Mezei

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available We analysed the relationship between the amount of potential solarradiation and spruce bark beetle Ips typographus (L. catches in pheromone traps in an unmanaged nature reserve in the Carpathians (middle Slovakia region, from 2006 through 2009. This relationship was analysed under outbreak conditions. The number of traps varied in different years from 70 to 92. The traps were installed in spruce-forest-dominated stands affected by a windstorm in 2004. A GPS device was used to mark the position of the pheromone traps. The potential solar radiation was calculated with GIS tools for three different time periods in each year:with entire year, for main flight season of the spruce bark beetle and the spring swarming period. The relationship between the amount of potential solar radiation and the spruce bark beetle catches was statistically significant for each year and each time period except for the spring swarming in 2007, when the pheromone traps were not set up on time.

  11. The relationship between potential solar radiation and spruce bark beetle catches in pheromone traps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Mezei

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We analysed the relationship between the amount of potential solar radiation and spruce bark beetleIps typographus (L. catches in pheromone traps in an unmanaged nature reserve in the Carpathians (middle Slovakia region, from 2006 through 2009. This relationship was analysed under outbreak conditions. The number of traps varied in different years from 70 to 92. The traps were installed in spruce-forest-dominated stands affected by a windstorm in 2004. A GPS device was used to mark the position of the pheromone traps. The potential solar radiation was calculated with GIS tools for three different time periods in each year: with entire year, for main flight season of the spruce bark beetle and the spring swarming period. The relationship between the amount of potential solar radiation and the spruce bark beetle catches was statistically significant for each year and each time period except for the spring warming in 2007, when the pheromone traps were not set up on time. 

  12. Revised Site Index Curves for Balsam Fir and White Spruce in the Lake States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willard H. Carmean; Jerold T. Hahn

    1981-01-01

    The original site index curves for balsam fir and white spruce are revised from a breast height age to a total age basis. Site index values from these revised curves are thus comparable to index values for other species that are based upon total tree age. This note also includes formulations for estimating site index by using computers or programmable, hand-...

  13. Four engine aircraft experience in the application of Bacillus thuringiensis against the spruce budworm in Quebec

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louis Dorais

    1985-01-01

    I want, during this presentation, to give you a spray program coordinator point of view on Bt and try to explain why things are always different in Quebec. Not always better but always different, even in the application of Bacillus thuringiensis where 4 engine aircrafts were used to control the spruce budworm, Choristoneura funiferana...

  14. Natural communities of the central Appalachian red spruce ecosystem and their conservation significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elizabeth A. Byers

    2010-01-01

    Natural communities within the red spruce ecosystem of the central Appalachians are characterized by exceptionally high biodiversity and conservation value. This ecosystem stretches in a southwest - northeast trending band for 250 km along the high elevations of the Allegheny Mountains, from Greenbrier County, WV to Garrett County, MD.

  15. Foliar and soil chemistry at red spruce sites in the Monongahela National Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephanie J. Connolly

    2010-01-01

    In 2005, soil and foliar chemistry were sampled from 10 sites in the Monongahela National Forest which support red spruce. Soils were sampled from hand-dug pits, by horizon, from the O-horizon to bedrock or 152 cm, and each pit was described fully. Replicate, archived samples also were collected.

  16. Spread of the Introduced Sitka Spruce (Picea sitchensis in Coastal Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Per Holm Nygaard

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Positive and negative effects on ecosystem services from plantation forestry in Europe have led to conflicts regarding non-native tree species. Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis (Bong. Carr. is the most common plantation species in northwest Europe, covering 1.3 Mha. In costal Norway, Sitka spruce was intentionally introduced and is currently occupying about 50,000 ha. Sitka spruce was blacklisted in Norway in 2012, mainly based on the risk for invasive spreading, but little quantitative documentation exists on spread. Here we quantify spread from plantations into abandoned heathland and pastures in thirteen sites where natural regeneration occurs. Spread distances and zero-square distributions related to the nearest edge of the parent stand were fitted by use of Weibull. The median expansion rate was 0.8 m·year−1 in north Norway and 4.4 m·year−1 in west Norway. The maximum establishment distance measured was 996 m. A peak in sapling density occurred within 50 m from the edge, and there was a general decrease in saplings with increasing distance. Conversely, increase in zero-squares percentages occurred with increasing distance. We argue that inclusion of abundance in assessing spread is necessary to define invasiveness. Based on spread models and prevailing forestry practices we recommend that the establishment of new Sitka spruce plantations within 200 m of protected areas should be avoided.

  17. ESTIMATING ROOT RESPIRATION IN SPRUCE AND BEECH: DECREASES IN SOIL RESPIRATION FOLLOWING GIRDLING

    Science.gov (United States)

    A study was undertaken to follow seasonal fluxes of CO2 from soil and to estimate the contribution of autotrophic (root + mycorrhizal) to total soil respiration (SR) in a mixed stand of European beech (Fagus sylvatica) and Norway spruce (Picea abies) near Freising, Germany. Matu...

  18. SOIL CO2 EFFLUX FROM ISOTOPICALLY LABELED BEECH AND SPRUCE IN SOUTHERN GERMANY

    Science.gov (United States)

    • Carbon acquisition and transport to roots in forest trees is difficult to quantify and is affected by a number of factors, including micrometeorology and anthropogenic stresses. The canopies of mature European beech (Fagus sylvatica) and Norway spruce (Picea abies) were expose...

  19. Multipartite Symbioses Among Fungi, Mites, Nematodes, and the Spruce Beetle, Dendroctonus rufipennis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasmin Cardoza; John Moser; Kier Klepzizg; Raffa Kenneth

    2008-01-01

    The spruce beetle, Dendroctonus rufipennis, is an eruptive forest pest of signifcant economic and ecological importance. D. rufipennis has symbiotic associations with a number of microorganisms, especially the ophiostomatoid fungus Leptographium abietinum. The nature of this interaction is only partially understood. Additionally, mite and nematode associates can...

  20. Application of Raman spectroscopy to analyse lignin/cellulose ratio in Norway spruce tree rings

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vítek, Petr; Klem, Karel; Urban, Otmar

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 20, 1-2 (2017), s. 41-48 ISSN 1803-2451 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1415 Institutional support: RVO:86652079 Keywords : dendrochronology * vibration al spectroscopy * lignification * Norway spruce * abiotic stress Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  1. Regulation of Gene Expression during the Onset of Ligninolytic Oxidation by Phanerochaete chrysosporium on Spruce Wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premsagar Korripally; Christopher G. Hunt; Carl J. Houtman; Don C. Jones; Peter J. Kitin; Dan Cullen; Kenneth E. Hammel; A. A. Brakhage

    2015-01-01

    Since uncertainty remains about how white rot fungi oxidize and degrade lignin in wood, it would be useful to monitor changes in fungal gene expression during the onset of ligninolysis on a natural substrate. We grew Phanerochaete chrysosporium on solid spruce wood and included oxidant-sensing beads bearing the fluorometric dye BODIPY 581/591 in...

  2. Monitoring and risk assessment of the spruce bark beetle, Ips typographus

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. Netherer; J. Pennerstorfer; P. Baier; E. Fuhrer; A. Schopf

    2003-01-01

    A model describing development of the spruce bark beetle, Ips typographus, combines topo-climatic aspects of the terrain with eco-physiological aspects of the bark beetle. By correlating air temperature and solar irradiation measured at a reference station, along with topographic data and microclimatic conditions of terrain plots, topo-climatic...

  3. Resistance to galling adelgids varies among families of Engelmann spruce (Picea engelmani P.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    William J. Mattson; Alvin Yanchuk; Gyula Kiss; Bruce Birr

    1999-01-01

    Cooley gall adelgids, Adelges cooleyi, and round gall adelgids, Adelges abietis, differentially infested 110 half-sib families of Engelmann spruce, Picea engelmannii at 9 study sites in British Columbia. There was a negative genetic correlation (-0.53) between the infestations of the two gall-forming species....

  4. Needle parameter variation of mature black spruce families displaying a genetic x environment interaction in growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    John E. Major; Kurt H. Johnsen; Debby C. Barsi; Moira Campbell

    2013-01-01

    To examine soil moisture stress, light, and genetic effects on individual needle parameters and investigate total needle contribution to productivity, individual and total needle parameter variation were quantified in 32-year-old black spruce from five crown positions from four full-sib families studied previously for drought tolerance and differential productivity on...

  5. FIBER handbook: a growth model for spruce-fir and northern hardwood types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale S. Solomon; Richard A. Hosmer; Homer T., Jr. Hayslett; Homer T. Hayslett

    1987-01-01

    A matrix model, FIBER, has been developed to provide the forest manager with a means of simulating the management and growth of forest stands in the Northeast. Instructional material is presented for the management of even-aged and multi-aged spruce-fir, mixedwood, and northern hardwood stands. FIBER allows the user to simulate a range of silvicultural treatments for a...

  6. Age and size effects on seed productivity of northern black spruce

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. N. Viglas; C. D. Brown; J. F. Johnstone

    2013-01-01

    Slow-growing conifers of the northern boreal forest may require several decades to reach reproductive maturity, making them vulnerable to increases in disturbance frequency. Here, we examine the relationship between stand age and seed productivity of black spruce (Picea mariana (Mill.) Britton, Sterns & Poggenb.) in Yukon Territory and Alaska....

  7. Juvenility and serial vegetative propagation of Norway spruce clones (Picea abies Karst.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.B. St. Clair; J. Kleinschmit; J. Svolba

    1985-01-01

    Effects associated with progressive maturation of clones are of greatest concern in clonal tree improvement programs. Serial propagation has been in use at the Lower Saxony Forest Research Institute since 1968 to arrest maturation in Norway spruce clones. By 1980 cuttings were established in the nursery that had been serially propagated from one to five cycles. This...

  8. Response of the engraver beetle, Ipsperturbatus, to semiochemicals in white spruce stands of interior Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard A. Werner

    1993-01-01

    Field tests on the efficacy of various scolytid bark beetle pheromones to attract Ipsperturbatus (Eichhoff) were conducted from 1977 through 1992 in stands of white spruce (Picea glauca (Moench) Voss) in interior Alaska. Several pheromones attracted high numbers of L. perturbatus and species of the predator...

  9. Dispersal of the spruce beetle, Dendroctonus rufipennis, and the engraver beetle, Ips perturbatus, in Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard A. Werner; Edward H. Holsten

    1997-01-01

    Mark-release-recapture experiments were performed with spruce beetles (Dendroctonus rufipennis (Kirby)) and Ips engraver beetles (Ips perturbatus (Eichhoff)) to determine distance and direction of dispersal. The recapture rate of beetles marked with fluorescent powder was extremely low. Most I. perturbatus...

  10. Two-dimensional wavelet analysis of spruce budworm host basal area in the Border Lakes landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick M. James; Brian R. Sturtevant; Phil Townsend; Pete Wolter; Marie-Josee. Fortin

    2011-01-01

    Increases in the extent and severity of spruce budworm (Choristoneura fumiferana Clem.) outbreaks over the last century are thought to be the result of changes in forest structure due to forest management. A corollary of this hypothesis is that manipulations of forest structure and composition can be used to reduce future forest vulnerability....

  11. Relation of heart rots to mortality of red spruce in the Green Mountain National Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul V. Mook; Harold G. Eno

    1956-01-01

    Several years ago, old-growth red spruce at high elevations in the Green Mountain National Forest were observed to be dying. Entomologists and pathologists who examined the affected area found no insect or fungus that was obviously causing the deaths. However, many of the dead and dying trees were butt-rotted by the fungus Polyporus borealis. Though it seemed unlikely...

  12. Do water-limiting conditions predispose Norway spruce to bark beetle attack?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Netherer, Sigrid; Matthews, Bradley; Katzensteiner, Klaus; Blackwell, Emma; Henschke, Patrick; Hietz, Peter; Pennerstorfer, Josef; Rosner, Sabine; Kikuta, Silvia; Schume, Helmut; Schopf, Axel

    2015-02-01

    Drought is considered to enhance susceptibility of Norway spruce (Picea abies) to infestations by the Eurasian spruce bark beetle (Ips typographus, Coleoptera: Curculionidae), although empirical evidence is scarce. We studied the impact of experimentally induced drought on tree water status and constitutive resin flow, and how physiological stress affects host acceptance and resistance. We established rain-out shelters to induce both severe (two full-cover plots) and moderate (two semi-cover plots) drought stress. In total, 18 sample trees, which were divided equally between the above treatment plots and two control plots, were investigated. Infestation was controlled experimentally using a novel 'attack box' method. Treatments influenced the ratios of successful and defended attacks, but predisposition of trees to infestation appeared to be mainly driven by variations in stress status of the individual trees over time. With increasingly negative twig water potentials and decreasing resin exudation, the defence capability of the spruce trees decreased. We provide empirical evidence that water-limiting conditions impair Norway spruce resistance to bark beetle attack. Yet, at the same time our data point to reduced host acceptance by I. typographus with more extreme drought stress, indicated by strongly negative pre-dawn twig water potentials. © 2014 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2014 New Phytologist Trust.

  13. Lead mobility within the xylem of red spruce seedlings: Implications for the development of pollution histories

    Science.gov (United States)

    John R. Donnelly; John B. Shane; Paul G. Schaberg

    1990-01-01

    Development of Pb pollution histories using tree ring analyses has been troubled by possible mobility of Pb within stem xylem. In a 2-yr study, we exposed red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.) seedlings to Pb during one growing season, with Pb excluded in either the previous or following growing season. Lead levels within xylem rings and bark were...

  14. User's guide to the weather model: a component of the western spruce budworm modeling system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. P. Kemp; N. L. Crookston; P. W. Thomas

    1989-01-01

    A stochastic model useful in simulating daily maximum and minimum temperature and precipitation developed by Bruhn and others has been adapted for use in the western spruce budworm modeling system. This document describes how to use the weather model and illustrates some aspects of its behavior.

  15. Do water-limiting conditions predispose Norway spruce to bark beetle attack?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Netherer, Sigrid; Matthews, Bradley; Katzensteiner, Klaus; Blackwell, Emma; Henschke, Patrick; Hietz, Peter; Pennerstorfer, Josef; Rosner, Sabine; Kikuta, Silvia; Schume, Helmut; Schopf, Axel

    2015-01-01

    Drought is considered to enhance susceptibility of Norway spruce (Picea abies) to infestations by the Eurasian spruce bark beetle (Ips typographus, Coleoptera: Curculionidae), although empirical evidence is scarce. We studied the impact of experimentally induced drought on tree water status and constitutive resin flow, and how physiological stress affects host acceptance and resistance. We established rain-out shelters to induce both severe (two full-cover plots) and moderate (two semi-cover plots) drought stress. In total, 18 sample trees, which were divided equally between the above treatment plots and two control plots, were investigated. Infestation was controlled experimentally using a novel ‘attack box’ method. Treatments influenced the ratios of successful and defended attacks, but predisposition of trees to infestation appeared to be mainly driven by variations in stress status of the individual trees over time. With increasingly negative twig water potentials and decreasing resin exudation, the defence capability of the spruce trees decreased. We provide empirical evidence that water-limiting conditions impair Norway spruce resistance to bark beetle attack. Yet, at the same time our data point to reduced host acceptance byI. typographus with more extreme drought stress, indicated by strongly negative pre-dawn twig water potentials. PMID:25417785

  16. Braconid (Hymenoptera, Braconidae) parasitoids of bark beetles in upland spruce stands of the Czech Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aural Lozan; Jiri Zeleny

    2003-01-01

    Several species of bark beetles occur frequently in the upland spruce forests of the Czech Republic; some of them are serious pests that may cause vast destruction of forest stands. In the last decade, a complex of several species from the genera Ips, Pityogenes and Polygraphus contributed to large-scale devastation of thousand...

  17. Impacts of site effects on losses of oriental spruce during Dendroct ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study showed some site and stand factors affecting host colonization, quantitative and qualitative losses in wood of oriental spruce as a source of raw material during the outbreak of Dendroctonus micans (Kug.). A total of 22.8 million m3 standing trees were damaged. In 11.43 million m3 standing trees infestations were ...

  18. The incidence of dwarf mistletoe in Minnesota black spruce stands detected by operational inventories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fred Baker; Mark Hansen; John D. Shaw; Manfred Mielke; Dixon Shelstad

    2012-01-01

    We surveyed black spruce stands within 0.5 miles of US Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) plots and compared dwarf mistletoe status with that of the FIA and Minnesota Department of Natural Resources (DNR) forest inventories. Our results differed from FIA results in 3 of 16 stands with FIA plots, with FIA most often not recording dwarf mistletoe in...

  19. Screening Sitka spruce for resistance to weevil damage in British Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    René I. Alfaro; John N. King

    2012-01-01

    The white pine weevil, Pissodes strobi (Coleoptera, Curculionidae), has serious impacts on Sitka (Picea sitchensis (Bong.) Carrière), Engelmann (P. engelmannii Parry ex Engelm.), and white spruce (P. glauca (Moench) Voss) plantations in British Columbia (BC), Canada. This weevil attacks...

  20. Some anatomical and physical aspects of wood-plastic (pMMA) combination of spruce

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laming, P.B.

    1976-01-01

    Test-pieces of spruce ( Picea abies (L.) Karst.) were vacuum-impregnated with commercial grade methylmethacrylate which was then polymerized by the application of heat. The position of the polymer (pMMA) was identified fight microscopically and with the aid of the scanning electron microscope; in

  1. Use of semiochemicals of secondary bark beetles to disrupt spruce beetle attraction and survival in Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard A. Werner; Edward H. Holsten

    2002-01-01

    Field experiments using baited multiple-funnel traps and baited felled trees were conducted to test the hypothesis that semiochemicals from secondary species of scolytids could be used to disrupt spruce beetle (Dendroctonus rufipennis (Kirby)) attraction. Semiochemicals from three secondary species of scolytids, (Ips perturbatus...

  2. A spruce budworm sampling program for HUSKY HUNTER field data recorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fred H. Schmidt

    1992-01-01

    A program for receiving sampling data for all immature stages of the western spruce budworm (Choristoneura occidentals Freeman) is described. Versions were designed to be used on field data recorders with either CP/M or DOS operating systems, such as the HUSKY HUNTER (Models 1, 2, and 16), but they also may be used on personal computers with compatible operating...

  3. Climate driven changes in Engelmann spruce stands at timberline in the La Sal Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    James F. Fowler; Steven Overby; Barb Smith

    2012-01-01

    Due to global warming spruce-fir forest and associated vegetation may experience elevational displacement and altered species composition at the timberline-treeline ecotone. These forests and their component species are predicted to migrate upslope and thus landscape features such as timberline and treeline may move upslope as well. Prior to this study, baseline data...

  4. Survival and growth response of white spruce stock types to site preparation in Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew Youngblood; Elizabeth Cole; Michael Newton

    2011-01-01

    To identify suitable methods for reforestation, we evaluated the interacting effects of past disturbance, stock types, and site preparation treatments on white spruce (Picea glauca (Moench) Voss) seedling survival and growth across a range of sites in Alaska. Replicated experiments were established in five regions. At each site, two complete...

  5. On the position of Platycarpum Humb. et Bonpl., Henriquezia Spruce ex Bth. and Gleasonia Standl

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bremekamp, C.E.B.

    1957-01-01

    Some time ago the “Institute Agronómico do Norte, Belem, Pará, Brazil” sent me a set of specimens for identification among which I detected a new species of Henriquezia Spruce ex Bth. This discovery induced me to study once more and now in somewhat more detail the relation between this genus and the

  6. Decomposition of soil organic matter from boreal black spruce forest: environmental and chemical controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimberly P. Wickland; Jason C. Neff

    2007-01-01

    Black spruce forests are a dominant covertype in the boreal forest region, and they inhabit landscapes that span a wide range of hydrologic and thermal conditions. These forests often have large stores of soil organic carbon. Recent increases in temperature at northern latitudes may be stimulating decomposition rates of this soil carbon. It is unclear, however, how...

  7. Laccase modification of the physical properties of bark and pulp of loblolly pine and spruce pulp

    Science.gov (United States)

    William Kenealy; John Klungness; Mandla Tshabalala; Eric Horn; Masood Akhtar; Roland Gleisner; Gisela Buschle-Diller

    2004-01-01

    Pine bark, pine pulp, and spruce pulp were reacted with laccase in the presence of phenolic laccase substrates to modify the fiber surface properties. The acid-base and dispersive characteristics of these modified steam-treated thermomechanical loblolly pine pulps were determined by inverse gas chromatography. Different combinations of substrates with laccase modified...

  8. Integrated Study of the Potential Application of Remediated CCA Treated Spruce Wood in MDF Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald Sabo; Altaf H. Basta; Jerrold E. Winandy

    2013-01-01

    Public health awareness has increased in the past few years regarding the disposal of chromated copper arsenate (CCA) preservative-treated wood wastes. This study demonstrates the potential for using remediated CCA lumber and alternative fiber sources, such as sugar cane bagasse, to produce medium density fiberboard (MDF). The role of both remediated CCA loaded spruce...

  9. Comparative study of SPORL and dilute-acid pretreatments of spruce for cellulosic ethanol production

    Science.gov (United States)

    L. Shuai; Q. Yang; Junyong Zhu; F.C. Lu; P.J. Weimer; J. Ralph; X.L. Pan

    2010-01-01

    The performance of two pretreatment methods, sulfite pretreatment to overcome recalcitrance of lignocelluloses (SPORL) and dilute acid (DA), was compared in pretreating softwood (spruce) for fuel ethanol production at 180C for 30 min with a sulfuric acid loading of 5% on oven-dry wood and a 5:1 liquor to-wood ratio. SPORL was supplemented with 9% sodium...

  10. Spruce galactoglucomannans inhibit the lipid oxidation in rapeseed oil-in-water emulsions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oil-in-water emulsions are functional and industrially valuable systems, whose large interfacial area makes them prone to deterioration, due in part to as the oxidation and oligomerization of polyunsaturated fatty acids. Spruce galactoglucomannans (GGM), wood biomacromolecules abundantly available f...

  11. Testing remote sensing estimates of bark beetle induced mortality in lodgepole pine and Engelmann spruce with ground data

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, A.; Ewers, B. E.; Sivanpillai, R.; Pendall, E.

    2012-12-01

    Bark beetles have caused widespread regional mortality in both lodgepole and Engelmann spruce forests across western North America, and while studies have addressed the impact on water partitioning caused by the mountain pine beetle, spruce beetle which often occur at high elevations with larger snowpack might have a disproportional impact. Beetle caused mortality can have significant effects on the hydrology of a watershed and therefore needs to be considered when evaluating increased runoff. The objective of this project was to generate maps showing beetle caused mortality for lodgepole pine and spruce fir forests that capture changes to the landscape to improve hydrologic models. Our study area in southeast Wyoming covered an area of approximately 2 by 4 km from 2700 to 2800m elevation range. High spatial resolution (0.5m) aerial imagery acquired by the Airborne Environmental Research Observational Camera (AEROCam) in fall 2011, provided by the Upper Midwest Aerospace Consortium (UMAC), was manually classified into four conifer thematic classes: live and dead lodgepole pine, and live and dead spruce/fir. The classified high resolution image was then verified by tree surveys conducted July-September, 2012 documenting species, tree diameter at breast height (dbh), and the stage of beetle infestation for each tree. After verification the high resolution aerial images were used to train and evaluate the accuracy of a supervised classification of a Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper image from the same time period and area. The preliminary results of a supervised classification show that map accuracy was 57%, 77%, 44%, and 83% for lodgepole live and dead, and spruce/fir live and dead respectively. The highest commission error, 24%, was for dead lodgepole pine being falsely labeled dead spruce/fir. The second highest commission error, 22%, was for live spruce/fir falsely labeled dead spruce/fir. The results indicate high spectral overlap between dead spruce/fir and dead

  12. Biological and Energy Productivity of Natural Spruce Forests in the Ukrainian Carpathians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. D. Vasilishyn

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The modern practice of forestry production in Ukraine, which is in the process of implementing the conceptual changes in forest management and harmonization of its basic approaches to the basics of sustainable development, requires a significant expansion of the current regulatory and informational tools used to assess the ecological functions of forests. For this purpose, during the 2012–2014, as part of an international project GESAPU, models and tables of bioproductivity for forest tree species in Ukraine were completed. The article presents the results of modeling the dynamics of the conversion coefficients for the main components of phytomass of modal natural spruce forests of the Carpathian region of Ukraine based on information from 32 plots in the database of «Forest Phytomass of Ukraine». According to the state forest accounting of Ukraine as of January 1, 2011, the spruce forests in the Ukrainian Carpathians cover an area of 426.2 thousand ha, 45 % of which are spruce of natural origin. To evaluate the productivity of modal dynamics of pure and mixed spruce stands, the study developed models of the stock and overall productivity, derived by Bertalanffy growth function. On the basis of these models, normative reference tables of biological productivity of natural modal spruce forests of the Ukrainian Carpathians were developed. To successfully meet the challenges of evaluating the energy possibilities of forestry of Ukraine, the study used tables of energetic productivity of investigated stands. Built on the basis of the tables of bioproductivity, they reflect the dynamic processes of energy storage in the phytomass components and can be used in forest management to predict volumes of energetic woods.

  13. Phytosociological studies of the forests with sessile oak and Norway spruce from South-Eastern Transylvania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Indreica

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The forests with sessile oak (Quercus petraea and Norway spruce (Picea abies from south-eastern Transylvania represent a peculiar type of phytocenoses, rather unusual for the present-day vegetation of Romania’s territory. Aim of the study is to provide a detailed description of the vegetation and to identify the phytosociological and typological units to which it could belong. Beside this, stand structure and regeneration status of the main tree species are illustrated. The studied area is located around Carpathian intermountain depressions Braşov and Ciuc, where vegetation had a peculiar history and today sessile oak forests on high altitude exists, interfering with spruce forests. The hypothesis of the process naturalness is supported by vegetation history in the area, climate, stand structure and peculiarities of herb layer composition (the mixture of relic of both mountain-boreal origin and south-European origin, like Vaccinium vitis-idaea, Pyrola rotundifolia and respectively Potentilla micrantha, Lathyrus venetus respectively. Sintaxonomically, studied phytocenoses with sessile oak and spruce belong mainly to acidophilus oak forests (Luzulo luzuloidis-Quercetum petraeae, but some of them resemble oak-hornbeam forests (Carici pilosae-Carpinetum, indicating a more recent change in stand structure and suggesting that not the soil, but the climate is the driving force of succession. Regeneration of sessile oak is at least satisfactory, but the expansion of spruce in such stands could seriously restrict the survival of sessile oak. A new typological unit will be appropriate,for a better management of sessile oak forests with spruce admixture.

  14. Different mixtures of Norway spruce, silver fir, and European beech modify competitive interactions in central European mature mixed forests

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tobin, Brian; Larocque, Guy R; Petráš, Rudolf; Bosela, Michal; Šebeň, Vladimír

    2015-01-01

    ...–spruce forests, mostly because of a lack of long-term experimental research. In the 1960s, long-term sample plots were established in the Western Carpathians to develop region-specific yield models...

  15. Building Resilience into Sitka Spruce (Picea sitchensis (Bong.) Carr.) Forests in Scotland in Response to the Threat of Climate Change

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Andrew D Cameron

    2015-01-01

    .... In Scotland, Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis (Bong.) Carr.) dominates the commercial forestry sector and there is growing pressure to develop alternative management strategies to limit potential economic losses through climate change...

  16. Methyl Jasmonate Induces Traumatic Resin Ducts, Terpenoid Resin Biosynthesis, and Terpenoid Accumulation in Developing Xylem of Norway Spruce Stems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Diane Martin; Dorothea Tholl; Jonathan Gershenzon; Jörg Bohlmann

    2002-01-01

    Norway spruce (Picea abies L. Karst) produces an oleoresin characterized by a diverse array of terpenoids, monoterpenoids, sesquiterpenoids, and diterpene resin acids that can protect conifers against potential herbivores and pathogens...

  17. Survival and growth patterns of white spruce (Picea glauca [Moench] Voss) rangewide provenances and their implications for climate change adaptation

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Pengxin; Parker, William H; Cherry, Marilyn; Colombo, Steve; William C. Parker; Man, Rongzhou; Roubal, Ngaire

    2014-01-01

    Intraspecific assisted migration (ISAM) through seed transfer during artificial forest regeneration has been suggested as an adaptation strategy to enhance forest resilience and productivity under future climate. In this study, we assessed the risks and benefits of ISAM in white spruce based on long-term and multilocation, rangewide provenance test data. Our results indicate that the adaptive capacity and growth potential of white spruce varied considerably among 245 range-wide provenances sa...

  18. A 4-year record of sitka spruce and western hemlock seed fall on the Cascade Head Experimental Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert H. Ruth; Carl M. Berntsen

    1955-01-01

    Four years' measurement of seed fall in the spruce-hemlock type on the Cascade Head Experimental Forest indicates that an ample supply of seed is distributed over clear-cut areas under staggered-setting cutting. The largest tract sampled was 81 acres; in spite of a seed crop failure in 1950, it received an average of 243,000 viable spruce and hemlock seeds per...

  19. Wood quality and value production in mixed fir-spruce-beech stands: long-term research in the Western Carpathians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petráš Rudolf

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Stem quality and damage was evaluated in mixed spruce-fir-beech stands. Moreover, an assortments structure was determined with their financial value. Results were compared with pure spruce (Picea abies [L.] Karst., fir (Abies alba Mill. and beech (Fagus sylvatica L. stands. Repeated measurements on 31 long-term research plots, stand assortment models, assortment yield models and value yield models were used. Stem quality of fir and spruce was only slightly lower in mixed stands compared to pure stands but beech stem quality was considerably worse in mixed stands. Fir and spruce had slightly lower proportions of better IIIA quality logs and higher proportions of IIIB quality in mixed stands. Beech had worse assortment structure than spruce and fir, in general. Pure beech stands had higher proportions of better I–IIIA quality assortments than mixed stands by 1–7%. Fir and spruce average value production (€ m−3 culminated at about 56 and 62 cm mean diameters. Almost the same value production was found in pure stands. In these stands it culminated at the mean diameter of 58 and 60 cm. Beech produced substantially less value on the same sites. In mixed stands, its value production culminated at the mean diameter of 40 cm. In pure stands, it culminated at the mean diameter of 36 cm. Although the production was found to be similar in both mixed and pure forests, higher damage intensity and less stem quality in mixed forests suggest that the pure forests can be more profitable.

  20. Structure and productivity of mixed spruce and fir forests on Mt. Kopaonik

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šljukić Biljana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject of this research are mixed forests of spruce and fir in the area of NP Kopaonik, which belong to the community of spruce and fir - Abieti-Piceetum abietis Mišić et Popović, 1978. The basis for the study of the structural development and production potential of these forests are data from 12 sample plots, with the average size of 0.18 ha. In terms of coenoecological affiliation all the sample plots belong to the group of ecological units - forests of spruce and fir (Abieti-Piceetum abietis, Mišić et Popović, 1978 on acid brown and brown podzolic soils, which are differentiated into 5 ecological units: Abieti-Piceetum abietis oxalidetosum on brown podzolic soil, Abieti-Piceetum abietis oxalidetosum on acid brown soil, Abieti-Piceetum abietis vaccinietosum on brown podzolic soil, Abieti-Piceetum abietis typicum on brown podzolic soil and Abieti-Piceetum abietis Dr.ymetosum on brown pozolic soil. In structural terms, these forests are characterized by very diverse structural forms, ranging from the structure of even-aged stands to typical multi-storey, unevenaged-aged stands. The form of cumulative curves of tree distribution is in most cases determined by spruce as the dominant species. At the same time, thin and medium-thick trees dominate, while the presence of stems with large dimensions is minimal. The average volume of these forestse is 777 m3•ha-1, with a mixture ratio of 0.7: 0.3 in favor of spruce. The average value of the current volume increment is 14 m3•ha-1, with a 68% share of spruce and 32% of fir. The percentage of increment ranges from 1.6% to 2.5% in all sample plots and is somewhat higher for fir. The site potential, stand characteristics and relations among the tree species have resulted in structural complexity, high productivity and ecological stability of these forests. Therefore, future forest management should avoid radical measures and procedures that would violate the established relationships and

  1. Generation, annotation, analysis and database integration of 16,500 white spruce EST clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavy, Nathalie; Paule, Charles; Parsons, Lee; Crow, John A; Morency, Marie-Josee; Cooke, Janice; Johnson, James E; Noumen, Etienne; Guillet-Claude, Carine; Butterfield, Yaron; Barber, Sarah; Yang, George; Liu, Jerry; Stott, Jeff; Kirkpatrick, Robert; Siddiqui, Asim; Holt, Robert; Marra, Marco; Seguin, Armand; Retzel, Ernest; Bousquet, Jean; MacKay, John

    2005-10-19

    The sequencing and analysis of ESTs is for now the only practical approach for large-scale gene discovery and annotation in conifers because their very large genomes are unlikely to be sequenced in the near future. Our objective was to produce extensive collections of ESTs and cDNA clones to support manufacture of cDNA microarrays and gene discovery in white spruce (Picea glauca [Moench] Voss). We produced 16 cDNA libraries from different tissues and a variety of treatments, and partially sequenced 50,000 cDNA clones. High quality 3' and 5' reads were assembled into 16,578 consensus sequences, 45% of which represented full length inserts. Consensus sequences derived from 5' and 3' reads of the same cDNA clone were linked to define 14,471 transcripts. A large proportion (84%) of the spruce sequences matched a pine sequence, but only 68% of the spruce transcripts had homologs in Arabidopsis or rice. Nearly all the sequences that matched the Populus trichocarpa genome (the only sequenced tree genome) also matched rice or Arabidopsis genomes. We used several sequence similarity search approaches for assignment of putative functions, including blast searches against general and specialized databases (transcription factors, cell wall related proteins), Gene Ontology term assignation and Hidden Markov Model searches against PFAM protein families and domains. In total, 70% of the spruce transcripts displayed matches to proteins of known or unknown function in the Uniref100 database (blastx e-value < 1e-10). We identified multigenic families that appeared larger in spruce than in the Arabidopsis or rice genomes. Detailed analysis of translationally controlled tumour proteins and S-adenosylmethionine synthetase families confirmed a twofold size difference. Sequences and annotations were organized in a dedicated database, SpruceDB. Several search tools were developed to mine the data either based on their occurrence in the cDNA libraries or on functional annotations. This

  2. Comparative indicators of genetic variability and bark beetle infestation intensity in populations of norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) in Bosnia and Herzegovina

    OpenAIRE

    Ballian, Dalibor; Dautbašić, Mirza; Božič, Gregor

    2012-01-01

    This study sets out comparative indicators of Norway spruce Picea abies (L.) Karst. populations in Bosnia and Herzegovina, based on an evaluation of the attack power of bark beetles Ips typographus L. and Pityogenes chalcographus L. and the decline of spruce within the populations sampled for genetic analysis. Twelve natural forest stands and one plantation were analyzed. The average numbers of desiccated Norway spruces per stand and isoenzyme gene markers were used for comparison purposes...

  3. Preliminary Effects of Fertilization on Ecochemical Soil Condition in Mature Spruce Stands Experiencing Dieback in the Beskid Śląski and Żywiecki Mountains, Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Małek, Stanisław; Januszek, Kazimierz; Keeton, William S.; Barszcz, Józef; Kroczek, Marek; Błońska, Ewa; Wanic, Tomasz

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, there has been the phenomena of spruce dieback in Europe. Significant areas of spruce low mortality now cover both sides of the Polish southern border. We evaluated ecochemical parameters influencing the heavy dieback occurring in mature spruce stands in the Polish Carpathian Mountains. Dolomite, magnesite and serpentinite fertilizers were applied to experimental plots located in 100-year-old stands in the autumn of 2008. The experimental plots were located in the mid-elevati...

  4. A conifer genomics resource of 200,000 spruce (Picea spp. ESTs and 6,464 high-quality, sequence-finished full-length cDNAs for Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holt Robert A

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Members of the pine family (Pinaceae, especially species of spruce (Picea spp. and pine (Pinus spp., dominate many of the world's temperate and boreal forests. These conifer forests are of critical importance for global ecosystem stability and biodiversity. They also provide the majority of the world's wood and fiber supply and serve as a renewable resource for other industrial biomaterials. In contrast to angiosperms, functional and comparative genomics research on conifers, or other gymnosperms, is limited by the lack of a relevant reference genome sequence. Sequence-finished full-length (FLcDNAs and large collections of expressed sequence tags (ESTs are essential for gene discovery, functional genomics, and for future efforts of conifer genome annotation. Results As part of a conifer genomics program to characterize defense against insects and adaptation to local environments, and to discover genes for the production of biomaterials, we developed 20 standard, normalized or full-length enriched cDNA libraries from Sitka spruce (P. sitchensis, white spruce (P. glauca, and interior spruce (P. glauca-engelmannii complex. We sequenced and analyzed 206,875 3'- or 5'-end ESTs from these libraries, and developed a resource of 6,464 high-quality sequence-finished FLcDNAs from Sitka spruce. Clustering and assembly of 147,146 3'-end ESTs resulted in 19,941 contigs and 26,804 singletons, representing 46,745 putative unique transcripts (PUTs. The 6,464 FLcDNAs were all obtained from a single Sitka spruce genotype and represent 5,718 PUTs. Conclusion This paper provides detailed annotation and quality assessment of a large EST and FLcDNA resource for spruce. The 6,464 Sitka spruce FLcDNAs represent the third largest sequence-verified FLcDNA resource for any plant species, behind only rice (Oryza sativa and Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana, and the only substantial FLcDNA resource for a gymnosperm. Our emphasis on capturing FLcDNAs and

  5. An experimental study on the effects of exhaust gas on spruce (Picea abies L. Karst.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hautala, E.L.; Holopainen, J.; Kaerenlampi, L. [Kuopio Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Ecology and Environmental Science; Surakka, J.; Ruuskanen, J. [Kuopio Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Environmental Sciences

    1995-12-31

    Motor vehicle exhausts are significant contributors to air pollution. Besides fine particles and inorganic gases, like CO, SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x}, exhaust gas contains a large group of aromatic hydrocarbon compounds, many of which are phytotoxic. In field studies, exhausts are found to have both direct and indirect harmful effects on roadside plants. However, only few experimental studies have been made about the effects of exhaust gas emissions on coniferous trees. The aim of this study was to survey the effects of exhausts on spruce (Picea abies L. Karst.) in standardized conditions. The concentrations of major exhaust gas components in the chamber atmosphere were detected simultaneously. The effects of exhaust on epistomatal waxes of first-year spruce needles are described. (author)

  6. Determination of the terpene flux from orange species and Norway spruce by relaxed eddy accumulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, C.S.; Hummelshøj, P.; Jensen, N.O.

    2000-01-01

    Terpene fluxes from a Norway spruce (Picea abies) forest and an orange orchard (Citrus clementii and Citrus sinensis) were measured by relaxed eddy accumulation (REA) during summer 1997. alpha-pinene and beta-pinene were the most abundant terpenes emitted from Norway spruce and constituted...... or downward flux was observed. The results from a laboratory intercomparison made in Spain deviated by maximum 7%. The flux measured at the two sites exhibited a strong diurnal variation with maximum in the afternoon and minimum in the morning hours and evenings. The applied REA system is new in its design...... rate by using two precision pumps operated at approximately 60 mi min(-1). The terpenes collected on the adsorbent tubes were significantly decomposed by ozone during sampling unless ozone scrubbers were applied. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved....

  7. The content of cytokinins in Norway spruce needles at the OTC site - preliminary results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doumas, P.; Daoudi, E.H.; Gautrat, M.P.; Schwartzenberg, K. v.; Bonnet-Massimbert, M. [Centre de Recherche d`Orleans, Station d`Amelioration des Arbres Forestiers, 45 - Ardon (France)

    1997-12-01

    The relationship of air pollution factors to observed forest decline can be investigated from different viewpoints incorporating physiological and biochemical changes. A hormone imbalance can be the result of growth disturbances, as a direct or indirect effect of air pollution. To prove this hypothesis, within an air pollution exclusion experiment in Open Top Chambers at the Edelmannshof site, the variations in the content of different cytokinins were analyzed in Norway spruce needles at various times during annual growth. The first approach adapted the cytokinin extraction and purification method, which is classically used in the laboratory. A second approach presented a one-year time course of the cytokinin content in one-year-old Norway spruce needles. (orig./MG)

  8. Formation of chloroform in spruce forest soil - results from laboratory incubation studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haselmann, K.F.; Laturnus, F.; Svensmark, B.

    2000-01-01

    are presented for the dynamic headspace system. For spruce forest soil, the results showed a significant increase in chloroform concentration in the headspace under aerobic conditions over a period of seven days, whereas the concentration of the other compounds remained fairly constant. A biogenic formation...... of chloroform is suggested, whereas for the other compounds anthropogenic sources are assumed. The addition of trichloroacetic acid to the soil increased the release of chloroform from the soil. It is, therefore, suggested that trichloroacetic acid also contributed to the formation of chloroform. Under...... the experimental conditions, the spruce forest soil released chloroform concentrations corresponding to a rate of 12 mu g m(-2) day(-1). Data on chloroform production rates are presented and compared with literature results, and possible formation mechanisms for chloroform are discussed. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science...

  9. Anatomical and physiological responses of Colorado blue spruce to vehicle exhausts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Xuebo; Sun, Nan; Ma, Lixin; Chang, Yingqiao; Mu, Liqiang

    2014-09-01

    In order to examine whether the leaves of the Colorado blue spruce (Picea pungens) are damaged or not by traffic pollution, the traits of the anatomy and physiology of its leaves are investigated by exposure to vehicle exhausts in a laboratory experiment lasting 30 days. The results show that both the anatomical structures and physiological traits of the leaves are significantly affected by vehicle exhausts. The anatomical structures, including epidermis, cuticle, palisade, and spongy parenchyma are modified when exposed to the high concentrations (≥ 0.4 mg/m(3)) of vehicle exhausts. However, physiological traits such as total chlorophyll content are not changed when exposed to different concentrations of vehicle exhaust. Unlike the total chlorophyll content, the electrical conductivities increased, whereas the POD activities decreased when presented in vehicle exhausts. The present study indicates that the Colorado blue spruce changes its anatomical structures and physiological traits to avoid possible damage by vehicle exhausts.

  10. In situ forming spruce xylan-based hydrogel for cell immobilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzmenko, Volodymyr; Hägg, Daniel; Toriz, Guillermo; Gatenholm, Paul

    2014-02-15

    An in situ forming spruce xylan-based hydrogel was synthesized in two steps with the intended use of cell encapsulation and in vivo delivery. First, bioconjugate was obtained through the reaction of glucuronic acid groups from xylan backbone with tyramine (TA). After that, the gelation process was enabled by enzymatic crosslinking of the phenol-containing TA-xylan conjugate. Exhibiting an exponential increase in the storage modulus, a 3D gel network was formed in about 20s. The designed gel showed extensive swelling and retained its mechanical integrity for more than two months. Mesenchymal stem cells were encapsulated in the hydrogel and cultured for one week. The cells retained their adipogenic differentiation capacity inside the gel, as verified by lipid accumulation. From these facts, we conclude that spruce xylan is a promising precursor for in situ forming hydrogels and should be evaluated further for tissue engineering purposes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Growth and Yield of 15-Year Plantations of Pine, Spruce and Birch in Agricultural Land

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daugaviete Mudrite

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The growth data and the potential returns from 15-year-old plantations of pine Pinus sylvestris L. (6 trial sites, spruce Picea abies Karst L. (9 trial sites and silver birch Betula pendula Roth (13 trial sites, established in abandoned agricultural lands in a variety of soil types (sod calcareous, anthrosols, podzolic, podzols, gley, podzolic gley, alluvial, using the planting density 2,500 and 3,300 and also 5,000 trees/ha are analysed.

  12. Toxic components of motor vehicle emissions for the spruce Picea abies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kammerbauer, H; Selinger, H; Römmelt, R; Ziegler-Jöns, A; Knoppik, D; Hock, B

    1987-01-01

    Six-year-old Norway spruce trees were exposed for 30 min under standardised conditions to the exhaust from an Otto engine running on lead-free petrol. Gas-exchange measurements in an open system using an infrared gas analyser showed a sudden, severe drop in CO(2) assimilation and transpiration rates. By using filters which absorbed different fractions of the exhaust it could be demonstrated that the toxic effects can be attributed to the NO(x) fraction.

  13. Effects of aerially applied mexacarbate on western spruce budworm larvae and their parasites in Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll B. Williams; Patrick J. Shea; Mark D. McGregor

    1979-01-01

    In tests on the Bitterroot National Forest, Montana, in 1965 and 1966, mexacarbate, aerially applied at the rate of 0.15 lb a.i./gal/acre (68.04 g a.iJ3.785 1/0.404 ha), killed about 90 percent of the western spruce budworm (Choristoneura occidentalis Freeman) populations. More parasitized budworm larvae survived treatments than nonparasitized.

  14. Changes after partial cutting of a spruce-fir stand in Maine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur C. Hart

    1956-01-01

    In 1945 a partial-cutting experiment in spruce-fir silviculture was begun by the Penobscot Research Center of the Northeastern Forest Experiment Station. The Eastern Pulp Wood Company of Calais, Maine, made available for the study a tract of forest land, in Dyer Township, Washington County, Maine. This 20.6-acre tract is part of a large area that had been burned over...

  15. Modeling tree growth and stable isotope ratios of white spruce in western Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucher, Etienne; Andreu-Hayles, Laia; Field, Robert; Oelkers, Rose; D'Arrigo, Rosanne

    2017-04-01

    Summer temperatures are assumed to exert a dominant control on physiological processes driving forest productivity in interior Alaska. However, despite the recent warming of the last few decades, numerous lines of evidence indicate that the enhancing effect of summer temperatures on high latitude forest populations has been weakening. First, satellite-derived indices of photosynthetic activity, such as the Normalized-Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI, 1982-2005), show overall declines in productivity in the interior boreal forests. Second, some white spruce tree ring series strongly diverge from summer temperatures during the second half of the 20th century, indicating a persistent loss of temperature sensitivity of tree ring proxies. Thus, the physiological response of treeline forests to ongoing climate change cannot be accurately predicted, especially from correlation analysis. Here, we make use of a process-based dendroecological model (MAIDENiso) to elucidate the complex linkages between global warming and increases in atmospheric CO2 concentration [CO2] with the response of treeline white spruce stands in interior Alaska (Seward). In order to fully capture the array of processes controlling tree growth in the area, multiple physiological indicators of white spruce productivity are used as target variables: NDVI images, ring widths (RW), maximum density (MXD) and newly measured carbon and oxygen stable isotope ratios from ring cellulose. Based on these data, we highlight the processes and mechanisms responsible for the apparent loss of sensitivity of white spruce trees to recent climate warming and [CO2] increase in order to elucidate the sensitivity and vulnerability of these trees to climate change.

  16. Climate-diameter growth relationships of black spruce and jack pine trees in boreal Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subedi, Nirmal; Sharma, Mahadev

    2013-02-01

    To predict the long-term effects of climate change - global warming and changes in precipitation - on the diameter (radial) growth of jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb.) and black spruce (Picea mariana [Mill.] B.S.P.) trees in boreal Ontario, we modified an existing diameter growth model to include climate variables. Diameter chronologies of 927 jack pine and 1173 black spruce trees, growing in the area from 47°N to 50°N and 80°W to 92°W, were used to develop diameter growth models in a nonlinear mixed-effects approach. Our results showed that the variables long-term average of mean growing season temperature, precipitation during wettest quarter, and total precipitation during growing season were significant (alpha = 0.05) in explaining variation in diameter growth of the sample trees. Model results indicated that higher temperatures during the growing season would increase the diameter growth of jack pine trees, but decrease that of black spruce trees. More precipitation during the wettest quarter would favor the diameter growth of both species. On the other hand, a wetter growing season, which may decrease radiation inputs, increase nutrient leaching, and reduce the decomposition rate, would reduce the diameter growth of both species. Moreover, our results indicated that future (2041-2070) diameter growth rate may differ from current (1971-2000) growth rates for both species, with conditions being more favorable for jack pine than black spruce trees. Expected future changes in the growth rate of boreal trees need to be considered in forest management decisions. We recommend that knowledge of climate-growth relationships, as represented by models, be combined with learning from adaptive management to reduce the risks and uncertainties associated with forest management decisions. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  17. Soil and soil cover changes in spruce forests after final logging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. M. Lapteva

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Soil cover transformation and changes of morphological and chemical properties of Albeluvisols in clear-cuttings of middle taiga spruce forests were studied. The observed changes in structure and properties of podzolic texturally-differentiated soils at cuttings of spruce forests in the middle taiga subzone do not cause their transition to any other soil type. Soil cover of secondary deciduous-coniferous forests which replace cut forests are characterized with a varied soil contour and a combination of the main type of podzolic soils under undisturbed spruce forests. The increased surface hydromorphism in cut areas causes formation of complicated sub-types of podzolic texturally differentiated soils (podzolic surface-gley soils with microprofile of podzol and enlarges their ratio (up to 35–38 % in soil cover structure. Temporary soil over-wetting at the initial (5–10 years stage of after-cutting self-restoring vegetation succession provides for soil gleyzation, improves yield and segregation of iron compounds, increases the migratory activity of humic substances. Low content and resources of total nitrogen in forest litters mark anthropogenic transformation processes of podzolic soils at this stage. Later (in 30–40 years after logging, soils in cut areas still retain signs of hydromorphism. Forest litters are denser, less acidic and thick with a low weight ratio of organic carbon as compared with Albeluvisols of undisturbed spruce forest. The upper mineral soil horizons under secondary deciduous-coniferous forests contain larger amounts of total iron, its mobile (oxalate-dissolvable components, and Fe-Mn-concretions.

  18. Long-Term Exposure of Sitka Spruce Seedlings to Trichloroacetic Acid

    OpenAIRE

    Cape, Neil; Reeves, Nicholas M; Schroder, Peter; Heal, Mathew R

    2003-01-01

    Trichloroacetic acid (TCA) has been implicated as an airborne pollutant responsible for adverse effects on forest health. There is considerable debate as to whether TCA observed in trees and forest soils is derived from atmospheric deposition or from in situ production. This experiment reports the results from treating 4-year-old Sitka spruce ( Picea sitchensis(Bong.) Carr) plants in a greenhouse over a growing season with TCA supplied either to the soil or to the foli...

  19. Visual Recognition Software for Binary Classification and Its Application to Spruce Pollen Identification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David K Tcheng

    Full Text Available Discriminating between black and white spruce (Picea mariana and Picea glauca is a difficult palynological classification problem that, if solved, would provide valuable data for paleoclimate reconstructions. We developed an open-source visual recognition software (ARLO, Automated Recognition with Layered Optimization capable of differentiating between these two species at an accuracy on par with human experts. The system applies pattern recognition and machine learning to the analysis of pollen images and discovers general-purpose image features, defined by simple features of lines and grids of pixels taken at different dimensions, size, spacing, and resolution. It adapts to a given problem by searching for the most effective combination of both feature representation and learning strategy. This results in a powerful and flexible framework for image classification. We worked with images acquired using an automated slide scanner. We first applied a hash-based "pollen spotting" model to segment pollen grains from the slide background. We next tested ARLO's ability to reconstruct black to white spruce pollen ratios using artificially constructed slides of known ratios. We then developed a more scalable hash-based method of image analysis that was able to distinguish between the pollen of black and white spruce with an estimated accuracy of 83.61%, comparable to human expert performance. Our results demonstrate the capability of machine learning systems to automate challenging taxonomic classifications in pollen analysis, and our success with simple image representations suggests that our approach is generalizable to many other object recognition problems.

  20. Norway spruce (Picea abies) laccases: characterization of a laccase in a lignin-forming tissue culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutaniemi, Sanna; Malmberg, Heli A; Simola, Liisa K; Teeri, Teemu H; Kärkönen, Anna

    2015-04-01

    Secondarily thickened cell walls of water-conducting vessels and tracheids and support-giving sclerenchyma cells contain lignin that makes the cell walls water impermeable and strong. To what extent laccases and peroxidases contribute to lignin biosynthesis in muro is under active evaluation. We performed an in silico study of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) laccases utilizing available genomic data. As many as 292 laccase encoding sequences (genes, gene fragments, and pseudogenes) were detected in the spruce genome. Out of the 112 genes annotated as laccases, 79 are expressed at some level. We isolated five full-length laccase cDNAs from developing xylem and an extracellular lignin-forming cell culture of spruce. In addition, we purified and biochemically characterized one culture medium laccase from the lignin-forming cell culture. This laccase has an acidic pH optimum (pH 3.8-4.2) for coniferyl alcohol oxidation. It has a high affinity to coniferyl alcohol with an apparent Km value of 3.5 μM; however, the laccase has a lower catalytic efficiency (V(max)/K(m)) for coniferyl alcohol oxidation compared with some purified culture medium peroxidases. The properties are discussed in the context of the information already known about laccases/coniferyl alcohol oxidases of coniferous plants. © 2015 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  1. Air Pollution and Forest Decline in a Spruce (Picea abies) Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, E.-D.

    1989-05-01

    Symptoms of forest decline of spruce in Europe range from needle yellowing and loss to tree and stand mortality. In a study area in northeast Bavaria, West Germany, where forest decline was initially detected, exposure to high concentrations of gaseous pollutants, SO2, NOx, and ozone has had no long-lasting direct effect on needles, and pathogens have only been secondary agents. Deposition of sulfur, nitrate, and ammonium, however, have significantly modified plant nutrition and soil chemistry. Spruce roots apparently take up ammonium rather than nitrate with an antagonistic effect on uptake of Mg. Nitrate left in the soil solution is leached together with sulfate to ground water, accelerating soil acidification and decreasing Ca/Al and Mg/Al ratios in the soil solution. Soil solution chemistry affects root development, and water and nutrient uptake. Had all nutrients become equally deficient, spruce trees probably could have adjusted by retarding their growth. However, canopy uptake of atmospheric nitrogen in addition to root uptake stimulated growth and caused a nitrogen to cation imbalance to develop; this imbalance resulted in the decline symptoms.

  2. Impacts of fire on non-native plant recruitment in black spruce forests of interior Alaska.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xanthe J Walker

    Full Text Available Climate change is expected to increase the extent and severity of wildfires throughout the boreal forest. Historically, black spruce (Picea mariana (Mill. B.S.P. forests in interior Alaska have been relatively free of non-native species, but the compounding effects of climate change and an altered fire regime could facilitate the expansion of non-native plants. We tested the effects of wildfire on non-native plant colonization by conducting a seeding experiment of non-native plants on different substrate types in a burned black spruce forest, and surveying for non-native plants in recently burned and mature black spruce forests. We found few non-native plants in burned or mature forests, despite their high roadside presence, although invasion of some burned sites by dandelion (Taraxacum officinale indicated the potential for non-native plants to move into burned forest. Experimental germination rates were significantly higher on mineral soil compared to organic soil, indicating that severe fires that combust much of the organic layer could increase the potential for non-native plant colonization. We conclude that fire disturbances that remove the organic layer could facilitate the invasion of non-native plants providing there is a viable seed source and dispersal vector.

  3. Disturbance and climate signal in Norway spruce and European larch dendrochronological series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Střelcová, Katarína; Fleischer, Peter, Jr.; Fleischer, Peter, Sr.; Holeksa, Jan; Zelo, Tomas; Vido, Jaroslav

    2017-04-01

    Norway spruce and European larch, dominant natural tree species in the Tatra Mountains (Slovakia), might be seriously threatened by projected climate change and intensified disturbance regime. Regional climate change scenarios project +2 °C increases in the 2050-2070 period and relatively stable precipitation regime when compared to long term normal. Such a climate change might shift both species on the edge of their bioclimatological conditions. Tree ring width is a good indicator of climate and disturbance impact on tree growth. The aim of our study was to identify abrupt growth changes indicating climatological stress on spruce and larch. We analysed local historical meteorological data (1890-2016) to reveal occurrence of such events in past. We hypothesize that number of stress days is increasing as a consequence of changing climate. Using band dendrometers we identified growth changes on five mature spruce and five larch trees during the 2008-2016 period. Each specific growth period was characterized by set of climatological parameters and indexes. Standardized precipitation index (SPI) and rate of photosynthesis (GPP) coincided well with abrupt growth decline, indicating physiological stress. These stress stimulating conditions were identified in past along historical climate records and verified on two-hundred tree cross sections. We applied combined step and trend intervention detection (CSTID) method for minimizing the effects of disturbance in tree ring width chronologies and enhance the climate signals.

  4. THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY OF SOLID WOOD PANELS MADE FROM HEAT-TREATED SPRUCE AND LIME WOOD STRIPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Marinela OLARESCU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of an experimental research performed with spruce (Picea abies L. and lime (Tilia cordata wood originating from the Stroesti-Arges region in Romania. Solid wood panels were manufactured from heat-treated strips, and also from untreated strips, as controls. The thermal conductivity (λ of the panels was measured on a HFM 436/6/1 Lambda equipment at a temperature difference of 30°C between the cold and the hot plate. The results showed that the panels made from heat-treated wood strips had by 13% lower values of λ in case of spruce and by 6% lower values in case of lime and thus better heat-insulating properties than the panels made from untreated wood of the same species. With λ values around 0.07-0.08 W/m⋅K, 20mm thick solid wood panels made from heat-treated spruce and lime strips are comparable to wool from the viewpoint of the thermal insulating capacity.

  5. An Assessment of European Spruce Bark Beetle Infestation Using WorldView-2 Satellite Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filchev, L.

    2012-05-01

    During the past three decades the spectral responses of declining forest health due to pest infestations as well as various methods for detection of trees' health status have been extensively studied. A set of narrow-band and broad-band Vegetation Indices (VIs) have been developed to assess the changes in the vegetation reflectance. The main objective of the study is to assess the damages caused by European Spruce Bark Beetle (Ips typographus L.) infestation in 'Bistrishko Branishte' UNESCO Man And Biosphere (MAB) reserve using WorldView-2 satellite data. The analysis was performed on Norway spruce (Picea abies) forest using the VIs indicative for forest stress: NDVI, SR, EVI, ARVI, CRI, CSc, and ARI. By applying density slice on the VIs, the main regions for stressed vegetation have been delineat ed. The CSc has been found to perform better in detecting the pattern of stressed spruce trees compared to ARI. The area affected by Ips typographus was determined by CSc index to 5.97% (0.373 km2) of the study area.

  6. The bud break process and its variation among local populations of boreal black spruce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Sergio; Bousquet, Jean

    2014-01-01

    Phenology of local populations can exhibit adaptations to the current environmental conditions resulting from a close interaction between climate and genotype. The bud break process and its variations among populations were analyzed in greenhouse by monitoring the growth resumption in black spruce [Picea mariana (Mill.) BSP] seedlings originating from seeds of five stands across the closed boreal forest in Quebec, Canada. Bud break lasted 15 days and occurred earlier and quicker in northern provenances. Provenance explained between 10.2 and 32.3% of the variance in bud break, while the families accounted for a smaller but still significant part of the variance. The late occurrence of one phenological phase corresponded to a delayed occurrence of the others according to linear relationships. A causal model was proposed in the form of a chain of events with each phase of bud break being related to the previous and successive one, while no link was observed between non-adjacent phases. The adaptation of black spruce populations along the latitudinal gradient points toward a strategy based on rapid physiological processes triggered by temperature increase inducing high metabolic activity. The variation observed in bud break reflects an evolutionary trade-off between maximization of security and taking advantage of the short growing season. This work provides evidence of the phenological adaptations of black spruce to its local environmental conditions while retaining sizeable genetic diversity within populations. Because of the multigenic nature of phenology, this diversity should provide some raw material for adaptation to changing local environmental conditions.

  7. Paraquat-induced lightwood in two European conifers - Scotch pine and Norway spruce

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wroblewska, H.; Conner, A.H.; Rowe, J.W.; Peters, W.J.; Roberts, D.R.

    1978-04-01

    Paraquat treatment induced oleoresin-soaked lightwood in Scotch pine; borehole and ax-frill treatment methods were equally effective. Paraquat treatment of Norway spruce induced limited lightwood formation accompanied by heavy external oleoresin exudation. Thus paraquat treatment of Scotch pine and possibly Norway spruce could be commercially advantageous for increasing naval stores production from these species. Analysis of tall oil precursors (nonvolatile ether extractives) for resin acids, fatty acids, and nonsaponifiables showed that the increase from paraquat treatment was mainly from an increased resin acid content. The chemical composition of the resin acids from the lightwood and control wood areas was similar and consisted of the usual pimaric and abietic type resin acids found in conifers. The fatty acids were predominately unsaturated C/sub 18/ isomers. Turpentine of both species consisted mainly of ..cap alpha..-pinene, ..beta..-pinene, and 3-carene. The composition of the turpentine from the Scotch pine lightwood did not differ from that of the control wood. However, turpentine from the Norway spruce lightwood had an increased 3-carene content compared to that from the control.

  8. Comparison of terpene composition in Engelmann spruce (Picea engelmannii) using hydrodistillation, SPME and PLE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mardarowicz, Marek; Wianowska, Dorota; Dawidowicz, Andrzej L; Sawicki, Ryszard

    2004-01-01

    Terpenes emitted by conifer trees are generally determined by analysing plant extracts or essential oils, prepared from foliage and cones using steam distillation. The application of these procedures limits experiments to cut plant materials. Recently headspace techniques have been adopted to examine terpene emission by living plants. This paper deals with the application of solid-phase micro-extraction (SPME) for the analysis of terpenes emitted by conifers foliage of Engelmann spruce (Picea engelmannii), including its seedlings. The compositions of SPME extracts obtained for destroyed and non-destroyed old and juvenile spruce needles were compared with the compositions of essential oils and pressurised liquid extraction (PLE) extracts corresponding to the same plant materials. No substantial differences have been found in the qualitative terpene composition estimated by analysing essential oil and PLE and SPME extracts from non-destroyed old and juvenile foliage. The disintegration of spruce needles results in the formation of a significant amount of myrcene in the case of the old conifer foliage and non-terpenoic compounds in the case of juvenile conifer foliage. This phenomenon can be attributed to enzymatic reactions occurring in the destroyed plant cells.

  9. Evaluation of IRS-1C LISS-3 satellite data for Norway spruce defoliation assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falkenstroem, H.

    1999-02-01

    Satellite based remote sensing supported by air photo and field surveys, provide a means to area covering forest health assessment on a regional scale. Landsat TM data has been extensively used in studies of spruce and fir defoliation in Europe and North America. The temporal coverage of Landsat TM in combination with cloudiness however restrict the availability of data. In this study the LISS-3 sensor onboard the Indian Resource Satellite, IRS-1C, was evaluated for defoliation assessments in Norway spruce (Picea abies) in the central part of Sweden. The near infrared wavelength band proved to be best correlated with mean stand defoliation. After normalisation of satellite data for topographic conditions, the correlation coefficient increased from -0,19 to -0,83. Normalising satellite data for species composition did not improve the results though. The correction coefficients involved in the procedure were originally developed for Landsat TM, and proved to be inadequate for the LISS-3 data set. A thorough examination of the effects of species composition on LISS-3 data is needed to yield better results. The correlation between observed defoliation in the verification stands and predicted (based on the inverse regression function between corrected NIR values and defoliation in reference stands) was 0,70, despite a very limited range of defoliation in the verification set. IRS-1C LISS-3 is fully comparable to Landsat TM for spruce defoliation studies, although the results would probably not be significantly improved 49 refs, 7 figs, 10 tabs

  10. Ozone flux over a Norway spruce forest and correlation with net ecosystem production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zapletal, Milos, E-mail: milos.zapletal@ekotoxa.cz [Ekotoxa s.r.o. - Centre for Environment and Land Assessment, Oticka 37, 746 01 Opava (Czech Republic); Silesian University at Opava, Faculty of Philosophy and Science, Masarykova 37, 746 01 Opava (Czech Republic); Cudlin, Pavel [Institute of Systems Biology and Ecology of the AS CR, v.v.i., Na Sadkach 7, 37005 Ceske Budejovice (Czech Republic); Chroust, Petr [Ekotoxa s.r.o. - Centre for Environment and Land Assessment, Oticka 37, 746 01 Opava (Czech Republic); Urban, Otmar; Pokorny, Radek [Institute of Systems Biology and Ecology of the AS CR, v.v.i., Porici 3b, 60300 Brno (Czech Republic); Edwards-Jonasova, Magda [Institute of Systems Biology and Ecology of the AS CR, v.v.i., Na Sadkach 7, 37005 Ceske Budejovice (Czech Republic); Czerny, Radek; Janous, Dalibor; Taufarova, Klara [Institute of Systems Biology and Ecology of the AS CR, v.v.i., Porici 3b, 60300 Brno (Czech Republic); Vecera, Zbynek; Mikuska, Pavel [Institute of Analytical Chemistry of the AS CR, v.v.i., Veveri 97, 60200 Brno (Czech Republic); Paoletti, Elena [Institute of Plant Protection, National Research Council of Italy, via Madonna del Piano 10, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy)

    2011-05-15

    Daily ozone deposition flux to a Norway spruce forest in Czech Republic was measured using the gradient method in July and August 2008. Results were in good agreement with a deposition flux model. The mean daily stomatal uptake of ozone was around 47% of total deposition. Average deposition velocity was 0.39 cm s{sup -1} and 0.36 cm s{sup -1} by the gradient method and the deposition model, respectively. Measured and modelled non-stomatal uptake was around 0.2 cm s{sup -1}. In addition, net ecosystem production (NEP) was measured by using Eddy Covariance and correlations with O{sub 3} concentrations at 15 m a.g.l., total deposition and stomatal uptake were tested. Total deposition and stomatal uptake of ozone significantly decreased NEP, especially by high intensities of solar radiation. - Highlights: > We estimate ozone deposition flux to a Norway spruce forest using the gradient method and model. > The mean stomatal uptake of ozone is approximately 47% of the total deposition. > We measure net ecosystem production (NEP) using Eddy Covariance. > We test whether elevated total deposition and stomatal uptake of O{sub 3} imply a reduction of NEP. > Deposition and stomatal uptake of O{sub 3} decrease NEP, especially by high intensities of solar radiation. - Net ecosystem production of a Norway spruce forest decreases with increasing deposition and stomatal uptake of ozone.

  11. Tree plant organic matter stocks in spruce green moss Piceetum hylocomiosum and pine lichen Pinetum cladinosum forest communities after windfall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Manov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Accumulation of organic matter in spruce green moss Piceetum hylocomiosum and pine lichen Pinetum cladinosum forest communities after windfall was investigated. Phytomass of Piceetum hylocomiosum stand is 51.8 t • ha-1, and Pinetum cladinosum stand is 7.5 t • ha-1. Phytomass in the disturbed stands is 3.5 times less than in undisturbed spruce forest and 15 times less than in undisturbed pine forest. The undergrowth accumulates 2.8 t • ha-1 in spruce forest, and 0.9 t • ha-1 in pine forest after windfall. Number of trees, volume of wood, stock of organic matter was determined in coarse woody debris subject to decay class. Most of the dead trees (77–97 % belong to the second decay class. Reduced competition for light and mineral nutrients influences the intensity of organic matter accumulation by tree plants. We detected that increasing radial growth of spruce and fir began before windfall. This demonstrates the stand drying. However, maximal rate of annual ring increment (2.03–2.17 mm for spruce and 3.98–4.07 mm for fir was observed in 2009–2010 years. After windfall radial growth of undergrowth increased 2 times in Piceetum hylocomiosum and 7.7 times in Pinetum cladinosum. Height increment of spruce and fir understorey increased 2.2–2.6 times in spruce forest. As compared with undisturbed ecosystems height increment of pine understorey is 1.2–2.0 times higher on windbreak in Pinetum cladinosum.

  12. Distinct genecological patterns in seedlings of Norway spruce and silver fir from a mountainous landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Aline; Sperisen, Christoph; Howe, Glenn Thomas; Brang, Peter; Walthert, Lorenz; St Clair, John Bradley; Heiri, Caroline

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the genecology of forest trees is critical for gene conservation, for predicting the effects of climate change and climate change adaptation, and for successful reforestation. Although common genecological patterns have emerged, species-specific details are also important. Which species are most vulnerable to climate change? Which are the most important adaptive traits and environmental drivers of natural selection? Even though species have been classified as adaptive specialists vs. adaptive generalists, large-scale studies comparing different species in the same experiment are rare. We studied the genecology of Norway spruce (Picea abies) and silver fir (Abies alba), two co-occurring but ecologically distinct European conifers in Central Europe. For each species, we collected seed from more than 90 populations across Switzerland, established a seedling common-garden test, and developed genecological models that associate population variation in seedling growth and phenology to climate, soil properties, and site water balance. Population differentiation and associations between seedling traits and environmental variables were much stronger for Norway spruce than for silver fir, and stronger for seedling height growth than for bud phenology. In Norway spruce, height growth and second flushing were strongly associated with temperature and elevation, with seedlings from the lowlands being taller and more prone to second flush than seedlings from the Alps. In silver fir, height growth was more weakly associated with temperature and elevation, but also associated with water availability. Soil characteristics explained little population variation in both species. We conclude that Norway spruce has become an adaptive specialist because trade-offs between rapid juvenile growth and frost avoidance have subjected it to strong diversifying natural selection based on temperature. In contrast, because silver fir has a more conservative growth habit, it has

  13. Biogenic nitric oxide emission from a spruce forest soil in mountainous terrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falge, Eva; Bargsten, Anika; Behrendt, Thomas; Meixner, Franz X.

    2010-05-01

    The process-based spatial simulation model SVAT-CN was used to estimate biogenic nitric oxide (NO) emission by soils of a Norway spruce forest (Weidenbrunnen) in the Fichtelgebirge, Germany. SVAT-CN core is a combination of a multiple-layer soil water balance model and a multi-layered canopy gas exchange model. The soil modules comprise a flexible hybrid between a layered bucket model and classical basic liquid flow theory. Further soil processes include: heat transport, distribution of transpiration demand proportionally to soil resistance, reduction of leaf physiological parameters with limiting soil moisture. Spruce forest soils usually are characterized by a thick organic layer (raw humus), with the topmost centimetres being the location where most of the biogenic NO is produced. Within individual spruce forest stands the understory might be composed of patches characterized by different species (e.g. Vaccinium myrtillus, Picea abies, Deschampsia caespitosa), and NO production potentials. The effect of soil physical and chemical parameters and understory types on NO emission from the organic layer was investigated in laboratory incubation and fumigation experiments on soils sampled below the various understory covers found at the Weidenbrunnen site. Results from the laboratory experiments were used to parameterize multi-factorial regression models of soil NO emission with respect to its response to soil temperature and moisture. Parameterization of the spatial model SVAT-CN includes horizontal heterogeneity of over- and understory PAI, understory species distribution, soil texture, bulk density, thickness of organic layer. Simulations are run for intensive observations periods of 2007 and 2008 of the EGER (ExchanGE processes in mountainous Regions) project, a late summer/fall and an early summer period, providing estimates for different understory types (young spruce, blueberry, grass, and moss/litter patches). Validation of the model is being carried out at

  14. Chemical and transcriptional responses of Norway spruce genotypes with different susceptibility to Heterobasidion spp. infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielsson Marie

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Norway spruce [Picea abies (L. Karst.] is one of the most important conifer species in Europe. The wood is economically important and infections by wood-rotting fungi cause substantial losses to the industry. The first line of defence in a Norway spruce tree is the bark. It is a very efficient barrier against infection based on its mechanical and chemical properties. Once an injury or an infection is recognized by the tree, induced defences are activated. In this study we examined transcriptional response, using 454-sequencing, and chemical profiles in bark of Norway spruce trees with different susceptibility to Heterobasidion annosum s.l. infection. The aim was to find associations between the transcriptome and chemical profiles to the level of susceptibility to Heterobasidion spp. in Norway spruce genotypes. Results Both terpene and phenol compositions were analysed and at 28 days post inoculation (dpi high levels of 3-carene was produced in response to H. annosum. However, significant patterns relating to inoculation or to genotypes with higher or lower susceptibility could only be found in the phenol fraction. The levels of the flavonoid catechin, which is polymerized into proanthocyanidins (PA, showed a temporal variation; it accumulated between 5 and 15 dpi in response to H. annosum infection in the less susceptible genotypes. The transcriptome data suggested that the accumulation of free catechin was preceded by an induction of genes in the flavonoid and PA biosynthesis pathway such as leucoanthocyanidin reductase. Quantitative PCR analyses verified the induction of genes in the phenylpropanoid and flavonoid pathway. The qPCR data also highlighted genotype-dependent differences in the transcriptional regulation of these pathways. Conclusions The varying dynamics in transcriptional and chemical patterns displayed by the less susceptible genotypes suggest that there is a genotypic variation in successful spruce defence

  15. Chemical and transcriptional responses of Norway spruce genotypes with different susceptibility to Heterobasidion spp. infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Norway spruce [Picea abies (L.) Karst.] is one of the most important conifer species in Europe. The wood is economically important and infections by wood-rotting fungi cause substantial losses to the industry. The first line of defence in a Norway spruce tree is the bark. It is a very efficient barrier against infection based on its mechanical and chemical properties. Once an injury or an infection is recognized by the tree, induced defences are activated. In this study we examined transcriptional response, using 454-sequencing, and chemical profiles in bark of Norway spruce trees with different susceptibility to Heterobasidion annosum s.l. infection. The aim was to find associations between the transcriptome and chemical profiles to the level of susceptibility to Heterobasidion spp. in Norway spruce genotypes. Results Both terpene and phenol compositions were analysed and at 28 days post inoculation (dpi) high levels of 3-carene was produced in response to H. annosum. However, significant patterns relating to inoculation or to genotypes with higher or lower susceptibility could only be found in the phenol fraction. The levels of the flavonoid catechin, which is polymerized into proanthocyanidins (PA), showed a temporal variation; it accumulated between 5 and 15 dpi in response to H. annosum infection in the less susceptible genotypes. The transcriptome data suggested that the accumulation of free catechin was preceded by an induction of genes in the flavonoid and PA biosynthesis pathway such as leucoanthocyanidin reductase. Quantitative PCR analyses verified the induction of genes in the phenylpropanoid and flavonoid pathway. The qPCR data also highlighted genotype-dependent differences in the transcriptional regulation of these pathways. Conclusions The varying dynamics in transcriptional and chemical patterns displayed by the less susceptible genotypes suggest that there is a genotypic variation in successful spruce defence strategies against

  16. Generation, annotation, analysis and database integration of 16,500 white spruce EST clusters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddiqui Asim

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The sequencing and analysis of ESTs is for now the only practical approach for large-scale gene discovery and annotation in conifers because their very large genomes are unlikely to be sequenced in the near future. Our objective was to produce extensive collections of ESTs and cDNA clones to support manufacture of cDNA microarrays and gene discovery in white spruce (Picea glauca [Moench] Voss. Results We produced 16 cDNA libraries from different tissues and a variety of treatments, and partially sequenced 50,000 cDNA clones. High quality 3' and 5' reads were assembled into 16,578 consensus sequences, 45% of which represented full length inserts. Consensus sequences derived from 5' and 3' reads of the same cDNA clone were linked to define 14,471 transcripts. A large proportion (84% of the spruce sequences matched a pine sequence, but only 68% of the spruce transcripts had homologs in Arabidopsis or rice. Nearly all the sequences that matched the Populus trichocarpa genome (the only sequenced tree genome also matched rice or Arabidopsis genomes. We used several sequence similarity search approaches for assignment of putative functions, including blast searches against general and specialized databases (transcription factors, cell wall related proteins, Gene Ontology term assignation and Hidden Markov Model searches against PFAM protein families and domains. In total, 70% of the spruce transcripts displayed matches to proteins of known or unknown function in the Uniref100 database (blastx e-value Arabidopsis or rice genomes. Detailed analysis of translationally controlled tumour proteins and S-adenosylmethionine synthetase families confirmed a twofold size difference. Sequences and annotations were organized in a dedicated database, SpruceDB. Several search tools were developed to mine the data either based on their occurrence in the cDNA libraries or on functional annotations. Conclusion This report illustrates specific

  17. EVALUATION OF THE IMPACT OF THE ECKLONIA MAXIMA EXTRACT ON SELECTED MORPHOLOGICAL FEATURES OF YELLOW PINE, SPRUCE AND THUJA STABBING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Sosnowski Sosnowski

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The study was focused on the impact of an extract of Ecklonia maxima on selected morphological features of yellow pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex C. Lawson, prickly spruce (Picea pungens Engelm. Variety Glauca, thuja (Thuja occidentalis variety Smaragd. The experiment was established in April 12, 2012 on the forest nursery in Ceranów. April 15, 2013 was introduced research agent in the form of a spraying an aqueous solution extract of Ecklonia maxima with trade name Kelpak SL. Biologically active compounds in the extract are plant hormones: auxin and cytokinin. There were studied increment in plant height, needle length of yellow pine, twigs length in prickly spruce and thuja. The measurements of increment in length of twigs and needles were made in each case on the same, specially marked parts of plants and have carried them on the 27th of each month beginning in May and ending in September. The results were evaluated statistically using the analysis of variance. Medium differentiations were verified by Tukey's test at a significance level p ≤ 0.05. The study showed that the diversity of traits features in the experiment was depended on the extract, the tree species and the measurement time. The best results after the extract using showed a pine and spruce. Seaweed preparation contributed to increment increased of trees height for in the pine and spruce and the needles length of pine and twigs of spruce. The species showing no reaction to the extract was thuja.

  18. Declining Bark Beetle Densities (Ips typographus, Coleoptera: Scolytinae from Infested Norway Spruce Stands and Possible Implications for Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Angst

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The eight-toothed spruce bark beetle (Ips typographus is the most serious insect pest in Central European forests. During the past two decades, extreme meteorological events and subsequent beetle infestations have killed millions of cubic meters of standing spruce trees. Not all the infested stands could be cleared in time, and priorities in management had to be set. Natural or man-made buffer zones of about 500 meters in width are frequently defined to separate differently managed stands in Central Europe. While the buffer zones seem to be effective in most of the cases, their impact has not been studied in detail. Beetle densities were therefore assessed in three case studies using pheromone traps along transects, leading from infested stands into spruce-free buffer zones. The results of the trap catches allow an estimation of the buffer zone influence on densities and the dispersal of Ips typographus. Beetle densities were found to decrease rapidly with increasing distance from the infested spruce stands. The trap catches were below high-risk thresholds within a few hundred meters of the infested stands. The decrease in catches was more pronounced in open land and in an urban area than in a broadleaf stand. Designed buffer zones of 500 m width without spruce can therefore very probably help to reduce densities of spreading beetles.

  19. Climatic Sensitivity of a Mixed Forest Association of White Spruce and Trembling Aspen at Their Southern Range Limit

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    Sophan Chhin

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Climatic sensitivity of white spruce (Picea glauca (Moench Voss was examined growing in association with trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx. at their southern limit of distribution in a transitional ecotone between the southern boreal forest and northern prairie region. The study was carried out in the Spruce Woods Provincial Park (SWPP located in southwestern Manitoba, Canada. The dry regional climate restricted trembling aspen growth during the growing season via moisture deficiency and temperature induced drought stress. Warm, mild winters also negatively affected radial growth of trembling aspen. Growth of white spruce was moderated by conditions within the aspen stands as radial growth patterns showed low variability from year to year, a low common growth signal, and a stronger response to temperature than to precipitation. Nonetheless, the dry regional climate still restricted growth of white spruce during the growing season via temperature induced drought stress. The findings of the study for white spruce support the stress gradient hypothesis in which facilitative interactions between tree species are expected under harsher environmental conditions.

  20. Building Resilience into Sitka Spruce (Picea sitchensis (Bong. Carr. Forests in Scotland in Response to the Threat of Climate Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew D. Cameron

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available It is expected that a warming climate will have an impact on the future productivity of European spruce forests. In Scotland, Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis (Bong. Carr. dominates the commercial forestry sector and there is growing pressure to develop alternative management strategies to limit potential economic losses through climate change. This review considers management options to increase the resilience of Sitka spruce dominated forests in Scotland. Given the considerable uncertainty over the potential long-term impacts of climate change, it is recommended that Sitka spruce should continue to be planted where it already grows well. However, new planting and restocking should be established in mixtures where silviculturally practicable, even if no-thin regimes are adopted, to spread future risks of damage. Three potentially compatible species with Sitka spruce are western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla (Raf. Sarg., grand fir (Abies grandis (Lamb. Lindl. and Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb. Franco and all form natural mixtures in its native range in North America. The predicted windier climate will require a range of management inputs, such as early cutting of extraction racks and early selective thinning, to improve stability. The potential to improve resilience to particularly abiotic damage through transforming even-aged stands into irregular structures and limiting the overall size of the growing stock is discussed.

  1. Methyl Jasmonate Induces Traumatic Resin Ducts, Terpenoid Resin Biosynthesis, and Terpenoid Accumulation in Developing Xylem of Norway Spruce Stems1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Diane; Tholl, Dorothea; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Bohlmann, Jörg

    2002-01-01

    Norway spruce (Picea abies L. Karst) produces an oleoresin characterized by a diverse array of terpenoids, monoterpenoids, sesquiterpenoids, and diterpene resin acids that can protect conifers against potential herbivores and pathogens. Oleoresin accumulates constitutively in resin ducts in the cortex and phloem (bark) of Norway spruce stems. De novo formation of traumatic resin ducts (TDs) is observed in the developing secondary xylem (wood) after insect attack, fungal elicitation, and mechanical wounding. Here, we characterize the methyl jasmonate-induced formation of TDs in Norway spruce by microscopy, chemical analyses of resin composition, and assays of terpenoid biosynthetic enzymes. The response involves tissue-specific differentiation of TDs, terpenoid accumulation, and induction of enzyme activities of both prenyltransferases and terpene synthases in the developing xylem, a tissue that constitutively lacks axial resin ducts in spruce. The induction of a complex defense response in Norway spruce by methyl jasmonate application provides new avenues to evaluate the role of resin defenses for protection of conifers against destructive pests such as white pine weevils (Pissodes strobi), bark beetles (Coleoptera, Scolytidae), and insect-associated tree pathogens. PMID:12114556

  2. Belowground effects of enhanced tropospheric ozone and drought in a beech/spruce forest (Fagus sylvatica L./Picea abies [L.] Karst)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikolova, Petia S., E-mail: nikolova@wzw.tum.d [Ecophysiology of Plants, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Weihenstephan Center of Life and Food Sciences, Am Hochanger 13, 85354 Freising (Germany); Andersen, Christian P. [Western Ecology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, United States Environmental Protection Agency, 200 SW 35th St., Corvallis, OR 97333 (United States); Blaschke, Helmut; Matyssek, Rainer; Haeberle, Karl-Heinz [Ecophysiology of Plants, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Weihenstephan Center of Life and Food Sciences, Am Hochanger 13, 85354 Freising (Germany)

    2010-04-15

    The effects of experimentally elevated O{sub 3} on soil respiration rates, standing fine-root biomass, fine-root production and delta{sup 13}C signature of newly produced fine roots were investigated in an adult European beech/Norway spruce forest in Germany during two subsequent years with contrasting rainfall patterns. During humid 2002, soil respiration rate was enhanced under elevated O{sub 3} under beech and spruce, and was related to O{sub 3}-stimulated fine-root production only in beech. During dry 2003, the stimulating effect of O{sub 3} on soil respiration rate vanished under spruce, which was correlated with decreased fine-root production in spruce under drought, irrespective of the O{sub 3} regime. delta{sup 13}C signature of newly formed fine-roots was consistent with the differing g{sub s} of beech and spruce, and indicated stomatal limitation by O{sub 3} in beech and by drought in spruce. Our study showed that drought can override the stimulating O{sub 3} effects on fine-root dynamics and soil respiration in mature beech and spruce forests. - Drought has the capacity to override the stimulating ozone effect on soil respiration in adult European beech/Norway spruce forest.

  3. Quantifying sources of variation in the frequency of fungi associated with spruce beetles: implications for hypothesis testing and sampling methodology in bark beetle-symbiont relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian H. Aukema; Richard A. Werner; Kirsten E. Haberkern; Barbara L. Illman; Murray K. Clayton; Kenneth F. Raffa

    2005-01-01

    The spruce beetle, Dendroctonus rufipennis (Kirby), causes landscape level mortality to mature spruce (Picea spp.) throughout western and northern North America. As with other bark beetles, this beetle is associated with a variety of fungi, whose ecological functions are largely unknown. It has been proposed that the relative...

  4. Does the orientation of Norway spruce (Picea abies /L./ Karst.) branches within sunlit crown part influence the heterogeneity of biochemical, structural and spectral characteristics of needles?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lhotáková, Z.; Albrechtová, J.; Malenovsky, Z.; Rock, B.N.; Polák, T.; Cudlín, P.

    2007-01-01

    The goal of this study was to determine if selected biochemical, structural and spectral properties of Norway spruce needles are influenced by the azimuth orientation of the branch. Three youngest needle age classes from 20 mature (100 years old or older) Norway spruce trees were sampled from upper

  5. Post-fire forest dynamics and climate variability affect spatial and temporal properties of spruce beetle outbreaks on a Sky Island mountain range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher D. O' Connor; Ann M. Lynch; Donald A. Falk; Thomas W. Swetnam

    2014-01-01

    The spruce beetle (Dendroctonus rufipennis) is known for extensive outbreaks resulting in high spruce mortality, but several recent outbreaks in the western United States have been among the largest and most severe in the documentary record. In the Pinaleño Mountains of southeast Arizona, U.S.A., an outbreak in the mid-1990s resulted in 85% mortality of Engelmann...

  6. Calcium addition at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest increases the capacity for stress tolerance and carbon capture in red spruce (Picea rubens) trees during the cold season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul G. Schaberg; Rakesh Minocha; Stephanie Long; Joshua M. Halman; Gary J. Hawley; Christopher. Eagar

    2011-01-01

    Red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.) trees are uniquely vulnerable to foliar freezing injury during the cold season (fall and winter), but are also capable of photosynthetic activity if temperatures moderate. To evaluate the influence of calcium (Ca) addition on the physiology of red spruce during the cold season, we measured concentrations of foliar...

  7. Techno-economic and ex-ante environmental assessment of C6 sugars production from spruce and corn. Comparison of organosolv and wet milling technologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moncada, Jonathan; Vural Gursel, Iris|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/413574776; Huijgen, Wouter J J; Dijkstra, Jan Wilco; Ramírez, Andrea|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/284852414

    2018-01-01

    This study assesses the techno-economic and environmental performance of C6 sugars production from softwood (spruce) and corn. Two technologies were considered in the assessment: organosolv of spruce woodchips (2nd generation) and corn wet milling (1st generation). Process models were developed to

  8. Comparative study of long-term water uptake of Norway spruce and Douglas-fir in Moravian upland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadezhdina Nadezhda

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Long-term water uptake of Douglas-fir and Norway spruce trees, growing in condition of Moravian upland, was studied with aim of comparing sap flow in small roots with flow in stems. Sap flow was measured by the heat field deformation method using multi-point sensors for stems and single-point sensors for roots. Differences between species were found in relationships between sap flow in tree stems and water uptake by roots, suggesting that Douglas-fir is able to take water from deeper soil more efficiently than spruce. This allows Douglas-fir to transpire more water especially during drought and grow faster than spruce. These biological features should be taken into account for future forest species compositions because they may have impact on both, forestry and hydrology.

  9. Development of a comprehensive analytical method for the determination of chlorinated paraffins in spruce needles applied in passive air sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iozza, Saverio; Schmid, Peter; Oehme, Michael

    2009-12-01

    Conifer needles are used for the monitoring of atmospheric persistent organic pollutants. The objective of the present study was to develop a method for the detection of airborne chlorinated paraffins (CPs) using spruce needles as a passive sampler. The method is based on liquid extraction of the cuticular wax layer followed by chromatographic fractionation and detection of CPs using two different GCMS techniques. Total CP concentrations (sum of short (SCCP), medium (MCCP) and long chain CPs (LCCP)) were determined by EI-MS/MS. SCCP and MCCP levels as well as congener group patterns (n-alkane chain length, chlorine content) could be evaluated using ECNI-LRMS. For the first time, data on environmental airborne CPs on spruce needles taken within the Monitoring Network in the Alpine Region for Persistent and other Organic Pollutants (MONARPOP) are presented providing evidence that spruce needles are a suitable passive sampling system for the monitoring of atmospheric CPs.

  10. A study by non-isothermal thermal methods of spruce wood bark materialss after their application for dye removal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VIORICA DULMAN

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with a study of some materials obtained from spruce bark (Picea abies, Romania, after retention of some dyes frequently used in dyeing processes in the textile industry and waste water treatment. These materials obtained by dye retention exhibit a particular thermal behavior which is different from that of the blank sample (spruce bark. The characteristic temperatures, weight losses, the residue remaining after thermo-oxidative degradation, as well as the activation energies of the significant thermo-destruction stages, estimated from non-isothermal thermogravimetric data, together with the thermal quantities calculated from DTAdata support the conclusion presented in a previous study on dye retention from aqueous solution. The obtained results made evident that, under optimal retention conditions, spruce bark shows the highest retention capacity for the Basic Blue dye, followed by Direct Brown 95 and Direct Brown 2.

  11. Levels of damage of Scots pine and Norway spruce caused by needle miners along a SO{sub 2} gradient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oksanen, J. [Univ. of Tromsoe, Dept. of Plant Ecology, IBG, Tromsoe (Norway); Holopainen, J.K.; Nerg, A.; Holopainen, T. [Univ. of Kuopio, Dept. of Ecology and Environmental Science, Kuopio (Finland)

    1996-09-01

    Needle damages, caused by mining insects on Scots pine and Norway spruce were studied in the vicinity of a pulp mill. The abundance of needles mined by the pine bud moth Exoteleia dodecella (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) on Scots pine Pinus sylvestris, and the spruce needle miner Epinotia tedella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) on Norway spruce Picea abies had a significantly peaked response curve on logarithmic distance scale. For pine bud moth, the maximum expected population density was estimated to be at the distance of 1.35 km from the factory. The maximum expected population density for the spruce needle miner was at the distance of 1.53 km from the factory. However, for both species the curves were significantly different among transects. Both species had a peaked and significant response to sulphur level in needles as well. The maximum expected density in pine was at 1270 ppm, and in spruce at 1070 ppm sulphur concentration in pine needles. The results are consistent with earlier reports demonstrating that these mining insects frequently attack trees suffering from air pollution. The nonlinear response of both species to distance from the pulp mill suggests that E. dodecella on pine and E. tedella on spruce are rather indicators of the zone of intermediate air pollution than of strongly polluted or nearly unpolluted sites. This also agrees with the plant stress-insect performance hypothesis indicating that insect response varies with the magnitude of stress, and at very high stress levels a tree no longer provides the insects with relevant food. (au) 49 refs.

  12. Phloeophagous and predaceous insects responding to synthetic pheromones of bark beetles inhabiting white spruce stands in the Great Lakes region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haberkern, Kirsten E; Raffa, Kenneth F

    2003-07-01

    Tree killing and saprophytic bark beetles exert important ecological and economic roles in North American spruce forests. Chemical signaling among bark beetles, and responses by associate insects such as predators and competitors, have significant effects on the population dynamics and ecology of this community. Synthetic pheromones of primary (tree killing) and secondary (saprophytic) bark beetle species and blank controls were tested using multiple funnel and lower stem flight traps in white spruce forests in Wisconsin, Michigan, and Minnesota. Six phloeophagous and four predaceous species were collected with significant attraction by the bark beetles Dryocoetes affaber, Dryocoetes autographus, and Polygraphus rufipennis, and the predatory checkered beetles (Coleoptera: Cleridae) Thanasimus dubius and Enoclerus nigrifrons. In general, trap catches to synthetic lures resembled the species composition obtained by felling trees and collecting emerging beetles in a companion study, although several species showed differing trends. Some cross attraction occurred among bark beetles and between bark beetles and predatory beetles. For example, P. rufipennis was abundant in traps baited with Dryocoetes spp. pheromones. Thanasimus dubius and E. nigrifrons were collected in significant numbers in traps baited with the pheromone of the spruce beetle (Dendroctonus rufipennis), frontalin plus a-pinene. This is a new observation for E. nigrifrons. Attraction of T. dubius to the pheromones of at least three bark beetle species in the Great Lakes region, as well as to several southern and western species, reflects its role as a habitat specialist and feeding generalist. Several other important predators and competitors commonly obtained in pine forests in this region were not obtained in these spruce stands, either in response to synthetic pheromones of spruce colonizing beetles, or in host material colonized by these beetles. Potential differences in predator prey dynamics

  13. High-Throughput Sequencing Reveals Drastic Changes in Fungal Communities in the Phyllosphere of Norway Spruce (Picea abies) Following Invasion of the Spruce Bud Scale (Physokermes piceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menkis, Audrius; Marčiulynas, Adas; Gedminas, Artūras; Lynikienė, Jūratė; Povilaitienė, Aistė

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the diversity and composition of fungal communities in damaged and undamaged shoots of Norway spruce (Picea abies) following recent invasion of the spruce bud scale (Physokermes piceae) in Lithuania. Sampling was done in July 2013 and included 50 random lateral shoots from ten random trees in each of five visually undamaged and five damaged 40-50-year-old pure stands of P. abies. DNA was isolated from 500 individual shoots, subjected to amplification of the internal transcribed spacer of fungal ribosomal DNA (ITS rDNA), barcoded and sequenced. Clustering of 149,426 high-quality sequences resulted in 1193 non-singleton contigs of which 1039 (87.1 %) were fungal. In total, there were 893 fungal taxa in damaged shoots and 608 taxa in undamaged shoots (p < 0.0001). Furthermore, 431 (41.5 %) fungal taxa were exclusively in damaged shoots, 146 (14.0 %) were exclusively in undamaged shoots, and 462 (44.5 %) were common to both types of samples. Correspondence analysis showed that study sites representing damaged and undamaged shoots were separated from each other, indicating that in these fungal communities, these were largely different and, therefore, heavily affected by P. piceae. In conclusion, the results demonstrated that invasive alien tree pests may have a profound effect on fungal mycobiota associated with the phyllosphere of P. abies, and therefore, in addition to their direct negative effect owing physical damage of the tissue, they may also indirectly determine health, sustainability and, ultimately, distribution of the forest tree species.

  14. Tropospheric ozone fluxes in Norway spruce forest during the transition period from autumn to winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juran, Stanislav; Fares, Silvano; Zapletal, Miloš; Cudlín, Pavel; Večeřa, Zbyněk; Urban, Otmar

    2017-04-01

    Norway spruce exhibits seasonal variations in stomatal conductance and photosynthetic activity typical for overwintering plants, with a decline during autumn and a complete recovery during spring. We investigated ozone fluxes during this transient period (November 2016). Fluxes of tropospheric ozone, the major phytotoxic near-ground pollutant causing injuries to plant tissues, were measured at Bily Kriz experimental station in Beskydy Mountains, the Czech Republic. Dry chemiluminescence fast-response ozone sensor coupled with sonic anemometer was used to measure fast fluctuations in ozone concentration and three-dimensional wind speed, respectively. Apart from this eddy covariance technique, within-canopy ozone concentration gradient was simultaneously measured by UV-absorption based slow-response ozone analysers. Ozone fluxes were subsequently modelled by an Inverse Lagrangian Transport Model (ILTM). A comparison of measured and calculated fluxes is thus available. Moreover, stomatal ozone flux was calculated based on Evaporative/Resistive method assuming stomata are the most relevant sink in the spruce forest. The low NOx concentration throughout the year and low concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) during the transition period led to hypothesize that non-stomatal flux here estimated by difference between total ozone flux and stomatal ozone flux is represented mainly by dry soil deposition and wet deposition during the snow period. We discuss here the ILTM parameterisation with comparison to measured ozone fluxes. Correct estimation of stomatal ozone flux is essential, especially in transition periods, where main scientific emphasis is put rarely. In addition, this research should help to develop metrics for ozone-risk assessment and advance our knowledge in biosphere-atmosphere exchange over Norway spruce forest. Acknowledgement This work was supported by the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports within the National Programme for Sustainability

  15. The wind and fire disturbance in Central European mountain spruce forests: the regeneration after four years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Budzáková

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A strong windstorm in November 2004 resulted in a huge blown-down spruce forest area in the southern part of the Tatra National Park in the Western Carpathians in Slovakia, Central Europe. The aim of this work is to study the vegetation composition of spruce forest at differently managed sites four years after this disturbance. Four study areas were selected for this purpose: (i an area where the fallen trees were extracted and new seedlings were planted; (ii an area, which was hit by a forest fire after the extraction; (iii an area where no active management was applied; (iv a reference forest unaffected by such disturbance. A total of 100 plots were selected, 25 of each area type. The result of DCA and CCA analyses consistently indicated that after this short period the non-extracted and extracted areas are currently most similar to the reference forest area, while the fire affected area differed. A one-way ANOVA comparing species cover for the different plot sizes indicated some significant differences between the extracted and non-extracted plots. The abundance of certain species commonly occurring in spruce forests, such as Dyopteris carthusiana agg., Vaccinium myrtillus and Avenella flexuosa, correlated weli with the non-extracted plots, compared to the extracted plots. Coverage of these species was lowest on burned plots. The lowest Shannon-Wiener’s diversity values were recorded in burned plots. This was most likely a consequence of mono-dominant competitive species spread, (mainly Chamerion angustifolium which profited from the altered ecological conditions following the fire. Although some differences were also registered in the Shannon-Wiener diversity index between the remaining research plots, however these were not statistically significant. The most important results of our investigations include the extensive influence of fire disturbance on vegetation. Study revealed that the wind-disturbed area is able to regenerate

  16. Lophodermium piceae and Tryblidiopsis pinastri. Two latent colonizers of Norway spruce

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehtijaervi, A. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Forest Mycology and Pathology

    1998-12-31

    Among the endophytic microfungi colonizing Norway spruce, the non-pathogenic species Lophodermium piceae and Tryblidiopsis pinastri are ubiquitous. Most Norway spruce in Sweden are colonized by these fungi. L. piceae colonizes healthy needles of various ages, while T pinastri colonizes the bark of branches. New shoots become infected around the time of their emergence. Fruit bodies are formed after the needles and branches die. It was found that L. piceae colonized needles during the summer and early autumn, about six weeks after a prolonged period of intensive rain. The number of individual fungal mycelia per needle increased linearly with needle age. In experiments with trees, irrigation resulted in lower total colonization and delayed colonization of the current-year needles, regardless of whether fertilizer had been added. Colonization by L. piceae was lowest in the ammonium sulfate treatment, which simulated the deposition of air pollutants. Colonization was highest in the control and drought treatments, which did not differ significantly from each other. Only a few pathogenic fungi can damage Norway spruce needles. Needles damaged by the rust fungus Chrysomyxa abietis were investigated to study interactions between fungi. The frequency and intensity of L. piceae colonization were found to be similar for C. abietis infected and healthy needles. However, in needles partially infected with rust, L. piceae seemed to establish itself easier in the rust-infected part than in the green part. The genetic structures of populations of T. pinastri in southern Sweden and Finland were investigated using DNA markers produced by means of arbitrarily primed PCR. Single spore isolates from apothecia were used in the analysis. A considerable amount of variation was detected. No geographical differentiation was found among the populations studied

  17. Warming drives a front of white spruce establishment near western treeline, Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Amy E; Wilson, Tammy L; Sherriff, Rosemary L; Walton, James

    2017-12-01

    Regional warming has led to increased productivity near the boreal forest margin in Alaska. To date, the effects of warming on seedling recruitment have received little attention, in spite of forecasted forest expansion. Here, we used stand structure and environmental data from 95 white spruce (Picea glauca) plots sampled across a longitudinal gradient in southwest Alaska to explore factors influencing spruce establishment and recruitment near western treeline. We used total counts of live seedlings, saplings, and trees, representing five life stages, to evaluate whether geospatial, climate, and measured plot covariates predicted abundance, using current abundance distributions as a surrogate for climate conditions in the past. We used generalized linear models to test the null hypothesis that conditions favorable for recruitment were similar along the environmental gradient represented by longitude, by exploring relationships between per-plot counts of each life stage and the covariates hypothesized to affect abundance. We also examined the relationship between growing degree days (GDD) and seedling establishment over a period of three decades using tree-ring chronologies obtained from cores taken at a subset of our sites (n = 30). Our results indicated that seedling, sapling, and tree abundance were positively correlated with temperature across the study area. The response to longitude was mixed, with earlier life stages (seedlings, saplings) most abundant at the western end of the gradient, and later life stages (trees) most abundant to the east. The differential relationship between longitude and life-stage abundance suggests a moving front of white spruce establishment through time, driven by changes in environmental conditions near the species' western range limit. Likewise, we found a positive relationship between periods of seedling establishment and GDD, suggesting that longer summers and/or greater heat accumulation might enhance establishment

  18. Frost sensitivity and nutrient status in a fertilized Norway spruce stand in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jönsson, A. M.; Ingerslev, M.; Raulund-Rasmussen, K.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of the N, P and K status on frost sensitivity of Norway spruce needles in a fertilization experiment situated in a nutrient poor 29-year-old Picea abies stand in western Denmark. The relative difference in frost sensitivity among trees was assessed...... by an index of injury, based on conductivity measurements of ion leakage from needles. Despite fertilization, all trees indicated N, P and K deficiency. The foliage, collected in late winter, was generally not very frost sensitive, but foliage from trees with the lowest K and P status were more sensitive...

  19. Norway spruce (Picea abies Karst. variability in progeny tests in Bosnia and Herzegovina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvjetković Branislav

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Norway spruce is one of the most important economic species is Bosnia and Herzegovina. It is the species at the edge of its natural range; nevertheless it attains significant growth and yield results. The species is often used for afforestation purposes. In the previous period, 4 progeny tests of Norway spruce were established in Bosnia and Herzegovina. The offspring from 6 natural populations: Han Pijesak 1, Han Pijesak 2, Foča, Potoci, Olovo and Kneževo were build-in the progeny tests. In 2016, the samples of Norway spruce from 2 progeny tests: Srebrenica and Drinić were collected. In total, 360 samples were collected. DNA isolation was done according to Dumoline et al. (1990. For assessment of genetic differences among populations, co-dominant nSSR microsatellite system had been used. The number of effective alleles ranged from 7.78 in the population Potoci up to 15 in the population Kneževo, the average number of alleles was 13. The observed heterozygosity ranged from 0.61 for the population Han Pijesak 2 up to 0.68 for population Kneževo. The average observed heterozygosity was 0.65. Fixation index was in the range from -0.073 in the population Potoci, to 0.030 for the population Han Pijesak 2. The average value of Wright fixation index is -0.007. The average fixation index indicates the existence of a very small number of homozygotes. Concerning the variability among populations it has been concluded that the total level of genetic differentiation among populations was very low (FST= 0.026. The result of Nei’s genetic distance shows that the populations Olovo and Potoci are separated from other populations. The results obtained by genetic markers, in addition with other, morphological and physiological markers will be the basis for the further investigation of Norway spruce adaptability and possibility for the transfer of genetic material in light of climate changes.

  20. Seasonal and diurnal variation in the deposition velocity of ozone over a spruce forest in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilegaard, K.; Jensen, N.O.; Hummelshøj, P.

    1995-01-01

    The flux of O-3 was measured by the eddy-correlation method over Norway spruce in periods when the trees had a very low activity, periods with optimum growth, and periods with water stress. The aerodynamic resistance (tau(a)), viscous sub-layer resistance (tau(b)) and surface resistance (tau......(c)) to O-3 were calculated from meteorological parameters and the deposition velocity. The canopy stomatal resistance to O-3 was calculated from measurements of the water vapour flux. The deposition velocities showed a diurnal pattern with night-time values of 3.5 mm s(-1) and day-time values of 7 mm s(-1...

  1. Formation of chloroform in soil. A year-round study at a Danish spruce forest site

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haselmann, K.F.; Laturnus, F.; Grøn, C.

    2002-01-01

    Soil air from top soil of a Danish spruce forest was investigated monthly from December 1997 to December 1998 for the occurrence of chloroform, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, tetrachloromethane, trichloroethene and tetrachloroethene. Within the monitoring period, three different patterns of soil air...... concentrations were identified. For chloroform, concentrations peaked in spring and autumn while 1,1,1-trichloroethane and tetrachloromethane peaked during mid winter. Trichloroethene and tetrachloroethene, concentrations remained constant throughout the year. The relative ratios of soil air concentrations...... concentrations were found in the soil in warm and humid periods of the year (spring and autumn) with high microbial activity....

  2. Effects of mist acidity and ambient ozone removal on montane red spruce

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vann, D.R. [Pennsylvania Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States). Dept. of Biology; Strimbeck, D.R.; Johnson, A.H. [Pennsylvania Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States). Dept. of Geology

    1995-10-01

    The effects of acidic mists and ozone on several biochemical and growth parameters in mature montane red spruce were examined. Branch-size environmental chambers were used to introduce mists of controlled composition and to protect selected branches from ambient ozone and acidic mists. Mists of distilled water increased the end-of-season pigment concentration and shoot length of enclosed branches relative to ambient or artificial mists. Needle and twig weights and starch concentrations were not significantly altered by the acidic mist treatments. Removal of ambient ozone had no apparent effect on the variables measured. 8 figs., 2 tabs., 39 refs.

  3. TALL HERB SPRUCE FORESTS AS CLIMAX COMMUNITIES ON LOWLAND SWAMPS OF BRYANSK POLESIE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. I. Evstigneev

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Nettle grey alder forests are a dominant forest type on lowland swamps in the Bryansk Polesie. They are formed as a result of repeated cuttings in the place of tall herb spruce forests. Tall herb spruce forests are very rare communities in the vegetation cover in this area due to clear cutting, melioration and peat extraction. An assessment of the succession status of tall herb spruce forests and nettle grey alder forests was carried out in this paper. The criteria of climax state and succession state of communities, developed for Eastern European forests, were used. These criteria are based on the degree of intensity of the following signs in the community: 1 the completeness of species composition of tree synusia; 2 the ontogenetic structure of tree species cenopopulation; 3 the gap-mosaic stand structure; 4 the diversity of microsites in soil cover; 5 the completeness of species composition and ecological-coenotic diversity of vascular species. We showed that tall herb spruce forest, as opposed to black alder forest, is close to communities of the climax type. This is evidenced by the following features of cenosis: firstly, all tree species in the area that covers the Bryansk Polesie and that are able to grow on lowland swamps are represented in the spruce forest (Alnus glutinosa, Betula pubescens, Fraxinus excelsior, Padus avium, Picea abies, Salix pentandra, Sorbus aucuparia, Ulmus glabra. Secondly, a steady turnover of generations is carried out in the cenopopulations of main edificators (Picea abies and Alnus glutinosa. This is evidenced by the complete and left-sided structure of their ontogenetic spectrum. Thirdly, a system of asynchronously developing gaps (parcels, which are formed on the site of old tree falls, is formed in the community. This ensures the continuous renewal of spruce and alder populations and creates conditions for the regeneration of other tree species. Fourthly, the structure of biogenic microsites has been formed

  4. Bifurcation analysis of a spruce budworm model with diffusion and physiological structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaofeng; Wei, Junjie

    2017-05-01

    In this paper, the dynamics of a spruce budworm model with diffusion and physiological structures are investigated. The stability of steady state and the existence of Hopf bifurcation near positive steady state are investigated by analyzing the distribution of eigenvalues. The properties of Hopf bifurcation are determined by the normal form theory and center manifold reduction for partial functional differential equations. And global existence of periodic solutions is established by using the global Hopf bifurcation result of Wu. Finally, some numerical simulations are carried out to illustrate the analytical results.

  5. Planting stress in newly planted jack pine and white spruce. 1. Factors influencing water uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossnickle, S C

    1988-03-01

    Bareroot jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb.) seedlings (2 + 0) and bareroot white spruce (Picea glauca (Moench) Voss) transplants (1 1/2 + 1 1/2) were taken from cold storage and planted on a clearcut forest site in northeastern Ontario on several dates between May 6 and June 5 during which period soil temperature at 15 cm depth increased from 0 to 18 degrees C. Additional cold-stored trees were transferred to a greenhouse where they were grown in pots for 0, 7 or 28 days and then placed with their roots in aerated water maintained at one of a range of constant temperatures between 0 and 22 degrees C. In both species, daytime xylem pressure potentials (Psi(x)) and needle conductances (g(wv)) decreased with decreasing soil or water temperature. At all root temperatures, g(wv) was lower, and Psi(x) higher, in jack pine than in white spruce. After 28 days in the greenhouse, g(wv) of jack pine seedlings, and Psi(x) of white spruce, was higher than in plants just removed from cold storage. In both species, water-flow resistance through the soil-plant-atmosphere continuum (RSPAC) increased as root temperature decreased. At all root temperatures, RSPAC was higher in plants just removed from cold storage than in plants grown in the greenhouse for 28 days, during which time many new unsuberized roots were formed. At root temperatures above 10 degrees C, RSPAC of both species was higher in trees newly planted in mineral soil than in trees with roots in aerated water; presumably because the roots of planted trees had limited hydraulic contact with the soil. On the day following removal from cold storage, relative plant water flow resistance increased, in both species, more rapidly with declining root temperature than could be accounted for by the change with temperature in the viscosity of water, thus indicating an effect of temperature on root permeability. The same effect was evident in jack pine seedlings, but not white spruce transplants, that had been grown for 28 days in

  6. Lophodermium piceae and Rhizosphaera kalkhoffi i in Norway spruce: correlations with host age and climatic features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Scattolin

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out in 4 similar Norway spruce stands and it demonstrated that the spreading structures produced by Lophodermium piceae and Rhizosphaera kalkhoffii are not correlated. The two fungi were always detected with opposite growth trends, probably due to different needle colonization and spreading strategies, and this was most likely also why they were able to co-exist, colonizing different parts of the needle. Independently of the year, site, sampling period and amount of precipitation, the two fungi were significantly less common in saplings and more common in mature trees, with frequencies also depending on both the minimum and the maximum temperatures.

  7. Limited evidence of declining growth among moisture-limited black and white spruce in interior Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Patrick F; Pattison, Robert R; Brownlee, Annalis H; Cahoon, Sean M P; Hollingsworth, Teresa N

    2017-11-10

    Boreal forests play critical roles in global carbon, water and energy cycles. Recent studies suggest drought is causing a decline in boreal spruce growth, leading to predictions of widespread mortality and a shift in dominant vegetation type in interior Alaska. We took advantage of a large set of tree cores collected from random locations across a vast area of interior Alaska to examine long-term trends in carbon isotope discrimination and growth of black and white spruce. Our results confirm that growth of both species is sensitive to moisture availability, yet show limited evidence of declining growth in recent decades. These findings contrast with many earlier tree-ring studies, but agree with dynamic global vegetation model projections. We hypothesize that rising atmospheric [CO2] and/or changes in biomass allocation may have compensated for increasing evaporative demand, leaving recent radial growth near the long-term mean. Our results highlight the need for more detailed studies of tree physiological and growth responses to changing climate and atmospheric [CO2] in the boreal forest.

  8. The influence of climate change on stomatal ozone flux to a mountain Norway spruce forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapletal, Miloš; Pretel, Jan; Chroust, Petr; Cudlín, Pavel; Edwards-Jonášová, Magda; Urban, Otmar; Pokorný, Radek; Czerný, Radek; Hůnová, Iva

    2012-10-01

    Daily stomatal ozone flux to a mountain Norway spruce forest stand at the Bily Kriz experimental site in the Beskydy Mts. (Czech Republic) was modelled using a multiplicative model during the 2009 growing season. The multiplicative model was run with meteorological data for the growing season 2009 and ALADIN-CLIMATE/CZ model data for the 2030 growing season. The exceedance of the flux-based critical level of O(3) (Phytotoxic Ozone Dose) might be lower for Norway spruce at the Bily Kriz experimental site in a future climate (around 2030), due to increased stomatal closure induced by climate change, even when taking into account increased tropospheric background O(3) concentration. In contrast, exceedance of the concentration-based critical level (AOT40) of O(3) will increase with the projected increase in background O(3) concentration. Ozone concentration and stomatal flux of ozone significantly decreased NEP under both present and future climatic conditions, especially under high intensities of solar radiation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Survival of Norway spruce remains higher in mixed stands under a dryer and warmer climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuner, Susanne; Albrecht, Axel; Cullmann, Dominik; Engels, Friedrich; Griess, Verena C; Hahn, W Andreas; Hanewinkel, Marc; Härtl, Fabian; Kölling, Christian; Staupendahl, Kai; Knoke, Thomas

    2015-02-01

    Shifts in tree species distributions caused by climatic change are expected to cause severe losses in the economic value of European forestland. However, this projection disregards potential adaptation options such as tree species conversion, shorter production periods, or establishment of mixed species forests. The effect of tree species mixture has, as yet, not been quantitatively investigated for its potential to mitigate future increases in production risks. For the first time, we use survival time analysis to assess the effects of climate, species mixture and soil condition on survival probabilities for Norway spruce and European beech. Accelerated Failure Time (AFT) models based on an extensive dataset of almost 65,000 trees from the European Forest Damage Survey (FDS)--part of the European-wide Level I monitoring network--predicted a 24% decrease in survival probability for Norway spruce in pure stands at age 120 when unfavorable changes in climate conditions were assumed. Increasing species admixture greatly reduced the negative effects of unfavorable climate conditions, resulting in a decline in survival probabilities of only 7%. We conclude that future studies of forest management under climate change as well as forest policy measures need to take this, as yet unconsidered, strongly advantageous effect of tree species mixture into account. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Changes in soil nitrogen cycling under Norway spruce logging residues on a clear-cut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolander, Aino; Lindroos, Antti-Jussi; Kitunen, Veikko

    2016-04-01

    In Europe, forest biomass is increasingly being used as a source of energy to replace fossil fuels. In practice, this means that logging residues, consisting of green branches and stem tops, are more commonly harvested. In 2012 logging residues were harvested from about one third of clear-cuts in Finland. Our aim was to study how logging residues affect soil organic matter quality, in particular soil N cycling processes and composition of certain groups of plant secondary compounds, tannins and terpenes. Compounds in these groups were of interest because they are abundant in logging residues, and they have been shown to control soil N cycling. In connection with clear-cutting a Norway spruce stand in southern Finland, we established a controlled field experiment by building logging residue piles (40 kg/m2) on study plots. The piles consisted of fresh spruce branches and tops with green foliage. Control plots with no residues were included (0 kg/m2). Changes in soil organic matter properties have now been monitored for three growing seasons. Logging residues affected organic layer properties strongly. For example, they increased net nitrification and nitrate concentrations. There were also increases in the concentrations of certain terpenes and condensed tannins due to the residues. The significance of logging residues on soil processes and properties will be shown.

  11. Investigation of cadmium pollution in the spruce saplings near the metal production factory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemi, Seyed Armin; Farajpour, Ghasem

    2016-02-01

    Toxic metals such as lead and cadmium are among the pollutants that are created by the metal production factories and disseminated in the nature. In order to study the quantity of cadmium pollution in the environment of the metal production factories, 50 saplings of the spruce species at the peripheries of the metal production factories were examined and the samples of the leaves, roots, and stems of saplings planted around the factory and the soil of the environment of the factory were studied to investigate pollution with cadmium. They were compared to the soil and saplings of the spruce trees planted outside the factory as observer region. The results showed that the quantity of pollution in the leaves, stems, and roots of the trees planted inside the factory environment were estimated at 1.1, 1.5, and 2.5 mg/kg, respectively, and this indicated a significant difference with the observer region (p factory was estimated at 6.8 mg/kg in the depth of 0-10 cm beneath the level of the soil. The length of roots in the saplings planted around the factory of metal production stood at 11 and 14.5 cm in the observer region which had a significant difference with the observer region (p pollution with cadmium in the region has been influenced by the production processes in the factory. © The Author(s) 2013.

  12. Varying selection differential throughout the climatic range of Norway spruce in Central Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapeller, Stefan; Dieckmann, Ulf; Schueler, Silvio

    2017-01-01

    Predicting species distribution changes in global warming requires an understanding of how climatic constraints shape the genetic variation of adaptive traits and force local adaptations. To understand the genetic capacity of Norway spruce populations in Central Europe, we analyzed the variation in tree heights at the juvenile stage in common garden experiments established from the species' warm-dry to cold-moist distribution limits. We report the following findings: First, 47% of the total tree height variation at trial sites is attributable to the tree populations irrespective of site climate. Second, tree height variation within populations is higher at cold-moist trial sites than at warm-dry sites and higher within populations originating from cold-moist habitats than from warm-dry habitats. Third, for tree ages of 7-15 years, the variation within populations increases at cold-moist trial sites, whereas it remains constant at warm-dry sites. Fourth, tree height distributions are right-skewed at cold-moist trial sites, whereas they are nonskewed, but platykurtic at warm-dry sites. Our results suggest that in cold environments, climatic conditions impose stronger selection and probably restrict the distribution of spruce, whereas at the warm distribution limit, the species' realized niche might rather be controlled by external drivers, for example, forest insects.

  13. Availability of ectomycorrhizal fungi to black spruce above the present treeline in Eastern Labrador.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Reithmeier

    Full Text Available Ectomycorrhizal fungi (ECMF are an important biotic factor in the survival of conifer seedlings under stressful conditions and therefore have the potential to facilitate conifer establishment into alpine and tundra habitats. In order to assess patterns of ectomycorrhizal availability and community structure above treeline, we conducted soil bioassays in which Picea mariana (black spruce seedlings were grown in field-collected soils under controlled conditions. Soils were collected from distinct alpine habitats, each dominated by a different ectomycorrhizal host shrub: Betula glandulosa, Arctostaphylos alpina or Salix herbacaea. Within each habitat, half of the soils collected contained roots of ectomycorrhizal shrubs (host (+ and the other half were free of host plants (host(-. Forest and glacial moraine soils were also included for comparison. Fungi forming ectomycorrhizae during the bioassays were identified by DNA sequencing. Our results indicate that ECMF capable of colonizing black spruce are widespread above the current tree line in Eastern Labrador and that the level of available inoculum has a significant influence on the growth of seedlings under controlled conditions. Many of the host(- soils possessed appreciable levels of ectomycorrhizal inoculum, likely in the form of spore banks. Inoculum levels in these soils may be influenced by spore production from neighboring soils where ectomycorrhizal shrubs are present. Under predicted temperature increases, ectomycorrhizal inoculum in soils with host shrubs as well as in nearby soils without host shrubs have the potential to facilitate conifer establishment above the present tree line.

  14. Availability of ectomycorrhizal fungi to black spruce above the present treeline in Eastern Labrador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reithmeier, Laura; Kernaghan, Gavin

    2013-01-01

    Ectomycorrhizal fungi (ECMF) are an important biotic factor in the survival of conifer seedlings under stressful conditions and therefore have the potential to facilitate conifer establishment into alpine and tundra habitats. In order to assess patterns of ectomycorrhizal availability and community structure above treeline, we conducted soil bioassays in which Picea mariana (black spruce) seedlings were grown in field-collected soils under controlled conditions. Soils were collected from distinct alpine habitats, each dominated by a different ectomycorrhizal host shrub: Betula glandulosa, Arctostaphylos alpina or Salix herbacaea. Within each habitat, half of the soils collected contained roots of ectomycorrhizal shrubs (host (+)) and the other half were free of host plants (host(-)). Forest and glacial moraine soils were also included for comparison. Fungi forming ectomycorrhizae during the bioassays were identified by DNA sequencing. Our results indicate that ECMF capable of colonizing black spruce are widespread above the current tree line in Eastern Labrador and that the level of available inoculum has a significant influence on the growth of seedlings under controlled conditions. Many of the host(-) soils possessed appreciable levels of ectomycorrhizal inoculum, likely in the form of spore banks. Inoculum levels in these soils may be influenced by spore production from neighboring soils where ectomycorrhizal shrubs are present. Under predicted temperature increases, ectomycorrhizal inoculum in soils with host shrubs as well as in nearby soils without host shrubs have the potential to facilitate conifer establishment above the present tree line.

  15. Plasticity in variation of xylem and phloem cell characteristics of Norway spruce under different local conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jozica eGricar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available There is limited information on intra-annual plasticity of secondary tissues of tree species growing under different environmental conditions. To increase the knowledge about the plasticity of secondary growth, which allows trees to adapt to specific local climatic regimes, we examined climate–radial growth relationships of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L. H. Karst. from three contrasting locations in the temperate climatic zone by analyzing tree-ring widths for the period 1932–2010, and cell characteristics in xylem and phloem increments formed in the years 2009–2011. Variation in the structure of xylem and phloem increments clearly shows that plasticity in seasonal dynamics of cambial cell production and cell differentiation exists on xylem and phloem sides. Anatomical characteristics of xylem and phloem cells are predominantly site-specific characteristics, because they varied among sites but were fairly uniform among years in trees from the same site. Xylem and phloem tissues formed in the first part of the growing season seemed to be more stable in structure, indicating their priority over latewood and late phloem for tree performance. Long-term climate and radial growth analyses revealed that growth was in general less dependent on precipitation than on temperature; however, growth sensitivity to local conditions differed among the sites. Only partial dependence of radial growth of spruce on climatic factors on the selected sites confirms its strategy to adapt the structure of wood and phloem increments to function optimally in local conditions.

  16. Natural tree collectives of pure oriental spruce [Picea orientalis (L.) Link] on mountain forests in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ucler, Ali Omer; Yucesan, Zafer; Demirci, Ali; Yavuz, Hakki; Oktan, Ercan

    2007-04-01

    Distribution area of oriental spruce [Picea orientalis (L.) Link.] in the world is only in the north-east of Turkey and Caucasian. Because of being the semi monopoly tree with respect to its distribution and representing the upper forest line, it is necessary to analyse, evaluate and model the stand structures of oriental spruce forests in Turkey. In this research, some sampling plots were selected in timberline and treeline in the subalpine forest zone in Turkey. In these sampling plots some information about occurrence and development of the tree collectives was obtained. A total of 12 sampling plots (6 in timberline and 6 of them in treeline) were studied and horizontal and vertical stand profiles were obtained, while number of trees ranges between 2-86 in the tree collectives in treeline and in timberline 3-12. According to this, area per tree in treeline and in timberline is determined as 1.02 m2 and 3.75 m2 on an average respectively. Mean age of trees to reach breast height is 43 years in treeline sampling plots and 22 years in timberline sampling plots. According to the ratio of h (mean height) / d1.30 (diameter at breast height), stand stability values were calculated and it was determined if the stands were stable on the basis of the sampling plots. Stability values of the sampling plots changed between 33 and 75.

  17. High methane emissions from restored Norway spruce swamps in southern Finland over one growing season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Koskinen

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Forestry-drained peatlands in the boreal region are currently undergoing restoration in order to bring these ecosystems closer to their natural (undrained state. Drainage affects the methane (CH4 dynamics of a peatland, often changing sites from CH4 sources to sinks. Successful restoration of a peatland would include restoration of not only the surface vegetation and hydrology, but also the microbial populations and thus CH4 dynamics. As a pilot study, CH4 emissions were measured on two pristine, two drained and three restored boreal spruce swamps in southern Finland for one growing season. Restoration was successful in the sense that the water table level in the restored sites was significantly higher than in the drained sites, but it was also slightly higher than in the pristine sites. The restored sites were surprisingly large sources of CH4 (mean emissions of 52.84 mg CH4 m-2 d-1, contrasting with both the pristine (1.51 mg CH4 m-2 d-1 and the drained sites (2.09 mg CH4 m-2 d-1. More research is needed to assess whether the high CH4 emissions observed in this study are representative of restored spruce mires in general.

  18. Acid mist and soil Ca and Al alter the mineral nutrition and physiology of red spruce

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaberg, P. G.; Murakami, P. F. [Northeastern Research Station, Burlington, VT (United States); Dehayes, D. H.; Hawley, G. J.; Strimbeck, G. R.; Borer, C. H. [Vermont Univ., School of Natural Resources, Burlington, VT (United States); Cumming, J. R. [West Virginia Univ, Dept. of Biology, Morgantown, WV (United States)

    2000-01-01

    The effects and potential interactions of acid mist and soil solutions of calcium and aluminium treatments on foliar cation concentrations, membrane-associated calcium leaching, growth, carbon exchange and cold tolerance in red spruce saplings was investigated. Results showed that soil solution calcium addition increased foliar calcium and zinc concentrations and increased the rate of respiration early in the growing season. Soil aluminium treatment reduced foliar concentrations of calcium, manganese, magnesium, phosphorus and zinc, which in turn, produced smaller stem diameters and shoot lengths. On the whole, aluminium -induced alterations in growth or physiology appeared to be independent of foliar calcium status. As a general rule, reduction in cation concentration associated with aluminium addition were greater for pH 5.0-treated saplings than for pH 3.0-treated saplings. This observation led the investigators to conclude that the mechanism underlying acid-induced reductions in foliar cold tolerance in red spruce is hydrogen ion-induced leaching of membrane-associated calcium from mesophyll cells. 93 refs., 6 tabs., 1 fig.

  19. The influence of moisture content on the water vapour resistance of surface coated spruce

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelund, E.T.; Ulriksen, L.; Hansen, Kurt Kielsgaard

    2005-01-01

    Two series of cup tests are carried out. The first series is performed on spruce specimens having moisture transport in either radial direction (R-direction) or in tangential direction (T-direction). The T-direction tests are made as wet cup tests having 93 %RH inside the cups, while the R......, but now with one layer of paint (60 g/m^2) on one surface of the wood specimens. The results show that the RH level significantly influences the water vapour resistance of the paint. For wet cup tests a water vapour resistance of the paint of 6.5•10^8 Pa•m^2•s/kg in average is found. In contrast......-direction tests are made as dry cup tests having 33 %RH in the cups. The RH in the outside climate is 60 % for both R- and T-direction. The temperature during the tests is 23 degree C. The second cup test series is performed on the same spruce specimens and at the same climatic conditions as in the first series...

  20. Soil Chemical and Microbial Properties in a Mixed Stand of Spruce and Birch in the Ore Mountains (Germany—A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karoline Schua

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A major argument for incorporating deciduous tree species in coniferous forest stands is their role in the amelioration and stabilisation of biogeochemical cycles. Current forest management strategies in central Europe aim to increase the area of mixed stands. In order to formulate statements about the ecological effects of mixtures, studies at the stand level are necessary. In a mixed stand of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L. Karst. and silver birch (Betula pendula Roth in the Ore Mountains (Saxony, Germany, the effects of these two tree species on chemical and microbial parameters in the topsoil were studied at one site in the form of a case study. Samples were taken from the O layer and A horizon in areas of the stand influenced by either birch, spruce or a mixture of birch and spruce. The microbial biomass, basal respiration, metabolic quotient, pH-value and the C and N contents and stocks were analysed in the horizons Of, Oh and A. Significantly higher contents of microbial N were observed in the Of and Oh horizons in the birch and in the spruce-birch strata than in the stratum containing only spruce. The same was found with respect to pH-values in the Of horizon and basal respiration in the Oh horizon. Compared to the spruce stratum, in the birch and spruce-birch strata, significantly lower values were found for the contents of organic C and total N in the A horizon. The findings of the case study indicated that single birch trees have significant effects on the chemical and microbial topsoil properties in spruce-dominated stands. Therefore, the admixture of birch in spruce stands may distinctly affect nutrient cycling and may also be relevant for soil carbon sequestration. Further studies of these functional aspects are recommended.

  1. Effects of insecticide treatments on subsequent defoliation by western spruce budworm in Oregon and Washington: 1982-92.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katharine A. Sheehan

    1996-01-01

    Effects of insecticide treatments conducted in Oregon and Washington from 1982 through 1992 on subsequent defoliation by western spruce budworm (Choristoneura occidentalis Freeman) were evaluated by using aerial sketchmaps and a geographic information system. For each treatment, the extent and severity of defoliation was calculated for the treated...

  2. SBexpert users guide (version 2.0): a knowledge-based decision-support system for spruce beetle management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith M. Reynolds; Edward H. Holsten

    1997-01-01

    SBexpert version 2.0 is a knowledge-based decision-support system for spruce beetle (Dendroctonus rufipennis (Kby.)) management developed for use in Microsoft (MS) Windows with the KnowledgePro Windows development language. Version 2.0 is a significant enhancement of version 1.0. The SBexpert users guide provides detailed instructions on the use of...

  3. Bioassays of TH6038 and difluron applied to western spruce budworm and Douglas-fir Tussock moth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nancy L. Gillette; Jacqueline L. Robertson; Robert L. Lyon

    1978-01-01

    Two insects molt inhibitors, TH6038 N-[[4-cholorphenyl)amino]carbonyl]-2,6-dichlorobenzamide) and difluron (N-[[(4-chlorophenyl)amino]carbonyl]-2,6-difluorobenzamide), were tested for topical and feeding toxicity to the western spruce budworm, Choristoneura occidentalis Freeman, and the Douglas-fir tussock moth, Orgyia pseudotsugata...

  4. Fine and coarse root parameters from mature black spruce displaying genetic x soil moisture interaction in growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    John E. Major; Kurt H. Johnsen; Debby C. Barsi; Moira Campbell

    2012-01-01

    Fine and coarse root biomass, C, and N mass parameters were assessed by root size and soil depths from soil cores in plots of 32-year-old black spruce (Picea mariana (Mill.) Britton, Sterns & Poggenb.) from four full-sib families studied previously for drought tolerance and differential productivity on a dry and wet...

  5. Total below-ground carbon and nitrogen partitioning of mature black spruce displaying genetic x soil moisture interaction in growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    John E. Major; Kurt H. Johnsen; Debby C. Barsi; Moira Campbell

    2012-01-01

    Total belowground biomass, soil C, and N mass were measured in plots of 32-year-old black spruce (Picea mariana (Mill.) Britton, Sterns & Poggenb.) from four full-sib families studied previously for drought tolerance and differential productivity on a dry and a wet site. Stump root biomass was greater on the wet than on the dry site;...

  6. Implementing Continuous Cover Forestry in Planted Forests: Experience with Sitka Spruce (Picea Sitchensis in the British Isles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William L. Mason

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Planted forests of Sitka spruce, a non-native species from north-west America, are the major forest type in Great Britain and Ireland. Standard management involves even-aged stands, rotations of 40–50 years and a patch clear-felling system with artificial regeneration. However, forest policies support managing these forests for multifunctional objectives with increased diversity of species composition and stand structure. Continuous cover forestry (CCF is an alternative silvicultural approach used to provide such diversity, but the amount of CCF forest is under 10% of the forest area, and less in Sitka spruce forests; This paper reviews research carried out in the last two decades to support the implementation of CCF in Sitka spruce planted forests; Stand structures and microclimate favouring natural regeneration are understood. Harvesting systems have been adapted for use in CCF stands, a single-tree growth model has been calibrated, comparative costs and revenues have been determined, and operational trials established. The interaction between thinning and wind stability in irregular stands is problematic, together with the lack of suitable species for growing in mixture with Sitka spruce; Introduction of an alternative silvicultural approach may take decades and must overcome technical challenges and cultural resistance.

  7. Remote sensing of the distribution and abundance of host species for spruce budworm in Northern Minnesota and Ontario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter T. Wolter; Philip A. Townsend; Brian R. Sturtevant; Clayton C. Kingdon

    2008-01-01

    Insects and disease affect large areas of forest in the U.S. and Canada. Understanding ecosystem impacts of such disturbances requires knowledge of host species distribution patterns on the landscape. In this study, we mapped the distribution and abundance of host species for the spruce budworm (Choristoneura fumiferana) to facilitate landscape scale...

  8. Topographic controls on black carbon accumulation in Alaskan black spruce forest soils: implications for organic matter dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    E.S. Kane; W.C. Hockaday; M.R. Turetsky; C.A. Masiello; D.W. Valentine; B.P. Finney; J.A. Badlock

    2010-01-01

    There is still much uncertainty as to how wildfire affects the accumulation of burn residues (such as black carbon [BC]) in the soil, and the corresponding changes in soil organic carbon (SOC) composition in boreal forests. We investigated SOC and BC composition in black spruce forests on different landscape positions in Alaska, USA. Mean BC stocks in surface mineral...

  9. Calcium status of the forest floor in red spruce forests of the northeastern U.S. - past, present and future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark B. David; Gregory B. Lawrence; Walter C. Shortle; Scott W. Bailey

    1996-01-01

    Dieback and growth decline of red spruce (Picea rubens) in the eastern U.S. coincides with the period of acidic deposition, and has led to much speculation as to whether this decline is caused by decreased root-available Ca in the soil.

  10. Fire severity mediates climate-driven shifts in understorey community composition of black spruce stands of interior Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emily L. Bernhardt; Teresa N. Hollingsworth; F. Stuart Chapin

    2011-01-01

    Question: How do pre-fire conditions (community composition and environmental characteristics) and climate-driven disturbance characteristics (fire severity) affect post-fire community composition in black spruce stands? Location: Northern boreal forest, interior Alaska. Methods: We compared plant community composition and environmental stand characteristics in 14...

  11. DECLINE IN SOIL CO2 EFFLUX FOLLOWING TREE GIRTLING IN MATURE BEECH AND SPRUCE STANDS IN GERMANY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studies were undertaken to estimate the contribution of autotrophic respiration to total soil CO2 efflux in stands of mature European beech (Fagus sylvatica) and Norway spruce (Picea abies) near Freising, Germany. Five mature trees of each species were girdled to eliminate carbo...

  12. Contrasting carbon allocation responses of juvenile European beech (Fagus sylvatica) and Norway spruce (Picea abies) to competition and ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, Wilma; Lehmeier, Christoph Andreas; Winkler, Jana Barbro; Matyssek, Rainer; Edgar Grams, Thorsten Erhard

    2015-01-01

    Allocation of recent photoassimilates of juvenile beech and spruce in response to twice-ambient ozone (2 × O(3)) and plant competition (i.e. intra vs. inter-specific) was examined in a phytotron study. To this end, we employed continuous (13)CO(2)/(12)CO(2) labeling during late summer and pursued tracer kinetics in CO(2) released from stems. In beech, allocation of recent photoassimilates to stems was significantly lowered under 2 × O(3) and increased in spruce when grown in mixed culture. As total tree biomass was not yet affected by the treatments, C allocation reflected incipient tree responses providing the mechanistic basis for biomass partitioning as observed in longer experiments. Compartmental modeling characterized functional properties of substrate pools supplying respiratory C demand. Respiration of spruce appeared to be exclusively supplied by recent photoassimilates. In beech, older C, putatively located in stem parenchyma cells, was a major source of respiratory substrate, reflecting the fundamental anatomical disparity between angiosperm beech and gymnosperm spruce. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Stakeholders' relationships with the USDA Forest Service at the Spruce Knob-Seneca Rocks National Recreation Area, West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katherine A. Thompson; Chad D. Pierskalla; Steven W. Selin

    2007-01-01

    The Spruce Knob-Seneca Rocks National Recreation Area (NRA) is developing a collaborative management plan. To develop a public involvement strategy, it is necessary to assess the social conditions in the area. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship local stakeholders in the NRA have with the USDA Forest Service (USFS) with regard to the...

  14. Impact of Experimentally Elevated Ozone on Seed Germination and Growth of Russian Pine (Pinus sylvestris) and Spruce (Picea spp.) Provenances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prozherina, Nadezda; Nakvasina, Elena; Oksanen, Elina

    2009-01-01

    The impact of elevated ozone concentrations on early ontogenetic stages of pine (Pinus sylvestris) and spruce (Picea abies, Picea obovata, P. abies X P. obovata) seedlings originating from different provenances in Russia were studied in the open-field ozone fumigation system located in Kuopio,

  15. SBexpert users guide (version 1.0): a knowledge-based decision-support system for spruce beetle management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith M. Reynolds; Edward H. Holsten; Richard A. Werner

    1994-01-01

    SBexpert version 1.0 is a knowledge-based decision-support system for spruce beetle (Dendroctonus rutipennis (Kby.)) management developed for use in Microsoft Windows with the KnowledgePro Windows development language. The SBexpert users guide provides detailed instructions on the use of all SBexpert features. SBexpert has four main topics (...

  16. Simulated western spruce budworm defoliation reduces torching and crowning potential: A sensitivity analysis using a physics-based fire model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory M. Cohn; Russell A. Parsons; Emily K. Heyerdahl; Daniel G. Gavin; Aquila Flower

    2014-01-01

    The widespread, native defoliator western spruce budworm (Choristoneura occidentalis Freeman) reduces canopy fuels, which might affect the potential for surface fires to torch (ignite the crowns of individual trees) or crown (spread between tree crowns). However, the effects of defoliation on fire behaviour are poorly understood. We used a physics-based fire model to...

  17. Case history of population change in a Bacillus thuringiensis-treated vs. an untreated outbreak of the western spruce budworm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.R. Mason; H.G. Paul

    1996-01-01

    Larval densities of the western spruce budworm (Choristoneura occidentalis Freeman) were monitored for 12 years (1984-95) on permanent sample plots in northeastern Oregon. The time series spanned a period of general budworm infestations when populations increased rapidly from low densities, plateaued for a time at high-outbreak densities, and then declined suddenly....

  18. Rapid recovery of stem increment in Norway spruce at reduced SO2 levels in the Harz Mountains, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauck, Markus; Zimmermann, Jorma; Jacob, Mascha; Dulamsuren, Choimaa; Bade, Claudia; Ahrends, Bernd; Leuschner, Christoph

    2012-05-01

    Tree-ring width of Picea abies was studied along an altitudinal gradient in the Harz Mountains, Germany, in an area heavily affected by SO(2)-related forest decline in the second half of the 20th century. Spruce trees of exposed high-elevation forests had earlier been shown to have reduced radial growth at high atmospheric SO(2) levels. After the recent reduction of the SO(2) load due to clean air acts, we tested the hypothesis that stem growth recovered rapidly from the SO(2) impact. Our results from two formerly damaged high-elevation spruce stands support this hypothesis suggesting that the former SO(2)-related spruce decline was primarily due to foliar damage and not to soil acidification, as the deacidification of the (still acidic) soil would cause a slow growth response. Increasing temperatures and deposited N accumulated in the topsoil are likely additional growth-promoting factors of spruce at high elevations after the shortfall of SO(2) pollution. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Effects of permafrost melting on CO2 and CH4 exchange of a poorly drained black spruce lowland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimberly P. Wickland; Robert G. Striegl; Jason C. Neff; Torsten Sachs

    2006-01-01

    Permafrost melting is occurring in areas of the boreal forest region where large amounts of carbon (C) are stored in organic soils. We measured soil respiration, net CO2 flux, and net CH4 flux during May-September 2003 and March 2004 in a black spruce lowland in interior Alaska to better understand how permafrost thaw in...

  20. The historical role of Ips hauseri (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in the spruce forest of Ile-Alatausky and Medeo National Parks

    Science.gov (United States)

    N. Mukhamadiev; A. Lynch; C. O' Connor; A. Sagitov; N. Ashikbaev; I. Panyushkina

    2014-01-01

    On 17 May and 27 June 2011 severe cyclonic storms damaged several hundred hectares of spruce forest (Picea schrenkiana) in the Tian Shan Mountains. Bark beetle populations increased rapidly in dead and damaged trees, particularly Ips hauseri, I. typographus, I. sexdentatus, and Piiyogenesperfossus (all Coleoptera: Curculionidae), and there is concern about the...

  1. Effect of bark beetle (Ips typographus L.) attack on bark VOC emissions of Norway spruce (Picea abies Karst.) trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghimire, Rajendra P.; Kivimäenpää, Minna; Blomqvist, Minna; Holopainen, Toini; Lyytikäinen-Saarenmaa, Päivi; Holopainen, Jarmo K.

    2016-02-01

    Climate warming driven storms are evident causes for an outbreak of the European spruce bark beetle (Ips typographus L.) resulting in the serious destruction of mature Norway spruce (Picea abies Karst.) forests in northern Europe. Conifer species are major sources of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) in the boreal zone. Climate relevant BVOC emissions are expected to increase when conifer trees defend against bark beetle attack by monoterpene (MT)-rich resin flow. In this study, BVOC emission rates from the bark surface of beetle-attacked and non-attacked spruce trees were measured from two outbreak areas, Iitti and Lahti in southern Finland, and from one control site at Kuopio in central Finland. Beetle attack increased emissions of total MTs 20-fold at Iitti compared to Kuopio, but decreased the emissions of several sesquiterpenes (SQTs) at Iitti. At the Lahti site, the emission rate of α-pinene was positively correlated with mean trap catch of bark beetles. The responsive individual MTs were tricyclene, α-pinene, camphene, myrcene, limonene, 1,8-cineole and bornyl acetate in both of the outbreak areas. Our results suggest that bark beetle outbreaks affect local BVOC emissions from conifer forests dominated by Norway spruce. Therefore, the impacts of insect outbreaks are worth of consideration to global BVOC emission models.

  2. Effects of bark beetle attack on canopy fuel flammability and crown fire potential in lodgepole pine and Engelmann spruce forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesley G. Page; Martin E. Alexander; Michael J. Jenkins

    2015-01-01

    Large wildland fires in conifer forests typically involve some degree of crowning, with their initiation and propagation dependent upon several characteristics of the canopy fuels. Recent outbreaks of mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) in lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl. var. latifolia E ngelm.) forests and spruce beetle (Dendroctonus...

  3. The density and distribution of Sitka spruce and western hemlock seedling banks in partially harvested stands in southeast Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louise S.Y. Levy; Robert L. Deal; John C. Tappeiner

    2010-01-01

    This study’s objective was to document and describe the current seedling bank of Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis (Bong.) Carr.) and western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg.) stands in southeast Alaska that were partially cut between 1900 and 1984. We investigated the following: (1) What are seedling bank densities? (2)...

  4. Calcium fertilization increases the concentration of calcium in sapwood and calcium oxalate in foliage of red spruce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin T. Smith; Walter C. Shortle; Jon H. Connolly; Rakesh Minocha; Jody Jellison

    2009-01-01

    Calcium cycling plays a key role in the health and productivity of red spruce forests in the northeastern US. A portion of the flowpath of calcium within forests includes translocation as Ca2+ in sapwood and accumulation as crystals of calcium oxalate in foliage. Concentrations of Ca in these tree tissues have been used as markers of...

  5. Volume recovery, grade yield, and properties of lumber from young-growth sitka spruce and western hemlock in southeast Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn A. Christensen; Kent R. Julin; Robert J. Ross; Susan. Willits

    2002-01-01

    Wood volume recovery, lumber grade yield, and mechanical properties of young-growth Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis (Bong.) Carr.) and western hemlock (Tsuga heterophyla (Raf.) Sarg.)were examined. The sample included trees from commercially thinned and unthinned stands and fluted western hemlock logs obtained from a sort yard....

  6. Structure and dynamics in a virgin northern hardwood-spruce-fir forest--the Bowl, New Hampshire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley R. Gemborys

    1996-01-01

    A phytosociological study was conducted in a virgin northern hardwood- spruce-fir forest in the Bowl in the White Mountains of New Hampshire. There is no evidence of fire or human disturbance but hurricane winds were significant in the past. Bray and Curtis ordination was used to develop an XY vegetational mosaic. Differentiating species were Picea rubens and Acer...

  7. Genetic diversity, genetic structure, and mating system of brewer spruce (Pinaceae), a relict of the acto-tertiary forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    F. Thomas Ledig; Paul D. Hodgskiss; David R. Johnson

    2005-01-01

    Brewer spruce (Picea breweriana), a relict of the widespread Arcto-Tertiary forests, is now restricted to a highly fragmented range in the Klamath Region of California and Oregon. Expected heterozygosity for 26 isozyme loci, averaged over 10 populations, was 0.121. More notable than the relatively high level of diversity when compared to other woody...

  8. Recent evolution and divergence among populations of a rare Mexican endemic, Chihuahua spruce, following holocene climatic warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    F. Thomas Ledig; Virginia Jacob-Cervantes; Paul D. Hodgskiss

    1997-01-01

    Fragmentation and reduction in population size are expected to reduce genetic diversity. However, examples from natural populations of forest trees are scarce. The range of Chihuahua spruce retreated northward and fragmented coincident with the warming climate that marked the early Holocene. The isolated populations vary from 15 to 2441 trees, which provided an...

  9. Prediction of transverse shrinkages of young-growth Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis) and western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla) with ultrasonic measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turker Dundar; Xiping Wang; Robert J. Ross

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the potential of acoustic measurement as a rapid and nondestructive method to predict the dimensional stability of young-growth Sitka spruce and western hemlock. Ultrasonic velocity, peak energy, specific gravity, and radial and tangential shrinkages were measured on twenty-four 25- x

  10. Near Real-time Ecological Forecasting of Peatland Responses to Warming and CO2 Treatment through EcoPAD-SPRUCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Y.; Jiang, J.; Stacy, M.; Ricciuto, D. M.; Hanson, P. J.; Sundi, N.; Luo, Y.

    2016-12-01

    Ecological forecasting is critical in various aspects of our coupled human-nature systems, such as disaster risk reduction, natural resource management and climate change mitigation. Novel advancements are in urgent need to deepen our understandings of ecosystem dynamics, boost the predictive capacity of ecology, and provide timely and effective information for decision-makers in a rapidly changing world. Our Ecological Platform for Assimilation of Data (EcoPAD) facilitates the integration of current best knowledge from models, manipulative experimentations, observations and other modern techniques and provides both near real-time and long-term forecasting of ecosystem dynamics. As a case study, the web-based EcoPAD platform synchronizes real- or near real-time field measurements from the Spruce and Peatland Responses Under Climatic and Environmental Change Experiment (SPRUCE), a whole ecosystem warming and CO2 enrichment treatment experiment, assimilates multiple data streams into process based models, enhances timely feedback between modelers and experimenters, and ultimately improves ecosystem forecasting and makes best utilization of current knowledge. In addition to enable users to (i) estimate model parameters or state variables, (ii) quantify uncertainty of estimated parameters and projected states of ecosystems, (iii) evaluate model structures, (iv) assess sampling strategies, and (v) conduct ecological forecasting, EcoPAD-SPRUCE automated the workflow from real-time data acquisition, model simulation to result visualization. EcoPAD-SPRUCE promotes seamless feedback between modelers and experimenters, hand in hand to make better forecasting of future changes. The framework of EcoPAD-SPRUCE (with flexible API, Application Programming Interface) is easily portable and will benefit scientific communities, policy makers as well as the general public.

  11. Transcriptional Responses Associated with Virulence and Defence in the Interaction between Heterobasidion annosum s.s. and Norway Spruce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundén, Karl; Danielsson, Marie; Durling, Mikael Brandström; Ihrmark, Katarina; Gorriz, Miguel Nemesio; Stenlid, Jan; Asiegbu, Frederick O.; Elfstrand, Malin

    2015-01-01

    Heterobasidion annosum sensu lato is a serious pathogen causing root and stem rot to conifers in the northern hemisphere and rendering the timber defective for sawing and pulping. In this study we applied next-generation sequencing to i) identify transcriptional responses unique to Heterobasidion-inoculated Norway spruce and ii) investigate the H. annosum transcripts to identify putative virulence factors. To address these objectives we wounded or inoculated 30-year-old Norway spruce clones with H. annosum and 454-sequenced the transcriptome of the interaction at 0, 5 and 15 days post inoculation. The 491860 high-quality reads were de novo assembled and the relative expression was analysed. Overall, very few H. annosum transcripts were represented in our dataset. Three delta-12 fatty acid desaturase transcripts and one Clavaminate synthase-like transcript, both associated with virulence in other pathosystems, were found among the significantly induced transcripts. The analysis of the Norway spruce transcriptional responses produced a handful of differentially expressed transcripts. Most of these transcripts originated from genes known to respond to H. annosum. However, three genes that had not previously been reported to respond to H. annosum showed specific induction to inoculation: an oxophytodienoic acid–reductase (OPR), a beta–glucosidase and a germin-like protein (GLP2) gene. Even in a small data set like ours, five novel highly expressed Norway spruce transcripts without significant alignment to any previously annotated protein in Genbank but present in the P. abies (v1.0) gene catalogue were identified. Their expression pattern suggests a role in defence. Therefore a more complete survey of the transcriptional responses in the interactions between Norway spruce and its major pathogen H. annosum would probably provide a better understanding of gymnosperm defence than accumulated until now. PMID:26151363

  12. Feedbacks between climate, fire severity, and differential permafrost degradation in Alaskan black spruce forests - implications for carbon cycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasischke, E. S.; Kane, E. S.; O'Donnell, J. A.; Christensen, N. L.; Mitchell, S. R.; Turetsky, M. R.; Hayes, D. J.; Hoy, E.; Barrett, K. M.; McGuire, A. D.; Yuan, F.

    2011-12-01

    Black spruce forests are the dominant forest cover type in the boreal region of Alaska and Canada In the northern portion of its range, permafrost is common to sites occupied by black spruce forest, which in turn, leads topromotes the accumulation of large reservoirs of organic carbon in mineral and organic soils. Another important trait of black spruce forests is the high occurrence of fire which is enhanced by the presence of flammable foliage, surface litter (duff), dead stems, aboreal lichens, and understory vegetation that is highly flammable during the dry conditions found during the summer fire season. In turn, fire plays an important role in carbon cycling in black spruce forests through direct burning of vegetation and organic soils, initiation of secondary succession, and alteration of the ambient environmental conditions, in particular, the permafrost and the soil thermal regimes, including permafrost stability. The spatial and temporal characteristics of permafrost (e.g. ice content and, seasonal deepening thawing of the active layer) not only control fire severity in terms of depth of burning of the active layer, but also the level of permafrost degradation that occurs in the post-fire environment. Fire severity, in combination with soil thermal properties (e.g. temperature, moisture, permafrost state), moisture and temperature conditions controlled by rates of permafrost warming and drying then controls the biological processes (plant succession and growth and heterotrophic respiration), thus regulating post-fire re-accumulation of carbon in biomass. In this paper, we will review research that investigates the interactions between fire and permafrost regimes that influence and how they influence carbon cycling in black spruce forests in interior Alaska.

  13. Growth trends of beech and Norway spruce in Switzerland: The role of nitrogen deposition, ozone, mineral nutrition and climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Sabine; Schindler, Christian; Rihm, Beat

    2017-12-01

    Understanding the effects of nitrogen deposition, ozone and climate on tree growth is important for planning sustainable forest management also in the future. The complex interplay of all these factors cannot be covered by experiments. Here we use observational data of mature forests for studying associations of various biotic and abiotic factors with tree growth. A 30year time series on basal area increment of Fagus sylvatica L. and Picea abies Karst. in Switzerland was analyzed to evaluate the development in relation to a variety of predictors. Basal area increment of Fagus sylvatica has clearly decreased during the observation period. For Picea abies no trend was observed. N deposition of more than 26 (beech) or 20-22kgNha(-1)year(-1) (Norway spruce) was negatively related with basal area increment, in beech stronger than in Norway spruce. High N deposition loads and low foliar K concentrations in Fagus were correlated with increased drought sensitivity. High air temperatures in winter were negatively related with basal area increment in Norway spruce in general and in beech at high N:Mg ratio or high N deposition while on an average the relation was positive in beech. Fructification in beech was negatively related to basal area increment. The increase of fructification observed during the last decades contributed thus to the growth decrease. Ozone flux was significantly and negatively correlated with basal area increment both in beech and Norway spruce. The results show clear non-linear effects of N deposition on stem increment of European beech and Norway spruce as well as strong interactions with climate which have contributed to the growth decrease in beech and may get more important in future. The results not only give suggestions for ecological processes but also show the potential of an integral evaluation of observational data. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Responses of spruce seedlings (Picea abies) to exhaust gas under laboratory conditions. 1. plant-insect interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viskari, E.-L.; Koessi, S. [Kuopio Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Ecology and Environmental Science; Surakka, J.; Pasanen, P.; Ruuskanen, J. [Kuopio Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Environmental Sciences; Mirme, A. [Tartu Univ. (Estonia). Int. of Environmental Physics; Holopainen, J.K. [Kuopio Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Ecology and Environmental Science; Agricultural Research Centre, Plant Production research, Jokioinen (Finland)

    2000-07-01

    The effects of motor vehicle exhaust gas on Norway spruce seedlings (Picea abies (L) Karst) and plant-insect interaction of spruce shoot aphid (Cinara pilicornis Hartig) was studied. The exhaust gas concentrations in the fumigation chambers were monitored and controlled by measuring the concentration of nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) with a computer aided feedback system. The concentrations of major exhaust gas components (black carbon (BC), fine particles, VOCs and carbonyl compounds) in the chamber air were also measured. Responses of Norway spruce seedlings to a 2 and 3 week exhaust gas exposure and subsequent performance of spruce shoot aphid were studied using realistic exposure regimes; 50, 100 and 200 ppb NO{sub x}. The feedback control system based on NO{sub x} concentrations proved an adequate and practical means for controlling the concentration of exhaust gases and studying plant responses in controlled environment chambers. The exhaust exposure resulted in increased concentrations of proline, glutamine, threonine, aspartic acid, glycine and phenylalanine and decreased concentration of arginine, serine, alanine and glycine in young needles. No changes in soluble N concentrations were observed. The results are interpreted as a stress response rather than use of NO{sub x} as a nitrogen source. No changes in total phenolics and only transient changes in some individual terpene concentrations were detected. The exhaust gas exposure stressed the exposed seedlings, but had no significant effect on N metabolism or the production of defence chemicals. Aphid performance was not significantly affected. Soluble N, secondary metabolism and aphid performance were not sensitive to exhaust gas exposure during shoot elongation in Norway spruce. (author)

  15. Silver fir and Douglas fir are more tolerant to extreme droughts than Norway spruce in south-western Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitali, Valentina; Büntgen, Ulf; Bauhus, Jürgen

    2017-12-01

    Improving our understanding of the potential of forest adaptation is an urgent task in the light of predicted climate change. Long-term alternatives for susceptible yet economically important tree species such as Norway spruce (Picea abies) are required, if the frequency and intensity of summer droughts will continue to increase. Although Silver fir (Abies alba) and Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) have both been described as drought-tolerant species, our understanding of their growth responses to drought extremes is still limited. Here, we use a dendroecological approach to assess the resistance, resilience, and recovery of these important central Europe to conifer species the exceptional droughts in 1976 and 2003. A total of 270 trees per species were sampled in 18 managed mixed-species stands along an altitudinal gradient (400-1200 m a.s.l.) at the western slopes of the southern and central Black Forest in southwest Germany. While radial growth in all species responded similarly to the 1976 drought, Norway spruce was least resistant and resilient to the 2003 summer drought. Silver fir showed the overall highest resistance to drought, similarly to Douglas fir, which exhibited the widest growth rings. Silver fir trees from lower elevations were more drought prone than trees at higher elevations. Douglas fir and Norway spruce, however, revealed lower drought resilience at higher altitudes. Although the 1976 and 2003 drought extremes were quite different, Douglas fir maintained consistently the highest radial growth. Although our study did not examine population-level responses, it clearly indicates that Silver fir and Douglas fir are generally more resistant and resilient to previous drought extremes and are therefore suitable alternatives to Norway spruce; Silver fir more so at higher altitudes. Cultivating these species instead of Norway spruce will contribute to maintaining a high level of productivity across many Central European mountain forests under

  16. Transcriptional Responses Associated with Virulence and Defence in the Interaction between Heterobasidion annosum s.s. and Norway Spruce.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Lundén

    Full Text Available Heterobasidion annosum sensu lato is a serious pathogen causing root and stem rot to conifers in the northern hemisphere and rendering the timber defective for sawing and pulping. In this study we applied next-generation sequencing to i identify transcriptional responses unique to Heterobasidion-inoculated Norway spruce and ii investigate the H. annosum transcripts to identify putative virulence factors. To address these objectives we wounded or inoculated 30-year-old Norway spruce clones with H. annosum and 454-sequenced the transcriptome of the interaction at 0, 5 and 15 days post inoculation. The 491,860 high-quality reads were de novo assembled and the relative expression was analysed. Overall, very few H. annosum transcripts were represented in our dataset. Three delta-12 fatty acid desaturase transcripts and one Clavaminate synthase-like transcript, both associated with virulence in other pathosystems, were found among the significantly induced transcripts. The analysis of the Norway spruce transcriptional responses produced a handful of differentially expressed transcripts. Most of these transcripts originated from genes known to respond to H. annosum. However, three genes that had not previously been reported to respond to H. annosum showed specific induction to inoculation: an oxophytodienoic acid-reductase (OPR, a beta-glucosidase and a germin-like protein (GLP2 gene. Even in a small data set like ours, five novel highly expressed Norway spruce transcripts without significant alignment to any previously annotated protein in Genbank but present in the P. abies (v1.0 gene catalogue were identified. Their expression pattern suggests a role in defence. Therefore a more complete survey of the transcriptional responses in the interactions between Norway spruce and its major pathogen H. annosum would probably provide a better understanding of gymnosperm defence than accumulated until now.

  17. Modeling carbon dynamics in two adjacent spruce forests with different soil conditions in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kurbatova

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Net ecosystem carbon exchange (NEE was measured with eddy covariance method for two adjacent forests located at the southern boundary of European taiga in Russia in 1999–2004. The two spruce forests shared similar vegetation composition but differed in soil conditions. The wet spruce forest (WSF possessed a thick peat layer (60 cm with a high water table seasonally close to or above the soil surface. The dry spruce forest (DSF had a relatively thin organic layer (5 cm with a deep water table (>60 cm. The measured multi-year average NEE fluxes (2000 and –1440 kg C ha−1yr−1 for WSF and DSF, respectively indicated that WSF was a source while DSF a sink of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2 during the experimental years. A process-based model, Forest-DNDC, was employed in the study to interpret the observations. The modeled multi-year average NEE fluxes were 1800 and –2200 kg C ha−1yr−1 for WSF and DSF, respectively, which were comparable with observations. The modeled data also showed high soil heterotrophic respiration rates at WSF that suggested that the water table fluctuation at WSF could have played a key role in determining the negative carbon balance in the wetland ecosystem. A sensitivity test was conducted by running Forest-DNDC with varied water table scenarios for WSF. The results indicated that the NEE fluxes from WSF were highly sensitive to the water table depth. When the water table was high, the WSF ecosystem maintained as a sink of atmospheric CO2; while along with the drop of the water table the length of the flooded period reduced and more organic matter in the soil profile suffered from rapid decomposition that gradually converted the ecosystem into a source of atmospheric CO2. The general effect of water table variation on wetland carbon balance observed from this modeling study could be applicable for a wide range of wetland ecosystems that

  18. Assessing the resilience of Norway spruce forests through a model-based reanalysis of thinning trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidl, Rupert; Vigl, Friedrich; Rössler, Günter; Neumann, Markus; Rammer, Werner

    2017-03-15

    As a result of a rapidly changing climate the resilience of forests is an increasingly important property for ecosystem management. Recent efforts have improved the theoretical understanding of resilience, yet its operational quantification remains challenging. Furthermore, there is growing awareness that resilience is not only a means to addressing the consequences of climate change but is also affected by it, necessitating a better understanding of the climate sensitivity of resilience. Quantifying current and future resilience is thus an important step towards mainstreaming resilience thinking into ecosystem management. Here, we present a novel approach for quantifying forest resilience from thinning trials, and assess the climate sensitivity of resilience using process-based ecosystem modeling. We reinterpret the wide range of removal intensities and frequencies in thinning trials as an experimental gradient of perturbation, and estimate resilience as the recovery rate after perturbation. Our specific objectives were (i) to determine how resilience varies with stand and site conditions, (ii) to assess the climate sensitivity of resilience across a range of potential future climate scenarios, and (iii) to evaluate the robustness of resilience estimates to different focal indicators and assessment methodologies. We analyzed three long-term thinning trials in Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) forests across an elevation gradient in Austria, evaluating and applying the individual-based process model iLand. The resilience of Norway spruce was highest at the montane site, and decreased at lower elevations. Resilience also decreased with increasing stand age and basal area. The effects of climate change were strongly context-dependent: At the montane site, where precipitation levels were ample even under climate change, warming increased resilience in all scenarios. At lower elevations, however, rising temperatures decreased resilience, particularly at

  19. Height-Diameter Models for Mixed-Species Forests Consisting of Spruce, Fir, and Beech

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petráš Rudolf

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Height-diameter models define the general relationship between the tree height and diameter at each growth stage of the forest stand. This paper presents generalized height-diameter models for mixed-species forest stands consisting of Norway spruce (Picea abies Karst., Silver fir (Abies alba L., and European beech (Fagus sylvatica L. from Slovakia. The models were derived using two growth functions from the exponential family: the two-parameter Michailoff and three-parameter Korf functions. Generalized height-diameter functions must normally be constrained to pass through the mean stand diameter and height, and then the final growth model has only one or two parameters to be estimated. These “free” parameters are then expressed over the quadratic mean diameter, height and stand age and the final mathematical form of the model is obtained. The study material included 50 long-term experimental plots located in the Western Carpathians. The plots were established 40-50 years ago and have been repeatedly measured at 5 to 10-year intervals. The dataset includes 7,950 height measurements of spruce, 21,661 of fir and 5,794 of beech. As many as 9 regression models were derived for each species. Although the “goodness of fit” of all models showed that they were generally well suited for the data, the best results were obtained for silver fir. The coefficient of determination ranged from 0.946 to 0.948, RMSE (m was in the interval 1.94-1.97 and the bias (m was -0.031 to 0.063. Although slightly imprecise parameter estimation was established for spruce, the estimations of the regression parameters obtained for beech were quite less precise. The coefficient of determination for beech was 0.854-0.860, RMSE (m 2.67-2.72, and the bias (m ranged from -0.144 to -0.056. The majority of models using Korf’s formula produced slightly better estimations than Michailoff’s, and it proved immaterial which estimated parameter was fixed and which parameters

  20. European spruce bark beetle (Ips typographus, L.) green attack affects foliar reflectance and biochemical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Haidi; Darvishzadeh, Roshanak; Skidmore, Andrew K.; Groen, Thomas A.; Heurich, Marco

    2018-02-01

    The European spruce bark beetle Ips typographus, L. (hereafter bark beetle), causes major economic loss to the forest industry in Europe, especially in Norway Spruce (Picea abies). To minimise economic loss and preclude a mass outbreak, early detection of bark beetle infestation (so-called ;green attack; stage - a period at which trees are yet to show visual signs of infestation stress) is, therefore, a crucial step in the management of Norway spruce stands. It is expected that a bark beetle infestation at the green attack stage affects a tree's physiological and chemical status. However, the concurrent effect on key foliar biochemical such as foliar nitrogen and chlorophyll as well as spectral responses are not well documented in the literature. Therefore, in this study, the early detection of bark beetle green attacks is investigated by examining foliar biochemical and spectral properties (400-2000 nm). We also assessed whether bark beetle infestation affects the estimation accuracy of foliar biochemicals. An extensive field survey was conducted in the Bavarian Forest National Park (BFNP), Germany, in the early summer of 2015 to collect leaf samples from 120 healthy and green attacked trees. The spectra of the leaf samples were measured using an ASD FieldSpec3 equipped with an integrating sphere. Significant differences (p < 0.05) between healthy and infested needle samples were found in the mean reflectance spectra, with the most pronounced differences being observed in the NIR and SWIR regions between 730 and 1370 nm. Furthermore, significant differences (p < 0.05) were found in the biochemical compositions (chlorophyll and nitrogen concentration) of healthy versus green attacked samples. Our results further demonstrate that the estimation accuracy of foliar chlorophyll and nitrogen concentrations, utilising partial least square regression model, was lower for the infested compared to the healthy trees. We show that early stage of infestation reduces not only

  1. Growth-melt asymmetry in ice crystals under the influence of spruce budworm antifreeze protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pertaya, Natalya [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Ohio University, Athens, OH 45701 (United States); Celik, Yeliz [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Ohio University, Athens, OH 45701 (United States); DiPrinzio, Carlos L [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Ohio University, Athens, OH 45701 (United States); Wettlaufer, J S [Department of Geology and Geophysics, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520-8109 (United States); Davies, Peter L [Department of Biochemistry, Queen' s University, Kingston, ON K7L 3N6 (Canada); Braslavsky, Ido [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Ohio University, Athens, OH 45701 (United States)

    2007-10-17

    Here we describe studies of the crystallization behavior of ice in an aqueous solution of spruce budworm antifreeze protein (sbwAFP) at atmospheric pressure. SbwAFP is an ice binding protein with high thermal hysteresis activity, which helps protect Choristoneura fumiferana (spruce budworm) larvae from freezing as they overwinter in the spruce and fir forests of the north eastern United States and Canada. Different types of ice binding proteins have been found in many other species. They have a wide range of applications in cryomedicine and cryopreservation, as well as the potential to protect plants and vegetables from frost damage through genetic engineering. However, there is much to learn regarding the mechanism of action of ice binding proteins. In our experiments, a solution containing sbwAFP was rapidly frozen and then melted back, thereby allowing us to produce small single crystals. These maintained their hexagonal shapes during cooling within the thermal hysteresis gap. Melt-growth-melt sequences in low concentrations of sbwAFP reveal the same shape transitions as are found in pure ice crystals at low temperature (-22 deg. C) and high pressure (2000 bar) (Cahoon et al 2006 Phys. Rev. Lett. 96 255502); while both growth and melt shapes display faceted hexagonal morphology, they are rotated 30 deg. relative to one another. Moreover, the initial melt shape and orientation is recovered in the sequence. To visualize the binding of sbwAFP to ice, we labeled the antifreeze protein with enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) and observed the sbwAFP-GFP molecules directly on ice crystals using confocal microscopy. When cooling the ice crystals, facets form on the six primary prism planes (slowest growing planes) that are evenly decorated with sbwAFP-GFP. During melting, apparent facets form on secondary prism planes (fastest melting planes), leaving residual sbwAFP at the six corners of the hexagon. Thus, the same general growth-melt behavior of an apparently

  2. Fire Severity Controlled Susceptibility to a 1940s Spruce Beetle Outbreak in Colorado, USA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominik Kulakowski

    Full Text Available The frequency, magnitude, and size of forest disturbances are increasing globally. Much recent research has focused on how the occurrence of one disturbance may affect susceptibility to subsequent disturbances. While much has been learned about such linked disturbances, the strength of the interactions is likely to be contingent on the severity of disturbances as well as climatic conditions, both of which can affect disturbance intensity and tree resistance to disturbances. Subalpine forests in western Colorado were affected by extensive and severe wildfires in the late 19th century and an extensive and severe outbreak of spruce beetle (Dendroctonus rufipennis in the 1940s. Previous research found that most, but not all, of the stands that burned and established following the late 19th century fires were not susceptible to the 1940s outbreak as beetles preferentially attack larger trees and stands in advanced stages of development. However, previous research also left open the possibility that some stands that burned and established following the 19th century fires may have been attacked during the 1940s outbreak. Understanding how strongly stand structure, as shaped by disturbances of varying severity, affected susceptibility to past outbreaks is important to provide a baseline for assessing the degree to which recent climate change may be relaxing the preferences of beetles for larger trees and for stands in latter stages of structural development and thereby changing the nature of linked disturbances. Here, dendroecological methods were used to study disturbance history and tree age of stands in the White River National Forest in Western Colorado that were identified in historical documents or remotely-sensed images as having burned in the 19th century and having been attacked by spruce beetle in the 1940s. Dendroecological reconstructions indicate that in young post-fire stands only old remnant trees that survived the otherwise stand

  3. Ground-layer composition affects tree fine root biomass and soil nutrient availability in jack pine and black spruce forests under extreme drainage conditions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pacé, Marine; Fenton, Nicole J; Paré, David; Bergeron, Yves

    ....) – lichen and black spruce (Picea mariana (Mill.) B.S.P.) – moss forests, the relationships between canopy closure, ground-layer composition, tree fine root biomass, and soil nutrients were analyzed and decomposed using path analysis...

  4. Ground layer composition affects tree fine root biomass and soil nutrient availability in jack pine and black spruce forests under extreme drainage conditions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pacé, M; Fenton, N.J; Paré, D; Bergeron, Y

    2017-01-01

    ....) – lichen and black spruce (Picea mariana (Mill.) B.S.P.) – moss forests, the relationships between canopy closure, ground-layer composition, tree fine root biomass, and soil nutrients were analyzed and decomposed using path analysis...

  5. 3-Methylcyclohex-2-en-1-one for area and individual tree protection against spruce beetle (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) attack in the southern Rocky Mountains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, E Matthew; Munson, A Steven; Blackford, Darren C; Graves, Andrew D; Coleman, Tom W; Baggett, L Scott

    2017-10-01

    We tested 3-methylcyclohex-2-en-1-one (MCH) and an Acer kairomone blend (AKB) as repellent semiochemicals for area and single tree protection to prevent spruce beetle (Dendroctonus rufipennis Kirby) attacks at locations in Utah and New Mexico. In the area protection study, we compared host infestation rates of MCH applications at three densities (20, 40, and 80 g MCH ha-1) against a control treatment over 0.64 ha plots centered within ~1.25 ha treatment blocks. All treatments included two baited funnel traps within the plot to assure spruce beetle pressure. Following beetle attack, plots were surveyed for new spruce beetle attacks and to quantify stand characteristics. The probability of more severe spruce beetle attacks was significantly reduced, by ~50%, in each of the MCH area treatments compared with the control treatment but there was no significant treatment difference among the MCH deployment densities. For the single tree protection study, we compared attack rates of MCH, Acer kairomone blend (AKB), and MCH plus AKB on spruce beetle-baited trees against bait-only trees. Each treatment was applied over a range of host diameters to test for host size effects. Seventy-five percent of control trees were mass-attacked, about one-third of MCH- and AKB-alone spruce was mass-attacked, and no MCH plus AKB spruce were mass-attacked. These results suggest that MCH alone is a marginal area and single tree protectant against spruce beetle but that deployment with other repellents can significantly increase treatment efficacy. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2017. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  6. Contrasting development of declining and living larch-spruce stands after a disturbance event: A case study from the High Tatra Mts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šebeň Vladimír

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The decline of spruce stands caused by bark beetle outbreaks is a serious economic and ecological problem of forestry in Slovakia. In the preceding period, the decline affected mainly secondary spruce forests. Over the last decade, due to large bark-beetle outbreaks this problem has been observed also in natural spruce forests, even at high elevations. We dealt with this issue in a case study of short-term development of larch-spruce stands in the High Tatras (at a site called Štart. We compared the situation in the stand infested by bark beetles several years after the wind-throw in 2004 with the stand unaffected by bark beetles. We separately analysed the development of the mature (parent stands and the regeneration. The results indicated that forest decline caused by bark beetles significantly depended on the stand structure (mainly tree species composition, which affected the period of stand disintegration. Mortality of spruce trees slowed down biomass accumulation (and thus carbon sequestration in the forest ecosystem. In the new stand, pioneer tree species dominated (in the conditions of the High Tatras it is primarily rowan, although their share in the parent stand was negligible. The results showed different trends in the accumulation of below-ground and above-ground biomass in the declined and living stands. In the first years after the stand decline, rowan accumulated significantly more biomass than the main tree species, i.e. spruce. The reverse situation was under the surviving stand, where spruce trees accumulated more biomass than rowan. The different share of spruce and pioneer tree species, mainly rowan, affected the ratio between fixed (in woody parts of trees and rotating (in foliage carbon in the undergrowth. Forest die-back is a big source of carbon emissions from dead individuals, and the compensation of these losses in the form of carbon sequestration by future stands is a matter of several decades.

  7. Patterns of mast fruiting of common beech, sessile and common oak, Norway spruce and Scots pine in Central and Northern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nussbaumer, Anita; Waldner, Peter; Etzold, Sophia

    2016-01-01

    Occurrence of mast years, i.e. the synchronous production of vast amounts of fruits or seeds, has an important impact on forest ecosystems, their functioning and their services. We investigated the mast patterns of the forest tree species common beech, common and sessile oak, Norway spruce and Sc...... hypotheses, and beech and spruce supported the economy of scale, predator satiation and resource allocation hypotheses....

  8. Performance of different fire retardant products applied on Norway spruce tested in a Cone calorimeter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kögl Josef

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available On the European market there are several fire retardant products available, which reach class B in the European classification system. The producers promise their fire retardants are effective in reducing different reaction to fire parameters of wood such as the time to ignition, the mass loss rate, the heat release rate, the total heat release, the charring rate and the flame spread. This paper discusses the performance of fire retardant products as pressure impregnated wood, non-intumescence surface coatings and intumescence coatings on Norway spruce (Picea abies. The investigations are performed by using a cone calo- rimeter test according to ISO 5660. The thermal exposures of the investigations are 50 kW/m2 and the standard IS0 834 test curve. As result information about the heat release rate, the mass loss rate and the total heat release for duration of 900 seconds will be presented in this paper.

  9. Modelling black spruce primary production and carbon allocation in the Quebec boreal forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gennaretti, Fabio; Guiot, Joel; Berninger, Frank; Boucher, Etienne; Gea-Izquierdo, Guillermo

    2017-04-01

    Boreal ecosystems are crucial carbon stores that must be urgently quantified and preserved. Their future evolution is extremely important for the global carbon budget. Here, we will show the progresses achieved with the MAIDEN forest ecophysiological model in simulating carbon fluxes of black spruce (Picea mariana (Mill.) B.S.P.) forests, the most representative ecosystem of the North American boreal biome. Starting from daily minimum-maximum air temperature, precipitation and CO2 atmospheric concentration, MAIDEN models the phenological (5 phenological phases are simulated each year) and meteorological controls on gross primary production (GPP) and carbon allocation to stem. The model is being calibrated on eddy covariance and tree-ring data. We will discuss the model's performance and the modifications introduced in MAIDEN to adapt the model to temperature sensitive forests of the boreal region.

  10. Effect of initial conditions, boundary conditions and thickness on the moisture buffering capacity of spruce plywood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osanyintola, O. F.; Talukdar, P.; Simonson, C. J. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Sask. (China)

    2006-07-01

    In this paper, the moisture buffering capacity of spruce plywood is measured by recording the change in mass of a test specimen when the air relative humidity (RH) is changed between 33% RH and 75% RH. The aim is to represent diurnal cycles in indoor humidity with 33% RH maintained for 16 h and 75% RH maintained for 8 h. Measurements are taken using two different apparatuses, which provide different convective transfer coefficients between the air and the plywood, and the results are compared to a numerical model for validation. The validated numerical model is then used to investigate the effect of initial conditions, boundary conditions and thickness on the moisture buffering capacity of plywood. The results show that the buffering capacity of plywood depends on the initial conditions and thickness of the plywood as well as the surface film coefficient and humidity cycle. (author)

  11. The impact of small terrestrial mammals on beech (Fagus sylvatica plantations in spruce monoculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luboš Purchart

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the impact of small terrestrial mammals on forest regeneration as yet. In order to determine the level of small rodent impact on artificial forest regeneration, 508 saplings have been researched in a spruce monoculture in the Drahany Uplands. With the objective to hone the interpretation of the data, small terrestrial rodents were trapped to help determine species spectrum. The occurrence of Apodemus flavicollis, Clethrionomys glareolus and Sorex araneus was verified. In 52 cases damage to the trunk caused by small rodents was monitored (10.1% of all saplings. 8 specimens (1.6% had their branches nibbled and 9 saplings (1.8% had tips of branches or trunk tops browsed. Browsing by Lepus europaeus – 423 (83.3% of all damaged specimens was significant.

  12. Hartig' net formation of Tricholoma vaccinum-spruce ectomycorrhiza in hydroponic cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henke, Catarina; Jung, Elke-Martina; Kothe, Erika

    2015-12-01

    For re-forestation of metal-contaminated land, ectomycorrhizal trees may provide a solution. Hence, the study of the interaction is necessary to allow for comprehensive understanding of the mutually symbiotic features. On a structural level, hyphal mantle and the Hartig' net formed in the root apoplast are essential for plant protection and mycorrhizal functioning. As a model, we used the basidiomycete Tricholoma vaccinum and its host spruce (Picea abies). Using an optimized hydroponic cultivation system, both features could be visualized and lower stress response of the tree was obtained in non-challenged cultivation. Larger spaces in the apoplasts could be shown with high statistical significance. The easy accessibility will allow to address metal stress or molecular responses in both partners. Additionally, the proposed cultivation system will enable for other experimental applications like addressing flooding, biological interactions with helper bacteria, chemical signaling, or other biotic or abiotic challenges relevant in the natural habitat.

  13. Five-year measurements of ozone fluxes to a Danish Norway spruce canopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Teis Nørgaard; Ro-Poulsen, H.; Hovmand, M.F.

    2004-01-01

    Ozone concentrations and fluxes have been measured continuously during 5 years (1996-2000) by the gradient method in a Norway spruce dominated forest stand in West Jutland, Denmark, planted in 1965. The method has been validated against other methodologies and a relatively good relationship...... resistance, r(c), are presented. The yearly ozone deposition is approximately 126 kg ha(-1). The canopy ozone uptake is highest during the day and during the summer. This is interpreted as increased stomatal uptake and physical and chemical reactions. The daily means of ozone concentration and fluxes...... averaged over 5 years correlate, but the correlation is primarily based on two different uncoupled processes outside and inside the stomates: (1) The ozone destruction in the canopy occurring outside the stomates is much influenced by temperature, light and humidity, e.g. surface reactions, NO- and VOC...

  14. In vitro fungistatic effects of natural coniferous resin from Norway spruce (Picea abies).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rautio, M; Sipponen, A; Lohi, J; Lounatmaa, K; Koukila-Kähkölä, P; Laitinen, K

    2012-08-01

    Resins (rosin, pitch) are natural products of the coniferous trees and are antimicrobial against a wide range of microbes. The antifungal effectiveness of resin, purified from Norway spruce (Picea abies), was studied against human pathogenic fungi and yeasts with the agar plate diffusion tests and electron microscopy (EM). The fungistatic effect of these resin mixtures (resin salves) was tested against a set of Candida yeasts, dermatophytes, and opportunistic fungi. Transmission and scanning EM was done from samples of fungi (Trichophyton mentagrophytes). In agar diffusion tests, the resin was strongly antifungal against all dermatophytes tested, e.g., against all fungi of the genus Trichophyton, but it was not antifungal against the Candida yeasts or against the opportunistic fungi tested. According to EM, resin caused damages in the cell hyphae and cell wall structures. We conclude that, in the agar plate diffusion test, coniferous resins are strongly fungistatic against the dermatophytic fungi only.

  15. Contribution to the Bryoflora of Australia. VI. The Genus Cololejeunea (Spruce Steph. (Lejeuneaceae, Marchantiophyta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pócs Tamás

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Thirty-eight species of the genus Cololejeunea (Spruce Steph. (Lejeuneaceae, Marchantiophyta are reported for the whole of Australia, more than doubling the number of taxa known since the first account of the Australian members of the genus. Cololejeunea cairnsiana Pócs, Cololejeunea heinari Pócs and Cololejeunea floccosa var. fraseriana Pócs are described as new to science. The records of Cololejeunea diaphana A. Evans, Cololejeunea gottschei (Steph. Mizut., Cololejeunea longifolia (Mitt. Benedix ex Mizut. Cololejeunea verrucosa Steph. and Cololejeunea floccosa (Lehm. & Lindenb. Steph. var. amoenoides Tixier are new for the continent. Cololejeunea amoena Benedix is treated as a variety of Cololejeunea floccosa. Cololejeunea tortifolia Steph. is synonymized with Cololejeunea microscopica (Taylor Schiffn. and is excluded from the Australian flora. The name Cololejeunea cambodiana Tixier is validated. A key for the Australian taxa and an analysis of their distribution follow the enumeration of species.

  16. Fungi associated with the beetles of Ips typographus on Norway spruce in southern Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Jankowiak

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The mycobiota of the beetles of the phloem-feeding spruce bark beetle, Ips typographus was studied. The most important group of fungi were the ophiostomatoid fungi. Among them O. penicillatum was very frequent ophiostomatoid species. Other common fungi were O. ainoae, O. bicolor, O. piceaperdum and O. piceae. The ophiostomatoid fungi were often more frequent in beetles collected in galleries than in the beetles caught With a trap. Generally the ophiostomatoid fungi were more ofien isolated from the beetle.s bathed in sterile water for 30 seconds. However C. polonica, O. ainoae, and O. minutum occurred most abundantly in the beetles disinfected in 96% ethyl alcohol for 15 and 30 seconds.

  17. Treatment of bare root spruce seedlings with permethrin against pine weevil before lifting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torstensson, Lennart; Boerjesson, Elisabet [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Microbiology; Arvidsson, Bernt [Svenska Skogsplantor AB, Joenkoeping (Sweden)

    1999-07-01

    The possibility of applying permethrin on coniferous bare root seedlings to protect them against pine weevil (Hylobius abietis L.) in the transplant lines may avoid or diminish problems connected with dipping or spraying plant bundles with the insecticide after lifting. Spraying 0.5 or 1% permethrin solution on bare root spruce seedlings in the transplant lines resulted in initial amounts of about 0.35 and 0.74 {mu}g permethrin mm{sup -2} bark on the lower part of the plant stem. This amount diminished during the first month to a level that remained stable for a period of at least 1. 5 yrs. The permethrin that reached the soil was degraded with a half-life of 3-4 months. The trans isomer was degraded more rapidly than the cis isomer.

  18. Feedbacks of windthrow for Norway spruce and Scots pine stands under changing climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Panferov, O.; Döring, C.; Rauch, E.

    2009-01-01

    on the particular local or regional combination of climatic and soil factors with tree species, age and structure. For Solling the positive feedback to local climatic forcing is found. The feedback contributes considerably (up to 6% under given conditions) to the projected forest damage and cannot be neglected...... the turbulence model SCAlar DIStribution (SCADIS) with the soil–vegetation–atmosphere-transfer (SVAT) model BROOK 90. The present study investigates projections of wind damage in Solling, Germany under climate scenarios A1B and B1, taking into account the windthrow feedbacks—changes of microclimate as a result...... the probability of damage would be higher than under B1 and that under the same climate and soil conditions the risk for spruce stands would be higher than for pine stands of equal age. The degree of damage and feedback contribution as well as a sign of feedback in each particular case will strongly depend...

  19. Influence of monoterpene vapors on spruce spider mite,Oligonychus ununguis, adult females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, S P

    1992-09-01

    Adult female spruce spider mite,Oligonychus ununguis (Jacobi), were exposed to various concentrations of four host conifer monoterpene vapors (limonene,β-pinene,α-pinene, and Δ(3)-carene) for 24 hr to determine the lethal and sublethal effects. All four compounds were toxic to the mites. Further, at concentrations below the calculated LC50s, all four compounds decreased oviposition by the mites and three of the compounds (limonene,β-pinene, andα-pinene) influenced movement. WhereasO. ununguis populations may not normally be exposed to high concentrations of host monoterpenes, trees continuously emit some monoterpene vapors, and when trees are damaged or under stress, oleoresin may accumulate at points on the external surface of tree tissues thereby exposing mites to the influence of monoterpene vapors.

  20. Climate drivers of bark beetle outbreak dynamics in Norway spruce forests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marini, Lorenzo; Økland, Bjørn; Jönsson, Anna Maria

    2017-01-01

    Bark beetles are among the most devastating biotic agents affecting forests globally and several species are expected to be favored by climate change. Given the potential interactions of insect outbreaks with other biotic and abiotic disturbances, and the potentially strong impact of changing...... disturbance regimes on forest resources, investigating climatic drivers of destructive bark beetle outbreaks is of paramount importance. We analyzed 17 time-series of the amount of wood damaged by Ips typographus, the most destructive pest of Norway spruce forests, collected across 8 European countries...... in the last three decades. We aimed to quantify the relative importance of key climate drivers in explaining timber loss dynamics, also testing for possible synergistic effects. Local outbreaks shared the same drivers, including increasing summer rainfall deficit and warm temperatures. Large availability...

  1. Measurements of ammonia concentrations, fluxes and dry deposition velocities to a spruce forest 1991-1995

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, H.V.; Hovmand, M.F.; Hummelshøj, P.

    1999-01-01

    The dry deposition velocities and fluxes of ammonia have been estimated from measurements of the vertical gradient of ammonia and micrometeorology above a spruce forest in western Jutland, Denmark. Measurements have been made in seven periods, each lasting about one week and covering all seasons......, i.e. an ammonia concentration below which the trees and/or the surface emit ammonia due to an equilibrium with the ammonia inside the needles or on the surface. Emission of ammonia was also observed at relatively high ammonia concentration levels (above 2 mu g NH3-N m(-3)), mainly during one...... measuring period characterized by easterly winds with dry conditions and high ammonia concentrations, and the emissions might relate to evaporation from ammonia saturated surfaces or emission from mineralization in the forest soil. In general, relatively high net deposition velocities were observed during...

  2. The effect of artificially induced drought on radial increment and wood properties of Norway spruce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jyske, Tuula; Hölttä, Teemu; Mäkinen, Harri; Nöjd, Pekka; Lumme, Ilari; Spiecker, Heinrich

    2010-01-01

    We studied experimentally the effects of water availability on height and radial increment as well as wood density and tracheid properties of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.). The study was carried out in two long-term N-fertilization experiments in Southern Finland (Heinola and Sahalahti). At each site, one fertilized and one control plot was covered with an under-canopy roof preventing rainwater from reaching the soil. Two uncovered plots were monitored at each site. The drought treatment was initiated in the beginning of growing season and lasted for 60-75 days each year. The treatment was repeated for four to five consecutive years depending on the site. Altogether, 40 sample trees were harvested and discs sampled at breast height. From the discs, ring width and wood density were measured by X-ray densitometry. Tracheid properties were analysed by reflected-light microscopy and image analysis. Reduced soil water potential during the growing season decreased annual radial and height increment and had a small influence on tracheid properties and wood density. No statistically significant differences were found in the average tracheid diameter between the drought-treated and control trees. The average cell wall thickness was somewhat higher (7-10%) for the drought treatment than for the control, but the difference was statistically significant only in Sahalahti. An increased cell wall thickness was found in both early- and latewood tracheids, but the increase was much greater in latewood. In drought-treated trees, cell wall proportion within an annual ring increased, consequently increasing wood density. No interaction between the N fertilization and drought treatment was found in wood density. After the termination of the drought treatment, trees rapidly recovered from the drought stress. According to our results, severe drought due to the predicted climate change may reduce Norway spruce growth but is unlikely to result in large changes in wood properties.

  3. Unsaturated Cuticular Hydrocarbons Enhance Responses to Sex Pheromone in Spruce Budworm, Choristoneura fumiferana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silk, P J; Eveleigh, E; Roscoe, L; Burgess, K; Weatherby, S; Leclair, G; Mayo, P; Brophy, M

    2017-08-01

    The primary sex pheromone components of the female spruce budworm, Choristoneura fumiferana (Clem.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), are (E)- and (Z)-11-tetradecenal, produced in 95:5 ratio. However, male flight responses to calling females in a wind tunnel were faster and maintained longer than responses to any synthetic aldehyde blend. Analyses of cuticular extracts from spruce budworm adults revealed series of n-alkanes and n-monoalkenes with predominantly odd numbers of carbon atoms from C23- C29 in both sexes. (Z,Z,Z)-3,6,9-tricosatriene and (Z,Z,Z)-3,6,9-pentacosatriene were identified only in cuticular extracts from females. Pheromonally naïve males showed wing fanning and circling responses to forewing scales from females but not to scales from males. Males also exhibited the same strong responses to scales excised from pharate females, indicating that the pheromone components are produced by females prior to emergence. (Z)-11-hexadecenal and (Z)-5-tricosene enhanced male responses to the primary sex pheromone aldehydes in wind tunnel bioassays, including higher proportions of in-flight and copulatory responses by males and increased time on the source. Addition of (Z,Z,Z)-3,6,9-tricosatriene to the 95/5 blend of (E)- and (Z)-11-tetradecenal released close-range copulatory responses including abdomen curling on treated septa. We propose that the sex pheromone blend of C. fumiferana is composed of the 95/5 blend of (E)- and (Z)-11-tetradecenal as primary components, with (Z)-11-hexadecenal, (Z)-5-tricosene and (Z,Z,Z)-3,6,9-tricosatriene fulfilling secondary roles in orientation and close-range courtship.

  4. A Retrospective Isotopic Study of Spruce Decline in the Vosges Mountains (France)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poszwa, Anne [INRA Nancy, Unite Cycles Biogeochimiques (France); Wickman, Tonie [Royal Institute of Technology, Land and water resources (Sweden); Dambrine, Etienne [INRA Nancy, Unite Cycles Biogeochimiques (France)], E-mail: dambrine@nancy.inra.fr; Ferry, Bruno [ENGREF, Laboratoire d' Etude des Ressources Foret-Bois (France); Dupouey, Jean-Luc [INRA Nancy, Equipe Phytoecologie Forestiere (France); Helle, Gerdhard; Schleser, Gerdhard [Forschungszentrum Juelich, Institut fuer Chemie und Dynamik der Geosphaere, Juelich (Germany); Breda, Nathalie [INRA Nancy, Equipe Phytoecologie Forestiere (France)

    2003-01-15

    The objective of this study was to assess the time variation of mineral and water stress levels across the life of a declining, Mg-deficient, spruce stand, in order to clarify the factors that caused the decline. Since 1985, strong soil acidification linked to a large leaching of nitrate and base cations was measured at the study site. In 1994, 5 trees were felled and tree rings were measured and analysed for Ca, Mg, K, Sr, {sup 13}C{sup 12}C and {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr isotopic ratios. Strontium pools and fluxes as well as root Sr isotope ratio in relation to depth were also measured. Wood chemical concentrations and isotope ratios were strongly related to the dominance status of each tree. On average during the study period, the {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr ratio of spruce wood decreased. Using a mechanistic model computing long term variations of {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr ratio in trees and soils, we reproduced the observed trend by simulating soil acidification - increasing Sr drainage from the whole profile, and particularly from the organic horizon -, and root uptake becoming more superficial with time. Between 1952 and 1976, tree ring {delta} {sup 13}C decreased strongly and continuously, which, in addition to other factors, might be related to an increase in water stress. Thus, a decrease in rooting depth, possibly related to soil acidification, appeared as a possible cause for the long term increase in water stress. The extreme drought event of 1976 appears to have revealed and triggered the decline.

  5. Soil-solution chemistry in a low-elevation spruce-fir ecosystem, Howland, Maine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Ivan J.; Lawrence, Gregory B.; Son, Yowhan

    1995-01-01

    Soil solutions were collected monthly by tension and zero-tension lysimeters in a low-elevation red spruce stand in east-central Maine from May 1987 through December 1992. Soil solutions collected by Oa tension lysimeters had higher concentrations of most constituents than the Oa zero-tension lysimeters. In Oa horizon soil solutions growing season concentrations for SO4, Ca, and Mg averaged 57, 43, and 30 μmol L−1 in tension lysimeters, and 43, 28, and 19 μmol L−1 in zero-tension lysimeters, respectively. Because tension lysimeters remove water held by the soil at tensions up to 10 kPa, solutions are assumed to have more time to react with the soil compared to freely draining solutions collected by zero-tension lysimeters. Solutions collected in the Bs horizon by both types of collectors were similar which was attributed to the frequency of time periods when the water table was above the Bs lysimeters. Concentrations of SO4 and NO3 at this site were lower than concentrations reported for most other eastern U.S. spruce-fir sites, but base cation concentrations fell in the same range. Aluminum concentrations in this study were also lower than reported for other sites in the eastern U.S. and Ca/Al ratios did not suggest inhibition of Ca uptake by roots. Concentrations of SO4, Ca, K, and Cl decreased significantly in both the Oa and Bs horizons over the 56-month sampling period, which could reflect decreasing deposition rates for sulfur and base cations, climatic influences, or natural variation. A longer record of measured fluxes will be needed to adequately define temporal trends in solution chemistry and their causes.

  6. Isoprenoid emission response to changing light conditions of English oak, European beech and Norway spruce

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Meeningen, Ylva; Schurgers, Guy; Rinnan, Riikka; Holst, Thomas

    2017-09-01

    Light is an important environmental factor controlling biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) emissions, but in natural conditions its impact is hard to separate from other influential factors such as temperature. We studied the light response of foliar BVOC emissions, photosynthesis and stomatal conductance on three common European tree species, namely English oak (Quercus robur), European beech (Fagus sylvatica) and two provenances of Norway spruce (Picea abies) in Taastrup, Denmark. Leaf scale measurements were performed on the lowest positioned branches of the tree in July 2015. Light intensity was increased in four steps (0, 500, 1000 and 1500 µmol m-2 s-1), whilst other chamber conditions such as temperature, humidity and CO2 levels were fixed. Whereas the emission rate differed between individuals of the same species, the relative contributions of compounds to the total isoprenoid emission remained similar. Whilst some compounds were species specific, the compounds α-pinene, camphene, 3-carene, limonene and eucalyptol were emitted by all of the measured tree species. Some compounds, like isoprene and sabinene, showed an increasing emission response with increasing light intensity, whereas other compounds, like camphene, had no significant emission response to light for most of the measured trees. English oak and European beech showed high light-dependent emission fractions from isoprene and sabinene, but other emitted compounds were light independent. For the two provenances of Norway spruce, the compounds α-pinene, 3-carene and eucalyptol showed high light-dependent fractions for many of the measured trees. This study highlights differences between compound emissions in their response to a change in light and a possible light independence for certain compounds, which might be valid for a wider range of tree species. This information could be of importance when improving emission models and to further emphasize the discussion regarding light or

  7. Local adaptations and climate change: converging sensitivity of bud break in black spruce provenances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Sergio

    2015-07-01

    Species with transcontinental distribution or spread over wide geographical regions develop populations with growth traits genetically adapted to the local climate. The aim of this study was to investigate the ecotypic sensitivity of bud break, a strong adaptive trait, to a changing environment. Six phenological phases of bud break were monitored daily on black spruce [ Picea mariana (Mill.) BSP] seedlings submitted to different temperatures (12, 16 and 20 °C) and photoperiods (14, 18 and 22 h). Six provenances were tested in growth chambers, produced from seeds collected along the whole latitudinal range of the closed boreal forest in Quebec, Canada. Bud break lasted 13.3 days on average and occurred earlier in seedlings from colder sites. The annual temperature of the sites suitably tracked the clinal variation among ecotypes, providing a clear biological explanation for the environmental signal driving the adaptive divergence of populations to the local climate. Increasing temperature induced an earlier bud break according to a non-linear pattern with greater advancements observed between 12 and 16 °C. Photoperiod was significant, but sensitivity analysis indicated that its effect on bud break was marginal with respect to temperature. No interaction of provenance × treatment was observed, demonstrating an ecotypic convergence of the responses to both factors. Changes in the growing conditions could substantially modify the synchronization between bud phenology and climate, thus exposing the developing meristems of black spruce to frost damage. However, similar advancements of bud break could be expected in the different ecotypes subjected to warmer temperatures or longer day lengths.

  8. Effect of Organic Layer Thickness on Black Spruce Aging Mistakes in Canadian Boreal Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Laamrani

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Boreal black spruce (Picea mariana forests are prone to developing thick organic layers (paludification. Black spruce is adapted to this environment by the continuous development of adventitious roots, masking the root collar and making it difficult to age trees. Ring counts above the root collar underestimate age of trees, but the magnitude of age underestimation of trees in relation to organic layer thickness (OLT is unknown. This age underestimation is required to produce appropriate age-correction tools to be used in land resource management. The goal of this study was to assess aging errors that are done with standard ring counts of trees growing in sites with different degrees of paludification (OLT; 0–25 cm, 26–65 cm, >65 cm. Age of 81 trees sampled at three geographical locations was determined by ring counts at ground level and at 1 m height, and real age of trees was determined by cross-dating growth rings down to the root collar (root/shoot interface. Ring counts at 1 m height underestimated age of trees by a mean of 22 years (range 13–49 and 52 years (range 14–112 in null to low vs. moderately to highly paludified stands, respectively. The percentage of aging-error explained by our linear model was relatively high (R2adj = 0.71 and showed that OLT class and age at 0-m could be used to predict total aging-error while neither DBH nor geographic location could. The resulting model has important implications for forest management to accurately estimate productivity of these forests.

  9. Yield Responses of Black Spruce to Forest Vegetation Management Treatments: Initial Responses and Rotational Projections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter F. Newton

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to (1 quantitatively summarize the early yield responses of black spruce (Picea mariana (Mill. B.S.P. to forest vegetation management (FVM treatments through a meta-analytical review of the scientific literature, and (2 given (1, estimate the rotational consequences of these responses through model simulation. Based on a fixed-effects meta-analytic approach using 44 treated-control yield pairs derived from 12 experiments situated throughout the Great Lakes—St. Lawrence and Canadian Boreal Forest Regions, the resultant mean effect size (response ratio and associated 95% confidence interval for basal diameter, total height, stem volume, and survival responses, were respectively: 54.7% (95% confidence limits (lower/upper: 34.8/77.6, 27.3% (15.7/40.0, 198.7% (70.3/423.5, and 2.9% (−5.5/11.8. The results also indicated that early and repeated treatments will yield the largest gains in terms of mean tree size and survival. Rotational simulations indicated that FVM treatments resulted in gains in stand-level operability (e.g., reductions of 9 and 5 yr for plantations established on poor-medium and good-excellent site qualities, resp.. The challenge of maintaining coniferous forest cover on recently disturbed sites, attaining statutory-defined free-to-grow status, and ensuring long-term productivity, suggest that FVM will continue to be an essential silvicultural treatment option when managing black spruce plantations.

  10. Induced Terpene Accumulation in Norway Spruce Inhibits Bark Beetle Colonization in a Dose-Dependent Manner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Tao; Krokene, Paal; Hu, Jiang; Christiansen, Erik; Björklund, Niklas; Långström, Bo; Solheim, Halvor; Borg-Karlson, Anna-Karin

    2011-01-01

    Background Tree-killing bark beetles (Coleoptera, Scolytinae) are among the most economically and ecologically important forest pests in the northern hemisphere. Induction of terpenoid-based oleoresin has long been considered important in conifer defense against bark beetles, but it has been difficult to demonstrate a direct correlation between terpene levels and resistance to bark beetle colonization. Methods To test for inhibitory effects of induced terpenes on colonization by the spruce bark beetle Ips typographus (L.) we inoculated 20 mature Norway spruce Picea abies (L.) Karsten trees with a virulent fungus associated with the beetle, Ceratocystis polonica (Siem.) C. Moreau, and investigated induced terpene levels and beetle colonization in the bark. Results Fungal inoculation induced very strong and highly variable terpene accumulation 35 days after inoculation. Trees with high induced terpene levels (n = 7) had only 4.9% as many beetle attacks (5.1 vs. 103.5 attacks m−2) and 2.6% as much gallery length (0.029 m m−2 vs. 1.11 m m−2) as trees with low terpene levels (n = 6). There was a highly significant rank correlation between terpene levels at day 35 and beetle colonization in individual trees. The relationship between induced terpene levels and beetle colonization was not linear but thresholded: above a low threshold concentration of ∼100 mg terpene g−1 dry phloem trees suffered only moderate beetle colonization, and above a high threshold of ∼200 mg terpene g−1 dry phloem trees were virtually unattacked. Conclusion/Significance This is the first study demonstrating a dose-dependent relationship between induced terpenes and tree resistance to bark beetle colonization under field conditions, indicating that terpene induction may be instrumental in tree resistance. This knowledge could be useful for developing management strategies that decrease the impact of tree-killing bark beetles. PMID:22028932

  11. Impact of warming and drought on carbon balance related to wood formation in black spruce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deslauriers, Annie; Beaulieu, Marilène; Balducci, Lorena; Giovannelli, Alessio; Gagnon, Michel J; Rossi, Sergio

    2014-08-01

    Wood formation in trees represents a carbon sink that can be modified in the case of stress. The way carbon metabolism constrains growth during stress periods (high temperature and water deficit) is now under debate. In this study, the amounts of non-structural carbohydrates (NSCs) for xylogenesis in black spruce, Picea mariana, saplings were assessed under high temperature and drought in order to determine the role of sugar mobilization for osmotic purposes and its consequences for secondary growth. Four-year-old saplings of black spruce in a greenhouse were subjected to different thermal conditions with respect to the outside air temperature (T0) in 2010 (2 and 5 °C higher than T0) and 2011 (6 °C warmer than T0 during the day or night) with a dry period of about 1 month in June of each year. Wood formation together with starch, NSCs and leaf parameters (water potential and photosynthesis) were monitored from May to September. With the exception of raffinose, the amounts of soluble sugars were not modified in the cambium even if gas exchange and photosynthesis were greatly reduced during drought. Raffinose increased more than pinitol under a pre-dawn water potential of less than -1 Mpa, presumably because this compound is better suited than polyol for replacing water and capturing free radicals, and its degradation into simple sugar is easier. Warming decreased the starch storage in the xylem as well the available hexose pool in the cambium and the xylem, probably because of an increase in respiration. Radial stem growth was reduced during drought due to the mobilization of NSCs for osmotic purposes and due to the lack of cell turgor. Thus plant water status during wood formation can influence the NSCs available for growth in the cambium and xylem. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Local adaptations and climate change: converging sensitivity of bud break in black spruce provenances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Sergio

    2015-07-01

    Species with transcontinental distribution or spread over wide geographical regions develop populations with growth traits genetically adapted to the local climate. The aim of this study was to investigate the ecotypic sensitivity of bud break, a strong adaptive trait, to a changing environment. Six phenological phases of bud break were monitored daily on black spruce [Picea mariana (Mill.) BSP] seedlings submitted to different temperatures (12, 16 and 20 °C) and photoperiods (14, 18 and 22 h). Six provenances were tested in growth chambers, produced from seeds collected along the whole latitudinal range of the closed boreal forest in Quebec, Canada. Bud break lasted 13.3 days on average and occurred earlier in seedlings from colder sites. The annual temperature of the sites suitably tracked the clinal variation among ecotypes, providing a clear biological explanation for the environmental signal driving the adaptive divergence of populations to the local climate. Increasing temperature induced an earlier bud break according to a non-linear pattern with greater advancements observed between 12 and 16 °C. Photoperiod was significant, but sensitivity analysis indicated that its effect on bud break was marginal with respect to temperature. No interaction of provenance × treatment was observed, demonstrating an ecotypic convergence of the responses to both factors. Changes in the growing conditions could substantially modify the synchronization between bud phenology and climate, thus exposing the developing meristems of black spruce to frost damage. However, similar advancements of bud break could be expected in the different ecotypes subjected to warmer temperatures or longer day lengths.

  13. Isoprenoid emission response to changing light conditions of English oak, European beech and Norway spruce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. van Meeningen

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Light is an important environmental factor controlling biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC emissions, but in natural conditions its impact is hard to separate from other influential factors such as temperature. We studied the light response of foliar BVOC emissions, photosynthesis and stomatal conductance on three common European tree species, namely English oak (Quercus robur, European beech (Fagus sylvatica and two provenances of Norway spruce (Picea abies in Taastrup, Denmark. Leaf scale measurements were performed on the lowest positioned branches of the tree in July 2015. Light intensity was increased in four steps (0, 500, 1000 and 1500 µmol m−2 s−1, whilst other chamber conditions such as temperature, humidity and CO2 levels were fixed. Whereas the emission rate differed between individuals of the same species, the relative contributions of compounds to the total isoprenoid emission remained similar. Whilst some compounds were species specific, the compounds α-pinene, camphene, 3-carene, limonene and eucalyptol were emitted by all of the measured tree species. Some compounds, like isoprene and sabinene, showed an increasing emission response with increasing light intensity, whereas other compounds, like camphene, had no significant emission response to light for most of the measured trees. English oak and European beech showed high light-dependent emission fractions from isoprene and sabinene, but other emitted compounds were light independent. For the two provenances of Norway spruce, the compounds α-pinene, 3-carene and eucalyptol showed high light-dependent fractions for many of the measured trees. This study highlights differences between compound emissions in their response to a change in light and a possible light independence for certain compounds, which might be valid for a wider range of tree species. This information could be of importance when improving emission models and to further emphasize the

  14. Induced terpene accumulation in Norway spruce inhibits bark beetle colonization in a dose-dependent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Tao; Krokene, Paal; Hu, Jiang; Christiansen, Erik; Björklund, Niklas; Långström, Bo; Solheim, Halvor; Borg-Karlson, Anna-Karin

    2011-01-01

    Tree-killing bark beetles (Coleoptera, Scolytinae) are among the most economically and ecologically important forest pests in the northern hemisphere. Induction of terpenoid-based oleoresin has long been considered important in conifer defense against bark beetles, but it has been difficult to demonstrate a direct correlation between terpene levels and resistance to bark beetle colonization. To test for inhibitory effects of induced terpenes on colonization by the spruce bark beetle Ips typographus (L.) we inoculated 20 mature Norway spruce Picea abies (L.) Karsten trees with a virulent fungus associated with the beetle, Ceratocystis polonica (Siem.) C. Moreau, and investigated induced terpene levels and beetle colonization in the bark. Fungal inoculation induced very strong and highly variable terpene accumulation 35 days after inoculation. Trees with high induced terpene levels (n = 7) had only 4.9% as many beetle attacks (5.1 vs. 103.5 attacks m(-2)) and 2.6% as much gallery length (0.029 m m(-2) vs. 1.11 m m(-2)) as trees with low terpene levels (n = 6). There was a highly significant rank correlation between terpene levels at day 35 and beetle colonization in individual trees. The relationship between induced terpene levels and beetle colonization was not linear but thresholded: above a low threshold concentration of ∼100 mg terpene g(-1) dry phloem trees suffered only moderate beetle colonization, and above a high threshold of ∼200 mg terpene g(-1) dry phloem trees were virtually unattacked. This is the first study demonstrating a dose-dependent relationship between induced terpenes and tree resistance to bark beetle colonization under field conditions, indicating that terpene induction may be instrumental in tree resistance. This knowledge could be useful for developing management strategies that decrease the impact of tree-killing bark beetles.

  15. Induced terpene accumulation in Norway spruce inhibits bark beetle colonization in a dose-dependent manner.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Zhao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Tree-killing bark beetles (Coleoptera, Scolytinae are among the most economically and ecologically important forest pests in the northern hemisphere. Induction of terpenoid-based oleoresin has long been considered important in conifer defense against bark beetles, but it has been difficult to demonstrate a direct correlation between terpene levels and resistance to bark beetle colonization. METHODS: To test for inhibitory effects of induced terpenes on colonization by the spruce bark beetle Ips typographus (L. we inoculated 20 mature Norway spruce Picea abies (L. Karsten trees with a virulent fungus associated with the beetle, Ceratocystis polonica (Siem. C. Moreau, and investigated induced terpene levels and beetle colonization in the bark. RESULTS: Fungal inoculation induced very strong and highly variable terpene accumulation 35 days after inoculation. Trees with high induced terpene levels (n = 7 had only 4.9% as many beetle attacks (5.1 vs. 103.5 attacks m(-2 and 2.6% as much gallery length (0.029 m m(-2 vs. 1.11 m m(-2 as trees with low terpene levels (n = 6. There was a highly significant rank correlation between terpene levels at day 35 and beetle colonization in individual trees. The relationship between induced terpene levels and beetle colonization was not linear but thresholded: above a low threshold concentration of ∼100 mg terpene g(-1 dry phloem trees suffered only moderate beetle colonization, and above a high threshold of ∼200 mg terpene g(-1 dry phloem trees were virtually unattacked. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: This is the first study demonstrating a dose-dependent relationship between induced terpenes and tree resistance to bark beetle colonization under field conditions, indicating that terpene induction may be instrumental in tree resistance. This knowledge could be useful for developing management strategies that decrease the impact of tree-killing bark beetles.

  16. Richard Spruce, botânico e desbravador da América do Sul

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    Seaward Mark R. D.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available No período entre 1849 e 1864, o botânico e explorador inglês Richard Spruce promoveu minucioso estudo da flora amazônica e dos costumes dos povos que habitavam essa região. Ainda hoje, grande parte do conhecimento sobre várias famílias botânicas daquela região advém do esforço desenvolvido por esse cientista. A amplitude de seus interesses, a meticulosidade e a exatidão de suas descrições foram fenomenais: nada parece ter escapado à sua atenção e capacidade de documentação. Spruce era não apenas notável botânico, mas também admirável antropólogo, lingüista (sabia francês, espanhol e português, geólogo, e geógrafo, bem como arguto observador sociológico dos sistemas políticos e dos hábitos das tribos amazônicas e andinas entre as quais esteve, trazendo considerável contribuição para o entendimento das crenças e práticas nativas e para o conhecimento das propriedades e usos das plantas, no contexto amazônico. Sua participação na exploração econômica de espécies locais também foi importante, particularmente em relação aos gêneros Hevea e Cinchona.

  17. Genetic diversity of Norway spruce [Picea abies (L. Karst.] in Romanian Carpathians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raul Gheorghe Radu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The genetic diversity of Romanian most important coniferous tree species, the Norway spruce, was estimated by means of allozyme markers. A total of 695 adult trees sampled from eleven populations grouped in six mountainous areas in the Romanian Carpathians were analyzed. In three metapopulations (Maramureş, Postăvar and Parâng, to evaluate the influence of altitudinal gradient on genetic diversity, samples were collected from populations located at high and low altitude. At other location (ApuseniMountains we compared the narrow-crown biotype (Picea abies var. columnaris and the pyramidal crown biotype (Picea abies var. pyramidalis and explored the genetic structure of peat bog ecotype. By analyzing 7 enzyme systems and 12 enzyme coding loci, a total of 38 allelic variants have been detected. The mean value of polymorphic loci for the six sites was 86.1%, ranging between 83.3% and 91.7% and the mean expected heterozygosity was 0.115, resulting in a moderate level of genetic diversity. The highest genetic diversity (He = 0.134 was found in the narrow-crown spruce population. Apuseni metapopulation showed the highest genetic diversity (He = 0.125, being the most valuable for conservation of genetic resources. The small value of fixation index (FST = 0.009 indicates a low genetic differentiation between the six sites and AMOVA test revealed a very high level of genetic diversity within population (99%. Comparative analysis of genetic parameters showed small differences between high and low altitude populations at each site, probably due to the neutral character of the markers analyzed and the effect of gene flow between gradiental populations.

  18. Effects of agitation on particle-size distribution and enzymatic hydrolysis of pretreated spruce and giant reed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadić, Adnan; Palmqvist, Benny; Lidén, Gunnar

    2014-01-01

    Mixing is an energy demanding process which has been previously shown to affect enzymatic hydrolysis. Concentrated biomass slurries are associated with high and non-Newtonian viscosities and mixing in these systems is a complex task. Poor mixing can lead to mass and/or heat transfer problems as well as inhomogeneous enzyme distribution, both of which can cause possible yield reduction. Furthermore the stirring energy dissipation may impact the particle size which in turn may affect the enzymatic hydrolysis. The objective of the current work was to specifically quantify the effects of mixing on particle-size distribution (PSD) and relate this to changes in the enzymatic hydrolysis. Two rather different materials were investigated, namely pretreated Norway spruce and giant reed. Changes in glucan hydrolysis and PSD were measured as a function of agitation during enzymatic hydrolysis at fiber loadings of 7 or 13% water-insoluble solids (WIS). Enzymatic conversion of pretreated spruce was strongly affected by agitation rates at the higher WIS content. However, at low WIS content the agitation had almost no effect on hydrolysis. There was some effect of agitation on the hydrolysis of giant reed at high WIS loading, but it was smaller than that for spruce, and there was no measurable effect at low WIS loading. In the case of spruce, intense agitation clearly affected the PSD and resulted in a reduced mean particle size, whereas for giant reed the decrease in particle size was mainly driven by enzymatic action. However, the rate of enzymatic hydrolysis was not increased after size reduction by agitation. The impact of agitation on the enzymatic hydrolysis clearly depends not only on feedstock but also on the solids loading. Agitation was found to affect the PSD differently for the examined pretreated materials spruce and giant reed. The fact that the reduced mean particle diameter could not explain the enhanced hydrolysis rates found for spruce at an elevated agitation

  19. Effects of agitation on particle-size distribution and enzymatic hydrolysis of pretreated spruce and giant reed

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Mixing is an energy demanding process which has been previously shown to affect enzymatic hydrolysis. Concentrated biomass slurries are associated with high and non-Newtonian viscosities and mixing in these systems is a complex task. Poor mixing can lead to mass and/or heat transfer problems as well as inhomogeneous enzyme distribution, both of which can cause possible yield reduction. Furthermore the stirring energy dissipation may impact the particle size which in turn may affect the enzymatic hydrolysis. The objective of the current work was to specifically quantify the effects of mixing on particle-size distribution (PSD) and relate this to changes in the enzymatic hydrolysis. Two rather different materials were investigated, namely pretreated Norway spruce and giant reed. Results Changes in glucan hydrolysis and PSD were measured as a function of agitation during enzymatic hydrolysis at fiber loadings of 7 or 13% water-insoluble solids (WIS). Enzymatic conversion of pretreated spruce was strongly affected by agitation rates at the higher WIS content. However, at low WIS content the agitation had almost no effect on hydrolysis. There was some effect of agitation on the hydrolysis of giant reed at high WIS loading, but it was smaller than that for spruce, and there was no measurable effect at low WIS loading. In the case of spruce, intense agitation clearly affected the PSD and resulted in a reduced mean particle size, whereas for giant reed the decrease in particle size was mainly driven by enzymatic action. However, the rate of enzymatic hydrolysis was not increased after size reduction by agitation. Conclusions The impact of agitation on the enzymatic hydrolysis clearly depends not only on feedstock but also on the solids loading. Agitation was found to affect the PSD differently for the examined pretreated materials spruce and giant reed. The fact that the reduced mean particle diameter could not explain the enhanced hydrolysis rates found for

  20. Antioxidants in Norway spruce needles at field plots in the vicinity of a thermal power plant in Slovenia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribariclasnik, C.; Turk, B.; Batic, F.; Grill, D. [ERICo Velenje, Velenkje (Slovenia)

    1999-07-01

    Results of antioxidant analyses such as vitamin C and E, water soluble thiols and beta-carotene, in Norway spruce needles at sampling sites influenced by the Thermal Power Plant in Sostanj, Slovenia are presented. These antioxidants were analysed in current and one year old needles sampled in September 1997 at ten permanent sampling sites. The antioxidant response of Norway spruce needles is compared to the air pollution load, assessed by total sulphur content of needles, and general environmental stress factors connected with the sampling site. From the results it is possible to draw conclusions about the physiological role and behavior of the biochemical needle stress indicators analysed and to explain their status as a result of the air pollution load and environmental stresses.

  1. Spruce forests (Ass. Sphango girgensohnii - Piceetum (Br.-Bl. 39 Polak. 62 on excessively moistened peatlands in Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Normunds Priedits

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The research carried out on swamp spruce forests on peatland in Latvia gives a detailed notion of the phytosociological structure of Ass. Sphagno girgensohnii - Piceetum (Br. - BI. 39 Polak. 62 in the western part of the East-European Plain at the Baltic Sea. The paper reflects one of the aspects of swamp forest investigation results in Latvia on forest communities, its biodiversity and presevation. Ninety-one sample plots with Picea abies as the dominant in the tree layer or co-dominant with Betula pendula, Betula pubescens or Pinus sylvestris are described according to phytosociological Braun-Blanquet methodology. Floristic features of spruce communities belonging to Caricoso-phragmitosa and Dryopterioso-cnricosa forest site types are analysed. The results are compared with similar investigations carried out in the Baltic Sea region states and neighbouring countries.

  2. Allelopathic effect of phenolic acids from humic solutions on two spruce mycorrhizal fungi:Cenococcum graniforme andLaccaria laccata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellissier, F

    1993-10-01

    The aim of this investigation was to determine the impact ofp-hydroxyacetophenone,p-hydroxybenzoic acid, catechol, and protocatechuic acid on respiration of two spruce mycorrhizal fungi:Laccaria laccata andCenococcum graniforme. These phenols are produced byVaccinium myrtillus,Athyrium filixfemina, andPicea abies, predominant species of spruce forests in the Alps, and they are also present in humic solutions at 10(-10) M or 10(-5) M. Respiration of the two fungi was inhibited by the four phenolic acids, even at concentrations ranging from 10(-5) M to 10(-7) M. These data show phenolic acids from humic solutions have biological activity at extremely low concentrations, suggesting a contribution ofV. myrtillus, A. filixfemina, andP. abies to allelopathic inhibition of mycorrhizal fungi.

  3. Norway spruce needles as bioindicator of air pollution in the area of influence of the Sostanj Thermal Power Plant, Slovenia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al Sayegh Petkovsek, Samar [ERICo Velenje, Ecological Research and Industrial Cooperation Institute, Koroska 58, 3320 Velenje (Slovenia)], E-mail: samar.petkovsek@erico.si; Batic, Franc [Agronomy Department, Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Jamnikarjeva 101, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Ribaric Lasnik, Cvetka [Institute of Environment and Spatial Planning, Ipavceva 18, 3000 Celje (Slovenia)

    2008-01-15

    This paper reports the results of total sulphur content, photosynthetic pigments, ascorbic acid (vitamin C) and {alpha}-tocopherol (vitamin E) analysed in current-year needles of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) in the area influenced by sulphur emissions from the Sostanj Thermal Power Plant (STPP), Slovenia, in the period 1991-2004. Ten differently polluted sampling sites in the emission area of STPP were selected. After desulphurization of emission gases from STPP total sulphur content in needles decreased and vitality parameters of needles increased. Moreover, a strong correlation between the average annual emissions of SO{sub 2} from STPP and average annual sulphur content (increase) or average annual chlorophyll content (decrease) in current-year needles was found. The results showed that spruce needles may be an useful bioindicator for detecting changes in the emission rates of SO{sub 2}. - Total sulphur content in needles is a well proved indicator of sulphur burden in the environment.

  4. Norway spruce needles as bioindicator of air pollution in the area of influence of the Sostanj Thermal Power Plant, Slovenia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samar Al Sayegh Petkovsek; Franc Batic; Cvetka Ribaric Lasnik [ERICo Velenje, Velenje (Slovenia). Ecological Research and Industrial Cooperation Institute

    2008-01-15

    This paper reports the results of total sulphur content, photosynthetic pigments, ascorbic acid (vitamin C) and {alpha}-tocopherol (vitamin E) analysed in current-year needles of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) in the area influenced by sulphur emissions from the Sostanj Thermal Power Plant (STPP), Slovenia, in the period 1991-2004. Ten differently polluted sampling sites in the emission area of STPP were selected. After desulphurization of emission gases from STPP total sulphur content in needles decreased and vitality parameters of needles increased. Moreover, a strong correlation between the average annual emissions of SO{sub 2} from STPP and average annual sulphur content (increase) or average annual chlorophyll content (decrease) in current-year needles was found. The results showed that spruce needles may be an useful bioindicator for detecting changes in the emission rates of SO{sub 2}.

  5. Phenolic compounds as a tool of bioindication for novel forest decline at numerous spruce tree sites in Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richter, C.M. [Mainz Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Allgemeine Botanik; Eis, U. [Mainz Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Allgemeine Botanik; Wild, A. [Mainz Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Allgemeine Botanik

    1996-01-01

    Within a project that applied biochemical criteria to the diagnosis of damage to Norway spruce, 43 sites in western and eastern Germany showing only moderate tree damage were screened for the amounts of methanol soluble phenolic compounds in spruce needles. The concentrations of most of the main compounds - especially catechin - positively correlated with needle loss and the altitude of the site. It was also found that it is necessary to differentiate between trees younger and older than 60 years of age. The correlations between the increase of the phenolic compounds studied and the needle loss or the damage class are stronger in the younger trees, possibly implicating differences in metabolic state or disturbances in protectective mechanisms in the older trees. (orig.)

  6. Survival and growth patterns of white spruce (Picea glauca [Moench] Voss) rangewide provenances and their implications for climate change adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Pengxin; Parker, William H; Cherry, Marilyn; Colombo, Steve; Parker, William C; Man, Rongzhou; Roubal, Ngaire

    2014-06-01

    Intraspecific assisted migration (ISAM) through seed transfer during artificial forest regeneration has been suggested as an adaptation strategy to enhance forest resilience and productivity under future climate. In this study, we assessed the risks and benefits of ISAM in white spruce based on long-term and multilocation, rangewide provenance test data. Our results indicate that the adaptive capacity and growth potential of white spruce varied considerably among 245 range-wide provenances sampled across North America; however, the results revealed that local populations could be outperformed by nonlocal ones. Provenances originating from south-central Ontario and southwestern Québec, Canada, close to the southern edge of the species' natural distribution, demonstrated superior growth in more northerly environments compared with local populations and performed much better than populations from western Canada and Alaska, United States. During the 19-28 years between planting and measurement, the southern provenances have not been more susceptible to freezing damage compared with local populations, indicating they have the potential to be used now for the reforestation of more northerly planting sites; based on changing temperature, these seed sources potentially could maintain or increase white spruce productivity at or above historical levels at northern sites. A universal response function (URF), which uses climatic variables to predict provenance performance across field trials, indicated a relatively weak relationship between provenance performance and the climate at provenance origin. Consequently, the URF from this study did not provide information useful to ISAM. The ecological and economic importance of conserving white spruce genetic resources in south-central Ontario and southwestern Québec for use in ISAM is discussed.

  7. Negative impacts of high temperatures on growth of black spruce forests intensify with the anticipated climate warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girardin, M. P.; Hogg, T.; Kurz, W.; Bernier, P. Y.; Guo, X. J.; Cyr, G.

    2015-12-01

    An increasing number of studies conclude that water limitations and heat stress may hinder the capacity of black spruce (Picea mariana (Mill.) B.S.P.) trees, a dominant species of Canada's boreal forests, to grow and assimilate atmospheric carbon. However, there is currently no scientific consensus on the future of these forests over the next century in the context of widespread climate warming. The large spatial extent of black spruce forests across the Canadian boreal forest and associated variability in climate, demography and site conditions pose challenges for projecting future climate change responses. Here we provide an evaluation of the impacts of climate warming and drying, as well as increasing [CO2], on the aboveground productivity of black spruce forests across Canada south of 60ºN for the period 1971 to 2100. We use a new extensive network of tree-ring data obtained from Canada's National Forest Inventory, spatially-explicit simulations of Net Primary Productivity (NPP) and its drivers, and multivariate statistical modelling. We found that soil water availability is a significant driver of black spruce inter-annual variability in productivity across broad areas of the western to eastern Canadian boreal forest. Inter-annual variability in productivity was also found to be driven by autotrophic respiration in the warmest regions. In most regions, the impacts of soil water availability and respiration on inter-annual variability in productivity occurred during the phase of carbohydrate accumulation the year preceding tree ring formation. Results from projections suggest an increase in the importance of soil water availability and respiration as limiting factors on NPP over the next century due to warming, but this response may vary to the extent that other factors such as carbon dioxide fertilization, and respiration acclimation to high temperature, contribute to dampening these limitations.

  8. Shoot-level terpenoids emission in Norway spruce (Picea abies) under natural field and manipulated laboratory conditions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Esposito, R.; Lusini, I.; Večeřová, Kristýna; Holišová, Petra; Pallozzi, E.; Guidolotti, G.; Urban, Otmar; Calfapietra, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 108, nov (2016), s. 530-538 ISSN 0981-9428 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1415; GA MŠk(CZ) LD13031; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2015061 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : Norway spruce * BVOC * Monoterpenes * Temperature * Ozone * Sun-shade * Stress Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.724, year: 2016

  9. Secondary metabolites of the lichen Hypogymnia physodes (L.) Nyl. and their presence in spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) bark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latkowska, Ewa; Bober, Beata; Chrapusta, Ewelina; Adamski, Michal; Kaminski, Ariel; Bialczyk, Jan

    2015-10-01

    Lichen species typically have a characteristic profile of secondary metabolites. Dense populations of Hypogymnia physodes growing frequently as epiphytes on tree branches have harmful effects on the host, likely due to their secondary compounds, which were undetected in tree tissues until now. The aim of the present study was to re-characterise the suite of secondary metabolites of H. physodes thalli and to estimate their translocation into spruce (Picea abies) bark. Thallus and bark extracts were compared using ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). The compounds were identified based on their UV, MS and MS/MS spectra as well as retention factors of their TLC analysis. In addition to the previously described secondary metabolites (protocetraric, physodalic, 3-hydroxyphysodic, physodic, and 2'-O-methylphysodic acids, atranorin and chloroatranorin) of H. physodes, further three were identified in its thalli: conphysodalic, 4-O-methylphysodic and α-alectoronic acids. Fragmentation patterns from the negative ionisation of each compound were proposed, some of which were described for the first time. Among all of the detected lichen substances, a few, e.g., physodalic, 3-hydroxyphysodic, physodic acids and atranorin, were present in the bark of spruce branches that were abundantly colonised by lichen. The newly identified compounds of H. physodes thalli may belong to its constant or accessory secondary metabolites. These compounds may be useful in the chemotaxonomic classification of this species. The presence of some lichen substances in spruce bark confirmed their ability to penetrate host tissues. These data suggest that H. physodes compounds may cause long-term effects on spruces in nature. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Is the wood of spruces affected by immissions liable to show alterations of the cell wall structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sachsse, H.; Hapla, F.

    The results of investigations so far conducted showed no alterations of technological consequence either in the chemical composition or in the anatomical structure of the wood from trees affected by immissions. For the first time now the packing density of tracheid cell walls in spruces damaged by immissions is investigated by means of microscopic linear analysis. No significant difference was found as compared to the packing density of wood having been formed free of immission influence.

  11. Response of the engraver beetle, IPS perturbatus, to semiochemicals in white spruce stands of interior Alaska. Forest Service research paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werner, R.A.

    1993-05-01

    Field tests on the efficacy of various scolytid bark beetle pheromones to attract Ips perturbatus (Eichhoff) were conducted from 1977 through 1992 in stands of white spruce (Picea glauca (Moench) Voss) in interior Alaska. Several pheromones attracted high numbers of I. perturbatus and species of the predator Thanasimus to baited funnel traps. Test results also indicated that attacks by I. perturbatus may be deferred by certain semiochemicals.

  12. Tree and stand growth of mature Norway spruce and European beech under long-term ozone fumigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pretzsch, Hans, E-mail: h.pretzsch@lrz.tum.d [Chair for Forest Growth and Yield Science, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Am Hochanger 13, D-85354 Freising (Germany); Dieler, Jochen [Chair for Forest Growth and Yield Science, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Am Hochanger 13, D-85354 Freising (Germany); Matyssek, Rainer [Chair for Ecophysiology of Plants, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Am Hochanger 13, D-85354 Freising (Germany); Wipfler, Philip [Chair for Forest Growth and Yield Science, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Am Hochanger 13, D-85354 Freising (Germany)

    2010-04-15

    In a 50- to 70-year-old mixed stand of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) and European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) in Germany, tree cohorts have been exposed to double ambient ozone (2xO{sub 3}) from 2000 through 2007 and can be compared with trees in the same stand under the ambient ozone regime (1xO{sub 3}). Annual diameter growth, allocation pattern, stem form, and stem volume were quantified at the individual tree and stand level. Ozone fumigation induced a shift in the resource allocation into height growth at the expense of diameter growth. This change in allometry leads to rather cone-shaped stem forms and reduced stem stability in the case of spruce, and even neiloidal stem shapes in the case of beech. Neglect of such ozone-induced changes in stem shape may lead to a flawed estimation of volume growth. On the stand level, 2xO{sub 3} caused, on average, a decrease of 10.2 m{sup 3} ha{sup -1} yr{sup -1} in European beech. - Ozone effects on tree growth and stem shape were investigated for Norway spruce and European beech; the study reveals species-specific reaction patterns in growth rate and allometry under ozone exposure.

  13. Impact Of Pine (Pinus sylvestris L. And Spruce (Picea abies (L. Karst. Bark Extracts On Important Strawberry Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minova Sandra

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Phytopathogenic fungi induced considerable economic losses in strawberry production industry; therefore, more attention should be paid to development and implementation of preventative treatment that is environmentally friendly. Coniferous trees produce a wide variety of compounds, such as terpenoids and phenolics. Several studies are known on fungicidal activity of different components of coniferous tree bark. The aim of this study was to evaluate in vitro pine (Pinus sylvestris L. and spruce (Picea abies (L. Karst. bark ethanol extracts impact on pathogenous fungi causing diseases of strawberries. Products of processed pine (Pinus sylvestris and spruce (Picea abies bark were tested. During 2011 to 2013, several in vitro experiments were carried out to test the effectiveness of pine and spruce bark extracts against various phytopathogenic fungi isolated from strawberries: Botrytis cinerea, Colletotrichum acutatum, Phytophthora cactorum and Mycosphaerella fragariae. Radial growth tests showed that coniferous bark extracts inhibit mycelial growth of B. cinerea, C. acutatum, P. cactorum and M. fragariae. Extracts had the highest antifungal effect on B. cinerea two and five days after inoculation (p < 0.05. Bark extracts can reduce the sporulation of B. cinerea, C. acutatum and P. cactorum.

  14. Fungal Symbionts of the Spruce Bark Beetle Synthesize the Beetle Aggregation Pheromone 2-Methyl-3-buten-2-ol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Tao; Axelsson, Karolin; Krokene, Paal; Borg-Karlson, Anna-Karin

    2015-09-01

    Tree-killing bark beetles depend on aggregation pheromones to mass-attack their host trees and overwhelm their resistance. The beetles are always associated with phytopathogenic ophiostomatoid fungi that probably assist in breaking down tree resistance, but little is known about if or how much these fungal symbionts contribute to the beetles' aggregation behavior. In this study, we determined the ability of four major fungal symbionts of the spruce bark beetle Ips typographus to produce beetle aggregation pheromones. The fungi were incubated on Norway spruce Picea abies bark, malt agar, or malt agar amended with 0.5% (13)C glucose. Volatiles present in the headspace of each fungus were analyzed for 7 days after incubation using a SPME autosampler coupled to a GC/MS. Two Grosmannia species (G. penicillata and G. europhioides) produced large amounts of 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol (MB), the major component in the beetles' aggregation pheromone blend, when growing on spruce bark or malt agar. Grosmannia europhioides also incorporated (13)C glucose into MB, demonstrating that the fungi can synthesize MB de novo using glucose as a carbon source. This is the first clear evidence that fungal symbionts of bark beetles can produce components in the aggregation pheromone blend of their beetle vectors. This provides new insight into the possible ecological roles of fungal symbionts in bark beetle systems and may deepen our understanding of species interactions and coevolution in these important biological systems.

  15. Accumulation of logging residue in first thinnings of Scots pine and Norway spruce. Impact of top bucking diameter of roundwood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raeisaenen, T.; Nurmi, J. (Finnish Forest Research Inst., Kannus (Finland)), e-mail: tommi.raisanen@metla.fi

    2010-07-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the impacts of changes in the minimum top diameter of roundwood on the accumulation of logging residue. The aim was also to compare estimates of residue accumulation calculated by tree-specific biomass models with field measurements from thinnings. Felling experiments were performed in first thinnings of pine and spruce to evaluate the model calculations. In the felling, mean relative masses of the tree tops of spruce were nearly doubled with each increment of 2 cm in the top diameter. Respectively in pine, the mean relative tree top mass was increased by 50-60 % when the top diameter was increased by 2 cm. The mass of total residue (tree top and all delimbed branches) was similarly increased, but the differences were not as large. Compared to pine, a lesser variation in the crown mass of the spruce sample resulted in a more accurate model prediction of masses of tree tops and total residue. The results indicate that the residue accumulation from a small group of trees cannot be predicted very reliably, but when a larger tree population or area is considered, the model predictions are enhanced to a more practicable level. (orig.)

  16. Evaluation of predatory mite (Acari: Phytoseiidae) releases to suppress spruce spider mites, Oligonychus ununguis (Acari: Tetranychidae), on juniper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrewsbury, Paula M; Hardin, Mark R

    2003-12-01

    A laboratory trial evaluated four phytoseiid species for their potential as biological control agents of spruce spider mite, Oligonychus ununguis (Jacobi) (Acari: Tetranychidae). An augmentative biological control approach, using the predatory mites Neoseiulus fallacis Garman and Galendromus occidentalis Nesbitt (Acari: Phytoseiidae), was evaluated for reducing pest mite densities and injury, and economic costs on Juniperus chinensis 'Sargentii' A. Henry (Cupressaceae) in an outdoor nursery. Sequential releases of predator species, individually and in combination, were tested and compared with two commonly used miticides, a low-toxicity miticide, horticultural oil, and a conventional miticide, hexythiazox. Timing of treatments was based on grower-determined need, and predator release rates were based on guidelines in literature received from producers of beneficial organisms. Predator releases were more expensive and provided less effective suppression of spruce spider mites, resulting in greater spider mite injury to plants, compared with conventional pesticides. However, spider mite damage to plants did not differ in an economically meaningful way between treatments. Unsatisfactory levels of control seem related to under estimations of actual spider mite abundance based on grower perceptions and the beat sampling technique used to estimate predator release rates. These data suggest that when initial populations of spruce spider mite are high, it is unlikely that sequential releases of predator species, individually or in combination, will suppress spider mite populations. In this trial, augmentative biological control control was 2.5-7 times more expensive than chemical controls.

  17. Throughfall deposition and canopy exchange processes along a vertical gradient within the canopy of beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adriaenssens, Sandy; Hansen, Karin; Staelens, Jeroen; Wuyts, Karen; De Schrijver, An; Baeten, Lander; Boeckx, Pascal; Samson, Roeland; Verheyen, Kris

    2012-03-15

    To assess the impact of air pollution on forest ecosystems, the canopy is usually considered as a constant single layer in interaction with the atmosphere and incident rain, which could influence the measurement accuracy. In this study the variation of througfall deposition and derived dry deposition and canopy exchange were studied along a vertical gradient in the canopy of one European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) tree and two Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst) trees. Throughfall and net throughfall deposition of all ions other than H(+) increased significantly with canopy depth in the middle and lower canopy of the beech tree and in the whole canopy of the spruce trees. Moreover, throughfall and net throughfall of all ions in the spruce canopy decreased with increasing distance to the trunk. Dry deposition occurred mainly in the upper canopy and was highest during the growing season for H(+), NH(4)(+), NO(3)(-) and highest during the dormant season for Na(+), Cl(-), SO(4)(2-) (beech and spruce) and K(+), Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) (spruce only). Canopy leaching of K(+), Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) was observed at all canopy levels and was higher for the beech tree compared to the spruce trees. Canopy uptake of inorganic nitrogen and H(+) occurred mainly in the upper canopy, although significant canopy uptake was found in the middle canopy as well. Canopy exchange was always higher during the growing season compared to the dormant season. This spatial and temporal variation indicates that biogeochemical deposition models would benefit from a multilayer approach for shade-tolerant tree species such as beech and spruce. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Evidence of compounded disturbance effects on vegetation recovery following high-severity wildfire and spruce beetle outbreak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Amanda R.; Sibold, Jason S.; Assal, Timothy J.; Negrón, José F.

    2017-01-01

    Spruce beetle (Dendroctonus rufipennis) outbreaks are rapidly spreading throughout subalpine forests of the Rocky Mountains, raising concerns that altered fuel structures may increase the ecological severity of wildfires. Although many recent studies have found no conclusive link between beetle outbreaks and increased fire size or canopy mortality, few studies have addressed whether these combined disturbances produce compounded effects on short-term vegetation recovery. We tested for an effect of spruce beetle outbreak severity on vegetation recovery in the West Fork Complex fire in southwestern Colorado, USA, where much of the burn area had been affected by severe spruce beetle outbreaks in the decade prior to the fire. Vegetation recovery was assessed using the Landsat-derived Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) two years after the fire, which occurred in 2013. Beetle outbreak severity, defined as the basal area of beetle-killed trees within Landsat pixels, was estimated using vegetation index differences (dVIs) derived from pre-outbreak and post-outbreak Landsat images. Of the seven dVIs tested, the change in Normalized Difference Moisture Index (dNDMI) was most strongly correlated with field measurements of beetle-killed basal area (R2 = 0.66). dNDMI was included as an explanatory variable in sequential autoregressive (SAR) models of NDVI2015. Models also included pre-disturbance NDVI, topography, and weather conditions at the time of burning as covariates. SAR results showed a significant correlation between NDVI2015 and dNDMI, with more severe spruce beetle outbreaks corresponding to reduced post-fire vegetation cover. The correlation was stronger for models which were limited to locations in the red stage of outbreak (outbreak ≤ 5 years old at the time of fire) than for models of gray-stage locations (outbreak > 5 years old at the time of fire). These results indicate that vegetation recovery processes may be negatively impacted by severe

  19. Evidence of compounded disturbance effects on vegetation recovery following high-severity wildfire and spruce beetle outbreak.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda R Carlson

    Full Text Available Spruce beetle (Dendroctonus rufipennis outbreaks are rapidly spreading throughout subalpine forests of the Rocky Mountains, raising concerns that altered fuel structures may increase the ecological severity of wildfires. Although many recent studies have found no conclusive link between beetle outbreaks and increased fire size or canopy mortality, few studies have addressed whether these combined disturbances produce compounded effects on short-term vegetation recovery. We tested for an effect of spruce beetle outbreak severity on vegetation recovery in the West Fork Complex fire in southwestern Colorado, USA, where much of the burn area had been affected by severe spruce beetle outbreaks in the decade prior to the fire. Vegetation recovery was assessed using the Landsat-derived Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI two years after the fire, which occurred in 2013. Beetle outbreak severity, defined as the basal area of beetle-killed trees within Landsat pixels, was estimated using vegetation index differences (dVIs derived from pre-outbreak and post-outbreak Landsat images. Of the seven dVIs tested, the change in Normalized Difference Moisture Index (dNDMI was most strongly correlated with field measurements of beetle-killed basal area (R2 = 0.66. dNDMI was included as an explanatory variable in sequential autoregressive (SAR models of NDVI2015. Models also included pre-disturbance NDVI, topography, and weather conditions at the time of burning as covariates. SAR results showed a significant correlation between NDVI2015 and dNDMI, with more severe spruce beetle outbreaks corresponding to reduced post-fire vegetation cover. The correlation was stronger for models which were limited to locations in the red stage of outbreak (outbreak ≤ 5 years old at the time of fire than for models of gray-stage locations (outbreak > 5 years old at the time of fire. These results indicate that vegetation recovery processes may be negatively impacted by

  20. Total and pyrogenic carbon stocks in black spruce forest floors from eastern Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soucemarianadin, Laure; Quideau, Sylvie; MacKenzie, M. Derek; Munson, Alison; Boiffin, Juliette; Bernard, Guy; Wasylishen, Roderick

    2016-04-01

    In boreal forests, pyrogenic carbon (PyC), a by-product of recurrent wildfires, is an important component of the global soil C pool, although precise assessment of boreal PyC stock is scarce. In this study including 14 fire sites spreading over 600 km in the Quebec province, our aim was to better estimate total C stock and PyC stock in forest floors of Eastern Canada boreal forests. We also investigated the environmental conditions controlling the stocks and characterized the composition of the various forest floor layers. We analyzed the forest floor samples that were collected from mesic black spruce sites recently affected by fire (3-5 years) using elemental analysis and solid state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. PyC content was further estimated using a molecular mixing model on the 13C NMR data. Total C stock in forest floors averaged 5.7 ± 2.9 kg C/m2 and PyC stock 0.6 ± 0.3 kg C/m2. Total C stock was under control of the position in the landscape, with a greater accumulation of organic material on northern aspects and lower slope positions. In addition, total stock was significantly higher in spruce-dominated forest floors than in stands where jack pine was dominant. The PyC stock was significantly related to the atomic H/C ratio (R2 = 0.84) of the different organic layers. 13C NMR spectroscopy revealed a large increase in aromatic carbon in the deepest forest floor layer (humified H horizon) at the organic-mineral soil interface. The majority of the PyC stock was located in this horizon and had been formed during past high severity fires rather than during the most recent fire event. Conversely, the superficial "fresh" PyC layer, produced by early-season wildfires in 2005-2007, had NMR spectra fairly similar to unburned forest floors and comparatively low PyC stocks.

  1. Comparing modern and presettlement forest dynamics of a subboreal wilderness: Does spruce budworm enhance fire risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturtevant, Brian R.; Miranda, Brian R.; Shinneman, Douglas J.; Gustafson, Eric J.; Wolter, Peter T.

    2012-01-01

    Insect disturbance is often thought to increase fire risk through enhanced fuel loadings, particularly in coniferous forest ecosystems. Yet insect disturbances also affect successional pathways and landscape structure that interact with fire disturbances (and vice-versa) over longer time scales. We applied a landscape succession and disturbance model (LANDIS-II) to evaluate the relative strength of interactions between spruce budworm (Choristoneura fumiferana) outbreaks and fire disturbances in the Boundary Waters Canoe Area (BWCA) in northern Minnesota (USA). Disturbance interactions were evaluated for two different scenarios: presettlement forests and fire regimes vs. contemporary forests and fire regimes. Forest composition under the contemporary scenario trended toward mixtures of deciduous species (primarily Betula papyrifera and Populus spp.) and shade-tolerant conifers (Picea mariana, Abies balsamea, Thuja occidentalis), with disturbances dominated by a combination of budworm defoliation and high-severity fires. The presettlement scenario retained comparatively more “big pines” (i.e., Pinus strobus, P. resinosa) and tamarack (L. laricina), and experienced less budworm disturbance and a comparatively less-severe fire regime. Spruce budworm disturbance decreased area burned and fire severity under both scenarios when averaged across the entire 300-year simulations. Contrary to past research, area burned and fire severity during outbreak decades were each similar to that observed in non-outbreak decades. Our analyses suggest budworm disturbances within forests of the BWCA have a comparatively weak effect on long-term forest composition due to a combination of characteristics. These include strict host specificity, fine-scaled patchiness created by defoliation damage, and advance regeneration of its primary host, balsam fir (A. balsamea) that allows its host to persist despite repeated disturbances. Understanding the nature of the three-way interaction

  2. Air pollutant exclusion experiment with spruce trees at Edelmannshof. Physiological and biochemical investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bittlingmaier, L. [comp.

    1997-12-01

    Morphologic, physiological and biochemical parameters determined with spruce trees under ambient and OTC conditions at the Edelmannshof site were as follows: fine root density and degree of mycorrhization, needle anatomy, xylem sap flow, stomatal conductance, leaf gas exchange, parameters of photosynthetic electron transport, energy, nitrogen and carbohydrate metabolism, levels of antioxidants, {Delta}{sup 13}C, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC), and phytohormones. Owing to the rather low levels of ambient pollutants, and considerable physiological differences between individual trees, decline symptoms did not develop to such an extent that they became apparent for all parameters tested. The few data indicating differences at least between the chamber trees (filtered versus ambient air, compare also statistical analysis) such as gas exchange, carboxylation efficiency, content of pigments (chlorophylls, cytochromes), PEPC, or the adenylate ratio, show that these parameters obviously are sensitive enough to detect pollutant (ozone) effects without the manifestation of visible symptoms. Thus, the data from the Edelmannshof experiment are very valuable as they give an idea about the flexibility of leaf metabolism of spruce under low to medium loads of pollutants such as ozone. Seperate entries are prepared. 13 of them are taken to be considered.(orig.) [Deutsch] An Fichten unter Freiland- und OTC-Bedingungen (Edelmannshof) wurden die folgenden morphologischen, physiologischen und biochemischen Parameter bestimmt: Feinwurzeldichte und Grad der Mykorrhizierung, Nadelanatomie, Saftfluss im Xylem, stomataere Leitfaehigkeit, Gaswechsel der Nadeln, Parameter des photosynthetischen Elektronentransports, Energie-Stickstoff- und Kohlenhydratstoffwechsel, Gehalte an Antioxidatien, {Delta}{sup 13}C, Phosphoenolpyruvat Carboxylase (PEPC) und Phytohormone. Aufgrund der relativ geringen Eintraege an Luftschadstoffen und der deutlichen physiologischen Unterschiede zwischen den

  3. Spring photosynthetic recovery of boreal Norway spruce under conditions of elevated [CO(2)] and air temperature.

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    Wallin, Göran; Hall, Marianne; Slaney, Michelle; Räntfors, Mats; Medhurst, Jane; Linder, Sune

    2013-11-01

    Accumulated carbon uptake, apparent quantum yield (AQY) and light-saturated net CO2 assimilation (Asat) were used to assess the responses of photosynthesis to environmental conditions during spring for three consecutive years. Whole-tree chambers were used to expose 40-year-old field-grown Norway spruce trees in northern Sweden to an elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration, [CO2], of 700 μmol CO2 mol(-1) (CE) and an air temperature (T) between 2.8 and 5.6 °C above ambient T (TE), during summer and winter. Net shoot CO2 exchange (Anet) was measured continuously on 1-year-old shoots and was used to calculate the accumulated carbon uptake and daily Asat and AQY. The accumulated carbon uptake, from 1 March to 30 June, was stimulated by 33, 44 and 61% when trees were exposed to CE, TE, and CE and TE combined, respectively. Air temperature strongly influenced the timing and extent of photosynthetic recovery expressed as AQY and Asat during the spring. Under elevated T (TE), the recovery of AQY and Asat commenced ∼10 days earlier and the activity of these parameters was significantly higher throughout the recovery period. In the absence of frost events, the photosynthetic recovery period was less than a week. However, frost events during spring slowed recovery so that full recovery could take up to 60 days to complete. Elevated [CO2] stimulated AQY and Asat on average by ∼10 and ∼50%, respectively, throughout the recovery period, but had minimal or no effect on the onset and length of the photosynthetic recovery period during the spring. However, AQY, Asat and Anet all recovered at significantly higher T (average +2.2 °C) in TE than in TA, possibly caused by acclimation or by shorter days and lower light levels during the early part of the recovery in TE compared with TA. The results suggest that predicted future climate changes will cause prominent stimulation of photosynthetic CO2 uptake in boreal Norway spruce forest during spring, mainly caused by elevated T

  4. Effect of species composition on carbon and nitrogen stocks in forest floor and mineral soil in Norway spruce and European beech mixed forests

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    Andivia, Enrique; Rolo, Víctor; Jonard, Mathieu; Formánek, Pavel; Ponette, Quentin

    2015-04-01

    Management of existing forests has been identified as the main strategy to enhance carbon sequestration and to mitigate the impact of climate change on forest ecosystems. In this direction, the conversion of Norway spruce monospecific stands into mixed stands by intermingling individuals of European beech is an ongoing trend in adaptive forest management strategies, especially in Central Europe. However, studies assessing the effect of changes in tree species composition on soil organic carbon (SOC) and nitrogen stocks are still scarce and there is a lack of scientific evidence supporting tree species selection as a feasible management option to mitigate the effects of predicted future climatic scenarios. We compared C and N stocks in the forest floor (litter and humus) and the top 10 cm of mineral soil in two monospecific stands of Norway spruce and European beech and in a mixed stand of both species. The effect of tree species composition on the C and N stocks and its spatial distribution was evaluated based on litterfall, root production, elevation and canopy opening, and by using a combination of modelling and geostatistical techniques. C stock was highest in the Norway spruce and the mixed stands, while N stock was highest in the mixed stand and lowest under European beech, with intermediate values in the Norway spruce stand. Each forest type showed differences in forest floor properties, suggesting that species composition is an important factor governing forest floor characteristics, including C and N stocks. The distribution of C and N stocks between forest soil layers was different for each forest type. C and N stocks were highest in the hummus layer under Norway spruce, whereas both stocks were lowest in the European beech stand. On the other hand, the mixed stand showed the highest C and N accumulation in the uppermost mineral soil layer, while the monospecific stands showed similar values. Litterfall was the main contribution to C and N stocks of the

  5. The performance of moss, grass, and 1- and 2-year old spruce needles as bioindicators of contamination: a comparative study at the scale of the Czech Republic.

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    Suchara, Ivan; Sucharova, Julie; Hola, Marie; Reimann, Clemens; Boyd, Rognvald; Filzmoser, Peter; Englmaier, Peter

    2011-05-01

    Moss (Pleurozium schreberi), grass (Avenella flexuosa), and 1- and 2-year old spruce (Picea abies) needles were collected over the territory of the Czech Republic at an average sample density of 1 site per 290km(2). The samples were analysed for 39 elements (Ag, Al, As, Ba, Be, Bi, Ca, Cd, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Fe, Ga, Hg, K, La, Li, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Nd, Ni, Pb, Pr, Rb, S, Sb, Se, Sn, Sr, Th, Tl, U, V, Y and Zn) using ICP-MS and ICP-AES techniques (the major nutrients Ca, K, Mg and Na were not analysed in moss). Moss showed by far the highest element concentrations for most elements. Exceptions were Ba (spruce), Mn (spruce), Mo (grass), Ni (spruce), Rb (grass) and S (grass). Regional distribution maps and spatial trend analysis were used to study the suitability of the four materials as bioindicators of anthropogenic contamination. The highly industrialised areas in the north-west and the far east of the country and several more local contamination sources were indicated in the distribution maps of one or several sample materials. At the scale of the whole country moss was the best indicator of known contamination sources. However, on a more local scale, it appeared that spruce needles were especially well suited for detection of urban contamination. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Effects of fire on the thermal stability of permafrost in lowland and upland black spruce forests of interior Alaska in a changing climate

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    Jafarov, Elchin E.; Romanovsky, Vladimir E.; Genet, Helene; McGuire, Anthony David; Marchenko, Sergey S.

    2013-01-01

    Fire is an important factor controlling the composition and thickness of the organic layer in the black spruce forest ecosystems of interior Alaska. Fire that burns the organic layer can trigger dramatic changes in the underlying permafrost, leading to accelerated ground thawing within a relatively short time. In this study, we addressed the following questions. (1) Which factors determine post-fire ground temperature dynamics in lowland and upland black spruce forests? (2) What levels of burn severity will cause irreversible permafrost degradation in these ecosystems? We evaluated these questions in a transient modeling–sensitivity analysis framework to assess the sensitivity of permafrost to climate, burn severity, soil organic layer thickness, and soil moisture content in lowland (with thick organic layers, ~80 cm) and upland (with thin organic layers, ~30 cm) black spruce ecosystems. The results indicate that climate warming accompanied by fire disturbance could significantly accelerate permafrost degradation. In upland black spruce forest, permafrost could completely degrade in an 18 m soil column within 120 years of a severe fire in an unchanging climate. In contrast, in a lowland black spruce forest, permafrost is more resilient to disturbance and can persist under a combination of moderate burn severity and climate warming.

  7. EXAMINING OF NATURAL REGENERATION IN A ORIENTAL SPRUCE (Picea orientalis L. Link – FIR (Abies nordmanniana subsp. nordmanniana Spach. MIXED STAND IN ARTVINKAFKASOR FOREST DISTRICT

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    Ali Ömer Üçler

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, naturally regenerated succesfull oriental spruce (Picea orientalis (L. Link and fir (Abies nordmanniana Spach. subsp. nordmanniana mixed stand which encompass 5.8 ha area was examined. For that, seedlings in the area were studied for their relationship between growth and age. In addition, the amount of seedlings reached to area after the cuttings with large shelterwood system were determined. The age and height of fir and oriental spruce seedlings in 24 sampling areas each covering 25 square meters are measured according to square method and sampling areas systematically distributed so that samples could represent the regeneration area. Evaluating gathered data, seedlings reached to the area orderly after 1975 preperation cutting. Measurements and counts showed that orieantal spruce hold rich seeds every 4 years, however, this differentiation is not evident for fir. Evaluating height growth depending on age, correlation coefficients are found 0.9993 for oriental spruce and 0.9973 for fir, therefore the seedlings of fir and oriental spruce realized similar growth during their regeneration stage

  8. Universal fractionation of lignin–carbohydrate complexes (LCCs) from lignocellulosic biomass: an example using spruce wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Xueyu; Gellerstedt, Goran; Li, Jiebing

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY It is of both theoretical and practical importance to develop a universally applicable approach for the fractionation and sensitive lignin characterization of lignin–carbohydrate complexes (LCCs) from all types of lignocellulosic biomass, both natively and after various types of processing. In the present study, a previously reported fractionation approach that is applicable for eucalyptus (hardwood) and flax (non-wood) was further improved by introducing an additional step of barium hydroxide precipitation to isolate the mannan-enriched LCC (glucomannan-lignin, GML), in order to suit softwood species as well. Spruce wood was used as the softwood sample. As indicated by the recovery yield and composition analysis, all of the lignin was recovered in three LCC fractions: a glucan-enriched fraction (glucan-lignin, GL), a mannan-enriched fraction (GML) and a xylan-enriched fraction (xylan-lignin, XL). All of the LCCs had high molecular masses and were insoluble or barely soluble in a dioxane/water solution. Carbohydrate and lignin signals were observed in 1H NMR, 13C CP-MAS NMR and normal- or high-sensitivity 2D HSQC NMR analyses. The carbohydrate and lignin constituents in each LCC fraction are therefore believed to be chemically bonded rather than physically mixed with one another. The three LCC fractions were found to be distinctly different from each other in terms of their lignin structures, as revealed by highly sensitive analyses by thioacidolysis-GC, thioacidolysis-SEC and pyrolysis-GC. PMID:23332001

  9. Radial shrinkage and ultrasound acoustic emissions of fresh versus pre-dried Norway spruce sapwood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosner, Sabine; Konnerth, Johannes; Plank, Bernhard; Salaberger, Dietmar; Hansmann, Christian

    2010-10-01

    Acoustic emission (AE) and radial shrinkage were compared between fully saturated fresh and pre-dried Norway spruce sapwood during dehydration at ambient temperature. Hydraulic conductivity measurements, anatomical investigations on bordered pits and X-ray computed tomography (CT) scans were done to search for possible AE sources other than the breakage of the water columns inside the tracheids. Both fresh and pre-dried specimens showed radial shrinkage due to drying surface layers right from the beginning of dehydration, which induced almost no AE. Whereas no dimensional changes occurred in pre-dried wood thereafter, fresh wood showed a rapid shrinkage increase starting at 25% relative water loss. This dimensional change ceased when further moisture got lost and was even partially reversed. AE of fresh wood showed much higher activity and energy, which is a waveform feature that describes the strength of the acoustic signal. Extremely high single AE energy events were detected at this critical stage of dehydration. After partial recovery from shrinkage, neither dimensional changes nor AE activity showed differences between fresh and pre-dried wood after more than 80% relative moisture loss. Our results suggested that fresh sapwood is more prone to dehydration stresses than pre-dried sapwood. Differences in AE and shrinkage behavior might be due to the weakening or distortion of the pit membranes (cavitation fatigue), pit aspiration, structural changes of the cell walls and micro-checks, which occurred during the first dehydration cycle.

  10. Digital image analysis of radial shrinkage of fresh spruce (Picea abies L.) wood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansmann, Christian; Konnerth, Johannes; Rosner, Sabine

    2011-03-21

    Contact-free digital image analysis was performed of the radial shrinkage of fresh, fully saturated small spruce wood beams. An experimental test set-up was developed to ensure constant distance from the charge-coupled device camera to the sample surface as well as constant climate and light conditions during the whole experiment. Dimensional changes were observed immediately after the drying process began. An unexpected distinct effect could be observed which could not be explained by drying surface layers only. After a fast initial radial shrinkage a slowing down of the dimensional changes occurred at high mean moisture contents. A complete interruption of any dimensional changes followed. Finally, a recovery from shrinkage was even observed. It is assumed that strong negative pressure occurred in the fully saturated capillaries owing to dehydration which led to additional dimensional changes. As a consequence, the break of the water column and aeration in these capillaries finally resulted in a recovery period in the shrinkage rate due to the pressure release. After this effect, the dehydration was characterized by a phase of fast and almost linear shrinkage due to drying surface layers. Finally, the shrinkage slowed down to zero when reaching equilibrium moisture content.

  11. Steam pretreatment of spruce forest residues: optimal conditions for biogas production and enzymatic hydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janzon, Ron; Schütt, Fokko; Oldenburg, Saskia; Fischer, Elmar; Körner, Ina; Saake, Bodo

    2014-01-16

    Steam refining of non-debarked spruce forest residues was investigated as pretreatment for enzymatic hydrolysis as well as for biogas production. Pretreatment conditions were varied in the range of 190-220 °C, 5-10 min and 0-3.7% SO₂ according to a statistical design. For both applications highest product yields were predicted at 220 °C and 2.4% SO₂, whereas the reaction time had only a minor influence. The conformity of the model results allows the conclusion that enzymatic hydrolysis is a suitable test method to evaluate the degradability of lignocellulosic biomass in the biogas process. In control experiments under optimal conditions the results of the model were verified. The yield of total monomeric carbohydrates after enzymatic hydrolysis was equivalent to 55% of all theoretically available polysaccharides. The corresponding biogas yield from the pretreated wood amounted to 304 mL/gODM. Furthermore, furans produced under optimal process conditions showed no inhibitory effect on biogas production. It can be concluded that steam refining opens the structure of wood, thus improving the enzymatic hydrolysis of the polysaccharides to fermentable monomeric sugars and subsequently enabling a higher and faster production of biogas. Anaerobic fermentation of pretreated wood is a serious alternative to alcoholic fermentation especially when low quality wood grades and residues are used. Anaerobic digestion should be further investigated in order to diversify the biorefinery options for lignocellulosic materials. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Evaluation of genetic variability in a small, insular population of spruce grouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, A.F.; Rhymer, Judith; Keppie, D.M.; Svenson, K.L.; Paigan, B.J.

    2002-01-01

    Using microsatellite markers we determined genetic variability for two populations of spruce grouse in eastern North America, one on a coastal Maine island where breeding habitat is limited and highly fragmented, the other in central New Brunswick (NB), where suitable breeding habitat is generally contiguous across the region. We examined six markers for both populations and all were polymorphic. Although the number of alleles per locus and the proportion of unique alleles were lower in the island population, and probably a result of small sample.size, heterozygosity and a breeding coefficient (Fis) indicated slightly more variability in the island population. Deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium also was more evident in loci for the mainland population. Several traits previously documented in the island population: relatively long natal dispersal distances, reproductive success, territoriality, adult survival, and longevity support the maintenance of hetrerzygosity, at least in the short-term. Sample collection from two small (500 ha), separate areas in NB, and the predicted importance of immigration density to supplement this population demonstrate the need for behavioral and ecological information when interpreting genetic variation. We discuss the relevance of these issues with respect to genetic variability and viability.

  13. Climate warming shifts carbon allocation from stemwood to roots in calcium-depleted spruce forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapenis, Andrei Gennady; Lawrence, Gregory B.; Heim, Alexander; Zheng, Chengyang; Shortle, Walter

    2013-01-01

    Increased greening of northern forests, measured by the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), has been presented as evidence that a warmer climate has increased both net primary productivity (NPP) and the carbon sink in boreal forests. However, higher production and greener canopies may accompany changes in carbon allocation that favor foliage or fine roots over less decomposable woody biomass. Furthermore, tree core data throughout mid- and northern latitudes have revealed a divergence problem (DP), a weakening in tree ring responses to warming over the past half century that is receiving increasing attention, but remains poorly understood. Often, the same sites exhibit trend inconsistency phenomenon (TIP), namely positive, or no trends in growing season NDVI where negative trends in tree ring indexes are observed. Here we studied growth of two Norway spruce (Picea abies) stands in western Russia that exhibited both the DP and TIP but were subject to soil acidification and calcium depletion of differing timing and severity. Our results link the decline in radial growth starting in 1980 to a shift in carbon allocation from wood to roots driven by a combination of two factors: (a) soil acidification that depleted calcium and impaired root function and (b) earlier onset of the growing season that further taxed the root system. The latter change in phenology appears to act as a trigger at both sites to push trees into nutrient limitation as the demand for Ca increased with the longer growing season, thereby causing the shift in carbon allocation.

  14. Influence of fertilization of nitrogen on the mycorrhiza-system of spruce

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haug, I.; Kottke, I.; Oberwinkler, F.; Horsch, F.; Filby, W.G.; Fund, N.; Gross, S.; Hanisch, B.; Kilz, E.; Seidel, A.

    1988-04-01

    A laboratory experiment was carried out with different nitrogen forms (NH/sub 4//sup +/, NO/sub 3//sup -/) and different nitrogen levels. For each nitrogen form three concentrations were chosen. Spruce seedlings inoculated with Pisolithus tinctorius or Amanita muscaria were placed in growth chambers with the different nitrogen-variants. After 7 weeks most seedlings in the high ammonium concentration were dead. There was no significant difference in the growth rate of the roots with exception of the high ammonium variant. The greatest total root length was reached in the low variants, also the highest amount of short roots. The shoot/root-ratio is positively correlated with the ammonium concentration. With increasing nitrate concentrations, the shoot/root-ratio also increases, but the differences are not significant. In the low and middle variants, there were well developed mycorrhizae with a hyphal mantle and a Hartig net. The greatest amount of mycorrhizae was found in the low nitrate variant. Light microscopic investigations revealed no differences in the structure of the mycorrhizae from the different variants. Quantitative analyses are not possible with the used method.

  15. Dynamics of temperature normalized stem CO2 efflux in Norway spruce stand

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    Eva Dařenová

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Respiration of stems contributes approximately 8 to 13 % to the total respiration of forest ecosystem, which is not negligible, and it has to be included in carbon flux estimates. The aim of this study was to determine dynamics of stem CO2 efflux during the growing season in Norway spruce stand and factors affecting this efflux. Continuous measurements of stem CO2 efflux were carried out by an automated system during the growing season in 2006–2009. Further measured characteristics were stem temperature, stem increment and precipitations. Stem CO2 efflux was in tight relationship with changes in temperature with the mean coefficient of determination of 0.76. This infers that temperature was the main factor driving changes in CO2 efflux during the season. To eliminate effect of temperature and determine other factors influencing stem CO2 efflux, CO2 efflux was normalized for temperature of 10 °C (R10. Basic seasonal course of R10 followed the pattern of stem growth rate with its maxima in June and July. The other factor effect, which was possible to determine, was presence of rainfall. Rainfall strong enough caused mostly increase in R10. This effect was the most significant when the R10 course had a decreasing trend in the second part of the growing season.

  16. Soil evolution in spruce forest ecosystems: role and influence of humus studied by morphological approach

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    Chersich S

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to understand the role and the mutual influences of humus and soil in alpine spruce forest ecosystems we studied and classified 7 soil - humic profiles on the 4 main forestry dynamics: open canopy, regeneration, young stand, tree stage. We studied the role of humification process in the pedologic process involving soils and vegetations studing humic and soil horizons. Study sites are located at an altitude of 1740 m a.s.l near Pellizzano (TN, and facing to the North. The parent soil material is predominantly composed of morenic sediments, probably from Cevedale glacier lying on a substrate of tonalite from Presanella (Adamello Tertiary pluton. The soil temperature regime is frigid, while the moisture regime is udic. The characteristics observed in field were correlated with classical chemical and physical soil analyses (MIPAF 2000. In order to discriminate the dominant soil forming process, the soils were described and classified in each site according to the World Reference Base (FAO-ISRIC-ISSS 1998. Humus was described and classified using the morphological-genetic approach (Jabiol et al. 1995. The main humus forms are acid and they are for the greater part Dysmoder on PODZOLS. The main pedogenetic processes is the podzolization, locally there are also hydromorphic processes. We associate a definite humus form with a pedological process at a particular step of the forest evolution. We concluded thath the soil study for a correct pedological interpretation must take count of the characteristics of the humic epipedon.

  17. Effects of serpentinite fertilizer on the chemical properties and enzyme activity of young spruce soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Błońska, Ewa; Januszek, Kazimierz; Małek, Stanisław; Wanic, Tomasz

    2016-10-01

    The experimental plots used in the study were located in the middle forest zone (elevation: 900-950 m a.s.l.) on two nappes of the flysch Carpathians in southern Poland. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of serpentinite in combination with nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium fertilizers on selected chemical properties of the soil and activity of dehydrogenase and urease in the studied soils. All fertilizer treatments significantly enriched the tested soils in magnesium. The use of serpentinite as a fertilizer reduced the molar ratio of exchangeable calcium to magnesium, which facilitated the uptake of magnesium by tree roots due to competition between calcium and magnesium. After one year of fertilization on the Wisła experimental plot, the pH of the Ofh horizon increased, while the pH of the mineral horizons significantly decreased. Enrichment of serpentinite with nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium fertilizers stimulated the dehydrogenase activity in the studied organic horizon. The lack of a negative effect of the serpentinite fertilizer on enzyme activity in the spruce stand soil showed that the concentrations of the heavy metals added to the soil were not high enough to be toxic and indicated the feasibility of using this fertilizer in forestry.

  18. Effect of Topping Trees on Biomass and Nitrogen Removal in the Thinning of Norway Spruce Stands

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    Christoph Huber

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In Central Europe, full-tree (FT harvesting is an increasingly common harvesting method in steep terrain harvesting due to the increased use of highly economical processor tower yarders. In conventional FT harvesting, nutrient removal from harvest sites is substantially higher than in cut-to-length (CTL harvesting due to the extraction of nutrient-rich branches and foliage. One strategy to reduce the adverse impact of FT harvesting is to cut off the tops of felled trees prior to extraction (topping. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of implementing topping treatments in FT harvesting on biomass and nutrient removal. The effect of conventional FT harvesting on the amount of logging residues left on the site was assessed in three different Norway spruce (Picea abies-dominated stands following cable yarding operations by collecting logging residues from the forest floor. The additional effect of topping trees on the amount of logging residues was assessed by using biomass models. These models were created based on the data of 25 sample trees, which were felled and sampled destructively within the stands. The results show that conventional FT harvesting considerably increases nutrient removal in comparison to CTL, but still do not remove all nutrients from the sites. After conventional FT harvesting, 5–18% of the nutrients remained on the sites. Topping trees at a diameter of 8 cm substantially increased the amount of remaining nutrients to 30–34%.

  19. Carbon Dioxide and Methane Formation in Norway Spruce Stems Infected by White-Rot Fungi

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    Ari M. Hietala

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Globally, billions of tons of carbon sequestered in trees are annually recycled back to the atmosphere through wood decomposition by microbes. In Norway, every fifth Norway spruce shows at final harvest infection by pathogenic white-rot fungi in the genera Heterobasidion and Armillaria. As these fungi can mineralize all components of wood, we predicted that they have a significant carbon footprint. Gas samples taken from infected stems were analyzed for CO2 and CH4 concentrations, and wood samples from different parts of the decay columns were incubated under hypoxic (4% O2 and anoxic laboratory conditions. In spring and summer the stem concentrations of CO2 were generally two times higher in trees with heartwood decay than in healthy trees. For most of the healthy trees and trees with heartwood decay, mean stem concentrations of CH4 were comparable to ambient air, and only some Armillaria infected trees showed moderately elevated CH4. Consistently, low CH4 production potentials were recorded in the laboratory experiment. Up-scaling of CO2 efflux due to wood decay in living trees suggests that the balance between carbon sequestration and emission may be substantially influenced in stands with high frequency of advanced root and stem heartwood decay.

  20. Warming and neighbor removal affect white spruce seedling growth differently above and below treeline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okano, Kyoko; Bret-Harte, M Syndonia

    2015-01-01

    Climate change is expected to be pronounced towards higher latitudes and altitudes. Warming triggers treeline and vegetation shifts, which may aggravate interspecific competition and affect biodiversity. This research tested the effects of a warming climate, habitat type, and neighboring plant competition on the establishment and growth of white spruce (Picea glauca (Moench) Voss) seedlings in a subarctic mountain region. P. glauca seedlings were planted in June 2010 under 4 different treatments (high/control temperatures, with/without competition) in 3 habitats (alpine ridge above treeline/tundra near treeline /forest below treeline habitats). After two growing seasons in 2011, growth, photosynthesis and foliar C and N data were obtained from a total of 156, one-and-a-half year old seedlings that had survived. Elevated temperatures increased growth and photosynthetic rates above and near treeline, but decreased them below treeline. Competition was increased by elevated temperatures in all habitat types. Our results suggest that increasing temperatures will have positive effects on the growth of P. glauca seedlings at the locations where P. glauca is expected to expand its habitat, but increasing temperatures may have negative effects on seedlings growing in mature forests. Due to interspecific competition, possibly belowground competition, the upslope expansion of treelines may not be as fast in the future as it was the last fifty years.

  1. Influence of zygomycete-derived D'orenone on IAA signalling in Tricholoma-spruce ectomycorrhiza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Katharina; Krause, Katrin; David, Anja; Kai, Marco; Jung, Elke-Martina; Sammer, Dominik; Kniemeyer, Olaf; Boland, Wilhelm; Kothe, Erika

    2016-09-01

    Despite the rising interest in microbial communication, only few studies relate to mycorrhization and the pool of potential morphogenic substances produced by the surrounding soil community. Here, we investigated the effect exerted by the C18 - ketone β-apo-13-carotenone, D'orenone, on the ectomycorrhizal basidiomycete Tricholoma vaccinum and its symbiosis with the economically important host tree, spruce (Picea abies). D'orenone is an early intermediate in the biosynthesis of morphogens in sexual development of mucoromycetes, the trisporoids. In the ectomycorrhizal fungus T. vaccinum, D'orenone increased the production and/or release of the phytohormone indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) which had been proposed to be involved in the mutual symbiosis. The induced expression of the fungal aldehyde dehydrogenase, Ald5 is associated with IAA synthesis and excretion. In the host tree, D'orenone modulated root architecture by increasing lateral root length and hypertrophy of root cortex cells, likely via changed IAA concentrations and flux. Thus, we report for the first time on carotenoid metabolites from soil fungi affecting both ectomycorrhizal partners. The data imply a complex network of functions for secondary metabolites which act in an inter-kingdom signalling in soil. © 2015 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Conifer Stored Resources and Resistance to a Fungus Associated with the Spruce Bark Beetle Ips typographus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahr, Eleanor C.; Krokene, Paal

    2013-01-01

    Bark beetles and associated fungi are among the greatest natural threats to conifers worldwide. Conifers have potent defenses, but resistance to beetles and fungal pathogens may be reduced if tree stored resources are consumed by fungi rather than used for tree defense. Here, we assessed the relationship between tree stored resources and resistance to Ceratocystis polonica, a phytopathogenic fungus vectored by the spruce bark beetle Ips typographus. We measured phloem and sapwood nitrogen, non-structural carbohydrates (NSC), and lipids before and after trees were attacked by I. typographus (vectoring C. polonica) or artificially inoculated with C. polonica alone. Tree resistance was assessed by measuring phloem lesions and the proportion of necrotic phloem around the tree's circumference following attack or inoculation. While initial resource concentrations were unrelated to tree resistance to C. polonica, over time, phloem NSC and sapwood lipids declined in the trees inoculated with C. polonica. Greater resource declines correlated with less resistant trees (trees with larger lesions or more necrotic phloem), suggesting that resource depletion may be caused by fungal consumption rather than tree resistance. Ips typographus may then benefit indirectly from reduced tree defenses caused by fungal resource uptake. Our research on tree stored resources represents a novel way of understanding bark beetle-fungal-conifer interactions. PMID:23967298

  3. Conifer stored resources and resistance to a fungus associated with the spruce bark beetle Ips typographus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleanor C Lahr

    Full Text Available Bark beetles and associated fungi are among the greatest natural threats to conifers worldwide. Conifers have potent defenses, but resistance to beetles and fungal pathogens may be reduced if tree stored resources are consumed by fungi rather than used for tree defense. Here, we assessed the relationship between tree stored resources and resistance to Ceratocystis polonica, a phytopathogenic fungus vectored by the spruce bark beetle Ips typographus. We measured phloem and sapwood nitrogen, non-structural carbohydrates (NSC, and lipids before and after trees were attacked by I. typographus (vectoring C. polonica or artificially inoculated with C. polonica alone. Tree resistance was assessed by measuring phloem lesions and the proportion of necrotic phloem around the tree's circumference following attack or inoculation. While initial resource concentrations were unrelated to tree resistance to C. polonica, over time, phloem NSC and sapwood lipids declined in the trees inoculated with C. polonica. Greater resource declines correlated with less resistant trees (trees with larger lesions or more necrotic phloem, suggesting that resource depletion may be caused by fungal consumption rather than tree resistance. Ips typographus may then benefit indirectly from reduced tree defenses caused by fungal resource uptake. Our research on tree stored resources represents a novel way of understanding bark beetle-fungal-conifer interactions.

  4. Conserved function of core clock proteins in the gymnosperm Norway spruce (Picea abies L. Karst).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlgren, Anna; Gyllenstrand, Niclas; Källman, Thomas; Lagercrantz, Ulf

    2013-01-01

    From studies of the circadian clock in the plant model species Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), a number of important properties and components have emerged. These include the genes CIRCADIAN CLOCK ASSOCIATED 1 (CCA1), GIGANTEA (GI), ZEITLUPE (ZTL) and TIMING OF CAB EXPRESSION 1 (TOC1 also known as PSEUDO-RESPONSE REGULATOR 1 (PRR1)) that via gene expression feedback loops participate in the circadian clock. Here, we present results from ectopic expression of four Norway spruce (Picea abies) putative homologs (PaCCA1, PaGI, PaZTL and PaPRR1) in Arabidopsis, their flowering time, circadian period length, red light response phenotypes and their effect on endogenous clock genes were assessed. For PaCCA1-ox and PaZTL-ox the results were consistent with Arabidopsis lines overexpressing the corresponding Arabidopsis genes. For PaGI consistent results were obtained when expressed in the gi2 mutant, while PaGI and PaPRR1 expressed in wild type did not display the expected phenotypes. These results suggest that protein function of PaCCA1, PaGI and PaZTL are at least partly conserved compared to Arabidopsis homologs, however further studies are needed to reveal the protein function of PaPRR1. Our data suggest that components of the three-loop network typical of the circadian clock in angiosperms were present before the split of gymnosperms and angiosperms.

  5. Conserved function of core clock proteins in the gymnosperm Norway spruce (Picea abies L. Karst.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Karlgren

    Full Text Available From studies of the circadian clock in the plant model species Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana, a number of important properties and components have emerged. These include the genes CIRCADIAN CLOCK ASSOCIATED 1 (CCA1, GIGANTEA (GI, ZEITLUPE (ZTL and TIMING OF CAB EXPRESSION 1 (TOC1 also known as PSEUDO-RESPONSE REGULATOR 1 (PRR1 that via gene expression feedback loops participate in the circadian clock. Here, we present results from ectopic expression of four Norway spruce (Picea abies putative homologs (PaCCA1, PaGI, PaZTL and PaPRR1 in Arabidopsis, their flowering time, circadian period length, red light response phenotypes and their effect on endogenous clock genes were assessed. For PaCCA1-ox and PaZTL-ox the results were consistent with Arabidopsis lines overexpressing the corresponding Arabidopsis genes. For PaGI consistent results were obtained when expressed in the gi2 mutant, while PaGI and PaPRR1 expressed in wild type did not display the expected phenotypes. These results suggest that protein function of PaCCA1, PaGI and PaZTL are at least partly conserved compared to Arabidopsis homologs, however further studies are needed to reveal the protein function of PaPRR1. Our data suggest that components of the three-loop network typical of the circadian clock in angiosperms were present before the split of gymnosperms and angiosperms.

  6. Experimental versus modelled water use in mature Norway spruce (Picea abies exposed to elevated CO2

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    Sebastian eLeuzinger

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Rising levels of atmospheric CO2 have often been reported to reduce plant water use. Such behaviour is also predicted by standard equations relating photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, and atmospheric CO2 concentration, which form the core of global dynamic vegetation models (DGVMs. Here, we provide first results from a free air CO2 enrichment (FACE experiment with naturally growing, mature (35 m Picea abies (L. (Norway spruce and compare them to simulations by the DGVM LPJ-GUESS. We monitored sap flow, stem water deficit, stomatal conductance, leaf water potential and soil moisture in five 35-40 m tall CO2-treated (550 ppm trees over two seasons. Using LPJ-GUESS, we simulated this experiment using climate data from a nearby weather station. While the model predicted a stable reduction of transpiration of between 9 and 18 % (at concentrations of 550-700ppm atmospheric CO2, the combined evidence from various methods characterising water use in our experimental trees suggest no changes in response to future CO2 concentrations. The discrepancy between the modelled and the experimental results may be a scaling issue: while dynamic vegetation models correctly predict leaf-level responses, they may not sufficiently account for the processes involved at the canopy and ecosystem scale, which could mitigate the first-order stomatal response.

  7. Acidic mist reduces foliar membrane-associated calcium and impairs stomatal responsiveness in red spruce

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borer, C. H.; DeHayes, D. H. [University of Vermont, Rubinstein School of Environment and Natural Resources, Burlington, VT (United States); Schaberg, P. G. [USDA Forest Service, Northeastern Research Station, South Burlington, VT (United States)

    2005-06-01

    The possibility of impairment of stomatal responsiveness due to acidic mist-induced depletion of foliar membrane calcium (mCa) was investigated by exposing red spruce seedlings to either pH 3.0 or pH 5.0 mist treatments for one growing season. Foliar nutrition was assessed following each treatment, and declines in stomatal conductance and net photosynthesis were measured on current year shoots following stem excision. Seedlings subjected to pH 3.0 acidic mist treatment had reduced mCa, and exhibited impaired stomatal function, including a smaller maximum aperture, slower closure, increased lag time between stomatal closure and photosynthetic decline following experimental water stress, relative to seedling treated with pH 5.0 acidic mist. The evidence supports the hypothesis that anthropogenetically caused depletion of mCa may disrupt physiological processes that depend on foliar Ca, in the process reducing the plants ability to respond adaptively to environmental stresses. 69 refs., 1 tab., 1 fig.

  8. The flux of carbonyl sulfide and carbon disulfide between the atmosphere and a spruce forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Xu

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Turbulent fluxes of carbonyl sulfide (COS and carbon disulfide (CS2 were measured over a spruce forest in Central Germany using the relaxed eddy accumulation (REA technique. A REA sampler was developed and validated using simultaneous measurements of CO2 fluxes by REA and by eddy correlation. REA measurements were conducted during six campaigns covering spring, summer, and fall between 1997 and 1999. Both uptake and emission of COS and CS2 by the forest were observed, with deposition occurring mainly during the sunlit period and emission mainly during the dark period. On the average, however, the forest acts as a sink for both gases. The average fluxes for COS and CS2 are  -93 ± 11.7 pmol m-2 s-1 and  -18 ± 7.6 pmol m-2 s-1, respectively. The fluxes of both gases appear to be correlated to photosynthetically active radiation and to the CO2 and chem{H_2O} fluxes, supporting the idea that the air-vegetation exchange of both gases is controlled by stomata. An uptake ratio COS/CO2 of 10 ± 1.7 pmol m mol-1 has been derived from the regression line for the correlation between the COS and CO2 fluxes. This uptake ratio, if representative for the global terrestrial net primary production, would correspond to a sink of 2.3 ± 0.5 Tg COS yr-1.

  9. Root and shoot growth, assimilate partitioning and cell proliferation in roots of Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis) grown in filtered and unfiltered chambers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bambridge, L; Harmer, R; Macleod, R

    1996-01-01

    Rooted cuttings of clonal Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis (Bong.) Carr.) were grown from April to October in 1 m long tubes sunk into the ground inside open top chambers. The same experiment was repeated in each of two consecutive years using a different clone of Sitka spruce each year. Air was either passed directly into the chambers (ambient air) or passed over charcoal filters which removed the majority of gaseous pollutants before entering the chambers (filtered air). Ambient pollution did not appear to influence the growth of Sitka spruce at least over the experimental period used. No significant differences were found between plants exposed to ambient or filtered air in terms of shoot and root dry mass, needle dry mass, root length, carbohydrate content of roots and needles, and in the percentage of meristematic cells close to the apex in each phase or interphase or undergoing mitosis.

  10. Threshold Responses of Aspen and Spruce Growth to Temperature May Presage a Regime Shift in the Boreal Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, A. H.; Duffy, P.; Mann, D. H.; Leonawicz, M.; Blumstein, M.; Pendall, E.

    2011-12-01

    Warming in boreal regions may eventually lead to the demise of evergreen coniferous forest and its replacement by either an open parkland of more drought-tolerant deciduous species like aspen, or by treeless steppe vegetation. We examined the possibility of warming-induced regime shifts in the boreal forest by quantifying the response of tree growth to climate on steep, south-facing bluffs in interior Alaska. These sites are the ecotone between forest and subarctic steppe vegetation, and represent the warmest, driest sites occupied by trees in the boreal forests of interior Alaska. We collected tree cores from aspen (Populus tremula) and white spruce (Picea glauca) at south-facing bluffs in interior Alaska (n=9 for white spruce, n=5 for aspen). Crossdated chronologies of detrended, standardized ring-widths were produced for each species at each site, and growth response to climate was quantified using generalized boosting models (spruce) and random forest regression (aspen). These analyses yielded three important insights into the potential for regime shifts in the warmer areas of the boreal forest. First, our results highlighted the surprising similarity in growth response of aspen and spruce. We expected to find that aspen would be more tolerant of warm, dry conditions than white spruce. In contrast, we found that the two species had broadly similar responses to climate, preferring cooler and wetter conditions. This finding suggests that a continued trend towards warmer and drier conditions is more likely to lead rapidly to the replacement of forest vegetation by steppe grassland, rather than the replacement of white spruce by aspen. Second, we identified strongly nonlinear responses to climate in both species; the use of analytical methods capable of detecting and describing nonlinear relationships between growth and climate thus proved to be critical. For both species, steep thresholds in growth response to temperature occurred, particularly in spring. Small

  11. Growth response to a changing environment-Impacts of tropospheric ozone dose on photosynthesis of Norway spruce forests in Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaozhen; Pietsch, Stephan; Hasenauer, Hubert

    2010-05-01

    Tropospheric ozone is an important air pollutant, although plants have active defense strategies (e.g. antioxidants), the cumulative ozone dose may lead to chronic damages to plant tissues. Ozone enters into plants through stomata and reacts with other chemicals to create toxic compounds. This affects plant photosynthesis and may reduce CO2 fixation, and consequently growth. Open top cambers (OTC) are usually used to study the effects of elevated ozone levels on photosynthesis; whereas field studies with on site occurring ozone levels are rare. A recent modelling study on Norway spruce stands in Austria exhibited trends in model errors indicating that an increase in ozone dose leads to a reduction in volume increment. This study aims to explore how different ozone doses affect photosynthesis under field conditions and may translate into growth response for 12 stands of Norway spruce, distributed along an ozone concentration gradient across Austria. A LI-6400xt photosynthesis system was utilized to collect physiological parameters including net photosynthesis, stomata conductance, internal CO2 concentration, transpiration, etc. Chlorophyll fluorescence data was collected by using a PEA chlorophyll fluorescence meter, and chlorophyll content was measured. Morphological characteristics and soil samples were also analyzed. Ozone dose to leaf tissue was calculated from external ozone concentration, the conductance of the stomata to ozone, the leaf area index and the time span of the day when ozone uptake takes place. Our results confirm that increasing cumulative ozone dose reduces maximum assimilation rate and carboxylation efficiency under field conditions. Our final goal is to quantify how far this ozone induced reduction in assimilation power ultimately translates into a growth reduction of Norway spruce in Austria.

  12. Deep peat warming increases surface methane and carbon dioxide emissions in a black spruce-dominated ombrotrophic bog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Allison L; Giasson, Marc-André; Yu, Rieka; Finzi, Adrien C

    2017-12-01

    Boreal peatlands contain approximately 500 Pg carbon (C) in the soil, emit globally significant quantities of methane (CH4 ), and are highly sensitive to climate change. Warming associated with global climate change is likely to increase the rate of the temperature-sensitive processes that decompose stored organic carbon and release carbon dioxide (CO2 ) and CH4 . Variation in the temperature sensitivity of CO2 and CH4 production and increased peat aerobicity due to enhanced growing-season evapotranspiration may alter the nature of peatland trace gas emission. As CH4 is a powerful greenhouse gas with 34 times the warming potential of CO2 , it is critical to understand how factors associated with global change will influence surface CO2 and CH4 fluxes. Here, we leverage the Spruce and Peatland Responses Under Changing Environments (SPRUCE) climate change manipulation experiment to understand the impact of a 0-9°C gradient in deep belowground warming ("Deep Peat Heat", DPH) on peat surface CO2 and CH4 fluxes. We find that DPH treatments increased both CO2 and CH4 emission. Methane production was more sensitive to warming than CO2 production, decreasing the C-CO2 :C-CH4 of the respired carbon. Methane production is dominated by hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis but deep peat warming increased the δ13 C of CH4 suggesting an increasing contribution of acetoclastic methanogenesis to total CH4 production with warming. Although the total quantity of C emitted from the SPRUCE Bog as CH4 is 50% of seasonal C emissions in the highest-warming treatments when adjusted for CO2 equivalents on a 100-year timescale. These results suggest that warming in boreal regions may increase CH4 emissions from peatlands and result in a positive feedback to ongoing warming. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Growth and defence in young pine and spruce and the expression of resistance to a stem-feeding weevil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wainhouse, D; Staley, J T; Jinks, R; Morgan, G

    2009-01-01

    Defence in young trees has been much less studied than defence in older ones. In conifers, resin within ducts in bark is an important quantitative defence, but its expression in young trees may be influenced by developmental or physical constraints on the absolute size of the resin ducts as well as by differential allocation of resources to growth and resin synthesis. To examine these relationships, we used nitrogen fertilisation of 1- and 2-year-old pine and spruce to produce trees of different sizes and measured the effect on the number and size of resin ducts and the amount of resin they contained. All of these variables tended to increase with stem diameter, indicating a positive relationship between resin-based defence and growth of 1- and 2-year-old trees. In pine, however, the mass of resin flowing from severed ducts was much lower relative to duct area in 1- than in 2-year-old trees, suggesting that the older trees allocated a higher proportion of the carbon budget to resin synthesis. Resin-based defence in 1-year-old pines appears to be both positively related to growth and resource limited. In spruce, resin production was generally lower, and age-related differences were not observed, suggesting that resin-based defence is less important in this species. Bio-assays of 2-year-old trees with the pine weevil, Hylobius abietis, emphasised the importance of resin as a defence against this bark feeding insect. Nitrogen fertilisation had a limited influence on resistance expression. One-year-old trees remained susceptible because of their small size, low resin production and limited response to fertilisation. The strong growth response of 2-year-old trees to fertilisation increased resin-based defence, but most spruce trees remained susceptible, while most pines were resistant at all levels of fertilisation.

  14. Micro- and macro-geographic scale effect on the molecular imprint of selection and adaptation in Norway spruce.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Scalfi

    Full Text Available Forest tree species of temperate and boreal regions have undergone a long history of demographic changes and evolutionary adaptations. The main objective of this study was to detect signals of selection in Norway spruce (Picea abies [L.] Karst, at different sampling-scales and to investigate, accounting for population structure, the effect of environment on species genetic diversity. A total of 384 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs representing 290 genes were genotyped at two geographic scales: across 12 populations distributed along two altitudinal-transects in the Alps (micro-geographic scale, and across 27 populations belonging to the range of Norway spruce in central and south-east Europe (macro-geographic scale. At the macrogeographic scale, principal component analysis combined with Bayesian clustering revealed three major clusters, corresponding to the main areas of southern spruce occurrence, i.e. the Alps, Carpathians, and Hercynia. The populations along the altitudinal transects were not differentiated. To assess the role of selection in structuring genetic variation, we applied a Bayesian and coalescent-based F(ST-outlier method and tested for correlations between allele frequencies and climatic variables using regression analyses. At the macro-geographic scale, the F(ST-outlier methods detected together 11 F(ST-outliers. Six outliers were detected when the same analyses were carried out taking into account the genetic structure. Regression analyses with population structure correction resulted in the identification of two (micro-geographic scale and 38 SNPs (macro-geographic scale significantly correlated with temperature and/or precipitation. Six of these loci overlapped with F(ST-outliers, among them two loci encoding an enzyme involved in riboflavin biosynthesis and a sucrose synthase. The results of this study indicate a strong relationship between genetic and environmental variation at both geographic scales. It also

  15. Functional characterization of nine Norway Spruce TPS genes and evolution of gymnosperm terpene synthases of the TPS-d subfamily.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Diane M; Fäldt, Jenny; Bohlmann, Jörg

    2004-08-01

    Constitutive and induced terpenoids are important defense compounds for many plants against potential herbivores and pathogens. In Norway spruce (Picea abies L. Karst), treatment with methyl jasmonate induces complex chemical and biochemical terpenoid defense responses associated with traumatic resin duct development in stems and volatile terpenoid emissions in needles. The cloning of (+)-3-carene synthase was the first step in characterizing this system at the molecular genetic level. Here we report the isolation and functional characterization of nine additional terpene synthase (TPS) cDNAs from Norway spruce. These cDNAs encode four monoterpene synthases, myrcene synthase, (-)-limonene synthase, (-)-alpha/beta-pinene synthase, and (-)-linalool synthase; three sesquiterpene synthases, longifolene synthase, E,E-alpha-farnesene synthase, and E-alpha-bisabolene synthase; and two diterpene synthases, isopimara-7,15-diene synthase and levopimaradiene/abietadiene synthase, each with a unique product profile. To our knowledge, genes encoding isopimara-7,15-diene synthase and longifolene synthase have not been previously described, and this linalool synthase is the first described from a gymnosperm. These functionally diverse TPS account for much of the structural diversity of constitutive and methyl jasmonate-induced terpenoids in foliage, xylem, bark, and volatile emissions from needles of Norway spruce. Phylogenetic analyses based on the inclusion of these TPS into the TPS-d subfamily revealed that functional specialization of conifer TPS occurred before speciation of Pinaceae. Furthermore, based on TPS enclaves created by distinct branching patterns, the TPS-d subfamily is divided into three groups according to sequence similarities and functional assessment. Similarities of TPS evolution in angiosperms and modeling of TPS protein structures are discussed.

  16. Surface free radicals detection using molecular scavenging method on black spruce wood treated with cold, atmospheric-pressure plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardy, Jean-Michel [Centre de Recherches sur les Matériaux Renouvelables, Faculté de Foresterie, de Géographie et de Géomatique, Université Laval, Québec, QC G1V 0A6 (Canada); Levasseur, Olivier [Département de Physique, Université de Montréal, Montréal, QC H3C 3J7 (Canada); Vlad, Mirela [FPInnovations, 319 Rue Franquet, Québec, QC G1P 4R4 (Canada); Stafford, Luc [Département de Physique, Université de Montréal, Montréal, QC H3C 3J7 (Canada); Riedl, Bernard, E-mail: Bernard.Riedl@sbf.ulaval.ca [Centre de Recherches sur les Matériaux Renouvelables, Faculté de Foresterie, de Géographie et de Géomatique, Université Laval, Québec, QC G1V 0A6 (Canada)

    2015-12-30

    Highlights: • Black spruce wood treated with plasmas at atmospheric pressure. • Detection of surface free radicals on treated wood using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) solution. • Helium plasma treated wood surface show higher DPPH uptake compared to untreated one. • Addition of oxygen in plasma gas reduces surface free radicals on wood. • Afterglow plasma treatment shows no significant variation of DPPH uptake due to high oxygen concentration in plasma gas. - Abstract: Formation of surface free radicals on wood surfaces during plasma treatment could be an important factor when it comes to wood coating adhesion enhancement. In order to explore this aspect, freshly sanded black spruce (Picea mariana) wood samples were exposed to either plane-to-plane atmospheric-pressure dielectric barrier discharge (AP-DBD) or the flowing afterglow of an AP-DBD and then dipped in a 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) solution. Wood veneers (extracted to eliminate small molecules prior to each plasma treatment) showed an increase of their reaction rate toward DPPH after treatment in the AP-DBD operated in nominally pure He; a feature ascribed to the plasma-assisted formation of free radicals on the wood surface. Addition of trace amounts (0.1%) of O{sub 2} in the He plasma produced a decrease in DPPH reactivity, suggesting that oxygen–spruce interaction during plasma treatment quenches free radicals formation. Similar experiments performed using the flowing afterglow of AP-DBD operated in either N{sub 2} or N{sub 2}/O{sub 2} showed that both treatments do not generate significant amount of surface free radicals. This partially results from oxygen–wood interactions due to the open-air configuration of the afterglow reactor.

  17. Growth of mycorrhizal jack pine (Pinus banksiana) and white spruce (Picea glauca) seedlings planted in oil sands reclaimed areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onwuchekwa, Nnenna E; Zwiazek, Janusz J; Quoreshi, Ali; Khasa, Damase P

    2014-08-01

    The effectiveness of ectomycorrhizal inoculation at the tree nursery seedling production stage on growth and survival was examined in jack pine (Pinus banksiana) and white spruce (Picea glauca) planted in oil sands reclamation sites. The seedlings were inoculated with Hebeloma crustuliniforme strain # UAMH 5247, Suillus tomentosus strain # UAMH 6252, and Laccaria bicolor strain # UAMH 8232, as individual pure cultures and in combinations. These treatments were demonstrated to improve salinity resistance and water uptake in conifer seedlings. The field responses of seedlings to ectomycorrhizal inoculation varied between plant species, inoculation treatments, and measured parameters. Seedling inoculation resulted in higher ectomycorrhizal colonization rates compared with non-inoculated control, which had also a relatively small proportion of roots colonized by the nursery contaminant fungi identified as Amphinema byssoides and Thelephora americana. Seedling inoculation had overall a greater effect on relative height growth rates, dry biomass, and stem volumes in jack pine compared with white spruce. However, when examined after two growing seasons, inoculated white spruce seedlings showed up to 75% higher survival rates than non-inoculated controls. The persistence of inoculated fungi in roots of planted seedlings was examined at the end of the second growing season. Although the inoculation with H. crustuliniforme triggered growth responses, the fungus was not found in the roots of seedlings at the end of the second growing season suggesting a possibility that the observed growth-promoting effect of H. crustuliniforme may be transient. The results suggest that the inoculation of conifer seedlings with ectomycorrhizal fungi could potentially be carried out on a large scale in tree nurseries to benefit postplanting performance in oil sands reclamation sites. However, these practices should take into consideration the differences in responses between the different

  18. Is it possible and necessary to control European spruce bark beetle Ips typographus (L. outbreak in the Białowieża Forest?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilszczański Jacek

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In response to the information published in ‘Forest Research Papers’ (vol. 77(4, 2016, regarding the problem of the European spruce bark beetle Ips typographus (L. in the Białowieża Forest, we present our viewpoint on this issue. The role of the European spruce bark beetle in the Białowieża Forest is discussed based on the experience gained in Europe’s forests. We present the effects of I. typographus outbreaks on forest biodiversity as well as outbreak mitigation in the context of the processes taking place in semi-natural forests.

  19. Effects of radiational heating at low air temperature on water balance, cold tolerance, and visible injury of red spruce foliage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadley, J L; Amundson, R G

    1992-07-01

    Recent studies have shown that winter needle mortality in red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.) is increased by exposure to direct solar radiation, possibly as a result of photo-oxidative damage, accelerated winter desiccation, or reduced cold tolerance due to heating of sun-exposed needles. In an experiment at controlled subfreezing air temperatures of -10 to -20 degrees C, visible radiation was less effective than infrared radiation in producing needle desiccation and visible injury during freeze-thaw cycles. However, visible radiation produced a red-brown color in injured needles, similar to natural winter injury, whereas injured needles exposed to infrared radiation were yellow and injured needles kept in darkness were dark brown. Thus, visible radiation was necessary to produce the red-brown color of damaged needles, but not the injury itself. Needle desiccation was not strongly correlated with visible injury, but the pattern of variation in visible injury among trees and the positive correlation between electrolyte leakage and visible injury suggested that freezing damage following freeze-thaw cycles might cause the visible injury. This was confirmed by a second experiment that showed loss of cold hardiness in needles thawed by radiational heating for six consecutive days. Even with a constant nighttime temperature of -10 degrees C, six days of radiational heating of needles to above freezing caused a small (2.8 degrees C) mean decrease in needle cold tolerance, as measured by electrolyte leakage. Continuous darkness at -10 degrees C for six days resulted in an estimated 5.6 degrees C mean increase in needle cold tolerance. Freezing injury stimulated desiccation: cooling at 4 degrees C h(-1) to -43 or -48 degrees C increased the dehydration rate of isolated shoots by a factor of two to three during the first day after thawing. Within three days at 15 to 22 degrees C and 50% relative humidity, the mean water content of these shoots fell to 60% or lower, compared to

  20. Assessing the impacts of climate change and nitrogen deposition on Norway spruce growth in Austria with BIOME-BGC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eastaugh, Chris S.; Potzelsberger, Elisabeth; Hasenaueur, Hubert

    2011-03-15

    The purpose of this study is to determine if the climate change has had an apparent impact in Austrian forests. This research has been conducted on Norway spruce forests as this is the predominant species in Austria. Growth data between regions which have different temperature and precipitation trendsw was then compared, with results showing increased productivity in all regions thus implying that growth of the forest is driven by other factors than climate. This conclusion is consistent with previous studies supporting that forest growth is mainly driven by increasing nitrogen deposition.

  1. Comparison of N and C dynamics in two Norway spruce stands using a process oriented simulation model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eckersten, H.; Beier, C.

    1998-01-01

    Nitrogen and carbon dynamics of two Norway spruce stands were compared using a dynamic soil-plant simulation model (SOILN). The objectives were to evaluate differences in properties between the two stands and to explore the consequences on C and N dynamics. The young stand (25 years old...... whereas growth was more similar. The soil carbon balance was positive and soil CIN ratio increased for the young stand. For the old stand the soil carbon balance was negative and the C/N ratio decreased. The soil mineral N levels were much lower in the younger stand which was explained by a higher plant...

  2. The joint influence of photoperiod and temperature during growth cessation and development of dormancy in white spruce (Picea glauca).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Jill A; El Kayal, Walid; Hart, Ashley T; Runcie, Daniel E; Arango-Velez, Adriana; Cooke, Janice E K

    2016-11-01

    Timely responses to environmental cues enable the synchronization of phenological life-history transitions essential for the health and survival of north-temperate and boreal tree species. While photoperiodic cues will remain persistent under climate change, temperature cues may vary, contributing to possible asynchrony in signals influencing developmental and physiological transitions essential to forest health. Understanding the relative contribution of photoperiod and temperature as determinants of the transition from active growth to dormancy is important for informing adaptive forest management decisions that consider future climates. Using a combination of photoperiod (long = 20 h or short = 8 h day lengths) and temperature (warm = 22 °C/16 °C and cool = 8 °C/4 °C day/night, respectively) treatments, we used microscopy, physiology and modeling to comprehensively examine hallmark traits of the growth-dormancy transition-including bud formation, growth cessation, cold hardiness and gas exchange-within two provenances of white spruce [Picea glauca (Moench) Voss] spanning a broad latitude in Alberta, Canada. Following exposure to experimental treatments, seedlings were transferred to favorable conditions, and the depth of dormancy was assessed by determining the timing and ability of spruce seedlings to resume growth. Short photoperiods promoted bud development and growth cessation, whereas longer photoperiods extended the growing season through the induction of lammas growth. In contrast, cool temperatures under both photoperiodic conditions delayed bud development. Photoperiod strongly predicted the development of cold hardiness, whereas temperature predicted photosynthetic rates associated with active growth. White spruce was capable of attaining endodormancy, but its release was environmentally determined. Dormancy depth varied substantially across experimental treatments suggesting that environmental cues experienced within one season could affect growth

  3. Modelling individual tree height to crown base of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) and European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Ram P; Vacek, Zdeněk; Vacek, Stanislav; Podrázský, Vilém; Jansa, Václav

    2017-01-01

    Height to crown base (HCB) of a tree is an important variable often included as a predictor in various forest models that serve as the fundamental tools for decision-making in forestry. We developed spatially explicit and spatially inexplicit mixed-effects HCB models using measurements from a total 19,404 trees of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) and European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) on the permanent sample plots that are located across the Czech Republic. Variables describing site quality, stand density or competition, and species mixing effects were included into the HCB model with use of dominant height (HDOM), basal area of trees larger in diameters than a subject tree (BAL- spatially inexplicit measure) or Hegyi's competition index (HCI-spatially explicit measure), and basal area proportion of a species of interest (BAPOR), respectively. The parameters describing sample plot-level random effects were included into the HCB model by applying the mixed-effects modelling approach. Among several functional forms evaluated, the logistic function was found most suited to our data. The HCB model for Norway spruce was tested against the data originated from different inventory designs, but model for European beech was tested using partitioned dataset (a part of the main dataset). The variance heteroscedasticity in the residuals was substantially reduced through inclusion of a power variance function into the HCB model. The results showed that spatially explicit model described significantly a larger part of the HCB variations [R2adj = 0.86 (spruce), 0.85 (beech)] than its spatially inexplicit counterpart [R2adj = 0.84 (spruce), 0.83 (beech)]. The HCB increased with increasing competitive interactions described by tree-centered competition measure: BAL or HCI, and species mixing effects described by BAPOR. A test of the mixed-effects HCB model with the random effects estimated using at least four trees per sample plot in the validation data confirmed that the

  4. Modelling individual tree height to crown base of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L. Karst. and European beech (Fagus sylvatica L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ram P Sharma

    Full Text Available Height to crown base (HCB of a tree is an important variable often included as a predictor in various forest models that serve as the fundamental tools for decision-making in forestry. We developed spatially explicit and spatially inexplicit mixed-effects HCB models using measurements from a total 19,404 trees of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L. Karst. and European beech (Fagus sylvatica L. on the permanent sample plots that are located across the Czech Republic. Variables describing site quality, stand density or competition, and species mixing effects were included into the HCB model with use of dominant height (HDOM, basal area of trees larger in diameters than a subject tree (BAL- spatially inexplicit measure or Hegyi's competition index (HCI-spatially explicit measure, and basal area proportion of a species of interest (BAPOR, respectively. The parameters describing sample plot-level random effects were included into the HCB model by applying the mixed-effects modelling approach. Among several functional forms evaluated, the logistic function was found most suited to our data. The HCB model for Norway spruce was tested against the data originated from different inventory designs, but model for European beech was tested using partitioned dataset (a part of the main dataset. The variance heteroscedasticity in the residuals was substantially reduced through inclusion of a power variance function into the HCB model. The results showed that spatially explicit model described significantly a larger part of the HCB variations [R2adj = 0.86 (spruce, 0.85 (beech] than its spatially inexplicit counterpart [R2adj = 0.84 (spruce, 0.83 (beech]. The HCB increased with increasing competitive interactions described by tree-centered competition measure: BAL or HCI, and species mixing effects described by BAPOR. A test of the mixed-effects HCB model with the random effects estimated using at least four trees per sample plot in the validation data confirmed

  5. Effects of permafrost melting on CO2 and CH4 exchange of a poorly drained black spruce lowland

    OpenAIRE

    Wickland, Kimberly P.; Striegl, Robert G.; Neff, Jason C.; Sachs, Torsten

    2006-01-01

    Permafrost melting is occurring in areas of the boreal forest region where large amounts of carbon (C) are stored in organic soils. We measured soil respiration, net CO2 flux, and net CH4 flux during MaySeptember 2003 and March 2004 in a black spruce lowland in interior Alaska to better understand how permafrost thaw in poorly drained landscapes affects land-atmosphere CO2 and CH4 exchange. Sites included peat soils underlain by permafrost at ∼0.4 m depth (permafrost plateau, PP), four ...

  6. Interactions of polysporous cultures of antagonistic fungus Peneiphora gigantea (Fr. Massee and some decay fungi of spruce from Stara planina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazarev Vladimir

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In the control of the fungus Heterobasidion annosum the most frequently applied method is stump treatment with biological preparations containing dehydrated spores of the saprophytic fungus Phlebiopsis gigantea (syn. Peniophora gigantea /Fr./ Massee. In the field, this fungus is a competitor to the fungus Heterobasidion annosum. This paper presents the results of laboratory analyses of interactions of decay fungi isolated from the root and butt of uprooted spruce trees in the Nature Park "Stara Planina", and their relation to the fungus Ph. gigantea. The interactions of these fungi were analyzed at the temperatures of 20°C, 25°C and 30°C.

  7. Genetic signatures of natural selection in response to air pollution in red spruce (Picea rubens, Pinaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashalkhanov, Stanislav; Eckert, Andrew J; Rajora, Om P

    2013-12-01

    One of the most important drivers of local adaptation for forest trees is climate. Coupled to these patterns, however, are human-induced disturbances through habitat modification and pollution. The confounded effects of climate and disturbance have rarely been investigated with regard to selective pressure on forest trees. Here, we have developed and used a population genetic approach to search for signals of selection within a set of 36 candidate genes chosen for their putative effects on adaptation to climate and human-induced air pollution within five populations of red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.), distributed across its natural range and air pollution gradient in eastern North America. Specifically, we used FST outlier and environmental correlation analyses to highlight a set of seven single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that were overly correlated with climate and levels of sulphate pollution after correcting for the confounding effects of population history. Use of three age cohorts within each population allowed the effects of climate and pollution to be separated temporally, as climate-related SNPs (n = 7) showed the strongest signals in the oldest cohort, while pollution-related SNPs (n = 3) showed the strongest signals in the youngest cohorts. These results highlight the usefulness of population genetic scans for the identification of putatively nonneutral evolution within genomes of nonmodel forest tree species, but also highlight the need for the development and application of robust methodologies to deal with the inherent multivariate nature of the genetic and ecological data used in these types of analyses. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Hydraulic and mechanical properties of young Norway spruce clones related to growth and wood structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ROSNER, SABINE; KLEIN, ANDREA; MÜLLER, ULRICH; KARLSSON, BO

    2011-01-01

    Summary Stem segments of eight five-year-old Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) clones differing in growth characteristics were tested for maximum specific hydraulic conductivity (ks100), vulnerability to cavitation and behavior under mechanical stress. The vulnerability of the clones to cavitation was assessed by measuring the applied air pressure required to cause 12 and 50% loss of conductivity (Ψ12, Ψ50) and the percent loss of conductivity at 4 MPa applied air pressure (PLC4MPa). The bending strength and stiffness and the axial compression strength and stiffness of the same stem segments were measured to characterize wood mechanical properties. Growth ring width, wood density, latewood percentage, lumen diameter, cell wall thickness, tracheid length and pit dimensions of earlywood cells, spiral grain and microfibril angles were examined to identify structure–function relationships. High ks100 was strongly and positively related to spiral grain angle, which corresponded positively to tracheid length and pit dimensions. Spiral grain may reduce flow resistance of the bordered pits of the first earlywood tracheids, which are characterized by rounded tips and an equal distribution of pits along the entire length. Wood density was unrelated to hydraulic vulnerability parameters. Traits associated with higher hydraulic vulnerability were long tracheids, high latewood percentage and thick earlywood cell walls. The positive relationship between earlywood cell wall thickness and vulnerability to cavitation suggest that air seeding through the margo of bordered pits may occur in earlywood. There was a positive phenotypic and genotypic relationship between ks100 and PLC4MPa, and both parameters were positively related to tree growth rate. Variability in mechanical properties depended mostly on wood density, but also on the amount of compression wood. Accordingly, hydraulic conductivity and mechanical strength or stiffness showed no tradeoff. PMID:17472942

  9. Dynamic Gene-Resource Landscape Management of Norway Spruce: Combining Utilization and Conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lstibůrek, Milan; El-Kassaby, Yousry A.; Skrøppa, Tore; Hodge, Gary R.; Sønstebø, Jørn H.; Steffenrem, Arne

    2017-01-01

    Traditional gene-resource management programs for forest trees are long-term endeavors requiring sustained organizational commitment covering extensive landscapes. While successful in maintaining adaptation, genetic diversity and capturing traditional growth attributes gains, these programs are dependent on rigid methods requiring elaborate mating schemes, thus making them slow in coping with climate change challenges. Here, we review the significance of Norway spruce in the boreal region and its current management practices. Next, we discuss opportunities offered by novel technologies and, with the use of computer simulations, we propose and evaluate a dynamic landscape gene-resource management in Norway. Our suggested long-term management approach capitalizes on: (1) existing afforestation activities, natural crosses, and DNA-based pedigree assembly to create structured pedigree for evaluation, thus traditional laborious control crosses are avoided and (2) landscape level genetic evaluation, rather than localized traditional progeny trials, allowing for screening of adapted individuals across multiple environmental gradients under changing climate. These advantages lead to greater genetic response to selection in adaptive traits without the traditional breeding and testing scheme, facilitating conservation of genetic resources within the breeding population of the most important forest tree species in Norway. The use of in situ selection from proven material exposed to realistic conditions over vast territories has not been conducted in forestry before. Our proposed approach is in contrast to worldwide current programs, where genetic evaluation is constrained by the range of environments where testing is conducted, which may be insufficient to capture the broad environmental variation necessary to tackle adaptation under changing climate. PMID:29093732

  10. Multiple component system of sugars and polyols in the overwintering spruce bark beetle, Ips typographus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostál, V; Zahradnícková, H; Simek, P; Zelený, J

    2007-06-01

    Overwintering adults of the spruce bark beetle, Ips typographus (L.) showed an unusually complex sugar/polyol cryoprotectant system. The major components of the multiple system were: glucose (177.6 mmolL(-1), March); trehalose (175.0 mmolL(-1), December); sorbitol (147.9 mmolL(-1), January); mannitol (81.2 mmolL(-1), March); and erythritol (40.7mmolL(-1), March) (in the parentheses, the maximum concentrations are shown and the month when they were reached). Other minor components were glycerol, fructose, threitol, myo-inositol, arabinitol and ribitol. Distinct seasonal patterns of accumulation/depletion in various components were found. Glycerol, trehalose and glucose started to accumulate first, during early autumn, when the air temperatures fluctuated between 20 and 0 degrees C, and diapause beetles continued in feeding. Glycerol was depleted, glucose remained stable and trehalose continued in accumulation during late autumn when the temperatures oscillated around 0 degrees C. During early winter severe frosts reaching -20 degrees C came, the beetles terminated their diapause and trehalose was partially depleted, while mannitol, sorbitol, fructose, threitol and erythritol started to accumulate. Cold weather continued also during late winter when the beetles remained quiescent. During this period, trehalose was re-accumulated, threitol and erythritol continued to increase, mannitol remained stable and sorbitol, fructose decreased. All cryoprotectans were finally cleared in the beetles which were spontaneously leaving bark during early spring. The seasonal maximum of total concentration of all cryoprotectants (578.2 mOsmol L(-1)) was reached in March. Such a concentration results in colligative depression of melting point of body fluids down by 1.08 degrees C only. It suggests that the potential cryoprotective effect of accumulated sugars and polyols was related rather to their non-colligative functions.

  11. Sensitivity and predictive uncertainty of the ACASA model at a spruce forest site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Staudt

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The sensitivity and predictive uncertainty of the Advanced Canopy-Atmosphere-Soil Algorithm (ACASA was assessed by employing the Generalized Likelihood Uncertainty Estimation (GLUE method. ACASA is a stand-scale, multi-layer soil-vegetation-atmosphere transfer model that incorporates a third order closure method to simulate the turbulent exchange of energy and matter within and above the canopy. Fluxes simulated by the model were compared to sensible and latent heat fluxes as well as the net ecosystem exchange measured by an eddy-covariance system above the spruce canopy at the FLUXNET-station Waldstein-Weidenbrunnen in the Fichtelgebirge Mountains in Germany. From each of the intensive observation periods carried out within the EGER project (ExchanGE processes in mountainous Regions in autumn 2007 and summer 2008, five days of flux measurements were selected. A large number (20000 of model runs using randomly generated parameter sets were performed and goodness of fit measures for all fluxes for each of these runs were calculated. The 10% best model runs for each flux were used for further investigation of the sensitivity of the fluxes to parameter values and to calculate uncertainty bounds.

    A strong sensitivity of the individual fluxes to a few parameters was observed, such as the leaf area index. However, the sensitivity analysis also revealed the equifinality of many parameters in the ACASA model for the investigated periods. The analysis of two time periods, each representing different meteorological conditions, provided an insight into the seasonal variation of parameter sensitivity. The calculated uncertainty bounds demonstrated that all fluxes were well reproduced by the ACASA model. In general, uncertainty bounds encompass measured values better when these are conditioned on the respective individual flux only and not on all three fluxes concurrently. Structural weaknesses of the ACASA model concerning the soil respiration

  12. Parallel and lineage-specific molecular adaptation to climate in boreal black spruce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prunier, Julien; Gérardi, Sébastien; Laroche, Jérôme; Beaulieu, Jean; Bousquet, Jean

    2012-09-01

    In response to selective pressure, adaptation may follow different genetic pathways throughout the natural range of a species due to historical differentiation in standing genetic variation. Using 41 populations of black spruce (Picea mariana), the objectives of this study were to identify adaptive genetic polymorphisms related to temperature and precipitation variation across the transcontinental range of the species, and to evaluate the potential influence of historical events on their geographic distribution. Population structure was first inferred using 50 control nuclear markers. Then, 47 candidate gene SNPs identified in previous genome scans were tested for relationship with climatic factors using an F(ST) -based outlier method and regressions between allele frequencies and climatic variations. Two main intraspecific lineages related to glacial vicariance were detected at the transcontinental scale. Within-lineage analyses of allele frequencies allowed the identification of 23 candidate SNPs significantly related to precipitation and/or temperature variation, among which seven were common to both lineages, eight were specific to the eastern lineage and eight were specific to the western lineage. The implication of these candidate SNPs in adaptive processes was further supported by gene functional annotations. Multiple evidences indicated that the occurrence of lineage-specific adaptive SNPs was better explained by selection acting on historically differentiated gene pools rather than differential selection due to heterogeneity of interacting environmental factors and pleiotropic effects. Taken together, these findings suggest that standing genetic variation of potentially adaptive nature has been modified by historical events, hence affecting the outcome of recent selection and leading to different adaptive routes between intraspecific lineages. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  13. Priming effects in boreal black spruce forest soils: quantitative evaluation and sensitivity analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaosheng Fan

    Full Text Available Laboratory studies show that introduction of fresh and easily decomposable organic carbon (OC into soil-water systems can stimulate the decomposition of soil OC (SOC via priming effects in temperate forests, shrublands, grasslands, and agro-ecosystems. However, priming effects are still not well understood in the field setting for temperate ecosystems and virtually nothing is known about priming effects (e.g., existence, frequency, and magnitude in boreal ecosystems. In this study, a coupled dissolved OC (DOC transport and microbial biomass dynamics model was developed to simultaneously simulate co-occurring hydrological, physical, and biological processes and their interactions in soil pore-water systems. The developed model was then used to examine the importance of priming effects in two black spruce forest soils, with and without underlying permafrost. Our simulations showed that priming effects were strongly controlled by the frequency and intensity of DOC input, with greater priming effects associated with greater DOC inputs. Sensitivity analyses indicated that priming effects were most sensitive to variations in the quality of SOC, followed by variations in microbial biomass dynamics (i.e., microbial death and maintenance respiration, highlighting the urgent need to better discern these key parameters in future experiments and to consider these dynamics in existing ecosystem models. Water movement carries DOC to deep soil layers that have high SOC stocks in boreal soils. Thus, greater priming effects were predicted for the site with favorable water movement than for the site with limited water flow, suggesting that priming effects might be accelerated for sites where permafrost degradation leads to the formation of dry thermokarst.

  14. Short-term effects of forest disturbances on soil nematode communities in European mountain spruce forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čerevková, A; Renčo, M; Cagáň, L

    2013-09-01

    The nematode communities in spruce forests were compared with the short-term effects of forest damage, caused by windstorm, wildfire and management practices of forest soils. Soil samples were collected in June and October from 2006 to 2008 in four different sites: (1) forest unaffected by the wind (REF); (2) storm-felled forest with salvaged timber (EXT); (3) modified forest affected by timber salvage (wood removal) and forest fire (FIR); and (4) storm-felled forest where timber had been left unsalvaged (NEX). Nematode analysis showed that the dominant species in all four investigated sites were Acrobeloides nanus and Eudorylaimus silvaticus. An increase of A. nanus (35% of the total nematode abundance) in the first year in the FIR site led to the highest total abundance of nematodes compared with other sites, where nematode abundance reached the same level in the third year. In the FIR site bacterial feeders appeared to be the most representative trophic group, although in the second and third year, after disturbance, the abundance of this trophic group gradually decreased. In the NEX site, the number of nematode species, population densities and Maturity Index were similar to that recorded for the FIR site. In EXT and NEX sites, the other dominant species was the plant parasitic nematode Paratylenchus microdorus. Analyses of nematodes extracted from different forest soil samples showed that the highest number of species and diversity index for species (H'spp) were in the REF site. Differences between the nematode fauna in REF and other localities were clearly depicted by cluster analysis. The greatest Structure Index and Enrichment Index values were also in REF. In the EXT site, the number of nematode species, their abundance, H'spp and Maturity Index were not significantly different from those recorded in the reference site.

  15. Windstorms as mediator of soil nematode community changes: Evidence from European spruce forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renčo M.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Nematode communities in a Norway spruce forest in High Tatra National Park, Slovakia were monitored for the period of several years (2006 and 2013. Unfortunately, in May 2014 natural windstorm damaged the forest. This disastrous event, together with preliminary obtained results allowed us to compare the direct impact of windstorm damage of forest habitat on soil nematode assemblages. The forest destruction by windstorm had a significant effect on the total nematode abundance, the abundance of omnivores and herbivores, as well as the nematode species diversity. The most dominant species, representing 55 % of the total nematode fauna, in the plot studied were Acrobeloides nanus followed by Malenchus exiguus, Filenchus vulgaris, Plectus communis, Plectus parvus and Tylencholaimus mirabilis. The abundance of bacterivorous signifi cantly increased after the windstorm, meanwhile the abundance of omnivores, fungivores, and herbivores ectoparasites and epidermal/root hair feeders showed an opposite trend. Of the evaluative indicators, Shannon species diversity (H’spp, maturity index (MI, maturity index 2-5 (MI2-5, sigma maturity index (ΣMI, enrichment index (EI and structure index (SI decreased significantly after windstorm. The EI and SI indexes characterized soil ecosystems before windstorm (2006 - 2013 as maturing with low or moderate disturbance, but soil ecosystems shortly after the windstorm (2014 were degraded and nutrient depleted. This also corresponded with graphical display of metabolic footprints characteristics of soil food web. Overall, the nematode communities differed significantly before and after forest damage. These results suggest the role of nematode communities as indicators of environment condition quality or its disruption.

  16. Dry deposition profile of small particles within a model spruce canopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ould-Dada, Zitouni [Centre for Analytical Research in the Environment, (now EAS T.H. Huxley School), Imperial College of Science Technology and Medicine, Silwood Park, Ascot, SL57TE Berkshire (United Kingdom)

    2002-03-08

    Data on dry deposition of 0.82 {mu}m MMAD uranium particles to a small scale, 'model' Norway spruce (Picea abies) canopy have been determined by means of wind tunnel experiments. These are presented for both the total canopy and for five horizontal layers within the canopy. The results show a complex pattern of deposition within the canopy. The highest deposition velocity V{sub g} (0.19 cm s{sup -1}) was recorded for the topmost layer within the canopy (i.e. the layer in direct contact with the boundary layer) whereas the lowest V{sub g} (0.02 cm s{sup -1}) occurred at the soil surface. Vertical penetration of depositing aerosol through the canopy was influenced by variations in biomass, wind velocity and turbulence within the canopy. A total canopy V{sub g} of 0.5 cm s{sup -1} was obtained and this is in line with field measurements of V{sub g} reported in literature for both anthropogenic and radionuclide aerosols of similar size ranges. Extrapolation of wind tunnel data to 'real' forest canopies is discussed. The information presented here is of importance in predicting the likely contribution of dry deposition of aerosols to pollutant inputs to forest ecosystems, particularly in the context of radioactive aerosol releases from nuclear installations. The application of the present data may also be appropriate for other pollutant aerosols such as SO{sub 4}, NO{sub 3} and NH{sub 4}, which are characterised by particle sizes in the range used in this study.

  17. Dynamic Gene-Resource Landscape Management of Norway Spruce: Combining Utilization and Conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Lstibůrek

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Traditional gene-resource management programs for forest trees are long-term endeavors requiring sustained organizational commitment covering extensive landscapes. While successful in maintaining adaptation, genetic diversity and capturing traditional growth attributes gains, these programs are dependent on rigid methods requiring elaborate mating schemes, thus making them slow in coping with climate change challenges. Here, we review the significance of Norway spruce in the boreal region and its current management practices. Next, we discuss opportunities offered by novel technologies and, with the use of computer simulations, we propose and evaluate a dynamic landscape gene-resource management in Norway. Our suggested long-term management approach capitalizes on: (1 existing afforestation activities, natural crosses, and DNA-based pedigree assembly to create structured pedigree for evaluation, thus traditional laborious control crosses are avoided and (2 landscape level genetic evaluation, rather than localized traditional progeny trials, allowing for screening of adapted individuals across multiple environmental gradients under changing climate. These advantages lead to greater genetic response to selection in adaptive traits without the traditional breeding and testing scheme, facilitating conservation of genetic resources within the breeding population of the most important forest tree species in Norway. The use of in situ selection from proven material exposed to realistic conditions over vast territories has not been conducted in forestry before. Our proposed approach is in contrast to worldwide current programs, where genetic evaluation is constrained by the range of environments where testing is conducted, which may be insufficient to capture the broad environmental variation necessary to tackle adaptation under changing climate.

  18. Terpenoid and carbonyl emissions from Norway spruce in Finland during the growing season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakola, Hannele; Tarvainen, Virpi; Praplan, Arnaud P.; Jaars, Kerneels; Hemmilä, Marja; Kulmala, Markku; Bäck, Jaana; Hellén, Heidi

    2017-03-01

    We present spring and summer volatile organic compound (VOC) emission rate measurements from Norway spruce (Picea abies L. Karst) growing in a boreal forest in southern Finland. The measurements were conducted using in situ gas chromatograph with 1 to 2 h time resolution to reveal quantitative and qualitative short-term and seasonal variability of the emissions. The measurements cover altogether 14 weeks in years 2011, 2014 and 2015. Monoterpene (MT) and sesquiterpene (SQT) emission rates were measured all the time, but isoprene only in 2014 and 2015 and acetone and C4-C10 aldehydes only in 2015. The emission rates of all the compounds were low in spring, but MT, acetone, and C4-C10 aldehyde emission rates increased as summer proceeded, reaching maximum emission rates in July. Late summer mean values (late July and August) were 29, 17, and 33 ng g(dw)-1 h-1 for MTs, acetone, and aldehydes respectively. SQT emission rates increased during the summer and highest emissions were measured in late summer (late summer mean value 84 ng g(dw)-1 h-1) concomitant with highest linalool emissions most likely due to stress effects. The between-tree variability of emission pattern was studied by measuring seven different trees during the same afternoon using adsorbent tubes. Especially the contributions of limonene, terpinolene, and camphene were found to vary between trees, whereas proportions of α-pinene (25 ± 5 %) and β-pinene (7 ± 3 %) were more stable. Our results show that it is important to measure emissions at canopy level due to irregular emission pattern, but reliable SQT emission data can be measured only from enclosures. SQT emissions contributed more than 90 % of the ozone reactivity most of the time, and about 70 % of the OH reactivity during late summer. The contribution of aldehydes to OH reactivity was comparable to that of MT during late summer, 10-30 % most of the time.

  19. Estimating single-tree branch biomass of Norway spruce by airborne laser scanning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauglin, Marius; Dibdiakova, Janka; Gobakken, Terje; Næsset, Erik

    2013-05-01

    The use of forest biomass for bioenergy purposes, directly or through refinement processes, has increased in the last decade. One example of such use is the utilization of logging residues. Branch biomass constitutes typically a considerable part of the logging residues, and should be quantified and included in future forest inventories. Airborne laser scanning (ALS) is widely used when collecting data for forest inventories, and even methods to derive information at the single-tree level has been described. Procedures for estimation of single-tree branch biomass of Norway spruce using features derived from ALS data are proposed in the present study. As field reference data the dry weight branch biomass of 50 trees were obtained through destructive sampling. Variables were further derived from the ALS echoes from each tree, including crown volume calculated from an interpolated crown surface constructed with a radial basis function. Spatial information derived from the pulse vectors were also incorporated when calculating the crown volume. Regression models with branch biomass as response variable were fit to the data, and the prediction accuracy assessed through a cross-validation procedure. Random forest regression models were compared to stepwise and simple linear least squares models. In the present study branch biomass was estimated with a higher accuracy by the best ALS-based models than by existing allometric biomass equations based on field measurements. An improved prediction accuracy was observed when incorporating information from the laser pulse vectors into the calculation of the crown volume variable, and a linear model with the crown volume as a single predictor gave the best overall results with a root mean square error of 35% in the validation.

  20. Hydraulic and mechanical properties of young Norway spruce clones related to growth and wood structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosner, Sabine; Klein, Andrea; Müller, Ulrich; Karlsson, Bo

    2007-08-01

    Stem segments of eight five-year-old Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) clones differing in growth characteristics were tested for maximum specific hydraulic conductivity (k(s100)), vulnerability to cavitation and behavior under mechanical stress. The vulnerability of the clones to cavitation was assessed by measuring the applied air pressure required to cause 12 and 50% loss of conductivity (Psi(12), Psi(50)) and the percent loss of conductivity at 4 MPa applied air pressure (PLC(4MPa)). The bending strength and stiffness and the axial compression strength and stiffness of the same stem segments were measured to characterize wood mechanical properties. Growth ring width, wood density, latewood percentage, lumen diameter, cell wall thickness, tracheid length and pit dimensions of earlywood cells, spiral grain and microfibril angles were examined to identify structure-function relationships. High k(s100) was strongly and positively related to spiral grain angle, which corresponded positively to tracheid length and pit dimensions. Spiral grain may reduce flow resistance of the bordered pits of the first earlywood tracheids, which are characterized by rounded tips and an equal distribution of pits along the entire length. Wood density was unrelated to hydraulic vulnerability parameters. Traits associated with higher hydraulic vulnerability were long tracheids, high latewood percentage and thick earlywood cell walls. The positive relationship between earlywood cell wall thickness and vulnerability to cavitation suggest that air seeding through the margo of bordered pits may occur in earlywood. There was a positive phenotypic and genotypic relationship between k(s100) and PLC(4MPa), and both parameters were positively related to tree growth rate. Variability in mechanical properties depended mostly on wood density, but also on the amount of compression wood. Accordingly, hydraulic conductivity and mechanical strength or stiffness showed no tradeoff.

  1. Utilization of logging waste from mechanical spruce dominated final cuttings; Koneellisen puunkorjuun hakkuutaehteiden hyoedyntaeminen biopolttoaineena

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebeling, J [Jaakko Poeyry Consulting Oy, Vantaa (Finland)

    1997-12-01

    The aim of the project has been to improve the economy of collecting logging waste from spruce dominated mechanised final felling. This section of the biomass is regarded as the most promising alternative biofuel source. The project compared different systems of collecting this raw material and concluded, that the most economical way to do this was (1) to integrate the transport of logging waste from the forest to the road side with the transport of logs using the equipment already at the site. The use of a separate tractor proved uneconomical compared to the integrated system. (2) Chip the logging waste at the road side with an integrated chipping and transport lorry (truck) equipped with three 20 feet standard or modified containers. The total cargo space in the lorry is thus around 100 m{sup 3} loose volume. The economical transport distance of this equipment is around under 100 km one way distance. The report contains also detailed drawings of the technical solution arrived at. The main idea is to use a module structure, where the chipper - the Bruks 803CT - is located together with most of the hydraulics, crane and the control equipment. The only outside connections needed are the hydraulic pressure from the pump and the operational unit with the necessary electrical panel. Thus the assembly and installation of the module on the lorry is rapid and the quality of the work can be maintained high. The operation is designed on the basis of one man operation and in such away that the need to for the driver-operator to step down from the controls is minimised. In normal situation the operation can be fully accomplished from the drivers cab - even when changing the containers

  2. Ash recycling to spruce and beech stands effects on nutrients, growth, nitrogen dynamics and carbon balance; Askaaterfoering till gran- och bokbestaand - effekter paa naering, tillvaext, kvaevedynamik och kolbalans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thelin, Gunnar

    2006-03-15

    Ash recycling is an important part in a modern, sustainable forestry, especially in whole-tree harvest systems. Nutrients lost at harvest are returned to the forest with the wood-ash. In the project the effects of ash treatment on needle and leaf chemistry, tree growth, soil chemistry, soil water chemistry, and carbon and nitrogen dynamics were studied on 23 Norway spruce sites in south-western Sweden and in ten European beech sites in Scania, southern Sweden. On some of the sites there were previously established ash recycling experiments, but on a majority of the sites ash recycling was performed without experimental lay-out and ash and control plots were established afterwards. The most common dose was two tons of self hardened crushed wood-ash and two tons of Mg-lime. On average seven to eight years after ash recycling the results were 1. increased exchangeable stores of base cations in the soil in the beech and the spruce stands 2. increased base saturation in the beech and the spruce stands and increased BC/Al in the spruce stands 3. increased concentrations and ratios to N of P, Ca, Zn, and S in the needles, the increased P-values are especially important since P is close to or below deficiency levels in a majority of the spruce stands 4. decreased K-concentration in the beech leaves 5. increased tree growth with on average 14 % in the ash treated spruce stands compared to the control plots 6. increased carbon and nitrogen amounts in the biomass in the spruce stands 7. tendencies towards increased amounts of carbon and nitrogen in the soil in the beech stands and no effect in the soil in the spruce stands 8. increased concentrations of Ca, Mg, and SO{sub 4} and no effect on ANC in the soil water 9. no effect on potential net mineralization but increased potential nitrification rates 10. decreased concentration of nitrate in the soil water in the beech stands and no effect in the spruce stands 11. lower system N losses in the beech stands and possibly in the

  3. The effects of forty years of spruce cultivation in a zone of beech forest on mt. Maljen (Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlović P.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the effects of the forty-year cultivation of Picea abies on the floristic composition, physical and chemical soil characteristics, and the intensity of organic matter decomposition in a zone of mountainous beech forest (mt. Maljen, northwestern Serbia. The long-term cultivation of conifers in a deciduous habitat has caused a reduction in biodiversity, as well as changes in the soil which were most pronounced in the top soil layer. There were found to be lower soil moisture levels (p<0.05, lower active (p<0.01 and substitutional acidity (p<0.001, depletion of the adsorption complex in base cations (p<0.001, and lower levels of n, P and K (p<0.001 in the spruce stand in relation to the beech stand (control. The higher C/n ratio of spruce litter (p<0.001 caused its lower decomposition rate in comparison to beech litter (p<0.01. All these changes have led to degradation and a reduction in this ecosystem’s productivity. [Acknowledgments. This work was supported by the ministry of education and Science of Serbia, grant no 173018

  4. The role of soil drainage class in carbon dioxide exchange and decomposition in boreal black spruce (Picea mariana) forest stands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickland, K.P.; Neff, J.C.; Harden, J.W.

    2010-01-01

    Black spruce (Picea mariana (Mill.) B.S.P.) forest stands range from well drained to poorly drained, typically contain large amounts of soil organic carbon (SOC), and are often underlain by permafrost. To better understand the role of soil drainage class in carbon dioxide (CO2) exchange and decomposition, we measured soil respiration and net CO2 fluxes, litter decomposition and litterfall rates, and SOC stocks above permafrost in three Alaska black spruce forest stands characterized as well drained (WD), moderately drained (MD), and poorly drained (PD). Soil respiration and net CO2 fluxes were not significantly different among sites, although the relation between soil respiration rate and temperature varied with site (Qw: WD > MD > PD). Annual estimated soil respiration, litter decomposition, and groundcover photosynthesis were greatest at PD. These results suggest that soil temperature and moisture conditions in shallow organic horizon soils at PD were more favorable for decomposition compared with the better drained sites. SOC stocks, however, increase from WD to MD to PD such that surface decomposition and C storage are diametric. Greater groundcover vegetation productivity, protection of deep SOC by permafrost and anoxic conditions, and differences in fire return interval and (or) severity at PD counteract the relatively high near-surface decomposition rates, resulting in high net C accumulation.

  5. Microscopic and microprobe analysis of fine roots in healthy and declining spruce (Picea abies (L. ) Karst. ) from different sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stienen, H.; Bauch, J.; Barckhausen, R.; Schaub, H.

    1984-09-01

    In order to contribute to the identification of primary causes of the spruce decline - evident in many regions of the Federal Republic of Germany - fine roots of 30 trees from altogether 14 healthy and damage forest locations were investigated microscopically, anatomically, histometrically and by cellular microprobe analysis. In addition, fine roots of young plants grown in hydroponic cultures at different pH levels and Al input were studied. Fine roots of declining trees developed cortex cells with a reduced diameter and at the same time thicker cell walls; in addition accessory compounds were accumulated in this presumably protective tissue. Tannins were deposited in the parenchyma of the vascular cylinder of fine roots from declining trees, and many pit membranes of the primary xylem often did not differentiate fully. The X-ray energy-dispersive analysis of individual cells revealed, in particular, an insufficient uptake of Ca and Mg in the fine roots of declining trees. Compared with healthy trees, the concentration of aluminium increased in the cortex of the fine roots; this, in turn, had an antagonistic effect on the uptake of Ca and Mg. Moreover, the concentration of iron and sulphur increased in the fine roots of declining trees. This evidence of alterations and damages in the fine roots of damaged spruce indicates that, besides the direct detrimental impact on the needles through the atmosphere serious damage is inflicted also indirectly through the soil.

  6. Differential effect of purified spruce chitinases and beta-1,3-glucanases on the activity of elicitors from ectomycorrhizal fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salzer, P; Hübner, B; Sirrenberg, A; Hager, A

    1997-07-01

    Two chitinases (EC 3.2.1.14) and two beta-1,3-glucanases (EC 3.2.1.39) were purified from the culture medium of spruce (Picea abines [L.] Karst.) cells to study their role in modifying elicitors, cell walls, growth, and hyphal morphology of ectomycorrhizal fungi. The 36-kD class I chitinase (isoelectric point [pl] 8.0) and the 28-kD chitinase (pl 8.7) decreased the activity of elicitor preparations from Hebeloma crustuliniforme (Bull. ex Fries.) Quél., Amanita muscaria (L.) Pers., and Suillus variegatus (Sw.: Fr.) O.K., as demonstrated by using the elicitor-induced extracellular alkalinization in spruce cells as a test system. In addition, chitinases released monomeric products from the walls of these ectomycorrhizal fungi. The beta-1,3-glucanases (35 kD, pl 3.7 and 3.9), in contrast, had little influence on the activity of the fungal elicitors and released only from walls of A. muscaria some polymeric products. Furthermore, chitinases alone and in combination with beta-1,3-glucanases had no effect on the growth and morphology of the hyphae. Thus, it is suggested that apoplastic chitinases in the root cortex destroy elicitors from the ectomycorrhizal fungi without damaging the fungus. By this mechanism the host plant could attenuate the elicitor signal and adjust its own defense reactions to a level allowing symbiotic interaction.

  7. Long-term trends in radial growth of Siberian spruce and Scots pine in Komi Republic (northwestern Russia)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopatin, E. (Univ. of Joensuu (Finland)); Kolstroem, T. (Russian Academy of Sciences, Syktyvkar (Russian Federation)); Spiecker, H. (Univ. of Freiburg (Germany))

    2008-07-01

    Komi is situated on the eastern boundary of the European part of Russia, in the boreal region where large areas of natural forest still exist. Using radial growth measurements it was possible to attain positive long-term trends of growth in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) and Siberian spruce (Picea obovata) in the Komi Republic. Increases in the radial growth of Siberian spruce in the forest-tundra were 134% and in the northern taiga zone 35% over successive 50-year periods from 1901 to 1950 and from 1951 to 2000. Respectively, in the middle taiga zone a 76% increase in radial growth was found (over 100 years), whilst in the southern taiga zone the changes were not statistically significant. The increase in radial growth of Scots pine in the northern taiga zone was 32%. In the middle taiga zone the radial growth increase in Scots pine was 55% and in the southern taiga zone the changes were not statistically significant. The long-term growth trends of Komi were compared with those in other parts of Europe. (orig.)

  8. High-efficiency Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Norway spruce (Picea abies) and loblolly pine (Pinus taeda)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenck, A. R.; Quinn, M.; Whetten, R. W.; Pullman, G.; Sederoff, R.; Brown, C. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1999-01-01

    Agrobacterium-mediated gene transfer is the method of choice for many plant biotechnology laboratories; however, large-scale use of this organism in conifer transformation has been limited by difficult propagation of explant material, selection efficiencies and low transformation frequency. We have analyzed co-cultivation conditions and different disarmed strains of Agrobacterium to improve transformation. Additional copies of virulence genes were added to three common disarmed strains. These extra virulence genes included either a constitutively active virG or extra copies of virG and virB, both from pTiBo542. In experiments with Norway spruce, we increased transformation efficiencies 1000-fold from initial experiments where little or no transient expression was detected. Over 100 transformed lines expressing the marker gene beta-glucuronidase (GUS) were generated from rapidly dividing embryogenic suspension-cultured cells co-cultivated with Agrobacterium. GUS activity was used to monitor transient expression and to further test lines selected on kanamycin-containing medium. In loblolly pine, transient expression increased 10-fold utilizing modified Agrobacterium strains. Agrobacterium-mediated gene transfer is a useful technique for large-scale generation of transgenic Norway spruce and may prove useful for other conifer species.

  9. Effects of prolonged drought on the anatomy of sun and shade needles in young Norway spruce trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebauer, Roman; Volařík, Daniel; Urban, Josef; Børja, Isabella; Nagy, Nina Elisabeth; Eldhuset, Toril Drabløs; Krokene, Paal

    2015-11-01

    Predicted increases in the frequency and duration of drought are expected to negatively affect tree vitality, but we know little about how water shortage will influence needle anatomy and thereby the trees' photosynthetic and hydraulic capacity. In this study, we evaluated anatomical changes in sun and shade needles of 20-year-old Norway spruce trees exposed to artificial drought stress. Canopy position was found to be important for needle structure, as sun needles had significantly higher values than shade needles for all anatomical traits (i.e., cross-sectional needle area, number of tracheids in needle, needle hydraulic conductivity, and tracheid lumen area), except proportion of xylem area per cross-sectional needle area. In sun needles, drought reduced all trait values by 10-40%, whereas in shade needles, only tracheid maximum diameter was reduced by drought. Due to the relatively weaker response of shade needles than sun needles in drought-stressed trees, the difference between the two needle types was reduced by 25% in the drought-stressed trees compared to the control trees. The observed changes in needle anatomy provide new understanding of how Norway spruce adapts to drought stress and may improve predictions of how forests will respond to global climate change.

  10. Monitoring the spring phenological stages in a spruce monoculture in the Drahanská vrchovina upland in 2005–2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilie Bednářová

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper evaluates the onset and duration of spring vegetation phenological stages in a spruce monoculture of the third age class in relation to changing parameters of the environment in the region of the Drahanská vrchovina Upland. Temperature requirements of Norway spruce necessary for the onset particular phenological stages were evaluated on the basis of sums of effective temperatures > 5 oC. The period of 2005–2011 is processed in relation to long-term monitoring since 1991. Based on results obtained, there is considerable variability owing to changing climatic conditions in the onset of spring phenological stages in the course of monitored years. In recent years, the earlier onset of spring phenological stages occurs and their duration gets shorter. This phenomenon is caused by higher air temperatures in spring months. The statistical processing of results obtained demonstrated the high dependence of the onset of particular phenological stages on the temperature of air and soil. Particular factors affecting budbreak and foliation cannot be detached and thus, it is necessary to be evaluated as a complex of influences. Long-term phenological studies of forest trees can serve as the bioindicator of climatic changes.

  11. Remote sensing of spruce budworm defoliation using EO-1 Hyperion hyperspectral data: an example in Quebec, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Z.; Zhang, Y.

    2016-04-01

    Each year, the spruce budworm (SBW) causes severe, widespread damage to spruces and fir in east coast Canada. Early estimation of the defoliation can provide crucial support to mitigate the socio-economic impact on vulnerable forests. Remote sensing techniques are suitable to investigate the affected regions that usually consist of large and inaccessible forestry areas. Using satellite images, surface reflectance values at two or more wavelengths are combined to generate vegetation indices (VIs), revealing a relative abundance of features of interest. Forest health analysis based on VIs is considered as one of the primary information sources for monitoring vegetation conditions. Especially the spectral resolution of Hyperion hyperspectral satellite imagery used in this study allows for a detailed examination of the red to near-infrared portion of the spectrum to identify areas of stressed vegetation. Several narrow-band vegetation indices are used to indicate the overall amount and quality of photosynthetic material and moisture content in vegetation. By integrating the information from VIs that focus on different aspects of overall health and vigour in forested areas, the study aims at detecting defoliated condition in a forested region in the Province of Quebec, Canada. In June and August of 2014 two Hyperion images were acquired by NASA's EO-1 satellite for this study. Changes in vegetation health and vigour are observed and quantitatively compared using the multi-temporal remote sensing images. The experimental results suggest that the VI- based forest health analysis is effective in estimating SBW defoliation in the study area.

  12. Multigene phylogenies and morphological characterization of five new Ophiostoma spp. associated with spruce-infesting bark beetles in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Mingliang; Wingfield, Michael J; Zhou, Xudong; de Beer, Z Wilhelm

    2016-04-01

    Ophiostoma spp. (Ophiostomatales, Ascomycota) are well-known fungi associated with bark beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytinae). Some of these are serious tree pathogens, while the majority is blue-stain agents of timber. In recent years, various bark beetle species have been attacking spruce forests in Qinghai province, China, causing significant damage. A preliminary survey was done to explore the diversity of the ophiostomatoid fungal associates of these beetles. The aims of the present study were to identify and characterize new Ophiostoma spp. associated with spruce-infesting bark beetles in Qinghai Province, and to resolve phylogenetic relationships of Ophiostoma spp. related to the Chinese isolates, using multigene phylogenetic analyses. Results obtained from four gene regions (ribosomal internal transcribed spacer regions, β-tubulin, calmodulin, translation elongation factor-1α) revealed five new Ophiostoma spp. from Qinghai. These included O. nitidus sp. nov., O. micans sp. nov., and O. qinghaiense sp. nov. in a newly defined O. piceae complex. The other two new species, O. poligraphi sp. nov. and O. shangrilae sp. nov., grouped in the O. brunneo-ciliatum complex. Based on DNA sequence and morphological comparisons, we also show that O. arduennense and O. torulosum are synonyms of O. distortum, while O. setosum is a synonym of O. cupulatum. Copyright © 2016 The British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Moisture content of Norway spruce (Picea Abies (L.) Karst.) stump wood at clear cutting areas and roadside storage sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laurila, J.; Lauhanen, R. (Seinaejoki Univ. of Applied Sciences, Aehtaeri (Finland), School of Agriculture and Forestry), e-mail: jussi.laurila@seamk.fi, e-mail: risto.lauhanen@seamk.fi

    2010-07-01

    The use of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) stump wood in heat energy production has recently increased in Finland. Cost effective stump wood procurement is a sum of many factors. In this study, the moisture content of Norway spruce stump wood at the clear cutting areas and forest roadside storage sites was examined. The moisture content of wood has a large effect on the transportation costs and heating value of wood. The average moisture content of stump wood was 53 % at the clear cutting areas immediately after harvesting. At the beginning the moisture content decreased fairly quickly being about 31 % one month after harvesting. If stumps dried well in the summer, water absorption was fairly slow in the autumn. Each spring and summer the moisture content was lower than during the previous year. On the whole, the stumps at the forest roadside storage sites were combustible at any point during the three year period except a one month drying period immediately after harvesting

  14. Managing Understory Vegetation for Maintaining Productivity in Black Spruce Forests: A Synthesis within a Multi-Scale Research Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilles Joanisse

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable management of boreal ecosystems involves the establishment of vigorous tree regeneration after harvest. However, two groups of understory plants influence regeneration success in eastern boreal Canada. Ericaceous shrubs are recognized to rapidly dominate susceptible boreal sites after harvest. Such dominance reduces recruitment and causes stagnant conifer growth, lasting decades on some sites. Additionally, peat accumulation due to Sphagnum growth after harvest forces the roots of regenerating conifers out of the relatively nutrient rich and warm mineral soil into the relatively nutrient poor and cool organic layer, with drastic effects on growth. Shifts from once productive black spruce forests to ericaceous heaths or paludified forests affect forest productivity and biodiversity. Under natural disturbance dynamics, fires severe enough to substantially reduce the organic layer thickness and affect ground cover species are required to establish a productive regeneration layer on such sites. We succinctly review how understory vegetation influences black spruce ecosystem dynamics in eastern boreal Canada, and present a multi-scale research model to understand, limit the loss and restore productive and diverse ecosystems in this region. Our model integrates knowledge of plant-level mechanisms in the development of silvicultural tools to sustain productivity. Fundamental knowledge is integrated at stand, landscape, regional and provincial levels to understand the distribution and dynamics of ericaceous shrubs and paludification processes and to support tactical and strategic forest management. The model can be adapted and applied to other natural resource management problems, in other biomes.

  15. Relative role of understory and overstory in carbon and nitrogen cycling in a southern Appalachian spruce-fir forest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, P.T.; Van Miegroet, H. [Utah State Univ., Logan, UT (United States). Dept. of Wildland Resources and the Ecology Center; Nicholas, N.S. [Yosemite National Park, El Portal, CA (United States). Resources Management and Science Div.

    2007-12-15

    This study examined pools and fluxes of biomass, carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) in the overstory and understory of a southern Appalachian red spruce and Fraser fir forest after adelgid-induced fir mortality and spruce windthrow. Standing biomass and fluxes of all growth forms from periodic stand inventories, vegetation surveys, and allometric equations were estimated. Plant- and tissue-specific C and N concentrations were used to calculate total C and N pools and fluxes. Results of the study showed that total aboveground biomass re-attained values observed before the disturbances. Overstory biomass production and N uptake exceeded values observed in earlier reports. The woody overstory accounted for 3 per cent of all aboveground biomass as well as 10 per cent of annual productivity, and 19 per cent of total N uptake. It was concluded that the N-rich understory vegetation plays a significant role in N cycling, and contributed to overall productivity of the system. Further research is needed to examine the relationships between the over- and understories in order to investigate future changes in nutrient cycling. 60 refs., 2 tabs., 4 figs.

  16. Can We Use Forest Inventory Mapping as a Coarse Filter in Ecosystem Based Management in the Black Spruce Boreal Forest?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chafi Chaieb

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Forest inventory mapping is used worldwide to describe forests at a large spatial scale via the delimitation of portions of the landscape that are structurally homogeneous. Consequently, there is a significant amount of descriptive forest data in forest inventory maps, particularly with the development of ecosystem classification, which represents a significant potential for use in ecosystem based management. With this study we propose to test whether forest inventory maps can be used to describe not only stand characteristics but also dynamic processes. The results indicate that stand types identifiable in forest inventory maps do not in fact represent unique developmental stages, but rather confound stands at multiple developmental stages that may be undergoing different ecological processes. The reasons for this are linked to both the interaction between succession, fire severity and paludification. Finally, some aspects of the process of forest inventory mapping itself contribute to the disjunction between forest types and forest succession. Given the low similarity between spruce mapping types and their actual description following forest inventories, it would be too ambitious to infer the dynamic aspects of spruce forest by map units.

  17. Effect of mixing on enzymatic hydrolysis of steam-pretreated spruce: a quantitative analysis of conversion and power consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiman Magnus

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background When scaling up lignocellulose-based ethanol production, the desire to increase the final ethanol titer after fermentation can introduce problems. A high concentration of water-insoluble solids (WIS is needed in the enzymatic hydrolysis step, resulting in increased viscosity, which can cause mass and heat transfer problems because of poor mixing of the material. In the present study, the effects of mixing on the enzymatic hydrolysis of steam-pretreated spruce were investigated using a stirred tank reactor operated with different impeller speeds and enzyme loadings. In addition, the results were related to the power input needed to operate the impeller at different speeds, taking into account the changes in rheology throughout the process. Results A marked difference in hydrolysis rate at different impeller speeds was found. For example, the conversion was twice as high after 48 hours at 500 rpm compared with 25 rpm. This difference remained throughout the 96 hours of hydrolysis. Substantial amounts of energy were required to achieve only minor increases in conversion during the later stages of the process. Conclusions Impeller speed strongly affected both the hydrolysis rate of the pretreated spruce and needed power input. Similar conversions could be obtained at different energy input by altering the mixing (that is, energy input, enzyme load and residence time, an important issue to consider when designing large-scale plants.

  18. Differences in vole preference, secondary chemistry and nutrient levels between naturally regenerated and planted Norway spruce seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virjamo, Virpi; Julkunen-Tiitto, Riitta; Henttonen, Heikki; Hiltunen, Eveliina; Karjalainen, Reijo; Korhonen, Juhani; Huitu, Otso

    2013-10-01

    Field voles (Microtus agrestis) cause severe damage to young Norway spruce (Picea abies) plantations during wintertime in Fennoscandia. We experimentally investigated vole preference for winter-dormant, naturally regenerated seedlings; spring-planted seedlings; or autumn-planted seedlings; and how preference corresponds with seedling chemistry. Voles showed the highest preference for autumn-planted seedlings and the second highest for spring-planted seedlings, while naturally regenerated seedlings were avoided. The stems of the autumn-planted seedlings contained higher concentrations of nitrogen and piperidine alkaloids and lower concentrations of stilbenes than did the other groups. In addition to differences between naturally regenerated and planted seedlings, we investigated seasonal differences in naturally regenerated P. abies needle and bark secondary chemistry. While piperidine alkaloid concentrations did not vary with season, the soluble non-tannin phenolics of needles and the condensed tannins of bark were lower in May than in November or January. At the time of planting, the concentration of bark piperidine alkaloids was higher in autumn-planted than in spring-planted seedlings. We detected two alkaloids not previously found in P. abies, 2-methyl-6-propyl-1,6-piperideine and a tentatively identified pinidine-isomer. Our results demonstrate that vole choice of spruce seedlings is promoted by high nitrogen and low stilbene content, both associated with seedlings planted late in the season. As vole damage is linked to seedling chemistry, damage potentially could be mitigated by advancing planting or by manipulating plant chemistry in nurseries.

  19. White Spruce Growth and Wood Properties over Multiple Time Periods in Relation to Current Tree and Stand Attributes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Cortini

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The relationships between white spruce radial increment and wood properties were investigated in relation to tree and stand attributes using data from mature white spruce stands in the boreal forest of western Canada that experienced a range of shelterwood treatments. The model with the highest predictive ability was radial increment (adj-R2 = 67% and included crown attributes, diameter at breast height (DBH, average height of competitors, and a climate index. Radial growth was positively related to live crown ratio, whereas wood density and modulus of elasticity were negatively correlated to the crown attribute. Tree slenderness had a significant negative effect on wood density and modulus of elasticity, as it reflects the mechanical stability requirement of the tree. The models consistently improved when using annual averages calculated over longer periods of time. However, when the annual averages were calculated using time periods of 5–10 and 10–20 years prior to sampling, the predictive ability of the models decreased, which indicated that the current tree and stand conditions were the best predictors of growth and wood properties up to five years prior to sampling. This study suggests that crown length equal to 2/3 of the tree height might represent an optimal balance between radial growth and wood quality.

  20. Similarity of nutrient uptake and root dimensions of Engelmann spruce and subalpine fir at two contrasting sites in Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanai, R; McFarlane, K; Lucash, M; Kulpa, S; Wood, D

    2009-10-09

    Nutrient uptake capacity is an important parameter in modeling nutrient uptake by plants. Researchers commonly assume that uptake capacity measured for a species can be used across sites. We tested this assumption by measuring the nutrient uptake capacity of intact roots of Engelmann spruce (Picea engelmanni Parry) and subalpine fir (Abies lasiocarpa (Hook.) Nutt.) at Loch Vale Watershed and Fraser Experimental Forest in the Rocky Mountains of central Colorado. Roots still attached to the tree were exposed to one of three concentrations of nutrient solutions for time periods ranging from 1 to 96 hours, and solutions were analyzed for ammonium, nitrate, calcium, magnesium, and potassium. Surprisingly, the two species were indistinguishable in nutrient uptake within site for all nutrients (P > 0.25), but uptake rates differed by site. In general, nutrient uptake was higher at Fraser (P = 0.01, 0.15, 0.03, 0.18 for NH{sub 4}{sup +}, NO{sub 3}{sup -}, Ca{sup 2+}, and K{sup +}, respectively), which is west of the Continental Divide and has lower atmospheric deposition of N than Loch Vale. Mean uptake rates by site for ambient solution concentrations were 0.12 {micro}mol NH{sub 4}{sup +} g{sub fwt}{sup -1} h{sup -1}, 0.02 {micro}mol NO{sub 3}{sup -} g{sub fwt}{sup -1}, 0.21 {micro}mol Ca{sup 2+} g{sub fwt}{sup -1} h{sup -1}, and 0.01 {micro}mol Mg{sup 2+} g{sub fwt}{sup -1} h{sup -1} at Loch Vale, and 0.21 {micro}mol NH{sub 4}{sup +} f{sub fwt}{sup -1}h{sup -1}, 0.04 {micro}mol NO{sub 3}{sup -} g{sub fwt}{sup -1} h{sup -1}, 0.51 {micro}mol Ca{sup 2+}g{sub fwt}{sup -1}h{sup -1}, and 0.07 {micro}mol Mg{sup 2+} f{sub fwt}{sup -1}h{sup -1} at Fraser. The importance of site conditions in determining uptake capacity should not be overlooked when parameterizing nutrient uptake models. We also characterized the root morphology of these two species and compared them to other tree species we have measured at various sites in the northeastern USA. Engelman spruce and subalpine fir

  1. Changes in canopy cover alter surface air and forest floor temperature in a high-elevation red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.) forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnny L. Boggs; Steven G. McNulty

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study is to describe winter and summer surface air and forest floor temperature patterns and diurnal fluctuations in high-elevation red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.) forests with different levels of canopy cover. In 1988, a series of 10- x 10-meter plots (control, low nitrogen [N] addition, and high nitrogen addition) were...

  2. Changes in polyamines, inorganic ions and glutamine synthetase activity in response to nitrogen availability and form in red spruce (Picea rubens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelle J. Serapiglia; Rakesh Minocha; Subhash C. Minocha

    2008-01-01

    We analyzed effects of nitrogen availability and form on growth rates, concentrations of polyamines and inorganic ions and glutamine synthetase activity in in-vitro-cultured red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.) cells. Growth rates, concentrations of polyamines and glutamine synthetase activity declined when either the amount of nitrate or the total amount...

  3. Spruce bark beetle in Sumava NP: A precedent case of EU Wilderness Protection, the role of NGOs and the public in wilderness protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaromir Blaha; Vojtech Kotecky

    2015-01-01

    Sumava National Park, in the Czech Republic, is, along with the adjacent Bayerischer Wald NP in Germany, one of the largest wilderness areas in Western and Central Europe. Mountain spruce forests here have been heavily influenced by natural disturbances. Following years of debate about conservation management in the national park, logging operations on the Czech side...

  4. Functions for biomass and basic density of stem, crown and root system of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovsgaard, Jens Peter; Bald, Caroline; Nord-Larsen, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Models for predicting the biomass of forest trees are becoming increasingly important for assessing forest resources and carbon sequestration in forests. We developed functions for predicting the biomass and basic density of above- and below-ground parts of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.)...

  5. Size-dependence of tree growth response to drought for Norway spruce and European beech individuals in monospecific and mixed-species stands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, H; Pretzsch, H; Schütze, G; Rötzer, T

    2017-09-01

    Climate anomalies have resulted in changing forest productivity, increasing tree mortality in Central and Southern Europe. This has resulted in more severe and frequent ecological disturbances to forest stands. This study analysed the size-dependence of growth response to drought years based on 384 tree individuals of Norway spruce [Picea abies (L.) Karst.] and European beech [Fagus sylvatica ([L.)] in Bavaria, Germany. Samples were collected in both monospecific and mixed-species stands. To quantify the growth response to drought stress, indices for basal area increment, resistance, recovery and resilience were calculated from tree ring measurements of increment cores. Linear mixed models were developed to estimate the influence of drought periods. The results show that ageing-related growth decline is significant in drought years. Drought resilience and resistance decrease significantly with growth size among Norway spruce individuals. Evidence is also provided for robustness in the resilience capacity of European beech during drought stress. Spruce benefits from species mixing with deciduous beech, with over-yielding spruce in pure stands. The importance of the influence of size-dependence within tree growth studies during disturbances is highlighted and should be considered in future studies of disturbances, including drought. © 2017 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  6. Rearing Glypta Fumiferanae [hym.:Ichneumonida] on a multivoltine laboratory colony of the Western Spruce Budworm (Choristoneura Occidentalis) [LEP.:Tortricidae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nancy Rappaport; Marion Page

    1985-01-01

    Methods were devloped for rearing Glypta fumiferanae Viereck on a nondiapausing laboratory colony of the western spruce budworm, Choristoneura occidentalis Freeman. Both host and parasite are univoltine and undergo diapause in nature. In this study, the parasite's voltinism was synchronized with that of a nondiapausing...

  7. Shoot water relations of mature black spruce families displaying a genotype x environment interaction in growth rate. II. Temporal trends and response to varying soil water conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    John E. Major; Kurt H. Johnsen

    1999-01-01

    Pressure-volume curves and shoot water potentials were determined for black spruce (Picea mariana (Mill.) BSP) trees from four full-sib families at the Petawawa Research Forest, Ontario, Canada. Trees were sampled from a dry site in 1992 and from the dry site and a wet site in 1993. Modulus of elasticity (e ), osmotic potential at...

  8. Shoot water relations of mature black spruce families displaying a genotype x environment interaction in growth rate. I. Family and site effects over three growing seasons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurt H. Johnsen; John E Major

    1999-01-01

    Pressure-volume curves were determined for black spruce (Picea mariana (Mill.) BSP) trees from four full-sib families. During the first two years, trees were measured from a plantation on a dry site. In the third year, trees were sampled from the dry site and a wet site. Diurnal measurements of shoot water potential allowed in situ ...

  9. Environmental equity and the conservation of unique ecosystems: an analysis of the distribution of benefits for protecting Southern Appalachian spruce-fir forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph E. Aldy; Randall A. Kramer; Thomas P. Holmes

    1999-01-01

    Some critics in the environmental equity literature argue that low-income populations disproportionately have environmental risks, while the wealthy and better educated gain disproportionately from protecting unique ecosystems. The authors test this hypothesis in an analysis of the decline of Southern Appalachian spruce-fir forests. They calculate willingness-to-pay...

  10. Raman imaging to investigate ultrastructure and composition of plant cell walls : distribution of lignin and cellulose in black spruce wood (Picea mariana)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umesh P. Agarwal

    2006-01-01

    A detailed understanding of the structural organization of the cell wall of vascular plants is important from both the perspectives of plant biology and chemistry and of commercial utilization. A state-of-the-art 633-nm laser-based confocal Raman microscope was used to determine the distribution of cell wall components in the cross section of black spruce wood in situ...

  11. The use of weather surveillance radar and high-resolution three dimensional weather data to monitor a spruce budworm mass exodus flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan Boulanger; Frédéric Fabry; Alamelu Kilambi; Deepa S. Pureswaran; Brian R. Sturtevant; Rémi. Saint-Amant

    2017-01-01

    The likely spread of the current spruce budworm (SBW; Choristoneura fumiferana [Clem.]) outbreak fromhigh to low density areas brings to the forefront a pressing need to understand its dispersal dynamics and to document mass exodus flights in relation to weather patterns. In this study, we used the weather surveillance radar of Val d'Irène in...

  12. 3-Methylcyclohex-2-en-1-one for area and individual tree protection against spruce beetle (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) attack in the southern Rocky Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    E. Matthew Hansen; A. Steven Munson; Darren C. Blackford; Andrew D. Graves; Tom W. Coleman; L. Scott. Baggett

    2017-01-01

    We tested 3-methylcyclohex-2-en-1-one (MCH) and an Acer kairomone blend (AKB) as repellent semiochemicals for area and single tree protection to prevent spruce beetle (Dendroctonus rufipennis Kirby) attacks at locations in Utah and New Mexico. In the area protection study, we compared host infestation rates of MCH applications at three densities (20, 40, and 80 g MCH...

  13. Distribution of bioelements in spruce ecosystems of the 'Baerhalde' (Southern Black Forest). Bioelementverteilung in Fichtenoekosystemen der Baerhalde (Suedschwarzwald)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raisch, W.

    1983-01-01

    The reserves and distribution of 18 bioelements were determined in five spruce ecosystems (trees and ground vegetation) and in a pasture ecosystem. The spruce stands are 15, 25, 50, 75, and 130 years old. They cover almost a complete rotation cycle as practiced in this altitude. The mean annual increment per hectare varies from 6.6 to 8.3 solid cubic meters of standing crop. This is classified as low, whereas the degree of stocking is high. Twenty six tree compartments and in the ground vegetation the contents of N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Mn, Cu, Zn, Fe, Al, Na, Pb, Cd, Co, Cr, Ni, V, and Be were analysed and the respective dry matter-weights per hectare were calculated. The nutrient supply of the spruce stands was satisfactory for N, K, and Ca, very good for P, but critically short of Mg. Moreover, needle analysis revealed a nutrient deficiency for the micronutrients Zn and Cu. Al levels were high in the spruce needles and correlated with the exchangeable Al of the soils thus reflecting soil conditions. The heavy metals showed different distribution patterns within the ecosystems depending on their mobility in the soils as well as on the immitted far transported depositions into the Black Forest.

  14. Effect of fungus Heterobasidion Annosum (FR bref. on fir and spruce dying in the region of the NP "Durmitor" and "Biogradska gora"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anđelić Milosav

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Several adverse factors of abiotic and biotic nature affect the vitality and decline of spruce and fir in the region of NP "Durmitor" and NP "Biogradska Gora". The most significant adverse abiotic factor is air pollution. Among the adverse biotic factors, the most significant is by all means the parasitic fungus Heterobasidion annosum. The damage caused by this fungus is especially severe in spruce and fir stands in the region of the NP "Durmitor". The infection intensity is approximately the same in both species. The damage caused by H. annosum is greater in the forests of NP "Durmitor", than in the forests of NP "Biogradska Gora". This can be explained by the fact that spruce and fir stands on Durmitor were felled without maintaining the forest order. In the virgin forest reserve NP "Biogradska Gora" in the past there were no fellings, i.e. the impact of anthropogenic factors was excluded. Fungus H. annosum cannot be eliminated form spruce and fir stands on Durmitor, but the treatment of stumps (immediately after the sanitation felling with "Penofil" or "Borax" can check the velocity of its spread. In this way, the forest is given an opportunity to form more resistant populations through a long period by natural selection .

  15. Below-ground carbon allocation in mature beech and spruce trees following long-term, experimentally enhanced O{sub 3} exposure in Southern Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, Christian P., E-mail: Andersen.christian@epa.go [US Environmental Protection Agency, Western Ecology Division, 200 SW 35th St., Corvallis, OR 97333 (United States); Ritter, Wilma [Ecophysiology of Plants, Department of Ecology and Ecosystem Management, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Am Hochanger 13, 85354 Freising (Germany); Gregg, Jillian [Terrestrial Ecosystems Research Associates, 200 SW 35th St., Corvallis, OR 97333 (United States); Matyssek, Rainer; Grams, Thorsten E.E. [Ecophysiology of Plants, Department of Ecology and Ecosystem Management, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Am Hochanger 13, 85354 Freising (Germany)

    2010-08-15

    Canopies of adult European beech (Fagus sylvatica) and Norway spruce (Picea abies) were labeled with CO{sub 2} depleted in {sup 13}C to evaluate carbon allocation belowground. One-half the trees were exposed to elevated O{sub 3} for 6 yrs prior to and during the experiment. Soil-gas sampling wells were placed at 8 and 15 cm and soil CO{sub 2} was sampled during labeling in mid-late August, 2006. In beech, {delta}{sup 13}CO{sub 2} at both depths decreased approximately 50 h after labeling, reflecting rapid translocation of fixed C to roots and release through respiration. In spruce, label was detected in fine-root tissue, but there was no evidence of label in {delta}{sup 13}CO{sub 2}. The results show that C fixed in the canopy rapidly reaches respiratory pools in beech roots, and suggest that spruce may allocate very little of recently-fixed carbon into root respiration during late summer. A change in carbon allocation belowground due to long-term O{sub 3} exposure was not observed. - Below-ground carbon allocation in mature beech and spruce exposed to ozone.

  16. Below-ground effects of enhanced tropospheric ozone and drought in a beech/spruce forest (Fagus sylvatica L. / Picea abies [L.] Karst)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of experimentally elevated O3 on soil respiration rates, standing fine-root biomass, fine-root production and δ13C signature of newly produced fine roots were investigated in an adult European beech/Norway spruce forest in Germany during two subsequent years with cont...

  17. Carbon flux to woody tissues in a beech/spruce forest during summer and in response to chronic O3 exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    The present study compares the dynamics in carbon (C) allocation of adult deciduous beech (Fagus sylvatica) and evergreen spruce (Picea abies) during summer and in response to seven-year-long exposure with twice-ambient ozone (O3) concentrations (2 × O3). Focus was on the respira...

  18. A new program of work to conduct research in support of gene conservation, restoration, and proactive deployment of red spruce in light of climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    K.H. Johnsen; J.R. Butnor; B.S. Crane

    2017-01-01

    Red spruce’s (Picea rubens Sarg.) range extends from the southern and central Appalachians north into Vermont and Maine and then to the Canadian Maritime provinces with relic populations as far west as Ontario. Due to heavy logging and resultant severe fires in the 19th and early 20th centuries, and more recent declines related to air pollution and...

  19. Effects of air pollution and climatic factors on Norway spruce forests in the Orlicke hory Mts. (Czech Republic), 1979-2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanislav Vacek; Iva Hunova; Zdenek Vacek; Pavla Hejcmanova; Vilem Podrazsky; Jan Kral; Tereza Putalova; W. Keith Moser

    2015-01-01

    The area of the Orlicke hory Mts. has been characterised by decline and disturbances of Norway spruce (Picea abies/L./Karst.) stands since the 1980s. Currently, only three permanent research plots have been preserved from the original sixteen established plots in this region. In the present study, the health status, as indicated by defoliation, mortality, and...

  20. Stem biomass, C and N partitioning and growth efficiency of mature pedigreed black spruce on both a wet and a dry site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John Major; Kurt Johnsen; Debra Barsi; Moira Campbell; John Malcolm

    2013-01-01

    Worldwide, efforts to manage atmospheric CO2 are being explored both by reducing emissions and by sequestering more carbon (C). Stem biomass, C, and nitrogen (N) parameters were measured in plots of first-generation (F1), 32-year-old black spruce (Picea mariana (Mill.) B.S.P.) from four full-sib families studied previously for drought tolerance and differential...