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Sample records for highly valued herbicide

  1. Synthesis of a tritiated herbicide with high activity: methyl thifensulfuron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bastide, J.; Ortega, F.

    1993-01-01

    In order to study the binding on acetolactate synthase, a tritiated herbicide sulfonylurea (thifensulfuron methyl) of high specific activity was synthesized. By use of C 3 H 3 I for esterification of an acid group, a rapid incorporation of tritium into this compound may be achieved. (Author)

  2. Sulfonylurea herbicides – methodological challenges in setting aquatic limit values

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenkrantz, Rikke Tjørnhøj; Baun, Anders; Kusk, Kresten Ole

    according to the EU Water Framework Directive, the resulting Water Quality Standards (WQSs) are below the analytical quantification limit, making it difficult to verify compliance with the limit values. However, several methodological concerns may be raised in relation to the very low effect concentrations...... and rimsulfuron. The following parameters were varied during testing: pH, exposure duration, temperature and light/dark cycle. Preliminary results show that a decrease in pH causes an increase in toxicity for all compounds. Exposure to a high concentration for 24 hours caused a reduction in growth rate, from...... for setting limit values for SUs or if more detailed information should be gained by taking methodological considerations into account....

  3. BELVEDERE® Extra – a new high performance- herbicide in beets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donati, Alexandra

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Common lambsquarters, cleavers, ladysthumb and wild buckwheat, chamomile, mercury, foolsparsleey and volunteer rapes are only some of the most important weeds in fooder and sugar beets. For the control of classical weed societies farmers can fall back on a limited number of active ingredients. Generally, Phenmedipham (PMP, Desmedipham (DMP and Ethofumesate are the basis of a spray sequence. They are complemented with other active ingredients depending on the specific weed situation. The newly formulated BELVEDERE® Extra combines the three mentioned active ingredients in an optimal ratio. Hence, the herbicide covers a very broad weed spectrum with an excellent efficacy on Common lambsquarters, cleavers, ladysthumb and wild buckwheat. BELVEDERE® EXTRA is a liquid, selective, and systemic herbicide. It is formulated as suspoemulsion so that a high efficacy is achieved while preserving a very good selectivity. The product allows for flexible control of leaf activity as an additive (e.g. OLEO FC is appended. Ethofumesate, which is mainly effective via the roots of the plant, belongs to a different HRAC group than Phenmedipham and Desmedipham. The high concentration of 200 g/L Ethofumesate leads to an effective resistance management especially regarding Fathen and other important weeds. Since 23rd of September 2013 BELVEDERE® extra is registered for post emergence splitting application (3 applications against annual dicotyledonous weeds. The maximum application rate per treatment is 1,3 L/ha. In combination with GOLTIX® TITAN® (Metamitron + Quinmerac or Goltix® Gold (Metamitron the weed spectrum is broadened. Basically, a timely application whose application rates are adapted to the location is essential for a good efficacy of beet herbicides.

  4. Predictive value of species sensitivity distributions for effects of herbicides in freshwater ecosystems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brink, van den P.J.; Blake, N.; Brock, T.C.M.; Maltby, L.

    2006-01-01

    In this article we present a review of the laboratory and field toxicity of herbicides to aquatic ecosystems. Single-species acute toxicity data and ( micro) mesocosm data were collated for nine herbicides. These data were used to investigate the importance of test species selection in constructing

  5. High coking value pitch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Douglas J.; Chang, Ching-Feng; Lewis, Irwin C.; Lewis, Richard T.

    2014-06-10

    A high coking value pitch prepared from coal tar distillate and has a low softening point and a high carbon value while containing substantially no quinoline insolubles is disclosed. The pitch can be used as an impregnant or binder for producing carbon and graphite articles.

  6. Determination of phenmedipham and desmedipham in a commercial herbicide by high performance liquid chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lončar Eva S.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Betanal AM-11 is the herbicide that is using to control one-year old weeds with wide leafs in sugar beet fields. Active ingredients of the herbicide are phenmedipham and desmedipham. Commercial emulsifiable concentrate (EC contains 80 g/L ( 10% of each active compound. We applied high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC with diode array detector (DAD at 254 nm for the determination of phenmedipham and desmedipham in commercial samples of Betanal AM-11. This method involves reversed-phase separation of the components on C-18 bonded silica with methanol-water (51+49, v/v as the eluent. The procedure was highly selective and reproducible and can be successfully used in determining contents of phenmedipham and desmedipham on micro and macro levels.

  7. High-yield production of herbicidal thaxtomins and analogs in a nonpathogenic Streptomyces strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Guangde; Zhang, Yucheng; Powell, Magan M; Zhang, Peilan; Zuo, Ran; Zhang, Yi; Kallifidas, Dimitrios; Tieu, Albert M; Luesch, Hendrik; Loria, Rosemary; Ding, Yousong

    2018-03-30

    Thaxtomins are virulence factors of most plant pathogenic Streptomyces strains. Due to their potent herbicidal activity, attractive environmental compatibility and inherent biodegradability, thaxtomins are key active ingredients of bioherbicides approved by the United States Environmental Protection Agency. However, the low yield of thaxtomins in native Streptomyces producers limits their wide agricultural applications. Here, we describe the high-yield production of thaxtomins in a heterologous host. The thaxtomin gene cluster from S. scabiei 87.22 was cloned and expressed in S. albus J1074 after chromosomal integration. The production of thaxtomins and nitro-tryptophan analogs were observed using LC-MS analysis. When culturing the engineered S. albus J1074 in the minimal medium TMDc, the yield of the most abundant and herbicidal analog, thaxtomin A, was 10 times higher than S. scabiei 87.22, and optimization of the medium resulted in the highest yield of thaxtomin analogs at about 222 mg/L. Further engineering of the thaxtomin biosynthetic gene cluster through gene deletion led to the production of multiple biosynthetic intermediates important to the chemical synthesis of new analogs. Additionally, the versatility of the thaxtomin biosynthetic system in S. albus J1074 was capitalized to produce one unnatural fluorinated analog 5-F-thaxtomin A, whose structure was elucidated by a combination of MS and 1D and 2D NMR analyses. Natural and unnatural thaxtomins demonstrated potent herbicidal activity in radish seedling assays. These results indicated that S. albus J1074 has the potential to produce thaxtomins and thereof with high yield, fostering their agricultural applications. IMPORTANCE Thaxtomins are agriculturally valuable herbicidal natural products but the productivity of native producers is limiting. Heterologous expression of thaxtomin gene cluster in S. albus J1074 resulted in the highest yield of thaxtomins ever reported, representing a significant leap

  8. Application of solvent floatation to separation and determination of triazine herbicides in honey by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kun; Jiang, Jia; Lv, Xinping; Zang, Shuang; Tian, Sizhu; Zhang, Hanqi; Yu, Aimin; Zhang, Ziwei; Yu, Yong

    2018-03-01

    Based on the foaming property of the honey, a rapid, simple, and effective method solvent floatation (SF) was developed and firstly applied to the extraction and separation of triazine herbicides in honey. The analytes were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. Some parameters affecting the extraction efficiencies, such as the type and volume of extraction solvent, type of salt, amount of (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 , pH value of sample solution, gas flow rate, and floatation time, were investigated and optimized. The limits of detection for analytes are in the range of 0.16-0.56 μg kg -1 . The recoveries and relative standard deviations for determining triazines in five real honey samples are in the range of 78.2-112.9 and 0.2-9.2%, respectively.

  9. Chemical exposure reduction: Factors impacting on South African herbicide sprayers' personal protective equipment compliance and high risk work practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade-Rivas, Federico; Rother, Hanna-Andrea

    2015-10-01

    The high exposure risks of workers to herbicides in low- and middle-income countries is an important public health concern because of the potential resulting negative impacts on workers' health. This study investigated workers' personal protective equipment (PPE) compliance as a risk mitigation measure; particularly workers who apply herbicides for Working for Water (WfW) - a South African invasive alien vegetation control programme. The study aim was to understand workers' low PPE compliance by analysing their risk perceptions of herbicide use, working conditions and socio-cultural context. Research methods included ethnographic observations, informal interviews, visual media, questionnaires and a focus group. Study results indicated that low PPE compliance persists despite workers' awareness of herbicide exposure risks and as a result of the influence from workers' socio-cultural context (i.e. gender dynamics and social status), herbicide risk perceptions and working conditions (i.e. environmental and logistical). Interestingly, teams comprised of mostly women had the highest compliance rate. These findings highlighted that given the complexity of PPE compliance, especially in countries with several economic and social constraints, exposure reduction interventions should not rely solely on PPE use promotion. Instead, other control strategies requiring less worker input for effectiveness should be implemented, such as elimination and substitution of highly hazardous pesticides, and altering application methods. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Integrated Palmer Amaranth Management in Glufosinate-Resistant Cotton: I. Soil-Inversion, High-Residue Cover Crops and Herbicide Regimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael G. Patterson

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A three year field experiment was conducted to evaluate the role of soil-inversion, cover crops and herbicide regimes for Palmer amaranth between-row (BR and within-row (WR management in glufosinate-resistant cotton. The main plots were two soil-inversion treatments: fall inversion tillage (IT and non-inversion tillage (NIT. The subplots were three cover crop treatments: crimson clover, cereal rye and winter fallow; and sub subplots were four herbicide regimes: preemergence (PRE alone, postemergence (POST alone, PRE + POST and a no herbicide check (None. The PRE herbicide regime consisted of a single application of pendimethalin at 0.84 kg ae ha−1 plus fomesafen at 0.28 kg ai ha−1. The POST herbicide regime consisted of a single application of glufosinate at 0.60 kg ai ha−1 plus S-metolachlor at 0.54 kg ai ha−1 and the PRE + POST regime combined the prior two components. At 2 weeks after planting (WAP cotton, Palmer amaranth densities, both BR and WR, were reduced ≥90% following all cover crop treatments in the IT. In the NIT, crimson clover reduced Palmer amaranth densities >65% and 50% compared to winter fallow and cereal rye covers, respectively. At 6 WAP, the PRE and PRE + POST herbicide regimes in both IT and NIT reduced BR and WR Palmer amaranth densities >96% over the three years. Additionally, the BR density was reduced ≥59% in no-herbicide (None following either cereal rye or crimson clover when compared to no-herbicide in the winter fallow. In IT, PRE, POST and PRE + POST herbicide regimes controlled Palmer amaranth >95% 6 WAP. In NIT, Palmer amaranth was controlled ≥79% in PRE and ≥95% in PRE + POST herbicide regimes over three years. POST herbicide regime following NIT was not very consistent. Averaged across three years, Palmer amaranth controlled ≥94% in PRE and PRE + POST herbicide regimes regardless of cover crop. Herbicide regime effect on cotton yield was highly significant; the maximum cotton yield was

  11. The toxic mechanism of high lethality of herbicide butachlor in marine flatfish flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Huarong; Yin, Licheng; Zhang, Shicui; Feng, Wenrong

    2010-09-01

    The toxic mechanism of herbicide butachlor to induce extremely high lethality in marine flatfish flounder, Paralichthys Olivaceus, was analyzed by histopathological examination, antioxidant enzymes activities and ATP content assay. Histopathological examination of gill, liver and kidney of exposed fishes showed that gill was a target organ of butachlor. The butachlor seriously impaired the respiration of gills by a series of lesions such as edema, lifting and detachment of lamellar epithelium, breakdown of pillar cells, and blood congestion. The dysfunction of gill respiration caused suffocation to the exposed flounder with extremely high acute lethality. Antioxidant enzyme activity assay of the in vitro cultured flounder gill (FG) cells exposed to butachlor indicated that butachlor markedly inhibited the antioxidant enzyme activities of Superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX). Furthermore, along with the decline of antioxidant enzyme activities, ATP content in the exposed FG cells decreased, too. This infers that the oxidative stress induced by butachlor can inhibit the production of cellular ATP. Similar decrease of ATP content was also observed in the exposed flounder gill tissues. Taken together, as in FG cells, butachlor possibly induced a short supply of ATP in pillar cells by inhibiting the antioxidant enzyme activities and then affecting the contractibility of the pillar cells, which in turn resulted in the blood congestion and suffocation of exposed flounder.

  12. Mechanisms of tolerance and high degradation capacity of the herbicide mesotrione by Escherichia coli strain DH5-α.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz R Olchanheski

    Full Text Available The intensive use of agrochemicals has played an important role in increasing agricultural production. One of the impacts of agrochemical use has been changes in population structure of soil microbiota. The aim of this work was to analyze the adaptive strategies that bacteria use to overcome oxidative stress caused by mesotrione, which inhibits 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase. We also examined antioxidative stress systems, saturation changes of lipid membranes, and the capacity of bacteria to degrade mesotrione. Escherichia coli DH5-á was chosen as a non-environmental strain, which is already a model bacterium for studying metabolism and adaptation. The results showed that this bacterium was able to tolerate high doses of the herbicide (10× field rate, and completely degraded mesotrione after 3 h of exposure, as determined by a High Performance Liquid Chromatography. Growth rates in the presence of mesotrione were lower than in the control, prior to the period of degradation, showing toxic effects of this herbicide on bacterial cells. Changes in the saturation of the membrane lipids reduced the damage caused by reactive oxygen species and possibly hindered the entry of xenobiotics in the cell, while activating glutathione-S-transferase enzyme in the antioxidant system and in the metabolizing process of the herbicide. Considering that E. coli DH5-α is a non-environmental strain and it had no previous contact with mesotrione, the defense system found in this strain could be considered non-specific. This bacterium system response may be a general adaptation mechanism by which bacterial strains resist to damage from the presence of herbicides in agricultural soils.

  13. Comparative analysis of miRNAs of two rapeseed genotypes in response to acetohydroxyacid synthase-inhibiting herbicides by high-throughput sequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maolong Hu

    Full Text Available Acetohydroxyacid synthase (AHAS, also called acetolactate synthase, is a key enzyme involved in the first step of the biosynthesis of the branched-chain amino acids valine, isoleucine and leucine. Acetohydroxyacid synthase-inhibiting herbicides (AHAS herbicides are five chemical families of herbicides that inhibit AHAS enzymes, including imidazolinones (IMI, sulfonylureas (SU, pyrimidinylthiobenzoates, triazolinones and triazolopyrimidines. Five AHAS genes have been identified in rapeseed, but little information is available regarding the role of miRNAs in response to AHAS herbicides. In this study, an AHAS herbicides tolerant genotype and a sensitive genotype were used for miRNA comparative analysis. A total of 20 small RNA libraries were obtained of these two genotypes at three time points (0h, 24 h and 48 h after spraying SU and IMI herbicides with two replicates. We identified 940 conserved miRNAs and 1515 novel candidate miRNAs in Brassica napus using high-throughput sequencing methods combined with computing analysis. A total of 3284 genes were predicted to be targets of these miRNAs, and their functions were shown using GO, KOG and KEGG annotations. The differentiation expression results of miRNAs showed almost twice as many differentiated miRNAs were found in tolerant genotype M342 (309 miRNAs after SU herbicide application than in sensitive genotype N131 (164 miRNAs. In additiond 177 and 296 miRNAs defined as differentiated in sensitive genotype and tolerant genotype in response to SU herbicides. The miR398 family was observed to be associated with AHAS herbicide tolerance because their expression increased in the tolerant genotype but decreased in the sensitive genotype. Moreover, 50 novel miRNAs from 39 precursors were predicted. There were 8 conserved miRNAs, 4 novel miRNAs and 3 target genes were validated by quantitative real-time PCR experiment. This study not only provides novel insights into the miRNA content of AHAS herbicides

  14. Determination of chloroacetanilide herbicide metabolites in water using high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection and high-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hostetler, K.A.; Thurman, E.M.

    2000-01-01

    Analytical methods using high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection (HPLC-DAD) and high-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (HPLC/MS) were developed for the analysis of the following chloroacetanilide herbicide metabolites in water: alachlor ethanesulfonic acid (ESA); alachlor oxanilic acid; acetochlor ESA; acetochlor oxanilic acid; metolachlor ESA; and metolachlor oxanilic acid. Good precision and accuracy were demonstrated for both the HPLC-DAD and HPLC/MS methods in reagent water, surface water, and ground water. The average HPLC-DAD recoveries of the chloroacetanilide herbicide metabolites from water samples spiked at 0.25, 0.5 and 2.0 ??g/l ranged from 84 to 112%, with relative standard deviations of 18% or less. The average HPLC/MS recoveries of the metabolites from water samples spiked at 0.05, 0.2 and 2.0 ??g/l ranged from 81 to 118%, with relative standard deviations of 20% or less. The limit of quantitation (LOQ) for all metabolites using the HPLC-DAD method was 0.20 ??g/l, whereas the LOQ using the HPLC/MS method was at 0.05 ??g/l. These metabolite-determination methods are valuable for acquiring information about water quality and the fate and transport of the parent chloroacetanilide herbicides in water. Copyright (C) 2000 Elsevier Science B.V.

  15. Protoporphyrinogen oxidase: high affinity tetrahydrophthalimide radioligand for the inhibitor/herbicide-binding site in mouse liver mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birchfield, N B; Casida, J E

    1996-01-01

    Protoporphyrinogen oxidase (protox), the last common enzyme in heme and chlorophyll biosynthesis, is the target of several classes of herbicides acting as inhibitors in both plants and mammals. N-(4-Chloro-2-fluoro-5-(propargyloxy)phenyl)-3,4,5,6-tetrahydro phthalimide (a potent protox inhibitor referred to as THP) was synthesized as a candidate radioligand ([3H]-THP) by selective catalytic reduction of 3,6-dihydrophthalic anhydride (DHPA) with tritium gas followed by condensation in 45% yield with 4-chloro-2-fluoro-5-(propargyloxy)aniline. Insertion of tritium at the 3 and 6 carbons of DHPA as well as the expected 4 and 5 carbons resulted in high specific activity [3H]THP (92 Ci/mmol). This radioligand undergoes rapid, specific, saturable, and reversible binding to the inhibitor/herbicide binding site of the protox component of cholate-solubilized mouse liver mitochondria with an apparent Kd of 0.41 nM and Bmax of 0.40 pmol/mg of protein. In the standard assay, mouse preparation (150 micrograms of protein) and [3H]THP (0.5 nM) are incubated in 500 microL of phosphate buffer at pH 7.2 for 15 min at 25 degrees C followed by addition of ammonium sulfate and filtration with glass fiber filters. The potencies of five nitrodiphenyl ethers and two other herbicides as inhibitors of [3H]THP binding correlate well with those for inhibition of protox activity (r2 = 0.97, n = 7), thus validating the binding assay as relevant to enzyme inhibition. It is also suitable to determine in vivo block as illustrated by an approximately 50% decrease in [3H]THP binding in liver mitochondria from mice treated ip with oxyfluorfen at 4 mg/kg. This is the first report of a binding assay for protox in mammals. The high affinity and specific activity of [3H]THP facilitate quantitation of protox and therefore research on a sensitive inhibition site for porphyrin biosynthesis.

  16. Herbicide Persistence in Seawater Simulation Experiments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Mercurio

    Full Text Available Herbicides are detected year-round in marine waters, including those of the World Heritage listed Great Barrier Reef (GBR. The few previous studies that have investigated herbicide persistence in seawater generally reported half-lives in the order of months, and several studies were too short to detect significant degradation. Here we investigated the persistence of eight herbicides commonly detected in the GBR or its catchments in standard OECD simulation flask experiments, but with the aim to mimic natural conditions similar to those found on the GBR (i.e., relatively low herbicide concentrations, typical temperatures, light and microbial communities. Very little degradation was recorded over the standard 60 d period (Experiment 1 so a second experiment was extended to 365 d. Half-lives of PSII herbicides ametryn, atrazine, diuron, hexazinone and tebuthiuron were consistently greater than a year, indicating high persistence. The detection of atrazine and diuron metabolites and longer persistence in mercuric chloride-treated seawater confirmed that biodegradation contributed to the breakdown of herbicides. The shortest half-life recorded was 88 d for growth-regulating herbicide 2,4-D at 31°C in the dark, while the fatty acid-inhibitor metolachlor exhibited a minimum half-life of 281 d. The presence of moderate light and elevated temperatures affected the persistence of most of the herbicides; however, the scale and direction of the differences were not predictable and were likely due to changes in microbial community composition. The persistence estimates here represent some of the first appropriate data for application in risk assessments for herbicide exposure in tropical marine systems. The long persistence of herbicides identified in the present study helps explain detection of herbicides in nearshore waters of the GBR year round. Little degradation of these herbicides would be expected during the wet season with runoff and associated

  17. Herbicide Persistence in Seawater Simulation Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercurio, Philip; Mueller, Jochen F.; Eaglesham, Geoff; Flores, Florita; Negri, Andrew P.

    2015-01-01

    Herbicides are detected year-round in marine waters, including those of the World Heritage listed Great Barrier Reef (GBR). The few previous studies that have investigated herbicide persistence in seawater generally reported half-lives in the order of months, and several studies were too short to detect significant degradation. Here we investigated the persistence of eight herbicides commonly detected in the GBR or its catchments in standard OECD simulation flask experiments, but with the aim to mimic natural conditions similar to those found on the GBR (i.e., relatively low herbicide concentrations, typical temperatures, light and microbial communities). Very little degradation was recorded over the standard 60 d period (Experiment 1) so a second experiment was extended to 365 d. Half-lives of PSII herbicides ametryn, atrazine, diuron, hexazinone and tebuthiuron were consistently greater than a year, indicating high persistence. The detection of atrazine and diuron metabolites and longer persistence in mercuric chloride-treated seawater confirmed that biodegradation contributed to the breakdown of herbicides. The shortest half-life recorded was 88 d for growth-regulating herbicide 2,4-D at 31°C in the dark, while the fatty acid-inhibitor metolachlor exhibited a minimum half-life of 281 d. The presence of moderate light and elevated temperatures affected the persistence of most of the herbicides; however, the scale and direction of the differences were not predictable and were likely due to changes in microbial community composition. The persistence estimates here represent some of the first appropriate data for application in risk assessments for herbicide exposure in tropical marine systems. The long persistence of herbicides identified in the present study helps explain detection of herbicides in nearshore waters of the GBR year round. Little degradation of these herbicides would be expected during the wet season with runoff and associated flood plumes

  18. Determination of Chlorophenoxy Acid Methyl Esters and Other Chlorinated Herbicides by GC High-resolution QTOFMS and Soft lonization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viorica Lopez-Avila

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Gas chromatography with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-QTOFMS and soft ionization generated by a rare-gas plasma is described here for the determination of various chlorophenoxy acid methyl esters and a few chlorinated herbicides. This plasma-based, wavelength-selectable ionization source, which can use Xe, Kr, Ar, Ne, or He as the plasma gas, enables ionization of GC-amenable compounds with ionization energies below 8.4, 10, 11.6, 16.5, or 22.4 eV, respectively. The advantages of soft ionization include enhanced molecular ions, reduced fragmentation, and reduced background noise as compared to electron ionization. In the study presented here for two plasma gases, we demonstrate that Kr plasma, which is softer than Ar plasma, yields molecular ions with a relative intensity >60% for 11 of the 16 test compounds. When using this “tunable” plasma to ionize the analytes, there is the possibility for selective ionization and less fragmentation, which may lead to increased sensitivity and may help structure elucidation, especially when using high-resolution mass spectrometry that generates accurate masses within a few parts per million (ppm mass errors. Data generated with the Ar plasma and real matrices such as a peppermint extract, a plum extract, and an orange peel extract, spiked with 16 test compounds, indicate that the test compounds can be detected at 1-10 pg/µL of extract, and compounds such as menthone, limonene, eucalyptol, pinene, caryophylene, and other C 15 H 24 isomers, which are present in the peppermint and the orange peel extracts at ppm to percent levels, do not appear to interfere with the determination of the chlorophenoxy acid methyl esters or the chlorinated herbicides, although there were matrix effects when the test compounds were spiked at 1-10 pg/µL of extract.

  19. Changes in the persistence of two phenylurea herbicides in two Mediterranean soils under irrigation with low- and high-quality water: A laboratory approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ElGouzi, Siham; Draoui, Khalid; Chtoun, E H; Dolores Mingorance, M; Peña, Aránzazu

    2015-12-15

    The disappearance of two phenylurea herbicides, chlorotoluron (CHL) and isoproturon (IPU), in two Mediterranean soils, an agricultural calcareous soil (S5) and an organic forest soil (S2), was assessed under irrigation with high- and low-quality water. Irrigation with wastewater, as opposed to irrigation with high-quality water, increased the degradation rate of both herbicides in both soils. For each soil, the decay rate of IPU was always higher than that of CHL, and both pesticides disappeared more rapidly from S5 with lower clay and organic carbon content than from S2. The degradation rate was inversely related with pesticide sorption on soil, because increased sorption would reduce pesticide bioavailability for decomposition. In most cases the residual concentration in soil of both phenylurea herbicides was better fitted to a bi-exponential decay model than to first-order or first-order with plateau models. Dehydrogenase activity, used as an indication of microbial activity, was very high in S2 in comparison with S5, but was not related to pesticide disappearance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Effect of herbicides on microbiological properties of soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milošević Nada A.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Microorganisms decompose herbicides and they may serve as bioindicators of soil changes following herbicide application. Certain microbial species may be used as bioherbicides. This study has shown that Azotobacter is most sensitive to herbicide application; it is, therefore, a reliable indicator of the biological value of soil. The numbers of this group of nitrogen-fixing bacteria decrease considerably in the period of 7-14 days after herbicide application. Simultaneously, the numbers of Actinomycetes and less so of fungi increase, indicating that these microorganisms use herbicides as sources of biogenous elements. Rate of herbicidal decomposition depends on the properties of the preparation applied herbicide dose as well as on the physical and chemical soil properties, soil moisture and temperature, ground cover, agrotechnical measures applied and the resident microbial population.

  1. Toxicity of a glufosinate- and several glyphosate-based herbicides to juvenile amphibians from the Southern High Plains, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinehart, Simon K; Smith, Loren M; McMurry, Scott T; Anderson, Todd A; Smith, Philip N; Haukos, David A

    2009-01-15

    Pesticide toxicity is often proposed as a contributing factor to the world-wide decline of amphibian populations. We assessed acute toxicity (48 h) of a glufosinate-based herbicide (Ignite 280 SL) and several glyphosate-based herbicide formulations (Roundup WeatherMAX, Roundup Weed and Grass Killer Super Concentrate, Roundup Weed and Grass Killer Ready-To-Use Plus on two species of amphibians housed on soil or moist paper towels. Survival of juvenile Great Plains toads (Bufo cognatus) and New Mexico spadefoots (Spea multiplicata) was reduced by exposure to Roundup Weed and Grass Killer Ready-To-Use Plus on both substrates. Great Plains toad survival was also reduced by exposure to Roundup Weed and Grass Killer Super Concentrate on paper towels. New Mexico spadefoot and Great Plains toad survival was not affected by exposure to the two agricultural herbicides (Roundup WeatherMAX and Ignite 280 SL) on either substrate, suggesting that these herbicides likely do not pose an immediate risk to these species under field conditions.

  2. Herbicides in environmental pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qureshi, M.J.; Haq, A.; Maqbool, U.

    1997-01-01

    Herbicide effectiveness on the most pernicious weeds including cyperus rotundus may be limited because spray droplets are not well retained or because penetration and/or translocation is restricted. As a result, chemical pollute the environment and is hazardous to the human health. Monitoring studies ad undertaken to check that the flate and environmental effects of herbicides under field condition are consistent with prediction. Studies on /sup 14/-glyphosate in Cyperus rotundus using radiotracer methods indicated that out of five formulations studies formulation No.3 was the best from penetration point of view of the chemical whereas formulation No. 4 with the high dose showed effective retention and uniform translocation of the chemical after five days of the treatment. Cuticular penetration and translocation of glyphosate in the formulations with or without surfactants have also been studied in C. rotundus. It is also concluded that synperonic surfactants, diesel oil or glycerol did not influence the translocation of glyphosate within the weed. The translocation mainly occurred down swards and accumulated in the plant parts located below the treated zone. (author)

  3. Gasification : converting low value feedstocks to high value products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koppel, P.; Lorden, D.

    2009-01-01

    This presentation provided a historic overview of the gasification process and described the process chemistry of its two primary reactions, notably partial oxidation and steam reforming. The gasification process involves converting low value carbonaceous solid or liquid feeds to a synthetic gas by reacting the feed with oxygen and steam under high pressure and temperature conditions. Since the gasifier operates under a reducing environment instead of an oxidizing environment, mist sulphur is converted to hydrogen sulphide instead of sulphur dioxide. The gasification process also involves cleaning up synthetic gas and acid gas removal; recovery of conventional sulphur; and combustion or further processing of clean synthetic gas. This presentation also outlined secondary reactions such as methanation, water shift, and carbon formation. The negative effects of gasification were also discussed, with particular reference to syngas; metal carbonyls; soot; and slag. Other topics that were presented included world syngas production capacity by primary feedstock; operating IGCC projects; natural gas demand by oil sands supply and demand considerations; reasons for using the gasification process; gasifier feedstocks; and gasification products. The presentation concluded with a discussion of gasification licensors; gasification technologies; gasification experience; and the regulatory situation for greenhouse gas. Gasification has demonstrated excellent environmental performance with sulphur recovery greater than 99 per cent, depending on the the recovery process chosen. The opportunity also exists for carbon dioxide recovery. tabs., figs.

  4. Photosensitized herbicidal action

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zweig, A; Nachtigall, G W [American Cyanamid Co., Stamford, Conn.

    1975-12-01

    The herbicidal action produced by the colorless hydrocarbon fluoranthene sprayed on the leaves of growing plants did not occur when uv radiation was removed from the light to which the plants are exposed. If the uv component of the light under which the plants were grown was augmented, the herbicidal effect of fluoranthene was increased. The mechanism of this photodynamic action is discussed.

  5. High value carbon materials from PET recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parra, J.B.; Ania, C.O.; Arenillas, A.; Rubiera, F.; Pis, J.J.

    2004-01-01

    Poly(ethylene) terephthalate (PET), has become one of the major post-consumer plastic waste. In this work special attention was paid to minimising PET residues and to obtain a high value carbon material. Pyrolysis and subsequent activation of PET from post-consumer soft-drink bottles was performed. Activation was carried out at 925 deg. C under CO 2 atmosphere to different burn-off degrees. Textural characterisation of the samples was carried out by performing N 2 adsorption isotherms at -196 deg. C. The obtained carbons materials were mainly microporous, presenting low meso and macroporosity, and apparent BET surface areas of upto 2500 m 2 g -1 . The capacity of these materials for phenol adsorption and PAHs removal from aqueous solutions was measured and compared with that attained with commercial active carbons. Preliminary tests also showed high hydrogen uptake values, as good as the results obtained with high-tech carbon materials

  6. Determination of triazine herbicides in juice samples by microwave-assisted ionic liquid/ionic liquid dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Rui; Li, Dan; Wu, Lijie; Han, Jing; Lian, Wenhui; Wang, Keren; Yang, Hongmei

    2017-07-01

    A novel microextraction method, termed microwave-assisted ionic liquid/ionic liquid dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction, has been developed for the rapid enrichment and analysis of triazine herbicides in fruit juice samples by high-performance liquid chromatography. Instead of using hazardous organic solvents, two kinds of ionic liquids, a hydrophobic ionic liquid (1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate) and a hydrophilic ionic liquid (1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate), were used as the extraction solvent and dispersion agent, respectively, in this method. The extraction procedure was induced by the formation of cloudy solution, which was composed of fine drops of 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate dispersed entirely into sample solution with the help of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate. In addition, an ion-pairing agent (NH 4 PF 6 ) was introduced to improve recoveries of the ionic liquid phase. Several experimental parameters that might affect the extraction efficiency were investigated. Under the optimum experimental conditions, the linearity for determining the analytes was in the range of 5.00-250.00 μg/L, with the correlation coefficients of 0.9982-0.9997. The practical application of this effective and green method is demonstrated by the successful analysis of triazine herbicides in four juice samples, with satisfactory recoveries (76.7-105.7%) and relative standard deviations (lower than 6.6%). In general, this method is fast, effective, and robust to determine triazine herbicides in juice samples. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Bioactivity of Several Herbicides on the Nanogram Level Under Different Soil Moisture Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, S C; Kuk, Y I; Senseman, S A; Ahn, H G; Seong, C N; Lee, D J

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a double-tube centrifuge method was employed to determine the effects of soil moisture on the bioactivity of cafenstrole, pretilachlor, benfuresate, oxyfluorfen and simetryn. In general, the available herbicide concentration in soil solution (ACSS) showed little change as soil moisture increased for herbicides. The total available herbicide in soil solution (TASS) typically increased as soil moisture increased for all herbicides. The relationship between TASS and % growth rate based on dry weight showed strong linear relationships for both cafenstrole and pretilachlor, with r2 values of 0.95 and 0.84, respectively. Increasing TASS values were consistent with increasing herbicide water solubility, with the exception of the ionizable herbicide simetryn. Plant absorption and % growth rate exhibited a strong linear relationship with TASS. According to the results suggested that TASS was a better predictor of herbicidal bioactivity than ACSS for all herbicides under unsaturated soil moisture conditions.

  8. High value carbon materials from PET recycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parra, J.B.; Ania, C.O.; Arenillas, A.; Rubiera, F.; Pis, J.J

    2004-11-15

    Poly(ethylene) terephthalate (PET), has become one of the major post-consumer plastic waste. In this work special attention was paid to minimising PET residues and to obtain a high value carbon material. Pyrolysis and subsequent activation of PET from post-consumer soft-drink bottles was performed. Activation was carried out at 925 deg. C under CO{sub 2} atmosphere to different burn-off degrees. Textural characterisation of the samples was carried out by performing N{sub 2} adsorption isotherms at -196 deg. C. The obtained carbons materials were mainly microporous, presenting low meso and macroporosity, and apparent BET surface areas of upto 2500 m{sup 2} g{sup -1}. The capacity of these materials for phenol adsorption and PAHs removal from aqueous solutions was measured and compared with that attained with commercial active carbons. Preliminary tests also showed high hydrogen uptake values, as good as the results obtained with high-tech carbon materials.

  9. Annual Herbicide Loadings

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Pesticides, Herbicides, Fungicides...etc, are used for a variety of purposes, including control of household, lawn, and garden pests; for control of mosquitoes and...

  10. Herbicide-resistant crops: utilities and limitations for herbicide-resistant weed management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Jerry M; Owen, Micheal D K

    2011-06-08

    Since 1996, genetically modified herbicide-resistant (HR) crops, particularly glyphosate-resistant (GR) crops, have transformed the tactics that corn, soybean, and cotton growers use to manage weeds. The use of GR crops continues to grow, but weeds are adapting to the common practice of using only glyphosate to control weeds. Growers using only a single mode of action to manage weeds need to change to a more diverse array of herbicidal, mechanical, and cultural practices to maintain the effectiveness of glyphosate. Unfortunately, the introduction of GR crops and the high initial efficacy of glyphosate often lead to a decline in the use of other herbicide options and less investment by industry to discover new herbicide active ingredients. With some exceptions, most growers can still manage their weed problems with currently available selective and HR crop-enabled herbicides. However, current crop management systems are in jeopardy given the pace at which weed populations are evolving glyphosate resistance. New HR crop technologies will expand the utility of currently available herbicides and enable new interim solutions for growers to manage HR weeds, but will not replace the long-term need to diversify weed management tactics and discover herbicides with new modes of action. This paper reviews the strengths and weaknesses of anticipated weed management options and the best management practices that growers need to implement in HR crops to maximize the long-term benefits of current technologies and reduce weed shifts to difficult-to-control and HR weeds.

  11. Effect of Butachlor Herbicide on Earthworm Eisenia fetidaIts Histological Perspicuity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gobi, M.; Gunasekaran, P.

    2010-01-01

    With the advent of the Green Revolution, there has been a quantum leap in the use of synthetic herbicides and pesticides throughout the world to sustain high yielding crop varieties. Continuous use of these synthetic chemicals leads to loss of soil fertility and soil organisms. To explore the effect of exposure to commercial herbicide (Butachlor) on the life history parameters (biomass, clitellum development, and cocoon production) and the histological changes in the earthworm Eisenia fetida over 60 days, the dried cow dung was contaminated with 0.2575 mg/ kg -1 , 0.5150 mg/ kg -1 , and 2.5750 mg/ kg -1 of butachlor based on the LC 50 value, and a control was maintained. The mean earthworm biomass was found to be decreased with increasing herbicide concentration. Similarly, cocoon production was also reduced by the increasing herbicide concentration. A possible explanation is an increased demand for energy, needed for the regulation and detoxification of herbicide. All earthworms in the exposed group were found to have glandular cell enlargement and to be vacuolated

  12. Effect of Butachlor Herbicide on Earthworm Eisenia fetida—Its Histological Perspicuity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muthukaruppan Gobi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available With the advent of the Green Revolution, there has been a quantum leap in the use of synthetic herbicides and pesticides throughout the world to sustain high yielding crop varieties. Continuous use of these synthetic chemicals leads to loss of soil fertility and soil organisms. To explore the effect of exposure to commercial herbicide (Butachlor on the life history parameters (biomass, clitellum development, and cocoon production and the histological changes in the earthworm Eisenia fetida over 60 days, the dried cow dung was contaminated with 0.2575 mg kg−1, 0.5150 mg kg−1, and 2.5750 mg kg−1 of butachlor based on the LC50 value, and a control was maintained. The mean earthworm biomass was found to be decreased with increasing herbicide concentration. Similarly, cocoon production was also reduced by the increasing herbicide concentration. A possible explanation is an increased demand for energy, needed for the regulation and detoxification of herbicide. All earthworms in the exposed group were found to have glandular cell enlargement and to be vacuolated.

  13. Safety assessment and feeding value for pigs, poultry and ruminant animals of pest protected (Bt plants and herbicide tolerant (glyphosate, glufosinate plants: interpretation of experimental results observed worldwide on GM plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aimé Aumaitre

    2010-01-01

    liver,spleen and muscles tissues of animals, or in rumen bacteria. On the basis of these data, it can be suggested that in vivo testson high producing animals are necessary and sufficient to evaluate the safety and the nutritional value of new GT plants.

  14. Protecting high value assets in transit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tennefoss, M.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that one of the most daunting tasks facing a security manager is how to protect classified or high value assets such as nuclear materials in transit, especially when the shipment is to be handled by a commercial carrier. There are many opportunities for an adversary to gain access to cargo shipments en route, including situations in which the cargo must be held in storage for weeks or even months. Standard commercial alarm systems are not suitable for use in containers subject to vibration or high and low temperature extremes, or situations in which national assets might be used to gain surreptitious access to the container and to defeat the alarm system. A new alarm monitoring system has been developed to provide a secure auditing system for use in rail cars, Conex containers, and other transportable containers. The system, referred to as the PEL-100, electronically supervises intrusion detection sensors mounted on or within a container, and records all intrusion attempts in a secure, solid state memory storage device. The security archive can be withdrawn and reviewed after the container has completed its travels, and will provide a complete audit trail of intrusion attempts in transit. The PEL-100 includes one of the most comprehensive security tamper systems ever fielded, and is intended to operate reliably and securely in an environment subject to vibration, EMI/RFI emissions, electronic spoofing, and physical manipulation. The unit provides a clear and unambiguous indication of tampering and includes a comprehensive internal security system to detect insider tampering

  15. Effects of herbicides on fish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solomon, Keith R.; Dalhoff, Kristoffer; Volz, David

    2013-01-01

    Herbicides are used to control weeds and are usually targeted to processes and target sites that are specific to plants. As a result, most herbicides are not acutely toxic to fish. Exceptions to this general rule are uncouplers of oxidative phosphorylation and some herbicides that interfere...... with cell division. Chronic and sublethal effects have been studied for some herbicides, but fewer data are available for these effects than for acute effects. The sublethal effects of herbicides that have been studied include reproduction, stress, olfaction, and behavior. Although some of these responses......, and reproduction. As with all pesticides, herbicides may have indirect effects in fish. These effects are mediated by herbicide-induced changes in food webs or in the physical environment. Indirect effects can only occur if direct effects occur first and would be mediated by the killing of plants by herbicides...

  16. Plant Community Diversity After Herbicide Control of Spotted Knapweed

    OpenAIRE

    United States Department of Agriculture, Forest Service

    1992-01-01

    Herbicides were applied to four west-central Montana sites with light to moderate spotted knapweed (Centaurea maculosa Lam.) infestations. Althought knapweed suppression was high, 2 years after the spraying the communities were not converted to grass monocultures. No large declines in plant diversity were caused by the herbicides, and small depressions were probably transitory. By the third year, diversity had increased.

  17. Efficacy and economics of different herbicides in aerobic rice system ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aerobic rice system, the most promising irrigation water saving rice production technology, is highly impeded by severe weed pressure. Weed control through the use of same herbicide causes development of herbicide resistant weed biotypes and serious problem in weed management. This study was aimed at finding out ...

  18. The benefits of herbicide-resistant crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Jerry M

    2012-10-01

    Since 1996, genetically modified herbicide-resistant crops, primarily glyphosate-resistant soybean, corn, cotton and canola, have helped to revolutionize weed management and have become an important tool in crop production practices. Glyphosate-resistant crops have enabled the implementation of weed management practices that have improved yield and profitability while better protecting the environment. Growers have recognized their benefits and have made glyphosate-resistant crops the most rapidly adopted technology in the history of agriculture. Weed management systems with glyphosate-resistant crops have often relied on glyphosate alone, have been easy to use and have been effective, economical and more environmentally friendly than the systems they have replaced. Glyphosate has worked extremely well in controlling weeds in glyphosate-resistant crops for more than a decade, but some key weeds have evolved resistance, and using glyphosate alone has proved unsustainable. Now, growers need to renew their weed management practices and use glyphosate with other cultural, mechanical and herbicide options in integrated systems. New multiple-herbicide-resistant crops with resistance to glyphosate and other herbicides will expand the utility of existing herbicide technologies and will be an important component of future weed management systems that help to sustain the current benefits of high-efficiency and high-production agriculture. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Herbicide options for hardwood management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew W. Ezell; A. Brady Self

    2016-01-01

    The use of herbicides in hardwood management presents special problems in that many of the most effective herbicides are either designed to control hardwoods or the product is not labeled for such applications. Numerous studies involving herbicide application in hardwoods have been completed at Mississippi State University. This paper is a compilation of results from...

  20. Agricultural herbicide transport in a first-order intermittent stream, Nebraska, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, J.R.; Linard, J.I.

    2011-01-01

    The behavior of herbicides in surface waters is a function of many variables, including scale of the watershed, physical and chemical properties of the herbicide, physical and chemical properties of the soil, rainfall intensity, and time of year. In this study, the transport of 6 herbicides and 12 herbicide degradates was examined during the 2004 growing season in an intermediate-scale agricultural watershed (146 ha) that is drained by a first-order intermittent stream, and the mass load for each herbicide in the stream was estimated. The herbicide load during the first week of storm events after application ranged from 17% of annual load for trifluralin to 84% of annual load for acetochlor. The maximum weekly herbicide load in the stream was generally within the first 3 weeks after application for those compounds that were applied within the watershed during 2004, and later for herbicides not applied within the watershed during 2004 but still detected in the stream. The apparent dominant mode of herbicide transport in the stream-determined by analysis amongst herbicide and conservative ion concentrations at different points in the hydrograph and in base flow samples-was either overland runoff or shallow subsurface flow, depending on the elapsed time after application and type of herbicide. The load as a percentage of use (LAPU) for the parent compounds in this study was similar to literature values for those compounds applied by the farmer within the watershed, but smaller for those herbicides that had rainfall as their only source within the watershed.

  1. Environmental toxicology: Degradation of herbicides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corbin, F.T.; Monaco, T.J.; Bjelk, L.A.

    1991-01-01

    This chapter focuses on the advances that have been made for the quantitative analysis of radiotracers in thin-layer chromatography through the development of computer controlled imaging proportional counters (IPC). IPC has been developed to give high sensitivity digital data from an entire TLC separation in one measurement. The imaging capability provides a 100 percent improvement over mechanical scanners. Sensitivity is 100 DPM or less with 14 C and higher energy isotopes. Investigations of herbicide metabolism in plant cell suspension cultures are presented with procedures for the use of this technique

  2. selective herbicide glyphosate

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aghomotsegin

    2016-05-04

    May 4, 2016 ... concentrations of the test chemical at 0.625, 1.25, 2.5, 5 and 10 mg/L, respectively. The percentage growth rate ... production, processing, storage, transport or marketing of ... Herbicides commonly known as weed-killers are.

  3. Assessment of herbicides and organochlorine pesticides contamination in agricultural soils using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wan-Hong; Wang, Shi-Cheng; Wang, Yan-Hong

    2008-01-01

    A rapid multi-residue method for the simultaneous analysis of 3 herbicides and 8 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in agricultural soils has been developed, using ultrasonic solvent extraction coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The recoveries ranged from 81% to 117% with a relative standard deviation (R.S.D) lower than 15%. The limits of quantification (LOQs) ranged from 0.03 to 1.06 microg x kg(-1) dry weight for different pesticides studied. The proposed method has been applied to investigate the 11 pesticide residues in agricultural soils collected from Liaoning Province, northeast of China. 3 OCPs and 3 herbicides were identified. Acetochlor, atrazine, butachtor were measured in the relatively high level with values ranging from 0.53 to 203.18 microg x kg(-1), 0.14 to 21.20 microg x kg(-1), pesticides in this study was compared with the date of other countries reported and the corresponding limiting values used in Netherland, USA, Canada, Vietnam and Thailand. Among the herbicide residues, there was a significant relativity between soil utilizing types and their residue concentration. It seems that the monitoring action for soil contamination caused by commonly-used herbicides should be enhanced according to soil utilizing types, especially acetochlor in maize field.

  4. Enhancing High Value Care in Gastroenterology Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camilleri, Michael; Katzka, David A

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this review is to identify common areas in gastroenterology practice where studies performed provide an opportunity for enhancing value or lowering costs. We provide examples of topics in gastroenterology where clinicians could enhance value by either using less invasive testing, choosing a single best test, or by using patient symptoms to guide additional testing. The topics selected for review are selected in esophageal, pancreatic, and colorectal cancer; functional gastrointestinal diseases (irritable bowel syndrome, bacterial overgrowth, constipation); immune-mediated gastrointestinal diseases; and pancreaticobiliary pathology. We propose guidance to alter practice based on current evidence. These studies support the need to review current practice and to continue performing research to further validate the proposed guidance to enhance value of care in gastroenterology and hepatology. Copyright © 2016 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Estimation of herbicide bioconcentration in sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Luiz Cerdeira

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Sugarcane is an important crop for sugar and biofuel production in Brazil. Growers depend greatly on herbicides to produce it. This experiment used herbicide physical-chemical and sugarcane plant physiological properties to simulate herbicide uptake and estimate the bioconcentration factor (BCF. The (BCF was calculated for the steady state chemical equilibrium between the plant herbicide concentration and soil solution. Plant-water partition coefficient (sugarcane bagasse-water partition coefficient, herbicide dilution rate, metabolism and dissipation in the soil-plant system, as well as total plant biomass factors were used. In addition, we added Tebuthiuron at rate of 5.0kg a.i. ha-1 to physically test the model. In conclusion, the model showed the following ranking of herbicide uptake: sulfentrazone > picloram >tebuthiuron > hexazinone > metribuzin > simazine > ametryn > diuron > clomazone > acetochlor. Furthermore, the highest BCF herbicides showed higher Groundwater Ubiquity Score (GUS index indicating high leaching potential. We did not find tebuthiuron in plants after three months of herbicide application

  6. Selectivity and stability of herbicides and herbicide combinations for the grain yield of maize (Zea Mays L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Barakova

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The research was conducted during 2012 - 2014 on pellic vertisol soil type. Under investigation was cycloxydim tolerant maize hybrid Ultrafox duo (Zea mays L.. Factor A included the years of investigation. Factor B included no treated check and 3 soil-applied herbicides – Adengo 465 SC (isoxaflutol + tiencarbazon – 440 ml/ha, Wing P (pendimethalin + dimethenamid – 4 l/ha and Lumax 538 SC (S-metolachlor + terbuthylazine + mesotrione – 4 l/ha. Factor C included no treated check and 5 foliar-applied herbicides – Stellar 210 SL (topramezon + dicamba – 1 l/ha, Principal plus (nicosulfuron + rimsulfuron + dicamba – 380 g/ha, Ventum WG (foramsulfuron + iodosulfuron – 150 g/ha, Monsun active OD (foramsulfuron + tiencarbazon – 1.5 l/ha and Laudis OD (tembotrione – 2 l/ha. In addition to these variants by conventional technology for maize growing one variant by Duo system technology is also included in the experiment. It includes soil-applied herbicide Merlin flex 480 SC (isoxaflutole – 420 g/ha and tank mixture of antigraminaceous herbicide Focus ultra (cycloxydim - 2 l/ha + antibroadleaved herbicide Kalam (tritosulfuron + dicamba – 300 g/ha. It is found that herbicide combination of soil-applied herbicide Merlin flex with tank mixture Focus ultra + Kalam by Duo system technology leads to obtaining high grain yield. High yields of maize grain are also obtained by herbicide combinations Lumax + Principal plus, Lumax + Laudis and Wing + Principal plus. The most unstable are the non-treated check and single use of soilapplied herbicides Adengo, Wing and Lumax. Technologically the most valuable are herbicide combination Merlin flex + Focus ultra + Kalam by Duo system technology, followed by combinations of foliar-applied herbicides Principal plus and Laudis with soil-applied herbicides Adengo, Wing and Lumax by conventional technology. Single use of herbicides has low estimate due to must to combine soil-applied with foliar

  7. Determination of Triazine Herbicides in Drinking Water by Dispersive Micro Solid Phase Extraction with Ultrahigh-Performance Liquid Chromatography-High-Resolution Mass Spectrometric Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dawei; Zhang, Yiping; Miao, Hong; Zhao, Yunfeng; Wu, Yongning

    2015-11-11

    A novel dispersive micro solid phase extraction (DMSPE) method based on a polymer cation exchange material (PCX) was applied to the simultaneous determination of the 30 triazine herbicides in drinking water with ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometric detection. Drinking water samples were acidified with formic acid, and then triazines were adsorbed by the PCX sorbent. Subsequently, the analytes were eluted with ammonium hydroxide/acetonitrile. The chromatographic separation was performed on an HSS T3 column using water (4 mM ammonium formate and 0.1% formic acid) and acetonitrile (0.1% formic acid) as the mobile phase. The method achieved LODs of 0.2-30.0 ng/L for the 30 triazines, with recoveries in the range of 70.5-112.1%, and the precision of the method was better than 12.7%. These results indicated that the proposed method had the advantages of convenience and high efficiency when applied to the analysis of the 30 triazines in drinking water.

  8. Clean-up and matrix effect in LC-MS/MS analysis of food of plant origin for high polar herbicides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaczyński, Piotr

    2017-09-01

    This study reports an innovative and sensitive procedure for analysis of difficult high polar herbicides (HPH) in diverse foods of plant origin. The QuPPe (Quick Polar Pesticides) method followed by determination by LC-MS/MS was modified. Chromatographic conditions, extraction, clean-up, and matrix effect were studied. Several liquid chromatography stationary and mobile phases were evaluated, and it was found that hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC) gives good retention and sensitivity. An acidified methanol-water mixture was used as an effective extraction solvent of eleven HPH. Dispersive solid-phase clean-up sorbents (C18, GCB, Florisil, chitosan and graphene) were evaluated. The efficiency of the method was examined using data on recovery, precision and matrix effects. High extraction yields were achieved, and recoveries were within the 64-97% range with relative standard deviations <20% for all HPH in all commodities. Low matrix effects were observed when graphene was used during clean-up of onion extract and when chitosan was used for wheat, potato and pea extract. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Method development for determination of herbicides and insecticides in surface waters using solid-phase extraction and high performance liquid chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebre, Daniel Temponi

    2000-01-01

    Determination of low concentrations of pesticides in surface and ground waters requires high sensitivity analytical techniques. Solid-Phase Extraction (SPE) has been successfully employed to pre concentrate and extract pesticides compounds from water samples. High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) coupled with UV/Vis detector was used to separate and quantify the extracted compounds. In this work, samples of surface waters with known concentrations of herbicides (atrazine, simazine and trifluralin) and insecticides (aldicarb, carbofuran and carbaryl) were extracted by using SPE off-line technique. The compounds were separated and quantified by reverse phase HPLC with UV detection at 220 ηm. The extraction efficiency was compared between two columns filled with different materials: C 18 -bonded silica phase (500 mg) and copolymer styrenedivynilbenzene resin (250 mg). The results were evaluated as the percent recovery of compounds obtained using different solvents at different concentrations. The results showed that recovery of the analytes greater than 80 % were obtained in SPE columns filled with C 18 bonded silica phase with 6 mL of acetonitrile. Once the optimum conditions were chosen for simulate water samples, the method was validated through analytical and statistical procedures and applied for surface waters. The suitability of the method was verified for the studied compounds showing good sensitivity, i. e., concentrations within the range of 0.4 to 4.0 μgL -1 of pesticides could be quantified attending the limits proposed by official regulations. (author)

  10. Double mutation in eleusine indica alpha-tubulin increases the resistance of transgenic maize calli to dinitroaniline and phosphorothioamidate herbicides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony; Hussey

    1999-06-01

    The repeated use of dinitroaniline herbicides on the cotton and soybean fields of the southern United States has resulted in the appearance of resistant biotypes of one of the world's worst weeds, Eleusine indica. Two biotypes have been characterized, a highly resistant (R) biotype and an intermediate resistant (I) biotype. In both cases the resistance has been attributed to a mutation in alpha-tubulin, a component of the alpha/beta tubulin dimer that is the major constituent of microtubules. We show here that the I-biotype mutation, like the R-biotype mutation shown in earlier work, can confer dinitroaniline resistance on transgenic maize calli. The level of resistance obtained is the same as that for E. indica I- or R-biotype seedlings. The combined I- and R-biotype mutations increase the herbicide tolerance of transgenic maize calli by a value close to the summation of the maximum herbicide tolerances of calli harbouring the single mutations. These data, taken together with the position of the two different mutations within the atomic structure of the alpha/beta tubulin dimer, imply that each mutation is likely to exert its effect by a different mechanism. These mechanisms may involve increasing the stability of microtubules against the depolymerizing effects of the herbicide or changing the conformation of the alpha/beta dimer so that herbicide binding is less effective, or a combination of both possibilities.

  11. Attention! Can choices for low value food over high value food be trained?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zoltak, M.J.; Veling, H.P.; Chen, Z.; Holland, R.W.

    2018-01-01

    People choose high value food items over low value food items, because food choices are guided by the comparison of values placed upon choice alternatives. This value comparison process is also influenced by the amount of attention people allocate to different items. Recent research shows that

  12. Attention! Can choices for low value food over high value food be trained?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoltak, Michael J; Veling, Harm; Chen, Zhang; Holland, Rob W

    2018-05-01

    People choose high value food items over low value food items, because food choices are guided by the comparison of values placed upon choice alternatives. This value comparison process is also influenced by the amount of attention people allocate to different items. Recent research shows that choices for food items can be increased by training attention toward these items, with a paradigm named cued-approach training (CAT). However, previous work till now has only examined the influence of CAT on choices between two equally valued items. It has remained unclear whether CAT can increase choices for low value items when people choose between a low and high value food item. To address this question in the current study participants were cued to make rapid responses in CAT to certain low and high value items. Next, they made binary choices between low and high value items, where we systematically varied whether the low and high value items were cued or uncued. In two experiments, we found that participants overall preferred high over low value food items for real consumption. More important, their choices for low value items increased when only the low value item had been cued in CAT compared to when both low and high value items had not been cued. Exploratory analyses revealed that this effect was more pronounced for participants with a relatively small value difference between low and high value items. The present research thus suggests that CAT may be used to boost the choice and consumption of low value items via enhanced attention toward these items, as long as the value difference is not too large. Implications for facilitating choices for healthy food are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Production of High Value Cellulose from Tobacco

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berson, R Eric; Dvaid, Keith; McGinley, W Mark; Meduri, Praveen; Clark, Ezra; Dayalan, Ethirajulu; Sumanasekera, Gamini; Sunkara, Mahendra; Colliver, Donald

    2011-06-15

    The Kentucky Rural Energy Supply Program was established in 2005 by a federal direct appropriation to benefit the citizens of the Commonwealth by creating a unified statewide consortium to promote renewable energy and energy efficiency in Kentucky. The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Biomass Programs initially funded the consortium in 2005 with a $2 million operational grant. The Kentucky Rural Energy Consortium (KREC) was formed at the outset of the program to advance energy efficiency and comprehensive research on biomass and bioenergy of importance to Kentucky agriculture, rural communities, and related industries. In recognition of the successful efforts of the program, KREC received an additional $1.96 million federal appropriation in 2008 for renewal of the DOE grant. From the beginning, KREC understood the value of providing a statewide forum for the discussion of Kentucky's long term energy needs and economic development potential. The new funding allowed KREC to continue to serve as a clearinghouse and support new research and development and outreach programs for energy efficiency and renewable energy.

  14. CADDIS Volume 2. Sources, Stressors and Responses: Herbicides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction to the herbicides module, when to list herbicides as a candidate cause, ways to measure herbicides, simple and detailed conceptual diagrams for herbicides, herbicides module references and literature reviews.

  15. Maize, switchgrass, and ponderosa pine biochar added to soil increased herbicide sorption and decreased herbicide efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clay, Sharon A; Krack, Kaitlynn K; Bruggeman, Stephanie A; Papiernik, Sharon; Schumacher, Thomas E

    2016-08-02

    Biochar, a by-product of pyrolysis made from a wide array of plant biomass when producing biofuels, is a proposed soil amendment to improve soil health. This study measured herbicide sorption and efficacy when soils were treated with low (1% w/w) or high (10% w/w) amounts of biochar manufactured from different feedstocks [maize (Zea mays) stover, switchgrass (Panicum vigatum), and ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa)], and treated with different post-processing techniques. Twenty-four hour batch equilibration measured sorption of (14)C-labelled atrazine or 2,4-D to two soil types with and without biochar amendments. Herbicide efficacy was measured with and without biochar using speed of seed germination tests of sensitive species. Biochar amended soils sorbed more herbicide than untreated soils, with major differences due to biochar application rate but minor differences due to biochar type or post-process handling technique. Biochar presence increased the speed of seed germination compared with herbicide alone addition. These data indicate that biochar addition to soil can increase herbicide sorption and reduce efficacy. Evaluation for site-specific biochar applications may be warranted to obtain maximal benefits without compromising other agronomic practices.

  16. Rationale for a natural products approach to herbicide discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayan, Franck E; Owens, Daniel K; Duke, Stephen O

    2012-04-01

    Weeds continue to evolve resistance to all the known modes of herbicidal action, but no herbicide with a new target site has been commercialized in nearly 20 years. The so-called 'new chemistries' are simply molecules belonging to new chemical classes that have the same mechanisms of action as older herbicides (e.g. the protoporphyrinogen-oxidase-inhibiting pyrimidinedione saflufenacil or the very-long-chain fatty acid elongase targeting sulfonylisoxazoline herbicide pyroxasulfone). Therefore, the number of tools to manage weeds, and in particular those that can control herbicide-resistant weeds, is diminishing rapidly. There is an imminent need for truly innovative classes of herbicides that explore chemical spaces and interact with target sites not previously exploited by older active ingredients. This review proposes a rationale for a natural-products-centered approach to herbicide discovery that capitalizes on the structural diversity and ingenuity afforded by these biologically active compounds. The natural process of extended-throughput screening (high number of compounds tested on many potential target sites over long periods of times) that has shaped the evolution of natural products tends to generate molecules tailored to interact with specific target sites. As this review shows, there is generally little overlap between the mode of action of natural and synthetic phytotoxins, and more emphasis should be placed on applying methods that have proved beneficial to the pharmaceutical industry to solve problems in the agrochemical industry. Published 2012 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Effect of sugarcane cropping systems on herbicide losses in surface runoff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nachimuthu, Gunasekhar; Halpin, Neil V; Bell, Michael J

    2016-07-01

    Herbicide runoff from cropping fields has been identified as a threat to the Great Barrier Reef ecosystem. A field investigation was carried out to monitor the changes in runoff water quality resulting from four different sugarcane cropping systems that included different herbicides and contrasting tillage and trash management practices. These include (i) Conventional - Tillage (beds and inter-rows) with residual herbicides used; (ii) Improved - only the beds were tilled (zonal) with reduced residual herbicides used; (iii) Aspirational - minimum tillage (one pass of a single tine ripper before planting) with trash mulch, no residual herbicides and a legume intercrop after cane establishment; and (iv) New Farming System (NFS) - minimum tillage as in Aspirational practice with a grain legume rotation and a combination of residual and knockdown herbicides. Results suggest soil and trash management had a larger effect on the herbicide losses in runoff than the physico-chemical properties of herbicides. Improved practices with 30% lower atrazine application rates than used in conventional systems produced reduced runoff volumes by 40% and atrazine loss by 62%. There were a 2-fold variation in atrazine and >10-fold variation in metribuzin loads in runoff water between reduced tillage systems differing in soil disturbance and surface residue cover from the previous rotation crops, despite the same herbicide application rates. The elevated risk of offsite losses from herbicides was illustrated by the high concentrations of diuron (14μgL(-1)) recorded in runoff that occurred >2.5months after herbicide application in a 1(st) ratoon crop. A cropping system employing less persistent non-selective herbicides and an inter-row soybean mulch resulted in no residual herbicide contamination in runoff water, but recorded 12.3% lower yield compared to Conventional practice. These findings reveal a trade-off between achieving good water quality with minimal herbicide contamination and

  18. Monitoring of phenylurea and propanil herbicides in river water by solid-phase-extraction high performance liquid chromatography with photoinduced-fluorimetric detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Peña, A Muñoz; Mahedero, M C; Bautista-Sánchez, A

    2003-06-13

    The separation and determination of five herbicides, including propanil and the phenylureas diuron, isoproturon, linuron and neburon, has been performed by an HPLC method, using photochemically-induced fluorescence detection. The non-fluorescent herbicides were transformed into fluorescent compounds by post-column photochemical reaction. A 60:40 (v/v) acetonitrile-buffer solution of potassium phosphate dibasic (pH 7, 0.01 M) was used for the chromatographic elution to separate propanil, linuron and neburon. The overlapping of isoproturon and diuron peaks, in the selected conditions, was resolved by changing the initial movil phase composition to 50:50 (v/v) methanol-buffer solution of potassium phosphate dibasic (pH 7, 0.01 M). The procedure was applied with satisfactory results to the analysis of these herbicides in Guadiana river water samples (Badajoz, Spain), allowing the detection of herbicide residues in the order of mug l(-1), by using a solid-phase extraction (SPE) pre-concentration step.

  19. Inversion tillage, high residue covers, and different herbicide regimes for palmer amaranth control in liberty link systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glyphosate-resistant Palmer amaranth is adversely affecting cotton production in the Southeast US. A field experiment was established in fall 2008 at the E.V. Smith Research Center, Field Crops Unit near Shorter, AL, to investigate the role of inversion tillage, high residue cover crops, and differ...

  20. Highly-Valued Reasons Muslim Caregivers Choose Evangelical Christian Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumbaugh, Andrew E.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated what were the most highly-valued reasons among Muslim caregivers for sending their children to Lebanese evangelical Christian schools. Muslim caregivers (N = 1,403) from four Lebanese evangelical Christian schools responded to determine what were the most highly-valued reasons for sending their children to an evangelical…

  1. Herbicide spring treatments for the control of brome grasses (Bromus spp. in winter cereals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gehring, Klaus

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy of different ALS-inhibiting herbicides for the control of brome species (Bromus spp. was tested in three field trials in the year 2010 – 2012 in the region of North-West-Bavaria Franken. As a result of the trials the standard herbicide Attribut (Propoxycarbazone was confirmed for the control of brome. In case of infestation with brome and black grass the herbicide Broadway (Pyroxsulam offers a certain control of both problematic grass weeds. This illustrates the high dependency of sufficient brome control in winter cereals on the effectiveness of specific ALS-Inhibitor herbicides. Because of the high risk of herbicide resistance to ACCaseand ALS-inhibiting herbicides in brome, integrated weed management is essential for the sustainable control of brome in winter cereals, respectively winter wheat.

  2. Downy Brome (Bromus tectorum L. and Broadleaf Weed Control in Winter Wheat with Acetolactate Synthase-Inhibiting Herbicides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick W. Geier

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted for three seasons in northwest Kansas, USA to evaluate acetolactate synthase (ALS-inhibiting herbicides for downy brome (Bromus tectorum L. and winter annual broadleaf weed control in winter wheat. Herbicides included pyroxsulam at 18.4 g ai ha−1, propoxycarbazone-Na at 44 g ai ha−1, premixed propoxycarbazone-Na & mesosulfuron-methyl at 27 g ai ha−1, and sulfosulfuron at 35 g ai ha−1. The herbicides were applied postemergence in fall and spring seasons. Averaged over time of application, no herbicide controlled downy brome more than 78% in any year. When downy brome densities were high, control was less than 60%. Pyroxsulam controlled downy brome greater than or similar to other herbicides tested. Flixweed (Descurainia sophia L., blue mustard [Chorispora tenella (Pallas DC.], and henbit (Lamium amplexicaule L. control did not differ among herbicide treatments. All herbicides tested controlled flixweed and blue mustard at least 87% and 94%, respectively. However, none of the herbicides controlled henbit more than 73%. Fall herbicide applications improved weed control compared to early spring applications; improvement ranged from 3% to 31% depending on the weed species. Henbit control was greatly decreased by delaying herbicide applications until spring compared to fall applications (49% vs. 80% control. Herbicide injury was observed in only two instances. The injury was ≤13% with no difference between herbicides and the injury did not impact final plant height or grain yield.

  3. Selectivity of herbicides in Camelina (Camelina sativa (L. Crtz.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scheliga, Maria

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Camelina (Camelina sativa (L. Crtz. is a cruciferous plant. As an oilseed crop camelina is mainly grown for oil production. After the 1960s, however, the cultivation has become less important. Only in recent years, interest in this culture was awakened in the search for new sources of omega 3 fatty acids, natural antioxidants and a potential crop for the production of biofuels. The use of camelina oil for different purposes within the framework of the material use of renewable raw materials is of particular interest due to the high levels of linoleic and linolenic acid. For the establishment of camelina as a crop in agricultural crop rotation systems weed control should not be disregarded despite the rather good competitive ability against weeds. Based on greenhouse experiments a field trial in 2015 with different herbicide strategies was carried out. Besides Butisan Top (metazachlor + quinmerac, Devrinol FL (napropamide and Stomp Aqua (pendimethalin and also Betasana SC (phenmedipham has been tested in various amounts and combinations. Using assessments to weed density and herbicide tolerance different herbicide strategies were compared with each other. Though, it is difficult to find a compromise between satisfactory herbicidal effect and a slight injury to the crop plant. The herbicide selection, the application rate and the combination of different herbicides have an effect on the crop. To confirm the data obtained further tests are necessary.

  4. High historical values of foEs—Reality or artefact?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laštovička, J.; Boška, J.; Burešová, D.; Kouba, D.

    2012-01-01

    Very high values of foEs had sometimes been reported in the past. These values, as well as all other ionogram-scaled values, had been derived from ionograms under the assumption of the vertical reflection of ordinary mode of sounding radio waves. In the past it was impossible to check the validity of this assumption. However, modern digisondes determine clearly the oblique or extraordinary mode reflections. To test the assumption of the vertical reflection of ordinary mode for high values of foEs, seven summers (June 2004-August 2010) from a midlatitude station Pruhonice are chosen. All hourly values of foEs≥6.0 MHz are selected from this data set, altogether 282 values. In 90% of cases the “classical” way of evaluation of foEs provides values higher than “true” values from modern digisonde (average difference about 1 MHz). 38% of “classical” foEs are oblique reflections, which however do not occur in direction perpendicular to geomagnetic field. The occurrence of high values of foEs varies very much from year to year between 0 and 130 events per year. As for diurnal variation, a pronounced maximum occurs at ˜10:00LT and 16:00LT (secondary), and a minimum after midnight.

  5. Natural compounds as next-generation herbicides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayan, Franck E; Duke, Stephen O

    2014-11-01

    Herbicides with new modes of action (MOAs) are badly needed due to the rapidly evolving resistance to commercial herbicides, but a new MOA has not been introduced in over 20 years. The greatest pest management challenge for organic agriculture is the lack of effective natural product herbicides. The structural diversity and evolved biological activity of natural phytotoxins offer opportunities for the development of both directly used natural compounds and synthetic herbicides with new target sites based on the structures of natural phytotoxins. Natural phytotoxins are also a source for the discovery of new herbicide target sites that can serve as the focus of traditional herbicide discovery efforts. There are many examples of strong natural phytotoxins with MOAs other than those used by commercial herbicides, which indicates that there are molecular targets of herbicides that can be added to the current repertoire of commercial herbicide MOAs. © 2014 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  6. Weed interference with peppermint (Mentha x piperita L.) and spearmint (Mentha spicata L.) crops under different herbicide treatments: effects on biomass and essential oil yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karkanis, Anestis; Lykas, Christos; Liava, Vasiliki; Bezou, Anna; Petropoulos, Spyridon; Tsiropoulos, Nikolaos

    2018-01-01

    'Minor crops' such as spearmint and peppermint are high added value crops, despite the fact that their production area is comparably small worldwide. The main limiting factor in mint commercial cultivation is weed competition. Thus, field experiments were carried out to evaluate the effects of weed interference on growth, biomass and essential oil yield in peppermint and spearmint under different herbicide treatments. The application of pendimethalin and oxyfluorfen provided better control of annual weeds resulting in higher crop yield. Additionally, when treated with herbicides both crops were more competitive against annual weeds in the second year than in the first year. All pre-emergence herbicides increased biomass yield, since pendimethalin, linuron and oxyfluorfen reduced the density of annual weeds by 71-92%, 63-74% and 86-95%, respectively. Weed interference and herbicide application had no effect on essential oil content; however, a relatively strong impact on essential oil production per cultivated area unit was observed, mainly due to the adverse effect of weed interference on plant growth. Considering that pendimethalin and oxyfluorfen were effective against annual weeds in both spearmint and peppermint crops, these herbicides should be included in integrated weed management systems for better weed management in mint crops. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Novel charge sensitive preamplifier without high-value feedback resistor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xi Deming

    1992-01-01

    A novel charge sensitive preamplifier is introduced. The method of removing the high value feedback resistor, the circuit design and analysis are described. A practical circuit and its measured performances are provided

  8. Value innovation: the strategic logic of high growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, W C; Mauborgne, R

    1997-01-01

    Why are some companies able to sustain high growth in revenues and profits--and others are not? To answer that question, the authors, both of INSEAD, spent five years studying more than 30 companies around the world. They found that the difference between the high-growth companies and their less successful competitors was in each group's assumptions about strategy. Managers of the less successful companies followed conventional strategic logic. Managers of the high-growth companies followed what the authors call the logic of value innovation. Conventional strategic logic and value innovation differ along the basic dimensions of strategy. Many companies take their industry's conditions as given; value innovators don't. Many companies let competitors set the parameters of their strategic thinking; value innovators do not use rivals as benchmarks. Rather than focus on the differences among customers, value innovators look for what customers value in common. Rather than view opportunities through the lens of existing assets and capabilities, value innovators ask, What if we start anew? The authors tell the story of the French hotelier Accor, which discarded the notion of what a hotel is supposed to look like in order to offer what most customers want: a good night's sleep at a low price. And Virgin Atlantic challenged industry conventions by eliminating first-class service and channeling savings into innovations for business-class passengers. Those companies didn't set out to build advantages over the competition, but they ended up achieving the greatest competitive advantages.

  9. Herbicides interfere with antigrazer defenses in Scenedesmus obliquus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xuexia; Sun, Yunfei; Zhang, Xingxing; Heng, Hailu; Nan, Haihong; Zhang, Lu; Huang, Yuan; Yang, Zhou

    2016-11-01

    The extensive application of herbicides has led to a serious threat of herbicide contamination to aquatic ecosystem. Herbicide exposure affects aquatic communities not only by exerting toxicity on single species but also by changing interspecific interactions. This study investigated the antigrazer defenses of the common green alga Scenedesmus obliquus against different herbicides [glyphosate, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), and atrazine] at various concentrations (0-2.0 mg L(-1)). In the presence of grazer (Daphnia)-derived cues, S. obliquus populations without herbicides formed high proportions of multicelled (e.g., four- and eight-celled) colonies. This result confirms that S. obliquus exhibits a morphological defense against grazing risk. At the low concentration range of 0.002-0.02 mg L(-1), the three herbicides exerted no influence on the growth and photosynthetic efficiency of S. obliquus, and multicelled colonies showed constant proportions. At the high concentration range of 0.20-2.0 mg L(-1), atrazine significantly inhibited the algal growth and photosynthesis whereas glyphosate or 2,4-D did not. Nonetheless, these levels of glyphosate or 2,4-D remarkably decreased the proportion of multicelled colonies, with reduced numbers of cells per particle in Daphnia filtrate-treated population. No eight-celled colony was formed after treatment with atrazine at 0.20-2.0 mg L(-1) despite the addition of Daphnia filtrate. These results suggest that herbicide exposure impairs antigrazer colonial morphs in phytoplankton although it is not sufficient to hamper algal growth. This phenomenon can increase the risk of predation by herbivores, thereby disrupting the inducible phytoplankton community. Furthermore, the predator-prey interactions between herbivores and phytoplankton can be potentially changed more seriously than previously considered. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Removal of glyphosate herbicide from water using biopolymer membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carneiro, Rafael T A; Taketa, Thiago B; Gomes Neto, Reginaldo J; Oliveira, Jhones L; Campos, Estefânia V R; de Moraes, Mariana A; da Silva, Camila M G; Beppu, Marisa M; Fraceto, Leonardo F

    2015-03-15

    Enormous amounts of pesticides are manufactured and used worldwide, some of which reach soils and aquatic systems. Glyphosate is a non-selective herbicide that is effective against all types of weeds and has been used for many years. It can therefore be found as a contaminant in water, and procedures are required for its removal. This work investigates the use of biopolymeric membranes prepared with chitosan (CS), alginate (AG), and a chitosan/alginate combination (CS/AG) for the adsorption of glyphosate present in water samples. The adsorption of glyphosate by the different membranes was investigated using the pseudo-first order and pseudo-second order kinetic models, as well as the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. The membranes were characterized regarding membrane solubility, swelling, mechanical, chemical and morphological properties. The results of kinetics experiments showed that adsorption equilibrium was reached within 4 h and that the CS membrane presented the best adsorption (10.88 mg of glyphosate/g of membrane), followed by the CS/AG bilayer (8.70 mg of glyphosate/g of membrane). The AG membrane did not show any adsorption capacity for this herbicide. The pseudo-second order model provided good fits to the glyphosate adsorption data on CS and CS/AG membranes, with high correlation coefficient values. Glyphosate adsorption by the membranes could be fitted by the Freundlich isotherm model. There was a high affinity between glyphosate and the CS membrane and moderate affinity in the case of the CS/AG membrane. Physico-chemical characterization of the membranes showed low values of solubility in water, indicating that the membranes are stable and not soluble in water. The SEM and AFM analysis showed evidence of the presence of glyphosate on CS membranes and on chitosan face on CS/AG membranes. The results showed that the glyphosate herbicide can be adsorbed by chitosan membranes and the proposed membrane-based methodology was successfully used to

  11. Spot Spraying Reduces Herbicide Concentrations in Runoff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melland, Alice R; Silburn, D Mark; McHugh, Allen D; Fillols, Emilie; Rojas-Ponce, Samuel; Baillie, Craig; Lewis, Stephen

    2016-05-25

    Rainfall simulator trials were conducted on sugar cane paddocks across dry-tropical and subtropical Queensland, Australia, to examine the potential for spot spraying to reduce herbicide losses in runoff. Recommended rates of the herbicides glyphosate, 2,4-D, fluoroxypyr, atrazine, and diuron were sprayed onto 0, 20, 40, 50, 70, or 100% of the area of runoff plots. Simulated rainfall was applied 2 days after spraying to induce runoff at one plant cane and three ratoon crop sites. Over 50% of all herbicides were transported in the dissolved phase of runoff, regardless of the herbicide's sediment-water partition coefficient. For most sites and herbicides, runoff herbicide concentrations decreased with decreasing spray coverage and with decreasing herbicide load in the soil and cane residues. Importantly, sites with higher infiltration prior to runoff and lower total runoff had lower runoff herbicide concentrations.

  12. Yeast synthetic biology for high-value metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Zhubo; Liu, Yi; Guo, Juan; Huang, Luqi; Zhang, Xueli

    2015-02-01

    Traditionally, high-value metabolites have been produced through direct extraction from natural biological sources which are inefficient, given the low abundance of these compounds. On the other hand, these high-value metabolites are usually difficult to be synthesized chemically, due to their complex structures. In the last few years, the discovery of genes involved in the synthetic pathways of these metabolites, combined with advances in synthetic biology tools, has allowed the construction of increasing numbers of yeast cell factories for production of these metabolites from renewable biomass. This review summarizes recent advances in synthetic biology in terms of the use of yeasts as microbial hosts for the identification of the pathways involved in the synthesis, as well as for the production of high-value metabolites. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permission@oup.com.

  13. Modelling of the effect of solute structure and mobile phase pH and composition on the retention of phenoxy acid herbicides in reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aschi, Massimiliano; D'Archivio, Angelo Antonio; Mazzeo, Pietro; Pierabella, Mirko; Ruggieri, Fabrizio

    2008-01-01

    A feed-forward artificial neural network (ANN) learned by error back-propagation is used to generate a retention predictive model for phenoxy acid herbicides in isocratic reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. The investigated solutes (18 compounds), apart from the most common herbicides of this class, include some derivatives of benzoic acid and phenylacetic acid structurally related to phenoxy acids, as a whole covering a pK a range between 2.3 and 4.3. A mixed model in terms of both solute descriptors and eluent attributes is built with the aim of predicting retention in water-acetonitrile mobile phases within a large range of composition (acetonitrile from 30% to 70%, v/v) and acidity (pH of water before mixing with acetonitrile ranging between 2 and 5). The set of input variables consists of solute pK a and quantum chemical molecular descriptors of both the neutral and dissociated form, %v/v of acetonitrile in the mobile phase and pH of aqueous phase before mixing with acetonitrile. After elimination of redundant variables, a nine-dimensional model is identified and its prediction ability is evaluated by external validation based on three solutes not involved in model generation and by cross-validation. A multilinear counterpart in terms of the same descriptors is seen to provide a noticeably poorer retention prediction

  14. Modelling of the effect of solute structure and mobile phase pH and composition on the retention of phenoxy acid herbicides in reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aschi, Massimiliano [Dipartimento di Chimica, Ingegneria Chimica e Materiali, Universita degli Studi di L' Aquila, Via Vetoio, 67010 Coppito, L' Aquila (Italy); D' Archivio, Angelo Antonio [Dipartimento di Chimica, Ingegneria Chimica e Materiali, Universita degli Studi di L' Aquila, Via Vetoio, 67010 Coppito, L' Aquila (Italy)], E-mail: darchivi@univaq.it; Mazzeo, Pietro; Pierabella, Mirko; Ruggieri, Fabrizio [Dipartimento di Chimica, Ingegneria Chimica e Materiali, Universita degli Studi di L' Aquila, Via Vetoio, 67010 Coppito, L' Aquila (Italy)

    2008-06-02

    A feed-forward artificial neural network (ANN) learned by error back-propagation is used to generate a retention predictive model for phenoxy acid herbicides in isocratic reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. The investigated solutes (18 compounds), apart from the most common herbicides of this class, include some derivatives of benzoic acid and phenylacetic acid structurally related to phenoxy acids, as a whole covering a pK{sub a} range between 2.3 and 4.3. A mixed model in terms of both solute descriptors and eluent attributes is built with the aim of predicting retention in water-acetonitrile mobile phases within a large range of composition (acetonitrile from 30% to 70%, v/v) and acidity (pH of water before mixing with acetonitrile ranging between 2 and 5). The set of input variables consists of solute pK{sub a} and quantum chemical molecular descriptors of both the neutral and dissociated form, %v/v of acetonitrile in the mobile phase and pH of aqueous phase before mixing with acetonitrile. After elimination of redundant variables, a nine-dimensional model is identified and its prediction ability is evaluated by external validation based on three solutes not involved in model generation and by cross-validation. A multilinear counterpart in terms of the same descriptors is seen to provide a noticeably poorer retention prediction.

  15. GLOBAL EXPRESSION PROFILING AS A TOOL TO DEVELOP MOLECULAR MARKERS LINKED TO HERBICIDE STRESS IN ARABIDOPSIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbicide drift (unintentional physical movement from target to off-target plants) is a cause of crop loss in US. Low-dose, high-potency herbicides that have short environmental persistence times constrain efforts to develop or identify metabolite or biochemical markers of exposu...

  16. Dicotyledon Weed Quantification Algorithm for Selective Herbicide Application in Maize Crops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Morten Stigaard; Nyholm Jørgensen, Rasmus; Midtiby, Henrik Skov

    2016-01-01

    The stricter legislation within the European Union for the regulation of herbicides that are prone to leaching causes a greater economic burden on the agricultural industry through taxation. Owing to the increased economic burden, research in reducing herbicide usage has been prompted. High-resol...

  17. Moisture Management for High R-Value Walls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lepage, R. [Building Science Corporation, Somerville, MA (United States); Schumacher, C. [Building Science Corporation, Somerville, MA (United States); Lukachko, A. [Building Science Corporation, Somerville, MA (United States)

    2013-11-01

    This report explains the moisture-related concerns for high R-value wall assemblies and discusses past Building America research work that informs this study. In this project, hygrothermal simulations were prepared for several common approaches to High R-value wall construction in six cities (Houston, Atlanta, Seattle, St. Louis, Chicago, and International Falls) representing a range of climate zones. The modeling program assessed the moisture durability of the wall assemblies based on three primary sources of moisture: construction moisture, air leakage condensation, and bulk water leakage; the report presents results of the study.

  18. Spatial variation in herbicide leaching from a marine clay soil via subsurface drains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulén, Barbro M; Larsbo, Mats; Kreuger, Jenny K; Svanbäck, Annika

    2013-01-01

    Background Subsurface transport via tile drains can significantly contribute to pesticide contamination of surface waters. The spatial variation in subsurface leaching of normally applied herbicides was examined together with phosphorus losses in 24 experimental plots with water sampled flow-proportionally. The study site was a flat, tile-drained area with 60% marine clay in the topsoil in southeast Sweden. The objectives were to quantify the leaching of frequently used herbicides from a tile drained cracking clay soil and to evaluate the variation in leaching within the experimental area and relate this to topsoil management practices (tillage method and structure liming). Results In summer 2009, 0.14, 0.22 and 1.62%, respectively, of simultaneously applied amounts of MCPA, fluroxypyr and clopyralid were leached by heavy rain five days after spraying. In summer 2011, on average 0.70% of applied bentazone was leached by short bursts of intensive rain 12 days after application. Peak flow concentrations for 50% of the treated area for MCPA and 33% for bentazone exceeded the Swedish no-effect guideline values for aquatic ecosystems. Approximately 0.08% of the glyphosate applied was leached in dissolved form in the winters of 2008/2009 and 2010/2011. Based on measurements of glyphosate in particulate form, total glyphosate losses were twice as high (0.16%) in the second winter. The spatial inter-plot variation was large (72–115%) for all five herbicides studied, despite small variations (25%) in water discharge. Conclusions The study shows the importance of local scale soil transport properties for herbicide leaching in cracking clay soils. © 2013 The Authors. Pest Management Science published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry. PMID:23658148

  19. Investigation of 10 herbicides in surface waters of a horticultural production catchment in southeastern Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allinson, Graeme; Bui, AnhDuyen; Zhang, Pei; Rose, Gavin; Wightwick, Adam M; Allinson, Mayumi; Pettigrove, Vincent

    2014-10-01

    Herbicides are regularly applied in horticultural production systems and may migrate off-site, potentially posing an ecological risk to surface waterways. However, few studies have investigated the levels and potential ecotoxicological impact of herbicides in horticultural catchments in southern Australia. This study investigated the presence of 10 herbicides at 18 sites during a 5-month period in horticulturally important areas of the Yarra Valley in southeastern Australia. Seven of the 10 herbicides were detected in the streams, in 39 % of spot water samples, in 25 % of surface sediment samples, and in >70 % of the passive sampler systems deployed. Few samples contained residues of ≥2 herbicides. Simazine was the herbicide most frequently detected in water, sediment, and passive sampler samples and had the highest concentrations in water (0.67 μg/L) and sediment (260 μg/kg dry weight). Generally the concentrations of the herbicides detected were several orders of magnitude lower than reported ecotoxicological effect values, including those for aquatic plants and algae, suggesting that concentrations of individual chemicals in the catchment were unlikely to pose an ecological risk. However, little is known about the combined effects of simultaneous, low-level exposure of multiple herbicides of the same mode of action on Australian aquatic organisms nor their contribution when found in mixtures with other pesticides. Further research is required to adequately assess the risk of pesticides in Victorian aquatic environments.

  20. How high are option values in energy-efficiency investments?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanstad, A.H.; Blumstein, C.; Stoft, S.E.; California Univ., Berkeley, CA,

    1995-01-01

    High implicit discount rates in consumers' energy-efficiency investments have long been a source of controversy. In several recent papers, Hassett and Metcalf argue that the uncertainty and irreversibility attendant to such investments, and the resulting option value, account for this anomalously high implicit discounting. Using their model and data, we show that, to the contrary, their analysis falls well short of providing an explanation of this pattern. (author)

  1. Natural compounds with herbicidal activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariano Fracchiolla

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Research about phytotoxic activity of natural compounds could lead both to find new herbicidal active ingredients and to plan environmental friendly weed control strategies. Particularly, living organisms could be a source of compounds that are impossible, for their complexity, to synthesize artificially. More over, they could have alternative sites of action respect to the known chemical herbicides and, due to their origin, they should be more environmental safe. Many living organism, such as bacteria, fungi, insects, lichens and plants, are able to produce bioactive compounds. They generally are secondary metabolites or simply waste molecules. In this paper we make a review about these compounds, highlighting potential and constraints.

  2. Natural compounds with herbicidal activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasquale Montemurro

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Research about phytotoxic activity of natural compounds could lead both to find new herbicidal active ingredients and to plan environmental friendly weed control strategies. Particularly, living organisms could be a source of compounds that are impossible, for their complexity, to synthesize artificially. More over, they could have alternative sites of action respect to the known chemical herbicides and, due to their origin, they should be more environmental safe. Many living organism, such as bacteria, fungi, insects, lichens and plants, are able to produce bioactive compounds. They generally are secondary metabolites or simply waste molecules. In this paper we make a review about these compounds, highlighting potential and constraints.

  3. Effects of the herbicide imazapyr on juvenile Oregon spotted frogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahnke, Amy E.; Grue, Christian E.; Hayes, Marc P.; Troiano, Alexandra T.

    2013-01-01

    Conflict between native amphibians and aquatic weed management in the Pacific Northwest is rarely recognized because most native stillwater-breeding amphibian species move upland during summer, when herbicide application to control weeds in aquatic habitats typically occurs. However, aquatic weed management may pose a risk for aquatic species present in wetlands through the summer, such as the Oregon spotted frog (OSF, Rana pretiosa), a state endangered species in Washington. Acute toxicity of herbicides used to control aquatic weeds tends to be low, but the direct effects of herbicide tank mixes on OSFs have remained unexamined. We exposed juvenile OSFs to tank mixes of the herbicide imazapyr, a surfactant, and a marker dye in a 96-h static-renewal test. The tank mix was chosen because of its low toxicity to fish and its effectiveness in aquatic weed control. Concentrations were those associated with low-volume (3.5 L/ha) and high-volume (7.0 L/ha) applications of imazapyr and a clean-water control. Following exposure, frogs were reared for two months in clean water to identify potential latent effects on growth. Endpoints evaluated included feeding behavior, growth, and body and liver condition indices. We recorded no mortalities and found no significant differences for any end point between the herbicide-exposed and clean-water control frogs. The results suggest that imazapyr use in wetland restoration poses a low risk of direct toxic effects on juvenile OSFs.

  4. Comparisons of Herbicide Treated and Cultivated Herbicide-Resistant Corn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Arnold Bruns

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Four glyphosate resistant corn (Zea mays L. hybrids, a glufosinate-ammonium resistant hybrid, and a conventional atrazine resistant hybrid gown at Stoneville, MS in 2005, 2006, and 2007 with furrow irrigation were treated with their respective herbicides and their growth, yield, and mycotoxin incidence were compared with untreated cultivated plots. Leaf area index (LAI and dry matter accumulation (DMA were collected on a weekly basis beginning at growth stage V3 and terminating at anthesis. Crop growth rates (CRGs and relative growth rates (RGRs were calculated. Plots were later harvested, yield and yield component data collected, and kernel samples analyzed for aflatoxin and fumonisin. Leaf area index, DMA, CRG, and RGR were not different among the herbicide treated plots and from those that were cultivated. Curves for LAI and DMA were similar to those previously reported. Aflatoxin and fumonisin were relatively low in all plots. Herbicide application or the lack thereof had no negative impact on the incidence of kernel contamination by these two mycotoxins. Herbicides, especially glyphosate on resistant hybrids, have no negative effects on corn yields or kernel quality in corn produced in a humid subtropical environment.

  5. Controlled Release Formulations of Auxinic Herbicides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalski, Witold J.; Siłowiecki, Andrzej.; Romanowska, Iwona; Glazek, Mariola; Bajor, Justyna; Cieciwa, Katarzyna; Rychter, Piotr

    2013-04-01

    ingredient in the HBA oligomers was chemically bound to the oligomer matrix and a controlled release followed in concert with the hydrolysis of ester bonds in the oligomer systems. Due to the high volatility and high water solubility of the DMA salts, significant amounts of active ingredients were predisposed to be dispersed in the environment. On the other hand, the HBA oligomers exhibit low volatility and low solubility in water, so they tend to exhibit lover migrating rates from the target site. The obtained plots suggested that in the case of the HBA oligomers the effectiveness were delayed in time when compared with the DMA salts. The integral effectiveness of the studied HBA oligomers was practically equivalent to the conventional DMA salts, but the release of the HBA herbicides was delayed in time vs. DMA salts. The mixtures of oligo (R,S)-3-hydroxybutyric acid containing chemically bonded 2,4-D, Dicamba and MCPA (HBA) were proposed as carriers of active ingredients that could be released to control the sensitive weeds. The synthesized HBA oligomers could be particularly useful in a number of practical applications, because they release the herbicide to plants at a controlled rate and in amounts required over a specified period of time, their degradation products are identical to metabolites formed in plant cells, the physicochemical and operational parameters of the carrier oligomers might be optimized by fine-tuning of synthesis conditions. The decreased vapor pressure and increased lipophilicity of the studied materials could reduce the risk exposure of the operational personnel, as well as, a decrease the environmental pollution. Acknowledgments The authors would like to thank the Polish Ministry of Science and Higher Education for supporting this work through the grant No. NN 310 303039. References [1] S. Dubey, V. Jhelum, P.K. Patanjali, Controlled release agrochemical formulations: A review, J. Scientific &Industrial Research (India) 70 (2011) 105-112. [2] W. J

  6. Biotechnology: herbicide-resistant crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Transgenic, herbicide-resistant (HR) crops are planted on about 80% of the land covered by transgenic crops. More than 90% of HR crios are glyphosate-resistant (GR) crops, the others being resistant to glufosinate. The wide-scale adoption of HR crops, largely for economic reasons, has been the mos...

  7. Attitudes and value orientations of high school students in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radoman Marija

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of attitudes and value orientations of high school students comes as the result of research based on data collected during April-June 2011 in six towns in Serbia. The main objective of this research was to detect the dominant attitudes and value orientations of high school students on a scale of traditionalism, homophobia, anti-Romism, ethnic stereotypes and attitudes toward abortion. The research was conducted in the following cities: Belgrade, Krusevac, Novi Sad, Zrenjanin, Nis and Novi Pazar. The results showed that high school students in Serbia in regards to their beliefs do not differ much from the general social climate in which they grew up and were educated in. Traditional respondents are represented at the level of 33.9%; 27.9% of them are moderately traditional and 25% of them are non-traditional. On the one side there are extremely radical position of high school students especially in relation to Roma and LGBT people. On the other side, certain number of respondents howed high affinity and positive individual interprets of the lifestyles of those groups (such as the rights of marriage for homosexual population. Attitudes towards women's rights are also bipolar - high school students have a patriarchal attitude towards marriage, family and abortion, but they show sensitivity to the issue of domestic violence. The obtained data should be interpreted in accordance with the changes in Serbian society - economic crisis, privatization, increase of violence in society and family, redefining of gender roles, etc.

  8. Decision Support System for Optimized Herbicide Dose in Spring Barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sønderskov, Mette; Kudsk, Per; Mathiassen, Solvejg K

    2014-01-01

    Crop Protection Online (CPO) is a decision support system, which integrates decision algorithms quantifying the requirement for weed control and a herbicide dose model. CPO was designed to be used by advisors and farmers to optimize the choice of herbicide and dose. The recommendations from CPO...... as the Treatment Frequency Index (TFI)) compared to a high level of required weed control. The observations indicated that the current level of weed control required is robust for a range of weed scenarios. Weed plant numbers 3 wk after spraying indicated that the growth of the weed species were inhibited...

  9. Palmistichus elaeisis (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae as an indicator of toxicity of herbicides registered for corn in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claubert W.G de Menezes

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The diversity of plants in agricultural systems benefits natural enemies. Herbicides are used in weed management in corn (Zea mays L. to reduce competition and productivity losses, but they can impact natural enemies and contaminate the environment. The objective was to evaluate toxicity of herbicides on pupae parasitoid Palmistichus elaeisis Delvare and LaSalle, 1993 (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae. The treatments were represented by the host pupae Tenebrio molitor L., 1785 (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae and herbicides atrazine, nicosulfuron, paraquat, and tembotrione in commercial doses compared to a control treatment with water. Pupae of T. molitor were immersed in the solution of herbicides and exposed to parasitism by six females of P. elaeisis each. The herbicides atrazine and paraquat were highly toxic and, therefore, not selective to P. elaeisis. Nicosulfuron reduced the sex ratio of P. elaeisis (0.20 ± 0.03, which may affect subsequent generations. Moreover, the herbicide tembotrione was selective to P. elaeisis, showing results comparable to the control. Floristic diversity of weeds can increase food source, habitat, shelter, breeding places and microclimates for insect parasitoids but herbicides formulations can be toxic and these products can affect P. elaeisis or its hosts by direct or indirect contact, showing the importance of selectivity studies for this natural enemy. However, the herbicide tembotrione was selective to P. elaeisis and it can be recommended for programs of sustainable management of weeds in corn crop with this parasitoid.

  10. Integration of Agronomic Practices with Herbicides for Sustainable Weed Management in Aerobic Rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwar, M. P.; Juraimi, A. S.; Mohamed, M. T. M.; Uddin, M. K.; Samedani, B.; Puteh, A.; Man, Azmi

    2013-01-01

    Till now, herbicide seems to be a cost effective tool from an agronomic view point to control weeds. But long term efficacy and sustainability issues are the driving forces behind the reconsideration of herbicide dependent weed management strategy in rice. This demands reappearance of physical and cultural management options combined with judicious herbicide application in a more comprehensive and integrated way. Keeping those in mind, some agronomic tools along with different manual weeding and herbicides combinations were evaluated for their weed control efficacy in rice under aerobic soil conditions. Combination of competitive variety, higher seeding rate, and seed priming resulted in more competitive cropping system in favor of rice, which was reflected in lower weed pressure, higher weed control efficiency, and better yield. Most of the herbicides exhibited excellent weed control efficiency. Treatments comprising only herbicides required less cost involvement but produced higher net benefit. On the contrary, treatments comprising both herbicide and manual weeding required high cost involvement and thus produced lower net benefit. Therefore, adoption of competitive rice variety, higher seed rate, and seed priming along with spraying different early-postemergence herbicides in rotation at 10 days after seeding (DAS) followed by a manual weeding at 30 DAS may be recommended from sustainability view point. PMID:24223513

  11. Structural and functional effects of herbicides on non-target organisms in aquatic ecosystems with an emphasis on atrazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairchild, James; Kortekamp, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    Herbicide use has increased dramatically around the world over the past 6 decades (Gianessi and Reigner, 2007). Few herbicides were in use in the 1950s. However, by 2001 approximately 1.14 billion kilograms of herbicides were applied globally for the control of undesireable vegetation in agricultural, silvicultural, lawncare, aquacultural, and irrigation/recreational water management activities (Kiely et al., 2004). Twenty-eight percent of the total mass of herbicides is applied in the United States, with the remaining 72 percent being applied elsewhere around the globe (Kiely et al., 2004). Herbicides represent 36% of global pesticide use, followed by insecticides (25%), fungicides (10%) and other chemical classes (Kiely et al., 2004). Agricultural production accounts for approximately 90% of herbicide use in the U.S. (Kiely et al., 2004). Gianessi and Reigner (2007) indicated that herbicides are routinely used on more than 90% of the area designated for large commercial crops including corn, soybeans, cotton, sugar beets, peanuts, and rice. Increased farm mechanization, technological advancements in production of inexpensive sources of inorganic nitrogen fertilizer (e.g., anhydrous ammonia), and conversion of forest, grassland, and wetland habitats to cropland has led to a tremendous increase in global food production over the past half-century. Herbicides have augmented advances in large-scale agricultural systems and have largely replaced mechanical and hand-weeding control mechanisms (Gianessi and Reigner, 2007). The wide-spread use of herbicides in agriculture has resulted in frequent chemical detections in surface and groundwaters (Gilliom, 2007). The majority of herbicides used are highly water soluble and are therefore prone to runoff from terrestrial environments. In additon, spray drift and atmospheric deposition can contribute to herbicide contamination of aquatic environments. Lastly, selected herbicides are deliberately applied to aquatic environments

  12. Economics of site-specific and variable-dose herbicide application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørum, Jens Erik; Kudsk, Per; Jensen, Peter Kryger

    2017-01-01

    Site-specific application of pesticides has so far focused mainly on herbicides. The purpose of precision farming technologies in relation to herbicide use is to reduce herbicide cost and environmental impact from spraying, but at the same time to achieve acceptable weed control. Another purpose...... is to increase the spraying capacity, to reduce the number of sprayer refills, and finally to minimize time spent on weed monitoring. In this chapter the relevance and profitability of four precision herbicide application technologies, two weed detection technologies and a low dose decision support system (DSS......) is analysed. With a low dose herbicide, cost can be reduced by 20–50%. It requires, however, proper monitoring of weeds, which can be a time-consuming task that again requires that the farmer is able to identify the dominant weed species. The current development of high-speed camera and software systems can...

  13. Weed infestation of a winter wheat canopy under the conditions of application of different herbicide doses and foliar fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Kraska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out in the years 2006-2008 in the Bezek Experimental Farm (University of Life Sciences in Lublin. A two-factor field experiment was set up according to a randomized block design, in three replications. The experimental field was situated on medium heavy mixed rendzina developed from chalk rock with medium dusty loam granulometric composition. The soil was characterised by neutral pH, a very high content of P (342.1 and K (278.9 along with a very low level of magnesium (16.0 mg × kg-1 of soil and organic carbon (over 3.5%. The aim of this research was to compare the effect of three herbicide doses and two foliar fertilizers applied in a winter wheat canopy on weed infestation. The herbicides Mustang 306 SE 0.4 l × ha-1 and Attribut 70 WG 60 g × ha-1 were applied at full recommended doses as well as at doses reduced to 75% and 50%. Foliar fertilizers Insol 3 (1 1 × ha-1 and FoliCare (20 kg × ha-1 were applied at full recommended doses twice in the growing season BBCH* development stage 23-25* and 33-35*. The control was not treated with the herbicides and foliar fertilizers. The weed infestation level was determined by means of the quantitative gravimetric method at two dates: the first one 6 weeks after herbicide application and the second one - before harvest. The number of weed individuals was counted; species composition and air-dry biomass of aboveground parts were estimated from randomly selected areas of 1 m × 0.25 m at four sites on each plot. Galium aparine and Apera spica-venti plants were sampled for molecular analysis 6 weeks after herbicide application (the treatments with the full herbicide dose, a 50% dose and the control without herbicides. The density of weeds and weed air-dry weight were statistically analysed by means of variance analysis, and the mean values were estimated with Tukey's confidence intervals (p=0.05. It was found that the number of weeds and air-dry weight of weeds in the

  14. Wetting dynamics at high values of contact line speed

    OpenAIRE

    Пономарев, К. О.; Феоктистов, Дмитрий Владимирович; Орлова, Евгения Георгиевна

    2015-01-01

    Experimental results analyses of dynamic contact angle change under the conditions of substrate wetting by distilled water at high values of the contact line speed was conducted. Three spreading modes for copper substrates with different roughness were selected: drop formation, spreading and equilibrium contact angle formation. Peculiarity of droplet spreading on superhydrophobic surface is found. It consists in a monotonic increase of the advancing dynamic contact angle. The effect of the dr...

  15. Engineering biosynthesis of high-value compounds in photosynthetic organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Ellis C; Kelly, Steven

    2017-09-01

    The photosynthetic, autotrophic lifestyle of plants and algae position them as ideal platform organisms for sustainable production of biomolecules. However, their use in industrial biotechnology is limited in comparison to heterotrophic organisms, such as bacteria and yeast. This usage gap is in part due to the challenges in generating genetically modified plants and algae and in part due to the difficulty in the development of synthetic biology tools for manipulating gene expression in these systems. Plant and algal metabolism, pre-installed with multiple biosynthetic modules for precursor compounds, bypasses the requirement to install these pathways in conventional production organisms, and creates new opportunities for the industrial production of complex molecules. This review provides a broad overview of the successes, challenges and future prospects for genetic engineering in plants and algae for enhanced or de novo production of biomolecules. The toolbox of technologies and strategies that have been used to engineer metabolism are discussed, and the potential use of engineered plants for industrial manufacturing of large quantities of high-value compounds is explored. This review also discusses the routes that have been taken to modify the profiles of primary metabolites for increasing the nutritional quality of foods as well as the production of specialized metabolites, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals and industrial chemicals. As the universe of high-value biosynthetic pathways continues to expand, and the tools to engineer these pathways continue to develop, it is likely plants and algae will become increasingly valuable for the biomanufacturing of high-value compounds.

  16. Designing messages with high sensation value: when activation meets reactance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Based on two theoretical models--activation model of information exposure and psychological reactance theory--this study examined the individual and combined effects of message sensation value (MSV) and controlling language on young adults' information processing. Two experimental studies on anti-drunken driving and anti-smoking public service announcements were conducted that were conceptual replications of one another. The measures included perceived threat to freedom, sensation seeking, perceived ad effectiveness and state reactance (anger). Across the two studies, MSV was found to advance the perceived ad effectiveness, and controlling language contributed to anger. A consistent interaction was revealed, such that participants responded positively to the high sensation value messages when presented with low controlling language. The effect of high sensation value anti-smoking ads to advance persuasiveness particularly under the condition of low controlling language was more influential to low sensation seekers. This study suggests that increasing MSV coupled with high controlling language can backfire, especially when targeting young adults. The implications for persuasion in general are considered, as well as the specific findings for drunken driving and smoking.

  17. Microprocessor-controlled meter of high Q-values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bun'kov, S.N.; Konstantinov, V.I.; Masalov, V.L.; Sevrukova, L.M.; Tokarev, A.D.; Usiv, Yu.V.

    1990-01-01

    The paper describes the functional model of a high-precision microcomputer-controlled test facility for studying the electric and physical parameters of superconducting cavities. The basic unit of the test facility is high-stability retunable RF oscillator. It is designed following the scheme of the frequency phase tuning using standard equipment. The systematic error in measuring the loaded Q-value of reentrant cavities is not larger than 5%. A dedicated built-in microcomputer is used to control the measuring test facility and to make the commutations required. 2 refs.; 2 figs

  18. Effect of atrazine (Herbicide) on blood parameters of common carp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EJIRO

    could be used as an important tool for the assessment of pathological conditions of fish. ... agricultural or industrial areas have high probability of ... The use of herbicides to control aquatic weeds has ... Five hundred fish were stocked in a large cement tank (4 m × 6 m × 3 m) ..... Ecological risk assessment of atrazine in North.

  19. Fate of the herbicides glyphosate, glufosinate-ammonium, phenmedipham, ethofumesate and metamitron in two Finnish arable soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laitinen, Pirkko; Siimes, Katri; Eronen, Liisa; Rämö, Sari; Welling, Leena; Oinonen, Seija; Mattsoff, Leona; Ruohonen-Lehto, Marja

    2006-06-01

    The fate of five herbicides (glyphosate, glufosinate-ammonium, phenmedipham, ethofumesate and metamitron) was studied in two Finnish sugar beet fields for 26 months. Soil types were sandy loam and clay. Two different herbicide-tolerant sugar beet cultivars and three different herbicide application schedules were used. Meteorological data were collected throughout the study and soil properties were thoroughly analysed. An extensive data set of herbicide residue concentrations in soil was collected. Five different soil depths were sampled. The study was carried out using common Finnish agricultural practices and represents typical sugar beet cultivation conditions in Finland. The overall observed order of persistence was ethofumesate > glyphosate > phenmedipham > metamitron > glufosinate-ammonium. Only ethofumesate and glyphosate persisted until the subsequent spring. Seasonal variation in herbicide dissipation was very high and dissipation ceased almost completely during winter. During the 2 year experiment no indication of potential groundwater pollution risk was obtained, but herbicides may cause surface water pollution. Copyright (c) 2006 Society of Chemical Industry

  20. Comparisons of Herbicide Treated and Cultivated Herbicide-Resistant Corn

    OpenAIRE

    H. Arnold Bruns; Hamed K. Abbas

    2010-01-01

    Four glyphosate resistant corn (Zea mays L.) hybrids, a glufosinate-ammonium resistant hybrid, and a conventional atrazine resistant hybrid gown at Stoneville, MS in 2005, 2006, and 2007 with furrow irrigation were treated with their respective herbicides and their growth, yield, and mycotoxin incidence were compared with untreated cultivated plots. Leaf area index (LAI) and dry matter accumulation (DMA) were collected on a weekly basis beginning at growth stage V3 and terminating at anthesi...

  1. DSSHerbicide: Herbicide field trials in winter wheat. How to come to a decision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sefzat, David

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Herbicide decision support systems can calculate efficient, economically optimized herbicide mixtures with reduced dosages, if field specific weed data are given. Thus, they can be a sensible tool for integrated weed control. However, advises of decision support systems have to be tested before introducing them into practical farming. In Mecklenburg-Vorpommern two herbicide field trials were installed with four different prototypes of decision support systems. An untreated plot and three expert advices, private advisors, official advisory service and a farmer decision, were included as additional test variables. Herbicide efficacies in autumn, weed dry matter after spring applications, herbicide costs and wheat yield were measured to evaluate the decision support system prototypes. In one field trial with low weed density before treatments efficacies were at least 85%. In two prototypes efficacies were lower than in the expert plots. No significant differences between decision variables were found regarding weed dry matter after spraying in spring. On this site, herbicide costs were higher when expert advises were used compared to decision support system advises. No significant differences were detected in yield. Even yield in “untreated” was not significantly different. The second field trial carried higher weed densities. Here herbicide efficacies were lower in all treatments. Poa annua and Matricaria recutita were significantly affected by the treatments resulting from the decision tools. However, these differences did not result in statistically different weed dry matter or wheat yield. Three of the prototypes advised solutions with very low herbicide costs in autumn, but high costs in spring. As a result, total weed costs in these plots were higher than in the plots advised by experts. It is concluded from the field trials, that different prototypes of decision support systems are giving sensible herbicide advice. In fields with low

  2. Herbicide monitoring in soil, runoff waters and sediments in an olive orchard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderon, Maria Jesus; De Luna, Elena; Gomez, Jose Alfonso; Hermosin, M Carmen

    2016-11-01

    Occurrences of surface water contamination by herbicides in areas where olive orchards are established reveal a need to understand soil processes affecting herbicide fate at field scale for this popular Mediterranean crop. A monitoring study with two herbicides (terbuthylazine and oxyfluorfen) in the first 2cm of soil, runoff waters, and sediments, was carried out after under natural rainfall conditions following winter herbicide application. At the end of the 107day field experiment, no residues of the soil applied terbuthylazine were recovered, whereas 42% of the oxyfluorfen applied remained in the top soil. Very low levels of both herbicides were measured in runoff waters; however, concentrations were slightly higher for terbuthylazine (0.53% of applied) than for oxyfluorfen (0.03% of applied), relating to their respective water solubilities. Congruent with soil residue data, 38.15% of the applied oxyfluorfen was found in runoff-sediment, compared to only 0.46% for terbuthylazine. Accordingly, the herbicide soil distribution coefficients measured within runoff field tanks was much greater for oxyfluorfen (Kd=3098) than for terbuthylazine (Kd=1.57). The herbicide oxyfluorfen is co-transported with sediment in runoff, remaining trapped and/or adsorbed to soil particle aggregates, due in part to its low water solubility. In contrast, terbuthylazine soil dissipation may be associated more so with leaching processes, favored by its high water solubility, low sorption, and slow degradation. By comparing these two herbicides, our results reaffirm the importance of herbicide physico-chemical properties in dictating their behavior in soil and also suggest that herbicides with low solubility, as seen in the case oxyfluorfen, remain susceptible to offsite transport associated with sediments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Moisture Management for High R-Value Walls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lepage, R.; Schumacher, C.; Lukachko, A.

    2013-11-01

    The following report explains the moisture-related concerns for High R-value wall assemblies and discusses past Building America research work that informs this study. Hygrothermal simulations were prepared for several common approaches to High R-value wall construction in six cities (Houston, Atlanta, Seattle, St. Louis, Chicago, and International Falls) representing a range of climate zones (2, 3, 4C, 4, 5A, and 7, respectively). The simulations are informed by experience gained from past research in this area and validated by field measurement and forensic experience. The modeling program was developed to assess the moisture durability of the wall assemblies based on three primary sources of moisture: construction moisture, air leakage condensation, and bulk water leakage. The peak annual moisture content of the wood based exterior sheathing was used to comparatively analyze the response to the moisture loads for each of the walls in each given city. Walls which experienced sheathing moisture contents between 20% and 28% were identified as risky, whereas those exceeding 28% were identified as very high risk. All of the wall assemblies perform well under idealized conditions. However, only the walls with exterior insulation, or cavity insulation which provides a hygrothermal function similar to exterior insulation, perform adequately when exposed to moisture loads. Walls with only cavity insulation are particularly susceptible to air leakage condensation. None of the walls performed well when a precipitation based bulk water leak was introduced to the backside of the sheathing, emphasizing the importance of proper flashing details.

  4. Measurement of total angular momentum values of high-lying even ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Spectrally resolved laser-induced fluorescence technique was used to uniquely assign total angular momentum () values to high-lying even-parity energy levels of atomic samarium. Unique value assignment was done for seven energy levels in the energy region 34,800–36,200 cm-1 , recently observed and reported in ...

  5. Diagnostic value of high strength MRCP in the obstructive jaundice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Yang; Dong Yuhai; Yin Jie; Lv Guoyi

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the diagnostic value of high strength MRCP in patients with obstructive jaundice. Methods: Routine MRI and MRCP examination on 161 patients with obstructive jaundice were carded out with 1.5T Siemens super-conductive magnetic resonance machine. Of them, 103 cases were benign lesions and 58 were malignant after surgical and ERCP pathological confirmation. Results: The diagnostic accuracy of MRCP was 100%, with the qualitative diagnostic accuracy at 90.2%. Conclusion: MRCP was the best method in diagnosing patients with obstructive jaundice, the concerned performances of MRCP could provide the dependable basis for surgical operation project. (authors)

  6. Mechanism of sulfonylurea herbicide resistance in the broadleaf weed, Kochia scoparia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saari, L.L.; Cotterman, J.C.; Primiani, M.M.

    1990-01-01

    Selection of kochia (Kochia scoparia) biotypes resistant to the sulfonylurea herbicide chlorsulfuron has occurred through the continued use of this herbicide in monoculture cereal-growing areas in the United States. The apparent sulfonylurea resistance observed in kochia was confirmed in greenhouse tests. Fresh and dry weight accumulation in the resistance kochia was 2- to >350-fold higher in the presence of four sulfonylurea herbicides as compared to the susceptible biotype. Acetolactate synthase (ALS) activity isolated from sulfonylurea-resistant kochia was less sensitive to inhibition by three classes of ALS-inhibiting herbicides, sulfonylureas, imidazolinones, and sulfonanilides. The decrease in ALS sensitivity to inhibition (as measured by the ratio of resistant I 50 to susceptible I 50 ) was 5- to 28-fold, 2- to 6-fold, and 20-fold for sulfonylurea herbicides, imidazolinone herbicides, and a sulfonanilide herbicide, respectively. No differences were observed in the ALS-specific activities or the rates of [ 14 C]chlorsulfuron uptake, translocation, and metabolism between susceptible and resistant kochia biotypes. The K m values for pyruvate using ALS from susceptible and resistant kochia were 2.13 and 1.74 mM, respectively. Based on these results, the mechanism of sulfonylurea resistance in this kochia biotype is due solely to a less sulfonylurea-sensitive ALS enzyme

  7. High value of ecological information for river connectivity restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethi, Suresh; O'Hanley, Jesse R.; Gerken, Jonathon; Ashline, Joshua; Bradley, Catherine

    2017-01-01

    ContextEfficient restoration of longitudinal river connectivity relies on barrier mitigation prioritization tools that incorporate stream network spatial structure to maximize ecological benefits given limited resources. Typically, ecological benefits of barrier mitigation are measured using proxies such as the amount of accessible riverine habitat.ObjectivesWe developed an optimization approach for barrier mitigation planning which directly incorporates the ecology of managed taxa, and applied it to an urbanizing salmon-bearing watershed in Alaska.MethodsA novel river connectivity metric that exploits information on the distribution and movement of managed taxon was embedded into a barrier prioritization framework to identify optimal mitigation actions given limited restoration budgets. The value of ecological information on managed taxa was estimated by comparing costs to achieve restoration targets across alternative barrier prioritization approaches.ResultsBarrier mitigation solutions informed by life history information outperformed those using only river connectivity proxies, demonstrating high value of ecological information for watershed restoration. In our study area, information on salmon ecology was typically valued at 0.8–1.2 M USD in costs savings to achieve a given benefit level relative to solutions derived only from stream network information, equating to 16–28% of the restoration budget.ConclusionsInvesting in ecological studies may achieve win–win outcomes of improved understanding of aquatic ecology and greater watershed restoration efficiency.

  8. Forecasting Value-at-Risk Using High-Frequency Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huiyu Huang

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available in the prediction of quantiles of daily Standard&Poor’s 500 (S&P 500 returns we consider how to use high-frequency 5-minute data. We examine methods that incorporate the high frequency information either indirectly, through combining forecasts (using forecasts generated from returns sampled at different intraday interval, or directly, through combining high frequency information into one model. We consider subsample averaging, bootstrap averaging, forecast averaging methods for the indirect case, and factor models with principal component approach, for both direct and indirect cases. We show that in forecasting the daily S&P 500 index return quantile (Value-at-Risk or VaR is simply the negative of it, using high-frequency information is beneficial, often substantially and particularly so, in forecasting downside risk. Our empirical results show that the averaging methods (subsample averaging, bootstrap averaging, forecast averaging, which serve as different ways of forming the ensemble average from using high-frequency intraday information, provide an excellent forecasting performance compared to using just low-frequency daily information.

  9. Sensor-based assessment of herbicide effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Streibig, Jens Carl; Rasmussen, Jesper; Andújar, D.

    2014-01-01

    Non-destructive assessment of herbicide effects may be able to support integrated weed management. To test whether effects of herbicides on canopy variables could be detected by sensors, two crops were used as models and treated with herbicides at BBCH 20 using a logarithmic sprayer. Twelve days...... after spraying at BBCH 25 and 42 days after sowing, nine sensor systems scanned a spring barley and an oilseed rape field experiment sown at different densities and sprayed with increasing field rates of glyphosate and tribenuron-methyl. The objective was to compare ED50s for crops and weeds derived...... by the different sensors in relation to crop density and herbicides. Although sensors were not directly developed to detect herbicide symptoms, they all detected changes in canopy colours or height and crop density. Generally ED50s showed the same pattern in response to crop density within herbicide...

  10. Biotransformation and biomonitoring of phenylurea herbicide diuron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Priyanka; Suri, C Raman

    2011-02-01

    A Gram-positive, Micrococcus sp. strain PS-1 isolated from diuron storage site was studied for its capability of biotransformation of phenylurea herbicide diuron to a secondary metabolite, 1-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)urea (DCPU) for bioconjugation and antibody development applications. The metabolite formed associated with profound changes in bacterial cell morphology demonstrated increase in the degradation kinetics of diuron in presence of small quantity of a surfactant. The synthesized metabolite identified by chromatographic and mass spectrometry techniques was conjugated with carrier protein, and used as an immunogen for antibodies production. The generated antibody was highly specific, demonstrating excellent sensitivity against diuron. The antibody was used as receptor molecules in standard fluorescence immunoassay (FIA) format showing detection limit of 0.01 ng/mL in the optimum working concentration range of diuron with good signal precision (∼2%). The study presented first time the degradation pathway of herbicide by specific microorganism to synthesize hapten for bioconjugation and immunoassay development. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Sorption behaviour of herbicides in soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luchini, L.C.; Wiendl, F.M.; Ruegg, E.F.; Instituto Biologico, Sao Paulo

    1988-01-01

    Environmental contamination by herbicides is related with the sorption phenomenon of these compounds in the soils. The behaviour of paraquat, 2,4-D and diuron was studied in soils with different physico-chemical properties, through the Freundlich adsorption and desorption isotherms, using 14 C-radiolabeled herbicides. Results of the range of the adsorption-desorption of each herbicide was related mainly with the chemical characteristics of these compounds. (author) [pt

  12. Delivery of calibration workshops covering herbicide application equipment : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-31

    Proper herbicide sprayer set-up and calibration are critical to the success of the Oklahoma Department of Transportation (ODOT) herbicide program. Sprayer system set-up and calibration training is provided in annual continuing education herbicide wor...

  13. Determination of solid-liquid partition coefficients (Kd) for the herbicides inspiration and trifluralin in five UK agricultural soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooke, Cindy M.; Shaw, George; Collins, Chris D.

    2004-01-01

    Isoproturon and trifluralin are herbicides of contrasting chemical characters and modes of action. Standard batch sorption procedures were carried out to investigate the individual sorption behaviour of 14 C-isoproturon and 14 C-trifluralin in five agricultural soils (1.8-4.2% OC), and the soil solid-liquid partition coefficients (K d values) were determined. Trifluralin exhibited strong partitioning to the soil solid phase (K d range 106-294) and low desorption potential, thus should not pose a threat to sensitive waters via leaching, although particle erosion and preferential flow pathways may facilitate transport. For isoproturon, soil adsorption was low (K d range 1.96-5.75) and desorption was high, suggesting a high leaching potential, consistent with isoproturon being the most frequently found pesticide in UK surface waters. Soil partitioning was directly related to soil organic carbon (OC) content. Accumulation isotherms were modelled using a dual-phase adsorption model to estimate adsorption and desorption rate coefficients. Associations between herbicides and soil humic substances were also shown using gel filtration chromatography. - Capsule: Herbicide soil sorption described by a dual-phase adsorption model reflected soil partitioning, as influenced by soil OC and humic substances

  14. Biological Efficacy of Herbicides for Weed Control in Noncropped Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsvetanka Dimitrova

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available An increasing problem facing agricultural producers is the invasion of weeds, perennial in particular, so that implementation of industrial technologies is impossible without their highly efficient and rational control. For the purpose of studying efficient herbicides for weed control in noncropped areas (stubbles, a biological study of five total systemic herbicides was conducted in areas under natural weed infestation and pressure from othersurrounding weeds at the Institute of Forage Crops in Pleven in 2005-2007. The trials were carried out in field conditions using the block method with plot size of 20 m². Treatment was conducted at the predominant stage of budding of perennial dicotyledonous weeds and earing of monocotyledonous weeds. Herbicidal efficacy was recorded on the EWRS 9-score scale (0-100% killed weeds = score 9-1. It was found that treatment of noncropped areas (stubbles with the total systemic herbicides Touchdown System 4 (360 g/l glyphosate; Cosmic (360 g/l glyphosate; Roundup Plus (441 g/l glyphosate potassium salt; Leon 36 SL (360 g/l glyphosate and Glyphos Super 45 SL (450 g/l glyphosate was highly efficient, so that it was a successful element of a strategy for controlling weeds of different biological groups, and was especially effective against perennial weeds.

  15. CADDIS Volume 2. Sources, Stressors and Responses: Herbicides - Detailed Conceptual Diagram

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction to the herbicides module, when to list herbicides as a candidate cause, ways to measure herbicides, simple and detailed conceptual diagrams for herbicides, herbicides module references and literature reviews.

  16. CADDIS Volume 2. Sources, Stressors and Responses: Herbicides - Simple Conceptual Diagram

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction to the herbicides module, when to list herbicides as a candidate cause, ways to measure herbicides, simple and detailed conceptual diagrams for herbicides, herbicides module references and literature reviews.

  17. High-Value Care in the Evaluation of Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urja, Prakrity; Nippoldt, Eric H; Barak, Virginia; Valenta, Carrie

    2017-08-01

    ) evaluation.  Appropriate medical treatment with antiplatelets, as indicated by the acute stroke guidelines, was started. The patient was not eligible for thrombolysis. Value-based care emphasizes the decreased usage in investigations or health care of options that do not contribute to the overall health and well-being of the patient. Given our patient's past medical history and the results of previous investigations, we questioned the value of ordering a hypercoagulable evaluation and TEE in our patient. The need for an evaluation of the hypercoagulable state in an elderly patient with ischemic stroke or TIA remains unknown. Our patient had a complete hypercoagulable evaluation done six years earlier. Repeating the hypercoagulable evaluation would not contribute to the treatment decisions and, as a result, would not satisfy the basic criteria for value-based care.The importance of a repeat TEE is uncertain in the evaluation of embolism for a known cause of stroke. Additionally, no change in management was anticipated regardless of the TEE findings, therefore, repeating TEE in our patient was an inappropriate use of resources. Being mindful of value-based care can reduce overall health care costs, maintain our role of being responsible stewards of our limited resources, and continue to provide high-value care for our patients.

  18. Identification, Characterization, and Palynology of High-Valued Medicinal Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hina Fazal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available High-valued medicinal plants Achillea millefolium, Acorus calamus, Arnebia nobilis, Fumaria indica, Gymnema sylvestre, Origanum vulgare, Paeonia emodi, Peganum harmala, Psoralea corylifolia, Rauwolfia serpentina, and Vetiveria zizanioides were identified with the help of taxonomical markers and investigated for characterization and palynological studies. These parameters are used to analyze their quality, safety, and standardization for their safe use. Botanical description and crude drug description is intended for their quality assurance at the time of collection, commerce stages, manufacturing, and production. For this purpose the detailed morphology was studied and compared with the Flora of Pakistan and other available literatures. Here we reported the pollen grain morphology of Origanum vulgare, Paeonia emodi, Psoralea corylifolia, and Rauwolfia serpentina for the first time. Similarly the crude drug study of Gymnema sylvestre (leaf, Origanum vulgare (aerial parts, Paeonia emodi (tubers, and Peganum harmala (seeds was also carried out for the first time.

  19. Continuous downstream processing for high value biological products: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zydney, Andrew L

    2016-03-01

    There is growing interest in the possibility of developing truly continuous processes for the large-scale production of high value biological products. Continuous processing has the potential to provide significant reductions in cost and facility size while improving product quality and facilitating the design of flexible multi-product manufacturing facilities. This paper reviews the current state-of-the-art in separations technology suitable for continuous downstream bioprocessing, focusing on unit operations that would be most appropriate for the production of secreted proteins like monoclonal antibodies. This includes cell separation/recycle from the perfusion bioreactor, initial product recovery (capture), product purification (polishing), and formulation. Of particular importance are the available options, and alternatives, for continuous chromatographic separations. Although there are still significant challenges in developing integrated continuous bioprocesses, recent technological advances have provided process developers with a number of attractive options for development of truly continuous bioprocessing operations. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Identification, characterization, and palynology of high-valued medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazal, Hina; Ahmad, Nisar; Haider Abbasi, Bilal

    2013-01-01

    High-valued medicinal plants Achillea millefolium, Acorus calamus, Arnebia nobilis, Fumaria indica, Gymnema sylvestre, Origanum vulgare, Paeonia emodi, Peganum harmala, Psoralea corylifolia, Rauwolfia serpentina, and Vetiveria zizanioides were identified with the help of taxonomical markers and investigated for characterization and palynological studies. These parameters are used to analyze their quality, safety, and standardization for their safe use. Botanical description and crude drug description is intended for their quality assurance at the time of collection, commerce stages, manufacturing, and production. For this purpose the detailed morphology was studied and compared with the Flora of Pakistan and other available literatures. Here we reported the pollen grain morphology of Origanum vulgare, Paeonia emodi, Psoralea corylifolia, and Rauwolfia serpentina for the first time. Similarly the crude drug study of Gymnema sylvestre (leaf), Origanum vulgare (aerial parts), Paeonia emodi (tubers), and Peganum harmala (seeds) was also carried out for the first time.

  1. Selectivity and stability of vegetation-applied herbicides in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Barakova

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. An experiment was carried out during 2013 – 2015 in the experimental field of the Field Crops Institute, Chirpan, with two cotton cultivars − Helius and Darmi (Gossypium hirsutum L.. Herbicides: Goal 2 E, oxyfluorfen (80 ml/da; Linuron 45 SC, linuron (200 ml/da; Wing-P, pendimethalin + dimethenamid (400 ml/da; Merlin 750 WG, isoxaflutol (5 g/da; Bazagran 480 SL, bentazone (150 ml/da were investigated. They were treated separately or combined with growth regulator Amalgerol (500 ml/da or foliar fertilizer Lactofol O (500 ml/da in the budding stage of the cotton. It was established that selectivity is the lowest in the two cotton cultivars with herbicides Linuron 45 CK and Merlin 750 WG. The purpose of this investigation was to establish the selectivity and stability of some herbicides and their tank mixtures on the cotton by influence of different meteorological conditions. It has been found that the highest phytotoxicity on cotton is given the vegetation-applied herbicides Merlin and Linuron. Foliar fertilizer Laktofol O reduces phytotoxicity of herbicides Goal, Wing, Merlin and Bazagran in two cotton cultivars. Herbicides Wing and Bazagran have excellent selectivity for the two cotton cultivars – Helius and Darmi. The highest yield was obtained by vegetation treatment with herbicide Bazagran, followed by herbicides Wing and Goal. Tank mixtures of Goal, Bazagran and Wing with Laktofol, followed by those with Amalgerol are technologically the most valuable. They combine high yield with high stability over the years. Аlone application of herbicides Linuron and Merlin and their tank mixtures with Amalgerol and Laktofol have low estimate.

  2. Are herbicide-resistant crops the answer to controlling Cuscuta?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadler-Hassar, Talia; Shaner, Dale L; Nissen, Scott; Westra, Phill; Rubin, Baruch

    2009-07-01

    Herbicide-resistant crop technology could provide new management strategies for the control of parasitic plants. Three herbicide-resistant oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) genotypes were used to examine the response of attached Cuscuta campestris Yuncker to glyphosate, imazamox and glufosinate. Cuscata campestris was allowed to establish on all oilseed rape genotypes before herbicides were applied. Unattached seedlings of C. campestris, C. subinclusa Durand & Hilg. and C. gronovii Willd. were resistant to imazamox and glyphosate and sensitive to glufosinate, indicating that resistance initially discovered in C. campestris is universal to all Cuscuta species. Glufosinate applied to C. campestris attached to glufosinate-resistant oilseed rape had little impact on the parasite, while imazamox completely inhibited C. campestris growth on the imidazolinone-resistant host. The growth of C. campestris on glyphosate-resistant host was initially inhibited by glyphosate, but the parasite recovered and resumed growth within 3-4 weeks. The ability of C. campestris to recover was related to the quality of interaction between the host and parasite and to the resistance mechanism of the host. The parasite was less likely to recover when it had low compatibility with the host, indicating that parasite-resistant crops coupled with herbicide resistance could be highly effective in controlling Cuscuta. (c) 2009 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Environmental Statement. Disposition of Orange Herbicide by Incineration

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-11-01

    remote as possible from both residential and industrial population centers and from land currently in agronomic pro- duction., Vegetation should be...sparse, of little agronomic value, and of species resistant to the phenoxyacetic acid herbicides contained in Orange or to the pyrolytic products of...each to induce intoxication . The above results are summarized in Table 11-7. b. Behavior in Humans: Gehring et al., (1973) studied the effects of 2,4,5-T

  4. Serial ammonia measurement in patients poisoned with glufosinate ammonium herbicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, J M; Chun, B J

    2016-05-01

    This study investigated whether ammonia concentrations can predict delayed neurotoxicity development and neurotoxicity latency in glufosinate ammonium (GLA) herbicide-poisoned patients presenting with an alert mental state and stable hemodynamics. This retrospective observational case study included 26 patients divided into 2 groups: neurotoxicity during hospitalization (complicated group) and without neurotoxicity (noncomplicated group). Thirteen patients (50.0%) experienced neurotoxicity at 16 h post-ingestion. Although ammonia concentrations at presentation did not differ significantly between the two groups, the ammonia level in the complicated group increased significantly at the next measurement and remained significantly higher than that in the noncomplicated group until 48 h after ingestion. The peak ammonia concentration before neurotoxicity development was an independent predictor of neurotoxicity (odds ratio: 1.047, 95% confidence interval: 1.010-1.087, p value = 0.014), and the optimal cutoff value of peak ammonia concentration for predicting neurotoxicity was 101.5 μg/dL. The rate of ammonia increase was not associated with the time latency from ingestion to neurotoxicity development. This study showed that serial ammonia measurements in GLA-poisoned patients may identify those who are at high risk of developing neurotoxicity. However, as this study enrolled few patients, further qualified trials are required to confirm our results and to reveal the etiology of hyperammonemia and its causality in neurotoxicity. © The Author(s) 2015.

  5. Bioremediation of herbicide velpar K® in vitro in aqueous solution with application of EM-4 (effective microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Antônio Gomes Ramos

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This work assessed the bioremediation of herbicide Velpar K®, in vitro in aqueous solution, used against weeds in sugar cane in São Paulo state. The herbicide contained Hexazinone and Diuron. It was used the microbial inoculant denominated Effective Microorganisms (EM-4, pool of microorganisms from soil that contained lactic and photosynthetic bacteria, fungi, yeasts and actinomycetes for bioremediation. Results for the depth of cultivation on agar-agar inoculated with EM-4 showed the microorganisms growth in the concentrations between 0.2% and 1.0% of the Velpar K®in the gel. The analysis of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC showed that the EM-4 was effective for the bioremediation of the herbicide, which reached the values of 80% for diuron and 70% for hexazinone after 21 days in solution of 2:1 of Velpar K®/EM-4 ratio. These results could be useful for planning the bioremediation of contaminated areas with Velpar K®.

  6. Transforming a low value coastal area into a high value natural and recreational area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ritzen, M.J.

    2004-01-01

    The coastal zone in the Netherlands takes a very peculiar place in the discussion about sustainability in the Netherlands. Large areas are left unused and they remain low cost value areas due to the lack of progressive decision-making. These areas have a low value in economic, recreational and

  7. Assessment of the levels of N- (Phosphonomethyl) glycine glyphosate in selected glyphosate-based herbicides on the Ghanaian market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iddrisu, Adisatu

    2016-07-01

    Sixty one (61) samples of Glyphosate based herbicides were collected from the central commercial hub of Kumasi (Kejetia) and ware houses of importers in Ashanti and Greater Accra regions of Ghana and analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Information about the efficacy of the numerous Glyphosate herbicides on the market was also collected by way of questionnaire. Results of the analysis indicated that only ten (16.4 %) out of the sixty one samples met the Environmental Protection Agency’s requirement of ±5 % of the stated active ingredient concentration and 51 samples representing 83.6 % were all out of the acceptable range. Active ingredient was either understated or overstated. About 21.6 % of the samples that failed to meet requirements were overstated and 78.4 % were understated. Apart from a few of the samples that had concentrations higher than stated label claims with 69 g/L (19.2 %) highest, most samples were generally lower than stated label claims. Some (G09, G18 and G44) samples contained virtually no active ingredient with shortfalls as high as 98.6%. Some of these shortfalls explained findings from the field investigations where some respondents complained of Glyphosate not being efficacious. Farmers may follow the application and safety instructions but this only holds true as long as the herbicides provide efficient control of weed. This can only be achieved with products of consistently high quality. This study also discovered that, there was no possibility of adulteration of the herbicide along the value chain as results for products picked from ware houses of importers did not differ much from those picked from the open market. Results from the other method employed in Glyphosate determination was UV/VIV spectroscopy, this method is simpler and faster and readily available in most laboratories in Ghana. Results from UV/VIS were comparable to that of the HPLC with generally lower values for UV/VIS readings. It is therefore

  8. Biotechnology approaches to developing herbicide tolerance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The use of herbicides has revolutionized weed control in many crop production systems. However, with the increasing development of weed resistances to many popular selective herbicides, the need has arisen to rethink the application of chemical weed control. Approaches to maintain the efficiency of chemical weed ...

  9. FLAMMABILITY OF HERBICIDE-TREATED GUAVA FOLIAGE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guava leaves treated with herbicide were found to be less flammable than untreated green leaves or dead leaves . Differences in flammability were...determined by small-scale laboratory fires, differential thermal analysis, and thermogravimetric analysis. The herbicide-treated leaves had a higher ash

  10. Response of Saw Palmetto to Three Herbicides

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.L. Michael; D.G. Neary

    1985-01-01

    Saw palmetto [Serona repens (Bartram) Small] can be controlled with herbicides. Garion® 4E1/2 and Brush Killer® 800 were evaluated for effectiveness againest saw palmetto when they were applied at three rates in April, June, and August. Oust® was tested at three rates in April only. Herbicides were not effective with April...

  11. SELECTIVITY OF DIFFERENT HERBICIDES TO COWPEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Aires Sizenando Filho2

    2013-12-01

    1.5 = recommended rate + half the recommended rate. At the end of the experiment it was found that: the cowpea showed phytotoxicity to use herbicide among 14 and 21 AAD; the herbicides diuron and metolachlor showed a rate "middle" in control weed, while the pendimethalin wasn't efficient for those function.

  12. Herbicide residues in grapes and wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, G G; Williams, B

    1999-05-01

    The persistence of several common herbicides from grapes to wine has been studied. Shiraz, Tarrango and Doradillo grapes were separately sprayed with either norflurazon, oxyfluorfen, oxadiazon or trifluralin-persistent herbicides commonly used for weed control in vineyards. The dissipation of the herbicides from the grapes was followed for 28 days following treatment. Results showed that norflurazon was the most persist herbicide although there were detectable residues of all the herbicides on both red and white grapes at the end of the study period. The penetration of herbicides into the flesh of the grapes was found to be significantly greater for white grapes than for red grapes. Small-lot winemaking experiments showed that norflurazon persisted at levels close to the initial concentration through vinification and into the finished wine. The other herbicides degraded, essentially via first-order kinetics, within the period of "first fermentation" and had largely disappeared after 28 days. The use of charcoal together with filter pads, or with diatomaceous earth was shown to be very effective in removing herbicide residues from the wine. A 5% charcoal filter removed more than 96% of the norflurazon persisting in the treated wine.

  13. Control of Butterfly Bush with Postemergence Herbicides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butterfly bush (Buddleja davidii) is classified as invasive in several parts of the United States. Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of four herbicides and two application methods on postemergence butterfly bush control. The four herbicides included: Roundup (glyphosate)...

  14. Imazapyr (herbicide) seed dressing increases yield, suppresses ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    from damage. In 1998/99 season, a trial was initiated at Chitedze Research Station under artificial infection, to evaluate the effects of seed dressing with imazapyr (an acetolactate synthase {ALS} inhibiting herbicide) using three seed treatment methods (coating, priming or drenching) and three herbicide rates (15, 30 and 45 ...

  15. Cross-resistance to herbicides in annual ryegrass (lolium rigidum)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christopher, J.T.; Powles, S.B.; Liljegren, D.R.; Holtum, J.A.M.

    1991-01-01

    Lolium rigidum Gaud. biotype SLR31 is resistant to the herbicide diclofop-methyl and cross-resistant to several sulfonylurea herbicides. Wheat and the cross-resistant ryegrass exhibit similar patterns of resistance to sulfonylurea herbicides, suggesting that the mechanism of resistance may be similar. Cross-resistant ryegrass is also resistant to the wheat-selective imidazolinone herbicide imazamethabenz. The cross-resistant biotype SLR31 metabolized [phenyl-U- 14 C]chlorsulfuron at a faster rate than a biotype which is susceptible to both diclofop-methyl and chlorsulfuron. A third biotype which is resistant to diclofop-methyl but not to chlorsulfuron metabolized chlorsulfuron at the same rate as the susceptible biotype. The increased metabolism of chlorsulfuron observed in the cross-resistant biotype is, therefore, correlated with the patterns of resistance observed in these L. rigidum biotypes. During high performance liquid chromatography analysis the major metabolite of chlorsulfuron in both susceptible and cross-resistant ryegrass coeluted with the major metabolite produced in wheat. The major product is clearly different from the major product in the tolerant dicot species, flax (Linium usitatissimum). The elution pattern of metabolites of chlorsulfuron was the same for both the susceptible and cross-resistant ryegrass but the cross-resistant ryegrass metabolized chlorsulfuron more rapidly. The investigation of the dose response to sulfonylurea herbicides at the whole plant level and the study of the metabolism of chlorsulfuron provide two independent sets of data which both suggest that the resistance to chlorsulfuron in cross-resistant ryegrass biotype SLR31 involves a wheat-like detoxification system

  16. Trends in High Nature Value farmland studies: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedetti Yanina

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Since the High Nature Value (HNV concept was defined in the early 1990s, several studies on HNV farmland has been increasing over the past 30 years in Europe, highlighting the interest by scientific community of HNV farming systems supporting biodiversity conservation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the trends and main gaps on HNV farmland peer-reviewed publications in order to contribute to the effectiveness of future research in this field. Methods. Searches were conducted using the databases Web of SciencesTM and Scopus in order to identify only peer-reviewed articles on HNV farmland, published prior to July 2017. The inclusion and exclusion criteria were developed a priori. Data as year, country, type of document, subject area, taxa studied and biodiversity metrics assessed were extracted and explored in order to analyse the spatial and temporal distribution of the concept, including the main topics addressed in HNV farmland literature. Results. After screening 308 original articles, 90 were selected for this review. HNV farmland studies involved several disciplines, mainly biodiversity and conservation and environmental sciences and ecology. Most peer-reviewed articles focused on HNV farming were conducted in Spain, Italy, Ireland and Portugal. The main studied taxa were plants and birds. Taxonomic diversity was the biodiversity metric more often used to assess the biodiversity status on HNV farmland areas. A positive correlation was found between HNV farmland area and HNV farmland studies conducted in respective countries. Discussion. The HNV farmland research subject is a relative novel approach, and this systematic review provides a comprehensive overview about the main topics in the HNV farmland peer-reviewed literature contributing to highlight the main gaps and provide some considerations in order to assist the performance of HNV farming systems and conservation policies, addressed to sustain high levels of

  17. Strategies for microbial synthesis of high-value phytochemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Sijin; Li, Yanran; Smolke, Christina D.

    2018-03-01

    Phytochemicals are of great pharmaceutical and agricultural importance, but often exhibit low abundance in nature. Recent demonstrations of industrial-scale production of phytochemicals in yeast have shown that microbial production of these high-value chemicals is a promising alternative to sourcing these molecules from native plant hosts. However, a number of challenges remain in the broader application of this approach, including the limited knowledge of plant secondary metabolism and the inefficient reconstitution of plant metabolic pathways in microbial hosts. In this Review, we discuss recent strategies to achieve microbial biosynthesis of complex phytochemicals, including strategies to: (1) reconstruct plant biosynthetic pathways that have not been fully elucidated by mining enzymes from native and non-native hosts or by enzyme engineering; (2) enhance plant enzyme activity, specifically cytochrome P450 activity, by improving efficiency, selectivity, expression or electron transfer; and (3) enhance overall reaction efficiency of multi-enzyme pathways by dynamic control, compartmentalization or optimization with the host's metabolism. We also highlight remaining challenges to — and future opportunities of — this approach.

  18. Dinitroaniline herbicide resistance and the microtubule cytoskeleton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony; Hussey

    1999-03-01

    Dinitroaniline herbicides have been used for pre-emergence weed control for the past 25 years in cotton, soybean, wheat and oilseed crops. Considering their long persistence and extensive use, resistance to dinitroanilines is fairly rare. However, the most widespread dinitroaniline-resistant weeds, the highly resistant (R) and the intermediate (I) biotypes of the invasive goosegrass Eleusine indica, are now infesting more than 1000 cotton fields in the southern states of the USA. The molecular basis of this resistance has been identified, and found to be a point mutation in a major microtubule cytoskeletal protein, alpha-tubulin. These studies have served both to explain the establishment of resistance and to reveal fundamental properties of tubulin gene expression and microtubule structure.

  19. Effect of Mycorrhizal Fungi and Trifluralin Herbicide on Emergence, Growth and Root Colonization of Clover (Trifolium repens L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Shahgholi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Herbicides, despite of their control of weeds, have the potential to affect sensitive crops in rotation and also beneficial non-targeted soil microbes including vesicular arbuscular mycorrhiza (VAM fungi (6. AM fungi can increase the growth of crops through increasing uptake of phosphorus and insoluble micronutrients, and indirectly by improving soil quality parameters (30. However, several authors have reported different effects of herbicides on VAM symbiosis, which ranges from no adverse effects to slightly or highly toxic effects (6. Pesticides have also been reported to stimulate colonization of plant roots by AM fungi (27. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the interaction effects of mycorrhizal fungi and Trifluralin herbicide on the growth and root colonization of clover. Materials and Methods: A factorial experiment was arranged in randomized complete block design with three replicates at the College of Agricultural, University of Shahrood during 2012. Treatments were included three levels of mycorrhiza inoculation, M1: non mycorrhiza (control, M2: Glommus mosseae and M3: Glommus intraradices and herbicide treatments were included four levels of Trifluralin(T1: 0, T2: 1000, T3: 1500 and T4: 2000 ml ha-1. In mycorrhizal treatments, 20 g inoculums were thoroughly mixed with soil. Seeds of clover (Trifolium repens L. were sown in the pots maintained near the field in order to provide normal environmental conditions. Seedlings were thinned to two plants per pot at three leaf stages. At the time of harvesting, the emergence and growth characteristics of clover and root colonization was also registered. Statistical analyses of data were performed with statistical software MSTATC. Significant differences between means refer to the probability level of 0.05 calculated by LSD test. Results and Discussion: The results showed that emergence, uniformity (EU values decreased and time to 10% (D10 and 90% (D90 of

  20. Urging Affordable Access to High-Value Cancer Drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    This infographic highlights some of the main messages from the President’s Cancer Panel report Promoting Value, Affordability, and Innovation in Cancer Drug Treatment. The graphic includes the panel’s recommendations to maximize the value and affordability of cancer drug treatment.

  1. Study of herbicide ametryne degradation in HDPE packaging using the advanced oxidation process by ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade, Debora Cristina de

    2008-01-01

    This study is part of the project with the objective to evaluate pesticides degradation for decontamination of commercial polymeric packaging of high density polyethylene, HDPE, used in agriculture. The herbicide used to this study was the herbicide ametryne (commercial name, Gesapax 500), due to its great use, mainly on field crops and on corn. Ametryne is commercialized since 1975, and, depending on the pesticide formulation and type of application, residues may be detectable in water, soil and on the surfaces for months or years. In order to evaluate the efficiency of radiation processing on removal the pesticides contamination, HDPE packaging were irradiated using Radiation Dynamics Electron Beam Accelerator with 1,5 MeV energy and 37 kW, in batch system. The samples were irradiated with water, in various absorbed doses. Ametryne was analyzed by gas chromatography (GC Shimadzu 17A), after extraction with hexane/dichloromethane (1:1 v/v) solution. The calibration curve was obtained with a regression coefficient of 0.986, and the relative standard deviation was lower than 10%. The radiation processing yield was evaluated by the rate of ametryne degradation and by the destruction G-value (Gd). The electron beam irradiation processing, showed high efficiency in destroying ametryne in the HDPE packaging when the samples were irradiated in presence of small quantities of water. (author)

  2. Photostabilization of the herbicide norflurazon microencapsulated with ethylcellulose in the soil-water system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sopena, Fatima, E-mail: fsopenav@irnase.csic.es [Institute of Natural Resources and Agrobiology (CSIC), Reina Mercedes 10, Apdo 1052, 41080 Seville, ES (Spain); Villaverde, Jaime; Maqueda, Celia; Morillo, Esmeralda [Institute of Natural Resources and Agrobiology (CSIC), Reina Mercedes 10, Apdo 1052, 41080 Seville, ES (Spain)

    2011-11-15

    Highlights: {yields} Herbicide photodegradation studies using ethylcellulose-microencapsulated formulations (ECF) in soil and water. {yields} Greater herbicide photo-protection observed from EFC than from its commercial form. {yields} Photo-protective effect due to the gradual herbicide release and the presence of ethylcellulose. {yields} Herbicide photo-stability conditioned by soil colloidal components, especially by goethite and humic acids. {yields} EFC could reduce the field herbicide losses by photolysis. - Abstract: Ethylcellulose-microencapsulated formulations (ECFs) of norflurazon have been shown to reduce leaching, maintaining a threshold concentration in the topsoil than the commercial formulation (CF). Since photodegradation contributes to field dissipation of norflurazon, the objective of the present work was to study if such formulations can also protect from its photodescomposition. For this purpose, aqueous solutions of CF and ECFs, containing the most important soil components (goethite, humic and fulvic acids and montmorillonite) were tested. To get a more realistic approach, studies in soil were also performed. The results were well explained by a simple first order model. DT{sub 50} value was 3 h for CF under irradiation, which was considerably lower than those corresponding to the systems where ECF was used (35 h for ECF; 260 h for ECF-goethite; 53 h for ECF-humic acids; 33 h for ECF-montmorillonite; and 28 h for ECF-fulvic acids). ECF protected against photodegradation in both aqueous solution and soil due to the gradual release of the herbicide, which reduced the herbicide available to be photodegraded. These lab-scale findings proved that ECF could reduce the herbicide dosage, minimizing its photolysis, which would be especially advantageous during the first hours after foliar and soil application.

  3. Photostabilization of the herbicide norflurazon microencapsulated with ethylcellulose in the soil-water system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sopena, Fatima; Villaverde, Jaime; Maqueda, Celia; Morillo, Esmeralda

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Herbicide photodegradation studies using ethylcellulose-microencapsulated formulations (ECF) in soil and water. → Greater herbicide photo-protection observed from EFC than from its commercial form. → Photo-protective effect due to the gradual herbicide release and the presence of ethylcellulose. → Herbicide photo-stability conditioned by soil colloidal components, especially by goethite and humic acids. → EFC could reduce the field herbicide losses by photolysis. - Abstract: Ethylcellulose-microencapsulated formulations (ECFs) of norflurazon have been shown to reduce leaching, maintaining a threshold concentration in the topsoil than the commercial formulation (CF). Since photodegradation contributes to field dissipation of norflurazon, the objective of the present work was to study if such formulations can also protect from its photodescomposition. For this purpose, aqueous solutions of CF and ECFs, containing the most important soil components (goethite, humic and fulvic acids and montmorillonite) were tested. To get a more realistic approach, studies in soil were also performed. The results were well explained by a simple first order model. DT 50 value was 3 h for CF under irradiation, which was considerably lower than those corresponding to the systems where ECF was used (35 h for ECF; 260 h for ECF-goethite; 53 h for ECF-humic acids; 33 h for ECF-montmorillonite; and 28 h for ECF-fulvic acids). ECF protected against photodegradation in both aqueous solution and soil due to the gradual release of the herbicide, which reduced the herbicide available to be photodegraded. These lab-scale findings proved that ECF could reduce the herbicide dosage, minimizing its photolysis, which would be especially advantageous during the first hours after foliar and soil application.

  4. Alternatives to herbicides in an apple orchard, effects on yield, earthworms and plant diversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, L.; Kuehn, Birka Falk; Bertelsen, M.

    2013-01-01

    tIn a newly established apple orchard eight alternative methods to weed control in the tree row werecompared to a herbicide treatment with respect to effects on tree growth, first-quality fruit yield, earth-worms and flora. All treatments were tested at two irrigation schedules, with similar amount......, whereasmulching with paper wool reduced first-quality fruit yield compared to herbicide treatment. Cover cropas tagetes and weed harrowing had similar yield as herbicide treatment, whereas cover crops as grassand hop medick and weed cutting reduced first-quality yield compared to herbicide treatment. Earth......-worms thrived under rape straw contrary to under black polypropylene and plots with weed harrowing.Treatments had significant effects on species numbers of plants both years, and total vegetation covergenerally increased in the second year. Rape straw supported a high production of apples and a largestock...

  5. Hydroxyl radical induced transformation of phenylurea herbicides: A theoretical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mile, Viktória; Harsányi, Ildikó; Kovács, Krisztina; Földes, Tamás; Takács, Erzsébet; Wojnárovits, László

    2017-01-01

    Aromatic ring hydroxylation reactions occurring during radiolysis of aqueous solutions are studied on the example of phenylurea herbicides by Density Functional Theory calculations. The effect of the aqueous media is taken into account by using the Solvation Model Based on Density model. Hydroxyl radical adds to the ring because the activation free energies (0.4–47.2 kJ mol −1 ) are low and also the Gibbs free energies have high negative values ((−27.4) to (−5.9) kJ mol −1 ). According to the calculations in most of cases the ortho- and para-addition is preferred in agreement with the experimental results. In these reactions hydroxycyclohexadienyl type radicals form. In a second type reaction, when loss of chlorine atom takes place, OH/Cl substitution occurs without cyclohexadienyl type intermediate. - Highlights: • Attack of • OH to aniline, phenol, fenuron, monuron, diuron was studied by DFT. • Ortho-para directing is suggested with –NH 2 , –OH and –NHCON(CH 3 ) 2 groups. • • OH addition to the ring gives hydroxycyclohexadienyl radical. • Attack at C-Cl leads to • OH/Cl substitution without cyclohexadienyl intermediate.

  6. Correlations between chromatographic parameters and bioactivity predictors of potential herbicides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janicka, Małgorzata

    2014-08-01

    Different liquid chromatography techniques, including reversed-phase liquid chromatography on Purosphere RP-18e, IAM.PC.DD2 and Cosmosil Cholester columns and micellar liqud chromatography with a Purosphere RP-8e column and using buffered sodium dodecyl sulfate-acetonitrile as the mobile phase, were applied to study the lipophilic properties of 15 newly synthesized phenoxyacetic and carbamic acid derivatives, which are potential herbicides. Chromatographic lipophilicity descriptors were used to extrapolate log k parameters (log kw and log km) and log k values. Partitioning lipophilicity descriptors, i.e., log P coefficients in an n-octanol-water system, were computed from the molecular structures of the tested compounds. Bioactivity descriptors, including partition coefficients in a water-plant cuticle system and water-human serum albumin and coefficients for human skin partition and permeation were calculated in silico by ACD/ADME software using the linear solvation energy relationship of Abraham. Principal component analysis was applied to describe similarities between various chromatographic and partitioning lipophilicities. Highly significant, predictive linear relationships were found between chromatographic parameters and bioactivity descriptors. © The Author [2013]. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Resistance risk assessment within herbicide authorisation--a call for sensitivity data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulber, Lena; Nordmeyer, Henning; Zwerger, Peter

    2013-02-01

    In most European countries, the risk of herbicide resistance is assessed as part of the authorisation of herbicides in accordance with EPPO Standard PP 1/213(2). Because the susceptibility of weed populations to a certain herbicide may vary greatly, one part of resistance risk assessment is the testing for sensitivity variation among different populations of target weed species with a high resistance risk. This paper emphasises the importance of sensitivity data provision with regard to the recent EU Regulation (EC) 1107/2009 concerning the placing of plant protection products on the market and outlines the main technical requirements for sensitivity data. A useful principle is that sensitivity data should be provided for all herbicides with a high resistance risk regardless of whether resistance has already evolved against the herbicidal substance. Methodical details regarding the generation of sensitivity data are discussed, together with remaining questions that will need to be addressed if a harmonised assessment of herbicide resistance risk is to be achieved. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Herbicides and their transformation products in source-water aquifers tapped by public-supply wells in Illinois, 2001-02

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Patrick C.; McMillan, William D.

    2004-01-01

    to a recharge area and (or) the stronger the hydraulic connection between an aquifer and a recharge area, the younger the ground water and the more vulnerable the aquifer will be to contamination by herbicide compounds. The weak relation between current (2001) statewide application rates of herbicides and current (2001-02) occurrence of herbicide compounds in source-water aquifers indicates that additional factors must be considered when relating herbicide-application rates to occurrence. These factors include historical application rates and the mobility and persistence of the various herbicide compounds in ground-water systems. Frequency of detection and concentrations of herbicides compounds in the State?s source-water aquifers are indicated to be highest during the spring, when crops are planted and herbicides primarily are applied. Excess nitrate (concentrations of nitrate, as nitrogen, higher than 3 milligrams per liter) in ground water strongly indicates the co-occurrence of herbicide compounds. However, nitrate concentrations are not a reliable indicator of herbicide-compound concentrations. The inverse relation found between current use of land for corn and soybean production and current occurrence of herbicide compounds in underlying aquifers indicates that various factors, along with current agricultural land use, contribute to herbicide occurrence. These factors include, among others, land-use history, ground-water age, ground-water-flow patterns, geology, soil microbiology, and chemistry and persistence of the herbicide compounds. Detection of agriculture-specific herbicide compounds in 71 percent of samples from urban areas with no current or recent agricultural land use near the sampled wells indicates that recharge to certain high-capacity supply wells may originate at considerable distances (up to about 10 miles) from the wells. Essentially no difference was found between the analytical results for herbicides in paired unfiltered and filtered samples,

  9. Retaining the Value of PV at High Penetration Workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurtz, Sarah; Bolen, Michael

    2017-01-19

    PV prices have dropped and are now attractive without incentives for peaking applications in some locations. Modeling suggests and, empirically, some regions demonstrate that as PV penetration increases its value decreases, predominantly due to a decrease in energy and capacity value. It is not apparent what technologies and price may be needed for PV to supply tens of percent of electricity in the most economically efficient manner. A 1-day workshop was co-sponsored by EPRI and NREL with support from ASU. A dozen presentations and discussions introduced how the interplay of various technologies impact the value of PV, identified technical challenges and gaps impeding implementation, and discussed future R&D needs and opportunities.

  10. The effect of the herbicide diuron on soil microbial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado, A G; Airoldi, C

    2001-07-01

    The inhibitory effect of the herbicide diuron [3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea] on microbial activity in red Latosol soil was followed using microcalorimetry. The activity of the micro-organisms in 1.50 g of soil sample was stimulated by addition of 6.0 mg of glucose and 6.0 mg of ammonium sulfate under 35% controlled humidity at 298.15 (+/- 0.02) K. This activity was determined by power-time curves that were recorded for increasing amounts of diuron, varying from zero to 333.33 micrograms g-1 soil. An increase in the amount of diuron in soil caused a decrease of the original thermal effect, to reach a null value above 333.33 micrograms g-1 of herbicide. The power-time curve showed that the lag-phase period and peak time increased with added herbicide. The decrease of the thermal effect evolved by micro-organisms and the increase of the lag-phase period are associated with the death of microbial populations caused by diuron, which strongly affects soil microbial communities.

  11. Determination of Two Sulfonylurea Herbicides Residues in Soil Environment Using HPLC and Phytotoxicity of These Herbicides by Lentil Bioassay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehdizadeh, Mohammad; Alebrahim, Mohammad Taghi; Roushani, Mahmoud

    2017-07-01

    A HPLC-UV detection system was used for determination of sulfosulfuron and tribenuron methyl residues from soils. The soils were fortified with sulfosulfuron and tribenuron methyl at rates of 26 and 15 g a.i. ha -1 respectively and samples were taken randomly on 0 (2 h), 1, 2, 4, 10, 20, 40, 60, 90 and 120 days after treatment. The final extracts were prepared for analysis by HPLC. The results showed that degradation of both herbicides in the silty loam soil was faster than sandy loam soil. Half-life of sulfosulfuron was ranged from 5.37 to 10.82 days however this value for tribenuron methyl was ranged from 3.23 to 5.72 days on different soils. The residue of both herbicides at 120 days after application in wheat field had no toxicitic effect on lentil. It was concluded that HPLC analysis procedure was an appropriate method for determination of these herbicides from soils.

  12. Blueprint for action: steps toward a high-quality, high-value maternity care system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angood, Peter B; Armstrong, Elizabeth Mitchell; Ashton, Diane; Burstin, Helen; Corry, Maureen P; Delbanco, Suzanne F; Fildes, Barbara; Fox, Daniel M; Gluck, Paul A; Gullo, Sue Leavitt; Howes, Joanne; Jolivet, R Rima; Laube, Douglas W; Lynne, Donna; Main, Elliott; Markus, Anne Rossier; Mayberry, Linda; Mitchell, Lynn V; Ness, Debra L; Nuzum, Rachel; Quinlan, Jeffrey D; Sakala, Carol; Salganicoff, Alina

    2010-01-01

    Childbirth Connection hosted a 90th Anniversary national policy symposium, Transforming Maternity Care: A High Value Proposition, on April 3, 2009, in Washington, DC. Over 100 leaders from across the range of stakeholder perspectives were actively engaged in the symposium work to improve the quality and value of U.S. maternity care through broad system improvement. A multi-disciplinary symposium steering committee guided the strategy from its inception and contributed to every phase of the project. The "Blueprint for Action: Steps Toward a High Quality, High Value Maternity Care System", issued by the Transforming Maternity Care Symposium Steering Committee, answers the fundamental question, "Who needs to do what, to, for, and with whom to improve the quality of maternity care over the next five years?" Five stakeholder workgroups collaborated to propose actionable strategies in 11 critical focus areas for moving expeditiously toward the realization of the long term "2020 Vision for a High Quality, High Value Maternity Care System", also published in this issue. Following the symposium these workgroup reports and recommendations were synthesized into the current blueprint. For each critical focus area, the "Blueprint for Action" presents a brief problem statement, a set of system goals for improvement in that area, and major recommendations with proposed action steps to achieve them. This process created a clear sightline to action that if enacted could improve the structure, process, experiences of care, and outcomes of the maternity care system in ways that when anchored in the culture can indeed transform maternity care. Copyright 2010 Jacobs Institute of Women

  13. Valuing queer identity in Monster High doll fandom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Mariel Austin

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available According to Mattel, Monster High dolls topped $500 million in annual sales in 2014, quickly gaining on Barbie, whose $1.3 billion in annual revenue plummeted for the fourth quarter in a row. Monster High's recent ad campaign claims, "We are monsters. We are proud." Race, ethnicity, and disability are coded into the dolls as selling points. The allure of Monster High is, in part, that political identity and the celebration of difference become consumable. The female body, the racialized body, and the disabled body have long been coded as monstrous. Monster High reclaims this label, queering it. Using Jack Halberstam's work on children's culture and Richard Berger's and Rosalind Hanmer's work on fandom, this article explores the queer potential of Monster High. Fans rewrite the Mattel narrative through fan fiction, repainting the dolls, and embodying them through virtual avatars, makeup, and costume play. These fan practices both queer the dolls' identity politics and create communities of interest that act as safe spaces for expressing queer identity and generating fan activism. These fan practices have also influenced Mattel's branding of the dolls, specifically with the recent inclusion of activism campaigns such as WeStopHate and The Kind Campaign into the Monster High Webisodes and Web site. By exploring the queer politics of Monster High fandom, this paper explains how that queering generates social change.

  14. Fractal Image Compression Based on High Entropy Values Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douaa Younis Abbaas

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available There are many attempts tried to improve the encoding stage of FIC because it consumed time. These attempts worked by reducing size of the search pool for pair range-domain matching but most of them led to get a bad quality, or a lower compression ratio of reconstructed image. This paper aims to present a method to improve performance of the full search algorithm by combining FIC (lossy compression and another lossless technique (in this case entropy coding is used. The entropy technique will reduce size of the domain pool (i. e., number of domain blocks based on the entropy value of each range block and domain block and then comparing the results of full search algorithm and proposed algorithm based on entropy technique to see each of which give best results (such as reduced the encoding time with acceptable values in both compression quali-ty parameters which are C. R (Compression Ratio and PSNR (Image Quality. The experimental results of the proposed algorithm proven that using the proposed entropy technique reduces the encoding time while keeping compression rates and reconstruction image quality good as soon as possible.

  15. Rice Transcriptome Analysis to Identify Possible Herbicide Quinclorac Detoxification Genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenying eXu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Quinclorac is a highly selective auxin-type herbicide, and is widely used in the effective control of barnyard grass in paddy rice fields, improving the world’s rice yield. The herbicide mode of action of quinclorac has been proposed and hormone interactions affect quinclorac signaling. Because of widespread use, quinclorac may be transported outside rice fields with the drainage waters, leading to soil and water pollution and environmental health problems.In this study, we used 57K Affymetrix rice whole-genome array to identify quinclorac signaling response genes to study the molecular mechanisms of action and detoxification of quinclorac in rice plants. Overall, 637 probe sets were identified with differential expression levels under either 6 or 24 h of quinclorac treatment. Auxin-related genes such as GH3 and OsIAAs responded to quinclorac treatment. Gene Ontology analysis showed that genes of detoxification-related family genes were significantly enriched, including cytochrome P450, GST, UGT, and ABC and drug transporter genes. Moreover, real-time RT-PCR analysis showed that top candidate P450 families such as CYP81, CYP709C and CYP72A genes were universally induced by different herbicides. Some Arabidopsis genes for the same P450 family were up-regulated under quinclorac treatment.We conduct rice whole-genome GeneChip analysis and the first global identification of quinclorac response genes. This work may provide potential markers for detoxification of quinclorac and biomonitors of environmental chemical pollution.

  16. Fluridone: a combination germination stimulant and herbicide for problem fields?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goggin, Danica E; Powles, Stephen B

    2014-09-01

    Problem weeds in agriculture, such as Lolium rigidum Gaud., owe some of their success to their large and dormant seed banks, which permit germination throughout a crop-growing season. Dormant weed seed banks could be greatly depleted by application of a chemical that stimulates early-season germination and then kills the young seedlings. Fluridone, a phytoene desaturase-inhibiting herbicide that can also break seed dormancy, was assessed for its efficacy in this regard. The germination of fluridone-treated Lolium rigidum seeds was stimulated on soils with low organic matter, and almost 100% seedling mortality was observed, while the treatment was only moderately effective on a high-organic-matter potting mix. Seedlings from wheat, canola, common bean and chickpea seeds sown on fluridone-treated sandy loam were bleached and did not survive, but lupins and field peas grew normally. This proof-of-concept study with fluridone suggests that it may be possible to design safe and effective molecules that act as germination stimulants plus herbicides in a range of crop and soil types: a potentially novel way of utilising herbicides to stimulate seed bank germination and a valuable addition to an integrated weed management system. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Potential organic herbicides for squash production: Pelargonic acid herbicides AXXE (registered trademark) and Scythe (registered trademark)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organic squash (Cucurbita pepo L.) producers need appropriate herbicides that can effectively provide season- long weed control. Research was conducted in southeast Oklahoma (Atoka County, Lane, OK) to determine the impact of potential organic herbicides on weed control efficacy, crop injury, and y...

  18. Genetically Modified Herbicide-Tolerant Crops, Weeds, and Herbicides: Overview and Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonny, Sylvie

    2016-01-01

    Genetically modified (GM) crops have been and continue to be a subject of controversy despite their rapid adoption by farmers where approved. For the last two decades, an important matter of debate has been their impact on pesticide use, particularly for herbicide-tolerant (HT) crops. Some claim that these crops bring about a decrease in herbicide use, while others claim the opposite. In fact, since 1996, most cultivated GMOs have been GMHT crops, which involve the use of an associated herbicide, generally glyphosate. In their very first years of adoption, HT crops often led to some decrease in herbicide use. However, the repetition of glyphosate-tolerant crops and of glyphosate only applications in the same fields without sufficient alternation and herbicide diversity has contributed to the appearance of glyphosate-resistant weeds. These weeds have resulted in a rise in the use of glyphosate and other herbicides. This article explores this situation and the impacts of herbicide-resistant weeds, using an interdisciplinary approach and drawing on recent data. The paper analyzes the spread of GMHT crops worldwide and their consequences on herbicide use in the USA in particular. It then addresses the global development of glyphosate-resistant weeds and their impact, particularly focusing on the USA. Finally, the last section explores how industry, farmers, and weed scientists are coping with the spread of resistant weeds. The concluding comments deal more widely with trends in GM crops.

  19. Soil microbial communities and glyphosate decay in soils with different herbicide application history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guijarro, Keren Hernández; Aparicio, Virginia; De Gerónimo, Eduardo; Castellote, Martín; Figuerola, Eva L; Costa, José Luis; Erijman, Leonardo

    2018-04-11

    This study evaluates the glyphosate dissipation under field conditions in three types of soil, and aims to determine the importance of the following factors in the environmental persistence of herbicide: i) soil bacterial communities, ii) soil physicochemical properties, iii) previous exposure to the herbicide. A soil without previous record of GP application (P0) and two agricultural soils, with 5 and >10years of GP exposure (A5 and A10) were subjected to the application of glyphosate at doses of 3mg·kg -1 . The concentration of GP and AMPA was determined over time and the dynamics of soil bacterial communities was evaluated using 16S ARN ribosomal gene amplicon-sequencing. The GP exposure history affected the rate but not the extent of GP biodegradation. The herbicide was degraded rapidly, but P0 soil showed a dissipation rate significantly lower than soils with agricultural history. In P0 soil, a significant increase in the relative abundance of Bacteroidetes was observed in response to herbicide application. More generally, all soils displayed shifts in bacterial community structure, which nevertheless could not be clearly associated to glyphosate dissipation, suggesting the presence of redundant bacteria populations of potential degraders. Yet the application of the herbicide prompted a partial disruption of the bacterial association network of unexposed soil. On the other hand, higher values of linear (Kd) and nonlinear (Kf) sorption coefficient in P0 point to the relevance of cation exchange capacity (CEC), clay and organic matter to the capacity of soil to adsorb the herbicide, suggesting that bioavailability was a key factor for the persistence of GP and AMPA. These results contribute to understand the relationship between bacterial taxa exposed to the herbicide, and the importance of soil properties as predictors of the possible rate of degradation and persistence of glyphosate in soil. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Determination of solid-liquid partition coefficients (K{sub d}) for the herbicides inspiration and trifluralin in five UK agricultural soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooke, Cindy M. [Department of Environmental Science and Technology, Faculty of Life Sciences, Imperial College London, Silwood Park Campus, Ascot, Berkshire SL5 7PY (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: cindy.cooke@imperial.ac.uk; Shaw, George [Department of Environmental Science and Technology, Faculty of Life Sciences, Imperial College London, Silwood Park Campus, Ascot, Berkshire SL5 7PY (United Kingdom); Collins, Chris D. [Department of Environmental Science and Technology, Faculty of Life Sciences, Imperial College London, Silwood Park Campus, Ascot, Berkshire SL5 7PY (United Kingdom)

    2004-12-01

    Isoproturon and trifluralin are herbicides of contrasting chemical characters and modes of action. Standard batch sorption procedures were carried out to investigate the individual sorption behaviour of {sup 14}C-isoproturon and {sup 14}C-trifluralin in five agricultural soils (1.8-4.2% OC), and the soil solid-liquid partition coefficients (K{sub d} values) were determined. Trifluralin exhibited strong partitioning to the soil solid phase (K{sub d} range 106-294) and low desorption potential, thus should not pose a threat to sensitive waters via leaching, although particle erosion and preferential flow pathways may facilitate transport. For isoproturon, soil adsorption was low (K{sub d} range 1.96-5.75) and desorption was high, suggesting a high leaching potential, consistent with isoproturon being the most frequently found pesticide in UK surface waters. Soil partitioning was directly related to soil organic carbon (OC) content. Accumulation isotherms were modelled using a dual-phase adsorption model to estimate adsorption and desorption rate coefficients. Associations between herbicides and soil humic substances were also shown using gel filtration chromatography. - Capsule: Herbicide soil sorption described by a dual-phase adsorption model reflected soil partitioning, as influenced by soil OC and humic substances.

  1. Herbicide resistance and biodiversity: agronomic and environmental aspects of genetically modified herbicide-resistant plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schütte, Gesine; Eckerstorfer, Michael; Rastelli, Valentina; Reichenbecher, Wolfram; Restrepo-Vassalli, Sara; Ruohonen-Lehto, Marja; Saucy, Anne-Gabrielle Wuest; Mertens, Martha

    2017-01-01

    Farmland biodiversity is an important characteristic when assessing sustainability of agricultural practices and is of major international concern. Scientific data indicate that agricultural intensification and pesticide use are among the main drivers of biodiversity loss. The analysed data and experiences do not support statements that herbicide-resistant crops provide consistently better yields than conventional crops or reduce herbicide amounts. They rather show that the adoption of herbicide-resistant crops impacts agronomy, agricultural practice, and weed management and contributes to biodiversity loss in several ways: (i) many studies show that glyphosate-based herbicides, which were commonly regarded as less harmful, are toxic to a range of aquatic organisms and adversely affect the soil and intestinal microflora and plant disease resistance; the increased use of 2,4-D or dicamba, linked to new herbicide-resistant crops, causes special concerns. (ii) The adoption of herbicide-resistant crops has reduced crop rotation and favoured weed management that is solely based on the use of herbicides. (iii) Continuous herbicide resistance cropping and the intensive use of glyphosate over the last 20 years have led to the appearance of at least 34 glyphosate-resistant weed species worldwide. Although recommended for many years, farmers did not counter resistance development in weeds by integrated weed management, but continued to rely on herbicides as sole measure. Despite occurrence of widespread resistance in weeds to other herbicides, industry rather develops transgenic crops with additional herbicide resistance genes. (iv) Agricultural management based on broad-spectrum herbicides as in herbicide-resistant crops further decreases diversity and abundance of wild plants and impacts arthropod fauna and other farmland animals. Taken together, adverse impacts of herbicide-resistant crops on biodiversity, when widely adopted, should be expected and are indeed very hard

  2. Capturing the real value in high-tech acquisitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhuri, S; Tabrizi, B

    1999-01-01

    Eager to stay ahead of fast-changing markets, more and more high-tech companies are going outside for competitive advantage. Last year in the United States alone, there were 5,000 high-tech acquisitions, but many of them yielded disappointing results. The reason, the authors contend, is that most managers have a shortsighted view of strategic acquisitions--they focus on the specific products or market share. That focus might make sense in some industries, where those assets can confer substantial advantages, but in high tech, full-fledged technological capabilities--tied to skilled people--are the key to long-term success. Instead of simply following the "buzz," successful acquires systematically assess their own capability needs. They create product road maps to identify holes in their product line. While the business group determines if it can do the work in-house, the business development office scouts for opportunities to buy it. Once business development locates a candidate, it conducts an expanded due diligence, which goes beyond strategic, financial, and legal checks. Successful acquires are focused on long-term capabilities, so they make sure that the target's products reflect a real expertise. They also look to see if key people would be comfortable in the new environment and if they have incentives to stay on board. The final stage of a successful acquisition focuses on retaining the new people--making sure their transition goes smoothly and their energies stay focused. Acquisitions can cause great uncertainty, and skilled people can always go elsewhere. In short, the authors argue, high-tech acquisitions need a new orientation around people, not products.

  3. Electrochemical degradation of some herbicides in aqueous solution on boron doped diamond anodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaouak, Amira; Dachraoui, Mohamed; Matoussi, Fatma

    2009-01-01

    Bifenox(a) and acifluorfen(b), respectively (Methyl 5-(2,4-dichlorophenoxy)-2-nitrobenzoate and 5-(2-Chloro-4-trifluoro methylphenoxy)-2-nitrobenzoic acid, are two highly toxic herbicides of the diphenyl ether class. They are widely used in agriculture. Their electrochemical oxidation behaviour is studied by cyclic voltammetry in various media with different electrodes. When galvanostatic electrolysis is realized on Boron Doped Diamond electrode (BDD) we observe that the studied contaminants undergo an almost complete degradation due to hydroxy radical action as commonly suggested. The rate of the mineralization is followed by spectrophotometric analysis and COD measurements. The optimization of this advanced oxidation process is studied as a function of the current density. It shows that the best results are obtained with low current densities. The obtained COD abatement values are superior to 90 pour cent.

  4. Toxicological effect of herbicides (diuron and bentazon) on snake venom and electric eel acetylcholinesterase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Mushtaq; Latif, Nadia; Khan, Rehmat Ali; Ahmad, Akhlaq

    2012-08-01

    The toxicological effects of the active ingredients of the herbicides diuron and bentazon on the activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) of krait (Bungarus sindanus) venom and electric eel (Electrophorus electricus) were studied. The diuron and entazon caused non-competitive inhibition of AChE from both species. For the venom AChE, the calculated IC50 for diuron and bentazon were found to be 3.25 and 0.14 μM, while for eel AChE, the respective IC50 values were 3.6 and 0.135 μM. In comparison, bentazon was a more potent inhibitor than diuron of AChE from both species. The insecticide lindane did not have any inhibitory effect on AChE activity in either species, even when tested at high concentrations (200-800 μM).

  5. Production of High Value Fluorine Gases for the Semiconductor Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bulko, J. B.

    2003-10-23

    The chemistry to manufacture high purity GeF{sub 4} and WF{sub 6} for use in the semiconductor industry using Starmet's new fluorine extraction technology has been developed. Production of GeF{sub 4} was established using a tube-style reactor system where conversion yields as high as 98.1% were attained for the reaction between and GeO{sub 2}. Collection of the fluoride gas improved to 97.7% when the reactor sweep gas contained a small fraction of dry air (10-12 vol%) along with helium. The lab-synthesized product was shown to contain the least amount of infrared active and elemental impurities when compared with a reference material certified at 99.99% purity. Analysis of the ''as-produced'' gas using ICP-MS showed that uranium could not be detected at a detection limit of 0.019ppm-wt. A process to make WF{sub 6} from WO{sub 2}, and UF{sub 4}, produced a WOF{sub 4} intermediate, which proved difficult to convert to tungsten hexafluoride using titanium fluoride as a fluorinating agent.

  6. Spatial variability of herbicide mobilisation and transport at catchment scale: insights from a field experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Doppler

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available During rain events, herbicides can be transported from their point of application to surface waters, where they may harm aquatic organisms. Since the spatial pattern of mobilisation and transport is heterogeneous, the contributions of different fields to the herbicide load in the stream may vary considerably within one catchment. Therefore, the prediction of contributing areas could help to target mitigation measures efficiently to those locations where they reduce herbicide pollution the most.

    Such spatial predictions require sufficient insight into the underlying transport processes. To improve the understanding of the process chain of herbicide mobilisation on the field and the subsequent transport through the catchment to the stream, we performed a controlled herbicide application on corn fields in a small agricultural catchment (ca. 1 km2 with intensive crop production in the Swiss Plateau. Water samples were collected at different locations in the catchment (overland flow, tile drains and open channel for two months after application in 2009, with a high temporal resolution during rain events. We also analysed soil samples from the experimental fields and measured discharge, groundwater level, soil moisture and the occurrence of overland flow at several locations. Several rain events with varying intensities and magnitudes occurred during the study period. Overland flow and erosion were frequently observed in the entire catchment. Infiltration excess and saturation excess overland flow were both observed. However, the main herbicide loss event was dominated by infiltration excess.

    Despite the frequent and wide-spread occurrence of overland flow, most of this water did not reach the channel directly, but was retained in small depressions in the catchment. From there, it reached the stream via macropores and tile drains. Manholes of the drainage system and storm drains for road and farmyard runoff acted as

  7. Herbicide micropollutants in surface, ground and drinking waters within and near the area of Zagreb, Croatia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fingler, Sanja; Mendaš, G; Dvoršćak, M; Stipičević, S; Vasilić, Ž; Drevenkar, V

    2017-04-01

    The frequency and mass concentrations of 13 herbicide micropollutants (triazines, phenylureas, chloroacetanilides and trifluralin) were investigated during 2014 in surface, ground and drinking waters in the area of the city of Zagreb and its suburbs. Herbicide compounds were accumulated from water by solid-phase extraction using either octadecylsilica or styrene-divinylbenzene sorbent cartridges and analysed either by high-performance liquid chromatography with UV-diode array detector or gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection. Atrazine was the most frequently detected herbicide in drinking (84 % of samples) and ground (61 % of samples) waters in mass concentrations of 5 to 68 ng L -1 . It was followed by metolachlor and terbuthylazine, the former being detected in 54 % of drinking (up to 15 ng L -1 ) and 23 % of ground (up to 100 ng L -1 ) waters, and the latter in 45 % of drinking (up to 20 ng L -1 ) and 26 % of ground (up to 25 ng L -1 ) water samples. Acetochlor was the fourth most abundant herbicide in drinking waters, detected in 32 % of samples. Its mass concentrations of 107 to 117 ng L -1 in three tap water samples were the highest of all herbicides measured in the drinking waters. The most frequently (62 % of samples) and highly (up to 887 ng L -1 ) detected herbicide in surface waters was metolachlor, followed by terbuthylazine detected in 49 % of samples in mass concentrations of up to 690 ng L -1 , and atrazine detected in 30 % of samples in mass concentrations of up to 18 ng L -1 . The seasonal variations in herbicide concentrations in surface waters were observed for terbuthylazine, metolachlor, acetochlor, chlortoluron and isoproturon with the highest concentrations measured from April to August.

  8. Glyceria maxima as new test species for the EU risk assessment for herbicides: a microcosm study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohr, S; Schott, J; Hoenemann, L; Feibicke, M

    2015-03-01

    In its recent guidance document on tiered risk assessment for plant protection products for aquatic organisms, the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) proposed to use Glyceria maxima as monocotyledonous grass species for the testing of special herbicide groups. However, published toxicity data for this species is very limited and there is no test guideline for Glyceria sp. For this reason a microcosm study was conducted in order to gain experience on the degree of sensitivity of G. maxima to the herbicidal substances clodinafop-propargyl (grass herbicide) and fluroxypyr (auxin) in comparison to the already established test organism water milfoil Myriophyllum spicatum and the duckweed species Landoltia punctata. Five concentrations without replicates were tested for each test substance using 10 microcosms and three microcosms served as controls. The experiment was run for 8 weeks. Morphological endpoints were used to determine growth and EC50 values. The results show that M. spicatum was most sensitive to fluroxypyr (37 days EC50 for roots: 62 µg/L) and G. maxima most sensitive to clodinafop-propargyl (22 days EC50 for total shoot length: 48 µg/L) whereas the duckweed species was considerable less sensitive. Hence, G. maxima turns out to be a good candidate for testing grass specific herbicides, supporting its inclusion as an additional macrophyte test for the risk assessment of herbicides as proposed by the EFSA.

  9. Herbicidal Spectrum, Absorption and Transportation, and Physiological Effect on Bidens pilosa of the Natural Alkaloid Berberine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jiao; Ma, Jing-Jing; Liu, Bo; Huang, Lun; Sang, Xiao-Qing; Zhou, Li-Juan

    2017-08-02

    Berberine is a natural herbicidal alkaloid from Coptis chinensis Franch. Here we characterized its herbicidal spectrum and absorption and transportation in the plant, along with the possible mechanism. Berberine showed no effect on the germination of the 10 tested plants. The IC 50 values of berberine on the primary root length and fresh weight of the 10 tested plants ranged from 2.91 to 9.79 mg L -1 and 5.76 to 35.07 mg L -1 , respectively. Berberine showed a similar herbicidal effect on Bidens pilosa as the commercial naturally derived herbicide cinmethylin. HPLC and fluorescence analysis revealed that berberine was mainly absorbed by B. pilosa root and transported through vascular bundle acropetally. Enzyme activity studies, GC-MS analysis, and SEM and TEM observations indicated that berberine might first function on the cell membrane indicated by variation of the IUFA percent and then cause POD, PPO, and SOD activity changes and cellular structure deformity, which was eventually expressed as the decrease of cell adaptation ability and abnormal cell function and may even result in cell death. Environmental safety evaluation tests revealed that berberine was low in toxicity to Brachydanio rerio. These indicate that berberine has the potential to be a bioherbicide and/or a lead molecule for new herbicides.

  10. Still rethinking the value of high wood density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larjavaara, Markku; Muller-Landau, Helene C

    2012-01-01

    In a previous paper, we questioned the traditional interpretation of the advantages and disadvantages of high wood density (Functional Ecology 24: 701-705). Niklas and Spatz (American Journal of Botany 97: 1587-1594) challenged the biomechanical relevance of studying properties of dry wood, including dry wood density, and stated that we erred in our claims regarding scaling. We first present the full derivation of our previous claims regarding scaling. We then examine how the fresh modulus of rupture and the elastic modulus scale with dry wood density and compare these scaling relationships with those for dry mechanical properties, using almost exactly the same data set analyzed by Niklas and Spatz. The derivation shows that given our assumptions that the modulus of rupture and elastic modulus are both proportional to wood density, the resistance to bending is inversely proportional to wood density and strength is inversely proportional with the square root of wood density, exactly as we previously claimed. The analyses show that the elastic modulus of fresh wood scales proportionally with wood density (exponent 1.05, 95% CI 0.90-1.11) but that the modulus of rupture of fresh wood does not, scaling instead with the 1.25 power of wood density (CI 1.18-1.31). The deviation from proportional scaling for modulus of rupture is so small that our central conclusion remains correct: for a given construction cost, trees with lower wood density have higher strength and higher resistance to bending.

  11. Photooxidative removal of the herbicide Acid Blue 9 in the presence of hydrogen peroxide: modeling of the reaction for evaluation of electrical energy per order (E EO).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khataee, Ali R; Khataee, Hamid R

    2008-09-01

    The present work deals with photooxidative removal of the herbicide, Acid Blue 9 (AB9), in water in the presence of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) under UV light illumination (30 W). The influence of the basic operational parameters such as amount of H2O2, irradiation time and initial concentration of AB9 on the photodegradation efficiency of the herbicide was investigated. The degradation rate of AB9 was not appreciably high when the photolysis was carried out in the absence of H2O2 and it was negligible in the absence of UV light. The photooxidative removal of the herbicide was found to follow pseudo-first-order kinetic, and hence the figure-of-merit electrical energy per order (E Eo) was considered appropriate for estimating the electrical energy efficiency. A mathematical relation between the apparent reaction rate constant and H2O2 used was applied for prediction of the electricity consumption in the photooxidative removal of AB9. The results indicated that this kinetic model, based on the initial rates of degradation, provided good prediction of the E Eo values for a variety of conditions. The results also indicated that the UV/H2O2 process was appropriate as the effective treatment method for removal of AB9 from the contaminated wastewater.

  12. studies on transition metal complexes of herbicidal compounds. ii

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    a

    derivative of 2-chloro-4-ethylamino-6-isopropylamino-s-triazine, atrazine (ATZ) --- a well known herbicide has ... development while the other is the metal ion associated degradation or deactivation of the herbicides .... Colour M.p./decomp.

  13. Removal of triazine herbicides from freshwater systems using photosynthetic microorganisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez-Barreiro, O.; Rioboo, C.; Herrero, C.; Cid, A.

    2006-01-01

    The uptake of the triazine herbicides, atrazine and terbutryn, was determined for two freshwater photosynthetic microorganisms, the green microalga Chlorella vulgaris and the cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus. An extremely rapid uptake of both pesticides was recorded, although uptake rate was lower for the cyanobacterium, mainly for atrazine. Other parameters related to the herbicide bioconcentration capacity of these microorganisms were also studied. Growth rate, biomass, and cell viability in cultures containing herbicide were clearly affected by herbicide uptake. Herbicide toxicity and microalgae sensitivity were used to determine the effectiveness of the bioconcentration process and the stability of herbicide removal. C. vulgaris showed higher bioconcentration capability for these two triazine herbicides than S. elongatus, especially with regard to terbutryn. This study supports the usefulness of such microorganisms, as a bioremediation technique in freshwater systems polluted with triazine herbicides

  14. Removal of triazine herbicides from freshwater systems using photosynthetic microorganisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez-Barreiro, O. [Laboratorio de Microbiologia, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de A Coruna, Campus da Zapateira s/n. 15071 A Coruna (Spain); Rioboo, C. [Laboratorio de Microbiologia, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de A Coruna, Campus da Zapateira s/n. 15071 A Coruna (Spain); Herrero, C. [Laboratorio de Microbiologia, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de A Coruna, Campus da Zapateira s/n. 15071 A Coruna (Spain); Cid, A. [Laboratorio de Microbiologia, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de A Coruna, Campus da Zapateira s/n. 15071 A Coruna (Spain)]. E-mail: cid@udc.es

    2006-11-15

    The uptake of the triazine herbicides, atrazine and terbutryn, was determined for two freshwater photosynthetic microorganisms, the green microalga Chlorella vulgaris and the cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus. An extremely rapid uptake of both pesticides was recorded, although uptake rate was lower for the cyanobacterium, mainly for atrazine. Other parameters related to the herbicide bioconcentration capacity of these microorganisms were also studied. Growth rate, biomass, and cell viability in cultures containing herbicide were clearly affected by herbicide uptake. Herbicide toxicity and microalgae sensitivity were used to determine the effectiveness of the bioconcentration process and the stability of herbicide removal. C. vulgaris showed higher bioconcentration capability for these two triazine herbicides than S. elongatus, especially with regard to terbutryn. This study supports the usefulness of such microorganisms, as a bioremediation technique in freshwater systems polluted with triazine herbicides.

  15. Using Bioassays and Species Sensitivity Distributions to Assess Herbicide Toxicity towards Benthic Diatoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larras, Floriane; Bouchez, Agnès; Rimet, Frédéric; Montuelle, Bernard

    2012-01-01

    Although benthic diatoms are widely used in ecological studies of aquatic systems, there is still a dearth of data concerning species sensitivities towards several contaminants. Within the same community, different species may respond differently depending on their physiological and ecological characteristics. This lack of knowledge makes specific appropriate risk assessment impossible. To find out whether species sensitivity distribution (SSD) could be used to estimate the risk of herbicide toxicity for diatoms, we need to know whether their sensitivity depends on their physiological and ecological characteristics. We carried out single-species bioassays on 11 diatom species exposed to 8 herbicides. Dose-responses relationships were used to extrapolate the Effective Concentration 5 (EC5) and the Effective Concentration 50 (EC50) for each exposure. These data were used to fit a SSD curve for each herbicide, and to determine the Hazardous concentration 5 (HC5) and 50 (HC50). Our results revealed a high level of variability of the sensitivity in the set of species tested. For photosystem-II inhibitor (PSII) herbicides, diatoms species displayed a typical grouping of sensitivity levels consistent with their trophic mode and their ecological guild. N-heterotroph and “motile” guild species were more tolerant of PSII inhibitors, while N-autotroph and “low profile” guild species were more sensitive. Comprehensive SSD curves were obtained for 5 herbicides, but not for sulfonylurea herbicides or for dimetachlor, which had toxicity levels that were below the range of concentration tested. The SSD curves provided the following ranking of toxicity: diuron> terbutryn> isoproturon> atrazine> metolachlor. The HC that affected 5% of the species revealed that, even at the usual environmental concentrations of herbicides, diatom assemblages could be affected, especially by isoproturon, terbutryn, and diuron. PMID:22952981

  16. Using bioassays and species sensitivity distributions to assess herbicide toxicity towards benthic diatoms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Floriane Larras

    Full Text Available Although benthic diatoms are widely used in ecological studies of aquatic systems, there is still a dearth of data concerning species sensitivities towards several contaminants. Within the same community, different species may respond differently depending on their physiological and ecological characteristics. This lack of knowledge makes specific appropriate risk assessment impossible. To find out whether species sensitivity distribution (SSD could be used to estimate the risk of herbicide toxicity for diatoms, we need to know whether their sensitivity depends on their physiological and ecological characteristics. We carried out single-species bioassays on 11 diatom species exposed to 8 herbicides. Dose-responses relationships were used to extrapolate the Effective Concentration 5 (EC(5 and the Effective Concentration 50 (EC(50 for each exposure. These data were used to fit a SSD curve for each herbicide, and to determine the Hazardous concentration 5 (HC(5 and 50 (HC(50. Our results revealed a high level of variability of the sensitivity in the set of species tested. For photosystem-II inhibitor (PSII herbicides, diatoms species displayed a typical grouping of sensitivity levels consistent with their trophic mode and their ecological guild. N-heterotroph and "motile" guild species were more tolerant of PSII inhibitors, while N-autotroph and "low profile" guild species were more sensitive. Comprehensive SSD curves were obtained for 5 herbicides, but not for sulfonylurea herbicides or for dimetachlor, which had toxicity levels that were below the range of concentration tested. The SSD curves provided the following ranking of toxicity: diuron> terbutryn> isoproturon> atrazine> metolachlor. The HC that affected 5% of the species revealed that, even at the usual environmental concentrations of herbicides, diatom assemblages could be affected, especially by isoproturon, terbutryn, and diuron.

  17. Glyphosate, other herbicides, and transformation products in Midwestern streams, 2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battaglin, W.A.; Kolpin, D.W.; Scribner, E.A.; Kuivila, K.M.; Sandstrom, M.W.

    2005-01-01

    The use of glyphosate has increased rapidly, and there is limited understanding of its environmental fate. The objective of this study was to document the occurrence of glyphosate and the transformation product aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) in Midwestern streams and to compare their occurrence with that of more commonly measured herbicides such as acetochlor, atrazine, and metolachlor. Water samples were collected at sites on 51 streams in nine Midwestern states in 2002 during three runoff events: after the application of pre-emergence herbicides, after the application of post-emergence herbicides, and during harvest season. All samples were analyzed for glyphosate and 20 other herbicides using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry or high performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. The frequency of glyphosate and AMPA detection, range of concentrations in runoff samples, and ratios of AMPA to glyphosate concentrations did not vary throughout the growing season as substantially as for other herbicides like atrazine, probably because of different seasonal use patterns. Glyphosate was detected at or above 0.1 μg/1 in 35 percent of pre-emergence, 40 percent of post-emergence, and 31 percent of harvest season samples, with a maximum concentration of 8.7 μg/1. AMPA was detected at or above 0.1 μg/1 in 53 percent of pre-emergence, 83 percent of post-emergence, and 73 percent of harvest season samples, with a maximum concentration of 3.6 μg/1. Glyphosate was not detected at a concentration at or above the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's maximum contamination level (MCL) of 700 μg/1 in any sample. Atrazine was detected at or above 0.1 μg/1 in 94 percent of pre-emergence, 96 percent of post-emergence, and 57 percent of harvest season samples, with a maximum concentration of 55 μg/1. Atrazine was detected at or above its MCL (3 μg/1) in 57 percent of pre-emergence and 33 percent of post-emergence samples

  18. Glyphasate, other herbicides, and transformation products in midwestern streams, 2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battaglin, William A.; Koplin, Dana W.; Scribner, Elizabeth A.; Kuivila, Kathryn; Sandstrom, Mark W.

    2005-01-01

    The use of glyphosate has increased rapidly, and there is limited understanding of its environmental fate. The objective of this study was to document the occurrence of glyphosate and the transformation product aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) in Midwestern streams and to compare their occurrence with that of more commonly measured herbicides such as acetochlor, atrazine, and metolachlor. Water samples were collected at sites on 51 streams in nine Midwestern states in 2002 during three runoff events: after the application of pre-emergence herbicides, after the application of post-emergence herbicides, and during harvest season. All samples were analyzed for glyphosate and 20 other herbicides using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry or high performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. The frequency of glyphosate and AMPA detection, range of concentrations in runoff samples, and ratios of AMPA to glyphosate concentrations did not vary throughout the growing season as substantially as for other herbicides like atrazine, probably because of different seasonal use patterns. Glyphosate was detected at or above 0.1 μg/1 in 35 percent of pre-emergence, 40 percent of post-emergence, and 31 percent of harvest season samples, with a maximum concentration of 8.7 μg/1. AMPA was detected at or above 0.1 μg/1 in 53 percent of pre-emergence, 83 percent of post-emergence, and 73 percent of harvest season samples, with a maximum concentration of 3.6 μg/1. Glyphosate was not detected at a concentration at or above the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's maximum contamination level (MCL) of 700 μg/1 in any sample. Atrazine was detected at or above 0.1 μg/1 in 94 percent of pre-emergence, 96 percent of post-emergence, and 57 percent of harvest season samples, with a maximum concentration of 55 μg/1. Atrazine was detected at or above its MCL (3 μg/1) in 57 percent of pre-emergence and 33 percent of post-emergence samples.

  19. Value-based insurance design: consumers' views on paying more for high-cost, low-value care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsburg, Marjorie

    2010-11-01

    Value-based insurance designs frequently lower consumers' cost sharing to motivate healthy behavior, such as adhering to medication regimens. Few health care purchasers have followed the more controversial approach of using increased cost sharing to temper demand for high-cost, low-value medical care. Yet there is evidence that when health care's affordability is at stake, the public may be willing to compromise on coverage of certain medical problems and less effective treatments. Businesses should engage employees in discussions about if and how this type of value-based insurance design should apply to their own insurance coverage. A similar process could also be used for Medicare and other public-sector programs.

  20. Determination of triazine herbicides and their metabolites in multiple medicinal parts of traditional Chinese medicines using streamlined pretreatment and UFLC-ESI-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Congmin; Dou, Xiaowen; Zhang, Lei; Li, Qian; Qin, Jia'an; Duan, Yaping; Yang, Meihua

    2018-01-01

    A rapid, sensitive, and reliable ultra-fast liquid chromatography combined with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (UFLC-ESI-MS/MS) method was established and applied to simultaneous determination of 31 triazine herbicides and their metabolites in multiple medicinal parts of traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs). A streamlined pretreatment approach using one-step extraction and dilution was proposed, which provided high-throughput processing, excellent recovery, and negligible interference. Afterwards, multiple-reaction monitoring (MRM) and information-dependent acquisition (IDA) triggered enhanced product ion spectra (EPI) was adopted to identify and quantify the targets in a single analysis. The optimized method was then validated according to the guidelines of the European Commission for the following parameters: Matrix effects, specificity, accuracy, precision, linearity, range, and stability. The LOD and LOQ for the 31 triazine herbicides were 0.1-10 μg kg -1 and 0.5-25 μg kg -1 , respectively. Recoveries at three concentration levels were within 67.9-120.3% with an associated precision RSD <20%. Using the proposed approach, trazines herbicides were determined from 44 commercially available TCMs. The detection rate of triazine herbicides residues was 15.9% of the total samples. Among them, atrazine, simeton, and simetryn were found in the radix, herba, and seed TCMs with values far below the referenced maximum residue limits (MRLs), but no residues were detected in either the flos or fructus. Taken together, this method has the potential to provide a means for triazines screening in extensive matrices, thereby laying the foundation for pesticide registration on TCMs. Moreover, it has the potential to guide further triazine residue control in TCMs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Discovery of new herbicide modes of action with natural phytotoxins

    Science.gov (United States)

    About 20 modes of action (MOAs) are utilized by commercial herbicides, and almost 30 years have passed since the last new MOA was introduced. Rapidly increasing evolution of resistance to herbicides with these MOAs has greatly increased the need for herbicides with new MOAs. Combinatorial chemistry ...

  2. Surface plasmon resonance application for herbicide detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chegel, Vladimir I.; Shirshov, Yuri M.; Piletskaya, Elena V.; Piletsky, Sergey A.

    1998-01-01

    The optoelectronic biosensor, based on Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) for detection of photosynthesis-inhibiting herbicides in aqueous solutions is presented. The pesticide capability to replace plastoquinone from its complex with D1 protein is used for the detection. This replacement reaction results in the changes of the optical characteristics of protein layer, immobilized on the gold surface. Monitoring of these changes with SPR-technique permit to determine 0.1 - 5.0 mkg/ml herbicide in solution within one hour.

  3. Herbicide Orange Site Characterization Study, Eglin AFB

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    F THIS PAGE Availabilit o this r is sp f o.n" the reverse of fo cove* . - .’.r. 717 CSAT CO ES ’SU JEC TE MS Coninu onrevrseif ece~ar an idntiy b...of Hardstand 7 and Surface Water Drainages ......... 4 3 Hardstand 7 Herbicide Oran&e Storage Locations .............. 5 4 Concentrations (in ppb) of...insoluble in water . The formula contained an approximate 50/50 mixture of the herbicides 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,-D) and 2,4,5

  4. SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF HDPE PLASTIC FILM FOR HERBICIDE CONTAINER USING FLY ASH CLASS F AS FILLER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yatim Lailun Ni’mah

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available High Density Polyethylene (HDPE plastic plays an important role in various applications, for example, it can be used as a container (bottle. Petrokimia Kayaku Company, a branch of Petrokimia Company of Gresik, produces herbicides using HDPE plastic bottles as their container. Those plastic bottles undergo degradation (kempot for certain period of time. The aim of this research is to characterize and to synthesize the HDPE plastic film with class F fly ash as filler. The results expected from this research are producing the plastic with a better properties and durability. This research was initiated by taking the sample of HDPE plastic bottle and herbicides (containing Gramakuat, on active material parakuat dichloride at Petrokimia Kayaku Company. Both the initial HDPE and the degraded bottles was analyzed their tensile strength and Fourier Transform-Infra Red (FTIR spectral. The next step was to synthesize the HDPE plastic film using class F fly ash as filler and a coupling agent. The filler concentrations were 0%, 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20wt %. The best result was 5% filler concentration with tensile strength of 27.7 lbs. This HDPE film was then subjected to degradation test using pyridine solution with various concentrations (1%, 3% and 5% for two weeks, thermal degradation at 100 °C for two weeks and chemical resistance by xylene with soak time variation of 24 h, 98 h and 168 h. The result of degradations test show that the value of tensile strength was decreased with the increase of filler consentration. The chemical resistance, however, was increased.   Keywords: degradation, filler, fly ash, HDPE, Herbicide

  5. Development and characterization of mutant winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) accessions resistant to the herbicide quizalofop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostlie, Michael; Haley, Scott D; Anderson, Victoria; Shaner, Dale; Manmathan, Harish; Beil, Craig; Westra, Phillip

    2015-02-01

    New herbicide resistance traits in wheat were produced through the use of induced mutagenesis. While herbicide-resistant crops have become common in many agricultural systems, wheat has seen few introductions of herbicide resistance traits. A population of Hatcher winter wheat treated with ethyl methanesulfonate was screened with quizalofop to identify herbicide-resistant plants. Initial testing identified plants that survived multiple quizalofop applications. A series of experiments were designed to characterize this trait. In greenhouse studies the mutants exhibited high levels of quizalofop resistance compared to non-mutant wheat. Sequencing ACC1 revealed a novel missense mutation causing an alanine to valine change at position 2004 (Alopecurus myosuroides reference sequence). Plants carrying single mutations in wheat's three genomes (A, B, D) were identified. Acetyl co-enzyme A carboxylase in resistant plants was 4- to 10-fold more tolerant to quizalofop. Populations of segregating backcross progenies were developed by crossing each of the three individual mutants with wild-type wheat. Experiments conducted with these populations confirmed largely normal segregation, with each mutant allele conferring an additive level of resistance. Further tests showed that the A genome mutation conferred the greatest resistance and the B genome mutation conferred the least resistance to quizalofop. The non-transgenic herbicide resistance trait identified will enhance weed control strategies in wheat.

  6. Determination of solid-liquid partition coefficients (Kd) for the herbicides isoproturon and trifluralin in five UK agricultural soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Cindy M; Shaw, George; Collins, Chris D

    2004-12-01

    Isoproturon and trifluralin are herbicides of contrasting chemical characters and modes of action. Standard batch sorption procedures were carried out to investigate the individual sorption behaviour of 14C-isoproturon and 14C-trifluralin in five agricultural soils (1.8-4.2% OC), and the soil solid-liquid partition coefficients (Kd values) were determined. Trifluralin exhibited strong partitioning to the soil solid phase (Kd range 106-294) and low desorption potential, thus should not pose a threat to sensitive waters via leaching, although particle erosion and preferential flow pathways may facilitate transport. For isoproturon, soil adsorption was low (Kd range 1.96-5.75) and desorption was high, suggesting a high leaching potential, consistent with isoproturon being the most frequently found pesticide in UK surface waters. Soil partitioning was directly related to soil organic carbon (OC) content. Accumulation isotherms were modelled using a dual-phase adsorption model to estimate adsorption and desorption rate coefficients. Associations between herbicides and soil humic substances were also shown using gel filtration chromatography.

  7. Weed management through herbicide application in direct-seeded rice and yield modeling by artificial neural network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, D.; Singh, U.P.; Ray, K.; Das, A.

    2016-11-01

    In direct seeded rice (DSR) cultivation, weed is the major constraint mainly due to absence of puddling in field. The yield loss due to weed interference is huge, may be up to 100%. In this perspective, the present experiment was conducted to study the efficacy of selected herbicides, and to predict the rice yield using artificial neural network (ANN) models. The dry weight and density of weeds were recorded at different growth stages and consequently herbicidal efficacy was evaluated. Experimental results revealed that pre-emergence (PRE) herbicide effectively controlled the germination of grassy weeds. Application bispyribac-sodium as post-emergence (POST) following PRE herbicides (clomazone or pendimethalin) or as tank-mixture with clomazone effectively reduced the density and biomass accumulation of diverse weed flora in DSR. Herbicidal treatments improved the plant height, yield attributes and grain yield (2.7 to 5.5 times) over weedy check. The sensitivity of the best ANN model clearly depicts that the weed control index (WCI) of herbicides was most important than their weed control efficiency (WCE). Besides, the early control of weeds is a better prescription to improve rice yield. Differences in sensitivity values of WCI and WCE across the crop growth stages also suggest that at 15, 30 and 60 days after sowing, herbicides most effectively controlled sedges, broad leaves and grasses, respectively. Based on the grain yield and herbicidal WCE, it can be concluded that the combined application of pendimethalin or clomazone as PRE followed by bispyribac-sodium as POST or tank-mixture of clomazone + bispyribac sodium can effectively control different weed flushes throughout the crop growth period in DSR. (Author)

  8. Hematological Alterations in Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) Exposed to Herbicides: Pendimethalin and Ethofumesate Tested Separately and in Mixture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bojarski, Bartosz; Ludwikowska, Agnieszka; Kurek, Anna; Pawlak, Krzysztof; Tombarkiewicz, Barbara; Lutnicka, Hanna

    2015-01-01

    Herbicides are used in large amounts in agriculture and the evaluation of their toxic effects is of major concern to environmental safety. The aim of the present study was to investigate common carp hematological alterations caused by herbicide exposure. Fish were treated with pendimethalin and ethofumesate tested separately and in mixture administered to aquarium water. Peripheral blood of treated fish was collected after 1, 3 and 7 days of exposure and compared to control. The total number of erythrocytes (RBC), total number of leukocytes (WBC), hematocrit value (Hct), total hemoglobin concentration (Hb), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) and leukograms were determined at once. The results indicate that herbicide exposure caused different changes in the hematological profile of the fish. In the case of exposure to individual herbicides, short-term fluctuations of various hematological indices were noted. Moreover, a significant increase in RBC and Hct after a short period of exposure (1-3 days) in fish exposed simultaneously to both tested herbicides was observed. Exposure to herbicides affected the leukocyte profile after 3 and 7 days of duration. Fluctuations of hematological parameters are a typical change in fish exposed to pesticides.

  9. Preliminary Study on Effect of Herbicides on Alfalfa Yield and Weed Community Characteristics in Yellow River Delta, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Guo-liang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Alfalfa(Medicago sativa is one of important legume forages worldwide. However, weed is the main factor limiting alfalfa production. Biomass quality and yield and stability of dry matter production during cultivation are directly associated with the interference of weeds which compete with alfalfa for water, light and nutrients. The use of herbicides is a good alternative for weed control. In order to control weed in alfalfa field with suitable herbicide in Yellow River delta, the effect of four herbicides(imazethapyr, quizalofop-p-ethyl, haloxyfop-r-methyl and oxyfluorfen with different concentration on afalfal yield and weed community characteristics were studied. The results showed that both imazethapyr and haloxyfop-r-methyl treatments could increase alfalfa yield, and the best herbicide application concentration was imazethapyr with 2 000 mL·hm-2 and haloxyfop-r-methyl with 700 mL·hm-2, but oxyfluorfen treatment would limit alfalfa growth significantly. Weed species numbers in the treatments of imazethapyr, quizalofop-p-ethyl and oxyfluorfen decreased significantly. Digitariasanguinalis, Portulacaoleracea and Echinochloacrusgalli were more difficult to control from specie important value in all treatments. Species diversity index decreased with higher herbicide concentration in all treatments. From this study, herbicide imazethapyr with 2 000 mL·hm-2 application concentration was the best weed control method, and the second one was haloxyfop-r-methyl with 700 mL·hm-2 application concentration.

  10. Genetic Analysis of Hybrid Progenies of High Quality Soybean Cultivars with Transgenic Herbicide-resistance Soybean Cultivars%优质大豆品种与抗除草剂转基因大豆品种杂种后代的遗传分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高中利; 朱洪德; 刘敏; 于洪久

    2011-01-01

    The genetic cross program was designed by four common best soybean lines and three transgenic herbicide-resistant soybean lines to study the heritability and combing ability for yield and quality and so forth. The results demonstrated that the herbicide-resistant gene Bar was dominant inheritance in F1, the additive effects were mainly responsible for the heredity of each character. The pods and seeds of Nongda 35306 had higher GCA effect, the combinations Nongda 15751 × TSB2、Nongda 35306 × TSB4 can be developed for high yield and super quality combinations. The research laid a foundation for the effective use of the transgenic herbicide-resistant soybean.%通过利用4个普通优质大豆品种与3个抗除草剂转基因大豆品种进行组配,采用4×3 NCIⅠ遗传交配设计,对产量、品质等性状的遗传力和配合力进行分析.结果表明:抗除草剂Bar基因能在F代得到显性遗传,抗除草剂转基因大豆各性状以加性遗传效应为主,农大35306单株荚数和单株粒数一般配合力效应值最高,农大15751×TSB2、农大35306×TSB4等组合可作为高产优质抗除草剂组合进一步对比选择.

  11. Regulation of Microbial Herbicide Transformation by Coupled Moisture and Oxygen Dynamics in Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marschmann, G.; Pagel, H.; Uksa, M.; Streck, T.; Milojevic, T.; Rezanezhad, F.; Van Cappellen, P.

    2017-12-01

    The key processes of herbicide fate in agricultural soils are well-characterized. However, most of these studies are from batch experiments that were conducted under optimal aerobic conditions. In order to delineate the processes controlling herbicide (i.e., phenoxy herbicide 2-methyl-4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid, MCPA) turnover in soil under variable moisture conditions, we conducted a state-of-the-art soil column experiment, with a highly instrumented automated soil column system, under constant and oscillating water table regimes. In this system, the position of the water table was imposed using a computer-controlled, multi-channel pump connected to a hydrostatic equilibrium reservoir and a water storage reservoir. The soil samples were collected from a fertilized, arable and carbon-limited agricultural field site in Germany. The efflux of CO2 was determined from headspace gas measurements as an integrated signal of microbial respiration activity. Moisture and oxygen profiles along the soil column were monitored continuously using high-resolution moisture content probes and luminescence-based Multi Fiber Optode (MuFO) microsensors, respectively. Pore water and solid-phase samples were collected periodically at 8 depths and analyzed for MCPA, dissolved inorganic and organic carbon concentrations as well as the abundance of specific MCPA-degrading bacteria. The results indicated a clear effect of the water table fluctuations on CO2 fluxes, with lower fluxes during imbibition periods and enhanced CO2 fluxes after drainage. In this presentation, we focus on the results of temporal changes in the vertical distribution of herbicide, specific herbicide degraders, organic carbon concentration, moisture content and oxygen. We expect that the high spatial and temporal resolution of measurements from this experiment will allow robust calibration of a reactive transport model for the soil columns, with subsequent identification and quantification of rate limiting processes of

  12. The Attitudes of Israeli Arab and Jewish High School Students towards Extrinsic and Intrinsic Values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Zehavit

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this research was to investigate the attitudes of Israeli Arab (n = 259) and Jewish (n = 259) high school students toward extrinsic and intrinsic values. A questionnaire, which consisted of eight value scales in two groups--extrinsic and intrinsic values--was administered. Participants were asked to state whether they agreed or…

  13. Effect of soil herbicides on the antioxidant system of maize vegetative organs during ontogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.P. Grigoryuk

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The impact of soil herbicides Harnes, Frontier and Merlin on the activity of enzymes superoxid dismutase (SOD, EC 1.15.1.1, catalase (CAT, EC 1.11.1.6, and benzidine peroxidase (POD, EC 1.11.1.7 in maize (Zea mays L.; cultivar Kadr 267 MV roots and leaves was studied in the field experiment. It was established that the adaptation of maize plants to the herbicides treatment was accompanied by significant activation of antioxidant enzymes both in roots (39%, 57%, and 67% above control level and leaves (50%, 64%, and 77% above control, respectively during different vegetation stages (shoots emergence; 3–5 leaves phase; florescence. The herbicides-induced changes of enzymes activity high correlated with ontogenetic dynamics of control plants activity: r = 0.98 for SOD; r = 0.96 for POD; r = 0.98 for CAT.

  14. Methods for Rapid Screening in Woody Plant Herbicide Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Stanley

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Methods for woody plant herbicide screening were assayed with the goal of reducing resources and time required to conduct preliminary screenings for new products. Rapid screening methods tested included greenhouse seedling screening, germinal screening, and seed screening. Triclopyr and eight experimental herbicides from Dow AgroSciences (DAS 313, 402, 534, 548, 602, 729, 779, and 896 were tested on black locust, loblolly pine, red maple, sweetgum, and water oak. Screening results detected differences in herbicide and species in all experiments in much less time (days to weeks than traditional field screenings and consumed significantly less resources (<500 mg acid equivalent per herbicide per screening. Using regression analysis, various rapid screening methods were linked into a system capable of rapidly and inexpensively assessing herbicide efficacy and spectrum of activity. Implementation of such a system could streamline early-stage herbicide development leading to field trials, potentially freeing resources for use in development of beneficial new herbicide products.

  15. A Rapid and Simple Bioassay Method for Herbicide Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiu-Qing Li

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, a unicellular green alga, has been used in bioassay detection of a variety of toxic compounds such as pesticides and toxic metals, but mainly using liquid culture systems. In this study, an algal lawn--agar system for semi-quantitative bioassay of herbicidal activities has been developed. Sixteen different herbicides belonging to 11 different categories were applied to paper disks and placed on green alga lawns in Petri dishes. Presence of herbicide activities was indicated by clearing zones around the paper disks on the lawn 2-3 days after application. The different groups of herbicides induced clearing zones of variable size that depended on the amount, mode of action, and chemical properties of the herbicides applied to the paper disks. This simple, paper-disk-algal system may be used to detect the presence of herbicides in water samples and act as a quick and inexpensive semi-quantitative screening for assessing herbicide contamination.

  16. Glycerine associated molecules with herbicide for controlling ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ciganinha”, belongs to the family Bignoniaceae. The only way to control this plant species in crop fields is by the application of herbicides on the stump or directly on the stem. The present study aimed to analyze the effect of glycerine in controlling A.

  17. Potential environmental impacts associated with large-scale herbicide-tolerant GM oilseed rape crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fellous Marc

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available The Biomolecular Engineering Commission considers that the knowledge acquired in the last three years has provided significant information in reply to the points raised in its review dated 16 February 2001. The Commission has studied the potential environmental impacts associated with large-scale herbicidetolerantGMoilseed rape crops, making a distinction between direct and indirect impacts. Direct impacts stem from the intrinsic properties of herbicide-tolerant GM oilseed rape crops whereas indirect impacts result from practices associated with the farming of these crops. The Commission considers that, in the absence of the use of the herbicide in question in and outside of farmed land, there is no direct environmental risk (development of invasive crops per se associated with the presence of a herbicide-tolerance gene in oilseed rape (or related species. Nevertheless, since the interest of these tolerant crops lies in the use of the herbicide in question, indirect effects, to varying extents, have been identified and must be taken into account: the use of the herbicide in question, applied to agricultural fields containing the herbicide-tolerant crop could lead to an increase in oilseed rape volunteer populations in crop rotations; the selective pressure exerted by non-specific herbicides (to which the crops have been rendered tolerant may be very high in cases of continuous and uncontrolled use of these herbicides, and may result in the persistence of rare events such as the reproduction of fertile interspecies hybrids; the change to the range of herbicides used should be conveyed by more effective weed control and, like any change in farming practices, induce indirect effects on the agri-ecosystem, particularly in terms of changes to weeds and the associated animal life. Accordingly, the Biomolecular Engineering Commission recommends a global approach in terms of the large-scale farming of herbicide-tolerant crops that: accounts for the

  18. Development of herbicide resistance in black-grass (Alopecurus myosuroides in Bavaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gehring, Klaus

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Black-grass (Alopecurus myosuroides is one of the most important grass weeds in Bavaria. Chemical weed control with high efficacy is very important in crops like winter cereals, oilseed rape and maize. Crop rotations with more winter cereals, reduced soil cultivation and e.g. contract harvesting enhanced distribution of blackgrass in arable farming regions. Effects of herbicide resistance were observed since the last 20 years. The blackgrass herbicide resistance is well observed by the official plant protection service of Bavaria. A wide experience of resistance tests shows the development of resistant black-grass and provides an opportunity for future prospects in resistance dynamics.

  19. Multi photon ionization mass spectrometry of carbamate pesticides, herbicides and fungicides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grun, Carsten; Koenig, Marcelle; Grotemeyer, Juergen

    2001-01-01

    Pesticides and herbicides are useful for a wide range of applications today. The determination of these substances either in the pure form or in complex matrices is of high analytical interest. Especially since these substances can by found in every day products. The combination of multi photon ionization (MUPI) and time of flight laser mass spectrometry may be a powerful tool for achieving fast well interpretable mass spectra for analytical purposes. In this paper we will discuss the mass spectra of several pesticides and herbicides accessed by MUPI-time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The influence of the laser pulse duration on the mass spectra are discussed

  20. Synthesis and Herbicidal Activity of Novel Sulfonylureas Containing 1,2,4-Triazolinone Moiety

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Zhuo; PAN Li; LI Yong-hong; WANG Su-hua; LI Zheng-ming

    2013-01-01

    A series of new sulfonylureas incorporating 1,2,4-triazolinone moiety was synthesized,which were further bio-assayed for the herbicidal activity against four herbs,representative of monocotyledons and dicotyledons.Some of them exhibited high potency to inhibit the growth of dicotyledons(Bassica napus and Amaranthus retroflexus) in the pot experiment.Compounds 9a and 9b also displayed an excellent herbicidal activity against Bassica napus at a concentration of 15 g/hectare,which were comparable with commercial triasulfuron.

  1. Training Physicians to Provide High-Value, Cost-Conscious Care A Systematic Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stammen, L.A.; Stalmeijer, R.E.; Paternotte, E.; Pool, A.O.; Driessen, E.W.; Scheele, F.; Stassen, L.P.S.

    2015-01-01

    Importance Increasing health care expenditures are taxing the sustainability of the health care system. Physicians should be prepared to deliver high-value, cost-conscious care. Objective To understand the circumstances in which the delivery of high-value, cost-conscious care is learned, with a goal

  2. Degradation of triketone herbicides, mesotrione and sulcotrione, using advanced oxidation processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jović, Milica; Manojlović, Dragan; Stanković, Dalibor; Dojčinović, Biljana; Obradović, Bratislav; Gašić, Uroš; Roglić, Goran

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Thirteen products are identified during all degradations for both pesticides. • In all degradations same products and mechanism was observed for both pesticides. • Dominant mechanism for all degradations starts with attack on the carbonyl group. • Only in ozone and DBD degradation one product is formed in radical reaction. • Only in Fenton degradation opening of benzene ring occurs. -- Abstract: Degradation of two triketone herbicides, mesotrione and sulcotrione, was studied using four different advanced oxidation processes (AOPs): ozonization, dielectric barrier discharge (DBD reactor), photocatalysis and Fenton reagent, in order to find differences in mechanism of degradation. Degradation products were identified by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC–DAD) and UHPLC–Orbitrap–MS analyses. A simple mechanism of degradation for different AOP was proposed. Thirteen products were identified during all degradations for both pesticides. It was assumed that the oxidation mechanisms in the all four technologies were not based only on the production and use of the hydroxyl radical, but they also included other kinds of oxidation mechanisms specific for each technology. Similarity was observed between degradation mechanism of ozonation and DBD. The greatest difference in the products was found in Fenton degradation which included the opening of benzene ring. When degraded with same AOP pesticides gave at the end of treatment the same products. Global toxicity and COD value of samples was determined after all degradations. Real water sample was used to study influence of organic matter on pesticide degradation. These results could lead to accurate estimates of the overall effects of triketone herbicides on environmental ecosystems and also contributed to the development of improved removal processes

  3. Effects of the herbicide metazachlor on macrophytes and ecosystem function in freshwater pond and stream mesocosms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohr, S; Berghahn, R; Feibicke, M; Meinecke, S; Ottenströer, T; Schmiedling, I; Schmiediche, R; Schmidt, R

    2007-05-01

    The chloroacetamide metazachlor is a commonly used pre-emergent herbicide to inhibit growth of plants especially in rape culture. It occurs in surface and ground water due to spray-drift or run-off in concentrations up to 100 microgL(-1). Direct and indirect effects of metazachlor on aquatic macrophytes were investigated at oligo- to mesotrophic nutrient levels employing eight stream and eight pond indoor mesocosms. Five systems of each type were dosed once with 5, 20, 80, 200 and 500 microgL(-1) metazachlor and three ponds and three streams served as controls. Pronounced direct negative effects on macrophyte biomass of Potamogeton natans, Myriophyllum verticillatum and filamentous green algae as well as associated changes in water chemistry were detected in the course of the summer 2003 in both pond and stream mesocosms. Filamentous green algae dominated by Cladophora glomerata were the most sensitive organisms in both pond and stream systems with EC(50) ranging from 3 (streams) to 9 (ponds) microgL(-1) metazachlor. In the contaminated pond mesocosms with high toxicant concentrations (200 and 500 microgL(-1)), a species shift from filamentous green algae to the yellow-green alga Vaucheria spec. was detected. The herbicide effects for the different macrophyte species were partly masked by interspecific competition. No recovery of macrophytes was observed at the highest metazachlor concentrations in both pond and stream mesocosms until the end of the study after 140 and 170 days. Based on the lowest EC(50) value of 4 microgL(-1) for total macrophyte biomass, it is argued that single exposure of aquatic macrophytes to metazachlor to nominal concentrations >5 microgL(-1) is likely to have pronounced long-term effects on aquatic biota and ecosystem function.

  4. Sol-gel synthesis of anatase nanopowders for efficient photocatalytic degradation of herbicide Clomazone in aqueous media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golubović Aleksandar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available TiO2 nanopowders were produced by sol-gel technique using TiCl4 as a starting material. For the preparation of crystalline anatase with developed surface area, this aqueous solution has been mixed with 0.05 M or 0.07 M (NH42SO4 solution in a temperature-controlled bath. The pH values of the suspension were 7, 8 or 9. According to the x-ray diffraction (XRD analysis the anatase crystallite sizes were about 12 nm, which coincided with the average particle size revealed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The Raman scattering measurements have shown the presence of a small amount of highly disordered brookite phase in addition to dominant anatase phase with similar nanostructure in all synthesized powders. BET measurements revealed that all synthesized catalysts were fully mesoporous, except the sample synthesized with 0.07 M (NH42SO4 at pH=9, which had small amount of micropores. The photocatalytic degradation of herbicide Clomazone was carried out for both the pure active substance and as the commercial product (GAMIT 4-EC under UV irradiation. The best photocatalytic efficiency was obtained for the catalyst with the largest specific surface area, confirming this parameter as crucial for enhanced photocatalytic degradation of the pure active substance and commercial product of herbicide Clomazone. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. III45018

  5. iMAR: An Interactive Web-Based Application for Mapping Herbicide Resistant Weeds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Panozzo

    Full Text Available Herbicides are the major weed control tool in most cropping systems worldwide. However, the high reliance on herbicides has led to environmental issues as well as to the evolution of herbicide-resistant biotypes. Resistance is a major concern in modern agriculture and early detection of resistant biotypes is therefore crucial for its management and prevention. In this context, a timely update of resistance biotypes distribution is fundamental to devise and implement efficient resistance management strategies. Here we present an innovative web-based application called iMAR (interactive MApping of Resistance for the mapping of herbicide resistant biotypes. It is based on open source software tools and translates into maps the data reported in the GIRE (Italian herbicide resistance working group database of herbicide resistance at national level. iMAR allows an automatic, easy and cost-effective updating of the maps a nd provides two different systems, "static" and "dynamic". In the first one, the user choices are guided by a hierarchical tree menu, whereas the latter is more flexible and includes a multiple choice criteria (type of resistance, weed species, region, cropping systems that permits customized maps to be created. The generated information can be useful to various stakeholders who are involved in weed resistance management: farmers, advisors, national and local decision makers as well as the agrochemical industry. iMAR is freely available, and the system has the potential to handle large datasets and to be used for other purposes with geographical implications, such as the mapping of invasive plants or pests.

  6. A multimodal high-value curriculum affects drivers of utilization and performance on the high-value care component of the internal medicine in-training exam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chau, Tom; Loertscher, Laura

    2018-01-01

    Background : Teaching the practice of high-value care (HVC) is an increasingly important function of graduate medical education but best practices and long-term outcomes remain unknown. Objective : Whether a multimodal curriculum designed to address specific drivers of low-value care would affect resident attitudes, skills, and performance of HVC as tested by the Internal Medicine In-Training Exam (ITE). Methods : In 2012, we performed a baseline needs assessment among internal medicine residents at a community program regarding drivers of healthcare utilization. We then created a multimodal curriculum with online interactive worksheets, lectures, and faculty buy-in to target specific skills, knowledge, and culture deficiencies. Perceived drivers of care and performance on the Internal Medicine ITE were assessed yearly through 2016. Results : Fourteen of 27 (52%) residents completed the initial needs assessment while the curriculum was eventually seen by at least 24 of 27 (89%). The ITE was taken by every resident every year. Long-term, 3-year follow-up demonstrated persistent improvement in many drivers of utilization (patient requests, reliance on subspecialists, defensive medicine, and academic curiosity) and improvement with sustained high performance on the high-value component of the ITE. Conclusion : A multimodal curriculum targeting specific drivers of low-value care can change culture and lead to sustained improvement in the practice of HVC.

  7. High b-value diffusion-weighted MR imaging of normal brain at 3 T

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cihangiroglu, Mutlu; Ulug, Aziz Muefit; Firat, Zeynep; Bayram, Ali; Kovanlikaya, Arzu; Kovanlikaya, Ilhami

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: The purpose of this study was to determine the normative apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values at 3 T using high b-value (3000 s/mm 2 ) diffusion-weighted images (DWI) and compare the signal characteristics of the high b value with standard b-value (1000 s/mm 2 ) DWI. Methods: Institutional review board approval was obtained for this prospective study which included 20 volunteers (10 M, 10 F, mean age: 38.7 ± 14.9) without any known clinical disease or radiological findings. All brain examinations were performed with 3 T MR by using similar parameters of b1000 and b3000 DWI sequences. DWI and ADC maps were obtained. Signal intensity, noise, signal to noise ratio (SNR), contrast to noise (CNR), contrast ratio (CR), and ADC values of bilateral posterior limb of internal capsule, frontal white matter, parietal gray matter, pons, thalamus, splenium of corpus callosum were measured on b1000 and b3000 DW images. Results: In all anatomic locations, MR signal intensity, SNR and ADC values of b3000 images were significantly lower than MR signal intensity, SNR and ADC values of b1000 images (p < 0.001). The CNR and CR values at the posterior limb of internal capsule and pons were significantly increased on b3000 images (p < 0.001) and decreased in the other regions measured. Conclusion: The ADC values calculated from standard b-value DWI were significantly higher than those calculated from high b-value DWI. These results agree with the previous studies. In the regions where CNR values increase with high b value, b3000 DWI images may provide additional clinical information.

  8. Memory, priority encoding, and overcoming high-value proactive interference in younger and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Michael C; Castel, Alan D

    2013-01-01

    It is often necessary to remember important information while directing attention away from encoding less valuable information. To examine how aging influences the ability to control and update the encoding of high-value information, younger and older adults studied six lists of words that varied in terms of the point values associated with each word. The words were paired with the same high and low point values for three study-test cycles, but on the fourth and subsequent cycles the value-word pairings were switched such that the lowest value pairs became the highest values (and vice versa). For the first three study-test cycles, younger adults outperformed older adults in terms of the number of words recalled and overall point totals, but performance was similar in terms of selectively remembering high-value words. When the values were switched, both groups displayed substantial interference from the previous pairings. Although both groups improved with additional study-test cycles, only younger adults were able to fully recover from the interference effects. A similar, and more pronounced, set of results were obtained when positive and negative point values were paired with the words. The findings are interpreted in a value-directed remembering framework, emphasizing the role of benefits and costs of strategic encoding and age-related differences in the effects of interference on memory.

  9. Integrated effect of crop sowing date and herbicide stress on fitness of Bromus diandrus Roth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    García, A.L.; Royo-Esnal, A.; Torra, J.; Recasens, J.

    2015-07-01

    Bromus diandrus Roth is a common weed species that has increased in no-tillage dry-land cereal fields in NE Spain because of the limited control options. The fitness response of plants with different emergence times (ETs) and its influence on demography has huge implications in weed management. With this subject, three ETs (F1, F2 and F3) of B. diandrus were established through three crop-sowing dates (D1, Oct.; D2, Nov.; D3, Dec.) for each of the three years in a barley-wheat-wheat rotation. In barley, the herbicides applied were not specific for B. diandrus, whereas in wheat the specific herbicide mesosulfuron-methyl plus iodosulfuron-methyl-sodium was applied. Plant density after treatments and fitness characteristics were estimated for each weed ET. Weed density decreased for later ETs and fitness was density-dependent, showing significantly higher values when a non-specific herbicide was applied, except in number of caryopses per spikelet. The increasing fitness shown by plants with later ETs and the linear relationships of vegetative biomass vs reproductive biomass and fecundity were disrupted by the herbicide mesosulfuron-methyl plus iodosulfuron-methyl-sodium. Plants that had survived this herbicide when wheat was growing had lower values for all the characteristics analysed. After three seasons, as a consequence of decreasing seed recruitment, a practical depletion of the B. diandrus population was achieved in F2 and F3 (<2.8 and <1 plants/m2, respectively) but not in F1 (60.5 plants/m2). This study shows the importance of delayed crop sowing to optimize the control of B. diandrus in cereal fields with no tillage. (Author)

  10. The response of parental components of ZP maize hybrids to effects of herbicides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanović Lidija

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The response of four inbred lines, parental components of ZP maize hybrids, to effects of six herbicides applied after emergence of both, maize and weeds, was observed in the present study. The following herbicides were applied in the 2-3-leaf stage of maize: isoxaflutole (Merlin 750-WG in the amount of 0.135 kg ha-1, nicosulfuron (Motivell in the amount of 1.25 l ha-1, foramsulfuron (Equip in the amount of 2.0 l ha-1, dicamba + rimsulfuron (Tarot plus in the amount of 0.3 kg ha-1, mezotrion (Callisto in the amount of 0.25 l ha-1 and thifensulfuron-methyl (Grid in the amount of 0.02 kg ha-1. The phytotoxic effect of herbicides on the maize grain yield was evaluated according to the 1-9 EWRC scale. Maize inbreds showed different susceptibility depending on the applied herbicide. The least favourable effects in both years for all genotypes were obtained in the treatments with Tarot plus and Grid, in which the lowest values of maize grain yield were recorded.

  11. Effect of some adjuvants application on enhancing sulfosulfuron herbicide performance on Phalaris minor- Poaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mehdizadeh

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays environmental pollution by pesticides application is a major concern for health. Efficiency of many herbicides can be increased by adding adjuvants to the spray solution. Therefore greenhouse study was conducted during 2014 to determine the efficacy of three adjuvants (Citogate, Castor oil and Canola oil at concentrations of 0.1 and 0.2 (%v/v with 5, 10, 20, 30 and 40 g a.i\\ha of sulfosulfuron herbicide on littleseed canary grass. Results showed that the adjuvants enhanced the efficacy of sulfosulfuron in decreasing the dry weights of littleseed canary grass. Performance of herbicide was increased with enhancing its concentrations. Measured ED50 and ED90 concentrations of sulfosulfuron in control were 16.74 and 32.22 g a.i\\ha, respectively. Whereas the values for Citogate 0.2 (%v\\v, was 5.86 and 13.34 g a.i\\ha, respectively. The addition of Citogate and Castor oil had the highest and lowest effect on sulfosulfuron efficacy against Littleseed canary grass. In conclusion, the study revealed that Citogate concentrations had powerful effects on herbicide efficacy followed by Canola oil.

  12. Advanced oxidation of commercial herbicides mixture: experimental design and phytotoxicity evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Alejandro; Coll, Andrea; Lescano, Maia; Zalazar, Cristina

    2017-05-05

    In this work, the suitability of the UV/H 2 O 2 process for commercial herbicides mixture degradation was studied. Glyphosate, the herbicide most widely used in the world, was mixed with other herbicides that have residual activity as 2,4-D and atrazine. Modeling of the process response related to specific operating conditions like initial pH and initial H 2 O 2 to total organic carbon molar ratio was assessed by the response surface methodology (RSM). Results have shown that second-order polynomial regression model could well describe and predict the system behavior within the tested experimental region. It also correctly explained the variability in the experimental data. Experimental values were in good agreement with the modeled ones confirming the significance of the model and highlighting the success of RSM for UV/H 2 O 2 process modeling. Phytotoxicity evolution throughout the photolytic degradation process was checked through germination tests indicating that the phytotoxicity of the herbicides mixture was significantly reduced after the treatment. The end point for the treatment at the operating conditions for maximum TOC conversion was also identified.

  13. The system of values, motivation and self-attitude: gender features in high school students

    OpenAIRE

    Irina I. Vartanova

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents the results of the value orientation research in high school students, Moscow, Russia. The sample (N=62) included 22 education and universal values and also self-attitude parameters using the four types of emotional attitude to learning. These types of motivation profile were obtained via pre-factorization estimates of the seven values of school life using the method of semantic differential, which allowed to estimate the severity of a positional or status motivation (1), a...

  14. Is the tier-1 effect assessment for herbicides protective for aquatic algae and vascular plant communities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wijngaarden, René P A; Arts, Gertie H P

    2018-01-01

    In the aquatic tier-1 effect assessment for plant protection products with an herbicidal mode of action in Europe, it is usually algae and/or vascular plants that determine the environmental risks. This tier includes tests with at least 2 algae and 1 macrophyte (Lemna). Although such tests are considered to be of a chronic nature (based on the duration of the test in relation to the life cycle of the organism), the measurement endpoints derived from the laboratory tests with plants (including algae) and used in the first-tier effect assessment for herbicides are acute effect concentrations affecting 50% of the test organisms (EC50 values) and not no-observed-effect concentrations (NOECs) or effect concentrations affecting 10% of the test organisms (EC10) values. Other European legislative frameworks (e.g., the Water Framework Directive) use EC10 values. The present study contributes to a validation of the tiered herbicide risk assessment approach by comparing the standard first-tier effect assessment with results of microcosm and mesocosm studies. We evaluated EC50 and EC10 values for standard test algae and macrophytes based on either the growth rate endpoint (E r C50) or the lowest available endpoint for growth rate or biomass/yield (E r /E y C50). These values were compared with the regulatory acceptable concentrations for the threshold option as derived from microcosm and mesocosm studies. For these studies, protection is maintained if growth rate is taken as the regulatory endpoint instead of the lowest value of either growth rate or biomass/yield in conjunction with the standard assessment factor of 10. Based on a limited data set of 14 herbicides, we did not identify a need to change the current practice. Environ Toxicol Chem 2018;37:175-183. © 2017 SETAC. © 2017 SETAC.

  15. Bio stimulation for the Enhanced Degradation of Herbicides in Soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanissery, R.G; Sims, G.K

    2011-01-01

    Cleanup of herbicide-contaminated soils has been a dire environmental concern since the advent of industrial era. Although microorganisms are excellent degraders of herbicide compounds in the soil, some reparation may need to be brought about, in order to stimulate them to degrade the herbicide at a faster rate in a confined time frame. Bio stimulation through the appropriate utilization of organic amendments and nutrients can accelerate the degradation of herbicides in the soil. However, effective use of bio stimulants requires thorough comprehension of the global redox cycle during the microbial degradation of the herbicide molecules in the soil. In this paper, we present the prospects of using bio stimulation as a powerful remediation strategy for the rapid cleanup of herbicide-polluted soils.

  16. Hazard and risk of herbicides for marine microalgae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjollema, Sascha B; Martínezgarcía, Gema; van der Geest, Harm G; Kraak, Michiel H S; Booij, Petra; Vethaak, A Dick; Admiraal, Wim

    2014-04-01

    Due to their specific effect on photosynthesis, herbicides pose a potential threat to coastal and estuarine microalgae. However, comprehensive understanding of the hazard and risk of these contaminants is currently lacking. Therefore the aim of the present study was to investigate the toxic effects of four ubiquitous herbicides (atrazine, diuron, Irgarol(®)1051 and isoproturon) and herbicide mixtures on marine microalgae. Using a Pulse Amplitude Modulation (PAM) fluorometry based bioassay we demonstrated a clear species and herbicide specific toxicity and showed that the current environmental legislation does not protect algae sufficiently against diuron and isoproturon. Although a low actual risk of herbicides in the field was demonstrated, monitoring data revealed that concentrations occasionally reach potential effect levels. Hence it cannot be excluded that herbicides contribute to observed changes in phytoplankton species composition in coastal waters, but this is likely to occur only occasionally. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Herbicidal and Fungicidal Activities of Lactones in Kava (Piper methysticum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xuan, T D; Elzaawely, A A; Fukuta, M; Tawata, S

    2006-02-08

    This is the first report showing that kava lactones are plant and plant fungus growth inhibitors. Aqueous extract of kava roots showed high allelopathic potential and strongly suppressed germination and growth of lettuce, radish, barnyardgrass, and monochoria. Nine kava lactones were detected using GC-MS including desmethoxyyagonin, kavain, 7,8-dihydrokavain, hydroxykavain, yagonin, 5,6,7,8-tetrahydroxyyagonin, methysticin, dihydromethysticin, and 11-hydroxy-12-methoxydihydrokavain. Quantities of desmethoxyyagonin, kavain, 7,8-dihydrokavain, yagonin, methysticin, and dihydromethysticin detected were 4.3, 6.9, 18.6, 5.7, 1.4, and 5.4 mg/g of dry weight, respectively. These six major lactones in kava roots showed great herbicidal and antifungal activities. Growth of lettuce and barnyardgrass were significantly inhibited at 1-10 ppm, and four plant fungi including Colletotrichum gloeosporides, Fusarium solani, Fusarium oxysporum, and Trichoderma viride were significantly inhibited at 10-50 ppm. The biological activities of kava lactones were characterized by different double-bond linkage patterns in positions 5,6 and 7,8. The findings of this study suggest that kava lactones may be useful for the development of bioactive herbicides and fungicides.

  18. Developmental toxicity of diphenyl ether herbicides in nestling American kestrels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, D J; Spann, J W; LeCaptain, L J; Bunck, C M; Rattner, B A

    1991-11-01

    Beginning the day after hatching, American kestrel (Falco sparverius) nestlings were orally dosed for 10 consecutive days with 5 microliters/g of corn oil (controls) or one of the diphenyl ether herbicides (nitrofen, bifenox, or oxyfluorfen) at concentrations of 10, 50, 250, or 500 mg/kg in corn oil. At 500 mg/kg, nitrofen resulted in complete nestling mortality, bifenox in high (66%) mortality, and oxyfluorfen in no mortality. Nitrofen at 250 mg/kg reduced nestling growth as reflected by decreased body weight, crown-rump length, and bone lengths including humerus, radius-ulna, femur, and tibiotarsus. Bifenox at 250 mg/kg had less effect on growth than nitrofen, but crown-rump, humerus, radius-ulna, and femur were significantly shorter than controls. Liver weight as a percent of body weight increased with 50 and 250 mg/kg nitrofen. Other manifestations of impending hepatotoxicity following nitrofen ingestion included increased hepatic GSH peroxidase activity in all nitrofen-treated groups, and increased plasma enzyme activities for ALT, AST, and LDH-L in the 250-mg/kg group. Bifenox ingestion resulted in increased hepatic GSH peroxidase activity in the 50- and 250-mg/kg groups. Nitrofen exposure also resulted in an increase in total plasma thyroxine (T4) concentration. These findings suggest that altricial nestlings are more sensitive to diphenyl ether herbicides than young or adult birds of precocial species.

  19. Penning trap mass spectrometry Q-value determinations for highly forbidden β-decays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandler, Rachel; Bollen, Georg; Eibach, Martin; Gamage, Nadeesha; Gulyuz, Kerim; Hamaker, Alec; Izzo, Chris; Kandegedara, Rathnayake; Redshaw, Matt; Ringle, Ryan; Valverde, Adrian; Yandow, Isaac; Low Energy Beam Ion Trap Team

    2017-09-01

    Over the last several decades, extremely sensitive, ultra-low background beta and gamma detection techniques have been developed. These techniques have enabled the observation of very rare processes, such as highly forbidden beta decays e.g. of 113Cd, 50V and 138La. Half-life measurements of highly forbidden beta decays provide a testing ground for theoretical nuclear models, and the comparison of calculated and measured energy spectra could enable a determination of the values of the weak coupling constants. Precision Q-value measurements also allow for systematic tests of the beta-particle detection techniques. We will present the results and current status of Q value determinations for highly forbidden beta decays. The Q values, the mass difference between parent and daughter nuclides, are measured using the high precision Penning trap mass spectrometer LEBIT at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory.

  20. A new method of removing the high value feedback resistor in the charge sensitive preamplifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xi Deming

    1993-01-01

    A new method of removing the high value feedback resistor in the charge sensitive preamplifier is introduced. The circuit analysis of this novel design is described and the measured performances of a practical circuit are provided

  1. Electrochemical degradation and mineralization of glyphosate herbicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Nam; Drogui, Patrick; Doan, Tuan Linh; Le, Thanh Son; Nguyen, Hoai Chau

    2017-12-01

    The presence of herbicide is a concern for both human and ecological health. Glyphosate is occasionally detected as water contaminants in agriculture areas where the herbicide is used extensively. The removal of glyphosate in synthetic solution using advanced oxidation process is a possible approach for remediation of contaminated waters. The ability of electrochemical oxidation for the degradation and mineralization of glyphosate herbicide was investigated using Ti/PbO 2 anode. The current intensity, treatment time, initial concentration and pH of solution are the influent parameters on the degradation efficiency. An experimental design methodology was applied to determine the optimal condition (in terms of cost/effectiveness) based on response surface methodology. Glyphosate concentration (C 0  = 16.9 mg L -1 ) decreased up to 0.6 mg L -1 when the optimal conditions were imposed (current intensity of 4.77 A and treatment time of 173 min). The removal efficiencies of glyphosate and total organic carbon were 95 ± 16% and 90.31%, respectively. This work demonstrates that electrochemical oxidation is a promising process for degradation and mineralization of glyphosate.

  2. Phytotoxicity of Four Photosystem II Herbicides to Tropical Seagrasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Florita; Collier, Catherine J.; Mercurio, Philip; Negri, Andrew P.

    2013-01-01

    Coastal waters of the Great Barrier Reef (GBR) are contaminated with agricultural pesticides, including the photosystem II (PSII) herbicides which are the most frequently detected at the highest concentrations. Designed to control weeds, these herbicides are equally potent towards non-target marine species, and the close proximity of seagrass meadows to flood plumes has raised concerns that seagrasses may be the species most threatened by herbicides from runoff. While previous work has identified effects of PSII herbicides on the photophysiology, growth and mortality in seagrass, there is little comparative quantitative toxicity data for seagrass. Here we applied standard ecotoxicology protocols to quantify the concentrations of four priority PSII herbicides that inhibit photochemistry by 10, 20 and 50% (IC10, IC20 and IC50) over 72 h in two common seagrass species from the GBR lagoon. The photosystems of seagrasses Zostera muelleri and Halodule uninervis were shown to be generally more sensitive to the PSII herbicides Diuron, Atrazine, Hexazinone and Tebuthiuron than corals and tropical microalgae. The herbicides caused rapid inhibition of effective quantum yield (∆F/F m ′), indicating reduced photosynthesis and maximum effective yields (Fv/Fm) corresponding to chronic damage to PSII. The PSII herbicide concentrations which affected photosynthesis have been exceeded in the GBR lagoon and all of the herbicides inhibited photosynthesis at concentrations lower than current marine park guidelines. There is a strong likelihood that the impacts of light limitation from flood plumes and reduced photosynthesis from PSII herbicides exported in the same waters would combine to affect seagrass productivity. Given that PSII herbicides have been demonstrated to affect seagrass at environmental concentrations, we suggest that revision of environmental guidelines and further efforts to reduce PSII herbicide concentrations in floodwaters may both help protect seagrass meadows

  3. Phytotoxicity of four photosystem II herbicides to tropical seagrasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Florita; Collier, Catherine J; Mercurio, Philip; Negri, Andrew P

    2013-01-01

    Coastal waters of the Great Barrier Reef (GBR) are contaminated with agricultural pesticides, including the photosystem II (PSII) herbicides which are the most frequently detected at the highest concentrations. Designed to control weeds, these herbicides are equally potent towards non-target marine species, and the close proximity of seagrass meadows to flood plumes has raised concerns that seagrasses may be the species most threatened by herbicides from runoff. While previous work has identified effects of PSII herbicides on the photophysiology, growth and mortality in seagrass, there is little comparative quantitative toxicity data for seagrass. Here we applied standard ecotoxicology protocols to quantify the concentrations of four priority PSII herbicides that inhibit photochemistry by 10, 20 and 50% (IC10, IC20 and IC50) over 72 h in two common seagrass species from the GBR lagoon. The photosystems of seagrasses Zosteramuelleri and Haloduleuninervis were shown to be generally more sensitive to the PSII herbicides Diuron, Atrazine, Hexazinone and Tebuthiuron than corals and tropical microalgae. The herbicides caused rapid inhibition of effective quantum yield (∆F/F m '), indicating reduced photosynthesis and maximum effective yields (Fv/Fm ) corresponding to chronic damage to PSII. The PSII herbicide concentrations which affected photosynthesis have been exceeded in the GBR lagoon and all of the herbicides inhibited photosynthesis at concentrations lower than current marine park guidelines. There is a strong likelihood that the impacts of light limitation from flood plumes and reduced photosynthesis from PSII herbicides exported in the same waters would combine to affect seagrass productivity. Given that PSII herbicides have been demonstrated to affect seagrass at environmental concentrations, we suggest that revision of environmental guidelines and further efforts to reduce PSII herbicide concentrations in floodwaters may both help protect seagrass meadows of

  4. Phytotoxicity of Four Photosystem II Herbicides to Tropical Seagrasses

    OpenAIRE

    Flores, Florita; Collier, Catherine J.; Mercurio, Philip; Negri, Andrew P.

    2013-01-01

    Coastal waters of the Great Barrier Reef (GBR) are contaminated with agricultural pesticides, including the photosystem II (PSII) herbicides which are the most frequently detected at the highest concentrations. Designed to control weeds, these herbicides are equally potent towards non-target marine species, and the close proximity of seagrass meadows to flood plumes has raised concerns that seagrasses may be the species most threatened by herbicides from runoff. While previous work has identi...

  5. Phytotoxicity of four photosystem II herbicides to tropical seagrasses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florita Flores

    Full Text Available Coastal waters of the Great Barrier Reef (GBR are contaminated with agricultural pesticides, including the photosystem II (PSII herbicides which are the most frequently detected at the highest concentrations. Designed to control weeds, these herbicides are equally potent towards non-target marine species, and the close proximity of seagrass meadows to flood plumes has raised concerns that seagrasses may be the species most threatened by herbicides from runoff. While previous work has identified effects of PSII herbicides on the photophysiology, growth and mortality in seagrass, there is little comparative quantitative toxicity data for seagrass. Here we applied standard ecotoxicology protocols to quantify the concentrations of four priority PSII herbicides that inhibit photochemistry by 10, 20 and 50% (IC10, IC20 and IC50 over 72 h in two common seagrass species from the GBR lagoon. The photosystems of seagrasses Zosteramuelleri and Haloduleuninervis were shown to be generally more sensitive to the PSII herbicides Diuron, Atrazine, Hexazinone and Tebuthiuron than corals and tropical microalgae. The herbicides caused rapid inhibition of effective quantum yield (∆F/F m ', indicating reduced photosynthesis and maximum effective yields (Fv/Fm corresponding to chronic damage to PSII. The PSII herbicide concentrations which affected photosynthesis have been exceeded in the GBR lagoon and all of the herbicides inhibited photosynthesis at concentrations lower than current marine park guidelines. There is a strong likelihood that the impacts of light limitation from flood plumes and reduced photosynthesis from PSII herbicides exported in the same waters would combine to affect seagrass productivity. Given that PSII herbicides have been demonstrated to affect seagrass at environmental concentrations, we suggest that revision of environmental guidelines and further efforts to reduce PSII herbicide concentrations in floodwaters may both help protect

  6. Occurrence of dichloroacetamide herbicide safeners and co-applied herbicides in midwestern U.S. streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, Emily; Hladik, Michelle; Kolpin, Dana W.

    2018-01-01

    Dichloroacetamide safeners (e.g., AD-67, benoxacor, dichlormid, and furilazole) are co-applied with chloroacetanilide herbicides to protect crops from herbicide toxicity. While such safeners have been used since the early 1970s, there are minimal data about safener usage, occurrence in streams, or potential ecological effects. This study focused on one of these research gaps, occurrence in streams. Seven Midwestern U.S. streams (five in Iowa and two in Illinois), with extensive row-crop agriculture, were sampled at varying frequencies from spring 2016 through summer 2017. All four safeners were detected at least once; furilazole was the most frequently detected (31%), followed by benoxacor (29%), dichlormid (15%), and AD-67 (2%). The maximum concentrations ranged from 42 to 190 ng/L. Stream detections and concentrations of safeners appear to be driven by a combination of timing of application (spring following herbicide application) and precipitation events. Detected concentrations were below known toxicity levels for aquatic organisms.

  7. High and ultra-high b-value diffusion-weighted imaging in prostate cancer: a quantitative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetter, Axel; Nensa, Felix; Lipponer, Christine; Guberina, Nika; Olbricht, Tobias; Schenck, Marcus; Schlosser, Thomas W; Gratz, Marcel; Lauenstein, Thomas C

    2015-08-01

    Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) is routinely used in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of prostate cancer. However, the routine use of b values higher than 1000 s/mm(2) is not clear up to present. Moreover, the complex diffusion behavior of malignant and benign prostate tissues hampers precise predictions of contrast in DWI images and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps. To quantitatively analyze DWI with different b values in prostate cancer and to identify b values best suitable for cancer detection. Forty-one patients with histologically proven prostate cancer were examined with high resolution T2-weighted imaging and DWI at 3 Tesla. Five different b values (0, 800, 1000, 1500, 2000 s/mm(2)) were applied. ADC values of tumors and reference areas were measured on ADC maps derived from different pairs of b values. Furthermore, signal intensities of DW images of tumors and reference areas were measured. For analysis, contrast ratios of ADC values and signal intensities of DW images were calculated and compared. No significant differences were found between contrast ratios measured on ADC maps of all analyzed b value pairs (P = 0.43). Contrast ratios calculated from signal intensities of DW images were highest at b values of 1500 and 2000 s/mm(2) and differed significantly from contrast ratios at b values of 800 and 1000 s/mm(2) (P values, contrast ratios of DW images are significantly higher at b-values of 1500 and 2000 s/mm(2) in comparison to b values of 800 and 1000 s/mm(2). Therefore, diagnostic performance of DWI in prostate cancer might be increased by application of b values higher than 1000 s/mm(2). © The Foundation Acta Radiologica 2014.

  8. Uses of thaxtomin and thaxtomin compositions as herbicides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koivunen, Marja; Marrone, Pamela

    2016-12-27

    There is a need for a selective, low-risk herbicide that can be used to control weeds in cereal cultures and turf. The present invention discloses that a bacterial secondary metabolite, thaxtomin and optionally another herbicide is an effective herbicide on broadleaved, sedge and grass weeds. Thaxtomin A and structurally similar compounds can be used as natural herbicides to control the germination and growth of weeds in cereal, turf grass, Timothy grass and pasture grass cultures with no phytotoxicity to these crops. As a natural, non-toxic compound, thaxtomin can be used as a safe alternative for weed control in both conventional and organic farming and gardening systems.

  9. Herbicide injury induces DNA methylome alterations in Arabidopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunjune Kim

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of herbicide-resistant weeds is a major threat facing modern agriculture. Over 470 weedy-plant populations have developed resistance to herbicides. Traditional evolutionary mechanisms are not always sufficient to explain the rapidity with which certain weed populations adapt in response to herbicide exposure. Stress-induced epigenetic changes, such as alterations in DNA methylation, are potential additional adaptive mechanisms for herbicide resistance. We performed methylC sequencing of Arabidopsis thaliana leaves that developed after either mock treatment or two different sub-lethal doses of the herbicide glyphosate, the most-used herbicide in the history of agriculture. The herbicide injury resulted in 9,205 differentially methylated regions (DMRs across the genome. In total, 5,914 of these DMRs were induced in a dose-dependent manner, wherein the methylation levels were positively correlated to the severity of the herbicide injury, suggesting that plants can modulate the magnitude of methylation changes based on the severity of the stress. Of the 3,680 genes associated with glyphosate-induced DMRs, only 7% were also implicated in methylation changes following biotic or salinity stress. These results demonstrate that plants respond to herbicide stress through changes in methylation patterns that are, in general, dose-sensitive and, at least partially, stress-specific.

  10. Methodical approaches to value assessment and determination of the capitalization level of high-rise construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnov, Vitaly; Dashkov, Leonid; Gorshkov, Roman; Burova, Olga; Romanova, Alina

    2018-03-01

    The article presents the analysis of the methodological approaches to cost estimation and determination of the capitalization level of high-rise construction objects. Factors determining the value of real estate were considered, three main approaches for estimating the value of real estate objects are given. The main methods of capitalization estimation were analyzed, the most reasonable method for determining the level of capitalization of high-rise buildings was proposed. In order to increase the value of real estate objects, the author proposes measures that enable to increase significantly the capitalization of the enterprise through more efficient use of intangible assets and goodwill.

  11. Creating Value for Customer in Business Networks of High-Tech Goods Manufacturers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Wiechoczek

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The main paper goal is to recognize the category of value for customer with respect to high-tech products, and to propose a model of creation of this value in business networks established by manufacturers. The research methods include critical analysis of the literature, documentation method, as well as the case research method and observation method. The results of the research proved that the value offered to buyers is characterized by growing multidimensionality which results in increasing complexity of the creation process of this value by their manufacturers. Due to the fact that they do not have complex skills and resources to create the value independently, they form business networks. These networks include increasingly larger group of entities, in which the importance of individual cooperants is highly diversified.

  12. Screening for cancer: advice for high-value care from the American College of Physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilt, Timothy J; Harris, Russell P; Qaseem, Amir

    2015-05-19

    Cancer screening is one approach to reducing cancer-related morbidity and mortality rates. Screening strategies vary in intensity. Higher-intensity strategies are not necessarily higher value. High-value strategies provide a degree of benefits that clearly justifies the harms and costs incurred; low-value screening provides limited or no benefits to justify the harms and costs. When cancer screening leads to benefits, an optimal intensity of screening maximizes value. Some aspects of screening practices, especially overuse and underuse, are low value. Screening strategies for asymptomatic, average-risk adults for 5 common types of cancer were evaluated by reviewing clinical guidelines and evidence syntheses from the American College of Physicians (ACP), U.S. Preventive Services Task Force, American Academy of Family Physicians, American Cancer Society, American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, American Gastroenterological Association, and American Urological Association. "High value" was defined as the lowest screening intensity threshold at which organizations agree about screening recommendations for each type of cancer and "low value" as agreement about not recommending overly intensive screening strategies. This information is supplemented with additional findings from randomized, controlled trials; modeling studies; and studies of costs or resource use, including information found in the National Cancer Institute's Physician Data Query and UpToDate. The ACP provides high-value care screening advice for 5 common types of cancer; the specifics are outlined in this article. The ACP strongly encourages clinicians to adopt a cancer screening strategy that focuses on reaching all eligible persons with these high-value screening options while reducing overly intensive, low-value screening.

  13. Characterization of cholinesterases in Chironomus riparius and the effects of three herbicides on chlorpyrifos toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Joanne; Monteiro, Marta S; Quintaneiro, Carla; Soares, Amadeu M V M; Loureiro, Susana

    2013-11-15

    In this study, the toxicities of four pesticides (the herbicides atrazine, terbuthylazine, metolachlor and the insecticide chlorpyrifos) previously detected in the Alqueva reservoir/dam (south of Portugal) were evaluated individually and in binary combinations of the herbicides and the insecticide using fourth-instar larvae of the aquatic midge Chironomus riparius. Chlorpyrifos induced toxicity to midges in all the 48 h toxicity bioassays performed. The swimming behaviour of the larvae was impaired, with EC50 values ranging from 0.15 to 0.17 μg/L. However, neither s-triazine (atrazine and terbuthylazine) herbicides nor metolachlor alone at concentrations up to 200 μg/L caused significant toxicity to C. riparius. When combined with both s-triazine herbicides, chlorpyrifos toxicity was enhanced by approximately 2-fold when tested in a binary mixture experimental setup, at the 50% effective concentration levels. To evaluate how chlorpyrifos toxicity was being increased, the cholinesterases (ChE) were characterized biochemically using different substrates and selective inhibitors. The results obtained suggested that the main enzyme present in this species is acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and therefore it was assayed upon C. riparius exposures to all pesticides individually and as binary mixtures. Although atrazine and terbuthylazine are not effective inhibitors of AChE, the potentiation of chlorpyrifos toxicity by the two s-triazine herbicides was associated with a potentiation in the inhibition of AChE in midges; both s-triazine herbicides at 200 μg/L increased the inhibition of the AChE activity by 7 and 8-fold, respectively. A strong correlation was observed between swimming behaviour disturbances of larvae and the inhibition of the AChE activity. In contrast, metolachlor did not affect chlorpyrifos toxicity at any of the concentrations tested. Therefore, the herbicides atrazine and terbuthylazine can act as synergists in the presence of chlorpyrifos, increasing

  14. Scanning the horizon for high value-add manufacturing science: Accelerating manufacturing readiness for the next generation of disruptive, high-value curative cell therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hourd, Paul; Williams, David J

    2018-05-01

    Since the regenerative medicine sector entered the second phase of its development (RegenMed 2.0) more than a decade ago, there is increasing recognition that current technology innovation trajectories will drive the next translational phase toward the production of disruptive, high-value curative cell and gene-based regenerative medicines. To identify the manufacturing science problems that must be addressed to permit translation of these next generation therapeutics. In this short report, a long lens look within the pluripotent stem cell therapeutic space, both embryonic and induced, is used to gain early insights on where critical technology and manufacturing challenges may emerge. This report offers a future perspective on the development and innovation that will be needed within manufacturing science to add value in the production and commercialization of the next generation of advanced cell therapies and precision medicines. Copyright © 2018 International Society for Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Value at Risk and Hedge Fund Return - Does High Risk Bring High Return?

    OpenAIRE

    Jing, Tao; Zhao, Hongxiang

    2010-01-01

    This paper mainly focuses on the correlation between live hedge fund return and their value at risk (VaR), and is based on the historical data from May 2000 to April 2010. The authors adopt portfolio level analyses and fund level cross-sectional regression, and find that there is significant positive correlation, both statistically and economically, between the hedge fund return and VaRs (parametric, non-parametric and GARCH). Further research is conducted by sub-dividing the overall period i...

  16. DNA analysis of herbarium Specimens of the grass weed Alopecurus myosuroides reveals herbicide resistance pre-dated herbicides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Délye, Christophe; Deulvot, Chrystel; Chauvel, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    Acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACCase) alleles carrying one point mutation that confers resistance to herbicides have been identified in arable grass weed populations where resistance has evolved under the selective pressure of herbicides. In an effort to determine whether herbicide resistance evolves from newly arisen mutations or from standing genetic variation in weed populations, we used herbarium specimens of the grass weed Alopecurus myosuroides to seek mutant ACCase alleles carrying an isoleucine-to-leucine substitution at codon 1781 that endows herbicide resistance. These specimens had been collected between 1788 and 1975, i.e., prior to the commercial release of herbicides inhibiting ACCase. Among the 734 specimens investigated, 685 yielded DNA suitable for PCR. Genotyping the ACCase locus using the derived Cleaved Amplified Polymorphic Sequence (dCAPS) technique identified one heterozygous mutant specimen that had been collected in 1888. Occurrence of a mutant codon encoding a leucine residue at codon 1781 at the heterozygous state was confirmed in this specimen by sequencing, clearly demonstrating that resistance to herbicides can pre-date herbicides in weeds. We conclude that point mutations endowing resistance to herbicides without having associated deleterious pleiotropic effects can be present in weed populations as part of their standing genetic variation, in frequencies higher than the mutation frequency, thereby facilitating their subsequent selection by herbicide applications.

  17. Hemoglobin and hematocrit values of Saudi newborns in the high altitude of Abha, Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bassuni, W.; Asindi, A.A.; Mustafa, F.S.; Hassan, B.; Din, Z.S.; Kumar, R.K.

    1996-01-01

    A study was designed to determine the red cell values (hemoglobin and hematocrit) of neonates born in the high altitude of Abha and to compare these values with known values of other lowland areas of Saudi Arabia. From the cord blood of 587 normal, appropriate for gestational age and term infants born in 1993 in Abha Maternity Hospital, the ranges of Hb and Hct were 130 to 240 g/L and 0.24 to 0.79 L/L respectively. The mean Hb was 187 g/L. There was no significant difference between the male and female values. Also, 17% of the infants in this study were polycythemic, while no polycythemia was recorded in these lowland areas and only 2% to 4% in the general global newborn population. It was therefore revealed that Abha newborns had higher red cell values at the birth when compared to other newborns in the low altitude areas of Riyadh and Jeddah (P<0.001). We postulate that high altitude (2700 meters above sea level) of Abha, and therefore its relative hypoxia, has induced high red cell values in infants born in the city. The phenomenon therefore warrants the adoption of higher red cell reference values and not necessarily those already documented in other Saudi new born populations. (author)

  18. Weed control in distress – can all weeds still be controlled with herbicides in future?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drobny, Hans G.

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The introduction and availability of highly active and selective herbicides in all important field crops, in the last decades, enabled the simplification and money saving in crop rotations and agronomic measures. This resulted in respective specialized and adapted weed populations, and consequently an increasing selection of resistant populations. Since the introduction of the ALS-inhibitors (starting 1985 and the 4-HPPD-inhibitors (2001, no new MoA-Classes were registered, and there are none in the registration process. Several established herbicides were not registered or re-registered in the EU, or were severely restricted in their application. The cost and the risk to develop and register a new selective herbicide in the EU are hardly justified, in relation to their market potential. The only solution on problem fields, with resistant populations, is to change the agronomic practices, like crop rotation, soil tillage, seeding time, etc., as a precautionary principle also on still „normal“ fields. The different advising institutions have to integrate these aspects into their recommendations, besides the proper herbicide management.

  19. Adsorption of imidazolinone herbicides on smectite-humic acid and smectite-ferrihydrite associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leone, P; Nègre, M; Gennari, M; Boero, V; Celis, R; Cornejo, J

    2002-01-16

    Adsorption of imazapyr (IMZ), imazethapyr (IMZT), and imazaquin (IMZQ) was studied on two smectite-humic acid and two smectite-ferrihydrite binary systems prepared by treating a Wyoming smectite with a humic acid extracted from soil (4 and 8% w/w of the smectite) and with just-precipitated synthetic ferrihydrite (8 and 16% w/w of the smectite). Adsorption of the three herbicides on the smectite was not measurable at pH >4.5, presumably because of negative charges on the surface of the smectite. Adsorption on the smectite-humic acid systems was also not measurable, presumably because of negative charges on the surface, despite the high affinity of the three herbicides for humic acid, the adsorption order of which was IMZ smectite-ferrihydrite systems and IMZQ smectite cannot adsorb herbicides, it modifies the adsorption capacity of ferrihydrite. The mutual interaction of active phases such as humic acid, ferrihydrite, and smectite alters the characteristics of the resulting surface and hence the adsorption process. Investigations of herbicide adsorption have been seen to produce more reliable results if conducted on polyphasic systems rather than on single soil components.

  20. [Determination of biphenyl ether herbicides in water using HPLC with cloud-point extraction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Cheng-Yan; Li, Yuan-Qian; Wang, Shen-Jiao; Ouyang, Hua-Xue; Zheng, Bo

    2010-01-01

    To determine residues of multiple biphenyl ether herbicides simultaneously in water using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with cloud-point extraction. The residues of eight biphenyl ether herbicides (including bentazone, fomesafen, acifluorfen, aclonifen, bifenox, fluoroglycofenethy, nitrofen, oxyfluorfen) in water samples were extracted with cloud-point extraction of Triton X-114. The analytes were separated and determined using reverse phase HPLC with ultraviolet detector at 300 nm. Optimized conditions for the pretreatment of water samples and the parameters of chromatographic separation applied. There was a good linear correlation between the concentration and the peak area of the analytes in the range of 0.05-2.00 mg/L (r = 0.9991-0.9998). Except bentazone, the spiked recoveries of the biphenyl ether herbicides in the water samples ranged from 80.1% to 100.9%, with relative standard deviations ranging from 2.70% to 6.40%. The detection limit of the method ranged from 0.10 microg/L to 0.50 microg/L. The proposed method is simple, rapid and sensitive, and can meet the requirements of determination of multiple biphenyl ether herbicides simultaneously in natural waters.

  1. Dicotyledon Weed Quantification Algorithm for Selective Herbicide Application in Maize Crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laursen, Morten Stigaard; Jørgensen, Rasmus Nyholm; Midtiby, Henrik Skov; Jensen, Kjeld; Christiansen, Martin Peter; Giselsson, Thomas Mosgaard; Mortensen, Anders Krogh; Jensen, Peter Kryger

    2016-11-04

    The stricter legislation within the European Union for the regulation of herbicides that are prone to leaching causes a greater economic burden on the agricultural industry through taxation. Owing to the increased economic burden, research in reducing herbicide usage has been prompted. High-resolution images from digital cameras support the studying of plant characteristics. These images can also be utilized to analyze shape and texture characteristics for weed identification. Instead of detecting weed patches, weed density can be estimated at a sub-patch level, through which even the identification of a single plant is possible. The aim of this study is to adapt the monocot and dicot coverage ratio vision (MoDiCoVi) algorithm to estimate dicotyledon leaf cover, perform grid spraying in real time, and present initial results in terms of potential herbicide savings in maize. The authors designed and executed an automated, large-scale field trial supported by the Armadillo autonomous tool carrier robot. The field trial consisted of 299 maize plots. Half of the plots (parcels) were planned with additional seeded weeds; the other half were planned with naturally occurring weeds. The in-situ evaluation showed that, compared to conventional broadcast spraying, the proposed method can reduce herbicide usage by 65% without measurable loss in biological effect.

  2. Attitudes, Values and Background of High School Journalists Compared with the Media Elite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Sammye

    To compare attitudes, values, and background of high school journalists with those of the media elite (journalists already working in the media), a survey was administered to 132 public and private high school students attending the Trinity University Journalism Institute during June 5-9, 1983. These students were the editors of their newspapers,…

  3. Methodical foundations of the preparation of highly valued personnel for high-rise construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belyaeva, Svetlana; Belyantseva, Oksana; Safonova, Nataliya; Vasilyeva, Olga

    2018-03-01

    When carrying out design and survey and construction and installation works for such an innovative type of activity as high-rise construction, the problem of personnel qualification becomes urgent. The article poses a research problem, identifies the main reasons for the need for training highly qualified specialists in construction, and suggests areas for improving training. The expediency of development of mentoring system was proved, the corresponding model of interaction between educational institutions and construction enterprises was offered, key interaction effects were evaluated.

  4. The Values in Four Selected American Novels and Suggested Uses of These Values in High School English Classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hipple, Theodore Wallace

    The first purpose of this study was to discover and analyze the values in "The Red Badge of Courage,""Adventures of Huckleberry Finn,""The Catcher in the Rye," and "To Kill a Mockingbird." The values--conscious or unconscious motivators and justifiers of characters' actions and judgments--were classified according to H. S. Broudy's "Building a…

  5. Inheritance and molecular characterization of broad range tolerance to herbicides targeting acetohydroxyacid synthase in sunflower.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sala, Carlos A; Bulos, Mariano

    2012-02-01

    Ahasl1 is a multilallelic locus where all the induced and natural mutations for herbicide tolerance were described thus far in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). The allele Ahasl1-1 confers moderate tolerance to imidazolinone (IMI), Ahasl1-2, and Ahasl1-3 provides high levels of tolerance solely to sulfonylurea (SU) and IMI, respectively. An Argentinean wild sunflower population showing plants with high level of tolerance to either an IMI and a SU herbicide was discovered and used to develop an inbred line designated RW-B. The objectives of this work were to determine the relative level and pattern of cross-tolerance to different AHAS-inhibiting herbicides, the mode of inheritance, and the molecular basis of herbicide tolerance in this line. Slight or no symptoms observed after application of different herbicides indicated that RW-B possesses a completely new pattern of tolerance to AHAS-inhibiting herbicides in sunflower. Biomass response to increasing doses of metsulfuron or imazapyr demonstrated a higher level of tolerance in RW-B with respect to Ahasl1-1/Ahasl1-1 and Ahasl1-2/Ahasl1-2 lines. On the basis of genetic analyses and cosegregation test, it was concluded that tolerance to imazapyr in the original population is inherited as a single, partially dominant nuclear gene and that this gene is controlling the tolerance to four different AHAS-inhibiting herbicides. Pseudo-allelism test permitted us to conclude that the tolerant allele present in RW-B is an allelic variant of Ahasl1-1 and was designated as Ahasl1-4. Nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequence indicated that the Ahasl1-4 allele sequence of RW-B has a leucine codon (TTG) at position 574 (relative to the Arabidopsis thaliana AHAS sequence), whereas the enzyme from susceptible lines has a tryptophan residue (TGG) at this position. The utilization of this new allele in the framework of weed control and crop rotation is discussed.

  6. Adsorption of chloroacetanilide herbicides on soil and its components. III. Influence of clay acidity, humic acid coating and herbicide structure on acetanilide herbicide adsorption on homoionic clays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei-ping; Fang, Zhuo; Liu, Hui-jun; Yang, Wei-chun

    2002-04-01

    Adsorption of chloroacetanilide herbicides on homoionic montmorillonite, soil humic acid, and their mixtures was studied by coupling batch equilibration and FT-IR analysis. Adsorption isotherms of acetochlor, alachlor, metolachlor and propachlor on Ca(2+)-, Mg(2+)-, Al(3+)- and Fe(3+)-saturated clays were well described by the Freundlich equation. Regardless of the type of exchange cations, Kf decreased in the order of metolachlor > acetolachlor > alachlor > propachlor on the same clay. FT-IR spectra showed that the carbonyl group of the herbicide molecule was involved in binding, probably via H-bond with water molecules in the clay interlayer. The type and position of substitutions around the carbonyl group may have affected the electronegativity of oxygen, thus influencing the relative adsorption of these herbicides. For the same herbicide, adsorption on clay increased in the order of Mg2+ < Ca2+ < Al3+ < or = Fe3+ which coincided with the increasing acidity of homoionic clays. Acidity of cations may have affected the protonation of water, and thus the strength of H-bond between the clay water and herbicide. Complexation of clay and humic acid resulted in less adsorption than that expected from independent adsorption by the individual constituents. The effect varied with herbicides, but the greatest decrease in adsorption occurred at a 60:40 clay-to-humic acid ratio for all the herbicides. Causes for the decreased adsorption need to be characterized to better understand adsorption mechanisms and predict adsorption from soil compositions.

  7. A quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe method for the simultaneous detection of four triazolone herbicides in cereals combined with ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Yan; Xu, Jun; Liu, Xingang; Cheng, Youpu; Liu, Na; Chen, Zenglong; Dong, Fengshou; Zheng, Yonguan

    2014-09-01

    This paper describes a novel, rapid, and sensitive analytical method for monitoring four triazolone herbicides in cereals (wheat, rice, corn, and soybean), using a quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe sample extraction procedure followed by ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. The four triazolone herbicides (amicarbazone, carfentrazone-ethyl, sulfentrazone, and thiencarbazone-methyl) were extracted using acidified acetonitrile (containing 1% v/v formic acid) and subsequently purified with octadecylsilane (C18 ) prior to sample analysis. Ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry was operated in positive and negative ionization switching mode. Amicarbazone and carfentrazone-ethyl were detected in the positive mode (ESI+), while sulfentrazone and thiencarbazone-methyl were detected in the negative mode (ESI-). All compounds were successfully separated in less than 3.0 min. Further optimization achieved desired recoveries ranging from 74.5 to 102.1% for all analytes with relative standard deviation values ≤17.2% in all tested matrices at three levels (10, 100, and 500 μg/kg). The limits of detection for all compounds were ≤2.3 μg/kg, and the limits of quantitation did not exceed 7.1 μg/kg. The developed method showed excellent linearity (R(2) ≥ 0.994) and was proven to be highly efficient and reliable for the routine monitoring of triazolone herbicides in cereals. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. A Dinitroaniline-Resistant Mutant of Eleusine indica Exhibits Cross-Resistance and Supersensitivity to Antimicrotubule Herbicides and Drugs 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughn, Kevin C.; Marks, M. David; Weeks, Donald P.

    1987-01-01

    A dinitroaniline-resistant (R) biotype of Eleusine indica (L.) Gaertner. (goosegrass) is demonstrated to be cross-resistant to a structurally non-related herbicide, amiprophosmethyl, and supersensitive to two other classes of compounds which disrupt mitosis. These characteristics of the R biotype were discovered in a comparative test of the effects of 24 different antimitotic compounds on the R biotype and susceptible (S) wild-type Eleusine. The compounds tested could be classified into three groups based upon their effects on mitosis in root tips of the susceptible (S) biotype. Class I compounds induced effects like the well known mitotic disrupter colchicine: absence of cortical and spindle microtubules, mitosis arrested at prometaphase, and the formation of polymorphic nuclei after arrested mitosis. The R biotype was resistant to treatment with some class I inhibitors (all dinitroaniline herbicides and amiprophosmethyl) but not all (e.g. colchicine, podophyllotoxin, vinblastine, and pronamide). Roots of the R biotype, when treated with either dinitroaniline herbicides or amiprophosmethyl, exhibited no or only small increases in the mitotic index nor were the spindle and cortical microtubules affected. Compounds of class II (carbamate herbicides and griseofulvin) cause misorientation of microtubules which results in multinucleated cells. Compounds of class III (caffeine and structually related alkaloids) cause imcomplete cell walls to form at telophase. Each of these last two classes of compounds affected the R biotype more than the S biotype (supersensitivity). The cross-resistance and high levels of resistance of the R biotype of Eleusine to the dinitroaniline herbicides and the structurally distinct herbicide, amiprophosmethyl, indicate that a mechanism of resistance based upon metabolic modification, translocation, or compartmentation of the herbicides is probably not operative. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:16665371

  9. A Dinitroaniline-Resistant Mutant of Eleusine indica Exhibits Cross-Resistance and Supersensitivity to Antimicrotubule Herbicides and Drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughn, K C; Marks, M D; Weeks, D P

    1987-04-01

    A dinitroaniline-resistant (R) biotype of Eleusine indica (L.) Gaertner. (goosegrass) is demonstrated to be cross-resistant to a structurally non-related herbicide, amiprophosmethyl, and supersensitive to two other classes of compounds which disrupt mitosis. These characteristics of the R biotype were discovered in a comparative test of the effects of 24 different antimitotic compounds on the R biotype and susceptible (S) wild-type Eleusine. The compounds tested could be classified into three groups based upon their effects on mitosis in root tips of the susceptible (S) biotype. Class I compounds induced effects like the well known mitotic disrupter colchicine: absence of cortical and spindle microtubules, mitosis arrested at prometaphase, and the formation of polymorphic nuclei after arrested mitosis. The R biotype was resistant to treatment with some class I inhibitors (all dinitroaniline herbicides and amiprophosmethyl) but not all (e.g. colchicine, podophyllotoxin, vinblastine, and pronamide). Roots of the R biotype, when treated with either dinitroaniline herbicides or amiprophosmethyl, exhibited no or only small increases in the mitotic index nor were the spindle and cortical microtubules affected. Compounds of class II (carbamate herbicides and griseofulvin) cause misorientation of microtubules which results in multinucleated cells. Compounds of class III (caffeine and structually related alkaloids) cause imcomplete cell walls to form at telophase. Each of these last two classes of compounds affected the R biotype more than the S biotype (supersensitivity). The cross-resistance and high levels of resistance of the R biotype of Eleusine to the dinitroaniline herbicides and the structurally distinct herbicide, amiprophosmethyl, indicate that a mechanism of resistance based upon metabolic modification, translocation, or compartmentation of the herbicides is probably not operative.

  10. Selectivity and stability of herbicides and their tank mixtures for the seed yield of sunflower (Helianthus Annuus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Delchev

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The research was conducted during 2012 – 2014 on pellic vertisol soil type. Under investigation were 4 sunflower hybrids (Helianthus annuus L.: hybrid Bacardy (an imitolerant hybrid by ClearField plus technology, hybrid Estiva (an imitolerant hybrid by ClearField technology, hybrid Sumico (a tribenuron-methyl tolerant hybrid by ExpessSun technology and hybrid Arizona (a hybrid by conventional technology. Factor A included the years of investigation. Factor B, herbicides and tank mixtures, included 20 rates. It includes 3 variants by ClearField plus technology, 5 variants by ClearField technology, 5 variants by ExpessSun technology and 7 variants by conventional technology. All variants are on herbicide Gardoprim plus gold 500 SC (Smetolachlor + terbuthylazine – 3.5 l/ha, which treated after sowing before emergence of the sunflower. It is found that the highest seed yield is obtained at herbicide tank mixture Pulsar plus + Stomp aqua by ClearField plus technology. Tank mixture Listego + Dash + Sharpen by ClearField technology and Express + Trend + Select super by ExpressSun technology also lead to obtaining high seed yields. The most unstable are secondary weed infested checks by the fourth technologies for sunflower growing which are treated with soil-applied herbicide Gardoprim plus gold only. Technologically the most valuable are herbicide combination Pulsar plus + Stomp aqua and herbicide Pulsar by ClearField plus technology, tank mixtures Listego + Dash + Sharpen and Listego + Dash by ClearField technology and Express + Trend + Select super and Express + Lactofol B + Select super by ExpressSun technology. Tank mixtures of herbicides Smerch, Pendigan, Wing, Raft, Pledge and Modown with Amalgerol premium by conventional technology have low estimates due to insufficient control of some weeds in sunflower crops.

  11. Are volcanic seismic b-values high, and if so when?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Nick S.; Bell, Andrew F.; Main, Ian G.

    2015-12-01

    The Gutenberg-Richter exponent b is a measure of the relative proportion of large and small earthquakes. It is commonly used to infer material properties such as heterogeneity, or mechanical properties such as the state of stress from earthquake populations. It is 'well known' that the b-value tends to be high or very high for volcanic earthquake populations relative to b = 1 for those of tectonic earthquakes, and that b varies significantly with time during periods of unrest. We first review the supporting evidence from 34 case studies, and identify weaknesses in this argument due predominantly to small sample size, the narrow bandwidth of magnitude scales available, variability in the methods used to assess the minimum or cutoff magnitude Mc, and to infer b. Informed by this, we use synthetic realisations to quantify the effect of choice of the cutoff magnitude on maximum likelihood estimates of b, and suggest a new work flow for this choice. We present the first quantitative estimate of the error in b introduced by uncertainties in estimating Mc, as a function of the number of events and the b-value itself. This error can significantly exceed the commonly-quoted statistical error in the estimated b-value, especially for the case that the underlying b-value is high. We apply the new methods to data sets from recent periods of unrest in El Hierro and Mount Etna. For El Hierro we confirm significantly high b-values of 1.5-2.5 prior to the 10 October 2011 eruption. For Mount Etna the b-values are indistinguishable from b = 1 within error, except during the flank eruptions at Mount Etna in 2001-2003, when 1.5 forecasting informed by b-value variability, in particular in assessing the significance of b-value variations identified by sample sizes with fewer than 200 events above the completeness threshold.

  12. Sarmentine, a natural herbicide from Piper species with multiple herbicide mechanisms of action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarmentine, 1-(1-pyrrolidinyl)-(2E,4E)-2,4-decadien-1-one, is a natural amide isolated from the fruits of Piper species. The compound has a number of interesting biological properties, including its broad-spectrum activity on weeds as a contact herbicide. Initial studies highlighted a similarity in ...

  13. Characterisation of transition state structures for protein folding using 'high', 'medium' and 'low' {Phi}-values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geierhaas, Christian D; Salvatella, Xavier; Clarke, Jane; Vendruscolo, Michele

    2008-03-01

    It has been suggested that Phi-values, which allow structural information about transition states (TSs) for protein folding to be obtained, are most reliably interpreted when divided into three classes (high, medium and low). High Phi-values indicate almost completely folded regions in the TS, intermediate Phi-values regions with a detectable amount of structure and low Phi-values indicate mostly unstructured regions. To explore the extent to which this classification can be used to characterise in detail the structure of TSs for protein folding, we used Phi-values divided into these classes as restraints in molecular dynamics simulations. This type of procedure is related to that used in NMR spectroscopy to define the structure of native proteins from the measurement of inter-proton distances derived from nuclear Overhauser effects. We illustrate this approach by determining the TS ensembles of five proteins and by showing that the results are similar to those obtained by using as restraints the actual numerical Phi-values measured experimentally. Our results indicate that the simultaneous consideration of a set of low-resolution Phi-values can provide sufficient information for characterising the architecture of a TS for folding of a protein.

  14. The interactive effects of the antifouling herbicides Irgarol 1051 and Diuron on the seagrass Zostera marina (L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesworth, J C; Donkin, M E; Brown, M T

    2004-02-25

    The herbicides Irgarol 1051 (2-(tert-butylamino)-4-cyclopropylamino)-6-(methylthio)-1,3,5-triazine) and Diuron (3-(3',4'-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea) are commonly incorporated into antifouling paints to boost the efficacy of the compound towards algae. Previous investigations have identified environmental concentrations of these herbicides as being a threat to non-target organisms, such as seagrasses. Their individual toxicity has been assessed, but they can co-occur and interact, potentially increasing their toxicity and the threat posed to seagrass meadows. Chlorophyll fluorescence (Fv:Fm) and leaf specific biomass ratio (representing plant growth) were examined in Zostera marina L. after a 10-day exposure to the individual herbicides. The EC20 for each herbicide was determined and these then used in herbicide mixtures to assess their interactive effects. Irgarol 1051 was found to be more toxic than Diuron with lowest observable effect concentrations for Fv:Fm reduction of 0.5 and 1.0 +/- microg/l and 10-day EC50 values of 1.1 and 3.2 microg/l, respectively. Plants exposed to Irgarol 1051 and Diuron showed a significant reduction in growth at concentrations of 1.0 and 5.0 microg/l, respectively. When Z. marina was exposed to mixtures, the herbicides commonly interacted additively or antagonistically, and no significant further reduction in photosynthetic efficiency was found at any concentration when compared to plants exposed to the individual herbicides. However, on addition of the Diuron EC20 to varying Irgarol 1051 concentrations and the Irgarol 1051 EC20 to varying Diuron concentrations, significant reductions in Fv:Fm were noted at an earlier stage. The growth of plants exposed to Diuron plus the Irgarol 1051 EC20 were significantly reduced when compared to plants exposed to Diuron alone, but only at the lower concentrations. Growth of plants exposed to Irgarol 1051 and the Diuron EC20 showed no significant reduction when compared to the growth of

  15. Raw or incubated olive-mill wastes and its biotransformed products as agricultural soil amendments-effect on sorption-desorption of triazine herbicides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Moreno, Laura; Almendros, Gonzalo; Peña, Aránzazu

    2007-02-07

    Raw olive-mill waste and soil amendments obtained from their traditional composting or vermicomposting were added, at rates equivalent to 200 Mg ha-1, to a calcareous silty clay loam soil in a laboratory test, in order to improve its fertility and physicochemical characteristics. In particular, the effects on the sorption-desorption processes of four triazine herbicides have been examined. We found that comparatively hydrophobic herbicides terbuthylazine and prometryn increased their retention on amended soil whereas the more polar herbicides simazine and cyanazine were less affected. Soil application of olive cake, without transformation, resulted in the highest herbicide retention. Its relatively high content in aliphatic fractions and lipids could explain the increased herbicide retention through hydrophobic bonding and herbicide diffusion favored by poorly condensed macromolecular structures. On the other hand, the condensed aromatic structure of the compost and vermicompost from olive cake could hinder diffusion processes, resulting in lower herbicide sorption. In fact, the progressive humification in soil of olive-mill solid waste led to a decrease of sorption capacity, which suggested important changes in organic matter quality and interactions during the mineralization process. When soil amended with vermicompost was incubated for different periods of time, the enhanced herbicide sorption capacity persisted for 2 months. Pesticide desorption was reduced by the addition of fresh amendments but was enhanced during the transformation process of amendments in soil. Our results indicate the potential of soil amendments based on olive-mill wastes in the controlled, selective release of triazine herbicides, which varies depending on the maturity achieved by their biological transformation.

  16. Electrochemical incineration of chloromethylphenoxy herbicides in acid medium by anodic oxidation with boron-doped diamond electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boye, Birame; Brillas, Enric; Marselli, Beatrice; Michaud, Pierre-Alain; Comninellis, Christos; Farnia, Giuseppe; Sandona, Giancarlo

    2006-01-01

    The electrochemical degradation of saturated solutions of herbicides 4-chloro-2-methylphenoxyacetic acid, 2-(4-chlorophenoxy)-2-methylpropionic acid and 2-(4-chloro-2-methylphenoxy)propionic acid in 1 M HClO 4 on a boron-doped diamond (BDD) thin film anode has been studied by chronoamperometry, cyclic voltammetry and bulk electrolysis. At low anodic potentials polymeric products are formed causing the fouling and deactivation of BDD. This is reactivated at high potentials when water decomposes producing hydroxyl radical as strong oxidant of organics. Electrolyses in a batch recirculation system at constant current density ≥8 mA cm -2 yielded overall decontamination of all saturated solution. The effect of current density and herbicide concentration on the degradation rate of each compound, the specific charge required for its total mineralization and instantaneous current efficiency have been investigated. Experimental results have been compared with those predicted by a theoretical model based on a fast anodic oxidation of initial herbicides, showing that at 30 mA cm -2 their degradation processes are completely controlled by mass transfer. Kinetic analysis of the change of herbicide concentration with time during electrolysis, determined by high-performance liquid chromatography, revealed that all compounds follow a pseudo first-order reaction. Aromatic intermediates and generated carboxylic acids have been identified using this technique and a general pathway for the electrochemical incineration of all herbicides on BDD is proposed

  17. Rainforest pharmacopeia in Madagascar provides high value for current local and prospective global uses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher D Golden

    Full Text Available Botanical diversity provides value to humans through carbon sequestration, air and water purification, and the provisioning of wild foods and ethnomedicines. Here we calculate the value of botanical ethnomedicines in a rainforest region of Madagascar, the Makira Protected Area, using a substitution method that combines replacement costs and choice modeling. The Makira watershed may comprise approximately 0.8% of global botanical diversity and possesses enormous value both in its ability to provision botanical ethnomedicines to local people and as a source of potentially novel pharmaceutical drugs for society as a whole. Approximately 241 locally-recognized species are used as ethnomedicines, including 113 agricultural or weed species. We equated each ethnomedicinal treatment to the monetary value of a comparable pharmaceutical treatment adjusted by personal preferences in perceived efficacy (rather than from known or assumed medicinal equivalency. The benefit value of these botanical ethnomedicines per individual is $5.40-7.90 per year when using the value of highly subsidized Malagasy pharmaceuticals and $100.60-287.40 when using the value of American pharmaceuticals. Using local pharmaceuticals as substitutes, the value per household is $30.24-44.30 per year, equivalent to 43-63% of median annual household income, demonstrating their local importance. Using the value of American pharmaceuticals, the amount is equivalent to 22-63% of the median annual health care expenditures for American adults under 45 in 2006. The potential for developing novel biomedicines from the Makira watershed's unique flora ranges in untapped benefit value from $0.3-5.7 billion for American pharmaceutical companies, non-inclusive of the importance of providing novel medicines and improved healthcare to society. This study provides evidence of the tremendous current local and prospective global value of botanical ethnomedicines and furthers arguments for the

  18. The system of values, motivation and self-attitude: gender features in high school students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina I. Vartanova

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of the value orientation research in high school students, Moscow, Russia. The sample (N=62 included 22 education and universal values and also self-attitude parameters using the four types of emotional attitude to learning. These types of motivation profile were obtained via pre-factorization estimates of the seven values of school life using the method of semantic differential, which allowed to estimate the severity of a positional or status motivation (1, achievement motivation (2, learning and cognitive motivation, (3 and motivation of affiliation (4. This enabled to further estimate the factor and correlation analysis of the parameters studied, which shows that the system of values is significantly different in males and females of the same age, even in relation to the same mean value of motivation. Motivation, values and self-attitude organize stable systems – on the current sample allocated the four most common systems, i.e. the four factors that are specific for both males and females. Simultaneously, there are systems of values dependent on expressiveness and the combination of a certain type of motivation, and independent of the type of motivation. Female educational and cognitive motivation and positional (status motivation related to the values were merged into one factor, but for males one factor includes achievement motivation and (with the opposite sign affiliation motivation. While the self-realization of females occurs in the process of learning (the value of «selfimprovement in their studies», and in the future they see an opportunity for self-realization through the value of «happy family life», the males with this motivation connect their opportunity for self-realization with other values, i.e. «health», «recognition by other team members», «my authority.»

  19. Parallel sort with a ranged, partitioned key-value store in a high perfomance computing environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bent, John M.; Faibish, Sorin; Grider, Gary; Torres, Aaron; Poole, Stephen W.

    2016-01-26

    Improved sorting techniques are provided that perform a parallel sort using a ranged, partitioned key-value store in a high performance computing (HPC) environment. A plurality of input data files comprising unsorted key-value data in a partitioned key-value store are sorted. The partitioned key-value store comprises a range server for each of a plurality of ranges. Each input data file has an associated reader thread. Each reader thread reads the unsorted key-value data in the corresponding input data file and performs a local sort of the unsorted key-value data to generate sorted key-value data. A plurality of sorted, ranged subsets of each of the sorted key-value data are generated based on the plurality of ranges. Each sorted, ranged subset corresponds to a given one of the ranges and is provided to one of the range servers corresponding to the range of the sorted, ranged subset. Each range server sorts the received sorted, ranged subsets and provides a sorted range. A plurality of the sorted ranges are concatenated to obtain a globally sorted result.

  20. Predicting herbicidal plant mortality with mobile photosynthesis meters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kempenaar, C.; Lotz, L.A.P.; Snel, J.F.H.; Smutny, V.; Zhang, H.J.

    2011-01-01

    Herbicide dose optimisation, i.e. maximising weed control and crop yield with herbicide dose, is an important part of integrated weed management strategies. However, the adoption of optimised dose technology and variable rate application has been limited because of the relatively long period between

  1. Herbicide volatilization trumps runoff losses, a multi-year investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surface runoff and volatilization are two processes critical to herbicide off-site transport. To determine the relevance of these off-site transport mechanisms, runoff and turbulent vapor fluxes were simultaneously monitored on the same site for eight years. Site location, herbicide formulations, ...

  2. In vitro screening of selected herbicides on rhizosphere mycoflora ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In vitro screening of five selected herbicides at different concentrations on rhizosphere mycoflora from yellow pepper (capsicum annum L var. Nsukka yellow) seedlings at Nsukka were investigated. The herbicides employed for this study were Paraquat, Glyphosate, Primextra, Atrazine and Linuron. The isolated rhizosphere ...

  3. Effects of acetochlor (herbicide) on the survival and avoidance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-07-06

    Jul 6, 2011 ... These results suggested that acetochlor residues had negligible effects on P. birmanica and L. terrestris. Michalkova and Pekar (2009) and Yardim and Edwards (1998) also reported negligible effects of herbicide (glyphosate) on Pardosa agrestis. Although, we also observed negligible effects of herbicide.

  4. economics of herbicide weed management in wheat in ethiopia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    Effective use of herbicides for the control of annual grass and broadleaf weeds in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was not a reality in Ethiopia, until in recent years. This study aimed at evaluating different post-emergence herbicides against annual grasses and broadleaf weeds in wheat for selection and incorporation into an ...

  5. Expanding the eco-evolutionary context of herbicide resistance research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neve, Paul; Busi, Roberto; Renton, Michael; Vila-Aiub, Martin M

    2014-09-01

    The potential for human-driven evolution in economically and environmentally important organisms in medicine, agriculture and conservation management is now widely recognised. The evolution of herbicide resistance in weeds is a classic example of rapid adaptation in the face of human-mediated selection. Management strategies that aim to slow or prevent the evolution of herbicide resistance must be informed by an understanding of the ecological and evolutionary factors that drive selection in weed populations. Here, we argue for a greater focus on the ultimate causes of selection for resistance in herbicide resistance studies. The emerging fields of eco-evolutionary dynamics and applied evolutionary biology offer a means to achieve this goal and to consider herbicide resistance in a broader and sometimes novel context. Four relevant research questions are presented, which examine (i) the impact of herbicide dose on selection for resistance, (ii) plant fitness in herbicide resistance studies, (iii) the efficacy of herbicide rotations and mixtures and (iv) the impacts of gene flow on resistance evolution and spread. In all cases, fundamental ecology and evolution have the potential to offer new insights into herbicide resistance evolution and management. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Herbicide-resistant crop biotechnology: potential and pitfalls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbicide-resistant crops are an important agricultural biotechnology that can enable farmers to effectively control weeds without harming their crops. Glyphosate-resistant (i.e. Roundup Ready) crops have been the most commercially successful varieties of herbicide-resistant crops and have been plan...

  7. Effect of four herbicides on microbial population, soil organic matter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of four herbicides (atrazine, primeextra, paraquat and glyphosate) on soil microbial population, soil organic matter and dehydrogenase activity was assessed over a period of six weeks. Soil samples from cassava farms were treated with herbicides at company recommended rates. Soil dehydrogenase activity was ...

  8. Integrated Effect of Seeding Rate, Herbicide Dosage and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    yield reductions of 26 to 63% across four bread wheat cultivars at 90 weed seedlings m-2 in. Ethiopia. Before herbicides were widely available, farmers employed cultural measures to manage weed population. Wild oat management systems have evolved to the point that producers rely on herbicides to the virtual exclusion ...

  9. ACETANILIDE HERBICIDE DEGRADATION PRODUCTS BY LC/MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acetanilide herbicides are frequently applied in the U.S. on crops (corn, soybeans, popcorn, etc.) to control broadleaf and annual weeds. The acetanilide and acetamide herbicides currently registered for use in the U.S. are alachlor, acetochlor, metolachlor, propachlor, flufen...

  10. Evaluation of generic and branded herbicides : technical report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    As with other generic brand products in the marketplace, generic herbicides often have a lower initial product cost than : their brand-name counterparts. While the purchase price of herbicides is important to TxDOT, it is essential to look at : more ...

  11. Selective Herbicides for Cultivation of Eucalyptus urograndis Clones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick J. Minogue

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Competition control is essential for successful eucalyptus plantation establishment, yet few selective herbicides have been identified. Five herbicides, flumioxazin, imazamox, imazapic, oxyfluorfen, and sulfometuron methyl, were evaluated for selective weed control in the establishment of genetically modified frost tolerant Eucalyptus urograndis clones. Herbicides were applied at two or three rates, either before or after weed emergence, and compared to a nontreated control and to near-complete weed control obtained with glyphosate directed sprays. Applications prior to weed emergence were most effective for weed control and, with the exception of imazapic, all resulted in enhanced eucalyptus growth relative to the nontreated control. Among postemergent treatments, only imazamox enhanced stem volume. Among selective herbicide treatments, preemergent 2240 g ha−1 oxyfluorfen produced the best growth response, resulting in stem volume index that was 860% greater than the nontreated control, although only 15% of the volume index obtained with near-complete weed control. Imazapic was the most phytotoxic of all herbicides, resulting in 40% mortality when applied preemergent. Survival was 100% for all other herbicide treatments. This research found the previously nontested herbicides imazamox and imazapic to be effective for selective weed control and refined application rate and timing of five herbicides for use in clonal plantations.

  12. Hazard and risk of herbicides for marine microalgae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sjollema, Sascha B.; MartínezGarcía, Gema; Geest, Harm G. van der; Kraak, Michiel H.S.; Booij, Petra; Vethaak, A. Dick; Admiraal, Wim

    2014-01-01

    Due to their specific effect on photosynthesis, herbicides pose a potential threat to coastal and estuarine microalgae. However, comprehensive understanding of the hazard and risk of these contaminants is currently lacking. Therefore the aim of the present study was to investigate the toxic effects of four ubiquitous herbicides (atrazine, diuron, Irgarol ® 1051 and isoproturon) and herbicide mixtures on marine microalgae. Using a Pulse Amplitude Modulation (PAM) fluorometry based bioassay we demonstrated a clear species and herbicide specific toxicity and showed that the current environmental legislation does not protect algae sufficiently against diuron and isoproturon. Although a low actual risk of herbicides in the field was demonstrated, monitoring data revealed that concentrations occasionally reach potential effect levels. Hence it cannot be excluded that herbicides contribute to observed changes in phytoplankton species composition in coastal waters, but this is likely to occur only occasionally. - Highlights: • The hazard of herbicides for microalgae is compound and species specific. • In general a low risk although occasional potential effect levels are reached. • Current legislation does not protect marine microalgae sufficiently. - The hazard of herbicides in the coastal waters is compound and species specific and although the general risk in the field is low, occasionally potential effect levels are reached

  13. The weed composition in an orchard as a result of long-term foliar herbicide application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Licznar-Małańczuk

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The weed composition and the dominance of individual species occurring in an orchard were assessed at the Research Station of the Wrocław University of Environmental and Life Sciences, Poland, during the first 10 years after orchard establishment. ‘Ligol’ apple trees were planted in the spring of 2004 (3.5 × 1.2 m. Foliar herbicides were applied in 1 m wide tree rows twice or three times per each vegetation period. In the inter-row spaces, perennial grass was maintained. Ten years of maintenance of herbicide fallow contributed to a change in the weed composition in the orchard. It changed as a result of different responses of the most important weed species to the foliar herbicides. Total suppression of Elymus repens was observed in the first year after planting the trees. Convolvulus arvensis, Cirsium arvense, and other perennial weeds, completely disappeared in the succeeding periods. The maintenance of herbicide fallow did not affect the abundance of Taraxacum officinale. The percentage of the soil surface covered by Trifolium repens and Epilobium adenocaulon, perennial weeds with considerable tolerance to post-emergence herbicides, increased during the fruit-bearing period of the trees. The abundance of these weeds was significantly reduced only in the rows with the stronger growing trees on the semi-dwarf P 2 rootstock. Stellaria media was the dominant annual weed. Senecio vulgaris, Poa annua, Capsella bursa-pastoris, and Lamium spp. were also frequently observed. A significant increase in the abundance of annual and perennial weeds was found in the tree rows as a result of improved water availability after a period of high precipitation.

  14. Herbicidal cyanoacrylates with antimicrotubule mechanism of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tresch, Stefan; Plath, Peter; Grossmann, Klaus

    2005-11-01

    The herbicidal mode of action of the new synthetic cyanoacrylates ethyl (2Z)-3-amino-2-cyano-4-ethylhex-2-enoate (CA1) and its isopropyl ester derivative CA2 was investigated. For initial characterization, a series of bioassays was used indicating a mode of action similar to that of mitotic disrupter herbicides such as the dinitroaniline pendimethalin. Cytochemical fluorescence studies including monoclonal antibodies against polymerized and depolymerized tubulin and a cellulose-binding domain of a bacterial cellulase conjugated to a fluorescent dye were applied to elucidate effects on cell division processes including mitosis and microtubule and cell wall formation in maize roots. When seedlings were root treated with 10 microM of CA1 or CA2, cell division activity in meristematic root tip cells decreased within 4 h. The chromosomes proceeded to a condensed state of prometaphase, but were unable to progress further in the mitotic cycle. The compounds caused a complete loss of microtubular structures, including preprophase, spindle, phragmoplast and cortical microtubules. Concomitantly, in the cytoplasm, an increase in labelling of free tubulin was observed. This suggests that the herbicides disrupt polymerization and microtubule stability, whereas tubulin synthesis or degradation appeared not to be affected. In addition, cellulose labelling in cell walls of root tip cells was not influenced. The effects of CA1 and CA2 were comparable with those caused by pendimethalin. In transgenic Arabidopsis plants expressing a green fluorescent protein-microtubule-associated protein4 fusion protein, labelled arrays of cortical microtubules in living epidermal cells of hypocotyls collapsed within 160 min after exposure to 10 microM CA1 or pendimethalin. Moreover, a dinitroaniline-resistant biotype of goosegrass (Eleusine indica (L) Gaertn) with a point mutation in alpha-tubulin showed cross-resistance against CA1 and CA2. The results strongly indicate that the cyanoacrylates are

  15. INTERRELATION OF PERSONAL VALUE SYSTEMS AND ETHICAL BEHAVIOUR OF HIGH-LEVEL HOTEL MANAGEMENT IN CROATIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Ivaniš

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available A successful high-level management is aware of the fact that, in competitive surroundings, business ethics enables growth and development, increases efficiency and productivity. In this sense, at the time when ethical behaviour is of paramount importance if one wants to retain an enterprise on the market, it has become essential to perceive the relationship between personal values of high-level management with ethical behaviour which is the purpose of this paper. The results of the research in this paper indicate the correlation between the personal value system and the ethical/unethical behaviour of hotel manager of large companies in Croatia.

  16. Effect of high-energy electron irradiation of chicken meat on thiobarbituric acid values, shear values, odor, and cooked yield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heath, J.L.; Owens, S.L.; Tesch, S.; Hannah, K.W.

    1990-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to determine whether electron-beam irradiation would affect shear values, yield, odor, and thiobarbituric acid (TBA) values of chicken tissues. Broiler breasts (pectoralis superficialis) and whole thighs were irradiated with an electron-beam accelerator at levels to produce adsorbed doses of 100, 200, and 300 krads on the surface of the sample. The thigh samples were stored for 2, 4, and 8 days before testing for TBA values. The depth to which the radiation had penetrated the pectoralis superficialis muscle was also determined. Radiation penetrated 22 mm into slices of pectoralis superficialis muscle when 100 krad was absorbed by the surface of the tissue. The dose absorbed beneath the tissue surface to a depth of 10 mm was larger than the dose absorbed at the surface. The absorbed dose decreased as the depth of penetration increased. For cooked breast tissue, the shear values and moisture content were not affected by the absorbed radiation. Cooking losses of aged breast tissue were not affected by irradiation, but cooking losses were reduced in breast tissue that had not been aged. Irradiating uncooked thigh and uncooked breast samples produced a characteristic odor that remained after the thighs were cooked but was not detectable after the breast samples were cooked. With two exceptions, no significantly different TBA values were found that could be attributed to irradiation

  17. [Effects of herbicide on grape leaf photosynthesis and nutrient storage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Wei; Wang, Hui; Zhai, Heng

    2011-09-01

    Selecting three adjacent vineyards as test objects, this paper studied the effects of applying herbicide in growth season on the leaf photosynthetic apparatus and branch nutrient storage of grape Kyoho (Vitis vinfrraxVitis labrusca). In the vineyards T1 and T2 where herbicide was applied in 2009, the net photosynthesis rate (Pa) of grape leaves had a significant decrease, as compared with that in vineyard CK where artificial weeding was implemented. The leaves at the fourth node in vineyard T1 and those at the sixth node in vineyard T2 had the largest decrement of Pn (40.5% and 32.1%, respectively). Herbicide had slight effects on the leaf stomatal conductance (Gs). In T1 where herbicide application was kept on with in 2010, the Pn, was still significantly lower than that in CK; while in T2 where artificial weeding was implemented in 2010, the Pn and Gs of top- and middle node leaves were slightly higher than those in T1, but the Pn was still lower than that in CK, showing the aftereffects of herbicide residual. The herbicide application in 2009 decreased the leaf maximum photochemical efficiency of PS II (Fv/Fm) and performance index (P1) while increased the relative variable fluorescence in the J step and K step, indicating the damage of electron transportation of PS II center and oxygen-evolving complex. Herbicide application decreased the pigment content of middle-node leaves in a dose-manner. Applying herbicide enhanced the leaf catalase and peroxidase activities significantly, increased the superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity of middle-node leaves, but decreased the SOD activity of top- and bottom node leaves. After treated with herbicide, the ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activity of middle- and bottom node leaves increased, but that of top-node leaves decreased. Herbicide treatment aggravated leaf lipid peroxidation, and reduced the soluble sugar, starch, free amino acids, and soluble protein storage in branches.

  18. Implicit Theories, Expectancies, and Values Predict Mathematics Motivation and Behavior across High School and College.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priess-Groben, Heather A; Hyde, Janet Shibley

    2017-06-01

    Mathematics motivation declines for many adolescents, which limits future educational and career options. The present study sought to identify predictors of this decline by examining whether implicit theories assessed in ninth grade (incremental/entity) predicted course-taking behaviors and utility value in college. The study integrated implicit theory with variables from expectancy-value theory to examine potential moderators and mediators of the association of implicit theories with college mathematics outcomes. Implicit theories and expectancy-value variables were assessed in 165 American high school students (47 % female; 92 % White), who were then followed into their college years, at which time mathematics courses taken, course-taking intentions, and utility value were assessed. Implicit theories predicted course-taking intentions and utility value, but only self-concept of ability predicted courses taken, course-taking intentions, and utility value after controlling for prior mathematics achievement and baseline values. Expectancy for success in mathematics mediated associations between self-concept of ability and college outcomes. This research identifies self-concept of ability as a stronger predictor than implicit theories of mathematics motivation and behavior across several years: math self-concept is critical to sustained engagement in mathematics.

  19. Revalidation and rationale for high pKa values of unconjugated bilirubin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ostrow J Donald

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Our prior solvent partition analysis, published in 1992, yielded pKa values for unconjugated bilirubin of about 8.1 and 8.4, but these results have been challenged and studies by other methods have suggested pKa values below 5.0. Methods We repeated our published solvent partition studies, using 14C-unconjugated bilirubin highly purified by extraction of residual labeled impurities from CHCl3 into an aqueous buffer, pH 7.0. Partition ratios at six pH values from 5.0 to 9.0 were determined by radioassay and compared with our prior values obtained by diazo assay. Results At pH values ranging from 4.8 to 9.2, stable aqueous/chloroform 14C-partition ratios did not differ significantly from our published partition ratios based on diazo assay. Conclusion These results support the high pKa values of unconjugated bilirubin, above 8.0, derived from our earlier solvent partition study. In both studies, our measurements were based on the rapid analysis of clearly under-saturated solutions of highly-purified bilirubin over a wide pH range, using properly purified and preserved solvents. No previous direct estimate of the aqueous pKa values of unconjugated bilirubin meets all these preconditions. Three theoretical factors acting in combination, each related to the unique, extensive internal H-bonding of the -COOH groups, are proposed to support high pKa values of unconjugated bilirubin in water: a donation of an H-bond from the -OH moiety of the -COOH group, which is broken on ionization; b hindered solvation of the -COO- group after ionization; and c restricted rotation of the -COO- and -COOH groups. Our findings and rationale rebut methodological and theoretical criticisms leveled against our prior work. High pKa values for unconjugated bilirubin dictate that: a bilirubin diacid, which readily diffuses across membranes and can cause neurotoxicity, is the dominant unbound bilirubin species of unconjugated bilirubin in plasma at

  20. Value of improved lipid control in patients at high risk for adverse cardiac events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jena, Anupam B; Blumenthal, Daniel M; Stevens, Warren; Chou, Jacquelyn W; Ton, Thanh G N; Goldman, Dana P

    2016-06-01

    Lipid-lowering therapy (LLT) is suboptimally used in patients with hyperlipidemia in the 2 highest statin benefit groups (SBGs), as categorized by the American College of Cardiology and the American Heart Association. This study estimated the social value of reducing low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels by 50% for patients in SBGs 1 and 2 who have been treated with standard LLT but have not reached LDL-C goal, as well as the potential value of PCSK9 inhibitors for patients in these groups. Simulation model. We used National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) and US Census data to project the population of SBGs 1 and 2 in the time period 2015 to 2035. We used insurance claims data to estimate incidence rates of major adverse cardiac events (MACEs), and NHANES with National Vital Statistics data to estimate cardiovascular disease mortality rates. Using established associations between LDL-C and MACE risk, we estimated the value of reducing LDL-C levels by 50%. We incorporated results from a meta-analysis to estimate the value of PSCK9 inhibitors. Among those treated with LLT with LDL-C > 70 mg/dL in SBGs 1 and 2, the cumulative value of reducing LDL-C levels by 50% would be $2.9 trillion from 2015 to 2035, resulting primarily from 1.6 million deaths averted. The cumulative value of PCSK9 inhibitors would range from $3.4 trillion to $5.1 trillion (1.9-2.8 million deaths averted), or $12,000 to $17,000 per patient-year of treatment. Lowering LDL-C in high-risk patients with hyperlipidemia has enormous potential social value. For patients in these high-risk groups, PCSK9 inhibitors may have considerable net value depending on the final prices payers ultimately select.

  1. High throughput screening and profiling of high-value carotenoids from a wide diversity of bacteria in surface seawater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asker, Dalal

    2018-09-30

    Carotenoids are valuable natural colorants that exhibit numerous health promoting properties, and thus are widely used in food, feeds, pharmaceutical and nutraceuticals industries. In this study, we isolated and identified novel microbial sources that produced high-value carotenoids using high throughput screening (HTS). A total of 701 pigmented microbial strains library including marine bacteria and red yeast was constructed. Carotenoids profiling using HPLC-DAD-MS methods showed 88 marine bacterial strains with potential for the production of high-value carotenoids including astaxanthin (28 strains), zeaxanthin (21 strains), lutein (1 strains) and canthaxanthin (2 strains). A comprehensive 16S rRNA gene based phylogenetic analysis revealed that these strains can be classified into 30 species belonging to five bacterial classes (Flavobacteriia, α-Proteobacteria, γ-Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria and Bacilli). Importantly, we discovered novel producers of zeaxanthin and lutein, and a high diversity in both carotenoids and producing microbial strains, which are promising and highly selective biotechnological sources for high-value carotenoids. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. [Determination of acetanilide herbicide residues in tea by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with two different ionization techniques].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Weijian; Xu, Jinzhong; Yang, Wenquan; Shen, Chongyu; Zhao, Zengyun; Ding, Tao; Wu, Bin

    2007-09-01

    An analytical method of solid phase extraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with two different ionization techniques was established for simultaneous determination of 12 acetanilide herbicide residues in tea-leaves. Herbicides were extracted from tea-leaf samples with ethyl acetate. The extract was cleaned-up on an active carbon SPE column connected to a Florisil SPE column. Analytical screening was determined by the technique of gas chromatography (GC)-mass spectrometry (MS) in the selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode with either electron impact ionization (EI) or negative chemical ionization (NCI). It is reliable and stable that the recoveries of all herbicides were in the range from 50% to 110% at three spiked levels, 10 microg/kg, 20 microg/kg and 40 microg/kg, and the relative standard deviations (RSDs) were no more than 10.9%. The two different ionization techniques are complementary as more ion fragmentation information can be obtained from the EI mode while more molecular ion information from the NCI mode. By comparison of the two techniques, the selectivity of NCI-SIM was much better than that of EI-SIM method. The sensitivities of the both techniques were high, the limit of quantitative (LOQ) for each herbicide was no more than 2.0 microg/kg, and the limit of detection (LOD) with NCI-SIM technique was much lower than that of EI-SIM when analyzing herbicides with several halogen atoms in the molecule.

  3. Optimal high b-value for diffusion weighted MRI in diagnosing high risk prostate cancers in the peripheral zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Harsh K; Mertan, Francesca V; Sankineni, Sandeep; Bernardo, Marcelino; Senegas, Julien; Keupp, Jochen; Daar, Dagane; Merino, Maria; Wood, Bradford J; Pinto, Peter A; Choyke, Peter L; Turkbey, Baris

    2017-01-01

    To retrospectively determine the optimal b-value(s) of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) associated with intermediate-high risk cancer in the peripheral zone (PZ) of the prostate. Forty-two consecutive patients underwent multi b-value (16 evenly spaced b-values between 0 and 2000 s/mm 2 ) DWI along with multi-parametric MRI (MP-MRI) of the prostate at 3 Tesla followed by trans-rectal ultrasound/MRI fusion guided targeted biopsy of suspicious lesions detected at MP-MRI. Computed DWI images up to a simulated b-value of 4000 s/mm 2 were also obtained using a pair of b-values (b = 133 and 400 or 667 or 933 s/mm 2 ) from the multi b-value DWI. The contrast ratio of average intensity of the targeted lesions and the background PZ was determined. Receiver operator characteristic curves and the area under the curve (AUCs) were obtained for separating patients eligible for active surveillance with low risk prostate cancers from intermediate-high risk prostate cancers as per the cancer of the prostate risk assessment (CAPRA) scoring system. The AUC first increased then decreased with the increase in b-values reaching maximum at b = 1600 s/mm 2 (0.74) with no statistically significant different AUC of DWI with b-values 1067-2000 s/mm 2 . The AUC of computed DWI increased then decreased with the increase in b-values reaching a maximum of 0.75 around b = 2000 s/mm 2 . There was no statistically significant difference between the AUC of optimal acquired DWI and either of optimal computed DWI. The optimal b-value for acquired DWI in differentiating intermediate-high from low risk prostate cancers in the PZ is b = 1600 s/mm 2 . The computed DWI has similar performance as that of acquired DWI with the optimal performance around b = 2000 s/mm 2 . 4 J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2017;45:125-131. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  4. The effects of 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid and isoproturon herbicides on the mitotic activity of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) root tips

    OpenAIRE

    KUMAR, Sanjay; *, -; ARYA, Shashi Kiran; ROY, Bijoy Krishna; SINGH, Atul Kumar

    2014-01-01

    The effects of the herbicides 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid and isoproturon on 3 wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) varieties (HUW 234, HUW 468, and HUW 533) were studied with regards to mitotic abnormalities and chromosomal behavior. Pre-soaked seeds were treated with both herbicides at concentrations of 50-1200 ppm. Both 2,4-D and isoproturon were highly mito-inhibitory and induced chromosomal abnormalities, such as precocious movement, stickiness, and chromosome bridges, with and without lagga...

  5. Harvesting Robots for High-value Crops: State-of-the-art Review and Challenges Ahead

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bac, C.W.; Henten, van E.; Hemming, J.; Edan, Y.

    2014-01-01

    This review article analyzes state-of-the-art and future perspectives for harvesting robots in high-value crops. The objectives were to characterize the crop environment relevant for robotic harvesting, to perform a literature review on the state-of-the-art of harvesting robots using quantitative

  6. High value co-products from wine byproducts (II): polyphenols and antioxidant activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Femenia, A.; Gonzalez-Centeno, M. R.; Garau, M. C.; Sastre-Serrano, G.; Rosello, C.

    2009-07-01

    The by-products of the grape/wine industry have recently attracted considerable interest as important sources of high-value antioxidants. these can be extracted from stems, such as resveratrol,and from grape pomace which contains polyphenols, procyanidin and antrocyanins. (Author)

  7. Neutrophil CD64 has a high negative predictive value for exclusion ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods and results. In this prospective observational study, patients were classied into categories of infection, namely denite, probable and possible. Of 76 neonates, 1 had denite infection, 5 probable infection, 30 possible infection, and 32 no infection. .e neutrophil CD64 index at a cut-o. value of 1.8 had a high negative ...

  8. Selectivity of herbicides in crambe crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Sasso Ferreira Souza

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The low productivity of crambe can be associated with many factors, among these, the competition with weeds, which reduces the yield, harvest affects and contributes to the increase in seed moisture. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the tolerance of crambe plants cv. FMS Brilhante to herbicides applied in preplant incorporated (PPI, preemergence (PRE, and postemergence (POST. The study was installed in a green-house and the treatments consisted of the herbicide application in: pre-plant incorporated ofdiclosulam, flumetsulam, metribuzin, and trifluralin;preemergence applicationof atrazine, diclosulam, diuron, flumetsulam, metribuzim, S-metolachlor, sulfentrazone, and trifluralin; and postemergence application ofbentazon, carfentrazone-ethyl, clefoxydim, cletodim + fenoxaprop-p-ethyl, ethoxysulfuron, fomesafen, fluazifop-p-butyl, flumioxazin, halosulfuron, imazamox, imazapic, lactofen, nicosulfuron, oxadiazon, quinclorac, and setoxydim. Visual evaluations of phytotoxicity on crambe plants were realized after applications, the seedlings were counted and the height and plant dry matter were determined in the end of the evaluation period. In conditions where the studies were conducted, we can conclude that only the trifluralin application in PRE and the application of clefoxidim+fenoxaprop-p-ethyl, fluazifop-p-butyl, quinclorac, setoxydim and clefoxydim in POST showed selectivity and potential use for FMS Brilhante crambe cultivar.

  9. Research methods in weed science: herbicide absorption and translocation in plants using radioisotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbicide absorption and translocation in plants is a key component in the study of herbicide physiology, mode of action, selectivity, resistance mechanisms, and in the registration process. Radioactive herbicides have been in use for over half-a-century in the research and study of herbicide absorp...

  10. Valuing carbon assets for high-tech with application to the wind energy industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Liyan; Liu, Yang; Lin, Qiang; Huang, Gubo

    2015-01-01

    In contrast to the traditional methods for high-tech evaluation, we introduce a new, more active idea for considering the carbon asset effect, in addition to the economic and technological considerations for strategic significance. The method proposed in this paper considers a reduced amount of carbon emissions, less than that of the current industry baseline, to be an asset that is beneficial to a firm that adopts a new technology. The measured carbon asset values vary across different technologies, in different industries and over time. The new method is applied to the valuing of wind energy technology and uses the Weibull distribution to estimate the wind energy capacity and a concrete sensitivity analysis. These applications support the validity of the new method and show that the impact of the fluctuations of carbon sinks on the values of carbon assets is significantly greater than that of volatility in the production output. The paper also presents some policy recommendations based on the results. - Highlights: • Carbon asset dimension for high-tech evaluation. • Valuing wind energy technology by Weibull distribution. • Greater impact of the carbon sink price on the carbon asset value than that of production output. • The environmental risk could be measured based on the carbon asset assessment.

  11. Discharge of landfill leachate to streambed sediments impacts the mineralization potential of phenoxy acid herbicides depending on the initial abundance of tfdA gene classes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pazarbasi, Meric Batioglu; Milosevic, Nemanja; Malaguerra, Flavio

    2013-01-01

    discharge to SM3, and lower herbicide mass discharges to SM1 and SM2 were determined due to groundwater discharge rates and herbicide concentrations. SM1-sediment with the lowest abundance of tfdA gene classes had the slowest mineralization, whereas SM2- and SM3-sediments with more abundant tfdA genes had......To understand the role of abundance of tfdA gene classes belonging to β- and γ-proteobacteria on phenoxy acid herbicide degradation, streambed sediments were sampled around three seepage meters (SMs) installed in a landfill-impacted groundwater–surface water interface. Highest herbicide mass...... faster mineralization. The observed difference in mineralization rates between discharge zones was simulated by a Monod-based kinetic model, which confirmed the role of abundance of tfdA gene classes. This study suggests presence of specific degraders adapted to slow growth rate and high yield strategy...

  12. Assessment of ECISS draft standard for derivation of high temperature proof strength values

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linde, L.; Sandstroem, R.

    1996-03-01

    New European material standards are under development and modern data evaluation techniques must be able to supply these standards with accurate design values. A draft standard for the derivation of high temperature proof strength values has been proposed. This standard (EDS) has been used to calculate strength values for six steels; one unalloyed steel, one 12 % Cr steel and four austenitic stainless steels. Although large data sets were available, it was not possible to satisfy the requirement in the EDS of 80 % temperature coverage in the proof strength data for several steels. It suggests that temperature coverage specified in the EDS is unrealistically high. Due to the limited number of heats satisfying the temperature coverage requirements for each steel, the statistical error in the derived values exceeds 10-20 % which must be considered as unacceptably high. Instead it is recommended that the full data sets are used irrespective of temperature coverage. The variation of proof strength values represented by the analysed heats did not cover the corresponding variation in the larger data set available. This was the case even for the steel where 16 heats satisfied the temperature coverage requirement. Thus a limited number of heats can not be expected to be a good representation of more complete data sets. This has the consequence that absolute strength values can not be derived without access to a standardised proof strength at room temperature. Two derivation methods investigated in this report are both based on the ISO 2605/III procedure for proof strength assessments at elevated temperature. Method I and II use an essentially temperature independent and temperature dependent reduction term respectively. The methods have been assessed by the same data sets for the six steels. One or both methods gave satisfactory results for most of the investigated steels. Presented results are based on work carried out in ECISS TC22 WG1. 17 refs, 20 figs, 7 tabs.

  13. Glufosinate (phosphinothricin), a natural amino acid with unexpected herbicidal properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoerlein, G

    1994-01-01

    Glufosinate ammonium (phosphinothricin ammonium) (GLA) is the active ingredient of Basta and several other herbicides used worldwide. It is produced as part of the tripeptide L-phosphinothricyl-L-alanyl-L-alanin, which was first isolated from Streptomyces viridichromogenes or Streptomyces hygroscopicus. Its structure is confirmed by degradation and synthesis. Several processes for the preparation of D,L- and L-phosphinothricin are described. Glufosinate is a structural analog of glutamate and inhibits the glutamine synthetase. The result is a rapid build-up of a high ammonia level and a concomitant depletion of glutamine and several other amino acids in the plant. These effects are accompanied by a rapid decline of photosynthetic CO2-fixation and are followed by chlorosis and desiccation. The results of numerous toxicological studies show that glufosinate ammonium and its commercial formulations are safe for users and consumers under the conditions of recommended use. The fast and complete degradation in soil and surface water prevents movement of residues into groundwater. The toxicological threshold levels for all the nontarget organisms tested are well above the potential exposure levels and therefore do not reflect any hazard for nontarget organisms in the ecosystem. Basta is a nonselective foliar applied herbicide for the control of undesirable mono- and dicotyledonous plants in orchards, vineyards, and plantations for minimum tillage, and as a harvest aid. A synthetic phosphinothricin acetyltransferase (PAT) gene has been introduced via Agrobacterium tumefaciens into dicot crops, such as like tobacco, tomato, spring and winter rapeseed, alfalfa, and several horticultural crops. The PAT gene was also successfully introduced into maize protoplasts that could be regenerated into fertile plants. All transgenic crop plants tolerated a two- to threefold field dosage of Basta.

  14. Comparing Metabolic Functionalities, Community Structures, and Dynamics of Herbicide-Degrading Communities Cultivated with Different Substrate Concentrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gözdereliler, Erkin; Boon, Nico; Aamand, Jens

    2013-01-01

    Two 4-chloro-2-methylphenoxyacetic acid (MCPA)-degrading enrichment cultures selected from an aquifer on low (0.1 mg liter−1) or high (25 mg liter−1) MCPA concentrations were compared in terms of metabolic activity, community composition, population growth, and single cell physiology. Different...... community compositions and major shifts in community structure following exposure to different MCPA concentrations were observed using both 16S rRNA gene denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis fingerprinting and pyrosequencing. The communities also differed in their MCPA-mineralizing activities...... activity in cultures selected on low herbicide concentrations. This suggests that LNA bacteria may play a role in degradation of low herbicide concentrations in aquifers impacted by agriculture. This study shows that subpopulations of herbicide-degrading bacteria that are adapted to different pesticide...

  15. Adsorption of sugar beet herbicides to Finnish soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Autio, Sari; Siimes, Katri; Laitinen, Pirkko; Rämö, Sari; Oinonen, Seija; Eronen, Liisa

    2004-04-01

    Three sugar beet herbicides, ethofumesate, phenmedipham and metamitron, are currently used on conventional sugar beet cultivation, while new varieties of herbicide resistant (HR) sugar beet, tolerant of glyphosate or glufosinate-ammonium, are under field testing in Finland. Little knowledge has so far been available on the adsorption of these herbicides to Finnish soils. The adsorption of these five herbicides was studied using the batch equilibrium method in 21 soil samples collected from different depths. Soil properties like organic carbon content, texture, pH and partly the phosphorus and oxide content of the soils were tested against the adsorption coefficients of the herbicides. In general, the herbicides studied could be arranged according to their adsorption coefficients as follows: glyphosate>phenmedipham>ethofumesate approximately glufosinate-ammonium>metamitron, metamitron meaning the highest risk of leaching. None of the measured soil parameters could alone explain the adsorption mechanism of these five herbicides. The results can be used in model assessments of risk for leaching to ground water resulting from weed control of sugar beet in Finland.

  16. Studies on maize inbred lines susceptibility to herbicides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanović Lidija

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the analysis of results obtained during long- term studies on the response of maize inbred lines to herbicides. Under the agroecological conditions of Zemun Polje the response (reaction of maize inbred lines to herbicides of different classes was investigated. Biological tests were performed and some agronomic, morphological, physiological and biochemical parameters were determined when the response of maize inbred lines to herbicides was estimated. The use of active ingredients of herbicides from triazine, acetanilide, thiocarbamate to new chemical groups (sulfonylurea etc., have been resulted in changes in weed suppression and susceptibility of inbred lines. Obtained results show that effects of herbicides on susceptible maize genotypes can be different: they can slowdown the growth and development and affect the plant height; they can also affect the stages of the tassel and ear development and at the end they can reduced grain yield of the tested inbreds. Numerous studies confirmed the existence of differences in susceptibility level of maize genotypes in relation to herbicides. According to gained results the recommendations for growers are made on the possibility of the application of new herbicides in the hybrid seed production.

  17. The effect of triazine - and urea - type herbicides on photosynthetic apparatus in cucumber leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolanta Jerzykiewicz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available About a half of the herbicides used at present in agnculture inhibit the light reactions in photosynthesis. Triazines and phenylureas shut down the photosynthetic process in susceptible plants by binding to specific sites within the plants photosystem II (PS II complex. Both of them bind at the QB site on the Dl protein of PS II, and prevent the transport of electrons between the primary electron acceptor Q and the plastoquinone (PQ. Herbicides can be highly toxic to human and animal health (triazines are possible human carcinogens. Their indiscriminate use has serious environmental implications, for example pollution of soil and water. We compare two heibicides to investigate the one of lowest environmental toxicity but of high toxicity to weeds.

  18. Role of high l values in the onset of incomplete fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Pushpendra P.; Yadav, Abhishek; Singh, Devendra P.; Gupta, Unnati; Singh, D.; Ansari, M. A.; Singh, B. P.; Prasad, R.; Sharma, Manoj K.; Kumar, R.; Singh, R. P.; Muralithar, S.; Bhowmik, R. K.

    2009-01-01

    A particle-γ-coincidence experiment is performed to investigate the role of high l values in the production of direct-α-emitting channels (associated with incomplete fusion) in 12 C+ 169 Tm system. Spin distributions of various xn/pxn/αxn/2αxn channels are measured at E lab =5.6A and 6.5A MeV. Entirely different de-excitation patterns are observed in direct-α-emitting channels and fusion-evaporation channels. The fusion-evaporation channels are found to be strongly fed over a broad spin range. While narrow range feeding for only high-spin states was observed in the case of direct-α-emitting channels, in the present work, incomplete fusion is shown to be a promising tool to populate high-spin states in final reaction products. To have better insight into the associated l values in different reaction channels, the present data are compared with similar data obtained in 16 O(E lab ≅5.6A MeV) + 169 Tm system. The mean driving angular momenta involved in the production of direct-α-emitting channels are found to be higher than those involved in the production of fusion-evaporation channels. Direct-α multiplicity in the forward cone increases with driving angular momenta, which indicates the origin of direct-α-emitting channels at high l values in noncentral interactions.

  19. High-Performance Buildings – Value, Messaging, Financial and Policy Mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCabe, Molly

    2011-02-22

    At the request of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, an in-depth analysis of the rapidly evolving state of real estate investments, high-performance building technology, and interest in efficiency was conducted by HaydenTanner, LLC, for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Building Technologies Program. The analysis objectives were • to evaluate the link between high-performance buildings and their market value • to identify core messaging to motivate owners, investors, financiers, and others in the real estate sector to appropriately value and deploy high-performance strategies and technologies across new and existing buildings • to summarize financial mechanisms that facilitate increased investment in these buildings. To meet these objectives, work consisted of a literature review of relevant writings, examination of existing and emergent financial and policy mechanisms, interviews with industry stakeholders, and an evaluation of the value implications through financial modeling. This report documents the analysis methodology and findings, conclusion and recommendations. Its intent is to support and inform the DOE Building Technologies Program on policy and program planning for the financing of high-performance new buildings and building retrofit projects.

  20. Evaluation of three herbicide resistance genes for use in genetic transformations and for potential crop protection in algae production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brueggeman, Andrew J; Kuehler, Daniel; Weeks, Donald P

    2014-09-01

    Genes conferring resistance to the herbicides glyphosate, oxyfluorfen and norflurazon were developed and tested for use as dominant selectable markers in genetic transformation of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and as potential tools for the protection of commercial-scale algal production facilities against contamination by organisms sensitive to these broad-spectrum herbicides. A synthetic glyphosate acetyltransferase (GAT) gene, when fitted with a strong Chlamydomonas promoter, conferred a 2.7×-fold increase in tolerance to the EPSPS inhibitor, glyphosate, in transgenic cells compared with progenitor WT cells. A mutant Chlamydomonas protoporphyrinogen oxidase (protox, PPO) gene previously shown to produce an enzyme insensitive to PPO-inhibiting herbicides, when genetically engineered, generated transgenic cells able to tolerate up to 136× higher levels of the PPO inhibitor, oxyfluorfen, than nontransformed cells. Genetic modification of the Chlamydomonas phytoene desaturase (PDS) gene-based gene sequences found in various norflurazon-resistant organisms allowed production of transgenic cells tolerant to 40× higher levels of norflurazon than nontransgenic cells. The high efficiency of all three herbicide resistance genes in producing transgenic cells demonstrated their suitability as dominant selectable markers for genetic transformation of Chlamydomonas and, potentially, other eukaryotic algae. However, the requirement for high concentrations of glyphosate and its associated negative effects on cell growth rates preclude its consideration for use in large-scale production facilities. In contrast, only low doses of norflurazon and oxyfluorfen (~1.5 μm and ~0.1 μm, respectively) are required for inhibition of cell growth, suggesting that these two herbicides may prove effective in large-scale algal production facilities in suppressing growth of organisms sensitive to these herbicides. © 2014 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and

  1. Acute and additive toxicity of ten photosystem-II herbicides to seagrass

    OpenAIRE

    Adam D. Wilkinson; Catherine J. Collier; Florita Flores; Andrew P. Negri

    2015-01-01

    Photosystem II herbicides are transported to inshore marine waters, including those of the Great Barrier Reef, and are usually detected in complex mixtures. These herbicides inhibit photosynthesis, which can deplete energy reserves and reduce growth in seagrass, but the toxicity of some of these herbicides to seagrass is unknown and combined effects of multiple herbicides on seagrass has not been tested. Here we assessed the acute phytotoxicity of 10 PSII herbicides to the seagrass Halophila ...

  2. Sarmentine, a natural herbicide from Piper species with multiple herbicide mechanisms of action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franck Emmanuel Dayan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Sarmentine, 1-(1-pyrrolidinyl-(2E,4E-2,4-decadien-1-one, is a natural amide isolated from the fruits of Piper species. The compound has a number of interesting biological properties, including its broad-spectrum activity on weeds as a contact herbicide. Initial studies highlighted a similarity in response between plants treated with sarmentine and herbicidal soaps such as pelargonic acid (nonanoic acid. However, little was known about the mechanism of action leading to the rapid desiccation of foliage treated by sarmentine. In cucumber cotyledon disc-assays, sarmentine induced rapid light-independent loss of membrane integrity at 100 µM or higher concentration, whereas 3 mM pelargonic acid was required for a similar effect. Sarmentine was between 10 and 30 times more active than pelargonic acid on wild mustard, velvetleaf, redroot pigweed and crabgrass. Additionally, the potency of 30 µM sarmentine was greatly stimulated by light, suggesting that this natural product may also interfere with photosynthetic processes. This was confirmed by observing a complete inhibition of photosynthetic electron transport at that concentration. Sarmentine also acted as an inhibitor of photosystem II on isolated thylakoid membranes by competing for the binding site of plastoquinone. This can be attributed in part to structural similarities between herbicides like sarmentine and diuron. While this mechanism of action accounts for the light stimulation of the activity of sarmentine, it does not account for its ability to destabilize membranes in darkness. In this respect, sarmentine has some structural similarity to crotonoyl-CoA, the substrate of enoyl-ACP reductase, a key enzyme in the early steps of fatty acid synthesis. Inhibitors of this enzyme, such as triclosan, cause rapid loss of membrane integrity in the dark. Sarmentine inhibited the activity of enoyl-ACP reductase, with an I50app of 18.3 µM. Therefore, the herbicidal activity of sarmentine appears to

  3. The values expectations of high school graduates at the choice of the faculty and future occupation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Nebojša B.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available There are many psychological references to professional orientation of pupils. However, mainly studied predictors were the role of school, peers, parents, socio-economics factors, and less the role of personality traits, goals, expectations, personal and social values. In this paper the focus is on personal goals and social values defined as specific objectives that are significant for a faculty choice, and therefore a future profession. We use two lists of goals - 18 personal and 18 social, applied to the sample of 497 high school pupils in fourth grade. The study was conducted in school settings. Preference and level of importance of the objectives of respondents have been expressed on the 5-point scale of Likert type, which allowed the statistical analysis of applied methods. The research results show significant differences in individual preferences of the goals and values, as well as the significantly connection of the goals with expectations to be fulfilled by faculty and future career choice. In addition, it was shown that the higher importance is given to personal than social values, which justified starting assumption of the authors, to examine personal and social values separately, since they were shown to have a different significance for professional orientation of young people.

  4. Economic Evaluations for the Carbon Dioxide-involved Production of High-value Chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ji Hyun; Lee, Dong Woog; Jang, Se Gyu; Kwak, No-Sang; Lee, In Young; Jang, Kyung Ryoung; Shim, Jae-Goo [KEPCO Research Institute, Daejon (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Jong Shin [Korea East-West Power Co. LTD, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-06-15

    Economic evaluation of the manufacturing technology of high-value chemicals through the carbonation reaction of carbon dioxide contained in the flue gas was performed, and analysis of the IRR (Internal Rate of Return) and whole profit along the production plan of the final product was conducted. Through a carbonation reaction with sodium hydroxide that is generated from electrolysis and by using carbon dioxide in the combustion gas that is generated in the power plant, it is possible to get a high value products such as sodium bicarbonate compound and also to reduce the carbon dioxide emission simultaneously. The IRR (Internal Rate of Return) and NPV (Net Present Value) methods were used for the economic evaluation of the process which could handle carbon dioxide of 100 tons per day in the period of the 20 years of plant operation. The results of economic evaluation showed that the IRR of baseline case of technology was 67.2% and the profit that obtained during the whole operation period (20 years) was 346,922 million won based on NPV value. When considering ETS due to the emissions trading enforcement that will be activated in 2015, the NPV was improved to a 6,000 million won. Based on this results, it could be concluded that this CO2 carbonation technology is an cost-effective technology option for the reduction of greenhouse gas.

  5. Economic Evaluations for the Carbon Dioxide-involved Production of High-value Chemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ji Hyun; Lee, Dong Woog; Jang, Se Gyu; Kwak, No-Sang; Lee, In Young; Jang, Kyung Ryoung; Shim, Jae-Goo; Choi, Jong Shin

    2014-01-01

    Economic evaluation of the manufacturing technology of high-value chemicals through the carbonation reaction of carbon dioxide contained in the flue gas was performed, and analysis of the IRR (Internal Rate of Return) and whole profit along the production plan of the final product was conducted. Through a carbonation reaction with sodium hydroxide that is generated from electrolysis and by using carbon dioxide in the combustion gas that is generated in the power plant, it is possible to get a high value products such as sodium bicarbonate compound and also to reduce the carbon dioxide emission simultaneously. The IRR (Internal Rate of Return) and NPV (Net Present Value) methods were used for the economic evaluation of the process which could handle carbon dioxide of 100 tons per day in the period of the 20 years of plant operation. The results of economic evaluation showed that the IRR of baseline case of technology was 67.2% and the profit that obtained during the whole operation period (20 years) was 346,922 million won based on NPV value. When considering ETS due to the emissions trading enforcement that will be activated in 2015, the NPV was improved to a 6,000 million won. Based on this results, it could be concluded that this CO2 carbonation technology is an cost-effective technology option for the reduction of greenhouse gas

  6. Anomalously high values of cesium-137 in soils on the Peninsula de Paraguana (Venezuela)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LaBrecque, J.J.; Rosales, P.A.; Cordoves, P.R.

    2001-01-01

    The activity of 137 Cs in surface soils (2-5 cm) was determined at twenty-one sampling sites along the northwestern and eastern coast of the Paraguana peninsula (Venezuela), as well as, at nine locations, between 95 and 535 m.a.s.l. on Cerro Santa Ana. The measurements were performed by high-resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy employing a compatible IBM computer. Most of the values were much higher than those found along the coastline of the mainland; four sites were found to be anomalously high, with 137 Cs values greater than 10 Bq/kg. It is difficult to explain these anomalous 137 Cs values by geographical or climatological factors since there is little rainfall here and the clouds and fog are rarely if never present along the coast of the peninsula. Possibly, some mechanism of the mist that is blown ashore could explain these anomalies. The values of the 137 Cs versus altitude on the Cerro Santa Ana show an increase of two or three times at 500 m.a.s.l. level, thus we have concluded that the base of the clouds was at this height when the fallout was directly deposited by condensation in this cloud forest. These results in the Cerro Santa Ana cloud forest are similar to those of other cloud forests along the Venezuelan coast, but the altitude (m.a.s.l.) of the base of the clouds here are much lower. (author)

  7. Rambutan Seed (Nephelium Lappaceum L.) Optimization as Raw Material of High Nutrition Value Processed Food

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahini, M.; Miranti, M. G.; Lukitasari, F.; Novela, L.

    2018-02-01

    Rambutan (Nephelium Lappaceum L.) is a plant that identical with Southeast Asian countries, in some areas of Indonesia no exception, but rambutan seed is considered as a waste. Therefore, it needs to be optimized into raw materials of food and processed with high nutritional value and has economic value. The purpose of this research were: 1) to find the best rambutan seed immersion formula; 2) to know the nutritional value of the best immersed rambutan seed; 3) to produce raw material and various processed of rambutan seed product. The research method was quasi experiment with 6 treatments and 2 factorial design, materials for immersion was NaCl and Ca(OH)2. The results showed that: 1) the best rambutan seed immersion formula was using Ca(OH)2; 2) the best rambutan seed contains 1,6 ash, 31,2 protein, 26,9 fat; 3) the best rambutan seed produce flour and processed of seasoned nuts. This research indicates that rambutan seed is very potential to be an alternative high-value raw materials.

  8. Gene transcription in Daphnia magna: effects of acute exposure to a carbamate insecticide and an acetanilide herbicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Joana Luísa; Hill, Christopher J; Sibly, Richard M; Bolshakov, Viacheslav N; Gonçalves, Fernando; Heckmann, Lars-Henrik; Callaghan, Amanda

    2010-05-05

    Daphnia magna is a key invertebrate in the freshwater environment and is used widely as a model in ecotoxicological measurements and risk assessment. Understanding the genomic responses of D. magna to chemical challenges will be of value to regulatory authorities worldwide. Here we exposed D. magna to the insecticide methomyl and the herbicide propanil to compare phenotypic effects with changes in mRNA expression levels. Both pesticides are found in drainage ditches and surface water bodies standing adjacent to crops. Methomyl, a carbamate insecticide widely used in agriculture, inhibits acetylcholinesterase, a key enzyme in nerve transmission. Propanil, an acetanilide herbicide, is used to control grass and broad-leaf weeds. The phenotypic effects of single doses of each chemical were evaluated using a standard immobilisation assay. Immobilisation was linked to global mRNA expression levels using the previously estimated 48h-EC(1)s, followed by hybridization to a cDNA microarray with more than 13,000 redundant cDNA clones representing >5000 unique genes. Following exposure to methomyl and propanil, differential expression was found for 624 and 551 cDNAs, respectively (one-way ANOVA with Bonferroni correction, Phighly promoted haemoglobin synthesis and up-regulated genes specifically related to defence mechanisms (e.g., innate immunity response systems) and neuronal pathways. Pesticide-specific toxic responses were found but there is little evidence for transcriptional

  9. Cyanobacteria as a Platform for the High-Value Chemicals Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wlodarczyk, Artur Jacek

    and cheap fertilizer as a medium for the cultivation of engineered cyanobacterial strains is shown. Alternative strategy to engineer Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 as a universal platform for the sustainable production of diverse range high-value phenylpropanoids which find use as pharmaceuticals, cosmetics......Emerging problems like increasing global warming and depletion of fossil fuels bring serious concerns regarding production of food and various chemicals in the future. Clearly, there is a need for finding alternative and more sustainable ways of producing chemicals in order to satisfy increasing...... consumer demands of an ever growing population. Considering the ability to convert solar energy and carbon dioxide into biomass, cyanobacteria and microalgae have potential for becoming such alternative in the future. Biosynthesis of a great number of plant high-value secondary metabolites requires...

  10. Adaptive iterated function systems filter for images highly corrupted with fixed - Value impulse noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanmugavadivu, P.; Eliahim Jeevaraj, P. S.

    2014-06-01

    The Adaptive Iterated Functions Systems (AIFS) Filter presented in this paper has an outstanding potential to attenuate the fixed-value impulse noise in images. This filter has two distinct phases namely noise detection and noise correction which uses Measure of Statistics and Iterated Function Systems (IFS) respectively. The performance of AIFS filter is assessed by three metrics namely, Peak Signal-to-Noise Ratio (PSNR), Mean Structural Similarity Index Matrix (MSSIM) and Human Visual Perception (HVP). The quantitative measures PSNR and MSSIM endorse the merit of this filter in terms of degree of noise suppression and details/edge preservation respectively, in comparison with the high performing filters reported in the recent literature. The qualitative measure HVP confirms the noise suppression ability of the devised filter. This computationally simple noise filter broadly finds application wherein the images are highly degraded by fixed-value impulse noise.

  11. Promoting High-Value Practice by Reducing Unnecessary Transfusions With a Patient Blood Management Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadana, Divyajot; Pratzer, Ariella; Scher, Lauren J; Saag, Harry S; Adler, Nicole; Volpicelli, Frank M; Auron, Moises; Frank, Steven M

    2018-01-01

    Although blood transfusion is a lifesaving therapy for some patients, transfusion has been named 1 of the top 5 overused procedures in US hospitals. As unnecessary transfusions only increase risk and cost without providing benefit, improving transfusion practice is an effective way of promoting high-value care. Most high-quality clinical trials supporting a restrictive transfusion strategy have been published in the past 5 to 10 years, so the value of a successful patient blood management program has only recently been recognized. We review the most recent transfusion practice guidelines and the evidence supporting these guidelines. We also discuss several medical societies' Choosing Wisely campaigns to reduce or eliminate overuse of transfusions. A blueprint is presented for developing a patient blood management program, which includes discussion of specific methods for optimizing transfusion practice.

  12. Spatial overlap between environmental policy instruments and areas of high conservation value in forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sverdrup-Thygeson, Anne; Søgaard, Gunnhild; Rusch, Graciela M; Barton, David N

    2014-01-01

    In order to safeguard biodiversity in forest we need to know how forest policy instruments work. Here we use a nationwide network of 9400 plots in productive forest to analyze to what extent large-scale policy instruments, individually and together, target forest of high conservation value in Norway. We studied both instruments working through direct regulation; Strict Protection and Landscape Protection, and instruments working through management planning and voluntary schemes of forest certification; Wilderness Area and Mountain Forest. As forest of high conservation value (HCV-forest) we considered the extent of 12 Biodiversity Habitats and the extent of Old-Age Forest. We found that 22% of productive forest area contained Biodiversity Habitats. More than 70% of this area was not covered by any large-scale instruments. Mountain Forest covered 23%, while Strict Protection and Wilderness both covered 5% of the Biodiversity Habitat area. A total of 9% of productive forest area contained Old-Age Forest, and the relative coverage of the four instruments was similar as for Biodiversity Habitats. For all instruments, except Landscape Protection, the targeted areas contained significantly higher proportions of HCV-forest than areas not targeted by these instruments. Areas targeted by Strict Protection had higher proportions of HCV-forest than areas targeted by other instruments, except for areas targeted by Wilderness Area which showed similar proportions of Biodiversity Habitats. There was a substantial amount of spatial overlap between the policy tools, but no incremental conservation effect of overlapping instruments in terms of contributing to higher percentages of targeted HCV-forest. Our results reveal that although the current policy mix has an above average representation of forest of high conservation value, the targeting efficiency in terms of area overlap is limited. There is a need to improve forest conservation and a potential to cover this need by better

  13. The impact of big data analytics on firms’ high value business performance

    OpenAIRE

    Popovic, A; Hackney, R; Tassabehji, R; Castelli, M

    2016-01-01

    Big Data Analytics (BDA) is an emerging phenomenon with the reported potential to transform how firms manage and enhance high value businesses performance. The purpose of our study is to investigate the impact of BDA on operations management in the manufacturing sector, which is an acknowledged infrequently researched context. Using an interpretive qualitative approach, this empirical study leverages a comparative case study of three manufacturing companies with varying levels of BDA usage (e...

  14. Effect of Biochar Amendment and Ageing on Adsorption and Degradation of Two Herbicides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhelezova, Alena; Cederlund, Harald; Stenström, John

    2017-01-01

    Biochar amendment can alter soil properties, for instance, the ability to adsorb and degrade different chemicals. However, ageing of the biochar, due to processes occurring in the soil over time, can influence such biochar-mediated effects. This study examined how biochar affected adsorption and degradation of two herbicides, glyphosate (N-(phosphonomethyl)-glycine) and diuron (3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea) in soil and how these effects were modulated by ageing of the biochar. One sandy and one clayey soil that had been freshly amended with a wood-based biochar (0, 1, 10, 20 and 30% w / w ) were studied. An ageing experiment, in which the soil-biochar mixtures were aged for 3.5 months in the laboratory, was also performed. Adsorption and degradation were studied in these soil and soil-biochar mixtures, and compared to results from a soil historically enriched with charcoal. Biochar amendment increased the pH in both soils and increased the water-holding capacity of the sandy soil. Adsorption of diuron was enhanced by biochar amendment in both soils, while glyphosate adsorption was decreased in the sandy soil. Ageing of soil-biochar mixtures decreased adsorption of both herbicides in comparison with freshly biochar-amended soil. Herbicide degradation rates were not consistently affected by biochar amendment or ageing in any of the soils. However, glyphosate half-lives correlated with the Freundlich Kf values in the clayey soil, indicating that degradation was limited by availability there.

  15. Herbicide Glyphosate Impact to Earthworm (E. fetida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greta Dajoraitė

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Glyphosate is a broad spectrum weed resistant herbicide. Glyphosate may pose negative impact on land ecosystems because of wide broad usage and hydrofilic characteristic. The aim of this study was to investigate negative effects of glyphosate on soil invertebrate organisms (earthworm Eisenia fetida. The duration of experiment was 8 weeks. The range of the test concentrations of glyphosate were: 0,1, 1, 5, 10, 20 mg/kg. To investigate the glyphosate impact on earthworm Eisenia fetida the following endpoints were measured: survival, reproduction and weight. The exposure to 20 mg/kg glyphosate has led to the 100% mortality of earthworms. Glyphosate has led to decreased E. fetida reproduction, the cocoons were observed only in the lowest concentration (0,1 mg/kg. In general: long-term glyphosate toxicity to earthworms (E. fetida may be significant.

  16. Tunable catalytic properties of bi-functional mixed oxides in ethanol conversion to high value compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramasamy, Karthikeyan K.; Gray, Michel J.; Job, Heather M.; Smith, Colin D.; Wang, Yong

    2016-04-10

    tA highly versatile ethanol conversion process to selectively generate high value compounds is pre-sented here. By changing the reaction temperature, ethanol can be selectively converted to >C2alcohols/oxygenates or phenolic compounds over hydrotalcite derived bi-functional MgO–Al2O3cata-lyst via complex cascade mechanism. Reaction temperature plays a role in whether aldol condensationor the acetone formation is the path taken in changing the product composition. This article containsthe catalytic activity comparison between the mono-functional and physical mixture counterpart to thehydrotalcite derived mixed oxides and the detailed discussion on the reaction mechanisms.

  17. Desserts with a high nutritional value in the industry employees nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Telegenko

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In the article there are considered questions of the sweet foods with a high nutritional value development. Evaluation of the organoleptic and physical-chemical properties of model jelly samples with jost and spirulina showed that the proposed formula and technology gives a product with high consumer properties. There is a theoretically substantiated expediency of a jost and spirulina jelly implementation in such restaurant enterprises as dining rooms in the industrial plants. Using the jost and spirulina nutritional supplements can expand the range of the preventive nutrition foods.

  18. Going beyond "highly-qualified personnel" to "value-added personnel"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nantel, Marc; Fox, Bradley; Gelsthorpe, Leanne; Hamilton, Roxy; Marshall, Robert; Williamson, Guida

    2005-10-01

    Employers clamour for more "Highly-Qualified Personnel" (HQP) to hire, and photonics is no exception. The challenge facing all new graduates lies in what actually constitutes a Highly-Qualified Person. Yesterday, an HQP was often understood to be a graduate with a Bachelor's, Master's or Ph.D. degree. Today, industry is demanding that an HQP be either a university or college graduate with strong academic standing AND a sound business and communications skill set. In this paper, we introduce the concept of "Value-Added Personnel" (VAP), which marries both scientific and "soft-skills" aspects, and we present a new program in Ontario to produce VAPs.

  19. Phytoplankton growth and PSII efficiency sensitivity to a glyphosate-based herbicide (Factor 540®).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smedbol, Élise; Lucotte, Marc; Labrecque, Michel; Lepage, Laurent; Juneau, Philippe

    2017-11-01

    The use of glyphosate-based herbicides in agriculture has increased steadily since the mid 90's and there is now evidence of glyphosate leaching and contamination of aquatic ecosystems. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a glyphosate-based herbicide (Factor 540 ® ) on growth and photosynthetic capacity of algae and cyanobacteria. Six algal and three cyanobacterial species/strains, of three different taxonomic groups, were exposed to five glyphosate concentrations (10, 50, 100, 500 and 1000μgl -1 ) during 48h. All species have significant growth inhibition at concentrations varying between 50 and 500μgl -1 . The photosynthetic response, after glyphosate exposure, varied among species, but a general pattern has emerged. There was an increase in the amount of photons absorbed (ABS/RC), in dissipated (DI O /RC) and trapped (TR O /RC) energy in the photosystem II reaction centers, along with a decreased of the maximum photosystem II quantum yield (F V /F M ) and electron transport per reaction center (ET O /RC). The EC 50 and LOEC values for growth and photosynthesis were calculated and established that growth was the most affected parameter by glyphosate-based herbicide, while parameter TR O /RC was the least affected. All species showed reduced growth at glyphosate concentrations lower than the Canadian standard for the protection of aquatic life, set at 800μgl -1 or the American aquatic life benchmark for acute toxicity in non vascular plants of 12 100μgl -1 questioning the validity of these thresholds in assessing the risks related to the presence of glyphosate and glyphosate-based herbicides in aquatic systems. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Influence of oligomeric herbicidal ionic liquids with MCPA and Dicamba anions on the community structure of autochthonic bacteria present in agricultural soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ławniczak, Ł., E-mail: lukasz.k.lawniczak@wp.pl [Department of Chemical Technology, Poznan University of Technology, 60-965 Poznan (Poland); Syguda, A., E-mail: Anna.Syguda@put.poznan.pl [Department of Chemical Technology, Poznan University of Technology, 60-965 Poznan (Poland); Borkowski, A., E-mail: a.borkowski@uw.edu.pl [Faculty of Geology, University of Warsaw, 02-089 Warsaw (Poland); Cyplik, P., E-mail: pcyplik@wp.pl [Department of Biotechnology and Food Microbiology, University of Life Sciences in Poznan, 60-627 Poznan (Poland); Marcinkowska, K., E-mail: k.marcinkowska@iorpib.poznan.pl [Institute of Plant Protection - National Research Institute, Poznan 60-318 (Poland); Wolko, Ł., E-mail: wolko@o2.pl [Department of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Poznań University of Life Sciences in Poznan, 60-632 Poznan (Poland); Praczyk, T., E-mail: t.praczyk@iorpib.poznan.pl [Institute of Plant Protection - National Research Institute, Poznan 60-318 (Poland); Chrzanowski, Ł., E-mail: Lukasz.Chrzanowski@put.poznan.pl [Department of Chemical Technology, Poznan University of Technology, 60-965 Poznan (Poland); Pernak, J., E-mail: Juliusz.Pernak@put.poznan.pl [Department of Chemical Technology, Poznan University of Technology, 60-965 Poznan (Poland)

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of selected herbicidal ionic liquids (HILs), which exhibit high efficacy in terms of weed control and low toxicity, but may be persistent due to limited biodegradability, on the community structure of autochthonic bacteria present in agricultural soil. Four different oligomeric HILs (with two types of cations and different ratio of herbicidal anions) were synthesized and characterized by employing {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR. The results of biodegradation assay indicated that none of the tested HILs could be classified as readily biodegradable (biodegradation rate ranged from 0 to 7%). The conducted field studies confirmed that the herbicidal efficacy of the HILs was higher compared to the reference herbicide mixture by 10 to 30%, depending on the dose and weed species. After termination of field studies, the soil treated with the tested HILs was subjected to next generation sequencing in order to investigate the potential changes in the bacterial community structure. Proteobacteria was the dominant phylum in all studied samples. Treatment with the studied HILs resulted in an increase of Actinobacteria compared to the reference herbicidal mixture. Differenced among the studied HILs were generally associated with a significantly higher abundance of Bacteroidetes in case of 1-HIL-Dicamba 1/3 and Firmicutes in case of 2-HIL-Dicamba 1/3. - Highlights: • Impact of herbicidal ionic liquids on bacterial community structure was studied. • Oligomeric herbicidal ionic liquids were effective but not readily biodegradable. • Next generation sequencing was used to evaluate shifts in bacterial abundance. • Treatment during field trials resulted in changes at class and species level. • Use of herbicidal ionic liquids affects the structure of autochthonic soil bacteria.

  1. Influence of oligomeric herbicidal ionic liquids with MCPA and Dicamba anions on the community structure of autochthonic bacteria present in agricultural soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ławniczak, Ł.; Syguda, A.; Borkowski, A.; Cyplik, P.; Marcinkowska, K.; Wolko, Ł.; Praczyk, T.; Chrzanowski, Ł.; Pernak, J.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of selected herbicidal ionic liquids (HILs), which exhibit high efficacy in terms of weed control and low toxicity, but may be persistent due to limited biodegradability, on the community structure of autochthonic bacteria present in agricultural soil. Four different oligomeric HILs (with two types of cations and different ratio of herbicidal anions) were synthesized and characterized by employing "1H and "1"3C NMR. The results of biodegradation assay indicated that none of the tested HILs could be classified as readily biodegradable (biodegradation rate ranged from 0 to 7%). The conducted field studies confirmed that the herbicidal efficacy of the HILs was higher compared to the reference herbicide mixture by 10 to 30%, depending on the dose and weed species. After termination of field studies, the soil treated with the tested HILs was subjected to next generation sequencing in order to investigate the potential changes in the bacterial community structure. Proteobacteria was the dominant phylum in all studied samples. Treatment with the studied HILs resulted in an increase of Actinobacteria compared to the reference herbicidal mixture. Differenced among the studied HILs were generally associated with a significantly higher abundance of Bacteroidetes in case of 1-HIL-Dicamba 1/3 and Firmicutes in case of 2-HIL-Dicamba 1/3. - Highlights: • Impact of herbicidal ionic liquids on bacterial community structure was studied. • Oligomeric herbicidal ionic liquids were effective but not readily biodegradable. • Next generation sequencing was used to evaluate shifts in bacterial abundance. • Treatment during field trials resulted in changes at class and species level. • Use of herbicidal ionic liquids affects the structure of autochthonic soil bacteria.

  2. Routine determination of sulfonylurea, imidazolinone, and sulfonamide herbicides at nanogram-per-liter concentrations by solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furlong, E.T.; Burkhardt, M.R.; Gates, Paul M.; Werner, S.L.; Battaglin, W.A.

    2000-01-01

    Sulfonylurea (SU), imidazolinone (IMI), and sulfonamide (SA) herbicides are new classes of low-application-rate herbicides increasingly used by farmers. Some of these herbicides affect both weed and crop species at low dosages and must be carefully used. Less is known about the effect of these compounds on non-crop plant species, but a concentration of 100 ng/l in water has been proposed as the threshold for possible plant toxicity for most of these herbicides. Hence, analytical methods must be capable of detecting SUs, IMIs, and SAs at concentrations less than 100 ng/l in ambient water samples. The authors developed a two-cartridge, solid-phase extraction method for isolating 12 SU, 3 IMI, and 1 SA herbicides by using high-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (HPLC/ESI-MS) to identify and quantify these herbicides to 10 ng/l. This method was used to analyze 196 surface- and ground-water samples collected from May to August 1998 throughout the Midwestern United States, and more than 100 quality-assurance and quality-control samples. During the 16 weeks of the study, the HPLC/ESI-MS maintained excellent calibration linearity across the calibration range from 5 to 500 ng/l, with correlation coefficients of 0.9975 or greater. Continuing calibration verification standards at 100-ng/l concentration were analyzed throughout the study, and the average measured concentrations for individual herbicides ranged from 93 to 100 ng/l. Recovery of herbicides from 27 reagent-water samples spiked at 50 and 100 ng/l ranged from 39 to 92%, and averaged 73%. The standard deviation of recoveries ranged from 14 to 26%, and averaged 20%. This variability reflects multiple instruments, operators, and the use of automated and manual sample preparation. Spiked environmental water samples had similar recoveries, although for some herbicides, the sample matrix enhanced recoveries by as much as 200% greater than the spiked concentration. This matrix

  3. Occurrence of sulfonylurea, sulfonamide, imidazolinone, and other herbicides in rivers, reservoirs and ground water in the Midwestern United States, 1998

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battaglin, W.A.; Furlong, E.T.; Burkhardt, M.R.; Peter, C.J.

    2000-01-01

    Sulfonylurea (SU), sulfonamide (SA), and imidazolinone (IMI) herbicides are relatively new classes of chemical compounds that function by inhibiting the action of a plant enzyme, stopping plant growth, and eventually killing the plant. These compounds generally have low mammalian toxicity, but plants demonstrate a wide range in sensitivity to SUs, SAs, and IMIs with over a 10000-fold difference in observed toxicity levels for some compounds. SUs, SAs, and IMIs are applied either pre- or post-emergence to crops commonly at 1/50th or less of the rate of other herbicides. Little is known about their occurrence, fate, or transport in surface water or ground water in the USA. To obtain information on the occurrence of SU, SA, and IMI herbicides in the Midwestern United States, 212 water samples were collected from 75 surface-water and 25 ground-water sites in 1998. These samples were analyzed for 16 SU, SA and IMI herbicides by USGS Methods Research and Development Program staff using high-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. Samples were also analyzed for 47 pesticides or pesticide degradation products. At least one of the 16 SUs, SAs or IMIs was detected above the method reporting limit (MRL) of 0.01 ??g/l in 83% of 130 stream samples. Imazethapyr was detected most frequently (71% of samples) followed by flumetsulam (63% of samples) and nicosulfuron (52% of samples). The sum of SU, SA and IMI concentrations exceeded 0.5 ??g/l in less than 10% of stream samples. Acetochlor, alachlor, atrazine, cyanazine and metolachlor were all detected in 90% or more of 129 stream samples. The sum of the concentration of these five herbicides exceeded 50 ??g/l in approximately 10% of stream samples. At least one SU, SA, or IMI herbicide was detected above the MRL in 24% of 25 ground-water samples and 86% of seven reservoir samples. Copyright (C) 2000 Elsevier Science B.V.

  4. Screening and selection of most potent diazotrophic cyanobacterial isolate exhibiting natural tolerance to rice field herbicides for exploitation as biofertilizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Surendra; Datta, Pallavi

    2006-01-01

    Periodic applications of heavy dosages of herbicides in modern rice-agriculture are a necessary evil for obtaining high crop productivity. Such herbicides are not only detrimental to weeds but biofertilizer strains of diazotrophic cyanobacteria also. It is therefore, essential to screen and select such biofertilizer strains of diazotrophic cyanobacteria exhibiting natural tolerance to common rice-field herbicides that can be further improved by mutational techniques to make biofertilizer technology a viable one. Therefore, efforts have been made to screen five dominant diazotrophic cyanobacterial forms e.g. filamentous heterocystous Nostoc punctiforme , Nostoc calcicola , Anabaena variabilis and unicellular Gloeocapsa sp. and Aphanocapsa sp. along with standard laboratory strain Nostoc muscorum ISU against increasing concentrations (0-100 mg l(-1) of four commercial grade common rice-field herbicides i.e. Arozin, Butachlor, Alachlor and 2,4-D under diazotrophic growth conditions. The lethal and IGC(50) concentrations for all four herbicides tested were found highest for A. variabilis as compared to other test cyanobacteria. The lowest reduction in chlorophyll a content, photosynthetic oxygen evolution, and N(2)-fixation was found in A. variabilis as compared to other rice field isolates and standard laboratory strain N. muscorum ISU. On the basis of prolong survival potential and lowest reductions in vital metabolic activities tested at IGC(50) concentration of four herbicides, it is concluded that A. variabilis is the most potent and promising cyanobacterial isolate as compared with other forms. This could be further improved by mutational techniques for exploitation as most potential and viable biofertilizer strain.

  5. New Technologies for Insect-Resistant and Herbicide-Tolerant Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardo, Luca; Coppola, Gerardo; Zelasco, Samanta

    2016-01-01

    The advent of modern molecular biology and recombinant DNA technology has resulted in a dramatic increase in the number of insect-resistant (IR) and herbicide-tolerant (HT) plant varieties, with great economic benefits for farmers. Nevertheless, the high selection pressure generated by control strategies for weed and insect populations has led to the evolution of herbicide and pesticide resistance. In the short term, the development of new techniques or the improvement of existing ones will provide further instruments to counter the appearance of resistant weeds and insects and to reduce the use of agrochemicals. In this review, we examine some of the most promising new technologies for developing IR and HT plants, such as genome editing and antisense technologies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Organomineral Interactions and Herbicide Sorption in Brazilian Tropical and Subtropical Oxisols under No-Tillage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonfleur, Eloana J; Kookana, Rai S; Tornisielo, Valdemar L; Regitano, Jussara B

    2016-05-25

    We evaluated the effects of the soil organic matter (SOM) composition, distribution between soil aggregates size, and their interactions with the mineral phase on herbicide sorption (alachlor, bentazon, and imazethapyr) in tropical and subtropical Oxisols under no-till systems (NT). Using soil physical fractionation approach, sorption experiments were performed on whole soils and their aggregates. SOM chemistry was assessed by CP/MAS (13)C NMR. The lower sorption observed in tropical soils was attributed to the greater blockage of SOM sorption sites than in subtropical soils. When these sites were exposed upon physical fractionation, sorption of the three herbicides in tropical soils increased, especially for imazethapyr. High amounts of poorly crystallized sesquioxides in these soils may have contributed to masking of sorption sites, indicating that organomineral interactions may lead to blockage of sorption sites on SOM in tropical soils.

  7. Selectivity and stability of new herbicides and herbicide combinations for the seed yields of some field crops I. Effect at Coriander (Coriandrum Sativum L.)

    OpenAIRE

    G. Delchev

    2016-01-01

    Abstract. . The research was conducted during 2013 – 2015 on pellic vertisol soil type. Under investigation was Bulgarian coriander cultivar Lozen 1 (Coriandrum sativum L.). The purpose of the investigation was to establish the selectivity and stability of some herbicides, herbicide combinations and herbicide tank mixtures on the coriander. Factor A included the years of investigation. Factor B included no treated check, 6 soil-applied herbicides – Tendar EC, Silba SC, Sharpen 33 EC,...

  8. Efficacy and economics of different herbicides in aerobic rice system

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-08-03

    Aug 3, 2011 ... options for effective and economic weed control in rice under aerobic system ... constraint to aerobic rice production and therefore, ... Herbicide has become an attractive alternative to manual ... MATERIALS AND METHODS.

  9. Herbicides effect on the nitrogen fertilizer assimilation by sensitive plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ladonin, V.F.; Samojlov, L.N.

    1976-01-01

    It has been established in studying the effect of herbicides on pea plants that the penetration of the preparations into the tissues of leaves and stems results in a slight increase of the rate of formation of dry substance in the leaves of the treated plants within 24 hours after treatment as compared with control, whereas in the last period of the analysis the herbicides strongly inhibit the formation of dry substance in leaves. The applied herbicide doses have resulted in drastic changes of the distribution of the plant-assimilated nitrogen between the protein and non-protein fractions in the leaves and stems of pea. When affected by the studied herbicides, the fertilizer nitrogen supply to the pea plants changes and the rate of the fertilizer nitrogen assimilation by the plants varies noticeably. The regularities of the fertilizer nitrogen inclusion in the protein and non-protein nitrogen compounds of the above-ground pea organs have been studied

  10. Biodegradation of acetanilide herbicides acetochlor and butachlor in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Chang-ming; Wang, Xing-jun; Zheng, He-hui

    2002-10-01

    The biodegradation of two acetanilide herbicides, acetochlor and butachlor in soil after other environmental organic matter addition were measured during 35 days laboratory incubations. The herbicides were applied to soil alone, soil-SDBS (sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate) mixtures and soil-HA (humic acid) mixtures. Herbicide biodegradation kinetics were compared in the different treatment. Biodegradation products of herbicides in soil alone samples were identified by GC/MS at the end of incubation. Addition of SDBS and HA to soil decreased acetochlor biodegradation, but increased butachlor biodegradation. The biodegradation half-life of acetochlor and butachlor in soil alone, soil-SDBS mixtures and soil-HA mixtures were 4.6 d, 6.1 d and 5.4 d and 5.3 d, 4.9 d and 5.3 d respectively. The biodegradation products were hydroxyacetochlor and 2-methyl-6-ethylaniline for acetochlor, and hydroxybutachlor and 2,6-diethylaniline for butachlor.

  11. Biodegradation of glyphosate herbicide in vitro using bacterial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-06-28

    Jun 28, 2010 ... Full Length Research Paper ... Glyphosate is a compound used as herbicide in the control and/or killing of grasses and herbaceous plants. ... Because of its toxicity to non-target organisms, there is need to decontaminate.

  12. High diagnostic value of general practitioners' presumptive diagnosis for pyelonephritis, meningitis and pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriskandarajah, Srishamanthi; Carter-Storch, Rasmus; Frydkjær-Olsen, Ulrik; Mogensen, Christian Backer

    2016-01-01

    In Denmark, patients referred from the general practitioner (GP) to the emergency department (ED) can be referred with either specific symptoms or with a presumptive diagnosis. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy for various presumptive diagnoses made by the GP in a population acutely referred to an ED. This was a retrospective cohort study of all registered acute referrals for admission to Kolding ED in 2010. Eight presumptive diagnoses were selected for further studies: meningitis, acute coronary syndrome (ACS), pulmonary embolism, pneumonia, pancreatitis, deep venous thrombosis (DVT), pyelonephritis and intestinal obstruction. The presumptive diagnoses were compared with the final diagnosis on discharge. Sensitivity, specificity, predictive values and likelihood ratios were calculated. A total of 8,841 patients were enrolled. The highest and lowest sensitivities were seen for DVT (90%) and meningitis (36%), respectively; and the highest and lowest values for specificity were observed for meningitis (99%) and ACS (30%), respectively. The positive predictive value had a wide range with the lowest value for ACS (9%) and the highest for pneumonia (59%). For pyelonephritis, meningitis and pancreatitis, the likelihood ratio of a positive test was above 10. The likelihood ratio of a negative test was above 0.1 for all diagnoses. Patients referred with the presumptive diagnoses pyelonephritis, meningitis and pancreatitis had a high likelihood of having the disease in question. It is important not to discard any of the included presumptive diagnoses even if the GPs fail to suggest them on admission. none. none.

  13. Auxinic herbicides, mechanisms of action, and weed resistance: A look into recent plant science advances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Jacob Christoffoleti

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Auxin governs dynamic cellular processes involved at several stages of plant growth and development. In this review, we discuss the mechanisms employed by auxin in light of recent scientific advances, with a focus on synthetic auxins as herbicides and synthetic auxin resistance mechanisms. Two auxin receptors were reported. The plasma membrane receptor ABP1 (Auxin Binding Protein 1 alters the structure and arrangement of actin filaments and microtubules, leading to plant epinasty and reducing peroxisomes and mitochondria mobility in the cell environment. The second auxin receptor is the gene transcription pathway regulated by the SCFTir/AFB ubiquitination complex, which destroys transcription repressor proteins that interrupt Auxin Response Factor (ARF activation. As a result mRNA related with Abscisic Acid (ABA and ethylene are transcribed, producing high quantities of theses hormones. Their associated action leads to high production of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS, leading to tissue and plant death. Recently, another ubiquitination pathway which is described as a new auxin signaling route is the F-box protein S-Phase Kinase-Associated Protein 2A (SKP2A. It is active in cell division regulation and there is evidence that auxin herbicides can deregulate the SKP2A pathway, which leads to severe defects in plant development. In this discussion, we propose that SFCSKP2A auxin binding site alteration could be a new auxinic herbicide resistance mechanism, a concept which may contribute to the current progress in plant biology in its quest to clarify the many questions that still surround auxin herbicide mechanisms of action and the mechanisms of weed resistance.

  14. High CRP values predict poor survival in patients with penile cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steffens, Sandra; Kuczyk, Markus A; Schrader, Andres J; Al Ghazal, Andreas; Steinestel, Julie; Lehmann, Rieke; Wegener, Gerd; Schnoeller, Thomas J; Cronauer, Marcus V; Jentzmik, Florian; Schrader, Mark

    2013-01-01

    High levels of circulating C-reactive protein (CRP) have recently been linked to poor clinical outcome in various malignancies. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prognostic significance of the preoperative serum CRP level in patients with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the penis. This retrospective analysis included 79 penile cancer patients with information about their serum CRP value prior to surgery who underwent either radical or partial penectomy at two German high-volume centers (Ulm University Medical Center and Hannover Medical School) between 1990 and 2010. They had a median (mean) follow-up of 23 (32) months. A significantly elevated CRP level (>15 vs. ≤ 15 mg/l) was found more often in patients with an advanced tumor stage (≥pT2) (38.9 vs. 11.6%, p=0.007) and in those with nodal disease at diagnosis (50.0 vs. 14.6%, p=0.007). However, high CRP levels were not associated with tumor differentiation (p=0.53). The Kaplan-Meier 5-year cancer-specific survival (CSS) rate was 38.9% for patients with preoperative CRP levels above 15 mg/l and 84.3% for those with lower levels (p=0.001). Applying multivariate analysis and focusing on the subgroup of patients without metastasis at the time of penile surgery, both advanced local tumor stage (≥pT2; HR 8.8, p=0.041) and an elevated CRP value (>15 mg/l; HR 3.3, p=0.043) were identified as independent predictors of poor clinical outcome in patients with penile cancer. A high preoperative serum CRP level was associated with poor survival in patients with penile cancer. If larger patient populations confirm its prognostic value, its routine use could enable better risk stratification and risk-adjusted follow-up of patients with SCC of the penis

  15. Value-added probiotic development by high-solid fermentation of sweet potato with Saccharomyces boulardii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Carmen; Nanjundaswamy, Ananda K; Njiti, Victor; Xia, Qun; Chukwuma, Franklin

    2017-05-01

    Controlled fermentation of Sweet potato ( Ipomoea batatas ) var. Beauregard by yeast, Saccharomyces boulardii (MAY 796) to enhance the nutritional value of sweet potato was investigated. An average 8.00 × 10 10 Colony Forming Units (CFU)/g of viable cells were obtained over 5-day high-solid fermentation. Yeast cell viability did not change significantly over time at 4°C whereas the number of viable yeast cells reduced significantly at room temperature (25°C), which was approximately 40% in 12 months. Overall, the controlled fermentation of sweet potato by MAY 796 enhanced protein, crude fiber, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, amino acid, and fatty acid levels. Development of value-added sweet potato has a great potential in animal feed and human nutrition. S. boulardii - fermented sweet potato has great potential as probiotic-enriched animal feed and/or functional food for human nutrition.

  16. The High Value Healthcare Collaborative: Observational Analyses of Care Episodes for Hip and Knee Arthroplasty Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeks, William B; Schoellkopf, William J; Sorensen, Lyle S; Masica, Andrew L; Nesse, Robert E; Weinstein, James N

    2017-03-01

    Broader use of value-based reimbursement models will require providers to transparently demonstrate health care value. We sought to determine and report cost and quality data for episodes of hip and knee arthroplasty surgery among 13 members of the High Value Healthcare Collaborative (HVHC), a consortium of health care systems interested in improving health care value. We conducted a retrospective, cross-sectional observational cohort study of 30-day episodes of care for hip and knee arthroplasty in fee-for-service Medicare beneficiaries aged 65 or older who had hip or knee osteoarthritis and used 1 of 13 HVHC member systems for uncomplicated primary hip arthroplasty (N = 8853) or knee arthroplasty (N = 16,434), respectively, in 2012 or 2013. At the system level, we calculated: per-capita utilization rates; postoperative complication rates; standardized total, acute, and postacute care Medicare expenditures for 30-day episodes of care; and the modeled impact of reducing episode expenditures or per-capita utilization rates. Adjusted per-capita utilization rates varied across HVHC systems and postacute care reimbursements varied more than 3-fold for both types of arthroplasty in both years. Regression analysis confirmed that total episode and postacute care reimbursements significantly differed across HVHC members after considering patient demographic differences. Potential Medicare cost savings were greatest for knee arthroplasty surgery and when lower total reimbursement targets were achieved. The substantial variation that we found offers opportunities for learning and collaboration to collectively improve outcomes, reduce costs, and enhance value. Ceteris paribus, reducing per-episode reimbursements would achieve greater Medicare cost savings than reducing per-capita rates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Changes in bacterial community after application of three different herbicides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moretto, Jéssica Aparecida Silva; Altarugio, Lucas Miguel; Andrade, Pedro Avelino; Fachin, Ana Lúcia; Andreote, Fernando Dini; Stehling, Eliana Guedes

    2017-07-06

    The native soil microbiota is very important to maintain the quality of that environment, but with the intensive use of agrochemicals, changes in microbial biomass and formation of large quantities of toxic waste were observed in soil, groundwater and surface water. Thereby, the goal of this study was to evaluate if the selective pressure exerted by the presence of the herbicides atrazine, diuron and 2,4-D changes the bacterial community structure of an agricultural soil, using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis technique. According to PERMANOVA analysis, a greater effect of the herbicide persistence time in the soil, the effect of the herbicide class and the effect of interaction between these two factors (persistence time and herbicide class) were observed. In conclusion, the results showed that the selective pressure exerted by the presence of these herbicides altered the composition of the local microbiota, being atrazine and diuron that most significantly affected the bacterial community in soil, and the herbicide 2,4-D was the one that less altered the microbial community and that bacterial community was reestablished first. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Herbicidal treatments for control of Papaver somniferum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz, M

    1980-01-01

    Fifty-five commercially available herbicides were evaluated for possible use to destroy illicit opium poppy crops (Papaver somniferum). In the first stage, herbicides were sprayed on poppy plants grown in containers. The following compounds killed poppy plants: (a) herbicides with typical foliar activity--amitrole, bromoxynil, 2,4-D, glyphosate, ioxynil and paraquat; and (b) herbicides with root and foliar activity--the triazines ametryn, atrazine, metribuzin, prometryn, simazine and terbutryn; the substituted ureas benzthiazuron, chloroxuron, diuron, fluometuron, linuron, methabenzthiazuron, neburon and phenobenzuron; and the miscellaneous compounds karbutilate, methazole, oxadiazon and pyrazon. Severe but sublethal injury was caused by cycloate, EPTC, molinate, pobulate, cacodylate + MSMA, ethofumesate, perfluidone and phenmedipham. Abnormal development of vegetative or reproductive parts of the plant was induced by benefin, butralin, dinitramine, pendimethalin, trifluralin, diphenamid, napropamide, dalapon and propham. Efficient herbicides with negligible persistence in soil at the doses applied were evaluated on poppy plants in the field at various stages of growth. Small plants were severely injured by 2,4-D, killed rapidly by bromoxynil, ioxynil, paraquat (in mixture + diquat), and more slowly by glyphosate and metribuzin. The resistance to herbicides increased with the age of the poppy plant. Severe damage with partial kill of developed plants was obtained with bromoxynil, ioxynil, glyphosate, and paraquat + diquat; the last treatment produced the fastest effect.

  19. Herbicides: A new threat to the Great Barrier Reef

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, Stephen E.; Brodie, Jon E.; Bainbridge, Zoe T.; Rohde, Ken W.; Davis, Aaron M.; Masters, Bronwyn L.; Maughan, Mirjam; Devlin, Michelle J.; Mueller, Jochen F.; Schaffelke, Britta

    2009-01-01

    The runoff of pesticides (insecticides, herbicides and fungicides) from agricultural lands is a key concern for the health of the iconic Great Barrier Reef, Australia. Relatively low levels of herbicide residues can reduce the productivity of marine plants and corals. However, the risk of these residues to Great Barrier Reef ecosystems has been poorly quantified due to a lack of large-scale datasets. Here we present results of a study tracing pesticide residues from rivers and creeks in three catchment regions to the adjacent marine environment. Several pesticides (mainly herbicides) were detected in both freshwater and coastal marine waters and were attributed to specific land uses in the catchment. Elevated herbicide concentrations were particularly associated with sugar cane cultivation in the adjacent catchment. We demonstrate that herbicides reach the Great Barrier Reef lagoon and may disturb sensitive marine ecosystems already affected by other pressures such as climate change. - Herbicide residues have been detected in Great Barrier Reef catchment waterways and river water plumes which may affect marine ecosystems.

  20. Antioxidant activity of rice plants sprayed with herbicides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos André Nohatto

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the physiological defense behavior of plants subjected to herbicide application may help to identify products with higher or lower capacity to cause oxidative stress in crops. This study aimed at evaluating the effect of herbicides in the antioxidant activity of rice plants. The experimental design was completely randomized, with six replications. Treatments consisted of the herbicides bentazon (photosystem II inhibitor; 960 g ha-1, penoxsulam (acetolactate synthase inhibitor; 60 g ha-1, cyhalofop-butyl (acetyl coenzyme-A carboxylase inhibitor; 315 g ha-1 and a control. After the herbicides application, samples of rice shoots were collected at 12, 24, 48 and 96 hours after application (HAA. The components evaluated were hydrogen peroxide (H2O2, lipid peroxidation and activity of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD and catalase (CAT. Bentazon (up to 24 HAA and penoxsulam (48 and 96 HAA reduced the CAT activity. Moreover, these herbicides increased the levels of H2O2, lipid peroxidation and SOD activity, indicating a condition of oxidative stress in rice plants. The cyhalofop-butyl herbicide did not alter the antioxidant activity, showing that it causes less stress to the crop.

  1. Liquid-phase extraction coupled with metal-organic frameworks-based dispersive solid phase extraction of herbicides in peanuts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Na; Wang, Zhibing; Zhang, Liyuan; Nian, Li; Lei, Lei; Yang, Xiao; Zhang, Hanqi; Yu, Aimin

    2014-10-01

    Liquid-phase extraction coupled with metal-organic frameworks-based dispersive solid phase extraction was developed and applied to the extraction of pesticides in high fatty matrices. The herbicides were ultrasonically extracted from peanut using ethyl acetate as extraction solvent. The separation of the analytes from a large amount of co-extractive fat was achieved by dispersive solid-phase extraction using MIL-101(Cr) as sorbent. In this step, the analytes were adsorbed on MIL-101(Cr) and the fat remained in bulk. The herbicides were separated and determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. The experimental parameters, including type and volume of extraction solvent, ultrasonication time, volume of hexane and eluting solvent, amount of MIL-101(Cr) and dispersive solid phase extraction time, were optimized. The limits of detection for herbicides range from 0.98 to 1.9 μg/kg. The recoveries of the herbicides are in the range of 89.5-102.7% and relative standard deviations are equal or lower than 7.0%. The proposed method is simple, effective and suitable for treatment of the samples containing high content of fat. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Analysis of high-throughput biological data using their rank values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dembélé, Doulaye

    2018-01-01

    High-throughput biological technologies are routinely used to generate gene expression profiling or cytogenetics data. To achieve high performance, methods available in the literature become more specialized and often require high computational resources. Here, we propose a new versatile method based on the data-ordering rank values. We use linear algebra, the Perron-Frobenius theorem and also extend a method presented earlier for searching differentially expressed genes for the detection of recurrent copy number aberration. A result derived from the proposed method is a one-sample Student's t-test based on rank values. The proposed method is to our knowledge the only that applies to gene expression profiling and to cytogenetics data sets. This new method is fast, deterministic, and requires a low computational load. Probabilities are associated with genes to allow a statistically significant subset selection in the data set. Stability scores are also introduced as quality parameters. The performance and comparative analyses were carried out using real data sets. The proposed method can be accessed through an R package available from the CRAN (Comprehensive R Archive Network) website: https://cran.r-project.org/web/packages/fcros .

  3. Construction Guidelines for High R-Value Walls without Exterior Rigid Insulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arena, Lois B. [Steven Winter Associates, Inc., Norwalk, CT (United States). Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings

    2016-07-13

    High-R wall assemblies (R-40 and above) are gaining popularity in the market due to programs like the DOE's Zero Energy Ready Home program, Passive House (PH), Net Zero Energy Home (NZEH) challenges in several states, and highly incentivized retrofit programs. In response to this demand, several builders have successfully used 'double wall' systems to more practically achieve higher R-values in thicker, framed walls. To builders of conventional stick-framed homes, often one of the most appealing features of double wall systems is that there are very few new exterior details. Exterior sheathing, structural bracing, house wrap or building paper, window and door flashing, and siding attachment are usually identical to good details in conventional framed wall systems. The information presented in this guide is intended to reduce the risk of failure in these types of assemblies, increase durability, and result in a reduction of material brought to landfills due to failures and resulting decay. While this document focuses on double wall framing techniques, the majority of the information on how to properly construct and finish high R-value assemblies is applicable to all wall assemblies that do not have foam insulation installed on the exterior of the structural sheathing. The techniques presented have been shown through field studies to reduce the likelihood of mold growth and moisture related damage and are intended for builders, framing contractors, architects, and consultants involved in designing and building super insulated homes.

  4. Evaluating the Value of High Spatial Resolution in National Capacity Expansion Models using ReEDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishnan, Venkat; Cole, Wesley

    2016-07-18

    This poster is based on the paper of the same name, presented at the IEEE Power & Energy Society General Meeting, July18, 2016. Power sector capacity expansion models (CEMs) have a broad range of spatial resolutions. This paper uses the Regional Energy Deployment System (ReEDS) model, a long-term national scale electric sector CEM, to evaluate the value of high spatial resolution for CEMs. ReEDS models the United States with 134 load balancing areas (BAs) and captures the variability in existing generation parameters, future technology costs, performance, and resource availability using very high spatial resolution data, especially for wind and solar modeled at 356 resource regions. In this paper we perform planning studies at three different spatial resolutions - native resolution (134 BAs), state-level, and NERC region level - and evaluate how results change under different levels of spatial aggregation in terms of renewable capacity deployment and location, associated transmission builds, and system costs. The results are used to ascertain the value of high geographically resolved models in terms of their impact on relative competitiveness among renewable energy resources.

  5. Diagnostic and prognostic value of high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T in patients with syncope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christ, Michael; Geier, Felicitas; Popp, Steffen; Singler, Katrin; Smolarsky, Alexander; Bertsch, Thomas; Müller, Christian; Greve, Yvonne

    2015-02-01

    We examined the diagnostic and predictive value of high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T (cTnThs) in patients with syncope. We performed an analysis of consecutive patients with syncope presenting to the emergency department. The primary end point was the accuracy to diagnose a cardiac syncope. In addition, the study explored the prognostic relevance of cTnThs in patients with cardiac and noncardiac syncope. A total of 360 patients were enrolled (median age, 70.5 years; male, 55.8%; 23.9% aged >80 years). Cardiac syncope was present in 22% of patients, reflex syncope was present in 40% of patients, syncope due to orthostatic hypotension was present in 20% of patients, and unexplained syncope was present in 17.5% of patients. A total of 148 patients (41%) had cTnThs levels above the 99% confidence interval (CI) (cutoff point). The diagnostic accuracy for cTnThs levels to determine the diagnosis of cardiac syncope was quantified by the area under the curve (0.77; CI, 0.72-0.83; P value of cTnThs levels within 30 days: Patients with increased cTnThs levels had a 52% likelihood for adverse events, patients with cTnThs levels below the cutoff point had a low risk (negative predictive value, 83.5%). Increased cTnThs levels indicate adverse prognosis in patients with noncardiac causes of syncope, but not in patients with cardiac syncope being a risk factor for adverse outcome by itself. Patients with syncope presenting to the emergency department have a high proportion of life-threatening conditions. cTnThs levels show a limited diagnostic and predictive accuracy for the identification of patients with syncope at high risk. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. A highly concentrated diet increases biogas production and the agronomic value of young bull's manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendonça Costa, Mônica Sarolli Silva de; Lucas, Jorge de; Mendonça Costa, Luiz Antonio de; Orrico, Ana Carolina Amorim

    2016-02-01

    The increasing demand for animal protein has driven significant changes in cattle breeding systems, mainly in feedlots, with the use of young bulls fed on diets richer in concentrate (C) than in forage (F). These changes are likely to affect animal manure, demanding re-evaluation of the biogas production per kg of TS and VS added, as well as of its agronomic value as a biofertilizer, after anaerobic digestion. Here, we determined the biogas production and agronomic value (i.e., the macronutrient concentration in the final biofertilizer) of the manure of young bulls fed on diets with more (80% C+20% F; 'HighC' diet) or less (65% C+35% F; 'LowC' diet) concentrate, evaluating the effects of temperature (25, 35, and 40°C) and the use of an inoculum, during anaerobic digestion. A total of 24 benchtop reactors were used, operating in a semi-continuous system, with a 40-day hydraulic retention time (HRT). The manure from animals given the HighC diet had the greatest potential for biogas production, when digested with the use of an inoculum and at 35 or 40°C (0.6326 and 0.6207m(3)biogas/kg volatile solids, or VS, respectively). We observed the highest levels of the macronutrients N, P, and K in the biofertilizer from the manure of animals given HighC. Our results show that the manure of young bulls achieves its highest potential for biogas production and agronomic value when animals are fed diets richer in concentrate, and that biogas production increases if digestion is performed at higher temperatures, and with the use of an inoculum. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Supply Networks and Value Creation in High Innovation and Strong Network Externalities Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Claro Tomaselli

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The rapid developing product and service markets and developments in information technologies have accelerated growth in outsourcing of peripheral activities and critical business as well, enhancing the importance of network supply chain management. This paper analyzes the dynamics of supply chain management and the creation of value in an industry with strong network effects and constantly introduction of disruptive technologies, the videogame industry. This industry evolves at a high velocity, with a lifecycle of five to six years for consoles, which features a new generation of consoles, where new companies and technologies appear and disappear at each generation.

  8. Construction Guidelines for High R-Value Walls without Exterior Rigid Insulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arena, Lois B. [Steven Winter Associates, Inc., Norwalk, CT (United States). Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB)

    2016-07-13

    High R-value wall assemblies (R-40 and above) are gaining popularity in the market due to programs such as the U.S. Department of Energy Zero Energy Ready Home program, Passive House, Net Zero Energy Home challenges in several states, and highly incentivized retrofit programs. In response to this demand, several builders have successfully used double-wall systems to achieve higher R-values in thicker, framed walls. To builders of conventional stick-framed homes, often one of the most appealing features of double-wall systems is that there are very few new exterior details. Exterior sheathings, structural bracings, house wraps or building paper, window and door flashings, and siding attachments are usually identical to good details in conventional framed-wall systems. However, although the details in double-wall systems are very similar to those in conventional stick framing, there is sometimes less room for error. Several studies have confirmed colder temperatures of exterior sheathing in high R-value wall assemblies that do not have exterior rigid foam insulation. These colder temperatures can lead to increased chances for condensation from air exfiltration, and they have the potential to result in moisture-related problems (Straube and Smegal 2009, Arena 2014, Ueno 2015). The information presented in this guide is intended to reduce the risk of failure in these types of assemblies, increase durability, and reduce material brought to landfills due to failures and resulting decay. Although this document focuses on double-wall framing techniques, the majority of the information about how to properly construct and finish high R-value assemblies is applicable to all wall assemblies that do not have foam insulation installed on the exterior of the structural sheathing. The techniques presented have been shown through field studies to reduce the likelihood of mold growth and moisture-related damage and are intended for builders, framing contractors, architects, and

  9. Focusing of high power ultrasound beams and limiting values of shock wave parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessonova, O. V.; Khokhlova, V. A.; Bailey, M. R.; Canney, M. S.; Crum, L. A.

    2009-10-01

    In this work, the influence of nonlinear and diffraction effects on amplification factors of focused ultrasound systems is investigated. The limiting values of acoustic field parameters obtained by focusing of high power ultrasound are studied. The Khokhlov-Zabolotskaya-Kuznetsov (KZK) equation was used for the numerical modeling. Solutions for the nonlinear acoustic field were obtained at output levels corresponding to both pre- and post-shock formation conditions in the focal area of the beam in a weakly dissipative medium. Numerical solutions were compared with experimental data as well as with known analytic predictions.

  10. Aquatic Plant Control Research Program: Aquatic Plant Identification and Herbicide Use Guide. Volume 2. Aquatic Plants and Susceptibility to Herbicides

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-11-01

    Chronic >0.5 Daphnia Repeat exposure Chronic >0.2 reproduction 0 NOTE; Fluridone was not found to cause genetic mutations or cancer in tested lab...persists. REGISTERED HERBICIDES 95 REGISTERED HERBICIDES GLYPHOSATE A. Chemical Name and Formulation: Chemical name: N-(phosphonomethyl)glycine Formulation...RODEO (53.5% ai, isopropylamine salt of glyphosate , liquid) B. Mode of Action: Not definite. However, investigators have postulated that

  11. Reduced prefrontal and temporal processing and recall of high "sensation value" ads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langleben, Daniel D; Loughead, James W; Ruparel, Kosha; Hakun, Jonathan G; Busch-Winokur, Samantha; Holloway, Matthew B; Strasser, Andrew A; Cappella, Joseph N; Lerman, Caryn

    2009-05-15

    Public service announcements (PSAs) are non-commercial broadcast ads that are an important part of televised public health campaigns. "Message sensation value" (MSV), a measure of sensory intensity of audio, visual, and content features of an ad, is an important factor in PSA impact. Some communication theories propose that higher message sensation value brings increased attention and cognitive processing, leading to higher ad impact. Others argue that the attention-intensive format could compete with ad's message for cognitive resources and result in reduced processing of PSA content and reduced overall effectiveness. Brain imaging during PSA viewing provides a quantitative surrogate measure of PSA impact and addresses questions of PSA evaluation and design not accessible with traditional subjective and epidemiological methods. We used Blood Oxygenation Level Dependent (BOLD) functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) and recognition memory measures to compare high and low MSV anti-tobacco PSAs and neutral videos. In a short-delay, forced-choice memory test, frames extracted from PSAs were recognized more accurately than frames extracted from the NV. Frames from the low MSV PSAs were better recognized than frames from the high MSV PSAs. The accuracy of recognition of PSA frames was positively correlated with the prefrontal and temporal, and negatively correlated with the occipital cortex activation. The low MSV PSAs were associated with greater prefrontal and temporal activation, than the high MSV PSAs. The high MSV PSAs produced greater activation primarily in the occipital cortex. These findings support the "dual processing" and "limited capacity" theories of communication that postulate a competition between ad's content and format for the viewers' cognitive resources and suggest that the "attention-grabbing" high MSV format could impede the learning and retention of an ad. These findings demonstrate the potential of using neuroimaging in the design and

  12. Added-values of high spatiotemporal remote sensing data in crop yield estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, F.; Anderson, M. C.

    2017-12-01

    Timely and accurate estimation of crop yield before harvest is critical for food market and administrative planning. Remote sensing derived parameters have been used for estimating crop yield by using either empirical or crop growth models. The uses of remote sensing vegetation index (VI) in crop yield modeling have been typically evaluated at regional and country scales using coarse spatial resolution (a few hundred to kilo-meters) data or assessed over a small region at field level using moderate resolution spatial resolution data (10-100m). Both data sources have shown great potential in capturing spatial and temporal variability in crop yield. However, the added value of data with both high spatial and temporal resolution data has not been evaluated due to the lack of such data source with routine, global coverage. In recent years, more moderate resolution data have become freely available and data fusion approaches that combine data acquired from different spatial and temporal resolutions have been developed. These make the monitoring crop condition and estimating crop yield at field scale become possible. Here we investigate the added value of the high spatial and temporal VI for describing variability of crop yield. The explanatory ability of crop yield based on high spatial and temporal resolution remote sensing data was evaluated in a rain-fed agricultural area in the U.S. Corn Belt. Results show that the fused Landsat-MODIS (high spatial and temporal) VI explains yield variability better than single data source (Landsat or MODIS alone), with EVI2 performing slightly better than NDVI. The maximum VI describes yield variability better than cumulative VI. Even though VI is effective in explaining yield variability within season, the inter-annual variability is more complex and need additional information (e.g. weather, water use and management). Our findings augment the importance of high spatiotemporal remote sensing data and supports new moderate

  13. Seedling Performance Associated with Live or Herbicide Treated Tall Fescue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan J. Halvorson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tall fescue is an important forage grass which can host systemic fungal endophytes. The association of host grass and endophyte is known to influence herbivore behavior and host plant competition for resources. Establishing legumes into existing tall fescue sods is a desirable means to acquire nitrogen and enhance the nutritive value of forage for livestock production. Competition from existing tall fescue typically must be controlled to ensure interseeding success. We used a soil-on-agar method to determine if soil from intact, living (L, or an herbicide killed (K tall fescue sward influenced germination and seedling growth of three cultivars of tall fescue (E+, MaxQ, and E− or legumes (alfalfa, red clover, and white clover. After 30 days, seedlings were larger and present in greater numbers when grown in L soil rather than K soil. Root growth of legumes (especially white clover and tall fescue (especially MaxQ were not as vigorous in K soil as L soil. While shoot biomass was similar for all cultivars of tall fescue in L soil, MaxQ produced less herbage when grown in K soil. Our data suggest establishing legumes or fescue cultivars may not be improved by first killing the existing fescue sod and seedling performance can exhibit significant interseasonal variation, related only to soil conditions.

  14. A miniature bioassay for testing the acute phytotoxicity of photosystem II herbicides on seagrass.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam D Wilkinson

    Full Text Available Photosystem II (PSII herbicides have been detected in nearshore tropical waters such as those of the Great Barrier Reef and may add to the pressure posed by runoff containing sediments and nutrients to threatened seagrass habitats. There is a growing number of studies into the potential effects of herbicides on seagrass, generally using large experimental setups with potted plants. Here we describe the successful development of an acute 12-well plate phytotoxicity assay for the PSII herbicide Diuron using isolated Halophila ovalis leaves. Fluorescence images demonstrated Diuron affected the entire leaf surface evenly and responses were not influenced by isolating leaves from the plant. The optimum exposure duration was 24 h, by which time the inhibition of effective quantum yield of PSII (∆F/F(m' was highest and no deterioration of photosystems was evident in control leaves. The inhibition of ∆F/F(m' by Diuron in isolated H. ovalis leaves was identical to both potted and hydroponically grown plants (with leaves remaining attached to rhizomes, indicating similar reductions in photosynthetic activity in these acute well-plate assays. The sensitivity of the assay was not influenced by irradiance (range tested 40 to 400 μmol photons m(-2 s(-1. High irradiance, however, caused photo-oxidative stress in H. ovalis and this generally impacted in an additive or sub-additive way with Diuron to damage PSII. The bioassay using isolated leaves is more rapid, uses far less biological material and does not rely on specialised aquarium facilities in comparison with assays using potted plants. The development and validation of this sensitive bioassay will be useful to reliably screen and monitor the phytotoxicity of existing and emerging PSII herbicides and contribute to risk assessments and water quality guideline development in the future.

  15. A Miniature Bioassay for Testing the Acute Phytotoxicity of Photosystem II Herbicides on Seagrass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Adam D.; Collier, Catherine J.; Flores, Florita; Mercurio, Phil; O’Brien, Jake; Ralph, Peter J.; Negri, Andrew P.

    2015-01-01

    Photosystem II (PSII) herbicides have been detected in nearshore tropical waters such as those of the Great Barrier Reef and may add to the pressure posed by runoff containing sediments and nutrients to threatened seagrass habitats. There is a growing number of studies into the potential effects of herbicides on seagrass, generally using large experimental setups with potted plants. Here we describe the successful development of an acute 12-well plate phytotoxicity assay for the PSII herbicide Diuron using isolated Halophila ovalis leaves. Fluorescence images demonstrated Diuron affected the entire leaf surface evenly and responses were not influenced by isolating leaves from the plant. The optimum exposure duration was 24 h, by which time the inhibition of effective quantum yield of PSII (∆F/Fm’) was highest and no deterioration of photosystems was evident in control leaves. The inhibition of ∆F/Fm’ by Diuron in isolated H. ovalis leaves was identical to both potted and hydroponically grown plants (with leaves remaining attached to rhizomes), indicating similar reductions in photosynthetic activity in these acute well-plate assays. The sensitivity of the assay was not influenced by irradiance (range tested 40 to 400 μmol photons m-2 s-1). High irradiance, however, caused photo-oxidative stress in H. ovalis and this generally impacted in an additive or sub-additive way with Diuron to damage PSII. The bioassay using isolated leaves is more rapid, uses far less biological material and does not rely on specialised aquarium facilities in comparison with assays using potted plants. The development and validation of this sensitive bioassay will be useful to reliably screen and monitor the phytotoxicity of existing and emerging PSII herbicides and contribute to risk assessments and water quality guideline development in the future. PMID:25674791

  16. Efficient photodecomposition of herbicide imazapyr over mesoporous Ga2O3-TiO2 nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Adel A; Abdelfattah, Ibrahim; Faisal, M; Helal, Ahmed

    2018-01-15

    The unabated release of herbicide imazapyr into the soil and groundwater led to crop destruction and several pollution-related concerns. In this contribution, heterogeneous photocatalytic technique was employed utilizing mesoporous Ga 2 O 3 -TiO 2 nanocomposites for degrading imazapyr herbicide as a model pollutant molecule. Mesoporous Ga 2 O 3 -TiO 2 nanocomposites with varied Ga 2 O 3 contents (0-5wt%) were synthesized through sol-gel process. XRD and Raman spectra exhibited extremely crystalline anatase TiO 2 phase at low Ga 2 O 3 content which gradually reduced with the increase of Ga 2 O 3 content. TEM images display uniform TiO 2 particles (10±2nm) with mesoporous structure. The mesoporous TiO 2 exhibits large surface areas of 167m 2 g -1 , diminished to 108m 2 g -1 upon 5% Ga 2 O 3 incorporation, with tunable mesopore diameter in the range of 3-9nm. The photocatalytic efficiency of synthesized Ga 2 O 3 -TiO 2 nanocomposites was assessed by degrading imazapyr herbicide and comparing with commercial photocatalyst UV-100 and mesoporous Ga 2 O 3 under UV illumination. 0.1% Ga 2 O 3 -TiO 2 nanocomposite is considered the optimum photocatalyst, which degrades 98% of imazapyr herbicide within 180min. Also, the photodegradation rate of imazapyr using 0.1% Ga 2 O 3 -TiO 2 nanocomposite is nearly 10 and 3-fold higher than that of mesoporous Ga 2 O 3 and UV-100, respectively. The high photonic efficiency and long-term stability of the mesoporous Ga 2 O 3 -TiO 2 nanocomposites are ascribed to its stronger oxidative capability in comparison with either mesoporous TiO 2 , Ga 2 O 3 or commercial UV-100. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Toxic pressure of herbicides on microalgae in Dutch estuarine and coastal waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booij, Petra; Sjollema, Sascha B.; van der Geest, Harm G.; Leonards, Pim E. G.; Lamoree, Marja H.; de Voogt, W. Pim; Admiraal, Wim; Laane, Remi W. P. M.; Vethaak, A. Dick

    2015-08-01

    For several decades now, there has been an increase in the sources and types of chemicals in estuarine and coastal waters as a consequence of anthropogenic activities. This has led to considerable concern about the effects of these chemicals on the marine food chain. The fact is that estuarine and coastal waters are the most productive ecosystems with high primary production by microalgae. The toxic pressure of specific phytotoxic chemicals now poses a major threat to these ecosystems. In a previous study, six herbicides (atrazine, diuron, irgarol, isoproturon, terbutryn and terbutylazine) were identified as the main contaminants affecting photosynthesis in marine microalgae. The purpose of this study is to investigate the toxic pressure of these herbicides in the Dutch estuarine and coastal waters in relation to the effective photosystem II efficiency (ΦPSII) in microalgae. Temporal and spatial variations in the concentrations of these herbicides were analyzed based on monitoring data. Additionally, a field study was carried out in which chemical analysis of water was performed and also a toxicity assessment using the Pulse Amplitude Modulation (PAM) fluorometry assay that measures ΦPSII. The toxic pressure on ΦPSII in microalgae has decreased with 55-82% from 2003 to 2012, with the Western Scheldt estuary showing the highest toxic pressure. By combining toxicity data from the PAM assay with chemical analysis of herbicide concentrations, we have identified diuron and terbutylazine as the main contributors to the toxic pressure on microalgae. Although direct effects are not expected, the toxic pressure is close to the 10% effect level in the PAM assay. A compliance check with the current environmental legislation of the European Union revealed that the quality standards are not sufficient to protect marine microalgae.

  18. Mixtures of herbicides and metals affect the redox system of honey bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jumarie, Catherine; Aras, Philippe; Boily, Monique

    2017-02-01

    The increasing loss of bee colonies in many countries has prompted a surge of studies on the factors affecting bee health. In North America, main crops such as maize and soybean are cultivated with extensive use of pesticides that may affect non-target organisms such as bees. Also, biosolids, used as a soil amendment, represent additional sources of metals in agroecosystems; however, there is no information about how these metals could affect the bees. In previous studies we investigated the effects of environmentally relevant doses of herbicides and metals, each individually, on caged honey bees. The present study aimed at investigating the effects of mixtures of herbicides (glyphosate and atrazine) and metals (cadmium and iron), as these mixtures represent more realistic exposure conditions. Levels of metal, vitamin E, carotenoids, retinaldehyde, at-retinol, retinoic acid isomers (9-cis RA, 13-cis RA, at-RA) and the metabolites 13-cis-4-oxo-RA and at-4-oxo-RA were measured in bees fed for 10 days with contaminated syrup. Mixtures of herbicides and cadmium that did not affect bee viability, lowered bee α- and β-carotenoid contents and increased 9-cis-RA as well as 13-cis-4-oxo-RA without modifying the levels of at-retinol. Bee treatment with either glyphosate, a combination of atrazine and cadmium, or mixtures of herbicides promoted lipid peroxidation. Iron was bioconcentrated in bees and led to high levels of lipid peroxidation. Metals also decreased zeaxanthin bee contents. These results show that mixtures of atrazine, glyphosate, cadmium and iron may affect different reactions occurring in the metabolic pathway of vitamin A in the honey bee. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Hierarchical cultural values predict success and mortality in high-stakes teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anicich, Eric M.; Swaab, Roderick I.; Galinsky, Adam D.

    2015-01-01

    Functional accounts of hierarchy propose that hierarchy increases group coordination and reduces conflict. In contrast, dysfunctional accounts claim that hierarchy impairs performance by preventing low-ranking team members from voicing their potentially valuable perspectives and insights. The current research presents evidence for both the functional and dysfunctional accounts of hierarchy within the same dataset. Specifically, we offer empirical evidence that hierarchical cultural values affect the outcomes of teams in high-stakes environments through group processes. Experimental data from a sample of expert mountain climbers from 27 countries confirmed that climbers expect that a hierarchical culture leads to improved team coordination among climbing teams, but impaired psychological safety and information sharing compared with an egalitarian culture. An archival analysis of 30,625 Himalayan mountain climbers from 56 countries on 5,104 expeditions found that hierarchy both elevated and killed in the Himalayas: Expeditions from more hierarchical countries had more climbers reach the summit, but also more climbers die along the way. Importantly, we established the role of group processes by showing that these effects occurred only for group, but not solo, expeditions. These findings were robust to controlling for environmental factors, risk preferences, expedition-level characteristics, country-level characteristics, and other cultural values. Overall, this research demonstrates that endorsing cultural values related to hierarchy can simultaneously improve and undermine group performance. PMID:25605883

  20. High-Value Consults: A Curriculum to Promote Point-of-Care, Evidence-Based Recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandiwada, Deepa Rani; Kohli, Amar; McNamara, Megan; Smith, Kenneth J; Zimmer, Shanta; McNeil, Melissa; Spagnoletti, Carla; Rubio, Doris; Berlacher, Kathryn

    2017-10-01

    In an era when value-based care is paramount, teaching trainees to explicitly communicate the evidence behind recommendations fosters high-value care (HVC) in the consultation process. To implement an HVC consult curriculum highlighting the need for clear consult questions, evidence-based recommendations to improve consult teaching, clinical decision-making, and the educational value of consults. A pilot curriculum was implemented for residents on cardiology consult electives utilizing faculty and fellows as evidence-based medicine (EBM) coaches. The curriculum included an online module, an EBM teaching point template, EBM presentations on rounds, and "coach" feedback on notes. A total of 15 residents and 4 fellows on cardiology consults participated, and 87% (13 of 15) of residents on consults felt the curriculum was educationally valuable. A total of 80% (72 of 90) of residents on general medicine rotations responded to the survey, and 25 of 72 residents (35%) had a consult with the EBM template. General medicine teams felt the EBM teaching points affected clinical decision-making (48%, 12 of 25) and favored dissemination of the curriculum (90%, 72 of 80). Checklist-guided chart review showed a 22% improvement in evidence-based summaries behind recommendations (7 of 36 precurriculum to 70 of 146 charts postcurriculum, P  = .015). The HVC consult curriculum during a cardiology elective was perceived by residents to influence clinical decision-making and evidence-based recommendations, and was found to be educationally valuable on both parties in the consult process.

  1. The value of multi ultra high-b-value DWI in grading cerebral astrocytomas and its association with aquaporin-4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Yan; Zhang, Hui; Wang, Xiao-Chun; Qin, Jiang-Bo; Wang, Le

    2018-06-01

    To investigate the value of multi-ultrahigh-b-value diffusion-weighted imaging (UHBV-DWI) in differentiating high-grade astrocytomas (HGAs) from low-grade astrocytomas (LGAs), analyze its association with aquaporin (AQP) expression. 40 astrocytomas divided into LGAs (N = 15) and HGAs (N = 25) were studied. Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and UHBV-ADC values in solid parts and peritumoral edema were compared between LGAs and HGAs groups by the t-test. Using receiver operating characteristic curves to identify the better parameter. Using real time polymerase chain reaction to assess AQP messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA). Using spearman correlation analysis to assess the correlation of AQP mRNA with each parameter. ADC values in solid parts of HGAs were significantly lower than LGAs (p = 0.02), while UHBV-ADC values of HGAs were significantly higher than LGAs (p  0.05); ADC value showed a negative correlation with AQP4 mRNA (r = -0.357; p = 0.024). UHBV-ADC value positively correlated with the AQP4 mRNA (r = 0.646; p value may be related with the AQP4 mRNA levels. UHBV-DWI could be of value in the assessment of astrocytoma. Advances in knowledge: UHBV-DWI generated by multi UHBV could have particular value for astrocytoma grading, and the level of AQP4 mRNA might be potentially linked to the change of UHBV-DWI parameter, and we might find the exact reason for the difference of UHBV-ADC between the LGAs and HGAs.

  2. Immobilization of the white-rot fungus Anthracophyllum discolor to degrade the herbicide atrazine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elgueta, S; Santos, C; Lima, N; Diez, M C

    2016-12-01

    Herbicides cause environmental concerns because they are toxic and accumulate in the environment, food products and water supplies. There is a need to develop safe, efficient and economical methods to remove them from the environment, often by biodegradation. Atrazine is such herbicide. White-rot fungi have the ability to degrade herbicides of potential utility. This study formulated a novel pelletized support to immobilize the white-rot fungus Anthracophyllum discolor to improve its capability to degrade the atrazine using a biopurification system (BS). Different proportions of sawdust, starch, corn meal and flaxseed were used to generate three pelletized supports (F1, F2 and F3). In addition, immobilization with coated and uncoated pelletized supports (CPS and UPS, respectively) was assessed. UPS-F1 was determined as the most effective system as it provided high level of manganese peroxidase activity and fungal viability. The half-life (t 1/2 ) of atrazine decreased from 14 to 6 days for the control and inoculated samples respectively. Inoculation with immobilized A. discolor produced an increase in the fungal taxa assessed by DGGE and on phenoloxidase activity determined. The treatment improves atrazine degradation and reduces migration to surface and groundwater.

  3. Occurrence and fate of the herbicide glyphosate and its degradate aminomethylphosphonic acid in the atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Feng-Chih; Simcik, M.F.; Capel, P.D.

    2011-01-01

    This is the first report on the ambient levels of glyphosate, the most widely used herbicide in the United States, and its major degradation product, aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA), in air and rain. Concurrent, weekly integrated air particle and rain samples were collected during two growing seasons in agricultural areas in Mississippi and Iowa. Rain was also collected in Indiana in a preliminary phase of the study. The frequency of glyphosate detection ranged from 60 to 100% in both air and rain. The concentrations of glyphosate ranged from 3 and from <0.1 to 2.5 µg/L in air and rain samples, respectively. The frequency of detection and median and maximum concentrations of glyphosate in air were similar or greater to those of the other high-use herbicides observed in the Mississippi River basin, whereas its concentration in rain was greater than the other herbicides. It is not known what percentage of the applied glyphosate is introduced into the air, but it was estimated that up to 0.7% of application is removed from the air in rainfall. Glyphosate is efficiently removed from the air; it is estimated that an average of 97% of the glyphosate in the air is removed by a weekly rainfall ≥30 mm.

  4. Regularity of mitosis in different varieties of winter bread wheat under the action of herbicides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatyana Eugenivna KOPYTCHUK

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The influence of the most widespread herbicides on winter wheat in Ukraine was studied by anaphase test. Treatment with herbicides reduced the germination of the seeds and disturbed the regularity of mitosis in all varieties of wheat. The range of violations of mitosis was demonstrated by the formation of chromosomal aberrations and dysfunctions of cell cytoskeleton which occurred while processing herbicides. Varietal differences between investigated wheat by sensitivity to herbicides were discovered. The most resistant to herbicides was variety Fantasya Odesskaya, and the most sensitive – Nikoniya, while the most harmful herbicide for wheat was Napalm.

  5. Surviving the Lead Reliability Engineer Role in High Unit Value Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Reinaldo J.

    2011-01-01

    A project with a very high unit value within a company is defined as a project where a) the project constitutes one of a kind (or two-of-a-kind) national asset type of project, b) very large cost, and c) a mission failure would be a very public event that will hurt the company's image. The Lead Reliability engineer in a high visibility project is by default involved in all phases of the project, from conceptual design to manufacture and testing. This paper explores a series of lessons learned, over a period of ten years of practical industrial experience by a Lead Reliability Engineer. We expand on the concepts outlined by these lessons learned via examples. The lessons learned are applicable to all industries.

  6. Using Behavioral Economics to Design Physician Incentives That Deliver High-Value Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emanuel, Ezekiel J; Ubel, Peter A; Kessler, Judd B; Meyer, Gregg; Muller, Ralph W; Navathe, Amol S; Patel, Pankaj; Pearl, Robert; Rosenthal, Meredith B; Sacks, Lee; Sen, Aditi P; Sherman, Paul; Volpp, Kevin G

    2016-01-19

    Behavioral economics provides insights about the development of effective incentives for physicians to deliver high-value care. It suggests that the structure and delivery of incentives can shape behavior, as can thoughtful design of the decision-making environment. This article discusses several principles of behavioral economics, including inertia, loss aversion, choice overload, and relative social ranking. Whereas these principles have been applied to motivate personal health decisions, retirement planning, and savings behavior, they have been largely ignored in the design of physician incentive programs. Applying these principles to physician incentives can improve their effectiveness through better alignment with performance goals. Anecdotal examples of successful incentive programs that apply behavioral economics principles are provided, even as the authors recognize that its application to the design of physician incentives is largely untested, and many outstanding questions exist. Application and rigorous evaluation of infrastructure changes and incentives are needed to design payment systems that incentivize high-quality, cost-conscious care.

  7. Meta-metallic coils and resonators: Methods for high Q-value resonant geometries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mett, R. R. [Department of Biophysics, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53226 (United States); Department of Physics and Chemistry, Milwaukee School of Engineering, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53202 (United States); Sidabras, J. W.; Hyde, J. S. [Department of Biophysics, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53226 (United States)

    2016-08-15

    A novel method of decreasing ohmic losses and increasing Q-value in metallic resonators at high frequencies is presented. The method overcomes the skin-depth limitation of rf current flow cross section. The method uses layers of conductive foil of thickness less than a skin depth and capacitive gaps between layers. The capacitive gaps can substantially equalize the rf current flowing in each layer, resulting in a total cross-sectional dimension for rf current flow many times larger than a skin depth. Analytic theory and finite-element simulations indicate that, for a variety of structures, the Q-value enhancement over a single thick conductor approaches the ratio of total conductor thickness to skin depth if the total number of layers is greater than one-third the square of the ratio of total conductor thickness to skin depth. The layer number requirement is due to counter-currents in each foil layer caused by the surrounding rf magnetic fields. We call structures that exhibit this type of Q-enhancement “meta-metallic.” In addition, end effects due to rf magnetic fields wrapping around the ends of the foils can substantially reduce the Q-value for some classes of structures. Foil structures with Q-values that are substantially influenced by such end effects are discussed as are five classes of structures that are not. We focus particularly on 400 MHz, which is the resonant frequency of protons at 9.4 T. Simulations at 400 MHz are shown with comparison to measurements on fabricated structures. The methods and geometries described here are general for magnetic resonance and can be used at frequencies much higher than 400 MHz.

  8. [Low caloric value and high salt content in the meals served in school canteens].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paiva, Isabel; Pinto, Carlos; Queirós, Laurinda; Meister, Maria Cristina; Saraiva, Margarida; Bruno, Paula; Antunes, Delfina; Afonso, Manuel

    2011-01-01

    School lunch can contribute to aggravate food quality, by excess or deficiency, or it can contribute to compensate and alleviate them. This school meal should be an answer to combating the epidemic of obesity, and to feed some grace children. The objective was to study the nutritional composition of catering in canteens of public schools, from Northern municipalities in the District of Porto: Vila do Conde, Póvoa de Varzim, Santo Tirso and Trofa. Meals were subjected to laboratory analysis. Thirty two meals, four per each school were analysed, reference values for the analysis of the nutritional composition of meals were dietary reference intakes (USA) and eating well at school (UK). The average energy meal content was 447 kcal and the median 440 kcal (22% of daily calories). The average values of nutrients, per meal, were: lipids 9, 8 g, carbohydrate 65,7 g and proteins 24,0 g. In average the contribution for the meal energy was: 20% fat, 59% carbohydrate and 21% protein. In more than 75% of meals the contribution of lipid content was below the lower bound of the reference range. The average content of sodium chloride per meal was 3.4 g, and the confidence interval 95% to average 3.0 to 3.8 g, well above the recommended maximum value of 1.5 grams. The average content fiber per meal was 10.8 g higher than the minimum considered appropriate. In conclusion, the value low caloric meals was mainly due to the low fat content, and content salt of any of the components of the meal was very high.

  9. Transgenic rice expressing a codon-modified synthetic CP4-EPSPS confers tolerance to broad-spectrum herbicide, glyphosate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhapekar, Sushil; Raghavendrarao, Sanagala; Pavan, Gadamchetty; Ramakrishna, Chopperla; Singh, Vivek Kumar; Phanindra, Mullapudi Lakshmi Venkata; Dhandapani, Gurusamy; Sreevathsa, Rohini; Ananda Kumar, Polumetla

    2015-05-01

    Highly tolerant herbicide-resistant transgenic rice was developed by expressing codon-modified synthetic CP4--EPSPS. The transformants could tolerate up to 1% commercial glyphosate and has the potential to be used for DSR (direct-seeded rice). Weed infestation is one of the major biotic stress factors that is responsible for yield loss in direct-seeded rice (DSR). Herbicide-resistant rice has potential to improve the efficiency of weed management under DSR. Hence, the popular indica rice cultivar IR64, was genetically modified using Agrobacterium-mediated transformation with a codon-optimized CP4-EPSPS (5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase) gene, with N-terminal chloroplast targeting peptide from Petunia hybrida. Integration of the transgenes in the selected rice plants was confirmed by Southern hybridization and expression by Northern and herbicide tolerance assays. Transgenic plants showed EPSPS enzyme activity even at high concentrations of glyphosate, compared to untransformed control plants. T0, T1 and T2 lines were tested by herbicide bioassay and it was confirmed that the transgenic rice could tolerate up to 1% of commercial Roundup, which is five times more in dose used to kill weeds under field condition. All together, the transgenic rice plants developed in the present study could be used efficiently to overcome weed menace.

  10. Development of aerated confectionery products of high nutritional value using triticale flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. O. Magomedov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pastries are very popular among the Russian population. Pastry are the most promising targets for the enrichment of their function ingredients.. One of the most promising feedstocks for the production of flour confectionery products is flour from grain crops ofspring triticale. The different varieties of triticale were studied in particular, triticale flour grade "Ukro" for use in technologies of shortbread-butter cookies with enhanced food value. The first in the history of our country varieties of spring triticale "Ukro" was included in the State Register of selection achievements since 2004. Triticale is characterized by high-protein content. Triticale, protein is higher than in wheat by amino acids lysine and tryptophan, minerals (calcium, potassium, magnesium, iron, B vitamins. It was pointed the choice and ratio of prescription ingredients. Recipe shortbread-butter cookies based on the seeded triticale flour and flour from coarse whole meal grain, grade "Ukro", with high consumer properties was developed. Cake samples prepared on the basis of flour triticale exceed the reference sample of prime grade wheat flour. Biscuits have a high content of complete protein, vitamins, macro - and microelements, dietary fibers, high gustatory qualities. The influence of prescription components on organoleptic and physical-chemical properties of sandy butter cookies was studied. The nutritional and biological value was calculated. It was state the daily needs of the organism in these materials when using 100 g. As a result of the conducted studies proved the feasibility of the use of flour from grain triticale in the production of flour confectionery products of functional purpose.

  11. Aluminum recovery as a product with high added value using aluminum hazardous waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David, E.; Kopac, J.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Granular and compact aluminum dross were physically and chemically characterized. • A relationship between density, porosity and metal content from dross was established. • Chemical reactions involving aluminum in landfill and negative consequences are shown. • A processing method for aluminum recovering from aluminum dross was developed. • Aluminum was recovered as an value product with high grade purity such as alumina. -- Abstract: The samples of hazardous aluminum solid waste such as dross were physically and chemically characterized. A relationship between density, porosity and metal content of dross was established. The paper also examines the chemical reactions involving aluminum dross in landfill and the negative consequences. To avoid environmental problems and to recovery the aluminum, a processing method was developed and aluminum was recovered as an added value product such as alumina. This method refers to a process at low temperature, in more stages: acid leaching, purification, precipitation and calcination. At the end of this process aluminum was extracted, first as Al 3+ soluble ions and final as alumina product. The composition of the aluminum dross and alumina powder obtained were measured by applying the leaching tests, using atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) and chemical analysis. The mineralogical composition of aluminum dross samples and alumina product were determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and the morphological characterization was performed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The method presented in this work allows the use of hazardous aluminum solid waste as raw material to recover an important fraction from soluble aluminum content as an added value product, alumina, with high grade purity (99.28%)

  12. Do "premium" joint implants add value?: analysis of high cost joint implants in a community registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gioe, Terence J; Sharma, Amit; Tatman, Penny; Mehle, Susan

    2011-01-01

    Numerous joint implant options of varying cost are available to the surgeon, but it is unclear whether more costly implants add value in terms of function or longevity. We evaluated registry survival of higher-cost "premium" knee and hip components compared to lower-priced standard components. Premium TKA components were defined as mobile-bearing designs, high-flexion designs, oxidized-zirconium designs, those including moderately crosslinked polyethylene inserts, or some combination. Premium THAs included ceramic-on-ceramic, metal-on-metal, and ceramic-on-highly crosslinked polyethylene designs. We compared 3462 standard TKAs to 2806 premium TKAs and 868 standard THAs to 1311 premium THAs using standard statistical methods. The cost of the premium implants was on average approximately $1000 higher than the standard implants. There was no difference in the cumulative revision rate at 7-8 years between premium and standard TKAs or THAs. In this time frame, premium implants did not demonstrate better survival than standard implants. Revision indications for TKA did not differ, and infection and instability remained contributors. Longer followup is necessary to demonstrate whether premium implants add value in younger patient groups. Level III, therapeutic study. See Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  13. Metabolic engineering of Escherichia coli for biotechnological production of high-value organic acids and alcohols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Chao; Cao, Yujin; Zou, Huibin; Xian, Mo [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao (China). Key Lab. of Biofuels

    2011-02-15

    Confronted with the gradual and inescapable exhaustion of the earth's fossil energy resources, the bio-based process to produce platform chemicals from renewable carbohydrates is attracting growing interest. Escherichia coli has been chosen as a workhouse for the production of many valuable chemicals due to its clear genetic background, convenient to be genetically modified and good growth properties with low nutrient requirements. Rational strain development of E. coli achieved by metabolic engineering strategies has provided new processes for efficiently biotechnological production of various high-value chemical building blocks. Compared to previous reviews, this review focuses on recent advances in metabolic engineering of the industrial model bacteria E. coli that lead to efficient recombinant biocatalysts for the production of high-value organic acids like succinic acid, lactic acid, 3-hydroxypropanoic acid and glucaric acid as well as alcohols like 1,3-propanediol, xylitol, mannitol, and glycerol with the discussion of the future research in this area. Besides, this review also discusses several platform chemicals, including fumaric acid, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, sorbitol, itaconic acid, and 2,5-furan dicarboxylic acid, which have not been produced by E. coli until now. (orig.)

  14. Soil microbial and faunal responses to herbicide tolerant maize and herbicide in two soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Griffiths, Bryan; Caul, Sandra; Thompson, J.

    2008-01-01

    using a tiered approach at laboratory, glasshouse and field scales. Soil for the experiment was taken from field sites where the same maize cultivars were grown to allow comparison between results under glasshouse and field conditions. The maize cultivars T25 (GM HT glufosinate-ammonium tolerant....... The main effects on all measured parameters were those of soil type and plant growth stage, with four categories of subsequent interaction: (1) there were no effects of herbicide on plant growth or soil microarthropods: (2) the maize cultivar (but not the GM HT trait) had effects on the decomposition...

  15. Determining the market value of high-rise residential buildings based on evaluation of consumer properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolobova Svetlana

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available As you know, high-rise construction is an indicator of the practical implementation of advanced innovative technologies in the construction industry of the country. High-rise building inevitably comes to the big cities, in connection with the shortage and value of land. The life cycle of any construction project, including high-rise buildings consists of chains: of engineering survey - design-construction-operation. In the process of operation of a tall building, decisions about major repairs or reconstruction of a building are made for decision-making on further use. This article describes methods of assessing the consumer quality of high-rise residential buildings and the establishment of prices based on consumer characteristics of a tall residential building. It is proposed to assess the premises under their quality characteristics. The study was conducted to establish the influence of individual, comprehensive and integral indicators of comparable quality for effective quality living spaces. Simultaneously, there was established a relationship of quality with the consumer cost of housing, ultimately with the potential needs of owners, tenants of the home, lessor dwelling, or buyers of residential properties and other participants in the residential real estate market. This relationship further creates consumer requirements to quality standard of premises at a certain stage of socio-economic development.

  16. Enzymatic pulp upgrade for producing high-value cellulose out of a Kraft paper pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutterer, Christian; Kliba, Gerhard; Punz, Manuel; Fackler, Karin; Potthast, Antje

    2017-07-01

    The high-yield separation of polymeric parts from wood-derived lignocellulosic material is indispensable in biorefinery concepts. For the separation of cellulose and xylan from hardwood paper pulps to obtain pulps of high cellulose contents, simple alkaline extractions were found to be the most suitable technology, although having certain limitations. These are embodied by residual alkali resistant xylan incorporated in the pulp matrix. Further purification in order to produce pure cellulose with a low uniformity could be achieved selectively degrading residual xylan and depolymerizing the cellulose macromolecules by xylanase and cellulase. The latter help to adjust cellulose chain lengths for certain dissolving pulp grades while reducing the demand for ozone in subsequent TCF bleaching. Experiments applying different commercially available enzyme preparations revealed the dependency of xylanase performance on the residual xylan content in pulps being stimulated by additional cellulase usage. The action of the latter strongly depends on the cellulose allomorphy confirming the impact of the pulp morphology. Hence, the combined application of both types of enzymes offers a high potential for upgrading pulps in order to produce a pure and high-value cellulose product. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Determining the market value of high-rise residential buildings based on evaluation of consumer properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolobova, Svetlana

    2018-03-01

    As you know, high-rise construction is an indicator of the practical implementation of advanced innovative technologies in the construction industry of the country. High-rise building inevitably comes to the big cities, in connection with the shortage and value of land. The life cycle of any construction project, including high-rise buildings consists of chains: of engineering survey - design-construction-operation. In the process of operation of a tall building, decisions about major repairs or reconstruction of a building are made for decision-making on further use. This article describes methods of assessing the consumer quality of high-rise residential buildings and the establishment of prices based on consumer characteristics of a tall residential building. It is proposed to assess the premises under their quality characteristics. The study was conducted to establish the influence of individual, comprehensive and integral indicators of comparable quality for effective quality living spaces. Simultaneously, there was established a relationship of quality with the consumer cost of housing, ultimately with the potential needs of owners, tenants of the home, lessor dwelling, or buyers of residential properties and other participants in the residential real estate market. This relationship further creates consumer requirements to quality standard of premises at a certain stage of socio-economic development.

  18. PDF added value of a high resolution climate simulation for precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Pedro M. M.; Cardoso, Rita M.

    2015-04-01

    dynamical downscaling, based on simple PDF skill scores. The measure can assess the full quality of the PDFs and at the same time integrates a flexible manner to weight differently the PDF tails. In this study we apply the referred method to characaterize the PDF added value of a high resolution simulation with the WRF model. Results from a WRF climate simulation centred at the Iberian Penisnula with two nested grids, a larger one at 27km and a smaller one at 9km. This simulation is forced by ERA-Interim. The observational data used covers from rain gauges precipitation records to observational regular grids of daily precipitation. Two regular gridded precipitation datasets are used. A Portuguese grid precipitation dataset developed at 0.2°× 0.2°, from observed rain gauges daily precipitation. A second one corresponding to the ENSEMBLES observational gridded dataset for Europe, which includes daily precipitation values at 0.25°. The analisys shows an important PDF added value from the higher resolution simulation, regarding the full PDF and the extremes. This method shows higher potential to be applied to other simulation exercises and to evaluate other variables.

  19. Urea Fertilizer and pH Influence on Sorption Process of Flumetsulam and MCPA Acidic Herbicides in a Volcanic Soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palma, Graciela; Jorquera, Milko; Demanet, Rolando; Elgueta, Sebastian; Briceño, Gabriela; de la Luz Mora, María

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of urea fertilizer and pH on the sorption process of two acidic herbicides, flumetsulam (2',6'-difluoro-5-methyl[1,2,4]triazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidine-2-sulfonanilide) and MCPA (4-chloro--tolyloxyacetic acid), on an Andisol. Urea reduced the adsorption of MCPA but not that of flumetsulam. The Freundlich parameter of MCPA decreased from 8.5 to 5.1 mg L kg. This finding could be attributed to an increase in dissolved organic C due to an initial increase in soil pH for urea application. The higher acidic character of MCPA compared with that of flumetsulam produced a greater hydrolysis of urea, leading to a further pH increase. A marked effect of pH on the adsorption of both herbicides was observed. The organic C distribution coefficient () values for flumetsulam were in the range of 74 to 10 L kg, while those of MCPA were in the range of 208 to 45 L kg. In the kinetic studies, the pseudo-second-order model appeared to fit the data best ( > 0.994). The initial adsorption rates () ranged from 20.00 to 4.59 mg kg h for flumetsulam and from 125.00 to 25.60 mg kg hfor MCPA. Both herbicides were adsorbed rapidly during the first stage of the sorption process, and the rates of sorption were dependent on pH. The application of the Elovich and Weber-Morris models led us to conclude that mass transfer through the boundary layer and, to a lesser degree, intraparticle diffusion were influenced by the chemical character of the herbicide. These results suggest that urea application could increase leaching of acid herbicides in soils. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  20. High value added lipids produced by microorganisms: a potential use of sugarcane vinasse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Bruna Soares; Vieira, João Paulo Fernandes; Contesini, Fabiano Jares; Mantelatto, Paulo Eduardo; Zaiat, Marcelo; Pradella, José Geraldo da Cruz

    2017-12-01

    This review aims to present an innovative concept of high value added lipids produced by heterotrophic microorganisms, bacteria and fungi, using carbon sources, such as sugars, acids and alcohols that could come from sugarcane vinasse, which is the main byproduct from ethanol production that is released in the distillation step. Vinasse is a rich carbon source and low-cost feedstock produced in large amounts from ethanol production. In 2019, the Brazilian Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Food Supply estimates that growth of ethanol domestic consumption will be 58.8 billion liters, more than double the amount in 2008. This represents the annual production of more than 588 billion liters of vinasse, which is currently used as a fertilizer in the sugarcane crop, due to its high concentration of minerals, mainly potassium. However, studies indicate some disadvantages such as the generation of Greenhouse Gas emission during vinasse distribution in the crop, as well as the possibility of contaminating the groundwater and soil. Therefore, the development of programs for sustainable use of vinasse is a priority. One profitable alternative is the fermentation of vinasse, followed by an anaerobic digester, in order to obtain biomaterials such as lipids, other byproducts, and methane. Promising high value added lipids, for instance carotenoids and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAS), with a predicted market of millions of US$, could be produced using vinasse as carbon source, to guide an innovative concept for sustainable production. Example of lipids obtained from the fermentation of compounds present in vinasse are vitamin D, which comes from yeast sucrose fermentation and Omega 3, which can be obtained by bacteria and fungi fermentation. Additionally, several other compounds present in vinasse can be used for this purpose, including sucrose, ethanol, lactate, pyruvate, acetate and other carbon sources. Finally, this paper illustrates the potential market and

  1. Automated solid-phase extraction of herbicides from water for gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, M.T.; Mills, M.S.; Thurman, E.M.

    1993-01-01

    An automated solid-phase extraction (SPE) method was developed for the pre-concentration of chloroacetanilide and triazine herbicides, and two triazine metabolites from 100-ml water samples. Breakthrough experiments for the C18 SPE cartridge show that the two triazine metabolites are not fully retained and that increasing flow-rate decreases their retention. Standard curve r2 values of 0.998-1.000 for each compound were consistently obtained and a quantitation level of 0.05 ??g/l was achieved for each compound tested. More than 10,000 surface and ground water samples have been analyzed by this method.

  2. The herbicide Glyphosate affects nitrification in the Elbe estuary, Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Tina; Lassen, Stephan

    2015-04-01

    The Elbe River is one of the biggest European rivers discharging into the North Sea. It also transports high amounts of nutrients and pollutants like pesticides. Important source regions of both nutrients and pollutants are located within the river catchment, which is dominated by agricultural land-use. From these agricultural soils, pesticides can be carried via the river and estuary into the North Sea. Glyphosate (N-(phosphonomethyl) glycine) is the most commonly used herbicide worldwide and mainly used to regulate unwanted plant growth and for the expedition of crop ripening. In Germany, ~ 6000 tons of glyphosate are applied yearly in agriculture and private use. Glyphosate is degradable by microorganisms and has a half-life in water of 35 to 60 days. This herbicide specifically inhibits 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS), an enzyme that catalyzes the biosynthesis of essential aromatic amino acids in plants, fungi, and bacteria. Nitrifying bacteria, which play an important role in the internal nitrogen cycling in the Elbe estuary, also possess this enzyme. The aim of our study was to quantify the concentration of glyphosate in water and sediment samples of the Elbe to get an overview about relevant environmental levels and to assess the impact of glyphosate on inhibition of nitrifying activities. To quantify the effect of glyphosate on nitrification activity, natural samples as well as pure cultures of Nitrosomonas europea (strain Nm50) were incubated with different concentrations of glyphosate over a period of some weeks. The nitrifying activity was determined according to changes of the nitrite and nitrate concentration as well as the cell number. Glyphosate was detectable in water and sediment samples in the Elbe estuary with up to 5 ppb mainly in the Port of Hamburg region. In both incubation experiments an inhibiting effect of glyphosate on nitrification could be shown. The incubated natural water sample was affected by a glyphosate

  3. A new approach for weed control in a cucurbit field employing an attenuated potyvirus-vector for herbicide resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiboleth, Y M; Arazi, T; Wang, Y; Gal-On, A

    2001-12-14

    Expression of bar, a phosphinothricin acetyltransferase, in plant tissues, leads to resistance of these plants to glufosinate ammonium based herbicides. We have created a bar expressing, attenuated zucchini yellow mosaic potyvirus-vector, AGII-Bar, to enable herbicide use in cucurbit fields. The parental vector, ZYMV-AGII, has been rendered environmentally safe by both disease-symptom attenuation and aphid-assisted virus transmission abolishment. The recombinant AGII-Bar virus-encoding cDNA, when inoculated on diverse cucurbits was highly infectious, accumulated to similar levels as AGII, and elicited attenuated AGII-like symptoms. Potted cucurbits inoculated with AGII-Bar became herbicide resistant about a week post-inoculation. Herbicide resistance was sustained in squash over a period of at least 26 days and for at least 60 days in cucumber grown in a net-house under commercial conditions. To test the applicability of AGII-Bar use in a weed-infested field, a controlled experiment including more than 450 plants inoculated with this construct, was performed. Different dosages of glufosinate ammonium were sprayed, 2 weeks after planting, on the foliage of melons, cucumbers, squash, and watermelons. AGII-Bar provided protection to all inoculated plants, of every variety tested, at each dosage applied, including the highest doses that totally eradicated weeds. This study demonstrates that AGII-Bar can be utilized to facilitate weed control in cucurbits and exemplifies the practical potential of attenuated virus-vector use in agriculture.

  4. Presence of the β-triketone herbicide tefuryltrione in drinking water sources and its degradation product in drinking waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamata, Motoyuki; Asami, Mari; Matsui, Yoshihiko

    2017-07-01

    Triketone herbicides are becoming popular because of their herbicidal activity against sulfonylurea-resistant weeds. Among these herbicides, tefuryltrione (TFT) is the first registered herbicide for rice farming, and recently its distribution has grown dramatically. In this study, we developed analytical methods for TFT and its degradation product 2-chloro-4-methylsulfonyl-3-[(tetrahydrofuran-2-yl-methoxy) methyl] benzoic acid (CMTBA). TFT was found frequently in surface waters in rice production areas at concentrations as high as 1.9 μg/L. The maximum observed concentration was lower than but close to 2 μg/L, which is the Japanese reference concentration of ambient water quality for pesticides. However, TFT was not found in any drinking waters even though the source waters were purified by conventional coagulation and filtration processes; this was due to chlorination, which transforms TFT to CMTBA. The conversion rate of TFT to CMBA on chlorination was almost 100%, and CMTBA was stable in the presence of chlorine. Moreover, CMTBA was found in drinking waters sampled from household water taps at a similar concentration to that of TFT in the source water of the water purification plant. Although the acceptable daily intake and the reference concentration of CMTBA are unknown, the highest concentration in drinking water exceeded 0.1 μg/L, which is the maximum allowable concentration for any individual pesticide and its relevant metabolites in the European Union Drinking Directive. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Enrichment and molecular characterization of a bacterial culture that degrades methoxy-methyl urea herbicides and their aniline derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Fantroussi, S; Verstraete, W; Top, E M

    2000-12-01

    Soil treated with linuron for more than 10 years showed high biodegradation activity towards methoxy-methyl urea herbicides. Untreated control soil samples taken from the same location did not express any linuron degradation activity, even after 40 days of incubation. Hence, the occurrence in the field of a microbiota having the capacity to degrade a specific herbicide was related to the long-term treatment of the soil. The enrichment culture isolated from treated soil showed specific degradation activity towards methoxy-methyl urea herbicides, such as linuron and metobromuron, while dimethyl urea herbicides, such as diuron, chlorotoluron, and isoproturon, were not transformed. The putative metabolic intermediates of linuron and metobromuron, the aniline derivatives 3, 4-dichloroaniline and 4-bromoaniline, were also degraded. The temperature of incubation drastically affected degradation of the aniline derivatives. Whereas linuron was transformed at 28 and 37 degrees C, 3,4-dichloroaniline was transformed only at 28 degrees C. Monitoring the enrichment process by reverse transcription-PCR and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) showed that a mixture of bacterial species under adequate physiological conditions was required to completely transform linuron. This research indicates that for biodegradation of linuron, several years of adaptation have led to selection of a bacterial consortium capable of completely transforming linuron. Moreover, several of the putative species appear to be difficult to culture since they were detectable by DGGE but were not culturable on agar plates.

  6. Taking a Gamble for High Rewards? Management Perspectives on the Value of Mental Health Peer Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Louise; Roennfeldt, Helena; O'Shea, Peri; Macdonald, Fiona

    2018-04-13

    Mental health peer work is attracting growing interest and provides a potentially impactful method of service user involvement in mental health design and delivery, contributing to mental health reform. The need to effectively support this emerging workforce is consequently increasing. This study aimed to better understand the views of management in relation to peer work and specifically explores the value of peer work from the perspective of management. This qualitative research employed grounded theory methods. There were 29 participants in total, employed in both peer designated and non-peer designated management roles, in not for profit and public health organisations in Queensland, Australia. The value of peer work as described by participants is found to be partially dependent on practical supports and strategies from the organisation. There were high benefits for all facets of the organisation when effective recruitment and ongoing support for peer workers was prioritised and a higher perception of limitations when they were not. Due to some parallels, it may be useful to explore the potential for peer work to be conceptually and/or practically considered as a form of diversity and inclusion employment.

  7. Assessing Landscape Scale Wildfire Exposure for Highly Valued Resources in a Mediterranean Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcasena, Fermín J.; Salis, Michele; Ager, Alan A.; Arca, Bachisio; Molina, Domingo; Spano, Donatella

    2015-05-01

    We used a fire simulation modeling approach to assess landscape scale wildfire exposure for highly valued resources and assets (HVR) on a fire-prone area of 680 km2 located in central Sardinia, Italy. The study area was affected by several wildfires in the last half century: some large and intense fire events threatened wildland urban interfaces as well as other socioeconomic and cultural values. Historical wildfire and weather data were used to inform wildfire simulations, which were based on the minimum travel time algorithm as implemented in FlamMap. We simulated 90,000 fires that replicated recent large fire events in the area spreading under severe weather conditions to generate detailed maps of wildfire likelihood and intensity. Then, we linked fire modeling outputs to a geospatial risk assessment framework focusing on buffer areas around HVR. The results highlighted a large variation in burn probability and fire intensity in the vicinity of HVRs, and allowed us to identify the areas most exposed to wildfires and thus to a higher potential damage. Fire intensity in the HVR buffers was mainly related to fuel types, while wind direction, topographic features, and historically based ignition pattern were the key factors affecting fire likelihood. The methodology presented in this work can have numerous applications, in the study area and elsewhere, particularly to address and inform fire risk management, landscape planning and people safety on the vicinity of HVRs.

  8. Assessing landscape scale wildfire exposure for highly valued resources in a Mediterranean area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcasena, Fermín J; Salis, Michele; Ager, Alan A; Arca, Bachisio; Molina, Domingo; Spano, Donatella

    2015-05-01

    We used a fire simulation modeling approach to assess landscape scale wildfire exposure for highly valued resources and assets (HVR) on a fire-prone area of 680 km(2) located in central Sardinia, Italy. The study area was affected by several wildfires in the last half century: some large and intense fire events threatened wildland urban interfaces as well as other socioeconomic and cultural values. Historical wildfire and weather data were used to inform wildfire simulations, which were based on the minimum travel time algorithm as implemented in FlamMap. We simulated 90,000 fires that replicated recent large fire events in the area spreading under severe weather conditions to generate detailed maps of wildfire likelihood and intensity. Then, we linked fire modeling outputs to a geospatial risk assessment framework focusing on buffer areas around HVR. The results highlighted a large variation in burn probability and fire intensity in the vicinity of HVRs, and allowed us to identify the areas most exposed to wildfires and thus to a higher potential damage. Fire intensity in the HVR buffers was mainly related to fuel types, while wind direction, topographic features, and historically based ignition pattern were the key factors affecting fire likelihood. The methodology presented in this work can have numerous applications, in the study area and elsewhere, particularly to address and inform fire risk management, landscape planning and people safety on the vicinity of HVRs.

  9. High-value utilization of eucalyptus kraft lignin: Preparation and characterization as efficient dye dispersant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui; Yu, Boming; Zhou, Wanpeng; Liu, Xinxin; Chen, Fangeng

    2018-04-01

    The dark color of industrial lignin is the main obstacle for their high value-added use in areas such as dyestuff dispersants. A kind of light-colored lignosulfonate with favorable dispersibility and remarkable stain resistance is prepared using fractionated eucalyptus kraft lignin. The fractionated lignins named as D (insoluble part) and X (soluble part) and sulfonated lignin fractions named as SD and SX are characterized by FTIR spectroscopy, 1 H NMR spectroscopy, GPC and brightness test. The results reveal that fraction X presents a lower molecular weight but a higher hydroxyl content than that of fraction D, which lead to the differences on the SO 3 H content, dispersibility and color performance of SD and SX. The sulfonated fractions perform a similar molecular weight to that of unsulfonated lignins and show light color due to the phenolic hydroxyl blocking of 1,4-BS (1,4-butane sultone) and the postprocessing of sodium borohydride. The SX that performs the best of all exhibits obvious decrease on phenolic hydroxyl groups and increase on brightness value which is improved by 85.8% compared with control sample. The SX reaches the highest level (grade 5) in the dispersibility test and presents remarkable stain resistance on different textiles, especially on the dacron and cotton. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Bioreactors for lignocellulose conversion into fermentable sugars for production of high added value products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liguori, Rossana; Ventorino, Valeria; Pepe, Olimpia; Faraco, Vincenza

    2016-01-01

    Lignocellulosic biomasses derived from dedicated crops and agro-industrial residual materials are promising renewable resources for the production of fuels and other added value bioproducts. Due to the tolerance to a wide range of environments, the dedicated crops can be cultivated on marginal lands, avoiding conflict with food production and having beneficial effects on the environment. Besides, the agro-industrial residual materials represent an abundant, available, and cheap source of bioproducts that completely cut out the economical and environmental issues related to the cultivation of energy crops. Different processing steps like pretreatment, hydrolysis and microbial fermentation are needed to convert biomass into added value bioproducts. The reactor configuration, the operative conditions, and the operation mode of the conversion processes are crucial parameters for a high yield and productivity of the biomass bioconversion process. This review summarizes the last progresses in the bioreactor field, with main attention on the new configurations and the agitation systems, for conversion of dedicated energy crops (Arundo donax) and residual materials (corn stover, wheat straw, mesquite wood, agave bagasse, fruit and citrus peel wastes, sunflower seed hull, switchgrass, poplar sawdust, cogon grass, sugarcane bagasse, sunflower seed hull, and poplar wood) into sugars and ethanol. The main novelty of this review is its focus on reactor components and properties.

  11. Resilience-Based Perspectives to Guiding High-Nature-Value Farmland through Socioeconomic Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Plieninger

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Global environmental challenges require approaches that integrate biodiversity conservation, food production, and livelihoods at landscape scales. We reviewed the approach of conserving biodiversity on "high-nature-value" (HNV farmland, covering 75 million ha in Europe, from a resilience perspective. Despite growing recognition in natural resource policies, many HNV farmlands have vanished, and the remaining ones are vulnerable to socioeconomic changes. Using landscape-level cases across Europe, we considered the following social-ecological system properties and components and their integration into HNV farmland management: (1 coupling of social and ecological systems, (2 key variables, (3 adaptive cycles, (4 regime shifts, (5 cascading effects, (6 ecosystem stewardship and collaboration, (7 social capital, and (8 traditional ecological knowledge. We argue that previous conservation efforts for HNV farmland have focused too much on static, isolated, and monosectoral conservation strategies, and that stimulation of resilience and adaptation is essential for guiding HNV farmland through rapid change.

  12. High values of disorder-generated multifractals and logarithmically correlated processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fyodorov, Yan V.; Giraud, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    In the introductory section of the article we give a brief account of recent insights into statistics of high and extreme values of disorder-generated multifractals following a recent work by the first author with P. Le Doussal and A. Rosso (FLR) employing a close relation between multifractality and logarithmically correlated random fields. We then substantiate some aspects of the FLR approach analytically for multifractal eigenvectors in the Ruijsenaars–Schneider ensemble (RSE) of random matrices introduced by E. Bogomolny and the second author by providing an ab initio calculation that reveals hidden logarithmic correlations at the background of the disorder-generated multifractality. In the rest we investigate numerically a few representative models of that class, including the study of the highest component of multifractal eigenvectors in the Ruijsenaars–Schneider ensemble

  13. Evanescently Coupled Rectangular Microresonators in Silicon-on-Insulator with High Q-Values: Experimental Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Mendez-Astudillo

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available We report on evanescently coupled rectangular microresonators with dimensions up to 20 × 10 μm2 in silicon-on-insulator in an add-drop filter configuration. The influence of the geometrical parameters of the device was experimentally characterized and a high Q value of 13,000 was demonstrated as well as the multimode optical resonance characteristics in the drop port. We also show a 95% energy transfer between ports when the device is operated in TM-polarization and determine the full symmetry of the device by using an eight-port configuration, allowing the drop waveguide to be placed on any of its sides, providing a way to filter and route optical signals. We used the FDTD method to analyze the device and e-beam lithography and dry etching techniques for fabrication.

  14. Opportunity for high value-added chemicals from food supply chain wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matharu, Avtar S; de Melo, Eduardo M; Houghton, Joseph A

    2016-09-01

    With approximately 1.3 billion tonnes of food wasted per annum, food supply chain wastes (FSCWs) may be viewed as the contemporary Periodic Table of biobased feedstock chemicals (platform molecules) and functional materials. Herein, the global drivers and case for food waste valorisation within the context of global sustainability, sustainable development goals and the bioeconomy are discussed. The emerging potential of high value added chemicals from certain tropical FSCW is considered as these are grown in three major geographical areas: Brazil, India and China, and likely to increase in volume. FSCW in the context of biorefineries is discussed and two case studies are reported, namely: waste potato, and; orange peel waste. Interestingly, both waste feedstocks, like many others, produce proteins and with the global demand for vegetable proteins on the rise then proteins from FSCW may become a dominant area. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Features of working in fields with high values of exposure dose rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samojlenko, Yu.N.

    1989-01-01

    Features of working in fields with the exposure dose rate (EDR) ∼ 1000-7000 R/h are described. Data on the performed operations concerning initial decontamination of the Chernobyl-3 reactor roof during 10.07.86-03.10.86 are presented. It is marked that the methodical recommendations on working in fields with high values of EDR are absent in our country and abroad and it is necessary to develop them on the basis of obtained experience. Moreover, there are no protective means (protective clotting). Main principles of its creation are the protection of critical organ groups and comfort in working. Personnel should be specially trained and get phychologically ready. 2 figs., 1 tab

  16. SU(2)CMB at high redshifts and the value of H0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Steffen; Hofmann, Ralf

    2017-07-01

    We investigate a high-z cosmological model to compute the comoving sound horizon rs at baryon-velocity freeze-out towards the end of hydrogen recombination. This model assumes a replacement of the conventional cosmic microwave background (CMB) photon gas by deconfining SU(2) Yang-Mills thermodynamics, three flavours of massless neutrinos (Nν = 3) and a purely baryonic matter sector [no cold dark-matter (CDM)]. The according SU(2) temperature-redshift relation of the CMB is contrasted with recent measurements appealing to the thermal Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect and CMB-photon absorption by molecular rotation bands or atomic hyperfine levels. Relying on a realistic simulation of the ionization history throughout recombination, we obtain z* = 1693.55 ± 6.98 and zdrag = 1812.66 ± 7.01. Due to considerable widths of the visibility functions in the solutions to the associated Boltzmann hierarchy and Euler equation, we conclude that z* and zdrag overestimate the redshifts for the respective photon and baryon-velocity freeze-out. Realistic decoupling values turn out to be zlf,* = 1554.89 ± 5.18 and zlf, drag = 1659.30 ± 5.48. With rs(zlf, drag) = (137.19 ± 0.45) Mpc and the essentially model independent extraction of rsH0 = constant from low-z data in Bernal, Verde & Riess, we obtain a good match with the value H0 = (73.24 ± 1.74) km s-1 Mpc-1 extracted in Riess et al. by appealing to Cepheid-calibrated Type Ia supernovae, new parallax measurements, stronger constraints on the Hubble flow and a refined computation of distance to NGC 4258 from maser data. We briefly comment on a possible interpolation of our high-z model, invoking percolated and unpercolated U(1) topological solitons of a Planck-scale axion field, to the phenomenologically successful low-z ΛCDM cosmology.

  17. Feeding Value of Low and High Protein Dried Distillers Grains and Corn Gluten Meal for Layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Tangendjaja

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available A feeding trial has been conducted to compare feeding value of low and high protein dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS, and corn gluten meal (CGM to brown layer in the tropics. Both types of DDGS was included at level 0%, 4%, 8%, 12%, and 16% in the diet while CGM was included at 0%, 2%, 4%, 6%, and 8% in similar content of metabolizable energy (ME value (2650 kcal/kg and protein (17%. Each dietary treatment was fed to 4 birds in individual wire cage and replicated 5 times. The trial was performed for 10 weeks and egg production, egg weight, feed intake was measured. At the end of feeding period, manure was collected and analyzed for moisture content while samples of eggs were measured for yolk color and the yolk was analyzed for xanthophyll level. Result showed that feeding Lopro DDGS, Hipro DDGS, and CGM did not affect egg production (egg mass, egg number, and egg weight, however, feeding DDGS resulted in less feed intake (111 g/day compared to feeding CGM (114 g/day. Feeding DDGS up to 16% did not affect egg production and similar to feeding CGM up to 8%. Feeding high level of DDGS or CGM did not significantly affect the moisture content of excreta which were between 78.1%-81.9%. Increasing levels of DDGS or CGM increased yolk color score related to the higher level of xanthophylls content in egg yolk. The coloring ability of CGM to egg yolk was higher than that of DDGS. In conclusion, DDGS can be fed to layer up to 16% without affecting egg production while CGM can be fed up to 8% in the diet. DDGS can be used as source of yellow pigment for egg yolk as also found in CGM.

  18. Clay-to-carbon ratio controls the effect of herbicide application on soil bacterial richness and diversity in a loamy field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herath, H M Lasantha I; Møldrup, Per; de Jonge, Lis Wollesen

    2017-01-01

    Soil texture and soil organic carbon (OC) influence the bacterial microenvironment and also control herbicide sorption. A field-scale exploratory study was conducted to investigate the potential interaction between soil texture parameters, herbicides, and soil bacterial richness and diversity......-based coverage (ACE), Shannon diversity index, and phylogenetic diversity. In general, bacterial richness and diversity increased after bentazon application and decreased after glyphosate application. There was no significant effect for field locations with Dexter n (the ratio between clay and OC) values below 4...

  19. Rapeseed with tolerance to the non selective herbicide glufosinate ammonium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasche, E. [Hoechst Schering AgrEvo GmbH, Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    1998-12-31

    Weed control with herbicides is essential to grow rapeseed. Glufosinate Ammonium is used as a non selective herbicide successfully in many countries for over 10 years. It conforms well with ever increasing safety standards for human beings, animals and the environment. The tolerance of rapeseed and other crop plants was achieved by genetic modification. A resistance gene (PAT or BAR) was transfered into previously susceptible rapeseed plants. This new approach allowed the development of Glufosinate Ammonium as an almost ideal selective herbicide. In cooperation with major seed companies and by own breeding programmes new Glufosinate tolerant rapeseed varieties and hybrids are developed. Data on metabolism, toxicity, residues, efficacy etc. were generated to get registration for the selective herbicide use. In addition various studies were done for safety assessments of the PAT gene and the modified rapeseed. In spring 1995 Canadian authorities granted worldwide the first approvals for the selective use of Glufosinate Ammonium (trademark Liberty) and Glufosinate tolerant (trademark and logo Liberty Link) spring rapeseed (Canola). After a successful launch in 1995 about 150.000 ha of Liberty Link Canola were grown and treated with Liberty in 1996. The Liberty Link Canola growers were very well satisfied. In a grower survey 84% stated that they will definitely use the Liberty Link System again. In Europe registrations for Glufosinate Ammonium as a selective herbicide and for the first Glufosinate tolerant rapeseed varieties are expected in the course of 1997. The Liberty Link System will be launched in rapeseed most probably in 1998. (orig.)

  20. Combined thermal and herbicide stress in functionally diverse coral symbionts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dam, J.W. van; Uthicke, S.; Beltran, V.H.; Mueller, J.F.; Negri, A.P.

    2015-01-01

    Most reef building corals rely on symbiotic microalgae (genus Symbiodinium) to supply a substantial proportion of their energy requirements. Functional diversity of different Symbiodinium genotypes, endorsing the host with physiological advantages, has been widely reported. Yet, the influence of genotypic specificity on the symbiont's susceptibility to contaminants or cumulative stressors is unknown. Cultured Symbiodinium of presumed thermal-tolerant clade D tested especially vulnerable to the widespread herbicide diuron, suggesting important free-living populations may be at risk in areas subjected to terrestrial runoff. Co-exposure experiments where cultured Symbiodinium were exposed to diuron over a thermal stress gradient demonstrated how fast-growing clade C1 better maintained photosynthetic capability than clade D. The mixture toxicity model of Independent Action, considering combined thermal stress and herbicide contamination, revealed response additivity for inhibition of photosynthetic yield in both tested cultures, emphasizing the need to account for cumulative stressor impacts in ecological risk assessment and resource management. - Highlights: • Water quality influences thermal stress thresholds in different Symbiodinium types. • Photosystem of clade D tested more sensitive than C1 to a common herbicide. • Increased thermal tolerance quickly countered in presence of herbicide. • Mixture toxicity approach demonstrated response additivity for combined stressors. • Symbiotic partnership may be compromised in areas subjected to terrestrial runoff. - Thermal-tolerant Symbiodinium type D tested especially vulnerable to a common herbicide, emphasizing the significance of cumulative stressors in ecological risk management

  1. Cloud based, Open Source Software Application for Mitigating Herbicide Drift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraswat, D.; Scott, B.

    2014-12-01

    The spread of herbicide resistant weeds has resulted in the need for clearly marked fields. In response to this need, the University of Arkansas Cooperative Extension Service launched a program named Flag the Technology in 2011. This program uses color-coded flags as a visual alert of the herbicide trait technology within a farm field. The flag based program also serves to help avoid herbicide misapplication and prevent herbicide drift damage between fields with differing crop technologies. This program has been endorsed by Southern Weed Science Society of America and is attracting interest from across the USA, Canada, and Australia. However, flags have risk of misplacement or disappearance due to mischief or severe windstorms/thunderstorms, respectively. This presentation will discuss the design and development of a cloud-based, free application utilizing open-source technologies, called Flag the Technology Cloud (FTTCloud), for allowing agricultural stakeholders to color code their farm fields for indicating herbicide resistant technologies. The developed software utilizes modern web development practices, widely used design technologies, and basic geographic information system (GIS) based interactive interfaces for representing, color-coding, searching, and visualizing fields. This program has also been made compatible for a wider usability on different size devices- smartphones, tablets, desktops and laptops.

  2. Plant reproduction is altered by simulated herbicide drift to constructed plant communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbicide drift may have unintended impacts on native vegetation, adversely affecting structure and function of plant communities. However, these potential effects have been rarely studied or quantified. To determine potential ecological effects of herbicide drift, we construct...

  3. Toxic reactivity of wheat (Triticum aestivum) plants to herbicide isoproturon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Xiao Le; Jiang, Lei; Song, Ning Hui; Yang, Hong

    2008-06-25

    The herbicide isoproturon is widely used for controlling weed/grass in agricultural practice. However, the side effect of isoproturon as contaminants on crops is unknown. In this study, we investigated isoproturon-induced oxidative stress in wheat ( Triticum aestivum). The plants were grown in soils with isoproturon at 0-20 mg/kg and showed negative biological responses. The growth of wheat seedlings with isoproturon was inhibited. Chlorophyll content significantly decreased at the low concentration of isoproturon (2 mg/kg), suggesting that chlorophyll was rather sensitive to isoproturon exposure. The level of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), an indicator of cellular peroxidation, showed an increase, indicating oxidative damage to plants. The isoproturon-induced oxidative stress resulted in a substantial change in activities of the majority of antioxidant enzymes, including superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX). Activities of the antioxidant enzymes showed a general increase at low isoproturon concentrations and a decrease at high isoproturon concentrations. Activities of CAT in leaves showed progressive suppression under the isoproturon exposure. Analysis of nondenaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) confirmed these results. We also tested the activity of glutathione S-transferase (GST) and observed the activity stimulated by isoproturon at 2-10 mg/kg.

  4. Sorption, desorption and leaching potential of sulfonylurea herbicides in Argentinean soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azcarate, Mariela P; Montoya, Jorgelina C; Koskinen, William C

    2015-01-01

    The sulfonylurea (SUs) herbicides are used to control broadleaf weeds and some grasses in a variety of crops. They have become popular because of their low application rates, low mammalian toxicity and an outstanding herbicidal activity. Sorption is a major process influencing the fate of pesticides in soil. The objective of this study was to characterize sorption-desorption of four sulfonylurea herbicides: metsulfuron-methyl (methyl 2-[(4-methoxy-6-methyl-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl)carbamoylsulfamoyl)]benzoate), sulfometuron-methyl (methyl 2-[(4,6-dimethylpyrimidin-2-yl)carbamoylsulfamoyl]benzoate), rimsulfuron (1-(4,6-dimethoxypyrimidin-2-yl)-3-(3-ethylsulfonyl-2-pyridylsulfonyl)urea) and nicosulfuron (2-[(4,6-dimethoxypyrimidin-2-yl)carbamoylsulfamoyl]-N,N-dimethylnicotinamide) from different soil horizons of different landscape positions. Sorption was studied in the laboratory by batch equilibration method. Sorption coefficients (K(d-SE)) showed that rimsulfuron (K(d-SE) = 1.18 to 2.08 L kg(-1)) and nicosulfuron (K(d-SE) = 0.02 to 0.47 L kg(-1)) were more highly sorbed than metsulfuron-methyl (K(d-SE) = 0.00 to 0.05 L kg(-1)) and sulfometuron-methyl (K(d-SE) = 0.00 to 0.05 L kg(-1)). Sorption coefficients (K(d-SE)) were correlated with pH and organic carbon content. All four herbicides exhibited desorption hysteresis where the desorption coefficients (K(d-D)) > K(d-SE). To estimate the leaching potential, K(oc) and ground-water ubiquity score (GUS) were used to calculate the half-life (t1/2) required to be classified as "leacher" or "nonleacher". According to the results, rimsulfuron and nicosulfuron herbicides would be classified as leachers, but factors such as landscape position, soil depth and the rate of decomposition in surface and subsurface soils could change the classification. In contrast, these factors do not affect classification of sulfometuron-methyl and metsulfuron-methyl; they would rank as leachers.

  5. Concerns over use of glyphosate-based herbicides and risks associated with exposures: a consensus statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, John Peterson; Antoniou, Michael N; Blumberg, Bruce; Carroll, Lynn; Colborn, Theo; Everett, Lorne G; Hansen, Michael; Landrigan, Philip J; Lanphear, Bruce P; Mesnage, Robin; Vandenberg, Laura N; Vom Saal, Frederick S; Welshons, Wade V; Benbrook, Charles M

    2016-02-17

    The broad-spectrum herbicide glyphosate (common trade name "Roundup") was first sold to farmers in 1974. Since the late 1970s, the volume of glyphosate-based herbicides (GBHs) applied has increased approximately 100-fold. Further increases in the volume applied are likely due to more and higher rates of application in response to the widespread emergence of glyphosate-resistant weeds and new, pre-harvest, dessicant use patterns. GBHs were developed to replace or reduce reliance on herbicides causing well-documented problems associated with drift and crop damage, slipping efficacy, and human health risks. Initial industry toxicity testing suggested that GBHs posed relatively low risks to non-target species, including mammals, leading regulatory authorities worldwide to set high acceptable exposure limits. To accommodate changes in GBH use patterns associated with genetically engineered, herbicide-tolerant crops, regulators have dramatically increased tolerance levels in maize, oilseed (soybeans and canola), and alfalfa crops and related livestock feeds. Animal and epidemiology studies published in the last decade, however, point to the need for a fresh look at glyphosate toxicity. Furthermore, the World Health Organization's International Agency for Research on Cancer recently concluded that glyphosate is "probably carcinogenic to humans." In response to changing GBH use patterns and advances in scientific understanding of their potential hazards, we have produced a Statement of Concern drawing on emerging science relevant to the safety of GBHs. Our Statement of Concern considers current published literature describing GBH uses, mechanisms of action, toxicity in laboratory animals, and epidemiological studies. It also examines the derivation of current human safety standards. We conclude that: (1) GBHs are the most heavily applied herbicide in the world and usage continues to rise; (2) Worldwide, GBHs often contaminate drinking water sources, precipitation, and air

  6. How to Identify High-Risk APS Patients: Clinical Utility and Predictive Values of Validated Scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oku, Kenji; Amengual, Olga; Yasuda, Shinsuke; Atsumi, Tatsuya

    2017-08-01

    Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is a clinical disorder characterised by thrombosis and/or pregnancy morbidity in the persistence of antiphospholipid (aPL) antibodies that are pathogenic and have pro-coagulant activities. Thrombosis in APS tends to recur and require prophylaxis; however, the stereotypical treatment for APS patients is inadequate and stratification of the thrombotic risks is important as aPL are prevalently observed in various diseases or elderly population. It is previously known that the multiple positive aPL or high titre aPL correlate to thrombotic events. To progress the stratification of thrombotic risks in APS patients and to quantitatively analyse those risks, antiphospholipid score (aPL-S) and the Global Anti-phospholipid Syndrome Score (GAPSS) were defined. These scores were raised from the large patient cohort data and either aPL profile classified in detail (aPL-S) or simplified aPL profile with classical thrombotic risk factors (GAPSS) was put into a scoring system. Both the aPL-S and GAPSS have shown a degree of accuracy in identifying high-risk APS patients, especially those at a high risk of thrombosis. However, there are several areas requiring improvement, or at least that clinicians should be aware of, before these instruments are applied in clinical practice. One such issue is standardisation of the aPL tests, including general testing of phosphatidylserine-dependent antiprothrombin antibodies (aPS/PT). Additionally, clinicians may need to be aware of the patient's medical history, particularly with respect to the incidence of SLE, which influences the cutoff value for identifying high-risk patients.

  7. An assessment of high carbon stock and high conservation value approaches to sustainable oil palm cultivation in Gabon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Kemen G.; Lee, Michelle E.; Clark, Connie; Forester, Brenna R.; Urban, Dean L.; White, Lee; Kasibhatla, Prasad S.; Poulsen, John R.

    2017-01-01

    Industrial-scale oil palm cultivation is rapidly expanding in Gabon, where it has the potential to drive economic growth, but also threatens forest, biodiversity and carbon resources. The Gabonese government is promoting an ambitious agricultural expansion strategy, while simultaneously committing to minimize negative environmental impacts of oil palm agriculture. This study estimates the extent and location of suitable land for oil palm cultivation in Gabon, based on an analysis of recent trends in plantation permitting. We use the resulting suitability map to evaluate two proposed approaches to minimizing negative environmental impacts: a High Carbon Stock (HCS) approach, which emphasizes forest protection and climate change mitigation, and a High Conservation Value (HCV) approach, which focuses on safeguarding biodiversity and ecosystems. We quantify the forest area, carbon stock, and biodiversity resources protected under each approach, using newly developed maps of priority species distributions and forest biomass for Gabon. We find 2.7-3.9 Mha of suitable or moderately suitable land that avoid HCS areas, 4.4 million hectares (Mha) that avoid HCV areas, and 1.2-1.7 Mha that avoid both. This suggests that Gabon’s oil palm production target could likely be met without compromising important ecosystem services, if appropriate safeguards are put in place. Our analysis improves understanding of suitability for oil palm in Gabon, determines how conservation strategies align with national targets for oil palm production, and informs national land use planning.

  8. Production of bioelectricity, bio-hydrogen, high value chemicals and bioinspired nanomaterials by electrochemically active biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalathil, Shafeer; Khan, Mohammad Mansoob; Lee, Jintae; Cho, Moo Hwan

    2013-11-01

    Microorganisms naturally form biofilms on solid surfaces for their mutual benefits including protection from environmental stresses caused by contaminants, nutritional depletion or imbalances. The biofilms are normally dangerous to human health due to their inherited robustness. On the other hand, a recent study suggested that electrochemically active biofilms (EABs) generated by electrically active microorganisms have properties that can be used to catalyze or control the electrochemical reactions in a range of fields, such as bioenergy production, bioremediation, chemical/biological synthesis, bio-corrosion mitigation and biosensor development. EABs have attracted considerable attraction in bioelectrochemical systems (BESs), such as microbial fuel cells and microbial electrolysis cells, where they act as living bioanode or biocathode catalysts. Recently, it was reported that EABs can be used to synthesize metal nanoparticles and metal nanocomposites. The EAB-mediated synthesis of metal and metal-semiconductor nanocomposites is expected to provide a new avenue for the greener synthesis of nanomaterials with high efficiency and speed than other synthetic methods. This review covers the general introduction of EABs, as well as the applications of EABs in BESs, and the production of bio-hydrogen, high value chemicals and bio-inspired nanomaterials. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Clinical usefulness of diffusion-weighted imaging using low and high b-values to detect rectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosonuma, Tomonori; Tozaki, Mitsuhiro; Ichiba, Noriatsu; Sakuma, Tohru; Hayashi, Daichi; Yanaga, Katsuhiko; Fukuda, Kunihiko

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the potential role of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) using low and high b-values to detect rectal cancer. The subjects were 15 patients diagnosed endoscopically with rectal cancer (m in 1 patient, sm in 0, mp in 3, ss in 7, se in 1, a in 3) and 20 patients diagnosed endoscopically with colon cancer and no other lesions (control group). Magnetic resonance imaging was performed using a 1.5T system. DWI was performed in the axial plane using echo planar imaging sequence (repetition time/echo time 1200/66, field of view 306 X 350 mm, reconstruction matrix 156 x 256, pixel size 2.0 x 1.4 x 8.0 mm) and acquired with 2 b-values (50 and 800 s/mm 2 ). Low and high b-value DW images were analyzed visually. A lesion was positive by detection of a focal area of high signal in the rectum in high b-value images. The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values of areas of high signal in high b-value images were calculated from the low and high b-value images. High b-value images enabled visualization of all 15 rectal cancers. In the control group, 13 cases were classified as negative and 7 cases as positive for rectal cancer. Sensitivity for detection of rectal cancer was 100% (15/15), and specificity was 65% (13/20). The mean ADC values in 7 patients with false-positive lesions and in 15 patients with rectal cancer were 1.374 x 10 -3 mm 2 /s (standard deviation [SD]: 0.157) and 1.194 x 10 -3 mm 2 /s (SD: 0.152), respectively (P=0.026). DWI with low and high b-values may be used to screen for rectal cancer. (author)

  10. Meeting the milestones. Strategies for including high-value care education in pulmonary and critical care fellowship training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtright, Katherine R; Weinberger, Steven E; Wagner, Jason

    2015-04-01

    Physician decision making is partially responsible for the roughly 30% of U.S. healthcare expenditures that are wasted annually on low-value care. In response to both the widespread public demand for higher-quality care and the cost crisis, payers are transitioning toward value-based payment models whereby physicians are rewarded for high-value, cost-conscious care. Furthermore, to target physicians in training to practice with cost awareness, the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education has created both individual objective milestones and institutional requirements to incorporate quality improvement and cost awareness into fellowship training. Subsequently, some professional medical societies have initiated high-value care educational campaigns, but the overwhelming majority target either medical students or residents in training. Currently, there are few resources available to help guide subspecialty fellowship programs to successfully design durable high-value care curricula. The resource-intensive nature of pulmonary and critical care medicine offers unique opportunities for the specialty to lead in modeling and teaching high-value care. To ensure that fellows graduate with the capability to practice high-value care, we recommend that fellowship programs focus on four major educational domains. These include fostering a value-based culture, providing a robust didactic experience, engaging trainees in process improvement projects, and encouraging scholarship. In doing so, pulmonary and critical care educators can strive to train future physicians who are prepared to provide care that is both high quality and informed by cost awareness.

  11. In vitro sensitivity of antagonistic Trichoderma atroviride to herbicides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Helena Santoro

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Trichoderma atroviride was tested in vitro for its sensitivity to different herbicides. The dosages tested were recommended dosage (RD, half dosage (½RD, and double dosage (2RD. Germination, colony-forming units (CFU, radial growth, and spore production were evaluated. Carfentrazone-ethyl and sulfentrazone inhibited the germination at RD and 2RD. A reduction in the CFU was observed for glufosinate-ammonium, atrazine, carfentrazone-ethyl, diuron + paraquat dichloride, imazapyr, oxyfluorfen, and sulfentrazone at each of the tested dosages. Radial growth was influenced by ametryn, atrazine, carfentrazone-ethyl, oxyfluorfen, and sulfentrazone herbicides, with an 80% reduction of the colonial area. Spore production was affected by carfentrazone-ethyl, oxyfluorfen, and sulfentrazone with colonial area reductions of over 70%. It was concluded that 2,4 D, clomazone, and imazapyr herbicides showed the least toxicity to T. atroviride and should be used in the crops where the fungus has been applied for phytopathogen control.

  12. Development of a high-value care subscore on the internal medicine in-training examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryskina, Kira L; Korenstein, Deborah; Weissman, Arlene; Masters, Philip; Alguire, Patrick; Smith, Cynthia D

    2014-11-18

    Although high-value care (HVC) that balances benefits of tests or treatments against potential harms and costs has been a recently emphasized competency for internal medicine (IM) residents, few tools to assess residents' knowledge of HVC are available. To describe the development and initial results of an HVC subscore of the Internal Medicine In-Training Examination (IM-ITE). The HVC concepts were introduced to IM-ITE authors during question development. Three physicians independently reviewed each examination question for selection in the HVC subscore according to 6 HVC principles. The final subscore was determined by consensus. Data from the IM-ITE administered in October 2012 were analyzed at the program level. U.S. IM residency programs. 362 U.S. IM residency programs with IM-ITE data for at least 10 residents. Program-level performance on the HVC subscore was compared with performance on the overall IM-ITE, the Dartmouth Atlas hospital care intensity (HCI) index of the program's primary training hospital, and residents' attitudes about HVC assessed with a voluntary survey. The HVC subscore comprised 38 questions, including 21 (55%) on managing conservatively when appropriate and 14 (37%) on identifying low-value care. Of the 362 U.S. IM programs in the sample, 41% were in a different quartile when ranked based on the HVC subscore compared with overall IM-ITE performance. Rankings by HVC subscore and HCI index were modestly inversely associated, with 30% of programs ranked in the same quartile based on both measures. Knowledge of HVC assessed from examination vignettes may not reflect practice of HVC. Although the HVC subscore has face validity and can contribute to evaluation of residents' HVC knowledge, additional tools are needed to accurately measure residents' proficiency in HVC. None.

  13. Intraregional and inter-regional variability of herbicide sensitivity in common arable weed populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Mol, Friederike; Gerowitt, Bärbel; Kaczmarek, Sylwia

    2015-01-01

    The question on intraregional versus inter-regional variability in herbicide sensitivity for weed populations is of major importance, both in extrapolation of model parameters and in herbicide zonal approval procedures. We hypothesised that inter-regional variability in herbicide sensitivity for ...

  14. Transcript markers of herbicide stress in Arabidopsis and their cross-species extrapolation to Brassica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low concentrations and short environmental persistence times of some herbicides make it difficult to develop analytical methods to detect herbicide residues in plants or soils. In contrast, genomics may provide tools to identify herbicide exposure to plants in field settings. Usi...

  15. The role of herbicides for enhancing productivity and conserving land for biodiversity in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert G. Wagner; Michael Newton; Elizabeth C. Cole; James H. Miller; Barry D. Shiver

    2004-01-01

    Herbicide technology has evolved with forest management in North America over the past 60 years and has become an integral part of modern forestry practice. Forest managers have prescribed herbicides to increase reforestation success and long-term timber yields. Wildlife managers and others interested in conserving biodi- versity, however, have often viewed herbicide...

  16. Using a Hydrological Model to Determine Environmentally Safer Windows for Herbicide Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.L. Michael; M.C. Smith; W.G. Knisel; D.G. Neary; W.P. Fowler; D.J. Turton

    1996-01-01

    A modification of the GLEAMS model was used to determine application windows which would optimise efficacy and environmental safety for herbicide application to a forest site. Herbicide/soil partition coefficients were determined using soil samples collected from the study site for two herbicides (imazapyr, Koc=46, triclopyr ester, K

  17. Effect of herbicides on photosynthetic electron transport and on the growth of the alga Scenedesmus quadricauda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Hendrich

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The inhibitory effect of herbicides on the Hill reaction (with 2,6-dichloro-phenol-indophenol as acceptor and their influence on development of the alga Scenedesmus quadricauda was studied. The following herbicides were tested: 2,4-D, Gramoxone, Afalon, Kresamone, CIPC and Simazine. The results are discussed in terms of the mechanism of action of the investigated herbicides.

  18. 75 FR 17857 - Removal of Obsolete References to Herbicides Containing Dioxin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-08

    ... Herbicides Containing Dioxin AGENCY: Department of Veterans Affairs. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The... health effects of exposure to herbicides containing dioxin and radiation to remove the obsolete references to herbicides containing dioxin. This final rule reflects changes made by the Agent Orange Act of...

  19. Response of soil microbiota to selected herbicide treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roslycky, E B

    1977-04-01

    Recommended concentrations of paraquat alone and its combination with each of linuron, diuron, atrazine, simazine, and simazine plus diuron exerted little effect on total populations of bacteria, actinomycetes, and fungi in Fox sandy loam under laboratory and simulated field conditions in 66 and 77 days, respectively. Respiration of the total microbiota in soil suspension was afeected by the combinations as well as individual herbicides in various concentrations. Yet, the inhibition of the O2 uptake by any of these herbicides, including some extreme concentrations, was not permanent, indicating adaptation, or suppression of specific organisms. Only linuron in concentrations up to 20 microng/ml stimulated respiration of the soil.

  20. Residual herbicide study on selected Hanford Site roadsides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, J.L.; Kemp, C.J.; Sackschewsky, M.R.

    1993-08-01

    Westinghouse Hanford Company routinely treats roadsides with herbicides to control undesirable plant growth. An experiment was conducted to test perennial grass germination in soils adjacent to roadways of the Hanford Site. The primary variable was the distance from the roadside. A simple germination test was executed in a controlled-environment chamber to determine the residual effects of these applications. As expected, the greatest herbicide activity was found directly adjacent to the roadway, approximately 0 to 20 ft (0 to 6.3 m) from the roadway.

  1. MGH-USC Human Connectome Project datasets with ultra-high b-value diffusion MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Qiuyun; Witzel, Thomas; Nummenmaa, Aapo; Van Dijk, Koene R A; Van Horn, John D; Drews, Michelle K; Somerville, Leah H; Sheridan, Margaret A; Santillana, Rosario M; Snyder, Jenna; Hedden, Trey; Shaw, Emily E; Hollinshead, Marisa O; Renvall, Ville; Zanzonico, Roberta; Keil, Boris; Cauley, Stephen; Polimeni, Jonathan R; Tisdall, Dylan; Buckner, Randy L; Wedeen, Van J; Wald, Lawrence L; Toga, Arthur W; Rosen, Bruce R

    2016-01-01

    The MGH-USC CONNECTOM MRI scanner housed at the Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) is a major hardware innovation of the Human Connectome Project (HCP). The 3T CONNECTOM scanner is capable of producing a magnetic field gradient of up to 300 mT/m strength for in vivo human brain imaging, which greatly shortens the time spent on diffusion encoding, and decreases the signal loss due to T2 decay. To demonstrate the capability of the novel gradient system, data of healthy adult participants were acquired for this MGH-USC Adult Diffusion Dataset (N=35), minimally preprocessed, and shared through the Laboratory of Neuro Imaging Image Data Archive (LONI IDA) and the WU-Minn Connectome Database (ConnectomeDB). Another purpose of sharing the data is to facilitate methodological studies of diffusion MRI (dMRI) analyses utilizing high diffusion contrast, which perhaps is not easily feasible with standard MR gradient system. In addition, acquisition of the MGH-Harvard-USC Lifespan Dataset is currently underway to include 120 healthy participants ranging from 8 to 90 years old, which will also be shared through LONI IDA and ConnectomeDB. Here we describe the efforts of the MGH-USC HCP consortium in acquiring and sharing the ultra-high b-value diffusion MRI data and provide a report on data preprocessing and access. We conclude with a demonstration of the example data, along with results of standard diffusion analyses, including q-ball Orientation Distribution Function (ODF) reconstruction and tractography. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Mini-review: In vitro Metabolic Engineering for Biomanufacturing of High-value Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weihua Guo

    Full Text Available With the breakthroughs in biomolecular engineering and synthetic biology, many valuable biologically active compound and commodity chemicals have been successfully manufactured using cell-based approaches in the past decade. However, because of the high complexity of cell metabolism, the identification and optimization of rate-limiting metabolic pathways for improving the product yield is often difficult, which represents a significant and unavoidable barrier of traditional in vivo metabolic engineering. Recently, some in vitro engineering approaches were proposed as alternative strategies to solve this problem. In brief, by reconstituting a biosynthetic pathway in a cell-free environment with the supplement of cofactors and substrates, the performance of each biosynthetic pathway could be evaluated and optimized systematically. Several value-added products, including chemicals, nutraceuticals, and drug precursors, have been biosynthesized as proof-of-concept demonstrations of in vitro metabolic engineering. This mini-review summarizes the recent progresses on the emerging topic of in vitro metabolic engineering and comments on the potential application of cell-free technology to speed up the “design-build-test” cycles of biomanufacturing. Keywords: Cell-free, Biosynthesis, Metabolic pathways, Design-build-test cycle

  3. Toward high value sensing: monolayer-protected metal nanoparticles in multivariable gas and vapor sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potyrailo, Radislav A

    2017-08-29

    For detection of gases and vapors in complex backgrounds, "classic" analytical instruments are an unavoidable alternative to existing sensors. Recently a new generation of sensors, known as multivariable sensors, emerged with a fundamentally different perspective for sensing to eliminate limitations of existing sensors. In multivariable sensors, a sensing material is designed to have diverse responses to different gases and vapors and is coupled to a multivariable transducer that provides independent outputs to recognize these diverse responses. Data analytics tools provide rejection of interferences and multi-analyte quantitation. This review critically analyses advances of multivariable sensors based on ligand-functionalized metal nanoparticles also known as monolayer-protected nanoparticles (MPNs). These MPN sensing materials distinctively stand out from other sensing materials for multivariable sensors due to their diversity of gas- and vapor-response mechanisms as provided by organic and biological ligands, applicability of these sensing materials for broad classes of gas-phase compounds such as condensable vapors and non-condensable gases, and for several principles of signal transduction in multivariable sensors that result in non-resonant and resonant electrical sensors as well as material- and structure-based photonic sensors. Such features should allow MPN multivariable sensors to be an attractive high value addition to existing analytical instrumentation.

  4. DETERMINANTS OF SMALLHOLDERS’ PREFERENCE TO HYBRIDS – PROSPECT FOR UPGRADING TO HIGH-VALUE FOOD CHAINS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abebe Ejigu Alemu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid coordination systems (marketing cooperatives and contracts are in place in agriculture to link smallholder farmers to the global agri-food value chains. With the framework of transaction cost economics, this study, however, is particularly designed to investigate the key determinants pushing dairy farmers to hybrids (marketing cooperatives and contracts, viz. spot market channels in the local food chains. A household survey of 415 smallholder dairy farmers was designed. Data collection was administered using trained enumerators. A multinomial logistic regression model was employed to analyze data and to identify the signifi cant determinants. The results indicate that high transaction costs and resource constraints were found driving farmers to cooperative engagement and contracts, implying that hybrids were found to be a solution to farmers’ constraints of access to information and institutional absence, as well as resource constraints. Policy makers and development partners are advised to strengthen cooperative societies and contract enforcement mechanisms. Providing information and resources to increase smallholders’ capacity with resources appear to be interventions which will enable the agricultural marketing system to properly function by serving smallholders in linking to the global food chains.

  5. Ghrelin increases the rewarding value of high-fat diet in an orexin-dependent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perello, Mario; Sakata, Ichiro; Birnbaum, Shari; Chuang, Jen-Chieh; Osborne-Lawrence, Sherri; Rovinsky, Sherry A; Woloszyn, Jakub; Yanagisawa, Masashi; Lutter, Michael; Zigman, Jeffrey M

    2010-05-01

    Ghrelin is a potent orexigenic hormone that likely impacts eating via several mechanisms. Here, we hypothesized that ghrelin can regulate extra homeostatic, hedonic aspects of eating behavior. In the current study, we assessed the effects of different pharmacological, physiological, and genetic models of increased ghrelin and/or ghrelin-signaling blockade on two classic behavioral tests of reward behavior: conditioned place preference (CPP) and operant conditioning. Using both CPP and operant conditioning, we found that ghrelin enhanced the rewarding value of high-fat diet (HFD) when administered to ad lib-fed mice. Conversely, wild-type mice treated with ghrelin receptor antagonist and ghrelin receptor-null mice both failed to show CPP to HFD normally observed under calorie restriction. Interestingly, neither pharmacologic nor genetic blockade of ghrelin signaling inhibited the body weight homeostasis-related, compensatory hyperphagia associated with chronic calorie restriction. Also, ghrelin's effects on HFD reward were blocked in orexin-deficient mice and wild-type mice treated with an orexin 1 receptor antagonist. Our results demonstrate an obligatory role for ghrelin in certain rewarding aspects of eating that is separate from eating associated with body weight homeostasis and that requires the presence of intact orexin signaling. Copyright 2010 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Lipid metabolism and potentials of biofuel and high added-value oil production in red algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Naoki; Moriyama, Takashi; Mori, Natsumi; Toyoshima, Masakazu

    2017-04-01

    Biomass production is currently explored in microalgae, macroalgae and land plants. Microalgal biofuel development has been performed mostly in green algae. In the Japanese tradition, macrophytic red algae such as Pyropia yezoensis and Gelidium crinale have been utilized as food and industrial materials. Researches on the utilization of unicellular red microalgae such as Cyanidioschyzon merolae and Porphyridium purpureum started only quite recently. Red algae have relatively large plastid genomes harboring more than 200 protein-coding genes that support the biosynthetic capacity of the plastid. Engineering the plastid genome is a unique potential of red microalgae. In addition, large-scale growth facilities of P. purpureum have been developed for industrial production of biofuels. C. merolae has been studied as a model alga for cell and molecular biological analyses with its completely determined genomes and transformation techniques. Its acidic and warm habitat makes it easy to grow this alga axenically in large scales. Its potential as a biofuel producer is recently documented under nitrogen-limited conditions. Metabolic pathways of the accumulation of starch and triacylglycerol and the enzymes involved therein are being elucidated. Engineering these regulatory mechanisms will open a possibility of exploiting the full capability of production of biofuel and high added-value oil. In the present review, we will describe the characteristics and potential of these algae as biotechnological seeds.

  7. Chemicals to enhance microalgal growth and accumulation of high-value bioproducts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinheng eYu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Photosynthetic microalgae have attracted significant attention as they can serve as important sources for cosmetic, food and pharmaceutical products, industrial materials and even biofuel biodiesels. However, current productivity of microalga-based processes is still very low, which has restricted their scale-up application. In addition to various efforts in strain improvement and cultivation optimization, it was proposed that the productivity of microalga-based processes can also be increased using various chemicals to trigger or enhance cell growth and accumulation of bioproducts. Herein, we summarized recent progresses in applying chemical triggers or enhancers to improve cell growth and accumulation of bioproducts in algal cultures. Based on their enhancing mechanisms, these chemicals can be classified into four categories:chemicals regulating biosynthetic pathways, chemicals inducing oxidative stress responses, phytohormones and analogues regulating multiple aspects of microalgal metabolism, and chemicals directly as metabolic precursors. Taken together, the early researches demonstrated that the use of chemical stimulants could be a very effective and economical way to improve cell growth and accumulation of high-value bioproducts in large-scale cultivation of microalgae.

  8. Effect of high-energy radiation on composition and feed value of feed-stuffs. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nehring, K.; Friedel, K.

    1984-01-01

    The influence of various intensities of gamma radiation on the content of isothiocyanate (ITC), L-5-vinyl-oxazolidine-thione-2 (VOT) and amino acids in rapeseed oilmeal was investigated. Additionally solubility investigations were carried out. In accordance with the results of the decomposition of carbohydrates obtained from plant materials (wood, straw) with a high content of carbohydrates, a distinct effect of irradiation on glucosinolates was detected from 100 kGy onwards, with threshold values for ITC and VOT at doses between 500 and 750 kGy. The influence of γ-rays on the content of amino acids is distinctly lower than on the content of ITC and VOT. Only after doses between 500 and 750 kGy some amino acids decreased within certain limits, particulary methionine, lysine and proline. The solubility of the organic matter and the crude protein of the rapeseed oilmeal changed only little under the influence of various irradiation intensities both in chemical and enzymatic solubility investigations. While the solubility of the organic matter increased under the influence of the growing intensity of irradiation according to the method of crude fiber analysis, it had a falling tendency according to the cellulase method. The solubility of crude protein remained constant according to the pepsin-HCl-method and had again a falling tendency according to the cellulase method. (author)

  9. Bioconversion of Sugarcane Vinasse into High-Added Value Products and Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Antonio Carlos de Oliveira

    2017-01-01

    Vinasse, a residue from bioethanol production containing high organic matter concentration, was used as substrate in submerged fermentation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA1 for biosurfactant production. About 2.7 g/L of rhamnolipids was obtained, with surface tension of 29.2 mN/m and critical micelle concentration of 80.3 mg/L. After separation of rhamnolipid and biomass, residual fermentation media were submitted to anaerobic biodegradation in mesophilic conditions. The residual medium derived from fermentation with vinasse diluted to 1 : 1, without addition of nitrogen, C : N 21, and for 168 h, led to 63.2% chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal and 97.6 mL CH4/g CODremoved. Compared to results obtained with fresh vinasse (73.7% COD removal and 112.4 mL CH4/g CODremoved), it could be concluded that both processes can be integrated in order to add value to the residue and obtain energy, reducing production costs and at the same time environmental impacts related to vinasse disposal. PMID:29250551

  10. Revival of high street retailing – the added value of shopping apps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Demko-Rihter

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Rapid and constant development of technology and social media drive every-day changes in the retail sector, modifying behaviour and power of consumers, whereby traditional brick and mortar stores are facing the risk to become obsolete. E-commerce and m-commerce offer to customer a more convenient, faster and easier way of shopping and the possibility to customize products and services to the individual needs of customers. There are different business models and tools for enhancing the on-line retail industry, which causes changes in the business of the whole retail sector, as well as in the micro and macro social and economic environment. One of consequences of increasing value of the on-line retail industry is a dropping number of customers shopping for products in brick and mortar stores in high streets and city centers. Brick and mortar retailers are exploring new ways to reach these lost shoppers. In this study an innovative application is researched that tries to bridge online and in-store shopping with an online platform (website and a smart-phone app. The aim of this platform and app is to enhance the local shopping experience by making the physical city centre available for smart-phones and tablets.

  11. High-Intensity Interval Training, Appetite, and Reward Value of Food in the Obese

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martins, Catia; Aschehoug, Irina; Ludviksen, Marit

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: Studies on the effect of chronic interval training on appetite in the obese population are scarce. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of 12 wk of isocaloric programs of moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT), high-intensity interval training (HIIT), or short......-duration HIIT on subjective feelings of appetite, appetite-related hormones, and reward value of food in sedentary obese individuals. METHODS: Forty-six sedentary obese individuals (30 women and 16 men), with a body mass index of 33.3 ± 2.9 kg·m and age of 34.4 ± 8.8 yr, were randomly assigned to one...... of the three training groups: MICT (n = 14), HIIT (n = 16), or short-duration HIIT (n = 16). Exercise was performed three times per week for 12 wk. Subjective feelings of appetite and plasma levels of acylated ghrelin, polypeptide YY3-36, and glucagon-like peptide 1 were measured before and after a standard...

  12. Understanding Values in a Large Health Care Organization through Work-Life Narratives of High-Performing Employees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karnieli-Miller, Orit; Taylor, Amanda C.; Inui, Thomas S.; Ivy, Steven S.; Frankel, Richard M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective— To understand high-performing frontline employees’ values as reflected in their narratives of day-to-day interactions in a large health care organization. Methods— A total of 150 employees representing various roles within the organization were interviewed and asked to share work-life narratives (WLNs) about value-affirming situations (i.e. situations in which they believed their actions to be fully aligned with their values) and value-challenging situations (i.e. when their actions or the actions of others were not consistent with their values), using methods based on appreciative inquiry. Results— The analysis revealed 10 broad values. Most of the value-affirming WLNs were about the story-teller and team providing care for the patient/family. Half of the value-challenging WLNs were about the story-teller or a patient and barriers created by the organization, supervisor, or physician. Almost half of these focused on “treating others with disrespect/respect”. Only 15% of the value-challenging WLNs contained a resolution reached by the participants, often leaving them describing unresolved and frequently negative feelings. Conclusions— Appreciative inquiry and thematic analysis methods were found to be an effective tool for understanding the important and sometimes competing role personal and institutional values play in day-to-day work. There is remarkable potential in using WLNs as a way to surface and reinforce shared values and, perhaps more importantly, respectfully to identify and discuss conflicting personal and professional values. PMID:23908820

  13. Vacuum expectation values of high-dimensional operators and their contributions to the Bjorken and Ellis-Jaffe sum rules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oganesian, A.G.

    1998-01-01

    A method is proposed for estimating unknown vacuum expectation values of high-dimensional operators. The method is based on the idea that the factorization hypothesis is self-consistent. Results are obtained for all vacuum expectation values of dimension-7 operators, and some estimates for dimension-10 operators are presented as well. The resulting values are used to compute corrections of higher dimensions to the Bjorken and Ellis-Jaffe sum rules

  14. Metabolites of the phenylurea herbicides chlorotoluron, diuron, isoproturon and linuron produced by the soil fungus Mortierella sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badawi, Nora; Rønhede, Stig; Olsson, Stefan; Kragelund, Birthe B; Johnsen, Anders H; Jacobsen, Ole Stig; Aamand, Jens

    2009-10-01

    Phenylurea herbicides are used worldwide, and often pollute surface- and groundwater in concentrations exceeding the limit value for drinking water (0.1 microg l(-1)). Bacteria degrade phenylurea herbicides by successive N-dealkylation to substituted aniline products. Little is known about the corresponding fungal pathways, however. We here report degradation of chlorotoluron, diuron, isoproturon and linuron by the soil fungus Mortierella sp. Gr4. Degradation was fastest with linuron and resulted in successively dealkylated metabolites and 3,4-dichloroaniline. A major new metabolite was detected that has not yet been fully identified. Thin layer chromatography and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy indicate that it is a non-aromatic diol. Degradation of isoproturon, chlorotoluron and diuron involved successive N-demethylation and, in the case of isoproturon and chlorotoluron, additional hydroxylation. A new hydroxylated isoproturon metabolite was detected. The study thus shows that the fungal pathways differ from the bacterial pathways and yield new metabolites of possible environmental concern.

  15. Registration of the sunflower oilseed maintainer genetic stocks HOLS1, HOLS2, HOLS3, and HOLS4, possessing genes for high oleic and low saturated fatty acids, and tolerance to imidazolinone herbicides

    Science.gov (United States)

    One of the primary goals for the oilseed sunflower industry is to provide novel oil products for human consumption. One oil profile of particular interest is high oleic/ low saturated fat, because it combines high oxidative stability of the oil with a reduction in the fatty acids that are detriment...

  16. Highly Perturbed pKa Values in the Unfolded State of Hen Egg White Lysozyme

    OpenAIRE

    Bradley, John; O'Meara, Fergal; Farrell, Damien; Nielsen, Jens Erik

    2012-01-01

    The majority of pKa values in protein unfolded states are close to the amino acid model pKa values, thus reflecting the weak intramolecular interactions present in the unfolded ensemble of most proteins. We have carried out thermal denaturation measurements on the WT and eight mutants of HEWL from pH 1.5 to pH 11.0 to examine the unfolded state pKa values and the pH dependence of protein stability for this enzyme. The availability of accurate pKa values for the folded state of HEWL and separa...

  17. Efectos del herbicida Paraquat sobre el zooplancton Effects of Paraquat herbicide on zooplankton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana María Gagneten

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available The effects of 0.1; 0.2; 0.4 and 0.8 mlPQ/L were analized on a zooplankton community, to determine the most sensitive species and to analize the occurence of physical abnormalities. A total of 40 taxa were determined. Paraquat affected significantly the zooplankton density but not the species richness. A progressive state of deformation of these organisms was also observed. Paraquat showed to be highly toxic for the zooplankton, so this herbicide should be strictly regulated in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems.

  18. Atlantis Star – a new herbicide in cereals with efficacy against grasses and dicots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerlen, Dirk

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Atlantis Star (mesosulfuron-methyl; iodosulfuron-methyl-sodium; thiencarbazone-methyl; mefenpyr-diethyl is a new cereal herbicide to control blackgrass (Alopecurus myosuroides; sensitive and high infestation, brome grass (Bromus spec., ryegrass (Lolium spec., wild oat (Avena fatua, loose silky-bentgrass (Apera spica-venti L., annual meadow-grass (Poa annua L. and dicot weeds. Atlantis Star can be used in winter wheat, winter triticale, winter rye, winter durum wheat and spelt. The publication is based on efficacy trials from two years of spring application with Atlantis Star.

  19. Learning Value at Senior High School Al-Kautsar Lampung for the Formation of Character

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwar, Chairul

    2015-01-01

    Globalization process went very quickly and move brings tremendous impact and implications for life, including educational institutions. Objectively, students in public schools and private are increasingly far deviated from the values of religious and moral values, the brawl between students, pornography and pornographic, played by students, abuse…

  20. Evaluating grass strips trapping efficiency of sediments and herbicides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burguet, Maria; Guzmán, Gema; de Luna, Elena; Taguas, Encarnación V.; Gómez, José Alfonso

    2016-04-01

    Water erosion and associated offsite contamination are major environmental risks in many Mediterranean crops such as olives or vineyards (Beaufoy, 2001; Gómez et al., 2011). The use of cover crops has been prescribed as a mitigation measure for both problems because permanent cover crops have demonstrated to reduce sediment and agrochemical loads (e.g. Gómez, 2009a, b). However, large uncertainty remains about its effectiveness degree to reduce sediment and agrochemical contribution to streams due to the limited number of available studies, and the large variability observed under field conditions (Taguas et al., 2012). Furthermore, the determination of sediment and herbicide sources using suitable sediment tracing/fingerprinting properties has been noted as one tool to evaluate the effectiveness and functioning of vegetated filters at the catchment scale (Koiter et al., 2013). The objectives of the present study were twofold: [1] to explore the combined use of natural and simulated rainfall and magnetic iron oxide in understanding the performance of vegetation strips on runoff and soil and herbicide losses at plot scale and, [2] to evaluate the effectiveness degree of vegetation strips in buffering sediment and herbicide from bare soil areas under different conditions compared to a control situation with no strips. This study encompasses six rainfall simulations under four different soil managements combining the use of a magnetic iron oxide as a sediment tracer to obtain a better understanding of the vegetation strips trapping efficiency. Three runoff plots of 6 m × 14 m were established in a 20% hillslope under a Fluvisol alluvial terrace. Each of the plots contained three bare strips tagged with magnetic iron oxide and three strips with Lolium multiflorum L. The soil management simulated scenarios were: immediately after sowing the vegetation cover (June 2011cover crop), with settled vegetation cover (June 2012cover crop), after 5 cm of deep ploughing

  1. Creation of a gilded trap by the high economic value of the Maine lobster fishery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steneck, R S; Hughes, T P; Cinner, J E; Adger, W N; Arnold, S N; Berkes, F; Boudreau, S A; Brown, K; Folke, C; Gunderson, L; Olsson, P; Scheffer, M; Stephenson, E; Walker, B; Wilson, J; Worm, B

    2011-10-01

    Unsustainable fishing simplifies food chains and, as with aquaculture, can result in reliance on a few economically valuable species. This lack of diversity may increase risks of ecological and economic disruptions. Centuries of intense fishing have extirpated most apex predators in the Gulf of Maine (United States and Canada), effectively creating an American lobster (Homarus americanus) monoculture. Over the past 20 years, the economic diversity of marine resources harvested in Maine has declined by almost 70%. Today, over 80% of the value of Maine's fish and seafood landings is from highly abundant lobsters. Inflation-corrected income from lobsters in Maine has steadily increased by nearly 400% since 1985. Fisheries managers, policy makers, and fishers view this as a success. However, such lucrative monocultures increase the social and ecological consequences of future declines in lobsters. In southern New England, disease and stresses related to increases in ocean temperature resulted in more than a 70% decline in lobster abundance, prompting managers to propose closing that fishery. A similar collapse in Maine could fundamentally disrupt the social and economic foundation of its coast. We suggest the current success of Maine's lobster fishery is a gilded trap. Gilded traps are a type of social trap in which collective actions resulting from economically attractive opportunities outweigh concerns over associated social and ecological risks or consequences. Large financial gain creates a strong reinforcing feedback that deepens the trap. Avoiding or escaping gilded traps requires managing for increased biological and economic diversity. This is difficult to do prior to a crisis while financial incentives for maintaining the status quo are large. The long-term challenge is to shift fisheries management away from single species toward integrated social-ecological approaches that diversify local ecosystems, societies, and economies. ©2011 Society for Conservation

  2. High-Intensity Interval Training, Appetite, and Reward Value of Food in the Obese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Catia; Aschehoug, Irina; Ludviksen, Marit; Holst, Jens; Finlayson, Graham; Wisloff, Ulrik; Morgan, Linda; King, Neil; Kulseng, Bård

    2017-09-01

    Studies on the effect of chronic interval training on appetite in the obese population are scarce. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of 12 wk of isocaloric programs of moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT), high-intensity interval training (HIIT), or short-duration HIIT on subjective feelings of appetite, appetite-related hormones, and reward value of food in sedentary obese individuals. Forty-six sedentary obese individuals (30 women and 16 men), with a body mass index of 33.3 ± 2.9 kg·m and age of 34.4 ± 8.8 yr, were randomly assigned to one of the three training groups: MICT (n = 14), HIIT (n = 16), or short-duration HIIT (n = 16). Exercise was performed three times per week for 12 wk. Subjective feelings of appetite and plasma levels of acylated ghrelin, polypeptide YY3-36, and glucagon-like peptide 1 were measured before and after a standard breakfast (every 30 min up to 3 h), before and after the exercise intervention. Fat and sweet taste preferences and food reward were measured using the Leeds Food Preference Questionnaire. A significant increase in fasting and postprandial feelings of hunger was observed with the exercise intervention (P = 0.01 and P = 0.048, respectively), but no effect of group and no interaction. No significant effect of exercise intervention, group, or interaction was found on fasting or postprandial subjective feelings of fullness, desire to eat, and prospective food consumption or plasma concentration of acylated ghrelin, polypeptide YY3-36, and glucagon-like peptide 1. No changes in food preference or reward over time, differences between groups, or interactions were found. This study suggests that chronic HIIT has no independent effect on appetite or food reward when compared with an isocaloric program of MICT in obese individuals.

  3. Astaxanthin-producing green microalga Haematococcus pluvialis: from single cell to high value commercial products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Mahfuzur Rahman Shah

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Many species of microalgae have been used as source of nutrient rich food, feed and health promoting compounds. Among the commercially important microalgae, Haematococcus pluvialis is the richest source of natural astaxanthin which is considered as super anti-oxidant. Natural astaxanthin produced by H. pluvialis has significantly greater antioxidant capacity than the synthetic one. Astaxanthin has important applications in the nutraceuticals, cosmetics, food, and aquaculture industries. Thanks to many researches it is now evident, that astaxanthin can significantly reduce free radicals and oxidative stress and help human body maintain a healthy state. With extraordinary potency and increase in demand, astaxanthin is one of the high-value microalgal products of the future. Thus, this comprehensive review summarizes the most important aspects of the biology, biochemical composition, biosynthesis and astaxanthin accumulation in the cells of H. pluvialis and its wide range of applications for humans and animals. In this paper, important and recent developments ranging from cultivation, harvest and postharvest bio-processing technologies to metabolic control and genetic engineering are reviewed in detail, focusing on biomass and astaxanthin production from this biotechnologically important microalga. Simultaneously, critical bottlenecks and major challenges in commercial scale production; current and prospective global market of H. pluvialis derived astaxanthin are also presented in a critical manner. A new biorefinery concept for H. pluvialis has been also suggested to guide towards economically sustainable approach for microalgae cultivation and processing. This report could serve as a useful guide to present current status of knowledge in the field and highlight key areas for future development of H. pluvialis astaxanthin technology and its large scale commercial implementation.

  4. Predictive value of routine esophageal high-resolution manometry for gastro-esophageal reflux disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hoeij, F B; Smout, A J; Bredenoord, A J

    2015-07-01

    Using conventional manometry, gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD) was associated with a reduced lower esophageal sphincter (LES) pressure and impaired peristalsis. However, with a large overlap between GERD patients and controls, these findings are of limited clinical relevance. It is uncertain whether the more detailed information of high-resolution manometry (HRM) can discriminate GERD patients. Therefore, we aimed to determine to which extent HRM findings can predict GERD. HRM measurements in 69 patients with GERD and 40 healthy subjects were compared and the predictive value of HRM for the diagnosis of GERD was explored. GERD patients had a significantly lower contraction amplitude (55 vs 64 mmHg; p = 0.045) and basal LES pressure (10 vs 13.2 mmHg; p = 0.034) than healthy controls. GERD patients more often had a hiatal hernia than healthy subjects (30% vs 7%; p = 0.005). Patients with reflux esophagitis had a lower DCI than patients without reflux esophagitis (558 vs 782 mmHg cm s; p = 0.045). No significant difference was seen in contractile front velocity, distal latency, number of peristaltic breaks, residual LES pressure and LES length. On multivariate logistic regression analysis, both esophagogastric junction type I (OR 4.971; 95% CI 1.33-18.59; p = 0.017) and mean wave amplitude (OR 0.95; 95% CI 0.90-0.98; p = 0.013) were found to be independent predictors of GERD. However, the sensitivity and specificity of these findings were low. Hiatal hernia, low contraction amplitude and LES pressure are associated with GERD, but do not predict the disease with sufficient accuracy. Routine esophageal HRM can therefore not be used to distinguish GERD patients from healthy subjects. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Effects of herbicides on Behr's metalmark butterfly, a surrogate species for the endangered butterfly, Lange's metalmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stark, John D.; Chen Xuedong; Johnson, Catherine S.

    2012-01-01

    Lange's metalmark butterfly, Apodemia mormo langei Comstock, is in danger of extinction due to loss of habitat caused by invasive exotic plants which are eliminating its food, naked stem buckwheat. Herbicides are being used to remove invasive weeds from the dunes; however, little is known about the potential effects of herbicides on butterflies. To address this concern we evaluated potential toxic effects of three herbicides on Behr's metalmark, a close relative of Lange's metalmark. First instars were exposed to recommended field rates of triclopyr, sethoxydim, and imazapyr. Life history parameters were recorded after exposure. These herbicides reduced the number of adults that emerged from pupation (24–36%). Each herbicide has a different mode of action. Therefore, we speculate that effects are due to inert ingredients or indirect effects on food plant quality. If these herbicides act the same in A. mormo langei, they may contribute to the decline of this species. - Highlights: ► We evaluated the effects of three herbicides on the butterfly, Behr's metalmark. ► These herbicides are used to control invasive weeds in butterfly habitat. ► The herbicides reduced adult butterfly emergence. - Herbicides are used to remove invasive weeds from butterfly habitat. Certain herbicides may be having a negative effect on butterflies.

  6. What Do High-Risk Patients Value? Perspectives on a Care Management Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganguli, Ishani; Orav, E John; Weil, Eric; Ferris, Timothy G; Vogeli, Christine

    2018-01-01

    There is growing interest in coordinating care for high-risk patients through care management programs despite inconsistent results on cost reduction. Early evidence suggests patient-centered benefits, but we know little about how participants engage with the programs and what aspects they value. To explore care management program participants' awareness and perceived utility of program offerings. Cross-sectional telephone survey administered December 2015-January 2016. Patients enrolled in a Boston-area primary care-based care management program. Our main outcome was the number of topics in which patients reported having "very helpful" interactions with their care team in the past year. We analyzed awareness of one's care manager as an intermediate outcome, and then as a primary predictor of the main outcome, along with patient demographics, years in the program, attitudes, and worries as secondary predictors. The survey response rate was 45.8% (n = 1220); non-respondents were similar to respondents. More respondents reported worrying about family (72.8%) or financial issues (52.5%) than about their own health (41.6%). Seventy-four percent reported care manager awareness, particularly women (OR 1.33, 95% CI 1.01-1.77) and those with more years in the program (OR 1.16, 95% CI 1.03-1.30). While interaction rates ranged from 19.8% to 72.4% across topics, 81.3% rated at least one interaction as very helpful. Those who were aware of their care manager reported very helpful interactions on more topics (OR 2.77, 95% CI 2.15-3.56), as did women (OR 1.25, 95% CI 1.00-1.55), younger respondents (OR 0.98 for older age, 95% CI 0.97-0.99), and those with higher risk scores (OR 1.04, 95% CI 1.02-1.06), preference for deferring treatment decisions to doctors (OR 2.00, 95% CI 1.60-2.50), and reported control over their health (OR 1.67, 95% CI 1.33-2.10). High-risk patients reported helpful interactions with their care team around medical and social determinants of health

  7. Developing a pathway for high-value, patient-centered total joint arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Citters, Aricca D; Fahlman, Cheryl; Goldmann, Donald A; Lieberman, Jay R; Koenig, Karl M; DiGioia, Anthony M; O'Donnell, Beth; Martin, John; Federico, Frank A; Bankowitz, Richard A; Nelson, Eugene C; Bozic, Kevin J

    2014-05-01

    level. We developed a multidisciplinary clinical care pathway for patients undergoing TJA based on principles of high-value care. The pathway is ready for clinical testing and context-specific adaptation. Level V, therapeutic study. See the Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  8. High predictive value of brain MRI imaging in primary mitochondrial respiratory chain deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Beaurepaire, Isaure; Grévent, David; Rio, Marlène; Desguerre, Isabelle; de Lonlay, Pascale; Levy, Raphaël; Dangouloff-Ros, Volodia; Bonnefont, Jean-Paul; Barcia, Giulia; Funalot, Benoit; Besmond, Claude; Metodiev, Metodi D; Ruzzenente, Benedetta; Assouline, Zahra; Munnich, Arnold; Rötig, Agnès; Boddaert, Nathalie

    2018-06-01

    Because the mitochondrial respiratory chain (RC) is ubiquitous, its deficiency can theoretically give rise to any symptom in any organ or tissue at any age with any mode of inheritance, owing to the twofold genetic origin of respiratory enzyme machinery, that is, nuclear and mitochondrial. Not all respiratory enzyme deficiencies are primary and secondary or artefactual deficiency is frequently observed, leading to a number of misleading conclusions and inappropriate investigations in clinical practice. This study is aimed at investigating the potential role of brain MRI in distinguishing primary RC deficiency from phenocopies and other aetiologies. Starting from a large series of 189 patients (median age: 3.5 years (8 days-56 years), 58% males) showing signs of RC enzyme deficiency, for whom both brain MRIs and disease-causing mutations were available, we retrospectively studied the positive predictive value (PPV) and the positive likelihood ratio (LR+) of brain MRI imaging and its ability to discriminate between two groups: primary deficiency of the mitochondrial RC machinery and phenocopies. Detection of (1) brainstem hyperintensity with basal ganglia involvement (P≤0.001) and (2) lactate peak with either brainstem or basal ganglia hyperintensity was highly suggestive of primary RC deficiency (P≤0.01). Fourteen items had a PPV>95% and LR+ was greater than 9 for seven signs. Biallelic SLC19A3 mutations represented the main differential diagnosis. Non-significant differences between the two groups were found for cortical/subcortical atrophy, leucoencephalopathy and involvement of caudate nuclei, spinothalamic tract and corpus callosum. Based on these results and owing to invasiveness of skeletal muscle biopsies and cost of high-throughput DNA sequencing, we suggest giving consideration to brain MRI imaging as a diagnostic marker and an informative investigation to be performed in patients showing signs of RC enzyme deficiency. © Article author(s) (or their

  9. Evaluation of the Effects of Integrated Management Weed Control on Corn Field by Using Reduced Dose of Foramsulfuron and Nicosulfuron Herbicides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Matinfar

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the effects of integrated weed management on weed control by using reduced herbicide dose, a field experiment was conducted in 2010 in Qazvin. The experiment was conducted in randomized complete block design with 24 treatments and 4 replications. The treatments were: different planting patterns at three levels (single row, square double rows and zigzag double row  plantings and doses of  Nicosulfuron and Foramsulfuron application at four levels (1, 1/5, 2 and 2/5 liters per hectare, The results showed that among the different planting patterns, zigzag planting reduced weed populations and their dry weights significantly. Foramsulfuron herbicide could control weeds better than Nicosulfuron. Among the herbicide dosages, 2/5 litter dose per hectare highly reduced weed density its dry weight as compared to one litter dose.

  10. Effect of herbicides and various NPK dosage on ß-carotene content in the leaves of Vicia faba L. ssp. minor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiesław Wójcik

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Effect of herbicides Afalon (linuron, Aretit (dinoseb acetate, Gesatop 50 (simazine was tested concemitantly with two NPK fertilization levels (N - 0, P2O5 - 36 kg/ha, K2O - 60 kg/ha and N - 70 kg/ha, P2O5 - 72 kg/ha, K2O - 120 kg/ha on the ß-carotene content of field bean leaves. The carotenoids content was determined by thin-layer chromatography on magnesium oxide in the system petroleum ether: acetone (88 : 12 v/v. An increase of ß-carotene content in the field bean leaves at the flower-bud formation stage was found, after application of above mentioned herbicides and high dosage NPK fertilization levels. No influence of herbicides and mineral fertilization on the (ß-carotene content in the plant leaves could be demonstrated at the full pods stage.

  11. Herbicide Safeners Decrease Sensitivity to Herbicides Inhibiting Acetolactate-Synthase and Likely Activate Non-Target-Site-Based Resistance Pathways in the Major Grass Weed Lolium sp. (Rye-Grass)

    OpenAIRE

    Duhoux, Arnaud; Pernin, Fanny; Desserre, Diane; D?lye, Christophe

    2017-01-01

    Herbicides are currently pivotal to control weeds and sustain food security. Herbicides must efficiently kill weeds while being as harmless as possible for crops, even crops taxonomically close to weeds. To increase their selectivity toward crops, some herbicides are sprayed in association with safeners that are bioactive compounds exacerbating herbicide-degrading pathways reputedly specifically in crops. However, exacerbated herbicide metabolism is also a key mechanism underlying evolved non...

  12. Analysis of the metabolic resistance of Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. to the herbicides action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.V. Lykholat

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Action and aftereffect of the herbicides with different modes of action on the common ragweed population were studied in the field and greenhouse experiments. Activation of glutathione S-transferase has been detected due to the action of herbicides Harness and Guardian-Tetra both in leaves of juvenile plants and in ragweed seeds, which indicates intensive detoxification of herbicides during weed ontogenesis. Electrophoretic analysis showed that four components in protein spectra of ragweed seeds were inherent in seeds collected from herbicides-treated plants only. Using the method of isoelectric focusing, three specific peroxidase isoforms associated with a certain mechanism of herbicidal action on the parent plants were found in leaves of the next generation plants. The results confirm the intensive adaptive changes in A. artemisiifolia population that could provide the metabolic resistance to different modes of the herbicide action. Keywords: Common ragweed, Metabolic resistance, Herbicide, Mode of action, Isoforms, Isoelectric

  13. Fourier transform of delayed fluorescence as an indicator of herbicide concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ya; Tan, Jinglu

    2014-12-21

    It is well known that delayed fluorescence (DF) from Photosystem II (PSII) of plant leaves can be potentially used to sense herbicide pollution and evaluate the effect of herbicides on plant leaves. The research of using DF as a measure of herbicides in the literature was mainly conducted in time domain and qualitative correlation was often obtained. Fourier transform is often used to analyze signals. Viewing DF signal in frequency domain through Fourier transform may allow separation of signal components and provide a quantitative method for sensing herbicides. However, there is a lack of an attempt to use Fourier transform of DF as an indicator of herbicide. In this work, the relationship between the Fourier transform of DF and herbicide concentration was theoretically modelled and analyzed, which immediately yielded a quantitative method to measure herbicide concentration in frequency domain. Experiments were performed to validate the developed method. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. How to test herbicides at forest tree nurseries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roger E. Sandquist; Peyton W. Owston; Stephen E. McDonald

    1981-01-01

    Procedures developed in a cooperative westwide study of weed control in forest tree nurseries are described in a form modified for use by nursery managers. The proven, properly designed test and evaluation methods can be used to generate data needed for evaluation and registration of herbicides.

  15. Epigenetic regulation – contribution to herbicide resistance in weeds?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Markus, C.; Pečinka, Aleš; Karan, R.; Barney, J. N.; Merotto, A.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 74, č. 2 (2018), s. 275-281 ISSN 1526-498X Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : DNA methylation * epigenetic s * gene expression * gene regulation * herbicide detoxification * plant stress response Subject RIV: EF - Botanics OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany Impact factor: 3.253, year: 2016

  16. Treating downy brome with herbicide and seeding with native shrubs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzanne Owen; Carolyn Sieg

    2011-01-01

    Downy brome or cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum L.) is one of the most invasive and widespread exotic plants in North America. Downy brome can reduce soil nutrient availability, alter native plant community composition, and increase fire frequencies. The effectiveness of Plateau® imazapic herbicide in reducing downy brome cover has been variable, and there is uncertainty...

  17. Selective isolation and screening of fungi with herbicidal potential ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The respective fungal isolates were cultivated in modified Fries media under standard condition. The mycelia and the filtrate were extracted with ethyl acetate and the concentrated extract was evaluated for the herbicidal activity adopting leaf necrosis assay. Among the different isolates, extract prepared from A. alternata and ...

  18. Efficacy of selected herbicide formulations on sugarcane field weeds ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In continuation for the search of appropriate weed control strategy for sugarcane field weeds at the Unilorin Sugar Research Institute (USRI), Ilorin located at 8o 030' N; 4o 32' E , Nigeria. Field trials were laid out in a randomized complete block design during 2012 and 2013 growing seasons to evaluate four herbicide ...

  19. Ecological risks of pesticides in freshwater ecosystems; Part 1: herbicides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brock, T.C.M.; Lahr, J.; Brink, van den P.J.

    2000-01-01

    A literature review of freshwater model ecosystem studies with herbicides was performed to assess the NOEC[sub]ecosystem for individual compounds, to compare these threshold levels with water quality standards, and to evaluate the ecological consequences of exceeding these standards. Studies were

  20. Herbicide Trials on European Larch in Northern Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel A. Netzer

    1984-01-01

    Herbicides of 17 different rates and formulations were oversprayed on newly planted 1-0 European larch seedlings in teh spring of 1983 at the recommended rates. Simazine, bifenox, oxyfluorfen, promamide, and oryzalin provided adequate weed control with no damage to the larch. Height growth at the end of the first growing season was one-and-a-half times greater in the...

  1. Chromatographic determination of herbicide residues in various matrices

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cserháti, T.; Forgács, E.; Deyl, Zdeněk; Mikšík, Ivan; Eckhardt, Adam

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 6 (2004), s. 350-359 ISSN 0269-3879 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5011922 Keywords : herbicide residues * extraction methods * HPLC Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 1.069, year: 2004

  2. Vinegar as a broadcast herbicide for spring-transplanted onions

    Science.gov (United States)

    The weed control challenges for onion production are formidable; however, these challenges are even greater for those considering organic crop production. Organic onion producers need additional organic herbicides that can effectively provide post-emergent weed control. Field research was conducted...

  3. Herbicide-resistant weed management: focus on glyphosate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckie, Hugh J

    2011-09-01

    This review focuses on proactive and reactive management of glyphosate-resistant (GR) weeds. Glyphosate resistance in weeds has evolved under recurrent glyphosate usage, with little or no diversity in weed management practices. The main herbicide strategy for proactively or reactively managing GR weeds is to supplement glyphosate with herbicides of alternative modes of action and with soil-residual activity. These herbicides can be applied in sequences or mixtures. Proactive or reactive GR weed management can be aided by crop cultivars with alternative single or stacked herbicide-resistance traits, which will become increasingly available to growers in the future. Many growers with GR weeds continue to use glyphosate because of its economical broad-spectrum weed control. Government farm policies, pesticide regulatory policies and industry actions should encourage growers to adopt a more proactive approach to GR weed management by providing the best information and training on management practices, information on the benefits of proactive management and voluntary incentives, as appropriate. Results from recent surveys in the United States indicate that such a change in grower attitudes may be occurring because of enhanced awareness of the benefits of proactive management and the relative cost of the reactive management of GR weeds. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Hazard and risk of herbicides for marine microalgae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sjollema, S.B.; Martínez-García, G.; van der Geest, H.G.; Kraak, M.H.S.; Booij, P.; Vethaak, A.D.; Admiraal, W.

    2014-01-01

    Due to their specific effect on photosynthesis, herbicides pose a potential threat to coastal and estuarine microalgae. However, comprehensive understanding of the hazard and risk of these contaminants is currently lacking. Therefore the aim of the present study was to investigate the toxic effects

  5. Cytogenetic studies of three triazine herbicides. I. In vitro studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atrazine, simazine, and cyanazine are widely used pre-emergence and post-emergence triazine herbicides that have made their way into the potable water supply of many agricultural communities. Because of this and the prevalence of contradictory cytogenetic studies in the literatur...

  6. A review of methods for the analysis of orphan and difficult pesticides: glyphosate, glufosinate, quaternary ammonium and phenoxy acid herbicides, and dithiocarbamate and phthalimide fungicides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raina-Fulton, Renata

    2014-01-01

    This article reviews the chromatography/MS methodologies for analysis of pesticide residues of orphan and difficult chemical classes in a variety of sample matrixes including water, urine, blood, and food. The review focuses on pesticide classes that are not commonly included in multiresidue analysis methods such as highly polar or ionic herbicides including glyphosate, glufosinate, quaternary ammonium, and phenoxy acid herbicides, and some of their major degradation or metabolite products. In addition, dithiocarbamate and phthalimide fungicides, which are thermally unstable and have stability issues in some solvents or sample matrixes, are also examined due to their special needs in residue analysis.

  7. KARSTIC GEOMORPHOSITES WITH HIGH TOURISTIC VALUE IN MEHEDINȚI PLATEAU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Ioana IAMANDEI

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In the Mehedinţi Plateau area, there is a great number of karsts complexes, also named geomorphosites, created by the action of water in the massive calcareous rocks. Some of these, such as Izverna and Topolnita karsts complexes, are suitable to speleological tourism, cave diving, tourist and scientific explorations, underground and underwater photography and filming. Tourists come here from all over the world and this is a place where special camps for cave diving the fans are organized. This study presents especially the types of geomorphosites generated by water, the touristic offer in this area and the analysis of indicators representing the global value of one of the main geomorphosites. This global value increased in particular due to their scientific, cultural and aesthetic values which makes them suitable to ecotourism. The economic value is also an important indicator for the touristic activities in Mehedinți Plateau.

  8. ESTIMATION OF GIARDIA CT VALUES AT HIGH PH FOR THE SURFACE WATER TREATMENT RULE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency currently recommends Ct (disinfectant concentration multiplied by the exposure time) values to achieve required levels of inactivation of Giardia lamblia cysts by different disinfectants including free chlorine. Current guidance covers ina...

  9. MODERN TECHNOLOGICAL SOLUTIONS USED IN THE PRODUCTION OF BAKERY PRODUCTS WITH HIGH BIOLOGICAL VALUE

    OpenAIRE

    Marta Brodowska; Dominika Guzek; Agnieszka Wierzbicka

    2014-01-01

    Biological value of the food products is a result of the presence of bioactive substances and the proportions of the components. Technological development allows to optimize and accelerate the processes of bread production and increase value of food. Bakery industry used whole grains and pseudocereals as additional source of active compounds, biotechnological techniques as using appropriate yeast strain and encapsulation, which provide protection of substance and their controlled release in p...

  10. Value co-creation in high involvement services: the animal healthcare sector

    OpenAIRE

    Pyatt, A.Z.; Wright, G.; Walley, K.; Bleach, E.C.L.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose \\ud This paper investigates the significance of value c\\ud o-creation to the UK animal healthcare sector from \\ud the perspective of the key industry stakeholders: clients, veterinarians and paraprofessionals. \\ud Design \\ud Value co-creation constructs in the sector were identified and measured using a mixed methods approach comprised of qualitative NVivo thematic analysis of depth interviews (n=13) and quantitative Exploratory Factor Analysis n=271). \\ud Findings \\ud Qualitative res...

  11. Enhanced host–guest electrochemical recognition of herbicide MCPA using a b-cyclodextrin carbon nanotube sensor

    OpenAIRE

    Rahemi, V.; Vandamme, J.J.; Garrido, J.M.P.J.; Borges, F.; Brett, C.M.A.; Garrido, E.M.P.J.

    2012-01-01

    An electrochemical sensor for the determination of the chlorophenoxy herbicide MCPA has been developed, based on a combination of multi-walled carbon nanotubes with incorporated b-cyclodextrin and a polyaniline film modified glassy carbon electrode. The proposed molecular host–guest recogni-tion based sensor has a high electrochemical sensitivity for the determination of MCPA. The electrochemical behaviour of MCPA at the chemically modified electrode was investigated in detail by cyclic volta...

  12. Reduced salinity increases susceptibility of zooxanthellate jellyfish to herbicide toxicity during a simulated rainfall event

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, Shannon G.; Pitt, Kylie A.; Carroll, Anthony R.

    2016-01-01

    Accurately predicting how marine biota are likely to respond to changing ocean conditions requires accurate simulation of interacting stressors, exposure regimes and recovery periods. Jellyfish populations have increased in some parts of the world and, despite few direct empirical tests, are hypothesised to be increasing because they are robust to a range of environmental stressors. Here, we investigated the effects of contaminated runoff on a zooxanthellate jellyfish by exposing juvenile Cassiopea sp. medusae to a photosystem II (PSII) herbicide, atrazine and reduced salinity conditions that occur following rainfall. Four levels of atrazine (0ngL"−"1, 10ngL"−"1, 2μgL"−"1, 20μgL"−"1) and three levels of salinity (35 ppt, 25 ppt, 17 ppt) were varied, mimicking the timeline of light, moderate and heavy rainfall events. Normal conditions were then slowly re-established over four days to mimic the recovery of the ecosystem post-rain and the experiment continued for a further 7 days to observe potential recovery of the medusae. Pulse-amplitude modulated (PAM) chlorophyll fluorescence, growth and bell contraction rates of medusae were measured. Medusae exposed to the combination of high atrazine and lowest salinity died. After 3 days of exposure, bell contraction rates were reduced by 88% and medusae were 16% smaller in the lowest salinity treatments. By Day 5 of the experiment, all medusae that survived the initial pulse event began to recover quickly. Although atrazine decreased YII under normal salinity conditions, YII was further reduced when medusae were exposed to both low salinity and atrazine simultaneously. Atrazine breakdown products were more concentrated in jellyfish tissues than atrazine at the end of the experiment, suggesting that although bioaccumulation occurred, atrazine was metabolised. Our results suggest that reduced salinity may increase the susceptibility of medusae to herbicide exposure during heavy rainfall events. - Highlights:

  13. Risk assessment of herbicides and booster biocides along estuarine continuums in the Bay of Vilaine area (Brittany, France).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caquet, Th; Roucaute, M; Mazzella, N; Delmas, F; Madigou, C; Farcy, E; Burgeot, Th; Allenou, J-P; Gabellec, R

    2013-02-01

    A 2-year study was implemented to characterize the contamination of estuarine continuums in the Bay of Vilaine area (NW Atlantic Coast, Southern Brittany, France) by 30 pesticide and biocide active substances and metabolites. Among these, 11 triazines (ametryn, atrazine, desethylatrazine, desethylterbuthylazine, desisopropyl atrazine, Irgarol 1051, prometryn, propazine, simazine, terbuthylazine, and terbutryn), 10 phenylureas (chlortoluron, diuron, 1-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-3-methylurea, fenuron, isoproturon, 1-(4-isopropylphenyl)-3-methylurea, 1-(4-isopropylphenyl)-urea, linuron, metoxuron, and monuron), and 4 chloroacetanilides (acetochlor, alachlor, metolachlor, and metazachlor) were detected at least once. The objectives were to assess the corresponding risk for aquatic primary producers and to provide exposure information for connected studies on the responses of biological parameters in invertebrate sentinel species. The risk associated with contaminants was assessed using risk quotients based on the comparison of measured concentrations with original species sensitivity distribution-derived hazardous concentration values. For EU Water Framework Directive priority substances, results of monitoring were also compared with regulatory Environmental Quality Standards. The highest residue concentrations and risks for primary producers were recorded for diuron and Irgarol 1051 in Arzal reservoir, close to a marina. Diuron was present during almost the all survey periods, whereas Irgarol 1051 exhibited a clear seasonal pattern, with highest concentrations recorded in June and July. These results suggest that the use of antifouling biocides is responsible for a major part of the contamination of the lower part of the Vilaine River course for Irgarol 1051. For diuron, agricultural sources may also be involved. The presence of isoproturon and chloroacetanilide herbicides on some dates indicated a significant contribution of the use of plant protection products in

  14. Influence of herbicide structure, clay acidity, and humic acid coating on acetanilide herbicide adsorption on homoionic clays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Weiping; Gan, Jianying; Yates, Scott R

    2002-07-03

    Adsorption of chloroacetanilide herbicides on homoionic montmorillonite was studied by coupling batch equilibration and FT-IR analysis. Adsorption decreased in the order metolachlor > acetochlor > alachlor > propachlor on Ca(2+)- or Mg(2+)-saturated clays and in the order metolachlor > alachlor > acetachlor > propachlor on Al(3+)- or Fe(3+)-saturated clays. FT-IR spectra showed that the carbonyl group of the herbicide molecule was involved in bonding. For the same herbicide, adsorption of alachlor, acetachlor, and metolachlor on clay followed the order Ca(2+) approximately Mg(2+) < Al(3+) < or = Fe(3+), which coincided with the increasing acidity of homoionic clays. Adsorption of propachlor, however, showed an opposite dependence, suggesting a different governing interaction. In clay and humic acid mixtures, herbicide adsorption was less than that expected from independent additive adsorption by the individual constituents, and the deviation was dependent on the clay-to-humic acid ratio, with the greatest deviation consistently occurring at a 60:40 clay-to-humic acid ratio.

  15. Dynamic Interplay of Value and Sensory Information in High-Speed Decision Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afacan-Seref, Kivilcim; Steinemann, Natalie A; Blangero, Annabelle; Kelly, Simon P

    2018-03-05

    In dynamic environments, split-second sensorimotor decisions must be prioritized according to potential payoffs to maximize overall rewards. The impact of relative value on deliberative perceptual judgments has been examined extensively [1-6], but relatively little is known about value-biasing mechanisms in the common situation where physical evidence is strong but the time to act is severely limited. In prominent decision models, a noisy but statistically stationary representation of sensory evidence is integrated over time to an action-triggering bound, and value-biases are affected by starting the integrator closer to the more valuable bound. Here, we show significant departures from this account for humans making rapid sensory-instructed action choices. Behavior was best explained by a simple model in which the evidence representation-and hence, rate of accumulation-is itself biased by value and is non-stationary, increasing over the short decision time frame. Because the value bias initially dominates, the model uniquely predicts a dynamic "turn-around" effect on low-value cues, where the accumulator first launches toward the incorrect action but is then re-routed to the correct one. This was clearly exhibited in electrophysiological signals reflecting motor preparation and evidence accumulation. Finally, we construct an extended model that implements this dynamic effect through plausible sensory neural response modulations and demonstrate the correspondence between decision signal dynamics simulated from a behavioral fit of that model and the empirical decision signals. Our findings suggest that value and sensory information can exert simultaneous and dynamically countervailing influences on the trajectory of the accumulation-to-bound process, driving rapid, sensory-guided actions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Multiple mechanisms increase levels of resistance in Rapistrum rugosum to ALS herbicides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhara M Hatami

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Rapistrum rugosum (turnip weed is a common weed of wheat fields in Iran, which is most often controlled by tribenuron-methyl (TM, a sulfonylurea (SU belonging to the acetolactate synthase (ALS inhibiting herbicides group. Several cases of unexplained control failure of R. rugosum by TM have been seen, especially in Golestan province-Iran. Hence, there is lack of research in evaluation of the level of resistance of the R. rugosum populations to TM, using whole plant dose–response and enzyme assays, then investigating some potential resistance mechanisms Results revealed that the resistance factor (RF for resistant (R populations was 2.5 to 6.6 fold higher than susceptible (S plant. Neither foliar retention, nor 14C-TM absorption and translocation were the mechanisms responsible for resistance in turnip weed. Metabolism of TM was the second resistant mechanism in two populations (Ag-R5 and G-1, in which three metabolites were found. The concentration of TM for 50% inhibition of ALS enzyme activity in vitro showed a high level of resistance to the herbicide (resistance factors were from 28 to 38 and cross-resistance to sulfonyl-aminocarbonyl-triazolinone (SCT, pyrimidinyl-thiobenzoate (PTB and triazolopyrimidine (TP, with no cross-resistance to imidazolinone (IMI. Substitution Pro 197 to Ser 197 provided resistance to four of five ALS-inhibiting herbicides including SU, TP, PTB and SCT with no resistance to IMI. These results documented the first case of R. rugosum resistant population worldwide and demonstrated that both RST and NRST mechanisms are involved to the resistance level to TM.

  17. Oxidative stress induced by glyphosate-based herbicide on freshwater turtles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Héritier, Laurent; Duval, David; Galinier, Richard; Meistertzheim, Anne-Leila; Verneau, Olivier

    2017-12-01

    Freshwater ecosystems face very strong anthropogenic pressures, among which overexploitation, habitat degradation, flow modification, species invasion, and water pollution lead to growing threats on biodiversity. Urbanization through wastewater treatment, industry through the release of inorganic and organic chemicals, and agriculture through the use of pesticides and herbicides are the main factors involved in water pollution. In France, more precisely in the Pyrénées-Orientales department, the poor quality of the watercourses is attributable overall to the use of glyphosate-based herbicides in agricultural activities. Because these chemicals can impact individuals, populations, and biodiversity, we investigated, under experimental conditions, the physiological response of animals facing abiotic contaminants. We selected as a model, juveniles of the freshwater turtle Trachemys scripta elegans. We measured the gene expression and activity of the catalase and superoxide dismutase enzymes as well as the levels of lipid peroxidation, which are all oxidative stress biomarkers, in turtles challenged with high concentrations of glyphosate-based herbicides, on the one hand, and with degraded waters collected from a local watercourse, on the other. We also measured the acetylcholinesterase activity across the same animals. We showed through variations in gene expression and enzyme activity that a glyphosate commercial formulation induced a stress in turtles. A similar outcome was obtained when turtles faced degraded waters. The results indicated that the poor quality of regional waters could be a real threat for animal health. Because turtles are globally less sensitive to contaminants than amphibians, which are lacking in the degraded waters of the Pyrénées-Orientales department, they could constitute an excellent model to follow the evolution of water quality through the study of oxidative stress biomarkers. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:3343-3350. © 2017 SETAC.

  18. Selectivity and weed control efficacy of some herbicides applied to sprinkler irrigated rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavero, J; Zaragoza, C; Cirujeda, A; Anzalone, A; Faci, J M; Blanco, O

    2011-07-01

    Sprinkler irrigation can reduce the irrigation water needed to grow rice. However, most available information on weed control with herbicides is related to flood irrigated rice because this is the main growing method. Field experiments were conducted at Zaragoza (Spain) during two years to study weed control and tolerance of sprinkler irrigated rice to several herbicides. The main weeds were Atriplex prostrata Boucher ex DC., Cyperus rotundus L., Echinochloa crus-galli (L.) Beauv. and Sonchus oleraceus L. Rice cv Guadiamar was tolerant to preemergence (PRE) application of clomazone at 0.36 kg ha{sup -}1 and oxadiazon at 0.5 kg ha{sup -}1. PRE application of pendimethalin at 1.32 kg ha{sup -}1 combined with clomazone at 0.36 kg ha{sup -}1 decreased rice yield. Postemergence (POST) application of bentazon at 1.6 kg ha{sup -}1 + MCPA at 0.25 kg ha{sup -}1 did not injure rice but POST application of azimsulfuron at 0.025 kg ha{sup -}1 produced visual crop injury. Only treatments that controlled grassy weeds since rice was planted and by more than 80% at harvest time lead to acceptable rice yield (> 5,000 kg ha{sup -}1). Clomazone applied PRE at 0.36 kg ha{sup -}1 provided good control of grassy weeds (> 80%) and the highest rice yield, so it is recommended as a selective and efficacious PRE treatment for weed control of annual weeds in sprinkler irrigated rice. The perennial purple nutsedge was difficult to control at high plant densities (> 150 plants m{sup -}2) and the recommended herbicide is azimsulfuron applied at POST at 0.02 kg ha{sup -}1. (Author) 37 refs.

  19. Correlation of Managers' Value Systems and Students' Moral Development in High Schools and Pre-University Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alavi, Hamid Reza; Rahimipoor, Tahereh

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this research was to understand the managers' value system, the students' moral development, and their relationship in the high schools and pre-universities of District One in Kerman City. The research method used was descriptive-correlational. The statistical population was composed of high school and pre-university managers and…

  20. Persistence and transformation of the herbicide (/sup 14/C)glufosinate-ammonium in prairie soils under laboratory conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, A.E.

    The degradation of the herbicide (/sup 14/C)glufosinate-ammonium (the ammonium salt of DL-homoalanin-4-ylmethylphosphinic acid), at a rate of 2 ppm, was studied in three prairie soils at 85% of their field capacity moisture at both 20 and 10/sup 0/C. In all soils the herbicide was biologically transformed to degradation product(s) that underwent further slow degradation with release of (/sup 14/C)carbon dioxide. At 20/sup 0/C, the soil half-life values for the (/sup 14/C)herbicide were 3-7 days and, at 10/sup 0/C, 8-11 days. Over a 90-day incubation period at 20/sup 0/C, between 28 and 55% of the applied radioactivity was released from treated soils as (/sup 14/C)carbon dioxide; solvent-extractable degradation product(s) accounted for 19-37% of the applied radioactivity; between 2.4 and 9.5% of the initial /sup 14/C was incorporated into soil microbial biomass and 7-13% into the fulvic, humic, and humin soil fractions.

  1. Persistence and transformation of the herbicide [14C]glufosinate-ammonium in prairie soils under laboratory conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, A.E.

    1988-01-01

    The degradation of the herbicide [ 14 C]glufosinate-ammonium (the ammonium salt of DL-homoalanin-4-ylmethylphosphinic acid), at a rate of 2 ppm, was studied in three prairie soils at 85% of their field capacity moisture at both 20 and 10 0 C. In all soils the herbicide was biologically transformed to degradation product(s) that underwent further slow degradation with release of [ 14 C]carbon dioxide. At 20 0 C, the soil half-life values for the [ 14 C]herbicide were 3-7 days and, at 10 0 C, 8-11 days. Over a 90-day incubation period at 20 0 C, between 28 and 55% of the applied radioactivity was released from treated soils as [ 14 C]carbon dioxide; solvent-extractable degradation product(s) accounted for 19-37% of the applied radioactivity; between 2.4 and 9.5% of the initial 14 C was incorporated into soil microbial biomass and 7-13% into the fulvic, humic, and humin soil fractions

  2. Determination of multi-class herbicides in soil by liquid-solid extraction coupled with headspace solid phase microextraction method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đurović-Pejčev Rada

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A method is described for simultaneous determination of five herbicides (metribuzin, acetochlor, clomazone, oxyfluorfen and dimethenamid belonging to different pesticides groups in soil samples. Developed headspace solid phase microextraction method (HS-SPME in combination with liquid-solid sample preparation (LS was optimized and applied in the analysis of some agricultural samples. Optimization of microextraction conditions, such as temperature, extraction time and sodium chloride (NaCl content was perfor-med using 100 μm polydimethyl-siloxane (PDMS fiber. The extraction effi-ciencies of methanol, methanol:acetone=1:1 and methanol:acetone:hexane= =2:2:1 and the optimum number of extraction steps during the sample prepa-ration, were tested, as well. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS was used for detection and quantification, obtaining relative standard deviation (RSD below 13%, and recovery values higher than 83% for multiple analyses of soil samples fortified at 30 μg kg-1 of each herbicide. Limits of detection (LOD were less than 1.2 μg kg-1 for all the studied herbicides. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR31043 i br. III43005

  3. Metabolites of the phenylurea herbicides chlorotoluron, diuron, isoproturon and linuron produced by the soil fungus Mortierella sp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badawi, Nora; Ronhede, Stig; Olsson, Stefan; Kragelund, Birthe B.; Johnsen, Anders H.; Jacobsen, Ole Stig; Aamand, Jens

    2009-01-01

    Phenylurea herbicides are used worldwide, and often pollute surface- and groundwater in concentrations exceeding the limit value for drinking water (0.1 μg l -1 ). Bacteria degrade phenylurea herbicides by successive N-dealkylation to substituted aniline products. Little is known about the corresponding fungal pathways, however. We here report degradation of chlorotoluron, diuron, isoproturon and linuron by the soil fungus Mortierella sp. Gr4. Degradation was fastest with linuron and resulted in successively dealkylated metabolites and 3,4-dichloroaniline. A major new metabolite was detected that has not yet been fully identified. Thin layer chromatography and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy indicate that it is a non-aromatic diol. Degradation of isoproturon, chlorotoluron and diuron involved successive N-demethylation and, in the case of isoproturon and chlorotoluron, additional hydroxylation. A new hydroxylated isoproturon metabolite was detected. The study thus shows that the fungal pathways differ from the bacterial pathways and yield new metabolites of possible environmental concern. - Fungal degradation of phenylurea herbicides results in the formation of hydroxylated metabolites and 3,4-dichloroaniline.

  4. Metabolites of the phenylurea herbicides chlorotoluron, diuron, isoproturon and linuron produced by the soil fungus Mortierella sp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badawi, Nora; Ronhede, Stig [Department of Geochemistry, Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS), Ostervoldgade 10, DK-1350 Copenhagen K (Denmark); Olsson, Stefan [Section of Genetics and Microbiology, Department of Agriculture and Ecology, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Thorvaldsensvej 40, DK-1871 Frederiksberg C (Denmark); Kragelund, Birthe B. [Structural Biology and NMR Laboratory, Department of Biology, University of Copenhagen, Ole Maaloes Vej 5, DK-2200 Copenhagen N (Denmark); Johnsen, Anders H. [Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Copenhagen University Hospital, Blegdamsvej 9, DK-2100 Copenhagen O (Denmark); Jacobsen, Ole Stig [Department of Geochemistry, Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS), Ostervoldgade 10, DK-1350 Copenhagen K (Denmark); Aamand, Jens, E-mail: jeaa@geus.d [Department of Geochemistry, Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS), Ostervoldgade 10, DK-1350 Copenhagen K (Denmark)

    2009-10-15

    Phenylurea herbicides are used worldwide, and often pollute surface- and groundwater in concentrations exceeding the limit value for drinking water (0.1 mug l{sup -1}). Bacteria degrade phenylurea herbicides by successive N-dealkylation to substituted aniline products. Little is known about the corresponding fungal pathways, however. We here report degradation of chlorotoluron, diuron, isoproturon and linuron by the soil fungus Mortierella sp. Gr4. Degradation was fastest with linuron and resulted in successively dealkylated metabolites and 3,4-dichloroaniline. A major new metabolite was detected that has not yet been fully identified. Thin layer chromatography and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy indicate that it is a non-aromatic diol. Degradation of isoproturon, chlorotoluron and diuron involved successive N-demethylation and, in the case of isoproturon and chlorotoluron, additional hydroxylation. A new hydroxylated isoproturon metabolite was detected. The study thus shows that the fungal pathways differ from the bacterial pathways and yield new metabolites of possible environmental concern. - Fungal degradation of phenylurea herbicides results in the formation of hydroxylated metabolites and 3,4-dichloroaniline.

  5. Bleaching herbicide norflurazon inhibits phytoene desaturase by competition with the cofactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breitenbach, J; Zhu, C; Sandmann, G

    2001-11-01

    Cofactor requirement was determined for the heterologous expressed phytoene desaturases from the cyanobacterium Synechococcus and the higher plant Gentiana lutea. The cyanobacterial enzyme is dependent on either NAD(P) or plastoquinone, whereas only quinones such as plastoquinone can function as a cofactor for the phytoene desaturase from G. lutea. Enzyme kinetic studies were carried out to determine a possible competition between the cofactors and the bleaching herbicide norflurazon. For the Synechococcus enzyme, competition between norflurazon and NADP, as well as plastoquinone, could be demonstrated. The K(m) values for these cofactors were 6.6 mM and 0.23 microM, respectively. Inhibition of the phytoene desaturase from G. lutea by norflurazon was also competitive with respect to plastoquinone. The K(m) values of both enzymes for plastoquinone were very close.

  6. Changes in the Economic Value of Variable Generation at High Penetration Levels: A Pilot Case Study of California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, Andrew [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Wiser, Ryan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-05-18

    We estimate the long-run economic value of variable renewable generation with increasing penetration using a unique investment and dispatch model that captures long-run investment decisions while also incorporating detailed operational constraints and hourly time resolution over a full year. High time resolution and the incorporation of operational constraints are important for estimating the economic value of variable generation, as is the use of a modeling framework that accommodates new investment decisions. The model is herein applied with a case study that is loosely based on California in 2030. Increasing amounts of wind, photovoltaics (PV), and concentrating solar power (CSP) with and without thermal energy storage (TES) are added one at a time. The marginal economic value of these renewable energy sources is estimated and then decomposed into capacity value, energy value, day-ahead forecast error cost, and ancillary services. The marginal economic value, as defined here, is primarily based on the combination of avoided capital investment cost and avoided variable fuel and operations and maintenance costs from other power plants in the power system. Though the model only captures a subset of the benefits and costs of renewable energy, it nonetheless provides unique insights into how the value of that subset changes with technology and penetration level. Specifically, in this case study implementation of the model, the marginal economic value of all three solar options is found to exceed the value of a flat-block of power (as well as wind energy) by \\$20--30/MWh at low penetration levels, largely due to the high capacity value of solar at low penetration. Because the value of CSP per unit of energy is found to be high with or without thermal energy storage at low penetration, we find little apparent incremental value to thermal storage at low solar penetration in the present case study analysis. The marginal economic value of PV and CSP without thermal

  7. Phytotoxicity of Alachlor, Bromacil and Diuron as single or mixed herbicides applied to wheat, melon, and molokhia

    OpenAIRE

    El-Nahhal, Yasser; Hamdona, Nisreen

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the phytotoxicity of herbicides applied singly or as mixtures to different crops under greenhouse conditions. Growth inhibition of the crops was taken as an indicator of phytotoxicity. Phytotoxicity of mixtures was estimated by calculating EC50 value in toxic units. EC50 (mg/kg soil) of Alachlor, Bromacil and/or Diuron were: 11.37, 4.77, 1.64, respectively, on melon; 0.11, 0.08, 0.24, respectively, on molokhia, and 3.91, 3.08, 1.83, respectively, on wheat. EC50 values ...

  8. Estimation of fuel burning rate and heating value with highly variable properties for optimum combustion control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsi, C.-L.; Kuo, J.-T.

    2008-01-01

    Estimating solid residue gross burning rate and heating value burning in a power plant furnace is essential for adequate manipulation to achieve energy conversion optimization and plant performance. A model based on conservation equations of mass and thermal energy is established in this work to calculate the instantaneous gross burning rate and lower heating value of solid residue fired in a combustion chamber. Comparing the model with incineration plant control room data indicates that satisfactory predictions of fuel burning rates and heating values can be obtained by assuming the moisture-to-carbon atomic ratio (f/a) within the typical range from 1.2 to 1.8. Agreement between mass and thermal analysis and the bed-chemistry model is acceptable. The model would be useful for furnace fuel and air control strategy programming to achieve optimum performance in energy conversion and pollutant emission reduction

  9. Glufosinate herbicide-tolerant (LibertyLink) rice vs. conventional rice in diets for growing-finishing swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cromwell, G L; Henry, B J; Scott, A L; Gerngross, M F; Dusek, D L; Fletcher, D W

    2005-05-01

    Genetically modified (GM) rice (LibertyLink, event LLRICE62) that is tolerant to glufosinate ammonium (Liberty) herbicide was compared with a near-isogenic (NI) conventional medium-grain brown rice (cultivar, Bengal) and a commercially milled long-grain brown rice in diets for growing-finishing pigs. The GM and NI rice were grown in 2000. The GM rice was from fields treated (GM+) or not treated (GM-) with glufosinate herbicide. The GM- and NI rice were grown using herbicide regimens typical of southern United States rice production practices. The four rice grains were similar in composition. Growing-finishing pigs (n = 96) were fed fortified rice-soybean meal diets containing the four different rice grains from 25 to 106 kg BW. Diets contained 0.99% lysine initially (growing phase), with lysine decreased to 0.80% (early finishing phase) and 0.65% (late finishing phase), when pigs reached 51 and 77 kg, respectively. The percentage of rice in the four diets was constant during each of the three phases (72.8, 80.0, and 85.8% for the growing, early-finishing, and late-finishing phases, respectively). There were six pen replicates (three pens of barrows and three pens of gilts) and four pigs per pen for each dietary treatment. All pigs were slaughtered at the termination of the study to collect carcass data. At the end of the 98-d experiment, BW gain, feed intake (as-fed basis), and feed:gain ratio did not differ (P > 0.05) for pigs fed the GM+ vs. conventional rice diets, but growth performance traits of pigs fed the GM+ rice diets were superior (P glufosinate herbicide-tolerant rice was similar in composition and nutritional value to conventional rice for growing-finishing pigs.

  10. MODERN TECHNOLOGICAL SOLUTIONS USED IN THE PRODUCTION OF BAKERY PRODUCTS WITH HIGH BIOLOGICAL VALUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Brodowska

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Biological value of the food products is a result of the presence of bioactive substances and the proportions of the components. Technological development allows to optimize and accelerate the processes of bread production and increase value of food. Bakery industry used whole grains and pseudocereals as additional source of active compounds, biotechnological techniques as using appropriate yeast strain and encapsulation, which provide protection of substance and their controlled release in production of functional bread. The adding to bread fruits, vegetables and condiments may increase content of vitamin, minerals, dietary fiber and other bioactive compounds.

  11. Mo- and V-catalyzed transformation of biomass into high-value chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lasse Bo; Dethlefsen, Johannes Rytter; Lupp, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    The possibility of converting biomass into higher-value chemicals has received increased attention over the last few years. If biomass could be converted into biofules or platform chemicals, then it could constitute a large source of renewable energy and economy for society.......The possibility of converting biomass into higher-value chemicals has received increased attention over the last few years. If biomass could be converted into biofules or platform chemicals, then it could constitute a large source of renewable energy and economy for society....

  12. Improving value assessment of high-risk, high-reward biotechnology research: the role of ‘thick tails’

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Casault, Sébastien; Groen, Arend J.; Linton, J.D.; Linton, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents work toward improving the efficacy of financial models that describe the unique nature of biotechnology firms. We show that using a ‘thick tailed’ power law distribution to describe the behavior of the value of biotechnology R&D used in a Real Options Pricing model is

  13. Rapid response for invasive waterweeds at the arctic invasion front: Assessment of collateral impacts from herbicide treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethi, Suresh; Carey, Michael P.; Morton, John M.; Guerron-Orejuela, Edgar; Decino, Robert; Willette, Mark; Boersma, James; Jablonski, Jillian; Anderson, Cheryl

    2017-01-01

    The remoteness of subarctic and arctic ecosystems no longer protects against invasive species introductions. Rather, the mix of urban hubs surrounded by undeveloped expanses creates a ratchet process whereby anthropogenic activity is sufficient to introduce and spread invaders, but for which the costs of monitoring and managing remote ecosystems is prohibitive. Elodea spp. is the first aquatic invasive plant to become established in Alaska and has potential for widespread deleterious ecological and economic impacts. A rapid eradication response with herbicides has been identified as a priority invasion control strategy. We conducted a multi-lake monitoring effort to assess collateral impacts from herbicide treatment for Elodea in high latitude systems. Variability in data was driven by seasonal dynamics and natural lake-to-lake differences typical of high latitude waterbodies, indicating lack of evidence for systematic impacts to water quality or plankton communities associated with herbicide treatment of Elodea. Impacts on native macrophytes were benign with the exception of some evidence for earlier onset of leaf senescence for lily pads(Nuphar spp.) in treated lakes. We observed a substantial increase in detected native flora richness after Elodea was eradicated from the most heavily infested lake, indicating potential for retention of native macrophyte communities if infestations are addressed quickly. While avoiding introductions through prevention may be the most desirable outcome, these applications indicated low risks of non-target impacts associated with herbicide treatment as a rapid response option for Elodea in high latitude systems.

  14. Toxicidade aguda de herbicidas a tilápia (Oreochromis niloticus Acute toxicity to herbicides to Oreochromis niloticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.G. Botelho

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Esta pesquisa teve como objetivo avaliar a sensibilidade de alevinos de Oreochromis niloticus a diversos herbicidas. Para isso, foram realizados dois ensaios, sendo, no primeiro, avaliadas concentrações de atrazina (0; 2,5; 5; 10; e 20 mg L-1, visando a determinação da concentração letal a 50% dos indivíduos (CL50, e, no segundo, a sensibilidade às mesclas dos herbicidas alachlor + atrazina (5,33 + 5,33 mg L-1, diuron + MSMA (5,33 + 2,13 mg L-1, paraquat (1,33 mg L-1 e 2,4-D + picloram (1,28 + 0,34 mg L-1, com contagem de mortes 96 horas após exposição aos produtos. No primeiro ensaio foi observado elevado declínio na sobrevivência dos alevinos a partir de 3 mg L-1 do herbicida atrazina, com CL50 estimada de 5,02 mg L-1. No segundo, a mistura alachlor + atrazina promoveu o maior efeito de mortalidade sobre os alevinos de tilápia. Com 72 horas de exposição, a escala de intoxicação evidenciou redução nos números de indivíduos de, aproximadamente, 17,4% para os produtos paraquat, 2,4-D + picloram e diuron + MSMA e de 100% para alachlor + atrazina. Os dados permitem concluir que a CL50 obtida para o atrazina é inferior àquela mencionada como tóxica para truta e que a mistura alachlor + atrazina pode ser caracterizada como de risco para O. niloticus, mesmo quando aplicada em doses normais de uso.Two assays were carried out to evaluate Oreochromis niloticus sensitivity to different herbicides. In the first experiment, atrazin concentrations (0; 2.5; 5; 10 and 20 mg L-1 were evaluated aiming to determine lethal concentration (LC50 to O. niloticus. In the second assay, the effects of the herbicide mixtures alachlor + atrazin (5.33 + 5.33 mg L-1, diuron + MSMA (5.33 + 2.13 mg L-1 , paraquat (1.33 mg L-1 and 2,4-D + picloran (1.28 + 0.34 mg L-1 , were evaluated on O. niloticus survival after 96 h of exposure. In the first assay, a sharp decrease in fingerlings survival was observed from 3 mg L-1 of atrazin with CL50 value of 5

  15. Mucilage from seeds of chia (Salvia hispanica L.) used as soil conditioner; effects on the sorption-desorption of four herbicides in three different soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Marsico, A; Scrano, L; Amato, M; Gàmiz, B; Real, M; Cox, L

    2018-06-01

    The objective of this work was to determine the effect of the mucilage extracted from Chia seeds (Salvia hispanica L.) as soil amendment on soil physical properties and on the sorption-desorption behaviour of four herbicides (MCPA, Diuron, Clomazone and Terbuthylazine) used in cereal crops. Three soils of different texture (sandy-loam, loam and clay-loam) were selected, and mercury intrusion porosimetry and surface area analysis were used to examine changes in the microstructural characteristics caused by the reactions that occur between the mucilage and soil particles. Laboratory studies were conducted to characterise the selected herbicides with regard their sorption on tested soils added or not with the mucilage. Mucilage amendment resulted in a reduction in soil porosity, basically due to a reduction in larger pores (radius>10μm) and an important increase in finer pores (radius<10μm) and in partcles' surface. A higher herbicide sorption in the amended soils was ascertained when compared to unamended soils. The sorption percentage of herbicides in soils treated with mucilage increased in the order; sandy-loamherbicides was highly inhibited in the soils treated with mucilage; only Terbuthylazine showed a slight desorption in the case of loam and clay loam-soils. This study leads to the conclusion that mucilage from Chia seeds used as soil conditioner can reduce the mobility of herbicides tested in agricultural soils with different physico-chemical properties. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. A Simple Vortex-Assisted Magnetic Dispersive Solid Phase Microextraction System for Preconcentration and Separation of Triazine Herbicides from Environmental Water and Vegetable Samples Using Fe₃O₄@MIL-100(Fe) Sorbent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasrollahpour, Atefe; Moradi, Seyyed Ershad

    2018-04-04

    A vortex-assisted magnetic dispersive solid phase microextraction coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography has been developed for the extraction and determination of triazine herbicides by using magnetic metal organic frameworks [Fe₃O₄@MIL-100(Fe)] in environmental water and vegetable samples. The Fe₃O₄@MIL-100(Fe) composite has been characterized by using X-ray diffraction spectroscopy, tunneling electron microscopy, thermogravimetric measurement, and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller analysis. The method is based on the sorption of triazine herbicides on Fe₃O₄@MIL-100(Fe) because of the complex formation between iron oxide nanoparticles and triazine herbicides beside π-π interactions between organic parts of Fe₃O₄@MIL-100(Fe) and triazine herbicides. The experimental parameters for the preconcentration of triazine herbicides, such as the type and volume of the eluent, pH, time of the sorption and desorption, and the amount of the sorbent, were optimized. Under the optimized conditions, the method was linear over the concentration range of 0.0061 to 70 ng/mL for each triazine herbicide, and the correlation coefficients ranged from 0.9988 to 0.9997. The limit of detection of the method at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3 was 2.0 to 5.3 ng/mL. The relative standard deviations for inter- and intraday assays were in the range of 5.8 to 10.2% and 3.8 to 6.3%, respectively.

  17. Geometrid moth assemblages reflect high conservation value of naturally regenerated secondary forests in temperate China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zou, Yi; Sang, Weiguo; Warren-Thomas, Eleanor; Axmacher, Jan Christoph

    2016-01-01

    The widespread destruction of mature forests in China has led to massive ecological degradation, counteracted in recent decades by substantial efforts to promote forest plantations and protect secondary forest ecosystems. The value of the resulting forests for biodiversity conservation is widely

  18. Achieving high value care for all and the perverse incentives of 340B price agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittington, Melanie D; Campbell, Jonathan D; McQueen, R Brett

    2018-04-01

    Section 340B of the Public Health Service Act requires drug manufacturers to enter into price agreements with the Department of Health and Human Services. These agreements result in variation in the price paid to acquire a drug by sector, which complicates the price used in cost-effectiveness analyses. We describe the transactions and sectors in a 340B agreement using a multiple sclerosis drug. Cost-effectiveness estimates were calculated for the drug using drug prices from the manufacturer and payer perspective. We found the amount paid to the manufacturer (340B price) was a good value ($118,256 per quality-adjusted life-year); however, from the payer drug cost perspective, good value ($196,683 per quality-adjusted life-year) was not achieved. Given that emerging value frameworks incorporate cost-effectiveness, these price variations may have downstream negative consequences, including inaccurate coverage and reimbursement policy recommendations. Upcoming policy changes to the 340B program should incentivize pricing schemes hinged on transparency and value.

  19. The Dynamic between Work Values and Part-Time Work Experiences across the High School Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porfeli, Erik J.

    2008-01-01

    The work value system, its development, and its relationship with work experiences can be modeled as an adaptive control system [Ford, D. H., & Lerner, R. M. (1992). "Developmental systems theory: An integrative approach". Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications]. This study employed longitudinal data from 1000 participants (Youth Development Study;…

  20. Reducing non value adding aluminium alloy in production of parts through high pressure die casting

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Pereira, MFVT

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available in the cast part feed system, including overflows. CSIR intends using the results of this research for further development and application of high