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Sample records for himalayas surrogate analysis

  1. System Reliability Analysis Capability and Surrogate Model Application in RAVEN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabiti, Cristian; Alfonsi, Andrea; Huang, Dongli; Gleicher, Frederick; Wang, Bei; Adbel-Khalik, Hany S.; Pascucci, Valerio; Smith, Curtis L.

    2015-11-01

    This report collect the effort performed to improve the reliability analysis capabilities of the RAVEN code and explore new opportunity in the usage of surrogate model by extending the current RAVEN capabilities to multi physics surrogate models and construction of surrogate models for high dimensionality fields.

  2. Surrogate Analysis and Index Developer (SAID) tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domanski, Marian M.; Straub, Timothy D.; Landers, Mark N.

    2015-10-01

    The use of acoustic and other parameters as surrogates for suspended-sediment concentrations (SSC) in rivers has been successful in multiple applications across the Nation. Tools to process and evaluate the data are critical to advancing the operational use of surrogates along with the subsequent development of regression models from which real-time sediment concentrations can be made available to the public. Recent developments in both areas are having an immediate impact on surrogate research and on surrogate monitoring sites currently (2015) in operation.

  3. Strength Reliability Analysis of Turbine Blade Using Surrogate Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Duan

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available There are many stochastic parameters that have an effect on the reliability of steam turbine blades performance in practical operation. In order to improve the reliability of blade design, it is necessary to take these stochastic parameters into account. In this study, a variable cross-section twisted blade is investigated and geometrical parameters, material parameters and load parameters are considered as random variables. A reliability analysis method as a combination of a Finite Element Method (FEM, a surrogate model and Monte Carlo Simulation (MCS, is applied to solve the blade reliability analysis. Based on the blade finite element parametrical model and the experimental design, two kinds of surrogate models, Polynomial Response Surface (PRS and Artificial Neural Network (ANN, are applied to construct the approximation analytical expressions between the blade responses (including maximum stress and deflection and random input variables, which act as a surrogate of finite element solver to drastically reduce the number of simulations required. Then the surrogate is used for most of the samples needed in the Monte Carlo method and the statistical parameters and cumulative distribution functions of the maximum stress and deflection are obtained by Monte Carlo simulation. Finally, the probabilistic sensitivities analysis, which combines the magnitude of the gradient and the width of the scatter range of the random input variables, is applied to evaluate how much the maximum stress and deflection of the blade are influenced by the random nature of input parameters.

  4. Morphometric analysis of Suketi river basin, Himachal Himalaya, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Anil M Pophare; Umesh S Balpande

    2014-10-01

    Suketi river basin is located in the Mandi district of Himachal Pradesh, India. It encompasses a central inter-montane valley and surrounding mountainous terrain in the Lower Himachal Himalaya. Morphometric analysis of the Suketi river basin was carried out to study its drainage characteristics and overall groundwater resource potential. The entire Suketi river basin has been divided into five sub-basins based on the catchment areas of Suketi trunk stream and its major tributaries. Quantitative assessment of each sub-basin was carried out for its linear, areal, and relief aspects. The analysis reveals that the drainage network of the entire Suketi river basin constitutes a 7th order basin. Out of five sub-basins, Kansa khad sub-basin (KKSB), Gangli khad sub-basin (GKSB) and Ratti khad sub-basin (RKSB) are 5th order subbasins. The Dadour khad sub-basin (DKSB) is 6th order sub-basin, while Suketi trunk stream sub-basin (STSSB) is a 7th order sub-basin. The entire drainage basin area reflects late youth to early mature stage of development of the fluvial geomorphic cycle, which is dominated by rain and snow fed lower order streams. It has low stream frequency (Fs) and moderate drainage density (Dd) of 2.69 km/km2. Bifurcation ratios (Rb) of various stream orders indicate that streams up to 3rd order are surging through highly dissected mountainous terrain, which facilitates high overland flow and less recharge into the subsurface resulting in low groundwater potential in the zones of 1st, 2nd, and 3rd order streams of the Suketi river basin. The circulatory ratio (Rc) of 0.65 and elongation ratio (Re) of 0.80 show elongated nature of the Suketi river basin, while infiltration number (If) of 10.66 indicates dominance of relief features and low groundwater potential in the high altitude mountainous terrain. The asymmetry factor (Af) of Suketi river basin indicates that the palaeo-tectonic tilting, at drainage basin scale, was towards the downstream right side of the

  5. Simultaneous Thermal Analysis of Remediated Nitrate Salt Surrogates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wayne, David Matthew [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-05-13

    The actinide engineering and science group (MET-1) have completed simultaneous thermal analysis and offgas analysis by mass spectrometry (STA-MS) of remediated nitrate salt (RNS) surrogates formulated by the high explosives science and technology group (M-7). The 1.0 to 1.5g surrogate samples were first analyzed as received, then a new set was analyzed with 100-200mL 10M HNO3 +0.3 MHF added, and a third set was analyzed after 200 mL of a concentrated Pu-AM spike (in 10M HNO3 +0.3 MHF) was added. The acid and spike solutions were formulated by the actinide analytical chemistry group (C-AAC) using reagent-grade HNO3 and HF, which was also used to dissolve a small quantity of mixed, high-fired PuO2/ AmO2 oxide.

  6. Vegetational Diversity Analysis across Different Habitats in Garhwal Himalaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vardan Singh Rawat

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Four forest sites varying in vegetation types were studied along an altitudinal range between 2200 and 2500 m. Maximum tree, shrub, and herb species were recorded on stream bank site (22, 25, and 54, resp.. Pteridophytes and bryophytes species richness was maximum on moist site (4 and 5, resp.. The number of climbers was greater in moist and dry habitats (7 species each. Parasitic species were restricted only on dry and stream bank habitats. Restricted tree and shrub species were greater on stream bank site and dry site, respectively. The herb and climber species were greater on moist site. The distribution and species richness pattern in this elevational range largely depend on the altitude and climatic variables. Along the entire range of Garhwal Himalaya, the overlapping among species regimes is broad; therefore, transitional communities having mixture of many species and zones are present. The present study indicates that the opening canopies increase the richness of tree, shrub, herb, and climbers.

  7. Effectiveness of biological surrogates for predicting patterns of marine biodiversity: a global meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camille Mellin

    Full Text Available The use of biological surrogates as proxies for biodiversity patterns is gaining popularity, particularly in marine systems where field surveys can be expensive and species richness high. Yet, uncertainty regarding their applicability remains because of inconsistency of definitions, a lack of standard methods for estimating effectiveness, and variable spatial scales considered. We present a Bayesian meta-analysis of the effectiveness of biological surrogates in marine ecosystems. Surrogate effectiveness was defined both as the proportion of surrogacy tests where predictions based on surrogates were better than random (i.e., low probability of making a Type I error; P and as the predictability of targets using surrogates (R(2. A total of 264 published surrogacy tests combined with prior probabilities elicited from eight international experts demonstrated that the habitat, spatial scale, type of surrogate and statistical method used all influenced surrogate effectiveness, at least according to either P or R(2. The type of surrogate used (higher-taxa, cross-taxa or subset taxa was the best predictor of P, with the higher-taxa surrogates outperforming all others. The marine habitat was the best predictor of R(2, with particularly low predictability in tropical reefs. Surrogate effectiveness was greatest for higher-taxa surrogates at a <10-km spatial scale, in low-complexity marine habitats such as soft bottoms, and using multivariate-based methods. Comparisons with terrestrial studies in terms of the methods used to study surrogates revealed that marine applications still ignore some problems with several widely used statistical approaches to surrogacy. Our study provides a benchmark for the reliable use of biological surrogates in marine ecosystems, and highlights directions for future development of biological surrogates in predicting biodiversity.

  8. Use of objective analysis to estimate winter temperature and precipitation at different stations over western Himalaya

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jagdish Chandra Joshi; Ashwagosha Ganju

    2010-10-01

    Temperature and fresh snow are essential inputs in an avalanche forecasting model.Without these parameters,prediction of avalanche occurrence for a region would be very difficult.In the complex terrain of Himalaya,nonavailability of snow and meteorological data of the remote locations during snow storms in the winter is a common occurrence.In view of this persistent problem present study estimates maximum temperature,minimum temperature,ambient temperature and precipitation intensity on different regions of Indian western Himalaya by using similar parameters of the neighbouring regions.The location at which parameters are required and its neighbouring locations should all fall in the same snow climatic zone.Initial step to estimate the parameters at a location,is to shift the parameters of neighbouring regions at a reference height corresponding to the altitude of the location at which parameters are to be estimated.The parameters at this reference height are then spatially interpolated by using Barnes objective analysis.The parameters estimated on different locations are compared with the observed one and the Root Mean Square Errors (RMSE)of the observed and estimated values of the parameters are discussed for the winters of 2007 –2008.

  9. Analysis of soil moisture variation by forest cover structure in lower western Himalayas, India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J.v.Tyagi; Nuzhat Qazi; S.P.Rai; M.P.Singh

    2013-01-01

    Soil moisture affects various hydrological processes,including evapotranspiration,infiltration,and runoff.Forested areas in the lower western Himalaya in India constitute the headwater catchments for many hill streams and have experienced degradation in forest cover due to grazing,deforestation and other human activities.This change in forest cover is likely to alter the soil moisture regime and,consequently,flow regimes in streams.The effect of change in forest cover on soil moisture regimes of this dry region has not been studied through long term field observations.We monitored soil matric potentials in two small watersheds in the lower western Himalaya of India.The watersheds consisted of homogeneous land covers of moderately dense oak forest and moderately degraded mixed oak forest.Observations were recorded at three sites at three depths in each watershed at fortnightly intervals for a period of three years.The soil moisture contents derived from soil potential measurements were analyzed to understand the spatial,temporal and profile variations under the two structures of forest cover.The analysis revealed large variations in soil moisture storage at different sites and depths and also during different seasons in each watershed.Mean soil moisture storage during monsoon,winter and summer seasons was higher under dense forest than under degraded forest.Highest soil moisture content occurred at shallow soil profiles,decreasing with depth in both watersheds.A high positive correlation was found between tree density and soil moisture content.Mean soil moisture content over the entire study period was higher under dense forest than under degraded forest.This indicated a potential for soil water storage under well managed oak forest.Because soil water storage is vital for sustenance of low flows,attention is needed on the management of oak forests in the Himalayan region.

  10. Multifractal analysis of earthquakes in Kumaun Himalaya and its surrounding region

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P N S Roy; S K Mondal

    2012-08-01

    Himalayan seismicity is related to continuing northward convergence of Indian plate against Eurasian plate. Earthquakes in this region are mainly caused due to release of elastic strain energy. The Himalayan region can be attributed to highly complex geodynamic process and therefore is best suited for multifractal seismicity analysis. Fractal analysis of earthquakes (mb ≥ 3.5) occurred during 1973–2008 led to the detection of a clustering pattern in the narrow time span. This clustering was identified in three windows of 50 events each having low spatial correlation fractal dimension () value 0.836, 0.946 and 0.285 which were mainly during the span of 1998 to 2005. This clustering may be considered as an indication of a highly stressed region. The Guttenberg Richter -value was determined for the same subsets considered for the estimation. Based on the fractal clustering pattern of events, we conclude that the clustered events are indicative of a highly stressed region of weak zone from where the rupture propagation eventually may nucleate as a strong earthquake. Multifractal analysis gave some understanding of the heterogeneity of fractal structure of the seismicity and existence of complex interconnected structure of the Himalayan thrust systems. The present analysis indicates an impending strong earthquake, which might help in better hazard mitigation for the Kumaun Himalaya and its surrounding region.

  11. Earthquake Risk Analysis and Science for Peace in Western/ Kashmir Himalayas - A Road Map for Transnational Subsurface Earth Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tandon, K.

    2006-12-01

    . However, due to security concerns by the Government of Pakistan, the meeting was postponed at the 11th hour. Such political constraints invariably become the most dominant factor whether such bold endeavors can even be initiated, and the first order business is to convince the policy makers and scientists from India, Pakistan, USA, and other countries at all possible forums including AGU, the need and urgency for such transnational initiatives. The broader impacts are science and earthquake risk analysis in Western/ Kashmir Himalayas, lay framework for long-term policy decisions for earthquake hazards in Himalayas, and instrument for peace initiative.

  12. A Bayesian Surrogate Model for Rapid Time Series Analysis and Application to Exoplanet Observations

    CERN Document Server

    Ford, Eric B; Veras, Dimitri

    2011-01-01

    We present a Bayesian surrogate model for the analysis of periodic or quasi-periodic time series data. We describe a computationally efficient implementation that enables Bayesian model comparison. We apply this model to simulated and real exoplanet observations. We discuss the results and demonstrate some of the challenges for applying our surrogate model to realistic exoplanet data sets. In particular, we find that analyses of real world data should pay careful attention to the effects of uneven spacing of observations and the choice of prior for the "jitter" parameter.

  13. Hydrologically complemented deterministic slope stability analysis in part of Indian Lesser Himalaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Mathew

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study uses a deterministic approach to evaluate the factor of safety (FS of the terrain for different hydrological conditions, in part of Indian Lesser Himalaya. The results indicate sudden increase in the percentage unstable area from 7.5% to 13.8% for rainfall intensity variation from 50 to 100 mm/day. For the rainfall intensity of 15 August 2007 which caused many landslides in the study area, 18.5% of the total area was unstable and it increases to 21.7%, 23.5% and 24.7%, respectively, for rainfall intensities corresponding to 10, 25 and 50 year return periods. This increment stagnates at about 260 mm/day, making about 25% of the area unstable. Higher rainfall intensities make progressively gentler slopes unstable, but limited to 25 degrees of slope in this area. The area underlain by granitic gneiss showed 23.1% of area as unstable for 135 mm/day of rainfall intensity, and was followed by those areas underlain by amphibolite (16%, limestone (13.7% and quartzite (10.4%. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve analysis has given 84.2% accuracy for the model. Conversion of FS to failure probability through Z scores enables identification unstable or marginally unstable areas, for planning selective slope stabilization measures.

  14. Surrogate analysis and index developer (SAID) tool and real-time data dissemination utilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domanski, Marian M.; Straub, Timothy D.; Wood, Molly S.; Landers, Mark N.; Wall, Gary R.; Brady, Steven J.

    2015-01-01

    The use of acoustic and other parameters as surrogates for suspended-sediment concentrations (SSC) in rivers has been successful in multiple applications across the Nation. Critical to advancing the operational use of surrogates are tools to process and evaluate the data along with the subsequent development of regression models from which real-time sediment concentrations can be made available to the public. Recent developments in both areas are having an immediate impact on surrogate research, and on surrogate monitoring sites currently in operation. The Surrogate Analysis and Index Developer (SAID) standalone tool, under development by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), assists in the creation of regression models that relate response and explanatory variables by providing visual and quantitative diagnostics to the user. SAID also processes acoustic parameters to be used as explanatory variables for suspended-sediment concentrations. The sediment acoustic method utilizes acoustic parameters from fixed-mount stationary equipment. The background theory and method used by the tool have been described in recent publications, and the tool also serves to support sediment-acoustic-index methods being drafted by the multi-agency Sediment Acoustic Leadership Team (SALT), and other surrogate guidelines like USGS Techniques and Methods 3-C4 for turbidity and SSC. The regression models in SAID can be used in utilities that have been developed to work with the USGS National Water Information System (NWIS) and for the USGS National Real-Time Water Quality (NRTWQ) Web site. The real-time dissemination of predicted SSC and prediction intervals for each time step has substantial potential to improve understanding of sediment-related water-quality and associated engineering and ecological management decisions.

  15. SVAw - a web-based application tool for automated surrogate variable analysis of gene expression studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirooznia, Mehdi; Seifuddin, Fayaz; Goes, Fernando S; Leek, Jeffrey T; Zandi, Peter P

    2013-03-11

    Surrogate variable analysis (SVA) is a powerful method to identify, estimate, and utilize the components of gene expression heterogeneity due to unknown and/or unmeasured technical, genetic, environmental, or demographic factors. These sources of heterogeneity are common in gene expression studies, and failing to incorporate them into the analysis can obscure results. Using SVA increases the biological accuracy and reproducibility of gene expression studies by identifying these sources of heterogeneity and correctly accounting for them in the analysis. Here we have developed a web application called SVAw (Surrogate variable analysis Web app) that provides a user friendly interface for SVA analyses of genome-wide expression studies. The software has been developed based on open source bioconductor SVA package. In our software, we have extended the SVA program functionality in three aspects: (i) the SVAw performs a fully automated and user friendly analysis workflow; (ii) It calculates probe/gene Statistics for both pre and post SVA analysis and provides a table of results for the regression of gene expression on the primary variable of interest before and after correcting for surrogate variables; and (iii) it generates a comprehensive report file, including graphical comparison of the outcome for the user. SVAw is a web server freely accessible solution for the surrogate variant analysis of high-throughput datasets and facilitates removing all unwanted and unknown sources of variation. It is freely available for use at http://psychiatry.igm.jhmi.edu/sva. The executable packages for both web and standalone application and the instruction for installation can be downloaded from our web site.

  16. Efficient stochastic EMC/EMI analysis using HDMR-generated surrogate models

    KAUST Repository

    Yücel, Abdulkadir C.

    2011-08-01

    Stochastic methods have been used extensively to quantify effects due to uncertainty in system parameters (e.g. material, geometrical, and electrical constants) and/or excitation on observables pertinent to electromagnetic compatibility and interference (EMC/EMI) analysis (e.g. voltages across mission-critical circuit elements) [1]. In recent years, stochastic collocation (SC) methods, especially those leveraging generalized polynomial chaos (gPC) expansions, have received significant attention [2, 3]. SC-gPC methods probe surrogate models (i.e. compact polynomial input-output representations) to statistically characterize observables. They are nonintrusive, that is they use existing deterministic simulators, and often cost only a fraction of direct Monte-Carlo (MC) methods. Unfortunately, SC-gPC-generated surrogate models often lack accuracy (i) when the number of uncertain/random system variables is large and/or (ii) when the observables exhibit rapid variations. © 2011 IEEE.

  17. Surrogate Safety Analysis of Pedestrian-Vehicle Conflict at Intersections Using Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Videos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Chen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Conflict analysis using surrogate safety measures (SSMs has become an efficient approach to investigate safety issues. The state-of-the-art studies largely resort to video images taken from high buildings. However, it suffers from heavy labor work, high cost of maintenance, and even security restrictions. Data collection and processing remains a common challenge to traffic conflict analysis. Unmanned Aerial Systems (UASs or Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs, known for easy maneuvering, outstanding flexibility, and low costs, are considered to be a novel aerial sensor. By taking full advantage of the bird’s eye view offered by UAV, this study, as a pioneer work, applied UAV videos for surrogate safety analysis of pedestrian-vehicle conflicts at one urban intersection in Beijing, China. Aerial video sequences for a period of one hour were analyzed. The detection and tracking systems for vehicle and pedestrian trajectory data extraction were developed, respectively. Two SSMs, that is, Postencroachment Time (PET and Relative Time to Collision (RTTC, were employed to represent how spatially and temporally close the pedestrian-vehicle conflict is to a collision. The results of analysis showed a high exposure of pedestrians to traffic conflict both inside and outside the crosswalk and relatively risking behavior of right-turn vehicles around the corner. The findings demonstrate that UAV can support intersection safety analysis in an accurate and cost-effective way.

  18. Modified generalized sample entropy and surrogate data analysis for stock markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Mengjia; Shang, Pengjian; Huang, Jingjing

    2016-06-01

    In this paper a modified method of generalized sample entropy and surrogate data analysis is proposed as a new measure to assess the complexity of a complex dynamical system such as stock market. The method based on Hausdorff distance presents a different way of time series patterns match showing distinct behaviors of complexity. Simulations are conducted over synthetic and real-world data for providing the comparative study. Results show that the modified method is more sensitive to the change of dynamics and has richer information. In addition, exponential functions can be used to successfully fit the curves obtained from the modified method and quantify the changes of complexity for stock market data.

  19. Bamboo stumps as mosquito larval habitats in Darjeeling Himalayas,India:A spatial scale analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gautam Aditya; Rakesh Tamang; Dipendra Sharma; Francis Subba; Goutam K.Saha

    2008-01-01

    Bamboo stumps can be a congenial breeding habitat of the mosquitoes.In view of this,a preliminary assessment of the dipteran immatures inhabiting the stumps of bamboo groves in the Darjeeling Himalayas was carried out at a spatial scale.Of the 104 stumps of Dendrocalamus hamiltoni surveyed,70 were found to host immatures of three dipteran species,the mosquitoes Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus and the midges Chironomus sp.in varying densities.Though the stumps varied in diameter,in each stump on average 12.1 immatures were found.The abundance of the immatures was positively correlated with the diameter of the stumps (r = +0.382;P < 0.001) but negatively with the pH of the water present in the stumps (r = -0.336;P < 0.01).The coefficient of association was found to be +8.4 for the Ae.aegypti and Chironomus immatures,while in the rest of the species pair the association seemed to be independent.Thus it can be concluded that the stumps in the bamboo groves of Darjeeling Himalayas provides a favourable habitat for the mosquito and chironomid immatures.

  20. Exploration of Csp genes from temperate and glacier soils of the Indian Himalayas and in silico analysis of encoding proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latha, Prema K; Soni, Ravindra; Khan, Mahejibin; Marla, Soma S; Goel, Reeta

    2009-04-01

    The metagenomic Csp library was constructed from the temperate and glacier soils of central Himalaya, India followed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification. The library was further screened for low-temperature adaptation, and the positive recombinants were sorted out by determining changes in the melting temperature (Tm). A homology search of cloned sequence showed their identity with the Csp genes of Pseudomonas fluorescens, Psychrobacter cryohalolentis K5, and Shewanella spp MR-4. Amino acid sequence analysis annotated the presence of conserved aromatic and basic amino acids as well as RNA binding motifs from the cold shock domain. Furthermore, a PROSITE scan showed a moderate identity of less than 60% with the known cold shock-inducible proteins (ribosomal proteins, rbfA, DEAD-box helicases), cold acclimation protein, and temperature-induced protein (SRP1/TIP1). This study highlighted the prevalence of Csp genes from cold Himalayan environments that can be explored for tailor-made crop constructions in future.

  1. Skeletal mechanism generation for surrogate fuels using directed relation graph with error propagation and sensitivity analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Niemeyer, Kyle E; Raju, Mandhapati P

    2016-01-01

    A novel implementation for the skeletal reduction of large detailed reaction mechanisms using the directed relation graph with error propagation and sensitivity analysis (DRGEPSA) is developed and presented with examples for three hydrocarbon components, n-heptane, iso-octane, and n-decane, relevant to surrogate fuel development. DRGEPSA integrates two previously developed methods, directed relation graph-aided sensitivity analysis (DRGASA) and directed relation graph with error propagation (DRGEP), by first applying DRGEP to efficiently remove many unimportant species prior to sensitivity analysis to further remove unimportant species, producing an optimally small skeletal mechanism for a given error limit. It is illustrated that the combination of the DRGEP and DRGASA methods allows the DRGEPSA approach to overcome the weaknesses of each, specifically that DRGEP cannot identify all unimportant species and that DRGASA shields unimportant species from removal. Skeletal mechanisms for n-heptane and iso-octane ...

  2. Analysis of spatio-temporal variations in snow cover over Western Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaddam, Vinay Kumar; Sharma, Parmanand; Patel, Lavkush K.; Meloth, Thamban; Singh, Ajit

    2016-05-01

    Snow cover plays an important role in many applications like runoff estimation, hydro-power generation, irrigation and disaster management. In Indian Himalaya, snow cover monitoring on daily basis is a difficult task due to presence of cloud cover and lack of high spatial resolution datasets. Therefore, for long term monitoring, the maximum snow cover products are much reliable and preferred for the studies on snow-melt runoff, hydropower etc. In this study, the maximum snow cover products (MOD 10A2) from MODIS Terra satellite were used to study the spatial and temporal variations in five river basins namely Chandra, Bhaga, Baspa, Beas and Parvati. In addition, MODIS LST (MOD 11A1) and Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (3B42) products were used to study the temperature and precipitation trends at basin level. Further, the obtained snow cover information can be used as inputs for the models like runoff and hydropower generation.

  3. Efficient Calibration/Uncertainty Analysis Using Paired Complex/Surrogate Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrows, Wesley; Doherty, John

    2015-01-01

    The use of detailed groundwater models to simulate complex environmental processes can be hampered by (1) long run-times and (2) a penchant for solution convergence problems. Collectively, these can undermine the ability of a modeler to reduce and quantify predictive uncertainty, and therefore limit the use of such detailed models in the decision-making context. We explain and demonstrate a novel approach to calibration and the exploration of posterior predictive uncertainty, of a complex model, that can overcome these problems in many modelling contexts. The methodology relies on conjunctive use of a simplified surrogate version of the complex model in combination with the complex model itself. The methodology employs gradient-based subspace analysis and is thus readily adapted for use in highly parameterized contexts. In its most basic form, one or more surrogate models are used for calculation of the partial derivatives that collectively comprise the Jacobian matrix. Meanwhile, testing of parameter upgrades and the making of predictions is done by the original complex model. The methodology is demonstrated using a density-dependent seawater intrusion model in which the model domain is characterized by a heterogeneous distribution of hydraulic conductivity.

  4. Habitats as surrogates of taxonomic and functional fish assemblages in coral reef ecosystems: a critical analysis of factors driving effectiveness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Van Wynsberge

    Full Text Available Species check-lists are helpful to establish Marine Protected Areas (MPAs and protect local richness, endemicity, rarity, and biodiversity in general. However, such exhaustive taxonomic lists (i.e., true surrogate of biodiversity require extensive and expensive censuses, and the use of estimator surrogates (e.g., habitats is an appealing alternative. In truth, surrogate effectiveness appears from the literature highly variable both in marine and terrestrial ecosystems, making it difficult to provide practical recommendations for managers. Here, we evaluate how the biodiversity reference data set and its inherent bias can influence effectiveness. Specifically, we defined habitats by geomorphology, rugosity, and benthic cover and architecture criteria, and mapped them with satellite images for a New-Caledonian site. Fish taxonomic and functional lists were elaborated from Underwater Visual Censuses, stratified according to geomorphology and exposure. We then tested if MPA networks designed to maximize habitat richness, diversity and rarity could also effectively maximize fish richness, diversity, and rarity. Effectiveness appeared highly sensitive to the fish census design itself, in relation to the type of habitat map used and the scale of analysis. Spatial distribution of habitats (estimator surrogate's distribution, quantity and location of fish census stations (target surrogate's sampling, and random processes in the MPA design all affected effectiveness to the point that one small change in the data set could lead to opposite conclusions. We suggest that previous conclusions on surrogacy effectiveness, either positive or negative, marine or terrestrial, should be considered with caution, except in instances where very dense data sets were used without pseudo-replication. Although this does not rule out the validity of using surrogates of species lists for conservation planning, the critical joint examination of both target and estimator

  5. Evolution and outburst risk analysis of moraine-dammed lakes in the central Chinese Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shijin, Wang; Shitai, Jiao

    2015-04-01

    The recent evolution and outburst risk of two typical moraine-dammed lakes, Galong and Gangxi, central Chinese Himalaya, are analyzed using topographic maps from 1974 and Landsat satellite imagery acquired in 1988, 2000 and 2014. The datasets show the areas of Galong and Gangxi lakes increasing at rates of 0.45 and 0.34 km2/year during the period 1974-2014, an expansion of 501% and 107%, respectively, in the past 41 years, while the areas of the parent glaciers, Reqiang and Jipucong decreased by 44.22% and 37.76%, respectively. The accelerating retreat of the glaciers not only reflects their generally negative mass balance but is consistent with the rapid expansion of the moraine-dammed lakes. When acted upon by external forces such as earthquakes, heavy rainfall, rapid melting of glaciers and dead ice, and snow/ice/rock avalanches, these lakes can become extremely dangerous, easily forming outburst mudslides, which can potentially spread to the Poiqu river basin and develop into cross-border (China and Nepal) GLOF disasters. Therefore, there is an urgent need to strengthen integrated risk management of glacial lake outburst disasters with multiple objectives and modes.

  6. Biodiversity research trends and gap analysis from a transboundary landscape, Eastern Himalayas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pratikshya Kandel

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The Kangchenjunga landscape, a transboundary complex shared by Bhutan, India, and Nepal, is one of the biologically richest regions in the Eastern Himalayas. Owing to the remarkable biodiversity, the three countries came together to enhance regional cooperation in conservation and development in 2012. To start a strategic conservation intervention, the status of our knowledge base on biodiversity of the landscape is the most important stepping stone. In this paper, we traced the history of biodiversity research in the Kangchenjunga landscape, and present the research trends over time and subject interests. Meanwhile, we also identified key research and knowledge gaps and future priorities. For this, we analyzed 500 peer-reviewed journal articles (until 2014 relating to biodiversity, which were retrieved from the web platform ‘Google Scholar’ and other peer-reviewed journals. The review showed that the landscape received attention from the scientific community as early as the 1840s, and grew progressively after the 1980s. Research on fauna (especially mammals and flora (especially angiosperms is most notable, but with major gaps in systematic research of their ecology, whereas invertebrates other than butterflies appear to be neglected. There is a need for systematic research with long-term monitoring that would allow us to understand changes occurring within the landscape.

  7. Evolution and outburst risk analysis of moraine-dammed lakes in the central Chinese Himalaya

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Wang Shijin; Jiao Shitai

    2015-04-01

    The recent evolution and outburst risk of two typical moraine-dammed lakes, Galong and Gangxi, central Chinese Himalaya, are analyzed using topographic maps from 1974 and Landsat satellite imagery acquired in 1988, 2000 and 2014. The datasets show the areas of Galong and Gangxi lakes increasing at rates of 0.45 and 0.34 km2/year during the period 1974–2014, an expansion of 501% and 107%, respectively, in the past 41 years, while the areas of the parent glaciers, Reqiang and Jipucong decreased by 44.22% and 37.76%, respectively. The accelerating retreat of the glaciers not only reflects their generally negative mass balance but is consistent with the rapid expansion of the moraine-dammed lakes. When acted upon by external forces such as earthquakes, heavy rainfall, rapid melting of glaciers and dead ice, and snow/ice/rock avalanches, these lakes can become extremely dangerous, easily forming outburst mudslides, which can potentially spread to the Poiqu river basin and develop into cross-border (China and Nepal) GLOF disasters. Therefore, there is an urgent need to strengthen integrated risk management of glacial lake outburst disasters with multiple objectives and modes.

  8. Tailoring molecularly imprinted polymer beads for alternariol recognition and analysis by a screening with mycotoxin surrogates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou-Hany, Rahma A G; Urraca, Javier L; Descalzo, Ana B; Gómez-Arribas, Lidia N; Moreno-Bondi, María C; Orellana, Guillermo

    2015-12-18

    Molecularly imprinted porous polymer microspheres have been prepared for selective binding of alternariol (AOH), a phenolic mycotoxin produced by Alternaria fungi. In order to lead the synthesis of recognition materials, four original AOH surrogates have been designed, prepared and characterized. They bear different number of phenol groups in various positions and different degree of O-methylation on the dibenzo[b,d]pyran-6-one skeleton. A comprehensive library of mixtures of basic, acidic or neutral monomers, with divinylbenzene or ethyleneglycol dimethacrylate as cross-linkers, were polymerized at a small scale in the presence of the four molecular mimics of the toxin molecule. This polymer screening has allowed selection of the optimal composition of the microbeads (N-(2-aminoethyl)methacrylamide, EAMA, and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate). The latter are able to bind AOH in water-acetonitrile (80:20, v/v) with an affinity constant of 109±10mM(-1) and a total number of binding sites of 35±2μmolg(-1), being alternariol monomethylether the only competitor species. Moreover, (1)H NMR titrations have unveiled a 1:2 surrogate-to-EAMA stoichiometry, the exact interaction sites and a binding constant of 1.5×10(4)M(-2). A molecularly imprinted solid phase extraction (MISPE) method has been optimized for selective isolation of the mycotoxin from aqueous samples upon a discriminating wash with 3mL of acetonitrile/water (20:80, v/v) followed by determination by HPLC with fluorescence detection. The method has been applied, in combination to ultrasound-assisted extraction, to the analysis of AOH in tomato samples fortified with the mycotoxin at five concentration levels (33-110μgkg(-1)), with recoveries in the range of 81-103% (RSD n=6). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first imprinted material capable of molecularly recognizing this widespread food contaminant.

  9. Surface Water Quality Assessment of Wular Lake, A Ramsar Site in Kashmir Himalaya, Using Discriminant Analysis and WQI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salim Aijaz Bhat

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Multivariate techniques, discriminant analysis, and WQI were applied to analyze a water quality data set including 27 parameters at 5 sites of the Lake Wular in Kashmir Himalaya from 2011 to 2013 to investigate spatiotemporal variations and identify potential pollution sources. Spatial and temporal variations in water quality parameters were evaluated through stepwise discriminant analysis (DA. The first spatial discriminant function (DF accounted for 76.5% of the total spatial variance, and the second DF accounted for 19.1%. The mean values of water temperature, EC, total-N, K, and silicate showed a strong contribution to discriminate the five sampling sites. The mean concentration of NO2-N, total-N, and sulphate showed a strong contribution to discriminate the four sampling seasons and accounted for most of the expected seasonal variations. The order of major cations and anions was Ca2+>Mg2+> Na+>K+ and Cl->SO42->SiO22- respectively. The results of water quality index, employing thirteen core parameters vital for drinking water purposes, showed values of 49.2, 46.5, 47.3, 40.6, and 37.1 for sites I, II, III, IV, and V, respectively. These index values reflect that the water of lake is in good condition for different purposes but increased values alarm us about future repercussions.

  10. Decision Tree and Texture Analysis for Mapping Debris-Covered Glaciers in the Kangchenjunga Area, Eastern Himalaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adina Racoviteanu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study we use visible, short-wave infrared and thermal Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER data validated with high-resolution Quickbird (QB and Worldview2 (WV2 for mapping debris cover in the eastern Himalaya using two independent approaches: (a a decision tree algorithm, and (b texture analysis. The decision tree algorithm was based on multi-spectral and topographic variables, such as band ratios, surface reflectance, kinetic temperature from ASTER bands 10 and 12, slope angle, and elevation. The decision tree algorithm resulted in 64 km2 classified as debris-covered ice, which represents 11% of the glacierized area. Overall, for ten glacier tongues in the Kangchenjunga area, there was an area difference of 16.2 km2 (25% between the ASTER and the QB areas, with mapping errors mainly due to clouds and shadows. Texture analysis techniques included co-occurrence measures, geostatistics and filtering in spatial/frequency domain. Debris cover had the highest variance of all terrain classes, highest entropy and lowest homogeneity compared to the other classes, for example a mean variance of 15.27 compared to 0 for clouds and 0.06 for clean ice. Results of the texture image for debris-covered areas were comparable with those from the decision tree algorithm, with 8% area difference between the two techniques.

  11. Spatial analysis and statistical modelling of snow cover dynamics in the Central Himalayas, Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidinger, Johannes; Gerlitz, Lars; Böhner, Jürgen

    2017-04-01

    General circulation models are able to predict large scale climate variations in global dimensions, however small scale dynamic characteristics, such as snow cover and its temporal variations in high mountain regions, are not represented sufficiently. Detailed knowledge about shifts in seasonal ablation times and spatial distribution of snow cover are crucial for various research interests. Since high mountain areas, for instance the Central Himalayas in Nepal, are generally remote, it is difficult to obtain data in high spatio-temporal resolutions. Regional climate models and downscaling techniques are implemented to compensate coarse resolution. Furthermore earth observation systems, such as MODIS, also permit bridging this gap to a certain extent. They offer snow (cover) data in daily temporal and medium spatial resolution of around 500 m, which can be applied as evaluation and training data for dynamical hydrological and statistical analyses. Within this approach two snow distribution models (binary snow cover and fractional snow cover) as well as one snow recession model were implemented for a research domain in the Rolwaling Himal in Nepal, employing the random forest technique, which represents a state of the art machine learning algorithm. Both bottom-up strategies provide inductive reasoning to derive rules for snow related processes out of climate (temperature, precipitation and irradiance) and climate-related topographic data sets (elevation, aspect and convergence index) obtained by meteorological network stations, remote sensing products (snow cover - MOD10-A1 and land surface temperatures - MOD11-A1) along with GIS. Snow distribution is predicted reliably on a daily basis in the research area, whereas further effort is necessary for predicting daily snow cover recession processes adequately. Swift changes induced by clear sky conditions with high insolation rates are well represented, whereas steady snow loss still needs continuing effort. All

  12. Energy and economic analysis of traditional versus introduced crops cultivation in the mountains of the Indian Himalayas: A case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nautiyal, Sunil; Kaechele, H. [Leibniz-Centre for Agricultural Landscape Research (ZALF), Institute of Socioeconomics, Eberswalder Str. 84, 15374 Muencheberg (Germany); Rao, K.S. [Centre for Inter-disciplinary Studies of Mountain and Hill Environment, Academic Research Center, University of Delhi, Delhi 110007 (India); Maikhuri, R.K. [G.B. Pant Institute of Himalayan Environment and Development, Garhwal Unit, P.O. Box 92, Srinagar (Garhwal) 246174 (India); Saxena, K.G. [School of Environmental Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi 110067 (India)

    2007-12-15

    This study analyzed the energy and economics associated with cultivation of traditional and introduced crops in the mountains of the Central Himalaya, India. The production cost in terms of energy for introduced crops such as tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) and bell pepper (Capsicum annuum) cultivation was 90,358-320,516 MJ ha{sup -1} as compared to between 19,814 and 42,380 MJ ha{sup -1} for traditional crops within Himalayan agroecosystems. For the introduced crops, high energy and monetary input was associated with human labor, forest resources, chemical fertilizer and pesticides. However, energy threshold/projection for farmyard manure in traditional crop cultivation was 80-90% of the total energy cost, thus traditional crop cultivation was more efficient in energy and economics. During the study, the farm productivity of introduced crops cultivation declined with increasing years of cultivation. Consequently, the energy output from the system has been declining at the rate of -y20,598 to y20,748 MJ ha{sup -1} yr{sup -1} for tomato and y12,072 to y15,056 MJ ha{sup -1} yr{sup -1} for bell pepper under irrigated and rain-fed land use in the mountains, respectively. The comparative analysis on this paradigm shift indicates that more research is needed to support sustainable crop cultivation in the fragile Himalayan environment. (author)

  13. Surface characteristics of debris-covered glacier tongues in the Khumbu Himalaya derived from remote sensing texture analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racoviteanu, Adina; Arnaud, Yves; Nicholson, Lindsay

    2013-04-01

    The delineation of debris-covered glaciers remains a challenge in optical remote sensing, due to the similarity of the spectral signature of debris-covered ice to surrounding lateral moraines, making it difficult to apply standard semi-automated algorithms commonly used for clean ice delineation. Furthermore, supraglacial debris exhibits considerable spatial variability in its characteristics such as debris cover thickness, particle size, thermal resistance and thermal conductivity. These properties are needed in order to map the extent of debris cover and to estimate ice melt under the debris cover or at the surface. In this study we evaluate the potential of texture analysis for detecting surface characteristics of debris-cover glacier tongues in the Khumbu Himalaya, using Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) and high-resolution Ikonos data. We focus on mapping supra-glacier lakes and exposed ice walls using texture analysis algorithms such as grey-level co-occurrence measures (GLCM), filtering, image segmentation, and particle boundaries. We compare the performance of various existing commercial software suitable for texture analysis such as ERDAS Objective, Aphelion, as well as public domain image display and analysis software used originally for medical analysis, notably Image SXM and ImageJ. Preliminary results based on geostatistics and GLCM measures show differences in surface roughness of debris cover when compared to surrounding ice-free moraines. We expand on these results and aim at developing a quasi-automated algorithm for extracting surface features, which will be used as input in an energy balance model for estimating melting under debris cover as well as surface ice melt.

  14. Design, development, and analysis of a surrogate for pulmonary injury prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danelson, Kerry A; Gayzik, F Scott; Stern, Amber Rath; Hoth, J Jason; Stitzel, Joel D

    2011-10-01

    Current anthropomorphic test devices (ATDs) measure chest acceleration and deflection to assess risk of injury to the thorax. This study presents a lung surrogate prototype designed to expand the injury assessment capabilities of ATDs to include a risk measure for pulmonary contusion (PC). The surrogate augments these existing measures by providing pressure data specific to the lung and its lobes. The prototype was created from a rendering of a 50th percentile male lung inflated to normal inspiration, obtained from clinical CT data. Surrogate size, lobe volume, and airway cross sections were selected to match the morphology of the lung. Elastomeric urethane was molded via rapid prototyping to create a functional prototype. Pressure sensors in each of the five terminal airways independently monitored pressure traces in the lobes during impacts to the surrogate. Software was created to analyze the surrogate impact pressure data, determine the lobe with the greatest pressure rise for a particular impact, and estimate the initial speed of surface deformation. Calibration testing indicates an approximately linear relationship between peak lobe pressure and surface impact speed. No type I or II errors were demonstrated during lobe detection testing. During repeatability testing, the standard deviation was between 2 and 4% of the mean peak pressure. Ongoing research will focus on correlating surrogate data, pressure pulses, or surface deformation, to risk functions for PC.

  15. Spatiotemporal variation in exhumation of the Crystallines in the NW-Himalaya, India: Constraints from fission track dating analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, R. C.; Adlakha, Vikas; Lal, Nand; Singh, Paramjeet; Kumar, Y.

    2011-05-01

    During Himalayan orogeny, coeval thrusting along the Main Central/Munsiari Thrust (MCT/MT) and extension along the South Tibetan-Detachment System (STDS) are widely responsible for rapid exhumation of the Higher Himalayan Crystalline (HHC) zone. Apatite and zircon fission-track data along the Kaliganga and Darma valleys in the Kumaon Himalaya serve to document the shallow bedrock exhumation history of the HHC. Taking into account sample location within the HHC with respect to the MCT/MT, the apatite fission track (AFT) data-sets along the Darma (1.0 ± 0.1 to 2.8 ± 0.3 Ma) and Kaliganga (1.4 ± 0.2 to 2.4 ± 0.3 Ma) which are sharing same structural setting and rock types and being separated by 40 km, show very similar patterns of exhumation histories since Plio-Quaternary in the Kumaon Himalaya. Data sets along Darma and Kaliganga are very similar to data set of adjacent traverse (50 km away) along the Goriganga valley studied by Patel and Carter (2009). Whole data sets within the HHC in Kumaon Himalaya provide clear evidence for Plio-Quaternary tectonic activity along the Vaikrita Thrust (VT). Precipitation in this region exerts a strong influence on erosional surface processes. Fluvial erosional unloading along the Himalaya is focused on the high mountainous region of the HHC, where the orographic barrier forces out the maximum percentage of annual rainfall. FT cooling ages reveal coincidence between rapid erosion and exhumation that is focused in a ~ 25-30 km wide sector of the HHC, rather than covering the entire orogen. Similarity of AFT age pattern and exhumation rates along all three major traverses (Goriganga, Darma and Kaliganga) indicates that the region has been experiencing constant rate of crustal uplift and erosion since long time. Comparison of fission track ages from the Kumaon Himalaya with other segments of the NW-Himalaya shows spatiotemporal variation in exhumation. It is described due to the development of local structures such as dome

  16. The Himalayas revisited

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Iyer, S.D.; Mukhopadhyay, R.

    in generation of compressive stress on the Indian plate. All these make the Indian subcontinent a geodynamically unstable land mass, experiencing frequent earthquakes, especially along the foothills of the Himalayas, the Indo-Gangetic plains and the reactivated...

  17. Selecting focal species as surrogates for imperiled species using relative sensitivities derived from occupancy analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvano, Amy; Guyer, Craig; Steury, Todd; Grand, James B.

    2017-01-01

    Most imperiled species are rare or elusive and difficult to detect, which makes gathering data to estimate their response to habitat restoration a challenge. We used a repeatable, systematic method for selecting focal species using relative sensitivities derived from occupancy analysis. Our objective was to select suites of focal species that would be useful as surrogates when predicting effects of restoration of habitat characteristics preferred by imperiled species. We developed 27 habitat profiles that represent general habitat relationships for 118 imperiled species. We identified 23 regularly encountered species that were sensitive to important aspects of those profiles. We validated our approach by examining the correlation between estimated probabilities of occupancy for species of concern and focal species selected using our method. Occupancy rates of focal species were more related to occupancy rates of imperiled species when they were sensitive to more of the parameters appearing in profiles of imperiled species. We suggest that this approach can be an effective means of predicting responses by imperiled species to proposed management actions. However, adequate monitoring will be required to determine the effectiveness of using focal species to guide management actions.

  18. Habitats as Surrogates of Taxonomic and Functional Fish Assemblages in Coral Reef Ecosystems: A Critical Analysis of Factors Driving Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Wynsberge, Simon; Andréfouët, Serge; Hamel, Mélanie A.; Kulbicki, Michel

    2012-01-01

    Species check-lists are helpful to establish Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) and protect local richness, endemicity, rarity, and biodiversity in general. However, such exhaustive taxonomic lists (i.e., true surrogate of biodiversity) require extensive and expensive censuses, and the use of estimator surrogates (e.g., habitats) is an appealing alternative. In truth, surrogate effectiveness appears from the literature highly variable both in marine and terrestrial ecosystems, making it difficult to provide practical recommendations for managers. Here, we evaluate how the biodiversity reference data set and its inherent bias can influence effectiveness. Specifically, we defined habitats by geomorphology, rugosity, and benthic cover and architecture criteria, and mapped them with satellite images for a New-Caledonian site. Fish taxonomic and functional lists were elaborated from Underwater Visual Censuses, stratified according to geomorphology and exposure. We then tested if MPA networks designed to maximize habitat richness, diversity and rarity could also effectively maximize fish richness, diversity, and rarity. Effectiveness appeared highly sensitive to the fish census design itself, in relation to the type of habitat map used and the scale of analysis. Spatial distribution of habitats (estimator surrogate’s distribution), quantity and location of fish census stations (target surrogate’s sampling), and random processes in the MPA design all affected effectiveness to the point that one small change in the data set could lead to opposite conclusions. We suggest that previous conclusions on surrogacy effectiveness, either positive or negative, marine or terrestrial, should be considered with caution, except in instances where very dense data sets were used without pseudo-replication. Although this does not rule out the validity of using surrogates of species lists for conservation planning, the critical joint examination of both target and estimator surrogates is

  19. Beauty and the beast: Some perspectives on efficient model analysis, surrogate models, and the future of modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, M. C.; Jakeman, J.; Razavi, S.; Tolson, B.

    2015-12-01

    For many environmental systems model runtimes have remained very long as more capable computers have been used to add more processes and more time and space discretization. Scientists have also added more parameters and kinds of observations, and many model runs are needed to explore the models. Computational demand equals run time multiplied by number of model runs divided by parallelization opportunities. Model exploration is conducted using sensitivity analysis, optimization, and uncertainty quantification. Sensitivity analysis is used to reveal consequences of what may be very complex simulated relations, optimization is used to identify parameter values that fit the data best, or at least better, and uncertainty quantification is used to evaluate the precision of simulated results. The long execution times make such analyses a challenge. Methods for addressing this challenges include computationally frugal analysis of the demanding original model and a number of ingenious surrogate modeling methods. Both commonly use about 50-100 runs of the demanding original model. In this talk we consider the tradeoffs between (1) original model development decisions, (2) computationally frugal analysis of the original model, and (3) using many model runs of the fast surrogate model. Some questions of interest are as follows. If the added processes and discretization invested in (1) are compared with the restrictions and approximations in model analysis produced by long model execution times, is there a net benefit related of the goals of the model? Are there changes to the numerical methods that could reduce the computational demands while giving up less fidelity than is compromised by using computationally frugal methods or surrogate models for model analysis? Both the computationally frugal methods and surrogate models require that the solution of interest be a smooth function of the parameters or interest. How does the information obtained from the local methods typical

  20. Development of a surrogate model for analysis of ex-vessel steam explosion in Nordic type BWRs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grishchenko, Dmitry, E-mail: dmitry@safety.sci.kth.se; Basso, Simone, E-mail: simoneb@kth.se; Kudinov, Pavel, E-mail: pavel@safety.sci.kth.se

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • Severe accident. • Steam explosion. • Surrogate model. • Sensitivity study. • Artificial neural networks. - Abstract: Severe accident mitigation strategy adopted in Nordic type Boiling Water Reactors (BWRs) employs ex-vessel core melt cooling in a deep pool of water below reactor vessel. Energetic fuel–coolant interaction (steam explosion) can occur during molten core release into water. Dynamic loads can threaten containment integrity increasing the risk of fission products release to the environment. Comprehensive uncertainty analysis is necessary in order to assess the risks. Computational costs of the existing fuel–coolant interaction (FCI) codes is often prohibitive for addressing the uncertainties, including the effect of stochastic triggering time. This paper discusses development of a computationally efficient surrogate model (SM) for prediction of statistical characteristics of steam explosion impulses in Nordic BWRs. The TEXAS-V code was used as the Full Model (FM) for the calculation of explosion impulses. The surrogate model was developed using artificial neural networks (ANNs) and the database of FM solutions. Statistical analysis was employed in order to treat chaotic response of steam explosion impulse to variations in the triggering time. Details of the FM and SM implementation and their verification are discussed in the paper.

  1. A comparative research of different ensemble surrogate models based on set pair analysis for the DNAPL-contaminated aquifer remediation strategy optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Zeyu; Lu, Wenxi; Xue, Haibo; Lin, Jin

    2017-08-01

    Surrogate-based simulation-optimization technique is an effective approach for optimizing the surfactant enhanced aquifer remediation (SEAR) strategy for clearing DNAPLs. The performance of the surrogate model, which is used to replace the simulation model for the aim of reducing computation burden, is the key of corresponding researches. However, previous researches are generally based on a stand-alone surrogate model, and rarely make efforts to improve the approximation accuracy of the surrogate model to the simulation model sufficiently by combining various methods. In this regard, we present set pair analysis (SPA) as a new method to build ensemble surrogate (ES) model, and conducted a comparative research to select a better ES modeling pattern for the SEAR strategy optimization problems. Surrogate models were developed using radial basis function artificial neural network (RBFANN), support vector regression (SVR), and Kriging. One ES model is assembling RBFANN model, SVR model, and Kriging model using set pair weights according their performance, and the other is assembling several Kriging (the best surrogate modeling method of three) models built with different training sample datasets. Finally, an optimization model, in which the ES model was embedded, was established to obtain the optimal remediation strategy. The results showed the residuals of the outputs between the best ES model and simulation model for 100 testing samples were lower than 1.5%. Using an ES model instead of the simulation model was critical for considerably reducing the computation time of simulation-optimization process and maintaining high computation accuracy simultaneously.

  2. Will higher traffic flow lead to more traffic conflicts? A crash surrogate metric based analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuang, Yan; Qu, Xiaobo; Yan, Yadan

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we aim to examine the relationship between traffic flow and potential conflict risks by using crash surrogate metrics. It has been widely recognized that one traffic flow corresponds to two distinct traffic states with different speeds and densities. In view of this, instead of simply aggregating traffic conditions with the same traffic volume, we represent potential conflict risks at a traffic flow fundamental diagram. Two crash surrogate metrics, namely, Aggregated Crash Index and Time to Collision, are used in this study to represent the potential conflict risks with respect to different traffic conditions. Furthermore, Beijing North Ring III and Next Generation SIMulation Interstate 80 datasets are utilized to carry out case studies. By using the proposed procedure, both datasets generate similar trends, which demonstrate the applicability of the proposed methodology and the transferability of our conclusions.

  3. Real-time surrogate analysis for potential oil and gas contamination of drinking water resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Ji-Hee; Carlson, Kenneth H.

    2015-09-01

    Public concerns related to the fast-growing shale oil and gas industry have increased during recent years. The major concern regarding shale gas production is the potential of fracturing fluids being injected into the well or produced fluids flowing out of the well to contaminate drinking water resources such as surface water and groundwater. Fracturing fluids contain high total dissolved solids (TDS); thus, changes in TDS concentrations in groundwater might indicate influences of fracturing fluids. An increase of methane concentrations in groundwater could also potentially be due to hydraulic fracturing activities. To understand the possible contamination of groundwater by fracturing activities, real-time groundwater monitoring is being implemented in the Denver-Julesburg basin of northeast Colorado. A strategy of monitoring of surrogate parameters was chosen instead of measuring potential contaminants directly, an approach that is not cost effective or operationally practical. Contaminant surrogates of TDS and dissolved methane were proposed in this study, and were tested for correlation and data distribution with laboratory experiments. Correlations between TDS and electrical conductivity (EC), and between methane contamination and oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) were strong at low concentrations of contaminants (1 mg/L TDS and 0.3 mg/L CH4). Dissolved oxygen (DO) was only an effective surrogate at higher methane concentrations (≥2.5 mg/L). The results indicated that EC and ORP are effective surrogates for detecting concentration changes of TDS and methane, respectively, and that a strategy of monitoring for easy to measure parameters can be effective detecting real-time, anomalous behavior relative to a predetermined baseline.

  4. Revisiting algorithms for generating surrogate time series

    CERN Document Server

    Raeth, C; Papadakis, I E; Brinkmann, W

    2011-01-01

    The method of surrogates is one of the key concepts of nonlinear data analysis. Here, we demonstrate that commonly used algorithms for generating surrogates often fail to generate truly linear time series. Rather, they create surrogate realizations with Fourier phase correlations leading to non-detections of nonlinearities. We argue that reliable surrogates can only be generated, if one tests separately for static and dynamic nonlinearities.

  5. Detection of snow melt and freezing in Himalaya using OSCAT data

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rajashree V Bothale; P V N Rao; C B S Dutt; V K Dadhwal

    2015-02-01

    A study of the snow cover melt and freeze using Ku band Oceansat scatterometer (OSCAT) HH polarised backscatter coefficient (0HH) for 2011 and 2012 is reported for the Himalayas, which contain the world’s largest reserve of ice and snow outside polar regions. The analysis shows spatial and temporal inter-annual variations in the onset of melt/freeze across four regions (Upper Himalaya, Western Himalaya, Central Himalaya, and Eastern Himalaya), nine elevation bands and four aspect zones. A threshold based on temperature–0HH relation and average 0HH for the months January–March was used for melt/freeze detection. When the three consecutive images (6 days) satisfied the threshold, the day of first image was selected as melt onset/freeze day. The average melt onset dates were found to be March 11 ± 11 days for Eastern Himalaya, April 3 ± 18 days for Central Himalaya, April 16 ± 27 days for Western Himalaya, and May 12 ± 18 days for Upper Himalaya. Similarly average freeze onset dates were found to be August 23 ± 27 days for Eastern Himalaya, September 08 ± 24 days for Central Himalaya, August 27 ± 11 days for Western Himalaya, and September 13 ± 11 days for Upper Himalaya. All the zones experienced the melt onset earlier by around 20 days in 2011 at elevation above 5000 m. All the zones experienced freeze earlier in 2012, with onset being 18, 19, 11, and 21 days earlier in Eastern, Central, Western, and Upper Himalaya, respectively.

  6. Quantitative Analysis of Tree Species in Mixed Forests of Mandal Catchments, Garhwal Himalaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balwant KUMAR

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A total of 14 tree species were identified in the study sites, among which Quercus leucotrichophora Hook. F. (Banj oak, Rhododendron arboreum Smith (Burans, Lyonia ovalifolia Drude (Ayar and Pyrus pashia Buch-Hemp (Mehal are the predominant tree species. A quantitative analysis of tree species indicates that on the basis of their canopy cover, tree density and total base area, these study sites fall within the category of disturbed forest. The uncontrolled lopping for timber, firewood and leaf fodder and the absence of saplings and seedlings are some of the major factors responsible for the declining of forests in the Himalayan region.

  7. A neural network construction method for surrogate modeling of physics-based analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Woong Je

    connection as a zero-weight connection, the potential contribution to training error reduction of any present or absent connection can readily be evaluated using the BP algorithm. Instead of being broken, the connections that contribute less remain frozen with constant weight values optimized to that point but they are excluded from further weight optimization until reselected. In this way, a selective weight optimization is executed only for the dynamically maintained pool of high gradient connections. By searching the rapidly changing weights and concentrating optimization resources on them, the learning process is accelerated without either a significant increase in computational cost or a need for re-training. This results in a more task-adapted network connection structure. Combined with another important criterion for the division of a neuron which adds a new computational unit to a network, a highly fitted network can be grown out of the minimal random structure. This particular learning strategy can belong to a more broad class of the variable connectivity learning scheme and the devised algorithm has been named Optimal Brain Growth (OBG). The OBG algorithm has been tested on two canonical problems; a regression analysis using the Complicated Interaction Regression Function and a classification of the Two-Spiral Problem. A comparative study with conventional Multilayer Perceptrons (MLPs) consisting of single- and double-hidden layers shows that OBG is less sensitive to random initial conditions and generalizes better with only a minimal increase in computational time. This partially proves that a variable connectivity learning scheme has great potential to enhance computational efficiency and reduce efforts to select proper network architecture. To investigate the applicability of the OBG to more practical surrogate modeling tasks, the geometry-to-pressure mapping of a particular class of airfoils in the transonic flow regime has been sought using both the

  8. Performance test results of noninvasive characterization of Resource Conservation and Recovery Act surrogate waste by prompt gamma neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gehrke, R.J.; Streier, G.G.

    1997-03-01

    During FY-96, a performance test was carried out with funding from the Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA) of the Department of Energy (DOE) to determine the noninvasive elemental assay capabilities of commercial companies for Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) metals present in 8-gal drums containing surrogate waste. Commercial companies were required to be experienced in the use of prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) techniques and to have a prototype assay system with which to conduct the test assays. Potential participants were identified through responses to a call for proposals advertised in the Commerce Business Daily and through personal contacts. Six companies were originally identified. Two of these six were willing and able to participate in the performance test, as described in the test plan, with some subsidizing from the DOE MWFA. The tests were conducted with surrogate sludge waste because (1) a large volume of this type of waste awaits final disposition and (2) sludge tends to be somewhat homogeneous. The surrogate concentrations of the above RCRA metals ranged from {approximately} 300 ppm to {approximately} 20,000 ppm. The lower limit was chosen as an estimate of the expected sensitivity of detection required by noninvasive, pretreatment elemental assay systems to be of value for operational and compliance purposes and to still be achievable with state-of-the-art methods of analysis. The upper limit of {approximately} 20,000 ppm was chosen because it is the opinion of the author that assay above this concentration level is within current state-of-the-art methods for most RCRA constituents. This report is organized into three parts: Part 1, Test Plan to Evaluate the Technical Status of Noninvasive Elemental Assay Techniques for Hazardous Waste; Part 2, Participants` Results; and Part 3, Evaluation of and Comments on Participants` Results.

  9. Probabilistic Fatigue Damage Prognosis Using a Surrogate Model Trained Via 3D Finite Element Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leser, Patrick E.; Hochhalter, Jacob D.; Newman, John A.; Leser, William P.; Warner, James E.; Wawrzynek, Paul A.; Yuan, Fuh-Gwo

    2015-01-01

    Utilizing inverse uncertainty quantification techniques, structural health monitoring can be integrated with damage progression models to form probabilistic predictions of a structure's remaining useful life. However, damage evolution in realistic structures is physically complex. Accurately representing this behavior requires high-fidelity models which are typically computationally prohibitive. In the present work, a high-fidelity finite element model is represented by a surrogate model, reducing computation times. The new approach is used with damage diagnosis data to form a probabilistic prediction of remaining useful life for a test specimen under mixed-mode conditions.

  10. Hidden Markov Model for quantitative prediction of snowfall and analysis of hazardous snowfall events over Indian Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, J. C.; Tankeshwar, K.; Srivastava, Sunita

    2017-04-01

    A Hidden Markov Model (HMM) has been developed for prediction of quantitative snowfall in Pir-Panjal and Great Himalayan mountain ranges of Indian Himalaya. The model predicts snowfall for two days in advance using daily recorded nine meteorological variables of past 20 winters from 1992-2012. There are six observations and six states of the model. The most probable observation and state sequence has been computed using Forward and Viterbi algorithms, respectively. Baum-Welch algorithm has been used for optimizing the model parameters. The model has been validated for two winters (2012-2013 and 2013-2014) by computing root mean square error (RMSE), accuracy measures such as percent correct (PC), critical success index (CSI) and Heidke skill score (HSS). The RMSE of the model has also been calculated using leave-one-out cross-validation method. Snowfall predicted by the model during hazardous snowfall events in different parts of the Himalaya matches well with the observed one. The HSS of the model for all the stations implies that the optimized model has better forecasting skill than random forecast for both the days. The RMSE of the optimized model has also been found smaller than the persistence forecast and standard deviation for both the days.

  11. Hidden Markov Model for quantitative prediction of snowfall and analysis of hazardous snowfall events over Indian Himalaya

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J C Joshi; K Tankeshwar; Sunita Srivastava

    2017-04-01

    A Hidden Markov Model (HMM) has been developed for prediction of quantitative snowfall in Pir-Panjal and Great Himalayan mountain ranges of Indian Himalaya. The model predicts snowfall for two days in advance using daily recorded nine meteorological variables of past 20 winters from 1992–2012. There are six observations and six states of the model. The most probable observation and state sequence has been computed using Forward and Viterbi algorithms, respectively. Baum–Welch algorithm has been used for optimizing the model parameters. The model has been validated for two winters (2012–2013 and 2013–2014) by computing root mean square error (RMSE), accuracy measures such as percent correct (PC), critical success index (CSI) and Heidke skill score (HSS). The RMSE of the model has also been calculated using leave-one-out cross-validation method. Snowfall predicted by the model during hazardous snowfall events in different parts of the Himalaya matches well with the observed one. The HSS of the model for all the stations implies that the optimized model has better forecasting skill than random forecast for both the days. The RMSE of the optimized model has also been found smaller than the persistence forecast and standard deviation for both the days.

  12. Analysis of plutonium oxide surrogate residue using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng Hongbo [Department of Applied Physics, College of Science, Nanjing University of Technology, Nanjing (China); Yueh, F.Y.; Miller, Tracy [Institute for Clean Energy Technology (ICET), Mississippi State University, Starkville, MS 39759-7704 (United States); Singh, Jagdish P. [Institute for Clean Energy Technology (ICET), Mississippi State University, Starkville, MS 39759-7704 (United States)], E-mail: singh@icet.msstate.edu; Zeigler, Kristine E.; Marra, James C. [Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), Aiken, SC 29808 (United States)

    2008-09-15

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy was used to determine the elemental composition of a CeO{sub 2} composite powder for process control verification during lanthanide borosilicate glass fabrication. Cerium oxide is used as a surrogate for plutonium oxide, which along with other canister contents will be combined with frit to make glass. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy data for the composition of the CeO{sub 2} batch containing concentrations of Ce, Cr, Si, Fe, Ta, Ni, Zn, Al Mg, Gd, and W were quantitatively determined from laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy spectra of both pellet and powder samples. The results of both forms were compared and it was determined that the pellet data gave slightly better precision than the powder sample.

  13. Entropy of the EEG in transition to burst suppression in deep anesthesia: Surrogate analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anier, Andres; Lipping, Tarmo; Jantti, Ville; Puumala, Pasi; Huotari, Ari-Matti

    2010-01-01

    In this paper 5 methods for the assessment of signal entropy are compared in their capability to follow the changes in the EEG signal during transition from continuous EEG to burst suppression in deep anesthesia. To study the sensitivity of the measures to phase information in the signal, phase randomization as well as amplitude adjusted surrogates are also analyzed. We show that the selection of algorithm parameters and the use of normalization are important issues in interpretation and comparison of the results. We also show that permutation entropy is the most sensitive to phase information among the studied measures and that the EEG signal during high amplitude delta activity in deep anesthesia is of highly nonlinear nature.

  14. Male meiosis, morphometric analysis and distribution pattern of 2× and 4× cytotypes of Ranunculus hirtellus Royle, 1834 (Ranunculaceae) from the cold regions of northwest Himalayas (India).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Puneet; Singhal, Vijay Kumar

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we examined the chromosome number, detailed male meiosis, microsporogenesis, pollen fertility and morphological features and distribution of 2× and 4× cytotypes of Ranunculus hirtellus Royle, 1834. The majority of the populations scored now from cold regions of the northwest Himalayas showed tetraploid (n=16) meiotic chromosome count and one of the populations studied from the Manimahesh hills existed at diploid level (n=8). The individuals of diploid cytotype exhibited perfectly normal meiotic course resulting in 100% pollen fertility and pollen grains of uniform sizes. On the other hand, the plants of the tetraploid cytotype from all the populations in spite of showing normal bivalent formation and equal distribution to the opposite poles at anaphases showed various meiotic abnormalities. The most prominent among these meiotic abnormalities was the cytomixis which involved inter PMC (pollen mother cell) chromatin material transfer at different stages of meiosis-I. The phenomenon of cytomixis induced various meiotic abnormalities which include chromatin stickiness, pycnotic chromatin, laggards and chromatin bridges, out of plate bivalents at metaphase-I, disoriented chromatin material at anaphase/telophase and micronuclei. Consequently, these populations exhibited varying percentages of pollen sterility (24 - 77 %) and pollen grains of heterogeneous sizes. Analysis of various morphometric features including the stomata in 2× and 4× cytotypes showed that increase in ploidy level in the species is correlated with gigantism of vegetative and floral characters and the two cytotypes can be distinguished from each other on the basis of morphological characters. The distribution patterns of the 2× and 4× cytotypes now detected and 2×, 3×, 4× cytotypes detected earlier by workers from other regions of the Indian Himalayas have also been discussed.

  15. Male meiosis, morphometric analysis and distribution pattern of 2× and 4× cytotypes of Ranunculus hirtellus Royle, 1834 (Ranunculaceae from the cold regions of northwest Himalayas (India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puneet Kumar

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we examined the chromosome number, detailed male meiosis, microsporogenesis, pollen fertility and morphological features and distribution of 2× and 4× cytotypes of Ranunculus hirtellus Royle, 1834. The majority of the populations scored now from cold regions of the northwest Himalayas showed tetraploid (n=16 meiotic chromosome count and one of the populations studied from the Manimahesh hills existed at diploid level (n=8. The individuals of diploid cytotype exhibited perfectly normal meiotic course resulting in 100% pollen fertility and pollen grains of uniform sizes. On the other hand, the plants of the tetraploid cytotype from all the populations in spite of showing normal bivalent formation and equal distribution to the opposite poles at anaphases showed various meiotic abnormalities. The most prominent among these meiotic abnormalities was the cytomixis which involved inter PMC (pollen mother cell chromatin material transfer at different stages of meiosis-I. The phenomenon of cytomixis induced various meiotic abnormalities which include chromatin stickiness, pycnotic chromatin, laggards and chromatin bridges, out of plate bivalents at metaphase-I, disoriented chromatin material at anaphase/telophase and micronuclei. Consequently, these populations exhibited varying percentages of pollen sterility (24 - 77 % and pollen grains of heterogeneous sizes. Analysis of various morphometric features including the stomata in 2× and 4× cytotypes showed that increase in ploidy level in the species is correlated with gigantism of vegetative and floral characters and the two cytotypes can be distinguished from each other on the basis of morphological characters. The distribution patterns of the 2× and 4× cytotypes now detected and 2×, 3×, 4× cytotypes detected earlier by workers from other regions of the Indian Himalayas have also been discussed.

  16. SU-F-BRF-10: Deformable MRI to CT Validation Employing Same Day Planning MRI for Surrogate Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Padgett, K; Stoyanova, R; Johnson, P; Dogan, N; Pollack, A [University of Miami School of Medicine, Miami, FL (United States); Piper, J; Javorek, A [MIM Software, Inc., Beachwood, OH (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To compare rigid and deformable registrations of the prostate in the multi-modality setting (diagnostic-MRI to planning-CT) by utilizing a planning-MRI as a surrogate. The surrogate allows for the direct quantitative analysis which can be difficult in the multi-modality domain where intensity mapping differs. Methods: For ten subjects, T2 fast-spin-echo images were acquired at two different time points, the first several weeks prior to planning (diagnostic-MRI) and the second on the same day in which the planning CT was collected (planning-MRI). Significant effort in patient positioning and bowel/bladder preparation was undertaken to minimize distortion of the prostate in all datasets. The diagnostic-MRI was deformed to the planning-CT utilizing a commercially available deformable registration algorithm synthesized from local registrations. The deformed MRI was then rigidly aligned to the planning MRI which was used as the surrogate for the planning-CT. Agreement between the two MRI datasets was scored using intensity based metrics including Pearson correlation and normalized mutual information, NMI. A local analysis was performed by looking only within the prostate, proximal seminal vesicles, penile bulb and combined areas. A similar method was used to assess a rigid registration between the diagnostic-MRI and planning-CT. Results: Utilizing the NMI, the deformable registrations were superior to the rigid registrations in 9 of 10 cases demonstrating a 15.94% improvement (p-value < 0.001) within the combined area. The Pearson correlation showed similar results with the deformable registration superior in the same number of cases and demonstrating a 6.97% improvement (p-value <0.011). Conclusion: Validating deformable multi-modality registrations using spatial intensity based metrics is difficult due to the inherent differences in intensity mapping. This population provides an ideal testing ground for MRI to CT deformable registrations by obviating the need

  17. Lyapunov Exponent and Surrogation Analysis of Patterns of Variability: Profiles in New Walkers With and Without Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Beth A.; Stergiou, Nicholas; Ulrich, Beverly D.

    2010-01-01

    In previous studies we found that while preadolescents with Down syndrome (DS) produce higher amounts of variability (Smith et al., 2007) and larger Lyapunov exponent (LyE) values (indicating more instability) during walking than peers with typical development (TD) (Buzzi & Ulrich, 2004), they also partition more of this into goal-equivalent variability (UCM//), that can be exploited to increase options for success when perturbed (Black et al., 2007). Here we use nonlinear methods to examine the patterns that characterize gait variability as it emerges, in toddlers with TD and with DS, rather than after years of practice. We calculated Lyapunov exponent (LyE) values to assess stability of leg trajectories. We also tested the use of 3 algorithms for surrogation analysis to investigate mathematical periodicity of toddlers’ strides. Results show that toddlers’ LyE values were not different between groups or with practice and strides of both groups become more periodic with practice. PMID:20237407

  18. Adaptive surrogate modeling by ANOVA and sparse polynomial dimensional decomposition for global sensitivity analysis in fluid simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Kunkun, E-mail: ktg@illinois.edu [The Center for Exascale Simulation of Plasma-Coupled Combustion (XPACC), University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign, 1308 W Main St, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Inria Bordeaux – Sud-Ouest, Team Cardamom, 200 avenue de la Vieille Tour, 33405 Talence (France); Congedo, Pietro M. [Inria Bordeaux – Sud-Ouest, Team Cardamom, 200 avenue de la Vieille Tour, 33405 Talence (France); Abgrall, Rémi [Institut für Mathematik, Universität Zürich, Winterthurerstrasse 190, CH-8057 Zürich (Switzerland)

    2016-06-01

    The Polynomial Dimensional Decomposition (PDD) is employed in this work for the global sensitivity analysis and uncertainty quantification (UQ) of stochastic systems subject to a moderate to large number of input random variables. Due to the intimate connection between the PDD and the Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) approaches, PDD is able to provide a simpler and more direct evaluation of the Sobol' sensitivity indices, when compared to the Polynomial Chaos expansion (PC). Unfortunately, the number of PDD terms grows exponentially with respect to the size of the input random vector, which makes the computational cost of standard methods unaffordable for real engineering applications. In order to address the problem of the curse of dimensionality, this work proposes essentially variance-based adaptive strategies aiming to build a cheap meta-model (i.e. surrogate model) by employing the sparse PDD approach with its coefficients computed by regression. Three levels of adaptivity are carried out in this paper: 1) the truncated dimensionality for ANOVA component functions, 2) the active dimension technique especially for second- and higher-order parameter interactions, and 3) the stepwise regression approach designed to retain only the most influential polynomials in the PDD expansion. During this adaptive procedure featuring stepwise regressions, the surrogate model representation keeps containing few terms, so that the cost to resolve repeatedly the linear systems of the least-squares regression problem is negligible. The size of the finally obtained sparse PDD representation is much smaller than the one of the full expansion, since only significant terms are eventually retained. Consequently, a much smaller number of calls to the deterministic model is required to compute the final PDD coefficients.

  19. A new surrogate modeling technique combining Kriging and polynomial chaos expansions - Application to uncertainty analysis in computational dosimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kersaudy, Pierric; Sudret, Bruno; Varsier, Nadège; Picon, Odile; Wiart, Joe

    2015-04-01

    In numerical dosimetry, the recent advances in high performance computing led to a strong reduction of the required computational time to assess the specific absorption rate (SAR) characterizing the human exposure to electromagnetic waves. However, this procedure remains time-consuming and a single simulation can request several hours. As a consequence, the influence of uncertain input parameters on the SAR cannot be analyzed using crude Monte Carlo simulation. The solution presented here to perform such an analysis is surrogate modeling. This paper proposes a novel approach to build such a surrogate model from a design of experiments. Considering a sparse representation of the polynomial chaos expansions using least-angle regression as a selection algorithm to retain the most influential polynomials, this paper proposes to use the selected polynomials as regression functions for the universal Kriging model. The leave-one-out cross validation is used to select the optimal number of polynomials in the deterministic part of the Kriging model. The proposed approach, called LARS-Kriging-PC modeling, is applied to three benchmark examples and then to a full-scale metamodeling problem involving the exposure of a numerical fetus model to a femtocell device. The performances of the LARS-Kriging-PC are compared to an ordinary Kriging model and to a classical sparse polynomial chaos expansion. The LARS-Kriging-PC appears to have better performances than the two other approaches. A significant accuracy improvement is observed compared to the ordinary Kriging or to the sparse polynomial chaos depending on the studied case. This approach seems to be an optimal solution between the two other classical approaches. A global sensitivity analysis is finally performed on the LARS-Kriging-PC model of the fetus exposure problem.

  20. A new surrogate modeling technique combining Kriging and polynomial chaos expansions – Application to uncertainty analysis in computational dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kersaudy, Pierric, E-mail: pierric.kersaudy@orange.com [Orange Labs, 38 avenue du Général Leclerc, 92130 Issy-les-Moulineaux (France); Whist Lab, 38 avenue du Général Leclerc, 92130 Issy-les-Moulineaux (France); ESYCOM, Université Paris-Est Marne-la-Vallée, 5 boulevard Descartes, 77700 Marne-la-Vallée (France); Sudret, Bruno [ETH Zürich, Chair of Risk, Safety and Uncertainty Quantification, Stefano-Franscini-Platz 5, 8093 Zürich (Switzerland); Varsier, Nadège [Orange Labs, 38 avenue du Général Leclerc, 92130 Issy-les-Moulineaux (France); Whist Lab, 38 avenue du Général Leclerc, 92130 Issy-les-Moulineaux (France); Picon, Odile [ESYCOM, Université Paris-Est Marne-la-Vallée, 5 boulevard Descartes, 77700 Marne-la-Vallée (France); Wiart, Joe [Orange Labs, 38 avenue du Général Leclerc, 92130 Issy-les-Moulineaux (France); Whist Lab, 38 avenue du Général Leclerc, 92130 Issy-les-Moulineaux (France)

    2015-04-01

    In numerical dosimetry, the recent advances in high performance computing led to a strong reduction of the required computational time to assess the specific absorption rate (SAR) characterizing the human exposure to electromagnetic waves. However, this procedure remains time-consuming and a single simulation can request several hours. As a consequence, the influence of uncertain input parameters on the SAR cannot be analyzed using crude Monte Carlo simulation. The solution presented here to perform such an analysis is surrogate modeling. This paper proposes a novel approach to build such a surrogate model from a design of experiments. Considering a sparse representation of the polynomial chaos expansions using least-angle regression as a selection algorithm to retain the most influential polynomials, this paper proposes to use the selected polynomials as regression functions for the universal Kriging model. The leave-one-out cross validation is used to select the optimal number of polynomials in the deterministic part of the Kriging model. The proposed approach, called LARS-Kriging-PC modeling, is applied to three benchmark examples and then to a full-scale metamodeling problem involving the exposure of a numerical fetus model to a femtocell device. The performances of the LARS-Kriging-PC are compared to an ordinary Kriging model and to a classical sparse polynomial chaos expansion. The LARS-Kriging-PC appears to have better performances than the two other approaches. A significant accuracy improvement is observed compared to the ordinary Kriging or to the sparse polynomial chaos depending on the studied case. This approach seems to be an optimal solution between the two other classical approaches. A global sensitivity analysis is finally performed on the LARS-Kriging-PC model of the fetus exposure problem.

  1. Adaptive surrogate modeling by ANOVA and sparse polynomial dimensional decomposition for global sensitivity analysis in fluid simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Kunkun; Congedo, Pietro M.; Abgrall, Rémi

    2016-06-01

    The Polynomial Dimensional Decomposition (PDD) is employed in this work for the global sensitivity analysis and uncertainty quantification (UQ) of stochastic systems subject to a moderate to large number of input random variables. Due to the intimate connection between the PDD and the Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) approaches, PDD is able to provide a simpler and more direct evaluation of the Sobol' sensitivity indices, when compared to the Polynomial Chaos expansion (PC). Unfortunately, the number of PDD terms grows exponentially with respect to the size of the input random vector, which makes the computational cost of standard methods unaffordable for real engineering applications. In order to address the problem of the curse of dimensionality, this work proposes essentially variance-based adaptive strategies aiming to build a cheap meta-model (i.e. surrogate model) by employing the sparse PDD approach with its coefficients computed by regression. Three levels of adaptivity are carried out in this paper: 1) the truncated dimensionality for ANOVA component functions, 2) the active dimension technique especially for second- and higher-order parameter interactions, and 3) the stepwise regression approach designed to retain only the most influential polynomials in the PDD expansion. During this adaptive procedure featuring stepwise regressions, the surrogate model representation keeps containing few terms, so that the cost to resolve repeatedly the linear systems of the least-squares regression problem is negligible. The size of the finally obtained sparse PDD representation is much smaller than the one of the full expansion, since only significant terms are eventually retained. Consequently, a much smaller number of calls to the deterministic model is required to compute the final PDD coefficients.

  2. Early Change in Proteinuria as a Surrogate Endpoint for Kidney Disease Progression: An Individual Patient Meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inker, Lesley A.; Levey, Andrew S.; Pandya, Kruti; Stoycheff, Nicholas; Okparavero, Aghogho; Greene, Tom

    2014-01-01

    Background It is controversial whether proteinuria is a valid surrogate endpoint for randomized trials in chronic kidney disease. Study Design Meta-analysis of individual patient level data. Setting & Population Individual patient data on 9008 patients from 32 randomized trials evaluating five intervention types. Selection Criteria for Studies Randomized controlled trials of kidney disease progression until 2007 with measurements of proteinuria both at baseline and during the first year of follow-up, with at least one further year of follow-up for the clinical outcome. Predictor Early change in proteinuria. Outcomes Doubling of serum creatinine, end stage renal disease or death. Results Early decline in proteinuria was associated with a lower risk of the clinical outcome (pooled HR, 0.74 per 50% reduction in proteinuria); this association was stronger at higher levels of baseline proteinuria. Pooled estimates for the proportion of treatment effect on the clinical outcome explained by early decline in proteinuria ranged from −7.0% (95% CI, −40.6% to 26.7%) to 43.9% (95% CI, 25.3% to 62.6%) across five intervention types. The direction of the pooled treatment effects on early change in proteinuria agreed with the direction of the treatment effect on the clinical outcome for all 5 intervention types, with the magnitudes of the pooled treatment effects on the two endpoints agreeing for 4 of the 5 intervention types. The pooled treatment effects on both endpoints were simultaneously stronger at higher levels of proteinuria. However, statistical power was insufficient to determine if differences in treatment effects on the clinical outcome corresponded to differences in treatment effects on proteinuria between individual studies. Limitations Limited variety of interventions tested and low statistical power for many chronic kidney disease clinical trials. Conclusions These results provide new evidence supporting the use of an early reduction in proteinuria as a

  3. A surrogate method for comparison analysis of salivary concentrations of Xylitol-containing products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Lingmei

    2008-02-01

    g.min/mL, gummy bears – 55.9 μg.min/mL, and syrup – 59.0 μg.min/mL. Conclusion The comparison method demonstrated high reliability and validity. In both studies other xylitol-containing products had time curves and mean xylitol concentration peaks similar to xylitol pellet gum suggesting this test may be a surrogate for longer studies comparing various products.

  4. Thermal Analysis of Surrogate Simulated Molten Salts with Metal Chloride Impurities for Electrorefining Used Nuclear Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toni Y. Gutknecht; Guy L. Fredrickson; Vivek Utgikar

    2012-04-01

    This project is a fundamental study to measure thermal properties (liquidus, solidus, phase transformation, and enthalpy) of molten salt systems of interest to electrorefining operations, which are used in both the fuel cycle research & development mission and the spent fuel treatment mission of the Department of Energy. During electrorefining operations the electrolyte accumulates elements more active than uranium (transuranics, fission products and bond sodium). The accumulation needs to be closely monitored because the thermal properties of the electrolyte will change as the concentration of the impurities increases. During electrorefining (processing techniques used at the Idaho National Laboratory to separate uranium from spent nuclear fuel) it is important for the electrolyte to remain in a homogeneous liquid phase for operational safeguard and criticality reasons. The phase stability of molten salts in an electrorefiner may be adversely affected by the buildup of fission products in the electrolyte. Potential situations that need to be avoided are: (i) build up of fissile elements in the salt approaching the criticality limits specified for the vessel (ii) freezing of the salts due to change in the liquidus temperature and (iii) phase separation (non-homogenous solution) of elements. The stability (and homogeneity) of the phases can potentially be monitored through the thermal characterization of the salts, which can be a function of impurity concentration. This work describes the experimental results of typical salts compositions, consisting of chlorides of strontium, samarium, praseodymium, lanthanum, barium, cerium, cesium, neodymium, sodium and gadolinium (as a surrogate for both uranium and plutonium), used in the processing of used nuclear fuels. Differential scanning calorimetry was used to analyze numerous salt samples providing results on the thermal properties. The property of most interest to pyroprocessing is the liquidus temperature. It was

  5. Topological performance measures as surrogates for physical flow models for risk and vulnerability analysis for electric power systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaRocca, Sarah; Johansson, Jonas; Hassel, Henrik; Guikema, Seth

    2015-04-01

    Critical infrastructure systems must be both robust and resilient in order to ensure the functioning of society. To improve the performance of such systems, we often use risk and vulnerability analysis to find and address system weaknesses. A critical component of such analyses is the ability to accurately determine the negative consequences of various types of failures in the system. Numerous mathematical and simulation models exist that can be used to this end. However, there are relatively few studies comparing the implications of using different modeling approaches in the context of comprehensive risk analysis of critical infrastructures. In this article, we suggest a classification of these models, which span from simple topologically-oriented models to advanced physical-flow-based models. Here, we focus on electric power systems and present a study aimed at understanding the tradeoffs between simplicity and fidelity in models used in the context of risk analysis. Specifically, the purpose of this article is to compare performance estimates achieved with a spectrum of approaches typically used for risk and vulnerability analysis of electric power systems and evaluate if more simplified topological measures can be combined using statistical methods to be used as a surrogate for physical flow models. The results of our work provide guidance as to appropriate models or combinations of models to use when analyzing large-scale critical infrastructure systems, where simulation times quickly become insurmountable when using more advanced models, severely limiting the extent of analyses that can be performed.

  6. Probiotic attributes of indigenous Lactobacillus spp. isolated from traditional fermented foods and beverages of north-western Himalayas using in vitro screening and principal component analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Anila; Angmo, Kunzes; Monika; Bhalla, Tek Chand

    2016-05-01

    The present research was designed to explore indigenous probiotic Lactic acid bacteria from traditional fermented foods and beverages of North-western Himalayas for their probiotic potential. It was achieved through a step-by step approach focused on the technological characterization, evaluation of the probiotic traits and adherence ability. Fifty one LAB isolates from traditional fermented foods and beverages were initially screened for their technological properties and among them twenty isolates were selected. These isolates were further characterized and identified using 16S rRNA gene sequencing as Lactobacillus brevis (7 isolates), Lactobacillus casei (5), Lactobacillus paracasei (2), Lactobacillus buchneri (1), Lactobacillus plantarum (1) and Lactobacillus sp. (3). Identified isolates were evaluated by in vitro methods including survival in gastrointestinal tract, antibiotic susceptibility, antimicrobial activity, cell surface characteristics, exopolysacharride production and haemolytic activity. The results of these experiments were used as input data for Principal Component Analysis; thus, to select the most promising probiotic isolates. Three isolates (L. brevis PLA2, L. paracasei PLA8 and L. brevis PLA16) were found to be most technological relevant and promising probiotic candidates in comparison to commercial probiotic strains. L. brevis PLA2 was selected as best isolate with probiotic potential by in vitro adherence to the human intestinal HT-29 cell line.

  7. Pathologic complete response and disease-free survival are not surrogate endpoints for 5-year survival in rectal cancer: an analysis of 22 randomized trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgonovo, Karen; Cabiddu, Mary; Ghilardi, Mara; Lonati, Veronica; Barni, Sandro

    2017-01-01

    Background We performed a literature-based analysis of randomized clinical trials to assess the pathologic complete response (pCR) (ypT0N0 after neoadjuvant therapy) and 3-year disease-free survival (DFS) as potential surrogate endpoints for 5-year overall survival (OS) in rectal cancer treated with neoadjuvant (chemo)radiotherapy (CT)RT. Methods A systematic literature search of PubMed, EMBASE, the Web of Science, SCOPUS, CINAHL, and the Cochrane Library was performed. Treatment effects on 3-year DFS and 5-year OS were expressed as rates of patients alive (%), and those on pCR as differences in pCR rates (∆pCR%). A weighted regression analysis was performed at individual- and trial-level to test the association between treatment effects on surrogate (∆pCR% and ∆3yDFS) and the main clinical outcome (∆5yOS). Results Twenty-two trials involving 10,050 patients, were included in the analysis. The individual level surrogacy showed that the pCR% and 3-year DFS were poorly correlated with 5-year OS (R=0.52; 95% CI, 0.31–0.91; P=0.002; and R=0.60; 95% CI, 0.36–1; P=0.002). The trial-level surrogacy analysis confirmed that the two treatment effects on surrogates (∆pCR% and ∆3yDFS) are not strong surrogates for treatment effects on 5-year OS % (R=0.2; 95% CI, −0.29–0.78; P=0.5 and R=0.64; 95% CI, 0.29–1; P=0.06). These findings were confirmed in neoadjuvant CTRT studies but not in phase III trials were 3-year DFS could still represent a valid surrogate. Conclusions This analysis does not support the use of pCR and 3-year DFS% as appropriate surrogate endpoints for 5-year OS% in patients with rectal cancer treated with neoadjuvant therapy.

  8. Use of Surrogate end points in HTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mangiapane, Sandra

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The different actors involved in health system decision-making and regulation have to deal with the question which are valid parameters to assess the health value of health technologies.So called surrogate endpoints represent in the best case preliminary steps in the casual chain leading to the relevant outcome (e. g. mortality, morbidity and are not usually directly perceptible by patients. Surrogate endpoints are not only used in trials of pharmaceuticals but also in studies of other technologies. Their use in the assessment of the benefit of a health technology is however problematic. In this report we intend to answer the following research questions: Which criteria need to be fulfilled for a surrogate parameter to be considered a valid endpoint? Which methods have been described in the literature for the assessment of the validity of surrogate endpoints? Which methodological recommendations concerning the use of surrogate endpoints have been made by international HTA agencies? Which place has been given to surrogate endpoints in international and German HTA reports? For this purpose, we choose three different approaches. Firstly, we conduct a review of the methodological literature dealing with the issue of surrogate endpoints and their validation. Secondly, we analyse current methodological guidelines of HTA agencies members of the International network of agencies for Health Technology Assessment (INAHTA as well as of agencies concerned with assessments for reimbursement purposes. Finally, we analyse the outcome parameter used in a sample of HTA reports available for the public. The analysis of methodological guidelines shows a very cautious position of HTA institutions regarding the use of surrogate endpoints in technology assessment. Surrogate endpoints have not been prominently used in HTA reports. None of the analysed reports based its conclusions solely on the results of surrogate endpoints. The analysis of German HTA reports shows a

  9. Copycats of the Central Himalayas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.A. Arora (Payal)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThis case study highlights practices of a rarely documented group of neo-users of the Internet or newbies from Central Himalayas, serving as a catalyst for delving deeply into the act of ‘plagiarism’ in online learning By looking at such ‘learning’ practices away from schools, namely

  10. Copycats of the Central Himalayas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.A. Arora (Payal)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThis case study highlights practices of a rarely documented group of neo-users of the Internet or newbies from Central Himalayas, serving as a catalyst for delving deeply into the act of ‘plagiarism’ in online learning By looking at such ‘learning’ practices away from schools, namely at

  11. Meta-analysis of D-values of proteolytic Clostridium botulinum and its surrogate strain Clostridium sporogenes PA 3679.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diao, Mamadou Moctar; André, Stéphane; Membré, Jeanne-Marie

    2014-03-17

    Foodborne botulism is a serious disease resulting from ingestion of preformed Clostridium botulinum neurotoxin in foodstuff. Since the 19th century, the heat resistance of this spore forming bacteria has been extensively studied in order to guarantee the public health associated with low acidic, ambient stable products. The most largely used heat resistance parameters in thermal settings of such products are the D121.1°C values (time required to have a 10-fold decrease of the spore count, at 121.1°C) and the z-values (temperature increase to have a 10-fold decrease of D-values). To determine D121.1°C and z-values of proteolytic C. botulinum and its nontoxigenic surrogate strain C. sporogenes PA3679, a dataset of 911 D-values was collected from 38 scientific studies. Within a meta-analysis framework, a mixed-effect linear model was developed with the log D-value (min) as response and the heat treatment temperature as explicative variable. The studies (38), the C. botulinum strains (11), and the heat treatment media (liquid media and various food matrices, split into nine categories in total) were considered as co-variables having a random effect. The species (C. botulinum and C. sporogenes) and the pH (five categories) were considered as co-variables having a fixed effect. Overall, the model gave satisfactory results with a residual standard deviation of 0.22. The heat resistance of proteolytic C. botulinum was found significantly lower than the C. sporogenes PA 3679 one: the mean D-values at the reference temperature of 121.1°C, in liquid media and pH neutral, were estimated to 0.19 and 1.28min for C. botulinum and C. sporogenes, respectively. On the other hand, the mean z-values of the two species were similar: 11.3 and 11.1°C for C. botulinum and C. sporogenes, respectively. These results will be applied to thermal settings of low-acid ambient stable products. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Ethnobotany in the Nepal Himalaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bussmann Rainer W

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Indigenous knowledge has become recognized worldwide not only because of its intrinsic value but also because it has a potential instrumental value to science and conservation. In Nepal, the indigenous knowledge of useful and medicinal plants has roots in the remote past. Methods The present study reviews the indigenous knowledge and use of plant resources of the Nepal Himalayas along the altitudinal and longitudinal gradient. A total of 264 studies focusing on ethnobotany, ethnomedicine and diversity of medicinal and aromatic plants, carried out between 1979 and 2006 were consulted for the present analysis. In order to cross check and verify the data, seven districts of west Nepal were visited in four field campaigns. Results In contrast to an average of 21–28% ethnobotanically/ethnomedicinally important plants reported for Nepal, the present study found that up to about 55% of the flora of the study region had medicinal value. This indicates a vast amount of undocumented knowledge about important plant species that needs to be explored and documented. The richness of medicinal plants decreased with increasing altitude but the percentage of plants used as medicine steadily increased with increasing altitude. This was due to preferences given to herbal remedies in high altitude areas and a combination of having no alternative choices, poverty and trust in the effectiveness of folklore herbal remedies. Conclusion Indigenous knowledge systems are culturally valued and scientifically important. Strengthening the wise use and conservation of indigenous knowledge of useful plants may benefit and improve the living standard of poor people.

  13. Secondary ozone peaks in the troposphere over the Himalayas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojha, Narendra; Pozzer, Andrea; Akritidis, Dimitris; Lelieveld, Jos

    2017-06-01

    Layers with strongly enhanced ozone concentrations in the middle-upper troposphere, referred to as secondary ozone peaks (SOPs), have been observed in different regions of the world. Here we use the global ECHAM5/MESSy atmospheric chemistry model (EMAC) to (i) investigate the processes causing SOPs, (ii) explore both their frequency of occurrence and seasonality, and (iii) assess their effects on the tropospheric ozone budget over the Himalayas. The vertical profiles of potential vorticity (PV) and a stratospheric ozone tracer (O3s) in EMAC simulations, in conjunction with the structure of SOPs, suggest that SOPs over the Himalayas are formed by stratosphere-to-troposphere transport (STT) of ozone. The spatial distribution of O3s further shows that such effects are in general most pronounced in the northern part of India. Model simulated ozone distributions and backward air trajectories show that ozone rich air masses, associated with STT, originate as far as northern Africa and the North Atlantic Ocean, the Middle East, as well as in nearby regions in Afghanistan and Pakistan, and are rapidly (within 2-3 days) transported to the Himalayas. Analysis of a 15-year (2000-2014) EMAC simulation shows that the frequency of SOPs is highest during the pre-monsoon season (e.g. 11 % of the time in May), while no intense SOP events are found during the July-October period. The SOPs are estimated to enhance the tropospheric column ozone (TCO) over the central Himalayas by up to 21 %.

  14. Interpretation of Gravity Data using 3D Euler Deconvolution, Tilt Angle, Horizontal Tilt Angle and Source Edge Approximation of the North-West Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Gopal K.

    2016-08-01

    The collision of the Indian plate and the Eurasian plate created shortening and imbrications with thrusting and faulting which influences northward tectonic movement. This plate movement has divided the Himalaya into four parts, viz. Outer Himalaya, Lesser Himalaya, Greater Himalaya, and Tethys Himalaya. The crystalline basement rock plays an imperative role for structural and tectonic association. The study has been carried out near Rishikesh-Badrinath neighborhood in the northwestern part of the Himalayan girdle with multifarious tectonic set up with thrusted and faulted geological setting. In this study area, 3D Euler deconvolution, horizontal gradient analysis, tilt angle (TILT) and horizontal tilt angle (TDX) analysis have been carried out using gravity data to delineate the subsurface geology and heterogeneity in the northwestern part of Himalaya. The Euler depth solutions suggest the source depth of about 12 km and various derivative analyses suggest the trend of the delineation thrust-fault boundaries along with the dip and strike direction in the study area.

  15. Birds as biodiversity surrogates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Frank Wugt; Bladt, Jesper Stentoft; Balmford, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    1. Most biodiversity is still unknown, and therefore, priority areas for conservation typically are identified based on the presence of surrogates, or indicator groups. Birds are commonly used as surrogates of biodiversity owing to the wide availability of relevant data and their broad popular...... appeal. However, some studies have found birds to perform relatively poorly as indicators. We therefore ask how the effectiveness of this approach can be improved by supplementing data on birds with information on other taxa. 2. Here, we explore two strategies using (i) species data for other taxa...... areas identified on the basis of birds alone performed well in representing overall species diversity where birds were relatively speciose compared to the other taxa in the data sets. Adding species data for one taxon increased surrogate effectiveness better than adding genus- and family-level data...

  16. Nonlinear analysis of magnetospheric data Part I. Geometric characteristics of the AE index time series and comparison with nonlinear surrogate data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. P. Pavlos

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available A long AE index time series is used as a crucial magnetospheric quantity in order to study the underlying dynainics. For this purpose we utilize methods of nonlinear and chaotic analysis of time series. Two basic components of this analysis are the reconstruction of the experimental tiine series state space trajectory of the underlying process and the statistical testing of an null hypothesis. The null hypothesis against which the experimental time series are tested is that the observed AE index signal is generated by a linear stochastic signal possibly perturbed by a static nonlinear distortion. As dis ' ' ating statistics we use geometrical characteristics of the reconstructed state space (Part I, which is the work of this paper and dynamical characteristics (Part II, which is the work a separate paper, and "nonlinear" surrogate data, generated by two different techniques which can mimic the original (AE index signal. lie null hypothesis is tested for geometrical characteristics which are the dimension of the reconstructed trajectory and some new geometrical parameters introduced in this work for the efficient discrimination between the nonlinear stochastic surrogate data and the AE index. Finally, the estimated geometric characteristics of the magnetospheric AE index present new evidence about the nonlinear and low dimensional character of the underlying magnetospheric dynamics for the AE index.

  17. Plutonium radiation surrogate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Michael I [Dublin, CA

    2010-02-02

    A self-contained source of gamma-ray and neutron radiation suitable for use as a radiation surrogate for weapons-grade plutonium is described. The source generates a radiation spectrum similar to that of weapons-grade plutonium at 5% energy resolution between 59 and 2614 keV, but contains no special nuclear material and emits little .alpha.-particle radiation. The weapons-grade plutonium radiation surrogate also emits neutrons having fluxes commensurate with the gamma-radiation intensities employed.

  18. Ethanol Does Not Promote MeIQx-initiated Rat Colon Carcinogenesis Based on Evidence from Analysis of a Colon Cancer Surrogate Marker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushida, Masahiko; Wanibuchi, Hideki; Wei, Min; Kakehashi, Anna; Ozaki, Keisuke; Sukata, Tokuo; Miyata, Kaori; Ogata, Keiko; Uwagawa, Satoshi; Fukushima, Shoji

    2009-03-01

    Epidemiological studies suggest that alcohol consumption increases the risk of developing colorectal cancer. However, the data are confounded by numerous cosegregating variables. To cast further light on the relationships between alcohol intake and colon cancer development, 21-day-old male F344/DuCrj rats were fed 200 ppm 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx) in their diet for 8 weeks and doses of 0, 0.1, 0.3, 1, 3, 10 and 20% of ethanol in their drinking water ad libitum for 16 weeks thereafter. The rats were sacrificed after 24 weeks of experiment, and aberrant crypt foci (ACF), surrogate lesions for colon cancer, were examined under a light microscope at low magnification. Ethanol was found not to affect the ACF formation at any dose compared with the initiated-controls. Furthermore, ethanol did not alter colon epithelial cell proliferation. These data, obtained by analysis of a colon cancer surrogate marker lesion, indicate that ethanol lacks promotion activity for MeIQx-initiated rat colon carcinogenesis.

  19. Climate change in the Himalayas : current state of knowledge

    OpenAIRE

    Gautam, Mahesh R.; Timilsina, Govinda R.; Acharya, Kumud

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews the literature on the potential biophysical and economic impacts of climate change in the Himalayas. Existing observations indicate that the temperature is rising at a higher rate in Nepal and Chinese regions of the Himalayas compared with rest of the Himalayas. A declining trend of monsoon in the western Indian Himalayas and an increasing trend in the eastern Indian Himalayas have been observed, whereas increasing precipitation and stream flow in many parts of Tibetan Plat...

  20. Quantifying the dry deposition of reactive nitrogen and sulfur containing species in remote areas using a surrogate surface analysis approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, Heather A.; Yi, Seung-Muk; Moumen, Nadjoua; Han, YoungJi; Holsen, Thomas M.

    In this study, the fluxes of gaseous (HNO 3 and SO 2) and particulate (NO 3- and SO 42-) species were measured using two recently developed surrogate surfaces, the water surface sampler (WSS) and the knife-edge surrogate surface (KSS). Sampling was conducted in Potsdam, NY, Solomons, MD, and at a farm in upstate NY intermittently between March 2000 and August 2001. The KSS contained both Nylasorb filters and greased Mylar disks. No statistical difference was found between measured total nitrate and sulfate deposition in side-by-side experiments with two WSSs. Average total nitrate fluxes measured with the WSS and Nylasorb filter on the KSS in Potsdam, Solomons, and at the farm were 3.6, 6.2, 2.9 mg m -2 day -1 and 2.5, 6.7, 2.3 mg m -2 day -1, respectively. Solomons had the highest total nitrate flux probably due to its proximity to large urban industrialized areas including Washington, DC, and Baltimore, MD. Average gaseous HNO 3 fluxes measured with the WSS and Nylasorb filter on the KSS in Potsdam, Solomons, and at the farm (calculated by subtracting the fraction of particles deposited to the Mylar disk from the total deposition to the WSS and Nylasorb filter) were 2.4, 4.9, 1.9 mg m -2 day -1 and 1.3, 5.6, 1.3 mg m -2 day -1, respectively. In Potsdam, total nitrate deposition to the WSS was greater than to the Nylasorb filter whereas in Solomons the opposite was true. This increased flux at Solomons may be because nitrate salts were formed on the surface of the Nylasorb filter by reaction of HNO 3 with previously deposited sea salt aerosols. Average p-NO 3- fluxes to the greased Mylar for the three sampling sites were 1.3, 1.3, and 1.0 mg m -2 day -1. The measured SO 2 deposition velocity to the WSS in Potsdam and Solomons was 2.1 and 1.5 cm s -1, respectively, and agreed well with other studies. The deposition velocity for HNO 3 to the WSS measured in Potsdam (8.1 cm s -1) was greater than to the Nylasorb filter (4.6 cm s -1) whereas in Solomons the opposite

  1. Developments in Surrogating Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans van Dormolen

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I would like to talk about the developments in surrogating methods for preservation. My main focus will be on the technical aspects of preservation surrogates. This means that I will tell you something about my job as Quality Manager Microfilming for the Netherlands’ national preservation program, Metamorfoze, which is coordinated by the National Library. I am responsible for the quality of the preservation microfilms, which are produced for Metamorfoze. Firstly, I will elaborate on developments in preservation methods in relation to the following subjects: · Preservation microfilms · Scanning of preservation microfilms · Preservation scanning · Computer Output Microfilm. In the closing paragraphs of this paper, I would like to tell you something about the methylene blue test. This is an important test for long-term storage of preservation microfilms. Also, I will give you a brief report on the Cellulose Acetate Microfilm Conference that was held in the British Library in London, May 2005.

  2. Analysis of Oseltamivir Resistance Substitutions in Influenza Virus Glycoprotein Neuraminidase using a Lentivirus-Based Surrogate Assay System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jennifer Tisoncik-Go; Katie S Cordero; Lijun Rong

    2013-01-01

    Influenza A virus poses a great threat to global health,and oseltamivir (trade marked as Tamiflu),which targets influenza surface glycoprotein neuraminidase (NA),is used clinically as a major anti-influenza treatment.However,certain substitutions in NA can render an influenza virus resistant to this drug.In this study,using a lentiviral pseudotyping system,which alleviates the safety concerns of studying highly pathogenic influenza viruses such as avian influenza H5N 1,that utilizes influenza surface glycoproteins (hemagglutinin or HA,and NA) and an HIV-core combined with a luciferase reporter gene as a surrogate assay,we first assessed the functionality of NA by measuring pseudovirion release in the absence or presence of oseltamivir.We demonstrated that oseltamivir displays a dose-dependent inhibition on NA activity.In contrast,a mutant NA (H274Y) is more resistant to oseltamivir treatment.In addition,the effects of several previously reported substitution NA mutants were examined as well.Our results demonstrate that this lentivirus-based pseudotyping system provides a quick,safe,and effective way to assess resistance to neuraminidase inhibitors.And we believe that as new mutations appear in influenza isolates,their impact on the effectiveness of current and future anti-NA can be quickly and reliably evaluated by this assay.

  3. Using serum urate as a validated surrogate end point for flares in patients with gout: protocol for a systematic review and meta-regression analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morillon, Melanie B; Stamp, Lisa; Taylor, William; Fransen, Jaap; Dalbeth, Nicola; Singh, Jasvinder A; Lassere, Marissa

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Gout is the most common inflammatory arthritis in men over 40 years of age. Long-term urate-lowering therapy is considered a key strategy for effective gout management. The primary outcome measure for efficacy in clinical trials of urate-lowering therapy is serum urate levels, effectively acting as a surrogate for patient-centred outcomes such as frequency of gout attacks or pain. Yet it is not clearly demonstrated that the strength of the relationship between serum urate and clinically relevant outcomes is sufficiently strong for serum urate to be considered an adequate surrogate. Our objective is to investigate the strength of the relationship between changes in serum urate in randomised controlled trials and changes in clinically relevant outcomes according to the ‘Biomarker-Surrogacy Evaluation Schema version 3’ (BSES3), documenting the validity of selected instruments by applying the ‘OMERACT Filter 2.0’. Methods and analysis A systematic review described in terms of the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) reporting guidelines will identify all relevant studies. Standardised data elements will be extracted from each study by 2 independent reviewers and disagreements are resolved by discussion. The data will be analysed by meta-regression of the between-arm differences in the change in serum urate level (independent variable) from baseline to 3 months (or 6 and 12 months if 3-month values are not available) against flare rate, tophus size and number and pain at the final study visit (dependent variables). Ethics and dissemination This study will not require specific ethics approval since it is based on analysis of published (aggregated) data. The intended audience will include healthcare researchers, policymakers and clinicians. Results of the study will be disseminated by peer-reviewed publications. Trial registration number CRD42016026991. PMID:27650765

  4. Transverse tectonic structural elements across Himalayan mountain front, eastern Arunachal Himalaya, India: Implication of superposed landform development on analysis of neotectonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhakuni, S. S.; Luirei, Khayingshing; Kothyari, Girish Ch.; Imsong, Watinaro

    2017-04-01

    Structural and morphotectonic signatures in conjunction with the geomorphic indices are synthesised to trace the role of transverse tectonic features in shaping the landforms developed along the frontal part of the eastern Arunachal sub-Himalaya. Mountain front sinuosity (Smf) index values close to one are indicative of the active nature of the mountain front all along the eastern Arunachal Himalaya, which can be directly attributed to the regional uplift along the Himalayan Frontal Thrust (HFT). However, the mountain front is significantly sinusoidal around junctions between HFT/MBT (Main Boundary Thrust) and active transverse faults. The high values of stream length gradient (SL) and stream steepness (Ks) indices together with field evidence of fault scarps, offset of terraces, and deflection of streams are markers of neotectonic uplift along the thrusts and transverse faults. This reactivation of transverse faults has given rise to extensional basins leading to widening of the river courses, providing favourable sites for deposition of recent sediments. Tectonic interactions of these transverse faults with the Himalayan longitudinal thrusts (MBT/HFT) have segmented the mountain front marked with varying sinuosity. The net result is that a variety of tectonic landforms recognized along the mountain front can be tracked to the complex interactions among the transverse and longitudinal tectonic elements. Some distinctive examples are: in the eastern extremity of NE Himalaya across the Dibang River valley, the NW-SE trending mountain front is attenuated by the active Mishmi Thrust that has thrust the Mishmi crystalline complex directly over the alluvium of the Brahmaputra plains. The junction of the folded HFT and Mishmi Thrust shows a zone of brecciated and pulverized rocks along which transverse axial planar fracture cleavages exhibit neotectonic activities in a transverse fault zone coinciding with the Dibang River course. Similarly, the transverse faults cut the

  5. 11-year variability of summer snow cover extent over Himalayas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Jung-Mok; Han, Kyung-Soo; Cho, Jae-Il; Lee, Chang-Suk; Pi, Kyoung-jin; Kim, In-Hwan; Ryu, Jae-Hyun; Park, Eun-Bin

    2013-10-01

    Snow is a component of the cryosphere which has played an important role in Earth energy balance. Northern hemisphere snow cover extent (SCE) has steadily decreased since 1980 and in recently the trend of SCE is sharply decreased. Because Himalaya region's shows most significant changes except for the Arctic, we analyzed this region for SCE. We used Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) snow product from 2001 to 2011 in august. Analysis was made by considering some conditions (region, elevation, longitude and climate) which can affect the changes in SCE. The entire SCE in Himalaya for 11 years has steadily increased(+55,098 km2). Trends for SCE in western region has increased(+77,781km2), But trend for central and eastern have decreased -3,453 km2, -19,230km2, respectively. According to elevation increases, the ratio of snow in each study area is increased. In 30°N~35°N SCE shows increased trend, 27°N~28°N shows decreased trend. In tundra climate, trends for SCE are similar to regional analysis. whereas the result in tropical climate's trend was increased. these performed result shows different side for change of SCE depending on each condition. The result of this study were similar to the rapid decline of the northern hemisphere SCE area in recent. The result of this study can be used to help management to water budget in Central-Asia country located to Himalayas.

  6. Use of Mycobacterium smegmatis deficient in ADP-ribosyltransferase as surrogate for Mycobacterium tuberculosis in drug testing and mutation analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanka Agrawal

    Full Text Available Rifampicin (Rif is a first line drug used for tuberculosis treatment. However, the emergence of drug resistant strains has necessitated synthesis and testing of newer analogs of Rif. Mycobacterium smegmatis is often used as a surrogate for M. tuberculosis. However, the presence of an ADP ribosyltransferase (Arr in M. smegmatis inactivates Rif, rendering it impractical for screening of Rif analogs or other compounds when used in conjunction with them (Rif/Rif analogs. Rifampicin is also used in studying the role of various DNA repair enzymes by analyzing mutations in RpoB (a subunit of RNA polymerase causing Rif resistance. These analyses use high concentrations of Rif when M. smegmatis is used as model. Here, we have generated M. smegmatis strains by deleting arr (Δarr. The M. smegmatis Δarr strains show minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC for Rif which is similar to that for M. tuberculosis. The MICs for isoniazid, pyrazinamide, ethambutol, ciprofloxacin and streptomycin were essentially unaltered for M. smegmatis Δarr. The growth profiles and mutation spectrum of Δarr and, Δarr combined with ΔudgB (udgB encodes a DNA repair enzyme that excises uracil strains were similar to their counterparts wild-type for arr. However, the mutation spectrum of ΔfpgΔarr strain differed somewhat from that of the Δfpg strain (fpg encodes a DNA repair enzyme that excises 8-oxo-G. Our studies suggest M. smegmatis Δarr strain as an ideal model system in drug testing and mutation spectrum determination in DNA repair studies.

  7. Use of Mycobacterium smegmatis deficient in ADP-ribosyltransferase as surrogate for Mycobacterium tuberculosis in drug testing and mutation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Priyanka; Miryala, Sandeep; Varshney, Umesh

    2015-01-01

    Rifampicin (Rif) is a first line drug used for tuberculosis treatment. However, the emergence of drug resistant strains has necessitated synthesis and testing of newer analogs of Rif. Mycobacterium smegmatis is often used as a surrogate for M. tuberculosis. However, the presence of an ADP ribosyltransferase (Arr) in M. smegmatis inactivates Rif, rendering it impractical for screening of Rif analogs or other compounds when used in conjunction with them (Rif/Rif analogs). Rifampicin is also used in studying the role of various DNA repair enzymes by analyzing mutations in RpoB (a subunit of RNA polymerase) causing Rif resistance. These analyses use high concentrations of Rif when M. smegmatis is used as model. Here, we have generated M. smegmatis strains by deleting arr (Δarr). The M. smegmatis Δarr strains show minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for Rif which is similar to that for M. tuberculosis. The MICs for isoniazid, pyrazinamide, ethambutol, ciprofloxacin and streptomycin were essentially unaltered for M. smegmatis Δarr. The growth profiles and mutation spectrum of Δarr and, Δarr combined with ΔudgB (udgB encodes a DNA repair enzyme that excises uracil) strains were similar to their counterparts wild-type for arr. However, the mutation spectrum of ΔfpgΔarr strain differed somewhat from that of the Δfpg strain (fpg encodes a DNA repair enzyme that excises 8-oxo-G). Our studies suggest M. smegmatis Δarr strain as an ideal model system in drug testing and mutation spectrum determination in DNA repair studies.

  8. Who is Polluting the Himalaya?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panday, A. K.; Praveen, P. S.; Adhikary, B.; Bhave, P.; Banmali Pradhan, B.; Dhungel, S.; Mehra, M.; Mahapatra, P. S.

    2016-12-01

    Observations in recent years have shown that the Himalayan atmosphere is severely polluted even at high altitude, with implications of accelerated melting of the Himalayan cryosphere. However, there are still big uncertainties in our understanding of what fraction of the black carbon and other pollutants reaching the high mountains originates from anthropogenic activities in nearby rural valleys, what fraction originates from seasonal forest fires, and from the densely populated and rapidly changing Indo-Gangetic Plains (IGP) of northern South Asia, which is fragmented across five countries between which movement of people, data, instruments and scientific understanding have been very limited. ICIMOD's Atmosphere Initiative has for the past four years been working to fill data gaps in the region, while facilitating collaborations across borders. It has established a regional modeling center and a regional data center, and it has set up half a dozen new atmospheric observatories at low and mid elevations in Bhutan and Nepal that provide data on the inflow of pollutants from the IGP towards the mountains, as well as quantify the effects of local emissions on air quality in mountain cities. Meanwhile, the University of Virginia has been running an observatory at Jomsom, Nepal, in a trans-Himalayan valley, since 2010, while ICIMOD is working on establishing high altitude black carbon observations in Bhutan and Nepal. The data so far indicates that air quality in the Himalaya is affected by local pollution sources and thermal circulation patterns, but that there are time periods, especially during the dry season, when it is inundated by regional polluted air masses that overwhelm the effects of local sources. Our modeling studies trace the origins of air pollutants reaching different places of interest in the Himalaya, and indicate the important role played by emissions in the plains to the south. The key to clean air over the Himalaya, is not just in reducing emissions

  9. Evaluation of Non-Viral Surrogate Markers as Predictive Indicators for Monitoring Progression of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection: An Eight-Year Analysis in a Regional Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafatpanah, Houshang; Essmailian, Leila; Hedayati-Moghaddam, Mohammad Reza; Vakili, Rosita; Norouzi, Mehdi; Sarvghad, Mohammad Reza; Hosseinpour, Ali Mohammad; Sharebiani, Hiva; Rezaee, S A Rahim

    2016-01-01

    Suitable methods for clinical monitoring of HIV-infected patients are crucial in resource-poor settings. Demographic data, clinical staging, and laboratory findings for 112 asymptomatic subjects positive for HIV were assessed at the first admission and the last visit from 2002 to 2010. Cox regression analysis showed hemoglobin (Hb) (HR = 0.643, P = 0.021) to be a predictive indicator for disease progression, while CD4, CD8, and platelet counts showed low HRs, despite having significant probability values. Hb and total lymphocyte count (TLC) rapidly declined from stage II to III (10.9 and 29.6%, respectively). Reduced CD4 and platelet counts and Hb during stage I were associated with disease progression, and TLC was correlated with CD4 counts at the last follow-up (P analysis suggested that a TLC cutoff of 1,800 cell/mm(3) was more reliable in this region. Statistical analysis and data mining findings showed that Hb and TLC, and their rapid decline from stage II to III, in addition to reduced platelet count, could be valuable markers for a surrogate algorithm for monitoring of HIV-infected subjects and starting anti-viral therapy in the absence of sophisticated detection assays.

  10. Depositional environment and provenance of Middle Siwalik sediments in Tista valley, Darjiling District, Eastern Himalaya, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abhik Kundu; Abdul Matin; Malay Mukul

    2012-02-01

    The frontal part of the active, wedge-shaped Indo-Eurasian collision boundary is defined by the Himalayan fold-and-thrust belt whose foreland basin accumulated sediments that eventually became part of the thrust belt and is presently exposed as the sedimentary rocks of the Siwalik Group. The rocks of the Siwalik Group have been extensively studied in the western and Nepal Himalaya and have been divided into the Lower, Middle and Upper Subgroups. In the Darjiling–Sikkim Himalaya, the Upper Siwalik sequence is not exposed and the Middle Siwalik Subgroup exposed in the Tista river valley of Darjiling Himalaya preserves a ∼325 m thick sequence of sandstone, conglomerate and shale. The Middle Siwalik section has been repeated by a number of north dipping thrusts. The sedimentary facies and facies associations within the lithostratigraphic column of the Middle Siwalik rocks show temporal repetition of sedimentary facies associations suggesting oscillation between proximal-, mid- and distal fan setups within a palaeo-alluvial fan depositional environment similar to the depositional setup of the Siwalik sediments in other parts of the Himalaya. These oscillations are probably due to a combination of foreland-ward movement of Himalayan thrusts, climatic variations and mountain-ward shift of fanapex due to erosion. The Middle Siwalik sediments were derived from Higher- and Lesser Himalayan rocks. Mineral characteristics and modal analysis suggest that sedimentation occurred in humid climatic conditions similar to the moist humid climate of the present day Eastern Himalaya.

  11. Surrogate Modeling for Geometry Optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rojas Larrazabal, Marielba de la Caridad; Abraham, Yonas; Holzwarth, Natalie;

    2009-01-01

    A new approach for optimizing the nuclear geometry of an atomic system is described. Instead of the original expensive objective function (energy functional), a small number of simpler surrogates is used.......A new approach for optimizing the nuclear geometry of an atomic system is described. Instead of the original expensive objective function (energy functional), a small number of simpler surrogates is used....

  12. Surrogate Endpoints in Suicide Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wortzel, Hal S.; Gutierrez, Peter M.; Homaifar, Beeta Y.; Breshears, Ryan E.; Harwood, Jeri E.

    2010-01-01

    Surrogate endpoints frequently substitute for rare outcomes in research. The ability to learn about completed suicides by investigating more readily available and proximate outcomes, such as suicide attempts, has obvious appeal. However, concerns with surrogates from the statistical science perspective exist, and mounting evidence from…

  13. A Cryosphere Monitoring Project in the Himalayas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stumm, D.; Mool, P. K.; Shresta, A. B.; Joshi, S. P.; Bajracharya, S. R.; Kayastha, R. B.; Devkota, L. P.; Bajracharya, O. R.

    2011-12-01

    The Cryosphere Monitoring Project (CMP) has been initiated by ICIMOD (International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development) with the aim to gain more knowledge about the cryosphere in the Himalayas and to build capacities in Nepalese organisations. The CMP is carried out in collaboration with the Kathmandu University, Tribhuvan University, the Department of Hydrology and Meteorology and the Water and Energy Commission Secretariat, and is sponsored by the Royal Norwegian Embassy. The CMP has a multilevel and integrative approach and consists of the following five components: (1) glacier monitoring, (2) assessment of current and future water resources at catchment and sub-basin scale, (3) multi-level remote sensing based observations for glacier and snow monitoring, (4) strengthening ICIMOD as regional knowledge hub for cryospheric information, (5) capacity building of Nepalese organisations. The glacier monitoring component includes field-based mass balance, geometry and glacier flow measurements on two clean and one debris-covered glacier and their analysis, as well as snow cover measurements. The in-situ glacier measurements promote process understanding, provide a refined temporal resolution of mass balance data and data for calibration of glacio-hydrological models. To assess current water resources, meteorological and hydrological measurements are initiated and the run-off is calculated with glacio-hydrological and snow-melt models for the catchments of the selected glaciers. Future water availability will be assessed by down-scaling regional climate model (RCM) data that is applied to the glacio-hydrological model. Remote sensing data is used to improve spatial information about the glacier distribution by refining glacier inventories, and to calculate the geodetic mass balance for the selected glaciers to complement the directly measured glacier mass balance. Additionally, the operation of a MODIS satellite receiving station is planned to obtain near real

  14. TH-E-17A-08: Estimation of Image Quality of 4-Dimensional Computed Tomography (4DCT) Via Fourier Analysis of Corresponding 1D Breathing Surrogate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caraveo, M; McNamara, J; Rimner, A; Yorke, E; Li, G [Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States); Wei, J [City College of New York, New York, NY (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Motion artifacts are common in patient 4DCT, leading to an illdefined tumor volume with variation up to 110% or setting up a poor foundation with low imaging fidelity for tumor motion study. We developed a method to estimate 4DCT image quality by establishing a correlation between the severity of motion artifacts in 4DCT images and the periodicity of corresponding 1D respiratory wave-function (1DRW) surrogate used for 4DCT reconstruction. Methods: Fast Fourier Transformation (FFT) was applied to analyze 1DRW periodicity, defined as the sum of the 5 largest Fourier coefficients, ranging in 0–1. Distortional motion artifacts of cine-scan 4DCT at the junctions of adjacent couchposition scans around the diaphragm were identified in 3 categories: incomplete, overlapping and duplicate. To quantify these artifacts, the discontinuity of the diaphragm at the junctions was measured in distance and averaged along 6 directions in 3 orthogonal views. Mean and sum artifacts per junction (APJ) across the entire diaphragm were calculated in each breathing phase. To make the APJ inter-patient comparable, patientspecific motion was removed from APJ by dividing patient-specific diaphragmatic velocity (displacement divided by the mean period, from FFT analysis of the 1DRW) and the normalized APJ was defined as motion artifact severity (MAS). Twenty-five patients with free-breathing 10-phase 4DCT and corresponding 1DRW surrogate datasets were studied. Results: A mild correlation of 0.56 was found between 1DRW periodicity and 4DCT artifact severity. Higher MAS tends to appear around mid inhalation and mid exhalation and the lowest MAS tends to be around full exhalation. The breathing periodicity of >0.8 possesses minimal motion artifacts. Conclusion: The 1D-4D correlation provides a fast means to estimate 4DCT image quality. Using 1DRW signal, we can retrospectively screen out high-quality 4DCT images for clinical research (periodicity>0.8) and prospectively identify poor

  15. Topological Performance Measures as Surrogates for Physical Flow Models for Risk and Vulnerability Analysis for Electric Power Systems

    CERN Document Server

    LaRocca, Sarah; Hassel, Henrik; Guikema, Seth

    2013-01-01

    Critical infrastructure systems must be both robust and resilient in order to ensure the functioning of society. To improve the performance of such systems, we often use risk and vulnerability analysis to find and address system weaknesses. A critical component of such analyses is the ability to accurately determine the negative consequences of various types of failures in the system. Numerous mathematical and simulation models exist which can be used to this end. However, there are relatively few studies comparing the implications of using different modeling approaches in the context of comprehensive risk analysis of critical infrastructures. Thus in this paper, we suggest a classification of these models, which span from simple topologically-oriented models to advanced physical flow-based models. Here, we focus on electric power systems and present a study aimed at understanding the tradeoffs between simplicity and fidelity in models used in the context of risk analysis. Specifically, the purpose of this pa...

  16. Structural analysis of Nalagarh lobe, NW Himalaya: implication of thrusting across tectonic edge of NW limb of Nahan salient, Himachal Pradesh, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhakuni, S. S.; Philip, G.; Suresh, N.

    2017-07-01

    associated with the kinematics of the transition between the Nahan salient and Kangra recess. The transition is a transfer zone forming a long pre-Himalayan lineament across which the stratigraphic set of the Tethys and Lesser Himalaya is different. The study suggests that the lateral ramp on the Main Himalayan Thrust does not exist beneath the apex and also beneath the SE limb of the salient in the Sub-Himalayan region. This ramp should be present only beneath near end point of SW limb of the Nahan salient.

  17. Unsuitability of lymphoblastoid cell lines as surrogate of cryopreserved isolated lymphocytes for the analysis of DNA double-strand break repair activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zijno, Andrea [Department of Environment and Primary Prevention, Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Rome (Italy); Porcedda, Paola [Department of Clinical and Biological Sciences, University of Turin (Italy); Saini, Francesca [Department of Environment and Primary Prevention, Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Rome (Italy); Allione, Alessandra [Institute for Scientific Interchange (ISI) Foundation, Villa Gualino, Turin (Italy); Garofalo, Bruno; Marcon, Francesca [Department of Environment and Primary Prevention, Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Rome (Italy); Guarrera, Simonetta [Institute for Scientific Interchange (ISI) Foundation, Villa Gualino, Turin (Italy); Turinetto, Valentina; Minieri, Valentina [Department of Clinical and Biological Sciences, University of Turin (Italy); Funaro, Ada [Department of Genetics, Biology and Biochemistry, University of Turin (Italy); Crebelli, Riccardo [Department of Environment and Primary Prevention, Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Rome (Italy); Giachino, Claudia [Department of Clinical and Biological Sciences, University of Turin (Italy); Matullo, Giuseppe, E-mail: giuseppe.matullo@unito.it [Institute for Scientific Interchange (ISI) Foundation, Villa Gualino, Turin (Italy); Department of Genetics, Biology and Biochemistry, University of Turin (Italy)

    2010-02-03

    As first task of a comprehensive investigation on DNA repair genotype-phenotype correlations, the suitability of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-transformed lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) as surrogate of cryopreserved peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in DNA repair phenotypic assays was evaluated. To this aim the amount of DNA damage induced by {gamma}-rays and DNA repair capacity were evaluated in unstimulated (G{sub 0}) and mitogen-simulated (G{sub 2}) PBMC from 20 healthy subjects and in EBV-transformed LCL obtained from the same individuals. Phosphorylation of histone H2AX, micronuclei and chromosomal aberrations were the end-points investigated. The results obtained show higher basal frequencies of binucleated cells bearing micronuclei and nucleoplasmic bridge (NPB) in LCL with respect to PBMC, suggesting that EBV transformation may be associated with chromosomal instability. After irradiation, higher levels of micronuclei were induced in G{sub 0}-treated PBMC compared to cycling LCL; conversely, NPB were more frequent in LCL than in PBMC. Moreover, higher levels of chromosomal aberrations were observed in G{sub 2}-treated PBMC compared to LCL. Concerning {gamma}-H2AX measurements, phosphorylation levels 1 h after treatment and dephosphorylation kinetics were basically similar in LCL and in PBMC. However, while Spearman's test showed a strong correlation between the results obtained in replicated experiments with PBMC, high inter-experimental variability and poor reproducibility was observed in the experiments performed with LCL, possibly due to the intrinsic instability of LCL. In summary, both the analysis of {gamma}-H2AX and the evaluation of chromosome damage highlighted a larger inter-experimental variability in the results obtained with LCL compared to PBMC. Noteworthy, the two set of results proved to lack any significant correlation at the individual level. These results indicate that LCL may be unsuitable for investigating genotype

  18. Glacier Fluctuations in the Nanga Parbat Region of Western Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haritashya, U. K.; Bishop, M. P.; Shroder, J. F.

    2008-12-01

    Glaciers in many mountain environments have shown general retreat patterns, most likely due to atmospheric warming. Glaciers in the Western Himalaya are perhaps more complicated than other regions due to their complex topography, extensive supraglacial debris cover, and climate-system coupling involving the westerlies and the monsoon. Consequently, our objectives were to assess glacier fluctuations in the Nanga Parbat Himalaya as a part of the International Global Land Ice Measurements from Space (GLIMS) project. Specifically, we conducted change-detection studies to estimate fluctuation rates. A high-quality topographic map from 1934, Keyhole imagery from the 1970s, SPOT images from 1990 and 2005, and ASTER satellite imagery from 2004 were utilized to identify terminus positions, and triangulation methods were used to account for variations in terminus shape and orientation. Our results indicate that some glaciers are retreating and/or maintaining their frontal position while others have advanced at different time periods. Some of these glaciers have also shown downwasting characteristics in the form of increased frequency and size of supraglacial lakes. Average retreat rates, however, are not nearly as large as those reported in India, the Eastern Himalaya, and the Hindu Kush region. Glacier advances in this region have neither been reported as surge-type glaciers in the past, nor have any shown surge-type patterns; therefore, these advances may be due to positive mass balance. Analysis of climate reanalysis data (ERA40) suggest an increase in precipitation in the region. Nanga Parbat glaciers appear to be oscillating, although a recent retreat pattern can be found. There is an urgent need for regional climate and surface energy-budget modeling to assess these complexities to determine the nature of these oscillations.

  19. Tree rings reveal recent intensified spring drought in the central Himalaya, Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panthi, Shankar; Bräuning, Achim; Zhou, Zhe-Kun; Fan, Ze-Xin

    2017-10-01

    To better understand long-term drought variations in the central Himalaya, we developed new tree-ring width chronologies of Himalayan spruce (Picea smithiana (Wall.) Boiss.) from three sites in the north-western Nepal. The local site chronologies showed high cross correlations and similar growth-climate responses to regional spring drought variability. We thus combined all site chronologies into a regional composite (RC) standard chronology that spans 516 years (1498-2013 CE). The RC chronology showed significant positive (negative) correlations with spring (March-May) precipitation (temperature) variability. Meanwhile, RC chronology showed the highest correlation with spring self-calibrating Palmer drought severity index (scPDSI, r = 0.652, p correlation analysis indicate that spring drought variability in the central Himalaya may be linked to large scale climatic drivers, mainly Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation activities due to sea surface temperatures variation in the Atlantic Ocean. Our reconstruction revealed a continuous shift toward drier conditions in the central Himalaya since early 1980s that coincide with continental-scale warming and reduced spring precipitation in the central Himalaya.

  20. Climate–Glacier Dynamics and Topographic Forcing in the Karakoram Himalaya: Concepts, Issues and Research Directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iliyana D. Dobreva

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Understanding climate-glacier dynamics in High Mountain Asia is of critical importance to address issues including water resources, sea-level rise, mountain geodynamics, natural hazards and ecosystem sustainability. The Karakoram Himalaya is arguably the least understood region, given its extreme topography, climate-system coupling, and advancing and surge-type glaciers that exhibit complex flow patterns. Glacier fluctuations in the Karakoram Himalaya are highly variable in space and time because of numerous controlling factors, including the westerlies, the Indian summer monsoon, various teleconnections, topographic effects, glacier debris-cover characteristics, glacier dynamics, and geological conditions. The influence of the integrative coupling of forcing factors, however, has not been adequately assessed for characterizing the glaciers in the Karakoram Himalaya. Given the scarcity of in-situ data and the difficulty of conducting fieldwork on these glaciers, recent research has focused on utilizing remote sensing, geospatial technologies, and scientific modeling to obtain baseline information about the state of glaciers in the region. This review summarizes our current knowledge of glaciers, climate-glacier interaction, and topographic forcing in the Karakoram Himalaya, and demonstrates the complexities in mountain geodynamics that influence climate-glacier dynamics. Innovative analysis is also presented in support of our review and discussion.

  1. Out-of-Sequence Thrust in the Higher Himalaya- a Review & Possible Genesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, S.; Koyi, H. A.; Talbot, C. J.

    2009-04-01

    : evidences from fission track dating. Earth Planetary Science Letters 179, 437-451. Mukherjee, S. 2007. Geodynamics, deformation and mathematical analysis of metamorphic belts of the NW Himalaya. Unpublished Ph.D. thesis. Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee. pp. 1-267. Searle, M.P., 1999. Extensional and compressional faults in the Everest-Lhotse massif, Khumbu Himalaya, Nepal. Journal of Geological Society, London, 156, 227-240. Swapp, S.M., Hollister, L.S., 1991. Inverted metamorphism within the Tibetan slab of Bhutan: evidence for a tectonically transported heat source. Canadian Mineralogist 29, 1019-1041. Vannay, J-C., Hodges, K.V., 1996. Tectonomorphic evolution of the Himalayan metamorphic core between the Annapurna and Dhaulagiri, central Nepal. Journal of Metamorphic Geology 14, 635-656. Wobus, C., Heimsath, A., Whipple, K., Hodges, K., 2005. Active out-of-sequence thrust faulting in the central Nepalese Himalaya. Nature 434, 1008-1011. Yin, A., Dubey, C.S., Kelty, T.K., Gehrels, G.E., Chou, C.Y., Grove, M., Lovera, O., 2006. Structural evolution of the Arunachal Himalaya and implications for asymmetric development Himalayan orogen. Current Science 90, 195-206.

  2. Flora of the Pan-Himalayas: General guidelines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Editorial Committee,Flora of the Pan-Himalayas [May 2011]1.The Pan-Himalayas (the Himalayas and adjacent regions) forms a natural geographic unit,from the Wakhan Corridor and northeastern Hindu Kush eastwards to the Hengduan Mountains by way of Karakorum and the Himalayas.This region covers the northeastern corner of Afghanistan,northern Pakistan,northern India,Nepal,Bhutan,northern Myanmar,and southwest China (S Tibet,SE Qinghai,SE Gansu,W Sichuan,and NW Yunnan).

  3. CODA Q estimates for Kumaun Himalaya

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A Paul; S C Gupta; Charu C Pant

    2003-12-01

    Coda (c) estimates for the Kumaun Himalaya region have been obtained in high frequency range. Local earthquakes, recorded by a digital seismic network in the region, which fall in the epicentral distances range of 10 to 80km and with a local magnitude range of 1.4 to 2.8, have been used. The coda waves of 30 sec window length, filtered at seven frequency bands centered at 1.5, 3, 6, 9, 12, 18 and 24 Hz, have been analysed using the single backscattering model. The values of c estimates vary from 65 to 283 at 1.5 Hz to 2119 to 3279 at 24.0 Hz which showed that c is frequency dependent and its value increases as frequency increases. A frequency-dependent c relationship, c = (92 ± 4.73) (1.07 ± .023), is obtained for the region representing the average attenuation characteristics of seismic waves for Kumaun Himalaya region.

  4. 19th Himalaya-Karakoram-Tibet Workshop

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The 19th Himalaya-Karakoram-Tibet Workshop (HKT19), as an annual international workshop devoted to presentations of new research findings in the Earth sciences and related disciplines from the Himalaya-Karakoram-Tibet (HKT) region and discussion on the burning issues, was held in Niseko, a famous ski resort in Hokkaido,Japan. The HKT19 Organizing Committee hosted the workshop together with two 21st Century Center of Excellence Programs,namely, COE for the “Neo-Science of Natural History” (Hokkaido University, Project Leader: H. Okada), COE for “Dynamics of the Sun-Earth-Life Interactive System”,(Nagoya University, Project Leader: T.Yasunari), and the Division of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Hokkaido University,

  5. Nd and Pb isotope variability in the Indus River System: implications for sediment provenance and crustal heterogeneity in the Western Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clift, Peter D.; Lee, Jae Il; Hildebrand, Peter; Shimizu, Nobumichi; Layne, Graham D.; Blusztajn, Jerzy; Blum, Joel D.; Garzanti, Eduardo; Khan, Athar Ali

    2002-06-01

    The Indus River system is the only major drainage system in the western Himalaya, and erodes not only the High Himalaya, but also topographically high regions within and north of the Indus Suture Zone, most notably the Karakoram. Ion microprobe analysis of Pb isotopes in detrital K-feldspar grains taken from the tributaries of the Indus, together with bulk Nd isotope analysis of those same sediments, is here used to identify distinct sediment source regions. These span the very radiogenic Nanga Parbat and associated Lesser Himalaya, the relatively radiogenic-intermediate High Himalaya, the unradiogenic Ladakh and Kohistan Batholiths and intermediate values in the Hindu Kush, Karakoram and Lhasa Block. The range of compositions reflects differing degrees of recycling of older continental crust during petrogenesis. K-feldspars from the Ladakh and Kohistan Batholiths are less radiogenic than the laterally equivalent Gangdese granite of Tibet, interpreted to reflect the preferential recycling of accreted oceanic arc units within the western Transhimalaya prior to India-Asia collision. Similarly the Zanskar High Himalaya are less radiogenic than their equivalents in Nepal. Isotope values from Pleistocene Indus Fan sediment are compatible with a dominant source in the Karakoram, with additional important contributions from the arc batholiths and High Himalaya, reflecting both the area and modern rates of tectonic uplift within the drainage basin. In contrast, radiogenic grains are common in the lower reaches of the modern Indus River, possibly as a result of the damming of the main river channel where it reaches the foreland.

  6. Using Finite Model Analysis and Out of Hot Cell Surrogate Rod Testing to Analyze High Burnup Used Nuclear Fuel Mechanical Properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jy-An John [ORNL; Jiang, Hao [ORNL; Wang, Hong [ORNL

    2014-07-01

    Based on a series of FEA simulations, the discussions and the conclusions concerning the impact of the interface bonding efficiency to SNF vibration integrity are provided in this report; this includes the moment carrying capacity distribution between pellets and clad, and the impact of cohesion bonding on the flexural rigidity of the surrogate rod system. As progressive de-bonding occurs at the pellet-pellet interfaces and at the pellet-clad interface, the load ratio of the bending moment carrying capacity gradually shifts from the pellets to the clad; the clad starts to carry a significant portion of the bending moment resistance until reaching the full de-bonding state at the pellet-pellet interface regions. This results in localized plastic deformation of the clad at the pellet-pellet-clad interface region; the associated plastic deformations of SS clad leads to a significant degradation in the stiffness of the surrogate rod. For instance, the flexural rigidity was reduced by 39% from the perfect bond state to the de-bonded state at the pellet-pellet interfaces.

  7. Arc parallel extension in Higher and Lesser Himalayas, evidence from western Arunachal Himalaya, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sharmistha De Sarkar; George Mathew; Kanchan Pande

    2013-06-01

    The existence of E–W extensional features from northeast (NE) Himalaya is poorly documented. Our investigation in the western part of Arunachal Himalaya provides evidences of active Quaternary E–W arc-parallel extensional features in the Higher and Lesser Himalayas. They are represented by arcperpendicular normal faults and arc-parallel sinistral strike-slip faults. We discuss the occurrences of these arc-parallel extensional features in terms of oblique convergence and radial expansion models. The partitioning of stress due to oblique convergence is argued based on evidences of left-lateral slip in NEHimalaya, right-lateral slip in NW-Himalaya and absence of translation in the central part. The amount of arc-parallel extension in the hinterland regions is correlated to the amount of radial shortening in the foreland. The computation of arc-parallel extension in the NE Himalayan arc is carried out by defining a small-circle centered at 88° 39′ ± 0.7′E longitude and 33° 40′ ± 0.6′N latitude having a radius of 770.7 ± 15.1 km, for the segment between 92° 01′ and 95° 16′E longitudes. The amount of arc-parallel extension estimated is ∼110 km for the NE Himalayan segment. Our result agrees closely with the 104 km extension determined based on geodetically computed extension rate and age of initiation of rifting in southern Tibet.

  8. Geophysical Characterization of the Salna Sinking Zone, Garhwal Himalaya, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sastry, Rambhatla G.; Mondal, Suman K.

    2013-01-01

    Infrastructure and communication facilities are repeatedly affected by ground deformation in Gharwal Himalaya, India; for effective remediation measures, a thorough understanding of the real reasons for these movements is needed. In this regard, we undertook an integrated geophysical and geotechnical study of the Salna sinking zone close to the Main Central Thrust in Garhwal Himalaya. Our geophysical data include eight combined electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) and induced polarization imaging (IPI) profiles spanning 144-600 m, with 3-10 m electrode separation in the Wenner-Schlumberger configuration, and five micro-gravity profiles with 10-30 m station spacing covering the study region. The ERT sections clearly outline the heterogeneity in the subsurface lithology. Further, the ERT, IPI, and shaliness (shaleyness) sections infer the absence of clayey horizons and slip surfaces at depth. However, the Bouguer gravity analysis has revealed the existence of several faults in the subsurface, much beyond the reach of the majority of ERT sections. These inferred vertical to subvertical faults run parallel to the existing major lineaments and tectonic elements of the study region. The crisscross network of inferred faults has divided the entire study region into several blocks in the subsurface. Our studies stress that the sinking of the Salna village area is presently taking place along these inferred vertical to subvertical faults. The Chamoli earthquake in March 1999 probably triggered seismically induced ground movements in this region. The absence of few gravity-inferred faults in shallow ERT sections may hint at blind faults, which could serve as future source(s) for geohazards in the study region. Soil samples at two sites of study region were studied in a geotechnical laboratory. These, along with stability studies along four slope sections, have indicated the critical state of the study region. Thus, our integrated studies emphasize the crucial role of

  9. Surrogate modeling for initial rotational stiffness of welded tubular joints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R. Garifullin

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Recently, buildings and structures erected in Russia and abroad have to comply with stringent economic requirements. Buildings should not only be reliable and safe, have a beautiful architectural design, but also meet the criteria of rationality and energy efficiency. In practice, this usually means the need for additional comparative analysis in order to determine the optimal solution to the engineering task. Usually such an analysis is time-consuming and requires huge computational efforts. In this regard, surrogate modeling can be an effective tool for solving such problems. This article provides a brief description of surrogate models and the basic techniques of their construction, describes the construction process of a surrogate model to calculate initial rotational stiffness of welded RHS joints made of high strength steel (HSS.

  10. Describing earthquakes potential through mountain building processes: an example within Nepal Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhen; Zhang, Huai; Shi, Yaolin; Mary, Baptiste; Wang, Liangshu

    2016-04-01

    How to reconcile earthquake activities, for instance, the distributions of large-great event rupture areas and the partitioning of seismic-aseismic slips on the subduction interface, into geological mountain building period is critical in seismotectonics. In this paper, we try to scope this issue within a typical and special continental collisional mountain wedge within Himalayas across the 2015 Mw7.8 Nepal Himalaya earth- quake area. Based on the Critical Coulomb Wedge (CCW) theory, we show the possible predictions of large-great earthquake rupture locations by retrieving refined evolutionary sequences with clear boundary of coulomb wedge and creeping path inferred from interseismic deformation pattern along the megathrust-Main Himalaya Thrust (MHT). Due to the well-known thrusting architecture with constraints on the distribution of main exhumation zone and of the key evolutionary nodes, reasonable and refined (with 500 yr interval) thrusting sequences are retrieved by applying sequential limit analysis (SLA). We also use an illustration method-'G' gram to localize the relative positions of each fault within the tectonic wedge. Our model results show that at the early stage, during the initial wedge accumulation period, because of the small size of mountain wedge, there's no large earthquakes happens in this period. Whereas, in the following stage, the wedge is growing outward with occasionally out-of-sequence thrusting, four thrusting clusters (thrusting 'families') are clarified on the basis of the spatio-temporal distributions in the mountain wedge. Thrust family 4, located in the hinterland of the mountain wedge, absorbed the least amount of the total convergence, with no large earthquakes occurrence in this stage, contributing to the emplacement of the Greater Himalayan Complex. The slips absorbed by the remnant three thrust families result in large-great earthquakes rupturing in the Sub-Himalaya, Lesser Himalaya, and the front of Higher Himalaya. The

  11. Greening and browning of the Himalaya: Spatial patterns and the role of climatic change and human drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Niti B; Mainali, Kumar P

    2017-06-01

    The reliable detection and attribution of changes in vegetation greenness is a prerequisite for the development of strategies for the sustainable management of ecosystems. We conducted a robust trend analysis on remote sensing derived vegetation index time-series matrices to detect significant changes in inter-annual vegetation productivity (greening versus browning) for the entire Himalaya, a biodiverse and ecologically sensitive yet understudied region. The spatial variability in trend was assessed considering elevation, 12 dominant land cover/use types and 10 ecoregions. To assess trend causation, at local scale, we compared multi-temporal imagery, and at regional scale, referenced ecological theories of mountain vegetation dynamics and ancillary literature. Overall, 17.56% of Himalayan vegetation (71,162km(2)) exhibited significant trend (p3800m), with eastern high Himalaya browning more dominantly than western high Himalaya. Land cover/use based categorization confirmed dominant greening of rainfed and irrigated agricultural areas, though cropped areas in western Himalaya contained higher proportion of greening areas. While rising atmospheric CO2 concentration and nitrogen deposition are the most likely climatic causes of detected greening, success of sustainable forestry practices (community forestry in Nepal) along with increasing agricultural fertilization and irrigation facilities could be possible human drivers. Comparison of multi-temporal imagery enabled direct attribution of some browning areas to anthropogenic land change (dam, airport and tunnel construction). Our satellite detected browning of high altitude vegetation in eastern Himalaya confirm the findings of recent dendrochronology based studies which possibly resulted from reduced pre-monsoon moisture availability in recent decades. These results have significant implications for environmental management in the context of climate change and ecosystem dynamics in the Himalaya. Copyright © 2017

  12. GC-MS ANALYSIS AND ANTI-MICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF ESSENTIAL OIL OF MENTHA PIPERITA L. FROM KULLU-A NORTH INDIAN REGION OF HIGHER ALTITUDE HIMALAYAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SHARMA VIVEK

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The essential oil analysis of Mentha piperita L. (Peppermint has been done for the first time from study area of Northern Indian region of Kullu (1362m district of Himachal Pradesh. The extraction yield for the essential oil of M. piperita L. was 0.42% for sample M-7. The oil was analyzed by GC-MS, the components of oil were identified by comparing their retention indices and mass spectra fragmentation patterns with those stored on the MS-computer library and also from the published literatures. The major constituents reported from essential oils of M. piperita were: L-Menthone (28.66%; Menthol (9.94%; Piperitone oxide (16.0%; Eucalyptol (7.03%; L-Menthone (3.13%; Isoneomenthol (2.93%; á-Phellandrene (3.21%; ä-3-Carene (3.27%; dl-Limonene (2.53%; á-Pinene (2.02%, etc. Furthermore, anti-microbial activity of oil was evaluated using agar well diffusion method. The anti-microbial test results showed that the oil had a potential anti-microbial activity against all seven Gram+ve and Gram-ve bacterial strains such as: Pseudomonas fluorescence, Salmonella typhimurium, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus epidermis and Acenetobactor calcoaceticus. Essential oil showed maximum zone of inhibition and minimal inhibition concentration against Bacillus subtilis (MTCC-2451 and Pseudomonas fluorescence (MTCC-664 bacterial strains.

  13. Seismic source zoning and maximum credible earthquake prognosis of the Greater Kashmir Territory, NW Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sana, Hamid; Nath, Sankar Kumar

    2017-03-01

    We present the seismic source zoning of the tectonically active Greater Kashmir territory of the Northwestern Himalaya and seismicity analysis (Gutenberg-Richter parameters) and maximum credible earthquake ( m max) estimation of each zone. The earthquake catalogue used in the analysis is an extensive one compiled from various sources which spans from 1907 to 2012. Five seismogenic zones were delineated, viz. Hazara-Kashmir Syntaxis, Karakorum Seismic Zone, Kohistan Seismic Zone, Nanga Parbat Syntaxis, and SE-Kashmir Seismic Zone. Then, the seismicity analysis and maximum credible earthquake estimation were carried out for each zone. The low b value (Nanga Parbat Syntaxis Seismic Zone and SE-Kashmir Seismic Zone. The m max was estimated following three different methodologies, the fault parameter approach, convergence rates using geodetic measurements, and the probabilistic approach using the earthquake catalogue and is estimated to be M w 7.7, M w 8.5, and M w 8.1, respectively. The maximum credible earthquake ( m max) estimated for each zone shows that Hazara Kashmir Syntaxis Seismic Zone has the highest m max of M w 8.1 (±0.36), which is espoused by the historical 1555 Kashmir earthquake of M w 7.6 as well as the recent 8 October 2005 Kashmir earthquake of M w 7.6. The variation in the estimated m max by the above discussed methodologies is obvious, as the definition and interpretation of the m max change with the method. Interestingly, historical archives (˜900 years) do not speak of a great earthquake in this region, which is attributed to the complex and unique tectonic and geologic setup of the Kashmir Himalaya. The convergence is this part of the Himalaya is distributed not only along the main boundary faults but also along the various active out-of-sequence faults as compared to the Central Himalaya, where it is mainly adjusted along the main boundary fault.

  14. Seismic source zoning and maximum credible earthquake prognosis of the Greater Kashmir Territory, NW Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sana, Hamid; Nath, Sankar Kumar

    2016-09-01

    We present the seismic source zoning of the tectonically active Greater Kashmir territory of the Northwestern Himalaya and seismicity analysis (Gutenberg-Richter parameters) and maximum credible earthquake (m max) estimation of each zone. The earthquake catalogue used in the analysis is an extensive one compiled from various sources which spans from 1907 to 2012. Five seismogenic zones were delineated, viz. Hazara-Kashmir Syntaxis, Karakorum Seismic Zone, Kohistan Seismic Zone, Nanga Parbat Syntaxis, and SE-Kashmir Seismic Zone. Then, the seismicity analysis and maximum credible earthquake estimation were carried out for each zone. The low b value (methodologies, the fault parameter approach, convergence rates using geodetic measurements, and the probabilistic approach using the earthquake catalogue and is estimated to be M w 7.7, M w 8.5, and M w 8.1, respectively. The maximum credible earthquake (m max) estimated for each zone shows that Hazara Kashmir Syntaxis Seismic Zone has the highest m max of M w 8.1 (±0.36), which is espoused by the historical 1555 Kashmir earthquake of M w 7.6 as well as the recent 8 October 2005 Kashmir earthquake of M w 7.6. The variation in the estimated m max by the above discussed methodologies is obvious, as the definition and interpretation of the m max change with the method. Interestingly, historical archives (˜900 years) do not speak of a great earthquake in this region, which is attributed to the complex and unique tectonic and geologic setup of the Kashmir Himalaya. The convergence is this part of the Himalaya is distributed not only along the main boundary faults but also along the various active out-of-sequence faults as compared to the Central Himalaya, where it is mainly adjusted along the main boundary fault.

  15. Assessment, prevention and mitigation of landslide hazard in the Lesser Himalaya of Himachal Pradesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patra Punyatoya

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Landslides are destructive geological processes that have globally caused deaths and destruction to property worth billion dollars. Landslide occurrences are widespread and prolific in India covering more than 15 per cent of the total area. These are mostly concentrated in the Himalayan belt, parts of Meghalaya Plateau, Nilgiri Hills, Western and Eastern Ghats. The slope failure in the hilly terrain is due to geological processes and events. The frequency and magnitude of slope failure also increased due to anthropogenic activities such as road construction, deforestation and urban expansion. Keeping all these problems in mind research focuses on the Lesser Himalaya of Himachal Himalaya as it falls under very high risk zone in case of landslides and comprise of three objectives. They are: a to analyse the spatial pattern of landslides in the Lesser Himalaya, b to assess the causes of landslides vulnerability in the study region and c to suggests some preventive measures to mitigate landslides. In this work an attempt has been made to collect data on landslides incidences and damage from the secondary sources like Geological Survey of India, Building Material and Technology Promotion council from Ministry of Urban Affairs. The methodologies adopted for data analysis are simple tabulations, bar diagrams, statistical and mapping techniques to represent the Landslide vulnerability of the Lesser Himalaya. The analysis of the study reveals that there is increase in the number of landslides. The spatial pattern of landslide shows linear patterns, viz. along roads, rivers or lineaments/ faults. Besides, heavy rainfall, floods and earthquakes enhance the vulnerability condition. The landslides may be part and parcel of the Himalayan landscape, but they can be mitigated by some suitable measures. Few methods of landslide prevention in the study region have been suggested.

  16. Origin and radiative forcing of black carbon transported to the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopacz, M.; Mauzerall, D. L.; Wang, J.; Leibensperger, E. M.; Henze, D. K.; Singh, K.

    2011-03-01

    The remote and high elevation regions of central Asia are influenced by black carbon (BC) emissions from a variety of locations. BC deposition contributes to melting of glaciers and questions exist, of both scientific and policy interest, as to the origin of the BC reaching the glaciers. We use the adjoint of the GEOS-Chem model to identify the location from which BC arriving at a variety of locations in the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau originates. We then calculate its direct and snow-albedo radiative forcing. We analyze the seasonal variation in the origin of BC using an adjoint sensitivity analysis, which provides a detailed map of the location of emissions that directly contribute to black carbon concentrations at receptor locations. We find that emissions from northern India and central China contribute the majority of BC to the Himalayas, although the precise location varies with season. The Tibetan Plateau receives most BC from western and central China, as well as from India, Nepal, the Middle East, Pakistan and other countries. The magnitude of contribution from each region varies with season and receptor location. We find that sources as varied as African biomass burning and Middle Eastern fossil fuel combustion can significantly contribute to the BC reaching the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau. We compute radiative forcing in the snow-covered regions and find the forcing due to the BC induced snow-albedo effect to vary from 5-15 W m-2 within the region, an order of magnitude larger than radiative forcing due to the direct effect, and with significant seasonal variation in the northern Tibetan Plateau. Radiative forcing from reduced snow albedo likely accelerates glacier melting. Our analysis may help inform mitigation efforts to slow the rate of glacial melt by identifying regions that make the largest contributions to BC deposition in the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau.

  17. Origin and radiative forcing of black carbon transported to the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kopacz

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The remote and high elevation regions of central Asia are influenced by black carbon (BC emissions from a variety of locations. BC deposition contributes to melting of glaciers and questions exist, of both scientific and policy interest, as to the origin of the BC reaching the glaciers. We use the adjoint of the GEOS-Chem model to identify the location from which BC arriving at a variety of locations in the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau originates. We then calculate its direct and snow-albedo radiative forcing. We analyze the seasonal variation in the origin of BC using an adjoint sensitivity analysis, which provides a detailed map of the location of emissions that directly contribute to black carbon concentrations at receptor locations. We find that emissions from northern India and central China contribute the majority of BC to the Himalayas, although the precise location varies with season. The Tibetan Plateau receives most BC from western and central China, as well as from India, Nepal, the Middle East, Pakistan and other countries. The magnitude of contribution from each region varies with season and receptor location. We find that sources as varied as African biomass burning and Middle Eastern fossil fuel combustion can significantly contribute to the BC reaching the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau. We compute radiative forcing in the snow-covered regions and find the forcing due to the BC induced snow-albedo effect to vary from 5–15 W m−2 within the region, an order of magnitude larger than radiative forcing due to the direct effect, and with significant seasonal variation in the northern Tibetan Plateau. Radiative forcing from reduced snow albedo likely accelerates glacier melting. Our analysis may help inform mitigation efforts to slow the rate of glacial melt by identifying regions that make the largest contributions to BC deposition in the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau.

  18. Origin and radiative forcing of black carbon transported to the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kopacz

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The remote and high elevation regions of central Asia are influenced by black carbon (BC emissions from a variety of locations. BC deposition contributes to melting of glaciers and questions exist, of both scientific and policy interest, as to the origin of the BC reaching the glaciers. We use the adjoint of the GEOS-Chem model to identify the location from which BC arriving at a variety of locations in the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau originates. We then calculate its direct and snow-albedo radiative forcing. We analyze the seasonal variation in the origin of BC using an adjoint sensitivity analysis, which provides a detailed map of the location of emissions that directly contribute to black carbon concentrations at receptor locations. We find that emissions from northern India and central China contribute the majority of BC to the Himalayas, although the precise location varies with season. The Tibetan Plateau receives most BC from western and central China, as well as from India, Nepal, the Middle East, Pakistan and other countries. The magnitude of contribution from each region varies with season and receptor location. We find that sources as varied as African biomass burning and Middle Eastern fossil fuel combustion can significantly contribute to the BC reaching the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau. We compute radiative forcing in the snow-covered regions and estimate the forcing due to the BC induced snow-albedo effect at about 5–15 W m−2 within the region, an order of magnitude larger than radiative forcing due to the direct effect, and with significant seasonal variation in the northern Tibetan Plateau. Radiative forcing from reduced snow albedo accelerates glacier melting. Our analysis can help inform mitigation efforts to slow the rate of glacial melt by identifying regions that make the largest contributions to BC deposition in the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau.

  19. Surrogate markers of visceral fat and response to anti-depressive treatment in patients with major depressive disorder: a prospective exploratory analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tønning, Morten; Petersen, Dorthe; Steglich-Petersen, Marie; Csillag, Claudio

    2017-02-01

    Body mass index (BMI) and body weight have been shown to be associated to treatment outcome in patients with major depressive disorder, but this relationship is not clear. Visceral fat might be an underlying mechanism explaining this relationship. The aim of this study was to prospectively investigate whether visceral fat, as measured by hip-to-waist ratio and waist circumference, affects treatment outcome in patients with major depressive disorder in patients attending a hospital psychiatric care unit in Denmark. The study was conducted as an observational prospective study including 33 patients with major depressive disorder. Assessments were made at enrolment and after 8 weeks. Primary variables were hip-to-waist ratio and waist circumference. Outcome were remission or response of depressive symptoms measured with the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D17) interviews and HAM-D6 self-rating questionnaires. No differences were found in outcome between groups of patients with high vs low visceral fat in this population. The lack of association was evident for all surrogate markers of visceral fat, and suggests that visceral fat has no impact on outcomes of depressive symptoms. However, study limitations might have contributed to this lack of association, especially sample size and considerable variations on multiple parameters including treatment received during the 8 weeks of follow-up.

  20. Influence of regional precipitation patterns on stable isotopes in ice cores from the central Himalayas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Pang

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Several ice cores have been recovered from the Dasuopu Glacier and the East Rongbuk (ER Glacier in the central Himalayas since the 1990s. Although the distance between the ER and the Dasuopu ice core drilling sites is only ∼125 km, the stable isotopic record (δ18O or δD of the ER core is interpreted as a precipitation proxy while the Dasuopu core as a temperature proxy. Thus, the climatological significance of the stable isotopic records of these Himalayan ice cores remains a subject of debate. Based on analysis of regional precipitation patterns over the region, we find that the different interpretations of the Dasuopu and Everest isotopic records may not be contradictive. The north–south and west–east seesaws of the Indian Summer Monsoon (ISM precipitation are primarily responsible for precipitation falling at the ER site, which results in a negative correlation between the ER δ18O or δD record and precipitation amount along the southern slope of the central Himalayas, corresponding to the "amount effect". In addition to the ISM precipitation, non-summer monsoonal precipitation associated with winter westerlies also significantly contributes to precipitation falling at the Dasuopu site, which may cause a positive correlation between the Dasuopu stable isotopic record and temperature, in response to the "temperature effect". Our results have important implications for interpreting the stable isotopic ice core records recovered from different climatological regimes of the Himalayas.

  1. Interpreting the geomorphometric indices for neotectonic implications: An example of Alaknanda valley, Garhwal Himalaya, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Naresh Rana; Sunil Singh; Y P Sundriyal; G S Rawat; Navin Juyal

    2016-06-01

    Tectonic process can influence the erosion and exert the first order impression on hydrographic networkof an area. Geomorphometry, a mathematical analysis of the configuration of the landforms, allows quantifyingthe degree of landform evolution and is widely used as a measure of tectonic deformation/uplift.Alaknanda valley lies in the tectonically active Garhwal Himalaya which has experienced two disastrouslarge earthquakes in the last two decades. Morphometric analyses of the valley were carried out in a fluvialerosion dominated regime and the morphometric indices were derived from the ASTER (30 m × 30 mpixel) Digital Elevation Model (DEM) using Arc GIS. The results of the analyses reveal two zones ofhigh deformation/uplift in the valley, viz., the zone of high deformation proximal to the Main CentralThrust (MCT) in the Inner Lesser Himalaya (ILH) and the second zone of moderate deformation/upliftin the Outer Lesser Himalaya (OLH), south of the Tons Thrust (TT). The high deformation in the ILHis ascribed to the focussed convergence and high precipitation; however, the causes for the moderatedeformation in the OLH are yet to be established.

  2. Identification of seismically susceptible areas in western Himalaya using pattern recognition

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mridula; Amita Sinvhal; Hans Raj Wason

    2016-06-01

    Seismicity in the western Himalayas is highly variable. Several historical and instrumentally recordeddevastating earthquakes originated in the western Himalayas which are part of the Alpine–Himalayanbelt. Earthquakes cause tremendous loss of life and to the built environment. The amount of loss interms of life and infrastructure has been rising continuously due to significant increase in population andinfrastructure. This study is an attempt to identify seismically susceptible areas in western Himalaya,using pattern recognition technique. An area between latitude 29◦–36◦N and longitude 73◦–80◦E wasconsidered for this study. Pattern recognition starts with identification, selection and extraction of featuresfrom seismotectonic data. These features are then subjected to discriminant analysis and the studyarea was classified into three categories, viz., Area A: most susceptible area, Area B: moderately susceptiblearea, and Area C: least susceptible area. Results show that almost the entire states of HimachalPradesh and Uttarakhand and a portion of Jammu & Kashmir are classified as Area A, while most ofJammu & Kashmir is classified as Area B and the Indo-Gangetic plains are classified as Area C.

  3. Interpreting the geomorphometric indices for neotectonic implications: An example of Alaknanda valley, Garhwal Himalaya, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, Naresh; Singh, Sunil; Sundriyal, Y. P.; Rawat, G. S.; Juyal, Navin

    2016-06-01

    Tectonic process can influence the erosion and exert the first order impression on hydrographic network of an area. Geomorphometry, a mathematical analysis of the configuration of the landforms, allows quantifying the degree of landform evolution and is widely used as a measure of tectonic deformation/uplift. Alaknanda valley lies in the tectonically active Garhwal Himalaya which has experienced two disastrous large earthquakes in the last two decades. Morphometric analyses of the valley were carried out in a fluvial erosion dominated regime and the morphometric indices were derived from the ASTER (30 m × 30 m pixel) Digital Elevation Model (DEM) using Arc GIS. The results of the analyses reveal two zones of high deformation/uplift in the valley, viz., the zone of high deformation proximal to the Main Central Thrust (MCT) in the Inner Lesser Himalaya (ILH) and the second zone of moderate deformation/uplift in the Outer Lesser Himalaya (OLH), south of the Tons Thrust (TT). The high deformation in the ILH is ascribed to the focussed convergence and high precipitation; however, the causes for the moderate deformation in the OLH are yet to be established.

  4. Assessing the weighted multi-objective adaptive surrogate model optimization to derive large-scale reservoir operating rules with sensitivity analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jingwen; Wang, Xu; Liu, Pan; Lei, Xiaohui; Li, Zejun; Gong, Wei; Duan, Qingyun; Wang, Hao

    2017-01-01

    The optimization of large-scale reservoir system is time-consuming due to its intrinsic characteristics of non-commensurable objectives and high dimensionality. One way to solve the problem is to employ an efficient multi-objective optimization algorithm in the derivation of large-scale reservoir operating rules. In this study, the Weighted Multi-Objective Adaptive Surrogate Model Optimization (WMO-ASMO) algorithm is used. It consists of three steps: (1) simplifying the large-scale reservoir operating rules by the aggregation-decomposition model, (2) identifying the most sensitive parameters through multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS) for dimensional reduction, and (3) reducing computational cost and speeding the searching process by WMO-ASMO, embedded with weighted non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm II (WNSGAII). The intercomparison of non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm (NSGAII), WNSGAII and WMO-ASMO are conducted in the large-scale reservoir system of Xijiang river basin in China. Results indicate that: (1) WNSGAII surpasses NSGAII in the median of annual power generation, increased by 1.03% (from 523.29 to 528.67 billion kW h), and the median of ecological index, optimized by 3.87% (from 1.879 to 1.809) with 500 simulations, because of the weighted crowding distance and (2) WMO-ASMO outperforms NSGAII and WNSGAII in terms of better solutions (annual power generation (530.032 billion kW h) and ecological index (1.675)) with 1000 simulations and computational time reduced by 25% (from 10 h to 8 h) with 500 simulations. Therefore, the proposed method is proved to be more efficient and could provide better Pareto frontier.

  5. The September 2011 Sikkim Himalaya earthquake Mw 6.9: is it a plane of detachment earthquake?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santanu Baruah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The 18 September 2011 Sikkim Himalaya earthquake of Mw 6.9 (focal depth 50 km, NEIC report with maximum intensity of VII on MM scale (www.usgs.gov occurred in the Himalayan seismic belt (HSB, to the north of the main central thrust. Neither this thrust nor the plane of detachment envisaged in the HSB model, however, caused this strong devastating earthquake. The Engdahl–Hilst–Buland (EHB relocated past earthquakes recorded during 1965–2007 and the available global centroid moment tensor solutions are critically examined to identify the source zone and stress regime of the September 2011 earthquake. The depth section plot of these earthquakes shows that a deeper (10–50 km vertical fault zone caused the main shock in the Sikkim Himalaya. The NW (North-West and NE (North-East trending transverse fault zones cutting across the eastern Himalaya are the source zones of the earthquakes. Stress inversion shows that the region is dominated by horizontal NNW-SSE (North of North-West-South of South-East compressional stress and low angle or near horizontal ENE-WSW (East of North-East-West of South-West tensional stress; this stress regime is conducive for strike-slip faulting earthquakes in Sikkim Himalaya and its vicinity. The Coulomb stress transfer analysis indicates positive values of Coulomb stress change for failure in the intersecting deeper fault zone that produced the four immediate felt aftershocks (M ≥ 4.0.

  6. Maternidade desnaturada: uma análise da barriga de aluguel e da doação de óvulos "Denatured" motherhood: an analysis of surrogate gestational motherhood and egg donation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naara Luna

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available O artigo discute representações sociais de duas práticas decorrentes das novas tecnologias reprodutivas ou reprodução assistida. Na fertilização in vitro, o procedimento de transferência do óvulo fertilizado de uma mulher para outra separa a maternidade genética da gestacional. Isto se traduz em duas práticas sociais: a doação de óvulos, em que a gestante é designada à mãe, e a maternidade gestacional substituta ("barriga de aluguel", em que a mãe é a fornecedora do óvulo ou idealizadora da gravidez. O foco é a análise dessas representações no discurso jurídico e em matérias da grande imprensa brasileira, além do exame de etnografias sobre doação de óvulo e maternidade substituta. A oposição entre Natureza e Cultura é uma chave para compreender a recepção distinta dessas práticas.This article discusses social representations of two practices related to the new reproductive technologies or assisted reproduction techniques. During in vitro fertilization, the transfer procedure of a woman's fertilized egg to another woman separates genetic motherhood from gestational motherhood. Two practices relate to that: in egg donation the pregnant woman is considered the mother, while in surrogate gestational motherhood the mother is the egg donor or the woman who planned the gestation. The focus is in the analysis of the representations of egg donation and surrogate motherhood in juridical discourse and in texts from the Brazilian press, considering also ethnographic articles. The opposition between Nature and Culture is a key for understanding the different reception of these practices.

  7. Comparison of surrogate models with different methods in groundwater remediation process

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jiannan Luo; Wenxi Lu

    2014-10-01

    Surrogate modelling is an effective tool for reducing computational burden of simulation optimization. In this article, polynomial regression (PR), radial basis function artificial neural network (RBFANN), and kriging methods were compared for building surrogate models of a multiphase flow simulation model in a simplified nitrobenzene contaminated aquifer remediation problem. In the model accuracy analysis process, a 10-fold cross validation method was adopted to evaluate the approximation accuracy of the three surrogate models. The results demonstrated that: RBFANN surrogate model and kriging surrogate model had acceptable approximation accuracy, and further that kriging model’s approximation accuracy was slightly higher than RBFANN model. However, the PR model demonstrated unacceptably poor approximation accuracy. Therefore, the RBFANN and kriging surrogates were selected and used in the optimization process to identify the most cost-effective remediation strategy at a nitrobenzene-contaminated site. The optimal remediation costs obtained with the two surrogate-based optimization models were similar, and had similar computational burden. These two surrogate-based optimization models are efficient tools for optimal groundwater remediation strategy identification.

  8. Imaging Seeker Surrogate for IRCM evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schleijpen, H.M.A.; Carpenter, S.R.; Mellier, B.; Dimmeler, A.

    2007-01-01

    NATO-SCI-139 and its predecessor groups have more than a decade of history in the evaluation and recommendation of EO and IR Countermeasures against anti-aircraft missiles. Surrogate Seekers have proven to be a valuable tool for this work. The use of surrogate seekers in international co-operations

  9. 77 FR 34788 - Surrogate Foreign Corporations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-12

    ... Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 RIN 1545-BF47 Surrogate Foreign Corporations AGENCY: Internal... regulations regarding whether a foreign corporation is treated as a surrogate foreign corporation. The final ] regulations affect certain domestic corporations and partnerships (and certain parties related thereto),...

  10. Surrogate Guderley Test Problem Definition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramsey, Scott D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Shashkov, Mikhail J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-07-06

    The surrogate Guderley problem (SGP) is a 'spherical shock tube' (or 'spherical driven implosion') designed to ease the notoriously subtle initialization of the true Guderley problem, while still maintaining a high degree of fidelity. In this problem (similar to the Guderley problem), an infinitely strong shock wave forms and converges in one-dimensional (1D) cylindrical or spherical symmetry through a polytropic gas with arbitrary adiabatic index {gamma}, uniform density {rho}{sub 0}, zero velocity, and negligible pre-shock pressure and specific internal energy (SIE). This shock proceeds to focus on the point or axis of symmetry at r = 0 (resulting in ostensibly infinite pressure, velocity, etc.) and reflect back out into the incoming perturbed gas.

  11. On the patterns of abundance and diversity of macrolichens of Chopta-Tunganath in the Garhwal Himalaya

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Hans Raj Negi

    2000-12-01

    A total of 3211 colonies of macrolichens, from twelve 50 m × 10 m plots distributed across four macrohabitat (vegetation) types between 1500 m–3700 m in the Chopta-Tunganath landscape of the Garhwal Himalaya, yielded 13 families with 15 genera and 85 species. Lobaria retigera stood out as a broad-niched generalist species with moderate levels of abundance in all the three major microhabitats, viz. rock, soil and wood across 83% of all the plots sampled, whereas Umbilicaria indica emerged as an abundantly occurring specialist confined to rock substrates. Heterodermia incana and Leptogium javanicum appeared to be rare members of the community as they were encountered only once during the field survey. Woody microhabitats turned out to be richer than rock and soil substrates for macrolichens. Amongst the macrohabitats, middle altitude (2500–2800 m) Quercus forest was richest in species and genera followed by high altitude (2900–3200 m) Rhododendron forest, higher altitude grasslands (3300–3700 m) and then the lower elevation (1500 m) Quercus forest. Species, genus and family level alpha- as well as beta-diversities were significantly correlated with each other, implying that higher taxonomic ranks such as genera may be used as surrogates for species thus facilitating cost- and time-effective periodic monitoring of the biodiversity of macrolichens. Dynamics of the diversity of lichen communities in relation to various forms of environmental disturbance including livestock grazing and tourism as dominant land use activities in the higher Himalaya need further research.

  12. On Using Surrogates with Genetic Programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrandt, Torsten; Branke, Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    One way to accelerate evolutionary algorithms with expensive fitness evaluations is to combine them with surrogate models. Surrogate models are efficiently computable approximations of the fitness function, derived by means of statistical or machine learning techniques from samples of fully evaluated solutions. But these models usually require a numerical representation, and therefore cannot be used with the tree representation of genetic programming (GP). In this paper, we present a new way to use surrogate models with GP. Rather than using the genotype directly as input to the surrogate model, we propose using a phenotypic characterization. This phenotypic characterization can be computed efficiently and allows us to define approximate measures of equivalence and similarity. Using a stochastic, dynamic job shop scenario as an example of simulation-based GP with an expensive fitness evaluation, we show how these ideas can be used to construct surrogate models and improve the convergence speed and solution quality of GP.

  13. A computational methodology for formulating gasoline surrogate fuels with accurate physical and chemical kinetic properties

    KAUST Repository

    Ahmed, Ahfaz

    2015-03-01

    Gasoline is the most widely used fuel for light duty automobile transportation, but its molecular complexity makes it intractable to experimentally and computationally study the fundamental combustion properties. Therefore, surrogate fuels with a simpler molecular composition that represent real fuel behavior in one or more aspects are needed to enable repeatable experimental and computational combustion investigations. This study presents a novel computational methodology for formulating surrogates for FACE (fuels for advanced combustion engines) gasolines A and C by combining regression modeling with physical and chemical kinetics simulations. The computational methodology integrates simulation tools executed across different software platforms. Initially, the palette of surrogate species and carbon types for the target fuels were determined from a detailed hydrocarbon analysis (DHA). A regression algorithm implemented in MATLAB was linked to REFPROP for simulation of distillation curves and calculation of physical properties of surrogate compositions. The MATLAB code generates a surrogate composition at each iteration, which is then used to automatically generate CHEMKIN input files that are submitted to homogeneous batch reactor simulations for prediction of research octane number (RON). The regression algorithm determines the optimal surrogate composition to match the fuel properties of FACE A and C gasoline, specifically hydrogen/carbon (H/C) ratio, density, distillation characteristics, carbon types, and RON. The optimal surrogate fuel compositions obtained using the present computational approach was compared to the real fuel properties, as well as with surrogate compositions available in the literature. Experiments were conducted within a Cooperative Fuels Research (CFR) engine operating under controlled autoignition (CAI) mode to compare the formulated surrogates against the real fuels. Carbon monoxide measurements indicated that the proposed surrogates

  14. Parents and children: "surrogate" paradigm of modernity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Archimandrite; Akhaladze, Vakhtang

    2011-06-01

    The article provides an overview of surrogate motherhood--one of many currently available forms of Assisted Reproductive Technologies for couples who find themselves unable to conceive a child on their own. Within the years of its existence surrogate motherhood managed to accumulate lots of bioethical problems, paradoxes, dilemmas and collisions. Author represents some of them. Also the legal, moral and religious implications of surrogacy are addressed. The religious perspective from the Orthodox Christian, Catholic, Jewish, Hinduism, and Islamic points of view are provided. The author concludes that surrogate motherhood is not only the answer to childlessness but it supports metamorphosis of traditional attitude towards such human value as it is a family.

  15. Earthquakes, Uplift, and Landscape Evolution in the NW Himalayas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahzad, F.; Mahmood, S.; Gloaguen, R.

    2009-05-01

    The terrain between Main Mantle Thrust to Salt Range Thrust in the NW Himalayas has been characterized by surface and subsurface features with variable tectonic activity. These features show relatively variable tectonic activity, existence of blind faults and basement faulting. In the present study, we use seismological and remote sensing analysis backed by field observations to investigate the relationship between earthquakes, uplift, and landscape evolution. We use nonlinear analysis to understand the earthquake dynamics in relation to surface faults and blind faults. The fractal analysis of the seismicity in three subsurface features of the area is used to characterize the roughness of the faults' surface. We find a high fault surface roughness in the Indus Kohistan Seismic Zone (IKSZ). It is concluded that the area is in the process of being uplifted and landscape is evolving. This evolution is further investigated using a set of geomorphological analyses consisting of extracting a drainage network from digital elevation models (DEM). The extracted streams are analysed using to calculate geomorphic indices and relative uplift rates. These analyses were applied on Indus, Swat, Kabul, Kunhar, Kishanganga, Poonch, Jehlum, Swan and Kurram, Kabul Rivers and their associate tributaries. The analyses provide us with the spatial variation of relative uplift based upon specific streams. We found that the Hazara Kashmir Syntaxis and Nanga Parbat Haramosh Massif are subject to a relatively high uplift. It is observed that the neotectonic activities are linearizing the drainage network from meandering pattern. We analyse the complete drainage texture using fractal dimension and lacunarity analysis. The analysis of the fractal dimension (D) employing box counting methods is calculated with a moving window approach and the lower values of D demonstrate the effect of neotectonic activity. The locations with lower but similar D values are further differentiated using

  16. Glaciological and hydrological sensitivities in the Hindu Kush - Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, Joseph; Immerzeel, Walter

    2016-04-01

    Glacier responses to future climate change will affect hydrology at subbasin-scales. The main goal of this study is to assess glaciological and hydrological sensitivities of sub-basins throughout the Hindu Kush - Himalaya (HKH) region. We use a simple geometrical analysis based on a full glacier inventory and digital elevation model (DEM) to estimate sub-basin equilibrium line altitudes (ELA) from assumptions of steady-state accumulation area ratios (AARs). The ELA response to an increase in temperature is expressed as a function of mean annual precipitation, derived from a range of high-altitude studies. Changes in glacier contributions to streamflow in response to increased temperatures are examined for scenarios of both static and adjusted glacier geometries. On average, glacier contributions to streamflow increase by approximately 50% for a +1K warming based on a static geometry. Large decreases (-60% on average) occur in all basins when glacier geometries are instantaneously adjusted to reflect the new ELA. Finally, we provide estimates of sub-basin glacier response times that suggest a majority of basins will experience declining glacier contributions by the year 2100.

  17. EVALUATION OF GARHWAL HIMALAYA WILD EDIBLE TUBER DIOSCOREA DELTOIDEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandra Subhash

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The Uttarakhand is highly enriched with edible wild tubers. Such tubers are highly potential with medicinal value and nutritional value due to the presence of bio-actives. These tubers are consumed by local inhabitants to play a significant role as supplementary food. The present study is aimed at evaluating the nutritional value, successive extraction, thin layer chromatography of medicinal plant, Dioscorea deltoidea. It is a popular wild edible tubers bearing plant of Indian Himalaya having good nutritional and medicinal potential. These will be the best source of the nutraceuticals. Since tubers are richer in micronutrients and bioactive secondary metabolites, The medicinal plant tuber contain ash value, (total ash 3.34 ± 0.15%, moisture 58.92±0.10%, crude fat 0.60±0.20% and crude fiber 7.50±0.14%, the successive extractive values were studied fresh part weight. The preliminary phytochemical analysis test showed the presence of carbohydrates and glycosides, alkaloid, flavonoids, saponins, tannins, unsaturated triterpenoids and sterol, resin.

  18. Ornithinimicrobium kibberense sp. nov., isolated from the Indian Himalayas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayilraj, S; Saha, P; Suresh, K; Saini, H S

    2006-07-01

    A buff-yellow-pigmented bacterium, strain K22-20(T), which was isolated from a cold desert of the Indian Himalayas, was subjected to a polyphasic taxonomic study. Phenotypic and chemical properties of strain K22-20(T) were consistent with its classification in the genus Ornithinimicrobium. The major fatty acids of the strain were iso-C(17 : 1)omega9c (cis-15-methyl 7-hexadecenoic acid), iso-C(15 : 0) (13-methyl tetradecanoic acid), iso-C(16 : 0) (14-methyl pentadecanoic acid) and iso-C(17 : 0) (15-methyl hexadecanoic acid). The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 71 mol%. According to 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, strain K22-20(T) was closely related to Ornithinimicrobium humiphilum HKI 0124(T) (97.7 %). However, genomic relatedness between strain K22-20(T) and O. humiphilum MTCC 6406(T), as revealed by DNA-DNA hybridization, was 64.5 %. Based on the polyphasic data, strain K22-20(T) (=MTCC 6545(T)=DSM 17687(T)=JCM 12763(T)) represents a novel species of the genus Ornithinimicrobium, for which the name Ornithinimicrobium kibberense sp. nov. is proposed.

  19. Survey of radon and thoron in homes of Indian Himalaya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramola, Rakesh Chand

    2011-07-01

    Measurements of radon, thoron and their progeny were carried out in some houses from Garhwal and Kumaun Himalayas of India using a LR-115 plastic track detector. The measurements were made in various residential houses of the area at a height of 2.5 m above the ground level using a twin chamber radon dosemeter, which can record the values of radon, thoron and their progeny separately. The concentrations of radon and thoron in these homes were found to vary from 11 to 191 and 1 to 156 Bq m(-3), respectively. The equilibrium factor between radon and progeny varies from 0.02 to 0.90, with an average of 0.26 for the region. The resulting dose rate due to radon, thoron and their decay products was found to vary from 0.02 to 0.84 μSv h(-1) with an arithmetic mean of 0.27 μSv h(-1). A detailed analysis of the distribution of radon, thoron and their decay products inside a house is also reported. The observed dose rates due to radon, thoron and progeny were found somewhat higher but well below the international recommendations.

  20. Surrogate endpoints and emerging surrogate endpoints for risk reduction of cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasnake, Crystal M; Trumbo, Paula R; Heinonen, Therese M

    2008-02-01

    This article reviews surrogate endpoints and emerging biomarkers that were discussed at the annual "Cardiovascular Biomarkers and Surrogate Endpoints" symposium cosponsored by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the Montreal Heart Institute. The FDA's Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN) uses surrogate endpoints in its scientific review of a substance/disease relationship for a health claim. CFSAN currently recognizes three validated surrogate endpoints: blood pressure, blood total cholesterol, and blood low-density lipoprotein (LDL) concentration in its review of a health claim for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Numerous potential surrogate endpoints of CVD are being evaluated as the pathophysiology of heart disease is becoming better understood. However, these emerging biomarkers need to be validated as surrogate endpoints before they are used by CFSAN in the evaluation of a CVD health claim.

  1. Surrogate mothers: whose baby is it?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, B

    1984-01-01

    Advances in medical technology offer infertile couples who wish to raise children alternatives to adoption. The increasing number of surrogate mother contracts creates a myriad of legal issues surrounding the rights of the natural mother, the natural father and the child that is produced. In this Article, the Author discusses the legal issues and rights of the parties under the Constitution, the surrogate contract and family law principles. The Author proposes that courts should consider a surrogate contract as a revocable prebirth agreement which allows the natural mother to keep the child if she chooses. In addition, the Author advocates an interpretation of the statutes forbidding baby selling that would prohibit surrogate contracts in which the mother is paid a fee for the child.

  2. Biopolicies and biotechnologies: reflections on surrogate maternity in India

    OpenAIRE

    Mónica Amador

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the impact of biotechnology, particularly on assisted reproductive technologies such as surrogate motherhood. The study is based on interviews and field work conducted in the city of Hyderabad in India within the frame of the seminar on “Research Methodology” given by Dr. Rohan D´Souza at the Centre for Studies in Science Policy at the Jawaharlal Nehru University in India. The theoretical framework of this analysis focuses on exploring concepts such as cyborg (Haraway,19...

  3. Biopolicies and biotechnologies: reflections on surrogate maternity in India

    OpenAIRE

    Mónica Amador

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the impact of biotechnology, particularly on assisted reproductive technologies such as surrogate motherhood. The study is based on interviews and field work conducted in the city of Hyderabad in India within the frame of the seminar on “Research Methodology” given by Dr. Rohan D´Souza at the Centre for Studies in Science Policy at the Jawaharlal Nehru University in India. The theoretical framework of this analysis focuses on exploring concepts such as cyborg (Haraway,19...

  4. Can grass phytoliths and indices be relied on during vegetation and climate interpretations in the eastern Himalayas? Studies from Darjeeling and Arunachal Pradesh, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Oindrila; Ghosh, Ruby; Paruya, Dipak Kumar; Mukherjee, Biswajit; Thapa, Kishore Kumar; Bera, Subir

    2016-02-01

    While documenting the vegetation response to climatic changes in mountains, the use of grass phytolith data relies on the ability of phytolith assemblages or indices to differentiate the elevationally stratified vegetation zones. To infer the potential and limitations of grass phytolith assemblages and indices to reconstruct vegetation vis-à-vis climate in the Himalayan mountain regions, we analyzed phytolith assemblages from 66 dominant grasses and 153 surface soils from four different forest types along the c. 130-4000 m a.s.l. elevation gradients in the Darjeeling and Arunachal Himalayas. Grass short cell phytolith assemblages from modern grasses show significant variability with rising elevation. To test the reliability of the above observation, phytoliths from the soil samples were subjected to linear discriminant analysis (DA). DA classified 85.3% and 92.3% of the sites to their correct forest zones in the Darjeeling and Arunachal Himalayas respectively. Relative abundance of bilobate, cross, short saddle, plateau saddle, rondel and trapeziform types allow discrimination of the phytolith assemblage along the elevation gradient. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) on the soil phytolith data further revealed their relationships with the climatic variables. Temperature and evapotranspiration were found to be the most influential for differential distribution of grass phytolith assemblages with rising elevation in the eastern Himalayas. We also tested the reliability of phytolith indices (Ic, Iph and Fs) for tracing the dominance of different grass subfamilies in the eastern Himalayas. Ic proved to be most reliable in discriminating C3/C4 grass along the elevation gradient while Iph and Fs proved to be less reliable. We observed that in the monsoon dominated eastern Himalayas, a little adjustment in Ic index may enhance the accuracy of interpretations. In future studies more precise identification of phytolith sub-types from additional sites in the eastern

  5. Neutron capture cross sections from Surrogate measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scielzo N.D.

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The prospects for determining cross sections for compound-nuclear neutron-capture reactions from Surrogate measurements are investigated. Calculations as well as experimental results are presented that test the Weisskopf-Ewing approximation, which is employed in most analyses of Surrogate data. It is concluded that, in general, one has to go beyond this approximation in order to obtain (n,γ cross sections of sufficient accuracy for most astrophysical and nuclear-energy applications.

  6. Response of monsoon variability in Himalayas to global warming

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Reconstructed annual net accumulation from the Dasuopu ice core recovered in Himalayas, with a good correlation to Indian monsoon, reflects a major precipitation trend in central Himalayas. The Dasuopu accumulation (DSP An) also shows a strong correlation to the Northern Hemispheric temperature. Generally, as the Northern Hemispheric temperature increases by 0.1 K, the accumulation decreases by about 90 mm and vise versa. Under the condition of global warming, especially since 1920, the Northern Hemispheric mean temperature has increased by about 0.5 K, whereas accumulation in Dasuopu ice core has decreased by about 450 mm. According to the relationship between accumulation and temperature, a scenario prediction of monsoon rainfall in central Himalayas is made.

  7. Himalayas as seen from STS-66 shuttle Atlantis

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    View is southeastward across China (Tibet), half of Nepal and India. The partly frozen lake near the center of the frame is Pei-Ku T'so ('Bos-tie Lake'). The central Himalaya stretches from Mount Everest on the left past Annapurna on the right. Large tributaries converge to form the Ganges River, flowing through the lowland basin south of the Himalaya. This photograph illustrates the rain shadow effect of the Himalaya Chain; wet, warm air from the Indian Ocean is driven against the mountains, lifted, and drained of water that forms ice caps, the abundant rivers, and forests of the foothills. In contrast the high plateau of Tibet is arid, composed largely of topographically-closed basins because stream flow is inadequate to form integrated drainage networks.

  8. Accuracy assessment of gridded precipitation datasets in the Himalayas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, A.

    2015-12-01

    Accurate precipitation data are vital for hydro-climatic modelling and water resources assessments. Based on mass balance calculations and Turc-Budyko analysis, this study investigates the accuracy of twelve widely used precipitation gridded datasets for sub-basins in the Upper Indus Basin (UIB) in the Himalayas-Karakoram-Hindukush (HKH) region. These datasets are: 1) Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP), 2) Climate Prediction Centre (CPC) Merged Analysis of Precipitation (CMAP), 3) NCEP / NCAR, 4) Global Precipitation Climatology Centre (GPCC), 5) Climatic Research Unit (CRU), 6) Asian Precipitation Highly Resolved Observational Data Integration Towards Evaluation of Water Resources (APHRODITE), 7) Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM), 8) European Reanalysis (ERA) interim data, 9) PRINCETON, 10) European Reanalysis-40 (ERA-40), 11) Willmott and Matsuura, and 12) WATCH Forcing Data based on ERA interim (WFDEI). Precipitation accuracy and consistency was assessed by physical mass balance involving sum of annual measured flow, estimated actual evapotranspiration (average of 4 datasets), estimated glacier mass balance melt contribution (average of 4 datasets), and ground water recharge (average of 3 datasets), during 1999-2010. Mass balance assessment was complemented by Turc-Budyko non-dimensional analysis, where annual precipitation, measured flow and potential evapotranspiration (average of 5 datasets) data were used for the same period. Both analyses suggest that all tested precipitation datasets significantly underestimate precipitation in the Karakoram sub-basins. For the Hindukush and Himalayan sub-basins most datasets underestimate precipitation, except ERA-interim and ERA-40. The analysis indicates that for this large region with complicated terrain features and stark spatial precipitation gradients the reanalysis datasets have better consistency with flow measurements than datasets derived from records of only sparsely distributed climatic

  9. Time-varying surrogate data to assess nonlinearity in nonstationary time series: application to heart rate variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faes, Luca; Zhao, He; Chon, Ki H; Nollo, Giandomenico

    2009-03-01

    We propose a method to extend to time-varying (TV) systems the procedure for generating typical surrogate time series, in order to test the presence of nonlinear dynamics in potentially nonstationary signals. The method is based on fitting a TV autoregressive (AR) model to the original series and then regressing the model coefficients with random replacements of the model residuals to generate TV AR surrogate series. The proposed surrogate series were used in combination with a TV sample entropy (SE) discriminating statistic to assess nonlinearity in both simulated and experimental time series, in comparison with traditional time-invariant (TIV) surrogates combined with the TIV SE discriminating statistic. Analysis of simulated time series showed that using TIV surrogates, linear nonstationary time series may be erroneously regarded as nonlinear and weak TV nonlinearities may remain unrevealed, while the use of TV AR surrogates markedly increases the probability of a correct interpretation. Application to short (500 beats) heart rate variability (HRV) time series recorded at rest (R), after head-up tilt (T), and during paced breathing (PB) showed: 1) modifications of the SE statistic that were well interpretable with the known cardiovascular physiology; 2) significant contribution of nonlinear dynamics to HRV in all conditions, with significant increase during PB at 0.2 Hz respiration rate; and 3) a disagreement between TV AR surrogates and TIV surrogates in about a quarter of the series, suggesting that nonstationarity may affect HRV recordings and bias the outcome of the traditional surrogate-based nonlinearity test.

  10. Phenotypic differentiation of Barilius bendelisis (Cypriniformes: Cyprinidae) in four rivers from Central Indian Himalaya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mir, Javaid Iqbal; Saxena, Neha; Patiyal, Rabindar Singh; Sahoo, Prabhati Kumari

    2015-03-01

    Barilius bendelisis, commonly known as Indian Hill Trout is an upland water fish of South East Asia. It belongs to the family Cyprinidae and dwells in shallow, clear and cold water. In this study, the intraspecific variation of Barilius bendelisis, on the basis of morphometric characters, was investigated. Altogether, 402 specimens were collected from four rivers in the Central Indian Himalaya. A truss network was constructed by interconnecting 12 landmarks to yield 30 distance variables that were extracted from digital images of specimens using tpsDig2 and PAST software. Allometric transformed truss measurements were subjected to univariate analysis of variance, factor analysis and discriminant analysis. All variables exhibited significant differences between the populations. Altogether 88% of the specimens were classified into their original populations (81.98% under a 'leave-one-out' procedure). With factor analysis measurements of the head region, the middle portion and the caudal region had high loadings on the first and second axis. The results indicated that B. bendelisis has significant phenotypic heterogeneity between the geographically isolated regions of Central Indian Himalaya. We hypothesize that the marked interspecific variation in B. bendelisis is the result of local ecological conditions.

  11. Efficient Calibration of Computationally Intensive Groundwater Models through Surrogate Modelling with Lower Levels of Fidelity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razavi, S.; Anderson, D.; Martin, P.; MacMillan, G.; Tolson, B.; Gabriel, C.; Zhang, B.

    2012-12-01

    Many sophisticated groundwater models tend to be computationally intensive as they rigorously represent detailed scientific knowledge about the groundwater systems. Calibration (model inversion), which is a vital step of groundwater model development, can require hundreds or thousands of model evaluations (runs) for different sets of parameters and as such demand prohibitively large computational time and resources. One common strategy to circumvent this computational burden is surrogate modelling which is concerned with developing and utilizing fast-to-run surrogates of the original computationally intensive models (also called fine models). Surrogates can be either based on statistical and data-driven models such as kriging and neural networks or simplified physically-based models with lower fidelity to the original system (also called coarse models). Fidelity in this context refers to the degree of the realism of a simulation model. This research initially investigates different strategies for developing lower-fidelity surrogates of a fine groundwater model and their combinations. These strategies include coarsening the fine model, relaxing the numerical convergence criteria, and simplifying the model geological conceptualisation. Trade-offs between model efficiency and fidelity (accuracy) are of special interest. A methodological framework is developed for coordinating the original fine model with its lower-fidelity surrogates with the objective of efficiently calibrating the parameters of the original model. This framework is capable of mapping the original model parameters to the corresponding surrogate model parameters and also mapping the surrogate model response for the given parameters to the original model response. This framework is general in that it can be used with different optimization and/or uncertainty analysis techniques available for groundwater model calibration and parameter/predictive uncertainty assessment. A real-world computationally

  12. An Efficient Constraint Boundary Sampling Method for Sequential RBDO Using Kriging Surrogate Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jihoon; Jang, Junyong; Kim, Shinyu; Lee, Tae Hee [Hanyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Sugil; Kim, Hyung Woo; Hong, Sup [Korea Research Institute of Ships and Ocean Engineering, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    Reliability-based design optimization (RBDO) requires a high computational cost owing to its reliability analysis. A surrogate model is introduced to reduce the computational cost in RBDO. The accuracy of the reliability depends on the accuracy of the surrogate model of constraint boundaries in the surrogated-model-based RBDO. In earlier researches, constraint boundary sampling (CBS) was proposed to approximate accurately the boundaries of constraints by locating sample points on the boundaries of constraints. However, because CBS uses sample points on all constraint boundaries, it creates superfluous sample points. In this paper, efficient constraint boundary sampling (ECBS) is proposed to enhance the efficiency of CBS. ECBS uses the statistical information of a kriging surrogate model to locate sample points on or near the RBDO solution. The efficiency of ECBS is verified by mathematical examples.

  13. Surrogates for herbicide removal in stormwater biofilters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kefeng; Deletic, Ana; Page, Declan; McCarthy, David T

    2015-09-15

    Real time monitoring of suitable surrogate parameters are critical to the validation of any water treatment processes, and is of particularly high importance for validation of natural stormwater treatment systems. In this study, potential surrogates for herbicide removal in stormwater biofilters (also known as stormwater bio-retention or rain-gardens) were assessed using field challenge tests and matched laboratory column experiments. Differential UV absorbance at 254mn (ΔUVA254), total phosphorus (ΔTP), dissolved phosphorus (ΔDP), total nitrogen (ΔTN), ammonia (ΔNH3), nitrate and nitrite (ΔNO3+NO2), dissolved organic carbon (ΔDOC) and total suspended solids (ΔTSS) were compared with glyphosate, atrazine, simazine and prometryn removal rates. The influence of different challenge conditions on the performance of each surrogate was studied. Differential TP was significantly and linearly related to glyphosate reduction (R(2) = 0.75-0.98, P herbicides were reliable under normal and challenge dry conditions, but weaker correlations were observed under challenge wet conditions. Of those tested, ΔTP is the most promising surrogate for glyphosate removal and ΔUVA254 is a suitable surrogate for triazines removal in stormwater biofilters. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Diaphragm as an anatomic surrogate for lung tumor motion

    CERN Document Server

    Cervino, Laura I; Sandhu, Ajay; Jiang, Steve B

    2009-01-01

    Lung tumor motion due to respiration poses a challenge in the application of modern three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy. Direct tracking of the lung tumor during radiation therapy is very difficult without implanted fiducial markers. Indirect tracking relies on the correlation of the tumor's motion and the surrogate's motion. The present paper presents an analysis of the correlation between the tumor motion and the diaphragm motion in order to evaluate the potential use of diaphragm as a surrogate for tumor motion. We have analyzed the correlation between diaphragm motion and superior-inferior lung tumor motion in 32 fluoroscopic image sequences from 10 lung cancer patients. A simple linear model and a more complex linear model that accounts for phase delays between the two motions have been used. Results show that the diaphragm is a good surrogate for tumor motion prediction for most patients, resulting in an average correlation factor of 0.94 and 0.98 with each model respectively. The model that accoun...

  15. Surrogate Assisted Design Optimization of an Air Turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rameez Badhurshah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Surrogates are cheaper to evaluate and assist in designing systems with lesser time. On the other hand, the surrogates are problem dependent and they need evaluation for each problem to find a suitable surrogate. The Kriging variants such as ordinary, universal, and blind along with commonly used response surface approximation (RSA model were used in the present problem, to optimize the performance of an air impulse turbine used for ocean wave energy harvesting by CFD analysis. A three-level full factorial design was employed to find sample points in the design space for two design variables. A Reynolds-averaged Navier Stokes solver was used to evaluate the objective function responses, and these responses along with the design variables were used to construct the Kriging variants and RSA functions. A hybrid genetic algorithm was used to find the optimal point in the design space. It was found that the best optimal design was produced by the universal Kriging while the blind Kriging produced the worst. The present approach is suggested for renewable energy application.

  16. Regression calibration with more surrogates than mismeasured variables

    KAUST Repository

    Kipnis, Victor

    2012-06-29

    In a recent paper (Weller EA, Milton DK, Eisen EA, Spiegelman D. Regression calibration for logistic regression with multiple surrogates for one exposure. Journal of Statistical Planning and Inference 2007; 137: 449-461), the authors discussed fitting logistic regression models when a scalar main explanatory variable is measured with error by several surrogates, that is, a situation with more surrogates than variables measured with error. They compared two methods of adjusting for measurement error using a regression calibration approximate model as if it were exact. One is the standard regression calibration approach consisting of substituting an estimated conditional expectation of the true covariate given observed data in the logistic regression. The other is a novel two-stage approach when the logistic regression is fitted to multiple surrogates, and then a linear combination of estimated slopes is formed as the estimate of interest. Applying estimated asymptotic variances for both methods in a single data set with some sensitivity analysis, the authors asserted superiority of their two-stage approach. We investigate this claim in some detail. A troubling aspect of the proposed two-stage method is that, unlike standard regression calibration and a natural form of maximum likelihood, the resulting estimates are not invariant to reparameterization of nuisance parameters in the model. We show, however, that, under the regression calibration approximation, the two-stage method is asymptotically equivalent to a maximum likelihood formulation, and is therefore in theory superior to standard regression calibration. However, our extensive finite-sample simulations in the practically important parameter space where the regression calibration model provides a good approximation failed to uncover such superiority of the two-stage method. We also discuss extensions to different data structures.

  17. Band-phase-randomized Surrogates to assess nonlinearity in non-stationary time series

    CERN Document Server

    Guarin, Diego; Orozco, Alvaro

    2011-01-01

    Testing for nonlinearity is one of the most important preprocessing steps in nonlinear time series analysis. Typically, this is done by means of the linear surrogate data methods. But it is a known fact that the validity of the results heavily depends on the stationarity of the time series. Since most physiological signals are non-stationary, it is easy to falsely detect nonlinearity using the linear surrogate data methods. In this document, we propose a methodology to extend the procedure for generating constrained surrogate time series in order to assess nonlinearity in non-stationary data. The method is based on the band-phase-randomized surrogates, which consists (contrary to the linear surrogate data methods) in randomizing only a portion of the Fourier phases in the high frequency band. Analysis of simulated time series showed that in comparison to the linear surrogate data method, our method is able to discriminate between linear stationarity, linear non-stationary and nonlinear time series. When apply...

  18. Gravity and the geoid in the Nepal Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilham, Roger

    1992-01-01

    Materials within the Himalaya are rising due to convergence between India and Asia. If the rate of erosion is comparable to the rate of uplift the mean surface elevation will remain constant. Any slight imbalance in these two processes will lead to growth or attrition of the Himalaya. The process of uplift of materials within the Himalaya coupled with surface erosion is similar to the advance of a glacier into a region of melting. If the melting rate exceeds the rate of downhill motion of the glacier then the terminus of the glacier will receed up-valley despite the downhill motion of the bulk of the glacier. Thus although buried rocks, minerals and surface control points in the Himalaya are undoubtably rising, the growth or collapse of the Himalaya depends on the erosion rate which is invisible to geodetic measurements. Erosion rates are currently estimated from suspended sediment loads in rivers in the Himalaya. These typically underestimate the real erosion rate since bed-load is not measured during times of heavy flood, and it is difficult to integrate widely varying suspended load measurements over many years. An alternative way to measure erosion rate is to measure the rate of change of gravity in a region of uplift. If a control point moves vertically it should be accompanied by a reduction in gravity as the point moves away from the Earth's center of mass. There is a difference in the change of gravity between uplift with and without erosion corresponding to the difference between the free-air gradient and the gradient in the acceleration due to gravity caused by a corresponding thickness of rock. Essentially gravity should change precisely in accord with a change in elevation of the point in a free-air gradient if erosion equals uplift rate. We were funded by NASA to undertake a measurement of absolute gravity simultaneously with measurements of GPS height within the Himalaya. Since both absolute gravity and time are known in an absolute sense to 1 part in

  19. An Investigation of Climate Change Impact on Snow/Ice Melts Runoff in Himalayas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvan, M. T.; Ahmad, S. S.

    2005-12-01

    Glacial density varies across Himalayas, maximum in the Sutlej and Tista basin and moderate in Jhelum and Bhagirathi basin, while least density is in Arunachal Pradesh basin. Most of the glaciers are simple type, but some glaciers are bigger in size and composite in nature. The impact of global warming is perhaps already upon the Himalayas. They are located so near the tropic of cancer that they receive more heat than it commonly reaches Temperate and Arctic glaciers. In all these areas the orographic snowline is often a little higher than regional snowline. In the Himalayas the main source of moisture which feeds the glaciers comes from three sources as Southern monsoon, Northwestern disturbances and Local convection currents. The snowline is also lower on the northern slopes than on the southern slopes. According to the climatologists, alpine glaciers, such as those in the Himalaya are particularly sensitive indicators of climate change and the trend is expected to continue this century. Present study made by the availability of GIS, Image Processing and Digital Data Sets have made the task of runoff modeling easier on the regional and local scenario. For mapping the snow-cover on local level with high resolution remote sensing data (ASTER, LANDSAT and IRS) been used, for regional level, EOS and MODIS used, which provides good images with sufficient temporal scale. Investigation shows that spatial distributions of survival index based on relief area gradient and elongation index has least climate sensitivity of the glaciers situated in the Bhagirathi basin in Ganga headwater. In a high mountain environment the influence of certain topographic variables varying greatly. Elevation is one of the variables that have been identified as having a positive effect on snow depth and other factors those influence snow accumulation and the snowpack also computed for relational study. The variations in snow cover have a major influence on regional and continental weather

  20. Water soluble ions in aerosols (TSP) : Characteristics, sources and seasonal variation over the central Himalayas, Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathee, Lekhendra; Kang, Shichang; Zhang, Qianggong; Rupakheti, Dipesh

    2016-04-01

    Atmspheric pollutants transported from South Asia could have adverse impact on the Himalayan ecosystems. Investigation of aerosol chemistry in the Himalayan region in Nepal has been limited on a temporal and spatial scale to date. Therefore, the water-soluble ionic composition of aerosol using TSP sampler was investigated for a year period from April 2013 to March 2014 at four sites Bode, Dhunche, Lumbini and Jomsom characterized as an urban, rural, semi-urban and remote sites in Nepal. During the study period, the highest concentration of major cation was Ca2+ with an average concentration of 8.91, 2.17, 7.85 and 6.42 μg m-3 and the highest concentration of major anion was SO42- with an average of 10.96, 4.06, 6.85 and 3.30 μg m-3 at Bode, Dhunche, Lumbini and Jomsom respectively. The soluble ions showed the decrease in concentrations from urban to the rural site. Correlations and PCA analysis suggested that that SO42-, NO3- and NH4+ were derived from the anthropogenic sources where as the Ca2+ and Mg2+ were from crustal sources. Our results also suggest that the largest acid neutralizing agent at our sampling sites in the central Himalayas are Ca2+ followed by NH4+. Seasonal variations of soluble ions in aerosols showed higher concentrations during pre-monsoon and winter (dry-periods) due to limited precipitation amount and lower concentrations during the monsoon which can be explained by the dilution effect, higher the precipitation lower the concentration. K+ which is regarded as the tracer of biomss burning had a significant peaks during pre-monsoon season when the forest fires are active around the regions. In general, the results of this study suggests that the atmospheric chemistry is influenced by natural and anthropogenic sources. Thus, soluble ionic concentrations in aerosols from central Himalayas, Nepal can provide a useful database to assess atmospheric environment and its impacts on human health and ecosystem in the southern side of central

  1. Uncertainty quantification of squeal instability via surrogate modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobari, Amir; Ouyang, Huajiang; Bannister, Paul

    2015-08-01

    One of the major issues that car manufacturers are facing is the noise and vibration of brake systems. Of the different sorts of noise and vibration, which a brake system may generate, squeal as an irritating high-frequency noise costs the manufacturers significantly. Despite considerable research that has been conducted on brake squeal, the root cause of squeal is still not fully understood. The most common assumption, however, is mode-coupling. Complex eigenvalue analysis is the most widely used approach to the analysis of brake squeal problems. One of the major drawbacks of this technique, nevertheless, is that the effects of variability and uncertainty are not included in the results. Apparently, uncertainty and variability are two inseparable parts of any brake system. Uncertainty is mainly caused by friction, contact, wear and thermal effects while variability mostly stems from the manufacturing process, material properties and component geometries. Evaluating the effects of uncertainty and variability in the complex eigenvalue analysis improves the predictability of noise propensity and helps produce a more robust design. The biggest hurdle in the uncertainty analysis of brake systems is the computational cost and time. Most uncertainty analysis techniques rely on the results of many deterministic analyses. A full finite element model of a brake system typically consists of millions of degrees-of-freedom and many load cases. Running time of such models is so long that automotive industry is reluctant to do many deterministic analyses. This paper, instead, proposes an efficient method of uncertainty propagation via surrogate modelling. A surrogate model of a brake system is constructed in order to reproduce the outputs of the large-scale finite element model and overcome the issue of computational workloads. The probability distribution of the real part of an unstable mode can then be obtained by using the surrogate model with a massive saving of

  2. Vegetation dynamics at the upper elevational limit of vascular plants in Himalaya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolezal, Jiri; Dvorsky, Miroslav; Kopecky, Martin; Liancourt, Pierre; Hiiesalu, Inga; Macek, Martin; Altman, Jan; Chlumska, Zuzana; Rehakova, Klara; Capkova, Katerina; Borovec, Jakub; Mudrak, Ondrej; Wild, Jan; Schweingruber, Fritz

    2016-05-04

    A rapid warming in Himalayas is predicted to increase plant upper distributional limits, vegetation cover and abundance of species adapted to warmer climate. We explored these predictions in NW Himalayas, by revisiting uppermost plant populations after ten years (2003-2013), detailed monitoring of vegetation changes in permanent plots (2009-2012), and age analysis of plants growing from 5500 to 6150 m. Plant traits and microclimate variables were recorded to explain observed vegetation changes. The elevation limits of several species shifted up to 6150 m, about 150 vertical meters above the limit of continuous plant distribution. The plant age analysis corroborated the hypothesis of warming-driven uphill migration. However, the impact of warming interacts with increasing precipitation and physical disturbance. The extreme summer snowfall event in 2010 is likely responsible for substantial decrease in plant cover in both alpine and subnival vegetation and compositional shift towards species preferring wetter habitats. Simultaneous increase in summer temperature and precipitation caused rapid snow melt and, coupled with frequent night frosts, generated multiple freeze-thaw cycles detrimental to subnival plants. Our results suggest that plant species responses to ongoing climate change will not be unidirectional upward range shifts but rather multi-dimensional, species-specific and spatially variable.

  3. Doubt and belief in physicians' ability to prognosticate during critical illness: the perspective of surrogate decision makers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zier, Lucas S; Burack, Jeffrey H; Micco, Guy; Chipman, Anne K; Frank, James A; Luce, John M; White, Douglas B

    2008-08-01

    Although discussing a prognosis is a duty of physicians caring for critically ill patients, little is known about surrogate decision-makers' beliefs about physicians' ability to prognosticate. We sought to determine: 1) surrogates' beliefs about whether physicians can accurately prognosticate for critically ill patients; and 2) how individuals use prognostic information in their role as surrogate decision-makers. Multicenter study in intensive care units of a public hospital, a tertiary care hospital, and a veterans' hospital. We conducted semistructured interviews with 50 surrogate decision-makers of critically ill patients. We analyzed the interview transcripts using grounded theory methods to inductively develop a framework to describe surrogates' beliefs about physicians' ability to prognosticate. Validation methods included triangulation by multidisciplinary analysis and member checking. Overall, 88% (44 of 50) of surrogates expressed doubt about physicians' ability to prognosticate for critically ill patients. Four distinct themes emerged that explained surrogates' doubts about prognostic accuracy: a belief that God could alter the course of the illness, a belief that predicting the future is inherently uncertain, prior experiences where physicians' prognostications were inaccurate, and experiences with prognostication during the patient's intensive care unit stay. Participants also identified several factors that led to belief in physicians' prognostications, such as receiving similar prognostic estimates from multiple physicians and prior experiences with accurate prognostication. Surrogates' doubts about prognostic accuracy did not prevent them from wanting prognostic information. Instead, most surrogate decision-makers view physicians' prognostications as rough estimates that are valuable in informing decisions, but are not determinative. Surrogates identified the act of prognostic disclosure as a key step in preparing emotionally and practically for the

  4. Citizen Science in the Himalaya: The Sherpa-Scientist Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horodyskyj, U. N.; Breashears, D.; Rowe, P.

    2015-12-01

    Since the non-profit educational group, Black Ice Himalaya, launched in 2011 our goal has been to involve local communities in our research expeditions, in the form of a Sherpa-Scientist Initiative (SSI). This goes beyond simply helping with gear carries to research sites. It involves training the local Sherpa in equipment set-up, data collection, and analysis processes, with the goal of turning over this task to local communities and villages in the future. As the terrain continues to change - with the growth and expansion of glacial lakes, along with accumulation of pollutants on snow at higher altitudes - this training program presents an excellent opportunity for long-term data collection in sensitive alpine regions. In association with GlacierWorks and Midwest ROV LLC, skill training has included gigapan high-resolution photography, installing (and downloading) multiple time lapse cameras to track hour-by-hour glacial lake changes; lake bathymetry mapping using side-scan sonar from an unmanned towed platform; installing and managing weather stations; collecting and analyzing data from ASD field spectrometers; and collecting/filtering snow samples to look for contaminants (pollutants) affecting snow melt from 4000 - 6000 meters. A field manual documenting this work and intended to raise awareness of glacial trekking hazards has been disseminated to the International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development (ICIMOD) and Sagarmatha (Everest) National Park. In 2016-17, in collaboration with Vanguard Diving and Exploration, OpenROV, and Midwest ROV LLC, efforts will include SCUBA diving into glacial lakes to collect scientific data, with continued Sherpa training on how to assemble and use portable remotely piloted submersibles to aid in the assessment of glacial lake hazards.

  5. Lesser Himalayan sequences in Eastern Himalaya and their deformation: Implications for Paleoproterozoic tectonic activity along the northern margin of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilip Saha

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Substantial part of the northern margin of Indian plate is subducted beneath the Eurasian plate during the Caenozoic Himalayan orogeny, obscuring older tectonic events in the Lesser Himalaya known to host Proterozoic sedimentary successions and granitic bodies. Tectonostratigraphic units of the Proterozoic Lesser Himalayan sequence (LHS of Eastern Himalaya, namely the Daling Group in Sikkim and the Bomdila Group in Arunachal Pradesh, provide clues to the nature and extent of Proterozoic passive margin sedimentation, their involvement in pre-Himalayan orogeny and implications for supercontinent reconstruction. The Daling Group, consisting of flaggy quartzite, meta-greywacke and metapelite with minor mafic dyke and sill, and the overlying Buxa Formation with stromatolitic carbonate-quartzite-slate, represent shallow marine, passive margin platformal association. Similar lithostratigraphy and broad depositional framework, and available geochronological data from intrusive granites in Eastern Himalaya indicate strikewise continuity of a shallow marine Paleoproterozoic platformal sequence up to Arunachal Pradesh through Bhutan. Multiple fold sets and tectonic foliations in LHS formed during partial or complete closure of the sea/ocean along the northern margin of Paleoproterozoic India. Such deformation fabrics are absent in the upper Palaeozoic–Mesozoic Gondwana formations in the Lesser Himalaya of Darjeeling-Sikkim indicating influence of older orogeny. Kinematic analysis based on microstructure, and garnet composition suggest Paleoproterozoic deformation and metamorphism of LHS to be distinct from those associated with the foreland propagating thrust systems of the Caenozoic Himalayan collisional belt. Two possibilities are argued here: (1 the low greenschist facies domain in the LHS enveloped the amphibolite to granulite facies domains, which were later tectonically severed; (2 the older deformation and metamorphism relate to a Pacific type

  6. Effects of Absorbing Aerosols on Accelerated Melting of Snowpack in the Hindu-Kush-Himalayas-Tibetan Plateau Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, William K.; Kyu-Myong, Kim; Yasunari, Teppei; Gautam, Ritesh; Hsu, Christina

    2011-01-01

    The impacts of absorbing aerosol on melting of snowpack in the Hindu-Kush-Himalayas-Tibetan Plateau (HKHT) region are studied using in-situ, satellite observations, and GEOS-5 GCM. Based on atmospheric black carbon measurements from the Pyramid observation ( 5 km elevation) in Mt. Everest, we estimate that deposition of black carbon on snow surface will give rise to a reduction in snow surface albedo of 2- 5 %, and an increased annual runoff of 12-34% for a typical Tibetan glacier. Examination of satellite reflectivity and re-analysis data reveals signals of possible impacts of dust and black carbon in darkening the snow surface, and accelerating spring melting of snowpack in the HKHT, following a build-up of absorbing aerosols in the Indo-Gangetic Plain. Results from GCM experiments show that 8-10% increase in the rate of melting of snowpack over the western Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau can be attributed to the elevated-heat-pump (EHP) feedback effect, initiated from the absorption of solar radiation by dust and black carbon accumulated to great height ( 5 km) over the Indo-Gangetic Plain and Himalayas foothills in the pre-monsoon season (April-May). The accelerated melting of the snowpack is enabled by an EHP-induced atmosphere-land-snowpack positive feedback involving a) orographic forcing of the monsoon flow by the complex terrain, and thermal forcing of the HKHT region, leading to increased moisture, cloudiness and rainfall over the Himalayas foothills and northern India, b) warming of the upper troposphere over the Tibetan Plateau, and c) an snow albedo-temperature feedback initiated by a transfer of latent and sensible heat from a warmer atmosphere over the HKHT to the underlying snow surface. Results from ongoing modeling work to assess the relative roles of EHP vs. snow-darkening effects on accelerated melting of snowpack in HKHT region will also be discussed.

  7. Using multiscale spatial models to assess potential surrogate habitat for an imperiled reptile.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer M Fill

    Full Text Available In evaluating conservation and management options for species, practitioners might consider surrogate habitats at multiple scales when estimating available habitat or modeling species' potential distributions based on suitable habitats, especially when native environments are rare. Species' dependence on surrogates likely increases as optimal habitat is degraded and lost due to anthropogenic landscape change, and thus surrogate habitats may be vital for an imperiled species' survival in highly modified landscapes. We used spatial habitat models to examine a potential surrogate habitat for an imperiled ambush predator (eastern diamondback rattlesnake, Crotalus adamanteus; EDB at two scales. The EDB is an apex predator indigenous to imperiled longleaf pine ecosystems (Pinus palustris of the southeastern United States. Loss of native open-canopy pine savannas and woodlands has been suggested as the principal cause of the species' extensive decline. We examined EDB habitat selection in the Coastal Plain tidewater region to evaluate the role of marsh as a potential surrogate habitat and to further quantify the species' habitat requirements at two scales: home range (HR and within the home range (WHR. We studied EDBs using radiotelemetry and employed an information-theoretic approach and logistic regression to model habitat selection as use vs.We failed to detect a positive association with marsh as a surrogate habitat at the HR scale; rather, EDBs exhibited significantly negative associations with all landscape patches except pine savanna. Within home range selection was characterized by a negative association with forest and a positive association with ground cover, which suggests that EDBs may use surrogate habitats of similar structure, including marsh, within their home ranges. While our HR analysis did not support tidal marsh as a surrogate habitat, marsh may still provide resources for EDBs at smaller scales.

  8. Modeling of Heating and Evaporation of FACE I Gasoline Fuel and its Surrogates

    KAUST Repository

    Elwardani, Ahmed Elsaid

    2016-04-05

    The US Department of Energy has formulated different gasoline fuels called \\'\\'Fuels for Advanced Combustion Engines (FACE)\\'\\' to standardize their compositions. FACE I is a low octane number gasoline fuel with research octane number (RON) of approximately 70. The detailed hydrocarbon analysis (DHA) of FACE I shows that it contains 33 components. This large number of components cannot be handled in fuel spray simulation where thousands of droplets are directly injected in combustion chamber. These droplets are to be heated, broken-up, collided and evaporated simultaneously. Heating and evaporation of single droplet FACE I fuel was investigated. The heating and evaporation model accounts for the effects of finite thermal conductivity, finite liquid diffusivity and recirculation inside the droplet, referred to as the effective thermal conductivity/effective diffusivity (ETC/ED) model. The temporal variations of the liquid mass fractions of the droplet components were used to characterize the evaporation process. Components with similar evaporation characteristics were merged together. A representative component was initially chosen based on the highest initial mass fraction. Three 6 components surrogates, Surrogate 1-3, that match evaporation characteristics of FACE I have been formulated without keeping same mass fractions of different hydrocarbon types. Another two surrogates (Surrogate 4 and 5) were considered keeping same hydrocarbon type concentrations. A distillation based surrogate that matches measured distillation profile was proposed. The calculated molar mass, hydrogen-to-carbon (H/C) ratio and RON of Surrogate 4 and distillation based one are close to those of FACE I.

  9. Seismic hazard assessment of Kashmir and Kangra valley region, Western Himalaya, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basab Mukhopadhyay

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available A complete earthquake catalogue of the Western Himalaya (latitudes 30°N–36°N and longitudes 72°E–78°E for the period of 1501–2010 has been compiled with earthquake magnitude computed in moment magnitude (Mw scale. Pre- and early twentieth century records of earthquake damage have been documented from rare and out of print publications. Seismotectonics and seismic hazard for Kohistan arc, Kashmir–Hazara Syntaxis, Nanga-Parbat (Western Syntaxis, Karakoram and Himachal Himalaya are discussed with special reference to 1905 Kangra and 2005 Muzaffarabad earthquakes. Analyses of spatio-temporal variation in b-value from the region indicate significant precursor prior to the 2005 Muzaffarabad earthquake; progressive rise of background b-value observed and the main shock locates close to relative high b-value domains. Regions surrounding the location of the 1905 Kangra earthquake also display such high b-value for the period of 2005–2010 that calls for closer scrutiny. Temporal analysis of b-value from the epicentral block of Muzaffarabad earthquake clearly showed a high–low b-value couplet of 1.45–0.72, which may be treated as a typical precursor before an imminent large earthquake. Gumbel extreme value statistics indicate probability of occurrence of an event of Mw > 7.0 within 50 years in the region.

  10. Comparison of climatic trends and variability among glacierized environments in the Western Himalayas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimri, A. P.; Immerzeel, W. W.; Salzmann, N.; Thayyen, R. J.

    2017-09-01

    The climate and hydrology of the Western Himalayas is complex and a function of snow and glacier melt, land use, topography, and Indian summer and winter monsoon dynamics. Improving our knowledge about these processes is important from societal and agricultural points of view. In this study, an observational analysis is carried out to assess the changing climatic trends and the associated interannual variability in winter temperature and precipitation at three glacierized regions of Western Himalayas having distinctly different sub-regional characteristics. In situ observations of 23 years (1985-2007) are used. These observations are passed through rigorous statistical quality control checks. Results show higher interannual variability with increasing temperature trends in the glacierized regions of the Siachen (Karakoram Range) and Chotasigri (Great Himalayan Range). Karakoram Range has higher warming trends than the Great Himalayan Range. In case of precipitation, an overall decrease in precipitation is observed with contrasting trends in the last decade. Nino3.4 index is positively correlated with winter precipitation with similar interannual variability. In addition, at Siachen temperature and precipitation show strong negative correlation, and precipitation to spell length correlation is opposite at Siachen and Chotasigri.

  11. Radon and thoron monitoring in the environment of Kumaun Himalayas: survey and outcomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramola, R.C. E-mail: rcramola@sancharnet.in; Negi, M.S.; Choubey, V.M

    2005-07-01

    Monitoring of radon, thoron and their daughter products was carried out in houses of Kumaun Himalaya, India using LR-115 plastic track detectors. The measurements were made in residential houses from June 1999 to May 2000 at a height of 2.5 m from ground level using a twin chamber radon dosimeter. The twin chamber radon dosimeter can record the values of radon, thoron and their decay products separately. Maximum and minimum indoor radon and thoron concentrations were evaluated and activity concentrations of radon and thoron daughters were estimated. The resulting dose rates due to radon, thoron and their decay products varied from 0.04 to 1.89 {mu}Sv/h. A detailed analysis of the distribution of radon, thoron and their decay products inside the house is also reported. The observed dose rates inside the houses of Kumaun Himalaya were found to be lower than the ICRP recommended value of 200 Bq/m{sup 3} and thus are within safe limits.

  12. Application of regional climate models to the Indian winter monsoon over the western Himalayas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimri, A P; Yasunari, T; Wiltshire, A; Kumar, P; Mathison, C; Ridley, J; Jacob, D

    2013-12-01

    The Himalayan region is characterized by pronounced topographic heterogeneity and land use variability from west to east, with a large variation in regional climate patterns. Over the western part of the region, almost one-third of the annual precipitation is received in winter during cyclonic storms embedded in westerlies, known locally as the western disturbance. In the present paper, the regional winter climate over the western Himalayas is analyzed from simulations produced by two regional climate models (RCMs) forced with large-scale fields from ERA-Interim. The analysis was conducted by the composition of contrasting (wet and dry) winter precipitation years. The findings showed that RCMs could simulate the regional climate of the western Himalayas and represent the atmospheric circulation during extreme precipitation years in accordance with observations. The results suggest the important role of topography in moisture fluxes, transport and vertical flows. Dynamical downscaling with RCMs represented regional climates at the mountain or even event scale. However, uncertainties of precipitation scale and liquid-solid precipitation ratios within RCMs are still large for the purposes of hydrological and glaciological studies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Nitrate Salt Surrogate Blending Scoping Test Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anast, Kurt Roy [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-11-13

    Test blending equipment identified in the “Engineering Options Assessment Report: Nitrate Salt Waste Stream Processing”. Determine if the equipment will provide adequate mixing of zeolite and surrogate salt/Swheat stream; optimize equipment type and operational sequencing; impact of baffles and inserts on mixing performance; and means of validating mixing performance

  14. Videotrees: Improving video surrogate presentation using hierarchy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, Michel; Heeren, Willemijn; Dijk, van Betsy

    2008-01-01

    As the amount of available video content increases, so does the need for better ways of browsing all this material. Because the nature of video makes it hard to process, the need arises for adequate surrogates for video that can readily be skimmed and browsed. In this paper, the effects of the use o

  15. Combustion Kinetic Studies of Gasolines and Surrogates

    KAUST Repository

    Javed, Tamour

    2016-11-01

    Future thrusts for gasoline engine development can be broadly summarized into two categories: (i) efficiency improvements in conventional spark ignition engines, and (ii) development of advance compression ignition (ACI) concepts. Efficiency improvements in conventional spark ignition engines requires downsizing (and turbocharging) which may be achieved by using high octane gasolines, whereas, low octane gasolines fuels are anticipated for ACI concepts. The current work provides the essential combustion kinetic data, targeting both thrusts, that is needed to develop high fidelity gasoline surrogate mechanisms and surrogate complexity guidelines. Ignition delay times of a wide range of certified gasolines and surrogates are reported here. These measurements were performed in shock tubes and rapid compression machines over a wide range of experimental conditions (650 – 1250 K, 10 – 40 bar) relevant to internal combustion engines. Using the measured the data and chemical kinetic analyses, the surrogate complexity requirements for these gasolines in homogeneous environments are specified. For the discussions presented here, gasolines are classified into three categories: (i)\\tLow octane gasolines including Saudi Aramco’s light naphtha fuel (anti-knock index, AKI = (RON + MON)/2 = 64; Sensitivity (S) = RON – MON = 1), certified FACE (Fuels for Advanced Combustion Engines) gasoline I and J (AKI ~ 70, S = 0.7 and 3 respectively), and their Primary Reference Fuels (PRF, mixtures of n-heptane and iso-octane) and multi-component surrogates. (ii)\\t Mid octane gasolines including FACE A and C (AKI ~ 84, S ~ 0 and 1 respectively) and their PRF surrogates. Laser absorption measurements of intermediate and product species formed during gasoline/surrogate oxidation are also reported. (iii)\\t A wide range of n-heptane/iso-octane/toluene (TPRF) blends to adequately represent the octane and sensitivity requirements of high octane gasolines including FACE gasoline F and G

  16. A novel surrogate index for hepatic insulin resistance.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Vangipurapu, J

    2011-03-01

    In epidemiological and genetic studies surrogate indices are needed to investigate insulin resistance in different insulin-sensitive tissues. Our objective was to develop a surrogate index for hepatic insulin resistance.

  17. Himalaya evolution at Paleogene-Neogene boundary unraveled by zircon age spectrum from Arabian Sea Sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Han; Lu, Huayu; Zhang, Hanzhi

    2016-04-01

    Although virtually all the intensive orogenic activities of Himalaya occurred in Neogene, the tectonic evolution of this high mountain range in Paleogene is poorly understood. Investigations of tectonic change pattern at Paleogene-Neogene boundary are important to better understand the interaction between mountain building and climate evolution. Here we present new U-Pb ages of zircon grains from Indus Fan sediments to constrain the orogenic history of Himalaya at Paleogene-Neogene boundary. 11 samples between late Oligocene and early Miocene from ODP 117 cores are dated by the zircon U-Pb technique. We calculate relative contributions of potential sources by counting zircon grains for each sample, and the quantized results indicate Himalaya contributed sediments to the coring site, and an extremely high input from Great and Tethyan Himalaya during late Oligocene-early Miocene. Four samples in Pleistocene are also dated for comparison, which indicates that high proportion of Lesser Himalaya has contributed to the sediment in Pleistocene. Our results suggest that the high contribution of Great and Tethyan Himalaya at Paleogene-Neogene boundary might correlate with the beginning of activity of MCT and extension of STD with leucogranite intrusion along Himalaya, which give rise to the extensive Great Himalaya exhumation. Our study demonstrates that zircon U-Pb dating technique is a good tool to reconstruct erosional history of mountain building on a tectonic timescale. Key words: ODP, Himalaya, Indus Fan, zircon U-Pb dating, Paleogene-Neogene boundary

  18. Biopolicies and biotechnologies: reflections on surrogate maternity in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Amador

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the impact of biotechnology, particularly on assisted reproductive technologies such as surrogate motherhood. The study is based on interviews and field work conducted in the city of Hyderabad in India within the frame of the seminar on “Research Methodology” given by Dr. Rohan D´Souza at the Centre for Studies in Science Policy at the Jawaharlal Nehru University in India. The theoretical framework of this analysis focuses on exploring concepts such as cyborg (Haraway,1991 and subaltern subject (Spivak, 1998 in the context of biotechnological production in India

  19. A qualitative investigation of selecting surrogate decision-makers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Edwards, S.J.L.; Brown, P.; Twyman, M.A.; Christie, D.; Rakow, T.

    2011-01-01

    Background Empirical studies of surrogate decision-making tend to assume that surrogates should make only a 'substituted judgement'—that is, judge what the patient would want if they were mentally competent. Objectives To explore what people want in a surrogate decision-maker whom they themselves se

  20. Convergence across the northwest Himalaya from GPS measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, P.; Bürgmann, R.

    2002-07-01

    Horizontal velocities of 26 Global Positioning System (GPS) stations in the northwest Himalayan region provide new constraints on the partitioning of India-Eurasia convergence and elastic strain accumulation about the locked Main Frontal Thrust (MFT). The northwest-striking Karakorum fault slips at 11 +/- 4 mm/yr and contributes to east-west extension of southern Tibet and westward motion of the northwest Himalaya towards Nanga Parbat, rather than playing a role in eastward extrusion of Tibet. Crustal shortening across the Himalaya occurs within a zone centered about 100 km north of the Siwalik Foothills and the MFT. Model inversions of the GPS data indicate that the MFT is locked over a width of ~100 km. Comparison with geologic MFT-slip-rate estimates suggests that this zone is building up a slip deficit at a rate of 14 +/- 1 mm/yr and will eventually fail in future great earthquakes.

  1. Northward genetic penetration across the Himalayas viewed from Sherpa people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Longli; Wang, Chuan-Chao; Chen, Feng; Yao, Dali; Jin, Li; Li, Hui

    2016-01-01

    The Himalayas have been suggested as a natural barrier for human migrations, especially the northward dispersals from the Indian Subcontinent to Tibetan Plateau. However, although the majority of Sherpa have a Tibeto-Burman origin, considerable genetic components from Indian Subcontinent have been observed in Sherpa people living in Tibet. The western Y chromosomal haplogroups R1a1a-M17, J-M304, and F*-M89 comprise almost 17% of Sherpa paternal gene pool. In the maternal side, M5c2, M21d, and U from the west also count up to 8% of Sherpa people. Those lineages with South Asian origin indicate that the Himalayas have been permeable to bidirectional gene flow.

  2. Treeline dynamics with climate change at the central Nepal Himalaya

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Treeline shifting in tandem with climate change has widely been reported from various parts of the world. In Nepal, several impacts of climate change on the physical environment have been observed, but study on the biological impacts is lacking. This dendrochronological study was carried out at the treeline in the high mountain slope of Kalchuman Lake (3750–4003 m a.s.l.) area of Manaslu Conservation Area in the central Nepal Himalaya to explore the impact of climate change ...

  3. Lateral variation of seismic attenuation in Sikkim Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirunavukarasu, Ajaay; Kumar, Ajay; Mitra, Supriyo

    2017-01-01

    We use data from local earthquakes (mb ≥ 3.0) recorded by the Sikkim broad-band seismograph network to study the frequency-dependent attenuation of the crust and uppermost mantle. These events have been relocated using body wave phase data from local and regional seismograms. The decay of coda amplitudes at a range of central frequencies (1 to 12 Hz) has been measured for 74 earthquake-receiver pairs. These measurements are combined to estimate the frequency-dependent coda Q of the form Q( f) = Q0 f η. The estimated Q0 values range from 80 to 200, with an average of 123 ± 29; and η ranges from 0.92 to 1.04, with an average of 0.98 ± 0.04. To study the lateral variation of Q0 and η, we regionalized the measured Q values by combining all the earthquake-receiver path measurements through a back projection algorithm. We consider a single back-scatter model for the coda waves with elliptical sampling and parametrize the sampled area using 0.2° square grids. A nine-point spatial smoothening (similar to spatial Gaussian filter) is applied to stabilize the inversion. This is done at every frequency to observe the spatial variation of Q( f) and subsequently combined to obtain η variations. Results of our study reveal that the Sikkim Himalaya is characterized by low Q0 (80-100) compared to the foreland basin to its south (150-200) and the Nepal Himalaya to its west (140-160). The low Q and high η in Sikkim Himalaya is attributed to extrinsic scattering attenuation from structural heterogeneity and active faults within the crust, and intrinsic attenuation due to anelasticity in the hotter lithosphere beneath the actively deforming mountain belt. Similar low Q and high η values had also been observed in northwest and Garhwal-Kumaun Himalaya.

  4. Noteworthy additions to the flora of Uttarakhand, western Himalaya, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishwari D. Rai

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available During recent botanical explorations, we recorded three interesting plant species from the alpine regions (>3500m of the Uttarakhand State in the western Himalaya.  After a detailed scrutiny of the literature and herbarium specimens, we ascertain their identity and report them as additions to the flora of Uttarakhand.  In this paper descriptions of these species along with their phenology, distribution, photographs, ecology and phytogeographical notes have been presented.

  5. Body Wave Crustal Attenuation Characteristics in the Garhwal Himalaya, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negi, Sanjay S.; Paul, Ajay; Joshi, Anand; Kamal

    2015-06-01

    We estimate frequency-dependent attenuation of P and S waves in Garhwal Himalaya using the extended coda normalization method for the central frequencies 1.5, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, and 16 Hz, with earthquake hypocentral distance ranging from 27 to 200 km. Forty well-located local earthquake waveforms were used to study the seismic attenuation characteristics of the Garhwal Himalaya, India, as recorded by eight stations operated by Wadia Institute of Himalayan Geology, Dehradun, India, from 2007 to 2012. We find frequency-dependent P and S wave quality factors as defined by the relations Q P = 56 ± 8 f 0.91±0.002 and Q S = 151 ± 8 f 0.84±0.002 by fitting a power-law frequency dependence model for the estimated values over the whole region. Both the Q P and Q S values indicate strong attenuation in the crust of Garhwal Himalaya. The ratio of Q S/ Q P > 1 obtained for the entire analyzed frequency range suggests that the scattering loss is due to a random and high degree of heterogeneities in the earth medium, playing an important role in seismic wave attenuation in the Himalayan crust.

  6. New chromosome reports in Lamiaceae of Kashmir (Northwest Himalaya), India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Reyaz Ahmad; Gupta, Raghbir Chand; Singh, Vijay; Bala, Santosh; Kumari, Santosh

    2017-03-01

    Meiotic studies and chromosome data are imperative in order to have an overall germplasm evaluation of a taxon. In the present effort, the meiotic study is carried out in 48 populations belonging to 26 species of Lamiaceae collected from their natural habitats in Kashmir Himalaya, which forms an important part of Northwest Himalaya. Chromosome counts in the five species viz. Dracocephalum nutans (2n = 10), Lycopus europaeus (2n = 22), Marrubium vulgare (2n = 54), Nepeta nervosa (2n = 18) and Salvia sclarea (2n = 22) are first time reported from India. Besides, 17 species are cytologically evaluated for the first time from the study area-Kashmir Himalaya. In Marrubium vulgare, hexaploid cytotype (2n = 6 × =54) is reported for the first time. Also, diploid and tetraploid cytomorphovariants are observed in Calamintha vulgaris (2n = 20, 40), Elsholtzia ciliata (2n = 16, 32) and Mentha longifolia (2n = 20, 40). Various meiotic abnormalities like chromatin stickiness, cytomixis, nonsynchronous disjunction, laggards, chromatin bridges, etc. leading to pollen abnormalities have been documented for the first time in some species. The worldwide status of chromosome number data in each genus is presented.

  7. Tunnelling through weak and fragile rocks of Himalayas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Goel R.K.

    2014-01-01

    A considerable amount of tunnelling has been going on in India for various projects such as hydroelectric power, irrigation, roads and railways. Most of these projects are located in Himalayas, far away from the urban areas. Tunnelling through weak and jointed rock masses such as the one in the Himalayas is a challenging task for the planners, designers, engineers and geologists because of high overburden, thickly vegetated surface, weak, poor and fragile rocks and highly varying geology with the presence of numerous small and big shear zones, faults, etc. Due to these reasons, various tunnelling problems have been faced in the past and are still being encountered. Failures and the problems may be regarded as challenges and opportunities for generating new knowledge base and thereby increasing self-reliance in tunnelling. The experiences of Himalayan tunnelling through weak and fragile rocks covering varying and mixed geology, understanding on tunnelling in squeezing ground conditions and applicability of TBM in Himalayas are presented. It has also been highlighted that the probe holes planning, drilling and mon-itoring shall be followed seriously to reduce the geological surprises.

  8. Surrogate decision making and intellectual virtue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, Gregory L

    2014-01-01

    Patients can be harmed by a religiously motivated surrogate decision maker whose decisions are contrary to the standard of care; therefore, surrogate decision making should be held to a high standard. Stewart Eskew and Christopher Meyers proposed a two-part rule for deciding which religiously based decisions to honor: (1) a secular reason condition and (2) a rationality condition. The second condition is based on a coherence theory of rationality, which they claim is accessible, generous, and culturally sensitive. In this article, I will propose strengthening the rationality condition by grounding it in a theory of intellectual virtue, which is both rigorous and culturally sensitive. Copyright 2014 The Journal of Clinical Ethics. All rights reserved.

  9. Ozone Observations using Ozonesonde over the Himalaya from Pokhara, Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhungel, S.; Cullis, P.; Johnson, B.; Thompson, A. M.; Witte, J. C.; Panday, A. K.

    2016-12-01

    In recent years, transport of emissions from the Indo-Gangetic Plains (IGP), which covers parts of Pakistan, Nepal, India, Bangladesh has increased. Ozone pre-cursors like methane, nitrogen oxides, volatile organic carbons, and carbon monoxide from diesel based vehicular emission, biofuel and biomass burning, agricultural activities dominate the total emissions from the IGP. Synoptic circulation patterns along with local weather systems transport pollutants from the IGP up the Himalayan valleys to the Tibetan plateau. After being emitted, these pollutants are photochemically converted into tropospheric ozone - a short-lived climate pollutant that can increase atmospheric warming, alter processes of cloud formation, and in turn, influence precipitation levels and reduce carbon absorptivity in plants leading to decline in crop yields. However, little is known about vertical profiles of ozone concentration on the southern slopes of the Himalaya. Vertical ozone profiles were sampled from December 18th, 2015 to January 8th, 2016 from Pokhara (28.23°N, 83.99°E, 827m asl), Nepal using ozonesondes. Pokhara is located about 30km south of the Annapurna Himalaya, thus providing an ideal location to profile vertical ozone concentration south of the Himalaya. We launched one, two or four ozonesondes per day to examine the vertical resolution of ozone south of the Himalaya for the first time, and to understand the contribution of tropospheric and stratospheric sources. Here we present results from the 37 ozonesonde launches from Pokhara to examine: (i) how emissions from the IGP contribute to the vertical resolution of ozone, and (ii) if Himalayan orography provides an efficient path for stratosphere-troposphere air mass exchange under dry conditions. Our results show no signals of stratospheric air mass exchange. The results indicate higher levels of ozone within the boundary layer and lower troposphere. These higher values in the lower troposphere during winter seasons may

  10. Geomorphological evidences of post-LGM glacial advancements in the Himalaya: A study from Chorabari Glacier, Garhwal Himalaya, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Manish Mehta; Zahid Majeed; D P Dobhal; Pradeep Srivastava

    2012-02-01

    Field geomorphology and remote sensing data, supported by Optical Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) dating from the Mandakini river valley of the Garhwal Himalaya enabled identification of four major glacial events; Rambara Glacial Stage (RGS) (13 ± 2 ka), Ghindurpani Glacial Stage (GhGS) (9 ± 1 ka), Garuriya Glacial Stage (GGS) (7 ± 1 ka) and Kedarnath Glacial Stage (KGS) (5 ± 1 ka). RGS was the most extensive glaciation extending for ∼6 km down the valley from the present day snout and lowered to an altitude of 2800 m asl at Rambara covering around ∼31 km2 area of the Mandakini river valley. Compared to this, the other three glaciations (viz., GhGS, GGS and KGS) were of lower magnitudes terminating around ∼3000, ∼3300 and ∼3500 m asl, respectively. It was also observed that the mean equilibrium line altitude (ELA) during RGS was lowered to 4747 m asl compared to the present level of 5120 m asl. This implies an ELA depression of ∼373 m during the RGS which would correspond to a lowering of ∼2°C summer temperature during the RGS. The results are comparable to that of the adjacent western and central Himalaya implying a common forcing factor that we attribute to the insolation-driven monsoon precipitation in the western and central Himalaya.

  11. The Surrogate Method: Past, Present and Future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lesher, S R; Bernstein, L A; Burke, J T; Lyles, B F; Clark, R M; Fallon, P; Phair, L

    2008-01-09

    The STARS/LiBerACE collaboration has been exploring the surrogate technique with success in the actinide region. This method uses a direct reaction to measure the decay probability of the same compound nucleus produced via a neutron-induced channel. This paper serves as an overview of these activities. Using the STARS array at 88-inch Cyclotron at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory we have explored the following surrogate reactions: {sup 234}U({alpha}, {alpha}{prime}f), {sup 235}U({sup 3}He, {alpha}f), {sup 236}U({alpha}, {alpha}{prime}f), {sup 238}U ({alpha},{alpha}{prime}f), {sup 238}U({sup 3}He,{alpha}f), {sup 238}U({sup 3}He, tf) surrogates for {sup 233}U(n,f), {sup 233}U(n,f), {sup 235}U(n,f), {sup 237}U(n,f), {sup 236}U(n,f), and {sup 237}Np(n,f), respectively.

  12. [Biomedical Perspective of the Surrogate Motherhood].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jouve de la Barreda, Nicolás

    2017-01-01

    The subrogated motherhood takes place when an embryo created by in vitro fertilization (IVF) technology is implanted in a surrogate, sometimes called a gestational mother, by means a contract with her. It can imply to natural families (woman and man) with or without infertility problems, or to monoparental or biparental families of the same sex. Concerning the origin of the gametes used in the IVF emerges different implications on the genetic relationship of the resulting child with the surrogate and the future parents. The subrogated motherhood was initially considered an option to solve infertility problems. Nevertheless this practice has become a possible and attractive option as a source of economic resources for poor women. The cases of benefit of a pregnancy without mediating a contract are exceptional and they are not properly cases of ″subrogated maternity″ but of ″altruistic maternity″ and must be considered as heterologous in vitro fertilization. In this article are analyzed the medical, genetic and bioethics aspects of this new derivation of the fertilization in vitro. As points of special attention are considered the following questions: Is it the surrogate motherhood used preferably to solve infertility problems? Is not this actually a new form of exploitation of the woman? Does not suppose an attack to the natural family? Does not suppose in addition an attack to the dignity of the human being?

  13. The Himalayas as a directional barrier to gene flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayden, Tenzin; Cadenas, Alicia M; Regueiro, Maria; Singh, Nanda B; Zhivotovsky, Lev A; Underhill, Peter A; Cavalli-Sforza, Luigi L; Herrera, Rene J

    2007-05-01

    High-resolution Y-chromosome haplogroup analyses coupled with Y-short tandem repeat (STR) haplotypes were used to (1) investigate the genetic affinities of three populations from Nepal--including Newar, Tamang, and people from cosmopolitan Kathmandu (referred to as "Kathmandu" subsequently)--as well as a collection from Tibet and (2) evaluate whether the Himalayan mountain range represents a geographic barrier for gene flow between the Tibetan plateau and the South Asian subcontinent. The results suggest that the Tibetans and Nepalese are in part descendants of Tibeto-Burman-speaking groups originating from Northeast Asia. All four populations are represented predominantly by haplogroup O3a5-M134-derived chromosomes, whose Y-STR-based age (+/-SE) was estimated at 8.1+/-2.9 thousand years ago (KYA), more recent than its Southeast Asian counterpart. The most pronounced difference between the two regions is reflected in the opposing high-frequency distributions of haplogroups D in Tibet and R in Nepal. With the exception of Tamang, both Newar and Kathmandu exhibit considerable similarities to the Indian Y-haplogroup distribution, particularly in their haplogroup R and H composition. These results indicate gene flow from the Indian subcontinent and, in the case of haplogroup R, from Eurasia as well, a conclusion that is also supported by the admixture analysis. In contrast, whereas haplogroup D is completely absent in Nepal, it accounts for 50.6% of the Tibetan Y-chromosome gene pool. Coalescent analyses suggest that the expansion of haplogroup D derivatives--namely, D1-M15 and D3-P47 in Tibet--involved two different demographic events (5.1+/-1.8 and 11.3+/-3.7 KYA, respectively) that are more recent than those of D2-M55 representatives common in Japan. Low frequencies, relative to Nepal, of haplogroup J and R lineages in Tibet are also consistent with restricted gene flow from the subcontinent. Yet the presence of haplogroup O3a5-M134 representatives in Nepal

  14. Estimation of source parameters and scaling relations for moderate size earthquakes in North-West Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vikas; Kumar, Dinesh; Chopra, Sumer

    2016-10-01

    The scaling relation and self similarity of earthquake process have been investigated by estimating the source parameters of 34 moderate size earthquakes (mb 3.4-5.8) occurred in the NW Himalaya. The spectral analysis of body waves of 217 accelerograms recorded at 48 sites have been carried out using in the present analysis. The Brune's ω-2 model has been adopted for this purpose. The average ratio of the P-wave corner frequency, fc(P), to the S-wave corner frequency, fc(S), has been found to be 1.39 with fc(P) > fc(S) for 90% of the events analyzed here. This implies the shift in the corner frequency in agreement with many other similar studies done for different regions. The static stress drop values for all the events analyzed here lie in the range 10-100 bars average stress drop value of the order of 43 ± 19 bars for the region. This suggests the likely estimate of the dynamic stress drop, which is 2-3 times the static stress drop, is in the range of about 80-120 bars. This suggests the relatively high seismic hazard in the NW Himalaya as high frequency strong ground motions are governed by the stress drop. The estimated values of stress drop do not show significant variation with seismic moment for the range 5 × 1014-2 × 1017 N m. This observation along with the cube root scaling of corner frequencies suggests the self similarity of the moderate size earthquakes in the region. The scaling relation between seismic moment and corner frequency Mo fc3 = 3.47 ×1016Nm /s3 estimated in the present study can be utilized to estimate the source dimension given the seismic moment of the earthquake for the hazard assessment. The present study puts the constrains on the important parameters stress drop and source dimension required for the synthesis of strong ground motion from the future expected earthquakes in the region. Therefore, the present study is useful for the seismic hazard and risk related studies for NW Himalaya.

  15. Surrogate formulations for thermal treatment of low-level mixed waste. Part 1: Radiological surrogates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stockdale, J.A.D.; Bostick, W.D.; Hoffmann, D.P. [Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Lee, H.T. [Oak Ridge Associated Universities, TN (United States)

    1994-01-01

    The evaluation and comparison of proposed thermal treatment systems for mixed wastes can be expedited by tests in which the radioactive components of the wastes are replaced by surrogate materials chosen to mimic, as far as is possible, the chemical and physical properties of the radioactive materials of concern. In this work, sponsored by the Mixed Waste Integrated Project of the US Department of Energy, the authors have examined reported experience with such surrogates and suggest a simplified standard list of materials for use in tests of thermal treatment systems. The chief radioactive nuclides of concern in the treatment of mixed wastes are {sup 239}Pu, {sup 238}U, {sup 235}U, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 103}Ru, {sup 99}Tc, and {sup 90}Sr. These nuclides are largely by-products of uranium enrichment, reactor fuel reprocessing, and weapons program activities. Cs, Ru, and Sr all have stable isotopes that can be used as perfect surrogates for the radioactive forms. Technetium exists only in radioactive form, as do plutonium and uranium. If one wishes to preclude radioactive contamination of the thermal treatment system under trial burn, surrogate elements must be chosen for these three. For technetium, the authors suggest the use of natural ruthenium, and for both plutonium and uranium, they recommend cerium. The seven radionuclides listed can therefore be simulated by a surrogate package containing stable isotopes of ruthenium, strontium, cesium, and cerium.

  16. Limit of strain partitioning in the Himalaya marked by large earthquakes in western Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, M. A.; Taylor, M. H.; Gosse, J.; Silver, C. R. P.; Whipp, D. M.; Beaumont, C.

    2014-01-01

    Great earthquakes and high seismic risk in the Himalaya are thought to be focussed near the range front, where the Indian Plate slides beneath the mountain range. However, the Himalaya is curved and plate convergence becomes increasingly oblique westwards. Strain in the western Himalaya is hypothesized to be partitioned, such that western parts move northwestwards with respect to the central Himalaya. Here we use field data to identify a 63-km-long earthquake rupture on a previously unrecognized fault in the western Himalaya, far from the range front. We use radiocarbon dating to show that one or more earthquakes created 10m of surface displacement on the fault between AD 1165 and 1400. During this time interval, large range-front earthquakes also occurred. We suggest that the active fault we identified is part of a larger fault system, the Western Nepal Fault System, which cuts obliquely across the Himalaya. We combine our observations with a geodynamical model to show that the Western Nepal Fault System marks the termination of the strain-partitioned region of the western Himalaya and comprises a first-order structure in the three-dimensional displacement field of the mountain range. Our findings also identify a potential seismic hazard within the interior of the Himalaya that may necessitate significant changes to seismic hazard assessments.

  17. Surrogate POD models for building forming limit diagrams of parameterized sheet metal forming applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdaoui, M.; Le Quilliec, Guénhaël; Breitkopf, Piotr; Villon, Pierre

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this work is to present a surrogate POD (Proper Orthogonal Decomposition) approach for building forming limit diagrams at minimum cost for parameterized sheet metal formed work-pieces. First, a Latin Hypercube Sampling is performed on the design parameter space. Then, at each design site, displacement fields are computed using the popular open-source finite element software Code_Aster. Then, the method of snapshots is used for POD mode determination. POD coefficients are interpolated using kriging. Furthermore, an error analysis of the surrogate POD model is performed on a validation set. It is shown that on the considered use case the accuracy of the surrogate POD model is excellent for the representation of finite element displacement fields. The validated surrogate POD model is then used to build forming limit diagrams (FLD) for any design parameter to assess the quality of stamped metal sheets. Using the surrogate POD model, the Green-Lagrange strain tensor is derived, then major and minor principal deformations are determined at Gauss points for each mesh element. Furthermore, a signed distance between the forming limit curve in rupture and the obtained cloud of points in the plane (ɛ2, ɛ1) is computed to assess the quality of the formed workpiece. The minimization of this signed distance allows determining the safest design for the chosen use case.

  18. Stochastic structural optimization using particle swarm optimization, surrogate models and Bayesian statistics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jongbin Im; Jungsun Park

    2013-01-01

    This paper focuses on a method to solve structural optimization problems using particle swarm optimization (PSO),surrogate models and Bayesian statistics.PSO is a random/stochastic search algorithm designed to find the global optimum.However,PSO needs many evaluations compared to gradient-based optimization.This means PSO increases the analysis costs of structural optimization.One of the methods to reduce computing costs in stochastic optimization is to use approximation techniques.In this work,surrogate models are used,including the response surface method (RSM) and Kriging.When surrogate models are used,there are some errors between exact values and approximated values.These errors decrease the reliability of the optimum values and discard the realistic approximation of using surrogate models.In this paper,Bayesian statistics is used to obtain more reliable results.To verify and confirm the efficiency of the proposed method using surrogate models and Bayesian statistics for stochastic structural optimization,two numerical examples are optimized,and the optimization of a hub sleeve is demonstrated as a practical problem.

  19. 喜马拉雅地区纳木那尼的化学离子特征%Glaciochemical records from Naimona'Nyi ice core in the Himalayas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘勇勤; 姚檀栋; 田立德

    2006-01-01

    A 6-m ice core was recovered in 2004 from the Naimona'Nyi Glacier, the middle Himalayas. Empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis on the major ion reveals that EOF1 represents the variations of majority of ions which may be originated from crustal aerosols. Comparing the calcium concentrations from the Naimona'Nyi with these from Dasuopu, East Rongbuk and Guliya ice cores, it is observed that calcium, a good indicator of the input of crustal aerosol in snow, concentrates mostly in the Guliya ice core located on the northern Tibetan Plateau, and gradually decreases from west to east in the Himalayas.

  20. Multimission Fuel-Burn Minimization in Aircraft Design: A Surrogate-Modeling Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liem, Rhea Patricia

    Aerodynamic shape and aerostructural design optimizations that maximize the performance at a single flight condition result in designs with unacceptable off-design performance. While considering multiple flight conditions in the optimization improves the robustness of the designs, there is a need to develop a rational strategy for choosing the flight conditions and their relative emphases such that multipoint optimizations reflect the true objective function. In addition, there is a need to consider uncertain missions and flight conditions. In this thesis, the strategies to formulate the multipoint objective functions for aerodynamic shape and aerostructural optimization are presented. To determine the flight conditions and their corresponding weights, a novel surrogate-based mission analysis is developed to efficiently analyze hundreds of actual mission data to emulate their flight condition distribution. Using accurate and reliable surrogate models to approximate the aerodynamic coefficients used in the analysis makes this procedure computationally tractable. A mixture of experts (ME) approach is developed to overcome the limitations of conventional surrogate models in modeling the complex transonic drag profile. The ME approach combines multiple surrogate models probabilistically based on the divide-andconquer strategy. Using this model in the mission analysis significantly improves the range estimation accuracy, as compared to other conventional surrogate models. As expected, the multipoint aerodynamic shape and aerostructural optimizations demonstrate a consistent drag reduction, instead of the localized improvement by the single-point optimizations. The improved robustness in the multipoint optimized designs was also observed in terms of the improved range performance and more consistent fuel-burn reduction across the different missions. The results presented in this thesis show that the surrogate-model-assisted multipoint optimization produces a robust

  1. Five years of ozonesoundings from the central Himalayas: role of dynamical processes and biomass burning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naja, Manish; Bhardhwaj, Piyush; Lal, Shyam; Venkataramani, Sethuram; Kumar, Rajesh

    2016-04-01

    Higher water vapour, intense solar radiation and increasing levels of trace species over the tropical Asia are making this region more complex for understanding the physical, dynamical and chemical process over here. One of the most populated regions (The Indo-Gangetic Plain, IGP) of the world and a variety of anthropogenic and biogenic emission sources are also housing in the foothill of one of the pristine region, i.e. Himalaya. Uplifting and transport of polluted air-masses to the higher heights is a major concern in the South Asia. However, observations of vertical distribution of ozone, and other trace gases including water vapour, aerosols and meteorological parameters are very limited in South Asia. In view of this, an observational facility was setup at ARIES, Nainital (29.4N, 79.5E; 1950 m) in the central Himalayas. Regular, once in a week, balloon borne measurements of ozone, RH, temperature and GPS winds are being made since January 2011. Surface observations of different trace gases (Ozone, CO, NO, NOy, light NMHCs, SO2, CO2 and other GHGs) and aerosols are also being made at this site. Here, we present five years of ozonesoundings observations. A strong seasonal cycle in the lower tropospheric ozone with highest values during spring (~ 100 ppbv) and lowest during summer-monsoon (20-40 ppbv) is discerned. Elevated ozone levels (~120 ppbv) were observed in the middle-upper troposphere along with very high wind speed (~50 m/s) which indicates the role of dynamics in bringing ozone rich air from higher altitude. The signatures of ozone downward transport have also been noticed in TES water vapour and PV. In contrast, such influence is seen to be weaker in the eastern part of the Himalayas. A very clear enhancement (20-30 ppbv) in the lower tropospheric ozone is seen that is induced by the biomass burning. Further analysis of these observations with the help of air trajectories and satellite data will be presented.

  2. A Survey of Obstetric Healthcare Utilization in the Rural Western Indian Himalayas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prochaska, Erica C; Uniyal, V P; Lanham, Michael; Heisler, Michele; Quasin, Shazia; Bisht, Monika

    2016-12-01

    Objectives To determine the socio-economic factors affecting access to antepartum, intrapartum, and postpartum healthcare in the rural Western Indian Himalayas over the past 20 years. Methods Face-to-face surveys were conducted with 197 women in Chamoli District, Uttarakhand from October 2011 to May 2012. Participants who gave birth within the past 20 years were included in the final analysis (n = 158). Stratified odds ratios and analysis of variance were calculated. Results Among women who delivered in the prior 7 years, there was a nine-fold increase (95 % CI 4-20.8) in institutionalized births compared to women who delivered 8-20 years before the study. Among women who delivered 7 years prior to the study, low income increased the risk of home delivery (OR 3.07, 95 % CI 1.15-8.54). Low caste (OR 2.79, 95 % CI 1.04-7.72) and low level of education (OR 3.93 95 % CI 1.41-11.81) decreased the use of antepartum medications (vitamins and vaccines). Remote location among all participants was a risk factor for not seeking care for obstetric morbidities (OR 0.44 95 % CI 0.2-0.95). Conclusions The incidence of institutionalized delivery has increased over the past decade in rural Uttarakhand. Income, caste, education, and remote location correlated with poor access to antepartum and intrapartum healthcare. These correlations have increased in statistical significance over the past 20 years, except for location. This indicates that the Western Himalayas face similar challenges to obstetric service utilization as the north Indian plains and that several of these inequalities in healthcare access have become more pronounced in recent years.

  3. Climatic and geologic controls on suspended sediment flux in the Sutlej River Valley, western Himalaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Wulf

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The sediment flux through Himalayan rivers directly impacts water quality and is important for sustaining agriculture as well as maintaining drinking-water and hydropower generation. Despite the recent increase in demand for these resources, little is known about the triggers and sources of extreme sediment flux events, which lower water quality and account for extensive hydropower reservoir filling and turbine abrasion. Here, we present a comprehensive analysis of the spatiotemporal trends in suspended sediment flux based on daily data during the past decade (2001–2009 from four sites along the Sutlej River and from four of its main tributaries. In conjunction with satellite data depicting rainfall and snow cover, air temperature and earthquake records, and field observations, we infer climatic and geologic controls of peak suspended sediment concentration (SSC events. Our study identifies three key findings: First, peak SSC events (≥ 99th SSC percentile coincide frequently (57–80% with heavy rainstorms and account for about 30% of the suspended sediment flux in the semi-arid to arid interior of the orogen. Second, we observe an increase of suspended sediment flux from the Tibetan Plateau to the Himalayan Front at mean annual timescales. This sediment-flux gradient suggests that averaged, modern erosion in the western Himalaya is most pronounced at frontal regions, which are characterized by high monsoonal rainfall and thick soil cover. Third, in seven of eight catchments, we find an anticlockwise hysteresis loop of annual sediment flux variations with respect to river discharge, which appears to be related to enhanced glacial sediment evacuation during late summer. Our analysis emphasizes the importance of unconsolidated sediments in the high-elevation sector that can easily be mobilized by hydrometeorological events and higher glacial-meltwater contributions. In future climate change scenarios, including continuous glacial retreat and

  4. Climatic Slow-down of the Pamir-Karakoram-Himalaya Glaciers Over the Last 25 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehecq, A.; Gourmelen, N.; Trouvé, E.

    2015-12-01

    Climate warming over the 20th century has caused drastic changes in mountain glaciers globally, and of the Himalayan glaciers in particular. The stakes are high; glaciers and ice caps are the largest contributor to the increase in the mass of the world's oceans, and the Himalayas play a key role in the hydrology of the region, impacting on the economy, food safety and flood risk. Partial monitoring of the Himalayan glaciers has revealed a contrasted picture; while many of the Himalayan glaciers are retreating, in some cases locally stable or advancing glaciers in this region have also been observed. Several studies based on field measurements or remote sensing have shown a dominant slow-down of mountain glaciers globally in response to these changes. But they are restricted to a few glaciers or small regions and none has analysed the dynamic response of glaciers to climate changes at regional scales. Here we present a region-wide analysis of annual glacier flow velocity covering the Pamir-Karakoram-Himalaya region obtained from the analysis of the entire archive of Landsat data. Over 90% of the ice-covered regions, as defined by the Randolph Glacier Inventory, are measured, with precision on the retrieved velocity of the order of 4 m/yr. The change in velocities over the last 25 years will be analysed with reference to regional glacier mass balance and topographic caracteristics. We show that the first order temporal evolution of glacier flow mirrors the pattern of glacier mass balance. We observe a general decrease of ice velocity in regions of known ice mass loss, and a more complex patterns consisting of mixed acceleration and decrease of ice velocity in regions that are known to be affected by stable mass balance and surge-like behavior.

  5. Recent Experimental Progress on Surrogate Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beausang, Cornelius

    2014-09-01

    Reactions on unstable nuclei are important in a wide variety of nuclear physics scenarios. Cross sections for neutron (or light charged particle) induced reactions on target nuclei spanning the chart of the nuclei are important for nuclear astrophysics (r-process, s-process rp- and p-processes etc.), for nuclear energy generation and for national security applications. Many such reactions occur on short-lived unstable nuclei. Even with the present generation of radioactive beam facilities, many such reactions are difficult, if not impossible, to measure directly. For these reactions, often the surrogate reaction technique provides the only option to provide some experimental guidance for the calculations. The experimental and theoretical techniques required are described in some detail in the recent review article by Escher et al.. Originally introduced in the 1970's the last decade has seen a resurgence of interest in the surrogate technique. Various ratio techniques, external, internal and hybrid, have been developed to minimize the effect of target contamination. In the actinide region, a large number of surrogate (n,f) cross sections have been measured. In general, these show agreement to within 5--10%, with directly measured (n,f) data where these data exist (benchmarking), for equivalent neutron energies ranging from ~100 keV up to tens of MeV. For (n, γ) reactions, measurements have been attempted for select nuclei in various mass regions (A ~ 90, 150 and 235) and for these the agreement with directly measured data is less good. The various experimental techniques employed will be described as well as the current state of the experimental data. Some future directions will be described. Reactions on unstable nuclei are important in a wide variety of nuclear physics scenarios. Cross sections for neutron (or light charged particle) induced reactions on target nuclei spanning the chart of the nuclei are important for nuclear astrophysics (r-process, s

  6. Impacts of Himalayas on black carbon over the Tibetan Plateau during summer monsoon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shuyu; Tie, Xuexi; Long, Xin; Cao, Junji

    2017-11-15

    The Tibetan Plateau (TP) plays important roles in global climate and environment. This study combines in-situ BC measurements in the Himalayas and the Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP) with a regional dynamical and chemical model (WRF-Chem model) to investigate the effect of the trans-Himalayas on black carbon (BC) from the IGP to the TP during Indian summer monsoon. To determine topographic effects of the trans-Himalayas on BC concentrations over the TP, sensitive experiments were conducted by applying the WRF-Chem model. The results showed that the reduction of the altitude of the Himalayas had an important effect on the trans-Himalayas transport of BC. There was an obvious increase in BC concentration over the trans-Himalayas region, but no significant increase over the TP because the TP (a.m.s.l ~4km) always acted as a wall to prevent BC transport from the IGP to the TP. The trans-Himalayas transport of BC was strongly dependent upon meteorological conditions over the IGP. During summer monsoon, there were three types of cyclones at different locations and one kind of convergent circulation in the IGP. Under the condition of convergent airflows, a strong northeastward wind produced the trans-Himalayas transport of BC. As a result, BC concentrations in the southeastern TP significantly increased to 0.6-0.8μgm(-3). When the cyclone located in the eastern IGP, high BC concentrations over the IGP were transported along the foothill of the Himalayas, resulting in a significant reduction of the trans-Himalayas transport. When the cyclone moved to the west, the dynamical perturbations for the trans-Himalayas transport were weaker than the eastern cyclone, and the trans-Himalayas transport were enhanced in the middle and eastern Himalayas. This study will be helpful to assess the impacts of BC particles emitted from South Asia on regional climate change and ecological environment over the TP in the future. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Modelling the Crust beneath the Kashmir valley in Northwestern Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mir, R. R.; Parvez, I. A.; Gaur, V. K.; A.; Chandra, R.; Romshoo, S. A.

    2015-12-01

    We investigate the crustal structure beneath five broadband seismic stations in the NW-SE trendingoval shaped Kashmir valley sandwiched between the Zanskar and the Pir Panjal ranges of thenorthwestern Himalaya. Three of these sites were located along the southwestern edge of the valley andthe other two adjoined the southeastern. Receiver Functions (RFs) at these sites were calculated usingthe iterative time domain deconvolution method and jointly inverted with surface wave dispersiondata to estimate the shear wave velocity structure beneath each station. To further test the results ofinversion, we applied forward modelling by dividing the crust beneath each station into 4-6homogeneous, isotropic layers. Moho depths were separately calculated at different piercing pointsfrom the inversion of only a few stacked receiver functions of high quality around each piercing point.These uncertainties were further reduced to ±2 km by trial forward modelling as Moho depths werevaried over a range of ±6 km in steps of 2 km and the synthetic receiver functions matched with theinverted ones. The final values were also found to be close to those independently estimated using theH-K stacks. The Moho depths on the eastern edge of the valley and at piercing points in itssouthwestern half are close to 55 km, but increase to about 58 km on the eastern edge, suggesting thathere, as in the central and Nepal Himalaya, the Indian plate dips northeastwards beneath the Himalaya.We also calculated the Vp/Vs ratio beneath these 5 stations which were found to lie between 1.7 and1.76, yielding a Poisson's ratio of ~0.25 which is characteristic of a felsic composition.

  8. Surrogate Markers of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanhainen, Anders; Mani, Kevin; Golledge, Jonathan

    2016-02-01

    The natural course of many abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) is to gradually expand and eventually rupture and monitoring the disease progression is essential to their management. In this publication, we review surrogate markers of AAA progression. AAA diameter remains the most widely used and important marker of AAA growth. Standardized reporting of reproducible methods of measuring AAA diameter is essential. Newer imaging assessments, such as volume measurements, biomechanical analyses, and functional and molecular imaging, as well as circulating biomarkers, have potential to add important information about AAA progression. Currently, however, there is insufficient evidence to recommend their routine use in clinical practice.

  9. Designing a Surrogate Fuel for Gas-to-Liquid Derived Diesel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choudhury, H. A.; Intikhab, S.; Kalakul, Sawitree

    2017-01-01

    loads, diesel fuel surpasses the total hydrocarbon (THC) emissions for both the surrogate and the GTL fuel. No significant variation in CO and CO2 emissions for MI-5, GTL diesel and conventional diesel is observed. Analysis of combustion as well as emission behavior of the fuels helps to understand...

  10. Eocene Tibetan Plateau remnants preserved in the Northwest Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Beek, P. A.; van Melle, J.; Guillot, S.; Pêcher, A.; Reiners, P. W.; Nicolescu, S.; Latif, M.

    2009-04-01

    The northwest Himalaya shows strongly contrasting relief, opposing deeply incised mountain ranges characterized by extremely rapid exhumation and some of the highest peaks in the world (i.e., the Karakorum range and Nanga Parbat massif) to high-elevation, low-relief areas such as the 4000-m high Deosai plateau in northern Pakistan and the 5000-m high Tso Morari in Indian Ladakh. The origin and evolution of such plateau regions in the syntaxis of the most active continental collision in the world remain elusive. Here, we report the first low-temperature thermochronology (apatite fission-track, apatite and zircon (U-Th)/He) data from the Deosai plateau and use thermal history modelling to show that it has undergone continuous slow (≤ 200 m/Myr) denudation and has thus remained tectonically stable for the last 35 Myr at least. The inferred history of constant slow denudation of the plateau contradicts the hypothesis that widespread low-relief surfaces in the northwest Himalaya result from efficient, km-scale glacial erosion during Quaternary times; such erosion would have been recorded as a phase of rapid recent denudation that is not observed in the data. Slow continuous denudation since Eocene times, i.e. only 15-20 Myr after the onset of India-Asia collision implies that the Deosai plateau surface developed early in the Himalayan history and limits the phase of orogenic relief growth in the Ladakh-Kohistan arc to the early Paleogene. Although thermochronology data do not directly record surface uplift, the simplest explanation for the inferred constant denudation rates is that the plateau had reached its present-day elevation already during the Eocene, as a later phase of surface uplift would have triggered an erosional response that would have been recorded by the thermochronology data. We use morphological analyses to characterise such plateaux and identify them at the scale of the entire northwest Himalaya and compare our thermochronological data with

  11. The Large-Bodied hominoids of the Himalayas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Trachtengerts

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The review of available data concerning to large-bodied hominoids detected in the Himalayas is presented. They are mainly footprints (photographs by E.Shipton and M.Ward, P.Bordet, F.Smythe, and A.Woodridge and also narration of one remote observation. It is shown that on the whole these data reveal basic features of the undefined creature, most probably humanlike primate, and allow describing it as a separate species. One of its features is unusual four-toed foot with two strong toes and two small toes. A taxonomic name for this hominoid is proposed ¾ Homo pardigitatus sp. nov. ("That has paired toes".

  12. Cross sections for neutron capture from surrogate measurements: An examination of Weisskopf-Ewing and ratio approximations

    CERN Document Server

    Escher, Jutta E

    2010-01-01

    Motivated by the renewed interest in the surrogate nuclear reactions approach, an indirect method for determining compound-nuclear reaction cross sections, the prospects for determining (n, gamma) cross sections for deformed rare-earth and actinide nuclei are investigated. A nuclear-reaction model is employed to simulate physical quantities that are typically measured in surrogate experiments and used to assess the validity of the Weisskopf-Ewing and ratio approximations, which are typically employed in the analysis of surrogate reactions. The expected accuracy of (n,gamma) cross sections extracted from typical surrogate measurements is discussed and limitations of the approximate methods are illustrated. Suggestions for moving beyond presently-employed approximations are made.

  13. Glacier Fluctuations in the Western Himalaya: Multi-temporal Assessment Using Multi-sensor Satellite Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, M. P.; Shroder, J. F.

    2004-12-01

    Alpine glaciers are retreating and downwasting in many mountain environments. Systematic and quantitative assessments are sorely needed, as regional mass-balance trends are not known, and many glaciers may disappear before we can study them and assess glacier sensitivity to climate forcing. This urgency dictates remote sensing and GIS-based studies to provide baseline information and estimates of mass balance. In the Western Himalaya there is a paucity of quantitative information on glacier fluctuations and meltwater contributions to rising sea level. As part of the Global Land Ice Measurements from Space (GLIMS) project, we conducted several glacier change-detection studies to assess ice fluctuations on selected glaciers. We compared SPOT imagery from the 1990's to ASTER satellite imagery from the 2000-2004 time period. Ground photography and satellite image analysis using artificial neural networks were used to compare glacier characteristics. Results indicate that some glaciers have retreated, while others exhibit very similar terminus positions to past positions, but have downwasted. Glacier retreat and downwasting have resulted in the disconnection of tributary glaciers to valley glaciers in the Hindu Kush and Nanga Parbat Himalaya. In addition, there are increases in meltwater production on some glaciers, as revealed by surging and variation in the frequency and size of supraglacial lakes. These results identify increased hazard potential in many areas, and suggest negative mass balance for some glaciers. Quantitative results from remote sensing studies, however, should be carefully interpreted, as climate, glacier, lithosphere interactions that dictate glacier fluctuations are not adequately accounted for in image-based analyses of supraglacial conditions. The integration of quantitative remote sensing/GIS information into numerical ice flow/mass balance models is required to obtain better estimates of mass balance and glacier sensitivity to climate forcing.

  14. Regeneration complexities of Pinus gerardiana in dry temperate forests of Indian Himalaya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Raj; Shamet, G S; Mehta, Harsh; Alam, N M; Kaushal, Rajesh; Chaturvedi, O P; Sharma, Navneet; Khaki, B A; Gupta, Dinesh

    2016-04-01

    Pinus gerardiana is considered an important species in dry temperate forests of North-Western Indian Himalaya because of its influence on ecological processes and economic dependence of local people in the region. But, large numbers of biotic and abiotic factors have affected P. gerardiana in these forests; hence, there is a crucial need to understand the regeneration dynamics of this tree species. The present investigation was conducted in P. gerardiana forests to understand vegetation pattern and regeneration processes on different sites in the region. Statistical analysis was performed to know variability in growing stock and regeneration on sample plots, while correlation coefficients and regression models were developed to find the relationship between regeneration and site factors. The vegetation study showed dominance of P. gerardiana, which is followed by Cedrus deodara, Pinus wallichiana and Quercus ilex in the region. The growing stock of P. gerardiana showed steep increasing and then steadily declining trend from lower to higher diameter class. The distribution of seedling, sapling, pole and trees was not uniform at different sites and less number of plots in each site were observed to have effective conditions for continuous regeneration, but mostly showed extremely limited regeneration. Regeneration success ranging from 8.44 to 15.93 % was recorded in different sites of the region, which suggests that in different sites regeneration success is influenced by collection of cone for extracting seed, grazing/browsing and physico-chemical properties of soil. Regeneration success showed significant correlation and relationship with most of abiotic and biotic factors. The regeneration success is lower than the requirement of sustainable forest, but varies widely among sites in dry temperate forests of Himalaya. More forest surveys are required to understand the conditions necessary for greater success of P. gerardiana in the region.

  15. Genetic variation and structure of the people of Uttarakhand, central Himalayas, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chahal, S M S; Singh, Parminder; Singh, Harjit; Bansal, Rupinder; Bansal, I J S

    2008-08-01

    The Indian Himalayas, being semi-isolated geographically, provide ideal conditions for population genetics investigations. The main aim of this study is to genetically characterize and analyze the genetic structure of the people of Uttarakhand, a newly created North Indian hill state in the Central Himalayas, using original phenotype and allele-frequency data on a battery of seven red cell enzyme polymorphisms. For this analysis, blood samples were collected from 3,222 unrelated subjects belonging to various endogamous caste populations (Brahmin, Rajput, and Shilpkar) and tribal Bhotia inhabiting seven different districts in the Garhwal (northern) and Kumaon (southern) regions of Uttarakhand. Hemolysates were typed for isozymes of ESD, PGM1, ADA, AK1, GLO1, ACP1, and GPI using standard electrophoretic techniques. The genetic structure of these regional caste and tribal population groups was investigated with the help of different statistical measures. The present biochemical marker results show that the overall genetic constitution of the different populations of Uttarakhand is rather heterogeneous but similar to that of various caste and tribal populations of the neighboring hill state of Himachal Pradesh, situated on Uttarakhand's western border. The extent of genic differentiation observed in different contemporary populations of Garhwal was twice as high as that of Kumaon. Interestingly, in genetic distance dendrograms of both the regions and of all of Uttarakhand, all the Shilpkar groups are differentiated from the remaining groups of Brahmin, Rajput, and Bhotia. The genetic constitution of the Shilpkar (a scheduled caste population of Uttarakhand) and to a lesser extent that of the Bhotia (a scheduled tribe population of Uttarakhand) are rather different from both the Brahmin and Rajput high-caste populations, which tend to show genetic similarities between them. These observations are corroborated by the known ethnohistory of different populations of

  16. Changing in glacier and snow cover of Karakorum and Western Himalaya and impacts on hydrologic regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yinsheng

    2015-04-01

    Glacierized river basins with insufficient summer precipitation (rain) but abundant in snow- and glacier-melt water, are highly suspected by reduction and seasonal alteration in the annual stream-flows owing to climate change. However, the glacio-hydrological observations and investigations to address the linkage between stream-flow fluctuations and glacier storage changes are still very weak, which also a consequent of controversies like 'Karakorum Anomaly' among the scientists concerning the behavior of glaciers in the changing climate. Therefore an investigation to determine the implications of climatic variability over the hydrological regimes of Karakorum and Western Himalayan basins is carried out by employing long term in-situ hydro-meteorological and as well as Remote sensing data. The study reveals that both the basins receives significant winter precipitation therefore the snow cover area reaches to 85% and 58% in Astore and Hunza basins respectively. The predominant contribution from snow and glacier melt to runoff was also estimated as 73% and 83% in Astore and Hunza basin respectively. Similarly, the observed persistent summer cooling and increased precipitation resulted in slightly positive glacier mass storage change of ~8.4-9.5mmyr-1 during the period of 1966-2010 in Hunza basin (Karakoram), whereas stability was observed in Astore basin's (Western Himalaya) glacier storage area at least since 1995. Although previous projections on the feedback of global climate change over glacierized basins suggested short-term increases followed by a sharp decrease in the stream-flows due to the persistent shrinkage of glacier cover area, however, our overall analysis revealed that phenomenon is yet to occurred in both the studied catchments from Karakoram and Western Himalaya, and the current behavior of climatic indicators seems to prolonged its occurrence at least for upcoming few decades particularly in these hydrological regimes.

  17. Forest structure, diversity and regeneration potential along altitudinal gradient in Dhanaulti of Garhwal Himalaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushil Saha

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study: The aim of the present study was to understatnd the forest composition, structure, diversity and regeneration potential along altitudinal gradient. Area of study: The study was carried out in Dhanaulti forest which falls under temperate region of Garhwal Himalaya in Uttarakhand state, India. Material and Methods: Vegetation analysis was carried out using 10 quadrats at each altitude using a quadrate size of 10×10 m2. In each quadrate, categories of trees >30 cm cbh were considered as trees, 10-30cm cbh as saplings and <10 cm cbh as seedlings. The data were quantitatively analyzed. Main results: In upper and middle altitudes, Cedrus deodara was reported dominant tree whereas, in lower altitude Quercus leucotrichophora was reported dominant. Tree density was highest in lower altitude which reduced middle and upper altitudes whereas, total basal cover increased with increasing altitude. The increasing total basal cover with altitude could be because of the presence of Cedrus deodara trees having higher girth classes. In tree, sapling and seedling layers, diversity (H and equitabiltiy (EC decreased with increasing altitude. However, concentrations of dominace (CD and beta diversity (BD have shown reverse trend with H and EC which increased with increasing altitudes, in each layer of tree, sapling and seedling. The distribution pattern of most species in all layers of trees, saplings and seedlings was contagious. The regeneration potential of the species has shown that some of the species in the absence of tree layer are still regenerating particularly, Rhododendron arboreum, Benthamidia capitata, Neolitsea pallens etc. It indicates that most of the species are shifting upward as they are getting suitable conditions. Research highlights: Altitude influence species composition, diversity and regeneration potential of species. Key words: Distribution pattern; tree diversity; regeneration; mountains; temperate; Himalaya.

  18. Transboundary Air Pollution over the Central Himalayas: Monitoring network and Preliminary Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qianggong; Kang, Shichang

    2016-04-01

    The Himalayas, stretching over 3000 kms along west-east, separates South Asia continent and the Tibetan Plateau with its extreme high altitudes. The South Asia is being increasingly recognized to be among the hotspots of air pollution, posing multi-effects on regional climate and environment. Recent monitoring and projection have indicated an accelerated decrease of glacier and increasing glacier runoff in the Himalayas, and a remarkable phenomenon has been recognized in the Himalayas that long-range transport atmospheric pollutants (e.g., black carbon and dust) deposited on glacier surface can promote glacier melt, and in turns, may liberate historical contaminant legacy in glaciers into downward ecosystems. To understand the air pollution variation and how they can infiltrate the Himalayas and beyond, we started to operate a coordinated atmospheric pollution monitoring network composing 11 sites with 5 in Nepal and 6 in Tibet since April 2013. Atmospheric total suspended particles ( TSP air mass trajectories suggested that the transboundary air pollution over the Himalayas is episodic and is likely concentrated in pre-monsoon seasons. Our results emphasis the potential transport and impact of air pollution from South Asia to Himalayas and further inland Tibetan Plateau. The monitoring network will be continuously operated to provide basis for defining the transboundary air pollution and their impact on the environments and ecosystems over the Himalayas and the Tibetan Plateau.

  19. Two-dimensional surrogate contact modeling for computationally efficient dynamic simulation of total knee replacements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yi-Chung; Haftka, Raphael T; Queipo, Nestor V; Fregly, Benjamin J

    2009-04-01

    Computational speed is a major limiting factor for performing design sensitivity and optimization studies of total knee replacements. Much of this limitation arises from extensive geometry calculations required by contact analyses. This study presents a novel surrogate contact modeling approach to address this limitation. The approach involves fitting contact forces from a computationally expensive contact model (e.g., a finite element model) as a function of the relative pose between the contacting bodies. Because contact forces are much more sensitive to displacements in some directions than others, standard surrogate sampling and modeling techniques do not work well, necessitating the development of special techniques for contact problems. We present a computational evaluation and practical application of the approach using dynamic wear simulation of a total knee replacement constrained to planar motion in a Stanmore machine. The sample points needed for surrogate model fitting were generated by an elastic foundation (EF) contact model. For the computational evaluation, we performed nine different dynamic wear simulations with both the surrogate contact model and the EF contact model. In all cases, the surrogate contact model accurately reproduced the contact force, motion, and wear volume results from the EF model, with computation time being reduced from 13 min to 13 s. For the practical application, we performed a series of Monte Carlo analyses to determine the sensitivity of predicted wear volume to Stanmore machine setup issues. Wear volume was highly sensitive to small variations in motion and load inputs, especially femoral flexion angle, but not to small variations in component placements. Computational speed was reduced from an estimated 230 h to 4 h per analysis. Surrogate contact modeling can significantly improve the computational speed of dynamic contact and wear simulations of total knee replacements and is appropriate for use in design sensitivity

  20. Priority wetland invertebrates as conservation surrogates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ormerod, S J; Durance, Isabelle; Terrier, Aurelie; Swanson, Alisa M

    2010-04-01

    Invertebrates are important functionally in most ecosystems, but seldom appraised as surrogate indicators of biological diversity. Priority species might be good candidates; thus, here we evaluated whether three freshwater invertebrates listed in the U.K. Biodiversity Action Plan indicated the richness, composition, and conservation importance of associated wetland organisms as defined respectively by their alpha diversity, beta diversity, and threat status. Sites occupied by each of the gastropods Segmentina nitida, Anisus vorticulus, and Valvata macrostoma had greater species richness of gastropods and greater conservation importance than other sites. Each also characterized species assemblages associated with significant variations between locations in alpha or beta diversity among other mollusks and aquatic macrophytes. Because of their distinct resource requirements, conserving the three priority species extended the range of wetland types under management for nature conservation by 18% and the associated gastropod niche-space by around 33%. Although nonpriority species indicated variations in richness, composition, and conservation importance among other organisms as effectively as priority species, none characterized such a wide range of high-quality wetland types. We conclude that priority invertebrates are no more effective than nonpriority species as indicators of alpha and beta diversity or conservation importance among associated organisms. Nevertheless, conserving priority species can extend the array of distinct environments that are protected for their specialized biodiversity and environmental quality. We suggest that this is a key role for priority species and conservation surrogates more generally, and, on our evidence, can best be delivered through multiple species with contrasting habitat requirements.

  1. Estimating Predictability Redundancy and Surrogate Data Method

    CERN Document Server

    Pecen, L

    1995-01-01

    A method for estimating theoretical predictability of time series is presented, based on information-theoretic functionals---redundancies and surrogate data technique. The redundancy, designed for a chosen model and a prediction horizon, evaluates amount of information between a model input (e.g., lagged versions of the series) and a model output (i.e., a series lagged by the prediction horizon from the model input) in number of bits. This value, however, is influenced by a method and precision of redundancy estimation and therefore it is a) normalized by maximum possible redundancy (given by the precision used), and b) compared to the redundancies obtained from two types of the surrogate data in order to obtain reliable classification of a series as either unpredictable or predictable. The type of predictability (linear or nonlinear) and its level can be further evaluated. The method is demonstrated using a numerically generated time series as well as high-frequency foreign exchange data and the theoretical ...

  2. Seismic cycle in the Nepal Himalaya inferred from instantaneous modelling across time scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dal Zilio, Luca; van Dinther, Ylona; Gerya, Taras

    2017-04-01

    The Himalayan mountain range has been the locus of some of the largest continental earthquakes, including the 2015 magnitude 7.8 Gorkha earthquake. This event ruptured a previously locked portion of the Main Himalayan Thrust (MHT) fault that has not slipped in a large event since 1833 (Mw 7.6). The earthquake sequence was well recorded by geodetic and seismic instruments, enhancing our understanding of earthquake physics and induced ground shaking. One of the main remaining questions—very relevant for the hundreds of millions of people living in the Ganges plains—is why did the Gorkha earthquake not rupture the frontal part of the MHT-fault? How likely is it to rupture in future earthquakes? And what does this tell us about its frictional properties? To explore these challenging questions we analyze the relation between interseismic periods and the kinematic rupture process of the MHT-fault in the Nepal Himalaya using a new 2D Instantaneous Seismo-Thermo-Mechanical (I-STM). This approach utilizes a visco-elasto-plastic rheology with slip rate-dependent friction to simulate spontaneous rapid slip events throughout the orogen. By employing geodetic data, combined with a geological and geophysical analysis, we design a high-resolution model (200 m) of the present-day lithospheric structure and geometry of the MHT beneath the Kathmandu area. Results show how large earthquakes nucleate on the lower edge of the locked portion, grow and terminate on the MHT-fault in relation to the long-term interseismic period. In agreement with observed geodetic data, our numerical experiments suggest that interseismic convergence across the Himalaya is mostly accommodated by MHT—no relevant slip on smaller faults is required. Fault slip during coseismic MHT events causes up to 1-2 m of uplift in the Kathmandu basin and the surrounding Lesser Himalaya, whereas a large region of the higher Himalaya subside by about 1 m. After partial ruptures of the MHT we observe upward transfer

  3. Enhanced Surface Warming and Accelerated Snow Melt in the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau Induced by Absorbing Aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, William K.; Kim, Maeng-Ki; Kim, Kyu-Myong; Lee, Woo-Seop

    2010-01-01

    Numerical experiments with the NASA finite-volume general circulation model show that heating of the atmosphere by dust and black carbon can lead to widespread enhanced warming over the Tibetan Plateau (TP) and accelerated snow melt in the western TP and Himalayas. During the boreal spring, a thick aerosol layer, composed mainly of dust transported from adjacent deserts and black carbon from local emissions, builds up over the Indo-Gangetic Plain, against the foothills of the Himalaya and the TP. The aerosol layer, which extends from the surface to high elevation (approx.5 km), heats the mid-troposphere by absorbing solar radiation. The heating produces an atmospheric dynamical feedback the so-called elevated-heat-pump (EHP) effect, which increases moisture, cloudiness, and deep convection over northern India, as well as enhancing the rate of snow melt in the Himalayas and TP. The accelerated melting of snow is mostly confined to the western TP, first slowly in early April and then rapidly from early to mid-May. The snow cover remains reduced from mid-May through early June. The accelerated snow melt is accompanied by similar phases of enhanced warming of the atmosphere-land system of the TP, with the atmospheric warming leading the surface warming by several days. Surface energy balance analysis shows that the short-wave and long-wave surface radiative fluxes strongly offset each other, and are largely regulated by the changes in cloudiness and moisture over the TP. The slow melting phase in April is initiated by an effective transfer of sensible heat from a warmer atmosphere to land. The rapid melting phase in May is due to an evaporation-snow-land feedback coupled to an increase in atmospheric moisture over the TP induced by the EHP effect.

  4. DNA barcoding of Rhododendron (Ericaceae), the largest Chinese plant genus in biodiversity hotspots of the Himalaya-Hengduan Mountains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Li-Jun; Liu, Jie; Möller, Michael; Zhang, Lin; Zhang, Xue-Mei; Li, De-Zhu; Gao, Lian-Ming

    2015-07-01

    The Himalaya-Hengduan Mountains encompass two global biodiversity hotspots with high levels of biodiversity and endemism. This area is one of the diversification centres of the genus Rhododendron, which is recognized as one of the most taxonomically challenging plant taxa due to recent adaptive radiations and rampant hybridization. In this study, four DNA barcodes were evaluated on 531 samples representing 173 species of seven sections of four subgenera in Rhododendron, with a high sampling density from the Himalaya-Hengduan Mountains employing three analytical methods. The varied approaches (nj, pwg and blast) had different species identification powers with blast performing best. With the pwg analysis, the discrimination rates for single barcodes varied from 12.21% to 25.19% with ITS barcodes showed the highest discrimination ability (both 41.98%) among all possible combinations. As a single barcode, psbA-trnH performed best with a relatively high performance (25.19%). Overall, the three-marker combination of ITS + psbA-trnH + matK was found to be the best DNA barcode for identifying Rhododendron species. The relatively low discriminative efficiency of DNA barcoding in this genus (~42%) may possibly be attributable to too low sequence divergences as a result of a long generation time of Rhododendron and complex speciation patterns involving recent radiations and hybridizations. Taking the morphology, distribution range and habitat of the species into account, DNA barcoding provided additional information for species identification and delivered a preliminary assessment of biodiversity for the large genus Rhododendron in the biodiversity hotspots of the Himalaya-Hengduan Mountains.

  5. Soil-gas radon as seismotectonic indicator in Garhwal Himalaya

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramola, R.C. [Department of Physics, H. N. B. Garhwal University, Badshahi Thaul Campus, Tehri Garhwal-249199 (India)], E-mail: rcramola@gmail.com; Prasad, Yogesh; Prasad, Ganesh [Department of Physics, H. N. B. Garhwal University, Badshahi Thaul Campus, Tehri Garhwal-249199 (India); Kumar, Sushil; Choubey, V.M. [Wadia Institute of Himalayan Geology, Dehradun-248001 (India)

    2008-10-15

    Research on earthquake-related radon monitoring has received enormous attention recently. Anomalous behaviour of radon in soil and groundwater can be used as a reliable precursor for an impending earthquake. While earthquake prediction may not yet be possible, earthquake prediction research has greatly increased our understanding of earthquake source mechanisms, the structural complexities of fault zones, and the earthquake recurrence interval, expected at a given location. This paper presents some results of continuous monitoring of radon in soil-gas in Garhwal Himalaya, India. Daily soil-gas radon monitoring with seismic activity and meteorological parameters were performed in the same laboratory system, located at H.N.B. Garhwal University Campus, Tehri Garhwal, India. Radon anomalies along with meteorological parameters were found to be statistically significant for the seismic events within the magnitudes M2.0-M6.0 and epicentral distances of 16-250 km from the monitoring station. The frequent positive and negative anomalies with constant environmental perturbation indicate the opening and closing of micro cracks within the volume of dilatancy by strain energy. The spike-like and sharp peak anomalies were recorded before, during and after earthquakes occurred in the area. The variations in radon concentrations in soil-gas are found to be correlated with seismic activities in the Garhwal Himalaya. The correlation between radon level and meteorological parameters is also discussed.

  6. Soil-gas radon as seismotectonic indicator in Garhwal Himalaya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramola, R C; Prasad, Yogesh; Prasad, Ganesh; Kumar, Sushil; Choubey, V M

    2008-10-01

    Research on earthquake-related radon monitoring has received enormous attention recently. Anomalous behaviour of radon in soil and groundwater can be used as a reliable precursor for an impending earthquake. While earthquake prediction may not yet be possible, earthquake prediction research has greatly increased our understanding of earthquake source mechanisms, the structural complexities of fault zones, and the earthquake recurrence interval, expected at a given location. This paper presents some results of continuous monitoring of radon in soil-gas in Garhwal Himalaya, India. Daily soil-gas radon monitoring with seismic activity and meteorological parameters were performed in the same laboratory system, located at H.N.B. Garhwal University Campus, Tehri Garhwal, India. Radon anomalies along with meteorological parameters were found to be statistically significant for the seismic events within the magnitudes M2.0-M6.0 and epicentral distances of 16-250 km from the monitoring station. The frequent positive and negative anomalies with constant environmental perturbation indicate the opening and closing of micro cracks within the volume of dilatancy by strain energy. The spike-like and sharp peak anomalies were recorded before, during and after earthquakes occurred in the area. The variations in radon concentrations in soil-gas are found to be correlated with seismic activities in the Garhwal Himalaya. The correlation between radon level and meteorological parameters is also discussed.

  7. 25 April 2015 Gorkha Earthquake in Nepal Himalaya (Part 2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, N. Purnachandra; Burgmann, Roland; Mugnier, Jean-Louis; Gahalaut, Vineet; Pandey, Anand

    2017-06-01

    The response from the geosciences community working on Himalaya in general, and the 2015 Nepal earthquakes in specific, was overwhelming, and after a rigorous review process, thirteen papers were selected and published in Part-1. We are still left with a few good papers which are being brought out as Part-2 of the special issue. In the opening article Jean-Louis Mugnier and colleagues attempt to provide a structural geological perspective of the 25 April 2015 Gorkha earthquake and highlight the role of segmentation in generating the Himalayan mega-thrusts. They could infer segmentation by stable barriers in the HT that define barrier-type earthquake families. In yet another interesting piece of work, Pandey and colleagues map the crustal structure across the earthquake volume using Receiver function approach and infer a 5-km thick low velocity layer that connects to the MHT ramp. They are also able to correlate the rupture termination with the highest point of coseismic uplift. The last paper by Shen et al. highlights the usefulness of INSAR technique in mapping the coseismic slip distribution applied to the 25 April 2015 Gorkha earthquake. They infer low stress drop and corner frequency which coupled with hybrid modeling explain the low level of slip heterogeneity and frequency of ground motion. We compliment the journal of Asian Earth Sciences for bringing out the two volumes and do hope that these efforts have made a distinct impact on furthering our understanding of seismogenesis in Himalaya using the very latest data sets.

  8. Glacier Changes in the Bhutanese Himalaya - Present and Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupper, S.; Schaefer, J. M.; Burgener, L. K.; Maurer, J.; Smith, R.; Cook, E.; Putnam, A. E.; Krusic, P.; Tsering, K.; Koenig, L.

    2012-12-01

    Glacierized change in the Himalayas affects river-discharge, hydro-energy and agricultural production, and Glacial Lake Outburst Flood potential, but its quantification and extent of impacts remains highly uncertain. Here we present conservative, comprehensive and quantitative predictions for glacier area and meltwater flux changes in Bhutan, monsoonal Himalayas. In particular, we quantify the uncertainties associated with the glacier area and meltwater flux changes due to uncertainty in climate data, a critical problem for much of High Asia. Based on a suite of gridded climate data and a robust glacier melt model, our results show that glacier area and meltwater change projections can vary by an order of magnitude for different climate datasets. The most conservative results indicate that, even if climate were to remain at the present-day mean values (1980-2000), almost 10% of Bhutan's glacierized area would vanish and the meltwater flux would drop by as much as 30%. New mapping of glacierized area from 2000-2010 shows a significant change in glacierized area of 4-6%. Thus the conservative steady-state area changes predicted by the model are already being realized. Under the conservative scenario of an additional 1°C regional warming, glacier retreat is predicted to continue until about 25% of Bhutan's glacierized area will have disappeared and the annual meltwater flux, after an initial spike, would drop by as much as 65%.

  9. Ectomycorrhizal diversity associated with Cedrus deodara and Pinus wallichiana in the Kashmir Himalaya, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoo, Zahoor Ahmad; Reshi, Zafar A

    2014-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to document the ectomycorrhizal diversity associated with the Cedrus deodara and Pinus wallichiana in the Kashmir Himalaya, India. The extensive field surveys carried out in the Kashmir Himalaya at five study sites resulted in the collection and identification of 76 potential ectomycorrhizal fungal species associated with the Cedrus deodara and Pinus wallichiana. Maximum 32 number of species were found associated with Pinus wallichiana, 19 with Cedrus deodara and 25 species were found growing in association with both the conifers. The present study reveals that Cedrus deodara and Pinus wallichiana in the Kashmir Himalaya, India harbour diverse ectomycorrhizal fungal species.

  10. A Method of Surrogate Model Construction which Leverages Lower-Fidelity Information using Space Mapping Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-27

    errors found using the polynomial response surrogate (LS PRM ) overlaid on the data from the space-mapped (SM) surrogate...nonlinear space-mapped surrogate responses, with the least-squares PRM surrogate response plotted for comparison . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 42...Percent error comparison between the least-squares space-mapping and the PRM surrogate models derived from samples in the second dataset

  11. InSAR and GPS measurements of crustal deformation due to seasonal loading of Tehri reservoir in Garhwal Himalaya, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gahalaut, V. K.; Yadav, Rajeev K.; Sreejith, K. M.; Gahalaut, Kalpna; Bürgmann, Roland; Agrawal, Ritesh; Sati, S. P.; Kumar, Amit

    2017-01-01

    We report unique observations of crustal deformation caused by the seasonal water level changes of Tehri reservoir in the Garhwal region of NW Himalaya from GPS measurements and Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) analysis. All GPS sites along the Himalaya are strongly influenced by seasonal hydrological and atmospheric loading. However, the GPS site KUNR located near the reservoir additionally exhibits anomalous variations due to seasonal water loading and unloading by the reservoir. Our InSAR analysis confirms that the seasonal filling of the reservoir causes measurable subsidence in its neighbourhood. In addition to the elastic deformation caused by the seasonal reservoir loading and the negligible poroelastic deformation caused by associated fluid pressure changes, there is an unaccounted for biannual deformation in the east component of the GPS time series which we suspect to be caused by altered hydrological conditions due to the reservoir operations. Understanding crustal deformation processes due to such anthropogenic sources helps in separating deformation caused by tectonic, hydrological and atmospheric effects from that caused by these activities.

  12. Rock magnetic survey of Himalaya-Karakoram ranges, northern Pakistan; Pakistan hokubu, Himalaya-Karakoram tai no ganseki jikigakuteki chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, M. [Geoscience Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Khadim, I.; Ahmad, M. [Geological Survey of Pakistan, Islamabad (Pakistan)

    1997-10-22

    This paper describes results of the rock magnetic survey mainly including measurement of magnetic susceptibility conducted in the northern Pakistan from 1992 to 1997. Magnetic characteristics in Himalaya-Karakoram ranges and prospective ore deposits are also described. Magnetic susceptibility data measured in this district were summarized as a frequency map in each geological block. Granitoids in the northern part of Kohistan batholith and granitoids of Ladakh batholith showed remarkably high magnetic susceptibility values, which suggested they are magnetite-series magmatism. It has been known that magnetite-series magmatism often accompanies sulfide-forming mineral resources, which suggests high potentiality of abundant mineral resources containing Mo, Cu, Pb, Zn, Ag and Au. From the results of the magnetic susceptibility measurements and the above-mentioned models, accordingly, it can be pointed out that the northern part of Kohistan batholith, the distribution area of Ladakh batholith, and surrounding areas are promising targets for mineral resources exploration in the Himalaya-Karakoram ranges, northern Pakistan. 5 refs., 3 figs.

  13. Surrogate Modeling for Geometry Optimization in Material Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rojas Larrazabal, Marielba de la Caridad; Abraham, Yonas B.; Holzwarth, Natalie A.W.;

    2007-01-01

    We propose a new approach based on surrogate modeling for geometry optimization in material design. (© 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)......We propose a new approach based on surrogate modeling for geometry optimization in material design. (© 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)...

  14. Human surrogate neck response to +Gz vertical impact

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rooij, L. van; Uittenbogaard, J.

    2011-01-01

    For the evaluation of impact scenarios with a substantial vertical component, the performance of current human surrogates - the RID 3D hardware dummy and two numerical human models - was evaluated. Volunteer tests with 10G and 6G pulses were compared to reconstructed tests with human surrogates.

  15. Term clouds as surrogates for user generated speech

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Tsagkias; M. Larson; M. de Rijke

    2008-01-01

    User generated spoken audio remains a challenge for Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR) technology and content-based audio surrogates derived from ASR-transcripts must be error robust. An investigation of the use of term clouds as surrogates for podcasts demonstrates that ASR term clouds closely appr

  16. INTEC SBW Solid Sludge Surrogate Recipe and Validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maio, Vince; Janikowski, Stuart; Johnson, Jim; Maio, Vince; Pao, Jenn-Hai

    2004-06-01

    A nonhazardous INTEC tank farm sludge surrogate that incorporated metathesis reactions to generate solids from solutions of known elements present in the radioactive INTEC tank farm sodium-bearing waste sludges was formulated. Elemental analyses, physical property analyses, and filtration testing were performed on waste surrogate and tank farm waste samples, and the results were compared. For testing physical systems associated with moving the tank farm solids, the surrogate described in this report is the best currently available choice. No other available surrogate exhibits the noted similarities in behavior to the sludges. The chemical morphology, particle size distribution, and settling and flow characteristics of the surrogate were similar to those exhibited by the waste sludges. Nonetheless, there is a difference in chemical makeup of the surrogate and the tank farm waste. If a chemical treatment process were to be evaluated for final treatment and disposition of the waste sludges, the surrogate synthesis process would likely require modification to yield a surrogate with a closer matching chemical composition.

  17. Inactivation of Tulane virus, a novel surrogate for human norovirus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human noroviruses (HuNoVs) are the major cause of non-bacterial epidemics of gastroenteritis. Due to the inability to cultivate HuNoVs and the lack of an efficient small animal model, surrogates are used to study HuNoV biology. Two such surrogates, the feline calicivirus (FCV) and the murine norovir...

  18. Human surrogate neck response to +Gz vertical impact

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rooij, L. van; Uittenbogaard, J.

    2011-01-01

    For the evaluation of impact scenarios with a substantial vertical component, the performance of current human surrogates - the RID 3D hardware dummy and two numerical human models - was evaluated. Volunteer tests with 10G and 6G pulses were compared to reconstructed tests with human surrogates. Add

  19. Space Mapping Optimization of Microwave Circuits Exploiting Surrogate Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bakr, M. H.; Bandler, J. W.; Madsen, Kaj

    2000-01-01

    A powerful new space-mapping (SM) optimization algorithm is presented in this paper. It draws upon recent developments in both surrogate model-based optimization and modeling of microwave devices, SM optimization is formulated as a general optimization problem of a surrogate model. This model...

  20. Preclinical and human surrogate models of itch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoeck, Emil August; Marker, Jens Broch; Gazerani, Parisa;

    2016-01-01

    Pruritus, or simply itch, is a debilitating symptom that significantly decreases the quality of life in a wide range of clinical conditions. While histamine remains the most studied mediator of itch in humans, treatment options for chronic itch, in particular antihistamine-resistant itch, are lim...... currently applied in animals and humans. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.......Pruritus, or simply itch, is a debilitating symptom that significantly decreases the quality of life in a wide range of clinical conditions. While histamine remains the most studied mediator of itch in humans, treatment options for chronic itch, in particular antihistamine-resistant itch......, are limited. Relevant preclinical and human surrogate models of non-histaminergic itch are needed to accelerate the development of novel antipruritics and diagnostic tools. Advances in basic itch research have facilitated the development of diverse models of itch and associated dysesthesiae. While...

  1. Surrogates of plutonium for detection equipment testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peerani, Paolo; Tomanin, Alice

    2011-10-01

    Fight against illicit trafficking of nuclear material relies on the possibility to detect nuclear material concealed in vehicles, people or cargo containers. This is done by equipping and training law enforcement and security staff in border stations or other points of access to strategic places and critical infrastructures with radiation detection equipment. The design, development, testing and evaluation of these instruments ideally require the use of real nuclear material to assess, verify and certify their detection performance. Availability of special nuclear material may be an issue, especially for industry, since only few specialized laboratories are licensed for such material. This paper tries to analyse and describe the possibility to use suitable surrogates that may replace the use of real nuclear material in testing the detection capabilities of instruments used in nuclear security.

  2. [Surrogate maternity--literature review and practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilka, L; Rumpík, D; Pilka, R; Koudelka, M; Prudil, L

    2009-04-01

    This review summarizes opinions on surrogacy including internatinal and governmental organizations attitudes, as well as some religious concerns. Literature review. Reprofit International, Brno, Reproductive medicine and gynecology centre, Zlin, Department of obstetrics and gynecology, Palacky University, Olomouc. The developments in the field of assissted reproduction during the last twenty years have attracted unexpected public interest in some of its ethical and moral aspects. It is very difficult to find a uniform attitude to ethical concerns of assisted conception in plural society. Surrogate mother is defined as a woman who bears and relinquishes a child for another person. The european congress on human reproduction in Barcelona 2008 adopted following résumé on surrogacy: Public opinion has shifted to a position where surrogacy is recognized as an appropriate response to infertility in some circumstances and it is to be expected that this approach will be further strenghtened with stress on positive aspects of familiar life.

  3. Tractable Experiment Design via Mathematical Surrogates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Brian J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-02-29

    This presentation summarizes the development and implementation of quantitative design criteria motivated by targeted inference objectives for identifying new, potentially expensive computational or physical experiments. The first application is concerned with estimating features of quantities of interest arising from complex computational models, such as quantiles or failure probabilities. A sequential strategy is proposed for iterative refinement of the importance distributions used to efficiently sample the uncertain inputs to the computational model. In the second application, effective use of mathematical surrogates is investigated to help alleviate the analytical and numerical intractability often associated with Bayesian experiment design. This approach allows for the incorporation of prior information into the design process without the need for gross simplification of the design criterion. Illustrative examples of both design problems will be presented as an argument for the relevance of these research problems.

  4. Sheet metal forming optimization by using surrogate modeling techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hu; Ye, Fan; Chen, Lei; Li, Enying

    2017-01-01

    Surrogate assisted optimization has been widely applied in sheet metal forming design due to its efficiency. Therefore, to improve the efficiency of design and reduce the product development cycle, it is important for scholars and engineers to have some insight into the performance of each surrogate assisted optimization method and make them more flexible practically. For this purpose, the state-of-the-art surrogate assisted optimizations are investigated. Furthermore, in view of the bottleneck and development of the surrogate assisted optimization and sheet metal forming design, some important issues on the surrogate assisted optimization in support of the sheet metal forming design are analyzed and discussed, involving the description of the sheet metal forming design, off-line and online sampling strategies, space mapping algorithm, high dimensional problems, robust design, some challenges and potential feasible methods. Generally, this paper provides insightful observations into the performance and potential development of these methods in sheet metal forming design.

  5. Insights into the patterns and locations of erosion in the Himalaya — A combined fission-track and in situ Sm Nd isotopic study of detrital apatite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, G. L.; Carter, A.

    2007-05-01

    Understanding the role that climate, erosion and tectonics play in determining the mean relief, elevation and general form of a mountain range over time has become the focus of much recent research in the field of tectonic geomorphology. A crucial constraint in these studies is the long-term exhumation rate, which is increasingly being examined using detrital minerals from the sedimentary rock record that represent the eroded remnants of the orogen. A classic field area of such studies is the Himalayan orogen — the Earth's largest mountain range. We describe here a novel approach that uses the in situ analysis of Nd isotopes by laser ablation multicollector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry of fission-track dated apatite grains to unambiguously tie them to their source regions. We demonstrate the capability of this new approach on several modern and Holocene river sand samples from the Himalayan orogen and determine, because of the large isotopic differences in the constituent tectonostratigraphic units, both the location and magnitude of long-term erosion. In agreement with previous studies we are able to show that in the Central and Eastern Himalaya long-term denudation is focussed within the High Himalayan Crystalline Series (HHCS) at average rates of ˜ 2 mm/yr. Average long-term rates are similar in the Western Himalaya sampled by the Indus River and largely reflect erosional denudation of the Western Indian Himalaya and the Western Syntaxis (the Nanga Parbat Haramosh Massif and South Karakoram Metamorphic Complex). Notably, the Asian continent supplies significantly more apatites to the mouth of the Indus than they do to the Bengal delta. The ability to reconstruct the patterns of long-term erosion in the Himalaya using detrital apatites from a few samples collected from major transverse drainages provides confidence in the utility of this approach to examine the locations and magnitude of long-term erosion in the past.

  6. High altitude survival: conflicts between pastoralism and wildlife in the Trans-Himalaya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mishra, C.

    2001-01-01

    Keywords : Pastoralism, agriculture, wildlife, Himalaya, competition, bharal, yak, livestock, snow leopard, wolf, herbivore, ungulate, resource, rangeland, steppe, mountainHow harmonious is the coexistence between pastoralism and wildlife? This thesis is a response to repeated calls for a better und

  7. High altitude survival: conflicts between pastoralism and wildlife in the Trans-Himalaya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mishra, C.

    2001-01-01

    Keywords : Pastoralism, agriculture, wildlife, Himalaya, competition, bharal, yak, livestock, snow leopard, wolf, herbivore, ungulate, resource, rangeland, steppe, mountain

    How harmonious is the coexistence between pastoralism and

  8. Determination of Diethyl Phthalate and Polyhexamethylene Guanidine in Surrogate Alcohol from Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulia B. Monakhova

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Analytical methods based on spectroscopic techniques were developed and validated for the determination of diethyl phthalate (DEP and polyhexamethylene guanidine (PHMG, which may occur in unrecorded alcohol. Analysis for PHMG was based on UV-VIS spectrophotometry after derivatization with Eosin Y and 1H NMR spectroscopy of the DMSO extract. Analysis of DEP was performed with direct UV-VIS and 1H NMR methods. Multivariate curve resolution and spectra computation methods were used to confirm the presence of PHMG and DEP in the investigated beverages. Of 22 analysed alcohol samples, two contained DEP or PHMG. 1H NMR analysis also revealed the presence of signals of hawthorn extract in three medicinal alcohols used as surrogate alcohol. The simple and cheap UV-VIS methods can be used for rapid screening of surrogate alcohol samples for impurities, while 1H NMR is recommended for specific confirmatory analysis if required.

  9. Environmental diversity as a surrogate for species representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beier, Paul; de Albuquerque, Fábio Suzart

    2015-10-01

    Because many species have not been described and most species ranges have not been mapped, conservation planners often use surrogates for conservation planning, but evidence for surrogate effectiveness is weak. Surrogates are well-mapped features such as soil types, landforms, occurrences of an easily observed taxon (discrete surrogates), and well-mapped environmental conditions (continuous surrogate). In the context of reserve selection, the idea is that a set of sites selected to span diversity in the surrogate will efficiently represent most species. Environmental diversity (ED) is a rarely used surrogate that selects sites to efficiently span multivariate ordination space. Because it selects across continuous environmental space, ED should perform better than discrete surrogates (which necessarily ignore within-bin and between-bin heterogeneity). Despite this theoretical advantage, ED appears to have performed poorly in previous tests of its ability to identify 50 × 50 km cells that represented vertebrates in Western Europe. Using an improved implementation of ED, we retested ED on Western European birds, mammals, reptiles, amphibians, and combined terrestrial vertebrates. We also tested ED on data sets for plants of Zimbabwe, birds of Spain, and birds of Arizona (United States). Sites selected using ED represented European mammals no better than randomly selected cells, but they represented species in the other 7 data sets with 20% to 84% effectiveness. This far exceeds the performance in previous tests of ED, and exceeds the performance of most discrete surrogates. We believe ED performed poorly in previous tests because those tests considered only a few candidate explanatory variables and used suboptimal forms of ED's selection algorithm. We suggest future work on ED focus on analyses at finer grain sizes more relevant to conservation decisions, explore the effect of selecting the explanatory variables most associated with species turnover, and investigate

  10. Active tectonics coupled to fluvial erosion in the NW Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannay, J.-C.; Grasemann, B.; Rahn, M.; Frank, W.; Carter, A.

    2003-04-01

    Both syntaxial extremities of the Himalaya show a spatial correlation between active exhumation of deep crustal rocks and the presence of powerful rivers, the Indus and the Tsangpo-Brahmaputra, cutting across the range two of the deepest gorges on Earth. These features strongly suggests that vigorous fluvial erosion can locally enhance isostatic and tectonic uplift, which in turn contributes to heat advection and weakening of the crust, as well as to maintain steep topographic gradients [Zeitler et al., 2001]. In order to test this positive feedback model, we combined structural and geochronological data to constrain the tectono-thermal evolution along the Sutlej (NW India), the third largest river cross-cutting entirely the Himalaya. The Himalayan crystalline core zone exposed along the Sutlej Valley is composed of two gneiss sheets, that were successively underthrusted and tectonically extruded as a consequence of the foreland-directed propagation of deformation in the Indian plate margin. During Early to Middle Miocene, combined thrusting along the Main Central Thrust (MCT) and extension along the Sangla Detachment induced the rapid exhumation and cooling of the amphibolite facies to migmatitic High Himalayan Crystalline Sequence [Vannay &Grasemann, 2001]. Underthrusting beneath the MCT led to the creation of the amphibolite facies Lesser Himalayan Crystalline Sequence (LHCS). The LHCS cooled rapidly from Late Miocene to Pleistocene, as a consequence of tectonic extrusion controlled by thrusting along the Munsiari Thrust, and extension in the MCT hanging wall. This phase is still active, as indicated by: (1) cooling rates in excess of 100^oC/Myr during the past ˜3 Myr in the LHCS; (2) Holocene neo-tectonic activity; (3) present-day hydrothermal activity testifying to elevated near-surface geothermal gradients; and (4) seismic activity along the Munsiari Thrust. Modelling of fluvial erosion in the Himalaya indicate that the Sutlej Valley corresponds to the main

  11. Technological advances in suspended-sediment surrogate monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, John R.; Gartner, Jeffrey W.

    2009-01-01

    Surrogate technologies to continuously monitor suspended sediment show promise toward supplanting traditional data collection methods requiring routine collection and analysis of water samples. Commercially available instruments operating on bulk optic (turbidity), laser optic, pressure difference, and acoustic backscatter principles are evaluated based on cost, reliability, robustness, accuracy, sample volume, susceptibility to biological fouling, and suitable range of mass concentration and particle size distribution. In situ turbidimeters are widely used. They provide reliable data where the point measurements can be reliably correlated to the river's mean cross section concentration value, effects of biological fouling can be minimized, and concentrations remain below the sensor's upper measurement limit. In situ laser diffraction instruments have similar limitations and can cost 6 times the approximate $5000 purchase price of a turbidimeter. However, laser diffraction instruments provide volumetric-concentration data in 32 size classes. Pressure differential instruments measure mass density in a water column, thus integrating substantially more streamflow than a point measurement. They are designed for monitoring medium-to-large concentrations, are generally unaffected by biological fouling, and cost about the same as a turbidimeter. However, their performance has been marginal in field applications. Acoustic Doppler profilers use acoustic backscatter to measure suspended sediment concentrations in orders of magnitude more streamflow than do instruments that rely on point measurements. The technology is relatively robust and generally immune to effects of biological fouling. Cost of a single-frequency device is about double that of a turbidimeter. Multifrequency arrays also provide the potential to resolve concentrations by clay silt versus sand size fractions. Multifrequency hydroacoustics shows the most promise for revolutionizing collection of continuous

  12. Evaluating the Potential for Marine and Hydrokinetic Devices to Act as Artificial Reefs or Fish Aggregating Devices. Based on Analysis of Surrogates in Tropical, Subtropical, and Temperate U.S. West Coast and Hawaiian Coastal Waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramer, Sharon H. [H. T. Harvey & Associates, Honolulu, HI (United States); Hamilton, Christine D. [H. T. Harvey & Associates, Honolulu, HI (United States); Spencer, Gregory C. [H. T. Harvey & Associates, Honolulu, HI (United States); Ogston, Heather O. [H. T. Harvey & Associates, Honolulu, HI (United States)

    2015-05-12

    Wave energy converters (WECs) and tidal energy converters (TECs) are only beginning to be deployed along the U.S. West Coast and in Hawai‘i, and a better understanding of their ecological effects on fish, particularly on special-status fish (e.g., threatened and endangered) is needed to facilitate project design and environmental permitting. The structures of WECs and TECs placed on to the seabed, such as anchors and foundations, may function as artificial reefs that attract reef-associated fishes, while the midwater and surface structures, such as mooring lines, buoys, and wave or tidal power devices, may function as fish aggregating devices (FADs), forming the nuclei for groups of fishes. Little is known about the potential for WECs and TECs to function as artificial reefs and FADs in coastal waters of the U.S. West Coast and Hawai‘i. We evaluated these potential ecological interactions by reviewing relevant information about fish associations with surrogate structures, such as artificial reefs, natural reefs, kelps, floating debris, oil and gas platforms, marine debris, anchored FADs deployed to enhance fishing opportunities, net-cages used for mariculture, and piers and docks. Based on our review, we postulate that the structures of WECs and TECs placed on or near the seabed in coastal waters of the U.S. West Coast and Hawai‘i likely will function as small-scale artificial reefs and attract potentially high densities of reef-associated fishes (including special-status rockfish species [Sebastes spp.] along the mainland), and that the midwater and surface structures of WECs placed in the tropical waters of Hawai‘i likely will function as de facto FADs with species assemblages varying by distance from shore and deployment depth. Along the U.S. West Coast, frequent associations with midwater and surface structures may be less likely: juvenile, semipelagic, kelp-associated rockfishes may occur at midwater and surface structures of WECs in coastal waters of

  13. Family matters: effects of birth order, culture, and family dynamics on surrogate decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Christopher T; McMahan, Ryan D; Williams, Brie A; Sharma, Rashmi K; Sudore, Rebecca L

    2014-01-01

    Cultural attitudes about medical decision-making and filial expectations may lead some surrogates to experience stress and family conflict. Thirteen focus groups with racially and ethnically diverse English and Spanish speakers from county and Veterans Affairs hospitals, senior centers, and cancer support groups were conducted to describe participants' experiences making serious or end-of-life decisions for others. Filial expectations and family dynamics related to birth order and surrogate decision-making were explored using qualitative, thematic content analysis, and overarching themes from focus group transcripts were identified. The mean age of the 69 participants was 69 ± 14, and 29% were African American, 26% were white, 26% were Asian or Pacific Islander, and 19% were Latino. Seventy percent of participants engaged in unprompted discussions about birth order and family dynamics. Six subthemes were identified within three overarching categories: communication (unspoken expectations and discussion of death as taboo), emotion (emotional stress and feelings of loneliness), and conflict (family conflict and potential solutions to prevent conflict). These findings suggest that birth order and family dynamics can have profound effects on surrogate stress and coping. Clinicians should be aware of potential unspoken filial expectations for firstborns and help facilitate communication between the patient, surrogate, and extended family to reduce stress and conflict.

  14. Oxidation of Alkane Rich Gasoline Fuels and their Surrogates in a Motored Engine

    KAUST Repository

    Shankar, Vijai S B

    2015-03-30

    The validation of surrogates formulated using a computational framework by Ahmed et al.[1]for two purely paraffinic gasoline fuels labelled FACE A and FACE C was undertaken in this study. The ability of these surrogate mixtures to be used in modelling LTC engines was accessed by comparison of their low temperature oxidation chemistry with that of the respective parent fuel as well as a PRF based on RON. This was done by testing the surrogate mixtures in a modified Cooperative Fuels Research (CFR) engine running in Controlled Autoignition Mode (CAI) mode. The engine was run at a constant speed of 600 rpm at an equivalence ratio of 0.5 with the intake temperature at 150 °C and a pressure of 98 kPa. The low temperature reactivity of the fuels were studied by varying the compression ratio of the engine from the point were very only small low temperature heat release was observed to a point beyond which auto-ignition of the fuel/air mixture occurred. The apparent heat release rates of different fuels was calculated from the pressure histories using first law analysis and the CA 50 times of the low temperature heat release (LTHR) were compared. The surrogates reproduced the cool flame behavior of the parent fuels better than the PRF across all compression ratios.

  15. The genus Chaerilus Simon, 1877 (Scorpiones, Chaerilidae in the Himalayas and description of a new species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Lourenco

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available A new species is described belonging to the genus Chaerilus Simon, 1877. Chaerilus annapurna sp. n. was discovered in the high plateaux of the Himalayas in Central-Western Nepal. For comparative purposes a precise re-diagnosis is proposed for Chaerilus truncatus Karsch, 1879, originally described from an imprecise locality in Himalaya. This species has recently been discussed by several authors: nevertheless, it has sometimes been the subject of misidentification.

  16. Changes in Rongbuk lake and Imja lake in the Everest region of Himalaya

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, W.; T. Doko; Liu, C.; Ichinose, T.; Fukui, H.; Feng, Q.; Gou, P.

    2014-01-01

    The Himalaya holds the world record in terms of range and elevation. It is one of the most extensively glacierized regions in the world except the Polar Regions. The Himalaya is a region sensitive to climate change. Changes in the glacial regime are indicators of global climate changes. Since the second half of the last century, most Himalayan glaciers have melted due to climate change. These changes directly affected the changes of glacial lakes in the Himalayan region due to the gl...

  17. Glacial Lake Expansion in the Central Himalayas by Landsat Images, 1990–2010

    OpenAIRE

    Yong Nie; Qiao Liu; Shiyin Liu

    2013-01-01

    Glacial lake outburst flood (GLOF) is a serious hazard in high, mountainous regions. In the Himalayas, catastrophic risks of GLOFs have increased in recent years because most Himalayan glaciers have experienced remarkable downwasting under a warming climate. However, current knowledge about the distribution and recent changes in glacial lakes within the central Himalaya mountain range is still limited. Here, we conducted a systematic investigation of the glacial lakes within the entire centra...

  18. A new formulation of physical surrogates of FACE A gasoline fuel based on heating and evaporation characteristics

    KAUST Repository

    Elwardani, Ahmed Elsaid

    2016-02-19

    The US Department of Energy has formulated various sets of gasoline fuels, called fuels for advanced combustion engines (FACE), which are consistent in composition and properties. The analysis of heating and evaporation of FACE A gasoline fuel (paraffin-rich) is studied by replacing the 66 components with 19 components to represent this fuel. The reduction in the number of components is based on merging components from the same chemical groups and having the same chemical formula, which have very close thermophysical properties; the components with the highest initial compositions are chosen to be the representative components. Modelling of heating and evaporation of FACE A gasoline fuel and various surrogates is carried out based on the effective thermal conductivity/effective diffusivity model (ETC/ED). The model takes into account the effect of finite liquid thermal conductivity, finite liquid mass diffusivity and recirculation inside the droplets due to their non-zero velocities relative to the ambient air. Four surrogates of FACE A found in the literature are used in the analysis. These surrogates include the five component surrogate chosen for its ability to match the ignition delay time of the FACE A gasoline fuel (Surr1), the primary reference fuel surrogate (PRF84) that matches the research octane number (RON) of FACE A, the one that matches hydrogen-to-carbon ratio (H/C), RON, density and distillation curve with FACE A (Surr2), and the one that matches the RON based on mole fraction linear blending (Surr3). It is shown that these surrogates cannot predict adequately the time evolution of surface temperatures and radii of FACE A droplets. New \\'physical\\' surrogates with 8, 7 and 6 components (Surr4, Surr5, and Surr6) are introduced to match the evaporation characteristics of FACE A. It is found that Surr5 (7 components surrogate) can predict droplet lifetime and time evolution of surface temperature of a FACE A droplet with errors of up to 5% and 0

  19. Optimisation of Hidden Markov Model using Baum–Welch algorithm for prediction of maximum and minimum temperature over Indian Himalaya

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J C Joshi; Tankeshwar Kumar; Sunita Srivastava; Divya Sachdeva

    2017-02-01

    Maximum and minimum temperatures are used in avalanche forecasting models for snow avalanche hazard mitigation over Himalaya. The present work is a part of development of Hidden Markov Model (HMM) based avalanche forecasting system for Pir-Panjal and Great Himalayan mountain ranges of the Himalaya. In this work, HMMs have been developed for forecasting of maximum and minimum temperatures for Kanzalwan in Pir-Panjal range and Drass in Great Himalayan range with a lead time of two days. The HMMs have been developed using meteorological variables collected from these stations during the past 20 winters from 1992 to 2012. The meteorological variables have been used to define observations and states of the models and to compute model parameters (initial state, state transition and observation probabilities). The model parameters have been used in the Forward and the Viterbi algorithms to generate temperature forecasts. To improve the model forecasts, the model parameters have been optimised using Baum–Welch algorithm. The models have been compared with persistence forecast by root mean square errors (RMSE) analysis using independent data of two winters (2012–13, 2013–14). The HMM for maximum temperature has shown a 4–12% and 17–19% improvement in the forecast over persistence forecast, for day-1 and day-2, respectively. For minimum temperature, it has shown 6–38% and 5–12% improvement for day-1 and day-2, respectively.

  20. Elevational plant species richness patterns and their drivers across non-endemics, endemics and growth forms in the Eastern Himalaya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manish, Kumar; Pandit, Maharaj K; Telwala, Yasmeen; Nautiyal, Dinesh C; Koh, Lian Pin; Tiwari, Sudha

    2017-09-01

    Despite decades of research, ecologists continue to debate how spatial patterns of species richness arise across elevational gradients on the Earth. The equivocal results of these studies could emanate from variations in study design, sampling effort and data analysis. In this study, we demonstrate that the richness patterns of 2,781 (2,197 non-endemic and 584 endemic) angiosperm species along an elevational gradient of 300-5,300 m in the Eastern Himalaya are hump-shaped, spatial scale of extent (the proportion of elevational gradient studied) dependent and growth form specific. Endemics peaked at higher elevations than non-endemics across all growth forms (trees, shrubs, climbers, and herbs). Richness patterns were influenced by the proportional representation of the largest physiognomic group (herbs). We show that with increasing spatial scale of extent, the richness patterns change from a monotonic to a hump-shaped pattern and richness maxima shift toward higher elevations across all growth forms. Our investigations revealed that the combination of ambient energy (air temperature, solar radiation, and potential evapo-transpiration) and water availability (soil water content and precipitation) were the main drivers of elevational plant species richness patterns in the Himalaya. This study highlights the importance of factoring in endemism, growth forms, and spatial scale when investigating elevational gradients of plant species distributions and advances our understanding of how macroecological patterns arise.

  1. Oligocene crustal anatexis in the Tethyan Himalaya, southern Tibet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Li-E.; Zeng, Lingsen; Gao, Jiahao; Shang, Zhen; Hou, Kejun; Wang, Qian

    2016-11-01

    Recent studies in the Xiaru and Malashan gneiss dome of the Tethyan Himalaya, southern Tibet identify that Xiaru and Paiku tourmaline-bearing leucogranite dike formed at 28-29 Ma. Together with 28 Ma Kuday garnet-bearing leucogranites, it is demonstrated that the Himalayan orogenic belt experienced a major episode of crustal melting in the Mid-Oligocene. Geochemical data indicate that three suites of leucogranite are characterized by large variations in the major and trace element compositions as well as Sr-Nd isotope systematics, which could be explained by combined fractional crystallization and relative contributions of micas and accessory phases dissolved into a crustal melt during decompressional melting of metapelitic rocks. Documentation of Oligocene partial melting of crustal rocks could indicate that the exhumation of deep crustal rocks in the Himalayan orogenic belt could have started as early as Oligocene.

  2. Volatile (As and Hg) and non-volatile (Pb and Cd) toxic heavy metals analysis in rhizome of Zingiber officinale collected from different locations of North Western Himalayas by Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, S; Pandotra, P; Gupta, A P; Dhar, J K; Sharma, G; Ram, G; Husain, M K; Bedi, Y S

    2010-10-01

    Ginger is an important ingredient of spice and herbals. The monitoring of toxic heavy metals in the rhizome of ginger is important for protecting public health against the hazards of metal toxicity. The concentration of volatile and non-volatile metals (As, Hg, Pb and Cd), in the soil and rhizome of Zingiber officinale were analyzed using AAS. Soil analysis profile showed uniformity in the metal contents, in active root zone and subsoil, except mercury, which was present in higher quantity in one, out of the four sectors, of the field. The infield metal content in the soil in increasing order was, cadmium < arsenic < lead < mercury. In ginger rhizome the volatile toxic heavy metals arsenic (As) and mercury (Hg) varied from not detected to 0.13 μg/g and 0.01 to 0.42 μg/g, respectively. The non-volatile metals lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) ranged from 0.06 to 0.64 μg/g and 0.002 to 0.03 μg/g, respectively(.) The results illustrated the findings that soil is the major but not the only source of metal accumulation in the plants. In our study, the volatile metal content (As, Hg) was found more in rhizomes collected from Himachal Pradesh while the non-volatile metals were predominant in samples from Uttarakhand.

  3. The Himalayas: barrier and conduit for gene flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayden, Tenzin; Perez, Annabel; Persad, Patrice J; Bukhari, Areej; Chennakrishnaiah, Shilpa; Simms, Tanya; Maloney, Trisha; Rodriguez, Kristina; Herrera, Rene J

    2013-06-01

    The Himalayan mountain range is strategically located at the crossroads of the major cultural centers in Asia, the Middle East and Europe. Although previous Y-chromosome studies indicate that the Himalayas served as a natural barrier for gene flow from the south to the Tibetan plateau, this region is believed to have played an important role as a corridor for human migrations between East and West Eurasia along the ancient Silk Road. To evaluate the effects of the Himalayan mountain range in shaping the maternal lineages of populations residing on either side of the cordillera, we analyzed mitochondrial DNA variation in 344 samples from three Nepalese collections (Newar, Kathmandu and Tamang) and a general population of Tibet. Our results revealed a predominantly East Asian-specific component in Tibet and Tamang, whereas Newar and Kathmandu are both characterized by a combination of East and South Central Asian lineages. Interestingly, Newar and Kathmandu harbor several deep-rooted Indian lineages, including M2, R5, and U2, whose coalescent times from this study (U2, >40 kya) and previous reports (M2 and R5, >50 kya) suggest that Nepal was inhabited during the initial peopling of South Central Asia. Comparisons with our previous Y-chromosome data indicate sex-biased migrations in Tamang and a founder effect and/or genetic drift in Tamang and Newar. Altogether, our results confirm that while the Himalayas acted as a geographic barrier for human movement from the Indian subcontinent to the Tibetan highland, it also served as a conduit for gene flow between Central and East Asia.

  4. Atmospheric Modelling for Air Quality Study over the complex Himalayas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surapipith, Vanisa; Panday, Arnico; Mukherji, Aditi; Banmali Pradhan, Bidya; Blumer, Sandro

    2014-05-01

    An Atmospheric Modelling System has been set up at International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development (ICIMOD) for the assessment of Air Quality across the Himalaya mountain ranges. The Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model version 3.5 has been implemented over the regional domain, stretching across 4995 x 4455 km2 centred at Ichhyakamana , the ICIMOD newly setting-up mountain-peak station (1860 m) in central Nepal, and covering terrains from sea-level to the Everest (8848 m). Simulation is carried out for the winter time period, i.e. December 2012 to February 2013, when there was an intensive field campaign SusKat, where at least 7 super stations were collecting meteorology and chemical parameters on various sites. The very complex terrain requires a high horizontal resolution (1 × 1 km2), which is achieved by nesting the domain of interest, e.g. Kathmandu Valley, into 3 coarser ones (27, 9, 3 km resolution). Model validation is performed against the field data as well as satellite data, and the challenge of capturing the necessary atmospheric processes is discussed, before moving forward with the fully coupled chemistry module (WRF-Chem), having local and regional emission databases as input. The effort aims at finding a better understanding of the atmospheric processes and air quality impact on the mountain population, as well as the impact of the long-range transport, particularly of Black Carbon aerosol deposition, to the radiative budget over the Himalayan glaciers. The higher rate of snowcap melting, and shrinkage of permafrost as noticed by glaciologists is a concern. Better prediction will supply crucial information to form the proper mitigation and adaptation strategies for saving people lives across the Himalayas in the changing climate.

  5. CTEPP STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR PREPARATION OF SURROGATE RECOVERY STANDARD AND INTERNAL STANDARD SOLUTIONS FOR NEUTRAL TARGET ANALYTES (SOP-5.25)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This standard operating procedure describes the method used for preparing internal standard, surrogate recovery standard and calibration standard solutions for neutral analytes used for gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis.

  6. Integrated snow and avalanche monitoring syatem for Indian Himalaya using multi-temporal satellite imagery and ancillary data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, S. S.; Mani, Sneh; Mathur, P.

    . Different methods have been used for the analysis of the temporal changes in satellite images. Multi-sensor data fusion techniques have been applied to increase the accuracy of classification, and also for extraction of necessary information about characteristics of snow and avalanches and the ground conditions. The results of the analysis of time series of last two winters are reported. The study confirms that significant changes in snow characteristics and wetness are mainly due to large variations in temperature at these altitudes, which contribute towards avalanche activities in early winter. A definite relationship has been observed between snow wetness, altitude and period of the year with respect to the probability of an avalanche occurrence. Snow wetness is found to be inversely proportional to the altitude, whereas probability of an avalanche is directly proportional to the wetness of snow, lying either over thin grass or boulder-covered ground. The results were verified through extensive field measurements. The emphasis has been laid on establishment of a dense network of Automatic Weather Stations (AWS), Upper Air Stations (UAS) and observatories in entire Himalaya; development of GIS based data bases using satellite imageries and other ancillary data for weather, snow and land cover monitoring. Records of past years will provide base information for realistic estimation of the impact of climatic changes and confidence to predict the weather and avalanches in various regions of Himalaya. Key Words: Integrated Monitoring System, Time series multi-sensor/multi-temporal Satellite Imageries, Multi-sensor Data Fusion, Change Detection, Snow characteristics

  7. Integrated snow and avalanche monitoring system for Indian Himalaya using multi-temporal satellite imagery and ancillary data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, S. S.; Mani, Sneh; Mathur, P.

    . Different methods have been used for the analysis of the temporal changes in satellite images. Multi-sensor data fusion techniques have been applied to increase the accuracy of classification, and also for extraction of necessary information about characteristics of snow and avalanches and the ground conditions. The results of the analysis of time series of last two winters are reported. The study confirms that significant changes in snow characteristics and wetness are mainly due to large variations in temperature at these altitudes, which contribute towards avalanche activities in early winter. A definite relationship has been observed between snow wetness, altitude and period of the year with respect to the probability of an avalanche occurrence. Snow wetness is found to be inversely proportional to the altitude, whereas probability of an avalanche is directly proportional to the wetness of snow, lying either over thin grass or boulder-covered ground. The results were verified through extensive field measurements. The emphasis has been laid on establishment of a dense network of Automatic Weather Stations (AWS), Upper Air Stations (UAS) and observatories in entire Himalaya; development of GIS based data bases using satellite imageries and other ancillary data for weather, snow and land cover monitoring. Records of past years will provide base information for realistic estimation of the impact of climatic changes and confidence to predict the weather and avalanches in various regions of Himalaya. Key Words: Integrated Monitoring System, Time series multi-sensor/multi-temporal Satellite Imageries, Multi-sensor Data Fusion, Change Detection, Snow characteristics

  8. Surrogate motherhood as a medical treatment procedure for women's infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovic, Olga S

    2011-03-01

    The content of this work is conceived on the research of the consequences of surrogate motherhood as a process of assisted procreation, which represent a way of parenthood in cases when it is not possible to realize parenthood through a natural way. Surrogate motherhood is a process in which a woman (surrogate mother) agrees to carry a pregnancy with the intent to give the child to the couple with whom she has made a contract on surrogate maternity after the birth. This process of conception and birth makes the determination of the child's origin on its mother's side hard to determine, because of the distinction of the genetic and gestation phases of the two women. The concept of surrogate motherhood is to appear in two forms, depending on the existence or the non-existence of the genetic link between the surrogate mother and the child she gives birth to. There are gestation (full) and genetic (partial) surrogates each with different modalities and legal and ethical implications. In Serbia, Infertility Treatment and the Bio-medically Assisted Procreation Act from 2009 explicitly forbids surrogate motherhood, despite the fact that an infertile couple decides to use it, as a rule, after having tried all other treatment procedures, in cases when there is a diagnosis but the conventional treatment applied has not produced the desired results. Given the fact that no one has the right to ignore the sufferings of people who cannot procreate naturally, the medical practice and legal science in our country plead for a formulation of a legal framework in which to apply surrogate motherhood as an infertility treatment, under particular conditions.

  9. Surrogate assisted multidisciplinary design optimization for an all-electric GEO satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Renhe; Liu, Li; Long, Teng; Liu, Jian; Yuan, Bin

    2017-09-01

    State-of-the-art all-electric geostationary earth orbit (GEO) satellites use electric thrusters to execute all propulsive duties, which significantly differ from the traditional all-chemical ones in orbit-raising, station-keeping, radiation damage protection, and power budget, etc. Design optimization task of an all-electric GEO satellite is therefore a complex multidisciplinary design optimization (MDO) problem involving unique design considerations. However, solving the all-electric GEO satellite MDO problem faces big challenges in disciplinary modeling techniques and efficient optimization strategy. To address these challenges, we presents a surrogate assisted MDO framework consisting of several modules, i.e., MDO problem definition, multidisciplinary modeling, multidisciplinary analysis (MDA), and surrogate assisted optimizer. Based on the proposed framework, the all-electric GEO satellite MDO problem is formulated to minimize the total mass of the satellite system under a number of practical constraints. Then considerable efforts are spent on multidisciplinary modeling involving geosynchronous transfer, GEO station-keeping, power, thermal control, attitude control, and structure disciplines. Since orbit dynamics models and finite element structural model are computationally expensive, an adaptive response surface surrogate based optimizer is incorporated in the proposed framework to solve the satellite MDO problem with moderate computational cost, where a response surface surrogate is gradually refined to represent the computationally expensive MDA process. After optimization, the total mass of the studied GEO satellite is decreased by 185.3 kg (i.e., 7.3% of the total mass). Finally, the optimal design is further discussed to demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposed framework to cope with the all-electric GEO satellite system design optimization problems. This proposed surrogate assisted MDO framework can also provide valuable references for other all

  10. Surface soil phytoliths as vegetation and altitude indicators: a study from the southern Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Xiaohong; Lu, Houyuan; Chu, Guoqiang

    2015-10-01

    Phytoliths represent one of the few available altitudinal vegetation proxies for mountain ecosystems. This study analyzed 41 topsoil phytolith samples collected from five altitudinal zones in the southern Himalaya as far as, and beyond, the timberline, from tropical forest (up to 1,000 m a.s.l.) to subtropical forest (1,000-2,000 m a.s.l.), to temperate forest (2,000-3,000 m a.s.l.), to subalpine forest (3,000-4,100 m a.s.l.) and finally to alpine scrub (4,100-5,200 m a.s.l.). The statistical results show a good correlation between phytolith assemblages and these five altitudinal vegetation zones: the five phytolith assemblages identified effectively differentiated these five altitudinal vegetation zones. In particular, coniferous phytoliths accurately indicated the timberline. Additionally, we tested the phytolith index Ic (a proxy for estimating the percentage of Pooideae vis-à-vis the total grass content) as a quantifier of phytolith variety versus altitude. Ic increased along altitude, as expected. An investigation of phytoliths provided an initial basis for the analysis of the composition of gramineous vegetation. Furthermore, redundancy analysis and discriminant analysis also suggested a significant correlation between phytolith assemblages and altitude. Our research therefore provides an up-to-date analogue for the reconstruction of changes to palaeovegetation and palaeoaltitude in mountainous areas.

  11. Back-thrusting in Lesser Himalaya: Evidences from magnetic fabric studies in parts of Almora crystalline zone, Kumaun Lesser Himalaya

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Amar Agarwal; K K K K Agarwal; R Bali; Chandra Prakash; Gaurav Joshi

    2016-06-01

    The present study aims to understand evolution of the Lesser Himalaya, which consists of (meta) sedimentaryand crystalline rocks. Field studies, microscopic and rock magnetic investigations have beencarried out on the rocks near the South Almora Thrust (SAT) and the North Almora Thrust (NAT),which separates the Almora Crystalline Zone (ACZ) from the Lesser Himalayan sequences (LHS). Theresults show that along the South Almora Thrust, the deformation is persistent; however, near theNAT deformation pattern is complex and implies overprinting of original shear sense by a youngerdeformational event. We attribute this overprinting to late stage back-thrusting along NAT, active afterthe emplacement of ACZ. During this late stage back-thrusting, rocks of the ACZ and LHS were coupled.Back-thrusts originated below the Lesser Himalayan rocks, probably from the Main Boundary Thrust,and propagated across the sedimentary and crystalline rocks. This study provides new results frommultiple investigations, and enhances our understanding of the evolution of the ACZ.

  12. Mother-daughter in vitro fertilization triplet surrogate pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelow, M C; Bernstein, J; Jacobson, M J; McLoughlin, J L; Rubenstein, D; Hacking, A I; Preddy, S; Van der Wat, I J

    1988-02-01

    A successful triplet pregnancy has been established in a surrogate gestational mother following the transfer of five embryos fertilized in vitro. The oocytes were donated by her biological daughter, and the sperm obtained from the daughter's husband. The daughter's infertility followed a total abdominal hysterectomy performed for a postpartum hemorrhage as a result of a placenta accreta. Synchronization of both their menstrual cycles was obtained using oral contraceptive suppression for 2 months, followed by stimulation of both the surrogate gestational mother and her daughter such that embryo transfer would occur at least 48 hr after the surrogate gestational mother's own ovulation. This case raises a number of medical, social, psychological, and ethical issues.

  13. Magnetostratigraphy of the Neogene Siwalik Group of far eastern Himalaya, Kameng section, Arunashal Pradesh, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirouze, Francois; Huyghe, Pascale; Dupont-Nivet, Guillaume

    2010-05-01

    Foreland basins act as receptacles for synorogenic sediments and store materials eroded off a convergent mountain belt (DeCelles and Giles, 1996, DeCelles and Giles, 1996). Their infill records tectonic, climatic and erosional processes that govern the development of the mountain belt and the foreland basin. Consequently, studying the infill of foreland basins can give clues as to the reconstruction of the orogen tectonic growth and the interaction with global or regional climate (e.g. Molnar & England, 1990). The Himalaya, the highest range in the world, is used as a natural laboratory to test the interactions between these processes, in particular because of the effect of the Tibetan Plateau uplift on the intensity and variability of the Asian monsoon (Kutzbach et al., 1993; Fluteau et al., 1999). Exhumation, erosion and climate events affecting the Himalaya are recorded in the Neogene Siwalik foreland basin deposits (e.g. DeCelles et al., 1998, 2000; Galy et al., 1999; Huyghe et al., 2001, 2005; Najman, 2005). Dating these deposits is a key element to reconstruct the Himalaya's evolution. Despite a wealth of studies in the central and western Himalayan foreland, very few studies have been carried out in the eastern part (Yin et al., 2006, Cina et al 2009). Understanding the evolution of this eastern part is essential for reconstructing the regional migration of the Himalayan deformation. In addition, the eastern Himalayan foreland potentially records the evolution of processes associated to the eastern syntaxis drainage networks (Singh and France-Lanord, 2002) and the Shillong plateau uplift (Grujic et al., 2006). Therefore, accurate dating of the sediments of the Eastern part of the Siwalik foreland basin using magnetostratigraphy is a crucial initial step for further investigations such as sedimentological and structural field studies, fission tracks, provenance and isotopic stable laboratory analysis. These investigations aim at constraining the exhumation

  14. SURROGATE MOTHER DALAM PERSPEKTIF HUKUM PIDANA INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mr. Muntaha

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The development of science and technology, in particular in the field of health, has already recently brought a huge advantage and problem in human life. An example of technological marvel that not only requires deep legal thoughts but also at the same time solution is the bio-medical technology advancement of surrogacy. Surrogacy deals with human’s inclination towards reproductive activity. However, it opens up legal complication, in particular with regards to the potential commission of a criminal action as well as to the notion of doctor’s liability. Perkembangan ilmu dan teknologi di bidang kesehatan yang semakin maju dan pesat telah membawa berbagai manfaat dan masalah dalam kehidupan manusia dewasa ini. Salah satu perkembangan yang tidak hanya membutuhkan pemikiran di bidang hukum, tetapi juga sekaligus solusinya adalah mengenai kecanggihan teknologi bio-medis surrogate mother. Surrogacy menyentuh sisi kemanusiaan seorang insan terhadap reproduksi. Akan tetapi, lembaga surrogacy juga membawa komplikasi hukum terutama terkait dengan potensi tindak pidana dan dengan persoalan tanggung jawab dokter.

  15. Polynomial Chaos Surrogates for Bayesian Inference

    KAUST Repository

    Le Maitre, Olivier

    2016-01-06

    The Bayesian inference is a popular probabilistic method to solve inverse problems, such as the identification of field parameter in a PDE model. The inference rely on the Bayes rule to update the prior density of the sought field, from observations, and derive its posterior distribution. In most cases the posterior distribution has no explicit form and has to be sampled, for instance using a Markov-Chain Monte Carlo method. In practice the prior field parameter is decomposed and truncated (e.g. by means of Karhunen- Lo´eve decomposition) to recast the inference problem into the inference of a finite number of coordinates. Although proved effective in many situations, the Bayesian inference as sketched above faces several difficulties requiring improvements. First, sampling the posterior can be a extremely costly task as it requires multiple resolutions of the PDE model for different values of the field parameter. Second, when the observations are not very much informative, the inferred parameter field can highly depends on its prior which can be somehow arbitrary. These issues have motivated the introduction of reduced modeling or surrogates for the (approximate) determination of the parametrized PDE solution and hyperparameters in the description of the prior field. Our contribution focuses on recent developments in these two directions: the acceleration of the posterior sampling by means of Polynomial Chaos expansions and the efficient treatment of parametrized covariance functions for the prior field. We also discuss the possibility of making such approach adaptive to further improve its efficiency.

  16. A Large-Scale Study of Surrogate Physicality and Gesturing on Human–Surrogate Interactions in a Public Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kangsoo Kim

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Technological human surrogates, including robotic and virtual humans, have been popularly used in various scenarios, including training, education, and entertainment. Prior research has investigated the effects of the surrogate’s physicality and gesturing in human perceptions and social influence of the surrogate. However, those studies have been carried out in research laboratories, where the participants were aware that it was an experiment, and the participant demographics are typically relatively narrow—e.g., college students. In this paper, we describe and share results from a large-scale exploratory user study involving 7,685 people in a public space, where they were unaware of the experimental nature of the setting, to investigate the effects of surrogate physicality and gesturing on their behavior during human–surrogate interactions. We evaluate human behaviors using several variables, such as proactivity and reactivity, and proximity. We have identified several interesting phenomena that could lead to hypotheses developed as part of future hypothesis-based studies. Based on the measurements of the variables, we believe people are more likely to be engaged in a human–surrogate interaction when the surrogate is physically present, but movements and gesturing with its body parts have not shown the expected benefits for the interaction engagement. Regarding the demographics of the people in the study, we found higher overall engagement for females than males, and higher reactivity for younger than older people. We discuss implications for practitioners aiming to design a technological surrogate that will directly interact with real humans.

  17. Exploring the relationship between the causal-inference and meta-analytic paradigms for the evaluation of surrogate endpoints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Elst, Wim; Molenberghs, Geert; Alonso, Ariel

    2016-04-15

    Nowadays, two main frameworks for the evaluation of surrogate endpoints, based on causal-inference and meta-analysis, dominate the scene. Earlier work showed that the metrics of surrogacy introduced in both paradigms are related, although in a complex way that is difficult to study analytically. In the present work, this relationship is further examined using simulations and the analysis of a case study. The results indicate that the extent to which both paradigms lead to similar conclusions regarding the validity of the surrogate, depends on a complex interplay between multiple factors like the ratio of the between and within trial variability and the unidentifiable correlations between the potential outcomes. All the analyses were carried out using the newly developed R package Surrogate, which is freely available via CRAN.

  18. Active tectonics of the western tethyan himalaya above the underthrusting indian plate: The upper sutlej river basin as a pull-apart structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, James; Barazangi, Muawia

    1985-03-01

    Fault-bounded blocks and structural elements were mapped in the eastern Ladakh-Spiti and upper Sutlej River Basin located within the Tethyan Himalaya and to the southwest of the Karakorum fault zone mainly using LANDSAT Multispectral Scanner (MSS) band 5, band 7 (near-infrared) images with detailed analysis of smaller areas by interactive digital processing of false color images, and Returned Beam Vidicon (RBV) imagery in conjunction with available topographical, geological and seismological data. For the first time the Leo Pargil Horst and other nearby fault-bounded blocks located at the northwestern end of the upper Setlej River Basin were clearly revealed on the LANDSAT color composites. Shallow crustal seismicity is systematically related to the NNE-trending and N-trending normal faults of the Leo Pargil and nearby regions. Some of the aftershocks of the Kinnaur earthquake of January 19,1975 ( Ms = 6.8), appear to be associated with movement along the NNE-trending westbound fault of the Leo Pargil Horst and the nearby Kaurik-Chango fault. The main shock, however, is teleseismically located at about 30 km to the northwest of the Kaurik-Chango fault. Fault plane solutions of the main shock and two aftershocks indicate a large component of normal faulting. In map view, the upper Sutlej River Basin has an approximately rhomboidal shape and is located to the southwest of the Karakorum fault system. We suggest that this basin is a pull-apart between the NW-SE oriented, right-lateral, strike-slip Karakorum fault system and the high-angle faults near the southern boundary of the Tethyan Himalaya. The Leo Pargil Horst is the northwestern bounding fault block of this pull-apart. The active tectonic features in this part of the Tethyan Himalaya appear to reflect right-shear within the crust, and this is probably a consequence of oblique underthrusting of the Indian continental plate beneath the western Himalaya and southwestern Tibet during the Neogene and Quaternary

  19. Plant Species Diversity along an Altitudinal Gradient of Bhabha Valley in Western Himalaya

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Amit Chawla; S. Rajkumar; K.N. Singh; Brij Lal; R.D. Singh; A. K. Thukral

    2008-01-01

    The present study highlights the rich species diversity of higher plants in the Bhabha Valley of western Himalaya in India. The analysis of species diversity revealed that a total of 313 species of higher plants inhabit the valley with a charactersfic of moist alpine shrub vegetation. The herbaceous life forms dominate and increase with increasing altitude. The major representations are from the families Asteraceae, Rosaceae, Lamiaceae and Poaceae, suggesting thereby the alpine meadow nature of the study area. The effect of altitude on species diversity displays a hump-shaped curve which may be attributed to increase in habitat diversity at the median ranges and relatively less habitat diversity at higher altitudes. The anthropogenic pressure at lower altitudes results in low plant diversity towards the bottom of the valley with most of the species being exotic in nature. Though the plant diversity is less at higher altitudinal ranges, the uniqueness is relatively high with high species replacement rates. More than 90% of variability in the species diversity could be explained using appropriate quantitative and statistical analysis along the altitudinal gradient. The valley harbours 18 threatened and 41 endemic species, most of which occur at higher altitudinal gradients due to habitat specificity.

  20. Stochastic landslide vulnerability modeling in space and time in a part of the northern Himalayas, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Iswar; Kumar, Gaurav; Stein, Alfred; Bagchi, Arunabha; Dadhwal, Vinay K

    2011-07-01

    Little is known about the quantitative vulnerability analysis to landslides as not many attempts have been made to assess it comprehensively. This study assesses the spatio-temporal vulnerability of elements at risk to landslides in a stochastic framework. The study includes buildings, persons inside buildings, and traffic as elements at risk to landslides. Building vulnerability is the expected damage and depends on the position of a building with respect to the landslide hazard at a given time. Population and vehicle vulnerability are the expected death toll in a building and vehicle damage in space and time respectively. The study was carried out in a road corridor in the Indian Himalayas that is highly susceptible to landslides. Results showed that 26% of the buildings fall in the high and very high vulnerability categories. Population vulnerability inside buildings showed a value >0.75 during 0800 to 1000 hours and 1600 to 1800 hours in more buildings that other times of the day. It was also observed in the study region that the vulnerability of vehicle is above 0.6 in half of the road stretches during 0800 hours to 1000 hours and 1600 to 1800 hours due to high traffic density on the road section. From this study, we conclude that the vulnerability of an element at risk to landslide is a space and time event, and can be quantified using stochastic modeling. Therefore, the stochastic vulnerability modeling forms the basis for a quantitative landslide risk analysis and assessment.

  1. Hepatology may have problems with putative surrogate outcome measures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gluud, Christian; Brok, Jesper; Gong, Yan;

    2007-01-01

    hepatitis C, serum bilirubin concentration following ursodeoxycholic acid or immunosuppressants for patients with primary biliary cirrhosis, and nutritional outcomes following artificial nutrition for liver patients may not be valid surrogates for morbidity or mortality. The challenge is to develop reliable...

  2. Fernald Silos 1 & 2 Accelerated Waste Retrieval Program Surrogate Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mullen, O Dennis; Erian, Fadel F.

    2002-09-01

    Whitepaper describing the rationale and methodology for development of surrogates to be used for testing retrieval and processing systems for the DOE Fernald Silos 1 & 2 wastes. One significant updating/revision is expected.

  3. Fuel Surrogate Physical Property Effects on Direct Injection Spray and Ignition Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    UNCLASSIFIED 1 Introduction Typical hydrocarbon fuels used in internal combustion engines , such as gasoline, diesel , or jet fuel, are composed of hundreds...optimization, which determines the surrogate composition that minimizes the deviation from the target properties. For modern diesel engines , which employ...of biodiesel and diesel fuel. Pei et al. [20] conducted a sensitivity analysis with a diesel engine simulation to assess the relative effects of

  4. An Efficient Variable Screening Method for Effective Surrogate Models for Reliability-Based Design Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    reliability-based design optimization ( RBDO ) process, surrogate models are frequently used to reduce the number of simulations because analysis of a...the RBDO problem and thus mitigate the curse of dimensionality. Therefore, it is desirable to develop an efficient and effective variable...screening method for reduction of the dimension of the RBDO problem. In this paper, requirements of the variable screening method for deterministic design

  5. Large landslides lie low: Vertical domains of denudation processes in the arid Himalaya-Karakoram orogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blöthe, Jan Henrik

    2014-05-01

    Large bedrock landslides (defined here as affecting >0.1 km2 in planform area) are thought to substantially contribute to denuding active mountain belts, and limiting the growth of topographic relief produced by concurrent tectonic uplift and fluvial or glacial incision. While most research on large landslides has focused on tectonically active, humid mountain belts with varying degrees of rainstorm and earthquake activity, lesser attention has been devoted to arid mountain belts. Especially in the Himalaya, where high denudation rates are commonly associated with high landslide activity, previous work has largely ignored landslide processes in the arid compartments of the orogen. This was motivation for us to compile a landslide inventory covering the arid Himalaya-Karakoram of NW India and N Pakistan within the Indus catchment. Our data set contains 493 rock-slope failures that we compiled from published studies and mapping from remote sensing imagery. Using an empirical volume-area scaling approach we estimate the total landslide volume at >250 km3. This is more than thousand times the contemporary annual sediment load in the Indus River. We analyse the distribution of these volumetrically significant landslides with respect to the regional hypsometry, contemporary glacier cover, and the distribution of rock glaciers. We find that large bedrock landslides in the arid Himalaya-Karakoram region preferentially detach near or from below the study area's median elevation, while glaciers and rock glaciers occupy higher elevations almost exclusively. This trend holds true for both the study area and parts thereof. The largest and highest-lying landslides occur in the Karakoram mountains, where local relief exceeds 6 km, and >90% of the landslide areas lie below the region's median elevation. Our analysis reveals a hitherto unrecognized vertical layering of denudation processes, with landslides chiefly operating below the median elevation, whereas mass transport by

  6. THE SURROGATE COLONIZATION OF PALESTINE, 1917-1939

    OpenAIRE

    Atran, Scott

    1989-01-01

    The "surrogate colonization" of Palestine had a foreign power giving to a nonnative group rights over land occupied by an indigenous people. It thus brought into play the complementary and conflicting agendas of three culturally distinguishable parties: British, Jews and Arabs. Each party had both "externalist" [those with no sustained practical experience of day to day life in Palestine] and "internalist" representatives. The surrogate idea was based on a "strategic consensus" involving each...

  7. Surrogate nutrition markers, malnutrition, and adequacy of nutrition support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seres, David S

    2005-06-01

    Surrogate nutrition markers are used to assess adequacy of nourishment and to define malnutrition despite evidence that fails to link nourishment, surrogate markers, and outcomes. Markers such as serum levels of albumin, prealbumin, transferrin, and IGF-1 and delayed hypersensitivity and total lymphocyte count may be valid to help stratify risk. However, it is not appropriate to consider these as markers of adequacy of nourishment in the sick patient.

  8. Emotional experiences in surrogate mothers: A qualitative study

    OpenAIRE

    Hoda Ahmari Tehran; Shohreh Tashi; Nahid Mehran; Narges Eskandari; Tahmineh Dadkhah Tehrani

    2014-01-01

    Background: Surrogacy is one of the new techniques of assisted reproduction technology in which a woman carries and bears a child for another woman. In Iran, many Shia clerics and jurists considered it permissible so there is no religious prohibition for it. In addition to the risk of physical complications for complete surrogate mothers, the possibility of psychological complications resulted from emotional attachment to a living creature in the surrogate mother as another injury requires co...

  9. Human surrogate models of neuropathic pain: validity and limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binder, Andreas

    2016-02-01

    Human surrogate models of neuropathic pain in healthy subjects are used to study symptoms, signs, and the hypothesized underlying mechanisms. Although different models are available, different spontaneous and evoked symptoms and signs are inducible; 2 key questions need to be answered: are human surrogate models conceptually valid, ie, do they share the sensory phenotype of neuropathic pain states, and are they sufficiently reliable to allow consistent translational research?

  10. Magnetometer Response of Commonly Found Munitions Items and Munitions Surrogates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-12

    Predicted minimum magnetometer anomaly strength for a variety of munitions and surrogate items at a burial depth corresponding to 11x their respective...Response Live Site Demonstrations. The authors would like to thank Craig Murray of Parsons and Stephen Billings of Sky Research for their...variety of munitions and surrogate items at a burial depth corresponding to 11x their respective diameter. The sensor is assumed to be deployed as part

  11. Variation of Seismic Coda Wave Attenuation in the Garhwal Region, Northwestern Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Jayant N.; Singh, Priyamvada; Sharma, Mukat L.

    2012-01-01

    Seismic coda wave attenuation ( Q_{text{c}}^{ - 1} ) characteristics in the Garhwal region, northwestern Himalaya is studied using 113 short-period, vertical component seismic observations from local events with hypocentral distance less than 250 km and magnitude range between 1.0 to 4.0. They are located mainly in the vicinity of the Main Boundary Thrust (MBT) and the Main Central Thrust (MCT), which are well-defined tectonic discontinuities in the Himalayas. Coda wave attenuation ( Q_{text{c}}^{ - 1} ) is estimated using the single isotropic scattering method at central frequencies 1.5, 3, 5, 7, 9, 12, 16, 20, 24 and 28 Hz using several starting lapse times and coda window lengths for the analysis. Results show that the ( Q_{text{c}}^{ - 1} ) values are frequency dependent in the considered frequency range, and they fit the frequency power law ( Q_{text{c}}^{ - 1} left( f right) = Q0^{ - 1} f^{ - n} ). The Q 0 ( Q c at 1 Hz) estimates vary from about 50 for a 10 s lapse time and 10 s window length, to about 350 for a 60 s lapse time and 60 s window length combination. The exponent of the frequency dependence law, n ranges from 1.2 to 0.7; however, it is greater than 0.8, in general, which correlates well with the values obtained in other seismically and tectonically active and highly heterogeneous regions. The attenuation in the Garhwal region is found to be lower than the Q {c/-1} values obtained for other seismically active regions of the world; however, it is comparable to other regions of India. The spatial variation of coda attenuation indicates that the level of heterogeneity decreases with increasing depth. The variation of coda attenuation has been estimated for different lapse time and window length combinations to observe the effect with depth and it indicates that the upper lithosphere is more active seismically as compared to the lower lithosphere and the heterogeneity decreases with increasing depth.

  12. Quantifying sources, transport, deposition, and radiative forcing of black carbon over the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Rudong; Wang, Hailong; Qian, Yun; Rasch, Philip J.; Easter, Richard C.; Ma, Po-Lun; Singh, Balwinder; Huang, Jianping; Fu, Qiang

    2015-01-01

    Black carbon (BC)particles over the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau (HTP), both airborne and those deposited on snow, have been shown to affect snowmelt and glacier retreat. Since BC over the HTP may originate from a variety of geographical regions and emission sectors, it is essential to quantify the source-receptor relationships of BC in order to understand the contributions of natural and anthropogenic emissions and provide guidance for potential mitigation actions. In this study, we use the Community Atmosphere Model version 5 (CAM5) with a newly developed source tagging technique, nudged towards the MERRA meteorological reanalysis, to characterize the fate of BC particles emitted from various geographical regions and sectors. Evaluated against observations over the HTP and surrounding regions, the model simulation shows a good agreement in the seasonal variation of the near-surface airborne BC concentrations, providing confidence to use this modeling framework for characterizing BC source- receptor relationships. Our analysis shows that the relative contributions from different geographical regions and source sectors depend on seasons and the locations in the HTP. The largest contribution to annual mean BC burden and surface deposition in the entire HTP region is from biofuel and biomass (BB) emissions in South Asia, followed by fossil fuel (FF) emissions from South Asia, then FF from East Asia. The same roles hold for all the seasonal means except for the summer when East Asia FF becomes more important. For finer receptor regions of interest, South Asia BB and FF have the largest impact on BC in Himalayas and Central Tibetan Plateau, while East Asia FF and BB contribute the most to Northeast Plateau in all seasons and Southeast Plateau in the summer. Central Asia and Middle East FF emissions have relatively more important contributions to BC reaching Northwest Plateau, especially in the summer. Although the HTP local emissions only contribute about 10% of BC in

  13. Erodibility controls on the vertical and horizontal scalings of topography : a case study in the Himalayas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godard, V.; Steer, P.

    2011-12-01

    Understanding the scaling properties of topography in actively uplifting areas is a major issue in quantitative geomorphology. Analytical formulations of non-glaciated landscape evolution clearly demonstrate that metrics such as local relief or drainage density are explicitly related to the spatial distribution of tectonic uplift, precipitation, erodibility and local slope across the landscape. However, in most regions, these parameters are seldom documented with enough resolution and precision to allow a systematic and statistically significant investigation of their relationships with both horizontal and vertical scaling properties of topography. A notable exception is the Himalaya of central Nepal, where the last 20 years of tectonic and geomorphological research have produced one of the densest regional data-set and documented major gradients in uplift and precipitation across the range [e.g. Lavé and Avouac, 2001; Bookhagen and Burbank, 2006]. The purpose of our study is to use this data in order to develop a detailed investigation of the influence of the erodibility parameter in controlling the structure and texture of the landscape. We first build on the derivation of total catchment relief of Tucker and Whipple [2002] to include the contribution of precipitation in addition to uplift, erodibility. Then, by minimizing the misfit between observed and predicted catchment relief, we assess the erodibility parameter for each second or third order catchment in our area of investigation. The resultant erodibility map (1) matches the distribution of geological units and (2) reveals a number of interesting second order patterns, such as along-strike fluctuations in the Lesser Himalayas and a significant decrease in erodibility coincident with the location of the MCT zone. This latter result possibly highlights the effect of intense schistosity and fracturation on large scale erosion efficiency [Molnar et al., 2007]. Then to assess the influence of erodibility on

  14. Late Pleistocene-Holocene vegetation and Indian summer monsoon record from the Lahaul, Northwest Himalaya, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawat, Suman; Gupta, Anil K.; Sangode, S. J.; Srivastava, Priyeshu; Nainwal, H. C.

    2015-04-01

    The high resolution Holocene paleomonsoon records from Northwest (NW) Himalaya are limited. The carbon isotope (δ13C), Total organic carbon (TOC) and pollen analysis were therefore carried out from a peat-lake sediment sequence developed in alpine meadows of the Chandra valley, Lahaul, NW Himalaya, in order to reconstruct centennial to millennial scale vegetational changes and Indian summer monsoon (ISM) variability during the Holocene. The chronology of peat-lake sediments is constrained with 9 AMS 14C dates. The recovered non-arboreal pollen (NAP) suggested that during Holocene alpine desert-steppe, meadows and shrubs growing along the stream had developed in the Lahaul valley whereas arboreal pollens (AP) e.g. Pinus, Quercus, Cedrus and Ulmus presently growing in the southern hill slopes of Pir Panjal range indicated moisture carrying monsoonal air flow from the South. The increased δ13C and low TOC values between ∼12,880 and 11,640 calibrated years before present (cal yr BP) suggested weakening of ISM and low organic carbon production corresponding to the Younger Dryas (YD) cold event. The gradual depletion in carbon isotope ratio from ∼11,640 to 8810 cal yr BP indicated enhanced precipitation in the Chandra valley in response of increased ISM strength in early Holocene. The short spell of cold and dry climate with gradual decrease in ISM intensity between ca 10,398 and 9778 cal yr BP is closely linked with Bond event-7. The other prominent cold-dry events recorded in present study are (i) ∼8810 to 8117 cal yr BP roughly corresponding to global 8.2 ka cold event, (ii) ∼4808 to 4327 cal yr BP closely preceding the global 4.2 ka cold-arid period, and (iii) ∼1303 to 1609 cal AD corresponding to Little Ice Age (LIA) event. The expansion of thermophillous broad leaved taxa viz. Betula utilis, Alnus nepalensis, Quercus semicarpifolia and Juglans regia and effective growth of meadow vegetation such as grasses, Caryophyllaceae and Artemisia along with

  15. Deriving supraglacial debris thickness using satellite data on the Lirung Glacier in the Nepalese Himalayas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Lene; Schauwecker, Simone; Brock, Ben; Immerzeel, Walter; Pellicciotti, Francesca

    2013-04-01

    Glaciers with debris-covered ablation zones are widely present in mountain ranges such as the Alps, the Himalayas and the Andes. An expansion of rock debris-covered areas has been documented in recent decades. It is therefore increasingly important to take the effect of debris cover into account in glacio-hydrological modelling. Debris thickness is a key control on a glacier's energy balance and it governs the melt rate beneath debris, hence the estimation of debris extent and thickness is crucial to predict melt. Data on debris thickness are scarce on most glaciers and thus simplified assumptions are commonly used. In this study we test a new, recently developed physically based method to produce debris thickness maps from satellite imagery. The model is based on a solution of the energy balance equation at the debris surface to reconstruct debris thickness as a residual in each satellite pixel. This approach requires ASTER thermal images and reanalysis meteorological data and has the potential to map distribution of debris thickness without the need for detailed field data. In a previous study we tested the model for glaciers with different characteristics and in different climatic regions of the world. The validation of debris thickness, however, is problematic due to data scarcity, the inhomogeneous debris distribution and the resolution of the ASTER product (90 m). The standard application of the model seems to work for glaciers for which debris characteristics such as the effective conductivity are known and reanalysis data are representative. In this study we additionally test the approach with a recently collected data set over the Lirung glacier in the Nepalese Himalayas, where initial application of the remote sensing method using reanalysis data led to a significant underestimation of debris thickness. Extensive field data were collected from May to October 2012 consisting of data from an AWS, spatially distributed air and surface temperature, effective

  16. Numerical investigation for erratic behavior of Kriging surrogate model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Hyun Gil; Yi, Seul Gi [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Seong Im [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg (United States)

    2014-09-15

    Kriging model is one of popular spatial/temporal interpolation models in engineering field since it could reduce the time resources for the expensive analysis. But generation of the Kriging model is hardly a sinecure because internal semi-variogram structure of the Kriging often reveals numerically unstable or erratic behaviors. In present study, the issues in the maximum likelihood estimation which are the vital-parts of the construction of the Kriging model, is investigated. These issues are divided into two aspects; Issue I is for the erratic response of likelihood function itself, and Issue II is for numerically unstable behaviors in the correlation matrix. For both issues, studies for specific circumstances which might raise the issue, and the reason of that are conducted. Some practical ways further are suggested to cope with them. Furthermore, the issue is studied for practical problem; aerodynamic performance coefficients of two-dimensional airfoil predicted by CFD analysis. Result shows that such erratic behavior of Kriging surrogate model can be effectively resolved by proposed solution. In conclusion, it is expected this paper could be helpful to prevent such an erratic and unstable behavior.

  17. Financial Surrogate Decision Making: Lessons from Applied Experimental Philosophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feltz, Adam

    2016-09-20

    An estimated 1 in 4 elderly Americans need a surrogate to make decisions at least once in their lives. With an aging population, that number is almost certainly going to increase. This paper focuses on financial surrogate decision making. To illustrate some of the empirical and moral implications associated with financial surrogate decision making, two experiments suggest that default choice settings can predictably influence some surrogate financial decision making. Experiment 1 suggested that when making hypothetical financial decisions, surrogates tended to stay with default settings (OR = 4.37, 95% CI 1.52, 12.48). Experiment 2 replicated and extended this finding suggesting that in a different context (OR = 2.27, 95% CI 1.1, 4.65). Experiment 2 also suggested that those who were more numerate were less likely to be influenced by default settings than the less numerate, but only when the decision is whether to "opt in" (p = .05). These data highlight the importance of a recent debate about "nudging." Defaults are common methods to nudge people to make desirable choices while allowing the liberty to choose otherwise. Some of the ethics of using default settings to nudge surrogate decision makers are discussed.

  18. Reliability-based design optimization with progressive surrogate models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanakasabai, Pugazhendhi; Dhingra, Anoop K.

    2014-12-01

    Reliability-based design optimization (RBDO) has traditionally been solved as a nested (bilevel) optimization problem, which is a computationally expensive approach. Unilevel and decoupled approaches for solving the RBDO problem have also been suggested in the past to improve the computational efficiency. However, these approaches also require a large number of response evaluations during optimization. To alleviate the computational burden, surrogate models have been used for reliability evaluation. These approaches involve construction of surrogate models for the reliability computation at each point visited by the optimizer in the design variable space. In this article, a novel approach to solving the RBDO problem is proposed based on a progressive sensitivity surrogate model. The sensitivity surrogate models are built in the design variable space outside the optimization loop using the kriging method or the moving least squares (MLS) method based on sample points generated from low-discrepancy sampling (LDS) to estimate the most probable point of failure (MPP). During the iterative deterministic optimization, the MPP is estimated from the surrogate model for each design point visited by the optimizer. The surrogate sensitivity model is also progressively updated for each new iteration of deterministic optimization by adding new points and their responses. Four example problems are presented showing the relative merits of the kriging and MLS approaches and the overall accuracy and improved efficiency of the proposed approach.

  19. Seismicity of the Earth 1900–2010 Himalaya and vicinity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Bethan; Jenkins, Jennifer; Turner, Rebecca; Parker, Amy; Sinclair, Alison; Davies, Sian; Hayes, Gavin P.; Villaseñor, Antonio; Dart, Rirchard L.; Tarr, Arthur C.; Furlong, Kevin P.; Benz, Harley M.

    2013-01-01

    Seismicity in the Himalaya region predominantly results from the collision of the India and Eurasia continental plates, which are converging at a relative rate of 40–50 mm/yr. Northward underthrusting of India beneath Eurasia generates numerous earthquakes and consequently makes this area one of the most seismically hazardous regions on Earth. The surface expression of the plate boundary is marked by the foothills of the north-south trending Sulaiman Range in the west, the Indo-Burmese Arc in the east, and the east-west trending Himalaya Front in the north of India. Along the western margin of the India plate, relative motions between India and Eurasia are accommodated by strike-slip, reverse, and oblique-slip faulting resulting in the complex Sulaiman Range fold and thrust belt, and the major translational Chaman Fault in Afghanistan. Beneath the Pamir‒Hindu Kush Mountains of northern Afghanistan, earthquakes occur to depths as great as 200 km as a result of remnant lithospheric subduction. Further north again, the Tian Shan is a seismically active intra-continental mountain belt defined by a series of east-west trending thrust faults thought to be related to the broad footprint of the India-Eurasia collision. Tectonics in northern India are dominated by motion along the Main Frontal Thrust and associated thrust faults of the India-Eurasia plate boundary, which have resulted in a series of large and devastating earthquakes in (and prior to) the 20th century. The Tibetan Plateau to the north of the main plate boundary is a broad region of uplift associated with the India-Eurasia collision, and is cut by a series of generally east-west trending strike-slip faults. These include the Kunlun, Haiyuan, and the Altyn Tagh faults, all of which are left-lateral structures, and the Kara-Koram right-lateral fault. Throughout the plateau, thrust faults accommodate the north-south compressional component of crustal shortening associated with the ongoing collision of India

  20. Glacial lakes amplify glacier recession in the central Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Owen; Quincey, Duncan; Carrivick, Jonathan; Rowan, Ann

    2016-04-01

    The high altitude and high latitude regions of the world are amongst those which react most intensely to climatic change. Across the Himalaya glacier mass balance is predominantly negative. The spatial and temporal complexity associated with this ice loss across different glacier clusters is poorly documented however, and our understanding of the processes driving change is limited. Here, we look at the spatial variability of glacier hypsometry and glacial mass loss from three catchments in the central Himalaya; the Dudh Koshi basin, Tama Koshi basin and an adjoining section of the Tibetan Plateau. ASTER and SETSM digital elevation models (2014/15), corrected for elevation dependant biases, co-registration errors and along or cross track tilts, are differenced from Shuttle Radar Topographic Mission (SRTM) data (2000) to yield surface lowering estimates. Landsat data and a hypsometric index (HI), a classification scheme used to group glaciers of similar hypsometry, are used to examine the distribution of glacier area with altitude in each catchment. Surface lowering rates of >3 m/yr can be detected on some glaciers, generally around the clean-ice/debris-cover boundary, where dark but thin surface deposits are likely to enhance ablation. More generally, surface lowering rates of around 1 m/yr are more pervasive, except around the terminus areas of most glaciers, emphasising the influence of a thick debris cover on ice melt. Surface lowering is only concentrated at glacier termini where glacial lakes have developed, where surface lowering rates are commonly greater than 2.5 m/yr. The three catchments show contrasting hypsometric distributions, which is likely to impact their future response to climatic changes. Glaciers of the Dudh Koshi basin store large volumes of ice at low elevation (HI > 1.5) in long, debris covered tongues, although their altitudinal range is greatest given the height of mountain peaks in the catchment. In contrast, glaciers of the Tama Koshi

  1. Changes in Rongbuk lake and Imja lake in the Everest region of Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, W.; Doko, T.; Liu, C.; Ichinose, T.; Fukui, H.; Feng, Q.; Gou, P.

    2014-12-01

    The Himalaya holds the world record in terms of range and elevation. It is one of the most extensively glacierized regions in the world except the Polar Regions. The Himalaya is a region sensitive to climate change. Changes in the glacial regime are indicators of global climate changes. Since the second half of the last century, most Himalayan glaciers have melted due to climate change. These changes directly affected the changes of glacial lakes in the Himalayan region due to the glacier retreat. New glacial lakes are formed, and a number of them have expanded in the Everest region of the Himalayas. This paper focuses on the two glacial lakes which are Imja Lake, located at the southern slope, and Rongbuk Lake, located at the northern slope in the Mt. Everest region, Himalaya to present the spatio-temporal changes from 1976 to 2008. Topographical conditions between two lakes were different (Kruskal-Wallis test, p Lake was located at 623 m higher than Imja Lake, and radiation of Rongbuk Lake was higher than the Imja Lake. Although size of Imja Lake was larger than the Rongbuk Lake in 2008, the growth speed of Rongbuk Lake was accelerating since 2000 and exceeds Imja Lake in 2000-2008. This trend of expansion of Rongbuk Lake is anticipated to be continued in the 21st century. Rongbuk Lake would be the biggest potential risk of glacial lake outburst flood (GLOF) at the Everest region of Himalaya in the future.

  2. Precipitation and snow cover in the Himalaya: from reanalysis to regional climate simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ménégoz

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available We applied a Regional Climate Model (RCM to simulate precipitation and snow cover over the Himalaya, between March 2000 and December 2002. Due to its higher resolution, our model simulates a more realistic spatial variability of wind and precipitation than those of the reanalysis of the European Centre of Medium range Weather Forecast (ECMWF used as lateral boundaries. In this region, we found very large discrepancies between the estimations of precipitation provided by reanalysis, rain gauges networks, satellite observations, and our RCM simulation. Our model clearly underestimates precipitation at the foothills of the Himalaya and in its eastern part. However, our simulation provides a first estimation of liquid and solid precipitation in high altitude areas, where satellite and rain gauge networks are not very reliable. During the two years of simulation, our model resembles the snow cover extent and duration quite accurately in these areas. Both snow accumulation and snow cover duration differ widely along the Himalaya: snowfall can occur during the whole year in western Himalaya, due to both summer monsoon and mid-latitude low pressure systems bringing moisture into this region. In Central Himalaya and on the Tibetan Plateau, a much more marked dry season occurs from October to March. Snow cover does not have a pronounced seasonal cycle in these regions, since it depends both on the quite variable duration of the monsoon and on the rare but possible occurrence of snowfall during the extra-monsoon period.

  3. Beyond multi-fractals: surrogate time series and fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venema, V.; Simmer, C.

    2007-12-01

    Most natural complex are characterised by variability on a large range of temporal and spatial scales. The two main methodologies to generate such structures are Fourier/FARIMA based algorithms and multifractal methods. The former is restricted to Gaussian data, whereas the latter requires the structure to be self-similar. This work will present so-called surrogate data as an alternative that works with any (empirical) distribution and power spectrum. The best-known surrogate algorithm is the iterative amplitude adjusted Fourier transform (IAAFT) algorithm. We have studied six different geophysical time series (two clouds, runoff of a small and a large river, temperature and rain) and their surrogates. The power spectra and consequently the 2nd order structure functions were replicated accurately. Even the fourth order structure function was more accurately reproduced by the surrogates as would be possible by a fractal method, because the measured structure deviated too strong from fractal scaling. Only in case of the daily rain sums a fractal method could have been more accurate. Just as Fourier and multifractal methods, the current surrogates are not able to model the asymmetric increment distributions observed for runoff, i.e., they cannot reproduce nonlinear dynamical processes that are asymmetric in time. Furthermore, we have found differences for the structure functions on small scales. Surrogate methods are especially valuable for empirical studies, because the time series and fields that are generated are able to mimic measured variables accurately. Our main application is radiative transfer through structured clouds. Like many geophysical fields, clouds can only be sampled sparsely, e.g. with in-situ airborne instruments. However, for radiative transfer calculations we need full 3-dimensional cloud fields. A first study relating the measured properties of the cloud droplets and the radiative properties of the cloud field by generating surrogate cloud

  4. Seasonal dynamics of ichthyodiversity in a hill stream of the Darjeeling Himalaya, West Bengal, india

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.L. Acharjee

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The small torrential spring-fed hill-stream Relli in the Darjeeling Himalaya of West Bengal was studied from March 2007 to February 2009 to assess seasonal dynamics and diversity of fish populations.  The study revealed that the stream sustained 25 rheophilic cold water fish species from 15 genera and five families having ornamental, food and sport value.  Seven omnivorous species were abundantly found, and the array of juveniles and sub adults suggests this stream is used as a breeding and nursery ground for some species.  The stream harboured fish with unique modifications such as adhesive structures.  Analysis of monthly data indicate that abundance and diversity indices increased slightly during April–May and sharply during October–November, indicating significant seasonal variations with the low diversity observed during monsoon months reflecting environmental stresses.  Evenness was high in all sampling sites, and inversely related to the dominance index of ichthyofauna.  The density and diversity of fish assemblages along the gradient of the stream may be interrupted due to anthropogenic disturbances.  Our study provides baseline data which may be helpful for conservation and management of fish species, and in formulating fishery policy. 

  5. Crustal Structure of the Pakistan Himalayas from Ambient Noise and Seismic Rayleigh Wave Inversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, A.

    2007-05-01

    The western Himalayan syntaxi is a unique feature resulted from the India-Asia collision and its formation remains poorly understood. To image crustal structure in the western syntaxi, we analyze Rayleigh waves from ambient seismic noise and earthquake data recorded during the Pakistan Broadband Seismic Experiment. The Pakistan experiment included 9 broadband stations with an aperture of ~200 km and operated from September to December in 1992. We compute cross-correlations of ambient noise data on an hourly base and stack all the cross-correlations for 70 days to produce the estimated Green functions. Power spectrum analysis shows that the dominant energy is from 0.15 to 0.25 Hz and from 0.05 to 0.07 Hz, consistent with the well-know background seismic noise. A phase with large amplitude appears at near zero time on almost all stacked cross- correlations and its origin is not clear to us at this moment. Rayleigh waves can be clearly observed for station pairs at the distance of 80 km and larger but are contaminated by the near zero time phase at shorter station spacing. Rayleigh wave phase velocities at periods of 4 to 15 s will be produced from the ambient noise data. Using regional and teleseismic earthquakes, we expect to obtain Rayleigh wave dispersions at periods from 15 to 50 s. The phase velocities from both datasets will be inverted for crustal thickness and shear-wave structure beneath the Pakistan Himalayas.

  6. Soil quality index as affected by different cropping systems in northwestern Himalayas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofi, J A; Bhat, A G; Kirmai, N A; Wani, J A; Lone, Aabid H; Ganie, Mumtaz A; Dar, G I H

    2016-03-01

    Soil quality assessment provides a tool for evaluating the sustainability of soils under different crop cafeterias. Our objective was to develop the soil quality index for evaluating the soil quality indicators under different cropping systems in northwest Himalaya-India. Composite soil samples were taken from the study area from different cropping systems which include T1 (forest soil control), T2 (rice-oilseed, lower belts), T3 (rice-oilseed, higher belts), T4 (rice-oats), T5 (rice-fallow), T6 (maize-oats), T7 (maize-peas), T8 (apple), T9 (apple-beans), and T10 (apple-maize). Physical, chemical, and biological soil indicators were determined, and it was found that soil enzyme activities involved in nutrient cycling were significantly higher in forest soils, which were reflected in higher levels of available pool of nutrients. Carbon stocks were found significantly higher in forest soil which was translated in improved soil physical condition. Principal component analysis (PCA) was performed to reduce multidimensionality of data followed by scoring by homothetic transformation of the selected indicators. Pearson's interclass correlation was performed to avoid redundancy, and highly correlated variables were not retained. Inclusion of legumes in the apple orchard floor recorded highest soil quality rating across the treatments. Cereal-based cropping systems were found in lower soil quality rating; however, the incorporation of peas in the system improved soil health.

  7. Spatial variation of seismic b-values across the NW Himalaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandrani Singh

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The frequency–magnitude distribution is investigated along the entire north-western Himalaya (28°–36°N; 72°–81°E. The analysis includes a complete set of 1819 earthquakes of Mb ≥ 2.9 taken from the International Seismological Catalogue (ISC bulletin which occurred between 1964 and 2010. The study area has been divided into three blocks (A, B and C that include the Kashmir, Kangra–Chamba and Garhwal–Kumaun segments, respectively. The b-value of each block has been determined to see the disparity among the different segments. A comprehensive study of the spatial mapping of frequency–magnitude distribution is also made for the whole area. Significant variations in the b-value are detected with b ranging from b ≈ 0.6 to 1.3. The study shows that the accumulated stresses are high at the Kumaun as well as in the Kangra–Chamba region which may indicate the possibility of future large earthquakes at these locations.

  8. A Study on the nature of genetic divergence in rice from assam and North East Himalayas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vairavan, S; Siddiq, E A; Arunachalam, V; Swaminathan, M S

    1973-01-01

    A representative group of 190 rice types collected from North-East India along with four standard varieties, three of which were indicas and one japonica, was studied to understand the nature of genetic divergence. Preliminary grouping was done by canonical analysis and the resultant 42 groups were further classified using the D(2) statistic.The final grouping resulted in nine divergent clusters. The three indica standards were found in three different clusters indicating the wide available variability among them. The japonica standard formed a separate group by itself. A majority of the North-East Indian types formed clusters with indicas, whereas some were intermediate and still others were closer to japonica or indica, thus indicating a series of intergrades bridging indica and japonica.Height followed by leaf area was found to be important for primary and 100-grain weight, followed by amylose content for secondary differentiation. It appears that natural selection as well as human selection might have operated for characters differentiating rice types in Assam and North Eastern Himalayas. Geographical distance was not found to be related to genetic divergence. The study suggests that O. sativa contains innumerable but divergent forms, and its classification into definite varietal groups on an arbitrary basis such as isolation barrier, sexual affinity or geographic distribution would be far from reality.

  9. Kocuria himachalensis sp. nov., an actinobacterium isolated from the Indian Himalayas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayilraj, S; Kroppenstedt, R M; Suresh, K; Saini, H S

    2006-08-01

    A reddish orange bacterium, strain K07-05(T), was isolated from soil during a study of the bacterial diversity of a cold desert of the Indian Himalayas and was studied by using a polyphasic approach. The organism had morphological and chemotaxonomic properties consistent with its classification in the genus Kocuria. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence showed that strain K07-05(T) was closely related to Kocuria rosea DSM 20447(T) and Kocuria polaris MTCC 3702(T) (98.1 and 97.8 % sequence similarity, respectively), whereas the sequence similarity values with respect to the other Kocuria species with validly published names were between 96.4 and 94.2 %. However, the genomic relatedness, as shown by DNA-DNA hybridization, of strain K07-05(T) and K. polaris MTCC 3702(T) is 49.5 % and that with K. rosea MTCC 2522(T) is 24.0 %. The DNA G+C content of the strain is 75.3 mol%. The above data in combination with the phenotypic distinctiveness of K07-05(T) clearly indicate that the strain represents a novel species, for which the name Kocuria himachalensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is K07-05(T) (=MTCC 7020(T)=DSM 44905(T)=JCM 13326(T)).

  10. Rhodobacter changlensis sp. nov., a psychrotolerant, phototrophic alphaproteobacterium from the Himalayas of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anil Kumar, P; Srinivas, T N R; Sasikala, Ch; Ramana, Ch V

    2007-11-01

    A Gram-negative, non-motile, oval to rod-shaped, psychrotolerant, phototrophic, purple non-sulfur bacterium (designated strain JA139T) was isolated from a snow sample from Changla Pass in the Indian Himalayas. Strain JA139T had vesicular-type intracytoplasmic membrane structures and contained bacteriochlorophyll a and most probably spheroidene-like carotenoids. Biotin, niacin and thiamine were required for growth of strain JA139T. Phylogenetic analysis on the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the strain clustered with species of the genus Rhodobacter but was distinctly separate from all recognized members of the family Rhodobacteraceae. Based on the genotypic and phenotypic differences observed between strain JA139T and recognized Rhodobacter species, strain JA139T is considered to represent a novel species of the genus, for which the name Rhodobacter changlensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is JA139T (=DSM 18774T=CCUG 53722T=JCM 14338T).

  11. Bioprospecting of plant growth promoting psychrotrophic Bacilli from the cold desert of north western Indian Himalayas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Ajar Nath; Sachan, Shashwati Ghosh; Verma, Priyanka; Saxena, Anil Kumar

    2016-02-01

    The plant growth promoting psychrotrophic Bacilli were investigated from different sites in north western Indian Himalayas. A total of 247 morphotypes were obtained from different soil and water samples and were grouped into 43 clusters based on 16S rDNA-RFLP analysis with three restriction endonucleases. Sequencing of representative isolates has revealed that these 43 Bacilli belonged to different species of 11 genera viz., Desemzia, Exiguobacterium, Jeotgalicoccus, Lysinibacillus, Paenibacillus, Planococcus, Pontibacillus, Sinobaca, Sporosarcina, Staphylococcus and Virgibacillus. With an aim to develop microbial inoculants that can perform efficiently at low temperatures, all representative isolates were screened for different plant growth promoting traits at low temperatures (5-15 degrees C). Among the strains, variations were observed for production (%) of indole-3-acetic acid (20), ammonia (19), siderophores (11), gibberellic acid (4) and hydrogen cyanide (2); solubilisation (%) of zinc (14), phosphate (13) and potassium (7); 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase activity (6%) and biocontrol activity (4%) against Rhizoctonia solani and Macrophomina phaseolina. Among all the strains, Bacillus licheniformis, Bacillus muralis, Desemzia incerta, Paenibacillus tylopili and Sporosarcina globispora were found to be potent candidates to be developed as inoculants as they exhibited multiple PGP traits at low temperature.

  12. Seasonal Variation in Essential oil Composition of Artemisianilagirica var. septentrionalis from Foot Hills of Western Himalaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajendra Chandra Padalia

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Essential oils composition of the aerial parts of Artemisia nilagirica (Clarke Pamp. var. septentrionalis Pamp. in different seasons viz. spring, summer, rainy, autumn and winter seasons under foot hills agroclimatic conditions of western Himalaya were analyzed and compared by GC–FID and GC–MS. Essential oils were mainly composed of monoterpenoids (59.0%-77.3% and sesquiterpenoids (15.7%-31.6%. The major constituents identified were artemisia ketone (38.3%-61.2%, chrysanthenone (1.5%-7.7%, germacrene D (3.1%-6.8%, β-caryophyllene (1.9%-6.8%, germacra-4,5,10-trien-1-α-ol (1.9%-4.9% and artemisia alcohol (1.4%-3.6%. Compositional analysis showed significant variations in the terpenoid compositions due to seasonal variations. Further, this is for the first time the seasonal variations in essential oil compositions of artemisia ketone rich chemotype of A. nilagirica var. septentrionalis is being reported from India.

  13. Earthquake precursory research in western Himalaya based on the multi-parametric geophysical observatory data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Naresh; Rawat, Gautam; Choubey, Vinay; Hazarika, Devajit

    2013-08-01

    The opening of cracks and influx of fluids in the dilatancy zone of impending earthquake is expected to induce short-term changes in physical/chemical/hydrological properties during earthquake build-up cycle, which should be reflected in time-varying geophysical fields. With this rationale, eleven geophysical parameters are being recorded in continuous mode at the Multi-Parametric Geophysical Observatory (MPGO), in Ghuttu, Garhwal Himalaya, for earthquake precursory research. The critical analysis of various geophysical time series indicates anomalous behavior at few occasions; however, the data is also influenced by many external forces. These external influences are the major deterrent for the isolation of precursory signals. The recent work is focused on the data adoptive techniques to estimate and eliminate effects of solar-terrestrial and hydrological/environmental factors for delimiting the data to identify short-term precursors. Although any significant earthquake is not reported close to the observatory, some weak precursory signals and coseismic changes have been identified in few parameters related to the occurrence of moderate and strong earthquakes.

  14. Optical Remote Sensing of Glacier Characteristics: A Review with Focus on the Himalaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger G. Barry

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The increased availability of remote sensing platforms with appropriate spatial and temporal resolution, global coverage and low financial costs allows for fast, semi-automated, and cost-effective estimates of changes in glacier parameters over large areas. Remote sensing approaches allow for regular monitoring of the properties of alpine glaciers such as ice extent, terminus position, volume and surface elevation, from which glacier mass balance can be inferred. Such methods are particularly useful in remote areas with limited field-based glaciological measurements. This paper reviews advances in the use of visible and infrared remote sensing combined with field methods for estimating glacier parameters, with emphasis on volume/area changes and glacier mass balance. The focus is on the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER sensor and its applicability for monitoring Himalayan glaciers. The methods reviewed are: volumetric changes inferred from digital elevation models (DEMs, glacier delineation algorithms from multi-spectral analysis, changes in glacier area at decadal time scales, and AAR/ELA methods used to calculate yearly mass balances. The current limitations and on-going challenges in using remote sensing for mapping characteristics of mountain glaciers also discussed, specifically in the context of the Himalaya.

  15. Tourists’ Satisfaction at Trijuginarayan: An Emerging Spiritual and Adventure Tourist Destination in Garhwal Himalaya India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.C. Bagri

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Tourists’ satisfaction has been acknowledged as one of the most important elements of competitive advantage and formulating effective destination management strategies because it is a reliable standard to evaluate performance of tangible and intangible elements of tourism products and services. The purpose of this study is to investigate tourists’ satisfaction by examining the relationship between destination attribute importance and performance in a tourist destination. Trijuginarayan, an emerging spiritual and adventure tourist destination located in Garhwal Himalaya in Uttarakhand state of India was selected as the study area for this research. Importance-Performance Analysis was employed to examine the relationship between importance and performance of various destination attributes. Results revealed that attributes related to tourism product of spiritual and cultural nature, atmosphere and climate, a variety of tourist activities, hospitality and safety are significant factors in determining tourist satisfaction, whereas basic facilities such as accommodation, transportation, tourism infrastructure and hygiene and sanitation at destination are of significant importance in satisfaction evaluation. Findings also reveal that tourists were satisfied with the core products, but were dissatisfied with basic tourist facilities offered at the destination. The findings alert concerned tourism stakeholders for outlining effective strategies for holistic development and improving performance of attributes in a given destination.

  16. Flame chemistry of alkane-rich gasoline fuels and a surrogate using photoionization mass spectrometry: I. Primary reference fuel

    KAUST Repository

    Selim, H.

    2015-03-30

    Improving the gasoline engines performance requires thorough understanding of their fundamental chemistry of combustion. Since the actual gasoline fuels are difficult to examine, due to the lack of knowledge about their exact composition as well as their numerous fuel components, the approach of using simpler gasoline fuels with limited number of components or using surrogate fuels has become more common. In this study, the combustion chemistry of laminar premixed flame of different gasoline fuels/surrogate has been examined. In this particular paper, the primary reference fuel, PRF84, has been examined at equivalence ratio of 1 and pressure of 20 Torr. The gas analysis was conducted using vacuum ultraviolet photoionization mass spectrometry.

  17. Neutron capture surrogate reaction on 75As in inverse kinematics using (d,pγ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith M.S.

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The 75As(d,pγ reaction in inverse kinematics as a surrogate for neutron capture was performed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory using a deuterated plastic target. The intensity of the 165 keV γ-ray from 76As in coincidence with ejected protons, from exciting 76As above the neutron separation energy populating a compound state, was measured. A tight geometry of four segmented germanium clover γ-ray detectors together with eight ORRUBA-type silicon-strip charged-particle detectors was used to optimize geometric acceptance. The preliminary analysis of the 75As experiment, and the eïňČcacy and future plans of the (d,pγ surrogate campaign in inverse kinematics, are discussed.

  18. Neutron capture surrogate reaction on 75As in inverse kinematics using (d,pγ)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, W. A.; Cizewski, J. A.; Hatarik, R.; O'Malley, P. D.; Jones, K. L.; Schmitt, K.; Moazen, B. H.; Chae, K. Y.; Pittman, S. T.; Kozub, R. L.; Vieira, D.; Jandel, M.; Wilhelmy, J. B.; Matei, C.; Escher, J.; Bardayan, D. W.; Pain, S. D.; Smith, M. S.

    2010-03-01

    The 75As(d,pγ) reaction in inverse kinematics as a surrogate for neutron capture was performed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory using a deuterated plastic target. The intensity of the 165 keV γ-ray from 76As in coincidence with ejected protons, from exciting 76As above the neutron separation energy populating a compound state, was measured. A tight geometry of four segmented germanium clover γ-ray detectors together with eight ORRUBA-type silicon-strip charged-particle detectors was used to optimize geometric acceptance. The preliminary analysis of the 75As experiment, and the efficacy and future plans of the (d,pγ) surrogate campaign in inverse kinematics, are discussed.

  19. Neutron Capture Surrogate Reaction on 75As in Inverse Kinematics Using (d,p(gamma))

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, W A; Cizewski, J A; Hatarik, R; O?Malley, P D; Jones, K L; Schmitt, K; Moazen, B H; Chae, K Y; Pittman, S T; Kozub, R L; Vieira, D; Jandel, M; Wilhelmy, J B; Matei, C; Escher, J; Bardayan, D W; Pain, S D; Smith, M S

    2009-11-09

    The {sup 75}As(d,p{gamma}) reaction in inverse kinematics as a surrogate for neutron capture was performed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory using a deuterated plastic target. The intensity of the 165 keV {gamma}-ray from {sup 76}As in coincidence with ejected protons, from exciting {sup 76}As above the neutron separation energy populating a compound state, was measured. A tight geometry of four segmented germanium clover {gamma}-ray detectors together with eight ORRUBA-type silicon-strip charged-particle detectors was used to optimize geometric acceptance. The preliminary analysis of the {sup 75}As experiment, and the efficacy and future plans of the (d,p{gamma}) surrogate campaign in inverse kinematics, are discussed.

  20. Neutron capture surrogate reaction on 75As in inverse kinematics using (d,p )

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, W. A. [Rutgers University; Cizewski, J. A. [Rutgers University; Hatarik, Robert [Rutgers University; O' Malley, Patrick [Rutgers University; Jones, K. L. [University of Tennessee; Schmitt, Kyle [University of Tennessee; Moazen, Brian [University of Tennessee; Chae, K. Y. [University of Tennessee; Pittman, S. T. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Kozub, R. L. [Tennessee Technological University; Vieira, D. J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Jandel, M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Wilhelmy, J. B. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Matei, Catalin [Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU); Escher, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Bardayan, Daniel W [ORNL; Pain, Steven D [ORNL; Smith, Michael Scott [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    The 75As(d,p ) reaction in inverse kinematics as a surrogate for neutron capture was performed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory using a deuterated plastic target. The intensity of the 165 keV -ray from 76As in coincidence with ejected protons, from exciting 76As above the neutron separation energy populating a compound state, was measured. A tight geometry of four segmented germanium clover -ray detectors together with eight ORRUBA-type silicon-strip charged-particle detectors were used to optimize geometric acceptance. The preliminary analysis of the 75As experiment and the ecacy and future plans of the (d,p ) surrogate campaign in inverse kinematics are discussed.

  1. Pros and cons of analytical methods to quantify surrogate contaminants from the challenge test in recycled polyethylene terephthalate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felix, Juliana S., E-mail: jfelix@unizar.es [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Aragon Institute of Engineering Research (I3A), CPS, University of Zaragoza, Torres Quevedo Bldg., Maria de Luna St. 3, E-50018 Zaragoza (Spain); Alfaro, Pilar, E-mail: palfarot@unizar.es [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Aragon Institute of Engineering Research (I3A), CPS, University of Zaragoza, Torres Quevedo Bldg., Maria de Luna St. 3, E-50018 Zaragoza (Spain); Nerin, Cristina, E-mail: cnerin@unizar.es [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Aragon Institute of Engineering Research (I3A), CPS, University of Zaragoza, Torres Quevedo Bldg., Maria de Luna St. 3, E-50018 Zaragoza (Spain)

    2011-02-14

    Different analytical methods were optimized and applied to quantify certain surrogate contaminants (toluene, chlorobenzene, phenol, limonene and benzophenone) in samples of contaminated and recycled flakes and virgin pellets of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) coming from the industrial challenge test. A screening analysis of the PET samples was carried out by direct solid-phase microextraction (SPME) in headspace mode (HS). The methods developed and used for quantitative analysis were a) total dissolution of PET samples in dichloroacetic acid and analysis by HS-SPME coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and, b) dichloromethane extraction and analysis by GC-MS. The concentration of all surrogates in the contaminated PET flakes analyzed by HS-SPME method was lower than expected according to information provided by the supplier. Dichloroacetic acid interacted with the surrogates, resulting in a tremendous decrease of limonene concentration. The degradation compounds from limonene were identified. Dichloromethane extraction and GC-MS analysis evidenced the highest values of analytes in these PET samples. Based on the foregoing data, the efficiency of the recycling process was evaluated, whereby the removal of 99.9% of the surrogates proceeding from the contaminated flakes was confirmed.

  2. Surrogate endpoints for EDSS worsening in multiple sclerosis. A meta-analytic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sormani, M P; Bonzano, L; Roccatagliata, L; Mancardi, G L; Uccelli, A; Bruzzi, P

    2010-07-27

    To evaluate whether the effects on potential surrogate endpoints, such as MRI markers and relapses, observed in trials of experimental treatments are able to predict the effects of these treatments on disability progression as defined in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) trials. We used a pooled analysis of all the published randomized controlled clinical trials in RRMS reporting data on Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) worsening and relapses or MRI lesions or both. We extracted data on relapses, MRI lesions, and the proportion of progressing patients. A regression analysis weighted on trial size and duration was performed to study the relationship between the treatment effect observed in each trial on relapses and MRI lesions and the observed treatment effect on EDSS worsening. A set of 19 randomized double-blind controlled trials in RRMS were identified, for a total of 44 arms, 25 contrasts, and 10,009 patients. A significant correlation was found between the effect of treatments on relapses and the effect of treatments on EDSS worsening: the adjusted R(2) value of the weighted regression was 0.71. The correlation between the treatment effect on MRI lesions and EDSS worsening was slightly weaker (R(2) = 0.57) but significant. These findings support the use of commonly used surrogate markers of EDSS worsening as endpoints in multiple sclerosis clinical trials. Further research is warranted to validate surrogate endpoints at the individual level rather than at the trial level, to draw important conclusions in the management of the individual patient.

  3. Development of Depletion Code Surrogate Models for Uncertainty Propagation in Scenario Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krivtchik, Guillaume; Coquelet-Pascal, Christine; Blaise, Patrick; Garzenne, Claude; Le Mer, Joël; Freynet, David

    2014-06-01

    The result of transition scenario studies, which enable the comparison of different options of the reactor fleet evolution and management of the future fuel cycle materials, allow to perform technical and economic feasibility studies. The COSI code is developed by CEA and used to perform scenario calculations. It allows to model any fuel type, reactor fleet, fuel facility, and permits the tracking of U, Pu, minor actinides and fission products nuclides on a large time scale. COSI is coupled with the CESAR code which performs the depletion calculations based on one-group cross-section libraries and nuclear data. Different types of uncertainties have an impact on scenario studies: nuclear data and scenario assumptions. Therefore, it is necessary to evaluate their impact on the major scenario results. The methodology adopted to propagate these uncertainties throughout the scenario calculations is a stochastic approach. Considering the amount of inputs to be sampled in order to perform a stochastic calculation of the propagated uncertainty, it appears necessary to reduce the calculation time. Given that evolution calculations represent approximately 95% of the total scenario simulation time, an optimization can be done, with the development and implementation of a surrogate models library of CESAR in COSI. The input parameters of CESAR are sampled with URANIE, the CEA uncertainty platform, and for every sample, the isotopic composition after evolution evaluated with CESAR is stored. Then statistical analysis of the input and output tables allow to model the behavior of CESAR on each CESAR library, i.e. building a surrogate model. Several quality tests are performed on each surrogate model to insure the prediction power is satisfying. Afterward, a new routine implemented in COSI reads these surrogate models and using them in replacement of CESAR calculations. A preliminary study of the calculation time gain shows that the use of surrogate models allows stochastic

  4. Protected Gold Nanoparticles with Thioethers and Amines As Surrogate Ligands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rafiq H. Siddiqui

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Dodecyl sulfide, dodecyl amine, and hexylamine were shown to act as surrogate ligands (L via metastable gold nanoparticles. By collating analytical and spectroscopic data obtained simultaneously, empirical formula Au24L was assigned. These impurity-free nanoparticles obtained in near quantitative yields showing exceptional gold assays (up to 98%Au were prepared by a modification of the two-phase method. Replacement reactions on the Au24L showed that Au:L ratios may be increased (up to Au55:L (L= (H25C122S or decreased (Au12:L (L= H2NC12H25 and H2NC6H13 as desired. This work encompassing the role of analytical techniques used, that is, elemental analysis, variable temperature 1H NMR, FAB mass spectrometry, UV-Vis spectroscopy, thin film X-ray diffraction, and high-resolution electron microscopy (HREM has implications in the study of size control, purity, stability, and metal assays of gold nanoparticles.

  5. Investigation of ethosomes as surrogate carriers for bioactives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devina Verma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ethosomal vesicular system delivering a bioactive phytochemical, chrysin, was developed for transdermal delivery to increase its permeability and penetrability. Materials and Methods: Ethosomal system was optimized by keeping lecithin and ethanol concentration as independent variable while size and size distribution were taken as dependent variables. The optimized formulation was then subjected to various in vitro characterization parameters. Results: Ethosomal vesicle with an optimum size and polydispersity index of 134 ± 35 nm and 0.153, respectively, and entrapment efficiency of 80.05 ± 2.6% was considered as optimized and subjected to characterization. The scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy showed spherical entities with uniform surface whereas in vitro permeation and retention study showed the sustained mode of drug release and better skin retention as compared to hydroethanolic solution of the drug. The confocal laser scanning microscopy study reiterated high penetrability of vesicles into the skin. Histopathological and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis revealed its mechanism of penetration. Conclusion : The study thus demonstrated the ability of the ethosomal vesicles as surrogate carriers for delivery of bioactive agents through the skin for better amelioration of skin inflammation and other diseases.

  6. Earthquakes in India and the Himalaya: tectonics, geodesy and history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Bilham

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The record of earthquakes in India is patchy prior to 1800 and its improvement is much impeded by its dispersal in a dozen local languages, and several colonial archives. Although geological studies will necessarily complement the historical record, only two earthquakes of the dozens of known historical events have resulted in surface ruptures, and it is likely that geological data in the form of liquefaction features will be needed to extend the historical record beyond the most recent few centuries. Damage from large Himalayan earthquakes recorded in Tibet and in Northern India suggests that earthquakes may attain M = 8.2. Seismic gaps along two-thirds of the Himalaya that have developed in the past five centuries, when combined with geodetic convergence rates of approximately 1.8 m/cy, suggests that one or more M = 8 earthquakes may be overdue. The mechanisms of recent earthquakes in Peninsular India are consistent with stresses induced in the Indian plate flexed by its collision with Tibet. A region of abnormally high seismicity in western India appears to be caused by local convergence across the Rann of Kachchh and possibly other rift zones of India. Since the plate itself deforms little, this deformation may be related to incipient plate fragmentation in Sindh or over a larger region of NW India.

  7. The mammalian fauna from the Central Himalaya, Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hem Bahadur Katuwal

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Nepal harbors unique mammalian fauna, but it is poorly studied at higher elevation. Mammalian fauna were recorded in Manaslu Conservation Area, Dudhkunda and Dudhkoshi valley of Solukhumbu district and Kanchenjunga Conservation Area of Nepal during March 2011 to April 2013 along the trail and the study plots from 700m to 4400m a.s.l. Semi-structured interviews were made with local people to understand their behavior and habitats. Altogether, 29 mammalian fauna were recorded. Five species were recorded new for the areas. Overall, Carnivore species (nine were encountered more, followed by species of the order Cetartiodactyla (seven. The highest number of mammalian fauna (18 was identified from Manaslu Conservation Area whereas the least (11 from Dudhkunda and Dudhkoshi valley. Human wildlife conflict was frequent with Himalayan Goral (Naemorhedus goral, Barking Deer (Muntiacus vaginalis, Himalayan Tahr (Hemitragus jemlahicus, Rhesus Macaque (Macaca mulatta, Nepal Grey Langur (Semnopithecus schistaceus and Himalayan Black Bear (Ursus thibetanus for crop depredation in these areas. Although mammalian research started a long time ago, scenario of comprehensive research is not satisfactory in the Central Himalaya, Nepal.

  8. Mapping Deforestation and Forest Degradation Patterns in Western Himalaya, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faisal Mueen Qamer

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The Himalayan mountain forest ecosystem has been degrading since the British ruled the area in the 1850s. Local understanding of the patterns and processes of degradation is desperately required to devise management strategies to halt this degradation and provide long-term sustainability. This work comprises a satellite image based study in combination with national expert validation to generate sub-district level statistics for forest cover over the Western Himalaya, Pakistan, which accounts for approximately 67% of the total forest cover of the country. The time series of forest cover maps (1990, 2000, 2010 reveal extensive deforestation in the area. Indeed, approximately 170,684 ha of forest has been lost, which amounts to 0.38% per year clear cut or severely degraded during the last 20 years. A significant increase in the rate of deforestation is observed in the second half of the study period, where much of the loss occurs at the western borders along with Afghanistan. The current study is the first systematic and comprehensive effort to map changes to forest cover in Northern Pakistan. Deforestation hotspots identified at the sub-district level provide important insight into deforestation patterns, which may facilitate the development of appropriate forest conservation and management strategies in the country.

  9. Dietzia kunjamensis sp. nov., isolated from the Indian Himalayas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayilraj, S; Suresh, K; Kroppenstedt, R M; Saini, H S

    2006-07-01

    A coral-red-pigmented actinobacterium, strain K30-10(T), was isolated from a soil sample from a cold desert of the Indian Himalayas. Chemical and phenotypic properties of strain K30-10(T) were consistent with its classification in the genus Dietzia. It showed 97.9 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to Dietzia maris MTCC 7011(T); similarities to the type strains of three other species of the genus, Dietzia natronolimnaea, Dietzia psychralcaliphila and Dietzia cinnamea, were 94.4-96.0 %. The DNA-DNA relatedness between K30-10(T) and the closely related strain D. maris MTCC 7011(T) was 59.2 %. The DNA G+C content of strain K30-10(T) was 67.0 mol%. Based on physiological and biochemical tests and genotypic differences between strain K30-10(T) and its closest phylogenetic relatives, it is proposed that this strain represents a novel species, Dietzia kunjamensis sp. nov.; the type strain is K30-10(T) (=MTCC 7007(T)=DSM 44907(T)=JCM 13325(T)).

  10. Seismic slip deficit in the Kashmir Himalaya from GPS observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffman, Celia; Bali, Bikram Singh; Szeliga, Walter; Bilham, Roger

    2013-11-01

    measurements in Kashmir Himalaya reveal range-normal convergence of 11 ± 1 mm/yr with dextral shear of 5 ± 1 mm/yr. The transition from a fully locked 170 km wide décollement to the unrestrained descending Indian plate occurs at ~25 km depth over an ~23 km wide transition zone. The convergence rate is consistent with the lower bounds of geological estimates for the Main Frontal Thrust, Riasi, and Balapora fault systems, on which no surface slip has been reported in the past millennium. Of the 14 damaging Kashmir earthquakes since 1123, none may have exceeded Mw = 7.6. Therefore, either a seismic moment deficit equivalent to a Mw ≈ 8.7 earthquake exists or the historical earthquake magnitudes have been underestimated. Alternatively, these earthquakes have occurred on reverse faults in the Kashmir Valley, and the décollement has been recently inactive. Although this can reconcile the inferred and theoretical moment release, it is quantitatively inconsistent with observed fault slip in Kashmir.

  11. Radon in groundwater of eastern Doon valley, Outer Himalaya

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choubey, V.M. E-mail: vchoubey1@rediffmail.com; Bartarya, S.K.; Ramola, R.C

    2003-06-01

    The radon content in water may serve as a useful tracer for several geohydrological processes. The hydrodynamic factor, presence of radium in host rocks, as well as the soil porosity and permeability control its concentration in groundwater. In order to understand the factors that control the occurrence of radon in groundwater of Doon valley in Outer Himalaya, a total of 34 groundwater samples were collected from handpumps and tubewells covering three hydrogeological units/areas in the eastern part of Doon valley. Radon variation in tubewells and handpumps varies from 25.4{+-}1.8 to 92.5{+-}3.4 Bq/l with an average of 53.5{+-}2.6 Bq/l. A significant positive correlation between radon concentration and depth of the wells was observed in the Doiwala-Dudhli and Jolleygrant areas suggesting that radon concentration increases with drilling depth in areas consisting of sediments of younger Doon gravels, whereas samples of the Ganga catchment show negative correlation. The high radon levels at shallower depths in the Ganga catchment (consisting of fluvial terraces of Ganga basin) indicate uranium-rich sediments at shallower depth.

  12. Ethnobotanical uses of biofencing plants in Himachal Pradesh, Northwest Himalaya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Pankaj; Devi, Usha

    2013-12-15

    The aim of this study is to document the traditional knowledge on the utilization of Biofencing plants of Himachal Pradesh, Northwest Himalaya. The study was imperative because of dearth in the data pertaining to Biofencing plants in the study areas. The whole study area was stratified into three zones and a widespread field survey and random sampling method was adopted to assess the live fencing diversity of the region. The region occupies total 61 species. 10 (trees), 45 (shrubs), 4 (herbs) and 2 were climbers. These belong to the 25 families. Rosaceae, Fabaceae, Berberidaceae, Elaeagnaceae and Euphorbiaceae are dominant families. Among genera, Berberis and Rosa are dominant. Of the total, 55 species are medicinally important and among these 20% are used for stomach disorders; 17% (skin complaints), 14% (asthma), 11% (fever and joint pains), 3% (aphrodisiac and snake bite), 1% (anticancerous and nerve disorders). Ethnobotanical assessment showed that 33 of the recorded species are used as fuel, 20 (edible), 8 (fodder) and 4 (fiber and ornamental). This traditional knowledge of Biofencing plants contributes to the conservation of biodiversity and provides resource of economic and ecological interest and also decreasing the pressure on forests. So there is need to encourage the practice of using plant species for fencing in this region.

  13. Asynchronous glaciation at Nanga Parbat, northwestern Himalaya Mountains, Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, William M.; Sloan, Valerie F.; Shroder, John F., Jr.; Sharma, Pankaj; Clarke, Michèle L.; Rendell, Helen M.

    2000-05-01

    We present a new glacial chronology demonstrating asynchroneity between advances of Himalayan glaciers and Northern Hemisphere ice-sheet volumes. Glaciers at Nanga Parbat expanded during the early to middle Holocene ca. 9.0 5.5 ka. No major advances at Nanga Parbat during the last global glacial stage of marine oxygen isotope stage 2 (MIS-2) between 24 and 11 ka were identified. Preliminary evidence also indicates advances between ca. 60 and 30 ka. These periods of high ice volume coincide with warm, wet regional climates dominated by a strong southwest Asian summer monsoon. The general lack of deposits dating from MIS-2 suggests that Nanga Parbat was too arid to support expanded ice during this period of low monsoon intensity. Advances during warm, wet periods are possible for the high-altitude summer accumulation glaciers typical of the Himalayas, and explain asynchronous behavior. However, the Holocene advances at Nanga Parbat appear to have been forced by an abrupt drop in temperature ca. 8.4 8.0 ka and an increase in winter precipitation ca. 7 5.5 ka. These results highlight the overall sensitivity of Himalayan glaciation to orbital forcing of monsoon intensity, and on millennial or shorter time scales, to changes in North Atlantic circulation.

  14. Snow cover changes in the Hindu-Kush Karakoram Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terzago, Silvia; Von Hardenberg, Jost; Palazzi, Elisa; Provenzale, Antonello

    2013-04-01

    Snow cover plays a key role in high-altitude environments, and changes in the snow spatial/temporal distribution and thickness affect energy, radiation and water budgets at the Earth's surface. In particular, a reduction in the snow amount has a direct effect on the availability and seasonal distribution of water resources. This is especially true in areas such as the Hindu-Kush Karakoram Himalaya (HKKH) region, which provides water to about 1.5 Billion peoples in India, Nepal, Pakistan and China. Despite its importance, knowledge on snow dynamics in the HKKH region is still incomplete, owing also to sparse and sporadic surface observations. In this work, we used simulations from Global Climate Models (GCMs) to gain information on snowpack characteristics and climatology in the HKKH region. We selected a set of GCM snow depth datasets from the CMIP5 ensemble, esploring snow abundance and distribution at monthly scale. In order to investigate how well Global Climate Models represent the snow climatology, we compared the results with the ERA-Interim reanalysis, used as an approximation to the real conditions. After exploring the average snow conditions in the last decades, we analyzed the effects of climate change in the HKKH region by using an ensemble of future snow projections obtained from different GCMs and in different climate change scenarios.

  15. Meiotic studies in some selected angiosperms from the Kashmir Himalayas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Syed Mudassir JEELANI; Santosh KUMARI; Raghbir Chand GUPTA

    2012-01-01

    As a part of our program to explore and evaluate genetic diversity of flowering plants of the Kashmir Himalayas,meiotic studies have been carried out on 150 wild species.Of these,Caltha alba (2n =32),Delphinium roylei (2n =16),D.uncinatum (2n =16),Ranunculus palmatifidus (2n =28),and Sedum heterodontum (2n =14) have been cytologically worked out for the first time.New intraspecific diploid or polyploid cytotypes have been recorded for Alchemilla vulgaris (2n =34,96),Arabis amplexicaulis (2n =16),Impatiens amphorata (2n =14),Ⅰ.racemosa (2n =12),Ⅰ.sutcata (2n =16,12),Meconopsis latifolia (2n =14),Potentilla supina (2n =14),Saxifraga cernua (2n =16),Sium latijugam (2n =24),and Vicatia coniifolia (2n =44).Four species,Arabidopsis thaliana (2n =10),Berberis vulgaris (2n =28),Potentilla nubicola (2n =14),and P.sericea (2n =28),have been cytologically reported for the first time from India.A large number of meiotic abnormalities have been observed in most of these species,leading to a reduction in pollen fertility and production of heterogeneous-sized pollen grains.

  16. Surrogate Modeling of Deformable Joint Contact using Artificial Neural Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskinazi, Ilan; Fregly, Benjamin J.

    2016-01-01

    Deformable joint contact models can be used to estimate loading conditions for cartilage-cartilage, implant-implant, human-orthotic, and foot-ground interactions. However, contact evaluations are often so expensive computationally that they can be prohibitive for simulations or optimizations requiring thousands or even millions of contact evaluations. To overcome this limitation, we developed a novel surrogate contact modeling method based on artificial neural networks (ANNs). The method uses special sampling techniques to gather input-output data points from an original (slow) contact model in multiple domains of input space, where each domain represents a different physical situation likely to be encountered. For each contact force and torque output by the original contact model, a multi-layer feed-forward ANN is defined, trained, and incorporated into a surrogate contact model. As an evaluation problem, we created an ANN-based surrogate contact model of an artificial tibiofemoral joint using over 75,000 evaluations of a fine-grid elastic foundation (EF) contact model. The surrogate contact model computed contact forces and torques about 1000 times faster than a less accurate coarse grid EF contact model. Furthermore, the surrogate contact model was seven times more accurate than the coarse grid EF contact model within the input domain of a walking motion. For larger input domains, the surrogate contact model showed the expected trend of increasing error with increasing domain size. In addition, the surrogate contact model was able to identify out-of-contact situations with high accuracy. Computational contact models created using our proposed ANN approach may remove an important computational bottleneck from musculoskeletal simulations or optimizations incorporating deformable joint contact models. PMID:26220591

  17. Widespread climate change in the Himalayas and associated changes in local ecosystems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uttam Babu Shrestha

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Climate change in the Himalayas, a biodiversity hotspot, home of many sacred landscapes, and the source of eight largest rivers of Asia, is likely to impact the well-being of ~20% of humanity. However, despite the extraordinary environmental, cultural, and socio-economic importance of the Himalayas, and despite their rapidly increasing ecological degradation, not much is known about actual changes in the two most critical climatic variables: temperature and rainfall. Nor do we know how changes in these parameters might impact the ecosystems including vegetation phenology. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: By analyzing temperature and rainfall data, and NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index values from remotely sensed imagery, we report significant changes in temperature, rainfall, and vegetation phenology across the Himalayas between 1982 and 2006. The average annual mean temperature during the 25 year period has increased by 1.5 °C with an average increase of 0.06 °C yr(-1. The average annual precipitation has increased by 163 mm or 6.52 mmyr(-1. Since changes in temperature and precipitation are immediately manifested as changes in phenology of local ecosystems, we examined phenological changes in all major ecoregions. The average start of the growing season (SOS seems to have advanced by 4.7 days or 0.19 days yr(-1 and the length of growing season (LOS appears to have advanced by 4.7 days or 0.19 days yr(-1, but there has been no change in the end of the growing season (EOS. There is considerable spatial and seasonal variation in changes in climate and phenological parameters. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This is the first time that large scale climatic and phenological changes at the landscape level have been documented for the Himalayas. The rate of warming in the Himalayas is greater than the global average, confirming that the Himalayas are among the regions most vulnerable to climate change.

  18. Biodegradation of naphthenic acid surrogates by axenic cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Siqing; Ramsay, Bruce A; Ramsay, Juliana A

    2015-07-01

    This is the first study to report that bacteria from the genera Ochrobactrum, Brevundimonas and Bacillus can be isolated by growth on naphthenic acids (NAs) extracted from oil sands process water (OSPW). These pure cultures were screened for their ability to use a range of aliphatic, cyclic and aromatic NA surrogates in 96-well microtiter plates using water-soluble tetrazolium redox dyes (Biolog Redox Dye H) as the indicator of metabolic activity. Of the three cultures, Ochrobactrum showed most metabolic activity on the widest range of NA surrogates. Brevundomonas and especially Ochrobactrum had higher metabolic activity on polycyclic aromatic compounds than other classes of NA surrogates. Bacillus also oxidized a wide range of NA surrogates but not as well as Ochrobactrum. Using this method to characterize NA utilisation, one can identify which NAs or NA classes in OSPW are more readily degraded. Since aromatic NAs have been shown to have an estrogenic effect and polycyclic monoaromatic compounds have been suggested to pose the greatest environmental threat among the NAs, these bacterial genera may play an important role in detoxification of OSPW. Furthermore, this study demonstrates that bacteria belonging to the genera Ochrobactrum and Bacillus can also degrade surrogates of tricyclic NAs.

  19. Searching for Dynamical Earthquake Precursors with Surrogate Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, J.; Revenaugh, J.; Georgopoulos, A.

    2007-12-01

    Surrogate data methods are resampling techniques related to the modern statistical bootstrap. The nonlinear dynamics community has promoted surrogate data as a useful tool for establishing the presence of nonlinear dynamics in experimental observations before applying more specific techniques such as nonlinear prediction. We propose to use surrogate data tests to search for evidence of transient nonlinear dynamics in seismographic data that act as a proxy for earthquake triggering mechanisms, such as fluid flow in the fault zone, failure cascades and slow prefatory slip, that signal changes in the coupling between geological boundaries. We will analyze the vertical component of broadband seismographic data recorded at 20Hz by the CI network of approximately 100 stations located throughout Southern California. We will focus on a period of six hours prior to seismic events of magnitude 4-5 located inside the CI network. Each seismographic record will be scanned for short, non-overlapping segments that pass a moderate stationarity criterion. We will then apply surrogate tests to each qualifying segment using three discriminating statistics: time reversal asymmetry, delay vector variance and zeroth-order nonlinear prediction error. We will correlate the results with known seismic activity and examine the spatial and temporal distribution of the surrogate test results for potential dynamical earthquake precursors.

  20. Seismic hazard assessment of Kashmir and Kangra valley region, Western Himalaya, India

    OpenAIRE

    Basab Mukhopadhyay; Sujit Dasgupta

    2015-01-01

    A complete earthquake catalogue of the Western Himalaya (latitudes 30°N–36°N and longitudes 72°E–78°E) for the period of 1501–2010 has been compiled with earthquake magnitude computed in moment magnitude (Mw) scale. Pre- and early twentieth century records of earthquake damage have been documented from rare and out of print publications. Seismotectonics and seismic hazard for Kohistan arc, Kashmir–Hazara Syntaxis, Nanga-Parbat (Western Syntaxis), Karakoram and Himachal Himalaya are discussed ...

  1. New Mycomya species from the Himalayas (Diptera, Mycetophilidae): 3. Subgenera Cesamya and Mycomyopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Väisänen, Rauno

    2013-11-19

    Mycomya Rondani specimens from the Himalayas, mostly Nepal and Myanmar, are revised. Altogether four species of the subgenus Cesamya Koçak & Kemal and eleven species of the subgenus Mycomyopsis Väisänen are recorded from the Himalayas and the Indian subcontinent. The paper includes a key to the Himalayan species of Mycomya of the two subgenera. The following fourteen new species are described: M. aix, M. alticola, M. banteng, M. cissa, M. ducula, M. irena, M. goral, M. jeti, M. kaa, M. naja, M. niltava, M. pitta, M. sachak, and M. sanar. The holotype of M. unipectinata Edwards from Sri Lanka was also examined and its genitalia are described.

  2. Phalaris canariensis L. (Poaceae: A new alien plant record for Kashmir Himalaya, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shugufta Rasheed

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The correct taxonomic identification assumes first and foremost priority in the scientific documentation of biodiversity. The Kashmir Himalaya, located in the north-western side of the Himalayan biodiversity hotspot, is well-known for its diverse flora which merits immediate scientific documentation. In this context, the present study reports Phalaris canariensis L. (Poaceae as a new alien plant record to the flora of Kashmir Himalaya, India. In this paper, a detailed description, photographs, and comparison of diagnostic characters with allied species are provided to scientifically validate this alien plant record for this Himalayan region.

  3. Events of abrupt change ofIndian monsoon recorded in Dasuopu ice core fromHimalayas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Three ice cores distributed across Dasuopu glacier in Himalayas were recovered. A 400-year net annual accumulation record reconstructed from one of the cores reflects the major precipitation trend in the central Himalayas. This record is related closely to the Indian monsoon precipitation. Wavelet and moving T-test were applied to the 400-year-long Dasuopu accumulation record, and significant staggered variability and abrupt change of the record on interannual to centennial time scales are identified. Finally the possible reason for abrupt change of the accumulation record is discussed.

  4. An integrated tectonothermal model for the evolution of the High Himalaya in western Zanskar with constraints from thermobarometry and metamorphic modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, C. B.; Searle, M. P.; Waters, D. J.

    2001-12-01

    We present an integrated model for the tectonothermal evolution of the High Himalaya in NW Zanskar based on detailed field mapping, petrographic and microstructural analysis, thermobarometric techniques, and metamorphic modeling. Metasedimentary lithologies in the Suru valley can be correlated with the Palaeozoic-Mesozoic Tethyan shelf sediments along the north Indian continental margin in Kashmir and Ladakh, and metaigneous amphibolites correlate with Permian rift-related igneous units. Subsequent to India-Asia collision at ca. 54 Ma, crustal thickening of Indian plate rocks resulted in a polyphase deformational and metamorphic history. The large-scale structure of the area is that of kilometer-scale, SW vergent recumbent folds that have been folded by structurally lower, later domes such as the Suru Dome. Prograde M1 metamorphism reached a maximum of kyanite grade and is believed to be synkinematic to postkinematic with respect to the formation of the large folds. Thermobarometric analysis indicates that peak conditions relating to this Harrovian event between 33 and 28 Ma were 9.5-10.5 kbar and 620°-650°C. A later metamorphic event (M2) associated with doming throughout the Zanskar Himalaya and crustal anatexis in the sillimanite + K-feldspar-grade core of the High Himalaya caused reequilibration of deeper Suru Dome rocks to slightly lower pressures (4.5-7 kbar). Metamorphic modeling, involving phase diagram construction and pressure-temperature (P-T) path determination, suggests that metamorphic garnets grew under conditions of heating and burial along moderate slopes in P-T space. Rapid exhumation of the High Himalayan Crystallines between the Main Central Thrust and the Zanskar Shear Zone occurred during or immediately after peak M2 metamorphism (21.5-19.5 Ma).

  5. Surrogate models for identifying robust, high yield regions of parameter space for ICF implosion simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humbird, Kelli; Peterson, J. Luc; Brandon, Scott; Field, John; Nora, Ryan; Spears, Brian

    2016-10-01

    Next-generation supercomputer architecture and in-transit data analysis have been used to create a large collection of 2-D ICF capsule implosion simulations. The database includes metrics for approximately 60,000 implosions, with x-ray images and detailed physics parameters available for over 20,000 simulations. To map and explore this large database, surrogate models for numerous quantities of interest are built using supervised machine learning algorithms. Response surfaces constructed using the predictive capabilities of the surrogates allow for continuous exploration of parameter space without requiring additional simulations. High performing regions of the input space are identified to guide the design of future experiments. In particular, a model for the yield built using a random forest regression algorithm has a cross validation score of 94.3% and is consistently conservative for high yield predictions. The model is used to search for robust volumes of parameter space where high yields are expected, even given variations in other input parameters. Surrogates for additional quantities of interest relevant to ignition are used to further characterize the high yield regions. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344, Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC. LLNL-ABS-697277.

  6. Streamflow dynamics at the Puget Sound, Washington: application of a surrogate data method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. She

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent progress in nonlinear dynamic theory has inspired hydrologists to apply innovative nonlinear time series techniques to the analysis of streamflow data. However, regardless of the method employed to analyze streamflow data, the first step should be the identification of underlying dynamics using one or more methods that could distinguish between linear and nonlinear, deterministic and stochastic processes from data itself. In recent years a statistically rigorous framework to test whether or not the examined time series is generated by a Gaussian (linear process undergoing a possibly nonlinear static transform is provided by the method of surrogate data. The surrogate data, generated to represent the null hypothesis, are compared to the original data under a nonlinear discriminating statistic in order to reject or approve the null hypothesis. In recognition of this tendency, the method of 'surrogate data' is applied herein to determine the underlying linear stochastic or nonlinear deterministic nature of daily streamflow data observed from the central basin of Puget Sound, and as applicable, distinguish between the static or dynamic nonlinearity of the data in question.

  7. Surrogate-based modeling and dimension reduction techniques for multi-scale mechanics problems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Shyy; Young-Chang Cho; Wenbo Du; Amit Gupta; Chien-Chou Tseng; Ann Marie Sastry

    2011-01-01

    Successful modeling and/or design of engineering systems often requires one to address the impact of multiple “design variables” on the prescribed outcome.There are often multiple,competing objectives based on which we assess the outcome of optimization.Since accurate,high fidelity models are typically time consuming and computationally expensive,comprehensive evaluations can be conducted only if an efficient framework is available.Furthermore,informed decisions of the model/hardware's overall performance rely on an adequate understanding of the global,not local,sensitivity of the individual design variables on the objectives.The surrogate-based approach,which involves approximating the objectives as continuous functions of design variables from limited data,offers a rational framework to reduce the number of important input variables,i.e.,the dimension of a design or modeling space.In this paper,we review the fundamental issues that arise in surrogate-based analysis and optimization,highlighting concepts,methods,techniques,as well as modeling implications for mechanics problems.To aid the discussions of the issues involved,we summarize recent efforts in investigating cryogenic cavitating flows,active flow control based on dielectric barrier discharge concepts,and lithium (Li)-ion batteries.It is also stressed that many multi-scale mechanics problems can naturally benefit from the surrogate approach for “scale bridging.”

  8. Ignition of alkane-rich FACE gasoline fuels and their surrogate mixtures

    KAUST Repository

    Sarathy, Mani

    2015-01-01

    Petroleum derived gasoline is the most used transportation fuel for light-duty vehicles. In order to better understand gasoline combustion, this study investigated the ignition propensity of two alkane-rich FACE (Fuels for Advanced Combustion Engines) gasoline test fuels and their corresponding PRF (primary reference fuel) blend in fundamental combustion experiments. Shock tube ignition delay times were measured in two separate facilities at pressures of 10, 20, and 40 bar, temperatures from 715 to 1500 K, and two equivalence ratios. Rapid compression machine ignition delay times were measured for fuel/air mixtures at pressures of 20 and 40 bar, temperatures from 632 to 745 K, and two equivalence ratios. Detailed hydrocarbon analysis was also performed on the FACE gasoline fuels, and the results were used to formulate multi-component gasoline surrogate mixtures. Detailed chemical kinetic modeling results are presented herein to provide insights into the relevance of utilizing PRF and multi-component surrogate mixtures to reproduce the ignition behavior of the alkane-rich FACE gasoline fuels. The two FACE gasoline fuels and their corresponding PRF mixture displayed similar ignition behavior at intermediate and high temperatures, but differences were observed at low temperatures. These trends were mimicked by corresponding surrogate mixture models, except for the amount of heat release in the first stage of a two-stage ignition events, when observed. © 2014 The Combustion Institute.

  9. Crack Identification of Cantilever Plates Based on a Kriging Surrogate Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Haiyang; Guo, Xinglin; Ouyang, Huajiang; Han, Fang

    2013-10-01

    This work presents an effective method to identify the tip locations of an internal crack in cantilever plates based on a Kriging surrogate model. Samples of varying crack parameters (tip locations) and their corresponding root mean square (RMS) of random responses are used to construct the initial Kriging surrogate model. Moreover, the pseudo excitation method (PEM) is employed to speed up the spectral analysis. For identifying crack parameters based on the constructed Kriging model, a robust stochastic particle swarm optimization (SPSO) algorithm is adopted for enhancing the global searching ability. To improve the accuracy of the surrogate model without using extensive samples, a small number of samples are first used. Then an optimal point-adding process is carried out to reduce computational cost. Numerical studies of a cantilever plate with an internal crack are performed. The effectiveness and efficiency of this method are demonstrated by the identified results. The effect of initial sampling size on the precision of the identified results is also investigated.

  10. Multi-objective optimisation of a vehicle energy absorption structure based on surrogate model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢素超; 周辉

    2014-01-01

    In order to optimize the crashworthy characteristic of energy-absorbing structures, the surrogate models of specific energy absorption (SEA) and ratio of SEA to initial peak force (REAF) with respect to the design parameters were respectively constructed based on surrogate model optimization methods (polynomial response surface method (PRSM) and Kriging method (KM)). Firstly, the sample data were prepared through the design of experiment (DOE). Then, the test data models were set up based on the theory of surrogate model, and the data samples were trained to obtain the response relationship between the SEA & REAF and design parameters. At last, the structure optimal parameters were obtained by visual analysis and genetic algorithm (GA). The results indicate that the KM, where the local interpolation method is used in Gauss correlation function, has the highest fitting accuracy and the structure optimal parameters are obtained as: the SEA of 29.8558 kJ/kg (corresponding toa=70 mm andt= 3.5 mm) and REAF of 0.2896 (corresponding toa=70 mm andt=1.9615 mm). The basis function of the quartic PRSM with higher order than that of the quadratic PRSM, and the mutual influence of the design variables are considered, so the fitting accuracy of the quartic PRSM is higher than that of the quadratic PRSM.

  11. Sparse Polynomial Chaos Surrogate for ACME Land Model via Iterative Bayesian Compressive Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargsyan, K.; Ricciuto, D. M.; Safta, C.; Debusschere, B.; Najm, H. N.; Thornton, P. E.

    2015-12-01

    For computationally expensive climate models, Monte-Carlo approaches of exploring the input parameter space are often prohibitive due to slow convergence with respect to ensemble size. To alleviate this, we build inexpensive surrogates using uncertainty quantification (UQ) methods employing Polynomial Chaos (PC) expansions that approximate the input-output relationships using as few model evaluations as possible. However, when many uncertain input parameters are present, such UQ studies suffer from the curse of dimensionality. In particular, for 50-100 input parameters non-adaptive PC representations have infeasible numbers of basis terms. To this end, we develop and employ Weighted Iterative Bayesian Compressive Sensing to learn the most important input parameter relationships for efficient, sparse PC surrogate construction with posterior uncertainty quantified due to insufficient data. Besides drastic dimensionality reduction, the uncertain surrogate can efficiently replace the model in computationally intensive studies such as forward uncertainty propagation and variance-based sensitivity analysis, as well as design optimization and parameter estimation using observational data. We applied the surrogate construction and variance-based uncertainty decomposition to Accelerated Climate Model for Energy (ACME) Land Model for several output QoIs at nearly 100 FLUXNET sites covering multiple plant functional types and climates, varying 65 input parameters over broad ranges of possible values. This work is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Biological and Environmental Research, Accelerated Climate Modeling for Energy (ACME) project. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  12. Carotid intimal-media thickness as a surrogate for cardiovascular disease events in trials of HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morgan Timothy

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Surrogate measures for cardiovascular disease events have the potential to increase greatly the efficiency of clinical trials. A leading candidate for such a surrogate is the progression of intima-media thickness (IMT of the carotid artery; much experience has been gained with this endpoint in trials of HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins. Methods and Results We examine two separate systems of criteria that have been proposed to define surrogate endpoints, based on clinical and statistical arguments. We use published results and a formal meta-analysis to evaluate whether progression of carotid IMT meets these criteria for HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins. IMT meets clinical-based criteria to serve as a surrogate endpoint for cardiovascular events in statin trials, based on relative efficiency, linkage to endpoints, and congruency of effects. Results from a meta-analysis and post-trial follow-up from a single published study suggest that IMT meets established statistical criteria by accounting for intervention effects in regression models. Conclusion Carotid IMT progression meets accepted definitions of a surrogate for cardiovascular disease endpoints in statin trials. This does not, however, establish that it may serve universally as a surrogate marker in trials of other agents.

  13. Love as a regulative ideal in surrogate decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stonestreet, Erica Lucast

    2014-10-01

    This discussion aims to give a normative theoretical basis for a "best judgment" model of surrogate decision making rooted in a regulative ideal of love. Currently, there are two basic models of surrogate decision making for incompetent patients: the "substituted judgment" model and the "best interests" model. The former draws on the value of autonomy and responds with respect; the latter draws on the value of welfare and responds with beneficence. It can be difficult to determine which of these two models is more appropriate for a given patient, and both approaches may seem inadequate for a surrogate who loves the patient. The proposed "best judgment" model effectively draws on the values incorporated in each of the traditional standards, but does so because these values are important to someone who loves a patient, since love responds to the patient as the specific person she is.

  14. Jurassic carbonate microfacies, sea-level changes and the Toarcian anoxic event in the Tethys Himalaya (South Tibet)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Zhong; Hu, Xiumian; Garzanti, Eduardo

    2016-04-01

    Detailed microfacies analysis of carbonate rocks from the Tingri and Nyalam areas of South Tibet allowed us to reconstruct the evolution of sedimentary environments during the Early to Middle Jurassic. Based on texture, sedimentary structure, grain composition and fossil content of about 500 thin sections, 17 microfacies overall were identified, and three evolutionary stages were defined. Stage 1 (Rhaetian?-lower Sinemurian Zhamure Formation) was characterized by siliciclastic and mixed siliciclastic-carbonate sedimentation on a barrier shore environment, stage 2 (upper Sinemurian-Pliensbachian Pupuga Formation) by high-energy grainstones with rich benthic faunas thriving on a carbonate platform, and stage 3 (Toarcian-lower Bajocian Nieniexiongla Formation) by low-energy mudstones intercalated with frequent storm layers on a carbonate ramp. Besides, Carbon isotope analyses (δ13Ccarb and δ13Corg) were performed on the late Pliensbachian-early Toarcian interval, and the organic matter recorded a pronounced stepped negative excursion -4.5‰ corresponding to characteristics of the early Toarcian oceanic anoxic event globally, which began just below the stage 2-stage 3 facies shifting boundary. The comparison between the Tethys Himalaya (South Tibet) and the tropical/subtropical zones of the Western Tethys and Panthalassa was carried out to discuss the factors controlling sedimentary evolution. The change from stage 1 to stage 2 was possibly induced by sea-level rise, when the Tibetan Tethys Himalaya was located at tropical/subtropical latitudes in suitable climatic and ecological conditions for carbonate sedimentation. The abrupt change from stage 2 to stage 3 is interpreted as a consequence of the early Toarcian oceanic anoxic event, accompanied by obvious carbon-isotope negative excursion and sea-level rise. The failed recovery from the carbonate crisis in the early Bajocian, with continuing deposition on a low-energy carbonate ramp, is ascribed to the tectonic

  15. Attenuation characteristics in eastern Himalaya and southern Tibetan Plateau: An understanding of the physical state of the medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sagar; Singh, Chandrani; Biswas, Rahul; Mukhopadhyay, Sagarika; Sahu, Himanshu

    2016-08-01

    Attenuation characteristics of the crust in the eastern Himalaya and the southern Tibetan Plateau are investigated using high quality data recorded by Himalayan Nepal Tibet Seismic Experiment (HIMNT) during 2001-2003. The present study aims to provide an attenuation model that can address the physical mechanism governing the attenuation characteristics in the underlying medium. We have studied the Coda wave attenuation (Qc) in the single isotropic scattering model hypothesis, S wave attenuation (Qs) by using the coda normalization method and intrinsic (Qi-1) and scattering (Qsc-1) quality factors by the multiple Lapse Time Window Analysis (MLTWA) method under the assumption of multiple isotropic scattering in a 3-D half space within the frequency range 2-12 Hz. All the values of Q exhibit frequency dependent nature for a seismically active area. At all the frequencies intrinsic absorption is predominant compared to scattering attenuation and seismic albedo (B0) are found to be lower than 0.5. The observed discrepancies between the observed and theoretical models can be corroborated by the depth-dependent velocity and attenuation structure as well as the assumption of a uniform distribution of scatterers. Our results correlate well with the existing geo-tectonic model of the area, which may suggest the possible existence of trapped fluids in the crust or its thermal nature. Surprisingly the underlying cause of high attenuation in the crust of eastern Himalaya and southern Tibet makes this region distinct from its adjacent western Himalayan segment. The results are comparable with the other regions reported globally.

  16. Detailed and Highly Accurate 3d Models of High Mountain Areas by the Macs-Himalaya Aerial Camera Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brauchle, J.; Hein, D.; Berger, R.

    2015-04-01

    Remote sensing in areas with extreme altitude differences is particularly challenging. In high mountain areas specifically, steep slopes result in reduced ground pixel resolution and degraded quality in the DEM. Exceptionally high brightness differences can in part no longer be imaged by the sensors. Nevertheless, detailed information about mountainous regions is highly relevant: time and again glacier lake outburst floods (GLOFs) and debris avalanches claim dozens of victims. Glaciers are sensitive to climate change and must be carefully monitored. Very detailed and accurate 3D maps provide a basic tool for the analysis of natural hazards and the monitoring of glacier surfaces in high mountain areas. There is a gap here, because the desired accuracies are often not achieved. It is for this reason that the DLR Institute of Optical Sensor Systems has developed a new aerial camera, the MACS-Himalaya. The measuring unit comprises four camera modules with an overall aperture angle of 116° perpendicular to the direction of flight. A High Dynamic Range (HDR) mode was introduced so that within a scene, bright areas such as sun-flooded snow and dark areas such as shaded stone can be imaged. In 2014, a measuring survey was performed on the Nepalese side of the Himalayas. The remote sensing system was carried by a Stemme S10 motor glider. Amongst other targets, the Seti Valley, Kali-Gandaki Valley and the Mt. Everest/Khumbu Region were imaged at heights up to 9,200 m. Products such as dense point clouds, DSMs and true orthomosaics with a ground pixel resolution of up to 15 cm were produced. Special challenges and gaps in the investigation of high mountain areas, approaches for resolution of these problems, the camera system and the state of evaluation are presented with examples.

  17. Composite Sampling Approaches for Bacillus anthracis Surrogate Extracted from Soil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian France

    Full Text Available Any release of anthrax spores in the U.S. would require action to decontaminate the site and restore its use and operations as rapidly as possible. The remediation activity would require environmental sampling, both initially to determine the extent of contamination (hazard mapping and post-decon to determine that the site is free of contamination (clearance sampling. Whether the spore contamination is within a building or outdoors, collecting and analyzing what could be thousands of samples can become the factor that limits the pace of restoring operations. To address this sampling and analysis bottleneck and decrease the time needed to recover from an anthrax contamination event, this study investigates the use of composite sampling. Pooling or compositing of samples is an established technique to reduce the number of analyses required, and its use for anthrax spore sampling has recently been investigated. However, use of composite sampling in an anthrax spore remediation event will require well-documented and accepted methods. In particular, previous composite sampling studies have focused on sampling from hard surfaces; data on soil sampling are required to extend the procedure to outdoor use. Further, we must consider whether combining liquid samples, thus increasing the volume, lowers the sensitivity of detection and produces false negatives. In this study, methods to composite bacterial spore samples from soil are demonstrated. B. subtilis spore suspensions were used as a surrogate for anthrax spores. Two soils (Arizona Test Dust and sterilized potting soil were contaminated and spore recovery with composites was shown to match individual sample performance. Results show that dilution can be overcome by concentrating bacterial spores using standard filtration methods. This study shows that composite sampling can be a viable method of pooling samples to reduce the number of analysis that must be performed during anthrax spore remediation.

  18. Composite Sampling Approaches for Bacillus anthracis Surrogate Extracted from Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    France, Brian; Bell, William; Chang, Emily; Scholten, Trudy

    2015-01-01

    Any release of anthrax spores in the U.S. would require action to decontaminate the site and restore its use and operations as rapidly as possible. The remediation activity would require environmental sampling, both initially to determine the extent of contamination (hazard mapping) and post-decon to determine that the site is free of contamination (clearance sampling). Whether the spore contamination is within a building or outdoors, collecting and analyzing what could be thousands of samples can become the factor that limits the pace of restoring operations. To address this sampling and analysis bottleneck and decrease the time needed to recover from an anthrax contamination event, this study investigates the use of composite sampling. Pooling or compositing of samples is an established technique to reduce the number of analyses required, and its use for anthrax spore sampling has recently been investigated. However, use of composite sampling in an anthrax spore remediation event will require well-documented and accepted methods. In particular, previous composite sampling studies have focused on sampling from hard surfaces; data on soil sampling are required to extend the procedure to outdoor use. Further, we must consider whether combining liquid samples, thus increasing the volume, lowers the sensitivity of detection and produces false negatives. In this study, methods to composite bacterial spore samples from soil are demonstrated. B. subtilis spore suspensions were used as a surrogate for anthrax spores. Two soils (Arizona Test Dust and sterilized potting soil) were contaminated and spore recovery with composites was shown to match individual sample performance. Results show that dilution can be overcome by concentrating bacterial spores using standard filtration methods. This study shows that composite sampling can be a viable method of pooling samples to reduce the number of analysis that must be performed during anthrax spore remediation. PMID:26714315

  19. Composite Sampling Approaches for Bacillus anthracis Surrogate Extracted from Soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    France, Brian; Bell, William; Chang, Emily; Scholten, Trudy

    2015-01-01

    Any release of anthrax spores in the U.S. would require action to decontaminate the site and restore its use and operations as rapidly as possible. The remediation activity would require environmental sampling, both initially to determine the extent of contamination (hazard mapping) and post-decon to determine that the site is free of contamination (clearance sampling). Whether the spore contamination is within a building or outdoors, collecting and analyzing what could be thousands of samples can become the factor that limits the pace of restoring operations. To address this sampling and analysis bottleneck and decrease the time needed to recover from an anthrax contamination event, this study investigates the use of composite sampling. Pooling or compositing of samples is an established technique to reduce the number of analyses required, and its use for anthrax spore sampling has recently been investigated. However, use of composite sampling in an anthrax spore remediation event will require well-documented and accepted methods. In particular, previous composite sampling studies have focused on sampling from hard surfaces; data on soil sampling are required to extend the procedure to outdoor use. Further, we must consider whether combining liquid samples, thus increasing the volume, lowers the sensitivity of detection and produces false negatives. In this study, methods to composite bacterial spore samples from soil are demonstrated. B. subtilis spore suspensions were used as a surrogate for anthrax spores. Two soils (Arizona Test Dust and sterilized potting soil) were contaminated and spore recovery with composites was shown to match individual sample performance. Results show that dilution can be overcome by concentrating bacterial spores using standard filtration methods. This study shows that composite sampling can be a viable method of pooling samples to reduce the number of analysis that must be performed during anthrax spore remediation.

  20. Proceedings of the 25th Himalaya-Karakoram-Tibet Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leech, Mary L.; Klemperer, Simon L.; Mooney, Walter D.

    2010-01-01

    For a quarter of a century the Himalayan-Karakoram-Tibet (HKT) Workshop has provided scientists studying the India-Asia collision system a wonderful opportunity for workshop-style discussion with colleagues working in this region. In 2010, HKT returns to North America for the first time since 1996. The 25th international workshop is held from June 7 to10 at San Francisco State University, California. The international community was invited to contribute scientific papers to the workshop, on all aspects of geoscience research in the geographic area of the Tibetan Plateau and its bounding ranges and basins, from basic mapping to geochemical and isotopic analyses to large-scale geophysical imaging experiments. In recognition of the involvement of U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists in a wide range of these activities, the USGS agreed to publish the extended abstracts of the numerous components of HKT-25 as an online Open-File Report, thereby ensuring the wide availability and distribution of these abstracts, particularly in the HKT countries from which many active workers are precluded by cost from attending international meetings. In addition to the workshop characterized by contributed presentations, participants were invited to attend a pre-meeting field trip from the Coast Ranges to the Sierra Nevada, to allow the international group to consider how the tectonic elements of the Pacific margin compare to those of the Himalayan belt. Following the workshop, the National Science Foundation (NSF) sponsored a workshop on the 'Future directions for NSF-sponsored geoscience research in the Himalaya/Tibet' intended to provide NSF Program Directors with a clear statement and vision of community goals for the future, including the scientific progress we can expect if NSF continues its support of projects in this geographic region, and to identify which key geoscience problems and processes are best addressed in the Himalaya and Tibet, what key datasets are needed, and

  1. Atmospheric aerosol brown carbon in the high Himalayas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirillova, Elena; Decesari, Stefano; Marinoni, Angela; Bonasoni, Paolo; Vuillermoz, Elisa; Facchini, M. Cristina; Fuzzi, Sandro

    2016-04-01

    Anthropogenic light-absorbing atmospheric aerosol can reach very high concentrations in the planetary boundary layer in South-East Asia ("brown clouds"), affecting atmospheric transparency and generating spatial gradients of temperature over land with a possible impact on atmospheric dynamics and monsoon circulation. Besides black carbon (BC), an important light-absorbing component of anthropogenic aerosols is the organic carbon component known as 'brown carbon' (BrC). In this research, we provided first measurements of atmospheric aerosol BrC in the high Himalayas during different seasons. Aerosol sampling was conducted at the GAW-WMO Global station "Nepal Climate Observatory-Pyramid" (NCO-P) located in the high Khumbu valley at 5079 m a.s.l. in the foothills of Mt. Everest. PM10 aerosol samples were collected from July 2013 to November 2014. The sampling strategy was set up in order to discriminate the daytime valley breeze bringing polluted air masses up to the observatory and free tropospheric air during nighttime. Water-soluble BrC (WS-BrC) and methanol-soluble BrC (MeS-BrC) were extracted and analyzed using a UV/VIS spectrophotometer equipped with a 50 cm liquid waveguide capillary cell. In the polluted air masses, the highest levels of the BrC light absorption coefficient at 365 nm (babs365) were observed during the pre-monsoon season (1.83±1.46 Mm-1 for WS-BrC and 2.86±2.49 Mm-1 for MeS-BrC) and the lowest during the monsoon season (0.21±0.22 Mm-1 for WS-BrC and 0.32±0.29 Mm-1 for MeS-BrC). The pre-monsoon season is the most frequently influenced by a strong atmospheric brown cloud (ABC) transport to NCO-P due to increased convection and mixing layer height over South Asia combined with the highest up-valley wind speed and the increase of the emissions from open fires due to the agricultural practice along the Himalayas foothills and the Indo-Gangetic Plain. In contrast, the monsoon season is characterized by a weakened valley wind regime and an

  2. Disinfection byproduct regulatory compliance surrogates and bromide-associated risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolb, Chelsea; Francis, Royce A; VanBriesen, Jeanne M

    2017-08-01

    Natural and anthropogenic factors can alter bromide concentrations in drinking water sources. Increasing source water bromide concentrations increases the formation and alters the speciation of disinfection byproducts (DBPs) formed during drinking water treatment. Brominated DBPs are more toxic than their chlorinated analogs, and thus have a greater impact on human health. However, DBPs are regulated based on the mass sum of DBPs within a given class (e.g., trihalomethanes and haloacetic acids), not based on species-specific risk or extent of bromine incorporation. The regulated surrogate measures are intended to protect against not only the species they directly represent, but also against unregulated DBPs that are not routinely measured. Surrogates that do not incorporate effects of increasing bromide may not adequately capture human health risk associated with drinking water when source water bromide is elevated. The present study analyzes trihalomethanes (THMs), measured as TTHM, with varying source water bromide concentrations, and assesses its correlation with brominated THM, TTHM risk and species-specific THM concentrations and associated risk. Alternative potential surrogates are evaluated to assess their ability to capture THM risk under different source water bromide concentration conditions. The results of the present study indicate that TTHM does not adequately capture risk of the regulated species when source water bromide concentrations are elevated, and thus would also likely be an inadequate surrogate for many unregulated brominated species. Alternative surrogate measures, including THM3 and the bromodichloromethane concentration, are more robust surrogates for species-specific THM risk at varying source water bromide concentrations. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Petrogenesis and tectonic implications of the Yadong leucogranites, southern Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gou, Zhengbin; Zhang, Zeming; Dong, Xin; Xiang, Hua; Ding, Huixia; Tian, Zuolin; Lei, Hengcong

    2016-07-01

    The leucogranites in the Higher Himalayan Sequence (HHS) provide a probe to elucidate the crustal melting of continental collisional orogen. An integrated geochemical and geochronological study of the Yadong leucogranites, southern Himalaya, shows that these rocks have relatively high SiO2 contents of 69.77 to 75.32 wt.% and alumina saturation index (A/CNK) of 1.09-1.40, typical of peraluminous granites. They show moderately fractionated REE patterns with negative Eu anomalies, and are characterized by enriched LILE (Rb and Cs) and depleted HFSE (Zr, Hf, Nb and Ta). LA-ICP-MS U-Pb zircon dating of ten samples yields crystallization ages ranging from 21.0 to 11.7 Ma. The zircons have variable εHf(t) values of - 26.3 to - 3.5 and corresponding Hf two-stage model ages of 2.77-1.33 Ga. The present study reveals that the muscovite-biotite leucogranites (2ML) have higher TiO2, MgO, CaO, Sr, Ba and Zr contents, lower Rb/Sr ratios than the tourmaline-muscovite leucogranites (TML). Zircon and monazite saturation thermometry results show that the melt temperatures (681-784 °C) of the 2ML are 20-80 °C higher than those (663-705 °C) of the TML. Combining with previous results, we propose that the TML were derived from the muscovite-dehydration melting, whereas the 2ML dominantly resulted from the biotite-dehydration melting during the prograde metamorphism of the pelitic and felsic granulites of the HHS. Therefore, the Himalayan leucogranites were probably formed during the subduction of the Indian crust following the India and Asia collision.

  4. Fast Prediction and Evaluation of Gravitational Waveforms Using Surrogate Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott E. Field

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We propose a solution to the problem of quickly and accurately predicting gravitational waveforms within any given physical model. The method is relevant for both real-time applications and more traditional scenarios where the generation of waveforms using standard methods can be prohibitively expensive. Our approach is based on three offline steps resulting in an accurate reduced order model in both parameter and physical dimensions that can be used as a surrogate for the true or fiducial waveform family. First, a set of m parameter values is determined using a greedy algorithm from which a reduced basis representation is constructed. Second, these m parameters induce the selection of m time values for interpolating a waveform time series using an empirical interpolant that is built for the fiducial waveform family. Third, a fit in the parameter dimension is performed for the waveform’s value at each of these m times. The cost of predicting L waveform time samples for a generic parameter choice is of order O(mL+mc_{fit} online operations, where c_{fit} denotes the fitting function operation count and, typically, m≪L. The result is a compact, computationally efficient, and accurate surrogate model that retains the original physics of the fiducial waveform family while also being fast to evaluate. We generate accurate surrogate models for effective-one-body waveforms of nonspinning binary black hole coalescences with durations as long as 10^{5}M, mass ratios from 1 to 10, and for multiple spherical harmonic modes. We find that these surrogates are more than 3 orders of magnitude faster to evaluate as compared to the cost of generating effective-one-body waveforms in standard ways. Surrogate model building for other waveform families and models follows the same steps and has the same low computational online scaling cost. For expensive numerical simulations of binary black hole coalescences, we thus anticipate extremely large speedups in

  5. Optimization using surrogate models - by the space mapping technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Jacob

    2003-01-01

    mapping surrogate has a lower approximation error for long steps. For short steps, however, the Taylor model of the expensive model is best, due to exact interpolation at the model origin. Five algorithms for space mapping optimization are presented and the numerical performance is evaluated. Three...... conditions are satisfied. So hybrid methods, combining the space mapping technique with classical optimization methods, should be used if convergence to high accuracy is wanted. Approximation abilities of the space mapping surrogate are compared with those of a Taylor model of the expensive model. The space...

  6. Optimization using surrogate models - by the space mapping technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Jacob

    2003-01-01

    mapping surrogate has a lower approximation error for long steps. For short steps, however, the Taylor model of the expensive model is best, due to exact interpolation at the model origin. Five algorithms for space mapping optimization are presented and the numerical performance is evaluated. Three...... conditions are satisfied. So hybrid methods, combining the space mapping technique with classical optimization methods, should be used if convergence to high accuracy is wanted. Approximation abilities of the space mapping surrogate are compared with those of a Taylor model of the expensive model. The space...

  7. On the relationship between the causal-inference and meta-analytic paradigms for the validation of surrogate endpoints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Ariel; Van der Elst, Wim; Molenberghs, Geert; Buyse, Marc; Burzykowski, Tomasz

    2015-03-01

    The increasing cost of drug development has raised the demand for surrogate endpoints when evaluating new drugs in clinical trials. However, over the years, it has become clear that surrogate endpoints need to be statistically evaluated and deemed valid, before they can be used as substitutes of "true" endpoints in clinical studies. Nowadays, two paradigms, based on causal-inference and meta-analysis, dominate the scene. Nonetheless, although the literature emanating from these paradigms is wide, till now the relationship between them has largely been left unexplored. In the present work, we discuss the conceptual framework underlying both approaches and study the relationship between them using theoretical elements and the analysis of a real case study. Furthermore, we show that the meta-analytic approach can be embedded within a causal-inference framework on the one hand and that it can be heuristically justified why surrogate endpoints successfully evaluated using this approach will often be appealing from a causal-inference perspective as well, on the other. A newly developed and user friendly R package Surrogate is provided to carry out the evaluation exercise.

  8. Climatic and geologic controls on suspended sediment flux in the Sutlej River Valley, western Himalaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Wulf

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The sediment flux through Himalayan rivers directly impacts water quality and is important for sustaining agriculture as well as maintaining drinking-water and hydropower generation. Despite the recent increase in demand for these resources, little is known about the triggers and sources of extreme sediment flux events, which lower water quality and account for extensive hydropower reservoir filling and turbine abrasion. Here, we present a comprehensive analysis of the spatiotemporal trends in suspended sediment flux based on daily data during the past decade (2001–2009 from four sites along the Sutlej River and from four of its main tributaries. In conjunction with satellite data depicting rainfall and snow cover, air temperature, earthquake records, and Schmidt hammer rock strength measurements, we infer climatic and geologic controls of peak suspended sediment concentration (SSC events. Our study identifies three key findings: First, peak SSC events (≥99th SSC percentile coincide frequently (57–80% with heavy rainstorms and account for about 30% of the suspended sediment flux in the semi-arid to arid interior of the orogen. Second, we observe an increase of suspended sediment flux from the Tibetan Plateau to the Himalayan front at mean annual timescales. This sediment-flux gradient suggests that averaged, modern erosion in the western Himalaya is most pronounced at frontal regions, which are characterized by high monsoonal rainfall and thick soil cover. Third, in seven of eight catchments we find an anticlockwise hysteresis loop of annual sediment flux, which appears to be related to enhanced glacial sediment evacuation during late summer. Our analysis emphasizes the importance of unconsolidated sediments in the high-elevation sector that can easily be mobilized by hydrometeorological events and higher glacial-meltwater contributions.

  9. Population structure and dynamics of Magnaporthe grisea in the Indian Himalayas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, J; Nelson, R J; Zeigler, R S

    1999-07-01

    The population genetics of Magnaporthe grisea, the rice blast pathogen, were analyzed in a center of rice diversity (the Uttar Pradesh hills of the Indian Himalayas) using multilocus and single-, or low-copy, DNA markers. Based on DNA fingerprinting with the multilocus probe MGR586 and single-locus probes, 157 haplotypes clustered into 56 lineages (at >/=70% MGR586 band similarity, each with unique single-locus profiles) and high diversity indices were detected among 458 isolates collected from 29 sites during 1992-1995. Most valleys sampled had distinct populations (73% of the lineages were site specific) with some containing one or a few lineages, confirming the importance of clonal propagation, and others were very diverse. Widely distributed lineages suggested that migration occurs across the region and into the Indo-Gangetic plains. Repeated sampling at one site, Matli, (170 isolates, 1992-1995) yielded 19 lineages and diversity significantly greater than that reported from similar samples from Colombia and the Philippines. Analysis of allelic associations using pairwise comparisons and multilocus variance analysis failed to reject the hypothesis of gametic phase equilibrium. The Matli population shifted from highly diverse in 1992 to almost complete dominance by one lineage in 1995. Such population dynamics are consistent with recombination followed by differential survival of clonal descendants of recombinant progeny. At another site, Ranichauri, population (n = 84) composition changed from 2 to 11 lineages over 2 yr and yielded additional evidence for equilibrium. Sexually fertile and hermaphrodite isolates of both mating types were recovered from rice in both Matli and Ranichauri. We demonstrate that Himalayan M. grisea populations are diverse and dynamic and conclude that the structure of some populations may be affected to some extent by sexual recombination.

  10. Use of Indigenous Knowledge in Environmental Decision-Making by Communities in the Kumaon Himalayas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honwad, Sameer

    2010-01-01

    This study is designed to find out how people in rural communities residing in the middle Himalayas use indigenous knowledge to support environmental decisions while addressing water and land use related concerns. The study not only serves to enrich our understanding of community decision-making, especially as connected to land use and ecological…

  11. On the surficial sediments of the fresh water Naini Lake, Kumaun Himalaya, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jauhari, P.; Hashimi, N.H.

    The 1.4 km long and 0.45-0.25 km wide crescent shaped Naini Lake in the Nainital District of Kumaun Himalaya, India is divided by an east-west running transverse Central Ridge into two sub-basins. These northwest and southeast sub...

  12. Recent Wetting and Glacier Expansion in the Northwest Himalaya and Karakoram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Ram R; Gupta, Anil K; Kotlia, Bahadur S; Singh, Vikram; Misra, Krishna G; Yadava, Akhilesh K; Singh, Anoop K

    2017-07-21

    Hydroclimatic variability driven by global warming in the climatically vulnerable cold semi-arid to arid northwest (NW) Himalaya is poorly constrained due to paucity of continuous weather records and annually resolved proxies. Applying a network of annually resolved tree-ring-width chronologies from semi-arid region of Kishtwar, Jammu and Kashmir, India, we reconstructed April-May standardized precipitation index extending back to A.D. 1439 (576 years). The reconstructed series is featured by the most conspicuous long-term droughts during the 15(th) to early 17(th) centuries followed by a general wetting, with 1984-2014 being the wettest interval in the past 576 years. The data, consistent with other independently developed tree-ring-based hydrological records from cold semi-arid to arid NW Himalaya and Karakoram, point to an increased regional wetting in the recent decades. Such an increased wetting might have led to the anomalous behaviour of glaciers in the NW Himalaya and Karakoram in contrast to the general receding trends in the central and eastern Himalaya.

  13. Microseismicity, Tectonics and Seismic Potential in the Western Himalayan Segment, NW Himalaya (india) Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, S.; Parija, M. P.; Biswal, S.

    2016-12-01

    The NW Himalaya (India) region covering Garhwal and Himachal province of India is characterised by sustained seismicity during the past decades. We have relocated 423 earthquakes in the NW Himalaya between 2004 and 2013 using more than 4495 P and 4453 S accurate P and S differential travel-times. We also have determined moment tensors for 8 (Mw >= 4.0) of these earthquakes using their broadband regional waveforms. The geometry of the MHT plane has also been deduced in this study which varies along the strike of the Himalaya in flat and ramp segments with a dip range from 4° to 19° below the HFT in south to STD in the north. There are also two crustal ramps reported from this study having a depth variance below the MCT and STD between 12 to 22 km and 28 to 40 km depth respectively. The earthquake potential prevailing in the western Himalaya seismic gap that lies between the epicentral zone of the 1905 Kangra earthquake and the 1975 Kinnaur earthquake has also been estimated and it is inferred that the total amount of energy released since the last great event is only a fraction (3-5%) of the accommodated energy (95-98%) i.e. if an earthquake hits this NW Himalayan segment in future it's magnitude can be equivalent to a Mw³ 8.0. So the energy dissipated through previous earthquakes is not sufficient to prevent an upcoming giant event.

  14. High-resolution modeling of atmospheric dynamics in the Nepalese Himalaya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Collier, Emily; Immerzeel, Walter W.

    2015-01-01

    High-altitude meteorological processes in the Himalaya are influenced by complex interactions between the topography and the monsoon and westerly circulation systems. In this study, we use the Weather Research and Forecasting model configured with high spatial resolution to understand seasonal patte

  15. Contribution of pack animals in reducing CO{sub 2} emission in Central Himalaya, India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farooquee, N.A.; Budal, T.K.; Maikhuri, R.K. [G.B. Pant Institute of Himalayan Environment and Development, Srinagar (India); Singh, S.P. [H.N.B. Garhwal Univ., Srinagar (India)

    2008-07-10

    The resilience and adaptation in mountain regions have acquired important priorities in the present time, especially when climatic change has become an overriding issue and its impacts are recognized to be felt globally. The present study describes an example of how the pack animals play a vital role in transportation in remote and far-flung areas of Uttarakhand Himalaya, and also contribute in reducing CO{sub 2} emission. This article attempts to estimate the changes in the rate of CO{sub 2} emission if the present transportation of goods by pack animals is carried out by automobiles, i.e. the contribution of equines to carbon saving in the Himalaya while rendering transportation services. It also suggests an option for reducing CO{sub 2} emission by utilizing pack animals in the transportation of non essential commodities in remote and rural areas. The present study was undertaken in the six major valleys of Garhwal Himalaya, Uttarakhand to understand and quantify the contribution of pack animals in reducing CO{sub 2} emission in Indian Central Himalaya. The study has demonstrated that horses and mules provide direct and indirect services to the society and country. The direct services include communication services in far-flung and remote areas not connected with the road network, where they transport essential commodities and also human beings to the religious shrines of Kedarnath, Hem Kund, Gangotri and Yamunotri. The indirect services include reduction in CO{sub 2} emission.

  16. Phenotypic variation in the Snowtrout Schizothorax richardsonii (Gray, 1832) (Actinopterygii: Cypriniformes: Cyprinidae) from the Indian Himalayas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mir, F.A.; Mir, J.I.; Chandra, S.

    2013-01-01

    We investigated intraspecific variation of the Snowtrout, Schizothorax richardsonii on the basis of morphometric characters. Altogether, 217 specimens were collected from four rivers in the Western and Central Indian Himalaya. A truss network was constructed by interconnecting 14 landmarks to yield

  17. New species of Amanita from the eastern Himalaya and adjacent regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhu L; Weiß, M; Oberwinkler, F

    2004-01-01

    Four new species of Amanita, Amanita-ceae (Agaricales) are described from the eastern Himalaya and adjacent regions of southwestern China. Amanita altipes and A. parvipantherina are members of section Amanita, while A. orientifulva and A. liquii are representatives of section Vaginatae. They are compared with similar species and illustrated with line drawings.

  18. Framing hydropower as green energy: assessing drivers, risks and tensions in the Eastern Himalayas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ahlers, R.; Budds, J.; Joshi, D.; Merme, V.; Zwarteveen, M.Z.

    2014-01-01

    The culturally and ecologically diverse region of the Eastern Himalayas is the target of ambitious hydropower development plans. Policy discourses at national and international levels position this development as synergistically positive: it combines the production of clean energy to fuel economic

  19. Framing hydropower as green energy: assessing drivers, risks and tensions in the Eastern Himalayas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ahlers, R.; Budds, J.; Joshi, D.; Verme, V.; Zwarteveen, M.Z.

    2015-01-01

    The culturally and ecologically diverse region of the Eastern Himalayas is the target of ambitious hydropower development plans. Policy discourses at national and international levels position this development as synergistically positive: it ombines the production of clean energy to fuel economic

  20. Framing hydropower as green energy: assessing drivers, risks and tensions in the Eastern Himalayas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ahlers, R.; Budds, J.; Joshi, D.; Merme, V.; Zwarteveen, M.

    2015-01-01

    The culturally and ecologically diverse region of the Eastern Himalayas is the target of ambitious hydropower development plans. Policy discourses at national and international levels position this development as synergistically positive: it combines the production of clean energy to fuel economic

  1. Petrography, geochemistry and regional significance of crystalline klippen in the Garhwal Lesser Himalaya, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R Islam; S K Ghosh; S Vyshnavi; Y P Sundriya

    2011-06-01

    Uphalda gneisses (UG) is a crystalline klippe located near Srinagar in Garhwal Himalaya. These gneisses are compared with Debguru porphyroids (DP) (≈ Ramgarh group) of Garhwal–Kumaun Himalaya and Baragaon mylonitic gneisses (BMG) of Himachal Himalaya. Petrographic study reveals that the deformation of UG was initiated at higher temperature (above 350°C) and continued till lowering of temperature and deformation led to the mylonitization. Geochemically, these granitic gneisses (UG, DP and BMG) exhibit similar composition. Features such as high molecular A/CNK value (< 1), presence of normative corundum and absence of normative diopside, enhanced Rb/Sr, Rb/Zr ratios, enrichment of Th and containing rounded zircons support their crustally-derived S-type granitic nature. The linear plot in major oxides is interpreted in terms of fractional crystallization processes. Mantle normalized multi-element spider diagram of UG illustrates depletion of Ba, Nb, Sr, P and Ti and enrichment of Th and show similarities with DP and BMG. Similarities were observed in lithology, petrographic characters and chemical composition of UG, DP, BMG and Ulleri augen gneisses (Nepal). Comparison with the rocks of Higher Himalayan crystallines (≈ Vaikrita), suggests that these rocks (UG) are not transported from Higher Himalaya as understood earlier. This study however proposes that, these gneissic bodies represent an older basement occurring as a tectonic sliver which emplaced within the cover sequence as wedges at different structural levels. This is a regional phenomena observed throughout the Lesser Himalayan region.

  2. The role of glaciers in stream flow from the Nepal Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alford, D.; Armstrong, R.

    2010-04-01

    Recent concerns related to the potential impacts of the retreat of Himalayan glaciers on the hydrology of rivers originating in the catchment basins of the Himalaya have been accompanied by few analyses describing the role of glaciers in the hydrologic regime of these mountains. This is, at least in part, a result of the relative inaccessibility of the glaciers of the Himalaya, at altitudes generally between 4000-7000 m, and the extreme logistical difficulties of: 1) reaching the glaciers, and 2) conducting meaningful research once they have been reached. It is apparent that an alternative to traditional "Alpine" glaciology is required in the mountains of the Hindu Kush-Himalaya region. The objectives of the study discussed here have been to develop methodologies that will begin to quantify the role of complete glacier systems in the hydrologic regime of the Nepal Himalaya, and to develop estimates of the potential impact of a continued retreat of these glacier, based on the use of disaggregated low-altitude data bases, topography derived from satellite imagery, and simple process models of water and energy exchange in mountain regions. While the extent of mesoscale variability has not been established by studies to date, it is clear that the dominant control on the hydrologic regime of the tributaries to the Ganges Basin from the eastern Himalaya is the interaction between the summer monsoon and the 8000 m of topographic relief represented by the Himalayan wall. All the available evidence indicates that the gradient of specific runoff with altitude resulting from this interaction is moderately to strongly curvilinear, with maximum runoff occurring at mid-altitudes, and minima at the altitudinal extremes. At the upper minimum of this gradient, Himalayan glaciers exist in what has been characterized as an "arctic desert". The methodologies developed for this study involve the relationship between area-altitude distributions of catchment basins and glaciers, based on

  3. Summary of Remediated Nitrate Salt Surrogate Formulation and Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Geoffrey Wayne [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Leonard, Philip [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Hartline, Ernest Leon [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Tian, Hongzhao [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-05-05

    High Explosives Science and Technology (M-7) completed all required formulation and testing of Remediated Nitrate Salt (RNS) surrogates on April 27, 2016 as specified in PLAN-TA9-2443 Rev B, "Remediated Nitrate Salt (RNS) Surrogate Formulation and Testing Standard Procedure", released February 16, 2016. This report summarizes the results of the work and also includes additional documentation required in that test plan. All formulation and testing was carried out according to PLAN-TA9-2443 Rev B. The work was carried out in three rounds, with the full matrix of samples formulated and tested in each round. Results from the first round of formulation and testing were documented in memorandum M7-J6-6042, " Results from First Round of Remediated Nitrate Salt Surrogate Formulation and Testing." Results from the second round of formulation and testing were documented in M7-16-6053 , "Results from the Second Round of Remediated Nitrate Salt Surrogate Formulation and Testing." Initial results from the third round were documented in M7-16-6057, "Initial Results from the Third Round of Remediated Nitrate Salt Formulation and Testing."

  4. Frequency response as a surrogate eigenvalue problem in topology optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreassen, Erik; Ferrari, Federico; Sigmund, Ole

    2017-01-01

    This article discusses the use of frequency response surrogates for eigenvalue optimization problems in topology optimization that may be used to avoid solving the eigenvalue problem. The motivation is to avoid complications that arise from multiple eigenvalues and the computational complexity as...

  5. GENERATING SOPHISTICATED SPATIAL SURROGATES USING THE MIMS SPATIAL ALLOCATOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Multimedia Integrated Modeling System (MIMS) Spatial Allocator is open-source software for generating spatial surrogates for emissions modeling, changing the map projection of Shapefiles, and performing other types of spatial allocation that does not require the use of a comm...

  6. Recent Progress in the Development of Diesel Surrogate Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pitz, W J

    2009-09-04

    There has been much recent progress in the area of surrogate fuels for diesel. In the last few years, experiments and modeling have been performed on higher molecular weight components of relevance to diesel fuel such as n-hexadecane (n-cetane) and 2,2,4,4,6,8,8-heptamethylnonane (iso-cetane). Chemical kinetic models have been developed for all the n-alkanes up to 16 carbon atoms. Also, there has been much experimental and modeling work on lower molecular weight surrogate components such as n-decane and do-decane which are most relevant to jet fuel surrogates, but are also relevant to diesel surrogates where simulation of the full boiling point range is desired. For the cycloalkanes, experimental work on decalin and tetralin recently has been published. For multi-component surrogate fuel mixtures, recent work on modeling of these mixtures and comparisons to real diesel fuel is reviewed. Detailed chemical kinetic models for surrogate fuels are very large in size. Significant progress also has been made in improving the mechanism reduction tools that are needed to make these large models practicable in multidimensional reacting flow simulations of diesel combustion. Nevertheless, major research gaps remain. In the case of iso-alkanes, there are experiments and modeling work on only one of relevance to diesel: iso-cetane. Also, the iso-alkanes in diesel are lightly branched and no detailed chemical kinetic models or experimental investigations are available for such compounds. More components are needed to fill out the iso-alkane boiling point range. For the aromatic class of compounds, there has been no new work for compounds in the boiling point range of diesel. Most of the new work has been on alkyl aromatics that are of the range C7 to C8, below the C10 to C20 range that is needed. For the chemical class of cycloalkanes, experiments and modeling on higher molecular weight components are warranted. Finally for multi-component surrogates needed to treat real diesel

  7. Recent Progress in the Development of Diesel Surrogate Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pitz, W J; Mueller, C J

    2009-12-09

    There has been much recent progress in the area of surrogate fuels for diesel. In the last few years, experiments and modeling have been performed on higher molecular weight components of relevance to diesel fuel such as n-hexadecane (n-cetane) and 2,2,4,4,6,8,8-heptamethylnonane (iso-cetane). Chemical kinetic models have been developed for all the n-alkanes up to 16 carbon atoms. Also, there has been much experimental and modeling work on lower molecular weight surrogate components such as n-decane and n-dodecane that are most relevant to jet fuel surrogates, but are also relevant to diesel surrogates where simulation of the full boiling point range is desired. For two-ring compounds, experimental work on decalin and tetralin recently has been published. For multi-component surrogate fuel mixtures, recent work on modeling of these mixtures and comparisons to real diesel fuel is reviewed. Detailed chemical kinetic models for surrogate fuels are very large in size. Significant progress also has been made in improving the mechanism reduction tools that are needed to make these large models practicable in multi-dimensional reacting flow simulations of diesel combustion. Nevertheless, major research gaps remain. In the case of iso-alkanes, there are experiments and modeling work on only one of relevance to diesel: iso-cetane. Also, the iso-alkanes in diesel are lightly branched and no detailed chemical kinetic models or experimental investigations are available for such compounds. More components are needed to fill out the iso-alkane boiling point range. For the aromatic class of compounds, there has been no new work for compounds in the boiling point range of diesel. Most of the new work has been on alkyl aromatics that are of the range C7 to C8, below the C10 to C20 range that is needed. For the chemical class of cycloalkanes, experiments and modeling on higher molecular weight components are warranted. Finally for multi-component surrogates needed to treat real

  8. Development of a Human Cranial Bone Surrogate for Impact Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Jack C; Merkle, Andrew C; Carneal, Catherine M; Voo, Liming M; Johannes, Matthew S; Paulson, Jeff M; Tankard, Sara; Uy, O Manny

    2013-01-01

    In order to replicate the fracture behavior of the intact human skull under impact it becomes necessary to develop a material having the mechanical properties of cranial bone. The most important properties to replicate in a surrogate human skull were found to be the fracture toughness and tensile strength of the cranial tables as well as the bending strength of the three-layer (inner table-diplöe-outer table) architecture of the human skull. The materials selected to represent the surrogate cranial tables consisted of two different epoxy resins systems with random milled glass fiber to enhance the strength and stiffness and the materials to represent the surrogate diplöe consisted of three low density foams. Forty-one three-point bending fracture toughness tests were performed on nine material combinations. The materials that best represented the fracture toughness of cranial tables were then selected and formed into tensile samples and tested. These materials were then used with the two surrogate diplöe foam materials to create the three-layer surrogate cranial bone samples for three-point bending tests. Drop tower tests were performed on flat samples created from these materials and the fracture patterns were very similar to the linear fractures in pendulum impacts of intact human skulls, previously reported in the literature. The surrogate cranial tables had the quasi-static fracture toughness and tensile strength of 2.5 MPa√ m and 53 ± 4.9 MPa, respectively, while the same properties of human compact bone were 3.1 ± 1.8 MPa√ m and 68 ± 18 MPa, respectively. The cranial surrogate had a quasi-static bending strength of 68 ± 5.7 MPa, while that of cranial bone was 82 ± 26 MPa. This material/design is currently being used to construct spherical shell samples for drop tower and ballistic tests.

  9. Mountain range specific analog weather forecast model for northwest Himalaya in India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    D Singh; A Ganju

    2008-10-01

    Mountain range specific analog weather forecast model is developed utilizing surface weather observations of reference stations in each mountain range in northwest Himalaya (NW-Himalaya).The model searches past similar cases from historical dataset of reference observatory in each mountain range based on current situation.The searched past similar cases of each mountain range are used to draw weather forecast for that mountain range in operational weather forecasting mode, three days in advance.The developed analog weather forecast model is tested with the independent dataset of more than 717 days (542 days for Pir Panjal range in HP)of the past 4 winters (2003 –2004 to 2006 –2007).Independent test results are reasonably good and suggest that there is some possibility of forecasting weather in operational weather forecasting mode employing analog method over different mountain ranges in NW-Himalaya.Significant difference in overall accuracy of the model is found for prediction of snow day and no-snow day over different mountain ranges, when weather is predicted under snow day and no-snow day weather forecast categories respectively.In the same mountain range,signi ficant difference is also found in overall accuracy of the model for prediction of snow day and no-snow day for different areas.This can be attributed to their geographical position and topographical differences.The analog weather forecast model performs better than persistence and climatological forecast for day-1 predictions for all the mountain ranges except Karakoram range in NW-Himalaya.The developed analog weather forecast model may help as a guidance tool for forecasting weather in operational weather forecasting mode in different mountain ranges in NW-Himalaya.

  10. Mapping the vulnerability hotspots over Hindu-Kush Himalaya region to flooding disasters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shada Elalem

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A disproportionate share of the global economic and human losses caused by environmental shocks is borne by people in the developing nations. The mountain region of Hindu-Kush Himalaya (HKH in South Asia is threatened by numerous flooding events annually. An efficient disaster risk reduction often needs to rest upon location-based synoptic view of vulnerability. Resolving this deficit improves the ability to take risk reduction measures in a cost-effective way, and in doing so, strengthens the resilience of societies to flooding disasters. The central aim of this research is to identify the vulnerable locations across HKH boundary from the perspective of reported history of economic and human impacts due to occurrence of flooding disasters. A detailed analysis indicates a very high spatial heterogeneity in flooding disaster occurrence in the past 6 decades. The most recent decade reported highest number of disasters and greater spatial coverage as compared to the earlier decades. The data indicates that, in general, economic impacts of flooding disasters were notably higher in Pakistan, Afghanistan and Nepal. On the other hand, vulnerability scenarios with respect to human impacts were diverse for different countries. In terms of morbidity and mortality, Bangladesh, Pakistan, Bhutan and India were detected to be most susceptible to human impacts. Although Bhutan had seen lesser number of flooding disasters, higher population living within disaster prone region make them vulnerable. In summary, complex interactions between natural and socio-economic conditions play a dominant role to define and characterize the type and magnitude of vulnerability of HKH countries to disaster occurrence and their economic and human impacts.

  11. Forest structure, diversity and regeneration potential along altitudinal gradient in Dhanaulti of Garhwal Himalaya

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saha, S.; Rajwar, G.S.; Kumar, M.

    2016-07-01

    Aim of the study: The aim of the present study was to understatnd the forest composition, structure, diversity and regeneration potential along altitudinal gradient. Area of study: The study was carried out in Dhanaulti forest which falls under temperate region of Garhwal Himalaya in Uttarakhand state, India. Material and Methods: Vegetation analysis was carried out using 10 quadrats at each altitude using a quadrate size of 10×10 m2. In each quadrate, categories of trees >30 cm cbh were considered as trees, 10-30cm cbh as saplings and <10 cm cbh as seedlings. The data were quantitatively analyzed. Main results: In upper and middle altitudes, Cedrus deodara was reported dominant tree whereas, in lower altitude Quercus leucotrichophora was reported dominant. Tree density was highest in lower altitude which reduced middle and upper altitudes whereas, total basal cover increased with increasing altitude. The increasing total basal cover with altitude could be because of the presence of Cedrus deodara trees having higher girth classes. In tree, sapling and seedling layers, diversity (H) and equitabiltiy (EC) decreased with increasing altitude. However, concentrations of dominace (CD) and beta diversity (BD have shown reverse trend with H and EC which increased with increasing altitudes, in each layer of tree, sapling and seedling. The distribution pattern of most species in all layers of trees, saplings and seedlings was contagious. The regeneration potential of the species has shown that some of the species in the absence of tree layer are still regenerating particularly, Rhododendron arboreum, Benthamidia capitata, Neolitsea pallens etc. It indicates that most of the species are shifting upward as they are getting suitable conditions. Research highlights: Altitude influence species composition, diversity and regeneration potential of species. (Author)

  12. Impacts of changing climate and snow cover on the flow regime of Jhelum River, Western Himalayas

    KAUST Repository

    Azmat, Muhammad

    2016-11-17

    This study examines the change in climate variables and snow cover dynamics and their impact on the hydrological regime of the Jhelum River basin in Western Himalayas. This study utilized daily streamflow records from Mangla dam, spanning a time period of 19 years (1995–2013), along with precipitation and temperature data over 52 years (1961–2013) from 12 different climate stations in the catchment. Additionally, moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) remote sensing product MOD10A2 was utilized to analyze the change in snow cover dynamics during 2000–2013. The Pearson and Kendall rank correlation tests were used to scrutinize snow cover trends and correlation between temperature, precipitation, snow cover area (SCA) and streamflows records. Basin-wide trend analysis showed a slightly increasing tendency in temperature (τ = 0.098) and precipitation (τ = 0.094), during the years 1961–2013. The changes in streamflow indicated a positive (r > 0.12) relationship with respect to temperature but variable trends (r = −0.45–0.41) with respect to precipitation during both the winter and monsoon seasons. This indicates that temperature has a significant impact on the hydrological regime of the basin. MODIS data-based investigations suggested an expansion in SCA during 2000–2013. The changes in SCA of high-altitude zones (>2000 m a.s.l.) depicted a stronger positive correlation with climate variables and streamflow compared with those obtained for low-altitude regions (<2000 m a.s.l.). Overall, these results signify that high-altitude areas contribute to the streamflow largely in the form of snow- and glacier-melt during the early summer season. The streamflow is then further augmented by monsoon rainfall in the low-elevation regions during late summer.

  13. Effects of national forest-management regimes on unprotected forests of the Himalaya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Jodi S; Allendorf, Teri; Radeloff, Volker; Brooks, Jeremy

    2017-03-15

    Globally, deforestation continues, and although protected areas effectively protect forests, the majority of forests are not in protected areas. Thus, how effective are different management regimes to avoid deforestation in non-protected forests? We sought to assess the effectiveness of different national forest-management regimes to safeguard forests outside protected areas. We compared 2000-2014 deforestation rates across the temperate forests of 5 countries in the Himalaya (Bhutan, Nepal, China, India, and Myanmar) of which 13% are protected. We reviewed the literature to characterize forest management regimes in each country and conducted a quasi-experimental analysis to measure differences in deforestation of unprotected forests among countries and states in India. Countries varied in both overarching forest-management goals and specific tenure arrangements and policies for unprotected forests, from policies emphasizing economic development to those focused on forest conservation. Deforestation rates differed up to 1.4% between countries, even after accounting for local determinants of deforestation, such as human population density, market access, and topography. The highest deforestation rates were associated with forest policies aimed at maximizing profits and unstable tenure regimes. Deforestation in national forest-management regimes that emphasized conservation and community management were relatively low. In India results were consistent with the national-level results. We interpreted our results in the context of the broader literature on decentralized, community-based natural resource management, and our findings emphasize that the type and quality of community-based forestry programs and the degree to which they are oriented toward sustainable use rather than economic development are important for forest protection. Our cross-national results are consistent with results from site- and regional-scale studies that show forest-management regimes that

  14. Regional flood-frequency reconstruction for Kullu district, Western Indian Himalayas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballesteros Cánovas, J. A.; Trappmann, D.; Shekhar, M.; Bhattacharyya, A.; Stoffel, M.

    2017-03-01

    Floods are a major threat in many valleys of the Indian Himalayan Region (IHR). Yet, the lack of reliable data on past events renders the implementation of appropriate adaptation policies a difficult task, and therefore also hampers the mitigation of future disasters. In an attempt to overcome these shortcomings, we combine reconstructed paleoflood events based on tree-ring analyses with existing systematic records, so as to derive a regional flood frequency. Analysis was realized with tree-ring records and through the dating of growth disturbances in riparian trees of major rivers in Kullu district (Himachal Pradesh, Indian Himalayas). To this end, we combined field-based observations, tree-ring analyses, hydraulic modelling and statistical approaches. Results suggest that the occurrence of floods in Kullu district is recurrent, with a marked seasonality and a cyclic natural variability in flood frequency at multi-decadal scales, as well as distinct spatial representativeness. The inclusion of peak discharge data of past, previously ungauged, flood events derived from tree-ring records has a significant and positive impact on the flood frequency assessment. Flood hazards and associated risks have been clearly underestimated in the region and based on the systematic records alone. We also demonstrate that a regional flood frequency approach is suitable to optimize the information gathered from tree rings and that flood frequency can thus be analyzed for larger regions. The approach used in this paper can be implemented in the other, poorly gauged region and thus contribute to climate change adaptation policies in undocumented environments such as the Indian Himalayan Region.

  15. Seasonal emanation of radon at Ghuttu, northwest Himalaya: Differentiation of atmospheric temperature and pressure influences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamra, Leena

    2015-11-01

    Continuous monitoring of radon along with meteorological parameters has been carried out in a seismically active area of Garhwal region, northwest Himalaya, within the frame work of earthquake precursory research. Radon measurements are carried out by using a gamma ray detector installed in the air column at a depth of 10m in a 68m deep borehole. The analysis of long time series for 2006-2012 shows strong seasonal variability masked by diurnal and multi-day variations. Isolation of a seasonal cycle by minimising short-time by 31 day running average shows a strong seasonal variation with unambiguous dependence on atmospheric temperature and pressure. The seasonal characteristics of radon concentrations are positively correlated to atmospheric temperature (R=0.95) and negatively correlated to atmospheric pressure (R=-0.82). The temperature and pressure variation in their annual progressions are negatively correlated. The calculations of partial correlation coefficient permit us to conclude that atmospheric temperature plays a dominant role in controlling the variability of radon in borehole, 71% of the variability in radon arises from the variation in atmospheric temperature and about 6% of the variability is contributed by atmospheric pressure. The influence of pressure variations in an annual cycle appears to be a pseudo-effect, resulting from the negative correlation between temperature and pressure variations. Incorporation of these results explains the varying and even contradictory claims regarding the influence of the pressure variability on radon changes in the published literature. Temperature dependence, facilitated by the temperature gradient in the borehole, controls the transportation of radon from the deep interior to the surface.

  16. Hydrological modelling improvements required in basins in the Hindukush-Karakoram-Himalayas region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Asif; Richards, Keith S.; McRobie, Allan; Booij, Martijn

    2016-04-01

    Millions of people rely on river water originating from basins in the Hindukush-Karakoram-Himalayas (HKH), where snow- and ice-melt are significant flow components. One such basin is the Upper Indus Basin (UIB), where snow- and ice-melt can contribute more than 80% of total flow. Containing some of the world's largest alpine glaciers, this basin may be highly susceptible to global warming and climate change, and reliable predictions of future water availability are vital for resource planning for downstream food and energy needs in a changing climate, but depend on significantly improved hydrological modelling. However, a critical assessment of available hydro-climatic data and hydrological modelling in the HKH region has identified five major failings in many published hydro-climatic studies, even those appearing in reputable international journals. The main weaknesses of these studies are: i) incorrect basin areas; ii) under-estimated precipitation; iii) incorrectly-defined glacier boundaries; iv) under-estimated snow-cover data; and v) use of biased melt factors for snow and ice during the summer months. This paper illustrates these limitations, which have either resulted in modelled flows being under-estimates of measured flows, leading to an implied severe water scarcity; or have led to the use of unrealistically high degree-day factors and over-estimates of glacier melt contributions, implying unrealistic melt rates. These effects vary amongst sub-basins. Forecasts obtained from these models cannot be used reliably in policy making or water resource development, and need revision. Detailed critical analysis and improvement of existing hydrological modelling may be equally necessary in other mountain regions across the world.

  17. Limitations in dose-response and surrogate species methodologies for risk assessment of Cry toxins on arthropod natural enemies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paula, Débora P; Andow, David A; Bellinati, André; Timbó, Renata Velozo; Souza, Lucas M; Pires, Carmen S S; Sujii, Edison R

    2016-04-01

    Dose-response assays and surrogate species are standard methods for risk analysis for environmental chemicals. These assume that individuals within a species have unimodal responses and that a surrogate species can predict responses of other related taxa. We exposed immature individuals of closely related aphidophagous coccinellid predators, Cycloneda sanguinea and Harmonia axyridis, to Cry1Ac and Cry1F toxins through uniform and constant artificial tritrophic exposure through Myzus persicae aphids. Both toxins were detected in coccinellid pupae, with individual and interspecific variation. Uptake was significantly higher in H. axyridis than in C. sanguinea, both in the proportion of individuals and the concentrations per individual. We also observed bimodal uptake of the Cry toxins by H. axyridis, which indicated that some individuals had low bioaccumulation and some had high bioaccumulation. This suggests that standard dose-response assays need to be interpreted with caution and future assays should examine the modality of the responses. In addition, the similarity in the biological effects of the Cry toxins in the two predators was due to different biological exposure mechanisms. The majority of H. axyridis were exposed both internally and in the gut, while C. sanguinea was exposed primarily in the gut. Thus, despite their close phylogenetic relatedness, these species would not be good surrogates for each other and the surrogate species methodology should be tested more rigorously.

  18. Bending testing and characterization of surrogate nuclear fuel rods made of Zircaloy-4 cladding and aluminum oxide pellets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong; Wang, Jy-An John

    2016-10-01

    Behavior of surrogate nuclear fuel rods made of Zircaloy-4 (Zry-4) cladding with alumina pellets under reversed cyclic bending was studied. Tests were performed under load or moment control at 5 Hz. The surrogate rods fractured under moment amplitudes greater than 10.16 Nm with fatigue lives between 2.4 × 103 and 2.2 × 106 cycles. Fatigue response of Zry-4 cladding was characterized by using flexural rigidity. Degradation of flexural rigidity was shown to depend on the moment and the prefatigue condition of specimens. Pellet-to-pellet interface (PPI), pellet-to-cladding interface (PCI), and pellet condition affect surrogate rod failure. Both debonding of PPI/PCI and pellet fracturing contribute to surrogate rod bending fatigue. The effect of sensor spacing on curvature measurement using three-point deflections was studied; the method based on effective gauge length is effective in sensor spacing correction. The database developed and the understanding gained in this study can serve as input to analysis of SNF (spent nuclear fuel) vibration integrity.

  19. Hall et al., 2016 Artificial Turf Surrogate Surface Methods Paper Data File

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Mercury dry deposition data quantified via static water surrogate surface (SWSS) and artificial turf surrogate surface (ATSS) collectors. This dataset is associated...

  20. FOREST ECOSYSTEM DYNAMICS ASSESSMENT AND PREDICTIVE MODELLING IN EASTERN HIMALAYA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. P. S. Kushwaha

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This study focused on the forest ecosystem dynamics assessment and predictive modelling deforestation and forest cover prediction in a part of north-eastern India i.e. forest areas along West Bengal, Bhutan, Arunachal Pradesh and Assam border in Eastern Himalaya using temporal satellite imagery of 1975, 1990 and 2009 and predicted forest cover for the period 2028 using Cellular Automata Markov Modedel (CAMM. The exercise highlighted large-scale deforestation in the study area during 1975–1990 as well as 1990–2009 forest cover vectors. A net loss of 2,334.28 km2 forest cover was noticed between 1975 and 2009, and with current rate of deforestation, a forest area of 4,563.34 km2 will be lost by 2028. The annual rate of deforestation worked out to be 0.35 and 0.78% during 1975–1990 and 1990–2009 respectively. Bamboo forest increased by 24.98% between 1975 and 2009 due to opening up of the forests. Forests in Kokrajhar, Barpeta, Darrang, Sonitpur, and Dhemaji districts in Assam were noticed to be worst-affected while Lower Subansiri, West and East Siang, Dibang Valley, Lohit and Changlang in Arunachal Pradesh were severely affected. Among different forest types, the maximum loss was seen in case of sal forest (37.97% between 1975 and 2009 and is expected to deplete further to 60.39% by 2028. The tropical moist deciduous forest was the next category, which decreased from 5,208.11 km2 to 3,447.28 (33.81% during same period with further chances of depletion to 2,288.81 km2 (56.05% by 2028. It noted progressive loss of forests in the study area between 1975 and 2009 through 1990 and predicted that, unless checked, the area is in for further depletion of the invaluable climax forests in the region, especially sal and moist deciduous forests. The exercise demonstrated high potential of remote sensing and geographic information system for forest ecosystem dynamics assessment and the efficacy of CAMM to predict the forest cover change.

  1. Treeline dynamics with climate change at Central Nepal Himalaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. P. Gaire

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Global climate change has multidimensional impacts with several biological fingerprints, and treeline shifting in tandem with climate change is a widely observed phenomenon in various parts of the world. In Nepal several impacts of climate change on physical environments have been observed. However, studies on the biological impacts are lacking. This dendrochronological study was carried out at the treeline ecotone (3750–4003 m a.s.l. in the Kalchuman Lake (Kal Tal area of the Manaslu Conservation Area in central Nepal Himalaya with the aim to study the dynamic impact of climate change at the treeline. The study provides an insight into regeneration and treeline dynamics over the past 200 yr. Two belt transect plots (size: 20 m wide, >250 m long were laid covering forest line, treeline as well as tree species Abies spectabilis and Betula utilis was done and their tree-cores were collected. Stand character and age distribution revealed an occurrence of more matured B. utilis (max. age 198 yr old compared to A. spectabilis (max. age 160 yr. A. spectabilis contained an overwhelmingly high population (89% of younger plants (A. spectabilis at the rate of 2.61 m yr−1 since 1850 AD. The upper distribution limit of B. utilis was found stagnant in the past few decades. An increment in plant density as well as upward shifting in the studied treeline ecotones was observed. Thus, two species presented species-specific responses to climate change and much wider differences anticipated in their population status as climate continues to cha spectabilis correlated negatively with the mean monthly temperature of May–August of the current year and with September of the previous year. The regeneration of A. spectabilis, on the other hand, was positively related with May–August precipitation and January–April temperature of the current year. The reconstructed average summer temperature (May–August using tree ring data revealed alternate period of cool

  2. Magnetic Resonance Imaging–Guided versus Surrogate-Based Motion Tracking in Liver Radiation Therapy: A Prospective Comparative Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paganelli, Chiara, E-mail: chiara.paganelli@polimi.it [Dipartimento di Elettronica, Informazione e Bioingegneria, Politecnico di Milano, Milano (Italy); Seregni, Matteo; Fattori, Giovanni [Dipartimento di Elettronica, Informazione e Bioingegneria, Politecnico di Milano, Milano (Italy); Summers, Paul [Division of Radiology, Istituto Europeo di Oncologia, Milano (Italy); Bellomi, Massimo [Division of Radiology, Istituto Europeo di Oncologia, Milano (Italy); Department of Health Sciences, Università degli Studi di Milano, Milano (Italy); Baroni, Guido; Riboldi, Marco [Dipartimento di Elettronica, Informazione e Bioingegneria, Politecnico di Milano, Milano (Italy); Bioengineering Unit, CNAO Foundation, Pavia (Italy)

    2015-03-15

    Purpose: This study applied automatic feature detection on cine–magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) liver images in order to provide a prospective comparison between MRI-guided and surrogate-based tracking methods for motion-compensated liver radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: In a population of 30 subjects (5 volunteers plus 25 patients), 2 oblique sagittal slices were acquired across the liver at high temporal resolution. An algorithm based on scale invariant feature transform (SIFT) was used to extract and track multiple features throughout the image sequence. The position of abdominal markers was also measured directly from the image series, and the internal motion of each feature was quantified through multiparametric analysis. Surrogate-based tumor tracking with a state-of-the-art external/internal correlation model was simulated. The geometrical tracking error was measured, and its correlation with external motion parameters was also investigated. Finally, the potential gain in tracking accuracy relying on MRI guidance was quantified as a function of the maximum allowed tracking error. Results: An average of 45 features was extracted for each subject across the whole liver. The multi-parametric motion analysis reported relevant inter- and intrasubject variability, highlighting the value of patient-specific and spatially-distributed measurements. Surrogate-based tracking errors (relative to the motion amplitude) were were in the range 7% to 23% (1.02-3.57mm) and were significantly influenced by external motion parameters. The gain of MRI guidance compared to surrogate-based motion tracking was larger than 30% in 50% of the subjects when considering a 1.5-mm tracking error tolerance. Conclusions: Automatic feature detection applied to cine-MRI allows detailed liver motion description to be obtained. Such information was used to quantify the performance of surrogate-based tracking methods and to provide a prospective comparison with respect to MRI

  3. Elevated Pressure Improves the Extraction and Identification of Proteins Recovered from Formalin-Fixed, Paraffin-Embedded Tissue Surrogates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Carol B.; Chesnick, Ingrid E.; Moore, Cedric D.; O'Leary, Timothy J.; Mason, Jeffrey T.

    2010-01-01

    Background Proteomic studies of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues are frustrated by the inability to extract proteins from archival tissue in a form suitable for analysis by 2-D gel electrophoresis or mass spectrometry. This inability arises from the difficulty of reversing formaldehyde-induced protein adducts and cross-links within FFPE tissues. We previously reported the use of elevated hydrostatic pressure as a method for efficient protein recovery from a hen egg-white lysozyme tissue surrogate, a model system developed to study formalin fixation and histochemical processing. Principal Findings In this study, we demonstrate the utility of elevated hydrostatic pressure as a method for efficient protein recovery from FFPE mouse liver tissue and a complex multi-protein FFPE tissue surrogate comprised of hen egg-white lysozyme, bovine carbonic anhydrase, bovine ribonuclease A, bovine serum albumin, and equine myoglobin (55∶15∶15∶10∶5 wt%). Mass spectrometry of the FFPE tissue surrogates retrieved under elevated pressure showed that both the low and high-abundance proteins were identified with sequence coverage comparable to that of the surrogate mixture prior to formaldehyde treatment. In contrast, non-pressure-extracted tissue surrogate samples yielded few positive and many false peptide identifications. Studies with soluble formalin-treated bovine ribonuclease A demonstrated that pressure modestly inhibited the rate of reversal (hydrolysis) of formaldehyde-induced protein cross-links. Dynamic light scattering studies suggest that elevated hydrostatic pressure and heat facilitate the recovery of proteins free of formaldehyde adducts and cross-links by promoting protein unfolding and hydration with a concomitant reduction in the average size of the protein aggregates. Conclusions These studies demonstrate that elevated hydrostatic pressure treatment is a promising approach for improving the recovery of proteins from FFPE tissues in a form

  4. Elevated pressure improves the extraction and identification of proteins recovered from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue surrogates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol B Fowler

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Proteomic studies of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE tissues are frustrated by the inability to extract proteins from archival tissue in a form suitable for analysis by 2-D gel electrophoresis or mass spectrometry. This inability arises from the difficulty of reversing formaldehyde-induced protein adducts and cross-links within FFPE tissues. We previously reported the use of elevated hydrostatic pressure as a method for efficient protein recovery from a hen egg-white lysozyme tissue surrogate, a model system developed to study formalin fixation and histochemical processing. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, we demonstrate the utility of elevated hydrostatic pressure as a method for efficient protein recovery from FFPE mouse liver tissue and a complex multi-protein FFPE tissue surrogate comprised of hen egg-white lysozyme, bovine carbonic anhydrase, bovine ribonuclease A, bovine serum albumin, and equine myoglobin (55∶15∶15∶10∶5 wt%. Mass spectrometry of the FFPE tissue surrogates retrieved under elevated pressure showed that both the low and high-abundance proteins were identified with sequence coverage comparable to that of the surrogate mixture prior to formaldehyde treatment. In contrast, non-pressure-extracted tissue surrogate samples yielded few positive and many false peptide identifications. Studies with soluble formalin-treated bovine ribonuclease A demonstrated that pressure modestly inhibited the rate of reversal (hydrolysis of formaldehyde-induced protein cross-links. Dynamic light scattering studies suggest that elevated hydrostatic pressure and heat facilitate the recovery of proteins free of formaldehyde adducts and cross-links by promoting protein unfolding and hydration with a concomitant reduction in the average size of the protein aggregates. CONCLUSIONS: These studies demonstrate that elevated hydrostatic pressure treatment is a promising approach for improving the recovery of proteins from FFPE

  5. Surrogate Measurements of Actinide (n,2n) Cross Sections with NeutronSTARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casperson, R. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Burke, J. T. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Hughes, R. O. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Akindele, O. A. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Koglin, J. D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Wang, B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Tamashiro, A. [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States)

    2016-09-27

    Directly measuring (n,2n) cross sections on short-lived actinides presents a number of experimental challenges. The surrogate reaction technique is an experimental method for measuring cross sections on short-­lived isotopes, and it provides a unique solution for measuring (n,2n) cross sections. This technique involves measuring a charged-­particle reaction cross section, where the reaction populates the same compound nucleus as the reaction of interest. To perform these surrogate (n,2n) cross section measurements, a silicon telescope array has been placed along a beam line at the Texas A&M University Cyclotron Institute, which is surrounded by a large tank of gadolinium-doped liquid scintillator, which acts as a neutron detector. The combination of the charge-particle and neutron-detector arrays is referred to as NeutronSTARS. In the analysis procedure for calculating the (n,2n) cross section, the neutron detection efficiency and time structure plays an important role. Due to the lack of availability of isotropic, mono-energetic neutron sources, modeling is an important component in establishing this efficiency and time structure. This report describes the NeutronSTARS array, which was designed and commissioned during this project. It also describes the surrogate reaction technique, specifically referencing a 235U(n,2n) commissioning measurement that was fielded during the past year. Advanced multiplicity analysis techniques have been developed for this work, which should allow for efficient analysis of 241Pu(n,2n) and 239Pu(n,2n) cross section measurements

  6. Land Use and Land Cover Change in Sagarmatha National Park, a World Heritage Site in the Himalayas of Eastern Nepal

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rodney Garrard; Thomas Kohler; Martin F Price; Alton C Byers; Ang Rita Sherpa; Gyanu Raja Maharjan

    2016-01-01

      Land use and land cover (LULC) changes that occurred during 1992- 2011 in Sagarmatha National Park, a United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization World Heritage Site in the Himalayas of eastern Nepal, were...

  7. Driving factors of aerosol concentration changes in the foothills of Central Himalayas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivekäs, Niku; Hooda, Rakesh; Hyvärinen, Antti-Pekka; Collaud-Coen, Martine; O'Connor, Ewan; Pietikäinen, Joni-Pekka; Backman, John; Vakkari, Ville; Lihavainen, Heikki

    2017-04-01

    Because of their short residence time in the atmosphere and uneven sources, the concentration, composition and properties of aerosol particles at a given location vary strongly depending on the air mass history and atmospheric mixing properties. Therefore detailed analysis is needed before a representative picture of the amount or composition of aerosol particles can be obtained. In this study we have analyzed 10 years (2005 - 2014) of aerosol data from Mukteshwar, a high-altitude site at 2180 m elevation in the foothills of Central Himalayas. The site is located on a mountain ridge with valleys on both sides. On larger scale the area consists of is low (peaks 1500 - 2500 m) mountains between the Gangetic Plains (100-200 m) and the actual Himalayas (peaks 6000 - 8000 m). The site is located in monsoon climate with most of the annual precipitation falling during the monsoon months (July and August). The data includes a variety of physical and optical properties of aerosols. We have analyzed the data for diurnal, weekly, and annual cycles, and for inter-annual variability and trends. We have also tried to identify the driving factors behind these changes. There were clear diurnal cycles in aerosol particle concentrations during all seasons apart for monsoon. All external aerosol parameters showed 1.5 - 2 times higher values during afternoon than during night time. This was linked to the diurnal pattern of turbulent mixing layer height, bringing polluted air from the valleys to the site. The timing of the pattern was consistent with increased turbulence, increased water vapor concentration in the air and change of wind direction at the site. The aerosol internal properties did not show a clear diurnal cycle. There were some weak indications of a weekday-weekend cycle during some months for some aerosol parameters, but no consistent patterns were found. The seasonal cycles of all external aerosol parameters were very clear. Every year the monsoon rains removed most of

  8. Sequential optimization of strip bending process using multiquadric radial basis function surrogate models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havinga, Gosse Tjipke; van den Boogaard, Antonius H.; Klaseboer, G.

    2013-01-01

    Surrogate models are used within the sequential optimization strategy for forming processes. A sequential improvement (SI) scheme is used to refine the surrogate model in the optimal region. One of the popular surrogate modeling methods for SI is Kriging. However, the global response of Kriging mode

  9. Climate Past and Present: A Study on Glaciology of Himalayas in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanmuganandan, S.

    2003-04-01

    Glaciers are moving bodies of ice and snow, which are normally present above the snow line. Glaciers and ice sheets are hundreds to more than one thousand meters thick and change significantly only over decades. On these longer time scales they can influence atmospheric circulation and global sea levels. Glaciers play an important role in maintaining ecosystem stability as they act as buffers and regulate the runoff water supply from high mountains to the plains during both dry and wet spells. The present study is an attempt to analyze the Climate of the Past and Present of the Himalayas with reference to study the glaciology. The study also attempted to use the remote sensed data to explore the past and present situation of glaciology of the Himalayas. Since mountain glaciology of Himalayas played a vital role and stand as an example to explore the possibility of the climate change that occurred from the past to the present and also to determine the status in the future. The Study was based on the secondary and primary data collected from available sources and also collected from various published records to document the evidences for the same. It was observed that the Himalayan glaciers account for about 70% of the world’s non-polar glaciers and affect the lives of millions of people in several countries: China, India, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Nepal and Bangladesh. Their runoff feeds two of the oldest rivers in the world, the Indus and the Ganges, whose tributaries carry precious water for 500 million people on the northern Indian plains. Most of the glaciers in the Himalayas are of a summer-accumulation type, that is major accumulation and ablation take place simultaneously during summer (Fujita et. al, 1997). The glaciers of the Himalayas include some of the longest outside the Polar Regions and reached their largest extent during the end of the last ice age (more than 20,000 years ago). The evidence of these large ice masses can be seen in 'U' shaped valleys

  10. Glacier length, area and volume changes in the Himalaya: an overview and specific examples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolch, T.; Bhambri, R.; Kamp, U.; Pieczonka, T.

    2011-12-01

    The Himalaya comprises one of the largest glacier-covered areas outside the polar regions. Glaciers are of special interest for several reasons. For instance, receding glaciers can cause the development of hazardous glacial lakes and glaciers contribute to the overall river runoff. The importance of the glacier melt to run off, however, varies significantly depending especially on the precipitation regime. Previous studies indicate that the vast majority of the Himalayan glaciers retreated during the recent decades with only few exemptions. Although the numbers of investigates glaciers increased in the last few years, there is still a lack of knowledge about the glacier behaviour in the different regions of the Himalaya. Existing length measurements in the Indian Himalaya show continuous retreat with an accelerating trend in recent years for most of the glaciers. The annual retreat rates vary between ~5m and more than 50m. However, several measurements are based on topographic maps or coarse satellite data and can have therefore higher uncertainties. Own reassessments for the debris-covered Gangotri Glacier situated in Garhwal Himalaya/western India based on high resolution imagery such as Corona, Hexagon, IRS PAN, LISS IV, and Cartosat-1 show an continuous retreat with an average rate of 19.9 ± 0.3 m a-1 from 1965 to 2006. This is significant but less than previously published. Similar results were revealed for the area changes in upper Alaknanda and Bhagirathi valleys in Garhwal Himalaya. We found a lower but still significant area loss of 4.6 ± 2.8 % between 1968 and 2006. Area changes in Khumbu Himalaya/Nepal are with ~5% between 1962 and 2005 comparable. Investigations in the Greater Himalayan Range in southern Ladakh/northwest India revealed a general receding trend but with some of the larger glaciers with high altitude catchments being stable or even advancing. Preliminary results for Shyok Valley (Jammu and Kashmir) show on average stable or slightly

  11. Regression with Small Data Sets: A Case Study using Code Surrogates in Additive Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamath, C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Fan, Y. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-04-11

    There has been an increasing interest in recent years in the mining of massive data sets whose sizes are measured in terabytes. While it is easy to collect such large data sets in some application domains, there are others where collecting even a single data point can be very expensive, so the resulting data sets have only tens or hundreds of samples. For example, when complex computer simulations are used to understand a scientific phenomenon, we want to run the simulation for many different values of the input parameters and analyze the resulting output. The data set relating the simulation inputs and outputs is typically quite small, especially when each run of the simulation is expensive. However, regression techniques can still be used on such data sets to build an inexpensive \\surrogate" that could provide an approximate output for a given set of inputs. A good surrogate can be very useful in sensitivity analysis, uncertainty analysis, and in designing experiments. In this paper, we compare different regression techniques to determine how well they predict melt-pool characteristics in the problem domain of additive manufacturing. Our analysis indicates that some of the commonly used regression methods do perform quite well even on small data sets.

  12. Channel Flow Model of Extrusion of the Higher Himalaya- Successes & Limitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, S.

    2009-04-01

    strain exponent of the rock. Did the HH rocks extrude as a Newtonian fluid? (6) An increase in the extrusion rate and a decrease in the ductile shear strain from the Main Central Thrust (MCT- the lower boundary of the HH) up to the lower boundary of the STDS, and then an increase in extrusion rate and a decrease in shear strain up to the upper boundary of the STDS are expected as per the channel flow model. Such a systematic and a detailed variation of the extrusion rate and shear strain have not yet been documented from the HH. (7) The detail geological information for individual sections of the HH is not taken care by the model. For example in the Sutlej section of the western Indian Himalaya, the HH rocks are divisible into a lower lithounit of higher viscosity and an upper lithounit of lower viscosity (Fig. 2 of Caddick et al., 2007; Figs. 3.2 and 3.11 of Mukherjee, 2007). What will be the velocity profiles of a pressure gradient guided extrusion through a two-viscous media? References Beaumont, C., Jamieson, R.A., Nguyen, M.H., Lee, B., 2001. Himalayan tectonics explaneed by extrusion of a low-viscosity crustal channel coupled to focused surface denudation. Nature 414, 738-742. Caddick, M.J., Bickle, M.J., Harris, N.B.W., Holland, T.J.B., Horstwood, M.S.A., Parrish, R.R., Ahmad, T., 2007. Burial and exhumation history of a Lesser Himalayan schist: Recording the formation of an inverted metamorphic sequence in NW India. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 264, 375-390. Grujic, D., Casey, M., Davidson, C., Hollister, L.S., Kündig, R., Pavlis, T., Schmid, S., 1996. Ductile extrusion of the Higher Himalayan Crystalline in Bhutan: evidence from quartz microfabrics. Tectonophysics 260, 21-43. Mukherjee, S. 2007. Geodynamics, Deformation and Mathematical Analysis of Metamorphic Belts, NW Himalaya. Unpublished Ph.D. thesis. Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee. pp. 75-149.

  13. High resolution WRF simulation of the spatiotemporal variability of precipitation over the Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, J.; Carvalho, L. V.; Jones, C.; Cannon, F.; Bookhagen, B.

    2015-12-01

    The Himalaya enhances and redistributes large-scale precipitation systems associated with winter storms, the Indian monsoon, and other relevant weather systems through the year. The resulting runoff across the Himalaya is depended on by over a billion people in south Asia for energy, agriculture, industry, and human consumption. However, the observation and understanding of regional precipitation patterns are limited on account of sparse in-situ meteorological data and complex topography. Additionally, the region's extreme elevations pose significant challenges for remotely sensed observation and global reanalyses in accurately representing precipitation. Mesoscale simulations are therefore the best available option to determine precipitation patterns and evaluate water resources in the Himalaya. In this study, the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model has been used to simulate the spatiotemporal distribution of precipitation over High Asia for a single, continuous hydrological year at high resolution (6.7 km). The output is compared to available high-elevation rain gauges along the Himalaya, as well as gridded precipitation estimates from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) and satellite cloud-mask data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), to gauge the performance of the model in simulating the full annual range of precipitation systems over the Himalaya. WRF and TRMM show a similar inter-seasonal cycle of precipitation that appropriately represents climatic influences ranging from extratropical cyclones to the monsoon. Good agreement is also observed in the locations of precipitation maxima in transition months between the two regimes. WRF also compares well to daily in-situ precipitation throughout the year, with correlation coefficients generally at 0.5 and above, but decreasing for stations at increasingly high elevations. Diurnal cycles of precipitation during the monsoon are also similar between WRF and TRMM, with

  14. Reassessing Catastrophic Infill of the Pokhara Valley, Nepal Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwanghart, Wolfgang; Bernhardt, Anne; Stolle, Amelie; Adhikari, Basantha; Korup, Oliver

    2014-05-01

    The Pokhara valley, home to Nepal's second largest city and a major tourist attraction (28°15'N, 83°58'E), is covered by 4-5 km3 and 50-100 m thick intramontane fan deposits that resulted from massive aggradation of the Seti Khola, a river draining the Annapurna Massif of the Greater Himalaya. Poorly sorted, gravelly fluvial facies intercalated with debris-flow and mud-flow facies known as the Pokhara Gravels attest to highly energetic transport conditions during one or several catastrophic flow events. In May 2012, a devastative flash flood/debris flow in the Seti Khola rekindled interest in the formation processes and timing of the Pokhara Gravels as they may provide constraints on the magnitudes and frequencies of similar past events. Interpretations of previous sedimentological work and radiocarbon dating (Yamanaka, 1982; Fort, 1987) culminated in the belief that the Pokhara Gravels were catastrophically emplaced only 500 to 1000 years ago, although the exact nature, timing, and triggers of the purported event(s) remain obscure. Specifically, it remains debated whether the Pokhara Gravels were deposited instantaneously, possibly within less than a year, or whether sedimentation was more protracted over perhaps decades to millennia. We present new geomorphological, sedimentological, geochemical, and radiocarbon data and re-assess a potential catastrophic infill of the Pokhara Valley during one or several high-magnitude events. Support for this scenario is given by laterally continuous long-runout (~40 km) debris-flow deposits topped by large (i.e. up to >11-m) boulders, a distinctly calcareous lithology diagnostic of a small Greater Himalayan source area tens of kilometres upstream, and by historical anecdotes of a large flood that destroyed an earlier settlement in the area. However, we show that dated outcrops of fine-grained sediments in tributaries blocked by the Pokhara Gravels yield asynchronous ages. Although our radiocarbon dates are consistent with

  15. Very Short Literature Survey From Supervised Learning To Surrogate Modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Brusan, Altay

    2012-01-01

    The past century was era of linear systems. Either systems (especially industrial ones) were simple (quasi)linear or linear approximations were accurate enough. In addition, just at the ending decades of the century profusion of computing devices were available, before then due to lack of computational resources it was not easy to evaluate available nonlinear system studies. At the moment both these two conditions changed, systems are highly complex and also pervasive amount of computation strength is cheap and easy to achieve. For recent era, a new branch of supervised learning well known as surrogate modeling (meta-modeling, surface modeling) has been devised which aimed at answering new needs of modeling realm. This short literature survey is on to introduce surrogate modeling to whom is familiar with the concepts of supervised learning. Necessity, challenges and visions of the topic are considered.

  16. A Parallel and Distributed Surrogate Model Implementation for Computational Steering

    KAUST Repository

    Butnaru, Daniel

    2012-06-01

    Understanding the influence of multiple parameters in a complex simulation setting is a difficult task. In the ideal case, the scientist can freely steer such a simulation and is immediately presented with the results for a certain configuration of the input parameters. Such an exploration process is however not possible if the simulation is computationally too expensive. For these cases we present in this paper a scalable computational steering approach utilizing a fast surrogate model as substitute for the time-consuming simulation. The surrogate model we propose is based on the sparse grid technique, and we identify the main computational tasks associated with its evaluation and its extension. We further show how distributed data management combined with the specific use of accelerators allows us to approximate and deliver simulation results to a high-resolution visualization system in real-time. This significantly enhances the steering workflow and facilitates the interactive exploration of large datasets. © 2012 IEEE.

  17. The Theory and Practice of Surrogate Decision-Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendler, David

    2017-01-01

    When a patient lacks decision-making capacity and has not left a clear advance directive, there is now widespread agreement that patient-designated and next-of-kin surrogates should implement substituted judgment within a process of shared decision-making. Specifically, after discussing the "best scientific evidence available, as well as the patient's values, goals, and preferences" with the patient's clinicians, the patient-designated or next-of-kin surrogate should attempt to determine what decision the patient would have made in the circumstances. To the extent that this approach works, it seems to provide about as much respect for the autonomy of incapacitated patients as we could ask for. But, as articles in this issue of the Report by Jeffrey Berger and by Ellen Robinson and colleagues emphasize, reality presents challenges. © 2017 The Hastings Center.

  18. Isotope Inversion Experiment evaluating the suitability of calibration in surrogate matrix for quantification via LC-MS/MS-Exemplary application for a steroid multi-method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhr, Anna Catharina; Vogeser, Michael; Grimm, Stefanie H

    2016-05-30

    For quotable quantitative analysis of endogenous analytes in complex biological samples by isotope dilution LC-MS/MS, the creation of appropriate calibrators is a challenge, since analyte-free authentic material is in general not available. Thus, surrogate matrices are often used to prepare calibrators and controls. However, currently employed validation protocols do not include specific experiments to verify the suitability of a surrogate matrix calibration for quantification of authentic matrix samples. The aim of the study was the development of a novel validation experiment to test whether surrogate matrix based calibrators enable correct quantification of authentic matrix samples. The key element of the novel validation experiment is the inversion of nonlabelled analytes and their stable isotope labelled (SIL) counterparts in respect to their functions, i.e. SIL compound is the analyte and nonlabelled substance is employed as internal standard. As a consequence, both surrogate and authentic matrix are analyte-free regarding SIL analytes, which allows a comparison of both matrices. We called this approach Isotope Inversion Experiment. As figure of merit we defined the accuracy of inverse quality controls in authentic matrix quantified by means of a surrogate matrix calibration curve. As a proof-of-concept application a LC-MS/MS assay addressing six corticosteroids (cortisol, cortisone, corticosterone, 11-deoxycortisol, 11-deoxycorticosterone, and 17-OH-progesterone) was chosen. The integration of the Isotope Inversion Experiment in the validation protocol for the steroid assay was successfully realized. The accuracy results of the inverse quality controls were all in all very satisfying. As a consequence the suitability of a surrogate matrix calibration for quantification of the targeted steroids in human serum as authentic matrix could be successfully demonstrated. The Isotope Inversion Experiment fills a gap in the validation process for LC-MS/MS assays

  19. Land use changes in Himalaya and their impacts on environment, society and economy: A study of the Lake Region in Kumaon Himalaya, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Prakash

    2008-11-01

    The traditional resource use structure in Himalaya has transformed considerably during the recent past, mainly owing to the growth of population and the resultant increased demand of natural resources in the region. This transformation in resource use practices is particularly significant in the densely populated tracts of Himalaya. As a result, cultivated land, forests, pastures and rangelands have been deteriorated and depleted steadily and significantly leading to their conversion into degraded and non-productive lands. These rapid land use changes have not only disrupted the fragile ecological equilibrium in the mountains through indiscriminate deforestation, degradation of land resources and disruption of the hydrological cycle, but also have significant and irreversible adverse impacts on the rural economy, society, livelihood and life quality of mountain communities. It has been observed that the agricultural production has declined, water sources are drying up fast due to decreased ground water recharge and a large number of villages are facing enormous deficit of critical resources, such as food, fodder, firewood and water, mainly due to unabated deforestation. As a result, the rural people, particularly the women, have to travel considerably long distances to collect fodder and firewood and to fetching water. It is therefore highly imperative to evolve a comprehensive and integrated land use framework for the conservation of the biophysical environment and sustainable development of natural resources in Himalaya. The land use policy would help local communities in making use of their natural resources scientifically and judiciously, and thus help in the conservation of the biophysical environment and in the increasing of the productivity of natural resources. The study indicates that conservation of forests and other critical natural resources through community participation, generation of alternative means of livelihood, and employment in rural areas can

  20. Land Use Changes in Himalaya and Their Impacts on Environment, Society and Economy: A Study of the Lake Region in Kumaon Himalaya, India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Prakash TIWARI

    2008-01-01

    The traditional resource use structure in Himalaya has transformed considerably during the recent past, mainly owing to the growth of population and the resultant increased demand of natural resources in the region. This transformation in resource use practices is particularly significant in the densely populated tracts of Himalaya. As a result, cultivated land, forests, pastures and rangelands have been deteriorated and depleted steadily and significantly leading to their conversion into degraded and non-productive lands. These rapid land use changes have not only disrupted the fragile ecological equilibrium in the mountains through indiscriminate deforestation, degradation of land resources and disruption of the hydrological cycle, but also have significant and irreversible adverse impacts on the rural economy, society, livelihood and life quality of mountain communities. It has been observed that the agricultural production has declined, water sources are drying up fast due to decreased ground water recharge and a large number of villages are facing enormous deficit of critical resources, such as food, fodder, firewood and water, mainly due to unabated deforestation. As a result, the rural people, particularly the women, have to travel considerably long distances to collect fodder and firewood and to fetching water. It is therefore highly imperative to evolve a comprehensive and integrated land use framework for the conservation of the biophysical environment and sustainable development of natural resources in Himalaya. The land use policy would help local communities in making use of their natural resources scientifically and judiciously, and thus help in the conservation of the biophysical environment and in the increasing of the productivity of natural resources. The study indicates that conservation of forests and other critical natural resources through community participation, generation of alternative means of livelihood, and employment in rural areas can

  1. Commercial agencies and surrogate motherhood: a transaction cost approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galbraith, Mhairi; McLachlan, Hugh V; Swales, J Kim

    2005-03-01

    In this paper we investigate the legal arrangements involved in UK surrogate motherhood from a transaction-cost perspective. We outline the specific forms the transaction costs take and critically comment on the way in which the UK institutional and organisational arrangements at present adversely influence transaction costs. We then focus specifically on the potential role of surrogacy agencies and look at UK and US evidence on commercial and voluntary agencies. Policy implications follow.

  2. Quantification of the Relationship between Surrogate Fuel Structure and Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-31

    cycloperoxy-5-yl (BICYC5.O2) and bicyclo[2,2,1]hexene peroxy (C2O2H221) radicals . The latter route leads to the formation of vinyl ketene and the formyl ...3089 selection of stable molecule and radicals . The adopted calculation method for the determination of such data is outlined in Appendix 1...chemistry of aromatic fuel components used in surrogate fuels and the importance of the cyclopentadi- enyl radical in poly-aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH

  3. Is Diaphragm Motion a Good Surrogate for Liver Tumor Motion?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Juan [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States); School of Information Science and Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong (China); Cai, Jing [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Wang, Hongjun [School of Information Science and Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong (China); Chang, Zheng; Czito, Brian G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Bashir, Mustafa R. [Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Palta, Manisha [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Yin, Fang-Fang, E-mail: fangfang.yin@duke.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States)

    2014-11-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the relationship between liver tumor motion and diaphragm motion. Methods and Materials: Fourteen patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (10 of 14) or liver metastases (4 of 14) undergoing radiation therapy were included in this study. All patients underwent single-slice cine–magnetic resonance imaging simulations across the center of the tumor in 3 orthogonal planes. Tumor and diaphragm motion trajectories in the superior–inferior (SI), anterior–posterior (AP), and medial–lateral (ML) directions were obtained using an in-house-developed normalized cross-correlation–based tracking technique. Agreement between the tumor and diaphragm motion was assessed by calculating phase difference percentage, intraclass correlation coefficient, and Bland-Altman analysis (Diff). The distance between the tumor and tracked diaphragm area was analyzed to understand its impact on the correlation between the 2 motions. Results: Of all patients, the mean (±standard deviation) phase difference percentage values were 7.1% ± 1.1%, 4.5% ± 0.5%, and 17.5% ± 4.5% in the SI, AP, and ML directions, respectively. The mean intraclass correlation coefficient values were 0.98 ± 0.02, 0.97 ± 0.02, and 0.08 ± 0.06 in the SI, AP, and ML directions, respectively. The mean Diff values were 2.8 ± 1.4 mm, 2.4 ± 1.1 mm, and 2.2 ± 0.5 mm in the SI, AP, and ML directions, respectively. Tumor and diaphragm motions had high concordance when the distance between the tumor and tracked diaphragm area was small. Conclusions: This study showed that liver tumor motion had good correlation with diaphragm motion in the SI and AP directions, indicating diaphragm motion in the SI and AP directions could potentially be used as a reliable surrogate for liver tumor motion.

  4. Multivariate regression approaches for surrogate-based diffeomorphic estimation of respiratory motion in radiation therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilms, M.; Werner, R.; Ehrhardt, J.; Schmidt-Richberg, A.; Schlemmer, H.-P.; Handels, H.

    2014-03-01

    Breathing-induced location uncertainties of internal structures are still a relevant issue in the radiation therapy of thoracic and abdominal tumours. Motion compensation approaches like gating or tumour tracking are usually driven by low-dimensional breathing signals, which are acquired in real-time during the treatment. These signals are only surrogates of the internal motion of target structures and organs at risk, and, consequently, appropriate models are needed to establish correspondence between the acquired signals and the sought internal motion patterns. In this work, we present a diffeomorphic framework for correspondence modelling based on the Log-Euclidean framework and multivariate regression. Within the framework, we systematically compare standard and subspace regression approaches (principal component regression, partial least squares, canonical correlation analysis) for different types of common breathing signals (1D: spirometry, abdominal belt, diaphragm tracking; multi-dimensional: skin surface tracking). Experiments are based on 4D CT and 4D MRI data sets and cover intra- and inter-cycle as well as intra- and inter-session motion variations. Only small differences in internal motion estimation accuracy are observed between the 1D surrogates. Increasing the surrogate dimensionality, however, improved the accuracy significantly; this is shown for both 2D signals, which consist of a common 1D signal and its time derivative, and high-dimensional signals containing the motion of many skin surface points. Eventually, comparing the standard and subspace regression variants when applied to the high-dimensional breathing signals, only small differences in terms of motion estimation accuracy are found.

  5. Experimental Study on Surrogate Nuclear Fuel Rods under Reversed Cyclic Bending

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Hong [ORNL; Wang, Jy-An John [ORNL

    2017-01-01

    The mechanical behavior of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) rods under reversed cyclic bending or bending fatigue must be understood to evaluate their vibration integrity in a transportation environment. This is especially important for high-burnup fuels (>45 GWd/MTU), which have the potential for increased structural damage. It has been demonstrated that the bending fatigue of SNF rods can be effectively studied using surrogate rods. In this investigation, surrogate rods made of stainless steel (SS) 304 cladding and aluminum oxide pellets were tested under load or moment control at a variety of amplitude levels at 5 Hz using the Cyclic Integrated Reversible-Bending Fatigue Tester developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The behavior of the rods was further characterized using flexural rigidity and hysteresis data, and fractography was performed on the failed rods. The proposed surrogate rods captured many of the characteristics of deformation and failure mode observed in SNF, including the linear-to-nonlinear deformation transition and large residual curvature in static tests, PPI and PCMI failure mechanisms, and large variation in the initial structural condition. Rod degradation was measured and characterized by measuring the flexural rigidity; the degradation of the rigidity depended on both the moment amplitude applied and the initial structural condition of the rods. It was also shown that a cracking initiation site can be located on the internal surface or the external surface of cladding. Finally, fatigue damage to the bending rods can be described in terms of flexural rigidity, and the fatigue life of rods can be predicted once damage model parameters are properly evaluated. The developed experimental approach, test protocol, and analysis method can be used to study the vibration integrity of SNF rods in the future.

  6. 喜马拉雅山地区冰川湖溃决灾害隐患遥感调查及影响因素分析%Remote sensing investigation and influence factor analysis of glacier lake outburst potential in the Himalayas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘春玲; 童立强; 祁生文; 张世殊; 郑博文

    2016-01-01

    喜马拉雅山地区的冰川湖(简称“冰湖”)受形成条件和自然环境的影响,往往会发生溃决,造成洪水和泥石流灾害,严重威胁人类生产和生活、生存与发展,成为该地区一重大地质灾害隐患。采用QuickBird和ETM等卫星遥感数据,结合野外考察,研究喜马拉雅山地区冰湖溃决灾害隐患后认为:①喜马拉雅山地区的冰湖在区域分布上具有由东南向西北逐步递减的趋势,冰湖分布最多的是山南、日喀则、林芝和阿里地区,分布密度最大的是山南地区的洛扎一带;②喜马拉雅山地区存在19个溃决灾害隐患的冰湖,均为冰川终碛湖,其中13个湖存在重大溃决灾害隐患,6个存在较大溃决灾害隐患;③引起冰川终碛湖溃决的激发因素较多,其中冰湖周围的冰崩、雪崩、基岩崩塌和滑坡入湖涌浪溃坝是最重要的原因。研究结果对西藏地区冰湖溃决灾害的预警与防治具有重要意义。%Under the impact of formation conditions and natural environment , moraine -dammed lake outbursts take place frequently and then give rise to floods and mudslides , which menaces people's production , life, survival and development and becomes one of the great geohazard hidden dangers in the Himalayas .Using QuickBird and ETM data of remote sensing satellite and combining the investigations in field work , the authors studied the glacier lake outburst potential .The research results show that the areal distribution of glacier lakes presents a trend of decrease gradually from SE to NW in the Himalayas .Most of the glacier lakes are distributed in Shannan , Shigatse , Nyingchi and Ngari .The region of maximal distribution density is Lho -brag area of Shannan .It can be found that there are nineteen glacier lakes , all of which are moraine -dammed lakes that have outburst hazard potential . Among the nineteen glacier lakes , there are 13 glacier lakes having great

  7. Decline in snowfall in response to temperature in Satluj basin, western Himalaya

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Riyaz Ahmad Mir; Sanjay K Jain; Arun K Saraf; Ajanta Goswami

    2015-03-01

    Snow is an essential resource present in the Himalaya. Therefore, monitoring of the snowfall changes over a time period is important for hydrological and climatological purposes. In this study, variability of snowfall from 1976–2008 were analysed and compared with variability in temperature (max and min) from 1984–2008 using simple linear regression analysis and Mann–Kendall test in the Satluj Basin. The annual, seasonal, and monthly analyses of average values of snowfall and temperature (max and min) have been carried out. The study also consists an analysis of average values of annual snowfall and temperature over six elevation zones (<1500 to >4000 m amsl). During the study, it was observed that the snowfall exhibited declining trends in the basin. The snowfall trends are more sensitive to the climate change below an elevation of 4000 m amsl. Over the elevation zones of 3000–3500 and 4000–4500 m amsl, positive trends of mean annual values of snowfall were observed that may be due to higher precipitation as snowfall at these higher elevations. Although, both negative and positive snowfall trends were statistically insignificant, however, if this decreasing trend in snowfall continues, it may result in significant however, changes in future. Furthermore, the min is also increasing with statistically significant positive trend at 95% confidence level for November, winter season, annually as well as for the elevation zones of 2500–3000, 3000–3500, and 3500–4000 m amsl. There are dominantly increasing trends in max with negative trends for February, June–September, monsoon season, and for elevation zone <1500 m amls. It is important to state that in the present basin, during the months of winter season, most of the precipitation is produced as snowfall by the westerly weather disturbances. Thus, the declining nature in snowfall is concurrent with the positive trends in temperature particularly min, therefore, reflecting that the positive trends in

  8. Genetic characterization of Gaddi goat breed of Western Himalayas using microsatellite markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurdeep Singh

    2015-04-01

    Gaddi goats. This high level of polymorphism can be utilized to plan future association studies to exploit the uniqueness and adaptability of indigenous Gaddi goat breed of Western Himalayas. Most studied microsatellite markers had desired neutrality, thus proving to be good candidates for genetic characterization and diversity analysis in Gaddi breed of goats also.

  9. The Confucian bioethics of surrogate decision making: its communitarian roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Ruiping

    2011-10-01

    The family is the exemplar community of Chinese society. This essay explores how Chinese communitarian norms, expressed in thick commitments to the authority and autonomy of the family, are central to contemporary Chinese bioethics. In particular, it focuses on the issue of surrogate decision making to illustrate the Confucian family-grounded communitarian bioethics. The essay first describes the way in which the family, in Chinese bioethics, functions as a whole to provide consent for significant medical and surgical interventions when a patient has lost decision-making capacity. It is argued that the practice of not having an established order for surrogate decision makers (e.g., spouse, children, and then parents), as it is done in the United States, reflects the acknowledgment that the family as a social reality cannot be reduced to a stereotype of the appropriate order of default decision makers. This description of the family as being in authority to make surrogate decisions for an incompetent family member is enriched by an elaboration of the differences among the concepts of patient autonomy, family autonomy, and moral autonomy. The Chinese model, as well as the Confucian communitarian life of families, engages a family autonomy that is supported by a Confucian understanding of moral autonomy, rather than individual autonomy. Finally, the issue of possible conflicts between patient and family interests in relation to a patient's past wishes in the Chinese model is addressed in light of the role of the physician.

  10. Evaluation of bone surrogates for indirect and direct ballistic fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bir, Cynthia; Andrecovich, Chris; DeMaio, Marlene; Dougherty, Paul J

    2016-04-01

    The mechanism of injury for fractures to long bones has been studied for both direct ballistic loading as well as indirect. However, the majority of these studies have been conducted on both post-mortem human subjects (PMHS) and animal surrogates which have constraints in terms of storage, preparation and testing. The identification of a validated bone surrogate for use in forensic, medical and engineering testing would provide the ability to investigate ballistic loading without these constraints. Two specific bone surrogates, Sawbones and Synbone, were evaluated in comparison to PMHS for both direct and indirect ballistic loading. For the direct loading, the mean velocity to produce fracture was 121 ± 19 m/s for the PMHS, which was statistically different from the Sawbones (140 ± 7 m/s) and Synbone (146 ± 3 m/s). The average distance to fracture in the indirect loading was .70 cm for the PMHS. The Synbone had a statistically similar average distance to fracture (.61 cm, p=0.54) however the Sawbones average distance to fracture was statistically different (.41 cm, pballistic testing was not identified and future work is warranted.

  11. Hot springs and the geothermal energy potential of Jammu & Kashmir State, N.W. Himalaya, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, J.; Absar, A.; Bhat, G.; Cadel, G.; Hafiz, M.; Hakhoo, N.; Kashkari, R.; Moore, J.; Ricchiuto, T. E.; Thurow, J.; Thusu, B.

    2013-11-01

    India has an estimated geothermal power potential of 10,600 MWe, but this potential is entirely undeveloped at present. The 'Geothermal Atlas of India' prepared by the Geological Survey of India (GSI) in 1991 describes some 340 hot spring sites and identifies more than 300 sites with geothermal potential in at least seven key geothermal provinces throughout India. There are more than 20 hot spring sites in Jammu & Kashmir State, mainly in the Chenab Valley in the Lesser/Central Himalaya, the Kashmir Valley and in the High Himalaya region of Ladakh. At least three localities in the Ladakh region - Chamuthang and Puga in the Indus valley and Panamik in the Nubra Valley - are considered to have geothermal power generation potential of between 3 and > 20 MWe.

  12. Spatial coincidence of rapid inferred erosion with young metamorphic massifs in the Himalayas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finlayson, David P.; Montgomery, David R.; Hallet, Bernard

    2002-03-01

    A spatially distributed rate-of-erosion index (EI) based on models of bedrock river incision documents a strong spatial correspondence between areas of high erosion potential and young metamorphic massifs as well as structural highs throughout the Himalayas. The EI is derived from slopes and drainage areas calculated from a hydrologically corrected digital elevation model (GTOPO30) combined with precipitation data (IIASA) to generate synthetic annual stream discharges. These variables drive three generalized process models to produce EI maps that, while differing in detail, provide an internally consistent, spatially continuous index of large-scale erosion rates. The large spatial variation in potential erosion rates in the Himalayas suggested by the EI patterns contrasts with the uniform convergence of the Indian subcontinent. If these EI gradients persist through time, they support the emerging view of a positive feedback between localized, rapid erosion and upward advection of lower crust.

  13. Oblique convergence and slip partitioning in the NW Himalaya: Implications from GPS measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundu, Bhaskar; Yadav, Rajeev Kumar; Bali, Bikram Singh; Chowdhury, Sonalika; Gahalaut, V. K.

    2014-10-01

    We report GPS measurements of crustal deformation across the Kashmir Himalaya. We combined these results with the published results of GPS measurements from the Karakoram fault system and suggest that in the Kashmir Himalaya, the motion between the southern Tibet and India plate is oblique with respect to the structural trend. We estimated this almost north-south oblique motion to be 17 ± 2 mm/yr, which is partitioned between dextral motion of 5 ± 2 mm/yr on the Karakoram fault system and oblique motion of 13.6 ± 1 mm/yr with an azimuth of N198°E in the northwest-southeast trending Kashmir Himalayan frontal arc. Thus, the partitioning of the India-Southern Tibet oblique motion is partial in the Kashmir Himalayan frontal arc. However, in the neighboring Nepal Himalaya, there is no partitioning; the entire India-Southern Tibet motion of 19-20 mm/yr is arc normal and is accommodated entirely in the Himalayan frontal arc. The convergence rate in the Kashmir frontal Himalaya is about 25% less than that in the Nepal Himalayan region. However, here the Karakoram fault system accommodates about 20% of the southern Tibet and Indian plate convergence and marks the northern extent of the NW Himalayan arc sliver. The Kaurik Chango rift, a north-south oriented seismically active cross-wedge transtensional fault appears to divide the sliver in two parts causing varying translatory motion on the Karakoram fault on either side of the Kaurik Chango rift.

  14. Glacial lake expansion in the central Himalayas by Landsat images, 1990-2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Nie

    Full Text Available Glacial lake outburst flood (GLOF is a serious hazard in high, mountainous regions. In the Himalayas, catastrophic risks of GLOFs have increased in recent years because most Himalayan glaciers have experienced remarkable downwasting under a warming climate. However, current knowledge about the distribution and recent changes in glacial lakes within the central Himalaya mountain range is still limited. Here, we conducted a systematic investigation of the glacial lakes within the entire central Himalaya range by using an object-oriented image processing method based on the Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM or Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM images from 1990 to 2010. We extracted the lake boundaries for four time points (1990, 2000, 2005 and 2010 and used a time series inspection method combined with a consistent spatial resolution of Landsat images that consistently revealed lake expansion. Our results show that the glacial lakes expanded rapidly by 17.11% from 1990 to 2010. The pre-existing, larger glacial lakes, rather than the newly formed lakes, contributed most to the areal expansion. The greatest expansions occurred at the altitudinal zones between 4800 m and 5600 m at the north side of the main Himalayan range and between 4500 m and 5600 m at the south side, respectively. Based on the expansion rate, area and type of glacial lakes, we identified 67 rapidly expanding glacial lakes in the central Himalayan region that need to be closely monitored in the future. The warming and increasing amounts of light-absorbing constituents of snow and ice could have accelerated the melting that directly affected the glacial lake expansion. Across the main central Himalayas, glacial lakes at the north side show more remarkable expansion than those at the south side. An effective monitoring and warning system for critical glacial lakes is urgently needed.

  15. Glacial Lake Expansion in the Central Himalayas by Landsat Images, 1990–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Yong; Liu, Qiao; Liu, Shiyin

    2013-01-01

    Glacial lake outburst flood (GLOF) is a serious hazard in high, mountainous regions. In the Himalayas, catastrophic risks of GLOFs have increased in recent years because most Himalayan glaciers have experienced remarkable downwasting under a warming climate. However, current knowledge about the distribution and recent changes in glacial lakes within the central Himalaya mountain range is still limited. Here, we conducted a systematic investigation of the glacial lakes within the entire central Himalaya range by using an object-oriented image processing method based on the Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) or Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM) images from 1990 to 2010. We extracted the lake boundaries for four time points (1990, 2000, 2005 and 2010) and used a time series inspection method combined with a consistent spatial resolution of Landsat images that consistently revealed lake expansion. Our results show that the glacial lakes expanded rapidly by 17.11% from 1990 to 2010. The pre-existing, larger glacial lakes, rather than the newly formed lakes, contributed most to the areal expansion. The greatest expansions occurred at the altitudinal zones between 4800 m and 5600 m at the north side of the main Himalayan range and between 4500 m and 5600 m at the south side, respectively. Based on the expansion rate, area and type of glacial lakes, we identified 67 rapidly expanding glacial lakes in the central Himalayan region that need to be closely monitored in the future. The warming and increasing amounts of light-absorbing constituents of snow and ice could have accelerated the melting that directly affected the glacial lake expansion. Across the main central Himalayas, glacial lakes at the north side show more remarkable expansion than those at the south side. An effective monitoring and warning system for critical glacial lakes is urgently needed. PMID:24376778

  16. Black Carbon Flux Across the Himalaya through the Kali Gandaki Valley in Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhungel, S.; Panday, A. K.; Mahata, K. S.

    2013-12-01

    Significant increases in black carbon concentration have been observed in the recent years over the Indo-Gangetic plain, the foothills of the Himalaya, as well as the high Himalaya and the Tibetan Plateau. The concentration of increased black carbon can be significantly correlated to the albedo effect and the warming of atmosphere at high altitudes due to the deposition of black carbon in the snow clad mountains. It is hypothesized that this deposition contributes to increased melting of Himalayan glaciers and snowfields. Satellite images show increasing amounts of aerosol haze over the Indo-Gangetic plains which penetrate into the Himalayan valleys. But how does it reach the high altitude of the Himalayan cryosphere? To date, mechanisms of transport upwind of the valley from the Indo-Gangetic plains up to the Himalaya have not been thoroughly investigated. We hypothesize that wind systems in the deep river valleys that cut across the Himalaya, such as the Arun valley and Kali Gandaki valley, serve as important pathways for pollutant transport. In 2010 the University of Virginia, in collaboration with ICIMOD and Nepal Wireless, established an atmospheric research station in Jomsom, Nepal (28.78N, 83.42E, 2900 m.a.s.l.). The station is equipped to measure black carbon (BC), carbon monoxide (CO), and ozone concentrations. It also has an automated weather station, a filter sampler, and a NASA Aeronet Sunphotometer. Here we use our observations in Jomsom to present an estimate of the annual flux of black carbon from the Indo-Gangetic plains to the Tibetan Plateau through the Kali Gandaki valley. In this way, we gain insight into the significance of deep valleys and their role as pathways for pollutant transport.

  17. Phenotypic differentiation of Barilius bendelisis (Cypriniformes: Cyprinidae) in four rivers from Central Indian Himalaya

    OpenAIRE

    Iqbal Mir, Javaid; Saxena, Neha; Singh Patiyal, Rabindar; Kumari Sahoo, Prabhati

    2015-01-01

    Barilius bendelisis, commonly known as Indian Hill Trout is an upland water fish of South East Asia. It belongs to the family Cyprinidae and dwells in shallow, clear and cold water. In this study, the intraspecific variation of Barilius bendelisis, on the basis of morphometric characters, was investigated. Altogether, 402 specimens were collected from four rivers in the Central Indian Himalaya. A truss network was constructed by interconnecting 12 landmarks to yield 30 distance variables that...

  18. Drymaria villosa (Caryophyllaceae new record for the flora of the Western Himalaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satish Chandra

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The herb Drymaria villosa is reported first time from the Western Himalaya. This species is morphologically similar to Drymaria cordata ssp. diandra but can be distinguished by its delicate individuals, villous vestiture, orbicular to reniform leaves, auriculate oblong bifid petals, and numerous reniform seeds. The present collection of the species represents westernmost distributional limit in the Asian continent. Morphological characteristics of the species were examined, which are illustrated here. Key to differentiate it from closely allied species is also provided.

  19. Glacial Lake Expansion in the Central Himalayas By Landsat Images, 1990-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Y.; Liu, Q.; Liu, S.

    2014-12-01

    Glacial lake outburst flood (GLOF) is a serious hazard in high, mountainous regions. In the Himalayas, catastrophic risks of GLOFs have increased in recent years because most Himalayan glaciers have experienced remarkable downwasting under a warming climate. However, current knowledge about the distribution and recent changes in glacial lakes within the central Himalaya mountain range is still limited. Here, we conducted a systematic investigation of the glacial lakes within the entire central Himalaya range by using an object-oriented image processing method based on the Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) or Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM) images from 1990 to 2010. We extracted the lake boundaries for four time points (1990, 2000, 2005 and 2010) and used a time series inspection method combined with a consistent spatial resolution of Landsat images that consistently revealed lake expansion. Our results show that the glacial lakes expanded rapidly by 17.11% from 1990 to 2010. The pre-existing, larger glacial lakes, rather than the newly formed lakes, contributed most to the areal expansion. The greatest expansions occurred at the altitudinal zones between 4800 m and 5600 m at the north side of the main Himalayan range and between 4500 m and 5600 m at the south side, respectively. Based on the expansion rate, area and type of glacial lakes, we identified 67 rapidly expanding glacial lakes in the central Himalayan region that need to be closely monitored in the future. The warming and increasing amounts of light-absorbing constituents of snow and ice could have accelerated the melting that directly affected the glacial lake expansion. Across the main central Himalayas, glacial lakes at the north side show more remarkable expansion than those at the south side. An effective monitoring and warning system for critical glacial lakes is urgently needed.

  20. Glacial lake expansion in the central Himalayas by Landsat images, 1990-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Yong; Liu, Qiao; Liu, Shiyin

    2013-01-01

    Glacial lake outburst flood (GLOF) is a serious hazard in high, mountainous regions. In the Himalayas, catastrophic risks of GLOFs have increased in recent years because most Himalayan glaciers have experienced remarkable downwasting under a warming climate. However, current knowledge about the distribution and recent changes in glacial lakes within the central Himalaya mountain range is still limited. Here, we conducted a systematic investigation of the glacial lakes within the entire central Himalaya range by using an object-oriented image processing method based on the Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) or Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM) images from 1990 to 2010. We extracted the lake boundaries for four time points (1990, 2000, 2005 and 2010) and used a time series inspection method combined with a consistent spatial resolution of Landsat images that consistently revealed lake expansion. Our results show that the glacial lakes expanded rapidly by 17.11% from 1990 to 2010. The pre-existing, larger glacial lakes, rather than the newly formed lakes, contributed most to the areal expansion. The greatest expansions occurred at the altitudinal zones between 4800 m and 5600 m at the north side of the main Himalayan range and between 4500 m and 5600 m at the south side, respectively. Based on the expansion rate, area and type of glacial lakes, we identified 67 rapidly expanding glacial lakes in the central Himalayan region that need to be closely monitored in the future. The warming and increasing amounts of light-absorbing constituents of snow and ice could have accelerated the melting that directly affected the glacial lake expansion. Across the main central Himalayas, glacial lakes at the north side show more remarkable expansion than those at the south side. An effective monitoring and warning system for critical glacial lakes is urgently needed.

  1. Analysis of the Taylor dissipation surrogate in forced isotropic turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    McComb, W David; Yoffe, Samuel R

    2013-01-01

    From the energy balance in wavenumber space expressed by the Lin equation, we derive a new form for the local Karman-Howarth equation for forced isotropic turbulence in real space. This equation is then cast into a dimensionless form, from which a combined analytical and numerical study leads us to deduce a new model for the scale-independent nondimensional dissipation rate $\\Ceps$, which takes the form $\\Ceps = \\Cinf + C_L/R_L$, where the asymptotic value $\\Cinf$ can be evaluated from the third-order structure function. This is found to fit the numerical data with $\\Cinf = 0.47 \\pm 0.01$ and $C_L= 18.5 \\pm 1.3$. By considering $\\Ceps - \\Cinf$ on logarithmic scales, we show that $R_L^{-1}$ is indeed the correct Reynolds number behaviour. The model is compared to previous attempts in the literature, with encouraging agreement. The effects of the scale-dependence of the inertial and viscous terms due to finite forcing are then considered and shown to compensate one another, such that the model equation is appli...

  2. Effective use of integrated hydrological models in basin-scale water resources management: surrogate modeling approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Y.; Wu, B.; Wu, X.

    2015-12-01

    Integrated hydrological models (IHMs) consider surface water and subsurface water as a unified system, and have been widely adopted in basin-scale water resources studies. However, due to IHMs' mathematical complexity and high computational cost, it is difficult to implement them in an iterative model evaluation process (e.g., Monte Carlo Simulation, simulation-optimization analysis, etc.), which diminishes their applicability for supporting decision-making in real-world situations. Our studies investigated how to effectively use complex IHMs to address real-world water issues via surrogate modeling. Three surrogate modeling approaches were considered, including 1) DYCORS (DYnamic COordinate search using Response Surface models), a well-established response surface-based optimization algorithm; 2) SOIM (Surrogate-based Optimization for Integrated surface water-groundwater Modeling), a response surface-based optimization algorithm that we developed specifically for IHMs; and 3) Probabilistic Collocation Method (PCM), a stochastic response surface approach. Our investigation was based on a modeling case study in the Heihe River Basin (HRB), China's second largest endorheic river basin. The GSFLOW (Coupled Ground-Water and Surface-Water Flow Model) model was employed. Two decision problems were discussed. One is to optimize, both in time and in space, the conjunctive use of surface water and groundwater for agricultural irrigation in the middle HRB region; and the other is to cost-effectively collect hydrological data based on a data-worth evaluation. Overall, our study results highlight the value of incorporating an IHM in making decisions of water resources management and hydrological data collection. An IHM like GSFLOW can provide great flexibility to formulating proper objective functions and constraints for various optimization problems. On the other hand, it has been demonstrated that surrogate modeling approaches can pave the path for such incorporation in real

  3. Topographic position of large slope failures revealed by excess topography in the Himalaya-Karakoram Ranges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blöthe, Jan; Korup, Oliver; Schwanghart, Wolfgang

    2015-04-01

    Large slope failures (defined here as affecting >0.1 km² in planform area) substantially contribute to denuding hillslopes, thereby limiting the growth of topographic relief in active mountain belts produced by tectonic uplift and fluvial or glacial incision. The region around Nanga Parbat, situated in the Himalaya-Karakoram ranges (HKR), has been shown to exhibit one of the largest clusters of large scale slope failure known. However, a thorough analysis of the pattern of landslides in the wider region, let alone an inventory of large slope failure is lacking. We take this as a motivation to create a landslide inventory covering the upper Indus catchment located in the HKR of NW India and N Pakistan. Our data set contains 492 large landslides that we compiled from published studies and mapping from remote sensing imagery. Using an empirical volume-area scaling approach we estimate the total landslide volume at >250 km³. This is more than thousand times the contemporary annual sediment load in the Indus River. We analyse the distribution of these landslides with respect to the regional hypsometry, contemporary glacier cover, and the distribution of rock glaciers. We further introduce excess topography ZE, which quantifies the vertical column of rock material above a hypothetical failure plane, as a first-order metric of potentially unstable rock slopes. We find that large bedrock landslides in the HKR preferentially detach near or from below the study area's median elevation, while glaciers and rock glaciers occupy higher elevations almost exclusively. This picture is supported by the distribution of excess topography ZE that peaks along major fluvial and glacial inner gorges, which is where the majority of large rock-slope failures occur. Our analysis suggests a hitherto unrecognised vertical layering of denudation processes, with landslides chiefly operating below the median elevation, whereas mass transport in higher elevations seems to be dominated by

  4. Relationships Between GIS-Based Erosion Indices and Relief Production in the Karakoram Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, M. P.; Shroder, J. F.; Bush, A. B.; Copland, L.; Owen, L. A.

    2003-12-01

    Mountain topography is the result of highly scale-dependent interactions involving climatic, tectonic, and surface processes. Alpine glaciers are known to be effective erosional agents that alter landscape relief-structure differently with altitude, although considerable uncertainty and debate exists concerning their effectiveness relative to fluvial activity. Furthermore, from a geodynamic systems perspective, the role of surface processes and relief production, and the spatio-temporal relationships between erosion and rock uplift are enigmatic. The Karakoram Himalaya represents an excellent location to study such relationships, given the extreme relief and reported values of sediment flux and exhumation rates. Consequently, we utilized GIS-based terrain modeling, global climate model simulations, geochronology, and satellite remote sensing to depict areas of rapid erosion in relation to mountain peaks and zones of rapid uplift, and assess the influence of alpine glaciation and other surface processes on landscape relief-structure. Three-dimensional, scale-dependent analysis and modeling of GTOPO30 data reveals that the maximum Airy isostatic response to landscape dissection ranges from ˜ 2 - 3 km for the highest peaks. GIS-based erosion indices depict high-erosion patterns that are spatially coincident with known and suspected zones of rapid uplift and erosion, such as Nanga Parbat, K2 and the Hunza region. The spatial variations depict differences in the coupling of glacier and fluvial erosion, although high-erosion areas exhibit a significant glacier erosion component. Topographic analysis reveals a non-linear relationship between slope angles and altitude, and high-resolution satellite imagery provides evidence of glacier erosion surfaces at high altitude. Although these surfaces have not yet been dated in the K2 region, geochronologic evidence from similar terraces in Hunza support an age of > 100 K BP. If we assume this to be the case, our preliminary

  5. Westerly moisture transport to the middle of Himalayas revealed from the high deuterium excess

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN Lide; YAO Tandong; J.W.C.White; YU Wusheng; WANG Ninglian

    2005-01-01

    Previous studies found extremely high d-excess in both ice core and glacial melt water in Dasuopu glacier, Xixiabangma, middle of Himalayas. These values are much higher than the global average and those measured in southwest monsoon precipitation. The d-excess variation in over one year at Nyalam station will clarify this phenomenon. Studies show that the high d-excess is related to the seasonal variation of moisture transport to this region. The d-excess values are low during the southwest monsoon active periods, when moisture originated from the humid ocean surface. The d-excess values are higher in non-monsoon months, when moisture is derived from westerly transport. Winter and spring precipitation accounts for a substantial portion of the annual precipitation, resulting in higher d-excess in the yearly precipitation in the middle of Himalayas than other parts of the southern Tibetan Plateau. This finding reveals that the precipitation in the middle of Himalayas is not purely from southwest monsoon, but a large portion from the westerly transport, which is very important for ice core study in this area.

  6. Tree ring imprints of long-term changes in climate in western Himalaya, Indi

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R R Yadav

    2009-11-01

    Tree-ring analyses from semi-arid to arid regions in western Himalaya show immense potential for developing millennia long climate records. Millennium and longer ring-width chronologies of Himalayan pencil juniper (Juniperus polycarpos), Himalayan pencil cedar (Cedrus deodara) and Chilgoza pine (Pinus gerardiana) have been developed from different sites in western Himalaya. Studies conducted so far on various conifer species indicate strong precipitation signatures in ring-width measurement series. The paucity of weather records from stations close to tree-ring sampling sites poses difficulty in calibrating tree-ring data against climate data especially precipitation for its strong spatial variability in mountain regions. However, for the existence of strong coherence in temperature, even in data from distant stations, more robust temperature reconstructions representing regional and hemispheric signatures have been developed. Tree-ring records from the region indicate multi-century warm and cool anomalies consistent with the Medieval Warm Period and Little Ice Age anomalies. Significant relationships noted between mean premonsoon temperature over the western Himalaya and ENSO features endorse utility of climate records from western Himalayan region in understanding long-term climate variability and attribution of anthropogenic impact.

  7. Precipitation variability in central Himalayas and its relation to Northern Hemisphere temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DUAN Keqin; YAO Tandong

    2003-01-01

    A 149.8-m-long ice core was drilled at the accumulation area of Dasuopu glacier (28°23′N, 85°43′E, 7100 m a.s.l.) in the central Himalayas in 1997. The ice core was analyzed continuously for stable isotopes (δ18O), cations (Na+, K+, Mg2+, Ca2+) and anions (Cl-,SO2-4,NO3-) throughout the core. Cycles indicated by δ18O, cations and anions were identified and counted as seasonal fluctuations as annual increment from maximum to maximum values. Reconstructed 300-year annual net accumulation from the core reveals a major precipitation trend for the central Himalayas with an average precipitation 750 mm per year. The trend, separated from the time series, shows a strong correlation to global temperature. Generally, as northern global temperature increases 0.1℃, the accumulation decreases about 80mm and vise versa. This may suggests that monsoon precipitation in Himalayas have decreased continuously in past decade as a response to global warming.

  8. Focal depths and fault plane solutions of earthquakes and active tectonics of the Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranowski, J.; Armbruster, J.; Seeber, L.; Molnar, P.

    1984-01-01

    Synthetic seismograms were compared with long-period body waves for nine earthquakes with epicenters in the Himalayan arc to determine depths of foci and to improve fault plane solutions. Focal depths are shallow (10-20 km). Inferred slip vectors are locally perpendicular to the mountain range; they plunge very gently (about 10 deg) in the eastern sections of the range and more steeply (about 25 deg) in western sections. Assuming India to be a rigid plate, the radially oriented slip vectors imply that southern Tibet extends at about half the rate of underthrusting in the Himalaya and therefore probably at about 5-10 mm/yr. The shallow depths and gentle dips of the fault planes, at least for the events in the eastern half of the range, are consistent with coherent underthrusting of the Indian plate beneath, at least, the Lesser Himalaya. The steeper dips of fault planes in the western part of the arc might reflect deformation of the overriding thrust plate or simply a steepening of the main underthrusting zone beneath the Greater Himalaya.

  9. Southwest-facing slopes control the formation of debris-covered glaciers in the Bhutan Himalaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Nagai

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available To understand the formation conditions of debris-covered glaciers, we examined the dimension and shape of debris-covered areas and potential debris-supply (PDS slopes of 213 glaciers in the Bhutan Himalaya. This was undertaken using satellite images with 2.5 m spatial resolution for manual delineation of debris-covered areas and PDS slopes. The most significant correlation exists between surface area of southwest-facing PDS slopes and debris-covered area. This result suggests that the southwest-facing PDS slopes supply the largest quantity of debris mantle. The shape of debris-covered areas is also an important variable, quantitatively defined using a geometric index. Elongate or stripe-like debris-covered areas on north-flowing glaciers are common throughout the Bhutan Himalaya. In contrast, south-flowing glaciers have large ablation zones, entirely covered by debris. Our findings suggest that this difference is caused by effective diurnal freeze–thaw cycles rather than seasonal freeze–thaw cycles, permafrost degradation, or snow avalanches. In terms of geographic setting, local topography also contributes to glacier debris supply and the proportion of debris cover on the studied glaciers is suppressed by the arid Tibetan climate, whereas the north-to-south asymmetric topography of the Bhutan Himalaya has less influence on the proportion of debris cover.

  10. Tree ring inferred summer temperature variations over the last millennium in western Himalaya, India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yadav, Ram Ratan [Birbal Sahni Institute of Palaeobotany, Lucknow (India); Braeuning, Achim [University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Institute of Geography, Erlangen (Germany); Singh, Jayendra [University Greifswald, Ecosystem Dynamics, Institute of Botany and Landscape Ecology, Greifswald (Germany)

    2011-04-15

    We report the first millennium-long reconstruction of mean summer (May-June-July-August) temperature extending back to AD 940 derived from tree-ring width data of Himalayan pencil juniper (Juniperus polycarpos C. Koch) from the monsoon-shadow zone in the western Himalaya, India. Centennial-scale variations in the reconstruction reveal periods of protracted warmth encompassing the 11-15th centuries. A decreasing trend in mean summer temperature occurred since the 15th century with the 18-19th centuries being the coldest interval of the last millennium, coinciding with the expansion of glaciers in the western Himalaya. Since the late 19th century summer temperatures increased again. However, current warming may be underestimated due to a weakening in tree growth-temperature relationship noticeable in the latter part of the 20th century. Mean summer temperature over the western Himalaya shows a positive correlation with summer monsoon intensity over north central India. Low-frequency variations in mean summer temperature anomalies over northwestern India are consistent with tree-ring inferred aridity in western North America. These far-distance linkages reported here for the first time underscore the utility of long-term temperature records from the western Himalayan region in understanding global-scale climatic patterns. (orig.)

  11. Landslide Hazard Zonation and Risk Assessment of Ramganga Basin in Garhwal Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasini Pandey, Bindhy; Roy, Nikhil

    2016-04-01

    The Himalaya being unique in its physiographic, tectonic and climatic characteristics coupled with many natural and man-made factors is inherently prone to landslides. These landslides lead to mass loss of property and lives every year in Himalayas. Hence, Landslide Hazard Zonation is important to take quick and safe mitigation measures and make strategic planning for future development. The present study tries to explore the causes of landslides in Ramganga Basin in Garhwal Himalaya, which has an established history and inherent susceptibility to massive landslides has been chosen for landslide hazard zonation and risk assessment. The satellite imageries of LANDSAT, IRS P6, ASTER along with Survey of India (SOI) topographical sheets formed the basis for deriving baseline information on various parameters like slope, aspect, relative relief, drainage density, geology/lithology and land use/land cover. The weighted parametric method will be used to determine the degree of susceptibility to landslides. Finally, a risk map will be prepared from the landslide probability values, which will be classified into no risk, very low to moderate, high, and very high to severe landslide hazard risk zones. Keywords: Landslides, Hazard Zonation, Risk Assessment

  12. The spatiotemporal variability of precipitation over the Himalaya: evaluation of one-year WRF model simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Jesse; Carvalho, Leila M. V.; Jones, Charles; Cannon, Forest; Bookhagen, Bodo; Palazzi, Elisa; Tahir, Adnan Ahmad

    2017-09-01

    The Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model is used to simulate the spatiotemporal distribution of precipitation over central Asia over the year April 2005 through March 2006. Experiments are performed at 6.7 km horizontal grid spacing, with an emphasis on winter and summer precipitation over the Himalaya. The model and the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission show a similar inter-seasonal cycle of precipitation, from extratropical cyclones to monsoon precipitation, with agreement also in the diurnal cycle of monsoon precipitation. In winter months, WRF compares better in timeseries of daily precipitation to stations below than above 3-km elevation, likely due to inferior measurement of snow than rain by the stations, highlighting the need for reliable snowfall measurements at high elevations in winter. In summer months, the nocturnal precipitation cycle in the foothills and valleys of the Himalaya is captured by this 6.7-km WRF simulation, while coarser simulations with convective parameterization show near zero nocturnal precipitation. In winter months, higher resolution is less important, serving only to slightly increase precipitation magnitudes due to steeper slopes. However, even in the 6.7-km simulation, afternoon precipitation is overestimated at high elevations, which can be reduced by even higher-resolution (2.2-km) simulations. These results indicate that WRF provides skillful simulations of precipitation relevant for studies of water resources over the complex terrain in the Himalaya.

  13. Breast Cancer Survival Defined by the ER/PR/HER2 Subtypes and a Surrogate Classification according to Tumor Grade and Immunohistochemical Biomarkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol A. Parise

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. ER, PR, and HER2 are routinely available in breast cancer specimens. The purpose of this study is to contrast breast cancer-specific survival for the eight ER/PR/HER2 subtypes with survival of an immunohistochemical surrogate for the molecular subtype based on the ER/PR/HER2 subtypes and tumor grade. Methods. We identified 123,780 cases of stages 1–3 primary female invasive breast cancer from California Cancer Registry. The surrogate classification was derived using ER/PR/HER2 and tumor grade. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and Cox proportional hazards modeling were used to assess differences in survival and risk of mortality for the ER/PR/HER2 subtypes and surrogate classification within each stage. Results. The luminal B/HER2− surrogate classification had a higher risk of mortality than the luminal B/HER2+ for all stages of disease. There was no difference in risk of mortality between the ER+/PR+/HER2− and ER+/PR+/HER2+ in stage 3. With one exception in stage 3, the ER-negative subtypes all had an increased risk of mortality when compared with the ER-positive subtypes. Conclusions. Assessment of survival using ER/PR/HER2 illustrates the heterogeneity of HER2+ subtypes. The surrogate classification provides clear separation in survival and adjusted mortality but underestimates the wide variability within the subtypes that make up the classification.

  14. Rhodobacter megalophilus sp. nov., a phototroph from the Indian Himalayas possessing a wide temperature range for growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arunasri, K; Venkata Ramana, V; Spröer, C; Sasikala, Ch; Ramana, Ch V

    2008-08-01

    Two strains of phototrophic, purple non-sulfur bacteria capable of growing at low temperatures (5 degrees C) were isolated from the Himalayas. The two strains showed positive phototaxis and grew over a relatively wide temperature range (5-40 degrees C). Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain JA194T clustered with members of the genus Rhodobacter. Strain JA194T showed highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with Rhodobacter sphaeroides DSM 158T (99 %). However, DNA-DNA hybridization experiments between Rba. sphaeroides DSM 158T and strain JA194T revealed a level of relatedness of only 67 %. The DNA base composition of strain JA194T was 66.67 mol% G+C (by HPLC). Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, morphological, physiological, Fourier transform infrared fingerprinting and DNA-DNA hybridization studies, strain JA194T (=KCTC 5602T =JCM 14598T) is sufficiently different from other Rhodobacter species to merit its description as the type strain of a novel species, for which the name Rhodobacter megalophilus sp. nov. is proposed.

  15. Chromosomal stickiness and related meiotic irregularities in Inula racemosa - a critically endangered medicinal herb of North Western Himalayas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peerzada Arshid Shabir

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The species Inula racemosa, a rare species of Kashmir Himalaya, has been included in the list of endangered species of India. In the present study, we aimed to make a more formal quantitative analysis of the fertility of I. racemosa, wild as well as transplanted populations, using a meiotic behaviour analysis and pollen viability test. Materials and Methods: Inflorescences at an ideal stage for meiotic study were collected and fixed in acetic ethanol (1:3 for 24 h and stored in 70% alcohol under refrigeration at 4˚C until use. For slide preparation the anthers were squashed in 2% acetocarmine. Results: The present study revealed a peculiar chromosomal stickiness and formation of interbivalent chromatin connections among 2-4 bivalents. This stickiness of chromosomes along with interbivalent chromatin connections impairs the correct segregation of chromosomes, as a result single and double chromosomal bridges of different thickness, different number of lagging chromosomes, unequal separation, and multipolarity were continuously observed from anaphase I to microspore stage. Consequent to stickiness and associated meiotic abnormalities, the pollen grains varied greatly in size, individuals show 24.05-38.83% pollen sterility. Conclusion: The presence of sticky chromosomes in I. racemosa impairs the correct segregation during anaphase which compromises the pollen viability of the species. Although the percentage of pollen sterility was not completely concord to the high rates of observed chromosomal abnormalities but the findings can aid in the successful conservation and management of the species.

  16. Cold active hydrolytic enzymes production by psychrotrophic Bacilli isolated from three sub-glacial lakes of NW Indian Himalayas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Ajar Nath; Sachan, Shashwati Ghosh; Verma, Priyanka; Kaushik, Rajeev; Saxena, Anil Kumar

    2016-03-01

    The diversity of culturable, cold-active enzymes producing Bacilli was investigated from three sub-glacial lakes of north western Indian Himalayas. Amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA) using three restriction enzymes Alu I, Msp I, and Hae III led to the clustering of 136 Bacilli into 26, 23, and 22 clusters at 75% similarity index from Chandratal Lake, Dashair Lake, and Pangong Lake, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing led to the identification of 35 Bacilli that could be grouped in seven families viz.: Bacillaceae (48%), Staphylococcaceae (14%), Bacillales incertae sedis (13%), Planococcaceae (12%), Paenibacillaceae (9%), Sporolactobacillaceae (3%), and Carnobacteriaceae (1%), which included twelve different genera Bacillus, Desemzia, Exiguobacterium, Jeotgalicoccus, Lysinibacillus, Paenibacillus, Planococcus, Pontibacillus, Sinobaca, Sporosarcina, Staphylococcus, and Virgibacillus. Based on their optimal temperature for growth, 35 Bacilli were grouped as psychrophilic (11 strains), psychrotrophic (17 strains), or psychrotolerant (7 strains), respectively. The representative isolates from each cluster were screened for cold-active enzyme activities. Amylase, β-glucosidase, pectinase, and protease activities at 4 °C were detected in more than 80% of the strains while approximately 40, 31, 23, 14, 11, and 9% of strains possessed cellulase, xylanase, β-galactosidase, laccase, chitinase, and lipase activity, respectively. Among 35 Bacilli, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, Bacillus marisflavi, Exiguobacterium indicum, Paenibacillus terrae, Pontibacillus sp., Sporosarcina globispora, and Sporosarcina psychrophila were efficient producers of different cold-active enzymes. These cold-adapted Bacilli could play an important role in industrial and agricultural processes.

  17. Reduced chemistry for a gasoline surrogate valid at engine-relevant conditions

    CERN Document Server

    Niemeyer, Kyle E

    2014-01-01

    A detailed mechanism for the four-component gasoline surrogate developed by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has shown good agreement with experiments in engine-relevant conditions. However, with 1388 species and 5933 reversible reactions, this detailed mechanism is far too large to use in practical engine simulations. Therefore, reduction of the detailed mechanism was performed using a multi-stage approach consisting of the DRGEPSA method, unimportant reaction elimination, isomer lumping, and analytic QSS reduction based on CSP analysis. A new greedy sensitivity analysis algorithm was developed and demonstrated to be capable of removing more species for the same error limit compared to the conventional sensitivity analysis used in DRG-based skeletal reduction methods. Using this new greedy algorithm, several skeletal and reduced mechanisms were developed at varying levels of complexity and for different target condition ranges. The final skeletal and reduced mechanisms consisted of 213 and 148 species,...

  18. Characterizing the impacts of water resources infrastructure, humans, and hydrologic nonstationarity on changes in flood risk across the Himalaya region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tullos, D. D.

    2014-12-01

    As flood control infrastructure reaches its design life, and climate change, population growth, and urban migration increase flood risk, the historical paradigm of store-then-release floodwaters behind rigid infrastructure is of decreasing physical and socioeconomic value. Instead, a new paradigm of sustainable flood management is emerging, which can be framed in the context of three elements that can contribute to and/or mitigate flood risk: 1) water resources infrastructure, 2) policies and socioeconomics, and 3) changing climates and land use. In this presentation, I present the results of analysis on the role of these three elements in contributing to flood risk of the Sutlej River (India) and the Koshi River (Nepal) basins for six historical flood events. The Himalaya region was selected based on the a) increasing intensity of monsoonal rains, b) increasing prevalence of glacial lake outburst floods, c) water resources management that achieves short-term development goals but lacks long-term sustainability, and d) other socio-economic, environmental, and geopolitical factors. I develop and apply a flood risk management framework that is based on metrics for characterizing the losses associated with the three elements contributing to major floods in the Himalaya region. Derived from a variety of data sources, results highlight how, across different hydrogeologic settings and various flood magnitudes, the largest influences on high flood losses are associated with inflexible water resources infrastructure and inappropriate development and flood management policies. Particularly for the most destructive events, which are generally associated with landslides and other natural hazards in this region, the effectiveness of some types of traditional and inflexible flood management infrastructure, including large dams and levees, is limited. As opposed to the probability of a particular flood event, findings illustrate the importance of the damages side of the flood

  19. Surrogate model based iterative ensemble smoother for subsurface flow data assimilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Haibin; Liao, Qinzhuo; Zhang, Dongxiao

    2017-02-01

    Subsurface geological formation properties often involve some degree of uncertainty. Thus, for most conditions, uncertainty quantification and data assimilation are necessary for predicting subsurface flow. The surrogate model based method is one common type of uncertainty quantification method, in which a surrogate model is constructed for approximating the relationship between model output and model input. Based on the prediction ability, the constructed surrogate model can be utilized for performing data assimilation. In this work, we develop an algorithm for implementing an iterative ensemble smoother (ES) using the surrogate model. We first derive an iterative ES scheme using a regular routine. In order to utilize surrogate models, we then borrow the idea of Chen and Oliver (2013) to modify the Hessian, and further develop an independent parameter based iterative ES formula. Finally, we establish the algorithm for the implementation of iterative ES using surrogate models. Two surrogate models, the PCE surrogate and the interpolation surrogate, are introduced for illustration. The performances of the proposed algorithm are tested by synthetic cases. The results show that satisfactory data assimilation results can be obtained by using surrogate models that have sufficient accuracy.

  20. Environmental change and challenge in the Himalaya. A historical perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ives, Jack D.

    2012-05-01

    almost universal wisdom amongst scholars and development specialists, as well as conservationists, that the Himalaya were on the brink of environmental, and hence socio-economic and political collapse. This theme of gloom and doom was taken up avidly by journalists, politicians, and diplomats; it influenced the expenditure of large sums of aid and development money, and augmented periodic international confrontations. In concise terms, in the early 1970s an assumed approaching environmental disaster was perceived to be driven by relentless growth in the population of subsistence hill communities and their dependence on mountain forests for fuel, fodder, building materials, and conversion to agricultural land. The assumption of rapid and catastrophic deforestation of steep hillslopes under a monsoon climate (the World Bank predicted that there would be no accessible forest remaining in Nepal by the year 2000 led inexorably to a series of dependent assumptions: increasing soil erosion and worsening landslide incidence; accelerated flooding and siltation on the plains of Gangetic India and Bangladesh; social and political unrest, if not serious armed conflict – the notion of a world super-crisis, considering that the region in question contained about ten percent of the world’s entire human population and about thirty percent of its poorest. As will be emphasized later, none of this all-embracing construct was based on reliable evidence, but it was accepted world-wide as a given. It represents a prime example of the dangers associated with convenient adoption of environmental myths, or environmental orthodoxies, especially where the myth is a Western ‘scientific’ construct. I characterized it as The Theory of Himalayan Environmental Degradation (Ives, 1985.Esta perspectiva global, o retrospectiva, tiene dos objetivos. El primero es demostrar cómo se aplicaron los principios de la “geoecología de montaña” en un intento por contrarrestar los impactos pol

  1. To what extent is blood a reasonable surrogate for brain in gene expression studies: estimation from mouse hippocampus and spleen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew N Davies

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Microarrays are designed to measure genome-wide differences in gene expression. In cases where a tissue is not accessible for analysis (e.g. human brain, it is of interest to determine whether a second, accessible tissue could be used as a surrogate for transcription profiling. Surrogacy has applications in the study of behavioural and neurodegenerative disorders. Comparison between hippocampus and spleen mRNA obtained from a mouse recombinant inbred panel indicates a high degree of correlation between the tissues for genes that display a high heritability of expression level. This correlation is not limited to apparent expression differences caused by sequence polymorphisms in the target sequences and includes both cis and trans genetic effects. A tissue such as blood could therefore give surrogate information on expression in brain for a subset of genes, in particular those co-expressed between the two tissues, which have heritably varying expression.

  2. To What Extent is Blood a Reasonable Surrogate for Brain in Gene Expression Studies: Estimation from Mouse Hippocampus and Spleen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Matthew N; Lawn, Sarah; Whatley, Steven; Fernandes, Cathy; Williams, Robert W; Schalkwyk, Leonard C

    2009-01-01

    Microarrays are designed to measure genome-wide differences in gene expression. In cases where a tissue is not accessible for analysis (e.g. human brain), it is of interest to determine whether a second, accessible tissue could be used as a surrogate for transcription profiling. Surrogacy has applications in the study of behavioural and neurodegenerative disorders. Comparison between hippocampus and spleen mRNA obtained from a mouse recombinant inbred panel indicates a high degree of correlation between the tissues for genes that display a high heritability of expression level. This correlation is not limited to apparent expression differences caused by sequence polymorphisms in the target sequences and includes both cis and trans genetic effects. A tissue such as blood could therefore give surrogate information on expression in brain for a subset of genes, in particular those co-expressed between the two tissues, which have heritably varying expression.

  3. Global design optimization for an axial-flow tandem pump based on surrogate method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, D. H.; Zhao, Y.; Y Wang, G.

    2013-12-01

    Tandem pump, compared with multistage pump, goes without guide vanes between impellers. Better cavitation performance and significant reduction of the axial geometry scale is important for high-speed propulsion. This study presents a global design optimization method based on surrogated method for an axial-flow tandem pump to enhance trade-off performances: energy and cavitation performances. At the same time, interactions between impellers and impacts on the performances are analyzed. Fixed angle of blades in impellers and phase angle are performed as design variables. Efficiency and minimum average pressure coefficient (MAPC) on axial sectional surface in front impeller are the objective function, which can represent energy and cavitation performances well. Different surrogate models are constructed, and Global Sensitivity Analysis and Pareto Front method are used. The results show that, 1) Influence from phase angle on performances can be neglected compared with other two design variables, 2) Impact ratio of fixed angle of blades in two impellers on efficiency are the same as their designed loading distributions, which is 4:6, 3) The optimization results can enhance the trade-off performances well: efficiency is improved by 0.6%, and the MAPC is improved by 4.5%.

  4. A surrogate modelling framework for the optimal deployment of check dams in erosion-prone areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Debasish; Tang, Honglei; Galelli, Stefano; Ran, Qihua

    2017-04-01

    Despite the great progresses made in the last decades, the control of soil erosion still remains a key challenge for land-use planning. The nonlinear interactions between hydrologic and morphologic processes and increase in extreme rainfall events predicted with climatic change create new areas of concern and make the problem unresolved. Spatially distributed models are a useful tool for modelling such processes and assessing the effect of large-scale engineering measures, but their computational requests prevent the resolution of problems requiring several model evaluations—sensitivity analysis or optimization, for instance. In this study, we tackle this problem by developing a surrogate modelling framework for the optimal deployment of check dams. The framework combines a spatially distributed model (WaTEM/SEDEM), a multi-objective evolutionary algorithm and artificial neural networks as surrogate model. We test the framework on Shejiagou catchment—a 14 km2 area located in the Loess Plateau, China—where we optimize check dam locations by maximizing the mass of sediments retained in the catchment and minimizing the total number of dams. Preliminary results show that the performance of the existing check dam system could be improved by changing the dam locations.

  5. Oblique Loading in Post Mortem Human Surrogates from Vehicle Lateral Impact Tests using Chestbands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoganandan, Narayan; Humm, John R; Pintar, Frank A; Arun, Mike W J; Rhule, Heather; Rudd, Rodney; Craig, Matthew

    2015-11-01

    While numerous studies have been conducted to determine side impact responses of Post Mortem Human Surrogates (PMHS) using sled and other equipment, experiments using the biological surrogate in modern full-scale vehicles are not available. The present study investigated the presence of oblique loading in moving deformable barrier and pole tests. Threepoint belt restrained PMHS were positioned in the left front and left rear seats in the former and left front seat in the latter condition and tested according to consumer testing protocols. Three chestbands were used in each specimen (upper, middle and lower thorax). Accelerometers were secured to the skull, shoulder, upper, middle and lower thoracic vertebrae, sternum, and sacrum. Chestband signals were processed to determine magnitudes and angulations of peak deflections. The magnitude and timing of various signal peaks are given. Vehicle accelerations, door velocities, and seat belt loads are also given. Analysis of deformation contours, peak deflections, and angulations indicated that the left rear seated specimen were exposed to anterior oblique loading while left front specimens in both tests sustained essentially pure lateral loading to the torso. These data can be used to validate human body computational models. The occurrence of oblique loading in full-scale testing, hitherto unrecognized, may serve to stimulate the exploration of its role in injuries to the thorax and lower extremities in modern vehicles. It may be important to continue research in this area because injury metrics have a lower threshold for angled loading.

  6. A reduced order aerothermodynamic modeling framework for hypersonic vehicles based on surrogate and POD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Xin

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Aerothermoelasticity is one of the key technologies for hypersonic vehicles. Accurate and efficient computation of the aerothermodynamics is one of the primary challenges for hypersonic aerothermoelastic analysis. Aimed at solving the shortcomings of engineering calculation, computation fluid dynamics (CFD and experimental investigation, a reduced order modeling (ROM framework for aerothermodynamics based on CFD predictions using an enhanced algorithm of fast maximin Latin hypercube design is developed. Both proper orthogonal decomposition (POD and surrogate are considered and compared to construct ROMs. Two surrogate approaches named Kriging and optimized radial basis function (ORBF are utilized to construct ROMs. Furthermore, an enhanced algorithm of fast maximin Latin hypercube design is proposed, which proves to be helpful to improve the precisions of ROMs. Test results for the three-dimensional aerothermodynamic over a hypersonic surface indicate that: the ROMs precision based on Kriging is better than that by ORBF, ROMs based on Kriging are marginally more accurate than ROMs based on POD-Kriging. In a word, the ROM framework for hypersonic aerothermodynamics has good precision and efficiency.

  7. A reduced order aerothermodynamic modeling framework for hypersonic vehicles based on surrogate and POD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen X in; Liu Li; Long Teng; Yue Zhenjiang

    2015-01-01

    Aerothermoelasticity is one of the key technologies for hypersonic vehicles. Accurate and efficient computation of the aerothermodynamics is one of the primary challenges for hypersonic aerothermoelastic analysis. Aimed at solving the shortcomings of engineering calculation, compu-tation fluid dynamics (CFD) and experimental investigation, a reduced order modeling (ROM) framework for aerothermodynamics based on CFD predictions using an enhanced algorithm of fast maximin Latin hypercube design is developed. Both proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) and surrogate are considered and compared to construct ROMs. Two surrogate approaches named Kriging and optimized radial basis function (ORBF) are utilized to construct ROMs. Furthermore, an enhanced algorithm of fast maximin Latin hypercube design is proposed, which proves to be helpful to improve the precisions of ROMs. Test results for the three-dimensional aerothermody-namic over a hypersonic surface indicate that:the ROMs precision based on Kriging is better than that by ORBF, ROMs based on Kriging are marginally more accurate than ROMs based on POD-Kriging. In a word, the ROM framework for hypersonic aerothermodynamics has good precision and efficiency.

  8. Controls on channel width in an intermontane valley of the frontal zone of the northwestern Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parida, Sukumar; Tandon, S. K.; Singh, Vimal

    2017-02-01

    Channel width is an important parameter of the hydraulic geometry of a river and can be linked to the tectonic, topographic, lithologic, and climatic controls in a particular reach. As such, variations in channel width can be the result of one or many factors acting at a specific location. For the rivers flowing in the intermontane valleys along the frontal Himalaya, active tectonics plays a major role in controlling their geometry by providing the space, energy, and sediment. Dehra Dun is an intermontane valley in the northwestern Himalaya where the rivers have their source in the Lesser Himalaya and Sub-Himalaya; they show remarkable variability in the channel width along their course. In this work, we have attempted to identify and evaluate the relative importance of various controlling factors on the channel width of these drainage systems. We selected 20 streams (six North Flank rivers - NFRs; two Main Axial rivers - MARs; twelve South Flank rivers - SFRs) flowing in the valley. In the hilly stretches, the NFRs flow over the Lesser Himalaya and the SFRs flow over the poorly consolidated upper Siwalik gravelly sediments. Channel width in the mountainous region varies generally from 5 to 30 m. The SFRs that have smaller catchments are relatively wider than the NFRs in the mountainous areas. In the Dun, the width variation is mostly between 50 and 400 m. The NFRs show widening in their middle stretches except for the Tons River, which is wide in its lower stretch. Channels widen as they cross the structural zones (i.e., the Main Boundary Thrust (MBT), the Santaurgarh Thrust (ST), and the Bhauwala Thrust (BT)) as a result of the change in the gradient across the structures. Large sediment supply generated by mass wasting processes from the weak zones (i.e., fault-related zones) and uplifted surfaces make the river transport limited, resulting in the deposition of the sediments. Consequently, channel bed armoring in these gravel-bed rivers protects the channel

  9. Optimization of LiMn2O4 electrode properties in a gradient- and surrogate-based framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Wenbo; Xue, Nansi; Gupta, Amit; Sastry, Ann M.; Martins, Joaquim R. R. A.; Shyy, Wei

    2013-06-01

    In this study, the effects of discharge rate and LiMn2O4 cathode properties (thickness, porosity, particle size, and solid-state diffusivity and conductivity) on the gravimetric energy and power density of a lithium-ion battery cell are analyzed simultaneously using a cell-level model. Surrogate-based analysis tools are applied to simulation data to construct educed-order models, which are in turn used to perform global sensitivity analysis to compare the relative importance of cathode properties. Based on these results, the cell is then optimized for several distinct physical scenarios using gradient-based methods. The complementary nature of the gradient- and surrogate-based tools is demonstrated by establishing proper bounds and constraints with the surrogate model, and then obtaining accurate optimized solutions with the gradient-based optimizer. These optimal solutions enable the quantification of the tradeoffs between energy and power density, and the effect of optimizing the electrode thickness and porosity. In conjunction with known guidelines, the numerical optimization framework developed herein can be applied directly to cell and pack design.

  10. Study of seismicity in the NW Himalaya and adjoining regions using IMS network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Sherif M.; Shanker, D.

    2017-03-01

    The Reviewed Event Bulletin (REB) of the International Data Center (IDC) has been used in order to investigate the seismicity of the Northwest Himalaya and its neighboring region for the time period June 1999 to March 2015 within the geographical coordinates 25-40° N latitude and 65-85° E longitude. We have used a very precisely located earthquake dataset recorded by the International Monitoring System (IMS) Network containing 7,583 events with body wave magnitudes from 2.5 to 6.3. The study area has been subdivided into six regions based on the Flinn-Engdahl (F-E) seismic and geographical regionalization scheme, which was used as the region classifications of the International Data Center catalog. The examined region includes NW India, Pakistan, Nepal, Xizang, Kashmir, and Hindukush. For each region, Magnitudes of completeness (Mc) and Gutenberg-Richter (GR) recurrence parameters ( a and b values) have been estimated. The Gutenberg-Richter analysis is preceded by an overview of the seismotectonics of the study area. The obtained Mc values vary from 3.5 to 3.9. The lower value of Mc was found mainly in Xizang region whereas the higher Mc threshold is evident in Pakistan region. However, the b values vary from 1.19 to 1.48. The lowest b value is recorded in Xizang region, which is mostly related to the Main Karakoram Thrust (MKT) fault, whereas the highest b values are recorded in NW India and Kashmir regions, which are mostly related to the Main Frontal Thrust (MFT) fault. The REB for the selected period has been compared to the most renowned bulletin of global seismicity, namely that issued by the National Earthquake Information Center (NEIC) of the United States Geological Survey (USGS). A study of 4,821 events recorded by USGS in the study region indicates that about 36 % of seismic events were missed and the catalog is considered as complete for events with magnitudes ≥4.0. However, both a and b values are obviously higher than those of IMS catalog. The a

  11. Inferring tectonic activity using drainage network and RT model: an example from the western Himalayas, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Ramendra; Jain, Vikrant