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Sample records for hill sobre aedes

  1. Dominância de Aedes aegypti sobre Aedes albopictus no litoral sudeste do Brasil Dominance of Aedes aegypti over Aedes albopictus in the southeastern coast of Brazil

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    Ricardo A Passos

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar a infestação de Aedes aegypti e Aedes albopictus e verificar sua associação com fatores climáticos e com a sua freqüência em recipientes de área urbana. MÉTODOS: Foi selecionado o município de São Sebastião, localizado no litoral Sudeste do Brasil. Foram utilizados os dados do "Programa de Controle de Vetores de Dengue e Febre Amarela no Estado de São Paulo" que realiza a vigilância entomológica em pontos estratégicos, armadilhas e delimitação de focos. Os pontos estratégicos são imóveis onde existem recipientes em condições favoráveis à proliferação de larvas. Para análise dos dados, foram utilizados os testes de significância estatística: Kruskal-Wallis, Dwass-Steel-Chritchlow-Fligne e Mann-Whitney. RESULTADOS: Verificou-se crescimento anual da positividade de armadilhas e pontos estratégicos para Ae. aegypti e diminuição para Ae. albopictus. Observou-se aumento do número de imaturos de Ae. aegypti e diminuição da outra espécie. Na positividade de imóveis para a presença de larvas, verificou-se aumento gradativo do número de imóveis com Ae. Aegypti, superando a positividade para Ae. albopictus. Houve uma fraca correlação das espécies com os fatores abióticos. As maiores freqüências de imaturos de ambas espécies foram em recipientes artificiais passíveis de remoção. CONCLUSÕES: Os resultados evidenciaram no período de estudo a predominância de Ae. aegypti sobre Ae. albopictus em área urbana, indicando que o crescimento populacional do primeiro parece ter afetado a chance de sua coexistência. Sugere-se que algum processo de seleção natural possa estar operando e desse modo contribuindo para levar à separação das duas espécies.OBJECTIVE: To assess infestation of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopiticus and describe their association with weather conditions and container colonization in urban areas. METHODS: The town of São Sebastião in the southeastern coast of Brazil

  2. Atividade larvicida de taninos isolados de Magonia pubescens St. Hil. (Sapindaceae) sobre Aedes aegypti (Diptera, Culicidae)

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    Silva,Heloísa Helena Garcia da; Silva,Ionizete Garcia da; Santos,Regina Maria Geris dos; Rodrigues Filho,Edson; Elias,Carmeci Natalina

    2004-01-01

    Apresenta-se, pela primeira vez, o estudo fitoquímico das frações larvicidas, isoladas da Magonia pubescens, monitorado pelo estudo de eficácia sobre larvas de 3º estádio de Aedes aegypti, na busca de alternativas para o controle desse mosquito e obtenção de estruturas químicas passíveis de aprimoramento da atividade pela via sintética de outros derivados. As frações bioativas foram monitoradas quimicamente através de cromatografia de camada delgada, utilizando como revelador uma solução ácid...

  3. Atividade larvicida de taninos isolados de Magonia pubescens St. Hil. (Sapindaceae sobre Aedes aegypti (Diptera, Culicidae

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    Silva Heloísa Helena Garcia da

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Apresenta-se, pela primeira vez, o estudo fitoquímico das frações larvicidas, isoladas da Magonia pubescens, monitorado pelo estudo de eficácia sobre larvas de 3º estádio de Aedes aegypti, na busca de alternativas para o controle desse mosquito e obtenção de estruturas químicas passíveis de aprimoramento da atividade pela via sintética de outros derivados. As frações bioativas foram monitoradas quimicamente através de cromatografia de camada delgada, utilizando como revelador uma solução ácida de vanilina, e analisadas por ressonância magnética nuclear de hidrogênio e espectrometria de massas. Os bioensaios com as frações foram realizados em quintuplicata, à temperatura de 28±1ºC, 80±5% de umidade relativa e fotofase de 12 horas. As concentrações letais encontradas da fração MP-9, que apresentou o maior potencial larvicida, CL50 e CL90, foram de 3,1 e 36,6ppm, respectivamente. Todos os experimentos foram acompanhados por uma série controle, contendo o mesmo número de larvas.

  4. Avaliação da influência da temperatura sobre o desenvolvimento de Aedes albopictus Evaluation of the temperature influence on the development of Aedes albopictus

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    Daniéla Cristina Calado

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Verificar a influência da temperatura sobre os estágios de desenvolvimento de Aedes albopictus sob condições de laboratório. MÉTODOS: Foi avaliado o período de desenvolvimento dos estágios de ovo, larva e pupa em quatro temperaturas constantes de 15ºC, 20ºC, 25ºC e 30ºC em câmaras climatizadas com umidade relativa do ar oscilando entre 70% e 85% e fotoperíodo de CE 12:12 horas. Pela análise de variância, foram testados os efeitos das quatro temperaturas constantes. RESULTADOS: O período de incubação dos ovos compreendeu 38,38; 19,09; 13,10; e 10,44 dias; o período larval dos indivíduos machos atingiu 30,13; 13,83; 7,36; e 5,57 dias; o período larval para fêmeas apresentou duração de 33,22; 15,00; 8,06; e 6,16 dias; o período pupal em machos compreendeu 8,01; 4,92; 2,40; e 1,76 dias, enquanto nas fêmeas foi de 8,15; 5,11; 2,60; e 1,88 dias sob as temperaturas de 15ºC, 20ºC, 25ºC e 30ºC, respectivamente. Em todos os estágios de desenvolvimento, foram encontradas diferenças significativas, entre as temperaturas avaliadas, em torno de 5% no tempo de desenvolvimento. O período de desenvolvimento foi inversamente relacionado à temperatura, com o período larval mais breve em machos que em fêmeas. Nas temperaturas de 20ºC a 30ºC, o desenvolvimento foi mais breve e com maior viabilidade que a 15ºC. CONCLUSÕES: Nas condições em que foram realizados os experimentos, a temperatura afetou de forma significativa e inversamente proporcional os estágios imaturos de Aedes albopictus. Esses resultados mostram que os estágios imaturos são mais suscetíveis durante os períodos de baixas temperaturas devido ao maior tempo necessário para completar o desenvolvimento, informação que pode ser utilizada em estratégias de controle.OBJECTIVE: To verify the temperature's influence on the Aedes albopictus development stages under laboratory conditions. METHODS: The development period of eggs, larvae and pupas were

  5. Toxicidade do extrato etanólico de Magonia pubescens sobre larvas de Aedes aegypti

    OpenAIRE

    Arruda,Walquíria; Oliveira,Gláucia Maria Cavasin; Silva,Ionizete Garcia da

    2003-01-01

    O efeito do extrato bruto etanólico da casca do caule da Magonia pubescens foi analisado no tubo digestivo de larvas de terceiro estádio do Aedes aegypti. Diferentes tempos de exposição (2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12 e 13 horas) foram utilizados com a finalidade de verificar, de forma progressiva, as alterações morfológicas. Os efeitos tóxicos do e.b.e. foram evidenciados, principalmente, ao nível do mesêntero, iniciando-se na região anterior e, estendendo-se para a região posterior. As principais alter...

  6. Atividade larvicida de taninos isolados de Magonia pubescens St. Hil. (Sapindaceae) sobre Aedes aegypti (Diptera, Culicidae) Larvicidal activity of tannins isolated of Magonia pubescens St. Hil. (Sapindaceae) against Aedes aegypti (Diptera, Culicidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Heloísa Helena Garcia da Silva; Ionizete Garcia da Silva; Regina Maria Geris dos Santos; Edson Rodrigues Filho; Carmeci Natalina Elias

    2004-01-01

    Apresenta-se, pela primeira vez, o estudo fitoquímico das frações larvicidas, isoladas da Magonia pubescens, monitorado pelo estudo de eficácia sobre larvas de 3º estádio de Aedes aegypti, na busca de alternativas para o controle desse mosquito e obtenção de estruturas químicas passíveis de aprimoramento da atividade pela via sintética de outros derivados. As frações bioativas foram monitoradas quimicamente através de cromatografia de camada delgada, utilizando como revelador uma solução ácid...

  7. Avaliação da influência da temperatura sobre o desenvolvimento de Aedes albopictus

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    Daniéla Cristina Calado

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Verificar a influência da temperatura sobre os estágios de desenvolvimento de Aedes albopictus sob condições de laboratório. MÉTODOS: Foi avaliado o período de desenvolvimento dos estágios de ovo, larva e pupa em quatro temperaturas constantes de 15ºC, 20ºC, 25ºC e 30ºC em câmaras climatizadas com umidade relativa do ar oscilando entre 70% e 85% e fotoperíodo de CE 12:12 horas. Pela análise de variância, foram testados os efeitos das quatro temperaturas constantes. RESULTADOS: O período de incubação dos ovos compreendeu 38,38; 19,09; 13,10; e 10,44 dias; o período larval dos indivíduos machos atingiu 30,13; 13,83; 7,36; e 5,57 dias; o período larval para fêmeas apresentou duração de 33,22; 15,00; 8,06; e 6,16 dias; o período pupal em machos compreendeu 8,01; 4,92; 2,40; e 1,76 dias, enquanto nas fêmeas foi de 8,15; 5,11; 2,60; e 1,88 dias sob as temperaturas de 15ºC, 20ºC, 25ºC e 30ºC, respectivamente. Em todos os estágios de desenvolvimento, foram encontradas diferenças significativas, entre as temperaturas avaliadas, em torno de 5% no tempo de desenvolvimento. O período de desenvolvimento foi inversamente relacionado à temperatura, com o período larval mais breve em machos que em fêmeas. Nas temperaturas de 20ºC a 30ºC, o desenvolvimento foi mais breve e com maior viabilidade que a 15ºC. CONCLUSÕES: Nas condições em que foram realizados os experimentos, a temperatura afetou de forma significativa e inversamente proporcional os estágios imaturos de Aedes albopictus. Esses resultados mostram que os estágios imaturos são mais suscetíveis durante os períodos de baixas temperaturas devido ao maior tempo necessário para completar o desenvolvimento, informação que pode ser utilizada em estratégias de controle.

  8. Efeito larvicida de óleos essenciais de plantas medicinais sobre larvas de Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera:Culicidae

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    Toshik Iarley da Silva

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available O Aedes aegypti L. é o mosquito mais relevante em termos de inseto de importância para a saúde pública no mundo, pois é transmissor de vírus que causam várias doenças, dentre elas a dengue. Na procura de larvicidas alternativos, os óleos essenciais extraídos de plantas medicinais têm demonstrado alta eficiência. Com isso, objetivou-se com avaliar o potencial larvicida de óleos essenciais, extraídos de espécies medicinais, sobre larvas de A. aegypti. O experimento foi realizado nos Laboratórios de Tecnologia de Produtos e de Entomologia Agrícola da Universidade Federal do Cariri (UFCA, na cidade de Crato, Ceará. Os óleos essenciais de alfazema (Hyptis suaveolens; gonçalo-alves (Astronium fraxinifolium0; alecrim de tabuleiro (Lippia Microphylla; mussambê (Cleome spinosa; marmeleiro (Croton sonderianus; aroeira (Myracrodruon urundeuva; velame (Croton heliotropiifolius e candeeiro (Vanillosmopsis arborea foram extraídos pelo método de hidrodestilação em aparelho tipo Clevenger. Os óleos foram emulsionados com Dimetilsulfóxido 2% (DMSO e diluídos para a concentração de 100 ppm (partes por milhão, utilizando-se o delineamento inteiramente casualisado com nove tratamentos (consistindo nas soluções de 100 ppm de cada óleo mais a solução controle com água e DMSO e quatro repetições, utilizando-se dez larvas para cada tratamento, sendo avaliado o número de larvas mortas. Observou-se que todos os óleos essenciais apresentaram efeito larvicida, porém os de candeeiro e de alfazema foram os que se destacaram.Abstract: Aedes aegypti L. is the most relevant mosquito in terms of public health importance of the world, because it’s the virus transmitter that causes many diseases, among this dengue. Looking for alternatives larvicides, the essential oils extracted from medicinal plants have demonstrated high efficiency. Thereby, it was objectified in this work to evaluate the larvicide potential of some essential oils

  9. Toxicidade do extrato etanólico de Magonia pubescens sobre larvas de Aedes aegypti Toxicity of the ethanol extract of Magonia pubescens on larvae Aedes aegypti

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    Walquíria Arruda

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available O efeito do extrato bruto etanólico da casca do caule da Magonia pubescens foi analisado no tubo digestivo de larvas de terceiro estádio do Aedes aegypti. Diferentes tempos de exposição (2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12 e 13 horas foram utilizados com a finalidade de verificar, de forma progressiva, as alterações morfológicas. Os efeitos tóxicos do e.b.e. foram evidenciados, principalmente, ao nível do mesêntero, iniciando-se na região anterior e, estendendo-se para a região posterior. As principais alterações observadas incluíram, destruição total ou parcial das células, alta vacuolização citoplasmática, aumento do espaço subperitrófico, hipertrofia das células e, aparente estratificação epitelial. Essas alterações iniciaram-se após 4 horas de tratamento, sendo que, diferentes graus de destruição foram observados de acordo com o aumento do tempo de exposição ao e.b.e. e com a parte do mesêntero analisado. Este trabalho evidencia o mecanismo de ação do e.b.e. da M. pubescens, ampliando o seu potencial de utilização no controle do A. aegypti.Crude ethanol extracted from Magonia pubescens trunks was utilized to prove its effect in the intestinal tract of Aedes aegypti 3rd instar larvae. Exposure times (2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, and 13 hours were tested to verify when the morphological alterations begin to occur, in the intestinal tract of the larvae. The toxic effect of the extract was mainly in the midgut, beginning at the anterior midgut and followed through to posterior midgut. The main alterations observed were partial or total cell destruction, high citoplasmatic vacuolization, increase of subperitrophic space, cell hypertrophy and the epithelium did not maintain its monolayer appearance. The alterations began after four hours of exposure to M. pubescens extract. Observations of tissue sections from larvae treated for different lengths of time revealed a wide variation in the degree of damage between exposure periods and

  10. Avaliação da atividade larvicida de saponinas triterpênicas isoladas de Pentaclethra macroloba (Willd. Kuntze (Fabaceae e Cordia piauhiensis Fresen (Boraginaceae sobre Aedes aegypti

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    G.M.P. Santiago

    Full Text Available A atividade larvicida de quatro saponinas monodesmosídicas (1-4 isoladas de Pentaclethra macroloba e de uma saponina bidesmosídica (5 isolada de Cordia piauhiensis foi avaliada sobre larvas de estágio 3 de Aedes aegypti. As larvas foram expostas a várias concentrações (500, 250, 100, 50, 25 e 12,5 mg/mL das saponinas por um período de 24 h. Os resultados indicam que somente as saponinas 1-3 mostraram alta atividade larvicida, com CL50 variando de 18,6 a 27,9 mg/mL. Estes resultados ressaltam as potencialidades destas saponinas como possíveis agentes larvicidas naturais.

  11. GINCANA SOBRE O MOSQUITO Aedes aegypti COM ALUNOS DO ENSINO FUNDAMENTAL DE UMA ESCOLA PÚBLICA DO MUNICÍPIO DE ALEGRE-ES

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    Paola Cerbino Doblas

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Os vírus da Dengue, Zica e Chikungunya tem alarmado o Governo e a população tendo em vista o elevado número de casos no Brasil e seus consequentes prejuízos à saúde pública. Dessa forma a escola tem um papel fundamental em instruir seus alunos sobre os riscos, métodos de transmissão e prevenção quanto ao vetor dessas doenças: o mosquito Aedes aegypti. Com o objetivo de prevenir a proliferação do mosquito na cidade de Alegre, ES, os alunos participantes do Programa Institucional de Bolsa de Iniciação à Docência (PIBID de biologia, da Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo (UFES no campus de Alegre, aplicaram uma gincana para alunos do ensino fundamental de uma escola da rede pública do município de Alegre. O resultado da gincana foi benéfico visto que os alunos se demonstraram bastante participativos e mostraram obter conhecimento sobre o assunto. Por meio da análise dos resultados é possível perceber que os diferentes métodos de ensino podem ser muito eficientes para o processo de ensino-aprendizagem.

  12. Efecto tóxico de Argemone subfusiformis Ownb. y Tagetes patula Link sobre larvas del IV estadio y pupas de Aedes aegypti L.

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    Judith Vidal

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se evaluó el efecto tóxico de los extractos etanólicos foliares de Argemone subfusiformis “cardo santo” y Tagetes patula “marigold” sobre larvas IV y pupas de Aedes aegypti. El procesamiento de los extractos y los bioensayos se realizaron en el Laboratorio de Entomología de la Universidad Nacional de Trujillo, Perú, de abril a diciembre de 2007, basados en los lineamientos metodológicos de la World Health Organization (2005. En larvas, se registró 100% de mortalidad con 76,8 y 153,6 mg/L del extracto de A. subfusiformis a las 12 horas de exposición, mientras que en pupas el mismo porcentaje de mortalidad se alcanzó con 153,6 mg/L a las 24 horas. De otro lado, el 92% y 77% de mortalidad en larvas y pupas respectivamente se registró con el extracto de T. patula al emplear 153,6 mg/L del extracto a las 48 horas. En A. subfusiformis las concentraciones letales al 50% (CL50 y al 90% (CL90 a las 48 horas se registraron con 6,24 y 9,91 mg/L sobre larvas y con 9,45 mg/L. y 16,92 mg/L sobre pupas. En T. patula la CL50 y CL90 a las 48 horas se registraron con 72,21 mg/L. y 137,37 mg/L sobre larvas y con 89,1 mg/L. y 167,38 mg/L sobre para pupas. Según el ANAVA existen diferencias significativas entre los tiempos de exposición y los tratamientos. La susceptibilidad de larvas y pupas de A. aegypti se evidenciaron mediante las rectas probit-logarítmicas que indican efecto tóxico de sus hojas, siendo A. subfusiformis la especie con mayor índice de mortalidad.

  13. Evaluación de un módulo escolar sobre dengue y Aedes aegypti dirigido a escolares en Honduras Evaluation of an educational module on dengue and Aedes aegypti for schoolchildren in Honduras

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    Gustavo Adolfo Ávila Montes

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Evaluar la eficacia de un curso sobre salud ambiental y dengue, impartido a alumnos de primaria y encaminado a promover en las madres de familia cambios de comportamiento que lleven a un manejo seguro del agua, a la disposición adecuada de la basura y al control de los criaderos domésticos de Aedes aegypti, el mosquito vector de la enfermedad. MÉTODOS: En el período de abril a noviembre de 2002 se llevó a cabo un ensayo de campo comunitario que incluyó cuatro escuelas públicas de la ciudad de Comayaguela, Honduras, dos de las cuales formaron el grupo de intervención (GI y las otras dos el grupo testigo o de control (GC. Las actividades de recolección de información pre y posintervención incluyeron pruebas de conocimiento a escolares y maestros, encuestas de conocimientos, actitudes y prácticas a madres de familia, encuestas entomológicas (registro sistemático para encontrar depósitos que contengan agua, en busca de larvas de mosquitos en las viviendas de los escolares, entrevistas a profundidad a madres de familia, observaciones participativas en las aulas y un grupo focal posintervención con los maestros. RESULTADOS: Durante el período de la intervención se presentó la mayor epidemia de dengue clásico en la historia de la ciudad capital, que motivó actividades de control a gran escala por parte de la Secretaría de Salud. En el ámbito escolar, el GI mostró un incremento significativo en el conocimiento de los alumnos en las siguientes variables: dengue causado por un virus (78,5% frente a 56,6%, ciclo de vida del vector (79,4% frente a 23,6% y reducción de fuentes -la medida más eficaz de control del vector- (85,2% frente a 58,1%; los incrementos en todas las variables tuvieron un valor P OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of a special course on environmental health and dengue, given to primary school students and intended to promote behavioral changes in the mothers of those students that would lead to

  14. Evaluación larvicida de suspensiones acuosas de Annona muricata Linnaeus «guanábana» sobre Aedes aegypti Linnaeus (Diptera, Culicidae

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    Miguel Bobadilla

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available EL presente trabajo evaluó la toxicidad larvicida de suspensiones acuosas provenientes de extractos etanólicos de las semillas, flores, hojas, corteza de ramas y corteza de raíces de Annona muricata L. «guanábana» sobre larvas del IV estadio de Aedes aegypti para determinar de esta manera los niveles de susceptibilidad. El mayor efecto tóxico correspondió a la suspensión de las semillas con un 100% de mortalidad a las 24 horas a 0,5 mg/mL, seguidos por las flores a las 48 horas a 10 mg/mL y hojas a las 36 horas a 100 mg/mL. En semillas, las concentraciones letales al 50% (CL50 y 90% (CL90 a las 48 horas de exposición fueron 0,02 mg/mL y 0,11 mg/mL, en flores 3,33 y 12,16 mg/mL, en hojas 8,25 y 26,87 mg/mL y en corteza de ramas 19,21 y 97,23 mg/mL, respectivamente. Los resultados de las rectas probit-logarítmicas indicaron susceptibilidad de los individuos a cada suspensión, gracias a la acción de diversos principios activos distribuidos en todo el árbol.

  15. CONTEXTUALIZAÇÃO SOBRE ÁGUA E Aedes aegypti NO ENSINO FUNDAMENTAL DE UMA ESCOLA PÚBLICA EM ALEGRE-ES

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    Lorena Souza Castro

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A contextualização dos conteúdos no ensino fundamental é de extrema importância para a compreensão dos assuntos que permeiam a sociedade. O objetivo da contextualização sobre a água permite sensibilizar os alunos para um dos assuntos mais evidentes no ano vigente. A discussão da problemática é relevante para o profissional em formação e contribui para a reformulação do pensamento de ideologias, para uma postura crítica na sociedade na qual estamos inseridos. A mediação ocorreu por meio de palestras, utilizando materiais didáticos como flanelógrafo, jogo lúdico e modelos didáticos em biscuit com os alunos do 7º ano de uma escola pública no município de Alegre, ES. Neste trabalho foram explanadas também dúvidas a respeito de medidas profiláticas de combate ao mosquito Aedes aegypti.

  16. Avaliação da atividade larvicida de extratos obtidos do caule de Croton linearifolius Mull. Arg. (Euphorbiaceae sobre larvas de Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762 (Diptera: Culicidae

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    Sandra Lúcia Cunha e Silva

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2014v27n2p79 Dentre os problemas de saúde pública que acometem a população humana, em nível nacional e mundial, destaca-se a dengue, cujo principal vetor do vírus é o Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762. Para a redução da densidade populacional desse vetor, recomenda-se o controle integrado e, como parte desse controle, o uso de inseticidas. No entanto, tal prática tem levado à seleção de populações de insetos resistentes. Dessa forma, faz-se necessário buscar inseticidas alternativos que possam contribuir no controle desse vetor. O objetivo desse estudo foi avaliar o potencial larvicida do extrato obtido do caule de Croton linearifolius contra larvas de A. aegypti, bem como realizar uma prospecção fitoquímica do extrato etanólico. O extrato etanólico e as frações hexânica, diclorometânica e hidroalcóolica, além do acetato de etila, foram testadas sobre larvas de terceiro instar de A. aegypti. Os ensaios biológicos revelaram a efetividade larvicida de extrato do caule de C. linearifolius contra o A. aegypti, especialmente as frações diclorometânica e hexânica. A prospecção fitoquímica demonstrou a presença no extrato etanólico de ácidos fixos fortes, alcaloides, catequinas, esteroides livres, flavonois, flavonas, resinas, taninos condensados e xantonas.

  17. Red Hill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information about the Red Hill Bulk Fuel Storage Facility in Hawaii Administrative Order on Consent (AOC), an enforceable agreement of the Hawaii Department of Health, the Environmental Protection Agency, and the U.S. Navy -- Defense Logistics Agency.

  18. Hill's equation

    CERN Document Server

    Magnus, Wilhelm

    1979-01-01

    The hundreds of applications of Hill's equation in engineering and physics range from mechanics and astronomy to electric circuits, electric conductivity of metals, and the theory of the cyclotron. New applications are continually being discovered and theoretical advances made since Liapounoff established the equation's fundamental importance for stability problems in 1907. Brief but thorough, this volume offers engineers and mathematicians a complete orientation to the subject.""Hill's equation"" connotes the class of homogeneous, linear, second order differential equations with real, period

  19. Primeiras observações sobre o Aedes Albopictus no estado do Espírito Santo, Brasil First observations on Aedes albopictus in the State of Espirito Santo, Brasil

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    Joaquim A. Ferreira Neto

    1987-03-01

    Full Text Available Observações realizadas no Estado do Espírito Santo mostraram que o Aedes albopictus, ao ser introduzido no Brasil, não modificou, significativamente, o seu comportamento. Os criadouros são os mesmos utilizados na Ásia e situados, de preferência, em áreas abertas. Os mosquitos adultos se abrigam em vegetação baixa e freqüentam pouco o domicílio.Observations performed at the State of Espirito Santo showed that Aedes albopictus did not change its behaviour to a significant extent after being introduced in Brazil. The breeding places are the same as those described in Asia and can be found more frequently in open areas. The adult mosquitoes rest in short vegetation and only sporadically penetrate into the human habitations.

  20. Effect of stalk and leaf extracts from Euphorbiaceae species on Aedes aegypti (Diptera, Culicidae) larvae Efeito dos extratos de caule e folha de espécies de Euphorbiaceae sobre larvas de Aedes aegypti (Diptera, Culicidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Goretti Araújo de Lima; Ismália Cassandra Costa Maia; Bruna Dantas de Sousa; Selene Maia de Morais; Sílvia Maria Freitas

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the larvicidal activity of essential oil aqueous solutions (hydrolates) obtained by steam distillation of stalks and leaves of Croton argyrophylloides, Croton nepetaefolius, Croton sonderianus and Croton zehntneri against Aedes aegypti larvae. Twenty-five larvae of third instar were placed in plastic beckers, containing the hydrolates (50 mL), in a four repetitions scheme. Water was used as control and the number of dead larvae was counted after 24 ...

  1. Conocimientos y prácticas sobre prevención y control del Aedes aegypti en una zona de riesgo Knowledges and practice on prevention and control of Aedes aegypti in a risk zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Hernández Quiñones

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCCIÓN: el principal cambio, en relación con el dengue, que se desea con la población es la incorporación a su estilo de vida de conductas protectoras para disminuir el riesgo de que el mosquito Aedes aegypti se desarrolle, aparezca la enfermedad, y como consecuencia se generen epidemias. OBJETIVOS:caracterizar, según los factores de riesgo sociales y ambientales que influyen en la aparición de criaderos de Aedes aegypti, la zona de riesgo Terminal de Ferrocarriles, perteneciente al Consejo Popular Colón, del municipio Sancti Spíritus, así como identificar los conocimientos y prácticas de la población con relación a la prevención y control del vector. MÉTODOS: estudio descriptivo de corte transversal en una muestra por conglomerados estratificados, cuya variable de estratificación fueron los Consultorios del Médico de la Familia 7, 13 y 25 del Área de Salud Sur; se seleccionaron aleatoriamente 305 encuestados. Para estudiar la situación ambiental, identificar los conocimientos en niños y niñas de la zona de riesgo, y comprobar el saneamiento básico ambiental intra y peri domiciliario, se utilizaron técnicas cuantitativas y cualitativas de recolección de información: encuesta, grupo focal y observación participante. RESULTADOS: existen conocimientos insuficientes con relación a la prevención y control del Aedes aegypti, específicamente en la identificación del término autofocal y las enfermedades transmitidas por el vector. Persisten prácticas inadecuadas en los encuestados para el control del mosquito, particularmente en la realización de acciones para prevenir los criaderos. CONCLUSIONES: en la zona de riesgo estudiada existen condiciones ambientales y sociales que posibilitan la proliferación del vector, lo que denota una baja percepción del riesgo de la población.INTRODUCTION: main change related to dengue desired to population is incorporation of protective behaviors to its lifestyle to decrease risk

  2. Effect of stalk and leaf extracts from Euphorbiaceae species on Aedes aegypti (Diptera, Culicidae larvae Efeito dos extratos de caule e folha de espécies de Euphorbiaceae sobre larvas de Aedes aegypti (Diptera, Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Goretti Araújo de Lima

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the larvicidal activity of essential oil aqueous solutions (hydrolates obtained by steam distillation of stalks and leaves of Croton argyrophylloides, Croton nepetaefolius, Croton sonderianus and Croton zehntneri against Aedes aegypti larvae. Twenty-five larvae of third instar were placed in plastic beckers, containing the hydrolates (50 mL, in a four repetitions scheme. Water was used as control and the number of dead larvae was counted after 24 hours. The data obtained were submitted to Variance Analysis and Tukey test. Significant differences were observed among the hydrolates from different species and from different parts of each plant (p O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a atividade larvicida dos hidrolatos obtidos por destilação à vapor de caule e folha das espécies de Croton argyrophylloides, Croton nepetaefolius, Croton sonderianus e Croton zehntneri contra Aedes aegypti. Em cada bioensaio foram utilizadas 25 larvas de 3º estádio juntamente com 50 mL de cada hidrolato, dispostos em recipientes plásticos, num esquema de quatro repetições, utilizando-se como controle a água e avaliando-se a mortalidade com 24 horas de tratamento. Os dados foram submetidos à análise de variância e ao teste de Tukey. Verificou-se que houve diferença significativa tanto em relação aos hidrolatos das diferentes espécies vegetais, quanto em relação às diferentes partes de cada planta (p < 0,001. Os hidrolatos referentes ao caule e folha de C. nepetaefolius e C. zehntneri causaram 100% de mortalidade das larvas e diferiram das demais espécies, exceto da folha do C. argyrophylloides que apresentou o mesmo resultado. Os compostos presentes em C. zehntneri e C. nepetaefolius são fenil propanóides mais solúveis em água que os monoterpenos e sesquiterpenos detectados em C. argyrophylloides e C. sonderianus. Esta pesquisa evidenciou que todas as espécies testadas possuem compostos com

  3. Atividade predatória de Helobdella triserialis lineata (Hirudinea: Glossiphonidae sobre formas imaturas de Aedes fluviatilis e Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae em laboratório Predatory activity of Helobdella triserialis lineata (Hirudinea: Glossiphonidae on immature forms of Aedes ftuviatilis and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae in the laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rotraut Anna Gertrud Bohlmann Cônsoli

    1984-10-01

    Full Text Available Foi avaliada a atividade predatória, em laboratório, de Helobdella triserialis lineata (Hirudinea: Glossiphonidae sobre ovos, larvas e pupas de Aedes fluviatilis e Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae, bem como a influência da presença desses hirudíneos sobre o comportamento de oviposição das fêmeas das duas espécies de mosquitos. Experimentos adicionais foram feitos testando a influência da profundidade da água e da sua salinidade sobre a capacidade predatória dos hirudíneos. Nas condições do experimento, foi observada predação de larvas e pupas, porém não de ovos das duas espécies de dípteros. Número estatisticamente menor de desovas foi depositado por fêmeas de Cx. quinquefasciatus em recipientes que continham hirudíneos, não ocorrendo o mesmo com fêmeas de Ae. fluviatilis. As diferentes profundidades de água testadas não interferiram na atividade predatória de H. t. lineata e somente em concentrações acima de 3% de NaCl essa atividade mostrou-se bastante diminuída.Experiments were conducted to determine the predatory activity of Helobdella triserialis lineata (Hirudinea: Glossiphonidae on eggs, larvae and pupae of Aedes fluviatilis and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae in the laboratory, The influence of the leeches on selection, of ovipositing sites by the females of both species of mosquitoes, as well as the role of salinity and water depth in relation to predation were investigated. Larvae and pupae of both species of mosquitoes were efficiently predated, but eggs were not touched. A significantly lower number of eggmasses of Cx. quinquefasciatus were deposited on water containing leeches, but the same did not occur with Ae. fluviatilis. The different depths of water investigated did not interfere with predation and only at concentrations above 3% NaCl was predation considerably diminished.

  4. Parks of Chapel Hill

    Data.gov (United States)

    Town of Chapel Hill, North Carolina — Hours, location, and amenity information for Chapel Hill parks as shown on the Town of Chapel Hill's website. Includes a map with points for each park location.

  5. Fauna de mosquitos asociada con Aedes aegypti en Guaduas, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Alberto Olano

    1993-06-01

    Full Text Available Durante un estudio sobre la ecología del Aedes aegypti llevado a cabo en el área urbana de Guaduas, Colombia, se hallaron un total de siete especies de mosquitos que compartían hábitats con esta especie. Los criaderos en los cuales se encontró un mayor número de mosquitos asociados con el Aedes aegypti fueron los tanques bajos (albercas. Larvas de Toxorhynchites spp. se encontraron en tanques elevados. Se discute la importancia de estos hallazgos con relación a los aspectos de ecología y control del Aedes aegypti.

  6. Efeito residual de apresentações comerciais dos larvicidas temefos e Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis sobre larvas de Aedes aegypti em recipientes com renovação de água

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pontes Ricardo José Soares

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o efeito residual do temefos (apresentações comerciais A, B, C e Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis (D e E sobre larvas de Aedes aegypti, em recipientes com renovação de água. Utilizaram-se 44 béqueres de 1.000ml (8 para cada apresentação e 4 controles. Em cada béquer introduziram-se diariamente 25 larvas. Após 24 horas, contavam-se as larvas mortas, esvaziavam-se os béqueres até 200ml, repunha-se o volume original e acrescentavam-se novas larvas. A duração do efeito residual máximo (100% de mortalidade foi: A-19; B-39; C-40; D-8; E-19 dias. A razão de mortalidade permaneceu equivalente entre todos os larvicidas durante 25 dias; B e C mostraram RM 2,40 vezes maior do que E entre 46-95 dias; B, comparado com A, mostrou RM 1,90-7,51 vezes maior entre 26-95 dias. Conclui-se pela maior eficácia de duas apresentações do temefos, mesmo em uma situação epidemiológica de longa exposição ao produto e com renovação de água dos recipientes.

  7. Loess Hills of Iowa

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — This coverage outlines the boundary of the Loess Hills in Iowa at 1:100,000 scale. Criteria applied to the delineation of the Loess Hills included drainage density,...

  8. Influência do período de quiescência dos ovos sobre o ciclo de vida de Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762 (Diptera, Culicidae em condições de laboratório

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Heloisa Helena Garcia da

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se a influência do período de quiescência dos ovos no ciclo de vida de Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762 (Diptera, Culicidae em condições de laboratório, na busca de informações que possam melhorar o direcionamento das ações de controle, pois sabe-se que o ovo é a forma mais resistente do ciclo biológico, possibilitando ao mosquito ampla sobrevida, devido à resistência às adversidades climáticas. Os experimentos foram realizados numa câmara biológica, mantida à temperatura de 28 ± 1oC, com umidade relativa de 80 ± 5% e fotofase de 12 horas. Apresentam-se os dados da influência de diferentes períodos de quiescência sobre a eclosão das larvas, desenvolvimento larval e pupal, ciclo evolutivo. Verificou-se o efeito altamente significativo do período de quiescência na eclosão das larvas. O período de quiescência não influenciou nas durações dos períodos de incubação, larval e pupal. Constatou-se que ovos de um mesmo período de quiescência apresentaram períodos de incubação estatisticamente diferentes entre si. As larvas eclodiam em grupos, definidos pela incubação, e este efeito de grupo foi significativo na duração do ciclo. Pode-se afirmar que, em 99,8% dos ciclos, a variação foi determinada pela incubação.

  9. Comparative study of the inhibition produced by CMU (3-p-chlorophenyl-1. 1-dimethyl-urea) in barley leaves, on the photophosphorilation, photocarboxilation and hill reaction; Estudio comparativo de la inhibicion que produce el CMU sobre la fotogosforilacion, totocarboxilacion y reaccion de hill en cebada. (Hordeum vulgare L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, J.; Sancho, C.

    1977-07-01

    The effect of different concentrations of CMU (from 10 {sup -}8 M to 10{sup -}3 H) on the photophosphorilation, photocarboxilation and Hill reaction was studied. CMU (Carbon-H labelled) was utilized to determine the concentration of CMU in leaf parenchyma. Photocarboxilation and photophosphorolation was sensible to concentrations less than 10{sup -}7 M. Hill reaction in isolated chloroplasts was sensible from concentrations of the order of 10{sup -}8 M. (Author) 50 refs.

  10. Naval Hill Planetarium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivier, Bosman

    2014-04-01

    This article describes a new digital planetarium owned by the University of the Free State and located on Naval Hill, Bloemfontein, in the building formerly occupied by the Lamont-Hussey Observatory of the University of Michigan.

  11. Red Hill Updates

    Science.gov (United States)

    This and other periodic updates are intended to keep the public informed on major progress being made to protect public health and the environment at the Red Hill Underground Fuel Storage Facility in Hawaii.

  12. IDENTIFIKASI AEDES AEGYPTI DAN AEDES ALBOPICTUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diah Fitri Rahayu

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK. Demam Berdarah Dengue (DBD adalah penyakit yang disebabkan oleh virus Dengue yangditularkan oleh nyamuk . Kabupaten Banjarnegara merupakan daerah endemis reseptif DBD. Dari tahun ketahun kasus DBD cenderung meningkat, terutama di tahun 2009 - 2010. Vektor DBD di Kabupaten Banjarnegaraadalah Ae. aegypti dan Ae. albopictus. Ae. aegypti secara makroskopis terlihat sama seperti Ae. albopictus,namun perbedaannya terletak pada morfologi kepala (mesonotum di mana Ae. aegypti memiliki gambar garisseperti kepala kecapi berbentuk dengan dua garis lengkung dan dua garis lurus putih sementara Ae. albopictushanya memiliki satu garis putih di mesonotum tersebut.Kata kunci: identifikasi, Ae. aegypti, Ae. albopictusABSTRACT. Dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF is a disease caused by the dengue virus transmitted by mosquito.Banjarnegara district is a Dengue receptive endemic area. From year to year the Dengue cases is likely toincrease, especially in 2009 - 2010. The main vector of dengue in Banjarnegara district is Aedes aegypti andAedes albopictus. Ae. aegypti morphologically look like with Ae. albopictus, but the difference lies in the headmorphology (mesonotum where A. aegypti has a picture of the line like a lyre-shaped head with two curved linesand two white straight line while A. albopictus has only one white stripe on the mesonotum.Key words:identification, Ae. aegypti, Ae. albopictus

  13. Hill, Prof. Archibald Vivian

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Fellowship. Fellow Profile. Elected: 1935 Honorary. Hill, Prof. Archibald Vivian Nobel Laureate (Medicine) - 1922. Date of birth: 26 September 1886. Date of death: 3 June 1977. YouTube; Twitter; Facebook; Blog. Academy News. IAS Logo. Theory Of Evolution. Posted on 23 January 2018. Joint Statement by the ...

  14. Systematics of Aedes Mosquitoes Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    larve (1874 vials) belonging to 9 genera (Aedes, Anopheles, Culex, .Culiseta, Eretmapodites, Coquillettidia, Kansonia, Toxorhynchites , and Uranotaenia...apicoargenteus ssp. denderensis Wolfs and Toxorhynchites brevipalpis ssp. conradti Gruenberg] that should be elevated to full species status. Aedes...maculipennis (Theobald)--(new record for Ivory Coast) metallica, (Theobald) Mansonia (Mansonioidps) africana (Theobald) Tox orhynchites ( Toxorhynchites

  15. Freqüência de larvas e pupas de Aedes aegypti e Aedes albopictus em armadilhas, Brasil Frequency of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus larvae and pupae in traps, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nildimar Alves Honório

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a freqüência mensal de larvas e pupas de Ae. albopictus, Ae. aegypti e de outras espécies de mosquitos e verificar a influência de fatores ambientais dessas espécies em pneus. MÉTODOS: A pesquisa foi desenvolvida no município de Nova Iguaçu, Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. Efetuaram-se coletas mensais de formas imaturas, em quatro pneus, no período de novembro de 1997 a outubro de 1998. Os pneus foram numerados e dispostos em forma de pirâmide, um na base (pneu 1 e os três restantes (2, 3 e 4 inclinados sobre o primeiro. Os pneus 1 e 4 eram mais sombreados, e 2 e 3 eram expostos ao sol, já que não eram alcançados, como os demais, pela sombra de árvores e de um galinheiro próximos a esses pneus. Foram estudadas as variáveis: pluviosidade; temperatura ambiente; volume; pH da água; e condições de isolamento de água em pneus. RESULTADOS: Coletaram-se 10.310 larvas e 612 pupas. Ae. albopictus foi a espécie predominante tanto na fase larvar quanto na de pupa; Ae. aegypti e Ae. albopictus foram coletados em todos os meses, sendo mais freqüentes naqueles de maior pluviosidade. A temperatura, a pluviosidade e o volume de água apresentaram diferenças significativas, quando correlacionados ao número de larvas de Ae. aegypti. Não houve diferença significativa na freqüência de larvas quanto ao pH da água. Registrou-se maior número de larvas de Ae. albopictus em pneus mais sombreados. CONCLUSÕES: Ae. albopictus instala-se muito mais freqüentemente em pneus do que Ae. aegypti. Pneus descartados parecem representar importantes focos de manutenção de ambos os Aedes, durante todo o ano. Mesmo próximo uns ao outros, os pneus podem oferecer diferentes condições para a colonização desses mosquitos, de acordo com o volume d'água e a exposição ao sol.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the monthly frequency of larvae and pupae of Aedes albopictus, Aedes aegypti and other mosquitoe species in tires, and the influence

  16. Distribution of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus from Jalna District (MS) India

    OpenAIRE

    Shinde Laxmikant

    2014-01-01

    The present study was under taken in six tehsil of Jalna District during June – 2011 to May – 2012. The results of the study indicate that distribution of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus from Jalna District. Out of six localities except Ghansawangi Aedes aegypti reported from remaining five localities and Aedes albopictus reported only from one locality i. e. Ghansawangi. Overall study indicate that population density of Aedes aegypti was abundant in compare with Aedes albopictus, it clea...

  17. Larvicidal activity of oil-resin fractions from the Brazilian medicinal plant Copaifera reticulata Ducke (Leguminosae-Caesalpinoideae against Aedes aegypti (Diptera, Culicidae Atividade larvicida das frações do óleo-resina da planta medicinal brasileira Copaifera reticulata Ducke (Leguminosae-Caesalpinoideae sobre o Aedes aegypti (Diptera, Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heloísa Helena Garcia da Silva

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Oil-resin fractions from Copaifera reticulata Ducke (Leguminosae-Caesalpinoideae were evaluated for larvicidal activity on third larval instars of Aedes aegypti, in searching for alternative control methods for this mosquito. The bioactive fractions were chemically monitored by thin-layer chromatography, ¹H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectrometry. Bioassays were performed using five repetitions, at a temperature of 28 ± 1°C, relative humidity of 80 ± 5% and light and dark cycles of 12h. Mortality was indicated by darkening of the cephalic capsule after 24h of exposure of the larvae to the solutions. The most active fractions were CRM1-4 (sesquiterpenes and CRM5-7 (labdane diterpenes, which showed LC50 values of 0.2 and 0.8ppm, respectively.A atividade larvicida das frações do óleo-resina de Copaifera reticulata Ducke (Leguminosae-Caesalpinoideae foi avaliada em larvas de 3º estádio de Aedes aegypti, na busca de alternativas para o controle desse mosquito. As frações bioativas foram monitoradas quimicamente através de cromatografia de camada delgada, analisada por ressonância magnética nuclear de hidrogênio (¹H e 13C e espectrometria de massas. Os bioensaios foram realizados à temperatura de 28±1°C, 80±5% de umidade relativa e fotofase de 12h, com cinco repetições. A mortalidade foi determinada através do escurecimento da cápsula cefálica, após 24h de exposição das larvas às soluções. As frações mais ativas foram CRM1-4 (sesquiterpenos e CRM5-7 (diterpeno labdano, que mostraram os valores de CL50 de 0,2 e 0,8ppm, respectivamente.

  18. Antigravity Hills are Visual Illusions

    OpenAIRE

    Bressan, Paola; Garlaschelli, Luigi; Barracano, Monica

    2003-01-01

    Antigravity hills, also known as spook hills or magnetic hills, are natural places where cars put into neutral are seen to move uphill on a slightly sloping road, apparently defying the law of gravity. We show that these effects, popularly attributed to gravitational anomalies, are in fact visual illusions. We re-created all the known types of antigravity spots in our laboratory using tabletop models; the number of visible stretches of road, their slant, and the height of the visible horizon ...

  19. Software for pattern recognition of the larvae of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus Programa de computador para reconhecimento da larva de Aedes aegypti e Aedes albopictus

    OpenAIRE

    São Thiago André Iwersen de; Kupek Emil; Ferreira Neto Joaquim Alves; São Thiago Paulo de Tarso

    2002-01-01

    Software for pattern recognition of the larvae of mosquitoes Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus, biological vectors of dengue and yellow fever, has been developed. Rapid field identification of larva using a digital camera linked to a laptop computer equipped with this software may greatly help prevention campaigns.Foi desenvolvido um programa de computador para reconhecimento da larva de Aedes aegypti e Aedes albopictus, vetores biológicos de dengue e febre amarela. O programa possibilita rá...

  20. Insecticide susceptibility of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus across Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponlawat, Alongkot; Scott, Jeffrey G; Harrington, Laura C

    2005-09-01

    Aedes aegypti (L.) and Aedes albopictus (Skuse), two important vectors of dengue fever and dengue hemorrhagic fever, were collected from Mae Sot, Nakhon Sawan, Nakhon Ratchasima, Surat Thani, and Phatthalung, Thailand, from July 2003 to April 2004. The patterns of insecticide susceptibility to temephos, malathion, and permethrin of both Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus larvae were determined. Ae. aegypti from all study sites were resistant to permethrin, they but were susceptible to malathion. Resistance to temephos was detected in all strains of Ae. aegypti, except those from Nakhon Ratchasima. Ae. albopictus larvae had low levels of resistance to all three insecticides, except Mae Sot and Phatthalung strains, which were resistant to permethrin.

  1. Rhamnolipids: solution against Aedes aegypti?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinicius Luiz Silva

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Aedes aegypti mosquitoes are the primary transmitters of dengue fever, urban yellow fever and chikungunya viruses. This mosquito has developed resistance to the insecticides currently used to control their populations. These chemical insecticides are harmful to the environment and can have negative effects on human health. Rhamnolipids are environmentally compatible biological surfactants, but their insecticidal activity has not been extensively studied. The present study evaluated the potential larvicidal, insecticidal and repellent activities of rhamnolipids against Aedes aegypti. At concentrations of 800, 900 and 1000 mg/L, rhamnolipids eliminated all mosquito larvae in 18 hours and killed 100% of adults at 1000 mg/L. According to the results it may be conclude that rhamnolipids should be applied to control larvae and mosquitos besides present the repellency activity against Aedes aegypti.

  2. Aedes albopictus em área rural do Brasil e implicações na transmissão de febre amarela silvestre Aedes albopictus in rural zone of Brazil and its implication in the sylvatic yellow fever transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almério de Castro Gomes

    1999-02-01

    Full Text Available Durante estudos ecológicos sobre mosquitos anofelíneos no município de Bataguassu, Estado de Mato Grosso do Sul, foram encontradas larvas e adultos de Aedes albopictus. Pela primeira vez sua introdução ocorre numa área enzoótica do vírus selvático da febre amarela no Brasil. Isto sugere risco potencial para transferência desse vírus para área urbana infestada com Aedes aegypti.Larvae and adult forms of Aedes albopictus were found during ecological study of anopheline mosquitos in the rural zone of the state of Mato Grosso do Sul in Brazil. This occurrence was registered, for the first time in Brazil, in an enzoootic area if sylvatic yellow fever virus. This implies a potential risk of the transfer of this virus to an urban area infested with Aedes aegypti.

  3. Are hills like white elephants?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Sharma

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available 'Are Hills Like White Elephants?' is, of course, inspired by Hemingway; the tribute reflects on the abiding relevance of serious art in a changed world and extends the boundaries of his message to other human situations.

  4. Antigravity hills are visual illusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bressan, Paola; Garlaschelli, Luigi; Barracano, Monica

    2003-09-01

    Antigravity hills, also known as spook hills or magnetic hills, are natural places where cars put into neutral are seen to move uphill on a slightly sloping road, apparently defying the law of gravity. We show that these effects, popularly attributed to gravitational anomalies, are in fact visual illusions. We re-created all the known types of antigravity spots in our laboratory using tabletop models; the number of visible stretches of road, their slant, and the height of the visible horizon were systematically varied in four experiments. We conclude that antigravity-hill effects follow from a misperception of the eye level relative to gravity, caused by the presence of either contextual inclines or a false horizon line.

  5. Martha N. Hill: transformational leader.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coombs, V J

    1998-01-01

    Martha N. Hill, PhD, RN, FAAN, is a world-renowned researcher, educator, and nursing leader. Her election as president of the American Heart Association, effective June 1997, places her in one of the highest regarded positions in the field of cardiology. Despite her success on a national and international level, Dr. Hill has managed to continue to mentor and conduct clinical research with her nursing colleagues and students at The Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore, Maryland.

  6. Microevolution of Aedes aegypti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louise, Caroline; Vidal, Paloma Oliveira; Suesdek, Lincoln

    2015-01-01

    Scientific research into the epidemiology of dengue frequently focuses on the microevolution and dispersion of the mosquito Aedes aegypti. One of the world's largest urban agglomerations infested by Ae. aegypti is the Brazilian megalopolis of Sao Paulo, where >26,900 cases of dengue were reported until June 2015. Unfortunately, the dynamics of the genetic variability of Ae. aegypti in the Sao Paulo area have not been well studied. To reduce this knowledge gap, we assessed the morphogenetic variability of a population of Ae. aegypti from a densely urbanised neighbourhood of Sao Paulo. We tested if allelic patterns could vary over a short term and if wing shape could be a predictor of the genetic variation. Over a period of 14 months, we examined the variation of genetic (microsatellites loci) and morphological (wing geometry) markers in Ae. aegypti. Polymorphisms were detected, as revealed by the variability of 20 microsatellite loci (115 alleles combined; overall Fst = 0.0358) and 18 wing landmarks (quantitative estimator Qst = 0.4732). These levels of polymorphism are higher than typically expected to an exotic species. Allelic frequencies of the loci changed over time and temporal variation in the wing shape was even more pronounced, permitting high reclassification levels of chronological samples. In spite of the fact that both markers underwent temporal variation, no correlation was detected between their dynamics. We concluded that microevolution was detected despite the short observational period, but the intensities of change of the markers were discrepant. Wing shape failed from predicting allelic temporal variation. Possibly, natural selection (Qst>Fst) or variance of expressivity of wing phenotype are involved in this discrepancy. Other possibly influential factors on microevolution of Ae. aegypti are worth searching. Additionally, the implications of the rapid evolution and high polymorphism of this mosquito vector on the efficacy of control methods have

  7. Microevolution of Aedes aegypti.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Louise

    Full Text Available Scientific research into the epidemiology of dengue frequently focuses on the microevolution and dispersion of the mosquito Aedes aegypti. One of the world's largest urban agglomerations infested by Ae. aegypti is the Brazilian megalopolis of Sao Paulo, where >26,900 cases of dengue were reported until June 2015. Unfortunately, the dynamics of the genetic variability of Ae. aegypti in the Sao Paulo area have not been well studied. To reduce this knowledge gap, we assessed the morphogenetic variability of a population of Ae. aegypti from a densely urbanised neighbourhood of Sao Paulo. We tested if allelic patterns could vary over a short term and if wing shape could be a predictor of the genetic variation. Over a period of 14 months, we examined the variation of genetic (microsatellites loci and morphological (wing geometry markers in Ae. aegypti. Polymorphisms were detected, as revealed by the variability of 20 microsatellite loci (115 alleles combined; overall Fst = 0.0358 and 18 wing landmarks (quantitative estimator Qst = 0.4732. These levels of polymorphism are higher than typically expected to an exotic species. Allelic frequencies of the loci changed over time and temporal variation in the wing shape was even more pronounced, permitting high reclassification levels of chronological samples. In spite of the fact that both markers underwent temporal variation, no correlation was detected between their dynamics. We concluded that microevolution was detected despite the short observational period, but the intensities of change of the markers were discrepant. Wing shape failed from predicting allelic temporal variation. Possibly, natural selection (Qst>Fst or variance of expressivity of wing phenotype are involved in this discrepancy. Other possibly influential factors on microevolution of Ae. aegypti are worth searching. Additionally, the implications of the rapid evolution and high polymorphism of this mosquito vector on the efficacy of

  8. Entomofaunal diversity of tree hole mosquitoes in Western and Eastern Ghats hill ranges of Tamilnadu, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senthamarai Selvan, P; Jebanesan, A; Reetha, D

    2016-07-01

    The distribution and abundance of various mosquito vectors is important in the determination of disease prevalence in disease endemic areas. The aim of the present study was to conduct regular entomological surveillance and to determine the relative abundance of tree hole mosquito species in Tamilnadu, India. In addition to this, the impact of weather-conditions on tree hole mosquito population were evaluated between June, 2014 and May, 2015. Six hills ranges viz., Anaimalai hills, Kodaikanal hills, Sitheri hills, Kolli hills, Yercaud hills, and Megamalai were selected, the immatures collected from tree holes by the help of suction tube. Collections were made at dusk and dawn at randomly selected 15 different tree species. The collected samples were stored and morphologically identified to species level in the laboratory. Mosquito diversity was calculated by Simpson's and Shannon-Weiner diversity indicies with spatial and temporal aspects. Over 2642 mosquitoes comprising the primary vectors of dengue, chickungunya, malaria, filariasis were identified. Other species collected from the fifteen sites in each hill during the study included Christophersiomyia annularis, Christophersiomyia thomsoni, Downsiomyia albolateralis, Downsiomyia nivea and Toxorhynchites splendens, etc. Study revealed high species diversity and relative density associated with different study sites. Based on the Shannon diversity index high number of species was recorded with Aedes pseudoalbopicta (0.0829) followed by Ae. aegypti (0.0805) and least species was recorded as Anopheles elegans (0.0059). The distribution of the primary vectors of DF along the high occurrence was evident with most study sites representing proportions of this vector population. This showed the high risk level associated with the livestock movement in amplification and circulation of the virus during the outbreaks. The findings of this study, therefore, demonstrated the potential vulnerability of nomadic communities to

  9. Residual effect of two Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis products assayed against Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae in laboratory and outdoors at Rio de Janeiro, Brazil Efeito residual de duas formulações de Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis sobre Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae em condições de laboratório e em simulado de campo, no Rio de Janeiro, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Bento Pereira Lima

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Resistance of the dengue vector to temephos stimulated its substitution for Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis (Bti since 2001 in Brazil. The persistence of the two Bti formulations employed at that time by the Health Ministry, Vectobac G and Aquabac G, was assayed under laboratory and outdoor conditions. Both formulations were tested at 0.2 g/10 liters of water, the same concentration applied in the field for vector control. The tests were done against Ae. aegypti third instar larvae (Rockefeller strain. In the laboratory, Vectobac G and Aquabac G caused at least 95% mortality until 101 and 45 days after treatment, respectively. In the outdoor assays, test containers of different materials were treated with either formulation and placed in a shaded area. Larvae were introduced each 3-6 days and mortality was recorded 24 and 48 hours later. In the first set of assays, performed in June 2001, mortality levels of 70% or more were attained for 2-5 weeks for both formulations in all containers. The exception was for the iron one that rusted, resulting in low mortality after seven days. In the second set of assays (August 2001, 70% mortality was attained for just 1-2 weeks for all the containers and both formulations.RESUMO Resistência do vetor de dengue, Aedes aegypti, a temephos estimulou sua substituição por Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis (Bti desde 2001 no Brasil. A persistência de duas formulações de Bti empregadas naquele ano pelo Ministério da Saúde, Vectobac G e Aquabac G, foi testada em condições externas e de laboratório. Ambas formulações foram testadas a 0,2 g/10 litros de água, a mesma concentração recomendada para o controle do vetor no campo. Os testes foram realizados com larvas de Ae. aegypti de terceiro estádio (linhagem Rockefeller. No laboratório, Vectobac G e Aquabac G induziram pelo menos 95% de mortalidade até 101 e 45 dias depois do tratamento, respectivamente. Nos testes externos, recipientes

  10. Uji Kepekaan Aedes Aegypti dan Aedes Albopictus terhadap Infeksi Romanomermis Iyengari di Laboratorium

    OpenAIRE

    Widiarti, Widiarti; Nalim, Sustriayu; Utami, Hetty Nur Tri

    1987-01-01

    A study was conducted under controlled laboratory condition on the susceptibility of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus larvae to incfection with the nematodes Romanomermis iyengari. Both larval species ware equally susceptible to infection. The infection rate of a treat­ment ratio (worm : larvae) of 1 : 1 were 42,75% in Aedes aegypti and 33,75 % in Aedes albopictus. In future mass production, both species can be utilized to obtain faster production of nematodes for vector control purposes.

  11. Soufriere Hills Volcano

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    In this ASTER image of Soufriere Hills Volcano on Montserrat in the Caribbean, continued eruptive activity is evident by the extensive smoke and ash plume streaming towards the west-southwest. Significant eruptive activity began in 1995, forcing the authorities to evacuate more than 7,000 of the island's original population of 11,000. The primary risk now is to the northern part of the island and to the airport. Small rockfalls and pyroclastic flows (ash, rock and hot gases) are common at this time due to continued growth of the dome at the volcano's summit.This image was acquired on October 29, 2002 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, is the U.S. Science team leader; Bjorn Eng of JPL is the project manager. The Terra mission is part of NASA

  12. Recomendaciones para la vigilancia de Aedes aegypti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Barrera

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available La enfermedades causadas por arbovirus transmitidos por Aedes aegypti, como el dengue, el chikungunya y el zika, continúan aumentando en incidencia anual y expansión geográfica. Una limitación clave para el control de A. aegypti ha sido la ausencia de herramientas eficaces para vigilar su población y poder determinar las medidas de control que realmente funcionan. La vigilancia de A. aegypti se ha basado principalmente en la obtención de los índices aédicos, los cuales guardan poca relación con el número de hembras del mosquito, que son las responsables de la transmisión de los virus. El reciente desarrollo de técnicas de muestreo de adultos de este vector promete facilitar las labores de vigilancia y control. En esta revisión se presentan las diversas técnicas de vigilancia del mosquito, así como una discusión sobre su utilidad, con recomendaciones para lograr una vigilancia entomológica más efectiva.

  13. Hill-climbing Higgs inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinno, Ryusuke; Kaneta, Kunio; Oda, Kin-ya

    2018-01-01

    We propose a realization of cosmic inflation with the Higgs field when the Higgs potential has degenerate vacua by employing the recently proposed idea of hill-climbing inflation. The resultant inflationary predictions exhibit a sizable deviation from those of the ordinary Higgs inflation.

  14. Globally invasive, withdrawing at home: Aedes albopictus and Aedes japonicus facing the rise of Aedes flavopictus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaves, Luis Fernando

    2016-11-01

    It has been suggested that climate change may have facilitated the global expansion of invasive disease vectors, since several species have expanded their range as temperatures have warmed. Here, we present results from observations on two major global invasive mosquito vectors (Diptera: Culicidae), Aedes albopictus (Skuse) and Aedes japonicus (Theobald), across the altitudinal range of Mt. Konpira, Nagasaki, Japan, a location within their native range, where Aedes flavopictus Yamada, formerly a rare species, has now become dominant. Spatial abundance patterns of the three species suggest that temperature is an important factor influencing their adult distribution across the altitudinal range of Mt. Konpira. Temporal abundance patterns, by contrast, were associated with rainfall and showed signals of density-dependent regulation in the three species. The spatial and temporal analysis of abundance patterns showed that Ae. flavopictus and Ae. albopictus were negatively associated, even when accounting for differential impacts of weather and other environmental factors in their co-occurrence patterns. Our results highlight a contingency in the expansion of invasive vectors, the potential emergence of changes in their interactions with species in their native communities, and raise the question of whether these changes might be useful to predict the emergence of future invasive vectors.

  15. IMPLEMENTASI SANDI HILL UNTUK PENYANDIAN CITRA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JJ Siang

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Hill's code is one of text encoding technique. In this research, Hill's code is extended to image encoding. The image used is BMP 24 bit format. 2x2 and 3x3 matrices is used as a key. The results show that Hill's code is suitable for image whose RGB values vary highly. On the contrary, it is not suitable for less varied RGB images since its original pattern is still persisted in encrypted image. Hill's code for image encoding has also disadvantage in the case that the key matrix is not unique. However, for daily application, with good key matrix, Hill's code can be applied to encode image since it's process only deals with simple matrix operation so it become fast. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Sandi Hill merupakan salah satu teknik penyandian teks. Dalam penelitian ini, pemakaian sandi Hill diperluas dari teks ke citra bertipe BMP 24 bit. Matriks yang dipakai berordo 2x2 dan 3x3. Hasil percobaan menunjukkan bahwa sandi Hill cocok untuk enkripsi citra dengan variasi nilai RGB antar piksel berdekatan yang tinggi (seperti foto, tapi tidak cocok untuk citra dengan variasi nilai RGB yang rendah (seperti gambar kartun karena pola citra asli masih tampak dalam citra sandi. Sandi Hill juga memiliki kelemahan dalam hal tidak tunggalnya matriks kunci yang dapat dipakai. Akan tetapi untuk pemakaian biasa, dengan pemilihan matriks kunci yang baik, sandi Hill dapat dipakai untuk penyandian karena hanya melibatkan operasi matriks biasa sehingga prosesnya relatif cepat. Kata kunci: Sandi Hill, Citra, Relatif Prima.

  16. Malathion influences competition between Aedes albopictus and Aedes japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesavaraju, Banugopan; Alto, Barry; Afify, Ali; Gaugler, Randy

    2010-11-01

    Competitive interactions may facilitate or repel invaders into new communities, and these interactions may depend on other environmental conditions such as the presence of pesticides. Malathion is widely used in controlling agricultural pests and mosquitoes worldwide. Small amounts of malathion, previously considered inconsequential, may in fact increase in lethality when combined with biotic stressors in aquatic systems. We tested whether low concentrations of malathion (0.11 ppm) that are often detected in aquatic systems, affect competition between two invasive mosquito species Aedes albopictus (Skuse) and Aedes japonicus Theobald. There were no survivors of Ae. japonicus larvae in malathion. There was a significant negative effect of Ae. japonicus density on Ae. albopictus survival, but this effect was absent in the presence of malathion. There was also a moderate negative effect of Ae. japonicus density on Ae. albopictus female size, but this effect was absent in the presence of malathion. These findings indicate that pesticide-mediated alterations in competition and species-specific differences in susceptibility to pesticides could play a role in enhancing invasive potential of Ae. albopictus.

  17. Exposure to chikungunya virus and adult longevity in Aedes aegypti (L.) and Aedes albopictus (Skuse)

    OpenAIRE

    REISKIND, MICHAEL H.; Westbrook, Catherine J.; Lounibos, L. Philip

    2010-01-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) recently emerged as a global threat to public health through its adaptation to the cosmopolitan mosquito Aedes albopictus Skuse. Aedes albopictus is highly susceptible to the emergent strain of CHIKV, relative to the historical vector of CHIKV, Aedes aegypti (L.). We hypothesized that the high susceptibility of Ae. albopictus to CHIKV may have a cost in terms of longevity and fecundity among infected vs non-infected mosquitoes, relative to Ae. aegypti. We performed a...

  18. UJI KEPEKAAN AEDES AEGYPTI DAN AEDES ALBOPICTUS TERHADAP INFEKSI ROMANOMERMIS IYENGARI DI LABORATORIUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widiarti Widiarti

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted under controlled laboratory condition on the susceptibility of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus larvae to incfection with the nematodes Romanomermis iyengari. Both larval species ware equally susceptible to infection. The infection rate of a treat­ment ratio (worm : larvae of 1 : 1 were 42,75% in Aedes aegypti and 33,75 % in Aedes albopictus. In future mass production, both species can be utilized to obtain faster production of nematodes for vector control purposes. 

  19. MANEJO DE RESIDUOS DE Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden EN SITIOS CONTRASTANTES

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Maria Lupi; Teresa Boca; Maria De Los Angeles Garcia; Diana Diaz; Luciana Ingaramo

    2017-01-01

    En la región NE de Argentina existe poca información sobre el impacto que tienen las diferentes alternativas de manejo de residuos de la cosecha forestal sobre las propiedades edáficas. En este estudio se analizó el efecto a corto plazo de sistemas de manejo de residuos de la cosecha de Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden, sobre la concentración del carbono orgánico total del suelo (COT) y la fracción particulada (COP), su estado estructural y la conductividad hidráulica saturada. El estu...

  20. Hill climbing algorithms and trivium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borghoff, Julia; Knudsen, Lars Ramkilde; Matusiewicz, Krystian

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes a new method to solve certain classes of systems of multivariate equations over the binary field and its cryptanalytical applications. We show how heuristic optimization methods such as hill climbing algorithms can be relevant to solving systems of multivariate equations....... A characteristic of equation systems that may be efficiently solvable by the means of such algorithms is provided. As an example, we investigate equation systems induced by the problem of recovering the internal state of the stream cipher Trivium. We propose an improved variant of the simulated annealing method...... that seems to be well-suited for this type of system and provide some experimental results....

  1. Management Decisions and the "Dred" Hills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steven W. Anderson

    1992-01-01

    An area of public land called the Red Hills was being so abused by the public that it was often called the "Dred" Hills. Some staff work had been accomplished to protect sensitive areas within the 7,200-acre site, but depreciative behavior continued. Primary destructive activities included off-road vehicle use and indiscriminate shooting and dumping. This...

  2. Leslie Pickney Hill's "Toussaint L'Ouverture."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ako, Edward O.

    1987-01-01

    In his 1928 play, the Harlem Renaissance writer Leslie Pickney Hill portrays Toussaint L'Ouverture, the leader of the Haitian slave rebellion, with historical accuracy. Hill's presentation was aimed at rehabilitating black pride, "A worthy literature reared upon authentic records of achievement is the present spiritual need of the race."…

  3. On the analysis of parasite effect for Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallista, Meta; Aldila, Dipo; Nuraini, Nuning; Soewono, Edy

    2014-03-01

    It has been reported in some countries that the population of Aedes aegypti has been significantly reduced by the invasion of Aedes albopictus. There has been a hypothesis explaining this phenomenon of which investigated the influence of parasites pathogenesis to the competition between these two mosquito species in the fields. Ascogregarina taiwanensis and Ascogregarina culicis are known as parasites that infect Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti, respectively. Several studies have concluded that Ascogregarina taiwanensis caused high fatality for Aedes aegypti larvae, but Ascogregarina culicis was not pathogenic to Aedes albopictus larvae. Therefore, Ascogregarina taiwanensis may contribute to reduce the number of populations Aedes aegypti in the fields. Inspired by these facts, a mathematical model depicting interaction between parasites and mosquitoes is constructed in this paper. In this model are included six dynamic mosquito compartments, i.e. egg, larvae, infected larvae, adult, infected adult and one dynamic compartment for parasite. Derivation of the existence criteria and the stability analysis of parasite-free equilibrium as well as the basic offspring for the model are presented. Numerical simulations for sensitivity analysis indicating the invasive species for variation parameters are shown.

  4. Aedes albopictus em área rural do Brasil e implicações na transmissão de febre amarela silvestre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almério de Castro Gomes

    1999-02-01

    Full Text Available Durante estudos ecológicos sobre mosquitos anofelíneos no município de Bataguassu, Estado de Mato Grosso do Sul, foram encontradas larvas e adultos de Aedes albopictus. Pela primeira vez sua introdução ocorre numa área enzoótica do vírus selvático da febre amarela no Brasil. Isto sugere risco potencial para transferência desse vírus para área urbana infestada com Aedes aegypti.

  5. Aedes albopictus em área rural do Brasil e implicações na transmissão de febre amarela silvestre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gomes Almério de Castro

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Durante estudos ecológicos sobre mosquitos anofelíneos no município de Bataguassu, Estado de Mato Grosso do Sul, foram encontradas larvas e adultos de Aedes albopictus. Pela primeira vez sua introdução ocorre numa área enzoótica do vírus selvático da febre amarela no Brasil. Isto sugere risco potencial para transferência desse vírus para área urbana infestada com Aedes aegypti.

  6. Criadouros de Aedes (Stegomyia aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762 em bromélias nativas na Cidade de Vitória, ES Aedes (Stegomyia aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762 breeding sites in native bromeliads in Vitória City, ES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Benedito Malta Varejão

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Alguns insetos transmissores de doenças procriam exclusivamente nas proximidades das residências. O Aedes aegypti, responsável por epidemias de dengue em cidades brasileiras, representa sério risco também para a febre amarela. Com o insucesso da campanha de erradicação do inseto, justifica-se a busca de criadouros fora do alcance das medidas de controle atualmente adotadas. Na Cidade de Vitória, ES, investigou-se a ocorrência de criadouros de Aedes aegypti na água coletada em bromélias nativas, sobre as rochas. Paralelamente, avaliou-se a infestação predial nas áreas urbanas contíguas. Em quatro das cinco áreas investigadas foram encontradas larvas de culicídeos nas bromélias, sendo que em duas foi identificado Aedes aegypti. A presença dos criadouros em bromélias não guardou relação com a infestação predial nas áreas próximas. Torna-se necessário definir se os criadouros em bromélias constituem focos primários do Aedes aegypti, ou se representam uma conseqüência da elevada infestação urbana.Some insects that are vectors of human diseases have accompanied man in his migrations throughout the world and breed exclusively in the proximity of human dwellings. The mosquito Aedes aegypti has been responsible for epidemics of dengue in Brazil and its presence also constitutes a serious risk for future outbreaks of urban yellow fever. The failure of campaigns to eradicate this species justifies the search for alternative breeding sites, which may be beyond the reach of present control measures. In this study the occurrence of Aedes aegypti breeding sites in native bromeliads on rocky slopes was investigated in five areas of Vitória, capital of the Brazilian State of Espírito Santo, ES. Water contained in the bromeliads was collected with the aid of a suction apparatus to search for culicid larvae. The degree of infestation of buildings in adjacent urban areas was evaluated simultaneously. Culicid larvae were found in

  7. Redescription and resurrection from synonymy, of Aedes (Ochlerotatus Rhyacophilus Costa Lima, 1933 Redescrição e revalidação de Aedes (Ochlerotatus rhyacophilus Costa Lima, 1933

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Anice Mureb Sallum

    1988-03-01

    Full Text Available Aedes (Ochlerotatu rhyacophilus Costa Lima i resurrected from the synonymy with Aedes (Ochlerotatus scapularis (Rondani. Lectotype and paralectotypes are designated Larval, pupal and both sexes of adult stages are redescribed and illustrated. Bionomics include a picture of a brreding place. Diagnostic characters for distinguishing rhyacophilus from other species of the Scapularis Group are provided. Some data about known distribution are presented.Aedes (Ochlerotatus rhyacophilus Costa Lima é retida da sinonímia con Aedes (Ochlerotatus scapularis (Rondani. São designados lectótipo e paralectótipos. As formas larval, pupal e adulta de ambos os sexos são redescritas e acompanhadas de ilustrações representativas desses estádios, além do aspecto de um criadouro natural. Apresentam-se caracteres diagnósticos que permitem separar rhyacophilus das outras espécies do Grupo Scapularis, e alguns dados sobre a distribuição geográfica até agora conhecida.

  8. Comparison of the insecticide susceptibilities of laboratory strains of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus

    OpenAIRE

    Andrea Gómez; Emilia Seccacini; Eduardo Zerba; Susana Licastro

    2011-01-01

    A susceptible strain of Aedes albopictus derived from the Gainesville strain (Florida, USA) was established in our laboratory. The larvicidal efficacies of the neurotoxic insecticides temephos, permethrin and the pure cis and trans-permethrin isomers and the microbial insecticide Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis (Bti) against Ae. albopictus were estimated and compared to a susceptible strain of Aedes aegypti. The larvicidal effect of insect growth regulator pyriproxyfen was also evaluated i...

  9. 27 CFR 9.169 - Red Hills Lake County.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Red Hills Lake County. 9... Red Hills Lake County. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Red Hills Lake County”. (b) Approved Map. The appropriate maps for determining the boundary of the Red Hills...

  10. Sullys Hill herd resembles original plains bison

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This article is on recent findings on Sullys Hill National Game Preserve that show bison brought there nearly a century ago have remained closer to genetically pure...

  11. Allan Hills Stable Water Isotopes, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set includes stable water isotope values at 10 m resolution along an approximately 5 km transect through the main icefield of the Allan Hills Blue Ice...

  12. New documentary data from the Geominero Museum (the Spanish Geological Survey, Madrid) on the archaeocyathan collection from the Ermitas Hill of Cordoba; Nuevos datos documentales sobre la coleccion de arqueociatos del Cerro de las Ermitas de Cordoba del Museo Geominero (Instituto Geologico y Minero de Espana)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perejon, A.; Menendez, S.; Rabano, I.; Moreno-Eiris, E.

    2014-06-01

    The archaeocyathan collection of the Ermitas Hill (Cordoba) of the Geominero Museum in Madrid has recently been revised due to the discovery of some documents related to the study by one of this paper's authors of the professional life of Eduardo Hernandez-Pacheco in the National Natural History Museum archives. This documentation shows that the Ermitas Hill archaeocyathan collection now preserved in the Geominero Museum were sent by Eduardo Hernandez-Pacheco to Lucas Mallada before 1902 to be incorporated in the museum's collections and were then studied by Hernandez Sampelayo in 1933 and 1935. This fact implies that this collection is the oldest Spanish archaeocyathan collection deposited in a Spanish museum, besides clearing up the doubts about its origins and when the material was in deposited in the Geominero Museum. (Author)

  13. Bunker Hill Sediment Characterization Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neal A. Yancey; Debby F. Bruhn

    2009-12-01

    The long history of mineral extraction in the Coeur d’Alene Basin has left a legacy of heavy metal laden mine tailings that have accumulated along the Coeur d’Alene River and its tributaries (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2001; Barton, 2002). Silver, lead and zinc were the primary metals of economic interest in the area, but the ores contained other elements that have become environmental hazards including zinc, cadmium, lead, arsenic, nickel, and copper. The metals have contaminated the water and sediments of Lake Coeur d’Alene, and continue to be transported downstream to Spokane Washington via the Spokane River. In 1983, the EPA listed the Bunker Hill Mining and Metallurgical Complex on the National Priorities List. Since that time, many of the most contaminated areas have been stabilized or isolated, however metal contaminants continue to migrate through the basin. Designation as a Superfund site causes significant problems for the economically depressed communities in the area. Identification of primary sources of contamination can help set priorities for cleanup and cleanup options, which can include source removal, water treatment or no action depending on knowledge about the mobility of contaminants relative to water flow. The mobility of contaminant mobility under natural or engineered conditions depends on multiple factors including the physical and chemical state (or speciation) of metals and the range of processes, some of which can be seasonal, that cause mobilization of metals. As a result, it is particularly important to understand metal speciation (National Research Council, 2005) and the link between speciation and the rates of metal migration and the impact of natural or engineered variations in flow, biological activity or water chemistry.

  14. Nepenthes ampullaria (Nepenthaceae) Pitchers Are Unattractive to Gravid Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Lee Yiung; Dykes, Gary A; Wilson, Robyn F; Clarke, Charles M

    2016-02-01

    Nepenthes pitcher plants are colonized by a variety of specialized arthropods. As Aedes mosquitoes are container breeders, Nepenthes pitchers are a potential candidate oviposition site for vector species, such as Aedes aegypti (L.) and Aedes albopictus (Skuse). However, Aedes spp. are not commonly encountered in Nepenthes pitchers, and the environment inside the pitchers of some species is lethal to them. One exception is Nepenthes ampullaria Jack, whose pitchers are known to be colonized by Ae. albopictus on very rare occasions. Given that Ae. albopictus larvae can survive in N. ampullaria pitcher fluids, we sought to determine why pitcher colonization is rare, testing the hypothesis that gravid Aedes mosquitoes are deterred from ovipositing into container habitats that have similar characteristics to N. ampullaria pitchers. Using plastic ovitraps of different sizes, colors, and with different types of fluids (based on the characteristics of N. ampullaria pitchers), we compared oviposition rates by Aedes mosquitoes in urban and rural areas within the geographical range of N. ampullaria near Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Ovitraps that were black and large (>250-ml capacity) accumulated significantly more eggs than ovitraps that were smaller, or green in color. In terms of size and color, small, green ovitraps are analogous to N. ampullaria pitchers, indicating that these pitchers are not particularly attractive to gravid Ae. albopictus. Although Aedes spp. are capable of colonizing N. ampullaria pitchers, the pitchers are relatively unattractive to gravid females and do not represent a significant habitat for larvae of dengue vectors at present. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Comparison of BG-Sentinel Trap and Oviposition Cups for Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus Surveillance in Jacksonville, Florida, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    COMPARISON OF BG-SENTINELH TRAP AND OVIPOSITION CUPS FOR AEDES AEGYPTI AND AEDES ALBOPICTUS SURVEILLANCE IN JACKSONVILLE, FLORIDA, USA JENNIFER A...trap and oviposition cups (OCs) have both proven effective in the surveillance of Aedes species. This study aimed to determine which of the 2 traps could...albopictus, BG-Sentinel, oviposition cup surveillance, Florida, dengue INTRODUCTION Dengue fever remains a serious mosquitoborne disease in many

  16. Burchellin: study of bioactivity against Aedes aegypti

    OpenAIRE

    Narciso, Juliana Oliveira Abreu; Soares, Renata Oliveira de Araújo; Reis dos Santos Mallet, Jacenir; Guimarães, Anthony Érico; de Oliveira Chaves, Maria Célia; Barbosa-Filho, José Maria; Maleck, Marise

    2014-01-01

    Background The dengue mosquito Aedes aegypti Linnaeus, 1762 is a widespread insect pest of serious medical importance. Since no effective vaccine is available for treating dengue, the eradication or control of the main mosquito vector is regarded as essential. Since conventional insecticides have limited success, plants may be an alternative source of larvicidal agents, since they contain a rich source of bioactive chemicals. The aim of this study was to evaluate the larvicidal activity of th...

  17. Peridomestic Aedes malayensis and Aedes albopictus are capable vectors of arboviruses in cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manuel, Menchie; Low, Dolyce H. W.; Missé, Dorothée; Gubler, Duane J.; Ellis, Brett R.; Ooi, Eng Eong; Pompon, Julien

    2017-01-01

    Background Dengue and chikungunya are global re-emerging mosquito-borne diseases. In Singapore, sustained vector control coupled with household improvements reduced domestic mosquito populations for the past 45 years, particularly the primary vector Aedes aegypti. However, while disease incidence was low for the first 30 years following vector control implementation, outbreaks have re-emerged in the past 15 years. Epidemiological observations point to the importance of peridomestic infection in areas not targeted by control programs. We investigated the role of vectors in peri-domestic areas. Methods We carried out entomological surveys to identify the Aedes species present in vegetated sites in highly populated areas and determine whether mosquitoes were present in open-air areas frequented by people. We compared vector competence of Aedes albopictus and Aedes malayensis with Ae. aegypti after oral infection with sympatric dengue serotype 2 and chikungunya viruses. Mosquito saliva was tested for the presence of infectious virus particles as a surrogate for transmission following oral infection. Results We identified Aedes albopictus and Aedes malayensis throughout Singapore and quantified their presence in forested and opened grassy areas. Both Ae. albopictus and Ae. malayensis can occupy sylvatic niches and were highly susceptible to both arboviruses. A majority of saliva of infected Ae. malayensis contained infectious particles for both viruses. Conclusions Our study reveals the prevalence of competent vectors in peri-domestic areas, including Ae. malayensis for which we established the vector status. Epidemics can be driven by infection foci, which are epidemiologically enhanced in the context of low herd immunity, selective pressure on arbovirus transmission and the presence of infectious asymptomatic persons, all these conditions being present in Singapore. Learning from Singapore’s vector control success that reduced domestic vector populations, but has

  18. Evaluation of Bifenthrin and Acorus calamus Linn. Extract against Aedes aegypti L. and Aedes albopictus (Skuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Sulaiman

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: Bifenthrin and Acorus calamus Linn extract were evaluated against dengue vectors in the laboratory."nMethods: Both Bifenthrin and Acorus calamus Linn crude hexane extract were bioassayed against the adults and larval stages of dengue vectors Aedes aegypti L. and Aedes albopictus(Skuse in the laboratory."nResults: The A. calamus crude hexane extract exhibited a larvicidal activity against 4th-instar Ae. aegypti larvae with LC50 and LC90 values of 0.4418 and 11.3935 ppm respectively. The plant crude extract exhibited against Ae. albopictus larvae with a higher LC50 and LC90 values of 21.2555 ppm and 36.1061 ppm, respectively. There was a significant difference on the effect of A. calamus extract on both Aedes spp. Larvae (P< 0.05. However, bifenthrin showed a significant difference on larvicidal effect to that of A. calamus hexane extract on both Aedes spp (P< 0.05. In testing the adulticidal activity, this plant extract exhibited the LC50 and LC90 values of 17.4075 and 252.9458 ppm against Ae .aegypti and a higher LC50 and LC90 values of 43.9952 and 446.1365 ppm respectively on Ae. albopictus. There was no significant difference on the effect of A. calamus extract on both Aedes spp adults (P> 0.05."nConclusion: Bifenthrin however showed a significant difference on both Aedes spp adults (P< 0.05. With the wide availability of A. calamus in Malaysia, it could be utilized for controlling dengue vectors. "n 

  19. Peridomestic Aedes malayensis and Aedes albopictus are capable vectors of arboviruses in cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendenhall, Ian H; Manuel, Menchie; Moorthy, Mahesh; Lee, Theodore T M; Low, Dolyce H W; Missé, Dorothée; Gubler, Duane J; Ellis, Brett R; Ooi, Eng Eong; Pompon, Julien

    2017-06-01

    Dengue and chikungunya are global re-emerging mosquito-borne diseases. In Singapore, sustained vector control coupled with household improvements reduced domestic mosquito populations for the past 45 years, particularly the primary vector Aedes aegypti. However, while disease incidence was low for the first 30 years following vector control implementation, outbreaks have re-emerged in the past 15 years. Epidemiological observations point to the importance of peridomestic infection in areas not targeted by control programs. We investigated the role of vectors in peri-domestic areas. We carried out entomological surveys to identify the Aedes species present in vegetated sites in highly populated areas and determine whether mosquitoes were present in open-air areas frequented by people. We compared vector competence of Aedes albopictus and Aedes malayensis with Ae. aegypti after oral infection with sympatric dengue serotype 2 and chikungunya viruses. Mosquito saliva was tested for the presence of infectious virus particles as a surrogate for transmission following oral infection. We identified Aedes albopictus and Aedes malayensis throughout Singapore and quantified their presence in forested and opened grassy areas. Both Ae. albopictus and Ae. malayensis can occupy sylvatic niches and were highly susceptible to both arboviruses. A majority of saliva of infected Ae. malayensis contained infectious particles for both viruses. Our study reveals the prevalence of competent vectors in peri-domestic areas, including Ae. malayensis for which we established the vector status. Epidemics can be driven by infection foci, which are epidemiologically enhanced in the context of low herd immunity, selective pressure on arbovirus transmission and the presence of infectious asymptomatic persons, all these conditions being present in Singapore. Learning from Singapore's vector control success that reduced domestic vector populations, but has not sustainably reduced arboviral incidence

  20. Dengue virus transovarial transmission by Aedes aegypti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Dwi Hartanti

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Dengue is a disease that is caused by dengue virus and transmitted to humans through the bite of infected Aedes mosquitoes, especially Aedes aegypti. The disease is hyper-endemic in Southeast Asia, where a more severe form, dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF and dengue shock syndrome (DSS, is a major public health concern. The purpose of the present study was to find evidence of dengue virus transovarial transmision in local vectors in Jakarta. Fifteen Aedes larvae were collected in 2009 from two areas in Tebet subdistrict in South Jakarta, namely one area with the highest and one with the lowest DHF prevalence. All mosquitoes were reared inside two cages in the laboratory, eight mosquitoes in one cage and seven mosquitoes in another cage and given only sucrose solution as their food. The results showed that 20% of the mosquitoes were positive for dengue virus. Dengue virus detection with an immunohistochemical method demonstrated the occurrence of transovarial transmission in local DHF vectors in Tebet subdistrict. Transovarial dengue infection in Ae.aegypti larvae appeared to maintain or enhance epidemics. Further research is needed to investigate the relation of dengue virus transovarial transmission with DHF endemicity in Jakarta.

  1. Dengue virus transovarial transmission by Aedes aegypti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Dwi Hartanti

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Dengue is a disease that is caused by dengue virus and transmitted to humans through the bite of infected Aedes mosquitoes, especially Aedes aegypti. The disease is hyper-endemic in Southeast Asia, where a more severe form, dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF and dengue shock syndrome (DSS, is a major public health concern. The purpose of the present study was to find evidence of dengue virus transovarial transmision in local vectors in Jakarta. Fifteen Aedes larvae were collected in 2009 from two areas in Tebet subdistrict in South Jakarta, namely one area with the highest and one with the lowest DHF prevalence. All mosquitoes were reared inside two cages in the laboratory, eight mosquitoes in one cage and seven mosquitoes in another cage and given only sucrose solution as their food. The results showed that 20% of the mosquitoes were positive for dengue virus. Dengue virus detection with an immunohistochemical method demonstrated the occurrence of transovarial transmission in local DHF vectors in Tebet subdistrict. Transovarial dengue infection in Ae.aegypti larvae appeared to maintain or enhance epidemics. Further research is needed to investigate the relation of dengue virus transovarial transmission with DHF endemicity in Jakarta.

  2. Genetics of speciation in the Aedes (Stegomyia) scutellaris subgroup (Diptera:Culicidae). 4. Chromosomal relationships of Aedes cooki with four sibling species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherron, D A; Rai, K S

    1984-06-01

    Morphology and behavior of chromosomes and development of testes and sperm were examined in hybrids from interspecific crosses involving Aedes cooki and four sibling species of the Aedes (Stegomyia) scutellaris subgroup of mosquitoes. The degree of abnormality in hybrid spermatogenesis in interspecific crosses involving Aedes cooki males and females of four sibling species paralleled the geographic distributions of these species and the genetic divergence indicated by other genetic studies. Hybrids from crosses involving Aedes malayensis females and Aedes cooki males were characterized by atrophied testes and extensive chromosome breakage. Hybrids from crosses involving Aedes alcasidi females and Aedes cooki males suggested a possible pericentric inversion distinguishing the largest autosome of Aedes alcasidi from that of Aedes cooki. Hybrids from interspecific crosses involving females of Aedes polynesiensis and Aedes pseudoscutellaris and males of Aedes cooki showed high percentages of univalents of the smallest chromosome pair. Hybrid spermatogenesis in two interspecific crosses involving Aedes cooki females differed from results of reciprocal crosses. Data were scant, however, and interpretation was difficult in view of negligible hatch in all interspecific crosses involving Aedes cooki females.

  3. Adaptation of generalized Hill inequalities to anisotropic elastic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hill inequalities. From different type of anisotropic elastic symmetries, numerical examples are given. Constructing bounds on effective eigenvalues provides a deeper understanding about mechanical behavior of anisotropic materials. Generalized Hill inequalities are adapted to all anisotropic elastic symmetries.

  4. Rolamento de carretéis sobre um plano inclinado

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Maria Teresinha Xavier; Axt, Rolando

    1999-01-01

    No presente trabalho explora-se a construçãao de carretéis de pequeno fator geométrico que rolem com grande aceleraçãao sobre um plano inclinado. In this paper it is explored the design of low geometrical factor spools rolling down hill with great acceleration.

  5. Homeopathic and larvicide effect of Eucalyptus cinerea essential oil against Aedes aegypti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Aparecida Mançano Cavalca

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work to study the homeopathic and larvicide effect of Eucalyptus cinerea essential oil on Aedes aegypti. Essential oil had high larvicide effect with LC50 and LC90 of 0.38 and 0.27 mg mL-1, respectively. Generally, the homeopathy of essential oil affected the A. aegypti development stages. Dynamizations 6CH, 9CH and 12CH reduced the mean number of larvae when compared to that of control. Mean number of mosquitoes decreased through homeopathic dynamization 30CH. Results showed that E. cinerea essential oil was highly promising and could be used in public health system for the control of A. aegypti.O efeito larvicida e homeopático do óleo essencial de Eucalyptus cinerea sobre o Aedes aegypti foi aqui analisado. Foram estudados os efeitos larvicida (doses de 0 a 100 mg mL-1 e homeopático (dinamizações 3CH, 6CH, 9CH, 12CH e 30CH do óleo essencial de E. cinerea sobre os estádios de desenvolvimento do Aedes aegypti. O óleo essencial apresentou grande poder larvicida com LC50 e LC90 de 0,38 mg mL e 0,27 mg/mL, respectivamente. As homeopatias do óleo essencial, de modo geral, influenciaram nos estádios de desenvolvimento do A. aegypti. As dinamizações 6CH, 9CH e 12CH reduziram o número médio de larvas em comparação com o controle. O número médio de mosquito foi reduzido pela dinamização homeopática 30CH. Os resultados sugerem que o óleo essencial de E. cinerea tem grande potencial para ser utilizado nos programas de saúde pública para o controle do A. aegypti. A homeopatia do óleo essencial interferiu na biologia do Aedes aegypti e deve ser objeto de estudo em futuros experimentos.

  6. Accounting for imperfect detection in Hill numbers for biodiversity studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broms, Kristin M.; Hooten, Mevin B.; Fitzpatrick, Ryan M.

    2015-01-01

    Hill numbers unify biodiversity metrics by combining several into one expression. For example, species richness, Shannon's diversity index and the Gini–Simpson index are a few of the most used diversity measures, and they can be expressed as Hill numbers. Traditionally, Hill numbers have been calculated from relative abundance data, but the expression has been modified to use incidence data as well. We demonstrate an approach for estimating Hill numbers using an occupancy modelling framework that accounts for imperfect detection.

  7. Eagle Hill, Kenya: changes over 60 years

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cline. What we do not often appreciate is the extent of these losses, down to the very last eagle. What occurred on Eagle Hill is no different from what has occurred in some 50% to 90% of Kenya in the same time span. Given that less than 10% of Kenya is effec- tively protected within national parks, reserves and sanctuaries ...

  8. The Kapsiki of the Mandara Hills

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beek, van W.E.A.

    1987-01-01

    The Kapsiki of Cameroon and the Higi of Nigeria are two tribes from the Mandara hills area of central and western Africa. Though they form one coherent group of villages, they are usually considered as two separate ethnic units. The author normally uses the term Kapsiki for both. Based on fieldwork

  9. Andoyer construction for Hill and Delaunay variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laskar, Jacques

    2017-08-01

    Andoyer variables are well known for the study of rotational dynamics. These variables were derived by Andoyer through a procedure that can be also used to obtain the Hill variables of the Kepler problem. Andoyer construction can also forecast the Delaunay variables which canonicity is then obtained without the use of a generating function.

  10. Andoyer construction for Hill and Delaunay variables

    OpenAIRE

    Laskar, Jacques

    2014-01-01

    Andoyer variables are well known for the study of rotational dynamics. These variables were derived by Andoyer through a procedure that can be also used to obtain the Hill variables of the Kepler problem. Andoyer construction can also forecast the Delaunay variables which canonicity is then obtained without the use of a generating function.

  11. Ostracoda from Vestfold Hill lake terraces, Antarctica

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Setty, M.G.A.P.

    Six species of ostracodes are recorded from two transects of terraces of Deep Lake, Vestfold Hills, Antarctica. Two species (@iXesteleberis@@ sp. and @iBradleya dictyon@@) range from Cretaceous to Recent, @iPoseidonamicus aff. P. major@@ ranges from...

  12. A philosophical analysis of the Hill criteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thygesen, Lau Caspar; Andersen, Gregers Stig; Andersen, Hanne

    2005-01-01

    The epidemiological literature contains an ongoing and diversified discussion of the Hill criteria. This article offers a philosophical analysis of the criteria, showing that the criteria are related to two different views of causality. The authors argue that the criteria of strength, specificity...

  13. Environmental Assessment Proposed Demolition Plan Hill Air Force Base, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    Hill AFB Historic Buildings and Structures Reassessment ( Salo E., et al, 2003). The Utah SHPO concurred with the Hill AFB determinations in April...communications made by URS to Utah DEQ Air Quality. September. Salo , Edward, Marsha Prior, and John Ferguson, 2003. Hill AFB Historic Buildings and

  14. Vertical infestation of the dengue vectors Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus in apartments in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roslan, Muhammad Aidil; Shafie, Aziz; Ngui, Romano; Lim, Yvonne Ai Lian; Sulaiman, Wan Yusoff Wan

    2013-12-01

    Dengue is a serious public health problem in Malaysia. The aim of this study was to compare the vertical infestation of Aedes population in 2 apartments in Kuala Lumpur with different status of dengue incidence (i.e., high-dengue-incidence area and area with no reported dengue cases). The study was also conducted to assess the relationship between environmental factors such as rainfall, temperature, and humidity and Aedes population that may influence Aedes infestation. Surveillance with a mosquito larvae trapping device was conducted for 28 continuous weeks (January to July 2012) in Vista Angkasa (VA) and Inderaloka (IL) apartments located in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The results indicated that both Aedes spp. could be found from ground to higher floor levels of the apartments, with Aedes aegypti being more predominant than Ae. albopictus. Data based on mixed and single breeding of Aedes spp. on different floors did not show any significant difference. Both rainfall (R3; i.e., the amount of rainfall collected during the previous 3 wk before the surveillance period began) and RH data showed significant relationship with the number of Aedes larvae collected in VA and IL. No significant difference was found between the numbers of Aedes larvae in both study areas as well as maximum and minimum temperatures. Results also indicated adaptations of Ae. aegypti to the ecosystem at each elevation of high-rise buildings, with Ae. albopictus staying inside of apartment units.

  15. Characterization of Tolypocladium cylindrosporum (Hypocreales: Ophiocordycipitacea) and its impact against Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus eggs at low temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    We examined the growth characteristics of Tolypocladium cylindrosporum IBT 41712 and its potential to infect eggs of Aedes aegypti Linnaeus and Aedes albopictus (Skuse) mosquitoes at low temperature (15 deg C). When grown on sabouraud dextrose agar supplemented with yeast extract, IBT 41712 formed w...

  16. Behavioral responses of two dengue virus vectors, Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae), to DUET TM and its components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ultralow volume (ULV) droplets of DUET TM, prallethrin and sumithrin at a sublethal dose were applied to unfed (non bloodfed) and bloodfed female Aedes aegypti Linn. and Aedes albopictus (Skuse) in a wind tunnel. Control spray droplets only contained inactive ingredients. Individual mosquitoes wer...

  17. Screening for larvicidal activity of ethanolic and aqueous extracts of selected plants against Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus larvae

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Russelle Alvarez; Francisco Heralde III; Noel Quiming

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To screen for larvicidal activity of aqueous and ethanolic extracts (95% ethanol) from Selaginella elmeri, Christella dentata, Elatostema sinnatum, Curculigo capitulata, Euphorbia hirta, Murraya koenigii (M. koenigii), Alpinia speciosa, Cymbopogon citratus, Eucalyptus globulus (E. globulus), Jatropha curcas (J. curcas), Psidium guajava, Gliricidia sepium, Ixora coccinea and Capsicum frutescens (C. frutescens) against Aedes aegypti (A. aegypti) and Aedes albopictus (A...

  18. Structure, stratigraphy, and origin of Husband Hill, Columbia Hills, Gusev Crater, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, T.J.; Sims, M.; Schmidt, M.E.; Edwards, L.; Tornabene, L.L.; Crumpler, L.S.; Cohen, B. A.; Soderblom, L.A.; Blaney, D.L.; Squyres, S. W.; Arvidson, R. E.; Rica, J.W.; Treguier, E.; d'Uston, C.; Grant, J. A.; McSween, H.Y.; Golombek, M.P.; Haldemann, A.F.C.; de Souza, P.A.

    2008-01-01

    The strike and dip of lithologic units imaged in stereo by the Spirit rover in the Columbia Hills using three-dimensional imaging software shows that measured dips (15-32??) for bedding on the main edifice of the Columbia Hill are steeper than local topography (???8-10??). Outcrops measured on West Spur are conformable in strike with shallower dips (7-15??) than observed on Husband Hill. Dips are consistent with observed strata draping the Columbia Hills. Initial uplift was likely related either to the formation of the Gusev Crater central peak or ring or through mutual interference of overlapping crater rims. Uplift was followed by subsequent draping by a series of impact and volcaniclastic materials that experienced temporally and spatially variable aqueous infiltration, cementation, and alteration episodically during or after deposition. West Spur likely represents a spatially isolated depositional event. Erosion by a variety of processes, including mass wasting, removed tens of meters of materials and formed the Tennessee Valley primarily after deposition. This was followed by eruption of the Adirondack-class plains basalt lava flows which embayed the Columbia Hills. Minor erosion, impact, and aeolian processes have subsequently modified the Columbia Hills. Copyright 2008 by the American Geophysical Union.

  19. Asymmetric Mating Interference between Two Related Mosquito Species: Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus and Aedes (Stegomyia) cretinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giatropoulos, Athanassios; Papachristos, Dimitrios P; Koliopoulos, George; Michaelakis, Antonios; Emmanouel, Nickolaos

    2015-01-01

    Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus (Skuse) and Aedes (Stegomyia) cretinus Edwards are closely related mosquito species with common morphological features and bio-ecological similarities. Recent mosquito surveillance in Athens, Greece, showed that they are sympatric mosquito species, with Ae. albopictus [corrected] developing quite higher population densities than Ae. cretinus [corrected] . The potential of mating interference between these species was investigated by reciprocal and homologous mating experiments in cages under laboratory conditions. In non-choice interspecific crosses (groups of males and females) females of both species produced sterile eggs. Insemination rate was 58% for Ae. cretinus females and only 1% for Ae. albopictus [corrected] females. Aedes albopictus males were sexually aggressive and inseminated Ae. cretinus females (31%) in choice experiments, where males of one species had access to mate with females of both species. Whereas, interspecific mating of Ae. albopictus [corrected] females with Ae. cretinus males in the co-occurrence of Ae. cretinus females was weaker (4%). Aedes cretinus females from non-choice crossing with Ae. albopictus [corrected] or Ae. cretinus males were paired individually with conspecific males. The percentage of fertile Ae. cretinus females was 17.5% when had encaged before with Ae. albopictus [corrected] males, compared to 100% when Ae. cretinus [corrected] females were encaged with conspecific males only. Probable ecological consequences of asymmetric mating between these ecologically homologous species in nature are discussed.

  20. Asymmetric Mating Interference between Two Related Mosquito Species: Aedes (Stegomyia albopictus and Aedes (Stegomyia cretinus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athanassios Giatropoulos

    Full Text Available Aedes (Stegomyia albopictus (Skuse and Aedes (Stegomyia cretinus Edwards are closely related mosquito species with common morphological features and bio-ecological similarities. Recent mosquito surveillance in Athens, Greece, showed that they are sympatric mosquito species, with Ae. albopictus [corrected] developing quite higher population densities than Ae. cretinus [corrected] . The potential of mating interference between these species was investigated by reciprocal and homologous mating experiments in cages under laboratory conditions. In non-choice interspecific crosses (groups of males and females females of both species produced sterile eggs. Insemination rate was 58% for Ae. cretinus females and only 1% for Ae. albopictus [corrected] females. Aedes albopictus males were sexually aggressive and inseminated Ae. cretinus females (31% in choice experiments, where males of one species had access to mate with females of both species. Whereas, interspecific mating of Ae. albopictus [corrected] females with Ae. cretinus males in the co-occurrence of Ae. cretinus females was weaker (4%. Aedes cretinus females from non-choice crossing with Ae. albopictus [corrected] or Ae. cretinus males were paired individually with conspecific males. The percentage of fertile Ae. cretinus females was 17.5% when had encaged before with Ae. albopictus [corrected] males, compared to 100% when Ae. cretinus [corrected] females were encaged with conspecific males only. Probable ecological consequences of asymmetric mating between these ecologically homologous species in nature are discussed.

  1. Diversidade de criadouros e tipos de imóveis freqüentados por Aedes albopictus e Aedes aegypti Diversity of oviposition containers and buildings where Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti can be found

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanderlei C da Silva

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Verificar a diversidade de criadouros e tipos de imóveis freqüentados por fêmeas de Aedes albopictus e Aedes aegypti. MÉTODOS: O estudo foi realizado nos anos de 2002 e 2003 no bairro de Campo Grande, Rio de Janeiro, RJ. Realizou-se pesquisa larvária em diferentes tipos de imóveis. As larvas encontradas foram identificadas em laboratório. A freqüência de larvas dessas duas espécies foi computada nos diversos criadouros disponíveis. Foram calculados os índices de infestação predial e de Breteau, as diferenças foram testadas pelo qui-quadrado. RESULTADOS: Os tipos de imóveis positivos para os aedinos foram: residências (83,9% do total; igrejas, escolas, clubes (6,8%; terrenos baldios (6,4%; e comércios (2,8%. Das 9.153 larvas, 12,0% eram de Aedes albopictus e 88,0% de Aedes aegypti. Para aquela espécie, os recipientes onde foram mais encontradas foram ralos (25,4%, latas, garrafas, vasilhames (23,9% e vasos com plantas (16,2%. Aedes aegypti mostrou-se mais freqüente nos criadouros que Aedes albopictus (chi2=145,067, pOBJECTIVE: To assess the diversity of oviposition containers and buildings where females of Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti can be found. METHODS: A study was carried out in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Southern Brazil, between 2002 and 2003. Larvae in different types of buildings were investigated, and immature forms found were then sent to the laboratory for identification. The larval frequency for both mosquitoes was estimated in the oviposition containers available. The Breteau index and the building infestation index were calculated and differences were tested using the Chi-square test. RESULTS: The types of buildings that were positive for Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti were: dwellings (83.9%; churches, schools, clubs (6.8%; vacant land (6.4%; and businesses (2.8%. Of 9,153 larvae collected, 12.0% were Aedes albopictus and 88.0% were Aedes aegypti. Aedes albopictus were mostly found in drains

  2. Susceptibility of Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti to three imported Chikungunya virus strains, including the E1/226V variant in Taiwan

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chen, Tien-Huang; Jian, Shu-Wan; Wang, Chih-Yuan; Lin, Cheo; Wang, Pei-Feng; Su, Chien-Ling; Teng, Hwa-Jen; Shu, Pei-Yun; Wu, Ho-Sheng

    2015-01-01

    An E1/226V variant Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) efficiently transmitted by Aedes albopictus to humans poses a significant threat to public health for those areas with the presence of Aedes albopictus, including Taiwan...

  3. Ecological interactions in Aedes species on Reunion Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagny Beilhe, L; Delatte, H; Juliano, S A; Fontenille, D; Quilici, S

    2013-12-01

    Two invasive, container-breeding mosquito species, Aedes aegypti (Stegomyia aegypti) and Aedes albopictus (Stegomyia albopicta) (Diptera: Culicidae), have different distribution patterns on Reunion Island. Aedes albopictus occurs in all areas and Ae. aegypti colonizes only some restricted areas already occupied by Ae. albopictus. This study investigates the abiotic and biotic ecological mechanisms that determine the distribution of Aedes species on Reunion Island. Life history traits (duration of immature stages, survivorship, fecundity, estimated finite rate of increase) in Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus were compared at different temperatures. These fitness measures were characterized in both species in response to competitive interactions among larvae. Aedes aegypti was drastically affected by temperature, performing well only at around 25 °C, at which it achieved its highest survivorship and greatest estimated rate of increase. The narrow distribution of this species in the field on Reunion Island may thus relate to its poor ability to cope with unfavourable temperatures. Aedes aegypti was also more negatively affected by high population densities and to some extent by interactions with Ae. albopictus, particularly in the context of limited food supplies. Aedes albopictus exhibited better population performance across a range of environmental conditions. Its ecological plasticity and its superior competitive ability relative to its congener may further enhance its invasion success on Reunion Island. © 2012 The Royal Entomological Society.

  4. Sobre caudillos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Garrido

    1988-07-01

    Full Text Available Cuadro ensayos: De la respuesta criolla a los caudillos republicanos. Hispanoamérica 1750- 1850: Ensayos sobre la sociedad y el Estado. John Lynch. Universidad Nacional, Bogotá, 1987.

  5. The Hill Chart Calculation for Pelton Runner Models using the HydroHillChart - Pelton Module Software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adelina Bostan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The Pelton turbines industrial design is based on the hill chart characteristics obtained by measuring the models. Primary data measurements used to obtain the hill chart can be processed graphically, by hand or by using graphic programs respectively CAD programs; the HydroHillChart - Pelton module software is a specialized tool in achieving the hill chart, using interpolation cubic spline functions. Thereby, based on measurements of several models of Pelton turbines, a computerized library, used to design industrial Pelton turbines can be created. The paper presents the universal characteristics calculated by using the HydroHillChart - Pelton module software for a series of Pelton runners.

  6. La Crosse Encephalitis Virus Infection in Field-Collected Aedes albopictus, Aedes japonicus, and Aedes triseriatus in Tennessee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westby, Katie M; Fritzen, Charissa; Paulsen, Dave; Poindexter, Stephanie; Moncayo, Abelardo C

    2015-09-01

    La Crosse virus (LACV) is a mosquito-borne virus and a major cause of pediatric encephalitis in the USA. La Crosse virus emerged in Tennessee and other states in the Appalachian region in 1997. We investigated LACV infection rates and seasonal abundances of the native mosquito vector, Aedes triseriatus, and 2 recently introduced mosquito species, Ae. albopictus and Ae. japonicus, in an emerging disease focus in Tennessee. Mosquitoes were collected using multiple trapping methods specific for Aedes mosquitoes at recent human case sites. Mosquito pools were tested via reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) of the S segment to detect multiple Bunyamwera and California serogroup viruses, including LACV, as well as real-time RT-PCR of the M segment. A total of 54 mosquito pools were positive, including wild-caught adult females and laboratory-reared adults, demonstrating transovarial transmission in all 3 species. Maximum likelihood estimates (per 1,000 mosquitoes) were 2.72 for Ae. triseriatus, 3.01 for Ae. albopictus, and 0.63 for Ae. japonicus. We conclude that Ae. triseriatus and Ae. albopictus are important LACV vectors and that Ae. japonicus also may be involved in virus maintenance and transmission.

  7. Uranium series dating of Allan Hills ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fireman, E. L.

    1986-01-01

    Uranium-238 decay series nuclides dissolved in Antarctic ice samples were measured in areas of both high and low concentrations of volcanic glass shards. Ice from the Allan Hills site (high shard content) had high Ra-226, Th-230 and U-234 activities but similarly low U-238 activities in comparison with Antarctic ice samples without shards. The Ra-226, Th-230 and U-234 excesses were found to be proportional to the shard content, while the U-238 decay series results were consistent with the assumption that alpha decay products recoiled into the ice from the shards. Through this method of uranium series dating, it was learned that the Allen Hills Cul de Sac ice is approximately 325,000 years old.

  8. SOILS UNDER BEECH IN THE KODRY HILLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ursu

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available In the Kodry Hills, small areas of virgin beech forests stands are preserved. These beech groves are developed on specific intrazonal lithomorphic soils. The mineralogical composition of substrate impedes the development of eluvial−illuvial processes and leaching of carbonates typical of the zonal soils that form under broad-leaved forests. The soils under study belong to the group of rendzic soils and can be referred to as marly rendzinas (or pseudorendzinas.

  9. Economic resources of the northern Black Hills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irving, J.D.; Emmons, S.F.; Jaggar, T.A.

    1904-01-01

    The mining district of the Black Hills comprised within the Spearfish and Sturgis quadrangles was surveyed geologically in the summers of 1898 and 1899 under the direction of Mr. S. F. Emmons. The following pages present a brief summary of the geologic features, more especially with reference to ore-bearing formations. These are confined to the Algonkian and Paleozoic strata and their associated eruptives. 

  10. Ecología del Aedes aegypti en un pueblo de Colombia, Suramérica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milton E. Tinker

    1993-03-01

    Full Text Available Un estudio de la ecología de las larvas y adultos del Aedes aegypti fue llevado a cabo en Guaduas (Cundinamarca entre noviembre de 1978 y noviembre de 1979. Este estudio comprendió cuatro ciclos de inspección, dos en época seca y dos en época lluviosa. Las albercas fueron encontradas como el mejor hábitat larvario para ambas estaciones. Las llantas fueron igualmente importantes en la época de lluvia. Las alcobas constituyeron el hábitat más favorable para los adultos. En general más predios estaban infestados por adultos que por larvas. La prueba de las precipitinas indicó que la mayoría de las hembras de Aedes aegypti se alimentaron sobre el hombre. Las colecciones con cebo humano demostraron 2 picos de actividad: 10 -1 1 a.m. y 4-5 p.m.

  11. MULTIPLICATION OF DENGUE AND CHIKUNGUNYA VIRUSES IN AEDES MOSQUITOES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soedarto Soekiman

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Colonies of Aedes aegypti (Surabaya strain and Aedes albopictus (Malang strain were studied to compare their susceptibility to oral infection with dengue type 3 and Chikungunya viruses. Growth curves of dengue type 3 and Chikungunya viruses in these mosquitoes indicated that both mosquito species were susceptible to oral infection with these viruses. Electron microscopic observation of the salivary glands of A. aegypti and A. albopictus infected with Chikungunya virus showed that this organ plays an important role in producing and maintaining high virus titers in these mosquitoes. The results suggest that both Aedes species are potentially important vectors on the transmission of dengue and Chikungunya infection in Indonesia.

  12. Efektivitas Ovitrap Bambu terhadap Jumlah Jentik Aedes sp yang Terperangkap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiwit Aditama

    2015-05-01

    places of 10 subdistricts. Data of trapped Aedes sp larvae numbers was collected four times repeatedly within one week time-lapse. Analysis was conducted using the mean number of larvae in ovitraps and ovitrap index. The number of Aedes sp larvae trapped was 1,265. The most effective ovitrap is piece of bamboo, mean = 123, p value = 0.006, HI = 10.01% (16.66 26.67%, CI = 36.8% (336.06 - 39.74%, BI = 29.97% (73.33 - 103.3%. Health authorities should promote bamboo ovitrap, especially to public as an effort to control Aedes sp.

  13. Risk factors for the presence of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus in domestic water-holding containers in areas impacted by the Nam Theun 2 hydroelectric project, Laos

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiscox, A.F.; Kaye, A.; Vongphayloth, K.; Banks, I.; Piffer, M.; Khammanithong, P.; Sananikhom, P.; Kaul, S.; Hill, N.; Lindsay, S.W.; Brey, P.T.

    2013-01-01

    We assessed risk factors for vectors of dengue and chikungunya viruses near a new hydroelectric project, Nam Theun 2, in Laos. Immature stages of Aedes aegypti were found only in sites within 40 km of the urban provincial capital, but Aedes albopictus was found throughout. Aedes aegypti pupae were

  14. Presencia de Aedes albopictus en Leticia, Amazonas, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván Darío Vélez

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available La especie Aedes albopictus es un eficiente vector del dengue en Asia y, posiblemente, de otros arbovirus incluyendo la fiebre amarilla y la encefalitis. En la ultima década se ha extendido la distribución de A. albopictus a las Américas. En la ciudad de Tabatinga, Brasil, muy cerceide la frontera con Colombia, se ha informado la presencia de esta especie en 1996 y, posteriormente, en octubre de 1997. En marzo de 1998, en desarrollo de un e&udio sobre enfermedades tropicales realizado por el Programa de Estudio y Cotítrol de Enfermedades Tropicales, PECET, de la Universidad de Antioquia y la secretaría de Salud del Amazonas, se capturaron 8 ejemplares adultos de A. albopictus en la ciudad de Leticia, departamento del Amazonas, siendo éste el primer hallazgo de esta especie en Colombia. La presencia en Colombia de A. albopictus vuelve más complejo el problema del dengue por la mayor adaptación de este vector a climas más fríos, la capacidad de transmisión transovariana, la buena capacidad vectorial para transmitir los cuatro serotipos del virus y la mayor dificultad para su control dado que sus criaderos están en áreas peridomésticas y rurales. La distribución de esta especie tanto en zonas selváticas como rurales y urbanas presenta un peligro potencial de urbanizar la transmisión de la fiebre amarilla. Se presenta el plan de contingencia que se debe implementar por parte de la Secretaría de Salud del Amazonas con miras a evitar la propagación de este vector a otras regiones del país.

  15. Confidence Hills Mineralogy and Chemin Results from Base of Mt. Sharp, Pahrump Hills, Gale Crater, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanagh, P. D.; Bish, D. L.; Blake, D. F.; Vaniman, D. T.; Morris, R. V.; Ming, D. W.; Rampe, E. B.; Achilles, C. N.; Chipera, S. J.; Treiman, A. H.; hide

    2015-01-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover Curiosity recently completed its fourth drill sampling of sediments on Mars. The Confidence Hills (CH) sample was drilled from a rock located in the Pahrump Hills region at the base of Mt. Sharp in Gale Crater. The CheMin X-ray diffractometer completed five nights of analysis on the sample, more than previously executed for a drill sample, and the data have been analyzed using Rietveld refinement and full-pattern fitting to determine quantitative mineralogy. Confidence Hills mineralogy has several important characteristics: 1) abundant hematite and lesser magnetite; 2) a 10 angstrom phyllosilicate; 3) multiple feldspars including plagioclase and alkali feldspar; 4) mafic silicates including forsterite, orthopyroxene, and two types of clinopyroxene (Ca-rich and Ca-poor), consistent with a basaltic source; and 5) minor contributions from sulfur-bearing species including jarosite.

  16. Characterising the spatial dynamics of sympatric Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus populations in the Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Duncombe

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Entomological surveillance and control are essential to the management of dengue fever (DF. Hence, understanding the spatial and temporal patterns of DF vectors, Aedes (Stegomyia aegypti (L. and Ae. (Stegomyia albopictus (Skuse, is paramount. In the Philippines, resources are limited and entomological surveillance and control are generally commenced during epidemics, when transmission is difficult to control. Recent improvements in spatial epidemiological tools and methods offer opportunities to explore more efficient DF surveillance and control solutions: however, there are few examples in the literature from resource-poor settings. The objectives of this study were to: (i explore spatial patterns of Aedes populations and (ii predict areas of high and low vector density to inform DF control in San Jose village, Muntinlupa city, Philippines. Fortnightly, adult female Aedes mosquitoes were collected from 50 double-sticky ovitraps (SOs located in San Jose village for the period June-November 2011. Spatial clustering analysis was performed to identify high and low density clusters of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus mosquitoes. Spatial autocorrelation was assessed by examination of semivariograms, and ordinary kriging was undertaken to create a smoothed surface of predicted vector density in the study area. Our results show that both Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus were present in San Jose village during the study period. However, one Aedes species was dominant in a given geographic area at a time, suggesting differing habitat preferences and interspecies competition between vectors. Density maps provide information to direct entomological control activities and advocate the development of geographically enhanced surveillance and control systems to improve DF management in the Philippines.

  17. Dirofilaria repens microfilariae in Aedes vexans mosquitoes in Slovakia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bocková, E.; Rudolf, Ivo; Kočišová, A.; Betášová, Lenka; Venclíková, Kristýna; Mendel, Jan; Hubálek, Zdeněk

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 112, č. 10 (2013), s. 3465-3470 ISSN 0932-0113 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Dirofilaria * mosquitoes * Aedes vexans Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 2.327, year: 2013

  18. Susceptibility of Aedes aegypti pupae to neem seed kernal extracts ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Azadirachta indica) seed kernel extracts (NSKE) on Aedes aegypti. The neem seed kernel powder was sequentially extracted with hexane, benzene, ethyl acetate, acetone, DMSO, 2-propanol, ethanol, methanol and dstiledwater.

  19. Transcriptome analysis of Aedes aegypti transgenic mosquitoes with altered immunity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zou, Zhen; Souza-Neto, Jayme; Xi, Zhiyong; Kokoza, Vladimir; Shin, Sang Woon; Dimopoulos, George; Raikhel, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    .... We have used genome-wide microarray analyses to characterize fat-body-specific gene transcript repertoires activated by either REL1 or REL2 in two transgenic strains of the mosquito Aedes aegypti...

  20. Exposure to chikungunya virus and adult longevity in Aedes aegypti (L.) and Aedes albopictus (Skuse).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiskind, Michael H; Westbrook, Catherine J; Lounibos, L Philip

    2010-06-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) recently emerged as a global threat to public health through its adaptation to the cosmopolitan mosquito Aedes albopictus Skuse. Aedes albopictus is highly susceptible to the emergent strain of CHIKV, relative to the historical vector of CHIKV, Aedes aegypti (L.). We hypothesized that the high susceptibility of Ae. albopictus to CHIKV may have a cost in terms of longevity and fecundity among infected vs non-infected mosquitoes, relative to Ae. aegypti. We performed a longevity experiment comparing Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus exposed to the emergent strain of CHIKV (LR-2006OPY1). We found a small but significant decrease in longevity of Ae. albopictus, but not Ae. aegypti, in response to exposure to CHIKV. We did not observe significant differences in numbers of eggs laid by either species in response to exposure. Longevity and body titer of infected Ae. albopictus were significantly negatively correlated, such that individuals that lived longer had lower viral body titers when they died. The cost of exposure, while not high, suggests there may be physiological constraints in the evolution of viral infectiousness in its insect vector.

  1. Role of Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus) and Aedes albopictus (Skuse) in local dengue epidemics in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Pui-Jen; Teng, Hwa-Jen

    2016-11-09

    Aedes mosquitoes in Taiwan mainly comprise Aedes albopictus and Ae. aegypti. However, the species contributing to autochthonous dengue spread and the extent at which it occurs remain unclear. Thus, in this study, we spatially analyzed real data to determine spatial features related to local dengue incidence and mosquito density, particularly that of Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti. We used bivariate Moran's I statistic and geographically weighted regression (GWR) spatial methods to analyze the globally spatial dependence and locally regressed relationship between (1) imported dengue incidences and Breteau indices (BIs) of Ae. albopictus, (2) imported dengue incidences and BI of Ae. aegypti, (3) autochthonous dengue incidences and BI of Ae. albopictus, (4) autochthonous dengue incidences and BI of Ae. aegypti, (5) all dengue incidences and BI of Ae. albopictus, (6) all dengue incidences and BI of Ae. aegypti, (7) BI of Ae. albopictus and human population density, and (8) BI of Ae. aegypti and human population density in 348 townships in Taiwan. In the GWR models, regression coefficients of spatially regressed relationships between the incidence of autochthonous dengue and vector density of Ae. aegypti were significant and positive in most townships in Taiwan. However, Ae. albopictus had significant but negative regression coefficients in clusters of dengue epidemics. In the global bivariate Moran's index, spatial dependence between the incidence of autochthonous dengue and vector density of Ae. aegypti was significant and exhibited positive correlation in Taiwan (bivariate Moran's index = 0.51). However, Ae. albopictus exhibited positively significant but low correlation (bivariate Moran's index = 0.06). Similar results were observed in the two spatial methods between all dengue incidences and Aedes mosquitoes (Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus). The regression coefficients of spatially regressed relationships between imported dengue cases and Aedes mosquitoes

  2. Development of Dirofilaria immitis and Dirofilaria repens in Aedes japonicus and Aedes geniculatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silaghi, Cornelia; Beck, Relja; Capelli, Gioia; Montarsi, Fabrizio; Mathis, Alexander

    2017-02-20

    The mosquito-borne filarial nematodes Dirofilaria immitis and Dirofilaria repens primarily affect dogs but also cats, causing heartworm disease or subcutaneous dirofilariosis, respectively, and both may also cause zoonotic diseases in humans. Several mosquito species have been reported as competent vectors for these nematodes, but no data are available for the invasive mosquito species Aedes japonicus (Theobald, 1901). The objective of this study was to describe the development of both D. immitis and D. repens under standardised experimental laboratory conditions in mosquitoes. For this purpose, both a laboratory strain and field-collected individuals of the invasive mosquito species Ae. japonicus and, for comparative purposes, a laboratory strain of Aedes geniculatus, a rare indigenous species sharing habitats with Ae. japonicus, and of the tropical species Aedes aegypti were used. Anticoagulated microfilariaemic blood was fed at a density of 3000 mf/ml to mosquitoes with a hemotek system. Blood-fed mosquitoes were incubated at 27 °C and 85% relative humidity, and specimens were dissected under the microscope at pre-set time points to observe developmental stages of both Dirofilaria species. Additionally, real-time PCRs were carried out in some microscopically negative samples to determine the infection rates. In field-collected Ae. japonicus infectious L3 larvae of both D. immitis and D. repens developed, rendering this mosquito species an efficient vector for both filarial species. Additionally, Ae. geniculatus was shown to be an equally efficient vector for both filarial species. Aedes japonicus mosquitoes from a laboratory colony were refractory to D. immitis but susceptible to D. repens, whereas Ae. aegypti was refractory to both filarial species. To our knowledge, Aedes japonicus was for the first time shown to be an efficient vector for both D. immitis and D. repens, indicating that this invasive and locally highly abundant species may contribute to a

  3. Insecticide susceptibility of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus in Central Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Nwane Philippe; Nchoutpouen Elysée; Chandre Fabrice; Marcombe Sébastien; Kamgang Basile; Etang Josiane; Corbel Vincent; Paupy Christophe

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762) and Aedes albopictus (Skuse, 1894) are the main vectors of dengue (DENV) and chikungunya (CHIKV) viruses worldwide. As there is still no vaccine or specific treatment for DENV and CHIKV, vector control remains the cornerstone of prevention and outbreak control. Unfortunately, vector control programs are facing operational challenges with mosquitoes becoming resistant to commonly used insecticides in several areas through the world. Throughout...

  4. Storm drains as larval development and adult resting sites for Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus in Salvador, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Paploski,Igor Adolfo Dexheimer; Rodrigues, Moreno S.; Mugabe, V?nio Andr?; Kikuti,Mariana; Tavares, Aline S.; Reis, Mitermayer Galv?o; Kitron, Uriel; Ribeiro,Guilherme Sousa

    2016-01-01

    Background Dengue (DENV), Chikungunya (CHIKV), Zika (ZIKV), as well as yellow fever (YFV) viruses are transmitted to humans by Aedes spp. females. In Salvador, the largest urban center in north-eastern Brazil, the four DENV types have been circulating, and more recently, CHIKV and ZIKV have also become common. We studied the role of storm drains as Aedes larval development and adult resting sites in four neighbourhoods of Salvador, representing different socioeconomic, infrastructure and topo...

  5. Viruses vector control proposal: genus Aedes emphasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Nogueira Reis

    Full Text Available Abstract The dengue fever is a major public health problem in the world. In Brazil, in 2015, there were 1,534,932 cases, being 20,320 cases of severe form, and 811 deaths related to this disease. The distribution of Aedes aegypti, the vector, is extensive. Recently, Zika and Chikungunya viruses had arisen, sharing the same vector as dengue and became a huge public health issue. Without specific treatment, it is urgently required as an effective vector control. This article is focused on reviewing vector control strategies, their effectiveness, viability and economical impact. Among all, the Sterile Insect Technique is highlighted as the best option to be adopted in Brazil, once it is largely effectively used in the USA and Mexico for plagues related to agribusiness.

  6. Viruses vector control proposal: genus Aedes emphasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Nogueira Reis

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The dengue fever is a major public health problem in the world. In Brazil, in 2015, there were 1,534,932 cases, being 20,320 cases of severe form, and 811 deaths related to this disease. The distribution of Aedes aegypti, the vector, is extensive. Recently, Zika and Chikungunya viruses had arisen, sharing the same vector as dengue and became a huge public health issue. Without specific treatment, it is urgently required as an effective vector control. This article is focused on reviewing vector control strategies, their effectiveness, viability and economical impact. Among all, the Sterile Insect Technique is highlighted as the best option to be adopted in Brazil, once it is largely effectively used in the USA and Mexico for plagues related to agribusiness.

  7. History of Aedes mosquitoes in Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winchester, Jonathan C; Kapan, Durrell D

    2013-06-01

    As a geographically isolated island chain with no native mosquitoes, Hawaii is a model for examining the mechanisms behind insect vector invasions and their subsequent interactions with each other and with human populations. The yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti, and the Asian tiger mosquito, Ae. albopictus, have been responsible for epidemics of dengue in Hawaii. As one of the world's earliest locations to be invaded by both species, Hawaii's history is particularly relevant because both species are currently invading new areas worldwide and are implicated in outbreaks of emergent or reemergent pathogens such as dengue, chikungunya, and yellow fever. Here we analyze the historical records of mosquito introductions in order to understand the factors that have led to the current distribution of these 2 mosquitoes in the Hawaiian Islands.

  8. Free flight of the mosquito Aedes aegypti

    CERN Document Server

    Iams, S M

    2012-01-01

    High speed video observations of free flying male Aedes aegypti mosquitoes, the dengue and yellow fever vector, along with custom measurement methods, enable measurement of wingbeat frequency, body position and body orientation of mosquitoes during flight. We find these mosquitoes flap their wings at approximately 850 Hz. We also generate body yaw, body pitch and wing deviation measurements with standard deviations of less than 1 degree and find that sideways velocity and acceleration are important components of mosquito motion. Rapid turns involving changes in flight direction often involve large sideways accelerations. These do not correspond to commensurate changes in body heading, and the insect's flight direction and body heading are decoupled during flight. These findings call in to question the role of yaw control in mosquito flight. In addition, using orientation data, we find that sideways accelerations are well explained by roll-based rotation of the lift vector. In contrast, the insect's body pitch...

  9. HydroHillChart – Francis module. Software used to Calculate the Hill Chart of the Francis Hydraulic Turbines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorian Nedelcu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the Hydro Hill Chart - Francis module application, used to calculate the hill chart of the Pelton, Francis and Kaplan hydraulic turbine models, by processing the data measured on the stand. After describing the interface and menu, the input data is graphically presented and the universal characteristic for measuring scenarios ao=const. and n11=const is calculated. Finally, the two calculated hill charts are compared through a graphical superimposition of the isolines.

  10. Aedes albopictus and the reemergence of Dengue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rezza Giovanni

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Dengue is a vector-borne disease that is estimated to affect millions of individuals each year in tropical and subtropical areas, and it is reemerging in areas that have been disease-free for relatively long periods of time. In this issue of the journal, Peng et al. report on a Dengue outbreak in a city in southern China that had been disease-free for more than two decades. The infection, which was due to serotype 1, was introduced by a traveler from South-east Asia and transmitted by Aedes albopictus, the Asian tiger mosquito. Compared to Aedes aegypti, which is the most important vector of Dengue, Ae albopictus is a less competent vector of arboviruses, and the epidemics it causes are milder. However, Ae albopictus is becoming an increasingly important vector because of its rapidly changing global distribution. In particular, the worldwide trade in second hand tires, which often contain water and are an ideal place for eggs and larvae, has been a key factor in the large-scale conquest of Ae albopictus, which easily adapts to new environments, even in a temperate climate. This expansion is creating new opportunities for viruses to circulate in new areas, becoming a common cause of epidemics in Ae aegypti-free countries, from Hawaii to Mauritius. The outbreak in China, like similar events, was mild and short-lived. Because epidemics due to Ae albopictus are milder, the replacement of Ae aegypti with the tiger mosquito could even result in public-health benefits. However, there is no solid evidence of this, and the milder course of the outbreak could be in part explained by the relatively short duration of the hot season in some affected areas. Since it is almost impossible to prevent Ae albopictus from being introduced in a country, mosquito-control measures at local level remain the most effective means of controlling arbovirus outbreaks.

  11. Global genetic diversity of Aedes aegypti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gloria-Soria, Andrea; Ayala, Diego; Bheecarry, Ambicadutt; Calderon-Arguedas, Olger; Chadee, Dave D; Chiappero, Marina; Coetzee, Maureen; Elahee, Khouaildi Bin; Fernandez-Salas, Ildefonso; Kamal, Hany A; Kamgang, Basile; Khater, Emad I M; Kramer, Laura D; Kramer, Vicki; Lopez-Solis, Alma; Lutomiah, Joel; Martins, Ademir; Micieli, Maria Victoria; Paupy, Christophe; Ponlawat, Alongkot; Rahola, Nil; Rasheed, Syed Basit; Richardson, Joshua B; Saleh, Amag A; Sanchez-Casas, Rosa Maria; Seixas, Gonçalo; Sousa, Carla A; Tabachnick, Walter J; Troyo, Adriana; Powell, Jeffrey R

    2016-11-01

    Mosquitoes, especially Aedes aegypti, are becoming important models for studying invasion biology. We characterized genetic variation at 12 microsatellite loci in 79 populations of Ae. aegypti from 30 countries in six continents, and used them to infer historical and modern patterns of invasion. Our results support the two subspecies Ae. aegypti formosus and Ae. aegypti aegypti as genetically distinct units. Ae. aegypti aegypti populations outside Africa are derived from ancestral African populations and are monophyletic. The two subspecies co-occur in both East Africa (Kenya) and West Africa (Senegal). In rural/forest settings (Rabai District of Kenya), the two subspecies remain genetically distinct, whereas in urban settings, they introgress freely. Populations outside Africa are highly genetically structured likely due to a combination of recent founder effects, discrete discontinuous habitats and low migration rates. Ancestral populations in sub-Saharan Africa are less genetically structured, as are the populations in Asia. Introduction of Ae. aegypti to the New World coinciding with trans-Atlantic shipping in the 16th to 18th centuries was followed by its introduction to Asia in the late 19th century from the New World or from now extinct populations in the Mediterranean Basin. Aedes mascarensis is a genetically distinct sister species to Ae. aegypti s.l. This study provides a reference database of genetic diversity that can be used to determine the likely origin of new introductions that occur regularly for this invasive species. The genetic uniqueness of many populations and regions has important implications for attempts to control Ae. aegypti, especially for the methods using genetic modification of populations. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Aedes aegypti survival in the presence of Toxorhynchites violaceus (Diptera: Culicidae) fourth instar larvae

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Albeny, Daniel S; Martins, Gustavo F; Andrade, Mateus R; Krüger, Rodrigo F; Vilela, Evaldo F

    2011-01-01

    ... of Toxorhynchites spp. larvae (FOCKS 2007). Toxorhynchites spp. larvae live in natural and artificial water containers and are predators of Culicidae, e.g. Aedes triseriatus (Say, 1823) and Aedes ...

  13. New type of hill-top inflation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barvinsky, A.O. [Theory Department, Lebedev Physics Institute,Leninsky Prospect 53, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Department of Physics, Tomsk State University,Lenin Ave. 36, Tomsk 634050 (Russian Federation); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Pacific Institue for Theoretical Physics,University of British Columbia, 6224 Agricultural Road, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z1 (Canada); Kamenshchik, A.Yu. [Dipartimento di Fisica and INFN,via Irnerio 46, 40126 Bologna (Italy); L.D. Landau Institute for Theoretical Physcis,Kosygin str. 2, 119334 Moscow (Russian Federation); Nesterov, D.V. [Theory Department, Lebedev Physics Institute,Leninsky Prospect 53, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation)

    2016-01-20

    We suggest a new type of hill-top inflation originating from the initial conditions in the form of the microcanonical density matrix for the cosmological model with a large number of quantum fields conformally coupled to gravity. Initial conditions for inflation are set up by cosmological instantons describing underbarrier oscillations in the vicinity of the inflaton potential maximum. These periodic oscillations of the inflaton field and cosmological scale factor are obtained within the approximation of two coupled oscillators subject to the slow roll regime in the Euclidean time. This regime is characterized by rapid oscillations of the scale factor on the background of a slowly varying inflaton, which guarantees smallness of slow roll parameters ϵ and η of the following inflation stage. A hill-like shape of the inflaton potential is shown to be generated by logarithmic loop corrections to the tree-level asymptotically shift-invariant potential in the non-minimal Higgs inflation model and R{sup 2}-gravity. The solution to the problem of hierarchy between the Planckian scale and the inflation scale is discussed within the concept of conformal higher spin fields, which also suggests the mechanism bringing the model below the gravitational cutoff and, thus, protecting it from large graviton loop corrections.

  14. Area-wide management of Aedes albopictus: gauging the efficacy of multiple control measures during 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aedes albopictus is a major human biting pest and is considered second only to Aedes aegypti in its importance as a disease vector of dengue. Aedes albopictus is responsible for the majority of service requests from urban and suburban residents in New Jersey during recent years; however, standard a...

  15. Avian biogeography of the Taita Hills, Kenya | Brooks | Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Based on our recent fieldwork and historical records, we analyse the distribution and biogeographical affinities of forest birds within the Taita Hills. We find that the Taita Hills avifauna has been influenced as strongly by the Kenyan Highlands as by the Eastern Arc, especially in the high altitude moist forests. However, since ...

  16. The montane forest associated amphibian species of the Taita Hills ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The group of forested mountains known as the Taita Hills are the northern-most montane blocks of the Eastern Arc Mountains, a globally recognized biodiversity hotspot. They are surrounded by the dry Tsavo plains. Until the present study no comprehensive survey of the amphibian fauna of Taita Hills covering the entire ...

  17. 27 CFR 9.162 - Sta. Rita Hills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sta. Rita Hills. 9.162 Section 9.162 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT... the heart of the Santa Rosa Land Grant, T.7N., R. 32W, on the Santa Rosa Hills, Calif., Quadrangle U.S...

  18. Service with Style: Corinne Hill--Denton Public Library, TX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Library Journal, 2004

    2004-01-01

    Although a librarian for only eight years, Corinne Hill is already known in Dallas and Denton, TX, for turning dull, little-used branches into vibrant community centers. A stylish woman with a zest for shopping, Hill loves developing new collections and showing them off. She sees no reason why a library should not be as attractive as any good…

  19. 77 FR 8214 - Black Hills National Forest Advisory Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-14

    ... encourage the collaborative, science-based ecosystem restoration of priority forest landscapes; 7. A letter... Forest Service Black Hills National Forest Advisory Board AGENCY: USDA Forest Service. ACTION: Notice of intent to re-establish the Black Hills National Forest Advisory Board and call for nominations. SUMMARY...

  20. 77 FR 17402 - Black Hills National Forest Advisory Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-26

    ... mountain pine beetle infestations, travel management, forest monitoring and evaluation, recreation fees... recommendations on Black Hills National Forest recreation fee issues (serving as the RRAC for the Black Hills... needs of the Recreation Enhancement Act of 2005 as a recreation resource advisory board (RRAC) for the...

  1. Chapel Hill COMMUNITY SURVEY ALL QUESTIONS with Geolocation Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Town of Chapel Hill, North Carolina — This is the 2015 Town of Chapel Hill Community Survey.Using a scale of 1 to 5 where 5 means “Very Satisfied” and 1 means “Very Dissatisfied,” residents were asked...

  2. Insecticide susceptibility of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus in Central Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamgang, Basile; Marcombe, Sébastien; Chandre, Fabrice; Nchoutpouen, Elysée; Nwane, Philippe; Etang, Josiane; Corbel, Vincent; Paupy, Christophe

    2011-05-15

    Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762) and Aedes albopictus (Skuse, 1894) are the main vectors of dengue (DENV) and chikungunya (CHIKV) viruses worldwide. As there is still no vaccine or specific treatment for DENV and CHIKV, vector control remains the cornerstone of prevention and outbreak control. Unfortunately, vector control programs are facing operational challenges with mosquitoes becoming resistant to commonly used insecticides in several areas through the world. Throughout Central Africa no recent data are available susceptible/resistant status of either vector species since the introduction/arrival of Ae. albopictus in this area. We therefore studied the level of resistance of these two major vectors to insecticides commonly used in Africa for mosquito control. Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus were sampled in six urban localities of Cameroon (Garoua, Bertoua, Yaoundé, Bafia, Buea) and Gabon (Libreville). Larval bioassays, carried out to determine the lethal concentrations (LC50 and LC95) and resistance ratios (RR50 and RR95) suggested that both vector species were susceptible to Bti (Bacillus thuringiensis var israeliensis) and temephos. Bioassays were also performed on adults using WHO diagnostic test kits to assess phenotypic resistance to deltamethrin, DDT, fenitrothion and propoxur. These experiments showed that one population of Ae. aegypti (Libreville) and two populations of Ae. albopictus (Buea and Yaoundé) were resistant to DDT (mortality 36% to 71%). Resistance to deltamethrin was also suspected in Ae. albopictus from Yaoundé (83% mortality). All other field mosquito populations were susceptible to deltamethrin, DDT, fenitrothion and propoxur. No increase in the knockdown times (Kdt50 and Kdt95) was noted in the Yaoundé resistant population compared to other Ae. albopictus populations, suggesting the possible involvement of metabolic resistance to deltamethrin and DDT. In view of the recent increase in dengue and chikungunya outbreaks in Central

  3. HydroHillChart – Pelton module. Software used to Calculate the Hill Chart of the Pelton Hydraulic Turbines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorian Nedelcu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the HydroHillChart - Pelton module application, used to calculate the hill chart of the Pelton hydraulic turbine models, by processing the data measured on the stand. In addition, the tools offered by the application such as: interface, menu, input data, numerical and graphical results, etc. are described.

  4. DI-TERTIABYBUTYLNITROXIDE, A HILL REAGENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corker, Gerald A.; Klein, Melvin P.; La Font, Didier; Calvin,Melvin.

    1970-01-01

    Di-tertiarybutylnitroxide (DTBN), which they have tried to use as a trapping agent to identify the species giving rise to the photo-induced EPR signals in photosynthetic materials, functions as a Hill reagent with spinach chloroplasts. Evidence is presented which indicates that the reduction of DTBN is affected by photosystem II of the electron transport system of spinach chloroplasts. The reduced form of DTBN, the hydroxylamine, undergoes a photo-oxidation with spinach chloroplasts. Possible explanations of this apparent inconsistency are presented. A product which could be ascribed to a chemical coupling reaction between the nitroxide and the radical species giving rise to the photo-induced EPR signals in spinach chloroplasts was not detected, even using radioactive tracer methods.

  5. Motivations of female Black Hills deer hunters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gigliotti, Larry M.; Covelli Metcalf, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    State fish and wildlife agencies are particularly interested in attracting female participation because of the potential to offset declining participation in hunting. Understanding female hunters’ motivations will be critical for designing effective recruitment and retention programs for women hunters. Although female participation in hunting is increasing, males still outnumber females by about tenfold. Gender differences in deer hunters were explored by comparing ratings of eight motivations (social, nature, excitement, meat, challenge, trophy, extra hunting opportunity, and solitude). Hunter types were defined by hunters’ selection of the most important motivation for why they like Black Hills deer hunting. Overall, females and males were relatively similar in their ratings of the eight motivations, and we found 85% gender similarity in the selection of the most important motivation. Women were slightly more motivated by the food aspect of the hunt while men placed slightly more value on the hunt as a sporting activity.

  6. Charles Péguy vu par Geoffrey Hill Charles Péguy seen by Geoffrey Hill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josette Leray

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Geoffrey Hill’s long poem The Mystery of the Charity of Charles Péguy is a meditation on the French poet Charles Péguy, on the values he embodied and their relationship to the world he lived in and to History in general. Hill has a dual approach: he demonstrates a ruthless clarity throwing light on a historical reality that denies the values Péguy advocated, while appreciating Péguy’s spiritual greatness. Hill feels drawn towards his idealism but he acknowledges its dangers and uses an ironic distance to counterbalance it. He investigates the concept of heroism and at the same time that of innocence, an innocence which is aware of tragedy. This celebration of innocence is but short-lived, for the ideal is soon corrupted and appropriated by History, and becomes a dead letter. In the end Péguy will not pass a message and his “Charity” remains a mystery, but his poetry is his legacy. Péguy’s influence on poets and on Hill himself is what Hill’s poem ultimately celebrates.

  7. Quantifying the role of mitigation hills in reducing tsunami runup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marras, S.; Suckale, J.; Lunghino, B.; Giraldo, F.; Hood, K. M.

    2015-12-01

    Coastal communities around the world are being encouraged to plant or restore vegetation along their shores for the purpose of mitigating tsunami damage. A common setup for these projects is to develop 'mitigation hills' - an ensemble of vegetated hills along the coast - instead of one continuous stretch of vegetation. The rationale behind a staggered-hill setup is to give tree roots more space to grow and deepen. From a fluid-dynamical point of view, however, staggered mitigation hills may have significant drawbacks such as diverting the flow into the low-lying areas of the park, which could entail strong currents in the narrow channels between the hills and lead to erosion of the hills from the sides. The goal of this study is to quantify how mitigation hills affect tsunami runup and to provide constraints on the design of mitigation hills that mitigate tsunami damage using numerical simulations. Our computations of tsunami runup are based on the non-linear shallow water equation solved through a fully implicit, high-order, discontinuous Galerkin method. The adaptive computational grid is fitted to the hill topography to capture geometric effects accurately. A new dynamic subgrid-scale eddy viscosity originally designed for large eddy simulation of compressible flows is used for stabilization and to capture the obstacle-generated turbulence. We have carefully benchmarked our model in 1D and 2D against classical test cases. The included figure shows an example run of tsunami runup through coastal mitigation hills. In the interest of providing generalizable results, we perform a detailed scaling analysis of our model runs. We find that the protective value of mitigation hills depends sensitively on the non-linearity of the incoming wave and the relative height of the wave to the hills. Our simulations also suggest that the assumed initial condition is consequential and we hence consider a range of incoming waves ranging from a simple soliton to a more realistic N

  8. EKSISTENSI DAN SEBARAN NYAMUK AEDES AEGYPTI DAN AEDES ALBOPICTUS DI KAMPUS UNIVERSITAS HASANUDDIN MAKASSAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yosefina Dota T

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian yang bertujuan untuk mengetahui eksistensi dan sebaran nyamuk Aedes aegypti dan Aedes albopictus telah dilakukan di Kampus Universitas Hasanuddin, Kec. Tamalanrea, Makassar. Penelitian bersifat eksploratif dengan melakukan sampling terhadap lima lokasi yaitu : a Fak. Peternakan (Utara, b Fak. Hukum (Timur, c Pusat Kegiatan Penelitian/PKP (Selatan, d Workshop/Dekat Pondokan mahasiswa (Barat dan e Fak. MIPA (Tengah. Sampling nyamuk menggunakan metode ovitrap (menggunakan attraktan Eluisine Indica L. dan survei terhadap berbagai tempat penampungan air. Sampel telur dan larva nyamuk yang diperoleh disimpan dalam microtube berisi alkohol 70% kemudian diidentifikasi berdasarkan Rueda (2004. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa Nyamuk Ae. aegypti dan Ae. albopictus ditemukan hidup dan berkembang biak di kampus Universitas Hasanuddin, Makassar. Eksistensi dan sebaran kedua jenis nyamuk tersebut dipengaruhi oleh faktor adanya manusia/masyarakat kampus yang beraktivitas baik di dalam ruangan (indoor maupun di luar ruangan (outdoor, adanya berbagai tempat penampungan air baik buatan (bak mandi, ember maupun barang bekas (botol/kaleng bekas, tempurung kelapa, vegetasi/tanaman dan berbagai macam hewan yang berada di sekitaran kampus. Hasil penelitian dalam ruangan (indoor menunjukkan bahwa nyamuk Ae. aegypti lebih banyak ditemukan hidup di dalam ruangan gedung PKP sedangkan Ae.albopictus lebih banyak di Fak. Hukum. Hasil penelitian di luar ruangan (outdoor menunjukkan bahwa nyamuk Ae. aegypti lebih banyak ditemukan hidup di area Workshop sedangkan Ae.albopictus lebih banyak di area PKP.

  9. Susceptibility of larval Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) to dengue virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bara, J J; Clark, T M; Remold, S K

    2013-01-01

    Mosquitoes vertically transmit many arthropod borne viruses, and as a consequence arboviruses are often present within the larval environment. We tested the hypothesis that Aedes aegypti (L.) and Aedes albopictus (Skuse) larvae were susceptible to dengue virus through two infection methods: exposure to dengue in the larval growth environment via viral supernatant, and exposure to infected tissue culture along with viral supernatant. In addition to investigating for the first time the susceptibility of larval Ae. albopictus to dengue virus, we analyzed the infection rate and viral titer of infected pools of Ae. aegypti when exposed to multiple serotypes of dengue. We found that both Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus larvae were susceptible to the three dengue virus serotypes to which they were exposed regardless of the exposure method and that there were significant differences between the serotypes in infection titer and infection rate. The finding that larval Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus are susceptible to dengue indicates that dengue might be able to spread among larvae within the larval habitat potentially contributing to the persistence of dengue in the environment.

  10. Comparison of the insecticide susceptibilities of laboratory strains of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Gómez

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A susceptible strain of Aedes albopictus derived from the Gainesville strain (Florida, USA was established in our laboratory. The larvicidal efficacies of the neurotoxic insecticides temephos, permethrin and the pure cis and trans-permethrin isomers and the microbial insecticide Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis (Bti against Ae. albopictus were estimated and compared to a susceptible strain of Aedes aegypti. The larvicidal effect of insect growth regulator pyriproxyfen was also evaluated in both mosquito strains. The median lethal concentration/median emergency inhibition values for Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus, respectively, were: temephos, 3.058 and 6.632 ppb, permethrin, 3.143 and 4.933 ppb, cis-permethrin, 4.457 and 10.068 ppb, trans-permethrin, 1.510 and 3.883 ppb, Bti, 0.655 and 0.880 ppb and pyriproxyfen, 0.00774 and 0.01642 ppb. Ae. albopictus was more tolerant than Ae. aegypti to all six larvicides evaluated. The order of susceptibility for Ae. aegypti was pyriproxyfen > Bti > trans-permethrin > temephos > permethrin > cis-permethrin and for Ae. albopictus was pyriproxyfen > Bti > trans-permethrin > permethrin > temephos > cis-permethrin. Because both species can be found together in common urban, suburban and rural breeding sites, the results of this work provide baseline data on the susceptibility of Ae. albopictus to insecticides commonly used for controlling Ae. aegypti in the field.

  11. Susceptibility of Florida Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus to dengue viruses from Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alto, Barry W; Smartt, Chelsea T; Shin, Dongyoung; Bettinardi, David; Malicoate, Jolene; Anderson, Sheri L; Richards, Stephanie L

    2014-12-01

    Locally acquired dengue cases in the continental U.S. are rare. However, outbreaks of dengue-1 during 2009, 2010, and 2013 in Florida and dengue-1 and -2 in Texas suggest vulnerability to transmission. Travel and commerce between Puerto Rico and the U.S. mainland is common, which may pose a risk for traveler-imported dengue cases. Mosquitoes were collected in Florida and used to evaluate their susceptibility to dengue viruses (DENV) from Puerto Rico. Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus were susceptible to virus infection with DENV-1 and -2. No significant differences were observed in rates of midgut infection or dissemination between Ae. aegypti or Ae. albopictus for DENV-1 (6-14%). Aedes aegypti was significantly more susceptible to midgut infection with DENV-2 than Ae. albopictus (Ae. aegypti, ∼28%; Ae. albopictus, ∼9%). The dissemination rate with dengue-2 virus for Ae. aegypti (23%) was greater than Ae. albopictus (0%), suggesting that Ae. albopictus is not likely to be an important transmitter of the DENV-2 isolate from Puerto Rico. These results are discussed in light of Florida's vulnerability to DENV transmission. © 2014 The Society for Vector Ecology.

  12. Frequency of pyrethroid resistance in Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuaycharoensuk, Thipwara; Juntarajumnong, Waraporn; Boonyuan, Wasana; Bangs, Michael J; Akratanakul, Pongthep; Thammapalo, Suwit; Jirakanjanakit, Nuananong; Tanasinchayakul, Somchai; Chareonviriyaphap, Theeraphap

    2011-06-01

    Thirty-two Aedes aegypti populations collected throughout Thailand and five populations of Aedes albopictus from southern Thailand were subjected to standard WHO contact bioassays to assess susceptibility to three commonly used synthetic pyrethroids: permethrin, deltamethrin, and lambda-cyhalothrin. A wide degree of physiological response to permethrin was detected in Ae. aegypti, ranging from 56.5% survival (Lampang, northern Thailand) to only 4% (Kalasin in northeastern and Phuket in southern Thailand). All 32 populations of Ae. aegypti were found to have evidence of incipient resistance (62.5%) or levels of survival deemed resistant (37.5%) to permethrin. Four populations of Ae. albopictus were found with incipient resistance (97 - 80% mortality) and one with resistance (susceptible (> 98% mortality) to deltamethrin, with incipient resistance (observed 97-82% mortality) in other localities. In contrast, all populations of Ae. aegypti were completely susceptible (100% mortality) to the recommended operational dosage of lambda-cyhalothrin. All five populations of Ae. albopictus were found completely susceptible to both deltamethrin and lambda-cyhalothrin. Evidence of defined incipient or resistance to synthetic pyrethroids mandates appropriate response and countermeasures to mitigate further development and spread of resistance. In light of these findings, we conclude that routine and comprehensive susceptibility monitoring of dengue mosquito vectors to synthetic pyrethroids should be a required component of resistance management policies and disease control activities. © 2011 The Society for Vector Ecology.

  13. Comparison of the insecticide susceptibilities of laboratory strains of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Andrea; Seccacini, Emilia; Zerba, Eduardo; Licastro, Susana

    2011-12-01

    A susceptible strain of Aedes albopictus derived from the Gainesville strain (Florida, USA) was established in our laboratory. The larvicidal efficacies of the neurotoxic insecticides temephos, permethrin and the pure cis and trans-permethrin isomers and the microbial insecticide Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis (Bti) against Ae. albopictus were estimated and compared to a susceptible strain of Aedes aegypti. The larvicidal effect of insect growth regulator pyriproxyfen was also evaluated in both mosquito strains. The median lethal concentration/median emergency inhibition values for Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus, respectively, were: temephos, 3.058 and 6.632 ppb, permethrin, 3.143 and 4.933 ppb, cis-permethrin, 4.457 and 10.068 ppb, trans-permethrin, 1.510 and 3.883 ppb, Bti, 0.655 and 0.880 ppb and pyriproxyfen, 0.00774 and 0.01642 ppb. Ae. albopictus was more tolerant than Ae. aegypti to all six larvicides evaluated. The order of susceptibility for Ae. aegypti was pyriproxyfen > Bti > trans-permethrin > temephos > permethrin > cis-permethrin and for Ae. albopictus was pyriproxyfen > Bti > trans-permethrin > permethrin > temephos > cis-permethrin. Because both species can be found together in common urban, suburban and rural breeding sites, the results of this work provide baseline data on the susceptibility of Ae. albopictus to insecticides commonly used for controlling Ae. aegypti in the field.

  14. Dengue viruses binding proteins from Aedes aegypti and Aedes polynesiensis salivary glands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cao-Lormeau Van-Mai

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Dengue virus (DENV, the etiological agent of dengue fever, is transmitted to the human host during blood uptake by an infective mosquito. Infection of vector salivary glands and further injection of infectious saliva into the human host are key events of the DENV transmission cycle. However, the molecular mechanisms of DENV entry into the mosquito salivary glands have not been clearly identified. Otherwise, although it was demonstrated for other vector-transmitted pathogens that insect salivary components may interact with host immune agents and impact the establishment of infection, the role of mosquito saliva on DENV infection in human has been only poorly documented. To identify salivary gland molecules which might interact with DENV at these key steps of transmission cycle, we investigated the presence of proteins able to bind DENV in salivary gland extracts (SGE from two mosquito species. Using virus overlay protein binding assay, we detected several proteins able to bind DENV in SGE from Aedes aegypti (L. and Aedes polynesiensis (Marks. The present findings pave the way for the identification of proteins mediating DENV attachment or entry into mosquito salivary glands, and of saliva-secreted proteins those might be bound to the virus at the earliest step of human infection. The present findings might contribute to the identification of new targets for anti-dengue strategies.

  15. Pyrethroid resistance in Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus: Important mosquito vectors of human diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Letícia B; Kasai, Shinji; Scott, Jeffrey G

    2016-10-01

    Aedes aegypti and A. albopictus mosquitoes are vectors of important human disease viruses, including dengue, yellow fever, chikungunya and Zika. Pyrethroid insecticides are widely used to control adult Aedes mosquitoes, especially during disease outbreaks. Herein, we review the status of pyrethroid resistance in A. aegypti and A. albopictus, mechanisms of resistance, fitness costs associated with resistance alleles and provide suggestions for future research. The widespread use of pyrethroids has given rise to many populations with varying levels of resistance worldwide, albeit with substantial geographical variation. In adult A. aegypti and A. albopictus, resistance levels are generally lower in Asia, Africa and the USA, and higher in Latin America, although there are exceptions. Susceptible populations still exist in several areas of the world, particularly in Asia and South America. Resistance to pyrethroids in larvae is also geographically widespread. The two major mechanisms of pyrethroid resistance are increased detoxification due to P450-monooxygenases, and mutations in the voltage sensitive sodium channel (Vssc) gene. Several P450s have been putatively associated with insecticide resistance, but the specific P450s involved are not fully elucidated. Pyrethroid resistance can be due to single mutations or combinations of mutations in Vssc. The presence of multiple Vssc mutations can lead to extremely high levels of resistance. Suggestions for future research needs are presented. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Widespread evidence for interspecific mating between Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) in nature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargielowski, I E; Lounibos, L P; Shin, D; Smartt, C T; Carrasquilla, M C; Henry, A; Navarro, J C; Paupy, C; Dennett, J A

    2015-12-01

    Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus, two important vectors of the dengue and chikungunya viruses to humans, often come in contact in their invasive ranges. In these circumstances, a number of factors are thought to influence their population dynamics, including resource competition among the larval stages, prevailing environmental conditions and reproductive interference in the form of satyrization. As the distribution and abundance of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus have profound epidemiological implications, understanding the competitive interactions that influence these patterns in nature is important. While evidence for resource competition and environmental factors had been gathered from the field, the evidence for reproductive interference, though strongly inferred through laboratory trials, remained sparse (one small-scale field trial). In this paper we demonstrate that low rates (1.12-3.73%) of interspecific mating occur in nature among populations of these species that have co-existed sympatrically from 3 to 150yrs. Finally this report contributes a new species-specific primer set for identifying the paternity of sperm extracted from field collected specimens. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. A new tent trap for monitoring the daily activity of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas Martínez, Mauricio; Orozco Bonilla, Arnoldo; Muñoz Reyes, Miguel; Ulloa García, Armando; Bond, J Guillermo; Valle Mora, Javier; Weber, Manuel; Rojas, Julio C

    2013-12-01

    In this study, we designed a new tent trap; the BioDiVector (BDV) tent trap, consisting of two rectangular tents that use human bait without endangering the technical personnel. The daily activity pattern of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus in intra, peri, and extradomiciliary sites was studied in an endemic area of dengue in southern Mexico by using the BDV tent trap. Totals of 3,128 individuals of Ae. aegypti and 833 Ae. albopictus were captured. More Ae. aegypti males than females were caught, while the opposite was true with Ae. albopictus. The activity of both mosquito species was affected by the interaction between the collection site and time of day. In general, more individuals of both mosquito species were captured at the extradomicillary sites than at the peri and intradomicillary sites. Mosquitoes showed two peaks of activity, one in the morning and the other in the afternoon, but in general this only occurred at the extradomicillary sites, whereas no peak of activity was observed at the intra and peridomicillary sites. Overall, Ae. aegypti had a higher indirect biting rate than Ae. albopictus. Finally, due to its efficiency, simplicity, and low cost, we suggest the use of this innovative tool for entomological surveillance, bionomics and vector incrimination studies in geographical areas where dengue and other arboviruses are present. © 2013 The Society for Vector Ecology.

  18. Invasiveness of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus and Vectorial Capacity for Chikungunya Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lounibos, Leon Philip; Kramer, Laura D

    2016-12-15

    In this review, we highlight biological characteristics of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus, 2 invasive mosquito species and primary vectors of chikungunya virus (CHIKV), that set the tone of these species' invasiveness, vector competence, and vectorial capacity (VC). The invasiveness of both species, as well as their public health threats as vectors, is enhanced by preference for human blood. Vector competence, characterized by the efficiency of an ingested arbovirus to replicate and become infectious in the mosquito, depends largely on vector and virus genetics, and most A. aegypti and A. albopictus populations thus far tested confer vector competence for CHIKV. VC, an entomological analog of the pathogen's basic reproductive rate (R 0 ), is epidemiologically more important than vector competence but less frequently measured, owing to challenges in obtaining valid estimates of parameters such as vector survivorship and host feeding rates. Understanding the complexities of these factors will be pivotal in curbing CHIKV transmission. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Surveillance of adult Aedes mosquitoes in Selangor, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Sai-Ming; Vythilingam, Indra; Doss, Jonathan Inbaraj; Sekaran, Shamala Devi; Chua, Tock H; Wan Sulaiman, Wan Yusof; Chinna, Karuthan; Lim, Yvonne Ai-Lian; Venugopalan, Balan

    2015-10-01

    To determine the effectiveness of using sticky traps and the NS1 dengue antigen kit for the surveillance of Aedes mosquitoes for dengue control. Apartments were selected in a dengue-endemic area, and sticky traps were set to capture adult Aedes mosquitoes. NS1 dengue antigen kit was used to detect dengue antigen in mosquitoes, and positive mosquitoes were serotyped using real-time RT-PCR. The sticky traps were effective in capturing Aedes aegypti, and a minimum of three traps per floor was sufficient. Multiple serotypes were found in individual mosquitoes. The sticky trap and the NS1 dengue antigen test kit can be used as surveillance tool in dengue control programmes. This proactive method will be better suited for control programmes than current reactive methods. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Detection of Zika virus in Aedes mosquitoes from Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huerta, Herón; González-Roldán, Jesús Felipe; Sánchez-Tejeda, Gustavo; Correa-Morales, Fabián; Romero-Contreras, Francisco Eduardo; Cárdenas-Flores, Raúl; Rangel-Martínez, Mónica Liliana; Mata-Rivera, Juan Manuel; Siller-Martínez, José de Jesús; Vazquez-Prokopec, Gonzalo M; Manrique-Saide, Pablo; Dzul-Manzanilla, Felipe; Vázquez-Pichardo, Mauricio; Rosales-Jiménez, Claudia; Torres-Rodríguez, María de la Luz; Núñez-León, Alma; Torres-Longoria, Belem; López-Martínez, Irma; Ruíz-Matus, Cuitláhuac; Kuri-Morales, Pablo Antonio; Díaz-Quiñónez, José Alberto

    2017-07-01

    We report on the results of an entomovirological surveillance system of Aedes populations performed by the Ministry of Health of the central state of San Luis Potosí, Mexico. Indoor adult Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus pools collected at San Martín, Tamazunchale, Ciudad Valles, Metlapa, Ebano, Tamuin and Axtla during the dry season of 2016 were examined for the presence of dengue (DENV), chikungunya (CHIKV) and Zika (ZIKV) viruses using real-time PCR. Both Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus were found to be infected with ZIKV in the absence of confirmed symptomatic human cases. The entomovirological surveillance system analysed here identified both Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus infected with ZIKV which triggered an immediate aggressive vector control campaign.

  1. Susceptibility of Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti to three imported Chikungunya virus strains, including the E1/226V variant in Taiwan

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Tien-Huang; Jian, Shu-Wan; Wang, Chih-Yuan; Lin, Cheo; Wang, Pei-Feng; Su, Chien-Ling; Teng, Hwa-Jen; Shu, Pei-Yun; Wu, Ho-Sheng

    2015-01-01

    An E1/226V variant Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) efficiently transmitted by Aedes albopictus to humans poses a significant threat to public health for those areas with the presence of Aedes albopictus, including Taiwan. Methods: We infected three imported CHIKV isolates including the E1/226V variant with Ae. albopictus and Aedes aegypti in the laboratory to understand the disease risk. Viral RNA was measured by real time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Results: The viral su...

  2. Burchellin: study of bioactivity against Aedes aegypti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narciso, Juliana Oliveira Abreu; Soares, Renata Oliveira de Araújo; Reis dos Santos Mallet, Jacenir; Guimarães, Anthony Érico; de Oliveira Chaves, Maria Célia; Barbosa-Filho, José Maria; Maleck, Marise

    2014-04-08

    The dengue mosquito Aedes aegypti Linnaeus, 1762 is a widespread insect pest of serious medical importance. Since no effective vaccine is available for treating dengue, the eradication or control of the main mosquito vector is regarded as essential. Since conventional insecticides have limited success, plants may be an alternative source of larvicidal agents, since they contain a rich source of bioactive chemicals. The aim of this study was to evaluate the larvicidal activity of the neolignan burchellin isolated from Ocotea cymbarum (Lauraceae), a plant from the Amazon region, against third instar larvae of A. aegypti. Burchellin obtained from O. cymbarum was analyzed. The inhibitory activity against A. aegypti eggs and larvae and histological changes in the digestive system of treated L3 larvae were evaluated. In addition, nitric oxide synthase activity and nitric oxide levels were determined, and cytotoxicity bioassays performed. The data showed that burchellin interfered with the development cycle of the mosquito, where its strongest toxic effect was 100% mortality in larvae (L3) at concentrations ≥ 30 ppm. This compound did not show target cell toxicity in peritoneal macrophages from BALB/c mice, and proved to have molecular stability when dissolved in water. The L3 and L4 larvae treated with the compound showed cellular destruction and disorganization, cell spacing, and vacuolization of epithelial cells in small regions of the midgut. The neolignan burchellin proved to be a strong candidate for a natural, safe and stable phytolarvicidal to be used in population control of A. aegypti.

  3. Importance of Aedes albopictus in veterinary medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrobelli, M

    2008-06-01

    To assess the role of Aedes albopictus in transmission of filarial nematodes of veterinary importance, researches were carried out in different geographical areas. In Italy a first research was performed to study the susceptibility of Ae. albopictus to Dirofilaria repens, D. immitis and Setaria labiatopapillosa. The development of L3 larvae was longer than in other species of mosquitoes but Ae. albopictus could be a suitable vector of filariae. To understand the role of Ae. albopictus in the natural transmission of Dirofilaria and to assess the risk for animal and human health, in 2000, 2001 and 2002 another study was carried out in the town of Padua. A total of 2,534 Ae. albopictus were caught on human-attracted mosquitoes. Specific primers and sequencing identified filarial DNA as D. immitis; Ae. albopictus was proved a natural vector of D. immitis. Similar results were confirmed in Central Italy also for D. repens. The presence of Ae. albopictus increased the probability of transmission of canine and human dirofilariosis in urban environment and it could change the epidemiology of dirofilariosis, in particular for what concern the time of biting and the risk season. These aspects must be considered to outline a correct prophylaxis.

  4. Successful overwintering of Aedes albopictus in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pluskota, Björn; Jöst, Artur; Augsten, Xenia; Stelzner, Lilith; Ferstl, Ina; Becker, Norbert

    2016-08-01

    The Asian tiger mosquito (Aedes albopictus) is of great concern to public health authorities due to its vector competence and rapid spread across the globe. In 2015, two large local breeding populations of Ae. albopictus were discovered in southwest Germany. In spring 2016, we were able to demonstrate the first evidence of a successful overwintering in Germany of this originally tropical mosquito species in different research projects. Particularly noteworthy is the successful hatching of diapause eggs of an Italian strain (Calabria), which overwintered successfully in the field in St. Georgen im Schwarzwald (Baden-Wuerttemberg) at 820 m above sea level. Furthermore, within the scope of a larvae monitoring, the first larvae that hatched in the field were detected on the April 09, 2016 in a rain barrel within the Heidelberg population. Our first results show that self-extinction due to an unsuccessful overwintering cannot be assumed for populations of the Asian tiger mosquito which settled in Germany in previous years. The evidence of a successful overwintering of a large number of diapause eggs and the hatching of the first larvae in field conditions opens the control year against Ae. albopictus in southwest Germany.

  5. Aedes nigrinus (Eckstein, 1918 (Diptera, Culicidae, a new country record for England, contrasted with Aedes sticticus (Meigen, 1838

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralph E. Harbach

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available We report the discovery of Aedes nigrinus (Eckstein, 1918 in the New Forest of southern England, bringing to 36 the number of mosquito species recorded in Britain. Because it seems that this species has been misidentified previously in Britain as the morphologically similar Aedes sticticus (Meigen, 1838, the two species are contrasted and distinguished based on distinctive differences exhibited in the adult and larval stages. The pupa of Ae. nigrinus is unknown, but the pupa of Ae. sticticus is distinguished from the pupae of other species of Aedes by modification of the most recent key to British mosquitoes. The history of the mosquito fauna recorded in the UK is summarized and bionomical information is provided for the two species.

  6. Evolution of the Puente Hills Thrust Fault

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergen, K. J.; Shaw, J. H.; Dolan, J. F.

    2013-12-01

    This study aims to assess the evolution of the blind Puente Hills thrust fault system (PHT) by determining its age of initiation, lateral propagation history, and changes in slip rate over time. The PHT presents one of the largest seismic hazards in the United States, given its location beneath downtown Los Angeles. The PHT is comprised of three fault segments: the Los Angeles (LA), Santa Fe Springs (SFS), and Coyote Hills (CH). The LA and SFS segments are characterized by growth stratigraphy where folds formed by uplift on the fault segments have been continually buried by sediment from the Los Angeles and San Gabriel rivers. The CH segment has developed topography and is characterized by onlapping growth stratigraphy. This depositional setting gives us the unique opportunity to measure uplift on the LA and SFS fault segments, and minimum uplift on the CH fault segment, as the difference in sediment thicknesses across the buried folds. We utilize depth converted oil industry seismic reflection data to image the fold geometries. Identifying time-correlative stratigraphic markers for slip rate determination in the basin has been a problem for researchers in the past, however, as the faunal assemblages observed in wells are time-transgressive by nature. To overcome this, we utilize the sequence stratigraphic model and well picks of Ponti et al. (2007) as a basis for mapping time-correlative sequence boundaries throughout our industry seismic reflection data from the present to the Pleistocene. From the Pleistocene to Miocene we identify additional sequence boundaries in our seismic reflection data from imaged sequence geometries and by correlating industry well formation tops. The sequence and formation top picks are then used to build 3-dimensional surfaces in the modeling program Gocad. From these surfaces we measure the change in thicknesses across the folds to obtain uplift rates between each sequence boundary. Our results show three distinct phases of

  7. Storm drains as larval development and adult resting sites for Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus in Salvador, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paploski, Igor Adolfo Dexheimer; Rodrigues, Moreno S; Mugabe, Vánio André; Kikuti, Mariana; Tavares, Aline S; Reis, Mitermayer Galvão; Kitron, Uriel; Ribeiro, Guilherme Sousa

    2016-07-27

    Dengue (DENV), Chikungunya (CHIKV), Zika (ZIKV), as well as yellow fever (YFV) viruses are transmitted to humans by Aedes spp. females. In Salvador, the largest urban center in north-eastern Brazil, the four DENV types have been circulating, and more recently, CHIKV and ZIKV have also become common. We studied the role of storm drains as Aedes larval development and adult resting sites in four neighbourhoods of Salvador, representing different socioeconomic, infrastructure and topographic conditions. A sample of 122 storm drains in the four study sites were surveyed twice during a 4-month period in 2015; in 49.0 % of the visits, the storm drains contained water. Adults and immatures of Aedes aegypti were captured in two of the four sites, and adults and immatures of Aedes albopictus were captured in one of these two sites. A total of 468 specimens were collected: 148 Ae. aegypti (38 adults and 110 immatures), 79 Ae. albopictus (48 adults and 31 immatures), and 241 non-Aedes (mainly Culex spp.) mosquitoes (42 adults and 199 immatures). The presence of adults or immatures of Ae. aegypti in storm drains was independently associated with the presence of non-Aedes mosquitoes and with rainfall of ≤ 50 mm during the preceding week. We found that in Salvador, one of the epicentres of the 2015 ZIKV outbreak, storm drains often accumulate water and serve as larval development sites and adult resting areas for both Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus. Vector control campaigns usually overlook storm drains, as most of the effort to prevent Ae. agypti reproduction is directed towards containers in the domicile environment. While further studies are needed to determine the added contribution of storm drains for the maintenance of Aedes spp. populations, we advocate that vector control programs incorporate actions directed at storm drains, including regular inspections and use of larvicides, and that human and capital resources are mobilized to modify storm drains, so that

  8. Insecticide susceptibility of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus in Central Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nwane Philippe

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762 and Aedes albopictus (Skuse, 1894 are the main vectors of dengue (DENV and chikungunya (CHIKV viruses worldwide. As there is still no vaccine or specific treatment for DENV and CHIKV, vector control remains the cornerstone of prevention and outbreak control. Unfortunately, vector control programs are facing operational challenges with mosquitoes becoming resistant to commonly used insecticides in several areas through the world. Throughout Central Africa no recent data are available susceptible/resistant status of either vector species since the introduction/arrival of Ae. albopictus in this area. We therefore studied the level of resistance of these two major vectors to insecticides commonly used in Africa for mosquito control. Results Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus were sampled in six urban localities of Cameroon (Garoua, Bertoua, Yaoundé, Bafia, Buea and Gabon (Libreville. Larval bioassays, carried out to determine the lethal concentrations (LC50 and LC95 and resistance ratios (RR50 and RR95 suggested that both vector species were susceptible to Bti (Bacillus thuringiensis var israeliensis and temephos. Bioassays were also performed on adults using WHO diagnostic test kits to assess phenotypic resistance to deltamethrin, DDT, fenitrothion and propoxur. These experiments showed that one population of Ae. aegypti (Libreville and two populations of Ae. albopictus (Buea and Yaoundé were resistant to DDT (mortality 36% to 71%. Resistance to deltamethrin was also suspected in Ae. albopictus from Yaoundé (83% mortality. All other field mosquito populations were susceptible to deltamethrin, DDT, fenitrothion and propoxur. No increase in the knockdown times (Kdt50 and Kdt95 was noted in the Yaoundé resistant population compared to other Ae. albopictus populations, suggesting the possible involvement of metabolic resistance to deltamethrin and DDT. Conclusion In view of the recent increase in

  9. Flint Hills National Wildlife Refuge: Comprehensive Conservation Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCP) was written to guide management on Flint Hills NWR for the next 15 years. This plan outlines the Refuge vision and purpose...

  10. On the Spectral Singularities and Spectrality of the Hill Operator

    OpenAIRE

    Veliev, O. A.

    2014-01-01

    First we study the spectral singularity at infinity and investigate the connections of the spectral singularities and the spectrality of the Hill operator. Then we consider the spectral expansion when there is not the spectral singularity at infinity.

  11. Preserving genes: Sullys Hill bison gain national prominence

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Newspaper article on transferring bison from Sullys Hill National Game Preserve to Fort Niobrara National Wildlife Refuge to help maintain as genetically pure strain...

  12. Generalized thickness of the Minnelusa Formation, Black Hills, South Dakota.

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set is a polygon coverage created in ARC/INFO that represents the generalized thickness of the Minnelusa Formation, Black Hills, South Dakota. The...

  13. USGS Hill Shade Base Map Service from The National Map

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — USGS Hill Shade (or Shaded Relief) is a tile cache base map created from the National Elevation Dataset (NED), a seamless dataset of best available raster elevation...

  14. "Beverly Hills 90210" : kes mida teeb / Tiina Lepiste

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lepiste, Tiina

    2003-01-01

    Aaron Spellingu produtseeritud ja 2000. aastal lõpetatud menuseriaalis "Beverly Hills 90210" osalenud näitlejate edaspidisest elust seoses plaaniga teha täispikk mängufilm "10 Year High School Reunion"

  15. Sullys Hill Quarterly Narrative Reports : February 1941 - January 1942

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains quarterly narrative reports for Sullys Hill Game Preserve for February 1941 - January 1942. This reports summarizes activities and...

  16. [Sullys Hill National Game Preserve bison herd raw data, 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Raw data from Texas A&M University on the Sullys Hill National Game Preserve federal bison herd. Data includes nuclear introgression markers and nuclear...

  17. Public Computer Usage in Chapel Hill Public Library

    Data.gov (United States)

    Town of Chapel Hill, North Carolina — Data collected November 2014 - May 2016. As of June 2016, this data is no longer collected on a continual basis.This dataset includes frequency and length of use of...

  18. Pesticide evaluation for Flint Hills National Wildlife Refuge in Kansas

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Flint Hills National Wildlife Refuge is an overlay on the Corps of Engineers John Redmond Reservoir in east-central Kansas. The Refuge is managed to provide spring...

  19. EAARL Topography-Sagamore Hill National Historic Site

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Elevation maps (also known as Digital Elevation Models or DEMs) of the Sagamore Hill National Historic Site were produced from remotely-sensed,...

  20. Background Contaminants Evaluation of Flint Hills National Wildlife Refuge - 1989

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This study was conducted to assess chlordane levels in sediments and fish of Flint Hills NWR. Chlordane is very persistent and highly toxic to aquatic organisms and...

  1. GPS Ice Flow Measurements, Allan Hills, Antarctica, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set includes includes high-precision GPS measurements of steel poles within the Allan Hills Main Ice Field, Near Western Ice Field, and extending to the...

  2. Steamboat Hills exploratory slimhole: Drilling and testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finger, J.T.; Jacobson, F.D.; Hickox, C.E.; Eaton, R.R.

    1994-10-01

    During July-September, 1993, Sandia National Laboratories, in cooperation with Far West Capital, drilled a 4000 feet exploratory slimhole (3.9 inch diameter) in the Steamboat Hills geothermal field near Reno, Nevada. This well was part of Sandia`s program to evaluate slimholes as a geothermal exploration tool. During and after drilling the authors performed four series of production and injection tests while taking downhole (pressure-temperature-spinner) and surface (wellhead pressure and temperature, flow rate) data. In addition to these measurements, the well`s data set includes: continuous core (with detailed log); borehole televiewer images of the wellbore`s upper 500 feet; daily drilling reports from Sandia and from drilling contractor personnel; daily drilling fluid record; numerous temperature logs; and comparative data from production and injection wells in the same field. This report contains: (1) a narrative account of the drilling and testing, (2) a description of equipment used, (3) a brief geologic description of the formation drilled, (4) a summary and preliminary interpretation of the data, and (5) recommendations for future work.

  3. SRTM Anaglyph: Haro and Kas Hills

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    On January 26, 2001 the Kachchh region in western India suffered the most deadly earthquake in India's history. This three-dimensional view of landforms northeast of the city of Bhuj depicts geologic structures that are of interest in the study the tectonic processes that may have led to that earthquake. However, preliminary field studies indicate that these structures are composed of Mesozoic rocks that are overlain by younger rocks showing little deformation. Thus these structures may be old, not actively growing, and not directly related to the recent earthquake.The Haro Hills are on the left and the Kas Hills are on the right. The Haro Hills are an 'anticline,' which is an upwardly convex elongated fold of layered rocks. The anticline is distinctly ringed by an erosion resistant layer of sandstone. The east-west orientation of the anticline may relate to the crustal compression that has occurred during India's northward movement toward, and collision with, Asia. In contrast, the largest of the Kas Hills appears to be a tilted (to the south) and faulted (on the north) block of layered rocks. Also seen here, the curvilinear ridge trending toward the southwest from the image center is an erosion resistant 'dike,' which is an igneous intrusion into older 'host' rocks along a fault plane or other crack. The dike also appears to extend northeast from the image center as a dark line having very little topography. Its location between the tilted block and a smaller anticline to the north (directly east of the larger anticline) probably indicates that the dike fills the fault that separates these contrasting geologic structures. These features are simple examples of how digital elevation data can stereoscopically enhance satellite imagery to provide a direct input to geologic studies.The stereoscopic effect of this anaglyph was created by first draping a Landsat satellite image (taken just two weeks after the earthquake) over preliminary digital elevation data from the

  4. Allan Hills Pleistocene Ice Project (PIP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurbatov, A.; Brook, E.; Campbell, S. W.; Conway, H.; Dunbar, N. W.; Higgins, J. A.; Iverson, N. A.; Kehrl, L. M.; McIntosh, W. C.; Spaulding, N. E.; Yan, Y.; Mayewski, P. A.

    2016-12-01

    A major international effort to identify at least 1.5 Ma old ice for paleoclimate reconstructions has successfully resulted in the selection of several potential drill sites in East Antarctica. At this point it is indisputable that the Antarctic ice sheet captures a continuous envinronmental record of the Earth that spans the Mid Pleistocene Transition (MPT). In addition to traditional ice coring approaches, the oldest ice can also be recovered in Antarctic Blue Ice Areas (BIA). We have already successfully demonstrated that the Allan Hills (AH) BIA captures a regional climate signal and robust record of 1Ma atmosphere that can be studied with a relatively uncomplicated logistical imprint and essentially unlimited sampling volume. The attractiveness of unlimited sampling of known age ice is the basis for the "ice park" concept proposed earlier by our research team. The idea is that, once the age of ice exposed along the flow line at the surface of BIA is mapped, it could be sampled for numerous research projects as needed. Here we propose an intermediate ( 1,150 m deep) ice core drill site, located only 240 km away from McMurdo base that will help to develop a, continuous, high quality regional paleoclimate record that is at least 1Ma old. We will introduce and discuss the glaciological settings, paleoclimate signals and possible limitations and advantages of the 1 Ma AH BIA regional paleoclimate record. The research was funded by NSF Division of Polar Programs.

  5. Stormwater Management Plan for the Arden Hills Army Training Site, Arden Hills, Minnesota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carr, Adrianne E. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Wuthrich, Kelsey K. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Ziech, Angela M. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Bowen, Esther E. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Quinn, John [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2013-03-01

    This stormwater management plan focuses on the cantonment and training areas of the Arden Hills Army Training Site (AHATS). The plan relates the site stormwater to the regulatory framework, and it summarizes best management practices to aide site managers in promoting clean site runoff. It includes documentation for a newly developed, detailed model of stormwater flow retention for the entire AHATS property and adjacent upgradient areas. The model relies on established modeling codes integrated in a U.S. Department of Defense-sponsored software tool, the Watershed Modeling System (WMS), and it can be updated with data on changes in land use or with monitoring data.

  6. The larvicidal activities of three Jatropha species against Aedes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... reports the larvicidal activities of the petroleum ether, ethylacetate and methanol extracts of the leaves and stem barks of the three plants and the column chromatographic fractions of the petroleum ether extract of J. gossipifolia stem bark against the larvae of Aedes aegypti mosquito, the vector of dengue and yellow fevers ...

  7. Research Note: Lymphatic filariasis (LF) Aedes albopictus : A new ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lymphatic filariasis, an ancient disease is a major global problem infecting more than 120 million men, women and children. Vectors for the causative ... This is no good news considering the health implications and bearing in mind that Aedes albopictus is a competent vector for at least 22 arboviruses. The finding of W.

  8. First Record of Aedes albopictus in Sinaloa, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Avendaño, Jose I; Castillo-Ureta, Hipolito; Torres-Montoya, Edith H; Meza-Carrillo, Elizabeth; Lopez-Mendoza, Reyna L; Vazquez-Martinez, Maria G; Rendon-Maldonado, Jose G

    2015-06-01

    We report here the discovery of Aedes albopictus for the first time in Sinaloa state, Mexico. The mosquito larvae were collected from small water containers in the urban area of Culiacan city, Sinaloa state. Identification of the species was done primarily by morphology, followed by confirmation with polymerase-chain-reaction-based molecular method.

  9. Biocidal potential of clove oils against Aedes albopictus – A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The first phase of the study involved evaluation of leaf and bud oils of clove, Syzygium aromaticum for their biocidal (i.e. ovicidal and larvicidal) activity against Aedes albopictus. Eggs and fourth instar larvae were exposed to different concentrations of the oils to investigate their comparative efficacy against the target ...

  10. Area-wide management of Aedes albopictus: lessons learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aedes albopictus, the Asian tiger mosquito, is the principal vector of chikungunya fever and a critical vector of dengue. This daytime biting pest often causes the majority of service requests from urban and suburban residents in New Jersey and many other states and nations where it has spread. Ou...

  11. Differential Susceptibilities of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus from the Americas to Zika Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazeille, Marie; Yebakima, André; Girod, Romain; Goindin, Daniella; Dupont-Rouzeyrol, Myrielle; Lourenço-de-Oliveira, Ricardo; Failloux, Anna-Bella

    2016-01-01

    Background Since the major outbreak in 2007 in the Yap Island, Zika virus (ZIKV) causing dengue-like syndromes has affected multiple islands of the South Pacific region. In May 2015, the virus was detected in Brazil and then spread through South and Central America. In December 2015, ZIKV was detected in French Guiana and Martinique. The aim of the study was to evaluate the vector competence of the mosquito spp. Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus from the Caribbean (Martinique, Guadeloupe), North America (southern United States), South America (Brazil, French Guiana) for the currently circulating Asian genotype of ZIKV isolated from a patient in April 2014 in New Caledonia. Methodology/Principal Findings Mosquitoes were orally exposed to an Asian genotype of ZIKV (NC-2014-5132). Upon exposure, engorged mosquitoes were maintained at 28°±1°C, a 16h:8h light:dark cycle and 80% humidity. 25–30 mosquitoes were processed at 4, 7 and 14 days post-infection (dpi). Mosquito bodies (thorax and abdomen), heads and saliva were analyzed to measure infection, dissemination and transmission, respectively. High infection but lower disseminated infection and transmission rates were observed for both Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus. Ae. aegypti populations from Guadeloupe and French Guiana exhibited a higher dissemination of ZIKV than the other Ae. aegypti populations examined. Transmission of ZIKV was observed in both mosquito species at 14 dpi but at a low level. Conclusions/Significance This study suggests that although susceptible to infection, Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus were unexpectedly low competent vectors for ZIKV. This may suggest that other factors such as the large naïve population for ZIKV and the high densities of human-biting mosquitoes contribute to the rapid spread of ZIKV during the current outbreak. PMID:26938868

  12. Weak Larval Competition Between Two Invasive Mosquitoes Aedes koreicus and Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldacchino, Frédéric; Arnoldi, Daniele; Lapère, Charlotte; Rosà, Roberto; Montarsi, Fabrizio; Capelli, Gioia; Rizzoli, Annapaola

    2017-09-01

    Aedes (Hulecoeteomyia) koreicus (Edwards) and Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus (Skuse) are two invasive mosquito species well established in northeastern Italy, and these two species may co-occur in artificial larval habitats such as tires, buckets, drums, and catch basins. Because Ae. albopictus has been shown experimentally to be a superior competitor to several mosquito species, we investigated larval competition between Ae. koreicus and Ae. albopictus using two diet levels (low level and high level) and 10 Ae. albopictus: Ae. koreicus density combination levels (30:0, 60:0, 15:15, 30:30, 10:20, 20:10, 20:40, 40:20, 0:60, and 0:30). A multivariate analysis (MANOVA) demonstrated a significant effect of the density combination on Ae. koreicus survivorship, female development time, and female wing length considered simultaneously in low-level diet and high-level diet treatments. Pairwise comparisons across low-level diet treatments showed a significant reduction of Ae. koreicus survivorship in 20:10 combination treatments (i.e. 20 Ae. albopictus and 10 Ae. koreicus larvae) compared to 10:20, 20:40, and 30:30 combination treatments, while no difference was detected for Ae. albopictus between density combination treatments. Furthermore, Ae. albopictus developed faster than Ae. koreicus regardless of diet and density combination treatments. Our results show weak larval competition between Ae. koreicus and Ae. albopictus with a slight advantage of the latter species. On the other hand, the presence of Ae. albopictus seems to favor the emergence of larger Ae. koreicus females. We suggest that factors such as habitats preferences or seasonal distributions may be determinant for the invasion success of Ae. koreicus. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Pengaruh Konsentrasi Kaporit Terhadap Daya Tetas Telur Aedes aegypti

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    Bina Ikawati

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Dengue hemorrhagic fever is still a serious public health problem in the world. World Health Organization noted that outbreak of dengue fever has become a major threat to global health. Dengue is transmitted to humans through the bite of an infected Aedes mosquito dengue virus. Aedes aegypti mosquitoes multiply rapidly within seven days to become adult mosquitoes and live in places like a bathtub, secondhand goods or container that contains water. Chlorine is a chemical used to purify the water as a disinfectant. The research objective was to analyze the effect chlorine to the egg hatchability of Aedes aegypti. The study design is Post Test Only Design with various concentrations of chlorine of 2.5 mg / l; 5.0 mg / l; 7.5 mg / l and 10.0 mg / l. The data was analyzed using Kruskal Wallis test and used to determine LC50 Probit analysis. The results showed there was an influence on various doses of chlorine to the egg hatching rate of Aedes aegypti. Increase of the chlorine concentration in the water followed by less number hatch of eggs. The results of probit analysis showed that the inhibition of the hatching of the eggs 50% at a concentration of 2.579 mg/l chlorine. Based on these results that chlorine could be used as an alternative to the integrated vector control of dengue fever. Keywords: Chlorine, hatchability, Aedes aegypti AbstakDemam berdarah dengue masih menjadi masalah kesehatan masyarakat dunia yang serius. Badan Kesehatan Dunia (WHO menyatakan demam berdarah dengue telah menjadi ancaman utama bagi kesehatan secara global. Demam berdarah dengue ditularkan ke manusia melalui gigitan nyamuk Aedes yang terinfeksi virus Dengue. Nyamuk Aedes aegypti berkembang biak dengan cepat dalam waktu sekitar tujuh hari untuk menjadi nyamuk dewasa dan hidup pada tempat-tempat yang dapat menampung air seperti bak mandi, barang bekas dan barang-barang lain yang dapat menampung air. Kaporit merupakan bahan kimia yang biasa digunakan untuk

  14. LEUCEMIAS Y RADIACIÓN: JUICIO CAUSAL SEGÚN LOS CRITERIOS DE SIR AUSTIN BRADFORD HILL Causal judgment by Sir Austin Bradford Hill criteria: leukemias and radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Octavio Martínez Betancur

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available El cometido del presente trabajo es la lectura interpretativa con base en la propuesta de inferencia causal de Austin Bradford Hill, del documento Radiation-related leukemia in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, 1946-1964. I. Distribution, incidence and appearance time. El documento informado por el comité de las víctimas de la bomba atómica cumple con la totalidad de los nueve "criterios" propuesto por Hill, y entre las limitaciones se cuentan la presunciones de homogeneidad genética de los sujetos expuestos y linealidad de los efectos de las radiaciones en la leucemia, además del hecho de sólo considerar la edad como variable confusora. Por otra parte, el número de muertes por leucemia, patrón de oro de la sensibilidad y la especificidad del sistema de vigilancia del estudio de duración de la vida, fue 61 muertes por leucemia entre los supervivientes situados dentro de 1500 metros del epicentro de la explosión y 25 muertes en el grupo que recibió radiación estando entre 1501 y 10000 metros, lo que habla de posible subregistro de casos y de sobrediagnóstico por la sumatoria de criterios empleados. Los "criterios" de Hill no son reglas lógicas sino metodológicas, que ayudan en el proceso de decisión sobre la inferencia causal en epidemiología. Se apartan de la discusión de si las inferencias a partir de ellos se ajustan a la lógica inductiva o a la deductiva, y deben entenderse pragmáticamente como "inferencias de la mejor explicación" en el contexto de la abducción. La única conclusión permitida dentro del marco de la "inferencia de la mejor explicación", es que se tienen buenas razones para considerar seriamente la hipótesis que la asociación estadística que se estudia, es una relación causal.This paper presents an interpretive reading based on the proposed causal inference by Austin Bradford Hill; of the document "Radiation-related leukemia in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, 1946-1964. I. Distribution, incidence, and Appearance time

  15. Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae): coexistence and susceptibility to temephos, in municipalities with occurrence of dengue and differentiated characteristics of urbanization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prophiro, Josiane Somariva; Silva, Onilda Santos; Luna, Jonny Edward Duque; Piccoli, Carla Fernanda; Kanis, Luiz Alberto; Silva, Mario Antonio Navarro da

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to verify the coexistence between Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus populations in municipalities of the States of Paraná and Santa Catarina with different urbanization profiles where dengue occurs and evaluate their susceptibility to the organophosphate temephos. The number of eggs per ovitrap were counted and incubated for hatching to identify the species. Data analysis of the populations was conducted to determine randomness and aggregation, using the variance-to-mean ratio (index of dispersion). Susceptibility to temephos was evaluated by estimation of the resistance ratios RR50 and RR95. Aedes aegypti samples were compared with the population Rockefeller and Aedes albopictus samples were compared with a population from the State of Santa Catarina and with the Rockefeller population. Coexistence between Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus and the aggregation of their eggs were observed at all the sites analyzed in the State of Paraná. All the Aedes aegypti populations from the State of Parana showed alteration in susceptibility status to the organophosphate temephos, revealing incipient resistance. Similarly, all the Aedes albopictus populations (States of Paraná and Santa Catarina) presented survival when exposed to the organophosphate temephos.

  16. Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae: coexistence and susceptibility to temephos, in municipalities with occurrence of dengue and differentiated characteristics of urbanization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josiane Somariva Prophiro

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The aim of the present study was to verify the coexistence between Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus populations in municipalities of the States of Paraná and Santa Catarina with different urbanization profiles where dengue occurs and evaluate their susceptibility to the organophosphate temephos. METHODS: The number of eggs per ovitrap were counted and incubated for hatching to identify the species. Data analysis of the populations was conducted to determine randomness and aggregation, using the variance-to-mean ratio (index of dispersion. Susceptibility to temephos was evaluated by estimation of the resistance ratios RR50 and RR95. Aedes aegypti samples were compared with the population Rockefeller and Aedes albopictus samples were compared with a population from the State of Santa Catarina and with the Rockefeller population. RESULTS: Coexistence between Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus and the aggregation of their eggs were observed at all the sites analyzed in the State of Paraná. CONCLUSIONS: All the Aedes aegypti populations from the State of Parana showed alteration in susceptibility status to the organophosphate temephos, revealing incipient resistance. Similarly, all the Aedes albopictus populations (States of Paraná and Santa Catarina presented survival when exposed to the organophosphate temephos.

  17. Truck-mounted area-wide application of pyriproxyfen targeting Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus in northeast Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study was conducted to determine the efficacy of truck-mounted ULV applications of pyriproxyfen against Aedes aegypti larvae in artificial water containers and wild adult Ae. albopictus populations in an urban setting. The study was conducted over a 3 ½ month period (Jun – Oct 2012), during wh...

  18. The effect of photoperiod on life history and blood-feeding activity in Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costanzo, K S; Schelble, S; Jerz, K; Keenan, M

    2015-06-01

    Several studies have examined how climatic variables such as temperature and precipitation may affect life history traits in mosquitoes that are important to disease transmission. Despite its importance as a seasonal cue in nature, studies investigating the influence of photoperiod on such traits are relatively few. This study aims to investigate how photoperiod alters life history traits, survival, and blood-feeding activity in Aedes albopictus (Skuse) and Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus). We performed three experiments that tested the effects of day length on female survival, development time, adult size, fecundity, adult life span, and propensity to blood feed in Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti. Each experiment had three photoperiod treatments: 1) short-day (10L:14D), 2) control (12L:12D), and 3) long-day (14L:10D). Aedes albopictus adult females were consistently larger in size when reared in short-day conditions. Aedes aegypti adult females from short-day treatments lived longer and were more likely to take a blood meal compared to other treatments. We discuss how species-specific responses may reflect alternative strategies evolved to increase survival during unfavorable conditions. We review the potential impacts of these responses on seasonal transmission patterns, such as potentially increasing vectorial capacity of Ae. aegypti during periods of shorter day lengths. © 2015 The Society for Vector Ecology.

  19. Bioefficacy of crude extract of Cyperus aromaticus (Family: Cyperaceae) cultured cells, against Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamiabi, Fatemeh; Jaal, Zairi; Keng, Chan Lai

    2013-10-01

    To evaluate the growth inhibition activity of the crude extract of Cyperus aromaticus (C. aromaticus) cultured cells against the 3rd instar larvae of Aedes aegypti (Linn.) and Aedes albopictus Skuse (Ae. albopictus) under laboratory conditions, and determine the sublethal effects (EI50) of the crude extract of C. aromaticus cultured cells on some biological and morphological parameters of both Aedes mosquito species during two generations as well. The cell suspension cultures of C. aromaticus were activated from five callus lines (P4, Pa, Z1, Z6 and Ml) derived from the root explants of in vitro plantlets. The cultured cells were extracted in chloroform and used as plant material for the present study. For detection of juvenile hormone III, the crude extracts were analyzed by HPLC. Then the crude extracts of the three C. aromaticus cultured cell lines which contained varied amounts of juvenile hormone III [high level (P4 cell line), medium level (Z1 cell line) and low level (Ml cell line)] were tested against Aedes mosquito species. Laboratory evaluation was performed against late third instar larvae of the Vector Control Research Unit strains of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus using the standard WHO method. The effects of EI50 of the C. aromaticus cultured P4 cells on fecundity, fertility, growth period, sex ratio, adult size and longevity of Aedes mosquitoes were assessed. Bioassay tests presented the remarkable growth inhibition activity of the crude extracts of C. aromaticus cultured cells against the two Aedes mosquitoes. Between the two mosquito species, Ae. albopictus was more susceptible to the crude extracts with lower EI50 values. EI50 of the crude extract of C. aromaticus cultured cells (P4) increased the sterility indices in the parental generation females in both Aedes mosquito species. A significant delay in the pupal formation and adult emergence were observed in the parental generation of the both mosquito species. The sex ratio of the adult

  20. Amostragem por larva-única na vigilância de Aedes aegypti Single-larva sampling for Aedes aegypti surveillance

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    José Eduardo Bracco

    1995-04-01

    Full Text Available Com a finalidade de testar a metodologia de amostragem por larva-única na vigilância entomológica do Aedes aegypti, foram pesquisados domicílios do Município de Araraquara, SP (Brasil. Nos criadouros que continham larvas de Aedes uma delas foi coletada. Como controle, após a coleta da larva-única, todas as larvas foram coletadas para identificação posterior. Esse processo foi repetido no laboratório. Dos 447 domicílios visitados, apenas 12 foram considerados positivos e 20 criadouros foram identificados; destes, 13 continham larvas de Aedes; 5, larvas de Aedes e Culex e 2, larvas de Culex. Os resultados mostram o reconhecimento correto, no campo, de todos os criadouros, evidenciando que o método poderia ser utilizado na vigilância entomológica de municípios sem infestação domiciliar ou infestados apenas com uma única espécie de Aedes.Buildings in Araraquara city, Southeastern Brazil, were searched during a year for the presence of Aedes larvae using single larva sampling in order to check the single-larva methodology. In those breeding places in wich Aedes larvae were found, one of them was collected. As a control, after the single larva had been collected, all the larvae from the breeding place were collected for later identification. This process was repeated in the laboratory. Of the 447 domiciles searched, 12 were considered positive and 20 breeding places were found. Of the breeding places, 13 contained Aedes larvae, 5 both Aedes and Culex larvae and 2 Culex larvae only. The results show that all the breeding places in the field were properly recognited showing the method may be used for Aedes surveillance in cities infested with one species only or without any domiciliary infestation.

  1. Susceptibility of Aedes albopictus Skuse (Diptera: Culicidae) to permethrin in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Othman Wan-Norafikah; Wasi Ahmad Nazni; Han Lim Lee; Pawanchee Zainol-Ariffin; Mohd Sofian-Azirun

    2013-01-01

    ...: The susceptibility status of laboratory susceptible strain, permethrin-selected strain, and four field strains of Aedes albopictus collected from Kuala Lumpur were determined using three standard...

  2. Vertical transmission of Indian Ocean Lineage of chikungunya virus in Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chompoosri, Jakkrawarn; Thavara, Usavadee; Tawatsin, Apiwat; Boonserm, Rungfar; Phumee, Atchara; Sangkitporn, Somchai; Siriyasatien, Padet

    2016-04-23

    The re-emergence of chikungunya (CHIK) fever in Thailand has been caused by a novel lineage of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) termed the Indian Ocean Lineage (IOL). The Aedes albopictus mosquito is thought to be a primary vector of CHIK fever in Thailand, whereas Ae. aegypti acts as a secondary vector of the virus. The vertical transmission is believed to be a primary means to maintain CHIKV in nature and may be associated with an increased risk of outbreak. Therefore, the goal of this study was to analyze the potential of these two Thai mosquito species to transmit the virus vertically and to determine the number of successive mosquito generations for the virus transmission. Two-hundred-and-fifty female Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus mosquitoes were artificially fed a mixture of human blood and CHIKV IOL. Mosquito larvae and adults were sampled and screened for CHIKV by one-step qRT-PCR. LLC-MK2 cell line was used to isolate CHIKV in the mosquitoes each generation. The virus isolate was identified by immunocytochemical staining and was confirmed by sequencing. Both mosquito species fed on human blood without CHIKV and uninfected LLC-MK2 cells were used as controls. Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus mosquitoes were able to transmit CHIKV vertically to F5 and F6 progenies, respectively. The virus isolated from the two mosquito species caused cytopathic effect in LLC-MK2 cells by 2 days post-infection and immunocytochemical staining showed the reaction between CHIKV IOL antigen and specific monoclonal antibody in the infected cells. DNA sequence confirmed the virus transmitted vertically as CHIKV IOL with E1-A226V mutation. No CHIKV infection was observed in both mosquito species and LLC-MK2 cells from control groups. The study demonstrated that Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus mosquitoes from Thailand are capable of transmitting CHIKV IOL vertically in the laboratory. Our results showed that Ae. albopictus is more susceptible and has a greater ability to transmit the virus

  3. Water quality in the vicinity of Fenton Hill, 1987 and 1988. [Fenton Hill site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purtymun, W.D.; Ferenbaugh, R.W.; Maes, M.N.; Williams, M.C.

    1991-03-01

    Water-quality data have been collected since 1974 from established surface- and ground-water stations at, and in the vicinity of, Fenton Hill (site of the Laboratory's Hot Dry Rock Geothermal Project). The site is located on the southwest edge of the Valles Caldera in the Jemez Mountains. To determine the chemical quality of water, data were collected in 1987 and 1988 from 13 surface-water stations and 19 ground-water stations. The classification of the water quality is made on the basis of predominated ions and total dissolved solids. There are four classifications of surface water (sodium and chloride, calcium and bicarbonate, calcium and sulfate, and sodium and bicarbonate) and three classifications of ground water (sodium and chloride, calcium and bicarbonate, and sodium and bicarbonate). Variations in the chemical quality of the surface and ground water in 1987 and 1988 are apparent when data are compared with each other and with previous analyses. These variations are not considered significant, as they are in the range of normal seasonal changes. Cumulative production since 1976 from the supply well at Fenton Hill has been about 63 {times} 10{sup 6} gal, with a decline in the water level of the well of about 14 ft, or about 1.4 ft/yr. The aquifer penetrated by the well is still capable of reliable supply to the site for a number of years, based on past production. The quality of water from the well has deteriorated slightly; however, the water quality is in compliance with drinking water standards. The effects of discharge from the storage ponds into an adjacent canyon have been monitored by trace metal analyses of vegetation and soil. The study indicates minimal effects, which will be undetectable in a few years if there are no further releases of effluents into the canyon. 19 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. Biogeography of the two major arbovirus mosquito vectors, Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus (Diptera, Culicidae), in Madagascar

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background In the past ten years, the Indian Ocean region has been the theatre of severe epidemics of chikungunya and dengue. These outbreaks coincided with a high increase in populations of Aedes albopictus that outcompete its sister taxon Aedes aegypti in most islands sampled. The objective of this work was to update the entomological survey of the two Aedes species in the island of Madagascar which has to face these arboviroses. Methods The sampling of Aedes mosquitoes was conducted during two years, from October 2007 to October 2009, in fifteen localities from eight regions of contrasting climates. Captured adults were identified immediately whereas immature stages were bred until adult stage for determination. Phylogenetic analysis was performed using two mtDNA genes, COI and ND5 and trees were constructed by the maximum likelihood (ML) method with the gene time reversible (GTR) model. Experimental infections with the chikungunya virus strain 06.21 at a titer of 107.5 pfu/mL were performed to evaluate the vector competence of field-collected mosquitoes. Disseminated infection rates were measured fourteen days after infection by immunofluorescence assay performed on head squashes. Results The species Aedes aegypti was detected in only six sites in native forests and natural reserves. In contrast, the species Aedes albopictus was found in 13 out of the 15 sites sampled. Breeding sites were mostly found in man-made environments such as discarded containers, used tires, abandoned buckets, coconuts, and bamboo cuts. Linear regression models showed that the abundance of Ae. albopictus was significantly influenced by the sampling region (F = 62.00, p albopictus distinguished haplotypes from South Asia and South America from those of Madagascar, but the markers used were not discriminant enough to discern Malagasy populations. The experimental oral infection method showed that six Ae. albopictus populations exhibited high dissemination infection rates for chikungunya

  5. Biogeography of the two major arbovirus mosquito vectors, Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus (Diptera, Culicidae), in Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raharimalala, Fara Nantenaina; Ravaomanarivo, Lala Harivelo; Ravelonandro, Pierre; Rafarasoa, Lala Sahondra; Zouache, Karima; Tran-Van, Van; Mousson, Laurence; Failloux, Anna-Bella; Hellard, Eléonore; Moro, Claire Valiente; Ralisoa, Bakoly Olga; Mavingui, Patrick

    2012-03-20

    In the past ten years, the Indian Ocean region has been the theatre of severe epidemics of chikungunya and dengue. These outbreaks coincided with a high increase in populations of Aedes albopictus that outcompete its sister taxon Aedes aegypti in most islands sampled. The objective of this work was to update the entomological survey of the two Aedes species in the island of Madagascar which has to face these arboviroses. The sampling of Aedes mosquitoes was conducted during two years, from October 2007 to October 2009, in fifteen localities from eight regions of contrasting climates. Captured adults were identified immediately whereas immature stages were bred until adult stage for determination. Phylogenetic analysis was performed using two mtDNA genes, COI and ND5 and trees were constructed by the maximum likelihood (ML) method with the gene time reversible (GTR) model. Experimental infections with the chikungunya virus strain 06.21 at a titer of 107.5 pfu/mL were performed to evaluate the vector competence of field-collected mosquitoes. Disseminated infection rates were measured fourteen days after infection by immunofluorescence assay performed on head squashes. The species Aedes aegypti was detected in only six sites in native forests and natural reserves. In contrast, the species Aedes albopictus was found in 13 out of the 15 sites sampled. Breeding sites were mostly found in man-made environments such as discarded containers, used tires, abandoned buckets, coconuts, and bamboo cuts. Linear regression models showed that the abundance of Ae. albopictus was significantly influenced by the sampling region (F = 62.00, p Madagascar, but the markers used were not discriminant enough to discern Malagasy populations. The experimental oral infection method showed that six Ae. albopictus populations exhibited high dissemination infection rates for chikungunya virus ranging from 98 to 100%. In Madagascar, Ae. albopictus has extended its geographical distribution whereas

  6. Biogeography of the two major arbovirus mosquito vectors, Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus (Diptera, Culicidae, in Madagascar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raharimalala Fara

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the past ten years, the Indian Ocean region has been the theatre of severe epidemics of chikungunya and dengue. These outbreaks coincided with a high increase in populations of Aedes albopictus that outcompete its sister taxon Aedes aegypti in most islands sampled. The objective of this work was to update the entomological survey of the two Aedes species in the island of Madagascar which has to face these arboviroses. Methods The sampling of Aedes mosquitoes was conducted during two years, from October 2007 to October 2009, in fifteen localities from eight regions of contrasting climates. Captured adults were identified immediately whereas immature stages were bred until adult stage for determination. Phylogenetic analysis was performed using two mtDNA genes, COI and ND5 and trees were constructed by the maximum likelihood (ML method with the gene time reversible (GTR model. Experimental infections with the chikungunya virus strain 06.21 at a titer of 107.5 pfu/mL were performed to evaluate the vector competence of field-collected mosquitoes. Disseminated infection rates were measured fourteen days after infection by immunofluorescence assay performed on head squashes. Results The species Aedes aegypti was detected in only six sites in native forests and natural reserves. In contrast, the species Aedes albopictus was found in 13 out of the 15 sites sampled. Breeding sites were mostly found in man-made environments such as discarded containers, used tires, abandoned buckets, coconuts, and bamboo cuts. Linear regression models showed that the abundance of Ae. albopictus was significantly influenced by the sampling region (F = 62.00, p -16 and period (F = 36.22, p = 2.548 × 10-13, that are associated with ecological and climate variations. Phylogenetic analysis of the invasive Ae. albopictus distinguished haplotypes from South Asia and South America from those of Madagascar, but the markers used were not discriminant enough

  7. Evidence for self-gravity in a massive Hills Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zderic, Alexander; Madigan, Ann-Marie; Fleisig, Jacob

    2017-10-01

    The Hills Cloud is a hypothesized disk of icy comets, asteroids and minor planets left over from the formation of the Solar System. Spanning ~250 - 104 AU it is relatively isolated from the gravitational effects of the inner Solar System and outer Galaxy. As the least observable component of the Oort Cloud, predictions for its mass span at least two orders of magnitude, typically ranging from 0.1 - 10 Earth masses. Here we show that self-gravity acting between bodies within the Hills Cloud dramatically changes their orbital distribution (the inclination instability; Madigan & McCourt, 2016). Inclinations increase exponentially, eccentricities lower (detaching the bodies from the inner Solar System) and orbits cluster in argument of perihelion. We show how the orbits of Sedna and other high perihelion objects can be used to constrain the mass of the Hills cloud.

  8. Plastic media blasting activities at Hill Air Force Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, J. D.

    1993-03-01

    Hill Air Force Base in Utah developed plastic media blasting (PMB) paint removal process for removing paint from Air Force aircraft. The development of the process involved extensive testing of various abrasives and subsequent parameters to end up with an approved production process. Hill AFB has been using PMB in a production mode since 1985, and completely discontinued chemical stripping of airframes in 1989. We have recently installed and began operating a fully automated PMB facility that utilizes two nine-axis robots to strip an aircraft. This system has enabled us to further reduce the manhours required to strip an aircraft, and also allowed us to remove the employee from the blasting atmosphere into a control room. We have, and will continue to realize, significant environmental and economic savings by using PMB. Hill is also actively involved with the development of future paint stripping technologies.

  9. EFFICACY OF THAI NEEM OIL AGAINST AEDES AEGYPTI (L.) LARVAE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silapanuntakul, Suthep; Keanjoom, Romnalin; Pandii, Wongdyan; Boonchuen, Supawadee; Sombatsiri, Kwanchai

    2016-05-01

    Trees with larvicidal activity may be found in Thailand. We conducted this study to evaluate the efficacy and length of efficacy of Thai neem (Azadirachta siamensis) oil emulsion and an alginate bead of Thai neem oil formulation against early fourth stage Aedes aegypti larvae using a dipping test. The Thai neem oil emulsion had significantly greater larvicidal activity than the alginate bead formulation at 12 to 60 hours post-exposure (p neem oil formulation resulted in 100% mortality among the early fourth stage Aedes aegypti larvae at 48 hours, while the alginate bead formulation resulted in 98% larval mortality at 84 hours and 100% mortality at 96 hours. The mean larval mortality using the Thai neem oil emulsion dropped to < 25% by 12 days and with the alginate beads dropped to < 25% by 15 days of exposure.

  10. Identification of germline transcriptional regulatory elements in Aedes aegypti

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbari, Omar S.; Papathanos, Philippos A.; Sandler, Jeremy E.; Kennedy, Katie; Hay, Bruce A.

    2014-02-01

    The mosquito Aedes aegypti is the principal vector for the yellow fever and dengue viruses, and is also responsible for recent outbreaks of the alphavirus chikungunya. Vector control strategies utilizing engineered gene drive systems are being developed as a means of replacing wild, pathogen transmitting mosquitoes with individuals refractory to disease transmission, or bringing about population suppression. Several of these systems, including Medea, UDMEL, and site-specific nucleases, which can be used to drive genes into populations or bring about population suppression, utilize transcriptional regulatory elements that drive germline-specific expression. Here we report the identification of multiple regulatory elements able to drive gene expression specifically in the female germline, or in the male and female germline, in the mosquito Aedes aegypti. These elements can also be used as tools with which to probe the roles of specific genes in germline function and in the early embryo, through overexpression or RNA interference.

  11. Sodium Channel Mutations and Pyrethroid Resistance in Aedes aegypti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuzhe Du

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Pyrethroid insecticides are widely used to control insect pests and human disease vectors. Voltage-gated sodium channels are the primary targets of pyrethroid insecticides. Mutations in the sodium channel have been shown to be responsible for pyrethroid resistance, known as knockdown resistance (kdr, in various insects including mosquitoes. In Aedes aegypti mosquitoes, the principal urban vectors of dengue, zika, and yellow fever viruses, multiple single nucleotide polymorphisms in the sodium channel gene have been found in pyrethroid-resistant populations and some of them have been functionally confirmed to be responsible for kdr in an in vitro expression system, Xenopus oocytes. This mini-review aims to provide an update on the identification and functional characterization of pyrethroid resistance-associated sodium channel mutations from Aedes aegypti. The collection of kdr mutations not only helped us develop molecular markers for resistance monitoring, but also provided valuable information for computational molecular modeling of pyrethroid receptor sites on the sodium channel.

  12. Vector Competence of French Polynesian Aedes aegypti and Aedes polynesiensis for Zika Virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaea Richard

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In 2013-2014, French Polynesia experienced for the first time a Zika outbreak. Two Aedes mosquitoes may have contributed to Zika virus (ZIKV transmission in French Polynesia: the worldwide distributed Ae. aegypti and the Polynesian islands-endemic Ae. polynesiensis mosquito.To evaluate their vector competence for ZIKV, mosquitoes were infected per os at viral titers of 7 logs tissue culture infectious dose 50%. At several days post-infection (dpi, saliva was collected from each mosquito and inoculated onto C6/36 mosquito cells to check for the presence of ZIKV infectious particles. Legs and body of each mosquito were also collected and submitted separately to RNA extraction and ZIKV RT-PCR. In Ae. aegypti the infection rate was high as early as 6 dpi and the dissemination efficiency get substantial from 9 dpi while the both rates remained quite low in Ae. polynesiensis. The transmission efficiency was poor in Ae. aegypti until 14 dpi and no infectious saliva was found in Ae. polynesiensis at the time points studied.In our experimental conditions, the late ability of the French Polynesian Ae. aegypti to transmit ZIKV added by the poor competence of Ae. polynesiensis for this virus suggest the possible contribution of another vector for the propagation of ZIKV during the outbreak, in particular in remote islands where Ae. polynesiensis is predominating.

  13. Proteomic Identification of Dengue Virus Binding Proteins in Aedes aegypti Mosquitoes and Aedes albopictus Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Lourdes Muñoz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The main vector of dengue in America is the mosquito Aedes aegypti, which is infected by dengue virus (DENV through receptors of midgut epithelial cells. The envelope protein (E of dengue virus binds to receptors present on the host cells through its domain III that has been primarily recognized to bind cell receptors. In order to identify potential receptors, proteins from mosquito midgut tissue and C6/36 cells were purified by affinity using columns with the recombinant E protein domain III (rE-DIII or DENV particles bound covalently to Sepharose 4B to compare and evaluate their performance to bind proteins including putative receptors from female mosquitoes of Ae. aegypti. To determine their identity mass spectrometric analysis of purified proteins separated by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis was performed. Our results indicate that both viral particles and rE-DIII bound proteins with the same apparent molecular weights of 57 and 67 kDa. In addition, viral particles bound high molecular weight proteins. Purified proteins identified were enolase, beta-adrenergic receptor kinase (beta-ARK, translation elongation factor EF-1 alpha/Tu, and cadherin.

  14. Larvicidal activity prediction against Aedes aegypti mosquito using computational tools

    OpenAIRE

    Yudith Cañizares-Carmenate; Mirelys Hernandez-Morfa; Francisco Torrens; Gloria Castellano; Juan A Castillo-Garit

    2017-01-01

    Background & objectives: Aedes aegypti is an important vector for transmission of dengue, yellow fever, chikun- gunya, arthritis, and Zika fever. According to the World Health Organization, it is estimated that Ae. aegypti causes 50 million infections and 25,000 deaths per year. Use of larvicidal agents is one of the recommendations of health organizations to control mosquito populations and limit their distribution. The aim of present study was to deduce a mathematical model to predict the l...

  15. Boric acid ovicidal trap for the management of Aedes species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhami, L Charlet; Das, S Sam Manohar

    2015-06-01

    The use of low concentrations of boric acid as a potential and effective control agent for the eggs and immature stages of Aedes aegypti L. and Aedes albopictus Skuse (Diptera: Culicidae) is found to be safe and effective as compared to synthetic chemical insecticides. The study aims to determine the ovicidal concentration of boric acid, its effective concentration for oviposition attraction and the larval mortality concentration for Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus. The ovicidal concentration of boric acid was determined by incubating the eggs in different concentrations of boric acid (0.1, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75 and 1%). Different dilutions of boric acid were taken in the oviposition cup and the ovicidal concentration, effective concentration for oviposition attraction and the mean survival/mortality rate of III and IV instar Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus larvae were determined. The ovicidal concentration of boric acid for 100% mortality in Aedes sp eggs is 1%. Effective concentration for the oviposition attraction is 0.5%. At 1% concentration, larvae of both the species died within 24 h. Boric acid is less toxic compared to different pesticides, and in low concentrations, it attracts the ovipositing female Aedes sp as well as fertile males. Dilute boric acid solution is an effective ovitrap since the eggs laid by mosquitoes either die or the larvae that hatch out from them do not survive in boric acid. Boric acid kills the males that come in contact with the solution, which are attracted to the trap by the females hovering around.

  16. Scientific progress on the Fenton Hill HDR project since 1983

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, D.W.; Duchane, D.V.

    1998-02-01

    The modern HDR concept originated at the Los Alamos National Laboratory and was first demonstrated at Fenton Hill, NM. Experience gained during the development of the deeper HDR reservoir at Fenton Hill clearly showed that HDR reservoirs are formed by opening pre-existing, but sealed, multiply connected joint sets. Subsequent flow testing indicated that sustained operation of HDR systems under steady state conditions is feasible. The most significant remaining HDR issues are related to economics and locational flexibility. Additional field test sites are needed to advance the understanding of HDR technology so that the vast potential of this resource can be economically realized around the world.

  17. Allan Hills 77005 - A new meteorite type found in Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcsween, H. Y., Jr.; Taylor, L. A.; Stolper, E. M.

    1979-01-01

    A unique 482.5 g meteorite found in Antarctica appears to be related by igneous differentiation to shergottite achondrites, which have close similarities with terrestrial basaltic rocks. Zoned maskelynite with similar compositional ranges and plagioclase of such intermediate compositions as are unknown in other achondrites occur in both shergottites and the Allan Hills meteorite. The degree of silica saturation, however, strongly distinguishes the two meteorite types. It is suggested that the Allan Hills meteorite may represent a cumulate rock formed earlier than the shergottites from the same or a similar parent magma.

  18. The Allan Hills icefield and its relationship to meteorite concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annexstad, J. O.

    1982-01-01

    The Allan Hills icefield is described by as a limited icefield that has large concentrations of meteorites. The meteorites appear to be concentrated on the lower limb of an ice monocline with other finds scattered throughout the field. In an attempt to understand the mechanisms of meteorite concentration, a triangulation chain was established across the icefield. This chain is composed of 20 stations, two of which are on bedrock, and extends westward from the Allan Hills a distance of 15 kilometers. The triangulation chain and its relationship to the meteorite concentrations is shown.

  19. 2013 strategic petroleum reserve big hill well integrity grading report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lord, David L.; Roberts, Barry L.; Lord, Anna C. Snider; Bettin, Giorgia; Sobolik, Steven Ronald; Park, Byoung Yoon; Rudeen, David Keith; Eldredge, Lisa; Wynn, Karen; Checkai, Dean; Perry, James Thomas

    2014-02-01

    This report summarizes the work performed in developing a framework for the prioritization of cavern access wells for remediation and monitoring at the Big Hill Strategic Petroleum Reserve site. This framework was then applied to all 28 wells at the Big Hill site with each well receiving a grade for remediation and monitoring. Numerous factors affecting well integrity were incorporated into the grading framework including casing survey results, cavern pressure history, results from geomechanical simulations, and site geologic factors. The framework was developed in a way as to be applicable to all four of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve sites.

  20. [Public drinking water supply and egg laying by Aedes aegypti].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Gisela R A Monteiro; Chaves, Leonardo Suveges Moreira; Serpa, Lígia Leandro Nunes; Arduíno, Marylene de Brito; Chaves, Francisco José Moreira

    2013-06-01

    To evaluate the effect of the quality of publicly supplied water in domestic water tanks on egg laying by female Aedes aegypti. Laboratory study on immature Ae. aegypti, collected from water-tanks in the municipality of Potim, SP, Southeastern Brazil. Each cage contained three types of water in which eggs could be laid: Three choice per test were simultaneously used to deposit the eggs, ovipositor (A) with water collected from a water tank in Taubaté, ovipositor (B) with distilled water (control) and ovipositor (C) water collected from a water tank in the municipality of Potim. Physiochemical parameters were analyzed. The Kruskall-Wallis test was used to analyze the mean number of eggs in each water sample and the Dwass-Steel-Critchlow-Fligner test was used in making comparisons. To evaluate egg laying, an ovipositional activity index was adopted. A significant difference in the number of eggs was found between the liquid solutions tested (H = 45; p water tank samples originating from deep wells (C), was statistically superior to water samples from water tanks originating from superficial wells (A) (p water (A). In all three tests, the first position was the most productive in all tested solutions. Only water sample (C) produced a positive index (0.54), i.e., attractive to egg laying. Water quality influences egg laying by Aedes aegypti. The high concentrations of ammonium nitrate in public water supplies suggest that this chemical component was responsible for attracting pregnant female Aedes aegypti to lay eggs in these environments.

  1. Economic Development Benefits of the Mars Hill Wind Farm, Wind Powering America Rural Economic Development, Case Study (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-06-01

    This case study summarizes the economic development benefits of the Mars Hill Wind Farm to the community of Mars Hill, Maine. The Mars Hill Wind Farm is New England's first utility-scale wind farm.

  2. Pathogenicity of the Aedes albopictus parvovirus (AaPV), a denso-like virus, for Aedes aegypti mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreau, C; Jousset, F X; Bergoin, M

    1996-11-01

    AaPV, a denso-like virus isolated from a C6/36 clone of the Aedes albopictus cell line, proved to be very pathogenic for Aedes aegypti first and third instar larvae following per os infection. The mortality reached 90% in 10 days for larvae infected at the first instar. Several factors, such as temperature, larval density and stage, and duration of contact with infectious particles, influenced infection. The virus titer in females surviving infection at the third larval instar reached 10(8) TCID50. Adult mosquitoes were sensitive to virus inoculation and to cytotransfection by viral DNA. Histological and ultrastructural studies revealed the presence of dense nuclei in almost all of the larval tissues with the exception of the midgut.

  3. Susceptibility of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus larvae to Ascogregarina culicis and Ascogregarina taiwanensis (Apicomplexa: Lecudinidae) from Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Villanueva, Filiberto; Becnel, James J; Butler, Jerry F

    2003-09-01

    The susceptibility of Aedes aegypti to Ascogregarina culicis and Aedes albopictus to Ascogregarina taiwanensis was examined with mosquito and parasite strains from Tampa, FL. When each host was bioassayed with its natural gregarine, the infection intensity indicated that Ae. aegypti was 59% more susceptible to A. culicis (87 gamonts/larva) than Ae. albopictus to A. taiwanensis (47 gamonts/larva). Infections in single and mixed host populations exposed to 100 oocysts/larva of one and both parasites demonstrated that Ae. aegypti harbors higher A. culicis gamont loads than Ae. albopictus of A. taiwanensis. In dual gregarine exposures of single host populations, the A. culicis infection intensity in Ae. aegypti was reduced by approximately 50%. A. taiwanensis exhibited the same capability of infecting Ae. albopictus in single and dual exposures. In mixed host populations there were no cross infections, but A. taiwanensis in Ae. albopictus produced an infection intensity of approximately 70% lower than that of A. culicis in Ae. aegypti.

  4. Truck-mounted Area-wide Application of Pyriproxyfen Targeting Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus in Northeast Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    vegetation in the study area following the pyriproxyfen applications, which was washed and the rinsates collected into containers to which Ae. albopictus...Ziam M. 2002. Effectiveness and residual activity comparison of granular formulations of insect growth regulators pyriproxyfen and s- methoprene against...Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) in Iquitos, Peru . J Med Entomol 42:620–630. Stoops CA, Hanley AM, Clark G, White G. 2014. Dengue and chikungunya vector

  5. Systematic Review: Land Cover, Meteorological, and Socioeconomic Determinants of Aedes Mosquito Habitat for Risk Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asian tiger and yellow fever mosquitoes (Aedes albopictus and Ae. aegypti) are global nuisances and are competent vectors for viruses such as Chikungunya (CHIKV), Dengue (DV), and Zika (ZIKV). This review aims to analyze available spatiotemporal distribution models of Aedes mosqu...

  6. IgE and IgG4 antibody responses to Aedes saliva in African children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remoue, Franck; Alix, Eric; Cornelie, Sylvie; Sokhna, Cheikh; Cisse, Badara; Doucoure, Souleymane; Mouchet, François; Boulanger, Denis; Simondon, François

    2007-01-01

    Aedes mosquitoes are the major vectors of (re)-emerging infections including arboviruses (dengue, Chikungunya, yellow fever) in developing countries. Moreover, the emergence of Aedes-borne diseases in the developed world is currently a source of concern. Evaluation of human immune responses to Aedes bites could be a useful immuno-epidemiological tool for evaluating exposure to Aedes-borne diseases and thus predicting the risk of such emerging diseases. Specific IgE and IgG4 antibody (Ab) responses to Aedes aegypti saliva were evaluated in young Senegalese children living in an area of exposure to the Aedes vector. Specific IgE and IgG4 responses increased during rainy season of high exposure to Aedes bites. In addition, the evolution of anti-saliva isotype levels during the rainy season presented spatial heterogeneity between the studied villages. These preliminaries results support the potential approach of using anti-saliva Ab responses for evaluating exposure to Aedes vectors and risks of emerging arbovirus infections.

  7. Laboratory Evaluation of a Novel Lethal Ovitrap for Control of Aedes aegypti

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus are known to flourish in a variety of natural and residential habitats and are competent vectors of at least 22 different arboviruses including dengue, chikungunya, and zika. Their global distribution, anthropophilic nature, and vector competency make them species ...

  8. Contrasting patterns of insecticide resistance and knockdown resistance (kdr) in the dengue vectors Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus from Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishak, Intan H; Jaal, Zairi; Ranson, Hilary; Wondji, Charles S

    2015-03-25

    Knowledge on the extent, distribution and mechanisms of insecticide resistance is essential for successful insecticide-based dengue control interventions. Here, we report an extensive resistance profiling of the dengue vectors Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus across Malaysia and establish the contribution of knockdown resistance mechanism revealing significant contrast between both species. Aedes mosquitoes were collected from four states in Malaysia in 2010 using ovitraps and tested against six major insecticides using WHO bioassays. Knockdown resistance (kdr) was investigated in both species. A moderate resistance to temephos was detected from samples collected in 2010 in Penang, Kuala Lumpur, Johor Bharu and Kota Bharu (1.5 albopictus contrasted to Ae. aegypti with full susceptibility to pyrethroids except in Kuala Lumpur where moderate resistance is observed. PBO synergist assays suggest metabolic resistance mechanisms play a major role in resistance in both species. Two kdr mutations, F1534C and V1016G, were detected in Ae. aegypti across Malaysia but neither of these mutations were found in Ae. albopictus. Additionally, signatures of selection were detected on the Voltage-gated sodium channel gene in Ae. aegypti but not in Ae. albopictus. The presence of the 1534C allele was significantly associated with pyrethroid resistance and an additive effect to pyrethroid resistance was observed in individuals containing both kdr alleles. Findings from this study will help to design and implement successful insecticide-based interventions against Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus to improve dengue control across Malaysia.

  9. Effects of density dependent larval competition on the life history traits of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sampa Banerjee

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Consequences of larval competition at the population level provide explanation for the differences in relative abundance of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus in different geographical regions. The outcome of competition is assessed through the estimates of the life history traits as a response to varying density and resource available for larval development. In the present study, variations in the life history traits due to density-dependent intra- and inter- specific competition involving A. aegypti and A. albopictus were assessed following the minimalist model. The instar-I larvae (0-day old F2 generation of both Aedes species were reared to the adult stages using the initial rearing density of 1, 2, 4 and 6 (individuals/10ml in multiple replicates. The age at pupation, pupal weight, adult weight and adult wing length of the individuals were considered as the response variables and surrogates of estimating the competitive interactions. Density dependent variations in the competitive interactions were evident for both the mosquitoes with reference to the selected life history traits. In A. aegypti, the life history traits varied with the levels of competition, which was not observed for A. albopictus. Although the density levels considered in the present instance were lower than in earlier studies, the observations were similar, with A. albopictus being competitively superior. It appears that irrespective of the density levels, interspecific competition affects A. aegypti and thus may bear population level consequences and overall abundance in the areas where both species are present.

  10. Morphometric and rheological study of lunar domes of Marius Hills ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    70

    Geology of the study area. Marius Hills region is very significant in Oceanus ...... Authors sincerely thank Dr.Raffaelo Lena and Dr.Christain Wöhler, Geologic. Lunar Research Group and Dr. Guneshwar Thangjam of .... 2000 JE 0 01244. 17. Ivanov, B.A., 2001. Mars/Moon cratering rate ratio estimates. Space Sci. Rev. 96, 87 ...

  11. Back to the Future with Patty Smith Hill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Patricia A.

    2017-01-01

    Generations after her passing, Patty Smith Hill (1868-1946) remains a towering figure in the world of early childhood education. Her words continue to offer insight, not only for those who work with young children, but also for those who help to prepare the teachers of young children for the important work they do--for those who both engage in and…

  12. The Birds of Makerere Hill: A Loss of Biodiversity | Pomeroy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Birds of Makerere Hill: A Loss of Biodiversity. Derek Pomeroy. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/uj.v48i1.23000 · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians ...

  13. Eagle Hill, Kenya: changes over 60 years | Thomsett | Scopus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eagle Hill, the study site of the late Leslie Brown, was first surveyed over 60 years ago in 1948. The demise of its eagle population was near-complete less than 50 years later, but significantly, the majority of these losses occurred in the space of a few years in the late 1970s. Unfortunately, human densities and land use ...

  14. Plants profile of Malakand Pass Hills, District Malakand, Pakistan

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    2011-11-21

    Nov 21, 2011 ... An ethnobotanical survey was conducted in Malakand Pass Hills, District Malakand, Pakistan, during. 2010, in order to document vegetation information and indigenous knowledge about plant use. The area has rich vegetation and a high potential for ethnobotanical utilization. Information was collected.

  15. Amphibian diversity in Shimba Hills National Reserve, Kenya: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We present the first annotated amphibian checklist of Shimba Hills National Reserve (SHNR). The list comprises of 30 currently known amphibians (28 anurans and two caecilians), which includes 11 families and 15 genera. In addition, individual records per species, distribution in the reserve and brief remarks about the ...

  16. Mineralogy of the Pahrump Hills Region, Gale Crater, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampe, E. B.; Ming, D. W.; Vaniman, D. T.; Blake, D. F.; Chipera, S. J.; Morris, R. V.; Bish, D. L.; Cavanagh, P. D.; Achilles, C. N.; Bristow, T. F.; hide

    2015-01-01

    The Pahrump Hills region of Gale crater is a approximately 12 millimeter thick section of sedimentary rocks in the Murray formation, interpreted as the basal geological unit of Mount Sharp. The Mars Science Laboratory, Curiosity, arrived at the Pahrump Hills in September, 2014, and performed a detailed six-month investigation of the sedimentary structures, geochemistry, and mineralogy of the area. During the campaign, Curiosity drilled and delivered three rock samples to its internal instruments, including the CheMin XRD/XRF. The three targets, Confidence Hills, Mojave 2, and Telegraph Peak, contain variable amounts of plagioclase, pyroxene, iron oxides, jarosite, phyllosilicates, and X-ray amorphous material. Hematite was predicted at the base of Mount Sharp from orbital visible/near-IR spectroscopy, and CheMin confirmed this detection. The presence of jarosite throughout Pahrump Hills suggests the sediments experienced acid-sulfate alteration, either in-situ or within the source region of the sediments. This acidic leaching environment is in stark contrast to the environment preserved within the Sheepbed mudstone on the plains of Gale crater. The minerals within Sheepbed, including Fe-saponite, indicate these sediments were deposited in a shallow lake with circumneutral pH that may have been habitable.

  17. Conflict and development in the hill settlements of Guwahati | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-11-17

    Nov 17, 2016 ... In this 2016 study on informal hill settlements in Guwahati, researchers with CEPT University's Centre for Urban Equity and the Society for Social Transformation and Environmental Protection shed light on how gaps in planning and governance have fueled conflict. It reveals how land policy, legislation, and ...

  18. Foraminifera from the deep lake terraces, Vestfold hills, Antarctica

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Setty, M.G.A.P.; Williams, R.; Kerry, K.R.

    Fourteen species of planktonic and forty-two species of benthonic foraminifera are identified from two transects of terraces near Deep Lake in the Vestfold Hills, Antarctica. All the planktonic and a few of the benthonic species occur on the western...

  19. Hills for the Head. Art across the Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartorius, Tara Cady

    2000-01-01

    Provides information on Maltby Sykes, the painter, addressing issues such as his assignment during World War II, being an apprentice to Diego Rivera, and his relationship with George C. Miller. Discusses both the painting and the sketch titled "Hills." Includes activities in geography, visual art, history, and mathematics. (CMK)

  20. 78 FR 73187 - Black Hills National Forest Advisory Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-05

    ... fire and mountain pine beetle epidemics, travel management, forest monitoring and evaluation...; (3) update and discussion with working group on Motorized Travel on trails in the Black Hills...: The agenda will include time for people to make oral statements of three minutes or less. Individuals...

  1. Indigenous Knowledge in the Management of Nandi Hills Forests ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigates a variety of indigenous practices and considers their impact and implications for forest management in the Nandi Hills Forests of western Kenya. A total of 882 households were sampled initially using qualitative questionnaires. Cconvenience sampling of people who were easy to access, i.e., those ...

  2. Tree species composition, structure and utilisation in Maruzi Hills ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated the tree species composition, vegetation structure and harvesting pattern to guide management of the Maruzi Hills Forest Reserve. Stratified random sampling was used to site six (100 m × 100 m) permanent sample plots in the woodland, bushland and grassland vegetation types identified in the ...

  3. The Hill analysis and co-ion-driven transporter kinetics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lolkema, Juke S; Slotboom, Dirk-Jan

    Interaction of multiple ligands with a protein or protein complex is a widespread phenomenon that allows for cooperativity. Here, we review the use of the Hill equation, which is commonly used to analyze binding or kinetic data, to analyze the kinetics of ion-coupled transporters and show how the

  4. The hymenopterous pollinators of Himalayan foot hills of Pakistan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies were undertaken to explore the diversity of hymenopterans pollinators from a diverse agroecosystems of Himalayan foot hills comprising the orchards of pome and stone fruits at different altitudes from 2200 to 3000 m from sea level. Field experiments were conducted on seven commercial fruit orchards at five ...

  5. Indigenous uses of economically important flora of Margallah Hills ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Informal interviews provided data about 245 useful plants of 77 families of 55 trees, 54 shrubs, 105 herbs, 15 climber, 10 grasses and 6 crops recorded from the Margallah Hills National Park, Islamabad. Two hundred and fifteen local/ vernacular names were noted of total plants. The inhabitants of the park have for a long ...

  6. Composition, structure, and dynamics of the Illinois Ozark Hills Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisa M. Helmig; James S. Fralish

    2011-01-01

    In the mature oak-hickory ecosystem of the Illinois Ozark Hills, forest community composition, dynamics, and structure were studied to examine the extent of conversion to mesophytic species and eventually predict the broad threshold time of complete conversion. Tree, sapling, and seedling data were collected from 87 plots distributed throughout the region. Data for the...

  7. Key tiger habitats in the Garo Hills of Meghalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashish Kumar; Bruce G. Marcot

    2010-01-01

    We describe assumed tiger habitat characteristics and attempt to identify potential tiger habitats in the Garo Hills region of Meghalaya, North East India. Conserving large forest tracts and protected wildlife habitats provides an opportunity for restoring populations of wide-ranging wildlife such as tigers and elephants. Based on limited field observations coupled...

  8. Atmostpheric simulations of extreme surface heating episodes on simple hills

    Science.gov (United States)

    W.E. Heilman

    1992-01-01

    A two-dimensional nonhydrostatic atmospheric model was used to simulate the circulation patterns (wind and vorticity) and turbulence energy fields associated with lines of extreme surface heating on simple two-dimensional hills. Heating-line locations and ambient crossflow conditions were varied to qualitatively determine the impact of terrain geometry on the...

  9. Geology, geochemistry and geochronology of the Songwe Hill carbonatite, Malawi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broom-Fendley, Sam; Brady, Aoife E.; Horstwood, Matthew S. A.; Woolley, Alan R.; Mtegha, James; Wall, Frances; Dawes, Will; Gunn, Gus

    2017-10-01

    Songwe Hill, Malawi, is one of the least studied carbonatites but has now become particularly important as it hosts a relatively large rare earth deposit. The results of new mapping, petrography, geochemistry and geochronology indicate that the 0.8 km diameter Songwe Hill is distinct from the other Chilwa Alkaline Province carbonatites in that it intruded the side of the much larger (4 × 6 km) and slightly older (134.6 ± 4.4 Ma) Mauze nepheline syenite and then evolved through three different carbonatite compositions (C1-C3). Early C1 carbonatite is scarce and is composed of medium-coarse-grained calcite carbonatite containing zircons with a U-Pb age of 132.9 ± 6.7 Ma. It is similar to magmatic carbonatite in other carbonatite complexes at Chilwa Island and Tundulu in the Chilwa Alkaline Province and others worldwide. The fine-grained calcite carbonatite (C2) is the most abundant stage at Songwe Hill, followed by a more REE- and Sr-rich ferroan calcite carbonatite (C3). Both stages C2 and C3 display evidence of extensive (carbo)-hydrothermal overprinting that has produced apatite enriched in HREE (age of the large Mauze nepheline syenite suggests it may have acted as a heat source driving a hydrothermal system that has differentiated Songwe Hill from other Chilwa carbonatites.

  10. Adaptation of generalized Hill inequalities to anisotropic elastic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Keywords: Generalized Hill Inequalities, Elastic Constants, Anisotropic Elastic Symmetries, ... In literature, Dinçkal and Akgöz (2010) decomposed elastic constant tensor into ...... Science Reports of the Research Institutes Tohoku University A- Physics Chemistry and ... Wright, A., Faraday, C.S.N., White, E.F.T., et al., 1971.

  11. Laboratory study of competition between United States strains of Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, W C; Rai, K S; Turco, B J; Arroyo, D C

    1989-07-01

    Mosquito abatement workers in Houston, Tex., and New Orleans, La., have observed that the recent introduction of Aedes albopictus (Skuse) has been accompanied by a decline and virtual disappearance of Ae. aegypti (L.). This suggests competitive displacement but contradicts the direction of displacement observed in native habitats of Ae. albopictus. The paper reports a series of laboratory studies on competition between U.S. strains of the two species. Larval survivorship, size, and development time were monitored in increasing densities of pure and mixed cultures of the two species under limited and optimal diets. Oviposition preferences were examined by offering gravid females cups containing first or fourth instars of either species. Ethological isolation was studied by simultaneously offering virgin females of one species to males of both species and monitoring courtship behavior as well as rates of oviposition, percentage of hatch, and embryonation. The results of the larval competition studies suggest that interspecific competition increased development time only slightly and had no effect on survival of Ae. albopictus. Competition increased survival in Ae. aegypti. Size of both species was influenced by interspecific competition, but the magnitude and direction of the effect was inconsistent between strains and diets such that neither species emerged consistently larger. The results of the oviposition study indicated a higher fecundity in Ae. aegypti but otherwise demonstrated that both species oviposit without regard to the presence, age, or species of larvae in the oviposition container. The ethological isolation tests demonstrated that Ae. aegypti males were more sexually aggressive than males or Ae. albopictus. However, Ae. albopitus females placed with increasing densities of Ae. aegypti males demonstrated no decrease in rates of oviposition, and eggs laid showed equal rates of hatch and embryonation. In general, the results do not suggest that the U

  12. Aedes albopictus and Aedes japonicus - two invasive mosquito species with different temperature niches in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunze, Sarah; Koch, Lisa K; Kochmann, Judith; Klimpel, Sven

    2016-11-04

    Aedes albopictus and Ae. japonicus are two of the most widespread invasive mosquito species that have recently become established in western Europe. Both species are associated with the transmission of a number of serious diseases and are projected to continue their spread in Europe. In the present study, we modelled the habitat suitability for both species under current and future climatic conditions by means of an Ensemble forecasting approach. We additionally compared the modelled MAXENT niches of Ae. albopictus and Ae. japonicus regarding temperature and precipitation requirements. Both species were modelled to find suitable habitat conditions in distinct areas within Europe: Ae. albopictus within the Mediterranean regions in southern Europe, Ae. japonicus within the more temperate regions of central Europe. Only in few regions, suitable habitat conditions were projected to overlap for both species. Whereas Ae. albopictus is projected to be generally promoted by climate change in Europe, the area modelled to be climatically suitable for Ae. japonicus is projected to decrease under climate change. This projection of range reduction under climate change relies on the assumption that Ae. japonicus is not able to adapt to warmer climatic conditions. The modelled MAXENT temperature niches of Ae. japonicus were found to be narrower with an optimum at lower temperatures compared to the niches of Ae. albopictus. Species distribution models identifying areas with high habitat suitability can help improving monitoring programmes for invasive species currently in place. However, as mosquito species are known to be able to adapt to new environmental conditions within the invasion range quickly, niche evolution of invasive mosquito species should be closely followed upon in future studies.

  13. Vector Competence of Aedes aegypti and Aedes polynesiensis Populations from French Polynesia for Chikungunya Virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaea Richard

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available From October 2014 to March 2015, French Polynesia experienced for the first time a chikungunya outbreak. Two Aedes mosquitoes may have contributed to chikungunya virus (CHIKV transmission in French Polynesia: the worldwide distributed Ae. aegypti and the Polynesian islands-endemic Ae. polynesiensis mosquito.To investigate the vector competence of French Polynesian populations of Ae. aegypti and Ae. polynesiensis for CHIKV, mosquitoes were exposed per os at viral titers of 7 logs tissue culture infectious dose 50%. At 2, 6, 9, 14 and 21 days post-infection (dpi, saliva was collected from each mosquito and inoculated onto C6/36 mosquito cells to check for the presence of CHIKV infectious particles. Legs and body (thorax and abdomen of each mosquito were also collected at the different dpi and submitted separately to viral RNA extraction and CHIKV real-time RT-PCR.CHIKV infection rate, dissemination and transmission efficiencies ranged from 7-90%, 18-78% and 5-53% respectively for Ae. aegypti and from 39-41%, 3-17% and 0-14% respectively for Ae. polynesiensis, depending on the dpi. Infectious saliva was found as early as 2 dpi for Ae. aegypti and from 6 dpi for Ae. polynesiensis. Our laboratory results confirm that the French Polynesian population of Ae. aegypti is highly competent for CHIKV and they provide clear evidence for Ae. polynesiensis to act as an efficient CHIKV vector.As supported by our findings, the presence of two CHIKV competent vectors in French Polynesia certainly contributed to enabling this virus to quickly disseminate from the urban/peri-urban areas colonized by Ae. aegypti to the most remote atolls where Ae. polynesiensis is predominating. Ae. polynesiensis was probably involved in the recent chikungunya outbreaks in Samoa and the Cook Islands. Moreover, this vector may contribute to the risk for CHIKV to emerge in other Polynesian islands like Fiji, and more particularly Wallis where there is no Ae. aegypti.

  14. Population genetic structure and competence as a vector for dengue type 2 virus of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus from Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazeille, M; Mousson, L; Rakatoarivony, I; Villeret, R; Rodhain, F; Duchemin, J B; Failloux, A B

    2001-11-01

    Starch gel electrophoresis was used to assess the polymorphism of 7 isoenzymes in single mosquitoes (field-collected F0 or F1 generation) for Aedes albopictus (8 strains) from northern Madagascar. Mosquitoes of the F2 generation (3 strains of Aedes aegypti and 10 strains of Ae. albopictus) were tested for oral susceptibility to dengue type 2 virus. Aedes aegypti was less susceptible to viral infection than Ae. albopictus. The genetic differentiation was less high between Ae. albopictus populations collected in agglomerations connected by highly frequented roads, indicating that human ground transportation favors mosquito dispersal. These results have implications for the ecology, pattern of migration, and relative importance in epidemic transmission of dengue viruses between the 2 Aedes species.

  15. Aedes albopictus emergency. Mosquito control in the area of U.S.L. 16; L` emergenza aedes albopictus: il controllo delle zanzare nel territorio dell`ULSS 19

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalla Pozza, G. [DPM, Bologna (Italy); Galuppo, M.; Magagni, A. [AMNIUP, Padova (Italy)

    1995-03-01

    The presented paper deal with the mosquito control in the Padova district (Italy). Control strategies and operative planning are reported, together with an example of census schedule. Further development in aedes albopictus control are pointed out.

  16. 76 FR 16296 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Pocomoke River, Snow Hill, MD

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-23

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Pocomoke River, Snow Hill, MD AGENCY... the S12 Bridge across Pocomoke River, mile 29.9, at Snow Hill, MD. The deviation restricts the... least five hours advance notice is given. The S12 Bridge across Pocomoke River, mile 29.9 at Snow Hill...

  17. 75 FR 52461 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Pocomoke River, Snow Hill, MD

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-26

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Pocomoke River, Snow Hill, MD AGENCY... the S12 ] Bridge across the Pocomoke River, mile 29.9, at Snow Hill, MD. The deviation restricts the... hours advance notice is given. The S12 Bridge across Pocomoke River, mile 29.9 at Snow Hill MD, has a...

  18. Teachers Guide to the Shakers at Pleasant Hill. A Resource Unit for Elementary Teachers. Intermediate Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakertown at Pleasant Hill, Kentucky, Inc., Harrodsburg.

    The guide provides activities for use with children in grades four through six before and after a field trip to Shakertown at Pleasant Hill. Established as a Shaker community in 1805, Pleasant Hill now has 27 buildings restored and open for public use. The study of Pleasant Hill can be used as an example of rural or village life in nineteenth…

  19. Phosphorus forms in soils of Oban Hills, Akamkpa, Cross River State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Oban Hills is located at Akamkpa in the Southern Senatorial District of Cross River, State, Nigeria. Phosphorus (P)-rich soil from the Hills is expected to have an effect on retention and distribution in the highly acidic soils surrounding the area inundated for several years. Phosphorus forms in the soils of the Hills varied with ...

  20. Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae): coexistence and susceptibility to temephos, in municipalities with occurrence of dengue and differentiated characteristics of urbanization

    OpenAIRE

    Josiane Somariva Prophiro; Onilda Santos Silva; Jonny Edward Duque Luna; Carla Fernanda Piccoli; Luiz Alberto Kanis; Mario Antonio Navarro da Silva

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The aim of the present study was to verify the coexistence between Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus populations in municipalities of the States of Paraná and Santa Catarina with different urbanization profiles where dengue occurs and evaluate their susceptibility to the organophosphate temephos. METHODS: The number of eggs per ovitrap were counted and incubated for hatching to identify the species. Data analysis of the populations was conducted to determine randomness and aggr...

  1. Primeiro registro de Aedes (Stegomyia albopictus no Estado do Ceará, Brasil First report of Aedes (Stegomyia albopictus in the state of Ceará, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Emanuel Pessoa Martins

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Pela primeira vez é registrada a ocorrência de Aedes (Stegomyia albopictus em área urbana da cidade de Fortaleza, no Estado do Ceará, Brasil. De janeiro a julho de 2005 foram utilizadas ovitrampas para a coleta de ovos de Aedes spp., os quais foram mantidos em laboratório para desenvolvimento até a fase adulta. Os mosquitos resultantes foram identificados e submetidos a testes para o isolamento dos vírus da dengue. Foram identificados 13 espécimes de Aedes albopictus, todos fêmeas. Não foi isolado vírus da dengue em nenhum dos pools de mosquitos. Apesar de o Aedes albopictus não ter sido incriminado por surtos de dengue no Brasil, não se pode descartar a possibilidade da transmissão dos vírus da dengue por tais mosquitos.For the first time, the occurrence of Aedes (Stegomyia albopictus in an urban area of the city of Fortaleza, Northeastern, Brazil, is reported. From January to July 2005, ovitraps were used to collect eggs from Aedes spp., which were kept under laboratory conditions to develop into the adult phase. The resultant mosquitoes were identified and subjected to dengue virus isolation tests. Thirteen specimens of Aedes albopictus, all females, were identified. No dengue virus was isolated in any of the mosquito pools. Even though Aedes albopictus has not been incriminated in Brazilian dengue outbreaks, the possibility of dengue virus transmission by these mosquitoes cannot be dismissed.

  2. Avaliação preliminar de óleos essenciais de plantas como repelentes para Aedes albopictus (Skuse, 1894 (Diptera: Culicidae Preliminary evaluation of plant essential oils as repellents against Aedes albopictus (Skuse, 1894 (Diptera: Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.S Bueno

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Óleos essenciais de plantas têm sido formulados de forma caseira ou colocados no mercado de forma artesanal para repelir mosquitos hematófagos. O presente trabalho avaliou o possível efeito repelente de alguns excipientes normalmente usados em formulações comerciais e de óleos essenciais de nove plantas, sobre fêmeas de Aedes albopictus. Os testes foram realizados em caixas contendo mosquitos, oferecendo-se uma área definida de dedos da mão tratados ou não. Exceto pelo creme Lanatte e os géis de carbopol, as substâncias excipientes avaliadas mostraram ação repelente. Apenas os óleos provenientes de citronela (5 e 10% resultaram em repelência expressiva, com índices médiosde proteção acimade 98%. Os resultados indicam que a metodologia empregada é adequada para a avaliação preliminar de produtos com potencial para a repelência de mosquitos.Plant essential oils have been domestically formulated or marketed as handcraft products to repel hematophagous mosquitoes. This work evaluated the possible repellent effect of both excipients normally used in commercial formulations and essential oils from nine plants against Aedes albopictus females. The assays were carried out in boxes containing mosquitoes, where a defined area of treated or non-treated fingers was offered. Except for Lanatte cream and carbopol gels, the evaluated excipients had repellent action. Only the oils from citronella (5 and 10% presented expressive repellent action, with mean protection indexes above 98%. The results indicate that the used methodology is appropriate for the preliminary evaluation of products with potential to repel mosquitoes.

  3. Susceptibility of larvae of Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus (Diptera: Culicidae to entomopathogenic nematode Heterorhabditis bacteriophora (Poinar (Rhabditida: Heterorhabditidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María L. PESCHIUTTA

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus (Diptera: Culicidae es vector de los agentes etiológicos de la fiebre amarilla y del dengue. Una alternativa al control químico de este vector es el uso de agentes biológicos. Los nematodos entomopatógenos son efectivos en el control de plagas. La infectividad y el ciclo de vida de un aislado argentino de Heterorhabditis bacteriophora Poinar (Rhabditida: Heterorhabditidae en larvas de A. aegypti se registró por primera vez bajo condiciones de laborato - rio. Para cada unidad experimental, 30 larvas de mosquito de segundo estadio fueron expuestas a 8 dosis del nematodo (0:1, 1:1, 5:1, 15:1, 100:1, 500:1, 750:1, 1500:1. Los juveniles infectivos (JIs utilizados fueron multiplicados sobre Galleria mellonella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae. La continuidad infectiva de los JIs obtenidos de A. aegypti fue probada aplicándolos en una dosis de 100:1 sobre larvas del mosquito . Las tasas de mortalidad fueron de 0% a 84%. El número de nematodos desarrollados dentro de la larva de mosquito, la mortalidad larval y los nuevos JIs se incrementaron con el aumento de la dosis de nematodos. Los resultados indican que H. bacteriophora es capaz de infectar larvas de A. aegypti , se desarrolla y produce nuevos JIs, permitiendo la continuidad de su ciclo de vida.

  4. Dynamics of the control of Aedes (Stegomyia aegypti Linnaeus (Diptera, Culicidae by Bacillus thuringiensis var israelensis, related with temperature, density and concentration of insecticide Dinâmica do controle de Aedes (Stegomyia aegypti Linnaeus, (Diptera, Culicidae por Bacillus thuringiensis var israelensis, relacionada com a temperatura, densidade e concentração do inseticida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonny E. Duque L

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The dynamics of the control of Aedes (Stegomyia aegypti Linnaeus, (Diptera, Culicidae by Bacillus thuringiensis var israelensis has been related with the temperature, density and concentration of the insecticide. A mathematical model for biological control of Aedes aegypti with Bacillus thuringiensis var israelensis (Bti was constructed by using data from the literature regarding the biology of the vector. The life cycle was described by differential equations. Lethal concentrations (LC50 and LC95 of Bti were determined in the laboratory under different experimental conditions. Temperature, colony, larvae density and bioinsecticide concentration presented marked differences in the analysis of the whole set of variables; although when analyzed individually, only the temperature and concentration showed changes. The simulations indicated an inverse relationship between temperature and mosquito population, nonetheless, faster growth of populations is reached at higher temperatures. As conclusion, the model suggests the use of integrated control strategies for immature and adult mosquitoes in order to achieve a reduction of Aedes aegypti.Foi elaborado um modelo matemático do controle biológico de Aedes aegypti com foco em Bacillus thuringiensis var israelensis (Bti. Na construção do modelo foram utilizados dados da literatura sobre a biologia do vetor, no qual o ciclo de vida foi descrito através de equações diferenciais. As concentrações letais (CL50 e CL95 do Bti foram determinadas no laboratório sob diferentes condições experimentais. As variáveis temperatura, colônia, densidade de larvas e concentração do bioinseticida acusaram diferenças significativas quando analisadas no modelo geral, porém quando analisadas individualmente, apenas a temperatura e concentração apresentaram diferenças. As simulações do modelo indicam que a temperatura afeta inversamente a produção de indivíduos e que os pontos máximos de produ

  5. Aktivitas Beberapa Atraktan Pada Perangkap Telur Berperekat Terhadap Aedes aegypti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milana Salim

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available AbstractControl of Aedes aegypti mosquito as dengue haemorrhagic fever/DHF vector can be conducted using the ovitrap modified into a sticky ovitrap. The addition of attractant substances to the ovitrap can attract more mosquitoes comes to the trap, and prevent mosquitoes laying eggs in other places. The aim of this research was to compare hay infusion water and larva rearing water as attractant which combined with sugar-apple (Annona squamosa seed extract by counting the mosquitoes and eggs trapped. This research used six types medium: hay infusion water, larva rearing water, hay infusion water + sugar-apple seed extract, larva rearing water + sugar-apple seed extract, aquadest + sugar-apple seed extract, and aquadest only as a control. Sample used were 25 gravid female of Ae. aegypti mosquitoes with five replications. Mosquitoes and eggs which trapped were counted. This research showed that the number of mosquito trapped and eggs hatched more found in sticky ovitrap with hay infusion water. Statistic analyzed by ANOVA showed that there is no significant difference towards number off mosquito trapped in sticky ovitrap (p>0,05 whereas the medium material has significant difference towards number off egg hatched than others (p<0,05.Keywords: Sticky ovitrap, attractant, Aedes aegypti AbstrakPengendalian nyamuk Aedes aegypti sebagai vektor demam berdarah dengue/DBD dapat dilakukan menggunakan ovitrap yang dimodifikasi dengan perekat menjadi sticky ovitrap. Penambahan atraktan pada ovitrap dapat menarik lebih banyak nyamuk datang ke perangkap yang dipasang dan mencegah nyamuk bertelur di tempat lain. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui aktivitas atraktan air rendaman jerami dan air bekas kolonisasi yang dikombinasikan dengan ekstrak biji srikaya pada sticky ovitrap terhadap jumlah nyamuk dan telur yang ditemukan. Enam jenis media uji digunakan dalam penelitian ini yaitu air rendaman jerami, air bekas kolonisasi nyamuk, air rendaman jerami

  6. History of domestication and spread of Aedes aegypti - A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey R Powell

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The adaptation of insect vectors of human diseases to breed in human habitats (domestication is one of the most important phenomena in medical entomology. Considerable data are available on the vector mosquito Aedes aegypti in this regard and here we integrate the available information including genetics, behaviour, morphology, ecology and biogeography of the mosquito, with human history. We emphasise the tremendous amount of variation possessed by Ae. aegypti for virtually all traits considered. Typological thinking needs to be abandoned to reach a realistic and comprehensive understanding of this important vector of yellow fever, dengue and Chikungunya.

  7. Tempat Perkembangbiakan Nyamuk Aedes spp. Di Pasar Wisata Pangandaran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joni Hendri

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available An observation of Aedes spp. breeding places in water container was carried out located at Pasar Wisata Pangandaran. The final results showed that larvae were found mostly in bucket (28,21 %, container with plastic based goods (87,18 % and container with blue colors (33,33%. The House Index (HI rate was 29,20 %, Container Index (CI rate was 9,30 %, Breteau Index (BI rate was 40,6. The research to, showed the barrels or drum was been most productive container with Pupae Index (PI rate was 25,42.

  8. Evaluation of a sticky trap (AedesTraP), made from disposable plastic bottles, as a monitoring tool for Aedes aegypti populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Santos, Eloína Maria Mendonça; de Melo-Santos, Maria Alice Varjal; de Oliveira, Claudia Maria Fontes; Correia, Juliana Cavalcanti; de Albuquerque, Cleide Maria Ribeiro

    2012-09-07

    Dengue virus, which is transmitted by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes is the most important emerging viral disease, infecting more than 50 million people annually. Currently used sticky traps are useful tools for monitoring and control of A. aegypti, despite differences in efficiency, labor requirements and cost. In the present work, a field assay was carried out to evaluate the performance of a sticky trap (AedesTrap), produced using disposable material, in capturing gravid Aedes spp. females. Additionally, conditions necessary for the improved performance of the device, such as number of traps per site and location (indoors or outdoors) were evaluated. During a one year period, traps were placed in a dengue endemic area in 28 day cycles. The trap, named AedesTrap, consisted of a disposable plastic soda bottle coated inside with colophony resin, which served as a sticky substrate. Disposable bottles were donated by restaurants, and traps were made by laboratory staff, reducing the cost of the sticky trap (less than U$3). Mosquito capture in indoor and outdoor areas was compared by placing the traps in laundry room, kitchen or bedroom (indoors) and front or back yard (outdoors). The relationship between the number of AedesTraps and quantity of captured mosquitoes was investigated by utilizing one or three traps/site. During a 28 day cycle, a single AedesTrap was capable of capturing up to 15 A. aegypti in a house, with a mean capture of 0.5 to 2.63 females per premise. The AedesTrap collected three times more outdoors versus indoors. Similarly, the capability of detecting Aedes spp. infestation, and of capturing females, was three times higher when using three AedesTraps per house, compared with one trap per house. AedesTrap was shown to be capable of capturing A. aegypti and other culicidae, providing information on the adult mosquito population, and allowing the identification of areas critically infested by mosquitoes. Low requirements for skilled labor

  9. Especificidade da armadilha Adultrap para capturar fêmeas de Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae Specificity of the Adultrap for capturing females of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almério de Castro Gomes

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available A Adultrap é uma nova armadilha feita para capturar fêmeas de Aedes aegypti. Foram realizados testes para avaliar sua especificidade tendo como referência a técnica da aspiração da espécie em abrigos artificiais. A Adultrap ficou exposta por 24 horas no intradomicílio e peridomicílio de 120 casas sorteadas em dois bairros da Cidade de Foz do Iguaçu, Estado do Paraná. O teste estatístico foi o modelo log-linear de Poisson. O resultado foi a captura de 726 mosquitos Culicidae, dos quais 80 eram Aedes aegypti. A Adultrap capturou apenas fêmeas desta espécie, enquanto o aspirador os dois sexos de Aedes aegypti e mais cinco outras espécies. A Adultrap capturou Aedes aegypti dentro e fora das casas, mas a análise indicou que no peridomicílio a armadilha capturou significantemente mais fêmeas do que a aspiração. Também, ficou evidenciada a sensibilidade da Adultrap para detectar Aedes aegypti em situação de baixa freqüência.The Adultrap is a new trap built for capturing females of Aedes aegypti. Tests were carried out to evaluate the specificity of this trap in comparison with the technique of aspiration of specimens in artificial shelters. Adultraps were kept for 24 hours inside and outside 120 randomly selected homes in two districts of the city of Foz do Iguaçú, State of Paraná. The statistical test was Poisson’s log-linear model. The result was 726 mosquitoes captured, of which 80 were Aedes aegypti. The Adultrap captured only females of this species, while the aspiration method captured both sexes of Aedes aegypti and another five species. The Adultrap captured Aedes aegypti inside and outside the homes, but the analysis indicated that, outside the homes, this trap captured significantly more females than aspiration did. The sensitivity of the Adultrap for detecting females of Aedes aegypti in low-frequency situations was also demonstrated.

  10. Evaluation of a sticky trap (AedesTraP, made from disposable plastic bottles, as a monitoring tool for Aedes aegypti populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Santos Eloína Maria

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dengue virus, which is transmitted by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes is the most important emerging viral disease, infecting more than 50 million people annually. Currently used sticky traps are useful tools for monitoring and control of A. aegypti, despite differences in efficiency, labor requirements and cost. In the present work, a field assay was carried out to evaluate the performance of a sticky trap (AedesTrap, produced using disposable material, in capturing gravid Aedes spp. females. Additionally, conditions necessary for the improved performance of the device, such as number of traps per site and location (indoors or outdoors were evaluated. Methods During a one year period, traps were placed in a dengue endemic area in 28 day cycles. The trap, named AedesTrap, consisted of a disposable plastic soda bottle coated inside with colophony resin, which served as a sticky substrate. Disposable bottles were donated by restaurants, and traps were made by laboratory staff, reducing the cost of the sticky trap (less than U$3. Mosquito capture in indoor and outdoor areas was compared by placing the traps in laundry room, kitchen or bedroom (indoors and front or back yard (outdoors. The relationship between the number of AedesTraps and quantity of captured mosquitoes was investigated by utilizing one or three traps/site. Results During a 28 day cycle, a single AedesTrap was capable of capturing up to 15 A. aegypti in a house, with a mean capture of 0.5 to 2.63 females per premise. The AedesTrap collected three times more outdoors versus indoors. Similarly, the capability of detecting Aedes spp. infestation, and of capturing females, was three times higher when using three AedesTraps per house, compared with one trap per house. Conclusions AedesTrap was shown to be capable of capturing A. aegypti and other culicidae, providing information on the adult mosquito population, and allowing the identification of areas critically

  11. Identification of Essential Containers for Aedes Larval Breeding to Control Dengue in Dhaka, Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferdousi, Farhana; Yoshimatsu, Shoji; Ma, Enbo; Sohel, Nazmul; Wagatsuma, Yukiko

    2015-12-01

    Dengue fever (DF), one of the most important emerging arboviral diseases, is transmitted through the bite of container breeding mosquitoes Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus. A household entomological survey was conducted in Dhaka from August through October 2000 to inspect water-holding containers in indoor, outdoor, and rooftop locations for Aedes larvae. The objective of this study was to determine mosquito productivity of each container type and to identify some risk factors of households infested with Aedes larvae. Of 9,222 households inspected, 1,306 (14.2%) were positive for Aedes larvae. Of 38,777 wet containers examined, 2,272 (5.8%) were infested with Aedes larvae. Containers used to hold water, such as earthen jars, tanks, and drums were the most common containers for larval breeding. Tires in outdoor and rooftop locations of the households were also important for larval breeding. Although present in abundance, buckets were of less importance. Factors such as independent household, presence of a water storage system in the house, and fully/partly shaded outdoors were found to be significantly associated with household infestation of Aedes larvae. Identification and subsequent elimination of the most productive containers in a given area may potentially reduce mosquito density to below a level at which dengue transmission may be halted.

  12. Diversity and biogeography of land snails (Mollusca, Gastropoda) in the limestone hills of Perak, Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foon, Junn Kitt; Clements, Gopalasamy Reuben; Liew, Thor-Seng

    2017-01-01

    Limestone hills are now gaining global conservation attention as hotspots for short-range endemic species. Levels of land snail endemism can be high at limestone hills, especially at hill clusters that are geographically isolated. In the State of Perak, Peninsular Malaysia, limestone hills have been opportunistically surveyed for land snails in the past, but the majority have yet to be surveyed. To address this knowledge gap, we systematically surveyed the terrestrial malacofauna of 12 limestone hills that, based on our opinion, are a representation of the limestone land snail assemblages within the State. Our inventory yielded high sampling completeness (>85%). We found 122 species of land snails, of which 34 species were unique to one of the surveyed hills. We identified 30 species that are potentially new to science. The number of land snail species recorded at each hill ranged between 39 and 63 species. Four of the sampled limestone hills namely, Prk 01 G. Tempurung, Prk 55 G. Pondok, Prk 47 Kanthan, and Prk 64 Bt Kepala Gajah, have high levels of species richness and unique species, representing 91% of the total species recorded in this study. We identified two clusters of limestone hills in central Perak with distinct differences in land snail species composition - a northern hill cluster on elevated granite bedrock and southern hill cluster in a low-lying valley surrounded by alluvial soils. As limestone hills continue to be quarried to meet the cement demand, the four identified limestone hills, along with other hills from the two clusters, warrant urgent conservation attention in order to maintain high species diversity within Perak's terrestrial malacofauna.

  13. Diversity and biogeography of land snails (Mollusca, Gastropoda) in the limestone hills of Perak, Peninsular Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foon, Junn Kitt; Clements, Gopalasamy Reuben; Liew, Thor-Seng

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Limestone hills are now gaining global conservation attention as hotspots for short-range endemic species. Levels of land snail endemism can be high at limestone hills, especially at hill clusters that are geographically isolated. In the State of Perak, Peninsular Malaysia, limestone hills have been opportunistically surveyed for land snails in the past, but the majority have yet to be surveyed. To address this knowledge gap, we systematically surveyed the terrestrial malacofauna of 12 limestone hills that, based on our opinion, are a representation of the limestone land snail assemblages within the State. Our inventory yielded high sampling completeness (>85%). We found 122 species of land snails, of which 34 species were unique to one of the surveyed hills. We identified 30 species that are potentially new to science. The number of land snail species recorded at each hill ranged between 39 and 63 species. Four of the sampled limestone hills namely, Prk 01 G. Tempurung, Prk 55 G. Pondok, Prk 47 Kanthan, and Prk 64 Bt Kepala Gajah, have high levels of species richness and unique species, representing 91% of the total species recorded in this study. We identified two clusters of limestone hills in central Perak with distinct differences in land snail species composition – a northern hill cluster on elevated granite bedrock and southern hill cluster in a low-lying valley surrounded by alluvial soils. As limestone hills continue to be quarried to meet the cement demand, the four identified limestone hills, along with other hills from the two clusters, warrant urgent conservation attention in order to maintain high species diversity within Perak’s terrestrial malacofauna. PMID:28769723

  14. Meteorological observations in support of a hill cap cloud experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, Morten

    1998-06-01

    Humid air flows form a hill cap cloud over the Agana mountain ridge in the north-east of Tenerife. The HILLCLOUD project utilised this cloud formation to investigate the chemical and physical properties of cloud aerosols by land based observations. The project was part of the second Aerosol characterisation Experiment (ACE-2) of the International Global Atmospheric chemistry project (IGAC). The present report describes meteorological observations in support of the hill cap cloud experiment. Time-series of wind speed, wind direction, temperature and humidity were collected at ground-based meteorological stations during a period starting one year in advance of the main campaign. A series of radiosonde detecting the upstream stability and wind profile were launched during the main campaign. (au) 5 tabs., 32 ills., 6 refs.

  15. Carbon-14 ages of Allan Hills meteorites and ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fireman, E. L.; Norris, T.

    1982-01-01

    Allan Hills is a blue ice region of approximately 100 sq km area in Antarctica where many meteorites have been found exposed on the ice. The terrestrial ages of the Allan Hills meteorites, which are obtained from their cosmogenic nuclide abundances are important time markers which can reflect the history of ice movement to the site. The principal purpose in studying the terrestrial ages of ALHA meteorites is to locate samples of ancient ice and analyze their trapped gas contents. Attention is given to the C-14 and Ar-39 terrestrial ages of ALHA meteorites, and C-14 ages and trapped gas compositions in ice samples. On the basis of the obtained C-14 terrestrial ages, and Cl-36 and Al-26 results reported by others, it is concluded that most ALHA meteorites fell between 20,000 and 200,000 years ago.

  16. Effect of triflumuron, a chitin synthesis inhibitor, on Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus and Culex quinquefasciatus under laboratory conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belinato, Thiago Affonso; Martins, Ademir Jesus; Lima, José Bento Pereira; Valle, Denise

    2013-04-04

    Resistance to traditional insecticides represents a threat to the control of disease vectors. The insect growth regulators (IGR) are a potential alternative to control mosquitoes, including resistant populations. The chitin synthesis inhibitors (CSI) are IGRs, which interfere with the insect molting process and represent one major class of compounds against Aedes aegypti populations resistant to the larvicide organophosphate temephos. In the present study, we evaluated the efficacy of the CSI triflumuron on Culex quinquefasciatus, Aedes albopictus and against several Ae. aegypti field populations. The efficacy of triflumuron, against Cx. quinquefasciatus and Ae. albopictus was evaluated with laboratory strains through dose-response assays. Additionaly, this CSI was tested against seven Ae. aegypti field populations exhibiting distinct resistance levels to both temephos and the pyrethroid deltamethrin. Aedes aegypti populations were exposed to both a dose that inhibits 99% of the adult emergence of mosquitoes from the susceptible reference strain, Rockefeller, (EI₉₉ = 3.95 μg/L) and the diagnostic dose (DD), corresponding to twice the EI₉₉. Our results indicate that triflumuron was effective in emergence inhibition (EI) of Cx. quinquefasciatus (EI₅₀ = 5.28 μg/L; EI₉₀= 12.47 μg/L) and Ae. albopictus (EI₅₀ = 1.59 μg/L; EI₉₀= 2.63 μg/L). Triflumuron was also effective against seven Ae. aegypti Brazilian populations resistant to both temephos and deltamethrin. Exposure of all the Ae. aegypti populations to the triflumuron EI₉₉ of the susceptible reference strain, Rockefeller, resulted in complete inhibition of adult emergence, suggesting no cross-resistance among traditional insecticides and this CSI. However, a positive correlation between temephos resistance and tolerance to triflumuron was observed. The results suggest that triflumuron represents a potential tool for the control of disease vectors in public health. Nevertheless, they

  17. The importance of male body size on sperm uptake and usage, and female fecundity in Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Jesus, Carrie E; Reiskind, Michael H

    2016-08-12

    Adult mosquito density is a critical factor in the transmission of arboviruses by container Aedes spp. mosquitoes. Female fecundity drives population growth, and therefore contributes to adult mosquito density. Previous studies have focused on female body size as the major determinant of fecundity, paying little attention to male condition. In this study, we examined the effects of male body size on the abundance of sperm in spermatheca, depletion of sperm over time, and female fecundity. We generated males in two size classes using different larval densities, and allowed them to mate with females generated from a moderately dense larval environment. We counted sperm in female spermatheca in a sample of females immediately after mating, then every week for four weeks post-mating. We provided weekly blood meals to females and determined their fecundity over four weeks after the initial blood meal. We found significantly more sperm in Aedes albopictus females than in Aedes aegypti, and detected depletion of sperm in Ae. aegypti, but not in Ae. albopictus. We did not see significant differences in number of sperm in spermathecae in relation to male body size in either species over subsequent gonotrophic cycles. We found a significant effect of male body size on fecundity in Ae. albopictus, but not Ae. aegypti, with a 46 % increase in fecundity for female Ae. albopictus offered four blood meals. Our results suggest substantial differences in the mating biology of these ecologically similar species and the importance of considering males in understanding female fecundity. The substantial increase in fecundity in Ae. albopictus has implications for population growth, estimating vector density, and modeling the transmission of pathogens.

  18. Repellent and Larvicidal Activity of the Essential Oil From Eucalyptus nitens Against Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez Costa, Agustín; Naspi, Cecilia V; Lucia, Alejandro; Masuh, Héctor M

    2017-05-01

    Dengue, chikungunya, and yellow fever are important vector-borne diseases transmitted by female mosquitoes when they feed on humans. The use of repellents based on natural products is an alternative for personal protection against these diseases. Application of chemicals with larvicidal activity is another strategy for controlling the mosquito population. The repellent and larvicidal activities of the essential oil from Eucalyptus nitens were tested against Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus, the main vectors of these arboviruses. The essential oil was extracted by hydrodistillation and then analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The main components of Eucalyptus nitens essential oil were found to be terpenes such as 1,8-cineole and p-cymene, followed by β-triketones and alkyl esters. The repellent activity of the essential oil against both species was significantly higher when compared with the main component, 1,8-cineole, alone. These results indicate that the repellent effect of E. nitens is not due only to the main component, 1,8-cineole, but also that other compounds may be responsible. Aedes aegypti was found to be more tolerant to the essential oil larvicidal effects than Ae. albopictus (Ae. aegypti LC50 = 52.83 ppm, Ae. albopictus LC 50 = 28.19 ppm). The repellent and larvicidal activity could be associated to the presence of cyclic β-triketones such as flavesone, leptospermone, and isoleptospermone. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Prof. Nanopoulos visits Hill Primary School in Greece

    CERN Multimedia

    2014-01-01

    This video is an extract of a reportage broadcasted by SKAI TV in Greece about the visit of Prof. Dimitri Nanopoulos to Hill Primary School, the oldest operating school in Greece. The video describes a breakthrough education programme aimed at introducing big ideas in physics, particle physics and cosmology to K-6 students through a pedagogical approach that promotes inquiry, creativity and hands-on experimentation with the use everyday materials.

  20. Susceptibility of Shallow Landslide in Fraser Hill Catchment, Pahang Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan Nor Azmin Sulaiman

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In tropical areas especially during monsoon seasons intense precipitation is the main caused that trigger the natural shallow landslide phenomena. This phenomenon can be disastrous and widespread in occurrence even in undisturbed forested catchment. In this paper, an attempt has been made to evaluate the susceptibility of natural hill slopes to failure for a popular hill resort area, the Fraser Hill Catchment under different rainfall regimes and soil thickness. A Digital Elevation Model (DEM was prepared for the 8.2 km2 catchment. A GIS based deterministic model was then applied to predict the spatial landslide occurrence within catchment. Model input parameters include bulk density, friction angle, cohesion and hydraulic conductivity were gathered through in situ and lab analysis as well as from previous soil analysis records. Landslides locations were recorded using GPS as well as previous air photos and satellite imagery to establish landslide source areas inventory. The landslide susceptibility map was produced under different precipitation event’s simulation to see the effects of precipitation to stability of the hill slopes of the catchment. The results were categorized into naturally unstable (Defended, Upper Threshold, Lower Threshold, marginal instability (Quasi Stable and stable area (Moderately Stable and Stable. Results of the simulation indicated notable change in precipitation effect on Defended area is between 10mm to 40mm range in a single storm event. However, when storm event is exceeded 120mm, the result on Defended area produced by the model tends to be constant further on. For area categorized as naturally unstable (Factor of Safety, SF<1, with 110 mm of precipitation in a single storm event and soil depth at 2 meters and 4 meters could affect 69.51% and 69.88% respectively of the catchment area fall under that class. In addition, the model was able to detect 4% more of the landslide inventory under shallower soil depth of

  1. Old Black Hills ponderosa pines tell a story

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew J. Bunkers; L. Ronald Johnson; James R. Miller; Carolyn Hull Sieg

    1999-01-01

    A single ponderosa pine tree found in the central Black Hills of SouthDakota revealed its age of more than 700 years by its tree rings taken from coring in 1992. The purpose of this study was to examine historic climatic patterns from the 13th century through most of the 20th century as inferred from ring widths of this and other nearby trees. The steep, rocky site...

  2. Mammals of Kalimpong Hills, Darjeeling District, West Bengal, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.K. Mallick

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Neora Valley National Park (NVNP in the Kalimpong Hills, Darjeeling District, having a wide range of altitudinal variations (183-3,200 m and climatic conditions and forming an ecological trijunction with Sikkim and Bhutan, is the last virgin wilderness in West Bengal. It is a global hotspot for the unique ecosystem, where tropical, sub-tropical, temperate and sub-temperate forests represent a wealth of biodiversity including many threatened and rare mammals. It is the prime habitat of Ailurus fulgens (estimated population 28-32, Neofelis nebulosa (population unassessed, Ursus thibetanus (18, Bos gaurus (81, Hemitragus jemlahicus (32, Naemorhedus goral (73, Capricornis sumatraensis (89, Rusa unicolor (286, Muntiacus vaginalis (590 and Sus scrofa (615. Discovery of Panthera tigris (20 in 1998 prompted the forest department to include NVNP as a sensitive wildlife zone. Many authors recorded the mammalian diversity in Darjeeling District since the mid-nineteenth century, but most of them referred to the Darjeeling Hills. The documentations on Kalimpong Hills are scarce because of the dense canopy, thick undergrowth and inaccessible terrain, particularly in the pristine forests of Neora Valley. Consequently, a comprehensive compendium of the mammals in this region was not prepared. A study was undertaken in 2008-2009 with a view to bridging this knowledge-gap and presenting an updated account of the mammalian species in this new short-listed World Heritage Site and surrounding forests of the Kalimpong Hills based on literature review, questionnaire survey, direct sighting and indirect evidences. During June-October 1916, N.A. Baptista recorded 29 mammalian species (22 genera out of 563 specimens collected, from the region. The present study registered 99 species (68 genera after 94 years.

  3. Tree Diameter Growth in the Dry Limestone Hills

    Science.gov (United States)

    C. B. Briscoe

    1962-01-01

    The dry limestone hill region of southwestern Puerto Rico, because of heavy, shallow soils and scant rainfall is not farmed, and is recognized as an area best suited for the growth of trees. With a mean temperature near 80°F and with rainfall averaging no more than 30 inches anually and much less during dry years, the site is adverse even for tree growth. Studies on...

  4. Rapid Surveillance for Vector Presence (RSVP): Development of a novel system for detecting Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Brian L.; Shivas, Martin A.; Hall-Mendelin, Sonja; Edwards, Jim; Hamilton, Nicholas A.; Jansen, Cassie C.; McMahon, Jamie L.; Warrilow, David

    2017-01-01

    Background The globally important Zika, dengue and chikungunya viruses are primarily transmitted by the invasive mosquitoes, Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus. In Australia, there is an increasing risk that these species may invade highly urbanized regions and trigger outbreaks. We describe the development of a Rapid Surveillance for Vector Presence (RSVP) system to expedite presence- absence surveys for both species. Methodology/Principal findings We developed a methodology that uses molecular assays to efficiently screen pooled ovitrap (egg trap) samples for traces of target species ribosomal RNA. Firstly, specific real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assays were developed which detect a single Ae. aegypti or Ae. albopictus first instar larva in samples containing 4,999 and 999 non-target mosquitoes, respectively. ImageJ software was evaluated as an automated egg counting tool using ovitrap collections obtained from Brisbane, Australia. Qualitative assessment of ovistrips was required prior to automation because ImageJ did not differentiate between Aedes eggs and other objects or contaminants on 44.5% of ovistrips assessed, thus compromising the accuracy of egg counts. As a proof of concept, the RSVP was evaluated in Brisbane, Rockhampton and Goomeri, locations where Ae. aegypti is considered absent, present, and at the margin of its range, respectively. In Brisbane, Ae. aegypti was not detected in 25 pools formed from 477 ovitraps, comprising ≈ 54,300 eggs. In Rockhampton, Ae. aegypti was detected in 4/6 pools derived from 45 ovitraps, comprising ≈ 1,700 eggs. In Goomeri, Ae. aegypti was detected in 5/8 pools derived from 62 ovitraps, comprising ≈ 4,200 eggs. Conclusions/Significance RSVP can rapidly detect nucleic acids from low numbers of target species within large samples of endemic species aggregated from multiple ovitraps. This screening capability facilitates deployment of ovitrap configurations of varying spatial

  5. Rapid Surveillance for Vector Presence (RSVP): Development of a novel system for detecting Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Brian L; Shivas, Martin A; Hall-Mendelin, Sonja; Edwards, Jim; Hamilton, Nicholas A; Jansen, Cassie C; McMahon, Jamie L; Warrilow, David; van den Hurk, Andrew F

    2017-03-01

    The globally important Zika, dengue and chikungunya viruses are primarily transmitted by the invasive mosquitoes, Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus. In Australia, there is an increasing risk that these species may invade highly urbanized regions and trigger outbreaks. We describe the development of a Rapid Surveillance for Vector Presence (RSVP) system to expedite presence- absence surveys for both species. We developed a methodology that uses molecular assays to efficiently screen pooled ovitrap (egg trap) samples for traces of target species ribosomal RNA. Firstly, specific real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assays were developed which detect a single Ae. aegypti or Ae. albopictus first instar larva in samples containing 4,999 and 999 non-target mosquitoes, respectively. ImageJ software was evaluated as an automated egg counting tool using ovitrap collections obtained from Brisbane, Australia. Qualitative assessment of ovistrips was required prior to automation because ImageJ did not differentiate between Aedes eggs and other objects or contaminants on 44.5% of ovistrips assessed, thus compromising the accuracy of egg counts. As a proof of concept, the RSVP was evaluated in Brisbane, Rockhampton and Goomeri, locations where Ae. aegypti is considered absent, present, and at the margin of its range, respectively. In Brisbane, Ae. aegypti was not detected in 25 pools formed from 477 ovitraps, comprising ≈ 54,300 eggs. In Rockhampton, Ae. aegypti was detected in 4/6 pools derived from 45 ovitraps, comprising ≈ 1,700 eggs. In Goomeri, Ae. aegypti was detected in 5/8 pools derived from 62 ovitraps, comprising ≈ 4,200 eggs. RSVP can rapidly detect nucleic acids from low numbers of target species within large samples of endemic species aggregated from multiple ovitraps. This screening capability facilitates deployment of ovitrap configurations of varying spatial scales, from a single residential block to entire suburbs or towns

  6. Rapid Surveillance for Vector Presence (RSVP: Development of a novel system for detecting Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian L Montgomery

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The globally important Zika, dengue and chikungunya viruses are primarily transmitted by the invasive mosquitoes, Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus. In Australia, there is an increasing risk that these species may invade highly urbanized regions and trigger outbreaks. We describe the development of a Rapid Surveillance for Vector Presence (RSVP system to expedite presence- absence surveys for both species.We developed a methodology that uses molecular assays to efficiently screen pooled ovitrap (egg trap samples for traces of target species ribosomal RNA. Firstly, specific real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR assays were developed which detect a single Ae. aegypti or Ae. albopictus first instar larva in samples containing 4,999 and 999 non-target mosquitoes, respectively. ImageJ software was evaluated as an automated egg counting tool using ovitrap collections obtained from Brisbane, Australia. Qualitative assessment of ovistrips was required prior to automation because ImageJ did not differentiate between Aedes eggs and other objects or contaminants on 44.5% of ovistrips assessed, thus compromising the accuracy of egg counts. As a proof of concept, the RSVP was evaluated in Brisbane, Rockhampton and Goomeri, locations where Ae. aegypti is considered absent, present, and at the margin of its range, respectively. In Brisbane, Ae. aegypti was not detected in 25 pools formed from 477 ovitraps, comprising ≈ 54,300 eggs. In Rockhampton, Ae. aegypti was detected in 4/6 pools derived from 45 ovitraps, comprising ≈ 1,700 eggs. In Goomeri, Ae. aegypti was detected in 5/8 pools derived from 62 ovitraps, comprising ≈ 4,200 eggs.RSVP can rapidly detect nucleic acids from low numbers of target species within large samples of endemic species aggregated from multiple ovitraps. This screening capability facilitates deployment of ovitrap configurations of varying spatial scales, from a single residential block to entire

  7. [Infestation status Aedes albopictus and related mosquito-borne infectious disease risk in central urban area in Shanghai].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Q; Xiong, C L; Zhou, Y B; Cao, H; Jiang, Q W

    2016-05-01

    To evaluate Aedes albopictus infestation status in the central urban area of Shanghai, and analyze the related epidemic risk of mosquito-borne infectious disease. Consecutive mosquito surveillance was conducted in the green lands and residential areas in the central urban area of Shanghai during 2012-2014, the Aedes albopictus density and its seasonal fluctuation were observed; the sequence of Aedes albopictus in Shanghai was aligned with that in other epidemic area abroad, and the susceptibility of Aedes albopictus to mosquito-borne virus and endemic risk were analyzed. No Aedes aegypti was found in the central urban area of Shanghai. As predominant species in both the residential area and the green lands, the proportion of Aedes albopictus in the residential area was significantly higher than that in the green lands(78.53% vs. 19.99%, χ(2) =15 525.168, PAedes albopictus in Shanghai and Aedes albopictus in Africa was quite far. No Aedes aegypti was found in Shanghai and its surrounding areas, while Aedes albopictus infestation in the central urban area of Shanghai was serious. Strict measures should be taken to reduce the Aedes albopictus density for the effective control Zika virus spread.

  8. ACCOMMODATION INFRASTRUCTURE AND TOURISM FLOWS ON FELEACU HILL (CLUJ COUNTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DANIELA-LIVIA GHEORGHIEȘ

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Accommodation Infrastructure and Tourism Flows on Feleacu Hill (Cluj County. Feleacu Hill experienced tourism development between 2001 and 2015. The INS data indicates that the number of accommodation units increased from one (2001 to four (2015 and there are a few more which are not registered in the INS database. The accommodation capacity increases, as many guesthouses are expanding their premises to receive more tourists and new accommodation units emerge, such as Hotel Premier in Vâlcele (Feleacu commune. Tourism flows also registered a highly positive trend. The number of arrivals increased from 95 tourists in 2002 to 7791 tourists in 2015. However, there was a downturn between 2009 and 2012, due to the economic crisis and the opening of the Turda – Gilău motorway (A3, which redirected transit routes outside the region and led to the closure of Paradis Hotel in 2012. Since 2012, the number of arrivals and overnight stays increased steadily due to the development of new forms of tourism – rural tourism, agrotourism, extreme tourism and complex tourism, materialized in growing numbers of tourists at the two guesthouses in Ciurila commune (“La Mesteceni” and “Domeniul Regilor”. Tourism brings obvious benefits to the rural communities on Feleacu Hill, even if the average duration of stay is still low.

  9. Three dimensional simulation for Big Hill Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehgartner, Brian L. (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Park, Byoung Yoon; Sobolik, Steven Ronald (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Lee, Moo Yul (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM)

    2005-07-01

    3-D finite element analyses were performed to evaluate the structural integrity of caverns located at the Strategic Petroleum Reserve's Big Hill site. State-of-art analyses simulated the current site configuration and considered additional caverns. The addition of 5 caverns to account for a full site and a full dome containing 31 caverns were modeled. Operations including both normal and cavern workover pressures and cavern enlargement due to leaching were modeled to account for as many as 5 future oil drawdowns. Under the modeled conditions, caverns were placed very close to the edge of the salt dome. The web of salt separating the caverns and the web of salt between the caverns and edge of the salt dome were reduced due to leaching. The impacts on cavern stability, underground creep closure, surface subsidence and infrastructure, and well integrity were quantified. The analyses included recently derived damage criterion obtained from testing of Big Hill salt cores. The results show that from a structural view point, many additional caverns can be safely added to Big Hill.

  10. Horizontal gene transfer between Wolbachia and the mosquito Aedes aegypti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walker Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The evolutionary importance of horizontal gene transfer (HGT from Wolbachia endosymbiotic bacteria to their eukaryotic hosts is a topic of considerable interest and debate. Recent transfers of genome fragments from Wolbachia into insect chromosomes have been reported, but it has been argued that these fragments may be on an evolutionary trajectory to degradation and loss. Results We have discovered a case of HGT, involving two adjacent genes, between the genomes of Wolbachia and the currently Wolbachia-uninfected mosquito Aedes aegypti, an important human disease vector. The lower level of sequence identity between Wolbachia and insect, the transcription of all the genes involved, and the fact that we have identified homologs of the two genes in another Aedes species (Ae. mascarensis, suggest that these genes are being expressed after an extended evolutionary period since horizontal transfer, and therefore that the transfer has functional significance. The association of these genes with Wolbachia prophage regions also provides a mechanism for the transfer. Conclusion The data support the argument that HGT between Wolbachia endosymbiotic bacteria and their hosts has produced evolutionary innovation.

  11. Larvicidal Activity of Citrus Limonoids against Aedes albopictus Larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hazrat Bilal

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Development of insecticide resistance occurred due to the continuous and misuse of synthetic insecticidestherefore, the recent study was conducted to explore eco-friendly plant extracts that have some potential to suppressmosquito larval population.Methods: WHO recommended mosquito larval bioassay method for insecticide was used while for the analysis of citrus oils for limonin and nomilin content HPLC was used.Results: Among the two citrus cultivars tested as larvicide against Aedes albopictus, valencia late (Citrus sinensis wasthe best in terms of LC50 (297 ppm, % mortality (97% and LT50 (18.49 hours then freutrall early (Citrus reticulatewith LC50 (377.4 ppm, % mortality (88% and LT50 (31 hours, While nomilin gave lowest LC50 (121.04 ppm than limonin (382.22 ppm after 72 hours of exposure. Valencia late also had more limonin and nomilin (377 μg/ml and 21.19 μg/ml than freutrall early (5.29 μg/ml and 3.89 μg/ml respectively.Conclusion: Valencia late showed best results in term of LC50, LT50 and percentage mortality against Aedes albopictus as it has more amount of nomilin then freutrall early, however further evaluation in the field conditions is required.

  12. First record of Aedes (Aedimorphus) vexans vexans (Meigen) in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, Cheryl A; Lindsay, Michael D A; Harrington, Susan A; Whelan, Peter I; Russell, Richard C; Broom, Annette K

    2005-06-01

    Aedes (Aedimorphus) vexans vexans has become widely distributed in the Australasian and Oceanic Islands zoogeographic regions, and in this paper, we describe the 1st confirmed report of Ae. vexans vexans in Australia. A total of 45 adult individuals were collected around the town of Kununurra in the northeast Kimberley region of Western Australia during the late wet seasons between 1996 and 2003. The majority (84%) was collected at trap sites in or near the Ord Stage I Irrigation Area. Aedes vexans vexans was a minor component of the mosquito population, comprising light aircraft arriving in Kununurra from nearby islands. The collection of adult Ae. vexans vexans every year since 2001 could indicate that this mosquito has become established in the Kununurra environs, possibly facilitated by the presence of year-round breeding sites created by the irrigation area. Encephalitogenic flaviviruses have been isolated from this species in North America, Europe, and Taiwan, and the vector competence of Ae. vexans vexans for arboviruses prevalent in northern Western Australia, particularly the flaviviruses Murray Valley encephalitis and Kunjin, should be investigated.

  13. Alterações ultraestruturais em larvas de Aedes aegypti submetidas ao diterpeno labdano, isolado de Copaifera reticulata (Leguminosae, e à uma fração rica em taninos de Magonia pubescens (Sapindaceae Ultrastructural alterations in larvae of Aedes aegypti subject to labdane diterpene isolated from Copaifera reticulata (Leguminosae and a fraction enriched with tannins of Magonia pubescens (Sapindaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleyde Ferreira Barreto Valotto

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Dengue é um importante problema de saúde pública, em vários países, e tem como principal vetor o Aedes aegypti, mosquito mais adaptado às áreas urbanizadas. Apresenta-se, pela primeira vez, as alterações ultraestruturais em larvas de 3º estádio, desse mosquito, causadas pelos larvicidas naturais, um diterpeno labdano, extraído de Copaifera reticulata, e uma fração rica em taninos catéquicos, extraída de Magonia pubescens, evidenciando o mecanismo de ação dessas substâncias. MÉTODOS: Os experimentos foram realizados com larvas de 3º estádio em solução de 0,9ppm, do diterpeno (3-β-acetoxylabdan-8(17-13-dien-15-óico e de 3,7ppm, da fração majoritária de tanino catéquico de massa molecular 864Da. Obtiveram-se as substâncias através de fracionamentos cromatográficos sucessivos, identificadas por ressonância magnética nuclear de hidrogênio e espectrometria de massas. As larvas que atingiram estado letárgico foram coletadas e dissecadas e seus tubos digestórios fixados, desidratados, emblocados e polimerizados. Cortes ultrafinos foram feitos e contrastados com acetato de uranila 3% e citrato de chumbo, posteriormente, levados ao microscópio eletrônico. RESULTADOS: As principais alterações ultraestruturais provocadas pelos diterpeno e tanino sobre larvas de Aedes aegypti foram vacuolização citoplasmática, desorganização e degeneração celular, mudança estrutural dos microvilos e deslocamento das células da lâmina basal. CONCLUSÕES: O diterpeno e a fração rica em taninos catéquicos provocaram a morte das larvas de Aedes aegypti através da destruição celular no intestino médio.INTRODUCTION: Dengue is an important public health problem in many countries and its main vector Aedes aegypti, is the mosquito most adapted to urban areas. For the first time, the mechanism of action of labdane diterpenoid extracted from Copaifera reticulata and the fraction enriched of catechin tannins

  14. Low oral receptivity for dengue type 2 viruses of Aedes albopictus from Southeast Asia compared with that of Aedes aegypti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazeille, Marie; Rosen, Leon; Mousson, Laurence; Failloux, Anna-Bella

    2003-02-01

    Dengue hemorrhagic fever has been a major health problem in Asia since the 1950s. During this period, the former principal vector of dengue viruses in Asia, Aedes albopictus, was replaced by Aedes aegypti in most major cities of the area. Ae. aegypti is now considered the main vector of dengue viruses in Asia. Surprisingly, however, this mosquito has been described as having a relatively low oral receptivity for dengue viruses compared with Ae. albopictus. In the present study, we compared the relative oral receptivities of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus collected in southeast Asia from both sympatric and allopatric breeding sites. In all instances, the oral receptivity of Ae. aegypti to the dengue type 2 virus used was significantly higher than that of Ae. albopictus. We also compared the relative oral receptivity of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus for two other low-passage strains of dengue 2. In all instances, Ae. aegypti was significantly more receptive than Ae. albopictus. It should be noted, however, that the difference was found only for Ae. albopictus recently collected from the field (Ta Promh strain, Cambodia, 2001) and not for an Ae. albopictus strain that had been colonized for many years (Oahu strain, Hawaii, 1971). We also observed a significant increase in the infection rate of Ae. albopictus of the Ta Promh strain with increasing generations in the laboratory. These observations demonstrate the importance of considering the colonization history of mosquitoes when assessing their susceptibility to infection with dengue viruses and, perhaps, other arboviruses.

  15. Effects of infectious virus dose and bloodmeal delivery method on susceptibility of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus to chikungunya virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesko, Kendra; Westbrook, Catherine J; Mores, Christopher N; Lounibos, L Philip; Reiskind, Michael H

    2009-03-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an arbovirus (genus Alphavirus, family Togaviridae) that has recently caused disease outbreaks in the Indian Ocean basin and southern Europe. These outbreaks could be associated with a possible shift in primary vector from Aedes aegypti to Ae. albopictus. To evaluate vector competence differences in possible CHIKV vectors, we evaluated the dose-dependant susceptibility of Florida strains of Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti for infection with a La Réunion island strain of CHIKV. Pledget and water-jacketed membrane feeding systems were also evaluated. We show that both Aedes spp. were susceptible to the highest CHIKV doses, whereas only Ae. albopictus developed disseminated infections after exposure to the two lowest doses. Infection rates for both mosquito species were significantly affected by the bloodmeal delivery method used. This information is important in assessing risk of an outbreak of imported CHIKV in the United States, in determining differences in vectorial capacity of these two vector species, and in evaluating arbovirus delivery methods in the laboratory.

  16. Evaluation of Insect Growth Regulators Against Field-Collected Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) from Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Koon Weng; Chen, Chee Dhang; Lee, Han Lim; Norma-Rashid, Yusoff; Sofian-Azirun, Mohd

    2015-03-01

    Susceptibility status of Aedes aegypti (L.) and Aedes albopictus Skuse larvae obtained from 12 states in Malaysia were evaluated against five insect growth regulators (IGRs), namely, pyriproxyfen, methoprene, diflubenzuron, cyromazine, and novaluron under laboratory conditions. Field populations of Ae. aegypti exhibited moderate resistance toward methoprene and low resistance toward pyriproxyfen, with resistance ratios of 12.7 and 1.4, respectively, but susceptibility to diflubenzuron, cyromazine, and novaluron. On the other hand, field populations of Ae. albopictus exhibited low resistance against diflubenzuron and novaluron, with resistance ratio of 2.1 and 1.0, respectively, but susceptibility to other tested IGRs. Our study concluded that the tested IGRs provide promising results and can be used to control field population of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus, especially cyromazine. The use of IGR should be considered as an alternative when larvae develop resistance to conventional insecticides. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Age-Stage, Two-Sex Life Table Characteristics of Aedes albopictus and Aedes Aegypti in Penang Island, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maimusa, Hamisu A; Ahmad, Abu Hassan; Kassim, Nur Faeza A; Rahim, Junaid

    2016-03-01

    The life table developmental attributes of laboratory colonies of wild strains of Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti were analyzed and compared based on the age-stage, two-sex life table. Findings inclusive in this study are: adult preoviposition periods, total preoviposition period, mean intrinsic rate of increase (r), mean finite rate of increase (λ), net reproductive rates (R0), and mean generation time (T). The total preadult development time was 9.47 days for Ae. albopictus and 8.76 days for Ae. aegypti. The life expectancy was 19.01 days for Ae. albopictus and 19.94 days for Ae. aegypti. Mortality occurred mostly during the adult stage. The mean development time for each stage insignificantly correlated with temperature for Ae. albopictus (r  =  -0.208, P > 0.05) and (r  =  -0.312, P > 0.05) for Ae. aegypti. The population parameters suggest that Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti populations are r-strategists characterized by a high r, a large R0, and short T. This present study provides the first report to compare the life parameters of Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti strains from Penang island, Malaysia.

  18. Detection and Establishment of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) Mosquitoes in California, 2011-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, Marco E; Hardstone Yoshimizu, Melissa; Padgett, Kerry A; Hu, Renjie; Kramer, Vicki L

    2017-05-01

    In 2011, a thriving population of Aedes albopictus (Skuse), the Asian tiger mosquito, was discovered within three cities in Los Angeles County over an estimated 52-km2 urban area. Two years later in 2013, Aedes aegypti (L.), the yellow fever mosquito, was detected within several urban areas of Madera, Fresno, and San Mateo counties. State and local vector control agencies responded with an aggressive effort to eradicate or interrupt the spread of these two invasive mosquitoes; however, known populations continued to expand outward and new infestations were identified at an accelerated pace in central and southern California. By the end of 2015, one or both species had been detected within the jurisdictional boundaries of 85 cities and census-designated places in 12 counties. Herein we report on the discovery and widespread establishment of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus in urban areas of coastal, central, and southern California between 2011 and 2015 and discuss the subsequent rapid changes to the activities and priorities of vector control agencies in response to this unprecedented invasion. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Susceptibility of Aedes albopictus from dengue outbreak areas to temephos and Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mohiddin, Ahmad; Lasim, Asmalia Md; Zuharah, Wan Fatma

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To monitor the current duration of the application rates in vector programme and the level of Aedes albopictus larvae susceptibility from three selected areas in northeast district of Penang on two...

  20. Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae: coexistence and susceptibility to temephos, in municipalities with occurrence of dengue and differentiated characteristics of urbanization Aedes aegypti e Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae: coexistência e susceptibilidade ao temephos, em municípios com ocorrência de casos de dengue e diferentes características de urbanização

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    Josiane Somariva Prophiro

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The aim of the present study was to verify the coexistence between Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus populations in municipalities of the States of Paraná and Santa Catarina with different urbanization profiles where dengue occurs and evaluate their susceptibility to the organophosphate temephos. METHODS: The number of eggs per ovitrap were counted and incubated for hatching to identify the species. Data analysis of the populations was conducted to determine randomness and aggregation, using the variance-to-mean ratio (index of dispersion. Susceptibility to temephos was evaluated by estimation of the resistance ratios RR50 and RR95. Aedes aegypti samples were compared with the population Rockefeller and Aedes albopictus samples were compared with a population from the State of Santa Catarina and with the Rockefeller population. RESULTS: Coexistence between Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus and the aggregation of their eggs were observed at all the sites analyzed in the State of Paraná. CONCLUSIONS: All the Aedes aegypti populations from the State of Parana showed alteration in susceptibility status to the organophosphate temephos, revealing incipient resistance. Similarly, all the Aedes albopictus populations (States of Paraná and Santa Catarina presented survival when exposed to the organophosphate temephos.INTRODUÇÃO: O presente estudo teve como objetivo verificar a coexistência de populações de Aedes aegypti e de Aedes albopictus em municípios do Estado do Paraná e Santa Catarina com diferentes formas de urbanização, onde ocorrem casos de dengue, e avaliar a susceptibilidade ao organofosforado temephos. MÉTODOS: O número de ovos por ovitrampa foram contados (sem distinguir a espécie e colocados para eclosão e posterior identificação das espécies. A análise das populacões foi conduzida para determinar aleatoriedade e agregação usando a razão variância/média (índice de dispersão. A susceptibilidade ao

  1. Susceptibility of Aedes albopictus from dengue outbreak areas to temephos and Bacillus thuringiensis subsp.israelensis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ahmad Mohiddin Asmalia Md Lasim Wan Fatma Zuharah

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To monitor the current duration of the application rates in vector programme and the level of Aedes albopictus larvae susceptibility from three selected areas in northeast district of Penang on two...

  2. Evaluation of different formulations of IGRs against Aedes albopictus and Culex quinquefasciatus(Diptera:Culicidae)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gul Zamin Khan Inamullah Khan Imtiaz Ali Khan Alamzeb Muhammad Salman Kalim Ullah

    2016-01-01

    ...) of methoprene, pyriproxyfen 0.5 water dispersible granules(WDG) and pyriproxyfen 1.0 WDG were used to assess mortality and inhibition of 3rd instar larvae of Aedes albopictus and Culex quinquefasciatus...

  3. Wolbachia strain wMel induces cytoplasmic incompatibility and blocks dengue transmission in Aedes albopictus

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Marcus S. C. Blagrove; Camilo Arias-Goeta; Anna-Bella Failloux; Steven P. Sinkins

    2012-01-01

    .... Here we show that stable introduction of the wMel strain of Drosophila melanogaster into Aedes albopictus, a vector of dengue and other arboviruses, abolished the transmission capacity of dengue...

  4. Resistance of Puerto Rican Aedes aegypti to permethrin, etofenprox, and propoxur

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insecticide resistance impacts vector control. Characterizing resistance of mosquitoes allows for optimization of control strategies. Resistance to three insecticides was determined for susceptible and resistant (Puerto Rico) strains of Aedes aegypti. Groups of 10 females were topically dosed in tri...

  5. Ecological Modeling of Aedes aegypti (L.) Pupal Production in Rural Kamphaeng Phet, Thailand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aldstadt, J.; Koenraadt, C.J.M.; Fansiri, T.; Kijchalao, U.; Richardson, J.; Jones, J.W.; Scott, T.W.

    2011-01-01

    Background - Aedes aegypti (L.) is the primary vector of dengue, the most important arboviral infection globally. Until an effective vaccine is licensed and rigorously administered, Ae. aegypti control remains the principal tool in preventing and curtailing dengue transmission. Accurate predictions

  6. Insecticidal and Repellent Activity of Siparuna guianensis Aubl. (Negramina) against Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus

    OpenAIRE

    Aguiar, Raimundo Wagner Souza; dos Santos, Suetonio Fernandes; da Silva Morgado, Fabricio; Ascencio, Sergio Donizeti; de Mendon?a Lopes, Magn?lia; Viana, Kelvinson Fernandes; Didonet, Julcemar; Ribeiro, Bergmann Morais

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the toxic effects of essential oils isolated from Siparuna guianensis against Aedes aegypti, Culex quinquefasciatus (eggs, larvae, pupae, and adult) and Aedes albopictus (C6/36) cells. The oviposition-deterring activity, egg viability, and repellence activity in the presence of different essential oils concentrations were determined. The essential oils showed high toxicity to all developmental stages of A. aegypti and C. quinquefasciatus. Furthermore, the oils also sho...

  7. Larval competition alters susceptibility of adult Aedes mosquitoes to dengue infection

    OpenAIRE

    ALTO, BARRY W.; Lounibos, L. Philip; Mores, Christopher N.; REISKIND, MICHAEL H.

    2007-01-01

    Dengue, the most important human arboviral disease, is transmitted primarily by Aedes aegypti and, to a lesser extent, by Aedes albopictus. The current distributions of these invasive species overlap and are affected by interspecific larval competition in their container habitats. Here we report that competition also enhances dengue infection and dissemination rates in one of these two vector species. We determined the effects of competition on adult A. aegypti and A. albopictus, comparing th...

  8. PENGARUH KONSENTRASI AIR REBUSAN DAUN SIRSAK (Annona muricata Linn TERHADAP PERTUMBUHAN LARVA NYAMUK Aedes aegypti

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    Diah Ariana

    2016-02-01

    Abstract Leaves of the soursop (Annona muricata Linn Indonesia is known as a medicinal plant that can treat a variety of diseases other than as a cure soursop leaves is also an insecticide-producing plants are bioactive compounds known as acetogenin which are bioactive compounds in high concentrations can be toxic to insects, thus may cause the insects will not eat. At low concentrations of toxic by oral administration stomach and can cause death. Soursop leaves are pesticides from natural elements that can be decided by the Aedes aegypti mosquito generation above background can be taken formulation of the problem Is there any effect of the concentration of soursop leaves boiled water (Annona muricata Linn on the growth of mosquito larvae of Aedes aegypti? This study aimed to determine the effect of water concentration on the growth of soursop leaf decoction Aedes aegypti mosquito larvae.The design of this study used an experimental design with laboratory testing, soursop leaf decoction obtained by weigh 100 g and dissolved in 100 ml of distilled water generated lau soursop leaves boiled water. The inhibition assay performed on boiled water boiling water concentration 100%, 90%, 80%, 70%, 60%, 50%, 40%, 30%, 20%, 10% and visits by the number of larvae of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes that die in 24 hours after treatment. Statistical analysis using Annova test with significance level 0.05 for determining the presence or absence of the influence of water concentration on the growth of soursop leaf decoction mosquito Aedes aegypti and subsequent Tukey HSD test was done to see the differences in each concentration. The results showed concentrations of 10% to 100% can inhibit the growth of mosquito larvae of Aedes aegypti, so it can be concluded that the soursop leaves can inhibit the growth of mosquito larvae of Aedes aegypti and efficient soursop leaves is used for patients with antibacterial, antifungal, anticonvulsant, and anti-inflammatory. Keyword :  larvae of Aedes

  9. How dengue vector Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) survive during the dry season in Dhaka City, Bangladesh?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Rajib; Chowdhury, Vashkar; Faria, Shyla; Huda, M Mamun; Laila, Runa; Dhar, Indrani; Maheswary, Narayan P; Dash, Aditya Prasad

    2014-09-01

    In 2000, a dengue outbreak occurred in Bangladesh that included Dhaka City. Both dengue vectors, Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus are present in Bangladesh. Aedes aegypti mosquitoes mainly breed in and around houses and Ae. albopictus is an outside breeder. There are many old trees throughout Dhaka City in different parks, streets and the university campus which may have holes that can contribute as potential breeding habitat for the dengue vector. Therefore, a survey was conducted to investigate the presence of eggs of the dengue vector mosquitoes in treeholes during the dry season in February 2001 to know their contribution on dengue outbreaks. All treeholes in 10 different localities (parks, streets and university campus) of Dhaka City were surveyed. All trees were examined for treeholes up to the height of approximately 3 m and sampled. Debris were collected and packed in poly bags and brought to the laboratory for detailed studies. These were then soaked with tap water to observe egg hatching. The soaked materials were kept up to 20 days covered by a fine mosquito net. After 2-3 days, the eggs started hatching and larvae were separated from the sample for rearing up to IV instar. A total of 245 treeholes were surveyed in 49 identified tree species and 18 unidentified trees. Altogether, 1365 Aedes larvae were found, of which 1096 were Aedes albopictus and 269 were other Aedes species. The largest number of larvae was observed in Delonix regia of Leguminosae family. The number of Aedes albopictus found in the treeholes have perfect positive correlation with the number of other Aedes species. Not a single egg of Aedes aegypti was found in this survey. This information will inform public health workers as well as the national control programme to help to solve mosquito borne diseases specially that of dengue. This is critical in planning for vector control operations due to the diversity of dengue outbreak in the nature.

  10. Effect of an intervention in storm drains to prevent Aedes aegypti reproduction in Salvador, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Souza, Raquel Lima; Mugabe, V?nio Andr?; Paploski,Igor Adolfo Dexheimer; Rodrigues, Moreno S.; Moreira, Patr?cia Sousa dos Santos; Nascimento, Leile Camila Jacob; Roundy, Christopher Michael; Weaver, Scott C.; Reis, Mitermayer Galv?o; Kitron, Uriel; Ribeiro,Guilherme Sousa

    2017-01-01

    Background Aedes aegypti, the principal vector for dengue, chikungunya and Zika viruses, is a synanthropic species that uses stagnant water to complete its reproductive cycle. In urban settings, rainfall water draining structures, such as storm drains, may retain water and serve as a larval development site for Aedes spp. reproduction. Herein, we describe the effect of a community-based intervention on preventing standing water accumulation in storm drains and their consequent infestation by ...

  11. [Susceptibility of Aedes albopictus and Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus to infection with bat Japanese encephalitis virus isolates].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shan; Zhang, Qionghua; Zhou, Junhua; Yu, Shouyi; Zheng, Xueli; Chen, Qing

    2012-04-01

    To evaluate the susceptibility of Aedes albopictus and Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus to oral infection with bat Japanese encephalitis virus isolates (GD1 and HN2 strains). Aedes albopictus and Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus were infected orally by GD1 and HN2 strains of bat Japanese encephalitis virus. TaqMan real-time PCR was used to detect the virus and monitor the changes in the viral loads in Aedes albopictus and Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus at a 2-day interval, starting from 4 days till 20 days after the infection. The infected Aedes albopictus and Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus were found positive for the Japanese encephalitis virus from day 4 to day 20. Both Aedes albopictus and Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus were susceptible to infection by GD1 and HN2 strains, but the latter showed a greater susceptibility. The HN2 strain virus appeared to have a greater virulence than the GD1 strain. Aedes albopictus and Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus can carry GD1 and HN2 strains of bat Japanese encephalitis virus isolates.

  12. PENGARUH PENGGUNAAN LETHAL OVITRAP TERHADAP POPULASI NYAMUK AEDES SP SEBAGAI VEKTOR DEMAM BERDARAH DENGUE

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    Tri Ramadhani

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Field evaluation against lethal ovitrap (LO to control dengue vector Aedes mosquitoes carried intwo endemic areas (Bojongsari and Ledug in Banyumas. Lethal ovitrap made ?with the intent to kill mosquito,because mosquitoes will lay eggs containing ovistrip contact with the insecticide and the relatively short time todie.The aim of research to assess the effect of LO applications with the Aedes of mosquito populations sp. Thisstudy includes a quasi experimental design with pretest-posttest control group without randomization. Researchsites in dengue endemic areas with a total sample of 100 houses in each treatment and control areas. Populationsof Aedes sp measured every week for three weeks prior to the intervention and twelve weeks during theintervention. The mean density of Aedes sp compared before and after intervention and between the treatment andcontrol. Results showed mean mosquito density before and after the intervention in the treatment group of 0.07(p-value 0.044, whereas in the control group by 0037 ( p-value 0341. Use LO made ?with the addition ofinsecticide active cypermetrin on ovistrip impact on the density of Aedes sp in the residential neighborhood.Keywords: lethal ovitrap, DHF, Aedes sp

  13. SURVEY JENTIK DAN AKTIFITAS NOKTURNAL AEDES SPP. DI PASAR WISATA PANGANDARAN

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    Heni Prasetyowati

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Adanya aktifitas sepanjang hari termasuk malam hari di area pasar wisata pangandaran memungkinkan adanya potensi penularan DBD. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui potensi pasar wisata pangandaran sebagai tempat terjadinya transmisi penularan penyakit DBD dengan mengetahui indeks entomologi vektor DBD dan aktifitas nokturnal Aedes spp. di kawasan pasar wisata. Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian observasional. Sampel dalam penelitian ini adalah 57 kios yang terpilih secara acak. Survei jentik dilakukan dengan menggunakan single larva methods. Jentik diidentifikasi di laboratorium entomologi Loka Litbang P2B2 Ciamis. Penangkapan nyamuk dilakukan dengan cara human landing dan resting collection. Spesies Aedes yang ditemukan adalah Aedes aegypti dengan indeks entomologi House Indeks (HI adalah 29,8%, Bruteu Indeks (BI 47,7 sedangkan Container Indeks (CI 61,4% dan Angka Bebas Jentik (ABJ 70,2%. Jenis kontainer yang ditemukan di kawasan pasar wisata pangadaran meliputi dispenser, ember penampungan untuk mandi, ember yang terletak diluar, bak mandi, tempat minum burung dan penampungan air selain ember. Ditemukan aktifitas Aedes aegypti malam hari (18.00-03.00 baik di dalam dan di luar rumah. Hasil survey menunjukan bahwa pasar wisata berpotensi dan termasuk dalam kategori risiko penularan sedang. Nyamuk Aedes spp. yang terdapat di pasar wisata menunjukan potensi untuk beraktifitas di malam hari.   Kata kunci: Survei jentik, nokturnal, Aedes spp., pangandaran

  14. From ground pools to treeholes: convergent evolution of habitat and phenotype in Aedes mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soghigian, John; Andreadis, Theodore G; Livdahl, Todd P

    2017-12-19

    Invasive mosquito species are responsible for millions of vector-borne disease cases annually. The global invasive success of Aedes mosquitoes such as Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus has relied on the human transport of immature stages in container habitats. However, despite the importance of these mosquitoes and this ecological specialization to their widespread dispersal, evolution of habitat specialization in this group has remained largely unstudied. We use comparative methods to evaluate the evolution of habitat specialization and its potential influence on larval morphology, and evaluate whether container dwelling and invasiveness are monophyletic in Aedes. We show that habitat specialization has evolved repeatedly from ancestral ground pool usage to specialization in container habitats. Furthermore, we find that larval morphological scores are significantly associated with larval habitat when accounting for evolutionary relationships. We find that Ornstein-Uhleinbeck models with unique optima for each larval habitat type are preferred over several other models based predominantly on neutral processes, and that OU models can reliably simulate real morphological data. Our results demonstrate that multiple lineages of Aedes have convergently evolved a key trait associated with invasive success: the use of container habitats for immature stages. Moreover, our results demonstrate convergence in morphological characteristics as well, and suggest a role of adaptation to habitat specialization in driving phenotypic diversity in this mosquito lineage. Finally, our results highlight that the genus Aedes is not monophyletic.

  15. Biting activity of Aedes scapularis (Rondani and Haemagogus mosquitoes in Southern Brazil (Diptera: Culicidae Atividade hematófaga de mosquitos Aedes scapularis (Rondani e Haemagogus no sul do Brasil (Diptera: Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oswaldo Paulo Forattini

    1988-04-01

    Full Text Available The biting activity of a population of Aedes scapularis (Rondani, Haemagogus capricornii Lutz and Hg. leucocelaenus (Dyar and Shannon in Southern Brazil was studied between March 1980 and April 1983. Data were obtained with 25-hour human bait catches in three areas with patchy residual forests, named "Jacaré-Pepira", "Lupo" Farm, and "Sta. Helena" Farm, in the highland region of S. Paulo State (Brazil. Data obtained on Ae. scapularis were compared with those formerly gathered in the "Ribeira'' Valley lowlands, and were similar, except in the "Lupo" Farm study area, where a precrepuscular peak was observed, not recorded at the "Jacaré-Pepira" site or in the "Ribeira" Valley. In all the areas this mosquito showed diurnal and nocturnal activity, but was most active during the evening crepuscular period. These observations support the hypothesis about the successful adaptation of Ae. scapularis to man-made environments and have epidemiological implications that arise from it. As for Haemagogus, results obtained on the "Lupo" and "Sta. Helena" regions agree with previous data obtained in several other regions and show its diurnal activity. The proximity of "Lupo" Farm, where Hg. capricornii and Hg. leucocelaenus showed considerable activity, to "Araraquara" city where Aedes aegypti was recently found, raises some epidemiological considerations about the possibility of urban yellow fever resurgence.No período de março de 1980 a abril de 1983 foi estudada a atividade hematófaga de uma população de Aedes scapularis (Rondani, Haemagogus capricornii Lutz, Hg. leucocelaenus (Dyar e Shannon, na região sul do Brasil. Os dados foram obtidos com o emprego de isca humana, mediante captura de 25 horas de duração e correspondente a três áreas, contendo manchas de floresta residual, denominadas Jacaré-Pepira, Fazenda Lupo e Fazenda Santa Helena. Os resultados relativos a Ae. scapularis foram comparados com as coletas anteriormente feitas em áreas de

  16. Risk Factors for the Presence of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus in Domestic Water-Holding Containers in Areas Impacted by the Nam Theun 2 Hydroelectric Project, Laos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiscox, Alexandra; Kaye, Angela; Vongphayloth, Khamsing; Banks, Ian; Piffer, Michele; Khammanithong, Phasouk; Sananikhom, Pany; Kaul, Surinder; Hill, Nigel; Lindsay, Steven W.; Brey, Paul T.

    2013-01-01

    We assessed risk factors for vectors of dengue and chikungunya viruses near a new hydroelectric project, Nam Theun 2, in Laos. Immature stages of Aedes aegypti were found only in sites within 40 km of the urban provincial capital, but Aedes albopictus was found throughout. Aedes aegypti pupae were most common in water storage jars (odds ratio [OR] = 4.72) and tires (OR = 2.99), and Ae. albopictus pupae were associated with tires in 2009 (OR = 10.87) and drums, tires, and jars in 2010 (drums OR = 3.05; tires OR = 3.45, jars OR = 6.59). Compared with water storage vessels, containers used for hygiene, cooking, and drinking were 80% less likely to harbor Ae. albopictus pupae in 2010 (OR = 0.20), and discarded waste was associated with a 3.64 increased odds of infestation. Vector control efforts should focus on source reduction of water storage containers, particularly concrete jars and tires. PMID:23458958

  17. AN ANNOTATED CHECKLIST OF MOSQUITO FAUNA WITH VECTO R BIONOMICS IN NILGIRI HILLS, SOUTHERN INDIA

    OpenAIRE

    Bhuyan; Hiriyan; Chandrasekaran; Annadurai

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT: The earlier inventories of the mosquito fauna from Nilgiri hills are compiled and updated the faunal record. Out of 333 species belongi ng to 47 genera documented in India, 119 species of 21 genera are recorded from Nilgiri hills . 19 species of 4 genera having medical importance are being recorded from Nilgiri hills al one out of total 28 species belong to 5 genera recorded in India. Latter on during the course of d engue vector surveillance in between...

  18. Environmental Assessment (EA): Proposed Truck Offload Station, Hill Air Force Base, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-09

    necessary to install: footings; foundations; pavements; and buried utilities consisting of water, electricity, telephone/data, and storm drains . Discussions... storm drains convey surface runoff from this area of Hill AFB to Pond 6, a retention pond, and Pond 3, a wet detention pond that discharges to Kay’s... storm drains would the fuel either to Hill AFB Pond 3 or Hill AFB Pond 6 (it could be either - engineering design has not been conducted for the

  19. Actividad larvicida de la toronja, Citrus paradisi (Rutaceae sobre dos vectores del dengue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Morales-Saldaña

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available La actividad larvicida del aceite esencial de la toronja (Citrus paradisi fue evaluada contra los mosquitos Aedes aegypti y Aedes albopictus, los cuales representan vectores potenciales de la fiebre del dengue. La CL50 del aceite esencial de la toronja fue de 47,3 ppm y 85,1 ppm para Ae. aegypti y Ae. albopictus, respectivamente. El análisis del aceite por GC-MS, mostró químicos conocidos como insecticidas los cuales podría explicar la acción tóxica sobre las larvas de los mosquitos evaluados. Esta actividad tóxica sobre Ae. aegypti fue mayor en comparación con otros aceites cítricos, lo que sugiere mayores instigaciones en esta línea y de esta manera poder recomendarlo como regulador de mosquitos a las diferentes campañas contra el Ae. aeygpti. En la literatura revisada no encontramos ninguna investigación donde haya sido evaluado aceites esenciales de cítricos contra larvas del mosquito Ae. albopictus.

  20. Surface ozone characterization at Larsemann Hills and Maitri, Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Kaushar; Trivedi, D K; Sahu, S K

    2017-04-15

    Data are analyzed in terms of daily average ozone, its diurnal variation and its relation with meteorological parameters like dry bulb temperature (T), wet bulb temperature (T w ), atmospheric pressure and wind speed based on measurement of these parameters at two Indian Antarctic stations (Larsemann Hills, and Maitri) during 28th Indian Scientific Expedition of Antarctica (ISEA) organized during Antarctic summer of the year 2008-09. The work has been carried out to investigate summer time ozone level and its day-to-day and diurnal variability at these coastal locations and to highlight possible mechanism of ozone production and destruction. The result of the analysis indicates that daily average ozone concentration at Larsemann Hills varied from ~13 and ~20ppb with overall average value of ~16ppb and at Maitri, it varied from ~16 and ~21ppb with overall average value of ~18ppb. Photochemistry is found to partially contribute occasionally to the surface layer ozone at both the stations. Lower concentration of ozone at Maitri during beginning of the observational days may be due to destruction of ozone through activated halogens, whereas higher ozone on latter days may be due to photochemistry and advective transport from east to south-east areas. Ozone concentration during blizzard episodes at both the stations is reduced due to slow photochemical production of ozone, its photochemical removal and removal through deposition of ozone molecules on precipitation particles. Diurnal variation of ozone at Larsemann Hills and Maitri has been found to be absent. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Five New Records of Terrestrial and Lithophytic Orchids (Orchidaceae) from Penang Hill, Malaysia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yeu, Nga Shi; Nordin, Farah Alia; Othman, Ahmad Sofiman

    2016-01-01

    Five new records of terrestrial and lithophytic orchid species were gathered from Penang Hill, Pulau Pinang, Malaysia namely Bulbophyllum depressum, Goodyera pusilla, Peristylus monticola, Podochilus...

  2. Wine Industry Competitiveness: A survey of the Shawnee Hills American Viticultural Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Matthew Rendleman

    2016-06-01

    Shawnee Hill׳s AVA winery owner/operators regard increases in regional tourism, growth in the US wine market continuous innovation, unique services and processes, and flow of information from customers to have the most enhancing effects on their businesses, and that confidence/trust in Illinois state political systems, tax systems, and administrative/bureaucratic regulations were the most constraining factors. Furthermore the Shawnee Hills AVA has growing competition, yet consists of innovative winery owners. It may currently lack external financial support, but with a community focus on product differentiation, the Shawnee Hills AVA has a chance, owners believe, to capture a portion of the growing market for regional products.

  3. Accuracy Assessment Points for Friendship Hill National Historic Site Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Location of thematic accuracy assessment sampling points used in the vegetation classification and mapping of Friendship Hill National Historic Site.

  4. Microstructures of glassy alloys: presence of hills, valleys, and veins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aboki T.A.M.

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Amorphous ribbon surfaces, wheel and free sides are peculiar, but no microstructural description is not yet proposed. Here, we introduce a new description of the two surfaces by analogy with biological organs like a leaf as a network of hills, valleys, and veins. The venation can help understand the transport properties like heat dissipation during ribbon processing and mechanical properties like resilience or tensile strength of the amorphous ribbon. The new microstructure presentation can be useful to describe the crystallization of glassy materials

  5. Iowa Hill Pumped Storage Project Investigations - Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanson, David [Sacramento Municipal Unitlity District, Sacramento, CA (United States)

    2016-07-01

    This Final Technical Report is a summary of the activities and outcome of the Department of Energy (DOE) Assistance Agreement DE-EE0005414 with the Sacramento Municipal Utility District (SMUD). The Assistance Agreement was created in 2012 to support investigations into the Iowa Hill Pumped-storage Project (Project), a new development that would add an additional 400 MW of capacity to SMUD’s existing 688MW Upper American River Hydroelectric Project (UARP) in the Sierra Nevada mountains east of Sacramento, California.

  6. Land Politics in Chittagong Hill Tracts of Bangladesh

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alamgir, Fariba

    claim-making, actual property practices and authority relations empirically. Studying the local processes of property constitution reveal, there are formal state authorities (Headman, Court), state institution with informal authority (military) and non-state authorities (hill political parties, Bengali...... of land. I argue, within ambivalence of legal and administrative structure at present, disputes are largely evolving through contestation and negotiation among disputants and institutions with informal authority in land control. I argue that there is uncertainty and property in land is not fixed in CHT...

  7. Stream piracy in the Black Hills: A geomorphology lab exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaprowski, B.J.; Evenson, E.B.; Epstein, J.B.

    2002-01-01

    The Black Hills of South Dakota exhibits many fine examples of stream piracy that are very suitable for teaching geomorphology lab exercises. This lab goes beyond standard topographic map interpretation by using geologic maps, well logs, gravel provenance and other types of data to teach students about stream piracy. Using a step-by-step method in which the lab exercises ramp up in difficulty, students hone their skills in deductive reasoning and data assimilation. The first exercises deal with the identification of stream piracy at a variety of spatial scales and the lab culminates with an exercise on landscape evolution and drainage rearrangement.

  8. The Battle of Hill 875, Dak To, Vietnam 1967

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-03-30

    orwaro ooserver kFO) from the 319tn Artilierv, attached to Charlie Companv pegan cailing in tires on the hill ’U 2/503 Night laager position 18...gunftire. Lieutenant OiLeary was reporting over the radio the first casualties when more shooting brome out in +ront of Charlie Company. The 2nd... Chaplin Watters Knelt beside Captainr ii ev as ne l istened to the radio. nil ev shoor nis nead ano sooke softly to the Chaplain. ’Weve got ri.A s and

  9. Hydrocarbons in benthic marine algae of the Vestfold Hills, Antarctica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhargalkar, V.K.; Bhosle, N.B.

    1987-02-01

    Recently, Antarctic continent has been the center for diverse research activities. This has resulted in a large number of research and supply vessels visiting Antarctica, which may lead to the contamination of Antarctic environment due to unintentional release of petroleum products. It is, therefore, essential to monitor the concentration of various pollutants in water, sediment, flora and fauna of this region which may also serve as a baseline data for future comparison. With this in view, total hydrocarbon concentration in some marine benthic algae collected from the Vestfold Hills, Antarctica was studied using fluorescence spectroscopy.

  10. Larvicidal activity of Cestrum nocturnum on Aedes aegypti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chetan Jawale

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Aedes aegypti is a vector parasite of the Dengue. New method to control the population of this insect is necessary. In the present work we evaluated the potential of extract from Cestrum nocturnum as larvicide. Methanol extract outstand as highly active larvicide, achieving 100 % larval mortality in 24 hours when tested in the concentration of 45 µg/mL (soxhlet and 25 µg/mL (percolation. Any extract exhibiting significant larvicide activity was further fractioned and the fraction tested according to the WHO protocol. One fraction derived from methanol extract present remarkable LC100 at 12 µg/mL. LC50 of methanol extract and active fraction were found 14 µg/mL and 6 µg/mL respectively. These fractions will be submitted to further fractions aiming to identify the molecules responsible for the larvicide activity.

  11. Modelling the Dynamics of an Aedes albopictus Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Anung Basuki

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available We present a methodology for modelling population dynamics with formal means of computer science. This allows unambiguous description of systems and application of analysis tools such as simulators and model checkers. In particular, the dynamics of a population of Aedes albopictus (a species of mosquito and its modelling with the Stochastic Calculus of Looping Sequences (Stochastic CLS are considered. The use of Stochastic CLS to model population dynamics requires an extension which allows environmental events (such as changes in the temperature and rainfalls to be taken into account. A simulator for the constructed model is developed via translation into the specification language Maude, and used to compare the dynamics obtained from the model with real data.

  12. Larvicidal activity of Tagetes erecta against Aedes aegypti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Márcia M M; Morais, Selene M; Vieira, Icaro G P; Vieira, Mariano G S; Raquel, Ana; Silva, A; De Almeida, Raimundo Rafael; Guedes, Maria Izabel F

    2011-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the activity of essential oil from Tagetes erecta against 3rd instars of Aedes aegypti and to determine the amounts of larvicidal thiophenes in all plant tissues. The oil obtained by steam distillation and analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry showed 14 compounds. The main compounds were piperitone (45.72%), D-limonene (9.67%), and piperitenone (5.89%). The essential oil was active against larvae of Ae. aegypti, with LC50 of 79.78 microg/ml and LC90 of 100.84 microg/ml. The larvicidal thiophene contents were higher in the roots and flowers as demonstrated by high-performance liquid chromatography analysis. Thus, T. erecta constitutes a good source of varied compounds showing larvicidal activity against Ae. aegypti.

  13. The global compendium of Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus occurrence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraemer, Moritz U. G.; Sinka, Marianne E.; Duda, Kirsten A.; Mylne, Adrian; Shearer, Freya M.; Brady, Oliver J.; Messina, Jane P.; Barker, Christopher M.; Moore, Chester G.; Carvalho, Roberta G.; Coelho, Giovanini E.; van Bortel, Wim; Hendrickx, Guy; Schaffner, Francis; Wint, G. R. William; Elyazar, Iqbal R. F.; Teng, Hwa-Jen; Hay, Simon I.

    2015-07-01

    Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus are the main vectors transmitting dengue and chikungunya viruses. Despite being pathogens of global public health importance, knowledge of their vectors’ global distribution remains patchy and sparse. A global geographic database of known occurrences of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus between 1960 and 2014 was compiled. Herein we present the database, which comprises occurrence data linked to point or polygon locations, derived from peer-reviewed literature and unpublished studies including national entomological surveys and expert networks. We describe all data collection processes, as well as geo-positioning methods, database management and quality-control procedures. This is the first comprehensive global database of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus occurrence, consisting of 19,930 and 22,137 geo-positioned occurrence records respectively. Both datasets can be used for a variety of mapping and spatial analyses of the vectors and, by inference, the diseases they transmit.

  14. Repellents inhibit P450 enzymes in Stegomyia (Aedes aegypti.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Isabel Jaramillo Ramirez

    Full Text Available The primary defence against mosquitoes and other disease vectors is often the application of a repellent. Despite their common use, the mechanism(s underlying the activity of repellents is not fully understood, with even the mode of action of DEET having been reported to be via different mechanisms; e.g. interference with olfactory receptor neurones or actively detected by olfactory receptor neurones on the antennae or maxillary palps. In this study, we discuss a novel mechanism for repellence, one of P450 inhibition. Thirteen essential oil extracts from Colombian plants were assayed for potency as P450 inhibitors, using a kinetic fluorometric assay, and for repellency using a modified World Health Organisation Pesticide Evaluations Scheme (WHOPES arm-in cage assay with Stegomyia (Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. Bootstrap analysis on the inhibition analysis revealed a significant correlation between P450-inhibition and repellent activity of the oils.

  15. Evidence of polyandry for Aedes aegypti in semifield enclosures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helinski, Michelle E H; Valerio, Laura; Facchinelli, Luca; Scott, Thomas W; Ramsey, Janine; Harrington, Laura C

    2012-04-01

    Female Aedes aegypti are assumed to be primarily monandrous (i.e., mate only once in their lifetime), but true estimates of mating frequency have not been determined outside the laboratory. To assess polyandry in Ae. aegypti with first-generation progeny from wild mosquitoes, stable isotope semen-labeled males ((15)N or (13)C) were allowed to mate with unlabeled females in semifield enclosures (22.5 m(3)) in a dengue-endemic area in southern Mexico. On average, 14% of females were positive for both labels, indicating that they received semen from more than one male. Our results provide evidence of a small but potentially significant rate of multiple mating within a 48-hour period and provide an approach for future open-field studies of polyandry in this species. Polyandry has implications for understanding mosquito ecology, evolution, and reproductive behavior as well as genetic strategies for mosquito control.

  16. Citrus Seed Oils Efficacy against Larvae ofAedes aegypti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilal, Hazrat; Akram, Waseem; Hassan, Soaib Ali; Din, Sadrud

    2017-09-01

    Dengue fever is a serious public health issue in Pakistan for many years. Globally plants have been reported to contain compounds with insecticidal properties. These properties have been demonstrated more recently on the larval stages of mosquitoes. Therefore, Citrus cultivar seeds were evaluated for larvicidal potential against the primary dengue vector Aedes aegypti . Extraction of oil was done by a steam distillation method and oils were evaluated according to WHO guidelines for larvicides 2005 for evaluation of insecticidal properties of citrus seed extracts against mosquito larvae. Among the Citrus cultivar seed oil, rough lemon ( Citrus jambhiri ) had the lowest LC 50 value (200.79ppm), while musambi ( C. sinensis var musambi ) had the highest LC 50 value (457.30ppm) after 24 h of exposure. Citrus cultivars have some larvicidal potential but C. jambhiri had the greatest potential against A. aegypti larvae. Further small-scale field trials using the extracts of C. jambhiri will be conducted to determine operational feasibility.

  17. Coexistence of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) in Peninsular Florida Two Decades After Competitive Displacements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lounibos, L Philip; Bargielowski, Irka; Carrasquilla, María Cristina; Nishimura, Naoya

    2016-11-01

    The spread of Aedes albopictus (Skuse) eastward in the mid-1980s from its initial establishment in Houston, TX, was associated with rapid declines and local disappearances of Aedes aegypti (L.) in Gulf Coast states and Florida where annual larval surveillance during the early 1990s described temporal and spatial patterns of competitive displacements in cemeteries and tire shops. Approximately 20 yr later in 2013-2014, we re-visited former collection sites and sampled aquatic immatures of these two species from tire shops in 10 cities on State Route 441 and from 9 cemeteries from Lakeland to Miami in southwest Florida. In the recent samples Ae. aegypti was recovered from three central Florida cities where it had not been detected in 1994, but its northern limit on Rte. 441, Apopka, did not change. Other evidence, such as trends at a few cemeteries, suggested a moderate resurgence of this species since 1994. Cage experiments that exposed female progeny of Ae. aegypti from recent Florida collection sites to interspecific mating by Ae. albopictus males showed that females from coexistence sites had evolved resistance to cross-mating, but Ae. aegypti from sites with no Ae. albopictus were relatively susceptible to satyrization. Habitat classifications of collection sites were reduced by principal component (PC) analysis to four variables that accounted for > 99% of variances; PCs with strong positive loadings for tree cover and ground vegetation were associated with collection sites yielding only Ae. albopictus Within the coexistence range of the two species, the numbers of Ae. aegypti among total Aedes collected were strongly correlated in stepwise logistic regression models with two habitat-derived PCs, distance from the coast, and annual rainfall and mean maximum temperatures at the nearest weather station. Subtle increases in the range of Ae. aegypti since its previous displacements are interpreted in the context of the evolution of resistance to mating

  18. Aedes albopictus and Its Environmental Limits in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunze, Sarah; Kochmann, Judith; Koch, Lisa K; Klimpel, Sven

    2016-01-01

    The Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus, native to South East Asia, is listed as one of the worst invasive vector species worldwide. In Europe the species is currently restricted to Southern Europe, but due to the ongoing climate change, Ae. albopictus is expected to expand its potential range further northwards. In addition to modelling the habitat suitability for Ae. albopictus under current and future climatic conditions in Europe by means of the maximum entropy approach, we here focused on the drivers of the habitat suitability prediction. We explored the most limiting factors for Aedes albopictus in Europe under current and future climatic conditions, a method which has been neglected in species distribution modelling so far. Ae. albopictus is one of the best-studied mosquito species, which allowed us to evaluate the applied Maxent approach for most limiting factor mapping. We identified three key limiting factors for Ae. albopictus in Europe under current climatic conditions: winter temperature in Eastern Europe, summer temperature in Southern Europe. Model findings were in good accordance with commonly known establishment thresholds in Europe based on climate chamber experiments and derived from the geographical distribution of the species. Under future climatic conditions low winter temperature were modelled to remain the most limiting factor in Eastern Europe, whereas in Central Europe annual mean temperature and summer temperatures were modelled to be replaced by summer precipitation, respectively, as most limiting factors. Changes in the climatic conditions in terms of the identified key limiting factors will be of great relevance regarding the invasive potential of the Ae. albopictus. Thus, our results may help to understand the key drivers of the suggested range expansion under climate change and may help to improve monitoring programmes. The applied approach of investigating limiting factors has proven to yield valuable results and may also provide

  19. Diterpenos de Copaifera reticulata Ducke com atividade larvicida contra Aedes aegypti (L. (Diptera, Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Geris

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the larvicidal activity of diterpenoids obtained from the oil-resin of Copaifera reticulata against Aedes aegypti larvae, the principal vector of dengue and urban yellow fever. Four diterpenes were obtained from oil-resin extraction with organic solvents and subsequent chromatographic and spectroscopic procedures allowed to isolation and identification of these compounds as 3-b-acetoxylabdan-8(17-13-dien-15-oic acid (1, alepterolic acid (2, 3-b-hidroxylabdan-8(17-en-15-oic acid (3, and ent-agatic acid (4. Each compound was previously dissolved in dimethylsulphoxide, and distilled water was added to obtain the desired concentrations. Twenty larvae of third instars were placed into plastic beckers, containing the solution test (25 mL, in a five repetitions scheme, and their mortality, indicated by torpor and darkening of the cephalic capsule, was recorded after 48h. Probit analyses were used to determine lethal concentrations (LC50 and LC90 and their respective 95% confidence intervals. This study showed that only diterpenoids 1 and 2 exhibited larvicidal properties with LC50 of 0.8 ppm and 87.3 ppm, respectively, revealing the former as the most toxic compound against third instars of Ae. aegypti. Therefore, this compound seems to be an interesting source for new metabolite to be exploited.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a atividade larvicida de diterpenos isolados do óleo-resina de Copaifera reticulata sobre Aedes aegypti, principal vetor de dengue e febre amarela urbana. Quatro diterpenóides foram obtidos a partir da extração do óleo-resina com solventes orgânicos e, subseqüentes procedimentos cromatográficos e espectroscópicos permitiram o isolamento e a identificação desses compostos como ácido 3-b-acetoxylabdan-8(17-13-dien-15-óico (1, ácido alepterólico (2, ácido 3-b-hidroxylabdan-8(17-en-15-óico (3 e ácido ent-agático (4. Cada um desses compostos foi previamente

  20. Water extracts of Brazilian leguminous seeds as rich sources of larvicidal compounds against Aedes aegypti L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davi F. Farias

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed the toxicity of seed water extracts of 15 leguminous species upon Aedes aegypti larvae. A partial chemical and biochemical characterization of water extracts, as well as the assessment of their acute toxicity in mice, were performed. The extracts of Amburana cearensis, Anadenanthera macrocarpa, Dioclea megacarpa, Enterolobium contortisiliquum and Piptadenia moniliformis caused 100% of mortalit y after 1 to 3 h of exposure. They showed LC50 and LC90 values ranging from 0.43 ± 0.01 to 9.06 ± 0.12 mg/mL and from 0.71 ± 0.02 to 13.03 ± 0.15 mg/mL, respectively. Among the secondary metabolite constituents, the seed water extracts showed tannins, phenols, flavones, favonols, xanthones, saponins and alkaloids. The extracts also showed high soluble proteins content (0.98 to 7.71 mg/mL, lectin (32 to 256 HU/mL and trypsin inhibitory activity (3.64 = 0.43 to 26.19 = 0.05 gIT/kg of flour The electrophoretic profiles showed a great diversity of protein bands, many of which already described as insecticide proteins. The extracts showed low toxicity to mice (LD50 > 0.15 = 0.01 g/kg body weight, but despite these promising results, further studies are necessary to understand the toxicity of these extracts and their constituentsfrom primary and secondary metabolism upon Ae. aegypti.Este trabalho objetivou avaliar a toxicidade dos extratos aquosos de sementes de 15 espécies de leguminosas contra larvas de Aedes aegypti. Foi realizada uma caracterização química e bioquímica parcial dos extratos aquosos e a avaliação da toxicidade aguda em camundongos. Os extratos de Amburana cearensis, Anadenanthera macrocarpa, Dioclea megacarpa, Enterolobium contortisiliquum e Piptadenia moniliformis causaram 100% de mortalidade depois de 1 a 3 h de exposição e mostraram valores de CL50 e CL90 entre 0,43 = 0,01 e 9,06 ± 0,12 e entre 0,71 = 0,02 e 13,03 = 0,15 mg/mL, respectivamente. Dentre os constituintes do metabolismo secundário, os extratos

  1. Susceptibility of adult field strains of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus in Singapore to pirimiphos-methyl and permethrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ping, L T; Yatiman, R; Gek, L P

    2001-06-01

    The susceptibilities of field strains (Fl) of Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus adult females to pirimiphos-methyl and permethrin were investigated and compared with a susceptible laboratory strain (S) by using a filter paper (12 x 15 cm) impregnation method. The resistance ratio between the 50% lethal concentration values (RR50) of the Fl and the S strains shows that the RR50 of Fl Ae. aegypti for pirimiphos-methyl was 1.5 and the RR50 of Fl Ae. aegypti for permethrin was 12.9. The RR50 of Fl Ae. albopictus for pirimiphos-methyl was 1.4, and that for permethrin was 1.8. This indicates that the field strain Ae. aegypti, but not Ae. albopictus, has developed resistance to permethrin. However, both species are still susceptible to pirimiphos-methyl. Therefore, control with pirimiphos-methyl will still be effective.

  2. Ground application of AquaReslin and AquaKontrol against Anopheles quadrimaculatus, Aedes aegypti, and Aedes albopictus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, James R; Xue, Rui-De

    2011-09-01

    Two permethrin formulations, AquaReslin and AquaKontrol, were applied by ultra-low volume truck-mounted sprayers on test plots under appropriate meteorological condition at Jacksonville, FL. The method of application was followed from the product label. The application rate for each formulation was 0.79 g permethrin per acre. AquaReslin and AquaKontrol demonstrated similar results against Anopheles quadrimaculatus; the former was superior to the latter used against Aedes aegypti, and Ae. albopictus. Teflon-coated standard glass slides were used to collect the aerosol components. Volume median-diameter droplets per square centimeter varied with pesticides and distance from spray source, and the mortality of the 3 species at 18 h ranged from 61.3% to 91.7%.

  3. Woods and Russell, Hill, and the emergence of medical statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farewell, Vern; Johnson, Tony

    2010-01-01

    In 1937, Austin Bradford Hill wrote Principles of Medical Statistics (Lancet: London, 1937) that became renowned throughout the world and is widely associated with the birth of modern medical statistics. Some 6 years earlier Hilda Mary Woods and William Thomas Russell, colleagues of Hill at the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, wrote a similar book An Introduction to Medical Statistics (PS King and Son: London, 1931) that is little known today. We trace the origins of these two books from the foundations of early demography and vital statistics, and make a detailed examination of some of their chapters. It is clear that these texts mark a watershed in the history of medical statistics that demarcates the vital statistics of the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries from the modern discipline. Moreover, we consider that the book by Woods and Russell is of some importance in the development of medical statistics and we describe and acknowledge their place in the history of this discipline. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:20535761

  4. Woods and Russell, Hill, and the emergence of medical statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farewell, Vern; Johnson, Tony

    2010-06-30

    In 1937, Austin Bradford Hill wrote Principles of Medical Statistics (Lancet: London, 1937) that became renowned throughout the world and is widely associated with the birth of modern medical statistics. Some 6 years earlier Hilda Mary Woods and William Thomas Russell, colleagues of Hill at the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, wrote a similar book An Introduction to Medical Statistics (PS King and Son: London, 1931) that is little known today. We trace the origins of these two books from the foundations of early demography and vital statistics, and make a detailed examination of some of their chapters. It is clear that these texts mark a watershed in the history of medical statistics that demarcates the vital statistics of the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries from the modern discipline. Moreover, we consider that the book by Woods and Russell is of some importance in the development of medical statistics and we describe and acknowledge their place in the history of this discipline. (c) 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Stars with relativistic speeds in the Hills scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dremova, G. N.; Dremov, V. V.; Tutukov, A. V.

    2017-07-01

    The dynamical capture of a binary system consisting of a supermassive black hole (SMBH) and an ordinary star in the gravitational field of a central (more massive) SMBH is considered in the three-body problem in the framework of a modified Hills scenario. The results of numerical simulations predict the existence of objects whose spatial speeds are comparable to the speed of light. The conditions for and constraints imposed on the ejection speeds realized in a classical scenario and the modified Hills scenario are analyzed. The star is modeled using an N-body approach, making it possible to treat it as a structured object, enabling estimation of the probability that the object survives when it is ejected with relativistic speed as a function of the mass of the star, the masses of both SMBHs, and the pericenter distance. It is possible that the modern kinematic classification for stars with anomalously high spatial velocities will be augmented with a new class—stars with relativistic speeds.

  6. Biochemical studies of insecticide resistance in Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti and Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pethuan, S; Jirakanjanakit, N; Saengtharatip, S; Chareonviriyaphap, T; Kaewpa, D; Rongnoparut, P

    2007-06-01

    Biochemical analysis was performed on field caught Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti and Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) mosquitoes to determine activities of enzymes including mixed function oxidases (MFO), nonspecific esterases (alpha- and beta-), glutathione-S-transferases (GST), and insensitive acetylcholinesterase (AChE). Biochemical tests were performed on F1 generation of Ae. aegypti field caught mosquitoes, while in Ae. albopictus F2 progenies were used. Twenty-six samples of Ae. aegypti mosquito were collected from areas across different parts of Thailand including Bangkok (central), and the provinces of Chiang Rai (north), Nakhon Sawan (north-central), Nakhon Ratchasrima (northeast), Chonburi (east), Chanthaburi (east), and Songkhla (south). Eight wild caught samples of Ae. albopictus were from Songkhla, Nakhon Sawan, Nakhon Ratchasrima and Kanchanaburi (west) provinces. The susceptibility to pyrethroids (deltamethrin, permethrin), organophosphate (fenitrothion) and carbamate (propoxur) insecticides were revealed in these samples. The biochemical test results were compared with those of the susceptible Bora (French Polynesia) strain. There was significant enhancement of MFO in pyrethroid resistant Ae. aegypti samples, except those from Songkhla and Hauykwang district in Bangkok. Biochemical assay results suggested that nonspecific esterases conferred fenitrothion resistance in Ae. aegypti in Nakhon Sawan, while insensitive AChE and/or nonspecific esterases could play role in fenitrothion resistance in Nakhon Ratchasrima. There was no consistent association of GST with pyrethroid resistance in Ae. aegypti. Low enzyme activities found in Ae. aegypti in Songkhla and in Ae. albopictus corresponded to their insecticide susceptibility status. The increased enzyme activity in field samples reflecting local history of insecticide employment was discussed.

  7. Spatial distribution and insecticide susceptibility status of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus in dengue affected urban areas of Rawalpindi, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Ali; Rathor, Hamayun Rashid; Mukhtar, Muhammad Uzair; Mushtaq, Shumaila; Bhatti, Adil; Asif, Muhammad; Arshad, Israr; Ahmad, Jam Farooq

    2016-01-01

    Dengue is one of the most common arthropod-borne viral diseases which is transmitted mainly by two vector species, Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus 1762) and Ae. albopictus (Skuse, 1894) worldwide. As there is no effective medicine and vaccine available, vector control remains the most effective measure to prevent its transmission and outbreak. The aim of the study was to confirm the co-occurrence of Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus populations in the different localities of Rawalpindi, Pakistan and examine their susceptibility status against different groups of insecticides. Ovitraps were randomly placed in the study localities. The number of eggs from all the ovitraps were counted and incubated for hatching in Medical Entomology and Disease Vector Control (MEDVC) insectarium for rearing up to adult stage. The adults were then identified by using the pictorial keys. Spatial distribution and aggregation of both Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus populations was determined by using Index of dispersion or variance to mean ratio and k values of the negative binomial distribution. The susceptibility status of both the species against different insecticides was assessed by using the World Health Organization (WHO) standard bioassay tests. The results showed that there was coexistence among Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus populations and the aggregation of their eggs was also observed in all the localities studied in Rawalpindi. Larval bioassays of both the populations exhibited incipient resistance against temephos while adult susceptibility testing results showed that both the species were resistant to DDT, malathion, bendiocarb and permethrin. The results suggested that all the field populations of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus existed together and showed qualitative changes in their susceptibility status. Resistance against deltamethrin and lambdacyhalothrin was not confirmed and further investigation was recommended to confirm the change in their susceptibility status. This

  8. Susceptibility of laboratory and field-collected Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus to Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis H-14.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Y W; Zairi, J

    2006-03-01

    Susceptibility levels of a few laboratory-cultured and dengue-endemic area field-collected strains of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus to Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis (Bti) at different storage ages were studied. The susceptibility of laboratory-cultured World Health Organization (WHO) Bora Bora reference, Vector Control Research Unit (VCRU), and Fumakilla Malaysia Berhad (FMB) strains of Ae. aegypti to Bti was examined. The sensitivity to Bti decreased with storage age. The median lethal concentration (LC50) for Bti increased by 2-3 times after 2 years compared to a fresh sample (3-6 months of storage). However, after the 2-year storage period, Bti still provided very good efficacy against all laboratory-cultured susceptible strains of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus. The observed 95% lethal concentration values were about 20 times lower than the recommended concentration (6,000 international toxic units (ITU)/liter). Results obtained from the study against the dengue-endemic area field-collected strains of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus confirmed the effectiveness of the Bti after storage for 2 years (18-24 months). For Ae. aegypti, the Ujung Batu strain was the most susceptible to Bti, whereas the Sungai Nibong strain showed the most tolerance. Susceptibility of laboratory-cultured strains varied; the Air Itam strain of Ae. albopictus was the most susceptible to Bti, whereas the Kampung Serani strain was the most tolerant among the field strains. However, the laboratory strain of Ae. albopictus was more susceptible than all the field strains.

  9. Screening for larvicidal activity of ethanolic and aqueous extracts of selected plants against Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Russelle Alvarez

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To screen for larvicidal activity of aqueous and ethanolic extracts (95% ethanol from Selaginella elmeri, Christella dentata, Elatostema sinnatum, Curculigo capitulata, Euphorbia hirta, Murraya koenigii (M. koenigii, Alpinia speciosa, Cymbopogon citratus, Eucalyptus globulus (E. globulus, Jatropha curcas (J. curcas, Psidium guajava, Gliricidia sepium, Ixora coccinea and Capsicum frutescens (C. frutescens against Aedes aegypti (A. aegypti and Aedes albopictus (A. albopictus 3rd instar larvae. Methods: Ethanolic and aqueous extracts were screened for larvicidal activity by exposing the A. aegypti and A. albopictus 3rd instar larvae (15 larvae per trial, triplicates for 48 h, counting the mortalities every 24 h. Additionally, phytochemical screening for flavonoids, tannins, alkaloids, anthraquinones, anthrones, coumarins, indoles and steroids were performed on active extracts using spray tests. Results: Against A. aegypti, the three most active extracts were C. frutescens ethanolic (100% after 24 and 48 h, J. curcas ethanolic (84.44% after 24 h and 88.89% after 48 h and M. koenigii ethanolic (53.33% after 24 h and 71.11% after 48 h. On the other hand, against A. albopictus, the three most active extracts were C. frutescens ethanolic (93.33% after 24 h and 100% after 48 h, J. curcas ethanolic (77.78% after 24 h and 82.22% after 48 h and E. globulus ethanolic (64.44% after 24 h and 73.33% after 48 h. Phytochemical screening was also performed on the active extracts, revealing alkaloids, tannins, indoles and steroids. Conclusios: The results demonstrate the larvicidal activities of ethanolic extracts of Cymbopogon citratus, Euphorbia hirta, Ixora coccinea, Gliricidia sepium, M. koenigii, E. globulus, J. curcas and C. frutescens against A. aegypti and A. albopictus 3rd instar larvae. These could be used as potential larvicidal agents for the control of these mosquitoes.

  10. Updated Reported Distribution of Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti and Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) in the United States, 1995-2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Micah B; Eisen, Lars; McAllister, Janet; Savage, Harry M; Mutebi, John-Paul; Eisen, Rebecca J

    2017-09-01

    Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti (L.) and Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus (Skuse) are potential vectors of Zika, dengue, and chikungunya viruses in the United States. A Zika virus outbreak in Florida in the summer of 2016, driven by Ae. aegypti and resulting in > 200 locally acquired cases of human illness, underscored the need for up-to-date information on the geographic distribution of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus in the United States. In early 2016, we conducted a survey and literature review to compile county records for presence of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus in the United States from 1995 to 2016. Surveillance for these vectors was intensified across the United States during the summer and fall of 2016. At the end of 2016, we therefore conducted a follow-up survey of mosquito control agencies, university researchers, and state and local health departments to document new collection records for Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus. The repeated survey at the end of the year added Ae. aegypti collection records from 38 new counties and Ae. albopictus collection records from 127 new counties, representing a 21 and 10 percent increase, respectively, in the number of counties with reported presence of these mosquitoes compared with the previous report. Moreover, through our updated survey, 40 and 183 counties, respectively, added additional years of collection records for Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus from 1995 to 2016. Our findings underscore the continued need for systematic surveillance of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2017. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  11. Susceptibility of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus to temephos in four study sites in Kuala Lumpur City Center and Selangor State, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C D; Nazni, W A; Lee, H L; Sofian-Azirun, M

    2005-12-01

    Larvae obtained from Taman Samudera (Gombak, Selangor), Kampung Banjar (Gombak, Selangor), Taman Lembah Maju (Cheras, Kuala Lumpur) and Kampung Baru (City centre, Kuala Lumpur) were bioassayed with diagnostic dosage (0.012 mg/L) and operational dosage (1 mg/L) of temephos. All strains of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus showed percentage mortality in the range of 16.00 to 59.05 and 6.4 to 59.50 respectively, after 24 hours. LT50 values for the 6 strains of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus were between 41.25 to 54.42 minutes and 52.67 to 141.76 minutes respectively, and the resistance ratio for both Aedes species were in the range of 0.68 to 1.82 when tested with operational dosage, 1 mg/L temephos. These results indicate that Aedes mosquitoes have developed some degree of resistance. However, complete mortality for all strains were achieved after 24 hours when tested against 1 mg/L temephos.

  12. Parasitism of Ascogregarina taiwanensis and Ascogregarina culicis (Apicomplexa: Lecudinidae) in larvae of Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) from Manaus, Amazon region, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Passos, Ricardo Augusto; Tadei, Wanderli Pedro

    2008-03-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the existence of Ascogregarina spp. in larvae of Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti collected in urban and suburban areas of Manaus, Amazon region, Brazil. Between May 2004 and July 2005, the mid-gut of 3rd and 4th instar larvae, collected in tire traps in six neighborhoods of Manaus, was examined for the presence of trophozoites of Ascogregarina. Coexistence of Ae. albopictus larvae infected by A. taiwanensis, and Ae. aegypti larvae by A. culicis, was detected in traps in the field. The percentage of Ae. albopictus larvae infected by A. taiwanensis ranged from 21% to 93.5% and of Ae. aegypti larvae infected by A. culicis from 22% to 95%. The mean infection intensity was similar in both species of Aedes. In traps located in Mauazinho, the replacement of Ae. aegypti by Ae. albopictus larvae was observed. In Manaus, Ae. albopictus larvae were parasitized by A. taiwanensis, and Ae. aegypti larvae by A. culicis. Infection rates were high when the species of Aedes were found separately.

  13. Comparison of BG-Sentinel® Trap and Oviposition Cups for Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus Surveillance in Jacksonville, Florida, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Jennifer A; Larson, Ryan T; Richardson, Alec G; Cote, Noel M; Stoops, Craig A; Clark, Marah; Obenauer, Peter J

    2015-03-01

    The BG-Sentinel® (BGS) trap and oviposition cups (OCs) have both proven effective in the surveillance of Aedes species. This study aimed to determine which of the 2 traps could best characterize the relative population sizes of Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti in an urban section of Jacksonville, FL. Until 1986, Ae. aegypti was considered the dominant container-breeding species in urban northeastern Florida. Since the introduction of Ae. albopictus, Ae. aegypti has become almost completely extirpated. In 2011, a resurgence of Ae. aegypti was detected in the urban areas of Jacksonville; thus this study initially set out to determine the extent of Ae. aegypti reintroduction to the area. We determined that the BGS captured a greater number of adult Ae. aegypti than Ae. albopictus, while OCs did not monitor significantly different numbers of either species, even in areas where the BGS traps suggested a predominance of one species over the other. Both traps were effective at detecting Aedes spp.; however, the BGS proved more diverse by detecting over 20 other species as well. Our results show that in order to accurately determine vectorborne disease threats and the impact of control operations on these 2 species, multiple trapping techniques should be utilized when studying Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus population dynamics.

  14. Estimates of public health risks through import of Aedes albopictus via Dracaena's in the Netherlands : Investigation in the establlishment of Aedes albopictus : final report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Takken, W.; Jacobs, F.H.H.

    2008-01-01

    Between September 2005 and October 2007 studies were done in six horticultural companies in the Netherlands to assess the presence of the exotic Aedes albopictus and to determine whether the species had become established. Adult mosquitoes were sampled with liberty plus carbon dioxide traps. The

  15. Control enfocado de Aedes aegypti en localidades de alto riesgo de transmisión de dengue en Morelos, México Targeted treatment of Aedes aegypti at localities with high risk for dengue transmission, Morelos, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Villegas-Trejo

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar la importancia relativa de los tipos de criadero de Aedes aegypti para proponer intervenciones de control enfocadas en Morelos. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se realizaron muestreos transversales con colecta de pupas en Cuautla, Jojutla y Tlaquiltenango en temporada de sequía (1713 casas y lluvias (1677 del año 2008. La importancia relativa de cada tipo de criadero se determinó por su contribución (% a la producción pupal total por localidad. RESULTADOS: En Cuautla, la mayoría de pupas se recolectaron en temporada de sequía de tanques/pilas (48.5%, tambos y botes/cubetas (15% c/u; en lluvias, los diversos chicos (21.3%, botes/cubetas (19.3% y macetas/macetones (12.9% fueron más productivos. En Jojutla y Tlaquiltenango, 97% de las pupas se colectaron de macetas/macetones en secas; durante las lluvias la mayoría de pupas se recolectaron de diversos chicos (26.3%, trastes de cocina/lavado (13.9%, botes/cubetas (12.9% y macetas/macetones (12.7%, respectivamente. CONCLUSIÓN: La prevención y control del vector del dengue deben basarse en este tipo de evidencias para focalizar las acciones sobre los criaderos más productivos.OBJECTIVE: To determine the relative importance of Aedes aegyti breeding sites for potential targeted dengue control interventions in Morelos. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Cross-sectional entomological surveys were conducted and collection of Ae. aegypti pupae was taken from all water-holding containers in Cuautla, Jojutla and Tlaquiltenango during dry (1 713 households and rainy (1 677 seasons in 2008. Relative importance of different types of breeding sites was determined by the contribution (% to total pupae production within each locality. RESULTS: In Cuautla most pupae during the dry season were found in wash basins (48.5%, tanks and buckets/pots (15% each; during the rainy season, diverse small items (21.3%, buckets/pots (19.3% and plant pots (12.9% were more productive. In Jojutla and Tlaquiltenango, 97% of

  16. Five New Records of Terrestrial and Lithophytic Orchids (Orchidaceae) from Penang Hill, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeu, Nga Shi; Nordin, Farah Alia; Othman, Ahmad Sofiman

    2016-08-01

    Five new records of terrestrial and lithophytic orchid species were gathered from Penang Hill, Pulau Pinang, Malaysia namely Bulbophyllum depressum, Goodyera pusilla, Peristylus monticola, Podochilus microphyllus, and Zeuxine gracilis. Checklist of each species is provided and their distribution in Penang Hill is discussed.

  17. Five New Records of Terrestrial and Lithophytic Orchids (Orchidaceae) from Penang Hill, Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Yeu, Nga Shi; Nordin, Farah Alia; Othman, Ahmad Sofiman

    2016-01-01

    Five new records of terrestrial and lithophytic orchid species were gathered from Penang Hill, Pulau Pinang, Malaysia namely Bulbophyllum depressum, Goodyera pusilla, Peristylus monticola, Podochilus microphyllus, and Zeuxine gracilis. Checklist of each species is provided and their distribution in Penang Hill is discussed.

  18. Field guide to the woody plants of Taita hills, Kenya | Thijs | Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This field guide represents a comprehensive treatment of the 184 woody plant species occurring in the Afromontane cloud forests of Taita Hills, Kenya. The first part contains an introduction to the Taita Hills and Eastern Arc Mountains, a list with endemic plant species, the multiple benefits the forests provide, additional ...

  19. Studies on termite hill and lime as partial replacement for cement in plastering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olusola, K.O.; Olanipekun, E.A.; Ata, O.; Olateju, O.T. [Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Osun State (Nigeria). Department of Building

    2006-03-15

    This study investigated the compressive strength and water absorption capacity of 50x50x50mm mortar cubes made from mixes containing lime, termite hill and cement and sand. Two mix ratios (1:4 and 1:6) and varying binder replacements of cement with lime or termite hill amounting to 0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40% and 50% were used. Test results showed that the compressive strength of the mortar cubes increases with age and decreases with increasing percentage replacement of cement with lime and termite hill. However, for mix ratio 1:6, up to 20% replacement of cement with either lime or termite hill, all the mortar cubes had the same strength; subsequently, the termite hill exhibited a higher compressive strength. For mix ratio 1:4, mortar cubes made from lime/cement and termite hill/cement mixtures had the same strength at 50% replacement. Generally, water absorption is higher in mixtures containing lime (18.10% and 14.20% for mix ratios 1:6 and 1:4, respectively, both at 50% replacement level) than those containing termite hill (16.10% and 13.02% for mix ratios 1:6 and 1:4, respectively, both at 50% replacement level). Termite hills seem to be promising as a suitable, locally available housing material for plastering. (author)

  20. Conservation assessment for the autumn willow in the Black Hills National Forest, South Dakota and Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. Hope Hornbeck; Carolyn Hull Sieg; Deanna J. Reyher

    2003-01-01

    Autumn willow, Salix serissima (Bailey) Fern., is an obligate wetland shrub that occurs in fens and bogs in the northeastern United States and eastern Canada. Disjunct populations of autumn willow occur in the Black Hills of South Dakota. Only two populations occur on Black Hills National Forest lands: a large population at McIntosh Fen and a small...

  1. Conservation assessment for bloodroot in the Black Hills National Forest, South Dakota and Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. Hope Hornbeck; Carolyn Hull Sieg; Deanna J. Reyher

    2003-01-01

    Bloodroot, Sanguinaria canadensis L. (Papaveraceae), is a common spring flowering herb in the deciduous forests of eastern North America. It is disjunctly distributed in the northeastern Black Hills of South Dakota. There are 22 known occurrences of bloodroot on Black Hills National Forest in hardwood forests, shrub thickets, and floodplain habitats of limited...

  2. Hume, Mill, Hill, and the sui generis epidemiologic approach to causal inference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morabia, Alfredo

    2013-11-15

    The epidemiologic approach to causal inference (i.e., Hill's viewpoints) consists of evaluating potential causes from the following 2, noncumulative angles: 1) established results from comparative, observational, or experimental epidemiologic studies; and 2) reviews of nonepidemiologic evidence. It does not involve statements of statistical significance. The philosophical roots of Hill's viewpoints are unknown. Superficially, they seem to descend from the ideas of Hume and Mill. Hill's viewpoints, however, use a different kind of evidence and have different purposes than do Hume's rules or Mill's system of logic. In a nutshell, Hume ignores comparative evidence central to Hill's viewpoints. Mill's logic disqualifies as invalid nonexperimental evidence, which forms the bulk of epidemiologic findings reviewed from Hill's viewpoints. The approaches by Hume and Mill cannot corroborate successful implementations of Hill's viewpoints. Besides Hume and Mill, the epidemiologic literature is clueless about a plausible, pre-1965 philosophical origin of Hill's viewpoints. Thus, Hill's viewpoints may be philosophically novel, sui generis, still waiting to be validated and justified.

  3. Annotated checklist of the plants of the Shimba hills, Kwale district ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An annotated checklist of the Shimba Hills in Kwale District is presented. The checklist includes the plants found in the Shimba Hills National Reserve, Mkongani North and West Forest Reserves, Matuga, Mwaluganje Forest Reserve and Elephant Sanctuary, as well as Kaya Chombo, Kaya Teleza, Chitsanze Sacred Grove ...

  4. Identifying changes in tree form for harvested ponderosa pine in the Black Hills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael S. Williams; Raymond L. Czaplewski; Don L. Martinez

    1996-01-01

    Recent underestimates of total volume for timber sales in the Black Hills National Forest prompted analysis of two felled ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Laws.) data sets that were collected approximately 10 years apart. Though neither data set collected was a representative sample of the Black Hills, both were similar in terms of diameter at breast height and total...

  5. 75 FR 28302 - American Food and Vending Spring Hill, TN; Notice of Negative Determination Regarding Application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-20

    ... Employment and Training Administration American Food and Vending Spring Hill, TN; Notice of Negative... Food and Vending, Spring Hill, Tennessee, was based on the findings that the subject firm did not... the cafeteria services or vending machine services supplied by the workers or acquire from a foreign...

  6. Rare Plants and Animals of the Texas Hill Country: Educator's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texas State Dept. of Parks and Wildlife, Austin.

    Texas Hill Country is a land of fresh water springs, stony hills, and steep canyons and home to many rare plants and animals. Six activities for grades 3-5 and six activities for grades 6-12 are contained in this guide. Elementary activity highlights include using "The Lorax" by Dr. Seuss to stimulate critical thinking about…

  7. A. G. Hill, MBChB, MD, FRACS, Department of Surgery, Africa Inland ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2002-01-01

    Jan 1, 2002 ... A. G. Hill, MBChB, MD, FRACS, Department of Surgery, Africa Inland Church Kijabe Hospital, P.O. Box 20, Kijabe, Kenya. MAJOR SALIVARY GLAND TUMOURS IN A RURAL KENYAN HOSPITAL. A. G. HILL. ABSTRACT. Background: Salivary gland tumours are not well characterised in Africa. The Kijabe.

  8. 76 FR 60815 - Final Legislative Environmental Impact Statement (LEIS) for the Limestone Hills Training Area...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-30

    ... Department of the Army Final Legislative Environmental Impact Statement (LEIS) for the Limestone Hills... land within the Limestone Hills Training Area (LHTA) from BLM administration. The LEIS proposes that..., mining, recreation, transportation, utility right-of-ways, and wildlife management. A limestone mine is...

  9. Characteristics of successful puma kill sites of elk in the Black Hills, South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadwick P. Lehman; Christopher T. Rota; Mark A. Rumble; Joshua J. Millspaugh

    2017-01-01

    Elk Cervus canadensis nelsoni in the Black Hills, South Dakota, have been declining since 2006 and there is concern by resource managers and hunters that puma Puma concolor predation may be contributing to declining herds. We evaluated characteristics at sites where puma successfully killed elk in the Black Hills of South Dakota. We evaluated characteristics at coarse...

  10. Latin cults through Roman eyes : Myth, memory and cult practice in the Alban hills

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermans, A.M.

    2017-01-01

    This thesis studies the role of the Latin past in the Roman present, by investigating three large sanctuaries in the Alban hills: that of Diana Nemorensis, Juno Sospita and Jupiter Latiaris. The Alban hills are volcanic highlands southeast of Rome, which are located in the heart of Latium Vetus

  11. Development and Evaluation of a Pyriproxyfen-treated Device to Control the Dengue Vector, Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    surveillance of Aedes aegypti in San Juan, Puerto Rico . J Am Mosq Control Assoc 1994; 10: 119-24. Dash AP, Ranjit MR. Comparative efficacy of aphid...an- nually (Jacob, 2000; Gubler, 2002; Pialoux et al, 2007). The vector for these two dis- eases is the Aedes mosquito. Since there are no vaccines

  12. Efficacy of ovitrap colors and patterns for attracting Aedes albopictus at suburban field sites in North-Central Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    We sought to visually enhance the attractiveness of a standard black ovitrap routinely used in surveillance of the Asian Tiger Mosquito, Aedes albopictus, and now being used as lethal ovitraps in Aedes aegypti dengue control programs. Black plastic drinking cups (ovitraps) were visually altered to ...

  13. Long-Term Monitoring Network Optimization Evaluation for Operable Unit 2, Bunker Hill Mining and Metallurgical Complex Superfund Site, Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report presents a description and evaluation of the ground water and surface water monitoring program associated with the Bunker Hill Mining and Metallurgical Complex Superfund Site (Bunker Hill) Operable Unit (OU) 2.

  14. [Susceptibility of 15 collections of Aedes albopictus from Guizhou to dengue virus oral infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Li-ping; Zuo, Li; Zhao, Xing; Chen, A-ying; Wei, Long-hua

    2004-09-01

    To study the susceptibility of Aedes albopictus to dengue virus infection. Aedes albopictus from 15 collections in Guizhou province were challenged orally with dengue virus 1-4 types, respectively. The total RNA from mosquitos were extracted. The viral NS1 gene fragment was amplified with reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Dengue virus in mosquitoes was isolated with C6/36 cells. Then the viral antigen was detected by indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA). Antigen and nucleic acid of dengue virus from 15 geographic strains of Aedes albopictus orally infected with dengue viruses (DEN-1, DEN-2, DEN-3 and DEN-4) were detected by IFA, RT-PCR and the virus was isolated with C6/36 cells, respectively. The rates of Aedes albopictus orally infected with DEN-1, DEN-2, DEN-3 and DEN-4 were 12/15, 12/15, 8/15 and 13/15, respectively. Different geographic strains of Aedes albopitus in Guizhou were susceptible to dengue viruses.

  15. Breeding sites of Aedes albopictus in Jesús Menéndez municipality

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    Marco Antonio Cruz Cruz

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: aedes albopictus is a vector mosquito of dengue, yellow fever, chikungunya virus, and other arboviruses that has been increasing its spread in Jesús Menéndez municipality, Las Tunas, during the last years.Objectives: to identify the breeding sites of the Aedes albopictus in Jesús Menéndez municipality.Methods: the houses were entirely inspected between January and December, 2014, in work cycles of 44 days according to planning. During the inspections all the available probable tanks for Aedes albopictus were checked and treated by the personnel in charge of the integrated management of vectors. In each visit all the water containers were checked, looking for larvae of this species. Samples were taken from each kind of container where there were larvae.Results: presence of Aedes albopictus was identified in 11 of the Popular Councils mainly in the three urban areas during the whole year. It was observed that the breeding places are diverse; the artificial tanks were the ones that prevailed.Conclusions: the variety of breeding places used by the Aedes albopictus was demonstrated in Jesús Menéndez municipality during every month of the year.

  16. Identification of AaCASPS7, an effector caspase in Aedes albopictus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Lingyan; Liu, Hao; Li, Xiaomei; Qiao, Jialu; Wang, Shengya; Guo, Deyin; Liu, Qingzhen

    2016-11-15

    Aedes albopictus mosquito is a vector of various arboviruses and is becoming a significant threat to public health due to its rapid global expansion. Several reports suggest that apoptosis could be a factor limiting arbovirus infection in mosquitoes. Thus, it is significant to identify apoptosis pathway and study the correlation between apoptosis and virus infection in mosquitoes. Apoptosis is a type of programmed cell death that plays a vital role in immunity, development, and tissue homeostasis. Caspases are a family of conserved proteases playing important roles in apoptosis. In this study, we identified Aedes albopictus AaCASPS7, a caspase shared high identity with dipteran insect drICE orthologs. Phylogenetic analysis showed the closest relative of AaCASPS7 was Aedes aegypti AeCASPS7. AaCASPS7 displayed several features that were typical of an effector caspase and showed significant activity to effector caspase substrates. Aacasps7 transcripts were expressed ubiquitously in developmental and adult stages in Aedes albopictus mosquitoes. Transient expression of AaCASPS7 induced caspase-dependent apoptosis in C6/36 cells. Taken together the above data, this study identified a novel caspase, AaCASPS7, which might function as an apoptotic caspase. Further study the function of AaCASPS7 would facilitate better understanding the apoptotic mechanism in Aedes albopictus mosquito. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Systematic Review: Land Cover, Meteorological, and Socioeconomic Determinants of Aedes Mosquito Habitat for Risk Mapping

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    Mohamed F. Sallam

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Asian tiger and yellow fever mosquitoes (Aedes albopictus and Ae. aegypti are global nuisances and are competent vectors for viruses such as Chikungunya (CHIKV, Dengue (DV, and Zika (ZIKV. This review aims to analyze available spatiotemporal distribution models of Aedes mosquitoes and their influential factors. A combination of five sets of 3–5 keywords were used to retrieve all relevant published models. Five electronic search databases were used: PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Scopus, and Google Scholar through 17 May 2017. We generated a hierarchical decision tree for article selection. We identified 21 relevant published studies that highlight different combinations of methodologies, models and influential factors. Only a few studies adopted a comprehensive approach highlighting the interaction between environmental, socioeconomic, meteorological and topographic systems. The selected articles showed inconsistent findings in terms of number and type of influential factors affecting the distribution of Aedes vectors, which is most likely attributed to: (i limited availability of high-resolution data for physical variables, (ii variation in sampling methods; Aedes feeding and oviposition behavior; (iii data collinearity and statistical distribution of observed data. This review highlights the need and sets the stage for a rigorous multi-system modeling approach to improve our knowledge about Aedes presence/abundance within their flight range in response to the interaction between environmental, socioeconomic, and meteorological systems.

  18. Vertical distribution of Aedes mosquitoes in multiple storey buildings in Selangor and Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, K W; Chen, C D; Lee, H L; Izzul, A A; Asri-Isa, M; Zulfadli, M; Sofian-Azirun, M

    2013-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the vertical distribution and abundance of Aedes mosquitoes in multiple storey buildings in Selangor and Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Ovitrap surveillance was conducted for 4 continuous weeks in multiple storey buildings in 4 residential areas located in Selangor [Kg. Baiduri (KB)] and Kuala Lumpur [Student Hostel of University of Malaya (UM), Kg. Kerinchi (KK) and Hang Tuah (HT)]. The results implied that Aedes mosquitoes could be found from ground floor to highest floor of multiple storey buildings and data from different elevation did not show significant difference. Ovitrap index for UM, KB, HT and KK ranged from 0 - 29.17%, 0 - 55.56%, 8.33 - 83.33% and 0 - 91.17% respectively. Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus were found breeding in HT, KK and KB; while only Ae. albopictus was obtained from UM. The results indicate that the invasion of Aedes mosquitoes in high-rise apartments could facilitate the transmission of dengue virus and new approaches to vector control in this type of residential area should be developed.

  19. Standard operating procedures for standardized mass rearing of the dengue and chikungunya vectors Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) - I - egg quantification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Min-Lin; Zhang, Dong-Jing; Damiens, David D; Yamada, Hanano; Gilles, Jeremie R L

    2015-01-23

    Quantification of eggs prior to rearing the immature stages of mosquitoes is an essential step in establishing a standardized mass rearing system. To develop a simple and accurate method of egg quantification for Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus, the relationship between egg number and weight, as well as egg number and volume, were studied. Known quantities of eggs (1,000, 3,000, 6,000, 12,000, 15,000, 18,000, 21,000 and 27,000) were counted and subsequently their weight and volume were measured. Best-fit curves and regression equations were used to describe relationships between Aedes egg number and both weight and volume. Eighteen thousand Ae. aegypti eggs weighed 159.8 mg and had a volume of 277.4 μl, compared to measurements of 131.5 mg and 230.3 μl for Ae. albopictus. The eggs of Ae. aegypti were thus larger and heavier than those of Ae. albopictus. The use of weight and volume to quantify egg number was validated by counting volumes and weights of eggs expected to correspond to 3,000 and 18,000 eggs of each species; significant correlations were found in all cases except in the case of 3,000 Ae. albopictus eggs measured by volume. Methods for egg quantification were validated and shown to be a consistent and practical means to achieve uniform distribution of Aedes larvae between rearing trays, important for optimal mass rearing of the immature stages of Aedes mosquitoes.

  20. Temperature Increase Enhances Aedes albopictus Competence to Transmit Dengue Virus

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    Zhuanzhuan Liu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Dengue is a mosquito-borne disease that has been an epidemic in China for many years. Aedes albopictus is the dominant Aedes mosquito species and the main vector of dengue in China. Epidemiologically, dengue mainly occurs in Guangdong Province; it does not occur or rarely occurs in other areas of mainland China. This distribution may be associated with climate, mosquito density, and other factors in different regions; however, the effect of temperature on the vector competence of Ae. albopictus for dengue viruses (DENV remains unclear. In this study, Ae. albopictus was orally infected with dengue virus 2 (DENV-2 and reared at constant temperatures (18, 23, 28, and 32°C and a fluctuating temperature (28–23–18°C. The infection status of the midguts, ovaries, and salivary glands of each mosquito was detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR at 0, 5, 10, and 15 days post-infection (dpi. DENV-2 RNA copies from positive tissues were quantified by quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR. At 18°C, DENV-2 proliferated slowly in the midgut of Ae. albopictus, and the virus could not spread to the salivary glands. At 23 and 28°C, DENV-2 was detected in the ovaries and salivary glands at 10 dpi. The rates of infection, dissemination, population transmission, and DENV-2 copies at 28°C were higher than those at 23°C at any time point. At 32°C, the extrinsic incubation period (EIP for DENV-2 in Ae. albopictus was only 5 dpi, and the vector competence was the highest among all the temperatures. Compared with 28°C, at 28–23–18°C, the positive rate and the amount of DENV-2 in the salivary glands were significantly lower. Therefore, temperature is an important factor affecting the vector competence of Ae. albopictus for DENV-2. Within the suitable temperature range, the replication of DENV-2 in Ae. albopictus accelerated, and the EIP was shorter with a higher temperature. Our results provide a guide for vector control and an experimental basis for

  1. A database on endemic plants at Tirumala hills in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latheef, Shaik Abdul; Prasad, Beerkam; Bavaji, Middi; Subramanyam, Gangapatnam

    2008-01-27

    Medicinal plants play an important role in health care. The use of medicinal plants for treatment is growing in view of cost and non-compliance of modern medicine as in case of non-communicable diseases. Plants such as Boswellia, ovalifoliolata, Cycas beddomei, Pimpinella tirupatiensis, Pterocarpus santalinus, Shorea thumbuggaia, Syzygium alternifolium, Terminalia pallida are endemic to Tirumala hills of seshachalam range falling under the Eastern Ghats of India. These plants species have medicinal properties such as anti-tumorogenic, anti-microbial, purgative, hypoglycemic, abortificient, analgesic, anti-septic, anti-pyretic and anti-inflammatory. We created a database named DEPTH in an attempt to communicate data of these plants to the scientific community. DEPTH contains data on scientific name, vernacular name, family name, morphological description, economic importance, known medicinal compounds and medicinal importance. http://svimstpt.ap.nic.in/MedicinalPlants/mainpage.htm.

  2. Hills and valleys: Understanding the under-eye

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    Milind N Naik

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Soft tissue deflation and descent have long been implicated in the pathogenesis of facial aging. In the periorbital area, the upper orbital region is thought to change by descent of the eyebrow, as well as deflation of brow fat. While the understanding of the aging changes in the upper eyelid region are relatively simple, the lower eyelid poses a myriad of aging changes, each demanding a specific management plan. These can be best described in terms of elevations, or 'Hills' and hollows, or 'Valleys'. This article simplifies the understanding of the lower eyelid in the light of anatomical knowledge, and available literature. It forms a basis of easy diagnosis and treatment of the soft tissue changes in the lower eyelid and malar region.

  3. A new Lower Triassic ichthyopterygian assemblage from Fossil Hill, Nevada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Neil P; Motani, Ryosuke; Embree, Patrick; Orchard, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    We report a new ichthyopterygian assemblage from Lower Triassic horizons of the Prida Formation at Fossil Hill in central Nevada. Although fragmentary, the specimens collected so far document a diverse fauna. One partial jaw exhibits isodont dentition with blunt tipped, mesiodistally compressed crowns and striated enamel. These features are shared with the Early Triassic genus Utatsusaurus known from coeval deposits in Japan and British Columbia. An additional specimen exhibits a different dentition characterized by relatively small, rounded posterior teeth resembling other Early Triassic ichthyopterygians, particularly Grippia. This Nevada assemblage marks a southward latitudinal extension for Early Triassic ichthyopterygians along the eastern margin of Panthalassa and indicates repeated trans-hemispheric dispersal events in Early Triassic ichthyopterygians.

  4. A new Lower Triassic ichthyopterygian assemblage from Fossil Hill, Nevada

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    Neil P. Kelley

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a new ichthyopterygian assemblage from Lower Triassic horizons of the Prida Formation at Fossil Hill in central Nevada. Although fragmentary, the specimens collected so far document a diverse fauna. One partial jaw exhibits isodont dentition with blunt tipped, mesiodistally compressed crowns and striated enamel. These features are shared with the Early Triassic genus Utatsusaurus known from coeval deposits in Japan and British Columbia. An additional specimen exhibits a different dentition characterized by relatively small, rounded posterior teeth resembling other Early Triassic ichthyopterygians, particularly Grippia. This Nevada assemblage marks a southward latitudinal extension for Early Triassic ichthyopterygians along the eastern margin of Panthalassa and indicates repeated trans-hemispheric dispersal events in Early Triassic ichthyopterygians.

  5. SRTM Colored and Shaded Topography: Haro and Kas Hills, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    On January 26, 2001, the Kachchh region in western India suffered the most deadly earthquake in India's history. This shaded topography view of landforms northeast of the city of Bhuj depicts geologic structures that are of interest in the study the tectonic processes that may have led to that earthquake. However, preliminary field studies indicate that these structures are composed of Mesozoic rocks that are overlain by younger rocks showing little deformation. Thus these structures may be old, not actively growing, and not directly related to the recent earthquake.The Haro Hills are on the left and the Kas Hills are on the right. The Haro Hills are an 'anticline,' which is an upwardly convex elongated fold of layered rocks. In this view, the anticline is distinctly ringed by an erosion resistant layer of sandstone. The east-west orientation of the anticline may relate to the crustal compression that has occurred during India's northward movement toward, and collision with, Asia. In contrast, the largest of the Kas Hills appears to be a tilted (to the south) and faulted (on the north) block of layered rocks. Also seen here, the linear feature trending toward the southwest from the image center is an erosion-resistant 'dike,' which is an igneous intrusion into older 'host' rocks along a fault plane or other crack. These features are simple examples of how shaded topography can provide a direct input to geologic studies.In this image, colors show the elevation as measured by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). Colors range from green at the lowest elevations, through yellow and red, to purple at the highest elevations. Elevations here range from near sea level to about 300 meters (about 1000 feet). Shading has been added, with illumination from the north (image top).Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that

  6. Chemical characterization of a unique chondrite - Allan Hills 85085

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosselin, David C.; Laul, J. C.

    1990-01-01

    Allan Hills 85085 is a new and very important addition to the growing list of unique carbonaceous chondrites because of its unique chemical and mineralogical properties. This chemical study provides more precise data on the major, minor, and trace element characteristics of ALH85085. ALH85085 has compositional, petrological, and isotopic affinities to AL Rais and Renazzo, and to Bencubbin-Weatherford. The similarities to Al Rais and Renazzo suggest similar formation locations and thermal processing, possibly in the vicinity of CI chondrites. Petrologic, compositional and isotopic studies indicate that the components that control the abundance of the various refractory and volatile elements were not allowed to equilibrate with the nebula as conditions changed, explaining the inconsistencies in the classification of these meteorites using known taxonomic parameters.

  7. A new kind of primitive chondrite, Allan Hills 85085

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Edward R. D.

    1988-01-01

    Allan Hills (ALH) 85085, a chemically and mineralogically unique chondrite whose components have suffered little metamorphism or alteration, is discussed. It is found that ALH 85085 has 4 wt pct chondrules (mean diameter 16 microns), 36 wt pct Fe, Ni, 56 wt pct lithic and mineral silicate fragments, and 2 wt pct trolite. It is suggested that, with the exception of matrix lumps, the components of ALH 85085 formed and accreted in the solar nebula. It is shown that ALH 85085 does not belong to any of the nine chondrite groups and is very different from Kakangari. Similarities between ALH 85085 and Bencubbin and Weatherford suggest that the latter two primitive meteorites may be chondrites with high metal abundances and very large, partly fragmented chondrules.

  8. Morphological variation of Ridged Frogs of the Taita Hills, Kenya

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    Rossa Ng’endo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Comparing of morphological character variation within taxa continues to play an important role in improving species inventories. Using morphometrical and non-meristic morphological adult characters, the diversity of the genus Ptychadena in Taita Hills was studied. Comparative material from elsewhere was not used, and therefore species names were only provisionally allocated to the taxa identified. Available names were discussed on the basis of comparisons with morphological data from other regions. The results revealed that female species are larger in size than males. Two species were identified and for each a standardized diagnosis of 32 characters is provided. Comparison of results with morphological data from related studies done elsewhere reveals that certain characters are of critical importance in differentiating the two Ptychadena species. The power of these morphological characters is discussed, especially for the background of rapid and easy identification of Ptychadena species in the field for conservation purposes.

  9. Leucemias y radiación: juicio causal según los criterios de SIR Austin Bradford Hill

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    Octavio Martínez Betancur

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available El cometido del presente trabajo es la lectura interpretativa con base en la propuesta de inferencia causal de Austin Bradford Hill, del documento Radiation-related leukemia in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, 1946-1964. I. Distribution, incidence and appearance time. El documento informado por el comité de las víctimas de la bomba atómica cumple con la totalidad de los nueve “criterios” propuesto por Hill, y entre las limitaciones se cuentan la presunciones de homogeneidad genética de los sujetos expuestos y linealidad de los efectos de las radiaciones en la leucemia, además del hecho de sólo considerar la edad como variable confusora. Por otra parte, el número de muertes por leucemia, patrón de oro de la sensibilidad y la especificidad del sistema de vigilancia del estudio de duración de la vida, fue 61 muertes por leucemia entre los supervivientes situados dentro de 1500 metros del epicentro de la explosión y 25 muertes en el grupo que recibió radiación estando entre 1501 y 10000 metros, lo que habla de posible subregistro de casos y de sobrediagnóstico por la sumatoria de criterios empleados. Los “criterios” de Hill no son reglas lógicas sino metodológicas, que ayudan en el proceso de decisión sobre la inferencia causal en epidemiología. Se apartan de la discusión de si las inferencias a partir de ellos se ajustan a la lógica inductiva o a la deductiva, y deben entenderse pragmáticamente como “inferencias de la mejor explicación” en el contexto de la abducción. La única conclusión permitida dentro del marco de la “inferencia de la mejor explicación”, es que se tienen buenas razones para considerar seriamente la hipótesis que la asociación estadística que se estudia, es una relación causal.

  10. MODELLING FINE SCALE MOVEMENT CORRIDORS FOR THE TRICARINATE HILL TURTLE

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    I. Mondal

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Habitat loss and the destruction of habitat connectivity can lead to species extinction by isolation of population. Identifying important habitat corridors to enhance habitat connectivity is imperative for species conservation by preserving dispersal pattern to maintain genetic diversity. Circuit theory is a novel tool to model habitat connectivity as it considers habitat as an electronic circuit board and species movement as a certain amount of current moving around through different resistors in the circuit. Most studies involving circuit theory have been carried out at small scales on large ranging animals like wolves or pumas, and more recently on tigers. This calls for a study that tests circuit theory at a large scale to model micro-scale habitat connectivity. The present study on a small South-Asian geoemydid, the Tricarinate Hill-turtle (Melanochelys tricarinata, focuses on habitat connectivity at a very fine scale. The Tricarinate has a small body size (carapace length: 127–175 mm and home range (8000–15000 m2, with very specific habitat requirements and movement patterns. We used very high resolution Worldview satellite data and extensive field observations to derive a model of landscape permeability at 1 : 2,000 scale to suit the target species. Circuit theory was applied to model potential corridors between core habitat patches for the Tricarinate Hill-turtle. The modelled corridors were validated by extensive ground tracking data collected using thread spool technique and found to be functional. Therefore, circuit theory is a promising tool for accurately identifying corridors, to aid in habitat studies of small species.

  11. Modelling Fine Scale Movement Corridors for the Tricarinate Hill Turtle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, I.; Kumar, R. S.; Habib, B.; Talukdar, G.

    2016-06-01

    Habitat loss and the destruction of habitat connectivity can lead to species extinction by isolation of population. Identifying important habitat corridors to enhance habitat connectivity is imperative for species conservation by preserving dispersal pattern to maintain genetic diversity. Circuit theory is a novel tool to model habitat connectivity as it considers habitat as an electronic circuit board and species movement as a certain amount of current moving around through different resistors in the circuit. Most studies involving circuit theory have been carried out at small scales on large ranging animals like wolves or pumas, and more recently on tigers. This calls for a study that tests circuit theory at a large scale to model micro-scale habitat connectivity. The present study on a small South-Asian geoemydid, the Tricarinate Hill-turtle (Melanochelys tricarinata), focuses on habitat connectivity at a very fine scale. The Tricarinate has a small body size (carapace length: 127-175 mm) and home range (8000-15000 m2), with very specific habitat requirements and movement patterns. We used very high resolution Worldview satellite data and extensive field observations to derive a model of landscape permeability at 1 : 2,000 scale to suit the target species. Circuit theory was applied to model potential corridors between core habitat patches for the Tricarinate Hill-turtle. The modelled corridors were validated by extensive ground tracking data collected using thread spool technique and found to be functional. Therefore, circuit theory is a promising tool for accurately identifying corridors, to aid in habitat studies of small species.

  12. Coupled Model Simulation of Snowfall Events Over the Black Hills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianzhong; Hjelmfelt, M. R.; Capehart, W. J.

    2000-01-01

    Although many long-term simulations of snow accumulation and oblation have been made using stand-alone land surface models and surface models coupled with GCMs, less research has focused on short-term event simulations. Actually, accurate event simulations of snow-related processes are the basis for successful long-term simulation. Three advantages of event simulations of snowfall and snow melting are availability of: (1) intensive observation data from field experiments for validation; (2) more physically-realistic precipitation schemes for use in atmospheric models to simulate snowfall; and (3) a more detailed analysis of the snow melting processes. In addition to the complexities of snow related processes themselves, terrain-induced effects on snowfall/snow melting make simulations of snow events more difficult. Climatological observations indicate that terrain features such as the Black Hills of South Dakota and Wyoming can exert important effects on snow accumulation and snow oblation processes. One of the primary effects is that the orography causes forced uplift of airflow and causes atmospheric waves to form both upwind and downwind of it. Airflow often splits around the obstacle, converging on the lee side. This convergence may lead to precipitation enhancement. It also provides an elevated heat and moisture source that enhances atmospheric instability. During the period of April 5-May 5, 1999, the Upper Missouri River Basin Pilot Project (UMRBPP) made intensive observations on precipitation events occurring in the Black Hills. Two moderate snowfall events were captured during the period. The resulting high temporal and spatial resolution data provides opportunities to investigate terrain effects on snowfall amount, distribution, and melting. Successful simulation of snowfall amount, distribution, and evolution using atmospheric models is important to subsequent modeling of snow melting using snow sub-models in land surface schemes. In this paper, a

  13. CO2 fluid inclusions in Jack Hills zircons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menneken, Martina; Geisler, Thorsten; Nemchin, Alexander A.; Whitehouse, Martin J.; Wilde, Simon A.; Gasharova, Biliana; Pidgeon, Robert T.

    2017-08-01

    The discovery of Hadean to Paleoarchean zircons in a metaconglomerate from Jack Hills, Western Australia, has catalyzed intensive study of these zircons and their mineral inclusions, as they represent unique geochemical archives that can be used to unravel the geological evolution of early Earth. Here, we report the occurrence and physical properties of previously undetected CO2 inclusions that were identified in 3.36-3.47 Ga and 3.80-4.13 Ga zircon grains by confocal micro-Raman spectroscopy. Minimum P-T conditions of zircon formation were determined from the highest density of the inclusions, determined from the density-dependence of the Fermi diad splitting in the Raman spectrum and Ti-in-zircon thermometry. For both age periods, the CO2 densities and Ti-in-zircon temperatures correspond to high-grade metamorphic conditions (≥5 to ≥7 kbar/ 670 to 770 °C) that are typical of mid-crustal regional metamorphism throughout Earth's history. In addition, fully enclosed, highly disordered graphitic carbon inclusions were identified in two zircon grains from the older population that also contained CO2 inclusions. Transmission electron microscopy on one of these inclusions revealed that carbon forms a thin amorphous film on the inclusion wall, whereas the rest of the volume was probably occupied by CO2 prior to analysis. This indicates a close relationship between CO2 and the reduced carbon inclusions and, in particular that the carbon precipitated from a CO2-rich fluid, which is inconsistent with the recently proposed biogenic origin of carbon inclusions found in Hadean zircons from Jack Hills.

  14. Surface and Flow Field Measurements on the FAITH Hill Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, James H.; Heineck, James T.; Zilliac, Gregory; Mehta, Rabindra D.; Long, Kurtis R.

    2012-01-01

    A series of experimental tests, using both qualitative and quantitative techniques, were conducted to characterize both surface and off-surface flow characteristics of an axisymmetric, modified-cosine-shaped, wall-mounted hill named "FAITH" (Fundamental Aero Investigates The Hill). Two separate models were employed: a 6" high, 18" base diameter machined aluminum model that was used for wind tunnel tests and a smaller scale (2" high, 6" base diameter) sintered nylon version that was used in the water channel facility. Wind tunnel and water channel tests were conducted at mean test section speeds of 165 fps (Reynolds Number based on height = 500,000) and 0.1 fps (Reynolds Number of 1000), respectively. The ratio of model height to boundary later height was approximately 3 for both tests. Qualitative techniques that were employed to characterize the complex flow included surface oil flow visualization for the wind tunnel tests, and dye injection for the water channel tests. Quantitative techniques that were employed to characterize the flow included Cobra Probe to determine point-wise steady and unsteady 3D velocities, Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) to determine 3D velocities and turbulence statistics along specified planes, Pressure Sensitive Paint (PSP) to determine mean surface pressures, and Fringe Imaging Skin Friction (FISF) to determine surface skin friction (magnitude and direction). This initial report summarizes the experimental set-up, techniques used, data acquired and describes some details of the dataset that is being constructed for use by other researchers, especially the CFD community. Subsequent reports will discuss the data and their interpretation in more detail

  15. The History of Allan Hills 84001 Revised: Multiple Shock Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treiman, Allan H.

    1998-01-01

    The geologic history of Martian meteorite Allan Hills (ALH) 84001 is more complex than previously recognized, with evidence for four or five crater-forming impacts onto Mars. This history of repeated deformation and shock metamorphism appears to weaken some arguments that have been offered for and against the hypothesis of ancient Martian life in ALH 84001. Allan Hills 84001 formed originally from basaltic magma. Its first impact event (I1) is inferred from the deformation (D1) that produced the granular-textured bands ("crush zones") that transect the original igneous fabric. Deformation D1 is characterized by intense shear and may represent excavation or rebound flow of rock beneath a large impact crater. An intense thermal metamorphism followed D1 and may be related to it. The next impact (I2) produced fractures, (Fr2) in which carbonate "pancakes" were deposited and produced feldspathic glass from some of the igneous feldspars and silica. After I2, carbonate pancakes and globules were deposited in Fr2 fractures and replaced feldspathic glass and possibly crystalline silicates. Next, feldspars, feldspathic glass, and possibly some carbonates were mobilized and melted in the third impact (I3). Microfaulting, intense fracturing, and shear are also associated with 13. In the fourth impact (I4), the rock was fractured and deformed without significant heating, which permitted remnant magnetization directions to vary across fracture surfaces. Finally, ALH 84001 was ejected from Mars in event I5, which could be identical to I4. This history of multiple impacts is consistent with the photogeology of the Martian highlands and may help resolve some apparent contradictions among recent results on ALH 84001. For example, the submicron rounded magnetite grains in the carbonate globules could be contemporaneous with carbonate deposition, whereas the elongate magnetite grains, epitaxial on carbonates, could be ascribed to vapor-phase deposition during I3.

  16. MANEJO DE RESIDUOS DE Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden EN SITIOS CONTRASTANTES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Lupi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available En la región NE de Argentina existe poca información sobre el impacto que tienen las diferentes alternativas de manejo de residuos de la cosecha forestal sobre las propiedades edáficas. En este estudio se analizó el efecto a corto plazo de sistemas de manejo de residuos de la cosecha de Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden, sobre la concentración del carbono orgánico total del suelo (COT y la fracción particulada (COP, su estado estructural y la conductividad hidráulica saturada. El estudio se desarrolló en dos sitios de la Provincia de Entre Ríos, Argentina, en un suelo Aquic Hapluderts (S1 y en un Fluventic Hapludolls (S2. Se aplicaron los siguientes tratamientos: 1. Extracción total de residuos (ER, 2. Conservación de residuos (CR, 3. Quema de residuos-testigo (QR, 4. Doble adición de residuos (DAR. El muestreo de suelos en las profundidades 0-5 cm y 5-10 cm se realizó a los 18 (S1 y a los 22 (S2 meses de aplicar los tratamientos. En el corto plazo, el efecto de los tratamientos dependió del tipo de suelo y de la variable analizada. Los contrastes más importantes se debieron al efecto de las características intrínsecas del suelo sobre el tamaño de los agregados y la conductividad hidráulica saturada. La conservación de residuos no aumentó la concentración de COT ni modificó la calidad de la materia orgánica medida a partir de COP. El suelo Aquic Hapluderts presentó agregados más grandes, más estables y una mayor K sat en comparación con el Fluventic Hapludolls. En el Aquic Hapluderts se observó una mayor conductividad hidráulica saturada en los tratamientos con conservación de los residuos (DAR y CR, debido a que la cobertura preservaría el sistema poroso en la interfase suelo-atmosfera. El Fluventic Hapludolls fue menos estable y los tratamientos no modificaron significativamente el tamaño de los agregados ni la conductividad hidráulica saturada . Considerando que las características del sitio tienen efectos

  17. 77 FR 60458 - Public Land Order No. 7803; Withdrawal of Public Lands for the Limestone Hills Training Area; MT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-03

    ... Bureau of Land Management Public Land Order No. 7803; Withdrawal of Public Lands for the Limestone Hills... laws, for a period of 5 years. This withdrawal will protect the Limestone Hills Training Area in... hours. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Limestone Hills Training Area withdrawal will maintain the current...

  18. Theory of synergistic effects: Hill-type response surfaces as 'null-interaction' models for mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler, Michael

    2017-08-02

    The classification of effects caused by mixtures of agents as synergistic, antagonistic or additive depends critically on the reference model of 'null interaction'. Two main approaches are currently in use, the Additive Dose (ADM) or concentration addition (CA) and the Multiplicative Survival (MSM) or independent action (IA) models. We compare several response surface models to a newly developed Hill response surface, obtained by solving a logistic partial differential equation (PDE). Assuming that a mixture of chemicals with individual Hill-type dose-response curves can be described by an n-dimensional logistic function, Hill's differential equation for pure agents is replaced by a PDE for mixtures whose solution provides Hill surfaces as 'null-interaction' models and relies neither on Bliss independence or Loewe additivity nor uses Chou's unified general theory. An n-dimensional logistic PDE decribing the Hill-type response of n-component mixtures is solved. Appropriate boundary conditions ensure the correct asymptotic behaviour. Mathematica 11 (Wolfram, Mathematica Version 11.0, 2016) is used for the mathematics and graphics presented in this article. The Hill response surface ansatz can be applied to mixtures of compounds with arbitrary Hill parameters. Restrictions which are required when deriving analytical expressions for response surfaces from other principles, are unnecessary. Many approaches based on Loewe additivity turn out be special cases of the Hill approach whose increased flexibility permits a better description of 'null-effect' responses. Missing sham-compliance of Bliss IA, known as Colby's model in agrochemistry, leads to incompatibility with the Hill surface ansatz. Examples of binary and ternary mixtures illustrate the differences between the approaches. For Hill-slopes close to one and doses below the half-maximum effect doses MSM (Colby, Bliss, Finney, Abbott) predicts synergistic effects where the Hill model indicates 'null

  19. Todo sobre el neobarroco

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    Arturo Carrera

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Lo que hemos escuchado y atendido hasta aquí, hoy, ayer, sobre todo en la propuesta poética esbozada por Sergio Raimondi en su ensayo sobre Aldo Oliva, demuestra que las singularidades, su pasión, anulan subrepticiamente las nominaciones.Anoche en la televisión una orquesta sinfónica y un coro numeroso. Súbitamente, me hubiera gustado ser uno de esos intérpretes solitarios para sí, a pesar de la armonía, anónimos, a pesar del brillo sonoro… un violín, un triángulo… apenas… tres grillos… como ...

  20. Estudos sobre a psicopatia

    OpenAIRE

    Peres, Kenia

    2008-01-01

    Esta dissertação é resultado de extensa pesquisa sobre a psicopatia, fenômeno psicopatológico tão recorrente no cotidiano social, porém pouco explorado, talvez pela indiscutível dificuldade técnica no manejo desses pacientes. O interesse em compreender o psicodinamismo desses indivíduos caminha paralelamente ao meu desenvolvimento profissional, tanto como pesquisadora como psicóloga clínica. Neste trabalho, utilizei além da pesquisa bibliográfica da teoria psicanalítica sobre o tema, estudos ...

  1. PEMANFAATAN KULIT BUAH JERUK NIPIS (Citrus aurantifolia SEBAGAI LARVASIDA Aedes aegypti INSTAR III

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    evy Ratnasari Ekawati

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available DHF (Dengue disease is transmitted through mosquito vectorAedes aegypti.One way to do control the Dengue vector is to use insecticide made from natural materials and is environmentally friendly with lemon peel extract (Citrusaurantifolia. This study aims to determine the effectiveness of extracts of lemon peel (Citrus aurantifolia in killing the third instar larvae Aedesaegypti with various concentrations and time variations. This were an experimental laboratory researchs using various concentrations of extract limes peel (Citrusaurantifolia 1%, 2%, 3%, 4%, 5%, 6%, and 7% in which there 25 larvae Aedes aegypti and using a variation of 30, 60, 90, 120, 180, 240, 300, and 1440 minutes after contact with the extracts limes peel (Citrusaurantifolia. Effective concentration to kill larvae of Aedes aegypti by 50% (IC50 was the concentration of 3.419%.

  2. Identification of a North American mosquito species, Aedes atropalpus (Diptera: Culicidae), in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romi, R; Sabatinelli, G; Savelli, L G; Raris, M; Zago, M; Malatesta, R

    1997-09-01

    In late September 1996, during a routine survey for Aedes albopictus in Italy, a population of Aedes atropalpus s.s. was discovered in the Veneto Region (northern Italy). Larvae were collected in 2 tire storage areas belonging to tire recapping companies that imported loads of car and large equipment used tires from eastern Europe and North America. Aedes atropalpus is found only in North America and hence it is the origin of this species. Control measures were carried out in October, but by then any remaining Ae. atropalpus would have been diapausing in the egg stage. A follow-up survey will be conducted in the spring of 1997 to assess if Ae. atropalpus has been established in the area and the extent of the spread in Italy.

  3. PENGAMATAN TEMPAT PERINDUKAN AEDES AEGYPTI PADA TEMPAT PENAMPUNGAN AIR RUMAH TANGGA PADA MASYARAKAT PENGGUNA AIR OLAHAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Hasyimi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available An observation of Aedes aegypti breeding places in domestic pipe waters container provided by PAM (Water supply company customer regency was carried out. The area observation in RW (a hamlet 05 kelurahan Papanggo Tanjung priuk North Jakarta. As a control area, RW 04 kelurahan Tanjung Priok in the same district was selected. The observation was conducted on Agust - September 2001. The result showed that Aedes aegypti larvae were found mostly in clay water container or tempayan (66,7 %. The house index (HI rate is 27,3%. In the control area the larvae were found predominantly in bath cistern (65,4% and HI rate is 100%. So in the study area HI rate is lower than in the control area.   Keywords: Aedes aegypti, breeding places, domestic container, house index

  4. The Aedes aegypti toll pathway controls dengue virus infection.

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    Zhiyong Xi

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Aedes aegypti, the mosquito vector of dengue viruses, utilizes its innate immune system to ward off a variety of pathogens, some of which can cause disease in humans. To date, the features of insects' innate immune defenses against viruses have mainly been studied in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, which appears to utilize different immune pathways against different types of viruses, in addition to an RNA interference-based defense system. We have used the recently released whole-genome sequence of the Ae. aegypti mosquito, in combination with high-throughput gene expression and RNA interference (RNAi-based reverse genetic analyses, to characterize its response to dengue virus infection in different body compartments. We have further addressed the impact of the mosquito's endogenous microbial flora on virus infection. Our findings indicate a significant role for the Toll pathway in regulating resistance to dengue virus, as indicated by an infection-responsive regulation and functional assessment of several Toll pathway-associated genes. We have also shown that the mosquito's natural microbiota play a role in modulating the dengue virus infection, possibly through basal-level stimulation of the Toll immune pathway.

  5. Transovarial Transmission of Dengue Virus on Aedes aegypti (L.

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    Magdalena Desiree Seran

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The ability of dengue virus to maintain its existence in nature through two mechanisms, both horizontal and vertical transmission (transovarial of the infective female mosquitoes to the next generation. This study aims to investigate the transovarial transmission and transovarial infection rate (TIR of dengue virus in eggs Aedes aegypti infected mother has a peroral virus DEN-2. This study is an experimental study in the laboratory. The population of the study was Ae. aegypti adults who have previously been infected with DEN-2 virus orally and proved to be infected with DEN-2 transovarially (Fl. The research sample was egg of Ae. aegypti from F2 generation which colonized from DEN-2 transovarially infected Ae. aegypti (Fl. Egg squash preparations made as many as 50 samples from jive difJerent mosquito parents. The presence of dengue virus antigen in mosquitoes FO and Fl were checked by SPBC immunocytochemistry method and using monoclonal antibodies DSSC7 (l:50 as standardized primary antibodies. The results shows the existence of transovarial transmission of dengue virus in eggs Ae. aegypti (F2 were seen in squash preparations in the form of a brownish color egg spread on embryonic tissues (TIR= 52%. It concludes that dengue virus is able to be transmitted vertically through the egg.

  6. Dengue virus replicates and accumulates in Aedes aegypti salivary glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raquin, Vincent; Lambrechts, Louis

    2017-07-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) is an RNA virus transmitted among humans by mosquito vectors, mainly Aedes aegypti. DENV transmission requires viral dissemination from the mosquito midgut to the salivary glands. During this process the virus undergoes several population bottlenecks, which are stochastic reductions in population size that restrict intra-host viral genetic diversity and limit the efficiency of natural selection. Despite the implications for virus transmission and evolution, DENV replication in salivary glands has not been directly demonstrated. Here, we used a strand-specific quantitative RT-PCR assay to demonstrate that negative-strand DENV RNA is produced in Ae. aegypti salivary glands, providing conclusive evidence that viral replication occurs in this tissue. Furthermore, we showed that the concentration of DENV genomic RNA in salivary glands increases significantly over time, indicating that active replication likely replenishes DENV genetic diversity prior to transmission. These findings improve our understanding of the biological determinants of DENV fitness and evolution. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Insights into the transcriptome of oenocytes from Aedes aegypti pupae

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    Gustavo Ferreira Martins

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Oenocytes are ectodermic cells present in the fat body of several insect species and these cells are considered to be analogous to the mammalian liver, based on their role in lipid storage, metabolism and secretion. Although oenocytes were identified over a century ago, little is known about their messenger RNA expression profiles. In this study, we investigated the transcriptome of Aedes aegypti oenocytes. We constructed a cDNA library from Ae. aegypti MOYO-R strain oenocytes collected from pupae and randomly sequenced 687 clones. After sequences editing and assembly, 326 high-quality contigs were generated. The most abundant transcripts identified corresponded to the cytochrome P450 superfamily, whose members have roles primarily related to detoxification and lipid metabolism. In addition, we identified 18 other transcripts with putative functions associated with lipid metabolism. One such transcript, a fatty acid synthase, is highly represented in the cDNA library of oenocytes. Moreover, oenocytes expressed several immunity-related genes and the majority of these genes were lysozymes. The transcriptional profile suggests that oenocytes play diverse roles, such as detoxification and lipid metabolism, and increase our understanding of the importance of oenocytes in Ae. aegypti homeostasis and immune competence.

  8. New Candidates for Plant-Based Repellents Against Aedes aegypti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misni, Norashiqin; Nor, Zurainee Mohamed; Ahmad, Rohani

    2016-06-01

    Based on an ethnobotanical study on use for plant species against mosquito bites in the Kota Tinggi District, Johor State, Malaysia, 3 plants selected for study, Citrus aurantifolia (leaves), Citrus grandis (fruit peel), and Alpinia galanga (rhizome), were extracted using hydrodistillation to produce essential oils. These essential oils were then formulated as a lotion using a microencapsulation process and then tested for their repellent effect against Aedes aegypti. N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide (deet) was also prepared in the same formulation and tested for repellency as controls. Four commercial plant-based repellent (KAPS(®), MozAway(®), BioZ Natural(®), and Mosiquard(®)) also were incorporated in the bioassay for comparison purposes. Bioassays revealed that at 20% concentration all repellent formulations demonstrated complete protection for 2 h and >90% for 4 h post-application. The A. galanga-based formulation provided the greatest level of protection (98.91%), which extended for 4 h post-application and was not significantly different from deet at similar concentration. When compared with commercial plant-based repellents (KAPS(®), MozAway(®), and BioZ Natural(®)), the 3 lotion formulations showed significantly better protection against Ae. aegypti bites, providing >90% protection for 4 h. In conclusion, our 3 plant-based lotion formulations provided acceptable levels of protection against host-seeking Ae. aegypti and should be developed.

  9. Effect of Photoperiod On Permethrin Resistance In Aedes aegypti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanueva, O Karina; Ponce, Gustavo; Lopez, Beatriz; Gutierrez, Selene M; Rodriguez, Iram P; Reyes, Guadalupe; Saavedra, Karla J; Black, William C; Garcia, Julian; Beaty, Barry; Eisen, Lars; Flores, Adriana E

    2016-12-01

    Living organisms have been exposed to light-dark cycles that allowed them to adapt to different ecological niches. Circadian cycles affect hormone release, metabolism, and response to xenobiotic compounds. Current studies have shown that insect susceptibility to toxic agents depends on circadian cycles, mainly because the biochemical processes involved in detoxification and responses to oxidative stress are modulated by this process. The goal of this study was to determine the effect of photoperiod on resistance to permethrin in Aedes aegypti . Collections of Ae. aegypti from 4 locations in Yucatan, southern Mexico, were subjected to 2 different photoperiod schemes: dark (0 h light:24 h dark) and natural photoperiod (12 h light:12 h dark). The comparison of both photoperiods was evaluated with respect to permethrin resistance using bottle bioassays and by monitoring the possible mechanism related such as enzymatic activity and by the frequency of 2 knockdown resistance mutations in the voltage-dependent sodium channel gene (V1016I and F1534C). The susceptible strain was used as a reference. The mosquitoes in dark photoperiod showed a reduction in resistance to the pyrethroid. The α-esterases and glutathione S-transferase enzymatic activities showed lower levels in the dark photoperiod, and the frequencies of V1016I knockdown resistance mutation showed significant difference between photoperiod schemes.

  10. The lethal effects of Cyperus iria on Aedes aegypti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, A M; Paskewitz, S M; Orth, A P; Tesch, M J; Toong, Y C; Goodman, W G

    1998-03-01

    The sedge Cyperus iria, a common weed in rice, contains large amounts of the insect hormone (10R) juvenile hormone III (JH III). Given its widespread distribution in Asia and Africa, we examined the possibility that C. iria could be used as a safe, inexpensive, and readily available mosquito larvicide. Plants of varying ages were harvested and leaves tested for lethal effects on larvae of the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti. The median lethal doses (LD50s) for frozen leaves from 1- and 2-month-old plants were 267 and 427 mg/100 ml of water, respectively. Leaves from 1-month-old C. iria contained 193 micrograms JH III/g fresh weight, whereas leaves from 2-month-old plants contained 143 micrograms JH III/g fresh weight. Larval sensitivity to the plant differed with age; 4-day-old larvae displayed the greatest mortality followed in decreasing sensitivity by larvae 5, 6, 3, and 2 days old. Six Cyperus species (C. albostriatus, C. alternifolius, C. esculentus, C. iria, C. miliifolius, and C. papyrus) of similar developmental stage were assayed for JH III content. Only C. iria was found to contain significant levels of JH III.

  11. Cost effectiveness of Aedes aegypti control programmes: participatory versus vertical.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baly, A; Toledo, M E; Boelaert, M; Reyes, A; Vanlerberghe, V; Ceballos, E; Carvajal, M; Maso, R; La Rosa, M; Denis, O; Van der Stuyft, P

    2007-06-01

    We conducted an economic appraisal of two strategies for Aedes aegypti control: a vertical versus a community-based approach. Costs were calculated for the period 2000-2002 in three pilot areas of Santiago de Cuba where a community intervention was implemented and compared with three control areas with routine vertical programme activities. Reduction in A. aegypti foci was chosen as the measure of effectiveness. The pre-intervention number of foci (614 vs. 632) and economical costs for vector control (US$243746 vs. US$263486) were comparable in the intervention and control areas. During the intervention period (2001-2002), a 13% decrease in recurrent costs for the health system was observed. Within the control areas, these recurrent relative costs remained stable. The number of A. aegypti foci in the pilot areas and the control areas fell by 459 and 467, respectively. The community-based approach was more cost effective from a health system perspective (US$964 vs. US$1406 per focus) as well as from society perspective (US$1508 vs. US$1767 per focus).

  12. Distribution and dynamics of Wolbachia infection in Malaysian Aedes albopictus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joanne, Sylvia; Vythilingam, Indra; Yugavathy, Nava; Leong, Cherng-Shii; Wong, Meng-Li; AbuBakar, Sazaly

    2015-08-01

    Wolbachia are maternally transmitted bacteria found in most arthropods and nematodes, but little is known about their distribution and reproductive dynamics in the Malaysian dengue vector Aedes albopictus. In this study, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to determine the presence of Wolbachia from field collected Ae. albopictus from various parts of the country using wsp specific primers. Ae. albopictus had Wolbachia infection ranging from 60 to 100%. No sequence diversity of wsp gene was found within all wAlbA and wAlbB sequences. Our findings suggest that Wolbachia infection amongst the Malaysian Ae. albopictus were not homogenously distributed in all districts in Malaysia. The presence of Wolbachia in different organs of Ae. albopictus was also determined. Wolbachia were only found in the ovaries and midguts of the mosquitoes, while absent in the salivary glands. The effects of Wolbachia on Ae. albopictus fecundity, longevity and egg viability were studied using infected and uninfected colonies. The removal of Wolbachia from Ae. albopictus resulted in reduced fecundity, longevity and egg viability, thus. Wolbachia seem to play a vital role in Ae. albopictus reproductive system. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Laboratory colonization of the European invasive mosquito Aedes (Finlaya) koreicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciocchetta, Silvia; Darbro, Jonathan M; Frentiu, Francesca D; Montarsi, Fabrizio; Capelli, Gioia; Aaskov, John G; Devine, Gregor J

    2017-02-10

    Aedes (Finlaya) koreicus (Edwards) is a mosquito that has recently entered Europe from Asia. This species is considered a potential threat to newly colonized territories, but little is known about its capacity to transmit pathogens or ability to compete with native mosquito species. The establishment of a laboratory colony is a necessary first step for further laboratory studies on the biology, ecology and vector competence of Ae. koreicus. A self-mating colony was established at QIMR Berghofer Medical Research Institute (Brisbane, Australia) from eggs of the F1 progeny of individuals collected as free-living larvae in northeastern Italy (Belluno province). Mosquitoes are currently maintained on both defibrinated sheep blood provided via an artificial membrane system and human blood from volunteers. Larvae are maintained in rain water and fed with Tetramin ® fish food (©2015 Spectrum Brands - Pet, Home and Garden Division, Tetra-Fish). Morphometric measurements related to body size were taken and a fecundity index, based on wing length, was calculated. An in vivo technique for differentiating male and female pupae has been optimized. Our findings provide the basis for further studies on the ecology and physiology of Ae. koreicus. We describe the establishment of an Ae. koreicus colony in the laboratory and identify critical requirements for the maintenance of this mosquito species under artificial conditions. The laboratory colony will facilitate studies investigating the vector potential of this species for human pathogens.

  14. Citrus Seed Oils Efficacy against Larvae of Aedes aegypti

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    Hazrat Bilal

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dengue fever is a serious public health issue in Pakistan for many years. Globally plants have been reported to contain compounds with insecticidal properties. These properties have been demonstrated more recently on the larval stages of mosquitoes. Therefore, Citrus cultivar seeds were evaluated for larvicidal potential against the primary dengue vector Aedes aegypti.Methods: Extraction of oil was done by a steam distillation method and oils were evaluated according to WHO guidelines for larvicides 2005 for evaluation of insecticidal properties of citrus seed extracts against mosquito larvae.Result: Among the Citrus cultivar seed oil, rough lemon (Citrus jambhiri had the lowest LC50 value (200.79ppm, while musambi (C. sinensis var musambi had the highest LC50 value (457.30ppm after 24 h of exposure.Conclusion: Citrus cultivars have some larvicidal potential but C. jambhiri had the greatest potential against A. ae­gypti larvae. Further small-scale field trials using the extracts of C. jambhiri will be conducted to determine opera­tional feasibility.

  15. Diel activity patterns of male Aedes albopictus in the laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, S; Maillot, L; Gouagna, L C; Fontenille, D; Chadee, D D; Lemperiere, G

    2013-03-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the flight and dispersal behavior of male Aedes albopictus under laboratory conditions. Two different methods, the Observer and Ethovision software devices, were used to determine the total duration, the mean and maximum flight speed, and the distance covered by these mosquitoes. During 24 h, mosquitoes were more active from 0800 to 1200 h and from 1700 to 2100 h than during the rest of the day. Male Ae. albopictus displayed different activities at different times. The flight activity was 47 min and 57 sec over 24 h. During this period, sugar-fed males flew an average distance of 236.20 m at an average speed of 8.5 cm/sec. The unfed males flew significantly faster than recently fed males, with maximum flight speeds of 44.9 cm/sec and 33.6 cm/sec, respectively. The time used for resting (22 h 2 min +/- 13 min) was significantly higher (P times (68 min +/- 10 sec and 49 min +/- 5 min, respectively). Overall, both methods allowed observations on flight activity, and the camera recordings allowed these activities to be quantified.

  16. Morphological and morphometrical assessment of spermathecae of Aedes aegypti females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tales Vicari Pascini

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The vectorial capacity of Aedes aegypti is directly influenced by its high reproductive output. Nevertheless, females are restricted to a single mating event, sufficient to acquire enough sperm to fertilize a lifetime supply of eggs. How Ae. aegypti is able to maintain viable spermatozoa remains a mystery. Male spermatozoa are stored within either of two spermathecae that in Ae. aegypti consist of one large and two smaller organs each. In addition, each organ is divided into reservoir, duct and glandular portions. Many aspects of the morphology of the spermatheca in virgin and inseminated Ae. aegypti were investigated here using a combination of light, confocal, electron and scanning microscopes, as well as histochemistry. The abundance of mitochondria and microvilli in spermathecal gland cells is suggestive of a secretory role and results obtained from periodic acid Schiff assays of cell apexes and lumens indicate that gland cells produce and secrete neutral polysaccharides probably related to maintenance of spermatozoa. These new data contribute to our understanding of gamete maintenance in the spermathecae of Ae. aegypti and to an improved general understanding of mosquito reproductive biology.

  17. Quality control methods for Aedes albopictus sterile male production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio Balestrino

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The capacity of the released sterile males to survive, disperse, compete with wild males and inseminate wild females is an essential prerequisite to be evaluated in any area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM programs including a sterile insect release method. Adequate quality control tests supported by standardized procedures need to be developed to measure these parameters and to identify and correct potential inappropriate rearing or handling methods affecting the overall male quality. In this study, we report results on the creation and validation of the first quality control devices designed to infer the survival and mating capacity of radio-sterilized Aedes albopictus males through the observation of their flight capacity under restricted conditions (flight organ device and after stress treatment (aspirator device. Results obtained consistently indicate comparable flight capacity and quality parameters between untreated and 35 Gy irradiated males while a negative impact was observed with higher radiation doses at all observation time performed. The male flight capacity registered with the proposed quality control devices can be successfully employed, with different predictive capacities and response time, to infer the adult male quality. These simple and cost-effective tools provide a valuable method to detect and amend potentially sub-standard procedures in the sterile male production line and hence contribute to maintaining optimal quality and field performance of the mosquitoes being released.

  18. PENGARUH EKSTRAK DAUN LEGUNDI (Vitex trifolia Linn TERHADAP KEMATIAN LARVA Aedes albopictus

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    Nia Sari Nastiti

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAKPengendalian Aedes albopictus penting dilakukan karena merupakan salah satu vektor penyakit yang mampumembawa dan menularkan virus Chikungunya. Di antara cara pengendalian yang perlu dikembangkan adalahpengendalian secara hayati, karena aman bagi manusia dan organisme lain serta ramah lingkungan. Pengendalian hayatiyang dapat digunakan adalah daun Legundi (Vitex trifolia linn. Vitex trifolia linn telah diketahui mengandung bahan aktifalkaloid, saponin, flafonoid. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui pengaruh ekstrak daun Vitex trifolia linnterhadap kematianlarva Aedes albopictus.Jenis penelitian ini adalah quasi experiment, menggunakan Post Test OnlyControl Group Design. Obyekpenelitian ini adalah 750 ekor larva Aedes albopictus instar IV yang berasal dari hasil penangkaran di Balai BesarPenelitian dan Pengembangan Vektor dan Reservoir Penyakit (B2P2VRP Salatiga, Jawa Tengah. Ekstrak etanol daunVitex trifolia linn dibuat dari daun Legundi segar yang didestilasi dengan suhu 100oC sampai pekat. Setiap kelompokmedia (gelas penelitian diisi 100 ml air sumur, dan ekstrak etanol daun Vitex trifolia linn dengan konsentrasi 2,5 %, 5 %,7,5 %, 10 %, 12,5 % dan 0 % (kontrol. Selanjutnya pada setiap media dimasukkan 25 ekor larva Aedes albopictus,penghitungan kematian larva dilakukan setiap jam ke 1, 2, 4, dan 24. Replikasi dilakukan sebanyak 5 kali.Hasil uji statistik dengan Oneway Anova diperoleh p=0,000, sehingga (p<0,05 artinya ada perbedaan yangbermakna, yaitu ekstrak daun Vitex trifolia linn dapat mematikan larva Aedes albopictus. Kesimpulan penelitian ini adalahpenggunaan ekstrak daun Vitex trifolia linn dengan konsentrasi 12,5 % paling efektif terhadap kematian larva Aedesalbopictus.Kata Kunci: Ekstrak, daun legundi (Vitex trifolia linn, Aedes albopictus

  19. Seismic evidence of Quaternary faulting in the Benton Hills area, southeast Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, J.R.; Shoemaker, M.; Hoffman, D.; Anderson, N.L.; Vaughn, J.D.; Harrison, R.W.

    1997-01-01

    Two reflection seismic profiles at English Hill, across the southern edge of the Benton Hills escarpment, southeast Missouri, establish that geologic structures at English Hill are of tectonic origin. The lowland area to the south of the escarpment is relatively undisturbed. The geology at English Hill is structurally complex, and reflection seismic and geologic data indicate extensive and episodic faulting of Paleozoic, Cretaceous, Tertiary, and Quaternary strata. The individual faults have near-vertical fault surfaces with maximum vertical separations on the order of 15 m. They appear to be clustered in north-northeast trending zones that essentially parallel one of the dominant Benton Hills structural trends. These observations suggest that previously mapped Quaternary faults at English Hill are deep-seated and tectonic in origin. This paper documents recent faulting at English Hill and is the first time late Quaternary, surface-rupture faulting has been recognized in the middle Mississippi River Valley region outside of the New Madrid seismic zone. This has important implications for earthquake assessment in the midcontinent.

  20. Resumen estudios sobre tabaquismo

    OpenAIRE

    Gónzalez, M.M. (M.)

    2009-01-01

    Este documento se realizó para publicar en la página Web de la Gerencia de Atención primaria del Área III. Este documento es una recopilación de estudios sobre tabaquismo. Gerencia de Atención Primaria Área III

  1. Multimedia sobre mantenimiento industrial

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2012-01-01

    ..., entre otras facilidades. Puntualizado, el mantenimiento industrial es una actividad que conserva la calidad del servicio que se presta, y sobre todo en la infraestructura existente en los centros de produccion con optimas condiciones de seguridad, eficiencia y economia. El mantenimiento es de gran importancia, pues sus objetivos son la base para un adecuado f...

  2. The Bolund Experiment, Part I: Flow Over a Steep, Three-Dimensional Hill

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Jacob; Mann, Jakob; Bechmann, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    We present an analysis of data from a measurement campaign performed at the Bolund peninsula in Denmark in the winter of 2007–2008. Bolund is a small isolated hill exhibiting a significantly steep escarpment in the main wind direction. The physical shape of Bolund represents, in a scaled-down form...... hill. Depending on the wind direction, we find a maximum speed-up of 30% at the hill top accompanied by a maximum 300% enhancement of turbulence intensity. A closer inspection reveals transient behaviour with recirculation zones. From the wind energy context, this implies that the best site...

  3. Evidence for Acid-Sulfate Alteration in the Pahrump Hills Region, Gale Crater, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampe, E. B.; Ming, D. W.; Blake, D. F.; Morris, R. V.; Bish, D. L.; Bristow, T. F.; Crisp, J. A.; Morookian, J. M.; Vaniman. D. T.; Chipera, S. J.; hide

    2015-01-01

    The Pahrump Hills region of Gale crater is a approximately 12 millimeter thick section of sedimentary rock in the Murray formation, interpreted as the basal geological unit of Mount Sharp. The Mars Science Laboratory, Curiosity, arrived at the Pahrump Hills in September 2014 and performed a detailed six-month investigation of the sedimentary structures, geochemistry, and mineralogy of the area. During the campaign, Curiosity drilled and delivered three mudstone samples (targets Confidence Hills, Mojave 2, and Telegraph Peak) to its internal instruments, including the CheMin XRD/XRF.

  4. Water quality impacts from mining in the Black Hills, South Dakota, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahn, P. H.; Davis, A. D.; Webb, C. J.; Nichols, A. D.

    1996-02-01

    The focus of this research was to determine if abandoned mines constitute a major environmental hazard in the Black Hills. Many abandoned gold mines in the Black Hills contribute acid and heavy metals to streams. In some areas of sulfide mineralization local impacts are severe, but in most areas the impacts are small because most ore deposits consist of small quartz veins with few sulfides. Pegmatite mines appear to have negligible effects on water due to the insoluble nature of pegmatite minerals. Uranium mines in the southern Black Hills contribute some radioactivity to surface water, but the impact is limited because of the dry climate and lack of runoff in that area.

  5. Comparative Susceptibility of Ochlerotatus japonicus, Ochlerotatus triseriatus, Aedes albopictus, and Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) to La Crosse Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bara, Jeffrey J; Parker, Allison T; Muturi, Ephantus J

    2016-11-01

    Invasive mosquito species can increase the transmission risk of native mosquito-borne diseases by acting as novel vectors. In this study, we examined the susceptibility of three exotic invasive mosquito species Aedes aegypti (L.), Ae. albopictus (Skuse), and Ochlerotatus japonicus (Theobald) to La Crosse virus (LACV) relative to the native primary vector Ochlerotatus triseriatus (Say). Adult females of the four mosquito species were orally challenged with LACV; incubated for 3, 5, 7, 9, or 11 d; and their midgut infection rates, dissemination rates, and effective vector competence were determined. Overall, Oc. japonicus (2.92) had the highest effective vector competence values, followed by Ae. albopictus (1.55), Ae. aegypti (0.88), and Oc. triseriatus (0.64). In addition, we assessed the relationship between mosquito size and LACV susceptibility for field-collected Oc. triseriatus and Oc. japonicus We hypothesized that smaller adults would be more susceptible to LACV; however, our results did not support this hypothesis. Infected Oc. triseriatus tended to be larger than exposed but uninfected females, while infected and uninfected Oc. japonicus were similarly sized. These findings suggest that Oc. japonicus, Ae. albopictus, and Ae. aegypti have significant potential to transmit LACV and more research is needed to uncover their potential role in LACV epidemiology. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Potential of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus populations in the Central African Republic to transmit enzootic chikungunya virus strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngoagouni, Carine; Kamgang, Basile; Kazanji, Mirdad; Paupy, Christophe; Nakouné, Emmanuel

    2017-03-27

    Major chikungunya outbreaks have affected several Central African countries during the past decade. The chikungunya virus (CHIKV) was isolated from humans and sylvan mosquitoes in the Central African Republic (CAR) during the 1970 and 1980s but has not been found recently, despite the presence of Aedes albopictus since 2010. The risk of a massive chikungunya epidemic is therefore potentially high, as the human populations are immunologically naïve and because of the presence of the mosquito vector. In order to estimate the risk of a large outbreak, we assessed the vector competence of local Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus populations for ancient local strains of CHIKV in CAR. Mosquitoes were orally infected with the virus, and its presence in mosquito saliva was analysed 7 and 14 days post-infection (dpi) by quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. The two species had similar infection rates at 7 and 14 days, and the dissemination rate of both vectors was ≥ 80% at 14 dpi. Only females followed up to 14 dpi had CHKV in their saliva. These results confirm the risk of transmission of enzootic CHIKV by anthropophilic vectors such as Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus.

  7. Interseismic Strain Accumulation Across Metropolitan Los Angeles: Puente Hills Thrust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argus, D.; Liu, Z.; Heflin, M. B.; Moore, A. W.; Owen, S. E.; Lundgren, P.; Drake, V. G.; Rodriguez, I. I.

    2012-12-01

    Twelve years of observation of the Southern California Integrated GPS Network (SCIGN) are tightly constraining the distribution of shortening across metropolitan Los Angeles, providing information on strain accumulation across blind thrust faults. Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry (InSAR) and water well records are allowing the effects of water and oil management to be distinguished. The Mojave segment of the San Andreas fault is at a 25° angle to Pacific-North America plate motion. GPS shows that NNE-SSW shortening due to this big restraining bend is fastest not immediately south of the San Andreas fault across the San Gabriel mountains, but rather 50 km south of the fault in northern metropolitan Los Angeles. The GPS results we quote next are for a NNE profile through downtown Los Angeles. Just 2 mm/yr of shortening is being taken up across the San Gabriel mountains, 40 km wide (0.05 micro strain/yr); 4 mm/yr of shortening is being taken up between the Sierra Madre fault, at the southern front of the San Gabriel mountains, and South Central Los Angeles, also 40 km wide (0.10 micro strain/yr). We find shortening to be more evenly distributed across metropolitan Los Angeles than we found before [Argus et al. 2005], though within the 95% confidence limits. An elastic models of interseismic strain accumulation is fit to the GPS observations using the Back Slip model of Savage [1983]. Rheology differences between crystalline basement and sedimentary basin rocks are incorporated using the EDGRN/EDCMP algorithm of Wang et al. [2003]. We attempt to place the Back Slip model into the context of the Elastic Subducting Plate Model of Kanda and Simons [2010]. We find, along the NNE profile through downtown, that: (1) The deep Sierra Madre Thrust cannot be slipping faster than 2 mm/yr, and (2) The Puente Hills Thrust and nearby thrust faults (such as the upper Elysian Park Thrust) are slipping at 9 ±2 mm/yr beneath a locking depth of 12 ±5 km (95% confidence limits

  8. Detec??o do v?rus dengue em mosquitos Aedes Aegypti (linnaeus, 1762) (diptera: culicidae) e aedes albopictus (skuse 1894) (diptera: culicidae) capturados na zona urbana da cidade de Manaus, Amazonas

    OpenAIRE

    Santos,Ilia Gilmara Carvalho dos

    2008-01-01

    O estudo teve por objetivo a detec??o e tipagem do v?rus dengue, nos vetores Aedes aegypti e Aedes albopictus por meio da Rea??o em Cadeia da Polimerase (PCR) utilizando primers espec?ficos. Durante o per?odo de Dezembro de 2005 a Dezembro de 2006 foram coletados 8984 mosquitos, destes 827 eram Aedes, sendo 819 Ae. aegypti (414 f?meas e 405 machos) e 8 Ae. albopictus (7 f?meas e 1 macho), em 46 bairros da cidade de Manaus abrangendo todas as zonas geogr?ficas da cidade. As f?meas de Ae. aegyp...

  9. Spatial heterogeneity in biogeochemical transport on Arctic hill slopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risser, R.; Harms, T.; Jones, J.

    2013-12-01

    Water tracks, saturated regions of the hill slope in permafrosted Arctic catchments, likely deliver the majority of water entering streams in these regions, and may play a central role in delivery of nutrients. Fate of dissolved nutrients and carbon as they are transported in water tracks has a substantial effect on stream ecosystems, as water tracks may cover up to 35% of the catchment land area. Water tracks are distinguished from adjacent areas of the hillslope by higher rates of hydrologic transport, greater woody biomass, and increased pools of nutrients. Substantial spatial heterogeneity within and between water tracks may influence their role in transfer of materials between the terrestrial and aquatic landscape. We examined spatial variability of hydrologic and chemical characteristics within and between water tracks in the Kuparuk Basin of northern Alaska to increase understanding of the factors influencing nutrient export from arctic catchments. We studied a sedge-dominated water track with perennial surface water flow with shrub-dominated water tracks containing intermittent surface flow. Nominal transit times of water in the perennial site was 5 hours, compared to 15.5 h in an ephemeral track over a 50 meter reach, indicating substantial variation in water residence time and opportunity for biogeochemical reaction across sites. We evaluated spatial heterogeneity in biogeochemical characteristics within 25-m reaches at each site with a grain size of 10 m. Dissolved CH4 concentration was elevated above atmospheric equilibrium only at the perennial water track, where CH4 concentration varied by more than 15-fold within the water track, indicating hot spots of anaerobic microbial activity. Dissolved CO2 concentration was 9 times greater on average at the perennial water track, compared to the ephemeral site, suggesting that continuous water flow supports more rapid microbial activity. CO2 concentration was also more variable in the perennial water track

  10. Geologic map of the northern White Hills, Mohave County, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Keith A.; Priest, Susan S.; Lundstrom, Scott C.; Block, Debra L.

    2017-07-10

    IntroductionThe northern White Hills map area lies within the Kingman Uplift, a regional structural high in which Tertiary rocks lie directly on Proterozoic rocks as a result of Cretaceous orogenic uplift and erosional stripping of Paleozoic and Mesozoic strata. The Miocene Salt Spring Fault forms the major structural boundary in the map area. This low-angle normal fault separates a footwall (lower plate) of Proterozoic gneisses on the east and south from a hanging wall (upper plate) of faulted middle Miocene volcanic and sedimentary rocks and their Proterozoic substrate. The fault is part of the South Virgin–White Hills Detachment Fault, which records significant tectonic extension that decreases from north to south. Along most of its trace, the Salt Spring Fault dips gently westward, but it also has north-dipping segments along salients. A dissected, domelike landscape on the eroded footwall, which contains antiformal salients and synformal reentrants, extends through the map area from Salt Spring Bay southward to the Golden Rule Peak area. The “Lost Basin Range” represents an upthrown block of the footwall, raised on the steeper Lost Basin Range Fault.The Salt Spring Fault, as well as the normal faults that segment its hanging wall, deform rocks that are about 16 to 10 Ma, and younger deposits overlie the faults. Rhyodacitic welded tuff about 15 Ma underlies a succession of geochemically intermediate to progressively more mafic lavas (including alkali basalt) that range from about 14.7 to 8 Ma, interfingered with sedimentary rocks and breccias in the western part of the map area. Upper Miocene strata record further filling of the extension-formed continental basins. Basins that are still present in the modern landscape reflect the youngest stages of extensional-basin formation, expressed as the downfaulted Detrital Valley and Hualapai Wash basins in the western and eastern parts of the map area, respectively, as well as the north-centrally located

  11. NORTH HILL CREEK 3-D SEISMIC EXPLORATION PROJECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marc T. Eckels; David H. Suek; Denise H. Harrison; Paul J. Harrison

    2004-05-06

    Wind River Resources Corporation (WRRC) received a DOE grant in support of its proposal to acquire, process and interpret fifteen square miles of high-quality 3-D seismic data on non-allotted trust lands of the Uintah and Ouray (Ute) Indian Reservation, northeastern Utah, in 2000. Subsequent to receiving notice that its proposal would be funded, WRRC was able to add ten square miles of adjacent state and federal mineral acreage underlying tribal surface lands by arrangement with the operator of the Flat Rock Field. The twenty-five square mile 3-D seismic survey was conducted during the fall of 2000. The data were processed through the winter of 2000-2001, and initial interpretation took place during the spring of 2001. The initial interpretation identified multiple attractive drilling prospects, two of which were staked and permitted during the summer of 2001. The two initial wells were drilled in September and October of 2001. A deeper test was drilled in June of 2002. Subsequently a ten-well deep drilling evaluation program was conducted from October of 2002 through March 2004. The present report discusses the background of the project; design and execution of the 3-D seismic survey; processing and interpretation of the data; and drilling, completion and production results of a sample of the wells drilled on the basis of the interpreted survey. Fifteen wells have been drilled to test targets identified on the North Hill Creek 3-D Seismic Survey. None of these wildcat exploratory wells has been a dry hole, and several are among the best gas producers in Utah. The quality of the data produced by this first significant exploratory 3-D survey in the Uinta Basin has encouraged other operators to employ this technology. At least two additional 3-D seismic surveys have been completed in the vicinity of the North Hill Creek Survey, and five additional surveys are being planned for the 2004 field season. This project was successful in finding commercial oil, natural gas

  12. Larvicidal efficacy of different plant parts of railway creeper, Ipomoea cairica Extract Against Dengue Vector Mosquitoes, Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) and Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    AhbiRami, Rattanam; Zuharah, Wan Fatma; Thiagaletchumi, Maniam; Subramaniam, Sreeramanan; Sundarasekar, Jeevandran

    2014-01-01

    Natural insecticides from plant origin against mosquito vectors have been the main concern for research due to their high level of eco-safety. Control of mosquitoes in their larval stages are an ideal method since Aedes larvae are aquatic, thus it is easier to deal with them in this habitat. The present study was specifically conducted to explore the larvicidal efficacy of different plant parts of Ipomoea cairica (L.) or railway creeper crude extract obtained using two different solvents; methanol and acetone against late third-stage larvae of Aedes albopictus (Skuse) and Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae). Plant materials of I. cairica leaf, flower, and stem were segregated, airdried, powdered, and extracted using Soxhlet apparatus. Larvicidal bioassays were performed by using World Health Organization standard larval susceptibility test method for each species which were conducted separately for different concentration ranging from 10 to 450 ppm. Both acetone and methanol extracts showed 100% mortality at highest concentration tested (450 ppm) after 24 h of exposure. Results from factorial ANOVA indicated that there were significant differences in larvicidal effects between mosquito species, solvent used and plant parts (F=5.71, df=2, Palbopictus with LC50 of 105.59 ppm compared with other fractions of I. cairica extract obtained from flower, stem, and when methanol are used as solvent. The larvae of Ae. aegypti appeared to be more susceptible to I. cairica extract with lower LC50 value compared with Ae. albopictus (F=8.83, df=1, PAedes mosquitoes. This study quantified the larvicidal property of I. cairica extract, providing information on lethal concentration that may have potential for a more eco-friendly Aedes mosquito control program. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  13. Temporal distribution and insecticide resistance profile of two major arbovirus vectors Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus in Yaoundé, the capital city of Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamgang, Basile; Yougang, Aurelie P; Tchoupo, Micareme; Riveron, Jacob M; Wondji, Charles

    2017-10-10

    Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus are the major epidemic vectors of several arbovirus diseases such as yellow fever, dengue, Zika and chikungunya worldwide. Both Aedes vectors are presents in Cameroon; however, knowledge on the dynamic of the distribution of these species across cities and their resistance profile to insecticide are limited. Here, we assessed the current distribution of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus in Yaoundé, the Capital City, established the resistance profile to insecticides and explored the resistance mechanisms involved. Immature stages of Aedes were sampled in several breeding sites in December 2015 (dry season) and June 2016 (rainy season) in three central neighborhoods and four peripheral neighborhoods and reared to adult stage. The G0 adults were used for molecular identification and genotyping of F1534C mutation in Ae. aegypti. Bioassays and piperonyl butoxide (PBO) assays were carried out according to WHO guidelines. Analysis revealed that both species Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus are present in all prospected sites in Yaounde. However, in the dry season Ae. aegypti is most abundant in neighborhoods located in downtown. In contrast, Ae. albopictus was found most prevalent in suburbs whatever the season and in downtown during the rainy season. Bioassay analysis showed that both Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus, are resistant to 0.05% deltamethrin, 0.1% bendiocarb and 4% dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT). A decreased of susceptibility to 0.75% permethrin and a full susceptibility to malathion 5% was observed. The mortality rate was increased after pre-exposure to synergist PBO. None of Ae. aegypti assayed revealed the presence of F1534C mutation. These findings are useful to planning vector control programme against arbovirus vectors in Cameroon and can be used as baseline in Africa where data on Aedes resistance is very scarce to plan further works.

  14. Distribution of Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus) and Aedes albopictus (Skuse) in small towns and villages of Penang Island, Malaysia--an ovitrap survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, H H

    1975-12-01

    An ovitrap survey was carried out in April and May of 1975 at twenty-one locations scattered throughout Penang Island excluding the City of Georgetown. The results showed the ubiquitous presence of Ae. albopictus. Ae. aegypti was recorded only in Tanjung Tokong Lama, an area adjacent to the City of Georgetown. In the survey, Ae. albopictus females were found to prefer the outdoor ovitraps than indoor ones. The effectiveness of ovitrap in Aedes survey was discussed.

  15. Principales criaderos para Aedes aegypti y culícidos asociados, Argentina Main breeding-containers for Aedes aegypti and associated culicids, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Stein

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Se identificaron criaderos de Aedes (Stegomyia aegypti en dos ciudades de la provincia del Chaco (Noreste de Argentina: Presidencia Roque Saenz Peña y Machagai. Los recipientes encontrados en los patios de las viviendas capaces de colectar agua se clasificaron según tipo y tamaño, se contaron y examinaron. Aedes aegypti y Culex quinquefasciatus fueron las especies mas abundantes, encontrándose además Cx. maxi, Cx. saltanensis y Ochlerotatus scapularis. Los neumáticos y cajas de baterías para autos fueron los recipientes que más aportaron a la producción de formas inmaduras de los culícidos colectados. Las lluvias fueron un factor importante para la proliferacion de Ae. aegypti, así como también el habito comun en la población de guardar recipientes en sus casas que permitan el desarrollo de estos culícidos.Breeding containers for Aedes (Stegomyia aegypti were identified in two cities of Chaco Province (northeast Argentina: Presidencia Roque Saenz Peña and Machagai. All water-retaining recipients found in house backyards capable to retain water were classified according to their type and size, counted and checked. Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus were the most frequently collected species, being also found Cx. maxi, Cx. saltanensis and Ochlerotatus scapularis. Tires and car batteries represented the most important type of container where immature forms of culicids could be found. Rain was an important factor for Ae. aegypti proliferation, as well as the widespread habit of the population of keeping useless containers at home, which allows the development of culicids.

  16. Seasonal Synchronization of Diapause Phases in Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacour, Guillaume; Chanaud, Lionel; L’Ambert, Grégory; Hance, Thierry

    2015-01-01

    In temperate areas, population dynamics of the invasive Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus are strongly affected by winter. The work we present here analyzes the adaptive synchronization of the diapause process in the wintry generation of A. albopictus, where the egg stage is exposed to adverse winter conditions. The seasonal pattern of egg laying activity of a French Mediterranean population of the Asian tiger mosquito was monitored weekly for 2 years with ovitraps. The field diapause incidence and the critical photoperiod (CPP, i.e. the maternal day length inducing diapause in 50% of the eggs), were determined by hatching experiments on the collected eggs. The period of diapause termination was estimated by a field survey of the first hatchings for both years. The CPP is equal to 13.5 hours of light and occurs in the field on the 25th of August. Thus, it is on September 11th, 17 days after the CPP, that 50% of the eggs are in a prediapause stage in the field. The egg diapause rate increases rapidly during September, whereas the mean number of eggs laid decreases sharply after mid-September. Surprisingly, after having reached a peak of 95% at the end of September, from mid-October the diapause incidence declined and stayed below 50%. Indeed, both years the diapause initiates before the rapid decrease of the environmental temperature. This leaves a sufficient period of time to the complete development of one generation of A. albopictus with effective induction of diapause in the laid eggs. The very first larvae hatched were sampled both years in the first half of March. With 20 to 26 weeks in the egg stage and about 7 weeks in the larval stages, the first annual generation spends a long time in immature stages. On a practical point of view, this long development time represents a wide window for eggs and larvae control in early spring. PMID:26683460

  17. Wolbachia-associated bacterial protection in the mosquito Aedes aegypti.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yixin H Ye

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Wolbachia infections confer protection for their insect hosts against a range of pathogens including bacteria, viruses, nematodes and the malaria parasite. A single mechanism that might explain this broad-based pathogen protection is immune priming, in which the presence of the symbiont upregulates the basal immune response, preparing the insect to defend against subsequent pathogen infection. A study that compared natural Wolbachia infections in Drosophila melanogaster with the mosquito vector Aedes aegypti artificially transinfected with the same strains has suggested that innate immune priming may only occur in recent host-Wolbachia associations. This same study also revealed that while immune priming may play a role in viral protection it cannot explain the entirety of the effect. METHODOLOGY/FINDINGS: Here we assess whether the level of innate immune priming induced by different Wolbachia strains in A. aegypti is correlated with the degree of protection conferred against bacterial pathogens. We show that Wolbachia strains wMel and wMelPop, currently being tested for field release for dengue biocontrol, differ in their protective abilities. The wMelPop strain provides stronger, more broad-based protection than wMel, and this is likely explained by both the higher induction of immune gene expression and the strain-specific activation of particular genes. We also show that Wolbachia densities themselves decline during pathogen infection, likely as a result of the immune induction. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This work shows a correlation between innate immune priming and bacterial protection phenotypes. The ability of the Toll pathway, melanisation and antimicrobial peptides to enhance viral protection or to provide the basis of malaria protection should be further explored in the context of this two-strain comparison. This work raises the questions of whether Wolbachia may improve the ability of wild mosquitoes to survive pathogen

  18. Is Switzerland Suitable for the Invasion of Aedes albopictus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neteler, Markus; Metz, Markus; Rocchini, Duccio; Rizzoli, Annapaola; Flacio, Eleonora; Engeler, Luca; Guidi, Valeria; Lüthy, Peter; Tonolla, Mauro

    2013-01-01

    Background Over the last 30 years, the Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus, has rapidly spread around the world. The European distribution comprises the Mediterranean basin with a first appearance in Switzerland in 2003. Early identification of the most suitable areas in Switzerland allowing progressive invasion by this species is considered crucial to suggest adequate surveillance and control plans. Methodology/Principal Findings We identified the most suitable areas for invasion and establishment of Ae. albopictus in Switzerland. The potential distribution areas linked to the current climatic suitability were assessed using remotely sensed land surface temperature data recorded by the MODIS satellite sensors. Suitable areas for adult survival and overwintering of diapausing eggs were also identified for future climatic conditions, considering two different climate change scenarios (A1B, A2) for the periods 2020–2049 and 2045–2074. At present, the areas around Lake Geneva in western Switzerland provide suitable climatic conditions for Ae. albopictus. In northern Switzerland, parts of the Rhine valley, around Lake Constance, as well as the surroundings of Lake Neuchâtel, appear to be suitable for the survival at least of adult Ae. albopictus. However, these areas are characterized by winters currently being too cold for survival and development of diapausing eggs. In southern Switzerland, Ae. albopictus is already well-established, especially in the Canton of Ticino. For the years 2020–2049, the predicted possible spread of the tiger mosquito does not differ significantly from its potential current distribution. However, important expansions are obtained if the period is extended to the years 2045–2074, when Ae. albopictus may invade large new areas. Conclusions/Significance Several parts of Switzerland provide suitable climatic conditions for invasion and establishment of Ae. albopictus. The current distribution and rapid spread in other European

  19. Is Switzerland suitable for the invasion of Aedes albopictus [corrected]?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neteler, Markus; Metz, Markus; Rocchini, Duccio; Rizzoli, Annapaola; Flacio, Eleonora; Engeler, Luca; Guidi, Valeria; Lüthy, Peter; Tonolla, Mauro

    2013-01-01

    Over the last 30 years, the Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus, has rapidly spread around the world. The European distribution comprises the Mediterranean basin with a first appearance in Switzerland in 2003. Early identification of the most suitable areas in Switzerland allowing progressive invasion by this species is considered crucial to suggest adequate surveillance and control plans. We identified the most suitable areas for invasion and establishment of Ae. albopictus in Switzerland. The potential distribution areas linked to the current climatic suitability were assessed using remotely sensed land surface temperature data recorded by the MODIS satellite sensors. Suitable areas for adult survival and overwintering of diapausing eggs were also identified for future climatic conditions, considering two different climate change scenarios (A1B, A2) for the periods 2020-2049 and 2045-2074. At present, the areas around Lake Geneva in western Switzerland provide suitable climatic conditions for Ae. albopictus. In northern Switzerland, parts of the Rhine valley, around Lake Constance, as well as the surroundings of Lake Neuchâtel, appear to be suitable for the survival at least of adult Ae. albopictus. However, these areas are characterized by winters currently being too cold for survival and development of diapausing eggs. In southern Switzerland, Ae. albopictus is already well-established, especially in the Canton of Ticino. For the years 2020-2049, the predicted possible spread of the tiger mosquito does not differ significantly from its potential current distribution. However, important expansions are obtained if the period is extended to the years 2045-2074, when Ae. albopictus may invade large new areas. Several parts of Switzerland provide suitable climatic conditions for invasion and establishment of Ae. albopictus. The current distribution and rapid spread in other European countries suggest that the tiger mosquito will colonize new areas in Switzerland

  20. Factors influencing stakeholders attitudes toward genetically modified aedes mosquito.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Latifah; Hashim, Hasrizul

    2015-06-01

    Dengue fever is a debilitating and infectious disease that could be life-threatening. It is caused by the dengue virus which affects millions of people in the tropical area. Currently, there is no cure for the disease as there is no vaccine available. Thus, prevention of the vector population using conventional methods is by far the main strategy but has been found ineffective. A genetically modified (GM) mosquito is among the favoured alternatives to curb dengue fever in Malaysia. Past studies have shown that development and diffusion of gene technology products depends heavily upon public acceptance. The purpose of this study is to identify the relevant factors influencing stakeholders' attitudes toward the GM Aedes mosquito and to analyse the relationships between all the factors using the structural equation model. A survey was carried out on 509 respondents from various stakeholder groups in the Klang Valley region of Malaysia. Results of the survey have confirmed that public perception towards complex issues such as gene technology should be seen as a multi-faceted process. The perceived benefit-perceived risk balance is very important in determining the most predominant predictor of attitudes toward a GM mosquito. In this study the stakeholders perceived the benefit of the GM mosquito as outweighing its risk, translating perceived benefit as the most important direct predictor of attitudes toward the GM mosquito. Trust in key players has a direct influence on attitudes toward the GM mosquito while moral concern exhibited an indirect influence through perceived benefits. Other factors such as attitudes toward technology and nature were also indirect predictors of attitudes toward the GM mosquito while religiosity and engagement did not exhibited any significant roles. The research findings serve as a useful database to understand public acceptance and the social construct of public attitudes towards the GM mosquito to combat dengue.

  1. Larvicidal activity of Persea americana Mill. against Aedes aegypti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Rosalinda C; Garbo, Alicia G; Walde, Rikkamae Zinca Marie L

    2014-09-01

    To evaluate the toxicity of the ethanol and hexane extracts of the different parts of Persea americana Mill. (P. americana) toward third and fourth instars larvae of Aedes aegypti (Ae. aegypti) and to characterize the ethanol extract by qualitative phytochemical analysis. The seeds, peels and pulp of P. americana were processed for crude extraction using 95% ethanol and n-hexane. Crude extracts were bio-assayed for larvicidal activity against Ae. aegypti following the World Health Organization standard bioassay method. The mortality was observed at 24 h and 48 h after treatment and data were subjected to probit analysis to determine lethal concentrations (LC50 and LC90). The ethanol extract was characterized by phytochemical analysis. Both the hexane and ethanol extracts from the different parts of P. americana exhibited evidence of larvicidal toxicity. The hexane extract from the seeds exhibited the highest toxicity with LC50 and LC90 values of 9.82 mg/L and 22.19 mg/L, respectively, while the ethanol seed extract exhibited LC50 of 16.48 mg/L and LC90 45.77 mg/L, respectively. This was closely followed by the ethanol extract of the peels with an LC50 of 10.35 mg/L and LC90 of 26.29 mg/L. The pulp extracted with ethanol also yielded great larvicidal toxicity with LC50 of 21.32 mg/L and LC90 of 59.45 mg/L. Results of the phytochemical analysis of the ethanol seed extract indicated presence of alkaloids, tannins, saponins, unsaturated steroids and triterpenoids, flavonoids (leucoanthocyanins), fats and oils. Both the hexane and ethanol extracts of P. americana showed promising potential as an alternative source of a more sustainable, non-toxic and environmentally friendly solution for the control of dengue vector, Ae. aegypti. Copyright © 2014 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Larvicidal activity prediction againstAedes aegyptimosquito using computational tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cañizares-Carmenate, Yudith; Hernandez-Morfa, Mirelys; Torrens, Francisco; Castellano, Gloria; Castillo-Garit, Juan A

    2017-01-01

    Aedes aegypti is an important vector for transmission of dengue, yellow fever, chikun- gunya, arthritis, and Zika fever. According to the World Health Organization, it is estimated that Ae. aegypti causes 50 million infections and 25,000 deaths per year. Use of larvicidal agents is one of the recommendations of health organizations to control mosquito populations and limit their distribution. The aim of present study was to deduce a mathematical model to predict the larvicidal action of chemical compounds, based on their structure. A series of different compounds with experimental evidence of larvicidal activity were selected to develop a predictive model, using multiple linear regression and a genetic algorithm for the selection of variables, implemented in the QSARINS software. The model was assessed and validated using the OECDs principles. The best model showed good value for the determination coefficient (R2 = 0.752), and others parameters were appropriate for fitting (s = 0.278 and RMSEtr = 0.261). The validation results confirmed that the model hasgood robustness (Q2LOO = 0.682) and stability (R2-Q2LOO = 0.070) with low correlation between the descriptors (KXX = 0.241), an excellent predictive power (R2 ext = 0.834) and was product of a non-random correlation R2 Y-scr = 0.100). The present model shows better parameters than the models reported earlier in the literature, using the same dataset, indicating that the proposed computational tools are more efficient in identifying novel larvicidal compounds against Ae. aegypti.

  3. Evolutionary enhancement of Zika virus infectivity in Aedes aegypti mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Liu, Jianying; Du, Senyan; Shan, Chao; Nie, Kaixiao; Zhang, Rudian; Li, Xiao-Feng; Zhang, Renli; Wang, Tao; Qin, Cheng-Feng; Wang, Penghua; Shi, Pei-Yong; Cheng, Gong

    2017-05-25

    Zika virus (ZIKV) remained obscure until the recent explosive outbreaks in French Polynesia (2013-2014) and South America (2015-2016). Phylogenetic studies have shown that ZIKV has evolved into African and Asian lineages. The Asian lineage of ZIKV was responsible for the recent epidemics in the Americas. However, the underlying mechanisms through which ZIKV rapidly and explosively spread from Asia to the Americas are unclear. Non-structural protein 1 (NS1) facilitates flavivirus acquisition by mosquitoes from an infected mammalian host and subsequently enhances viral prevalence in mosquitoes. Here we show that NS1 antigenaemia determines ZIKV infectivity in its mosquito vector Aedes aegypti, which acquires ZIKV via a blood meal. Clinical isolates from the most recent outbreak in the Americas were much more infectious in mosquitoes than the FSS13025 strain, which was isolated in Cambodia in 2010. Further analyses showed that these epidemic strains have higher NS1 antigenaemia than the FSS13025 strain because of an alanine-to-valine amino acid substitution at residue 188 in NS1. ZIKV infectivity was enhanced by this amino acid substitution in the ZIKV FSS13025 strain in mosquitoes that acquired ZIKV from a viraemic C57BL/6 mouse deficient in type I and II interferon (IFN) receptors (AG6 mouse). Our results reveal that ZIKV evolved to acquire a spontaneous mutation in its NS1 protein, resulting in increased NS1 antigenaemia. Enhancement of NS1 antigenaemia in infected hosts promotes ZIKV infectivity and prevalence in mosquitoes, which could have facilitated transmission during recent ZIKV epidemics.

  4. PENGENDALIAN JENTIK Aedes Aegypti MENGGUNAKAN Mesocyclops Aspericomis MELALUI PARTISIPASI MASYARAKAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umi Widyastuti

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Mesocyclops aspericornis was investigated for its effectiveness in controlling Aedes aegypti larvae in a variety of containers e.g metal drum, cistern, clay jars, and other container made of plastic. A study was carried out in Kenteng hamlet, Tegalrejo village, Salatiga Municipality. It was conducted by health-workers (staff of Vector and Reservoir Control Research Unit and Health Center of Tegalrejo and the community, especially the woman's organization namely "family empowering and welfareness ". which participate in releasing M. aspericornis for controlling Ae. aegypti larvae. The community has responsibility to release M. aspericornis in Kenteng RT01 and 02 as the treated area I. Meanwhile, Health-workers have responsibility to release it in Kenteng RT 04, 05, and 07 as the treated area II and Kenteng RT 03 and 06 as the untreated control area (no M. aspericornis released. The aim of the study were: a, to determine the effectiveness of M. aspericornis in decreasing larval populations of Ae. aegypti in the containers, and b. to determine the Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice (KAP of the community, referring to disease, vector and control of Dengue Haemorhagic Fever (DHF. M. aspericornis was effective to decrease larval populations of Ae. aegypti in Kenteng area. The increasing number of Ae. aegypti larvae free containers of 24.29-84,02% and 35.75-92.01% were shown in respectively treated area I and II. The KAP of the community referring to disease, vector and control of DHF increased after the health education conducted. It's concluded that the community of Kenteng hamlet is active in participation to control Ae. aegypti. As a recommend, control of Ae. aegypti larvae using M. aspericornis through community partisipation should be considered due to a good prospect and effectiveness of this agent to control of Ae. aegypti larvae in the laboratory as well as in the field   Key words : Vector control, M. aspericornis, Ae. aegypti, Dengue

  5. Leaf extracts of Melia azedarach Linnaeus (Sapindales: Meliaceae) act as larvicide against Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762) (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prophiro, Josiane Somariva; Rossi, Juliana Chedid Nogared; Pedroso, Murilo Fernandes; Kanis, Luiz Alberto; Silva, Onilda Santos

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the larvicidal effect of hydroethanolic extracts of fresh and dry leaves of Melia azedarach Linnaeus (Sapindales: Meliaceae) on Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762) (Diptera: Culicidae). All the extracts evaluated induced mortality among the third and fourth instar larvae of Aedes aegypti after 24 and 48 hours of exposure to the products. Although previous studies had demonstrated the action of seeds and fruits of Melia azedarach against the larvae of different Aedes aegypti populations, the present report is the first to show the larvicidal effect of the fresh and dry leaves of this plant.

  6. Unioned layer of coal resource calculation in the Danforth Hills coal field, Colorado (dan*fing)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Final unioned polygon coverages and shapefiles used to calculate coal resources of the A through G coal zones, Danforth Hills coal field, northwestern Colorado....

  7. Paul Hill d/b/a Alternative Energy Windows and Siding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul Hill d/b/a Alternative Energy Windows and Siding (the Company) is located in Concord, New Hampshire. The settlement involves renovation activities conducted at property constructed prior to 1978, located in Concord, New Hampshire.

  8. Generalized thickness of the Madison Limestone and Englewood Formation, Black Hills, South Dakota.

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set is a polygon coverage created in ARC/INFO that represents the generalized thickness of the Madison Limestone and Englewood Formation, Black Hills,...

  9. Flint Hills National Wildlife Refuge Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1985

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Flint Hills NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1985 calendar year. The report begins with an introduction to the Refuge and...

  10. Sullys Hill National Game Preserve Narrative Report for September - December 1962

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Sullys Hill National Game Reserve outlines Refuge accomplishments from September through December 1962. The report begins by summarizing...

  11. Flint Hills National Wildlife Refuge Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1988

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Flint Hills NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1988 calendar year. The report begins with an introduction to the Refuge and...

  12. 76 FR 48120 - Black Hills National Forest, Custer, SD-Mountain Pine Beetle Response Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-08

    ... INFORMATION CONTACT: Katie Van-Alstyne, project team leader, Black Hills National Forest, Mystic Ranger... managing the ongoing insect outbreak. Public comment will help the planning team identify key issues and...

  13. Flint Hills National Wildlife Refuge : Annual Narrative Report : Calendar Year 1992

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Flint Hills National Wildlife Refuge summarizes refuge activities during the 1992 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of...

  14. Flint Hills National Wildlife Refuge : Annual Narrative Report : Calendar Year 1993

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Flint Hills National Wildlife Refuge summarizes refuge activities during the 1993 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of...

  15. Flint Hills National Wildlife Refuge Annual narrative report calendar year 1970

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Flint Hills National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1970 calendar year. The report begins by summarizing...

  16. Flint Hills National Wildlife Refuge Annual narrative report calendar year 1969

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Flint Hills National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1969 calendar year. The report begins by summarizing...

  17. Flint Hills National Wildlife Refuge Annual narrative report calendar year 1968

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Flint Hills National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1968 calendar year. The report begins by summarizing...

  18. Flint Hills National Wildlife Refuge Annual narrative report calendar year 1971

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Flint Hills National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1971 calendar year. The report begins by summarizing...

  19. Integrated Pest Management Plan for Flint Hills National Wildlife Refuge 2004 through 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of the Integrated Pest Management Plan is to provide a comprehensive, environmentally sensitive approach to managing pests on the Flint Hills NWR. The...

  20. Atlas of water resources in the Black Hills area, South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Janet M.; Driscoll, Daniel G.; Williamson, Joyce E.; Lindquist, Van A.

    2002-01-01

    The Black Hills area is an important resource center that provides an economic base for western South Dakota through tourism, agriculture, the timber industry, and mineral resources. In addition, water originating from the area is used for municipal, industrial, agricultural, and recreational purposes throughout much of western South Dakota. The Black Hills area also is an important recharge area for aquifers in the northern Great Plains.Population growth, resource development, and periodic droughts have the potential to affect the quantity, quality, and availability of water within the Black Hills area. Growth has resulted in competing interests for available water supplies. The Black Hills Hydrology Study was initiated in 1990 to address these concerns. This long-term study is a cooperative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the South Dakota Department of Environment and Natural Resources, and the West Dakota Water Development District, which represents various local and county cooperators.

  1. Turbulence Models: Data from Other Experiments: FAITH Hill 3-D Separated Flow

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Exp: FAITH Hill 3-D Separated Flow. This web page provides data from experiments that may be useful for the validation of turbulence models. This resource is...

  2. Flint Hills National Wildlife Refuge : Annual Narrative Report : Calendar Year 1991

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Flint Hills National Wildlife Refuge summarizes refuge activities during the1991 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of...

  3. Sullys Hill National Game Preserve Narrative Report for September - December 1959

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Sullys Hill National Game Reserve outlines Refuge accomplishments from September through December 1959. The report begins by summarizing...

  4. Digital Geologic Map of the Butcher Hill quadrangle, South Dakota (NPS, GRD, GRE, WICA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — The Digital Geologic Map of the Butcher Hill quadrangle, South Dakota is composed of GIS data layers, two ancillary GIS tables, a Windows Help File with ancillary...

  5. Flint Hills National Wildlife Refuge Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1986

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Flint Hills NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1986 calendar year. The report begins with an introduction to the Refuge and...

  6. Factors influencing the development of Plasmodium gallinaceum in Aedes fluviatilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana V. Tasón de Camargo

    1983-03-01

    Full Text Available Aedes fluviatilis is susceptible to infection by Plasmodium gallinaceum and is a convenient insect host for the malaria parasite in countries where Aedees aegypti cannot be maintained in laboratories. In South America, for instance, the rearing of A. aegypti the main vector of urban yellow fever, is not advaisable because of the potential health hazard it represents. Our results of the comparative studies carried out between the sporogonic cycle produced with two lines of P. gallinaceum parasites into A. fuviatilis were as follows. As proved for A. aegypti, mosquito infection rates were variable when A. fluviatilis blood-fed on chicks infected with and old syringe-passaged strain of P. gallinaceum. Oocysts developed in 41% of those mosquitos and the mean peak of oocyst production was 56 per stomach. Salivary gland infections developed in about 6% of the mosquitos. The course of sporogony was unrelated to the size of the inoculum administered to chicks or to the route by which the birds were infected. The development of infected salivary glands was unrelated to oocyst production. Sporogony of P. gallinaceum was more uniform when mosquitos blood-fed on chicks infected with a sporozoite-passaged strain. Oocysts developed in about 50% of those mosquitoes and the mean peak of oocyst production was 138 per stomach, with some individuals having as many as 600-800 oocysts. Infected salivary glands developed in a mean of 27% of the mosquitos but, in some batches, was a high as 50%. Patterns of salivary gland parasitism were similar to those of oocyst production. The course of sporogony of P. gallinaceum in A. fluviatilis is analized in relation to degree of parasitemia and gametocytemia in the vertebrate host.Aedes fluviatilis é susceptível à infecção por Plasmodium gallinaceum, sendo considerado um modelo experimental útil para esta infecção em regiões nas quais Aedes aegypti não deve ser criado em laboratório, por razões de segurança. Na

  7. First isolation of Aedes flavivirus in the Western Hemisphere and evidence of vertical transmission in the mosquito Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haddow, Andrew D., E-mail: adhaddow@gmail.com [Institute for Human Infections and Immunity, Center for Emerging Infectious Diseases and Biodefense, Department of Pathology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555-0609 (United States); Guzman, Hilda; Popov, Vsevolod L. [Institute for Human Infections and Immunity, Center for Emerging Infectious Diseases and Biodefense, Department of Pathology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555-0609 (United States); Wood, Thomas G.; Widen, Steven G. [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555-0609 (United States); Haddow, Alastair D. [Mercy Clinic, 2115 S. Fremont, Springfield, MO 65804 (United States); Tesh, Robert B.; Weaver, Scott C. [Institute for Human Infections and Immunity, Center for Emerging Infectious Diseases and Biodefense, Department of Pathology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555-0609 (United States)

    2013-06-05

    We report here the first evidence of vertical transmission of Aedes flavivirus (AEFV) and its first isolation in the Western Hemisphere. AEFV strain SPFLD-MO-2011-MP6 was isolated in C6/36 cells from a pool of male Aedes albopictus mosquitoes that were reared to adults from larvae collected in southwest Missouri, USA, in 2011. Electron micrographs of the virus showed virions of approximately 45 nm in diameter with morphological characteristics associated with flaviviruses. The genomic sequence demonstrated that AEFV-SPFLD-MO-2011-MP6 shares a high degree of nucleotide and amino acid sequence identity with the AEFV Narita-21 strain, isolated in Japan in 2003. Intracerebral inoculation of newborn mice with the virus failed to produce observable illness or death and the virus did not replicate in vertebrate cells, consistent with a lack of vertebrate host range. - Highlights: ► The first report of Aedes flavivirus (AEFV) in the Western Hemisphere. ► The first evidence of vertical transmission of AEFV in mosquitoes. ► The first electron micrograph of AEFV. ► The first attempt to infect animals with AEFV.

  8. Effects of Cohabitation on the Population Performance and Survivorship of the Invasive Mosquito Aedes albopictus and the Resident Mosquito Aedes notoscriptus (Diptera: Culicidae) in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, J; Ritchie, S A; Russell, R C; Webb, C E; Cook, A; Zalucki, M P; Williams, C R; Ward, P; van den Hurk, A F

    2015-05-01

    The presence of Aedes albopictus (Skuse) in the Torres Strait of northern Australia increases the potential for colonization and establishment on the mainland. However, there is a possibility that native species that occupy the same habitats may influence the population performance of Ae. albopictus, potentially affecting the establishment of this species in Australia. Cohabitation experiments were performed with the endemic Aedes notoscriptus (Skuse), which has been found occupying the same larval habitats as Ae. albopictus in the Torres Strait and is the most widespread container-inhabiting Aedes species in Australia. The influence of environmental factors and cohabitation between the two species was examined using different climates, food resource levels, food resource types, and species densities. Survivorship proportions and a population performance index (λ') were calculated and compared. The consequences of increased Ae. notoscriptus densities were reduced survivorship and λ' for Ae. albopictus. Despite this, the mean λ' of Ae. albopictus and Ae. notoscriptus was consistently ≥ 1.06, indicating both species could increase under all conditions, potentially due to increasing conspecific densities negatively affecting Ae. notoscriptus. The outcomes from this study suggest that the preexisting presence of Ae. notoscriptus may not prevent the establishment of Ae. albopictus in Australia. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Spatial and temporal patterns of abundance of Aedes aegypti L. (Stegomyia aegypti) and Aedes albopictus (Skuse) [Stegomyia albopictus (Skuse)] in southern Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiskind, M H; Lounibos, L P

    2013-12-01

    Invasion by mosquito vectors of disease may impact the distribution of resident mosquitoes, resulting in novel patterns of vectors and concomitant risk for disease. One example of such an impact is the invasion by Aedes albopictus (Skuse) [Stegomyia albopictus (Skuse)] (Diptera: Culicidae) of North America and this species' interaction with Aedes aegypti L. (Stegomyia aegypti L). We hypothesized that Ae. aegypti would be found in urban, coastal areas that experience hotter and drier conditions, whereas Ae. albopictus would be more commonly found in suburban and rural areas that are cooler and wetter. In addition, we hypothesized that Ae. aegypti would be more abundant early in the wet season, whereas Ae. albopictus would be more abundant later in the wet season. Urban areas were drier, hotter and contained more Ae. aegypti than suburban or rural areas. Aedes aegypti was relatively more abundant early in the wet season, whereas Ae. albopictus was more abundant in both the late wet season and the dry season. The spatial patterns of inter- and intraspecific encounters between these species were also described. The distribution of these mosquitoes is correlated with abiotic conditions, and with temperature, humidity and the relative availability of rain-filled containers. Understanding the ecological determinants of species distribution can provide insight into the biology of these vectors and important information for their appropriate control. © 2012 The Royal Entomological Society.

  10. ANALYSIS OF A MODEL OF TEAMWORK BY HILL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin Petkovski

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The contemporary management of the intellectual capital of an organization, as a major determinant for efficient and effective operation of the organization has access to the teamwork. Teamwork means quality leadership which is necessary for a successful team management. In the theory and the practice are given a number of models for teamwork and team leadership, however, in this case the subject of this paperwork will be the analyzing of the model of team leadership according to Hill. According to this model there are two functions of team leading established: leading functions in the team and leading functions out of the team. In the first part, which refers to the functions of leadership in the team, are set two major categories: team leader’s tasks and the built relationships and atmosphere in the team. In terms of the functions of the leader out of the team, the model focuses on two categories, namely: the functions of leadership out of the team, but within the organization and leading functions of the team outside the organization.

  11. Hill Cipher and Least Significant Bit for Image Messaging Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Husnul Arif

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Exchange of information through cyberspace has many benefits as an example fast estimated time, unlimited physical distance and space limits, etc. But in these activities can also pose a security risk for confidential information. It is necessary for the safety that can be used to protect data transmitted through the Internet. Encryption algorithm that used to encrypt message to be sent (plaintext into messages that have been randomized (ciphertext is cryptography and steganography algorithms. In application of cryptographic techniques that will be used is Hill Cipher. The technique is combined with steganography techniques Least Significant Bit. The result of merging techniques can maintain the confidentiality of messages because people who do not know the secret key used will be difficult to get the message contained in the stego-image and the image that has been inserted can not be used as a cover image. Message successfully inserted and extracted back on all samples with a good image formats * .bmp, * .png , * .jpg at a resolution of 512 x 512 pixels , 256 x 256 pixels. MSE and PSNR results are not influenced file format or file size, but influenced by dimensions of image. The larger dimensions of the image, then the smaller MSE that means error of image gets smaller.

  12. Orebody Modelling for Exploration: The Western Mineralisation, Broken Hill, NSW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lotfolah Hamedani, Mohammad, E-mail: mlotfham@gmail.com; Plimer, Ian Rutherford [University of Adelaide, School of Earth and Environmental Sciences (Australia); Xu Chaoshui [University of Adelaide, School of Civil, Environmental and Mining Engineering (Australia)

    2012-09-15

    The Western Mineralisation in the Broken Hill deposit was studied to identify the zonation sequence of lithogeochemical haloes along and across the strike of the orebody. Samples used are from 77 drill holes and the samples were assayed for Pb, Zn, Fe, S, Cu, Ag, Cd, Sb, Bi and As. Variogram analyses were calculated for all the elements and kriging was used to construct the 3D block model. Analysis of cross sections along and across the strike of the orebody shows that Bi and Sb form broader halos around sulphide masses and this suggests that they are pathfinder elements for the Pb and Zn elements of this orebody. The threshold concentrations (minimum anomaly) of the 10 elements were determined using the concentration-area analysis. On east-west vertical cross sections, the values of linear productivity, variability gradient and zonality index were calculated for each element. Based on the maximum zonality index of each element, the sequence of geochemical zonation pattern was determined from top to bottom of the orebody. The result shows that S, Pb, Zn and Cd tend to concentrate in the upper part of the mineralisation whereas Ag, Cu, Bi and As have a tendency to concentrate in the lower part of the mineralised rocks. Also, an empirical product ratio index was developed based on the position of the elements in the zonation sequence. The methods and results of this research are applicable to exploration of similar Zn and Pb sulphide ore deposits.

  13. Metamorphic evolution of aluminous granulites from Labwor Hills, Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandiford, Michael; Neall, Fiona B.; Powell, Roger

    1987-02-01

    Sapphirine-cordierite-quartz and spinel-cordierite-quartz form relic assemblages of probable Archaean age in Fe-rich aluminous metapelites from Labwor Hills, Uganda, and reflect an unusually high temperature metamorphism (˜1,000° C) at pressures in the vicinity of 7 9 kbars and a(O2) near the magnetite-hematite buffer. Subsequent reaction textures include the replacement of spinel and cordierite by sillimanite and hypersthene and formation of sapphirine-hypersthene-K-feldspar-quartz symplectites which are interpreted as pseudomorphs after osumilite. A petrogenetic grid appropriate to these assemblages suggests these reaction textures may be due to cooling at constant or increasing pressure and constant a(O2), or decreasing a(O2) at constant temperature and pressure. The former interpretation is supported by the coexistence of ilmenohematite and magnetite during the development of the reaction textures, and by the comparatively low Al2O3-contents of secondary hypersthene. This pressure-temperature path implies that: (1) metamorphism occurred at deep levels within normal thickness crust, probably less than 40 45 km thick, due to an extreme thermal perturbation induced either by emplacement of mantle-derived magmas or by thinning of the subcontinental lithosphere in an extensional tectonic regime, (2) the excavation and surface exposure of the granulites is due to a subsequent, postgranulite facies metamorphism, crustal thickening most probably involving their incorporation into an allochthonous upper crustal thrust sheet during the formation of the Mozambique foldbelt.

  14. Status of avifauna at Taranga Hill-forest, Gujarat, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.D. Patel

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Taranga is one of the famous pilgrim places of northern Gujarat. It is located (240 00’N & 72046’E at starting point of Aravalli ranges. Climate of this area is semi-arid with irregular rainfall. Variable width line transect method was adapted to study the avifaunal diversity. Taranga Hill-forest has atleast 90 species of birds belonging to 11 orders, 33 families and 68 genera. Passeriformes being the largest family. All common residents appear to be adapted to the prevailing conditions. Red-vented Bulbul and Rock Pigeon were most abundant while Asian Paradise-flycatcher, Crested Bunting and European Roller were rare. White-naped Tit a globally threatened and endemic resident has been found as local migrant, scarce in number, common in occurrence and breeder in the tropical thorn-scrub habitat of THf. Plum-headed Parakeet may be a breeding possible species. In comparison to other places, the avian diversity is observed poor, because Aravallis are not on the migratory route or landing site of migratory birds. In addition, anthropogenic factors, presence of predators and loss of vegetation may be having a telling effect.

  15. SRTM Stereo Pair: Haro and Kas Hills, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    On January 26, 2001 the Kachchh region in western India suffered the most deadly earthquake in India's history. This stereoscopic view of landforms northeast of the city of Bhuj depicts geologic structures that are of interest in the study the tectonic processes that may have led to that earthquake. However, preliminary field studies indicate that these structures are composed of Mesozoic rocks that are overlain by younger rocks showing little deformation. Thus these structures may be old, not actively growing, and not directly related to the recent earthquake.The Haro Hills are on the left and the Kas Hills are on the right. The Haro Hills are an 'anticline,' which is an upwardly convex elongated fold of layered rocks. The anticline is distinctly ringed by an erosion resistant layer of sandstone. The east-west orientation of the anticline may relate to the crustal compression that has occurred during India's northward movement toward, and collision with, Asia. In contrast, the largest of the Kas Hills appears to be a tilted (to the south) and faulted (on the north) block of layered rocks. Also seen here, the curvilinear ridge trending toward the southwest from the image center is an erosion resistant 'dike,' which is an igneous intrusion into older 'host' rocks along a fault plane or other crack. The dike also appears to extend northeast from the image center as a dark line having very little topography. Its location between the tilted block and a smaller anticline to the north (directly east of the larger anticline) probably indicates that the dike fills the fault that separates these contrasting geologic structures. These features are simple examples of how digital elevation data can stereoscopically enhance satellite imagery to provide a direct input to geologic studies.This stereoscopic image was generated by draping a Landsat satellite image (taken just two weeks after the earthquake) over a preliminary Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) elevation model

  16. Escrito sobre el cuerpo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Malalana Ureña

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available El catálogo, en una edición bilingüe español-inglés, es una pequeña guía de la exposición Shirin Neshat. Escrito sobre el cuerpo, muestra que se integra dentro de los actos de PHOTOESPAÑA13, el festival internacional de fotografía y artes visuales. El esquema del libro es sencillo y los textos son extremadamente divulgativos. El primero de ellos, Escrito sobre el cuerpo (pp. 10-15, cuyo autor es Octavio Zaya, comisario de la exposición, resume la trayectoria de esta intelectual, que "interactúa" con la fotografía y los formatos audiovisuales, y nos presenta la argumentación narrativa de los documentos expuestos, contextualizando la obra recopilada.

  17. Inferencias sobre Grafos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sira M. Allende

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available El estudio de un juego puede ser modelado asumiendo que solo algunas partidas son observadas. Entonces el árbol del juego debe ser estimado utilizando información muestral. Similarmente ocurre al obtener información sobre el comportamiento de las decisiones tomadas por individuos muestreados sobre un árbol de decisión teórico. Al considerar una medida de probabilidad que caracterice el comportamiento de redes aleatorias se puede obtener un estimado del árbol asociado. Este problema es el analizado en este trabajo. Algunos resultados experimentales obtenidos usando Recocido Simulado ilustran el procedimiento. Su papel en el estudio de modelos económicos y de mercadeo es discutido.

  18. Tesis sobre municipalismo libertario

    OpenAIRE

    Bookchin, Murray

    2014-01-01

    Históricamente, la teoría y la práctica social radical se han centrado sobre dos campos de la actividad social humana: el lugar de trabajo y la comunidad. A partir de la creación del Estado-nación y de la Revolución Industrial, la economía ha ido adquiriendo una posición predominante sobre la comunidad; y no sólo en la ideología capitalista, sino también en los diferentes socialismos, libertarios y autoritarios, que han ido apareciendo en el último siglo. Este cambio de posición del socialism...

  19. Larvicidal activity of the water extract of Moringa oleifera seeds against Aedes aegypti and its toxicity upon laboratory animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo M.P. Ferreira

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work, biological effects of the water extract of Moringa oleifera seeds (WEMOS were assessed on eggs and 3rd instar larvae of Aedes aegypti and on its toxicity upon laboratory animals (Daphnia magna, mice and rats. Crude WEMOS showed a LC50 value of 1260µg/mL, causing 99.2 ± 2.9% larvae mortality within 24 h at 5200µg/mL, though this larvicidal activity has been lost completely at 80ºC/10 min. WEMOS did not demonstrate capacity to prevent egg hatching. After extensive dialyses of the crude WEMOS into watersoluble dialyzable (DF and nondyalizable (NDF fractions, only DF maintained its efficacy to kill larvae. Acute toxicity evaluations on daphnids (EC50 of 188.7µg/mL and mice (LD50 of 446.5 mg/kg body weight pointed out to low toxicity. Despite the thymus hypertrophy, WEMOS revealed to be harmless in orally and subacutelytreated rats. In conclusion, WEMOS has thermostable bioactive compounds against Ae. aegypti larvae with apparent molecular mass lower than 12 kDa and moderately toxic potential.Neste trabalho, o extrato aquoso das sementes de Moringaoleifera (EASMO foi avaliado quanto aos seus efeitos biológicos sobre ovos e larvas de Aedes aegypti no 3ºestágio de desenvolvimento e sua toxicidade sobre animais de laboratório(Daphnia magna, camundongos e ratos. O EASMO bruto revelou uma CL50 de 1.260 µg/mL, causando 99, 2 ± 2, 9% de mortalidade em 24 h na concentração de 5.200 µg/mL, embora o mesmo não tenha sido capaz de impedir a eclosão dos ovos. A atividade larvicida extinguiu-se após aquecimento do extrato a 80ºC/10 min. Diálises sucessivas do EASMO bruto resultaram em duas frações solúveis em água (Fração dializável, FD; Fração nãodializável, FND, dentre as quais apenas a FD mostrou ação larvicida. Testes de toxicidade aguda realizadosem dáfnias (CE50 de 188, 7 µg/mL e camundongos (DL50 de446,5 mg/kg de peso corpóreo evidenciaram baixa toxicidade. Apesar da hipertrofia tímica, o EASMO mostrou ser

  20. Carta sobre una estampilla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Navarro

    1962-05-01

    Full Text Available Queridos compañeros colombianos del arte: la última carta que me llega de vuestro país me ha impresionado de forma inesperada tan solo con caer en mis manos, sin rasgar el sobre ni tener tiempo de conocer el remitente. Es una carta como cualquier otra: señor Fulano de Tal, calle cual, Madrid, España.

  1. Ovicidal activity of Metarhizium brunneum (Mb F52) on dengue fever vector, Aedes aegypti

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ovicidal activity of Metarhizium brunneum F52 (Mb F52) grown from granules was evaluated against Aedes aegypti eggs over time. Survival of larvae from treated eggs was significantly less when compared with untreated eggs at 7, 10 and 14 days post treatment. Only 27 % of treated eggs produced vi...

  2. Primeiro registro de Aedes albopictus no Estado de Santa Catarina, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Löwenberg-Neto

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Três fêmeas adultas de Aedes (Stegomyia albopictus (Skuse foram capturadas por meio de isca humana em área peridomiciliar de remanescente de Mata Atlântica na Praia de Itaguaçu, Ilha de São Francisco do Sul, litoral Norte de Santa Catarina.

  3. Synthesis and Mosquitocidal Activity of a Series of Hydrazone Derivatives against Aedes aegypti

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Aedes aegypti is an important mosquito vector for the transmission of several infectious diseases. Current insecticides play a vital role in controlling mosquitoes; however, the frequent use of insecticides has led to the development of insecticide resistance. In order to control mosquit...

  4. Zoonotic Dirofilaria repens (Nematoda: Filarioidea) in Aedes vexans mosquitoes, Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rudolf, Ivo; Šebesta, Oldřich; Mendel, Jan; Betášová, Lenka; Bocková, E.; Jedličková, Petra; Venclíková, Kristýna; Blažejová, Hana; Šikutová, Silvie; Hubálek, Zdeněk

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 113, č. 12 (2014), s. 4663-4667 ISSN 0932-0113 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 261504 - EDENEXT Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Aedes vexans * Mosquito vectors * Dirofilaria repens * Dogs * Zoonotic dirofilariosis * Setaria spp. Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.098, year: 2014

  5. Superinfection interference between dengue-2 and dengue-4 viruses in Aedes aegypti mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muturi, Ephantus J; Buckner, Eva; Bara, Jeffrey

    2017-04-01

    Dengue virus consists of four antigenically distinct serotypes (DENV 1-4) that are transmitted to humans by Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquitoes. In many dengue-endemic regions, co-circulation of two or more DENV serotypes is fairly common increasing the likelihood for exposure of the two vectors to multiple serotypes. We used a model system of DENV-2 and DENV-4 to investigate how prior exposure of Aedes aegypti to one DENV serotype affects its susceptibility to another serotype. Aedes aegypti mosquitoes were sequentially infected with DENV-2 and DENV-4 and the infection and dissemination rates for each virus determined. We found that prior infection of Ae. aegypti mosquitoes with DENV-4 rendered them significantly less susceptible to secondary infection with DENV-2. Although the results were not statistically significant, mosquitoes infected with DENV-2 were also less susceptible to secondary infection with DENV-4. The midgut dissemination and population dissemination rates for DENV-2 were significantly higher than those of DENV-4 when either virus was administered 7 days after administration of either a non-infectious blood meal or a blood meal containing a heterologous dengue serotype. These results demonstrate that superinfection interference between DENV serotypes is possible within Ae. aegypti mosquitoes, but its effect on DENV epidemiology may be dependent on the fitness of interacting serotypes. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. REPELLENCY OF ESSENTIAL OIL OF PIPER ADUNCUM AGAINST AEDES ALBOPICTUS IN THE LABORATORY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Misni, Norashiqin; Sulaiman, Sallehudin; Othman, Hidayatulfathi; Omar, Baharudin

    2009-01-01

    The repellent activity of Piper aduncum essential oil against Aedes albopictus was investigated under laboratory conditions with human volunteers. The lowest median effective dose (ED(50)) value was 1.5 mu g/cm(2) at 60 sec of exposure when compared to 90 see (2.1 mu g/cm(2)) and 120 see (1.8 mu

  7. Fipronil as a larvicide against container-inhabiting mosquito, Aedes albopictus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the laboratory, Fipronil was tested against laboratory-reared and field-collected early 4th instar Aedes albopictus larvae. The insecticide was also bioassayed for activity against natural field populations of Ae. albopictus inhabiting one-liter capacity stone-made containers in a cemetery, St. A...

  8. Resistance to deltamethrine in two populations of Aedes aegypti (Diptera, Culicidae from Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Chávez

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present work was to determine the resistance levels to deltamethrine in two populations of Aedes aegypti from Peru. Bioassays in adults were carried out following the methodology of the World Health Organization. We met resistance in the Sullana population with 70% of mortality and susceptibility in the population The Future El Porvenir with 99% of mortality.

  9. [New record of Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762), in the urban area of La Pedrera, Amazonas, Colombia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas-Gil, Yesika; Brochero, Helena

    2008-12-01

    Before 2005, Aedes aegypti had not been recorded in the Colombian province of Amazonas. Because this species has been increasing its range throughout Colombia, an entomological surveillance program has been routinely directed toward detecting it presence in Amazonas by the Amazonas State Health Authority. Surveillance data were used as the basis for recording Aedes aegypti in Amazonas Province. Household surveys of Ae. aegypti larvae were conducted by trained personnel belonging to the Amazonas State Health Authority. The following standard larval indices were estimated: house index (HI)--the percentage of premises with positive containers, the container index (CI)--the percentage of positive containers among the water-holding containers, and the Breteau index (BI)--the number of positive containers per 100 premises. Residents were questioned concerning their perception of mosquito presence in their houses. Subsequently, control activities were undertaken to reduce the mosquito's infestation. Aedes aegypti was found in the urban area of the village of La Pedrera. During the first household survey, the indices were HI=29.6%, CI=9.0% and, BI=40.8%. After control activities, these values decreased; however, elimination of the infestation was not possible in this geographical area. The community recognizes the mosquito immature forms in water containers in houses and associated them as vectors of several diseases. The presence of Ae. aegypti mosquitoes in the village La Pedrera was verified. Aedes albopictus was not found in this area.

  10. [Aedes aegypti and associated fauna in the rural zone of Manaus, in the Brazilian Amazon].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Maria Graças Vale; Fé, Nelson Ferreira; Jesus, Rossicleide Dias Barbosa de; Rodriguez, Iria Cabral; Monteiro, Wuelton Marcelo; Mourão, Maria Paula Gomes; Guerra, Jorge Augusto de Oliveira

    2009-01-01

    After detecting Aedes aegypti larvae in the rural zone of Manaus, entomological surveillance was carried out over two consecutive years in order to notify occurrences of this species in that area. The tool of entomological surveillance has an important role among the preventive measures against diseases transmitted by insects, particularly arbovirosis.

  11. Chikungunya Virus in Febrile Humans and Aedes aegypti Mosquitoes, Yucatan, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cigarroa-Toledo, Nohemi; Blitvich, Bradley J; Cetina-Trejo, Rosa C; Talavera-Aguilar, Lourdes G; Baak-Baak, Carlos M; Torres-Chablé, Oswaldo M; Hamid, Md-Nafiz; Friedberg, Iddo; González-Martinez, Pedro; Alonzo-Salomon, Gabriela; Rosado-Paredes, Elsy P; Rivero-Cárdenas, Nubia; Reyes-Solis, Guadalupe C; Farfan-Ale, Jose A; Garcia-Rejon, Julian E; Machain-Williams, Carlos

    2016-10-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) was isolated from 12 febrile humans in Yucatan, Mexico, in 2015. One patient was co-infected with dengue virus type 1. Two additional CHIKV isolates were obtained from Aedes aegypti mosquitoes collected in the homes of patients. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the CHIKV isolates belong to the Asian lineage.

  12. Mosquito activity of a series of chalcones and 2-pyrazoline derivatives against Aedes aegypti

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae) transmit pathogens to humans, leading to diseases such as yellow fever and dengue fever. Repellents and insecticides are two common interventions to reduce mosquito biting and thereby disease risk. However, overreliance on a chemical or class of chemicals c...

  13. The tale of two buckets and associated containers: impact on aedes albopictus oviposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aedes albopictus is an invasive species. Its oviposition behavior is the subject of several projects in our research unit. The main emphasis of this presentation is a study which utilizes two five gallon buckets, one heated and one with ambient temperature. The heat is provided by an aquarium hea...

  14. High Resolution Spatial Analysis of Habitat Preference of Aedes Albopictus (Diptera Culicidae) in an Urban Environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cianci, Daniela; Hartemink, Nienke; Zeimes, Caroline B; Vanwambeke, Sophie O; Ienco, Annamaria; Caputo, Beniamino

    2015-01-01

    Over the past decades, the Asian tiger mosquito (Aedes albopictus (Skuse, 1895)) has emerged in many countries, and it has colonized new environments, including urban areas. The species is a nuisance and a potential vector of several human pathogens, and a better understanding of the habitat

  15. Assessment of Aedes albopictus (Skuse) clutch size in wild and laboratory populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aedes albopictus (Skuse) is an invasive mosquito species found across the southern U.S. and has undergone range expansion into many northern states. Although primarily pestiferous, it is a capable vector of many disease-causing pathogens. Intra- and interspecific larval competition have been evalu...

  16. Infection of adult Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus mosquitoes with the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholte, E.J.; Takken, W.; Knols, B.G.J.

    2007-01-01

    This study describes a laboratory investigation on the use of the insect-pathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae against adult Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus mosquitoes. At a dosage of 1.6 × 1010 conidia/m2, applied on material that served as a mosquito resting site, an average of 87.1 ± 2.65% of

  17. Insecticide resistance status of United States populations of Aedes albopictus and mechanisms involved

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aedes albopictus (Skuse) is an invasive mosquito that has become an important vector of chikungunya and dengue viruses. Immature Ae. albopictus thrive in backyard household containers that require treatment with larvicides and when adult populations reach pest levels or disease transmission is ongoi...

  18. Mating status and body size in Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) affect host finding and DEET repellency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Variations in the conditions accompanying mosquito development and mating can result in females of variable size that have not been inseminated. In this study, we compared the host finding activity of mated and unmated large and small Aedes albopictus and the repellency to these mosquitoes of 25% D...

  19. High Resolution Spatial Analysis of Habitat Preference of Aedes Albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) in an Urban Environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cianci, D.; Hartemink, N.; Zeimes, C.B.; Vanwambeke, S.O.; Ienco, A.; Caputo, B.

    2015-01-01

    Over the past decades, the Asian tiger mosquito (Aedes albopictus (Skuse, 1895)) has emerged in many countries, and it has colonized new environments, including urban areas. The species is a nuisance and a potential vector of several human pathogens, and a better understanding of the habitat

  20. Occurrence and distribution of Aedes albopictus (Skuse) in the Netherlands; survey 2006-2007 : report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholte, E.J.; Takken, W.

    2007-01-01

    In the summer of 2005, the Asian tigermosquito (Aedes albopictus) was found for the first time in the Netherlands. It was intercepted in several horticultural companies that import the ornamental plant Lucky bamboo from southern China, an endemic area for this mosquito species. The current report