Sample records for highly turbulent optical

  1. Observing high-frequency optical turbulence properties by the usage of fiber optical turbulence sensing system (United States)

    Huang, Qi-kai; Mei, Hai-ping; Xiao, Shu-mei; Rao, Rui-zhong


    Effects of light propagation in random atmospheric optical turbulence are critical problems for ground based high resolution optical imaging. To get further knowledge of turbulence intensity or structure properties, the concept of fiber optic sensing system is proposed and realized. Different to fine-wire platinum resistance thermometer or laser scintillometer, the system has the ability to make non-contact measurement of optical turbulence up to the frequency of 500Hz during the air gap of 100mm, and has the dynamic range of 10-18 ~ 10-12 . The optic fiber's merit of corrosion resistance is sufficiently demonstrated by one month field test on the seacoast. Some properties of high frequency turbulence power spectrum that have never been observed before in the range of 10cm are reported. In the end, prospects of optical turbulence research by the usage of fiber optic turbulence sensing system are also discussed.

  2. High Turbulence

    CERN Multimedia

    EuHIT, Collaboration


    As a member of the EuHIT (European High-Performance Infrastructures in Turbulence - see here) consortium, CERN is participating in fundamental research on turbulence phenomena. To this end, the Laboratory provides European researchers with a cryogenic research infrastructure (see here), where the first tests have just been performed.

  3. LOLAS-2: Redesign of an Optical Turbulence Profiler with High Altitude-resolution (United States)

    Avila, R.; Zúñiga, C. A.; Tapia-Rodríguez, J. J.; Sánchez, L. J.; Cruz-González, I.; Avilés, J. L.; Valdés-Hernández, O.; Carrasco, E.


    We present the development, tests, and first results of the second-generation LOLAS-2. This instrument constitutes a strongly improved version of the prototype LOLAS, which is aimed at the measurement of optical turbulence profiles close to the ground, with high altitude-resolution. The method is based on the generalized Scidar principle that consists of taking double-star scintillation images on a defocused pupil plane and calculating in real time the autocovariance of the scintillation. The main components are an open-truss 40-cm Ritchey-Chrétien telescope, a German-type equatorial mount, an electron-multiplying CCD camera, and a dedicated acquisition and real-time data-processing software. The new optical design of LOLAS-2 is significantly simplified compared to the prototype. The experiments carried out to test the permanence of the image within the useful zone of the detector and the stability of the telescope focus show that LOLAS-2 can function without the use of the autoguiding and autofocus algorithms that were developed for the prototype version. Optical turbulence profiles obtained with the new LOLAS have the best altitude-resolution ever achieved with Scidar-like techniques (6.3 m). The simplification of the optical layout and the improved mechanical properties of the telescope and mount make of LOLAS-2 a more robust instrument.

  4. Molecular-Based Optical Measurement Techniques for Transition and Turbulence in High-Speed Flow (United States)

    Bathel, Brett F.; Danehy, Paul M.; Cutler, Andrew D.


    photogrammetry (for model attitude and deformation measurement) are excluded to limit the scope of this report. Other physical probes such as heat flux gauges, total temperature probes are also excluded. We further exclude measurement techniques that require particle seeding though particle based methods may still be useful in many high speed flow applications. This manuscript details some of the more widely used molecular-based measurement techniques for studying transition and turbulence: laser-induced fluorescence (LIF), Rayleigh and Raman Scattering and coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS). These techniques are emphasized, in part, because of the prior experience of the authors. Additional molecular based techniques are described, albeit in less detail. Where possible, an effort is made to compare the relative advantages and disadvantages of the various measurement techniques, although these comparisons can be subjective views of the authors. Finally, the manuscript concludes by evaluating the different measurement techniques in view of the precision requirements described in this chapter. Additional requirements and considerations are discussed to assist with choosing an optical measurement technique for a given application.

  5. Bahamas Optical Turbulence Exercise (BOTEX): preliminary results (United States)

    Hou, Weilin; Jorosz, Ewa; Dalgleish, Fraser; Nootz, Gero; Woods, Sarah; Weidemann, Alan D.; Goode, Wesley; Vuorenkoski, Anni; Metzger, B.; Ramos, B.


    The Bahamas Optical Turbulence Exercise (BOTEX) was conducted in the coastal waters of Florida and the Bahamas from June 30 to July 12 2011, onboard the R/V FG Walton Smith. The primary objective of the BOTEX was to obtain field measurements of optical turbulence structures, in order to investigate the impacts of the naturally occurring turbulence on underwater imaging and optical beam propagation. In order to successfully image through optical turbulence structures in the water and examine their impacts on optical transmission, a high speed camera and targets (both active and passive) were mounted on a rigid frame to form the Image Measurement Assembly for Subsurface Turbulence (IMAST). To investigate the impacts on active imaging systems such as the laser line scan (LLS), the Telescoping Rigid Underwater Sensor Structure (TRUSS) was designed and implemented by Harbor Branch Oceanographic Institute. The experiments were designed to determine the resolution limits of LLS systems as a function of turbulence induced beam wander at the target. The impact of natural turbulence structures on lidar backscatter waveforms was also examined, by means of a telescopic receiver and a short pulse transmitter, co-located, on a vertical profiling frame. To include a wide range of water types in terms of optical and physical conditions, data was collected from four different locations. . Impacts from optical turbulence were observed under both strong and weak physical structures. Turbulence measurements were made by two instruments, the Vertical Microstructure Profiler (VMP) and a 3D acoustical Doppler velocimeter with fast conductivity and temperature probes, in close proximity in the field. Subsequently these were mounted on the IMAST during moored deployments. The turbulence kinetic energy dissipation rate and the temperature dissipation rates were calculated from both setups in order to characterize the physical environments and their impacts. Beam deflection by multiple point

  6. Measurements of turbulent dissipation during the Bahamas Optical Turbulence Experiment (United States)

    Matt, Silvia; Hou, Weilin; Woods, Sarah; Jarosz, Ewa; Goode, Wesley; Weidemann, Alan


    The Bahamas Optical Turbulence Experiment (BOTEX) was conducted in the summer of 2011 to investigate the impact of turbulence on underwater optical imaging. Underwater optical properties can be affected by turbulence in the water, due to localized changes in the index of refraction. We discuss measurements of current velocity and temperature, made with a Nortek Vector Acoustic Doppler Velocimeter (ADV) and PME Conductivity- Temperature (CT) probe, as well as observations made with a Rockland Oceanographic Vertical Microstructure Profiler (VMP). The instruments were deployed in close proximity in the field and in the context of measurements of optical target clarity. Turbulent kinetic energy dissipation (TKED) and temperature dissipation (TD) rates are calculated from the ADV/CT measurements and compared to TKED and TD estimated from the data collected with the VMP. The results show reasonable agreement between the two methods; differences are attributed to turbulence patchiness and intermittence, as well as sampling challenges. The study also highlights the importance of collecting concurrent data on temperature, current velocity, and current shear to assess the turbulence impact on underwater optical properties.

  7. Low-noise, high-speed detector development for optical turbulence fluctuation measurements for NSTXa) (United States)

    Schoenbeck, N. L.; Ellington, S. D.; Fonck, R. J.; Jaehnig, K.; McKee, G. R.; Smith, D.; Uzun-Kaymak, I. U.; Winz, G.


    A new beam emission spectroscopy (BES) diagnostic is under development. Photon-noise limited measurements of neutral beam emissions are achieved using photoconductive photodiodes with a novel frequency-compensated broadband preamplifier. The new BES system includes a next-generation preamplifier and upgraded optical coupling system. Notable features of the design are surface-mount components, minimized stray capacitance, a wide angular acceptance photodiode, a differential output line driver, reduced input capacitance, doubling of the frequency range, net reduced electronic noise, and elimination of the need for a cryogenic cooling system. The irreducible photon noise dominates the noise up to 800 kHz for a typical input power of 60 nW. This new assembly is being integrated into an upgraded multichannel optical detector assembly for a new BES system on the NSTX experiment.

  8. Low-noise, high-speed detector development for optical turbulence fluctuation measurements for NSTX. (United States)

    Schoenbeck, N L; Ellington, S D; Fonck, R J; Jaehnig, K; McKee, G R; Smith, D; Uzun-Kaymak, I U; Winz, G


    A new beam emission spectroscopy (BES) diagnostic is under development. Photon-noise limited measurements of neutral beam emissions are achieved using photoconductive photodiodes with a novel frequency-compensated broadband preamplifier. The new BES system includes a next-generation preamplifier and upgraded optical coupling system. Notable features of the design are surface-mount components, minimized stray capacitance, a wide angular acceptance photodiode, a differential output line driver, reduced input capacitance, doubling of the frequency range, net reduced electronic noise, and elimination of the need for a cryogenic cooling system. The irreducible photon noise dominates the noise up to 800 kHz for a typical input power of 60 nW. This new assembly is being integrated into an upgraded multichannel optical detector assembly for a new BES system on the NSTX experiment.

  9. Optical rogue waves and soliton turbulence in nonlinear fibre optics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Genty, G.; Dudley, J. M.; de Sterke, C. M.


    We examine optical rogue wave generation in nonlinear fibre propagation in terms of soliton turbulence. We show that higher-order dispersion is sufficient to generate localized rogue soliton structures, and Raman scattering effects are not required....

  10. The impact of optical turbulence on particle image velocimetry (United States)

    Matt, Silvia; Nootz, Gero; Hellman, Samuel; Hou, Weilin


    Particle image velocimetry (PIV) is a well-established tool to collect high-resolution velocity and turbulence data in the laboratory. PIV measurements are based on using a laser sheet to illuminate a flow seeded with small particles and taking quick successive images or image pairs of the illuminated particle field with a CCD or CMOS camera. The movement of the particles between images can be used to infer flow field velocities over an image area. During experiments at the Simulated Turbulence and Turbidity Environment (SiTTE) laboratory tank, we observed a marked influence of optical turbulence, i.e. strong temperature gradients leading to changes in the index of refraction, on particle imaging in PIV. The particles look blurred and have a "shooting star" appearance. PIV is routinely used in flows with very high temperature gradients, such as nuclear reactor cooling rods, but the optical path length is typically very short (on the order of cm), and no such effect is generally considered for measurements in liquids. We investigated the effect of optical turbulence on PIV imaging for various optical path lengths (0.5m to 2m) and turbulence strengths. Velocities from the PIV measurements were calculated using the algorithms provided within Dantec's Dynamic Studio and compared to velocities from concurrent velocity point measurements with a Laser Doppler Velocimetry system. The results indicate that optical turbulence can affect PIV measurements in liquids, and that depending on the strength of the optical turbulence and path length, care needs to be taken to mediate this effect using appropriate post-processing techniques when inferring velocities from PIV data.

  11. A simple turbulence simulator for adaptive optics (United States)

    Thomas, Sandrine


    In this article, I describe a new, inexpensive way to make transparent phase screens. I list available technologies of physical turbulence simulation and describe the transparent phase-plate screens that were produced by the laquer-spray technique and characterized in the laboratory. The spatial spectrum of phase perturbations is a reasonable match to the Kolmogorov law with r0 around 0.5 mm at 0.633 μm over spatial frequencies from 0.75 to 5 mm-1. A turbulence simulator using two such rotating screens and destined for the adaptive optics instrument for the 4.1-m SOAR telescope is described.

  12. SQUID and magneto-optic investigations of flux turbulence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koblischka, M.R.; Johansen, T.H.; Baziljevich, M.


    Instabilities of the critical state ("turbulence") are observed in various high-T-c, single crystals by means of magneto-optic (MO) imaging. Using the same samples as in the MO investigations, we observe for the first time characteristic steps in the magnetic moment measured by means of a SQUID s...

  13. Beam steering effects in turbulent high pressure flames

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hemmerling, B.; Kaeppeli, B. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)


    The propagation of a laser beam through a flame is influenced by variations of the optical density. Especially in turbulent high pressure flames this may seriously limit the use of laser diagnostic methods. (author) 1 fig., 2 refs.

  14. LOLAS-2 : redesign of an optical turbulence profiler


    Avila, R.; Zuniga, C. A.; Tapia-Rodriguez, J. J.; L. J. Sanchez; Cruz-Gonzalez, I; Aviles, J. L.; Valdes-Hernandez, O.; Carrasco, E.


    We present the development, tests and first results of the second generation Low Layer Scidar (LOLAS-2). This instrument constitutes a strongly improved version of the prototype Low Layer Scidar, which is aimed at the measurement of optical turbulence profiles close to the ground, with high altitude-resolution. The method is based on the Generalised Scidar principle which consists in taking double-star scintillation images on a defocused pupil plane and calculating in real time the autocovari...

  15. The simulation of turbulence effect based on the technology of optical wavefront control (United States)

    Zhao, Hongming; Fei, Jindong; Du, Huijie; Yu, Hong; Du, Jian; Hu, Xinqi; Dong, Bing


    In the process of high-resolution astronomical observation and space optical mapping, the wavefront aberrations caused by atmosphere turbulence effect lead to reduced resolution of optical imaging sensor. Firstly, on the base of influence of atmosphere turbulence effect for the optical observation system, this paper investigates and analyses the development and technical characteristics of deformable mirror, which is the key device of optical wavefront control technology. In this part, the paper describes the basic principles of wavefront control and measurement using the current production line of deformable mirror, including micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) deformable mirror which is one of the most promising technology for wavefront modulation and Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensors. Secondly, a new method based on the technology of optical wavefront control and the data of optical path difference (OPD) for simulating the effect of optical transmission induced by turbulence is presented in this paper. The modeling and characteristics of atmosphere turbulence effect applied for optical imagery detector of astronomical observation and space optical mapping has been obtained. Finally, based on the theory model of atmosphere turbulence effects and digital simulation results, a preliminary experiment was done and the results verify the feasibility of the new method. The OPD data corresponding to optical propagation effect through turbulent atmosphere can be achieved by the calculation based on the method of ray-tracing and principle of physical optics. It is a common practice to decompose aberrated wavefronts in series over the Zernike polynomials. These data will be applied to the drive and control of the deformable mirror. This kind of simulation method can be applied to simulate the optical distortions effect, such as the dithering and excursion of light spot, in the space based earth observation with the influence of turbulent atmosphere. With the help of the

  16. Inhomogeneity of optical turbulence over False Bay (South Africa) (United States)

    Ullwer, Carmen; Sprung, Detlev; van Eijk, Alexander M. J.; Gunter, Willi; Stein, Karin


    Atmospheric turbulence impacts on the propagation of electro-optical radiation. Typical manifestations of optical turbulence are scintillation (intensity fluctuations), beam wander and (for laser systems) reduction of beam quality. For longer propagation channels, it is important to characterize the vertical and horizontal distribution (inhomogeneity) of the optical turbulence. In the framework of the First European South African Transmission ExpeRiment (FESTER) optical turbulence was measured between June 2015 and February 2016 on a 2 km over-water link over False Bay. The link ran from the Institute of Maritime Technology (IMT) in Simons Town to the lighthouse at Roman Rock Island. Three Boundary layer scintillometers (BLS900) allowed assessing the vertical distribution of optical turbulence at three different heights between 5 and 12 m above the water surface. The expected decrease of Cn2 with height is not always found. These results are analyzed in terms of the meteorological scenarios, and a comparison is made with a fourth optical link providing optical turbulence data over a 8.7 km path from IMT to Kalk Bay, roughly 36° to the north of the three 2 km paths. The results are related to the inhomogeneous meteorological conditions over the Bay as assessed with the numerical weather prediction tool, the Weather Forecast and Research model WRF.

  17. Beam wander due to optical turbulence in water (Conference Presentation) (United States)

    Nootz, Gero A.; Matt, Silvia C.; Kanaev, Andrey V.; Jarosz, Ewa; Hou, Weilin W.


    Optical methods to communicate or sense in the ocean environment can be effected inhomogeneities in the index of refraction called optical turbulence. Beam wander introduced by optical turbulence is of particular interest for optical means relying on the propagation of a well-defined laser beam such as free space communication and laser line scan. Here we present a comprehensive study of beam propagation simulations, lab experiments, and field measurements of laser beams propagating through varying degrees of optical turbulence. For the computational part of the investigation a true end to end simulation was performed. Starting with a CFD simulation of Rayleigh-Bénard convection the temperature fields where converted to index of refraction phase screens which then where used to simulate the propagation of a focused Gaussian laser beam via the split-step Fourier method. Lab experiments where conducted using the same parameters as in the simulation using a good quality TEM00 beam and a CCD camera to record data. For the field experiments a Telescoping Ridged Underwater Sensor Structure (TRUSS) was equipped with a transmitter and a receiver capable of analyzing a multitude of laser beams simultaneously. The TRUSS was deployed in the Bahamas to record beam wander under weak optical turbulence conditions above and stronger optical turbulence conditions inside the thermocline. The data from the experimental and lab experiments are compared and the strength of the optical turbulence in terms of the structure parameter Cn2 are extracted. We also extract Cn2 from the TRUSS experiments and in doing so provide, for the first time, a quantitative estimate for the strength of optical turbulence in the ocean.

  18. Study of the Temperature Turbulences Effect upon Optical Beam in Atmospheric Optical Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Dvorak


    Full Text Available The paper deals with the study of the effect of temperature turbulences upon the optical beam. The polarization parameters of optical radiation sources and different optical beam states of polarization have been investigated. The obtained polarization parameters are projected on the Poincare sphere by means of Stokes vectors. The optical power distribution curves of optical beams are processed into diagrams. The horizontal and vertical components of linearly and circularly polarized optical beams have been studied. The turbulence flux has vertical direction and the optical beam is propagating through an atmosphere environment with three different states of turbulence. The evaluation of the obtained data was done by means of variance and correlation functions computing. Different rates of effect of temperature turbulences upon horizontal and vertical components were found. To reduce the rate of effect the advantage of an optical beam with circular polarization has been proposed.

  19. Highly Turbulent Taylor-Couette Flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gils, Dennis Paulus Maria


    The research issues addressed in this mostly experimental thesis concern highly turbulent Taylor-Couette (TC) flow (Re>105, implying Ta>1011). We study it on a fundamental level to aid our understanding of (TC) turbulence and to make predictions towards astrophysical disks, and at a practical level

  20. Lightwave Propagation in the Presence of Random Turbulent Media and Pointing Jitter in Optical Space Communications


    Toyoshima, Morio


    This study is devoted to lightwave propagation in the presence of random pointing jitter and atmospheric turbulence. The intrinsic narrow beam/high gain nature of free-space laser communications produces several extremely valuable advantages when compared to microwaves, but also requires a very high tracking and pointing accuracy. Furthermore, space-to-ground optical communications are strongly affected by scintillation effects due to the turbulent atmosphere. The purpose of this study is to ...

  1. Improved Climatological Characterization of Optical Turbulence for Space Optical Imaging and Communications (United States)

    Alliss, R.; Felton, B.


    Optical turbulence (OT) acts to distort light in the atmosphere, degrading imagery from astronomical or other telescopes. In addition, the quality of service of a free space optical communications link may also be impacted. Some of the degradation due to turbulence can be corrected by adaptive optics. However, the severity of optical turbulence, and thus the amount of correction required, is largely dependent upon the turbulence at the location of interest. Therefore, it is vital to understand the climatology of optical turbulence at such locations. In many cases, it is impractical and expensive to setup instrumentation to characterize the climatology of OT, particularly for OCONUS locations, so simulations become a less expensive and convenient alternative. The strength of OT is characterized by the refractive index structure function Cn2, which in turn is used to calculate atmospheric seeing parameters. While attempts have been made to characterize Cn2 using empirical models, Cn2 can be calculated more directly from Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) simulations using pressure, temperature, thermal stability, vertical wind shear, turbulent Prandtl number, and turbulence kinetic energy (TKE). In this work we use the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) NWP model to generate Cn2 climatologies in the planetary boundary layer and free atmosphere, allowing for both point-to-point and ground-to-space seeing estimates of the Fried Coherence length (ro) and other seeing parameters. Simulations are performed using the Maui High Performance Computing Centers (MHPCC) Mana cluster. The WRF model is configured to run at 1km horizontal resolution over a domain covering several hundreds of kilometers. The vertical resolution varies from 25 meters in the boundary layer to 500 meters in the stratosphere. The model top is 20 km. We are interested in the variations in Cn2 and the Fried Coherence Length (ro). Nearly two years of simulations have been performed over various regions

  2. Generalized anisotropic turbulence spectra and applications in the optical waves' propagation through anisotropic turbulence. (United States)

    Cui, Linyan; Xue, Bindang; Zhou, Fugen


    Theoretical and experimental investigations have shown that the atmospheric turbulence exhibits both anisotropic and non-Kolmogorov properties. In this work, two theoretical atmosphere refractive-index fluctuations spectral models are derived for optical waves propagating through anisotropic non-Kolmogorov atmospheric turbulence. They consider simultaneously the finite turbulence inner and outer scales and the asymmetric property of turbulence eddies in the orthogonal xy-plane throughout the path. Two anisotropy factors which parameterize the asymmetry of turbulence eddies in both horizontal and vertical directions are introduced in the orthogonal xy-plane, so that the circular symmetry assumption of turbulence eddies in the xy-plane is no longer required. Deviations from the classic 11/3 power law behavior in the spectrum model are also allowed by assuming power law value variations between 3 and 4. Based on the derived anisotropic spectral model and the Rytov approximation theory, expressions for the variance of angle of arrival (AOA) fluctuations are derived for optical plane and spherical waves propagating through weak anisotropic non-Kolmogorov turbulence. Calculations are performed to analyze the derived spectral models and the variance of AOA fluctuations.

  3. Optical wave turbulence: Towards a unified nonequilibrium thermodynamic formulation of statistical nonlinear optics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Picozzi, A., E-mail: [Laboratoire Interdisciplinaire Carnot de Bourgogne, Université de Bourgogne, CNRS-UMR 5027, Dijon (France); Garnier, J. [Laboratoire de Probabilités et Modèles Aléatoires and Laboratoire Jacques-Louis Lions, Université Paris VII, 75205 Paris Cedex 13 (France); Hansson, T. [Department of Information Engineering, Università di Brescia, Brescia 25123 (Italy); Suret, P.; Randoux, S. [Laboratoire de Physique des Lasers, Atomes et Molécules, CNRS, Université de Lille (France); Millot, G. [Laboratoire Interdisciplinaire Carnot de Bourgogne, Université de Bourgogne, CNRS-UMR 5027, Dijon (France); Christodoulides, D.N. [College of Optics/CREOL, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL 32816 (United States)


    The nonlinear propagation of coherent optical fields has been extensively explored in the framework of nonlinear optics, while the linear propagation of incoherent fields has been widely studied in the framework of statistical optics. However, these two fundamental fields of optics have been mostly developed independently of each other, so that a satisfactory understanding of statistical nonlinear optics is still lacking. This article is aimed at reviewing a unified theoretical formulation of statistical nonlinear optics on the basis of the wave turbulence theory, which provides a nonequilibrium thermodynamic description of the system of incoherent nonlinear waves. We consider the nonlinear Schrödinger equation as a representative model accounting either for a nonlocal or a noninstantaneous nonlinearity, as well as higher-order dispersion effects. Depending on the amount of nonlocal (noninstantaneous) nonlinear interaction and the amount of inhomogeneous (nonstationary) statistics of the incoherent wave, different types of kinetic equations are derived and discussed. In the spatial domain, when the incoherent wave exhibits inhomogeneous statistical fluctuations, different forms of the (Hamiltonian) Vlasov equation are obtained depending on the amount of nonlocality. This Vlasov approach describes the processes of incoherent modulational instability and localized incoherent soliton structures. In the temporal domain, the causality property inherent to the response function leads to a kinetic formulation analogous to the weak Langmuir turbulence equation, which describes nonlocalized spectral incoherent solitons. In the presence of a highly noninstantaneous response, this formulation reduces to a family of singular integro-differential kinetic equations (e.g., Benjamin–Ono equation), which describe incoherent dispersive shock waves. Conversely, a non-stationary statistics leads to a (non-Hamiltonian) long-range Vlasov formulation, whose self-consistent potential

  4. Laboratory simulation of atmospheric turbulence induced optical wavefront distortion (United States)

    Taylor, Travis Shane


    Many creative approaches have been taken in the past for simulating the effect that atmospheric turbulence has on optical beams. Most of the experimental architectures have been complicated and consisted of many optical elements as well as moving components. These techniques have shown a modicum of success; however, they are not completely controllable or predictable. A benchtop technique for experimentally producing one important effect that atmospheric turbulence has on optical beams (phase distortion) is presented here. The system is completely controllable and predictable while accurately representing the statistical nature of the problem. Previous experimentation in optical processing through turbulent media has demonstrated that optical wavefront distortions can be produced via spatial light modulating (SLM) devices, and most turbulence models and experimental results indicate that turbulence can be represented as a phase fluctuation. The amplitude distributions in the resulting far field are primarily due to propagation of the phase. Operating a liquid crystal television (LCTV) in the ``phase- mostly'' mode, a phase fluctuation type model for turbulence is utilized in the present investigation, and a real-time experiment for demonstrating the effects was constructed. For an optical system to simulate optical wavefront distortions due to atmospheric turbulence, the following are required: (1)An optical element that modulates the phasefront of an optical beam (2)A model and a technique for generating spatially correlated turbulence simulating distributions (3)Hardware and software for displaying and manipulating the information addressing the optical phase modulation device The LCTV is ideal for this application. When operated in the ``phase-mostly'' mode some LCTVs can modulate the phasefront of an optical beam by as much as 2π and an algorithm for generating spatially correlated phase screens can be constructed via mathematical modeling software such as

  5. Statistical analysis of optical turbulence intensity over a 2.33 km propagation path. (United States)

    Tunick, Arnold


    Refractive index and microclimate fluctuations can significantly affect free-space laser communications. To better understand these physics relationships, optical scintillometer data were collected over a near-horizontal propagation path along with in-situ rooftop measurements of temperature variance. Regression analysis of time-averaged data revealed that fairly high correlation values (i.e., R >/= 0.80) occurred in 8 of 21 cases studied. Analysis suggests that point sensors can provide valuable information on optical turbulence for extended paths. Additional research is recommended to further explore point measurements and their relation to integrated values of optical turbulence over inhomogeneous paths.

  6. Turbulence velocity profiling for high sensitivity and vertical-resolution atmospheric characterization with Stereo-SCIDAR (United States)

    Osborn, J.; Butterley, T.; Townson, M. J.; Reeves, A. P.; Morris, T. J.; Wilson, R. W.


    As telescopes become larger, into the era of ˜40 m Extremely Large Telescopes, the high-resolution vertical profile of the optical turbulence strength is critical for the validation, optimization and operation of optical systems. The velocity of atmospheric optical turbulence is an important parameter for several applications including astronomical adaptive optics systems. Here, we compare the vertical profile of the velocity of the atmospheric wind above La Palma by means of a comparison of Stereo-SCIntillation Detection And Ranging (Stereo-SCIDAR) with the Global Forecast System models and nearby balloon-borne radiosondes. We use these data to validate the automated optical turbulence velocity identification from the Stereo-SCIDAR instrument mounted on the 2.5 m Isaac Newton Telescope, La Palma. By comparing these data we infer that the turbulence velocity and the wind velocity are consistent and that the automated turbulence velocity identification of the Stereo-SCIDAR is precise. The turbulence velocities can be used to increase the sensitivity of the turbulence strength profiles, as weaker turbulence that may be misinterpreted as noise can be detected with a velocity vector. The turbulence velocities can also be used to increase the altitude resolution of a detected layer, as the altitude of the velocity vectors can be identified to a greater precision than the native resolution of the system. We also show examples of complex velocity structure within a turbulent layer caused by wind shear at the interface of atmospheric zones.

  7. High Altitude Clear Air Turbulence Project (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Air Force Flight Dynamics Laboratory conducted the High Altitude Clear Air Turbulence Project in the mid 1960s with the intention of better understanding air...

  8. Optical Propagation Through a Turbulent Jet

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Truman, C


    .... In a complementary experimental study of prediction-based adaptive optics, Linear Stochastic Estimation of optical beam deflection produced by the jet has been used in an open-loop control system...

  9. 500  Gb/s free-space optical transmission over strong atmospheric turbulence channels. (United States)

    Qu, Zhen; Djordjevic, Ivan B


    We experimentally demonstrate a high-spectral-efficiency, large-capacity, featured free-space-optical (FSO) transmission system by using low-density, parity-check (LDPC) coded quadrature phase shift keying (QPSK) combined with orbital angular momentum (OAM) multiplexing. The strong atmospheric turbulence channel is emulated by two spatial light modulators on which four randomly generated azimuthal phase patterns yielding the Andrews spectrum are recorded. The validity of such an approach is verified by reproducing the intensity distribution and irradiance correlation function (ICF) from the full-scale simulator. Excellent agreement of experimental, numerical, and analytical results is found. To reduce the phase distortion induced by the turbulence emulator, the inexpensive wavefront sensorless adaptive optics (AO) is used. To deal with remaining channel impairments, a large-girth LDPC code is used. To further improve the aggregate data rate, the OAM multiplexing is combined with WDM, and 500 Gb/s optical transmission over the strong atmospheric turbulence channels is demonstrated.

  10. Characterising atmospheric optical turbulence using stereo-SCIDAR (United States)

    Osborn, James; Butterley, Tim; Föhring, Dora; Wilson, Richard


    Stereo-SCIDAR (SCIntillation Detection and Ranging) is a development to the well known SCIDAR method for characterisation of the Earth's atmospheric optical turbulence. Here we present some interesting capabilities, comparisons and results from a recent campaign on the 2.5 m Isaac Newton Telescope on La Palma.

  11. Turbulence Models: Data from Other Experiments: Shock Wave / Turbulent Boundary Layer Flows at High Mach Numbers (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Shock Wave / Turbulent Boundary Layer Flows at High Mach Numbers. This web page provides data from experiments that may be useful for the validation of turbulence...

  12. Characterization of optical turbulence in a jet engine exhaust with Shack-Hartmenn wavefront sensor (United States)

    Deron, R.; Mendez, F.


    Airborne laser countermeasure applications (DIRCM) are hampered by the turbulence of jet engine exhaust. The effects of this source of perturbation on optical propagation have still to be documented and analyzed in order to get a better insight into the different mechanisms of the plume perturbations and also to validate CFD/LES codes. For that purpose, wave front sensing has been used as a non-intrusive optical technique to provide unsteady and turbulent optical measurements through a plume of a jet engine installed at a fixed point on the ground. The experiment has been implemented in October 2007 along with other optical measuring techniques at Volvo Aero Corporation (Trollhättan, Sweden). This study is part of a European research programme dealing with DIRCM issues. The Shack- Hartmann (SH) wave front sensing technique was employed. It consisted of 64 x 64 lenslets coupled to a 1024x1024 pixel Dalsa CCD sensor working at a sampling rate of 40 Hz. A 15 ns pulsed laser synchronized with the SH sensor enabled "freezing" turbulence in each SH image. The ability of the technique to substract a reference permitted a simple calibration procedure to ensure accurate and reliable measurements despite vibration environment. Instantaneous phases are reconstructed using Fourier techniques so as to obtain a better spatial resolution against turbulent effects. Under any given plume condition, overall tilt aberration prevails. Phase power spectra derived from phase statistics are drawn according to the plume main axis and to normal axis. They compare favorably well to the decaying Kolmogorov power law on a useful high spatial frequency range. Averaged phases are also decomposed into Zernike polynomials to analyze optical mode behavior according to engine status and to plume abscissa. With overall tilt removed, turbulent DSP's amplitude drops by a factor of 30 to 40 and mean aberrations by a factor of 10 from an abscissa 1 meter to another 3.5 meters away from the engine

  13. Experimental Investigation of Turbulence-Chemistry Interaction in High-Reynolds-Number Turbulent Partially Premixed Flames (United States)


    with implications in flame diagnostics. Applied Physics B., 104:689–698, 2011. 22 DISTRIBUTION A: Distribution approved for public release Participating...AFRL-AFOSR-VA-TR-2016-0277 Experimental Investigation of Turbulence- Chemistry Interaction in High-Reynolds-Number Turbulent Partially Premixed...4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE [U] Experimental investigation of turbulence- chemistry interaction in high-Reynolds-number 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER turbulent

  14. Fade statistics of M-turbulent optical links

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jurado-Navas, Antonio; Maria Garrido-Balsells, Jose; Castillo-Vazquez, Miguel


    A new and generalized statistical model, called Malaga or simply M distribution, has been derived recently to characterize the irradiance fluctuations of an unbounded optical wavefront propagating through a turbulent medium under all irradiance fluctuation conditions. The aforementioned model...... extends and unifies in a simple analytical closed-form expression most of the proposed statistical models for free-space optical (FSO) communications widely employed until now in the scientific literature. Based on that M model, we have studied some important features associated to its fade statistics...

  15. Reciprocity-enhanced optical communication through atmospheric turbulence - part II: communication architectures and performance (United States)

    Puryear, Andrew L.; Shapiro, Jeffrey H.; Parenti, Ronald R.


    Free-space optical communication provides rapidly deployable, dynamic communication links that are capable of very high data rates compared with those of radio-frequency systems. As such, free-space optical communication is ideal for mobile platforms, for platforms that require the additional security afforded by the narrow divergence of a laser beam, and for systems that must be deployed in a relatively short time frame. In clear-weather conditions the data rate and utility of free-space optical communication links are primarily limited by fading caused by micro-scale atmospheric temperature variations that create parts-per-million refractive-index fluctuations known as atmospheric turbulence. Typical communication techniques to overcome turbulence-induced fading, such as interleavers with sophisticated codes, lose viability as the data rate is driven higher or the delay requirement is driven lower. This paper, along with its companion [J. H. Shapiro and A. Puryear, "Reciprocity-Enhanced Optical Communication through Atmospheric Turbulence-Part I: Reciprocity Proofs and Far-Field Power Transfer"], present communication systems and techniques that exploit atmospheric reciprocity to overcome turbulence which are viable for high data rate and low delay requirement systems. Part I proves that reciprocity is exhibited under rather general conditions, and derives the optimal power-transfer phase compensation for far-field operation. The Part II paper presents capacity-achieving architectures that exploit reciprocity to overcome the complexity and delay issues that limit state-of-the art free-space optical communications. Further, this paper uses theoretical turbulence models to determine the performance—delay, throughput, and complexity—of the proposed architectures.

  16. An optical fiber interferometric system for non-contact measurement of atmospheric optical turbulence (United States)

    Mei, Haiping; Rao, Ruizhong


    Optical turbulence degrades the quality of laser beam propagation and the quality of the image of optical system, limiting the spatial resolution that can be obtained. A novel single-air-gap fiber optical interferometric system useful for non-contact measurement of the fine structure of optical turbulence is presented. The main idea of this system is based on the application of a specially constructed optical fiber Mach-Zehnder interferometer to measure the phase fluctuations effected by the random fluctuations of refractive index in the turbulent atmosphere. The light source is a long coherence length infrared laser operating at the wavelength of 1.31μm and the optical path exposed to the atmosphere can be adjusted to a most suitable value according to the operational environment. Theoretical estimation illustrates that the system can measure the minimal atmospheric refractive index fluctuation up to 10 -10 during a 2cm propagation path. It is easy to have a calibration of the system and the result shows that the voltage refractive index sensitivity is about 2.1x10 -6 V -1. The system is integrated and well fixed in a burly airproof box with only the sensing arm exposed to the air. It follows that the system is suitable for the measurement of atmospheric turbulence over land and ocean surfaces.

  17. SIMO optical wireless links with nonzero boresight pointing errors over M modeled turbulence channels (United States)

    Varotsos, G. K.; Nistazakis, H. E.; Petkovic, M. I.; Djordjevic, G. T.; Tombras, G. S.


    Over the last years terrestrial free-space optical (FSO) communication systems have demonstrated an increasing scientific and commercial interest in response to the growing demands for ultra high bandwidth, cost-effective and secure wireless data transmissions. However, due the signal propagation through the atmosphere, the performance of such links depends strongly on the atmospheric conditions such as weather phenomena and turbulence effect. Additionally, their operation is affected significantly by the pointing errors effect which is caused by the misalignment of the optical beam between the transmitter and the receiver. In order to address this significant performance degradation, several statistical models have been proposed, while particular attention has been also given to diversity methods. Here, the turbulence-induced fading of the received optical signal irradiance is studied through the M (alaga) distribution, which is an accurate model suitable for weak to strong turbulence conditions and unifies most of the well-known, previously emerged models. Thus, taking into account the atmospheric turbulence conditions along with the pointing errors effect with nonzero boresight and the modulation technique that is used, we derive mathematical expressions for the estimation of the average bit error rate performance for SIMO FSO links. Finally, proper numerical results are given to verify our derived expressions and Monte Carlo simulations are also provided to further validate the accuracy of the analysis proposed and the obtained mathematical expressions.

  18. The dependence of optical turbulence on thermal and mechanical forces over the sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijk, A.M.J. van; Sprung, D.; Sucher, E.; Eisele, C.; Seiffer, D.; Stein, K.


    Optical turbulence for over-water conditions was investigated in a long-term experiment over False Bay near Cape Town, South Africa. A sonic anemometer and two boundary-layer scintillometers were deployed to access in-situ turbulence as well as the integrated turbulence over two 1.8 and 8.7 km

  19. Analysis of optical waves propagating through moderate-to-strong non-Kolmogorov turbulence. (United States)

    Cui, Linyan; Xue, Bindang; Cao, Xiaoguang


    The turbulence effect models derived with the Rytov theory method cannot be applied in the analysis of moderate-to-strong non-Kolmogorov turbulence. In this work, new expressions of the temporal power spectra of irradiance fluctuations are derived theoretically for optical waves propagating through moderate-to-strong non-Kolmogorov turbulence. They are developed under Andrews' assumption that small-scale irradiance fluctuations are modulated by large-scale irradiance fluctuations of the optical wave. A wide range of turbulence strength is considered instead of a limited range for weak non-Kolmogorov turbulence. These expressions have general spectral power law values in the range 3 to 4 instead of the standard power law value of 11/3 for Kolmogorov turbulence. Calculations are performed to analyze turbulence strength and turbulence spectral power law's variations on the final expressions.

  20. LOLAS: an optical turbulence profiler in the atmospheric boundary layer with extreme altitude-resolution


    Avila, R.; Aviles, J. L.; Wilson, R. W.; Chun, M.; Butterley, T.; Carrasco, E.


    We report the development and first results of an instrument called Low Layer Scidar (LOLAS) which is aimed at the measurement of optical-turbulence profiles in the atmospheric boundary layer with high altitude-resolution. The method is based on the Generalized Scidar (GS) concept, but unlike the GS instruments which need a 1- m or larger telescope, LOLAS is implemented on a dedicated 40-cm telescope, making it an independent instrument. The system is designed for widely separated double-star...

  1. Determining astronomical seeing conditions at Matjiesfontein by optical and turbulence methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nickola, M [Hartebeesthoek Radio Astronomy Observatory (HartRAO) Space Geodesy Programme, PO Box 443, Krugersdorp 1740 (South Africa); Esau, I [G.C. Rieber Climate Institute of the Nansen Environmental and Remote Sensing Center (NERSC), Thoermohlensgate 47, N-5006 Bergen (Norway); Djolov, G [University of Pretoria, Department of Geography, Geoinformatics and Meteorology, Faculty of Natural and Agricultural Sciences, University of Pretoria, Pretoria 0002 (South Africa)


    Matjiesfontein in the Karoo has been proposed as a suitable location for a new fundamental space geodetic observatory. On-site geodetic equipment will include a Lunar Laser Ranger (LLR). LLR requires sub-arcsecond optical seeing conditions for delivery of high quality and quantity data. Seeing conditions at the Matjiesfontein site will be evaluated by making use of an automated seeing monitor and by modelling atmospheric turbulence with Large Eddy Simulation Nansen Center Improved Code (LESNIC).

  2. Determining astronomical seeing conditions at Matjiesfontein by optical and turbulence methods (United States)

    Nickola, M.; Esau, I.; Djolov, G.


    Matjiesfontein in the Karoo has been proposed as a suitable location for a new fundamental space geodetic observatory. On-site geodetic equipment will include a Lunar Laser Ranger (LLR). LLR requires sub-arcsecond optical seeing conditions for delivery of high quality and quantity data. Seeing conditions at the Matjiesfontein site will be evaluated by making use of an automated seeing monitor and by modelling atmospheric turbulence with Large Eddy Simulation Nansen Center Improved Code (LESNIC).

  3. Performance analysis of 1-km free-space optical communication system over real atmospheric turbulence channels (United States)

    Liu, Dachang; Wang, Zixiong; Liu, Jianguo; Tan, Jun; Yu, Lijuan; Mei, Haiping; Zhou, Yusong; Zhu, Ninghua


    The performance of a free-space optical communication system is highly affected by the atmospheric turbulence in terms of scintillation. An optical communication system based on intensity-modulation direct-detection was built with 1-km transmission distance to evaluate the bit error rate (BER) performance over real atmospheric turbulence. 2.5-, 5-, and 10-Gbps data rate transmissions were carried out, where error-free transmission could be achieved during over 37% of the 2.5-Gbps transmissions and over 43% of the 5-Gbps transmissions. In the rest of the transmissions, BER deteriorated as the refractive-index structure constant increased, while the two measured items have almost the same trend.

  4. Selection of unstable patterns and control of optical turbulence by Fourier plane filtering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mamaev, A.V.; Saffman, M.


    We report on selection and stabilization of transverse optical patterns in a feedback mirror experiment. Amplitude filtering in the Fourier plane is used to select otherwise unstable spatial patterns. Optical turbulence observed for nonlinearities far above the pattern formation threshold...

  5. Validation of Optical Turbulence Simulations from a Numerical Weather Prediction Model in Support of Adaptive Optics Design (United States)

    Alliss, R.; Felton, B.

    Optical turbulence (OT) acts to distort light in the atmosphere, degrading imagery from large astronomical telescopes and possibly reducing data quality of air to air laser communication links. Some of the degradation due to turbulence can be corrected by adaptive optics. However, the severity of optical turbulence, and thus the amount of correction required, is largely dependent upon the turbulence at the location of interest. Therefore, it is vital to understand the climatology of optical turbulence at such locations. In many cases, it is impractical and expensive to setup instrumentation to characterize the climatology of OT, so simulations become a less expensive and convenient alternative. The strength of OT is characterized by the refractive index structure function Cn2, which in turn is used to calculate atmospheric seeing parameters. While attempts have been made to characterize Cn2 using empirical models, Cn2 can be calculated more directly from Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) simulations using pressure, temperature, thermal stability, vertical wind shear, turbulent Prandtl number, and turbulence kinetic energy (TKE). In this work we use the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) NWP model to generate Cn2 climatologies in the planetary boundary layer and free atmosphere, allowing for both point-to-point and ground-to-space seeing estimates of the Fried Coherence length (ro) and other seeing parameters. Simulations are performed using the Maui High Performance Computing Centers Jaws cluster. The WRF model is configured to run at 1km horizontal resolution over a domain covering the islands of Maui and the Big Island. The vertical resolution varies from 25 meters in the boundary layer to 500 meters in the stratosphere. The model top is 20 km. We are interested in the variations in Cn2 and the Fried Coherence Length (ro) between the summits of Haleakala and Mauna Loa. Over six months of simulations have been performed over this area. Simulations indicate that

  6. Influence of asymmetry turbulence cells on the angle of arrival fluctuations of optical waves in anisotropic non-Kolmogorov turbulence. (United States)

    Cui, Linyan; Xue, Bindang


    Theoretical and experimental investigations have shown that the atmospheric turbulence exhibits both anisotropic and non-Kolmogorov properties. Very recent analyses of angle of arrival (AOA) fluctuations of an optical wave in anisotropic non-Kolmogorov turbulence have adopted the assumption that the propagation path was in the z-direction with circular symmetry of turbulence cells maintained in the orthogonal xy-plane throughout the path, and one single anisotropy factor was adopted in the orthogonal xy-plane to parameterize the asymmetry of turbulence cells or eddies in both horizontal and vertical directions. In this work, the circular symmetry assumption of turbulence cells or eddies in the orthogonal xy-plane is no longer required, and two anisotropy parameters are introduced in the orthogonal xy-plane to investigate the AOA fluctuations. In addition, deviations from the classic 11/3 spectral power law behavior for Kolmogorov turbulence are allowed by assuming spectral power law value variations between 3 and 4. With the Rytov approximation theory, new theoretical models for the variance of AOA fluctuations are developed for optical plane and spherical waves propagating through weak anisotropic non-Kolmogorov atmospheric turbulence. When the two anisotropic parameters are equal to each other, they reduce correctly to the recently published results (the circular symmetry assumption of turbulence cells or eddies in the orthogonal xy-plane was adopted). Furthermore, when these two anisotropic parameters equal one, they reduce correctly to the previously published analytic expressions for the cases of optical wave propagation through weak isotropic non-Kolmogorov turbulence.

  7. Temporal power spectra of irradiance scintillation for infrared optical waves' propagation through marine atmospheric turbulence. (United States)

    Cui, Linyan


    Current theoretical temporal power spectra models of an optical wave have been developed for terrestrial environments. The interactions between humidity and temperature fluctuations in the marine atmospheric environments make the marine atmospheric turbulence particularly challenging, and the optical waves' propagation through marine turbulence exhibits a different behavior with respect to terrestrial propagation. In this paper, the temporal power spectra of irradiance scintillation under weak marine atmospheric turbulence, which is one of the key temporal statistics to describe the correlation of irradiance fluctuations at different time instances, is investigated in detail both analytically and numerically. Closed-form expressions for the temporal power spectra of irradiance scintillation are derived for infrared plane and spherical waves under weak marine atmospheric turbulence, and they consider physically the influences of finite turbulence inner and outer scales. The final results indicate that the marine atmospheric turbulence brings more effects on the irradiance scintillation than the terrestrial atmospheric turbulence.

  8. Performance analysis of an adaptive optics system for free-space optics communication through atmospheric turbulence. (United States)

    Wang, Yukun; Xu, Huanyu; Li, Dayu; Wang, Rui; Jin, Chengbin; Yin, Xianghui; Gao, Shijie; Mu, Quanquan; Xuan, Li; Cao, Zhaoliang


    The performance of free-space optics communication (FSOC) is greatly degraded by atmospheric turbulence. Adaptive optics (AO) is an effective method for attenuating the influence. In this paper, the influence of the spatial and temporal characteristics of turbulence on the performance of AO in a FSOC system is investigated. Based on the Greenwood frequency (GF) and the ratio of receiver aperture diameter to atmospheric coherent length (D/r 0 ), the relationship between FSOC performance (CE) and AO parameters (corrected Zernike modes number and bandwidth) is derived for the first time. Then, simulations and experiments are conducted to analyze the influence of AO parameters on FSOC performance under different GF and D/r 0 . The simulation and experimental results show that, for common turbulence conditions, the number of corrected Zernike modes can be fixed at 35 and the bandwidth of the AO system should be larger than the GF. Measurements of the bit error rate (BER) for moderate turbulence conditions (D/r 0  = 10, f G  = 60 Hz) show that when the bandwidth is two times that of GF, the average BER is decreased by two orders of magnitude compared with f G /f 3dB  = 1. These results and conclusions can provide important guidance in the design of an AO system for FSOC.

  9. Performance Analysis of Free-Space Optical Communication Systems With Multiuser Diversity Over Atmospheric Turbulence Channels

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Liang


    Free-space optical (FSO) communication has become a cost-effective method to provide high data rates. However, the turbulence-induced fading limits its application to short-range applications. To address this, we propose a multiuser diversity (MD) FSO scheme in which the Nth best user is selected and the channel fluctuations can be effectively exploited to produce a selection diversity gain. More specifically, we first present the statistics analysis for the considered system over both weak and strong atmospheric turbulence channels. Based on these statistics, the outage probability, bit-error rate performance, average capacity, diversity order, and coverage are analyzed. Results show that the diversity order for the gamma-gamma fading is N min{α, β}/2, where N is the number of users, and α and β are the channel fading parameters related to the effective atmospheric conditions of the link.

  10. Temporal averaging of atmospheric turbulence-induced optical scintillation. (United States)

    Yura, H T; Beck, S M


    Based on the Rytov approximation we have developed for weak scintillation conditions a general expression for the temporal averaged variance of irradiance. The present analysis provides, for what we believe is the first time, a firm theoretical basis for the often-observed reduction of irradiance fluctuations of an optical beam due to atmospheric turbulence. Accurate elementary analytic approximations are presented here for plane, spherical and beam waves for predicting the averaging times required to obtain an arbitrary value of the ratio of the standard deviation to the mean of an optical beam propagating through an arbitrary path in the atmosphere. In particular, a novel application of differential absorption measurement for the purpose of measuring column-integrated concentrations of various so-called greenhouse gas (GHG) atmospheric components is considered where the results of our analysis indicates that relatively short averaging times, on the order of a few seconds, are required to reduce the irradiance fluctuations to a value precise enough for GHG measurements of value to climate related studies.

  11. Multi-instrument characterization of optical turbulence at the Ali observatory (United States)

    Liu, L.-Y.; Yao, Y.-Q.; Vernin, J.; Wang, H.-S.; Yin, J.; Qian, X.


    In order to characterize the atmospheric optical turbulence at Ali observatory, we have deployed multi-instruments, which are able to continuously monitor the optical turbulence for site evaluation. These instruments include the DIMM, MASS, Single Star SCIDAR and Polaris seeing monitor, and we also plan to install SNODAR and Micro-thermal sensors for the turbulence on surface layer by the end of this year. This configuration allows us to collect a substantial database and make cross-comparison of the results. We have successfully obtained the profiles of optical turbulence and wind speed with Single Star SCIDAR, as well as the key parameters for adaptive optics application, such as seeing, coherence time, and isoplanatic angle. The DIMM seeing measurements are also carried out simultaneously. The median seeing measured by the DIMM and SSS in 2013 is 0.69 and 0.79 arcsec, respectively.

  12. Simulations and Data Analysis for Air Force Optical Turbulence Forecasting Applications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Werne, Joseph; Fritts, David; Lund, Thomas


    We completed a series of Direct-Numerical and Large-Eddy Simulations (DNS and LES) of wind-shear instability and gravity wave breaking and associated analysis to characterize atmospheric turbulence and its optical impacts...

  13. Turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Bailly, Christophe


    This book covers the major problems of turbulence and turbulent processes, including  physical phenomena, their modeling and their simulation. After a general introduction in Chapter 1 illustrating many aspects dealing with turbulent flows, averaged equations and kinetic energy budgets are provided in Chapter 2. The concept of turbulent viscosity as a closure of the Reynolds stress is also introduced. Wall-bounded flows are presented in Chapter 3, and aspects specific to boundary layers and channel or pipe flows are also pointed out. Free shear flows, namely free jets and wakes, are considered in Chapter 4. Chapter 5 deals with vortex dynamics. Homogeneous turbulence, isotropy, and dynamics of isotropic turbulence are presented in Chapters 6 and 7. Turbulence is then described both in the physical space and in the wave number space. Time dependent numerical simulations are presented in Chapter 8, where an introduction to large eddy simulation is offered. The last three chapters of the book summarize remarka...

  14. Measuring horizontal atmospheric turbulence at ground level from optical turbulence generator (OTG) using a 1D sensor (United States)

    Tíjaro Rojas, Omar J.; Torres Moreno, Yezid; Rhodes, William T.


    Different theories including Kolmogorov have been valid to explain and model physic phenomenal like vertical atmospheric turbulence. In horizontal path, we still have many questions, due to weather problems and consequences that it generates. To emulate some conditions of environment, we built an Optical Turbulence Generator (OTG) having spatial, humidity and temperature, measurements that were captured in the same time from optical synchronization. This development was made using digital modules as ADC (Analog to Digital Converters) and communications protocol as SPI. We all made from microcontrollers. On the other hand, to measure optical signal, we used a photomultiplier tube (PMT) where captured the intensity of fringes that shifted with a known frequency. Outcomes show temporal shift and phase drive from dependent samples (in time domain) that correspond with frozen turbulence given by Taylor theory. Parameters studied were C2n, scintillation and inner scale in temporal patterns and analysis of their relationship with the physical associated variables. These patterns were taken from Young Interferometer in laboratory room scale. In the future, we hope with these studies, we will can implement an experiment to characterize atmospheric turbulence in a long distance, placed in the equatorial weather zone.

  15. Evaporation of polydispersed droplets in a highly turbulent channel flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cochet, M.; Bazile, Rudy; Ferret, B.; Cazin, S. [INPT, UPS, IMFT (Institut de Mecanique des Fluides de Toulouse), Universite de Toulouse (France)


    A model experiment for the study of evaporating turbulent two-phase flows is presented here. The study focuses on a situation where pre-atomized and dispersed droplets vaporize and mix in a heated turbulent flow. The test bench consists in a channel flow with characteristics of homogeneous and isotropic turbulence where fluctuations levels reach very high values (25% in the established zone). An ultrasonic atomizer allows the injection of a mist of small droplets of acetone in the carrier flow. The large range diameters ensure that every kind of droplet behavior with regards to turbulence is possible. Instantaneous concentration fields of the vaporized phase are extracted from fluorescent images (PLIF) of the two phase flow. The evolution of the mixing of the acetone vapor is analyzed for two different liquid mass loadings. Despite the high turbulence levels, concentration fluctuations remain significant, indicating that air and acetone vapor are not fully mixed far from the injector. (orig.)

  16. LOLAS: an optical turbulence profiler in the atmospheric boundary layer with extreme altitude resolution (United States)

    Avila, R.; Avilés, J. L.; Wilson, R. W.; Chun, M.; Butterley, T.; Carrasco, E.


    We report the development and first results of an instrument called Low Layer SCIDAR (Scintillation Detection and Ranging) (LOLAS) which is aimed at the measurement of optical-turbulence profiles in the atmospheric boundary layer with high altitude resolution. The method is based on the Generalized SCIDAR (GS) concept, but unlike the GS instruments which need a 1-m or larger telescope, LOLAS is implemented on a dedicated 40-cm telescope, making it an independent instrument. The system is designed for widely separated double-star targets, which enables the high altitude resolution. Using a 200-arcsec-separation double star, we have obtained turbulence profiles with unprecedented 12-m resolution. The system incorporates necessary novel algorithms for autoguiding, autofocus and image stabilization. The results presented here were obtained at Mauna Kea Observatory. They show LOLAS capabilities but cannot be considered as representative of the site. A forthcoming paper will be devoted to the site characterization. The instrument was built as part of the Ground Layer Turbulence Monitoring Campaign on Mauna Kea for Gemini Observatory.

  17. Optical turbulence parameters characterized via optical measurements over a 2.33 km free-space laser path. (United States)

    Tunick, Arnold


    Optical turbulence research contributes to improved laser communications, adaptive optics, and long-range imaging systems. This paper presents experimental measurements of scintillation and focal spot displacement to obtain optical turbulence information along a near-horizontal 2.33 km free-space laser propagation path. Calculated values for the refractive index structure constant (C(n)(2)) and Fried parameter (r0) are compared to scintillometer-based measurements for several cases in winter and spring. Optical measurements were investigated using two different laser sources for the first and second parts of the experiment. Scintillation index estimates from recorded signal intensities were corrected to account for aperture averaging. As a result, we found that an earlier calculation algorithm based on analysis of log-amplitude intensity variance was the best estimator of optical turbulence parameters over the propagation path considered.

  18. Average capacity for optical wireless communication systems over exponentiated Weibull distribution non-Kolmogorov turbulent channels. (United States)

    Cheng, Mingjian; Zhang, Yixin; Gao, Jie; Wang, Fei; Zhao, Fengsheng


    We model the average channel capacity of optical wireless communication systems for cases of weak to strong turbulence channels, using the exponentiation Weibull distribution model. The joint effects of the beam wander and spread, pointing errors, atmospheric attenuation, and the spectral index of non-Kolmogorov turbulence on system performance are included. Our results show that the average capacity decreases steeply as the propagation length L changes from 0 to 200 m and decreases slowly down or tends to a stable value as the propagation length L is greater than 200 m. In the weak turbulence region, by increasing the detection aperture, we can improve the average channel capacity and the atmospheric visibility as an important issue affecting the average channel capacity. In the strong turbulence region, the increase of the radius of the detection aperture cannot reduce the effects of the atmospheric turbulence on the average channel capacity, and the effect of atmospheric visibility on the channel information capacity can be ignored. The effect of the spectral power exponent on the average channel capacity in the strong turbulence region is higher than weak turbulence region. Irrespective of the details determining the turbulent channel, we can say that pointing errors have a significant effect on the average channel capacity of optical wireless communication systems in turbulence channels.

  19. Modeling turbulence in underwater wireless optical communications based on Monte Carlo simulation. (United States)

    Vali, Zahra; Gholami, Asghar; Ghassemlooy, Zabih; Michelson, David G; Omoomi, Masood; Noori, Hamed


    Turbulence affects the performance of underwater wireless optical communications (UWOC). Although multiple scattering and absorption have been previously investigated by means of physical simulation models, still a physical simulation model is needed for UWOC with turbulence. In this paper, we propose a Monte Carlo simulation model for UWOC in turbulent oceanic clear water, which is far less computationally intensive than approaches based on computational fluid dynamics. The model is based on the variation of refractive index in a horizontal link. Results show that the proposed simulation model correctly reproduces lognormal probability density function of the received intensity for weak and moderate turbulence regimes. Results presented match well with experimental data reported for weak turbulence. Furthermore, scintillation index and turbulence-induced power loss versus link span are exhibited for different refractive index variations.

  20. Numerical study of the Bessel beams carrying optical vortices propagating in turbulent atmosphere (United States)

    Zhang, Yalin; Ma, Donglin; Yuan, Xiuhua; Zhou, Zeyu


    In this paper, the aperture averaged scintillations of the Bessel beams carrying optical vortices propagating in turbulent atmosphere are evaluated. The multistep form of the propagation algorithm and a numerical phase screen simulation method are applied to the calculations of the aperture averaged scintillation. The results show that the Bessel beam with more topological charges delivers the smaller scintillation. The relation between the aperture averaged scintillation and the size of the beams is investigated. The effect of inner and outer scales of turbulence on the scintillations of the Bessel beams is also studied. These results may be useful in long-distance optical communications in free space or in turbulent atmosphere.

  1. Assessing EO image degradation from underwater optical turbulence in natural waters (United States)

    Hou, Weilin; Kanaev, Andrey; Woods, Sarah


    It is a well-known fact that the major degradation source on EO imaging underwater is from scattering by the medium itself and the constituents within, namely particles of various origins and sizes. Recent research indicates that under certain conditions, such degradations could be caused mainly by the variations of index of refraction associated with temperature and salinity micro-structures in the ocean. These would inherently affect the optical signal transmission underwater, which is of vital interest to both civilian and military applications, as they could include diver visibility, search and rescue, mine detection and identification, and optical communication. The impacts from the optical turbulence are yet fully understood, in part due to the challenges associated with parameterization of individual factors. This study presents the initial attempts in quantifying the level of EO image degradation due to optical turbulence in natural waters, in terms of modulation transfer functions, and enhancements using the lucky patch approaches derived from optical flow techniques. Image data collected from natural environments during SOTEX (Skaneateles Optical Turbulence Exercise, July 22-31, 2010) using the Image Measurement Assembly for Subsurface Turbulence (IMAST) are presented. Optical properties of the water column were measured using WETLab's ac-9 and LISST (Laser In Situ Scattering and Transmissiometry), in coordination with temperature, conductivity and depth. Turbulence conditions were measured by two different approaches, namely a 3D Doppler based velocimeter with Conductivity/Temperature combo, and a shear based Vertical Microstructure Profiler.

  2. Modelling and prediction of non-stationary optical turbulence behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doelman, N.J.; Osborn, J.


    There is a strong need to model the temporal fluctuations in turbulence parameters, for instance for scheduling, simulation and prediction purposes. This paper aims at modelling the dynamic behaviour of the turbulence coherence length r0, utilising measurement data from the Stereo-SCIDAR instrument

  3. Optical turbulence forecast: ready for an operational application (United States)

    Masciadri, E.; Lascaux, F.; Turchi, A.; Fini, L.


    One of the main goals of the feasibility study MOSE (MOdelling ESO Sites) is to evaluate the performances of a method conceived to forecast the optical turbulence (OT) above the European Southern Observatory (ESO) sites of the Very Large Telescope (VLT) and the European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT) in Chile. The method implied the use of a dedicated code conceived for the OT called ASTRO-MESO-NH. In this paper, we present results we obtained at conclusion of this project concerning the performances of this method in forecasting the most relevant parameters related to the OT (CN^2, seeing ɛ, isoplanatic angle θ0 and wavefront coherence time τ0). Numerical predictions related to a very rich statistical sample of nights uniformly distributed along a solar year and belonging to different years have been compared to observations, and different statistical operators have been analysed such as the classical bias, root-mean-squared error, σ and more sophisticated statistical operators derived by the contingency tables that are able to quantify the score of success of a predictive method such as the percentage of correct detection (PC) and the probability to detect a parameter within a specific range of values (POD). The main conclusions of the study tell us that the ASTRO-MESO-NH model provides performances that are already very good to definitely guarantee a not negligible positive impact on the service mode of top-class telescopes and ELTs. A demonstrator for an automatic and operational version of the ASTRO-MESO-NH model will be soon implemented on the sites of VLT and E-ELT.

  4. Stagnation Region Heat Transfer Augmentation at Very High Turbulence Levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ames, Forrest [University of North Dakota; Kingery, Joseph E. [University of North Dakota


    A database for stagnation region heat transfer has been extended to include heat transfer measurements acquired downstream from a new high intensity turbulence generator. This work was motivated by gas turbine industry heat transfer designers who deal with heat transfer environments with increasing Reynolds numbers and very high turbulence levels. The new mock aero-combustor turbulence generator produces turbulence levels which average 17.4%, which is 37% higher than the older turbulence generator. The increased level of turbulence is caused by the reduced contraction ratio from the liner to the exit. Heat transfer measurements were acquired on two large cylindrical leading edge test surfaces having a four to one range in leading edge diameter (40.64 cm and 10.16 cm). Gandvarapu and Ames [1] previously acquired heat transfer measurements for six turbulence conditions including three grid conditions, two lower turbulence aero-combustor conditions, and a low turbulence condition. The data are documented and tabulated for an eight to one range in Reynolds numbers for each test surface with Reynolds numbers ranging from 62,500 to 500,000 for the large leading edge and 15,625 to 125,000 for the smaller leading edge. The data show augmentation levels of up to 136% in the stagnation region for the large leading edge. This heat transfer rate is an increase over the previous aero-combustor turbulence generator which had augmentation levels up to 110%. Note, the rate of increase in heat transfer augmentation decreases for the large cylindrical leading edge inferring only a limited level of turbulence intensification in the stagnation region. The smaller cylindrical leading edge shows more consistency with earlier stagnation region heat transfer results correlated on the TRL (Turbulence, Reynolds number, Length scale) parameter. The downstream regions of both test surfaces continue to accelerate the flow but at a much lower rate than the leading edge. Bypass transition occurs

  5. Characterization of optical turbulence at the solar observatory at the Mount Teide, Tenerife (United States)

    Sprung, Detlev; Sucher, Erik


    Optical turbulence represented by the structure function parameter of the refractive index Cn2 is regarded as one of the chief causes of image degradation of ground-based astronomical telescopes operating in visible or infrared wavebands. Especially, it affects the attainable spatial resolution. Therefore since the middle of September 2012 the optical turbulence has been monitored between two German solar telescopes at the Observatory in Tenerife /Canary Islands /Spain. It comprises the solar telescope GREGOR and the vacuum tower telescope VTT mounted on two 30 m high towers. Between the two towers at the level of the telescopes, Cn2 was measured using a Laser-Scintillometer SLS40 (Scintec, Rottenburg, Germany). The horizontal distance of the measurement path was 75 m. The first results of the measurements starting from the 15th September 2012 up to the end of December 2012 are presented and analyzed using simultaneous measured meteorological data of wind, temperature and humidity. Daily and seasonal variations are shown and discussed.

  6. Efficient Weibull channel model for salinity induced turbulent underwater wireless optical communications

    KAUST Repository

    Oubei, Hassan M.


    Recent advances in underwater wireless optical communications necessitate a better understanding of the underwater channel. We propose the Weibull model to characterize the fading of salinity induced turbulent underwater wireless optical channels. The model shows an excellent agreement with the measured data under all channel conditions.

  7. Optical diagnostics of turbulent mixing in explosively-driven shock tube (United States)

    Anderson, James; Hargather, Michael


    Explosively-driven shock tube experiments were performed to investigate the turbulent mixing of explosive product gases and ambient air. A small detonator initiated Al / I2O5 thermite, which produced a shock wave and expanding product gases. Schlieren and imaging spectroscopy were applied simultaneously along a common optical path to identify correlations between turbulent structures and spatially-resolved absorbance. The schlieren imaging identifies flow features including shock waves and turbulent structures while the imaging spectroscopy identifies regions of iodine gas presence in the product gases. Pressure transducers located before and after the optical diagnostic section measure time-resolved pressure. Shock speed is measured from tracking the leading edge of the shockwave in the schlieren images and from the pressure transducers. The turbulent mixing characteristics were determined using digital image processing. Results show changes in shock speed, product gas propagation, and species concentrations for varied explosive charge mass. Funded by DTRA Grant HDTRA1-14-1-0070.

  8. Average BER of free-space optical systems in turbulent atmosphere with exponentiated Weibull distribution. (United States)

    Yi, Xiang; Liu, Zengji; Yue, Peng


    A computationally efficient expression is presented for evaluating the average bit error rate (BER) of an intensity-modulation and direct-detection free-space optical system with on-off keying signaling technique operating in turbulent atmosphere described by the exponentiated Weibull distribution. The presented numerical results show the effects of aperture averaging on the average BER under weak and moderate turbulence conditions, and are confirmed by Monte Carlo simulations.

  9. High-Speed Turbulent Reacting Flows: Intrinsic Flame Instability and its Effects on the Turbulent Cascade (United States)

    Poludnenko, Alexei


    Turbulent reacting flows are pervasive both in our daily lives on Earth and in the Universe. They power modern society being at the heart of many energy generation and propulsion systems, such as gas turbines, internal combustion and jet engines. On astronomical scales, thermonuclear turbulent flames are the driver of some of the most powerful explosions in the Universe, knows as Type Ia supernovae. Despite this ubiquity in Nature, turbulent reacting flows still pose a number of fundamental questions often exhibiting surprising and unexpected behavior. In this talk, we will discuss several such phenomena observed in direct numerical simulations of high-speed, premixed, turbulent flames. We show that turbulent flames in certain regimes are intrinsically unstable even in the absence of the surrounding combustor walls or obstacles, which can support the thermoacoustic feedback. Such instability can fundamentally change the structure and dynamics of the turbulent cascade, resulting in a significant (and anisotropic) redistribution of kinetic energy from small to large scales. In particular, three effects are observed. 1) The turbulent burning velocity can develop pulsations with significant peak-to-peak amplitudes. 2) Unstable burning can result in pressure build-up and the formation of pressure waves or shocks when the flame speed approaches or exceeds the speed of a Chapman-Jouguet deflagration. 3) Coupling of pressure and density gradients across the flame can lead to the anisotropic generation of turbulence inside the flame volume and flame acceleration. We extend our earlier analysis, which relied on a simplified single-step reaction model, by demonstrating existence of these effects in realistic chemical flames (hydrogen and methane) and in thermonuclear flames in degenerate, relativistic plasmas found in stellar interiors. Finally, we discuss the implications of these results for subgrid-scale LES combustion models. This work was supported by the Air Force

  10. Measurements of indoor/outdoor atmospheric turbulence through optical triangulation method (United States)

    de Oliveira, Gúbio; Silva, Vinicius N. H.; Barbero, Andrés P. L.; Ribeiro, Ricardo M.; Coelho, Thiago V. N.; Bessa dos Santos, A.


    Atmospheric turbulence degrades the performance of wireless optical communication links. This phenomenon distorts the light wave-front, and changes the spatial optical power distribution, spread and wander of the beam on the receiver plane. In this paper we present measurements of indoor and outdoor atmospheric turbulence taken using a simple and low-cost device based on an optical triangulation method. The device tracks a Gaussian beam due to the beam wander effect and measures the effective Gaussian width due to beam spread in order to calculate the refractive index structure constant in real time. Thus, the device operation principle, the outdoor/indoor turbulence profile during the day, the hotspot dispersion and the beam width variation are shown.

  11. Angle of arrival fluctuations considering turbulence outer scale for optical waves' propagation through moderate-to-strong non-Kolmogorov turbulence. (United States)

    Cui, Linyan; Xue, Bindang; Cao, Xiaoguang; Zhou, Fugen


    Based on the generalized von Kármán spectrum and the extended Rytov theory, new analytic expressions for the variance of angle of arrival (AOA) fluctuations are derived for optical plane and spherical waves propagating through moderate-to-strong non-Kolmogorov turbulence with horizontal path. They consider finite turbulence outer scale and general spectral power law value, and cover a wide range of non-Kolmogorov turbulence strength. When the turbulence outer scale is set to infinite, the new expressions can reduce correctly to previously published analytic expressions [J. Opt. Soc. Am. A, 302188 (2013]. The final results show that the increased turbulence outer scale value enlarges the variance of AOA fluctuations greatly under moderate-to-strong (or strong) non-Kolmogorov turbulence.

  12. Turbulent single-photon propagation in the Canary optical link

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capraro, Ivan; Tomaello, Andrea; Dall' Arche, Alberto; Gerlin, Francesca; Vallone, Giuseppe; Villoresi, Paolo [Department of Information Engineering, University of Padova, Padova (Italy); Herbst, Thomas [Vienna Center for Quantum Science and Technology (VCQ), Faculty of Physics, University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Ursin, Rupert [IQOQI - Institute for Quantum Optics and Quantum Information, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Vienna (Austria)


    The role of turbulence for Quantum Communications (QC) has been investigated in a 143 km-long link. The analysis of the received signal temporal domain indicate how to exploit constructively its effects in the case of QC along very long free-space links as well satellite links. Novel applications with relevant background noise may be envisaged.

  13. Optical key distribution system using atmospheric turbulence as the randomness generating function: classical optical protocol for information assurance (United States)

    Drake, Marvin D.; Bas, Christophe F.; Gervais, David; Renda, Priscilla F.; Townsend, Daniel; Rushanan, Joseph J.; Francoeur, Joe; Donnangelo, Nick; Stenner, Michael D.


    We describe an experimental laboratory system that generates and distributes random binary sequence bit streams between two optical terminals (labeled Alice and Bob). The random binary sequence is generated through probing the optical channel of a turbulent atmosphere between the two terminals with coincident laser beams. The two laser beams experience differential phase delays while propagating through the atmospheric optical channel. The differential phase delays are detected and sampled at each terminal to yield raw random bit streams. The random bit streams are processed to remove bit errors and, through privacy amplification, to yield a bit stream known only to Alice and Bob. The same chaotic physical mechanism that provides randomness also provides confidentiality. The laboratory system yielded secret key bit rates of a few bits/second. For external optical channels over longer channel lengths with atmospheric turbulence levels, secret bit rates of 10 s of bits/second are predicted.

  14. Turbulence heterodyne coherent mitigation of orbital angular momentum multiplexing in a free space optical link by auxiliary light. (United States)

    Yang, Chunyong; Xu, Chuang; Ni, Wenjun; Gan, Yu; Hou, Jin; Chen, Shaoping


    A novel scheme is proposed to mitigate the atmospheric turbulence effect in free space optical (FSO) communication employing orbital angular momentum (OAM) multiplexing. In this scheme, the Gaussian beam is used as an auxiliary light with a common-path to obtain the distortion information caused by atmospheric turbulence. After turbulence, the heterodyne coherent detection technology is demonstrated to realize the turbulence mitigation. With the same turbulence distortion, the OAM beams and the Gaussian beam are respectively utilized as the signal light and the local oscillation light. Then the turbulence distortion is counteracted to a large extent. Meanwhile, a phase matching method is proposed to select the specific OAM mode. The discrimination between the neighboring OAM modes is obviously improved by detecting the output photocurrent. Moreover, two methods of beam size adjustment have been analyzed to achieve better performance for turbulence mitigation. Numerical results show that the system bit error rate (BER) can reach 10-5 under strong turbulence in simulation situation.

  15. Turbulence-flame interactions in DNS of a laboratory high Karlovitz premixed turbulent jet flame (United States)

    Wang, Haiou; Hawkes, Evatt R.; Chen, Jacqueline H.


    In the present work, direct numerical simulation (DNS) of a laboratory premixed turbulent jet flame was performed to study turbulence-flame interactions. The turbulent flame features moderate Reynolds number and high Karlovitz number (Ka). The orientations of the flame normal vector n, the vorticity vector ω and the principal strain rate eigenvectors ei are examined. The in-plane and out-of-plane angles are introduced to quantify the vector orientations, which also measure the flame geometry and the vortical structures. A general observation is that the distributions of these angles are more isotropic downstream as the flame and the flow become more developed. The out-of-plane angle of the flame normal vector, β, is a key parameter in developing the correction of 2D measurements to estimate the corresponding 3D quantities. The DNS results show that the correction factor is unity at the inlet and approaches its theoretical value of an isotropic distribution downstream. The alignment characteristics of n, ω and ei, which reflect the interactions of turbulence and flame, are also studied. Similar to a passive scalar gradient in non-reacting flows, the flame normal has a tendency to align with the most compressive strain rate, e3, in the flame, indicating that turbulence contributes to the production of scalar gradient. The vorticity dynamics are examined via the vortex stretching term, which was found to be the predominant source of vorticity generation balanced by dissipation, in the enstrophy transport equation. It is found that although the vorticity preferentially aligns with the intermediate strain rate, e2, the contribution of the most extensive strain rate, e1, to vortex stretching is comparable with that of the intermediate strain rate, e2. This is because the eigenvalue of the most extensive strain rate, λ1, is always large and positive. It is confirmed that the vorticity vector is preferentially positioned along the flame tangential plane, contributing

  16. Modelling high Reynolds number wall-turbulence interactions in laboratory experiments using large-scale free-stream turbulence. (United States)

    Dogan, Eda; Hearst, R Jason; Ganapathisubramani, Bharathram


    A turbulent boundary layer subjected to free-stream turbulence is investigated in order to ascertain the scale interactions that dominate the near-wall region. The results are discussed in relation to a canonical high Reynolds number turbulent boundary layer because previous studies have reported considerable similarities between these two flows. Measurements were acquired simultaneously from four hot wires mounted to a rake which was traversed through the boundary layer. Particular focus is given to two main features of both canonical high Reynolds number boundary layers and boundary layers subjected to free-stream turbulence: (i) the footprint of the large scales in the logarithmic region on the near-wall small scales, specifically the modulating interaction between these scales, and (ii) the phase difference in amplitude modulation. The potential for a turbulent boundary layer subjected to free-stream turbulence to 'simulate' high Reynolds number wall-turbulence interactions is discussed. The results of this study have encouraging implications for future investigations of the fundamental scale interactions that take place in high Reynolds number flows as it demonstrates that these can be achieved at typical laboratory scales.This article is part of the themed issue 'Toward the development of high-fidelity models of wall turbulence at large Reynolds number'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  17. Propagation of a partially coherent hollow vortex Gaussian beam through a paraxial ABCD optical system in turbulent atmosphere. (United States)

    Zhou, Guoquan; Cai, Yangjian; Chu, Xiuxiang


    The propagation of a partially coherent hollow vortex Gaussian beam through a paraxial ABCD optical system in turbulent atmosphere has been investigated. The analytical expressions for the average intensity and the degree of the polarization of a partially coherent hollow vortex Gaussian beam through a paraxial ABCD optical system are derived in turbulent atmosphere, respectively. The average intensity distribution and the degree of the polarization of a partially coherent hollow vortex Gaussian beam in turbulent atmosphere are numerically demonstrated. The influences of the beam parameters, the topological charge, the transverse coherent lengths, and the structure constant of the atmospheric turbulence on the propagation of a partially coherent hollow vortex Gaussian beam in turbulent atmosphere are also examined in detail. This research is beneficial to the practical applications in free-space optical communications and the remote sensing of the dark hollow beams. © 2012 Optical Society of America

  18. Low Temperature Gaseous Helium and very High Turbulence Experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Pietropinto, S; Castaing, B; Chabaud, B; Gagne, Y; Hébral, B; Ladam, Y; Lebrun, P; Pirotte, O; Poulain, C; Roche, P E


    Cryogenic gaseous helium gives access to extreme turbulent experimental conditions. The very high cooling helium flow rates available at CERN have been used to reach Reynolds numbers up to Re ~ 10**7 in a round jet experiment. First results are discussed.

  19. Solar multi-conjugate adaptive optics based on high order ground layer adaptive optics and low order high altitude correction. (United States)

    Zhang, Lanqiang; Guo, Youming; Rao, Changhui


    Multi-conjugate adaptive optics (MCAO) is the most promising technique currently developed to enlarge the corrected field of view of adaptive optics for astronomy. In this paper, we propose a new configuration of solar MCAO based on high order ground layer adaptive optics and low order high altitude correction, which result in a homogeneous correction effect in the whole field of view. An individual high order multiple direction Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor is employed in the configuration to detect the ground layer turbulence for low altitude correction. Furthermore, the other low order multiple direction Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor supplies the wavefront information caused by high layers' turbulence through atmospheric tomography for high altitude correction. Simulation results based on the system design at the 1-meter New Vacuum Solar Telescope show that the correction uniform of the new scheme is obviously improved compared to conventional solar MCAO configuration.

  20. Modeling Compressibility Effects in High-Speed Turbulent Flows (United States)

    Sarkar, S.


    Man has strived to make objects fly faster, first from subsonic to supersonic and then to hypersonic speeds. Spacecraft and high-speed missiles routinely fly at hypersonic Mach numbers, M greater than 5. In defense applications, aircraft reach hypersonic speeds at high altitude and so may civilian aircraft in the future. Hypersonic flight, while presenting opportunities, has formidable challenges that have spurred vigorous research and development, mainly by NASA and the Air Force in the USA. Although NASP, the premier hypersonic concept of the eighties and early nineties, did not lead to flight demonstration, much basic research and technology development was possible. There is renewed interest in supersonic and hypersonic flight with the HyTech program of the Air Force and the Hyper-X program at NASA being examples of current thrusts in the field. At high-subsonic to supersonic speeds, fluid compressibility becomes increasingly important in the turbulent boundary layers and shear layers associated with the flow around aerospace vehicles. Changes in thermodynamic variables: density, temperature and pressure, interact strongly with the underlying vortical, turbulent flow. The ensuing changes to the flow may be qualitative such as shocks which have no incompressible counterpart, or quantitative such as the reduction of skin friction with Mach number, large heat transfer rates due to viscous heating, and the dramatic reduction of fuel/oxidant mixing at high convective Mach number. The peculiarities of compressible turbulence, so-called compressibility effects, have been reviewed by Fernholz and Finley. Predictions of aerodynamic performance in high-speed applications require accurate computational modeling of these "compressibility effects" on turbulence. During the course of the project we have made fundamental advances in modeling the pressure-strain correlation and developed a code to evaluate alternate turbulence models in the compressible shear layer.

  1. Fading Losses on the LCRD Free-Space Optical Link Due to Channel Turbulence (United States)

    Moision, Bruce; Piazzolla, Sabino; Hamkins, Jon


    The Laser Communications Relay Demonstration (LCRD) will implement an optical communications link between a pair of Earth terminals via an Earth-orbiting satellite relay. Clear air turbulence over the communication paths will cause random fluctuations, or fading, in the received signal irradiance. In this paper we characterize losses due to fading caused by clear air turbulence. We illustrate the performance of a representative relay link, utilizing a channel interleaver and error-correction-code to mitigate fading, and provide a method to quickly determine the link performance.

  2. Subcarrier MPSK/MDPSK modulated optical wireless communications in lognormal turbulence

    KAUST Repository

    Song, Xuegui


    Bit-error rate (BER) performance of subcarrier Mary phase-shift keying (MPSK) and M-ary differential phase-shift keying (MDPSK) is analyzed for optical wireless communications over the lognormal turbulence channels. Both exact BER and approximate BER expressions are presented. We demonstrate that the approximate BER, which is obtained by dividing the symbol error rate by the number of bits per symbol, can be used to estimate the BER performance with acceptable accuracy. Through our asymptotic analysis, we derive closed-form asymptotic BER performance loss expression for MDPSK with respect to MPSK in the lognormal turbulence channels. © 2015 IEEE.

  3. Phase relations in a forced turbulent boundary layer: implications for modelling of high Reynolds number wall turbulence. (United States)

    Duvvuri, Subrahmanyam; McKeon, Beverley


    Phase relations between specific scales in a turbulent boundary layer are studied here by highlighting the associated nonlinear scale interactions in the flow. This is achieved through an experimental technique that allows for targeted forcing of the flow through the use of a dynamic wall perturbation. Two distinct large-scale modes with well-defined spatial and temporal wavenumbers were simultaneously forced in the boundary layer, and the resulting nonlinear response from their direct interactions was isolated from the turbulence signal for the study. This approach advances the traditional studies of large- and small-scale interactions in wall turbulence by focusing on the direct interactions between scales with triadic wavenumber consistency. The results are discussed in the context of modelling high Reynolds number wall turbulence.This article is part of the themed issue 'Toward the development of high-fidelity models of wall turbulence at large Reynolds number'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  4. Optical turbulence in a spinning pipe gas lens

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mafusire, C


    Full Text Available research team! Opportunities: MSc and PhD studentships, Post docs and Sabbaticals Contact: Dr Andrew Forbes or Dr Stef Roux ...

  5. On the use of wavelength and time diversity in optical wireless communication systems over gamma-gamma turbulence channels (United States)

    Nistazakis, Hector E.; Tombras, George S.


    Optical wireless communication or free space optical systems have gained significant research and commercial attention in recent years due to their cost-effective and license-free high bandwidth access characteristics. However, by using the atmosphere as transmission media, the performance of such a system depends on the atmospheric conditions that exist between transmitter and receiver. Indeed, for an outdoor optical channel link, the existence of atmospheric turbulence may significantly degrade the performance of the associated communication system over distances longer than 1 or even 0.5 km. In order to anticipate this, particular attention has been given to diversity methods. In this work, we consider the use of wavelength and time diversity in wireless optical communication systems that operate under weak to strong atmospheric turbulence conditions modeled by the gamma-gamma distribution, and we derive closed form mathematical expressions for estimating the system's achievable outage probability and average bit error rate. Finally, numerical results referred to common practical cases are also obtained in order to show that wavelength and time diversity schemes enhances considerably these systems' availability and performance.

  6. Adaptive free-space optical communications through turbulence using self-healing Bessel beams (United States)

    Li, Shuhui; Wang, Jian


    We present a scheme to realize obstruction- and turbulence-tolerant free-space orbital angular momentum (OAM) multiplexing link by using self-healing Bessel beams accompanied by adaptive compensation techniques. Compensation of multiple 16-ary quadrature amplitude modulation (16-QAM) data carrying Bessel beams through emulated atmospheric turbulence and obstructions is demonstrated. The obtained experimental results indicate that the compensation scheme can effectively reduce the inter-channel crosstalk, improve the bit-error rate (BER) performance, and recuperate the nondiffracting property of Bessel beams. The proposed scheme might be used in future high-capacity OAM links which are affected by atmospheric turbulence and obstructions. PMID:28230076

  7. Compensation for the orbital angular momentum of a vortex beam in turbulent atmosphere by adaptive optics (United States)

    Li, Nan; Chu, Xiuxiang; Zhang, Pengfei; Feng, Xiaoxing; Fan, ChengYu; Qiao, Chunhong


    A method which can be used to compensate for a distorted orbital angular momentum and wavefront of a beam in atmospheric turbulence, simultaneously, has been proposed. To confirm the validity of the method, an experimental setup for up-link propagation of a vortex beam in a turbulent atmosphere has been simulated. Simulation results show that both of the distorted orbital angular momentum and the distorted wavefront of a beam due to turbulence can be compensated by an adaptive optics system with the help of a cooperative beacon at satellite. However, when the number of the lenslet of wavefront sensor (WFS) and the actuators of the deform mirror (DM) is small, satisfactory results cannot be obtained.

  8. Optical seeing-mechanism of formation of thin turbulent laminae in the atmosphere. (United States)

    Coulman, C E; Vernin, J; Fuchs, A


    Data from balloon soundings taken at sites in the Canary Islands, France, and Chile are used to show that hydrodynamic instability, perhaps engendered by the propagation of buoyancy (gravity) or other waves, leads to the formation of thin, turbulent laminae, or "seeing layers." These seeing layers occur almost invariably in pairs and exhibit large values for the temperature-structure coefficient C(T)(2) because they form where the gradient of temperature is particularly steep. The refractive-index-structure coefficient is correspondingly large, and so these layers adversely affect the quality of optical propagation. The mechanism proposed here is already known to create clear air turbulence in the stratosphere, and we show how it is consistent with the formation of thin turbulent seeing layers in the troposphere and the stratosphere at night, when the atmosphere is generally stably stratified.

  9. Underwater optical communication performance for laser beam propagation through weak oceanic turbulence. (United States)

    Yi, Xiang; Li, Zan; Liu, Zengji


    In clean ocean water, the performance of a underwater optical communication system is limited mainly by oceanic turbulence, which is defined as the fluctuations in the index of refraction resulting from temperature and salinity fluctuations. In this paper, using the refractive index spectrum of oceanic turbulence under weak turbulence conditions, we carry out, for a horizontally propagating plane wave and spherical wave, analysis of the aperture-averaged scintillation index, the associated probability of fade, mean signal-to-noise ratio, and mean bit error rate. Our theoretical results show that for various values of the rate of dissipation of mean squared temperature and the temperature-salinity balance parameter, the large-aperture receiver leads to a remarkable decrease of scintillation and consequently a significant improvement on the system performance. Such an effect is more noticeable in the plane wave case than in the spherical wave case.

  10. Influence of wind speed on free space optical communication performance for Gaussian beam propagation through non Kolmogorov strong turbulence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng Peng; Yuan Xiuhua; Zeng Yanan; Zhao Ming; Luo Hanjun, E-mail: [Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 1037 Luoyu Road, Wuhan, Hubei (China)


    In free-space optical communication links, atmospheric turbulence causes fluctuations in both the intensity and the phase of the received signal, affecting link performance. Most theoretical treatments have been described by Kolmogorov's power spectral density model through weak turbulence with constant wind speed. However, several experiments showed that Kolmogorov theory is sometimes incomplete to describe atmospheric turbulence properly, especially through the strong turbulence with variable wind speed, which is known to contribute significantly to the turbulence in the atmosphere. We present an optical turbulence model that incorporates into variable wind speed instead of constant value, a non-Kolmogorov power spectrum that uses a generalized exponent instead of constant standard exponent value 11/3, and a generalized amplitude factor instead of constant value 0.033. The free space optical communication performance for a Gaussian beam wave of scintillation index, mean signal-to-noise ratio, and mean bit error rate , have been derived by extended Rytov theory in non-Kolmogorov strong turbulence. And then the influence of wind speed variations on free space optical communication performance has been analyzed under different atmospheric turbulence intensities. The results suggest that the effects of wind speed variation through non-Kolmogorov turbulence on communication performance are more severe in many situations and need to be taken into account in free space optical communication. It is anticipated that this work is helpful to the investigations of free space optical communication performance considering wind speed under severe weather condition in the strong atmospheric turbulence.

  11. Embedded function methods for compressible high speed turbulent flow (United States)

    Walker, J. D. A.


    This is the final report on the work performed on the grant 'Embedded Function Methods for Compressible High Speed Turbulent Flow' carried out at Lehigh University during the contract period from September, 1987, to October of 1991. Work has continued at Lehigh on this project on an unfunded basis to the present. The original proposed work had two separate thrusts which were associated with developing embedded function methods in order to obviate the need to expend computational resources on turbulent wall layers in Navier Stokes and boundary-layer calculations. Previous work on the incompressible problem had indicated that this could be done successfully for two-dimensional and three-dimensional incompressible flows. The central objective here was to extend the basic approach to the high speed compressible problem.

  12. MOSE: A Demonstrator for an Automatic Operational System for the Optical Turbulence Forecast for ESO Sites (United States)

    Masciadri, Elena; Lascaux, F.; Turchi, A.; Fini, L.


    "Most of the observations performed with new-generation ground-based telescopes are employing the Service Mode. To optimize the flexible-scheduling of scientific programs and instruments, the optical turbulence (OT) forecast is a must, particularly when observations are supported by adaptive optics (AO) and Interferometry. Reliable OT forecast are crucial to optimize the usage of AO and interferometric facilities which is not possible when using only optical measurements. Numerical techniques are the best placed to achieve such a goal. The MOSE project (MOdeling ESO Sites), co-funded by ESO, aimed at proving the feasibility of the forecast of (1) all the classical atmospheric parameters (such as temperature, wind speed and direction, relative humidity) and (2) the optical turbulence i.e. the CN 2 profiles and all the main integrated astro-climatic parameters derived from the CN 2 (the seeing, the isoplanatic angle, the wavefront coherence time) above the two ESO sites of Cerro Paranal and Cerro Armazones. The proposed technique is based on the use of a non-hydrostatic atmospheric meso-scale model and a dedicated code for the optical turbulence. The final goal of the project aimed at implementing an automatic system for the operational forecasts of the aforementioned parameters to support the astronomical observations above the two sites. MOSE Phase A and B have been completed and a set of dedicated papers have been published on the topic. Model performances have been extensively quantified with several dedicated figures of merit and we proved that our tool is able to provide reliable forecasts of optical turbulence and atmospheric parameters with very satisfactory score of success. This should guarantee us to make a step ahead in the framework of the Service Mode of new generation telescopes. A conceptual design as well as an operational plan of the automatic system has been submitted to ESO as integral part of the feasibility study. We completed a negotiation with

  13. Observations of highly sheared turbulence in the H-mode pedestal using Phase Contrast Imaging on DIII-D (United States)

    Rost, J. C.; Marinoni, A.; Davis, E. M.; Porkolab, M.; Burrell, K. H.


    Highly sheared turbulence with short radial correlation lengths has been measured near the top of the H-mode pedestal, in addition to the previously measured highly-sheared turbulence measured in the Er well. Turbulence in regions of large velocity shear is characterized by radial correlation lengths shorter than the poloidal wavelength (L 200 kHz). The phase contrast imaging (PCI) diagnostic on DIII-D is ideally suited to measuring this density turbulence due to the measurement geometry and high frequency bandwidth. Radial localization is achieved by optical filtering, varying the ExB profile, and shifting the plasma position. Reconfiguration of the Er well, such as at the L-H transition or the transition to wide pedestal QH-mode, shows a near-instantaneous change (t < 1 ms) to the sheared turbulence in the Er well ( 1 cm inside the separatrix). In contrast, the sheared turbulence near the top of the pedestal ( 2 cm inside the separatrix) varies over times scales of tens of ms, consistent with pedestal evolution. Work supported by the US Department of Energy under DE-FG02-94ER54235 and DE-FC02-04ER54698.

  14. Study of optimum methods of optical communication. [accounting for the effects of the turbulent atmosphere and quantum mechanics (United States)

    Harger, R. O.


    Abstracts are reported relating to the techniques used in the research concerning optical transmission of information. Communication through the turbulent atmosphere, quantum mechanics, and quantum communication theory are discussed along with the results.

  15. Research on diversity receive technology for wireless optical communication using PPM in weak turbulence atmosphere channel (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Zhang, Guo-an


    In order to mitigate atmospheric turbulence, the free space optical (FSO) system model with spatial diversity is analyzed based on intensity detection pulse position modulation (PPM) in the weak turbulence atmosphere. The slot error rate (SER) calculating formula of the system without diversity is derived under pulse position modulation firstly. Then as a benchmark, independent of identical distribution, the average slot error rates of the three linear combining technologies, which are the maximal ratio combining (MRC), equal gain combining (EGC) and selection combining (SelC), are compared. Simulation results show that the performance of system is the best improved by MRC, followed by EGC, and is poor by SelC, but SelC is simpler and more convenient. Spatial diversity is efficient to improve the performance and has strong ability on resistance to atmospheric channel decline. The above scheme is more suitable for optical wireless communication systems.

  16. Characterization of underwater optical turbulence on the example of the Rayleigh-Benard water tank (United States)

    Gladysz, Szymon; Barros, Rui; Kanaev, Andrey V.; Hou, Weilin


    For many years sound has been used as a primary method for underwater communication. However, data transmission rate of acoustic systems is low because typical frequencies associated with underwater acoustics are between tens of hertz and hundreds of kilohertz. A higher bandwidth can be achieved with visible light to transfer data underwater. The first challenge for underwater laser communication is scattering and absorption. In addition, there are disturbances caused by spatial and temporal changes in the water refraction index due to temperature and/or salinity variations. Optical turbulence, which includes the two effects, is the main theme of this paper. We will discuss the joint IOSB-NRL experiment whose goal was to test techniques for characterization of underwater optical turbulence and in particular we will focus on differential motion measurement from an LED array.

  17. Optimal threshold detection for Málaga turbulent optical links

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jurado-Navas, Antonio; Garrido-Balsellss, José María; del Castillo Vázquez, Miguel


    associated to that model, we can indicate that it is written in a simple tractable closed-form expression and that it is able to unify most of the proposed statistical models for free-space optical communications derived until now in the scientific literature. Based on that Málaga model, we have analyzed...... in this paper the role of the detection threshold in a free-space optical system employing an on-off keying modulation technique and involved in different scenarios, and taking into account the extinction ratio associated to the employed laser. First we have derived some analytical expressions for the lower...... form expression for the bit error rate of that system is derived....

  18. Limitations of Segmented Wavefront Control Devices in Emulating Optical Turbulence (United States)


    Mansell, Ty Mar- tinez, Sergio R. Restaino, Don M. Payne, Jamie Harriman, Steve Serati, Gary Sharp, and Jim Schwiegerling. “Liquid Crystal Based...John Gonglewski, Sergio Restaino, Jeffrey Martin, James Phillips, Mary Hartman, Stephen Browne, Paul Kervin, Joshua Snodgrass, Nevin Heimann, Michael...for Adaptive Optics in Vision Science”. IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics, 10(3):629–635, May/Jun 2004. 11. Fernandez , Enrique J

  19. Characterization of optical turbulence at the GREGOR solar telescope: temporal and local behavior and its influence on the solar observations (United States)

    Sprung, D.; Sucher, E.; Stein, K.; von der Lühe, O.; Berkefeld, Th.


    Local atmospheric turbulence at the telescope level is regarded as a major reason for affecting the performance of the adaptive optics systems using wavelengths in the visible and infrared for solar observations. During the day the air masses around the telescope dome are influenced by flow distortions. Additionally heating of the infrastructure close to telescope causes thermal turbulence. Thereby optical turbulence is produced and leads to quality changes in the local seeing throughout the day. Image degradation will be yielded affecting the performance of adaptive optical systems. The spatial resolution of the solar observations will be reduced. For this study measurements of the optical turbulence, represented by the structure function parameter of the refractive index Cn2 were performed on several locations at the GREGOR telescope at the Teide observatory at Tenerife at the Canary Islands / Spain. Since September 2012 measurements of Cn2 were carried out between the towers of the Vacuum Tower Telescope (VTT) and of GREGOR with a laser-scintillometer. The horizontal distance of the measurement path was about 75 m. Additional from May 2015 up to March 2016 the optical turbulence was determined at three additional locations close to the solar telescope GREGOR. The optical turbulence is derived from sonic anemometer measurements. Time series of the sonic temperature are analyzed and compared to the direct measurements of the laser scintillometer. Meteorological conditions are investigated, especially the influence of the wind direction. Turbulence of upper atmospheric layers is not regarded. The measured local turbulence is compared to the system performance of the GREGOR telescopes. It appears that the mountain ridge effects on turbulence are more relevant than any local causes of seeing close to the telescope. Results of these analyses and comparison of nearly one year of measurements are presented and discussed.

  20. On the Performance Analysis of Free-Space Optical Links under Generalized Turbulence and Misalignment Models

    KAUST Repository

    AlQuwaiee, Hessa


    One of the potential solutions to the radio frequency (RF) spectrum scarcity problem is optical wireless communications (OWC), which utilizes the unlicensed optical spectrum. Long-range outdoor OWC are usually referred to in the literature as free-space optical (FSO) communications. Unlike RF systems, FSO is immune to interference and multi-path fading. Also, the deployment of FSO systems is flexible and much faster than optical fibers. These attractive features make FSO applicable for broadband wireless transmission such as optical fiber backup, metropolitan area network, and last mile access. Although FSO communication is a promising technology, it is negatively affected by two physical phenomenon, namely, scintillation due to atmospheric turbulence and pointing errors. These two critical issues have prompted intensive research in the last decade. To quantify the effect of these two factors on FSO system performance, we need effective mathematical models. In this work, we propose and study a generalized pointing error model based on the Beckmann distribution. Then, we aim to generalize the FSO channel model to span all turbulence conditions from weak to strong while taking pointing errors into consideration. Since scintillation in FSO is analogous to the fading phenomena in RF, diversity has been proposed too to overcome the effect of irradiance fluctuations. Thus, several combining techniques of not necessarily independent dual-branch free-space optical links were investigated over both weak and strong turbulence channels in the presence of pointing errors. On another front, improving the performance, enhancing the capacity and reducing the delay of the communication link has been the motivation of any newly developed schemes, especially for backhauling. Recently, there has been a growing interest in practical systems to integrate RF and FSO technologies to solve the last mile bottleneck. As such, we also study in this thesis asymmetric an RF-FSO dual-hop relay

  1. A Cryogenic High-Reynolds Turbulence Experiment at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Bézaguet, Alain-Arthur; Knoops, S; Lebrun, P; Pezzetti, M; Pirotte, O; Bret, J L; Chabaud, B; Garde, G; Guttin, C; Hébral, B; Pietropinto, S; Roche, P; Barbier-Neyret, J P; Baudet, C; Gagne, Y; Poulain, C; Castaing, B; Ladam, Y; Vittoz, F


    The potential of cryogenic helium flows for studying high-Reynolds number turbulence in the laboratory has been recognised for a long time and implemented in several small-scale hydrodynamic experiments. With its large superconducting particle accelerators and detector magnets, CERN, the European Laboratory for Particle Physics, has become a major world center in helium cryogenics, with several large helium refrigerators having capacities up to 18 kW @ 4.5 K. Combining a small fraction of these resources with the expertise of three laboratories at the forefront of turbulence research, has led to the design, swift implementation, and successful operation of GReC (Grands Reynolds Cryogéniques) a large axisymmetric turbulent-jet experiment. With flow-rates up to 260 g/s of gaseous helium at ~ 5 K and atmospheric pressure, Reynolds numbers up to 107 have been achieved in a 4.6 m high, 1.4 m diameter cryostat. This paper presents the results of the first runs and describes the experimental set-up comprehensively ...

  2. Experimental investigation on aero-optics of supersonic turbulent boundary layers. (United States)

    Ding, Haolin; Yi, Shihe; Zhu, Yangzhu; He, Lin


    Nanoparticle-based planar laser scattering was used to measure the density distribution of the supersonic (Ma=3.0) turbulent boundary layer and the optical path difference (OPD), which is quite crucial for aero-optics study. Results were obtained using ray tracing. The influences of different layers in the boundary layer, turbulence scales, and light incident angle on aero-optics were examined, and the underlying flow physics were analyzed. The inner layer plays a dominant role, followed by the outer layer. One hundred OPD rms of the outer layer at different times satisfy the normal distribution better than that of the inner layer. Aero-optics induced by the outer layer is sensitive to the filter scale. When induced by the inner layer, it is not sensitive to the filter scale. The vortices with scales less than the Kolmogorov scale (=46.0  μm) have little influence on the aero-optics and could be ignored; the validity of the smallest optically active scale (=88.1  μm) proposed by Mani is verified, and vortices with scales less than that are ignored, resulting in a 1.62% decay of aero-optics; the filter with a width of 16-grid spacing (=182.4  μm) decreases OPD rms by 7.04%. With the increase of the angle between the wall-normal direction and the light-incident direction, the aero-optics becomes more serious, and the difference between the distribution of the OPD rms and the normal distribution increases. The difficulty of aero-optics correction is increased. Light tilted toward downstream experiences more distortions than when tilted toward upstream at the same angle relative to the wall-normal direction.

  3. Interferometry through the turbulent atmosphere at an optical path difference of 354 m. (United States)

    Herrick, R B; Meyer-Arendt, J R


    A modified Michelson interferometer with a stable He-Ne laser source has been used to study fluctuations in the mean refractive index over a long path through the turbulent atmosphere. Distinct interference fringes were obtained at mirror separations up to 177 m, corresponding to an optical path difference of 354 m. The spatial stability of the interference fringes was found to decrease with increasing optical path length, indicating an increasing contribution from the atmosphere. Details of the interferometer and the experimental procedure are given as well as a discussion of the fluctuations in the mean refractive index.

  4. Scintillation analysis of pseudo-Bessel-Gaussian Schell-mode beams propagating through atmospheric turbulence with wave optics simulation (United States)

    Zheng, Guo; Wang, Jue; Wang, Lin; Zhou, Muchun; Chen, Yanru; Song, Minmin


    The scintillation index of pseudo-Bessel-Gaussian Schell-mode (PBGSM) beams propagating through atmospheric turbulence is analyzed with the help of wave optics simulation due to the analytic difficulties. It is found that in the strong fluctuation regime, the PBGSM beams are more resistant to the turbulence with the appropriate parameters β and δ . However, the case is contrary in the weak fluctuation regime. Our simulation results indicate that the PBGSM beams may be applied to free-space optical (FSO) communication systems only when the turbulence is strong or the propagation distance is long.

  5. Performances of Free-Space Optical Communication System Over Strong Turbulence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ucuk Darusalam


    Full Text Available We report an experimental of free-space optical communication (FSOC system that use tube propagation simulator (TPS as the turbulence medium. The FSOC system usewavelength of 1550 nm at the rate transmission of 1000 Mbps and amplified with EDFA at the output of +23 dBm. Index structure of 10-15–10-13 as the representation of atmosphere index turbulences are used for simulation of intensity distribution model or scintillation. The simulation use gammagamma and K model as well. The beam wave propagation models used in simulation are plane wave, spherical wave and Gaussian wave. Spherical wave achieves highest performance via gamma-gamma in strong turbulence. While Gaussian wave achieves highest performance also via K model. We also found, characteristical FSOC system performance is calculated more accurately with gamma-gamma method for strong turbulence than K model. The performances from gamma-gamma for strong turbulenceare at 22.55 dB, at 5.33×10-4, and at 9.41 ×10-6. 

  6. An experimental study on laminar-turbulent transition at high free-stream turbulence in boundary layers with pressure gradients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chernoray Valery


    Full Text Available We report here the results of a study on measurements and prediction of laminar-turbulent transition at high free-stream turbulence in boundary layers of the airfoil-like geometries with presence of the external pressure gradient changeover. The experiments are performed for a number of flow cases with different flow Reynolds number, turbulence intensity and pressure gradient distributions. The results were then compared to numerical calculations for same geometries and flow conditions. The experiments and computations are performed for the flow parameters which are typical for turbomachinery applications and the major idea of the current study is the validation of the turbulence model which can be used for such engineering applications.

  7. A Nonlinear k-ε Turbulence Model Applicable to High Pressure Gradient and Large Curvature Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiyao Gu


    Full Text Available Most of the RANS turbulence models solve the Reynolds stress by linear hypothesis with isotropic model. They can not capture all kinds of vortexes in the turbomachineries. In this paper, an improved nonlinear k-ε turbulence model is proposed, which is modified from the RNG k-ε turbulence model and Wilcox's k-ω turbulence model. The Reynolds stresses are solved by nonlinear methods. The nonlinear k-ε turbulence model can calculate the near wall region without the use of wall functions. The improved nonlinear k-ε turbulence model is used to simulate the flow field in a curved rectangular duct. The results based on the improved nonlinear k-ε turbulence model agree well with the experimental results. The calculation results prove that the nonlinear k-ε turbulence model is available for high pressure gradient flows and large curvature flows, and it can be used to capture complex vortexes in a turbomachinery.

  8. Intelligent correction of laser beam propagation through turbulent media using adaptive optics (United States)

    Ko, Jonathan; Wu, Chensheng; Davis, Christopher C.


    Adaptive optics methods have long been used by researchers in the astronomy field to retrieve correct images of celestial bodies. The approach is to use a deformable mirror combined with Shack-Hartmann sensors to correct the slightly distorted image when it propagates through the earth's atmospheric boundary layer, which can be viewed as adding relatively weak distortion in the last stage of propagation. However, the same strategy can't be easily applied to correct images propagating along a horizontal deep turbulence path. In fact, when turbulence levels becomes very strong (Cn 2>10-13 m-2/3), limited improvements have been made in correcting the heavily distorted images. We propose a method that reconstructs the light field that reaches the camera, which then provides information for controlling a deformable mirror. An intelligent algorithm is applied that provides significant improvement in correcting images. In our work, the light field reconstruction has been achieved with a newly designed modified plenoptic camera. As a result, by actively intervening with the coherent illumination beam, or by giving it various specific pre-distortions, a better (less turbulence affected) image can be obtained. This strategy can also be expanded to much more general applications such as correcting laser propagation through random media and can also help to improve designs in free space optical communication systems.

  9. Advancing adaptive optics technology: Laboratory turbulence simulation and optimization of laser guide stars (United States)

    Rampy, Rachel A.

    Since Galileo's first telescope some 400 years ago, astronomers have been building ever-larger instruments. Yet only within the last two decades has it become possible to realize the potential angular resolutions of large ground-based telescopes, by using adaptive optics (AO) technology to counter the blurring effects of Earth's atmosphere. And only within the past decade have the development of laser guide stars (LGS) extended AO capabilities to observe science targets nearly anywhere in the sky. Improving turbulence simulation strategies and LGS are the two main topics of my research. In the first part of this thesis, I report on the development of a technique for manufacturing phase plates for simulating atmospheric turbulence in the laboratory. The process involves strategic application of clear acrylic paint onto a transparent substrate. Results of interferometric characterization of the plates are described and compared to Kolmogorov statistics. The range of r0 (Fried's parameter) achieved thus far is 0.2--1.2 mm at 650 nm measurement wavelength, with a Kolmogorov power law. These plates proved valuable at the Laboratory for Adaptive Optics at University of California, Santa Cruz, where they have been used in the Multi-Conjugate Adaptive Optics testbed, during integration and testing of the Gemini Planet Imager, and as part of the calibration system of the on-sky AO testbed named ViLLaGEs (Visible Light Laser Guidestar Experiments). I present a comparison of measurements taken by ViLLaGEs of the power spectrum of a plate and the real sky turbulence. The plate is demonstrated to follow Kolmogorov theory well, while the sky power spectrum does so in a third of the data. This method of fabricating phase plates has been established as an effective and low-cost means of creating simulated turbulence. Due to the demand for such devices, they are now being distributed to other members of the AO community. The second topic of this thesis pertains to understanding and

  10. Highly turbulent Taylor-Couette flow: direct numerical simulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ostilla Monico, Rodolfo


    Turbulence is all around us. Even if we are familiar with every day instances of turbulence, like the smoke coming out of a chimney, it remains a not-well-understood phenomenum. As it is impossible to fully simulate turbulence to precisely take into account its effect, models must be used. These

  11. Characterization of dual-polarization LTE radio over a free-space optical turbulence channel. (United States)

    Bohata, J; Zvanovec, S; Korinek, T; Mansour Abadi, M; Ghassemlooy, Z


    A dual polarization (DP) radio over a free-space optical (FSO) communication link using a long-term evolution (LTE) radio signal is proposed and analyzed under different turbulence channel conditions. Radio signal transmission over the DP FSO channel is experimentally verified by means of error vector magnitude (EVM) statistics. We demonstrate that such a system, employing a 64 quadrature amplitude modulation at the frequency bands of 800 MHz and 2.6 GHz, evinces reliability with LTE signal over the FSO channel is a potential solution for last-mile access or backbone networks, when using multiple-input multiple-output based DP signals.

  12. Simple statistical channel model for weak temperature-induced turbulence in underwater wireless optical communication systems

    KAUST Repository

    Oubei, Hassan M.


    In this Letter, we use laser beam intensity fluctuation measurements to model and describe the statistical properties of weak temperature-induced turbulence in underwater wireless optical communication (UWOC) channels. UWOC channels with temperature gradients are modeled by the generalized gamma distribution (GGD) with an excellent goodness of fit to the measured data under all channel conditions. Meanwhile, thermally uniform channels are perfectly described by the simple gamma distribution which is a special case of GGD. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first model that comprehensively describes both thermally uniform and gradient-based UWOC channels.

  13. Atmospheric Optical Turbulence Measurements Taken at Anderson Mesa, Flagstaff, Arizona between 13-19 November 1989 (United States)


    distribution unlimited Prepared for: Naval Research Laboratory Washington, D.C. 20375 WL/ARCA Kirtland Air Force Base New Mexico 97117 NAVAL POSTGRADUATE...AFB ELEMENT NO NO NO :CCESSON NO 20375 New Mexico 87117 11 TITLE (Include Security Classification) ATMOSPHERIC OPTICAL TURBULENCE MEASUREMENTS TAKEN...Value Dominant % >= (UTC) (mm) Conditions "Good" I (urad) Conditions "Good" 13 91.6 Mediocre(74%) 25 1 11.86 Medio /Good(49%)49 14 77.5 MBdiocre(89%) 8

  14. Simple statistical channel model for weak temperature-induced turbulence in underwater wireless optical communication systems. (United States)

    Oubei, Hassan Makine; Zedini, Emna; ElAfandy, Rami T; Kammoun, Abla; Abdallah, Mohamed; Ng, Tien Khee; Hamdi, Mounir; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim; Ooi, Boon S


    In this Letter, we use laser beam intensity fluctuation measurements to model and describe the statistical properties of weak temperature-induced turbulence in underwater wireless optical communication (UWOC) channels. UWOC channels with temperature gradients are modeled by the generalized gamma distribution (GGD) with an excellent goodness of fit to the measured data under all channel conditions. Meanwhile, thermally uniform channels are perfectly described by the simple gamma distribution which is a special case of GGD. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first model that comprehensively describes both thermally uniform and gradient-based UWOC channels.

  15. Turbulent Transport at High Reynolds Numbers in an Inertial Confinement Fusion Context (United States)


    ABSTRACT Turbulent Transport at High Reynolds Numbers in an Inertial Confinement Fusion Context Report Title Mix is a critical input to hydro... inertial confinement fusion (ICF) targets. Mix contributes to numerical solution uncertainty through its dependence on turbulent transport Turbulent Transport at High Reynolds Numbers in an Inertial Confinement Fusion Context Mix is a critical input to hydro simulations used in

  16. Measuring currents in a coastal inlet by advection of turbulent eddies in airborne optical imagery (United States)

    Dugan, J. P.; Piotrowski, C. C.


    Water current vector fields in a coastal inlet are retrieved from temporal sequences of optical imagery collected from an aircraft, the velocity being calculated by tracking modulations in the radiance from the surface. The modulations are shown to be consistent with an advecting passive tracer in turbulent flow, leading to the physical mechanism for this signature being turbulent eddies in the flow. The intensity modulations are hypothesized to be light scattered from variations in the sediment load being transported by these turbulent eddies, although other imaging mechanisms such as surface roughness variations may be occurring as well. Supporting evidence is the prevalence of the signature in sediment-laden, nearshore flows along an exposed coast and through a tidal inlet and eddy-like variations in the echo intensity of acoustic Doppler current profilers (ADCPs). Also, the 3-D frequency-wave number spectrum of mapped image sequence data exhibits a classic shape that is consistent with surface turbulence generation by boils and subsequent mixing and advection by eddies in shallow channels. The velocity vector is retrieved by the geometry obtained in the least squares fit of a 2-D planar surface representing advective variance in the 3-D spectrum. These retrievals agree within 15 cm/s root-mean-square (RMS) with concurrent ADCP measurements and within 2 cm/s RMS of measurements of the Doppler shift of surface gravity waves that also are present in the data. The method provides an important new capability for measuring currents over large areas of the littorals, specifically including locations where waves are not present and visible variations in radiance from the water often are not strong.

  17. Average BER analysis of SCM-based free-space optical systems by considering the effect of IM3 with OSSB signals under turbulence channels. (United States)

    Lim, Wansu; Cho, Tae-Sik; Yun, Changho; Kim, Kiseon


    In this paper, we derive the average bit error rate (BER) of subcarrier multiplexing (SCM)-based free space optics (FSO) systems using a dual-drive Mach-Zehnder modulator (DD-MZM) for optical single-sideband (OSSB) signals under atmospheric turbulence channels. In particular, we consider the third-order intermodulation (IM3), a significant performance degradation factor, in the case of high input signal power systems. The derived average BER, as a function of the input signal power and the scintillation index, is employed to determine the optimum number of SCM users upon the designing FSO systems. For instance, when the user number doubles, the input signal power decreases by almost 2 dBm under the log-normal and exponential turbulence channels at a given average BER.

  18. Simulation of turbulences and fog effects on the free space optical link inside of experimental box (United States)

    Latal, Jan; Vitasek, Jan; Hajek, Lukas; Vanderka, Ales; Koudelka, Petr; Kepak, Stanislav; Vasinek, Vladimir


    This paper deals with problematic of Free Space Optical (FSO) Links. The theoretical part describes the effects of atmospheric transmission environment on these FSO connections. The practical part is focused on the creation of an appropriate experimental workplace for turbulences simulation (mechanical and thermal turbulences), fog effects and subsequent measurement of these effects. For definition how big impact these effects on the FSO system have is used the statistical analysis and simulation software Optiwave. Overall there were tested three optical light sources operating at wavelengths of 632.8 nm, 850 nm and 1550 nm respectively. Influences of simulated atmospheric effects on the signal attenuation were observed. Within the frame of simulation in Optiwave software there were studied influences of attenuation on given wavelengths in form of FSO link transmission parameters degradation. Also for the purposes of real measurements it was necessary to fabricate an experimental box. This box was constructed with sizes of 2.5 and 5 meters and was used for simulation of atmospheric environment.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girart, J. M.; Frau, P. [Institut de Ciencies de l' Espai, (CSIC-IEEC), Campus UAB, Facultat de Ciencies, C5p 2, E-08193 Bellaterra, Catalonia (Spain); Zhang, Q. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Koch, P. M.; Tang, Y.-W.; Lai, S.-P.; Ho, P. T. P. [Academia Sinica Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, P.O. Box 23-141, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Qiu, K., E-mail: [School of Astronomy and Space Science, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)


    We present high angular resolution observations of the massive star-forming core DR21(OH) at 880 {mu}m using the Submillimeter Array (SMA). The dense core exhibits an overall velocity gradient in a Keplerian-like pattern, which breaks at the center of the core where SMA 6 and SMA 7 are located. The dust polarization shows a complex magnetic field, compatible with a toroidal configuration. This is in contrast with the large, parsec-scale filament that surrounds the core, where there is a smooth magnetic field. The total magnetic field strengths in the filament and in the core are 0.9 and 2.1 mG, respectively. We found evidence of magnetic field diffusion at the core scales, far beyond the expected value for ambipolar diffusion. It is possible that the diffusion arises from fast magnetic reconnection in the presence of turbulence. The dynamics of the DR 21(OH) core appear to be controlled energetically in equal parts by the magnetic field, magnetohydrodynamic turbulence, and the angular momentum. The effect of the angular momentum (this is a fast rotating core) is probably causing the observed toroidal field configuration. Yet, gravitation overwhelms all the forces, making this a clear supercritical core with a mass-to-flux ratio of {approx_equal} 6 times the critical value. However, simulations show that this is not enough for the high level of fragmentation observed at 1000 AU scales. Thus, rotation and outflow feedback are probably the main causes of the observed fragmentation.

  20. Performance analysis of multihop heterodyne free-space optical communication over general Malaga turbulence channels with pointing error

    KAUST Repository

    Alheadary, Wael Ghazy


    This work investigates the end-to-end performance of a free space optical amplify-and-forward (AF) channel-state-information (CSI)-assisted relaying system using heterodyne detection over Malaga turbulence channels at the presence of pointing error employing rectangular quadrature amplitude modulation (R-QAM). More specifically, we present exact closed-form expressions for average bit-error rate for adaptive/non-adaptive modulation, achievable spectral efficiency, and ergodic capacity by utilizing generalized power series of Meijer\\'s G-function. Moreover, asymptotic closed form expressions are provided to validate our work at high power regime. In addition, all the presented analytical results are illustrated using a selected set of numerical results. Moreover, we applied the bisection method to find the optimum beam width for the proposed FSO system.

  1. The development of kilohertz planar laser diagnostics for applications in high power turbulent flames (United States)

    Slabaugh, Carson Daniel

    In modern gas-turbine combustors, flame stabilization is achieved by inducing exhaust gas circulation within the flame zone through swirl-induced vortex breakdown. Swirling flows exhibit strong shear regions resulting in high turbulence and effective mixing. In combustion, these flows are characterized by complex unsteady interactions between turbulent flow structures and chemical reactions. Developments in high-resolution, quantitative, experimental measurement techniques must continue to improve fundamental understanding and support modeling efforts. This work describes the development of a gas turbine combustion experiment to support the application of advanced optical measurement techniques in flames operating at realistic engine conditions. Facility requirements are addressed, including instrumentation and control needs for remote operation when working with high energy flows. The methodology employed in the design of the optically-accessible combustion chamber is elucidated, including window considerations and thermal management of the experimental hardware under extremely high heat loads. Experimental uncertainties are also quantified. The stable operation of the experiment is validated using multiple techniques and the boundary conditions are verified. The successful prediction of operating conditions by the design analysis is documented and preliminary data is shown to demonstrate the capability of the experiment to produce high-fidelity datasets for advanced combustion research. Building on this experimental infrastructure, simultaneous measurements of velocity and scalar fields were performed in turbulent nonpremixed flames at gas turbine engine operating conditions using 5 kHz Particle-Image Velocimetry (PIV) and OH Planar Laser Induced Fluorescence (OH-PLIF). The experimental systems and the challenges associated with acquiring useful data at high pressures and high thermal powers are discussed. The quality of the particle scattering images used in the

  2. The Interaction of High-Speed Turbulence with Flames: Turbulent Flame Speed (United States)


    2 in [9]). In other words, we consider the fastest turbulence which has been hypothesized to allow the existence of flamelets with the internal...pre- sented in [17], in conjunction with the PPM spatial reconstruction [18] and the approximate nonlinear HLLC Riemann solver. Overall, the code

  3. Toward Precision LSST Weak-Lensing Measurement. I. Impacts of Atmospheric Turbulence and Optical Aberration (United States)

    Jee, M. James; Tyson, J. Anthony


    The weak-lensing science of the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) project drives the need to carefully model and separate the instrumental artifacts from the intrinsic shear signal caused by gravitational lensing. The dominant source of the systematics for all ground-based telescopes is the spatial correlation of the point-spread function (PSF) modulated by both atmospheric turbulence and optical aberrations in the telescope and camera system. In this article, we present a full field-of-view simulation of the LSST images by modeling both the atmosphere and the system optics with the most current data for the telescope and camera specifications and the environment. To simulate the effects of atmospheric turbulence, we generated six-layer Kolmogorov/von Kármán phase screens with the parameters estimated from the on-site measurements. LSST will continuously sample the wavefront, correcting the optics alignment and focus. For the optics, we combined the ray-tracing tool ZEMAX and our simulated focal-plane data to introduce realistic residual aberrations and focal-plane height variations. Although this expected focal-plane flatness deviation for LSST is small compared with that of other existing cameras, the fast focal ratio of the LSST optics cause this focal-plane flatness variation and the resulting PSF discontinuities across the CCD boundaries to be significant challenges in our removal of the PSF-induced systematics. We resolve this complication by performing principal component analysis (PCA) CCD by CCD and by interpolating the basis functions derived from the analysis using conventional polynomials. We demonstrate that this PSF correction scheme reduces the residual PSF ellipticity correlation below 10-7 over the cosmologically interesting (dark-matter-dominated) scale 10‧-3°. From a null test using the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Ultra Deep Field (UDF) galaxy images without input shear, we verify that the amplitude of the galaxy ellipticity

  4. High Availability in Optical Networks (United States)

    Grover, Wayne D.; Wosinska, Lena; Fumagalli, Andrea


    Call for Papers: High Availability in Optical Networks Submission Deadline: 1 January 2006 The Journal of Optical Networking (JON) is soliciting papers for a feature Issue pertaining to all aspects of reliable components and systems for optical networks and concepts, techniques, and experience leading to high availability of services provided by optical networks. Most nations now recognize that telecommunications in all its forms -- including voice, Internet, video, and so on -- are "critical infrastructure" for the society, commerce, government, and education. Yet all these services and applications are almost completely dependent on optical networks for their realization. "Always on" or apparently unbreakable communications connectivity is the expectation from most users and for some services is the actual requirement as well. Achieving the desired level of availability of services, and doing so with some elegance and efficiency, is a meritorious goal for current researchers. This requires development and use of high-reliability components and subsystems, but also concepts for active reconfiguration and capacity planning leading to high availability of service through unseen fast-acting survivability mechanisms. The feature issue is also intended to reflect some of the most important current directions and objectives in optical networking research, which include the aspects of integrated design and operation of multilevel survivability and realization of multiple Quality-of-Protection service classes. Dynamic survivable service provisioning, or batch re-provisioning is an important current theme, as well as methods that achieve high availability at far less investment in spare capacity than required by brute force service path duplication or 100% redundant rings, which is still the surprisingly prevalent practice. Papers of several types are envisioned in the feature issue, including outlook and forecasting types of treatments, optimization and analysis, new

  5. Simulation of anisoplanatic imaging through optical turbulence using numerical wave propagation with new validation analysis (United States)

    Hardie, Russell C.; Power, Jonathan D.; LeMaster, Daniel A.; Droege, Douglas R.; Gladysz, Szymon; Bose-Pillai, Santasri


    We present a numerical wave propagation method for simulating imaging of an extended scene under anisoplanatic conditions. While isoplanatic simulation is relatively common, few tools are specifically designed for simulating the imaging of extended scenes under anisoplanatic conditions. We provide a complete description of the proposed simulation tool, including the wave propagation method used. Our approach computes an array of point spread functions (PSFs) for a two-dimensional grid on the object plane. The PSFs are then used in a spatially varying weighted sum operation, with an ideal image, to produce a simulated image with realistic optical turbulence degradation. The degradation includes spatially varying warping and blurring. To produce the PSF array, we generate a series of extended phase screens. Simulated point sources are numerically propagated from an array of positions on the object plane, through the phase screens, and ultimately to the focal plane of the simulated camera. Note that the optical path for each PSF will be different, and thus, pass through a different portion of the extended phase screens. These different paths give rise to a spatially varying PSF to produce anisoplanatic effects. We use a method for defining the individual phase screen statistics that we have not seen used in previous anisoplanatic simulations. We also present a validation analysis. In particular, we compare simulated outputs with the theoretical anisoplanatic tilt correlation and a derived differential tilt variance statistic. This is in addition to comparing the long- and short-exposure PSFs and isoplanatic angle. We believe this analysis represents the most thorough validation of an anisoplanatic simulation to date. The current work is also unique that we simulate and validate both constant and varying Cn2(z) profiles. Furthermore, we simulate sequences with both temporally independent and temporally correlated turbulence effects. Temporal correlation is introduced

  6. PDF methods for combustion in high-speed turbulent flows (United States)

    Pope, Stephen B.


    This report describes the research performed during the second year of this three-year project. The ultimate objective of the project is extend the applicability of probability density function (pdf) methods from incompressible to compressible turbulent reactive flows. As described in subsequent sections, progress has been made on: (1) formulation and modelling of pdf equations for compressible turbulence, in both homogeneous and inhomogeneous inert flows; and (2) implementation of the compressible model in various flow configurations, namely decaying isotropic turbulence, homogeneous shear flow and plane mixing layer.

  7. On the simulation and mitigation of anisoplanatic optical turbulence for long range imaging (United States)

    Hardie, Russell C.; LeMaster, Daniel A.


    We describe a numerical wave propagation method for simulating long range imaging of an extended scene under anisoplanatic conditions. Our approach computes an array of point spread functions (PSFs) for a 2D grid on the object plane. The PSFs are then used in a spatially varying weighted sum operation, with an ideal image, to produce a simulated image with realistic optical turbulence degradation. To validate the simulation we compare simulated outputs with the theoretical anisoplanatic tilt correlation and differential tilt variance. This is in addition to comparing the long- and short-exposure PSFs, and isoplanatic angle. Our validation analysis shows an excellent match between the simulation statistics and the theoretical predictions. The simulation tool is also used here to quantitatively evaluate a recently proposed block- matching and Wiener filtering (BMWF) method for turbulence mitigation. In this method block-matching registration algorithm is used to provide geometric correction for each of the individual input frames. The registered frames are then averaged and processed with a Wiener filter for restoration. A novel aspect of the proposed BMWF method is that the PSF model used for restoration takes into account the level of geometric correction achieved during image registration. This way, the Wiener filter is able fully exploit the reduced blurring achieved by registration. The BMWF method is relatively simple computationally, and yet, has excellent performance in comparison to state-of-the-art benchmark methods.

  8. High-Temperature Optical Sensor (United States)

    Adamovsky, Grigory; Juergens, Jeffrey R.; Varga, Donald J.; Floyd, Bertram M.


    A high-temperature optical sensor (see Figure 1) has been developed that can operate at temperatures up to 1,000 C. The sensor development process consists of two parts: packaging of a fiber Bragg grating into a housing that allows a more sturdy thermally stable device, and a technological process to which the device is subjected to in order to meet environmental requirements of several hundred C. This technology uses a newly discovered phenomenon of the formation of thermally stable secondary Bragg gratings in communication-grade fibers at high temperatures to construct robust, optical, high-temperature sensors. Testing and performance evaluation (see Figure 2) of packaged sensors demonstrated operability of the devices at 1,000 C for several hundred hours, and during numerous thermal cycling from 400 to 800 C with different heating rates. The technology significantly extends applicability of optical sensors to high-temperature environments including ground testing of engines, flight propulsion control, thermal protection monitoring of launch vehicles, etc. It may also find applications in such non-aerospace arenas as monitoring of nuclear reactors, furnaces, chemical processes, and other hightemperature environments where other measurement techniques are either unreliable, dangerous, undesirable, or unavailable.

  9. Laboratory Study of Homogeneous and Isotropic Turbulence at High Reynolds Number (United States)

    Pecenak, Zachary; Dou, Zhongwang; Yang, Fan; Cao, Lujie; Liang, Zach; Meng, Hui


    To study particle dynamics modified by isotropic turbulence at high Reynolds numbers and provide experimental data for DNS validation, we have developed a soccer-ball-shaped truncated icosahedron turbulence chamber with 20 adjoining hexagon surfaces, 12 pentagon surfaces and twenty symettrically displaced fans, which form an enclosed chamber of 1m diameter. We use Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) technique to characterize the base turbulent flow, using different PIV set ups to capture various characteristic scales of turbulence. Results show that the stationary isotropic turbulence field is a spherical domain with diameter of 40 mm with quasi-zero mean velocities. The maximum rms velocity is ~1.5 m/s, corresponding to a Taylor microscale Re of 450. We extract from the PIV velocity field the whole set of turbulent flow parameters including: turbulent kinetic energy, turbulent intensity, kinetic energy dissipation rate, large eddy length and time scales, the Kolmogorov length, time and velocity scales, Taylor microscale and Re, which are critical to the study of inter-particle statistics modified by turbulence. This research is funded by an NSF grant CBET-0967407.

  10. Bumblebees meet fully developed turbulence: high resolution numerical simulations (United States)

    Engels, Thomas; Kolomenskiy, Dmitry; Schneider, Kai; Sesterhenn, Joern; Lehmann, Fritz-Olaf


    Numerical experiments of a tethered bumblebee in a wind tunnel with turbulent inflow of different intensity are performed at realistic Reynolds numbers on massively parallel computers. Ensemble averaging of different flow realizations shows that the mean forces (lift and drag, or horizontal and vertical), the moments (roll, pitch and yaw), and power, are robust and are not modified significantly by the turbulent inflow. Phase averaging of the vorticity field illustrates that in all cases the leading edge vortex is indeed persistent (in the average sense) as it is the case for laminar inflow, which explains the above findings. However, as expected, the corresponding standard deviations do increase with the turbulence intensity. In particular the roll moment shows the strongest increase of standard deviation. Considering that the moment of inertia of the bumblebee is the smallest around this axis yields a possible explanation for the experimentally observed flight instability around the roll axis under turbulent flow conditions.

  11. The Evaporation of Liquid Droplets in Highly Turbulent Gas Streams

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gould, Richard


    Single acetone and heptane droplets were suspended from a hypodermic needle in turbulent airflow, and the Nusselt number was obtained from direct measurements of the droplet diameter and evaporation rate...

  12. Turbulent Flame Propagation Characteristics of High Hydrogen Content Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seitzman, Jerry [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Lieuwen, Timothy [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)


    This final report describes the results of an effort to better understand turbulent flame propagation, especially at conditions relevant to gas turbines employing fuels with syngas or hydrogen mixtures. Turbulent flame speeds were measured for a variety of hydrogen/carbon monoxide (H2/CO) and hydrogen/methane (H2/CH4) fuel mixtures with air as the oxidizer. The measurements include global consumption speeds (ST,GC) acquired in a turbulent jet flame at pressures of 1-10 atm and local displacement speeds (ST,LD) acquired in a low-swirl burner at atmospheric pressure. The results verify the importance of fuel composition in determining turbulent flame speeds. For example, different fuel-air mixtures having the same unstretched laminar flame speed (SL,0) but different fuel compositions resulted in significantly different ST,GC for the same turbulence levels (u'). This demonstrates the weakness of turbulent flame speed correlations based simply on u'/SL,0. The results were analyzed using a steady-steady leading points concept to explain the sensitivity of turbulent burning rates to fuel (and oxidizer) composition. Leading point theories suggest that the premixed turbulent flame speed is controlled by the flame front characteristics at the flame brush leading edge, or, in other words, by the flamelets that advance farthest into the unburned mixture (the so-called leading points). For negative Markstein length mixtures, this is assumed to be close to the maximum stretched laminar flame speed (SL,max) for the given fuel-oxidizer mixture. For the ST,GC measurements, the data at a given pressure were well-correlated with an SL,max scaling. However the variation with pressure was not captured, which may be due to non-quasi-steady effects that are not included in the current model. For the ST,LD data, the leading points model again faithfully captured the variation of turbulent flame speed over a wide range of fuel-compositions and turbulence intensities. These

  13. Rigid spherical particles in highly turbulent Taylor-Couette flow (United States)

    Bakhuis, Dennis; Verschoof, Ruben A.; Mathai, Varghese; Huisman, Sander G.; Lohse, Detlef; Sun, Chao


    Many industrial and maritime processes are subject to enormous frictional losses. Reducing these losses even slightly will already lead to large financial and environmental benefits. The understanding of the underlying physical mechanism of frictional drag reduction is still limited, for example, in bubbly drag reduction there is an ongoing debate whether deformability and bubble size are the key parameters. In this experimental study we report high precision torque measurements using rigid non-deformable spherical particles in highly turbulent Taylor-Couette flow with Reynolds numbers up to 2 ×106 . The particles are made of polystyrene with an average density of 1.036 g cm-3 and three different diameters: 8mm, 4mm, and 1.5mm. Particle volume fractions of up to 6% were used. By varying the particle diameter, density ratio of the particles and the working fluid, and volume fraction of the particles, the effect on the torque is compared to the single phase case. These systematic measurements show that adding rigid spherical particles only results in very minor drag reduction. This work is financially supported by Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research (NWO) by VIDI Grant Number 13477.

  14. Turbulent boundary layer in high Rayleigh number convection in air. (United States)

    du Puits, Ronald; Li, Ling; Resagk, Christian; Thess, André; Willert, Christian


    Flow visualizations and particle image velocimetry measurements in the boundary layer of a Rayleigh-Bénard experiment are presented for the Rayleigh number Ra=1.4×1010. Our visualizations indicate that the appearance of the flow structures is similar to ordinary (isothermal) turbulent boundary layers. Our particle image velocimetry measurements show that vorticity with both positive and negative sign is generated and that the smallest flow structures are 1 order of magnitude smaller than the boundary layer thickness. Additional local measurements using laser Doppler velocimetry yield turbulence intensities up to I=0.4 as in turbulent atmospheric boundary layers. From our observations, we conclude that the convective boundary layer becomes turbulent locally and temporarily although its Reynolds number Re≈200 is considerably smaller than the value 420 underlying existing phenomenological theories. We think that, in turbulent Rayleigh-Bénard convection, the transition of the boundary layer towards turbulence depends on subtle details of the flow field and is therefore not universal.

  15. Performance analysis of dual-hop optical wireless communication systems over k-distribution turbulence channel with pointing error (United States)

    Mishra, Neha; Sriram Kumar, D.; Jha, Pranav Kumar


    In this paper, we investigate the performance of the dual-hop free space optical (FSO) communication systems under the effect of strong atmospheric turbulence together with misalignment effects (pointing error). We consider a relay assisted link using decode and forward (DF) relaying protocol between source and destination with the assumption that Channel State Information is available at both transmitting and receiving terminals. The atmospheric turbulence channels are modeled by k-distribution with pointing error impairment. The exact closed form expression is derived for outage probability and bit error rate and illustrated through numerical plots. Further BER results are compared for the different modulation schemes.

  16. High-resolution observations and modeling of turbulence sources, structures, and intensities in the upper mesosphere (United States)

    Fritts, David C.; Wang, Ling; Baumgarten, Gerd; Miller, Amber D.; Geller, Marvin A.; Jones, Glenn; Limon, Michele; Chapman, Daniel; Didier, Joy; Kjellstrand, Carl B.; Araujo, Derek; Hillbrand, Seth; Korotkov, Andrei; Tucker, Gregory; Vinokurov, Jerry


    New capabilities for imaging small-scale instabilities and turbulence and for modeling gravity wave (GW), instability, and turbulence dynamics at high Reynolds numbers are employed to identify the major instabilities and quantify turbulence intensities near the summer mesopause. High-resolution imaging of polar mesospheric clouds (PMCs) reveal a range of instability dynamics and turbulence sources that have their roots in multi-scale GW dynamics at larger spatial scales. Direct numerical simulations (DNS) of these dynamics exhibit a range of instability types that closely resemble instabilities and turbulence seen in PMC imaging and by ground-based and in-situ instruments at all times and altitudes. The DNS also exhibit the development of ;sheet-and-layer; (S&L) structures in the horizontal wind and thermal stability fields that resemble observed flows near the mesopause and at lower altitudes. Both observations and modeling suggest major roles for GW breaking, Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities (KHI), and intrusions in turbulence generation and energy dissipation. Of these, larger-scale GW breaking and KHI play the major roles in energetic flows leading to strong turbulence. GW propagation and breaking can span several S&L features and induce KHI ranging from GW to turbulence scales. Intrusions make comparable contributions to turbulence generation as instabilities become weaker and more intermittent. Turbulence intensities are highly variable in the vertical and typically span 3 or more decades. DNS results that closely resemble observed flows suggest a range of mechanical energy dissipation rates of ε 10-3-10 W kg-1 that is consistent with the range of in-situ measurements at 80-90 km in summer.

  17. Optical and mechanical response of high temperature optical fiber sensors (United States)

    Sirkis, Jim


    The National Aerospace Plane (NASP) will experience temperatures as high as 2500 F at critical locations in its structure. Optical fiber sensors were proposed as a means of monitoring the temperature in these critical regions by either bonding the optical fiber to, or embedding the optical fiber in, metal matrix composite (MMC) components. Unfortunately, the anticipated NASP temperature ranges exceed the glass transition region of the optical fiber glass. The attempt is made to define the operating temperature range of optical fiber sensors from both optical and mechanical perspectives. A full non-linear optical analysis was performed by modeling the optical response of an isolated sensor cyclically driven through the glass transition region.

  18. Optics assembly for high power laser tools (United States)

    Fraze, Jason D.; Faircloth, Brian O.; Zediker, Mark S.


    There is provided a high power laser rotational optical assembly for use with, or in high power laser tools for performing high power laser operations. In particular, the optical assembly finds applications in performing high power laser operations on, and in, remote and difficult to access locations. The optical assembly has rotational seals and bearing configurations to avoid contamination of the laser beam path and optics.

  19. Turbulent energy dissipation rate in a tilting flume with a highly rough bed (United States)

    Coscarella, F.; Servidio, S.; Ferraro, D.; Carbone, V.; Gaudio, R.


    Turbulent flows on highly rough beds, such as those occurring in natural watercourses, represent a longstanding and fascinating problem of hydraulics, motivating in the past few decades huge research on new models of turbulence. In this work, laboratory experiments are presented on a stream flowing on a heterogeneous pebble bed with varying slope. The analysis of the flow speed puts in evidence a clear inertial range, where the Kolmogorov 4/5-law for the streamwise velocity spatial increments holds. The law is used for a systematic estimation of the turbulent kinetic energy dissipation rate 𝜖 , here measured for three different bed slopes and hence for three different shear Reynolds numbers. The experiments presented here suggest that small scale turbulence has properties similar to the classical picture of homogeneous universal turbulence invoked by the Kolmogorov theory.

  20. High pressure optical combustion probe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodruff, S.D.; Richards, G.A.


    The Department of Energy`s Morgantown Energy Technology Center has developed a combustion probe for monitoring flame presence and heat release. The technology involved is a compact optical detector of the OH radical`s UV fluorescence. The OH Monitor/Probe is designed to determine the flame presence and provide a qualitative signal proportional to the flame intensity. The probe can be adjusted to monitor a specific volume in the combustion zone to track spatial fluctuations in the flame. The probe is capable of nanosecond time response and is usually slowed electronically to fit the flame characteristics. The probe is a sapphire rod in a stainless steel tube which may be inserted into the combustion chamber and pointed at the flame zone. The end of the sapphire rod is retracted into the SS tube to define a narrow optical collection cone. The collection cone may be adjusted to fit the experiment. The fluorescence signal is collected by the sapphire rod and transmitted through a UV transmitting, fused silica, fiber optic to the detector assembly. The detector is a side window photomultiplier (PMT) with a 310 run line filter. A Hamamatsu photomultiplier base combined with a integral high voltage power supply permits this to be a low voltage device. Electronic connections include: a power lead from a modular DC power supply for 15 VDC; a control lead for 0-1 volts to control the high voltage level (and therefore gain); and a lead out for the actual signal. All low voltage connections make this a safe and easy to use device while still delivering the sensitivity required.

  1. Oceanic mesoscale turbulence drives large biogeochemical interannual variability at middle and high latitudes

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Levy, M.; Resplandy, L.; Lengaigne, M.

    Observed phytoplankton interannual variability has been commonly related to atmospheric variables and climate indices. Here we showed that such relation is highly hampered by internal variability associated with oceanic mesoscale turbulence...

  2. Turbulent Scalar Transport Model Validation for High Speed Propulsive Flows Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This effort entails the validation of a RANS turbulent scalar transport model (SFM) for high speed propulsive flows, using new experimental data sets and...

  3. Universal intermittent properties of particle trajectories in highly turbulent flows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnèodo, A.; Benzi, R.; Berg, Jacob


    We present a collection of eight data sets from state-of-the-art experiments and numerical simulations on turbulent velocity statistics along particle trajectories obtained in different flows with Reynolds numbers in the range R-lambda is an element of [120740]. Lagrangian structure functions fro...

  4. Lagrangian Enstrophy Dynamics in Highly Turbulent Premixed Flames (United States)

    Darragh, Ryan; Towery, Colin; Poludnenko, Alexei; Hamlington, Peter


    Turbulent combustion is a multi-scale and multi-physics problem depending upon both chemical and fluid dynamic processes. These processes are often examined using an Eulerian framework, but recently the Lagrangian framework, a long-time tool in non-reacting flow research, has become increasingly common for the study of turbulent combustion. The two analysis frameworks are in fact equivalent, with the only difference being a change in reference frame. In this study, a Lagrangian fluid parcel tracking algorithm is used to analyze the enstrophy (i.e., vorticity magnitude) dynamics in turbulent premixed reacting flows. The analysis of vorticity dynamics in the premixed flame case is based on data from a three dimensional direct numerical simulation of a premixed stoichiometric hydrogen-air flame in an unconfined domain. Enstrophy budget terms are tracked along Lagrangian trajectories as fluid parcels travel through the flame, with particular focus on understanding the dynamical causes of turbulence variations through the flame preheat and reaction zones with respect to both the fluid parcel and the flame. Additionally, the ability of trajectories to completely sample the flame is discussed.

  5. Terascale High-Fidelity Simulations of Turbulent Combustion with Detailed Chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Im, Hong G [University of Michigan; Trouve, Arnaud [University of Maryland; Rutland, Christopher J [University of Wisconsin; Chen, Jacqueline H [Sandia National Laboratories


    The TSTC project is a multi-university collaborative effort to develop a high-fidelity turbulent reacting flow simulation capability utilizing terascale, massively parallel computer technology. The main paradigm of our approach is direct numerical simulation (DNS) featuring highest temporal and spatial accuracy, allowing quantitative observations of the fine-scale physics found in turbulent reacting flows as well as providing a useful tool for development of sub-models needed in device-level simulations. The code named S3D, developed and shared with Chen and coworkers at Sandia National Laboratories, has been enhanced with new numerical algorithms and physical models to provide predictive capabilities for spray dynamics, combustion, and pollutant formation processes in turbulent combustion. Major accomplishments include improved characteristic boundary conditions, fundamental studies of auto-ignition in turbulent stratified reactant mixtures, flame-wall interaction, and turbulent flame extinction by water spray. The overarching scientific issue in our recent investigations is to characterize criticality phenomena (ignition/extinction) in turbulent combustion, thereby developing unified criteria to identify ignition and extinction conditions. The computational development under TSTC has enabled the recent large-scale 3D turbulent combustion simulations conducted at Sandia National Laboratories.

  6. Case study of wave breaking with high-resolution turbulence measurements with LITOS and WRF simulations (United States)

    Schneider, Andreas; Wagner, Johannes; Söder, Jens; Gerding, Michael; Lübken, Franz-Josef


    Measurements of turbulent energy dissipation rates obtained from wind fluctuations observed with the balloon-borne instrument LITOS (Leibniz-Institute Turbulence Observations in the Stratosphere) are combined with simulations with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model to study the breakdown of waves into turbulence. One flight from Kiruna (68° N, 21° E) and two flights from Kühlungsborn (54° N, 12° E) are analysed. Dissipation rates are of the order of 0. 1 mW kg-1 (˜ 0.01 K d-1) in the troposphere and in the stratosphere below 15 km, increasing in distinct layers by about 2 orders of magnitude. For one flight covering the stratosphere up to ˜ 28 km, the measurement shows nearly no turbulence at all above 15 km. Another flight features a patch with highly increased dissipation directly below the tropopause, collocated with strong wind shear and wave filtering conditions. In general, small or even negative Richardson numbers are affirmed to be a sufficient condition for increased dissipation. Conversely, significant turbulence has also been observed in the lower stratosphere under stable conditions. Observed energy dissipation rates are related to wave patterns visible in the modelled vertical winds. In particular, the drop in turbulent fraction at 15 km mentioned above coincides with a drop in amplitude in the wave patterns visible in the WRF. This indicates wave saturation being visible in the LITOS turbulence data.

  7. Evaporation of bi-component droplets in a heated, highly turbulent flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreau, F.; Bazile, R. [Universite de Toulouse, INPT, UPS, IMFT, Institut de Mecanique des Fluides de Toulouse, Toulouse (France); CNRS, IMFT, Toulouse (France)


    This work aims to understand the phenomena that occur in a combustion chamber where multi-component fuel droplets are injected. Many evaporation models exist but the influence of turbulence on spray vaporization is not yet well understood. This study gives a useful database to improve these models. The objective of the work is to measure the dispersion and the evaporation of bi-component (octane/3-pentanone) droplets and the resulting vapor mixing in a well-known, heated, highly turbulent channel flow. The carrier flow shows high turbulence levels, flat profiles for the mean velocity and the velocity fluctuations. The injected droplets have a large variety of behaviors due to the large polydispersion and to the turbulence. The evolution of 3-pentanone liquid concentration, mass flux, and droplet clusters are described. Mean concentration, fluctuations of concentration, and mixing of the vapor phase are characterized. (orig.)

  8. High-power optics lasers and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Apollonov, Victor V


    This book covers the basics, realization and materials for high power laser systems and high power radiation interaction with  matter. The physical and technical fundamentals of high intensity laser optics and adaptive optics and the related physical processes in high intensity laser systems are explained. A main question discussed is: What is power optics? In what way is it different from ordinary optics widely used in cameras, motion-picture projectors, i.e., for everyday use? An undesirable consequence of the thermal deformation of optical elements and surfaces was discovered during studies of the interaction with powerful incident laser radiation. The requirements to the fabrication, performance and quality of optical elements employed within systems for most practical applications are also covered. The high-power laser performance is generally governed by the following: (i) the absorption of incident optical radiation (governed primarily by various absorption mechanisms), (ii) followed by a temperature ...

  9. Two highly singular intermittent structures: Rain and turbulence (United States)

    Waymire, Edward C.


    Rainfall charges soil moisture and river basins among its many roles with respect to the hydrologic cycle. Research aimed at improved understanding and modeling of surface water processes includes attention to rainfall at a variety of space-time scales. Given the atmospheric environment in which rain events are observed, some similarities between certain rainfall data structures and fluid turbulence can be expected. So the space-time intermittency and large fluctuations observed in both rain rates and energy dissipation rates have provided an interest among hydrologists in developing physical theories, experiments, and mathematical models. In response to a request for insights into multiplicative cascade models, the main goal of this article is to single out a special mathematical transformation, namely, "size biasing" (or "tilting"), which has proven to be very powerful in the mathematical analysis of multiplicative cascades and which has also been successfully exploited within the context of turbulence from a physical perspective.

  10. Turbulence in high-beta ASDEX upgrade advanced scenarios (United States)

    Doerk, H.; Bock, A.; Di Siena, A.; Fable, E.; Görler, T.; Jenko, F.; Stober, J.; The ASDEX Upgrade Team


    Recent experiments at ASDEX Upgrade achieve non-inductive operation in full tungsten wall conditions by applying electron cyclotron and neutral beam current drive. These discharges are characterised by a well-measured safety factor profile, which does not drop below one, and a good energy confinement. By reproducing the experimental heat fluxes, nonlinear gyrokinetic simulations suggest that the observed strong peaking of the ion temperature in the core is caused by the stabilising impact of a significant beam ion content, as well as strong electromagnetic effects on turbulent transport. Quasilinear transport models are not yet applicable in this interesting and reactor relevant parameter regime, but available simulation data may serve as a testbed for improvements. As the present plasma is close to the kinetic ballooning (KBM) threshold, elevating the safety factor profile under otherwise identical conditions is proposed to clarify, whether profiles are ultimately limited by KBM turbulence, or by global stability constraints.

  11. Adaptive optics compensation for propagation through deep turbulence: initial investigation of gradient descent tomography. (United States)

    Tyler, Glenn A


    To implement adaptive optics compensation for propagation through deep turbulence, the concept of gradient descent tomography has been developed. Here two or more deformable mirrors are controlled by an efficient iterative algorithm that optimizes the integral I(2) image-sharpening metric. In this work a difficult case involving imaging over a 2 km path with a C(n)(2) of 2 x 10(-13)m(-2/3) is considered. For a wavelength of 1.06 microm and a 10-cm-diameter aperture, lambda/D is seven times the isoplanatic angle (theta(0)=1.54 microrad), and the Rytov number is 5.5. For three points placed along a line spanning approximately 70 isoplanatic patch sizes all three points are compensated somewhat, illustrating that anisoplanatism is addressed. The fact that the corresponding performance improvement ratios are 1.20, 1.34, and 3.26 in the presence of such strong scintillation and anisoplanatism is quite significant.

  12. Extended Huygens-Fresnel principle and optical waves propagation in turbulence: discussion. (United States)

    Charnotskii, Mikhail


    Extended Huygens-Fresnel principle (EHF) currently is the most common technique used in theoretical studies of the optical propagation in turbulence. A recent review paper [J. Opt. Soc. Am. A31, 2038 (2014)JOAOD60740-323210.1364/JOSAA.31.002038] cites several dozens of papers that are exclusively based on the EHF principle. We revisit the foundations of the EHF, and show that it is burdened by very restrictive assumptions that make it valid only under weak scintillation conditions. We compare the EHF to the less-restrictive Markov approximation and show that both theories deliver identical results for the second moment of the field, rendering the EHF essentially worthless. For the fourth moment of the field, the EHF principle is accurate under weak scintillation conditions, but is known to provide erroneous results for strong scintillation conditions. In addition, since the EHF does not obey the energy conservation principle, its results cannot be accurate for scintillations of partially coherent beam waves.

  13. Longitudinal and transverse structure functions in high Reynolds-number magneto-hydrodynamic turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Friedrich, J; Schäfer, T; Grauer, R


    We investigate the scaling behavior of longitudinal and transverse structure functions in homogeneous and isotropic magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence by means of an exact hierarchy of structure function equations as well as by direct numerical simulations of two- and three-dimensional MHD turbulence. In particular, rescaling relations between longitudinal and transverse structure functions are derived and utilized in order to compare different scaling behavior in the inertial range. It is found that there are no substantial differences between longitudinal and transverse structure functions in MHD turbulence. This finding stands in contrast to the case of hydrodynamic turbulence which shows persistent differences even at high Reynolds numbers. We propose a physical picture that is based on an effective reduction of pressure contributions due to local regions of same magnitude and alignment of velocity and magnetic field fluctuations. Finally, our findings underline the importance of the pressure term for ...

  14. Direct Simulations of Transition and Turbulence Using High-Order Accurate Finite-Difference Schemes (United States)

    Rai, Man Mohan


    In recent years the techniques of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) have been used to compute flows associated with geometrically complex configurations. However, success in terms of accuracy and reliability has been limited to cases where the effects of turbulence and transition could be modeled in a straightforward manner. Even in simple flows, the accurate computation of skin friction and heat transfer using existing turbulence models has proved to be a difficult task, one that has required extensive fine-tuning of the turbulence models used. In more complex flows (for example, in turbomachinery flows in which vortices and wakes impinge on airfoil surfaces causing periodic transitions from laminar to turbulent flow) the development of a model that accounts for all scales of turbulence and predicts the onset of transition may prove to be impractical. Fortunately, current trends in computing suggest that it may be possible to perform direct simulations of turbulence and transition at moderate Reynolds numbers in some complex cases in the near future. This seminar will focus on direct simulations of transition and turbulence using high-order accurate finite-difference methods. The advantage of the finite-difference approach over spectral methods is that complex geometries can be treated in a straightforward manner. Additionally, finite-difference techniques are the prevailing methods in existing application codes. In this seminar high-order-accurate finite-difference methods for the compressible and incompressible formulations of the unsteady Navier-Stokes equations and their applications to direct simulations of turbulence and transition will be presented.

  15. Section on High Resolution Optical Imaging (HROI) (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Section on High Resolution Optical Imaging (HROI) develops novel technologies for studying biological processes at unprecedented speed and resolution. Research...

  16. Capacity of MIMO free space optical communications using multiple partially coherent beams propagation through non-Kolmogorov strong turbulence. (United States)

    Deng, Peng; Kavehrad, Mohsen; Liu, Zhiwen; Zhou, Zhou; Yuan, Xiuhua


    We study the average capacity performance for multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) free-space optical (FSO) communication systems using multiple partially coherent beams propagating through non-Kolmogorov strong turbulence, assuming equal gain combining diversity configuration and the sum of multiple gamma-gamma random variables for multiple independent partially coherent beams. The closed-form expressions of scintillation and average capacity are derived and then used to analyze the dependence on the number of independent diversity branches, power law α, refractive-index structure parameter, propagation distance and spatial coherence length of source beams. Obtained results show that, the average capacity increases more significantly with the increase in the rank of MIMO channel matrix compared with the diversity order. The effect of the diversity order on the average capacity is independent of the power law, turbulence strength parameter and spatial coherence length, whereas these effects on average capacity are gradually mitigated as the diversity order increases. The average capacity increases and saturates with the decreasing spatial coherence length, at rates depending on the diversity order, power law and turbulence strength. There exist optimal values of the spatial coherence length and diversity configuration for maximizing the average capacity of MIMO FSO links over a variety of atmospheric turbulence conditions.

  17. Particle deposition in low-speed, high-turbulence flows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reck, Mads; Larsen, Poul Scheel; Ullum, U.


    The experimental and numerical study considers the concentration of airborne particulate contaminants, such as spores of spoilage fungi, and their deposition on a surface, in a petri dish, and on a warm box-shaped product placed in a food-processing environment. Field measurements by standard......, active and passive samplers provide typical values of airborne concentrations and specific deposition fluxes. Velocity and turbulence data from field studies are used as input in LES simulations of the process, and estimates of deposition fluxes are of the same order of magnitude as those deduced from...

  18. Local Counterparts to High-Redshift Turbulent Galaxies: What are the Stellar Kinematics? (United States)

    Bassett, Robert; Glazebrook, Karl; Fisher, David; Abraham, Roberto; Damjanov, Ivana


    We aim to measure the stellar kinematics of 4 low redshift turbulent, clumpy disks with the GMOS IFU. Recent observations of high redshift galaxies show that gaseous disks in high redshift (z 2) galaxies are turbulent. The source of this turbulence remains an open question. A possible scenario is that turbulent disks are fed by streams of cold gas, flowing along cosmic filaments, which drive the large H-alpha velocity dispersions and clumpy star formation observed (for example by the SINS survey). However, the recent discovery of low redshift disk galaxies with clumpy-high velocity dispersion disks shows that galaxies with similar properties to high-z clumpy disks can exists in absence of cold flows, therefore an alternate driver for turbulence seems likely to explain, at least these nearby galaxies. A contrasting scenario is that the turbulence is driven by feedback from extreme star formation originating from a thin stellar disk. These nearby star forming disks are very rare, yet they provide an oppurtunity to study clumpy disks with techniques which are impossible at high redshift (due to both resolution and surface brightness dimming). Here we propose one such study, to measure the stellar kinematics from Balmer absorption lines. If the stars and gas have similar velocity dispersion, this would favor externally driven turbulence by gas accretion (a rare thing in the low redshift Universe); conversely if the gas and stars have different dynamics then this would suggest that internally driven turbelence from feedback is a plausible scenario. We currently have GMOS IFU observations of two disk systems, and we propose here to extend our sample. To identify galaxies as disks we use lower resolution IFU emission line kinematics from AAO, surface photometry from UKIDSS and SDSS, and Halpha maps from Hubble Space Telescope.

  19. Assessment of regularization models for LES of high-Re turbulent flows (United States)

    Chandy, Abhilash; Frankel, Steven


    Regularization-based SGS turbulence models for LES are quantitatively assessed for decaying homogeneous turbulence (DHT) and transition to turbulence for the Taylor-Green vortex (TGV) through comparisons to laboratory measurements and DNS respectively. LES predictions using the Leray-α, LANS-α, and Clark-α regularization-based SGS models are compared to the classic non-dynamic Smagorinsky model. Regarding the regularization models, this work represents their first application to relatively high Re decaying turbulence with comparison to the active-grid-generated decaying turbulence measurements of Kang et al. (JFM, 2003) at Reλ 720 and the Re=3000 DNS of transition to turbulence in the TGV of Drikakis et al. (J. Turb., 2007). For DHT the non-dynamic Smagorinsky model is in excellent agreement with measurements for t.k.e., but higher-order moments show slight discrepancies and for TGV, the energy decay rates agree reasonably well with DNS. Regarding the regularization models stable results are not obtained as compared to Smagorinsky at the same grid resolution for various values of α, and at higher resolutions, they are in worse agreement. However, with additional dissipation such as in mixed α-Smagorinsky models, results are acceptable, but show slight deviations from Smagorinsky.

  20. Performance analysis of free space optical system with spatial modulation and diversity combiners over the Gamma Gamma atmospheric turbulence (United States)

    Odeyemi, Kehinde O.; Owolawi, Pius A.; Srivastava, Viranjay M.


    Atmospheric turbulence is a major impairment that degrades the performance of free space optical (FSO) communication systems. Spatial modulation (SM) with receive spatial diversity is considered as a powerful technique to mitigate the fading effect induced by atmospheric turbulence. In this paper, the performance of free space optical spatial modulation (FSO-SM) system under Gamma-Gamma atmospheric turbulence is presented. We studied the Average Bit Error Rate (ABER) for the system by employing spatial diversity combiners such Maximum Ratio Combining (MRC) and Equal Gain Combining (EGC) at the receiving end. In particular, we provide a theoretical framework for the system error by deriving Average Pairwise Error Probability (APEP) expression using a generalized infinite power series expansion approach and union bounding technique is applied to obtain the ABER for each combiner. Based on this study, it was found that spatial diversity combiner significantly improved the system error rate where MRC outperforms the EGC. The performance of this system is also compared with other well established diversity combiner systems. The proposed system performance is further improved by convolutional coding technique and our analysis confirmed that the system performance of MRC coded system is enhanced by approximately 20 dB while EGC falls within 17 dB.

  1. Modelling turbulent energy dissipation in the high-latitude mesosphere (United States)

    Hall, C. M.; Brekke, A.; Martynenko, O. V.; Namgaladze, A. A.


    The global numerical model of the Earth's thermosphere, ionosphere and protonosphere constructed at the Kaliningrad Observatory of IZMIRAN and Polar Geophysical Institute in Murmansk, (Namgaladze et al., 1991), hereafter referred to as PGI97, is being extended to encompass modelling of the mesosphere. Here we report the first predictions of turbulent intensities in the height regime 80 to 90 km. Recently, Hall (1997) reported estimates of the turbulent energy dissipation rate, ɛ, using the EISCAT VHF radar located in Northern Norway (69°N, 19°E), which has, in turn, been compared to in situ measurements. Thus initial testing of PGI97 has concentrated on the same region. The agreements between PGI97 and EISCAT results for summer and winter solstice mesospheres are good. The general seasonal variation has been investigated, again showing good agreement with the EISCAT results. However, when examining the average energy dissipation in the 80-90 km height regime, the model shows less variability than the observations.

  2. Performance analysis of relay-assisted all-optical FSO networks over strong atmospheric turbulence channels with pointing errors

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Liang


    In this study, we consider a relay-assisted free-space optical communication scheme over strong atmospheric turbulence channels with misalignment-induced pointing errors. The links from the source to the destination are assumed to be all-optical links. Assuming a variable gain relay with amplify-and-forward protocol, the electrical signal at the source is forwarded to the destination with the help of this relay through all-optical links. More specifically, we first present a cumulative density function (CDF) analysis for the end-to-end signal-to-noise ratio. Based on this CDF, the outage probability, bit-error rate, and average capacity of our proposed system are derived. Results show that the system diversity order is related to the minimum value of the channel parameters.

  3. The Characteristics of Turbulence in Curved Pipes under Highly Pulsatile Flow Conditions (United States)

    Kalpakli, A.; Örlü, R.; Tillmark, N.; Alfredsson, P. Henrik

    High speed stereoscopic particle image velocimetry has been employed to provide unique data from a steady and highly pulsatile turbulent flow at the exit of a 90 degree pipe bend. Both the unsteady behaviour of the Dean cells under steady conditions, the so called "swirl switching" phenomenon, as well as the secondary flow under pulsations have been reconstructed through proper orthogonal decomposition. The present data set constitutes - to the authors' knowledge - the first detailed investigation of a turbulent, pulsatile flow through a pipe bend.

  4. High precision laser photometer for laser optics (United States)

    Zhao, Yuan'an; Hu, Guohang; Cao, Zhen; Liu, Shijie; Zhu, Meiping; Shao, Jianda


    Development of laser systems requires optical components with high performance, and a high-precision double-beam laser photometer was designed and established to measure the optical performance at 1064nm. Double beam design and lock-in technique was applied to decrease the impact of light energy instability and electric noise. Pairs of samples were placed symmetrically to eliminate beam displacement, and laser scattering imaging technique was applied to determine the influence of surface defect on the optical performance. Based on the above techniques, transmittance and reflection of pairs of optics were obtained, and the measurement precision was improved to 0.06%. Different types of optical loss, such as total loss, volume loss, residual reflection and surface scattering loss, were obtained from the transmittance and reflection measurement of samples with different thickness. Comparison of optical performance of the test points with and without surface defects, the influence of surface defects on optical performance was determined. The optical performance of Nd-glass at 1064nm were measured as an example. Different types of optical loss and the influence of surface defects on the optical loss was determined.

  5. Turbulent Flame Speeds and NOx Kinetics of HHC Fuels with Contaminants and High Dilution Levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, Eric [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States); Krejci, Michael [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States); Mathieu, Olivier [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States); Vissotski, Andrew [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States); Ravi, Sankat [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States); Plichta, Drew [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States); Sikes, Travis [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States); Levacque, Anthony [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States); Camou, Alejandro [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States); Aul, Christopher [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)


    This final report documents the technical results of the 3-year project entitled, “Turbulent Flame Speeds and NOx Kinetics of HHC Fuels with Contaminants and High Dilution Levels,” funded under the NETL of DOE. The research was conducted under six main tasks: 1) program management and planning; 2) turbulent flame speed measurements of syngas mixtures; 3) laminar flame speed measurements with diluents; 4) NOx mechanism validation experiments; 5) fundamental NOx kinetics; and 6) the effect of impurities on NOx kinetics. Experiments were performed using primary constant-volume vessels for laminar and turbulent flame speeds and shock tubes for ignition delay times and species concentrations. In addition to the existing shock- tube and flame speed facilities, a new capability in measuring turbulent flame speeds was developed under this grant. Other highlights include an improved NOx kinetics mechanism; a database on syngas blends for real fuel mixtures with and without impurities; an improved hydrogen sulfide mechanism; an improved ammonia kintics mechanism; laminar flame speed data at high pressures with water addition; and the development of an inexpensive absorption spectroscopy diagnostic for shock-tube measurements of OH time histories. The Project Results for this work can be divided into 13 major sections, which form the basis of this report. These 13 topics are divided into the five areas: 1) laminar flame speeds; 2) Nitrogen Oxide and Ammonia chemical kinetics; 3) syngas impurities chemical kinetics; 4) turbulent flame speeds; and 5) OH absorption measurements for chemical kinetics.

  6. High power optical transmitter package for free space optical communication (United States)

    Hildebrand, U.; Menke, B.; Wiesmann, Th.; Ohm, G.


    This paper discusses the characteristics of a new concept involving high-power laser diode (HPLD) arrays which are able to emit up to 1000 mW of optical output power but which suffer from poor far-field pattern and poor optical quality, related to the gain guiding mechanism used in such devices. Methods are proposed for improving the optical quality of HPLDs. These include the use of apertured AM scheme for HPLDs and the use of a graded-index lens and a stripe mirror to stabilize the HPLD. A HPLD optical transmitter is designed which will have the capability of operating the HPLD in the 180 deg phase alternating mode under modulation.

  7. Bit error rate analysis of free-space optical communication over general Malaga turbulence channels with pointing error

    KAUST Repository

    Alheadary, Wael Ghazy


    In this work, we present a bit error rate (BER) and achievable spectral efficiency (ASE) performance of a freespace optical (FSO) link with pointing errors based on intensity modulation/direct detection (IM/DD) and heterodyne detection over general Malaga turbulence channel. More specifically, we present exact closed-form expressions for adaptive and non-adaptive transmission. The closed form expressions are presented in terms of generalized power series of the Meijer\\'s G-function. Moreover, asymptotic closed form expressions are provided to validate our work. In addition, all the presented analytical results are illustrated using a selected set of numerical results.

  8. The impact of turbulent fluctuations on light propagation in a controlled environment (United States)

    Matt, Silvia; Hou, Weilin; Goode, Wesley


    Underwater temperature and salinity microstructure can lead to localized changes in the index of refraction and can be a limiting factor in oceanic environments. This optical turbulence can affect electro-optical (EO) signal transmissions that impact various applications, from diver visibility to active and passive remote sensing. To quantify the scope of the impacts from turbulent flows on EO signal transmission, and to examine and mitigate turbulence effects, we perform experiments in a controlled turbulence environment allowing the variation of turbulence intensity. This controlled turbulence setup is implemented at the Naval Research Laboratory Stennis Space Center (NRLSSC). Convective turbulence is generated in a classical Rayleigh-Benard tank and the turbulent flow is quantified using a state-of-the-art suite of sensors that includes high-resolution Acoustic Doppler Velocimeter profilers and fast thermistor probes. The measurements are complemented by very high- resolution non-hydrostatic numerical simulations. These computational fluid dynamics simulations allow for a more complete characterization of the convective flow in the laboratory tank than would be provided by measurements alone. Optical image degradation in the tank is assessed in relation to turbulence intensity. The unique approach of integrating optical techniques, turbulence measurements and numerical simulations helps advance our understanding of how to mitigate the effects of turbulence impacts on underwater optical signal transmission, as well as of the use of optical techniques to probe oceanic processes.

  9. Visualization of the heat release zone of highly turbulent premixed jet flames (United States)

    Lv, Liang; Tan, Jianguo; Zhu, Jiajian


    Visualization of the heat release zone (HRZ) of highly turbulent flames is significantly important to understand the interaction between turbulence and chemical reactions, which is the foundation to design and optimize engines. Simultaneous measurements of OH and CH2O using planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) were performed to characterize the HRZ. A well-designed piloted premixed jet burner was employed to generate four turbulent premixed CH4/air jet flames, with different jet Reynolds numbers (Rejet) ranging from 4900 to 39200. The HRZ was visualized by both the gradient of OH and the pixel-by-pixel product of OH and CH2O. It is shown that turbulence has an increasing effect on the spatial structure of the flame front with an increasing height above the jet exit for the premixed jet flames, which results in the broadening of the HRZ and the increase of the wrinkling. The HRZ remains thin as the Rejet increases, whereas the preheat zone is significantly broadened and thickened. This indicates that the smallest turbulent eddies can only be able to enter the flame front rather than the HRZ in the present flame conditions. The flame quenching is observed with Rejet = 39200, which may be due to the strong entrainment of the cold air from outside of the burned gas region.

  10. Performance analysis of decode-and-forward dual-hop optical spatial modulation with diversity combiner over atmospheric turbulence (United States)

    Odeyemi, Kehinde O.; Owolawi, Pius A.; Srivastava, Viranjay M.


    Dual-hops transmission is a growing interest technique that can be used to mitigate against atmospheric turbulence along the Free Space Optical (FSO) communication links. This paper analyzes the performance of Decode-and-Forward (DF) dual-hops FSO systems in-conjunction with spatial modulation and diversity combiners over a Gamma-Gamma atmospheric turbulence channel using heterodyne detection. Maximum Ratio Combiner (MRC), Equal Gain Combiner (EGC) and Selection Combiner (SC) are considered at the relay and destination as mitigation tools to improve the system error performance. Power series expansion of modified Bessel function is used to derive the closed form expression for the end-to-end Average Pairwise Error Probability (APEP) expressions for each of the combiners under study and a tight upper bound on the Average Bit Error Rate (ABER) per hop is given. Thus, the overall end-to-end ABER for the dual-hops FSO system is then evaluated. The numerical results depicted that dual-hops transmission systems outperformed the direct link systems. Moreover, the impact of having the same and different combiners at the relay and destination are also presented. The results also confirm that the combination of dual hops transmission with spatial modulation and diversity combiner significantly improves the systems error rate with the MRC combiner offering an optimal performance with respect to variation in atmospheric turbulence, change in links average received SNR and link range of the system.

  11. Low-to-high confinement transition mediated by turbulence radial wave number spectral shift in a fusion plasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, G. S.; Wan, B. N.; Wang, H. Q.


    A new model for the low-to-high (L-H) confinement transition has been developed based on a new paradigm for turbulence suppression by velocity shear [G. M. Staebler et al., Phys. Rev. Lett.110, 055003 (2013)]. The model indicates that the L-H transition can be mediated by a shift in the radial wave...... number spectrum of turbulence, as evidenced here, for the first time, by the direct observation of a turbulence radial wave number spectral shift and turbulence structure tilting prior to the L-H transition at tokamak edge by direct probing. This new mechanism does not require a pretransition overshoot...

  12. Level crossing statistics for optical beam wander in a turbulent atmosphere with applications to ground-to-space laser communications. (United States)

    Yura, Harold T; Fields, Renny A


    Level crossing statistics is applied to the complex problem of atmospheric turbulence-induced beam wander for laser propagation from ground to space. A comprehensive estimate of the single-axis wander angle temporal autocorrelation function and the corresponding power spectrum is used to develop, for the first time to our knowledge, analytic expressions for the mean angular level crossing rate and the mean duration of such crossings. These results are based on an extension and generalization of a previous seminal analysis of the beam wander variance by Klyatskin and Kon. In the geometrical optics limit, we obtain an expression for the beam wander variance that is valid for both an arbitrarily shaped initial beam profile and transmitting aperture. It is shown that beam wander can disrupt bidirectional ground-to-space laser communication systems whose small apertures do not require adaptive optics to deliver uniform beams at their intended target receivers in space. The magnitude and rate of beam wander is estimated for turbulence profiles enveloping some practical laser communication deployment options and suggesting what level of beam wander effects must be mitigated to demonstrate effective bidirectional laser communication systems.

  13. A Virtual Study of Grid Resolution on Experiments of a Highly-Resolved Turbulent Plume (United States)

    Maisto, Pietro M. F.; Marshall, Andre W.; Gollner, Michael J.; Fire Protection Engineering Department Collaboration


    An accurate representation of sub-grid scale turbulent mixing is critical for modeling fire plumes and smoke transport. In this study, PLIF and PIV diagnostics are used with the saltwater modeling technique to provide highly-resolved instantaneous field measurements in unconfined turbulent plumes useful for statistical analysis, physical insight, and model validation. The effect of resolution was investigated employing a virtual interrogation window (of varying size) applied to the high-resolution field measurements. Motivated by LES low-pass filtering concepts, the high-resolution experimental data in this study can be analyzed within the interrogation windows (i.e. statistics at the sub-grid scale) and on interrogation windows (i.e. statistics at the resolved scale). A dimensionless resolution threshold (L/D*) criterion was determined to achieve converged statistics on the filtered measurements. Such a criterion was then used to establish the relative importance between large and small-scale turbulence phenomena while investigating specific scales for the turbulent flow. First order data sets start to collapse at a resolution of 0.3D*, while for second and higher order statistical moments the interrogation window size drops down to 0.2D*.

  14. Advanced Functionalities for Highly Reliable Optical Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    An, Yi

    interconnects and network-on-chips. A novel concept of all-optical protection switching scheme is proposed, where fault detection and protection trigger are all implemented in the optical domain. This scheme can provide ultra-fast establishment of the protection path resulting in a minimum loss of data......This thesis covers two research topics concerning optical solutions for networks e.g. avionic systems. One is to identify the applications for silicon photonic devices for cost-effective solutions in short-range optical networks. The other one is to realise advanced functionalities in order...... to increase the availability of highly reliable optical networks. A cost-effective transmitter based on a directly modulated laser (DML) using a silicon micro-ring resonator (MRR) to enhance its modulation speed is proposed, analysed and experimentally demonstrated. A modulation speed enhancement from 10 Gbit...

  15. High performance platforms for integrated nonlinear optics (United States)

    Moss, David J.; Morandotti, Roberto


    Nonlinear photonic chips have succeeded in generating and processing signals all-optically with performance far superior to that possible electronically - particularly with respect to speed. Although silicon-on-insulator has been the leading platform for nonlinear optics, its high two-photon absorption at telecommunications wavelengths poses a fundamental limitation. This paper reviews some of the recent achievements in CMOS-compatible platforms for nonlinear optics, focusing on amorphous silicon and Hydex glass, highlighting their potential future impact as well as the challenges to achieving practical solutions for many key applications. These material systems have opened up many new capabilities such as on-chip optical frequency comb generation and ultrafast optical pulse generation and measurement.

  16. Simulation of VSPT Experimental Cascade Under High and Low Free-Stream Turbulence Conditions (United States)

    Ameri, Ali A.; Giel, Paul W.; Flegel, Ashlie B.


    Variable-Speed Power Turbines (VSPT) for rotorcraft applications operate at low Reynolds number and over a wide range in incidence associated with shaft speed change. A comprehensive linear cascade data set obtained includes the effects of Reynolds number, free-stream turbulence and incidence is available and this paper concerns itself with the presentation and numerical simulation of conditions resulting in a selected set of those data. As such, post-dictions of blade pressure loading, total-pressure loss and exit flow angles under conditions of high and low turbulence intensity for a single Reynolds number are presented. Analyses are performed with the three-equation turbulence models of Walters- Leylek and Walters and Cokljat. Transition, loading, total-pressure loss and exit angle variations are presented and comparisons are made with experimental data as available. It is concluded that at the low freestream turbulence conditions the Walters-Cokljat model is better suited to predictions while for high freestream conditions the two models generate similar predications that are generally satisfactory.

  17. NOx emissions from high swirl turbulent spray flames with highly oxygenated fuels

    KAUST Repository

    Bohon, Myles


    Combustion of fuels with fuel bound oxygen is of interest from both a practical and a fundamental viewpoint. While a great deal of work has been done studying the effect of oxygenated additives in diesel and gasoline engines, much less has been done examining combustion characteristics of fuels with extremely high mass fractions of fuel bound oxygen. This work presents an initial investigation into the very low NOx emissions resulting from the combustion of a model, high oxygen mass fraction fuel. Glycerol was chosen as a model fuel with a fuel bound oxygen mass fraction of 52%, and was compared with emissions measured from diesel combustion at similar conditions in a high swirl turbulent spray flame. This work has shown that high fuel bound oxygen mass fractions allow for combustion at low global equivalence ratios with comparable exhaust gas temperatures due to the significantly lower concentrations of diluting nitrogen. Despite similar exhaust gas temperatures, NOx emissions from glycerol combustion were up to an order of magnitude lower than those measured using diesel fuel. This is shown to be a result not of specific burner geometry, but rather is influenced by the presence of higher oxygen and lower nitrogen concentrations at the flame front inhibiting NOx production. © 2012 The Combustion Institute.

  18. Semiconductor optical amplifier-based all-optical gates for high-speed optical processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stubkjær, Kristian


    Semiconductor optical amplifiers are useful building blocks for all-optical gates as wavelength converters and OTDM demultiplexers. The paper reviews the progress from simple gates using cross-gain modulation and four-wave mixing to the integrated interferometric gates using cross-phase modulatio....... These gates are very efficient for high-speed signal processing and open up interesting new areas, such as all-optical regeneration and high-speed all-optical logic functions......Semiconductor optical amplifiers are useful building blocks for all-optical gates as wavelength converters and OTDM demultiplexers. The paper reviews the progress from simple gates using cross-gain modulation and four-wave mixing to the integrated interferometric gates using cross-phase modulation...

  19. High Spectral Density Optical Communication Technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Nakazawa, Masataka; Miyazaki, Tetsuya


    The latest hot topics of high-spectral density optical communication systems using digital coherent optical fibre communication technologies are covered by this book. History and meaning of a "renaissance" of the technology, requirements to the Peta-bit/s class "new generation network" are also covered in the first part of this book. The main topics treated are electronic and optical devices, digital signal processing including forward error correction, modulation formats as well as transmission and application systems. The book serves as a reference to researchers and engineers.

  20. Integrated Ultra-High-Q Optical Resonator


    Yang, Ki Youl; Oh, Dong Yoon; Lee, Seung Hoon; Yang, Qi-Fan; Yi, Xu; Vahala, Kerry


    Optical microcavities are compact, often chip-based devices, that are essential in technologies spanning frequency metrology to biosensing. They have also enabled new science in quantum information and cavity optomechanics. Performance requirements in subjects like cavity-QED and sensing have long placed emphasis on low-optical-loss (high-Q-factor) micrometer-scale resonators. However, an array of system-on-a-chip applications have emerged that also require millimeter-scale devices. To avoid ...

  1. Hierarchy of antiparallel vortex tubes in spatially periodic turbulence at high Reynolds numbers (United States)

    Goto, Susumu; Saito, Yuta; Kawahara, Genta


    To draw a precise picture of the hierarchy of coherent vortices in spatially periodic turbulence at high Reynolds numbers and to understand its generation mechanism, we conduct direct numerical simulations of turbulence in a periodic cube. By objectively identifying the axes of vortex tubes at various length scales in the inertial range, we quantitatively show that the sustained turbulence consists of a hierarchy of antiparallel pairs of vortex tubes. These vortex tubes are created by being stretched in strain fields around 2-8 times larger vortices, whereas they are weakened by strain around half-scale vortices. Temporal tracking of identified vortex tubes shows that they tend to form antiparallel pairs from the moment they are created. We examine three different external forces to show that the hierarchical structure of antiparallel vortex pairs is robust and its statistical features in inertial length scales are independent of the force. The turbulence that is sustained by steady forces is quasiperiodic in time and its significant temporal fluctuations are caused by successive creation of strong vortex tubes within the hierarchy.

  2. Effect of an inhibitor on high-speed turbulent flames and the transition to detonation (United States)

    Johnston, M. H.; Zhang, F.; Frost, D. L.; Lee, J. H. S.


    The influence of an inhibitor (CF3Br or Halon 1301) on the propagation of high-speed turbulent flames, quasi-detonations and the transition to detonation has been investigated for methane-air, propane-air and acetylene-air mixtures. The experiments are carried out in a 13 m tube (15 cm diameter) filled with regularly spaced orifice plates (blockage ratio of 0.39) to ensure rapid flame acceleration. In all cases, the addition of the inhibitor reduces the turbulent flame velocity and extinguishes the flame with sufficient inhibitor concentration (2.7% and 7.5% for methane-air and propane-air, respectively). For acetylene-air mixtures, the quasi-detonation speed is progressively reduced with increasing inhibitor concentration and eventually causes the failure of the quasi-detonation and transition back to a fast turbulent flame. The inhibitor also narrows the propagation limits in all cases. To elucidate the inhibition mechanism, detailed modelling of both the turbulent flame structure as well as the chemical kinetics are required.

  3. Soot and Spectral Radiation Modeling for a High-Pressure Turbulent Spray Flame

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreryo-Fernandez, Sebastian [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Paul, Chandan [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Sircar, Arpan [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Imren, Abdurrahman [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Haworth, Daniel C [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Roy, Somesh P [Marquette University (United States); Modest, Michael F [University of California Merced (United States)


    Simulations are performed of a transient high-pressure turbulent n-dodecane spray flame under engine-relevant conditions. An unsteady RANS formulation is used, with detailed chemistry, a semi-empirical two-equation soot model, and a particle-based transported composition probability density function (PDF) method to account for unresolved turbulent fluctuations in composition and temperature. Results from the PDF model are compared with those from a locally well-stirred reactor (WSR) model to quantify the effects of turbulence-chemistry-soot interactions. Computed liquid and vapor penetration versus time, ignition delay, and flame lift-off height are in good agreement with experiment, and relatively small differences are seen between the WSR and PDF models for these global quantities. Computed soot levels and spatial soot distributions from the WSR and PDF models show large differences, with PDF results being in better agreement with experimental measurements. An uncoupled photon Monte Carlo method with line-by-line spectral resolution is used to compute the spectral intensity distribution of the radiation leaving the flame. This provides new insight into the relative importance of molecular gas radiation versus soot radiation, and the importance of turbulent fluctuations on radiative heat transfer.

  4. High-Pressure Turbulent Flame Speeds and Chemical Kinetics of Syngas Blends with and without Impurities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, Eric; Mathieu, Olivier; Morones, Anibal; Ravi, Sankar; Keesee, Charles; Hargis, Joshua; Vivanco, Jose


    This Topical Report documents the first year of the project, from October 1, 2013 through September 30, 2014. Efforts for this project included experiments to characterize the atmospheric-pressure turbulent flame speed vessel over a range of operating conditions (fan speeds and turbulent length scales). To this end, a new LDV system was acquired and set up for the detailed characterization of the turbulence field. Much progress was made in the area of impurity kinetics, which included a numerical study of the effect of impurities such as NO2, NO, H2S, and NH3 on ignition delay times and laminar flame speeds of syngas blends at engine conditions. Experiments included a series of laminar flame speed measurements for syngas (CO/H2) blends with various levels of CH4 and C2H6 addition, and the results were compared to the chemical kinetics model of NUI Galway. Also, a final NOx kinetics mechanism including ammonia was assembled, and a journal paper was written and is now in press. Overall, three journal papers and six conference papers related to this project were published this year. Finally, much progress was made on the design of the new high-pressure turbulent flame speed facility. An overall design that includes a venting system was decided upon, and the detailed design is in progress.

  5. High-speed signal processing using highly nonlinear optical fibres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peucheret, Christophe; Oxenløwe, Leif Katsuo; Mulvad, Hans Christian Hansen


    We review recent progress in all-optical signal processing techniques making use of conventional silica-based highly nonlinear fibres. In particular, we focus on recent demonstrations of ultra-fast processing at 640 Gbit/s and above, as well as on signal processing of novel modulation formats...... relying on the phase of the optical field. Topics covered include all-optical switching of 640 Gbit/s and 1.28 Tbit/s serial data, wavelength conversion at 640 Gbit/s, optical amplitude regeneration of differential phase shift keying (DPSK) signals, as well as midspan spectral inversion for differential 8......-state phase shift keying (D8PSK) signals....

  6. Remote Sensing of Turbulence and Transverse Atmospheric Wind Profiles using Optical Reference Sources (United States)


    traveling from space to Earth are distorted when they pass through the Earth’s atmosphere. This distortion gives rise to the well known twinkling...same point in space at all times. Such an approach requires knowledge of the quantity being measured, therefore the variance of the intersection will...IEEE, 66:651-697 (June 1978). 9. Kolmogoroff , A. N. "The Local Structure of Turbulence in Incompressible Viscous Fluids for Very Large Reynolds

  7. An optical technique for remote sensing of near-surface turbulence (United States)

    Bogucki, D.; Stramski, J.; Piskozub, D.


    Measurements of turbulent kinetic energy dissipation rates (TKE) or temperature dissipation rates of the the near-surface boundary layer are needed to understand air-sea exchange processes and rates. The capability to accurately estimate these variables by means of a remote technique is relevant to a number of questions ranging from the air-sea transfer of heat and gas to the fate of pollutants.

  8. Technology Development for High Efficiency Optical Communications (United States)

    Farr, William H.


    Deep space optical communications is a significantly more challenging operational domain than near Earth space optical communications, primarily due to effects resulting from the vastly increased range between transmitter and receiver. The NASA Game Changing Development Program Deep Space Optical Communications Project is developing four key technologies for the implementation of a high efficiency telecommunications system that will enable greater than 10X the data rate of a state-of-the-art deep space RF system (Ka-band) for similar transceiver mass and power burden on the spacecraft. These technologies are a low mass spacecraft disturbance isolation assembly, a flight qualified photon counting detector array, a high efficiency flight laser amplifier and a high efficiency photon counting detector array for the ground-based receiver.

  9. Coulomb collisional effects on high energy particles in the presence of driftwave turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, B; Cheng, C Z


    High energy particles' behavior including fusion born alpha particles in an ITER like tokamak in the presence of background driftwave turbulence is investigated by an orbit following calculation. The background turbulence is given by the toroidal driftwave eigenmode combined with a random number generator. The transport level is reduced as the particle energy increase; the widths of the guiding center islands produced by the passing particles are inverse proportional to the square root of parallel velocities. On the other hand, the trapped particles are sensitive to $E \\times B$ drift at the banana tips whose radial displacement is larger for lower energy particles. Coulomb collisional effects are incorporated which modifies the transport process of the trapped high energy particles whose radial excursion resides in limited radial domains without collisions.

  10. Cyclokinetic models and simulations for high-frequency turbulence in fusion plasmas (United States)

    Deng, Zhao; Waltz, R. E.; Wang, Xiaogang


    Gyrokinetics is widely applied in plasma physics. However, this framework is limited to weak turbulence levels and low drift-wave frequencies because high-frequency gyro-motion is reduced by the gyro-phase averaging. In order to test where gyrokinetics breaks down, Waltz and Zhao developed a new theory, called cyclokinetics [R. E. Waltz and Zhao Deng, Phys. Plasmas 20, 012507 (2013)]. Cyclokinetics dynamically follows the high-frequency ion gyro-motion which is nonlinearly coupled to the low-frequency drift-waves interrupting and suppressing gyro-averaging. Cyclokinetics is valid in the high-frequency (ion cyclotron frequency) regime or for high turbulence levels. The ratio of the cyclokinetic perturbed distribution function over equilibrium distribution function δf/ F can approach 1. This work presents, for the first time, a numerical simulation of nonlinear cyclokinetic theory for ions, and describes the first attempt to completely solve the ion gyro-phase motion in a nonlinear turbulence system. Simulations are performed [Zhao Deng and R. E. Waltz, Phys. Plasmas 22(5), 056101 (2015)] in a local flux-tube geometry with the parallel motion and variation suppressed by using a newly developed code named rCYCLO, which is executed in parallel by using an implicit time-advanced Eulerian (or continuum) scheme [Zhao Deng and R. E. Waltz, Comp. Phys. Comm. 195, 23 (2015)]. A novel numerical treatment of the magnetic moment velocity space derivative operator guarantee saccurate conservation of incremental entropy. By comparing the more fundamental cyclokinetic simulations with the corresponding gyrokinetic simulations, the gyrokinetics breakdown condition is quantitatively tested. Gyrokinetic transport and turbulence level recover those of cyclokinetics at high relative ion cyclotron frequencies and low turbulence levels, as required. Cyclokinetic transport and turbulence level are found to be lower than those of gyrokinetics at high turbulence levels and low- Ω* values

  11. On the Performance of Free-Space Optical Systems over Generalized Atmospheric Turbulence Channels with Pointing Errors

    KAUST Repository

    Ansari, Imran Shafique


    Generalized fading has been an imminent part and parcel of wireless communications. It not only characterizes the wireless channel appropriately but also allows its utilization for further performance analysis of various types of wireless communication systems. Under the umbrella of generalized fading channels, a unified performance analysis of a free-space optical (FSO) link over the Malaga (M) atmospheric turbulence channel that accounts for pointing errors and both types of detection techniques (i.e. indirect modulation/direct detection (IM/DD) as well as heterodyne detection) is presented. Specifically, unified exact closed-form expressions for the probability density function (PDF), the cumulative distribution function (CDF), the moment generating function (MGF), and the moments of the end-to-end signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of a single link FSO transmission system are presented, all in terms of the Meijer\\'s G function except for the moments that is in terms of simple elementary functions. Then capitalizing on these unified results, unified exact closed-form expressions for various performance metrics of FSO link transmission systems are offered, such as, the outage probability (OP), the higher-order amount of fading (AF), the average error rate for binary and M-ary modulation schemes, and the ergodic capacity (except for IM/DD technique, where closed-form lower bound results are presented), all in terms of Meijer\\'s G functions except for the higher-order AF that is in terms of simple elementary functions. Additionally, the asymptotic results are derived for all the expressions derived earlier in terms of the Meijer\\'s G function in the high SNR regime in terms of simple elementary functions via an asymptotic expansion of the Meijer\\'s G function. Furthermore, new asymptotic expressions for the ergodic capacity in the low as well as high SNR regimes are derived in terms of simple elementary functions via utilizing moments. All the presented results are

  12. New High Index Optical Glasses (United States)

    Blair, Gerald E.; Greco, Edgar J.; DeJager, Donald; Wylot, James M.


    The pioneering work of Charles W. Frederick and George W. Morey on the design by Frederick of an "ideal photographic lens" using hypothetical glasses, and the subsequent discovery and development of rare-element borate glasses by Morey, has been resumed at Eastman Kodak. New ultra-high index, low dispersion crown glasses and companion flint glasses have been developed, based on the needs dictated by lens design studies for novel fast cine' and still camera lenses. These new glasses reduce the number of elements required in a lens while maintaining or improving lens performance. Composition studies leading to these new glasses will be discussed.

  13. Turbulence Simulation of Laboratory Wind-Wave Interaction in High Winds and Upscaling to Ocean Conditions (United States)


    by gale force and stronger winds. This project seeks to reconcile laboratory and field measurements of wind-wave interaction and surface drag in...December 2016 Award Number: N00014-12-10184 Turbulence Simulation of Laboratory Wind-Wave Interaction in High Winds and Upscaling to Ocean...modulational properties appears warranted. Our simulations did not account for: long wave-short wave interactions which may impact strongly on

  14. High Optical Access Trap 2.0.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maunz, Peter Lukas Wilhelm [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    The High Optical Access (HOA) trap was designed in collaboration with the Modular Universal Scalable Ion-trap Quantum Computer (MUSIQC) team, funded along with Sandia National Laboratories through IARPA's Multi Qubit Coherent Operations (MQCO) program. The design of version 1 of the HOA trap was completed in September 2012 and initial devices were completed and packaged in February 2013. The second version of the High Optical Access Trap (HOA-2) was completed in September 2014 and is available at IARPA's disposal.

  15. Effects of local high-frequency perturbation on a turbulent boundary layer by synthetic jet injection (United States)

    Guo, Hao; Huang, Qian-Min; Liu, Pei-qing; Qu, Qiu-Lin


    An experimental study is performed to investigate the local high-frequency perturbation effects of a synthetic jet injection on a flat-plate turbulent boundary layer. Parameters of the synthetic jet are designed to force a high-frequency perturbation from a thin spanwise slot in the wall. In the test locations downstream of the slot, it is found that skin-friction is reduced by the perturbation, which is languishingly evolved downstream of the slot with corresponding influence on the near-wall regeneration mechanism of turbulent structures. The downstream slot region is divided into two regions due to the influence strength of the movement of spanwise vortices generated by the high-frequency perturbation. Interestingly, the variable interval time average technique is found to be disturbed by the existence of the spanwise vortices’ motion, especially in the region close to the slot. Similar results are obtained from the analysis of the probability density functions of the velocity fluctuation time derivatives, which is another indirect technique for detecting the enhancement or attenuation of streamwise vortices. However, both methods have shown consistent results with the skin-friction reduction mechanism in the far-away slot region. The main purpose of this paper is to remind researchers to be aware of the probable influence of spanwise vortices’ motion in wall-bounded turbulence control.

  16. Evolution of High-Frequency Turbulence During Limit-Cycle Oscillations on DIII-D (United States)

    Rost, J. C.; Marinoni, A.; Davis, E. M.; Porkolab, M.; Burrell, K. H.


    Limit-cycle oscillations (LCO) can provide insight into the interplay between shear and turbulence in triggering the H-mode transition. The Phase Contrast Imaging (PCI) diagnostic on DIII-D is particularly sensitive to density fluctuations in the highly sheared flow in the H-mode/LCO edge due to sensitivity to finite radial wave number (kr ~kθ) and large bandwidth (10 kHz < f < 2 MHz). Each roughly 1 ms oscillation in the LCO (10s of ms) exhibits a period of highly Doppler shifted, highly sheared turbulence which terminates at a burst of low-f turbulence. As the Doppler backscattering (DBS) diagnostic records a gradual increase in fluctuation amplitude rather than a burst, the PCI signal can be explained by a sudden decrease in radial correlation length caused by a burst in zonal flows. Both diagnostics are consistent with results of 1D models. Comparison of LCOs of different durations reveals a threshold-like behavior in mean flow. Work supported by the US DOE under DE-FG02-94ER54235 and DE-FC02-04ER54698.

  17. Optical Fiber for High-Power Optical Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenji Kurokawa


    Full Text Available We examined optical fibers suitable for avoiding such problems as the fiber fuse phenomenon and failures at bends with a high power input. We found that the threshold power for fiber fuse propagation in photonic crystal fiber (PCF and hole-assisted fiber (HAF can exceed 18 W, which is more than 10 times that in conventional single-mode fiber (SMF. We considered this high threshold power in PCF and HAF to be caused by a jet of high temperature fluid penetrating the air holes. We showed examples of two kinds of failures at bends in conventional SMF when the input power was 9 W. We also observed the generation of a fiber fuse under a condition that caused a bend-loss induced failure. We showed that one solution for the failures at bends is to use optical fibers with a low bending loss such as PCF and HAF. Therefore, we consider PCF and HAF to be attractive solutions to the problems of the fiber fuse phenomenon and failures at bends with a high power input.

  18. The Role of Free-Stream Turbulence on High Pressure Turbine Aero-Thermal Stage Interaction (United States)

    Kopriva, James Earl

    Turbulence plays an important role on the aero-thermal performance of modern aircraft engine High Pressure Turbines (HPT). The role of the vane wake and passage turbulence on the downstream blade flow field is an important consideration for both performance and durability. Obtaining measurements to fully characterize the flow field can be challenging and costly in an experimental facility. Advances in computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) modeling and High Performance Computing (HPC) are providing opportunity to close these measurement gaps. In order for CFD to be adopted, methods need to be both accurate and efficient. Meshing approaches must also be able to resolve complex HPT geometry while maintaining quality adequate for scale-resolved simulations. Therefore, the accuracy of executing scale-resolved simulations with a second-order code on a mesh of prisms and tetrahedrals in Fluent is considered. Before execution of the HPT computational study, a building block approach is taken to gain quantified predictive performance in the modeling approach as well as understanding limitations in lower computational cost modeling approaches. The predictive capability for Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes (RANS), Hybrid Large Eddy Simulation (LES), and wall-resolved LES turbulence modeling approaches are first assessed for a cylinder in cross-flow at a Reynolds number of 2580. The flow condition and simple geometry facilitate a quick turn-around for modeling assessment before moving the HPT vane study at high Reynolds and Mach number conditions. Modeling approaches are then assessed relative to the experimental measurements of Arts and Rouvroit (1992) on a pitch-line HPT uncooled vane at high Mach and Reynolds numbers conditions with low (0-6%) free-stream turbulence. The current unstructured second-order LES approach agrees with experimental data and is found to be within the equivalent experimental uncertainty when compared to the structured high-ordered solver FDL3DI. The

  19. Near wall turbulence: An experimental view (United States)

    Stanislas, Michel


    The present paper draws upon the experience of the author to illustrate the potential of advanced optical metrology for understanding near-wall-turbulence physics. First the canonical flat plate boundary layer problem is addressed, initially very near to the wall and then in the outer region when the Reynolds number is high enough to generate an outer turbulence peak. The coherent structure organization is examined in detail with the help of stereoscopic particle image velocimetry (PIV). Then the case of a turbulent boundary layer subjected to a mild adverse pressure gradient is considered. The results obtained show the great potential of a joint experimental-numerical approach. The conclusion is that the insight provided by today's optical metrology opens the way for significant improvements in turbulence modeling in upcoming years.

  20. Minimum state for high Reynolds and Peclet number turbulent flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou Ye, E-mail: yezhou@llnl.go [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, PO Box 808, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States); Buckingham, A.C. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, PO Box 808, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States); Bataille, F. [PROMES-CNRS, Tecnosud, 66100 Perpignan (France); Mathelin, L. [LIMSI-CNRS, BP 133, 91403 Orsay (France)


    Direct numerical simulations (DNS) or experiments for the very high Reynolds (Re) and Peclet (Pe) number flows commonly exceed the resolution possible even when use is made of the most advanced computer capability or most sophisticated diagnostics and physical capabilities of advanced laboratory facilities. In practice use is made of statistical flow data bases developed at the highest Re and Pe levels achievable within the currently available facility limitations. In addition, there is presently no metric to indicate whether and how much of the fully resolved physics of the flow of interest has been captured within the facilities available. In this Letter the authors develop the necessary metric criteria for homogeneous, isotropic and shear layer flows. It is based on establishing a smaller subset of the total range of dynamic scale interactions that will still faithfully reproduce all of the essential, significant, influences of the larger range of scale interactions. The work identifies a minimum significant Re and Pe level that must be obtained by DNS or experiment in order to capture all of the significant dynamic influences in data which is then scaleable to flows of interest. Hereafter this is called the minimum state. Determination of the minimum state is based on finding a minimum scale separation for the energy-containing scales of the flow and scalar fields sufficient to prevent contamination by interaction with the (non-universal) velocity dissipation and scalar diffusivity inertial range scale limits.

  1. High capacity optical links for datacentre connectivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tafur Monroy, Idelfonso; Usuga, Mario; Vegas Olmos, Juan José

    There is a timely and growing demand for high capacity optical data transport solutions to provide connectivity inside data centres and between data centres located at different geographical locations. The requirements for reach are in the order of 2 km for intra-datacentre and up to 100 km...

  2. Scalable High Performance Computing: Direct and Large-Eddy Turbulent Flow Simulations Using Massively Parallel Computers (United States)

    Morgan, Philip E.


    This final report contains reports of research related to the tasks "Scalable High Performance Computing: Direct and Lark-Eddy Turbulent FLow Simulations Using Massively Parallel Computers" and "Devleop High-Performance Time-Domain Computational Electromagnetics Capability for RCS Prediction, Wave Propagation in Dispersive Media, and Dual-Use Applications. The discussion of Scalable High Performance Computing reports on three objectives: validate, access scalability, and apply two parallel flow solvers for three-dimensional Navier-Stokes flows; develop and validate a high-order parallel solver for Direct Numerical Simulations (DNS) and Large Eddy Simulation (LES) problems; and Investigate and develop a high-order Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes turbulence model. The discussion of High-Performance Time-Domain Computational Electromagnetics reports on five objectives: enhancement of an electromagnetics code (CHARGE) to be able to effectively model antenna problems; utilize lessons learned in high-order/spectral solution of swirling 3D jets to apply to solving electromagnetics project; transition a high-order fluids code, FDL3DI, to be able to solve Maxwell's Equations using compact-differencing; develop and demonstrate improved radiation absorbing boundary conditions for high-order CEM; and extend high-order CEM solver to address variable material properties. The report also contains a review of work done by the systems engineer.

  3. Optical high-performance computing: introduction to the JOSA A and Applied Optics feature. (United States)

    Caulfield, H John; Dolev, Shlomi; Green, William M J


    The feature issues in both Applied Optics and the Journal of the Optical Society of America A focus on topics of immediate relevance to the community working in the area of optical high-performance computing.

  4. High-definition optical coherence tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boone, Marc; Norrenberg, Sarah; Jemec, Gregor


    High-definition optical coherence tomography (HD-OCT) is a non-invasive technique for morphological investigation of tissue with cellular resolution filling the imaging gap between reflectance confocal microscopy and conventional optical coherence tomography. The aim of this study is first...... to those described for reflectance confocal microscopy but with the advantages not only to visualize individual cells up to a depth of 570 μm but also in both slice and en face mode. An adapted algorithmic method for pattern analysis of common inflammatory skin diseases could be proposed. This new...

  5. Highly Sensitive Electro-Optic Modulators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeVore, Peter S [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)


    There are very important diagnostic and communication applications that receive faint electrical signals to be transmitted over long distances for capture. Optical links reduce bandwidth and distance restrictions of metal transmission lines; however, such signals are only weakly imprinted onto the optical carrier, resulting in low fidelity transmission. Increasing signal fidelity often necessitates insertion of radio-frequency (RF) amplifiers before the electro-optic modulator, but (especially at high frequencies) RF amplification results in large irreversible distortions. We have investigated the feasibility of a Sensitive and Linear Modulation by Optical Nonlinearity (SALMON) modulator to supersede RF-amplified modulators. SALMON uses cross-phase modulation, a manifestation of the Kerr effect, to enhance the modulation depth of an RF-modulated optical wave. This ultrafast process has the potential to result in less irreversible distortions as compared to a RF-amplified modulator due to the broadband nature of the Kerr effect. Here, we prove that a SALMON modulator is a feasible alternative to an RFamplified modulator, by demonstrating a sensitivity enhancement factor greater than 20 and significantly reduced distortion.

  6. Performance Analysis of Free-Space Optical Links Over Malaga (M) Turbulence Channels with Pointing Errors

    KAUST Repository

    Ansari, Imran Shafique


    In this work, we present a unified performance analysis of a free-space optical (FSO) link that accounts for pointing errors and both types of detection techniques (i.e. intensity modulation/direct detection (IM/DD) as well as heterodyne detection). More specifically, we present unified exact closedform expressions for the cumulative distribution function, the probability density function, the moment generating function, and the moments of the end-to-end signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of a single link FSO transmission system, all in terms of the Meijer’s G function except for the moments that is in terms of simple elementary functions. We then capitalize on these unified results to offer unified exact closed-form expressions for various performance metrics of FSO link transmission systems, such as, the outage probability, the scintillation index (SI), the average error rate for binary and M-ary modulation schemes, and the ergodic capacity (except for IM/DD technique, where we present closed-form lower bound results), all in terms of Meijer’s G functions except for the SI that is in terms of simple elementary functions. Additionally, we derive the asymptotic results for all the expressions derived earlier in terms of Meijer’s G function in the high SNR regime in terms of simple elementary functions via an asymptotic expansion of the Meijer’s G function. We also derive new asymptotic expressions for the ergodic capacity in the low as well as high SNR regimes in terms of simple elementary functions via utilizing moments. All the presented results are verified via computer-based Monte-Carlo simulations.

  7. Turbulent behaviour of non-cohesive sediment gravity flows at unexpectedly high flow density (United States)

    Baker, Megan; Baas, Jaco H.; Malarkey, Jonathan; Kane, Ian


    Experimental lock exchange-type turbidity currents laden with non-cohesive silica-flour were found to be highly dynamic at remarkably high suspended sediment concentrations. These experiments were conducted to produce sediment gravity flows of volumetric concentrations ranging from 1% to 52%, to study how changes in suspended sediment concentration affects the head velocities and run-out distances of these flows, in natural seawater. Increasing the volumetric concentration of suspended silica-flour, C, up to C = 46%, within the flows led to a progressive increase in the maximum head velocity. This relationship suggests that suspended sediment concentration intensifies the density difference between the turbulent suspension and the ambient water, which drives the flow, even if almost half of the available space is occupied by sediment particles. However, from C = 46% to C = 52% a rapid reduction in the maximum head velocity was measured. It is inferred that at C = 46%, friction from grain-to-grain interactions begins to attenuate turbulence within the flows. At C > 46%, the frictional stresses become progressively more dominant over the turbulent forces and excess density, thus producing lower maximum head velocities. This grain interaction process started to rapidly reduce the run-out distance of the silica-flour flows at equally high concentrations of C ≥ 47%. All flows with C 9%. Yet, the critical flow concentration at which turbulence modulation commenced for these silica-flour laden flows appeared to be much higher. We suggest that Bagnold's 9% criterion cannot be applied to flows that carry fine-grained sediment, because turbulent forces are more important than dispersive forces, and frictional forces start to affect the flows only at concentrations just below the cubic packing density of spheres of C = 52%. These experimental results also imply that natural flows may be able to transport vast volumes of non-cohesive sediment with relative ease, especially

  8. Statistical characteristics of the tilts of the aero-optical aberration caused by the supersonic turbulent boundary layer. (United States)

    Gao, Qiong; Jiang, Zongfu; Yi, Shihe; Wang, Xiaohu


    The tilt of the aero-optical aberration caused by the supersonic turbulent boundary layer is obtained by analyzing the center wandering of the far-field optical pattern, and its characteristics are examined from the viewpoint of statistics. When the diameter of the beam propagating through the flow is small compared with the boundary layer thickness, the probability density function (PDF) of the tilt coefficient is centered and can be approximated with a Gaussian distribution. For a larger beam diameter, the PDF of the tilt in the spanwise direction can still be regarded as centered and Gaussian, but the tilt in the streamwise direction clearly deviates from a Gaussian distribution. The correlation of the tilts in the two directions is investigated by computing the correlation coefficient, and the results indicate that the correlation is negative and strong for a small beam diameter and becomes positive and weak for a large beam diameter. These characteristics are explained by the hairpin vortex structures in the boundary layer, which prevail and meander for a very long distance streamwise.

  9. Atmospheric turbulence mitigation in an OAM-based MIMO free-space optical link using spatial diversity combined with MIMO equalization. (United States)

    Ren, Yongxiong; Wang, Zhe; Xie, Guodong; Li, Long; Willner, Asher J; Cao, Yinwen; Zhao, Zhe; Yan, Yan; Ahmed, Nisar; Ashrafi, Nima; Ashrafi, Solyman; Bock, Robert; Tur, Moshe; Willner, Alan E


    We explore the mitigation of atmospheric turbulence effects for orbital angular momentum (OAM)-based free-space optical (FSO) communications with multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) architecture. Such a system employs multiple spatially separated aperture elements at the transmitter/receiver, and each transmitter aperture contains multiplexed data-carrying OAM beams. We propose to use spatial diversity combined with MIMO equalization to mitigate both weak and strong turbulence distortions. In a 2×2 FSO link with each transmitter aperture containing two multiplexed OAM modes of ℓ=+1 and ℓ=+3, we experimentally show that at least two OAM data channels could be recovered under both weak and strong turbulence distortions using selection diversity assisted with MIMO equalization.

  10. Optical multichannel analyzer techniques for high resolution optical spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chao, J.L.


    The development of optical multichannel analyzer techniques for UV/VIS spectroscopy is presented. The research focuses on the development of spectroscopic techniques for measuring high resolution spectral lineshape functions from the exciton phosphorescence in H/sub 2/-1,2,4,5-tetrachlorobenzene. It is found that the temperature dependent frequency shifts and widths confirm a theoretical model based on an exchange theory. The exchange of low energy phonon modes which couple with excited state exciton transitions is shown to display the proper temperature dependent behavior. In addition to the techniques for using the optical multichannel analyzer (OMA) to perform low light level target integration, the use of the OMA for capturing spectral information in transient pulsed laser applications is discussed. An OMP data acquisition system developed for real-time signal processng is described. Both hardware and software interfacing considerations for control and data acquisition by a microcomputer are described. The OMA detector is described in terms of the principles behind its photoelectron detection capabilities and its design is compared with other optoelectronic devices.

  11. Towards green high capacity optical networks (United States)

    Glesk, I.; Mohd Warip, M. N.; Idris, S. K.; Osadola, T. B.; Andonovic, I.


    The demand for fast, secure, energy efficient high capacity networks is growing. It is fuelled by transmission bandwidth needs which will support among other things the rapid penetration of multimedia applications empowering smart consumer electronics and E-businesses. All the above trigger unparallel needs for networking solutions which must offer not only high-speed low-cost "on demand" mobile connectivity but should be ecologically friendly and have low carbon footprint. The first answer to address the bandwidth needs was deployment of fibre optic technologies into transport networks. After this it became quickly obvious that the inferior electronic bandwidth (if compared to optical fiber) will further keep its upper hand on maximum implementable serial data rates. A new solution was found by introducing parallelism into data transport in the form of Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM) which has helped dramatically to improve aggregate throughput of optical networks. However with these advancements a new bottleneck has emerged at fibre endpoints where data routers must process the incoming and outgoing traffic. Here, even with the massive and power hungry electronic parallelism routers today (still relying upon bandwidth limiting electronics) do not offer needed processing speeds networks demands. In this paper we will discuss some novel unconventional approaches to address network scalability leading to energy savings via advance optical signal processing. We will also investigate energy savings based on advanced network management through nodes hibernation proposed for Optical IP networks. The hibernation reduces the network overall power consumption by forming virtual network reconfigurations through selective nodes groupings and by links segmentations and partitionings.

  12. Study of High Beta Optics Solution for TOTEM


    Burkhardt, H; White, S; Levinsen, Y


    The TOTEM experiment requires special high beta optics solutions. We report on studies of optics for an intermediate β* = 90m, as well as a solutions for a very high β* of 1535 m, which respect all known constraints. These optics are rather different from the normal physics optics and will require global tune changes or adjustments.

  13. Optical Systems for Ultra-High-Speed TDM Networking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galili, Michael; Hu, Hao; Mulvad, Hans Christian Hansen


    This paper discusses key results in the field of high speed optical networking with particular focus on packet-based systems. Schemes for optical packet labeling, packet switching and packet synchronization will be discussed, along with schemes for optical clock recovery, channel identification...... and detection of ultra-high-speed optical signals....

  14. Optical Systems for Ultra-High-Speed TDM Networking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Galili


    Full Text Available This paper discusses key results in the field of high speed optical networking with particular focus on packet-based systems. Schemes for optical packet labeling, packet switching and packet synchronization will be discussed, along with schemes for optical clock recovery, channel identification and detection of ultra-high-speed optical signals.

  15. Rotational Raman-based temperature measurements in a high-velocity, turbulent jet (United States)

    Locke, Randy J.; Wernet, Mark P.; Anderson, Robert C.


    Spontaneous rotational Raman scattering spectroscopy is used to acquire measurements of the mean and root mean square (rms) temperature fluctuations in turbulent, high-velocity heated jets. Raman spectra in air were obtained across a matrix of radial and axial locations downstream from a 50 mm diameter nozzle operating from subsonic to supersonic conditions over a wide range of temperatures and Mach numbers, in accordance with the Tanna matrix frequently used in jet noise studies. These data were acquired in the hostile, high noise (115 dB) environment of a large scale open air test facility at NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC). Temperature estimates were determined by performing non-linear least squares fitting of the single shot spectra to the theoretical rotational Stokes spectra of N2 and O2. The laser employed in this study was a high energy, long-pulsed, frequency doubled Nd:YAG laser. One thousand single-shot spectra were acquired at each spatial coordinate. Mean temperature and rms temperature variations were calculated at each measurement location. Excellent agreement between the averaged and single-shot temperatures was observed with an accuracy better than 2.5% for temperature, and rms variations in temperature between  ±2.2% at 296 K and  ±4.5% at 850 K. The mean and normalized rms temperatures measured here were then compared to NASA’s Consensus data set of PIV velocity and turbulence measurements in similar jet flows. The results of this and planned follow-on studies will support NASA GRC’s development of physics-based jet noise prediction, turbulence modeling and aeroacoustic source modeling codes.

  16. A Review of Recent Developments in X-Ray Diagnostics for Turbulent and Optically Dense Rocket Sprays (United States)

    Radke, Christopher; Halls, Benjamin; Kastengren, Alan; Meyer, Terrence


    Highly efficient mixing and atomization of fuel and oxidizers is an important factor in many propulsion and power generating applications. To better quantify breakup and mixing in atomizing sprays, several diagnostic techniques have been developed to collect droplet information and spray statistics. Several optical based techniques, such as Ballistic Imaging and SLIPI have previously demonstrated qualitative measurements in optically dense sprays, however these techniques have produced limited quantitative information in the near injector region. To complement to these advances, a recent wave of developments utilizing synchrotron based x-rays have been successful been implemented facilitating the collection of quantitative measurements in optically dense sprays.

  17. The role of particle-turbulence interactions on the pressure field near high-speed shear flows (United States)

    Capecelatro, Jesse; Shallcross, Gregory; Buchta, David


    Heavy particles in turbulent flows, such as water droplets in air, are well-known to modify the carrier-phase velocity fluctuations. In high-speed flows, the turbulence provides a mechanism to radiate pressure fluctuations, which are usually considered in the safety and reliability of engineering applications, such as those environments near high-speed jets on aircraft carriers. In this presentation, we analyze the potential for reducing near-field pressure fluctuations via turbulence modulation by a disperse phase. Direct numerical simulations of particle-laden mixing layers are conducted for a range of Mach numbers, volume fractions, and Stokes numbers. Different turbulence regimes are identified based on the strength of interphase coupling characterized by the mass loading. The pressure intensity is observed to decrease with a comparable decrease in the turbulent kinetic energy. This reduction is found to be transient as the average volume fraction decreases with shear layer growth. In addition, we derive an evolution equation for the pressure variance in the presence of a disperse phase to quantify the particle-turbulence coupling mechanisms responsible for the observed reduction.

  18. Large turbulent reservoirs of cold molecular gas around high-redshift starburst galaxies (United States)

    Falgarone, E.; Zwaan, M. A.; Godard, B.; Bergin, E.; Ivison, R. J.; Andreani, P. M.; Bournaud, F.; Bussmann, R. S.; Elbaz, D.; Omont, A.; Oteo, I.; Walter, F.


    Starburst galaxies at the peak of cosmic star formation are among the most extreme star-forming engines in the Universe, producing stars over about 100 million years (ref. 2). The star-formation rates of these galaxies, which exceed 100 solar masses per year, require large reservoirs of cold molecular gas to be delivered to their cores, despite strong feedback from stars or active galactic nuclei. Consequently, starburst galaxies are ideal for studying the interplay between this feedback and the growth of a galaxy. The methylidyne cation, CH+, is a most useful molecule for such studies because it cannot form in cold gas without suprathermal energy input, so its presence indicates dissipation of mechanical energy or strong ultraviolet irradiation. Here we report the detection of CH+ (J = 1-0) emission and absorption lines in the spectra of six lensed starburst galaxies at redshifts near 2.5. This line has such a high critical density for excitation that it is emitted only in very dense gas, and is absorbed in low-density gas. We find that the CH+ emission lines, which are broader than 1,000 kilometres per second, originate in dense shock waves powered by hot galactic winds. The CH+ absorption lines reveal highly turbulent reservoirs of cool (about 100 kelvin), low-density gas, extending far (more than 10 kiloparsecs) outside the starburst galaxies (which have radii of less than 1 kiloparsec). We show that the galactic winds sustain turbulence in the 10-kiloparsec-scale environments of the galaxies, processing these environments into multiphase, gravitationally bound reservoirs. However, the mass outflow rates are found to be insufficient to balance the star-formation rates. Another mass input is therefore required for these reservoirs, which could be provided by ongoing mergers or cold-stream accretion. Our results suggest that galactic feedback, coupled jointly to turbulence and gravity, extends the starburst phase of a galaxy instead of quenching it.

  19. Prospectus: towards the development of high-fidelity models of wall turbulence at large Reynolds number (United States)

    Klewicki, J. C.; Chini, G. P.; Gibson, J. F.


    Recent and on-going advances in mathematical methods and analysis techniques, coupled with the experimental and computational capacity to capture detailed flow structure at increasingly large Reynolds numbers, afford an unprecedented opportunity to develop realistic models of high Reynolds number turbulent wall-flow dynamics. A distinctive attribute of this new generation of models is their grounding in the Navier-Stokes equations. By adhering to this challenging constraint, high-fidelity models ultimately can be developed that not only predict flow properties at high Reynolds numbers, but that possess a mathematical structure that faithfully captures the underlying flow physics. These first-principles models are needed, for example, to reliably manipulate flow behaviours at extreme Reynolds numbers. This theme issue of Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A provides a selection of contributions from the community of researchers who are working towards the development of such models. Broadly speaking, the research topics represented herein report on dynamical structure, mechanisms and transport; scale interactions and self-similarity; model reductions that restrict nonlinear interactions; and modern asymptotic theories. In this prospectus, the challenges associated with modelling turbulent wall-flows at large Reynolds numbers are briefly outlined, and the connections between the contributing papers are highlighted.

  20. High star formation rates as the origin of turbulence in early and modern disk galaxies. (United States)

    Green, Andrew W; Glazebrook, Karl; McGregor, Peter J; Abraham, Roberto G; Poole, Gregory B; Damjanov, Ivana; McCarthy, Patrick J; Colless, Matthew; Sharp, Robert G


    Observations of star formation and kinematics in early galaxies at high spatial and spectral resolution have shown that two-thirds are massive rotating disk galaxies, with the remainder being less massive non-rotating objects. The line-of-sight-averaged velocity dispersions are typically five times higher than in today's disk galaxies. This suggests that gravitationally unstable, gas-rich disks in the early Universe are fuelled by cold, dense accreting gas flowing along cosmic filaments and penetrating hot galactic gas halos. These accreting flows, however, have not been observed, and cosmic accretion cannot power the observed level of turbulence. Here we report observations of a sample of rare, high-velocity-dispersion disk galaxies in the nearby Universe where cold accretion is unlikely to drive their high star formation rates. We find that their velocity dispersions are correlated with their star formation rates, but not their masses or gas fractions, which suggests that star formation is the energetic driver of galaxy disk turbulence at all cosmic epochs.

  1. Investigation of optical turbulence in the atmospheric surface layer using scintillometer measurements along a slant path and comparison to ultrasonic anemometer measurements

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Sprung, D


    Full Text Available and Industrial Research (CSIR) P O Box 395, Pretoria 0001, South Africa ABSTRACT Optical turbulence represented by the structure function parameter of the refractive index Cn 2 is a relevant parameter for the performance... of these time series Cn 2 was derived. Three instruments were mounted at a portable mast in the center of slant path measurements over a horizontal distance of 1000 m using large aperture scintillometers (Boundary layer scintillometer BLS 900). Averaging over...

  2. Experimental Verification of Tomographic Reconstruction of Turbulent Air Flow Structure Using Optical Wavefront Measurements (United States)


    guidance and encouragement throughout the research. Captain Robert Johnson deserves my thanks for teaching my how to use the software required to...use in the current research. Capt. Robert Johnson, in a parallel research project, obtained the Lawrence Berkeley library and generated the computer...B ibliography 1. Barret, Harrison H. and William Swindell . Radiological Imagin. New York: Academic Press, 1981. 2. Havener, George. "Optical Wave

  3. Measurement of optical refraction, transmission, and turbulence effects in False Bay, South Africa: June 2007 (United States)

    de Jong, Arie N.; Schwering, Piet B. W.; Fritz, Peter J.


    Complementary to a measurement campaign of small surface targets in the False Bay, South Africa [1], a set-up could be arranged of atmospheric propagation experiments. This opportunity allowed us to collect another set of transmission data in a coastal area, where the environmental conditions are generally non-homogeneous and rapidly changing. It was found before, that the validity of models, predicting the aerosol size distribution, the vertical temperature profile or the structure constant for the refractive index Cn 2 tends to be questionable in this type of areas [2,3]. Proper knowledge of the relation between the range performance of electro-optical and infrared sensors and in-situ weather parameters is however of key importance for operational use of this type of sensors, so the collection of additional propagation data was very relevant. Refraction data were collected continuously by using a geodetic theodolite with camera system over a 15.7 km path in the False Bay. Transmission- and scintillation data were collected over a 9.6 km path by means of our MSRT (Multi- Spectral Radiometer Transmissometer) and a Celestron telescope (with camera) with a focal length of 1.25 m. Weather parameters were measured at a shore station and on a rock in the bay. The weather was greatly variable with many showers, while the visibility, cloudiness and ASTD (Air-Sea Temperature Difference) conditions were continuously changing. Analysis of the theodolite data delivered absolute AOA (Angle of Arrival) data, which have been compared with predictions from the bulk model for marine boundary layers and from two empirical two-parameter temperature profiles. Transmission data, collected in three spectral bands (around 0.6, 0.9 and 1.5 µm), provided information on the particle size distribution, assumed to be of a Junge type. Knowledge of this information allows the prediction of the atmospheric transmission in other spectral bands, including the IR. The transmission data were

  4. PIV measurement of high-Reynolds-number homogeneous and isotropic turbulence in an enclosed flow apparatus with fan agitation (United States)

    Dou, Zhongwang; Pecenak, Zachary K.; Cao, Lujie; Woodward, Scott H.; Liang, Zach; Meng, Hui


    Enclosed flow apparatuses with negligible mean flow are emerging as alternatives to wind tunnels for laboratory studies of homogeneous and isotropic turbulence (HIT) with or without aerosol particles, especially in experimental validation of Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS). It is desired that these flow apparatuses generate HIT at high Taylor-microscale Reynolds numbers ({{R}λ} ) and enable accurate measurement of turbulence parameters including kinetic energy dissipation rate and thereby {{R}λ} . We have designed an enclosed, fan-driven, highly symmetric truncated-icosahedron ‘soccer ball’ airflow apparatus that enables particle imaging velocimetry (PIV) and other whole-field flow measurement techniques. To minimize gravity effect on inertial particles and improve isotropy, we chose fans instead of synthetic jets as flow actuators. We developed explicit relations between {{R}λ} and physical as well as operational parameters of enclosed HIT chambers. To experimentally characterize turbulence in this near-zero-mean flow chamber, we devised a new two-scale PIV approach utilizing two independent PIV systems to obtain both high resolution and large field of view. Velocity measurement results show that turbulence in the apparatus achieved high homogeneity and isotropy in a large central region (48 mm diameter) of the chamber. From PIV-measured velocity fields, we obtained turbulence dissipation rates and thereby {{R}λ} by using the second-order velocity structure function. A maximum {{R}λ} of 384 was achieved. Furthermore, experiments confirmed that the root mean square (RMS) velocity increases linearly with fan speed, and {{R}λ} increases with the square root of fan speed. Characterizing turbulence in such apparatus paves the way for further investigation of particle dynamics in particle-laden homogeneous and isotropic turbulence.

  5. Manufacturing of high precision aspherical and freeform optics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogstrate, A.M.; Drunen, C. van; Venrooy, B.W.H. van; Henselmans, R.


    Aspherical and freeform optical elements have a large potential in reducing optical aberrations and to reduce the number of elements in complex high performance optical systems. However, manufacturing a single piece or a small series of aspherical and freeform optics has for long been limited by the

  6. High speed PIV measurements in the logarithmic region of a turbulent boundary layer (United States)

    Singh, Anurag; Longmire, Ellen; Marusic, Ivan


    The existence of long low speed regions in the logarithmic region of turbulent boundary layers has been studied previously; most recently using spanwise arrays of hot-wires. Currently, we are using high speed PIV to characterize these low speed regions. Experiments were conducted in the logarithmic region of the turbulent boundary layer in a zero pressure gradient flow at friction Reynolds number Reτ=1160 with a streamwise-spanwise field of view of dimension 1.2δ. A high speed camera and laser were used to obtain velocity fields at repetition rates ranging from 250 Hz to 1000 Hz. Sets of these fields were used to compute ensemble averaged statistics. Also, sections of consecutive fields were stitched end-to-end to form longer vector fields. This allows us to test, in part, the validity of using Taylor's hypothesis in this flow. Within the field of view, low speed regions of up to 14δ in length have been observed. In general, these low speed regions meander and some go out of the field of view in the spanwise direction. An algorithm is being developed to identify these regions automatically from the PIV results and to characterize their length scales.

  7. Characterisation of a turbulent module for the MITHIC high-contrast imaging testbed (United States)

    Vigan, A.; Postnikova, M.; Caillat, A.; Sauvage, J.-F.; Dohlen, K.; El Hadi, K.; Fusco, T.; Lamb, M.; N'Diaye, M.


    Future high-contrast imagers on ground-based extremely large telescopes will have to deal with the segmentation of the primary mirrors. Residual phase errors coming from the phase steps at the edges of the segments will have to be minimized in order to reach the highest possible wavefront correction and thus the best contrast performance. To study these effects, we have developed the MITHIC high-contrast testbed, which is designed to test various strategies for wavefront sensing, including the Zernike sensor for Extremely accurate measurements of Low-level Differential Aberrations (ZELDA) and COronagraphic Focal-plane wave-Front Estimation for Exoplanet detection (COFFEE). We recently equipped the bench with a new atmospheric turbulence simulation module that offers both static phase patterns representing segmented primary mirrors and continuous phase strips representing atmospheric turbulence filtered by an AO or an XAO system. We present a characterisation of the module using different instruments and wavefront sensors, and the first coronagraphic measurements obtained on MITHIC.

  8. Evidence of high-frequency/small-scale turbulence in the Cygnus region and anomalous Faraday rotation (United States)

    Medvedev, Mikhail V.


    Faraday effect - a common and useful probe of cosmic magnetic fields - is the result of magnetically-induced birefringence in plasmas causing rotation of the polarization plane of a linearly polarized electromagnetic wave. Classically, the rotation angle scales with the wavelength as Δϕ =RMλ2 , where RM is the rotation measure. Although a typical RM in the Milky Way is of the order of a few hundred to a few thousand, a famous Cygnus region shows anomalously small, even negative rotation measures. Moreover, Faraday rotation measurements seem to be inconsistent with the standard λ2-law. We argue that fast micro-turbulence can cause this anomaly. We demonstrate that electromagnetic high-frequency and/or small-scale fluctuations can lead to effective plasma collisionality by scattering electrons over pitch-angle. We show that such quasi-collisionality radically alters Faraday rotation and other radiative transport properties, e.g., absorption, transmission and reflection. Thus, we explain the Cygnus puzzle by anomalous Faraday rotation in a thin ``blanket'' of highly turbulent plasma at the front of an interstellar bubble/shock. Supported by DOE grant DE-SC0016368.

  9. Detector of Optical Vortices as the Main Element of the System of Data Transfer: Principles of Operation, Numerical Model, and Influence of Noise and Atmospheric Turbulence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerii Aksenov


    Full Text Available The method is proposed of optical vortex topological charge detection along with a design of a corresponding detector. The developed technique is based on measurements of light field intensity. Mathematical model simulating performance of the detector is described in the paper, and results of numerical experiments are presented which illustrate recognition of a vortex in a turbulent medium and in the presence of amplitude and phase noise in the registered radiation. Influence of shifts of the system optical axis on precision of registration is also considered in the paper.

  10. High data rate optical transceiver terminal (United States)

    Clarke, E. S.


    The objectives of this study were: (1) to design a 400 Mbps optical transceiver terminal to operate from a high-altitude balloon-borne platform in order to permit the quantitative evaluation of a space-qualifiable optical communications system design, (2) to design an atmospheric propagation experiment to operate in conjunction with the terminal to measure the degrading effects of the atmosphere on the links, and (3) to design typical optical communications experiments for space-borne laboratories in the 1980-1990 time frame. As a result of the study, a transceiver package has been configured for demonstration flights during late 1974. The transceiver contains a 400 Mbps transmitter, a 400 Mbps receiver, and acquisition and tracking receivers. The transmitter is a Nd:YAG, 200 Mhz, mode-locked, CW, diode-pumped laser operating at 1.06 um requiring 50 mW for 6 db margin. It will be designed to implement Pulse Quaternary Modulation (PQM). The 400 Mbps receiver utilizes a Dynamic Crossed-Field Photomultiplier (DCFP) detector. The acquisition receiver is a Quadrant Photomultiplier Tube (QPMT) and receives a 400 Mbps signal chopped at 0.1 Mhz.

  11. High-Spatial-Resolution OH PLIF Visualization in a Cavity-Stabilized Ethylene-Air Turbulent Flame (United States)

    Geipel, Clayton M.; Rockwell, Robert D.; Chelliah, Harsha K.; Cutler, Andrew D.; Spelker, Christopher A.; Hashem, Zeid; Danehy, Paul M.


    High-spatial-resolution OH planar laser-induced fluorescence was measured for a premixed ethylene-air turbulent flame in an electrically-heated Mach 2 continuous-flow facility (University of Virginia Supersonic Combustion Facility, Configuration E.) The facility comprised a Mach 2 nozzle, an isolator with flush-wall fuel injectors, a combustor with optical access, and an extender. The flame was anchored at a cavity flameholder with a backward-facing step of height 9 mm. The temperature-insensitive Q1(8) transition of OH was excited using laser light of wavelength 283.55 nm. A spatial filter was used to create a laser sheet approximately 25 microns thick based on full-width at half maximum (FWHM). Extension tubes increased the magnification of an intensified camera system, achieving in-plane resolution of 40 microns based on a 50% modulation transfer function (MTF). The facility was tested with total temperature 1200 K, total pressure 300 kPa, local fuel/air equivalence ratios of approximately 0.4, and local Mach number of approximately 0.73 in the combustor. A test case with reduced total temperature and another with reduced equivalence ratio were also tested. PLIF images were acquired along a streamwise plane bisecting the cavity flameholder, from the backward facing step to 120 mm downstream of the step. The smallest observed features in the flow had width of approximately 110 microns. Flame surface density was calculated for OH PLIF images.

  12. Stirring turbulence with turbulence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cekli, H.E.; Joosten, R.F.D.; Water, W. van de


    We stir wind-tunnel turbulence with an active grid that consists of rods with attached vanes. The time-varying angle of these rods is controlled by random numbers. We study the response of turbulence on the statistical properties of these random numbers. The random numbers are generated by the

  13. High-data rate differential phase shift keying receiver for satellite-to-ground optical communication link (United States)

    Zhi, Yan'an; Sun, Jianfeng; Dai, Enwen; Zhou, Yu; Wang, Lijuan; Lu, Wei; Hou, Peipei; Liu, Liren


    The high data-rate satellite-to-ground coherent optical communication link is limited because the phase integrity of a beam is impaired when passing through the atmospheric turbulence. Based on the interference of two successive data bits in an unequal arm-length Mach-Zehnder delay interferometer, the differential phase shift keying receiver is suited for high data-rate satellite-to-ground coherent optical communication links due to its immunity of the wave front impairment when passing through the atmospheric turbulence. In the time-delay self-homodyne interferometric detection used in 2×4 90 degree optical hybrid, the optical path difference corresponds to the duration of one bit. The optical path difference is stabilized to below one thousandth of the wavelength by moving a finely motorized platform with the close-loop control using the phase feedback from the outputs of the 90 degree hybrid. The 2.5 Gbps optical communication link has already been verified between two buildings over a distance of 2.4km in the worst-case atmospheric conditions. The design and experimental results are given in this paper.

  14. Scalar mixing in LES/PDF of a high-Ka premixed turbulent jet flame (United States)

    You, Jiaping; Yang, Yue


    We report a large-eddy simulation (LES)/probability density function (PDF) study of a high-Ka premixed turbulent flame in the Lund University Piloted Jet (LUPJ) flame series, which has been investigated using direct numerical simulation (DNS) and experiments. The target flame, featuring broadened preheat and reaction zones, is categorized into the broken reaction zone regime. In the present study, three widely used mixing modes, namely the Interaction by Exchange with the Mean (IEM), Modified Curl (MC), and Euclidean Minimum Spanning Tree (EMST) models are applied to assess their performance through detailed a posteriori comparisons with DNS. A dynamic model for the time scale of scalar mixing is formulated to describe the turbulent mixing of scalars at small scales. Better quantitative agreement for the mean temperature and mean mass fractions of major and minor species are obtained with the MC and EMST models than with the IEM model. The multi-scalar mixing in composition space with the three models are analyzed to assess the modeling of the conditional molecular diffusion term. In addition, we demonstrate that the product of OH and CH2O concentrations can be a good surrogate of the local heat release rate in this flame. This work is supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11521091 and 91541204).

  15. Turbulence characterization of a high-pressure high-temperature fan-stirred combustion vessel using LDV, PIV and TR-PIV measurements (United States)

    Galmiche, Bénédicte; Mazellier, Nicolas; Halter, Fabien; Foucher, Fabrice


    Standard particle imaging velocimetry (PIV), time-resolved particle imaging velocimetry (TR-PIV) and laser Doppler velocimetry (LDV) are complementary techniques used to measure the turbulence statistics in a fan-stirred combustion vessel. Since a solid knowledge of the aerodynamic characteristics of the turbulent flow will enable better analysis of the flame-turbulence interactions, the objective of this paper is to provide an accurate characterization of the turbulent flow inside the combustion vessel. This paper aims at becoming a reference for further work on turbulent premixed flames using this fan-stirred combustion vessel. Close approximations of homogeneous and isotropic turbulence are achieved using this setup. The integral length scales L, Taylor microscales λ and Kolmogorov length scales η, the rms velocity fluctuations and the energy spectra are investigated using PIV, TR-PIV and LDV techniques. The difficulty to reach an accurate estimation of the integral length scale is particularly examined. The strengths and limitations of these three techniques are highlighted. High temporally resolved and high spatially resolved PIV appears as an interesting alternative to LDV in so far as close attention is paid to the measurements resolution. Indeed, the largest scales of the flow are limited by the field size and the smallest ones may be not caught with high accuracy due to the limited spatial resolution. A low spatial resolution of the PIV measurements can also lead to an underestimation of the rms velocity fluctuations. As the vessel was designed to study turbulent combustion at high initial pressure and high initial temperature, the effects of the gas temperature and pressure on the energy spectra and the turbulent parameters are finally investigated in the last part of the paper.

  16. Suppressed ion-scale turbulence in a hot high-β plasma. (United States)

    Schmitz, L; Fulton, D P; Ruskov, E; Lau, C; Deng, B H; Tajima, T; Binderbauer, M W; Holod, I; Lin, Z; Gota, H; Tuszewski, M; Dettrick, S A; Steinhauer, L C


    An economic magnetic fusion reactor favours a high ratio of plasma kinetic pressure to magnetic pressure in a well-confined, hot plasma with low thermal losses across the confining magnetic field. Field-reversed configuration (FRC) plasmas are potentially attractive as a reactor concept, achieving high plasma pressure in a simple axisymmetric geometry. Here, we show that FRC plasmas have unique, beneficial microstability properties that differ from typical regimes in toroidal confinement devices. Ion-scale fluctuations are found to be absent or strongly suppressed in the plasma core, mainly due to the large FRC ion orbits, resulting in near-classical thermal ion confinement. In the surrounding boundary layer plasma, ion- and electron-scale turbulence is observed once a critical pressure gradient is exceeded. The critical gradient increases in the presence of sheared plasma flow induced via electrostatic biasing, opening the prospect of active boundary and transport control in view of reactor requirements.

  17. High-Altitude Airborne Platform Characterisation of Adaptive Optic Corrected Ground Based Laser (United States)

    Bennet, F.; Petkovic, M.; Sheard, B.; Greene, B.

    Adaptive optics can be used for more than astronomical imaging with large telescopes. The Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics (RSAA) and the Space Environment Management Research Centre (SERC) at the Mount Stromlo Observatory in Canberra, Australia, have been developing adaptive optics (AO) for space environment management. Turbulence in the atmosphere causes optical signals to become degraded during propagation, which reduces the effective aperture of your transmitting or receiving telescope. An AO system measures and corrects for the turbulence in the atmosphere, allowing for greater resolution of optical signals. AO can be used to correct a laser beam propagating from the ground into space, or high-altitude airborne platform. The AO system performance depends heavily on the chosen site and system design. In order to properly design and implement a cost-effective AO system to propagate a laser into orbit, we propose using high-altitude platforms to measure AO system performance directly as a precursor in-orbit measurements. SERC plan on demonstrating remote manoeuvre of an orbiting object using photon pressure from an AO corrected high power ground based laser. The manoeuvre target will be a suitable piece of debris, or a dedicated satellite mission which is instrumented and tracked to measure the applied photon pressure and resulting orbit perturbation. High-altitude airborne platforms such as weather balloons or UAVs enable us to efficiently de-risk elements of this program by validating our numerical simulations of AO system performance with actual measurements. We are then able to confidently move towards in-orbit measurement of an AO corrected ground based laser, and remote manoeuvre with photon pressure. We present simulations along with experimental results for the development of array detectors which can be used to directly measure AO system performance.

  18. Studies of High Power RF-induced Turbulence in the Ionosphere over HAARP (United States)

    Sheerin, J. P.; Watkins, B. J.; Bristow, W. A.; Bernhardt, P. A.


    The HAARP phased-array HF transmitter at Gakona, AK delivers up to 3.6 GW (ERP) of HF power in the range of 2.8 - 10 MHz to the ionosphere with millisecond pointing, power modulation, and frequency agility. HAARP's unique features have enabled the conduct of a number of nonlinear plasma experiments in the interaction region of overdense ionospheric plasma including stimulated electromagnetic emissions (SEE), artificial aurora, artificial ionization layers, VLF wave-particle interactions in the magnetosphere, strong Langmuir turbulence (SLT) and suprathermal electron acceleration. Diagnostics include the Modular UHF Ionospheric Radar (MUIR) sited at HAARP, the SuperDARN-Kodiak HF radar, spacecraft radio beacons, HF receivers to record stimulated electromagnetic emissions (SEE) and telescopes and cameras for optical emissions. We report on short timescale ponderomotive overshoot effects, artificial field-aligned irregularities (AFAI), the aspect angle dependence of the intensity of the plasma line, and production of suprathermal electrons. For a narrow range of HF pointing between Spitze and magnetic zenith, a reduced threshold for AFAI is observed. Recent results of simulations of these experiments enable interpretation of many observed features. Applications are made to the study of irregularities relevant to spacecraft communication and navigation systems.

  19. Effect of pressure on high Karlovitz number lean turbulent premixed hydrogen-enriched methane-air flames using LES (United States)

    Cicoria, David; Chan, C. K.


    Large eddy simulation (LES) is employed to investigate the effect of pressure on lean CH4-H2-air turbulent premixed flames at high Karlovitz number for mixtures up to 60% of hydrogen in volume. The subfilter combustion term representing the interaction between turbulence and chemistry is modelled using the PaSR model, along with complex chemistry using a skeletal mechanism based on GRI-MECH3.0. The influence of pressure at high turbulence levels is studied by means of the local flame structure, and the assessment of species formation inside the flame. Results show that the ratio of turbulent flame thickness to laminar flame thickness δt/δu increases faster with pressure, and increases with the fraction of hydrogen in the mixture, leading to higher ratio of turbulent to laminar flame speed. The flame displays smaller structures and higher degree of wrinkling at higher pressure. Final species of CO2 and H2O formation is almost independent of pressure. For intermediate species CO and OH, an increase in pressure at constant volume fraction of hydrogen β leads to a decrease of emission of these species.

  20. Turbulent Flame Stabilization Methods Using Confinement, Diluents, and High-Potential Electric Fields (United States)


    due to an increase in turbulent swirling . Liftoff delays were also present in both the semi-confined and fully confined cases, such that a higher jet ...1. Determine if confining a methane jet flame (with the presence of ambient coflow) would increase flame stability and decrease turbulent swirling ...confined (confinement cylinder with viewing window open) behaved much more sporadically due to an increase in turbulent swirling . Liftoff delays were

  1. The Interaction of High-Speed Turbulence with Flames: Global Properties and Internal Flame Structure (United States)


    hypothesized that the turbulent cascade is able to penetrate the 1 _______________ Manuscript approved August 14, 2009. internal structure of the...reactors. These are the regimes in which substantial flame broadening by turbulent transport has been hypothesized . We also assume that turbulence is...this method [21], which requires six Riemann solves per cell instead of the twelve in the original method of [24]. This integration scheme uses PPM

  2. Method for high-speed Manchester encoded optical signal generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Jianfeng; Chi, Nan; Holm-Nielsen, Pablo Villanueva


    A method for high-speed Manchester encoded optical signal generation is proposed and demonstrated with a specially configured electro-optical modulator. A 10 Gb/s Manchester encoded optical signal was generated, and its bit-error-ratio (BER) performance was evaluated.......A method for high-speed Manchester encoded optical signal generation is proposed and demonstrated with a specially configured electro-optical modulator. A 10 Gb/s Manchester encoded optical signal was generated, and its bit-error-ratio (BER) performance was evaluated....

  3. Performance Analysis of Heterodyne-Detected OCDMA Systems Using PolSK Modulation over a Free-Space Optical Turbulence Channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Bai


    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel model of heterodyne-detected optical code-division multiple-access (OCDMA systems employing polarization shift keying (PolSK modulation over a free-space optical (FSO turbulence channel. In this article, a new transceiver configuration and detailed analytical model for the proposed system are provided and discussed, taking into consideration the potential of heterodyne detection on mitigating the impact of turbulence-induced irradiance fluctuation on the performance of the proposed system under the gamma-gamma turbulence channel. Furthermore, we derived the closed-form expressions for the system error probability and outage probability, respectively. We determine the advantages of the proposed modeling by performing a comparison with a direct detection scheme obtained from an evaluation of link performance under the same environment conditions. The presented work also shows the most significant impact factor that degrades the performance of the proposed system and indicates that the proposed approach offers an optimum link performance compared to conventional cases.

  4. Simulation and analysis of turbulent multiphase combustion processes at high pressures (United States)

    Oefelein, Joseph Charles

    This research focuses on the time-accurate simulation and analysis of high-pressure mixing and combustion processes in turbulent mixing layers. The objectives are: (1) to provide insight with respect to the many uncertainties associated with modeling turbulent, reacting, multiphase flow at near-critical pressures; (2) to establish a baseline theoretical framework and criteria which addresses model performance and accuracy requirements; and (3) to analyze high-pressure phenomena at the operating conditions typically employed in state of the art combustors. Results address fundamental issues related to modeling and understanding unsteady reacting flow dynamics at near-critical conditions by focusing on mixing and combustion processes in hydrogen-oxygen systems. The approach follows four fundamental steps: (1) the development of a generalized theoretical framework; (2) the specification of detailed property evaluation schemes and consistent closure methodologies; (3) the implementation of an efficient and time-accurate numerical framework; and (4) the presentation and analysis of a systematic series of case studies which focus on model performance and accuracy requirements, Lagrangian-Eulerian treatments of transcritical spray field dynamics, and pure Eulerian treatments of transcritical and supercritical mixing and combustion processes. The theoretical framework is based on the large-eddy-simulation technique, employs state of the art correlations to model the particulate phase, and employs a recently optimized 24-step finite-rate kinetics mechanism. The numerical framework is based on a preconditioned, density-based, finite-volume methodology that takes full account of thermodynamic nonidealities and transport anomalies and accommodates any arbitrary equation of state. Case studies focus on model performance and accuracy requirements, Lagrangian-Eulerian treatments of transcritical spray field dynamics, and pure Eulerian treatments of transcritical and supercritical

  5. High-speed optical transmission technology using all-optical signal processing (United States)

    Kawanishi, Satoki


    This paper reviews recent progress on high-speed technologies for optical transmission systems in the IP and FTTH era. First, we describe our latest research results of 160 Gbit/s optical time-division multiplexing and demultiplexing experiments. The all-optical time-division multiplexer is realized as a hybrid integrated device consisting of planar lightwave circuits (PLC's) and highly-nonlinear periodically-poled lithium niobate (PPLN) waveguides while the demultiplexer is realized as a hybrid integrated device consisting of PLC's and semiconductor optical amplifiers. A new type of all-optical switch that uses a photonic crystal nanocavity and an all-optical flip-flop circuit that is composed of two-port resonant-tunneling filters based on a two dimensional photonic crystal slab with triangular air-hole lattice are shown. Finally, the possibility of over 100 Gbit/s all-optical signal processing is discussed for high-speed optical transmission systems.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    As lidar technology is able to provide fast data collection at a resolution of meters in an atmospheric volume, it is imperative to promote a modeling counterpart of the lidar capability. This paper describes an integrated capability based on data from a scanning water vapor lidar and a high-resolution hydrodynamic model (HIGRAD) equipped with a visualization routine (VIEWER) that simulates the lidar scanning. The purpose is to better understand the spatial and temporal representativeness of the lidar measurements and, in turn, to extend their utility in studying turbulence fields in the atmospheric boundary layer. Raman lidar water vapor data collected over the Pacific warm pool and the simulations with the HIGRAD code are used for identifying the underlying physics and potential aliasing effects of spatially resolved lidar measurements. This capability also helps improve the trade-off between spatial-temporal resolution and coverage of the lidar measurements.

  7. A projection hybrid high order finite volume/finite element method for incompressible turbulent flows (United States)

    Busto, S.; Ferrín, J. L.; Toro, E. F.; Vázquez-Cendón, M. E.


    In this paper the projection hybrid FV/FE method presented in [1] is extended to account for species transport equations. Furthermore, turbulent regimes are also considered thanks to the k-ε model. Regarding the transport diffusion stage new schemes of high order of accuracy are developed. The CVC Kolgan-type scheme and ADER methodology are extended to 3D. The latter is modified in order to profit from the dual mesh employed by the projection algorithm and the derivatives involved in the diffusion term are discretized using a Galerkin approach. The accuracy and stability analysis of the new method are carried out for the advection-diffusion-reaction equation. Within the projection stage the pressure correction is computed by a piecewise linear finite element method. Numerical results are presented, aimed at verifying the formal order of accuracy of the scheme and to assess the performance of the method on several realistic test problems.

  8. Evaluating the Performance of the Mixture Model Coupled with High and Low Reynolds Turbulence Closures in the Numerical Description of Concentrated Solid-Liquid Flows of Settling Particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Silva


    Full Text Available In this manuscript, Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD studies applying the Mixture Model coupled with both a High Reynolds and a Low Reynolds k-ε turbulence closures, were used to describe experimental pressure gradients and particle concentration profiles from the literature, for concentrated solid-liquid flows of settling particles in a horizontal pipe above the critical deposition velocity. With this work a new Mixture Model formulation is presented, incorporating the Jones-Launder Low Reynolds k-ε turbulence closure, to overcome the excessive turbulence production observed in the numerical studies using the High Reynolds k-ε turbulence model. Additionally, this formulation provides a more accurate representation of the wall turbulence damping phenomena, observed in the experimental testing for the flow of higher particle concentrations suspensions and higher flow velocities. Knowledge on the conditions that cause turbulence attenuation on solid-liquid flows is still scarce in the literature and of considerable value for industrial applications.

  9. Prospects of Turbulence Studies in High-Energy Density Laser-Generated Plasma: Numerical Investigations in Two Dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Handy, Timothy; Drake, R Paul; Zhiglo, Andrey


    We investigate the possibility of generating and studying turbulence in plasma by means of high-energy density laser-driven experiments. Our focus is to create supersonic, self-magnetized turbulence with characteristics that resemble those found in the interstellar medium (ISM). We consider a target made of a spherical core surrounded by a shell made of denser material. The shell is irradiated by a sequence of laser pulses sending inward-propagating shocks that convert the inner core into plasma and create turbulence. In the context of the evolution of the ISM, the shocks play the role of supernova remnant shocks and the core represents the ionized interstellar medium. We consider the effects of both pre-existing and self-generating magnetic fields and study the evolution of the system by means of two-dimensional numerical simulations. We find that the evolution of the turbulent core is generally, subsonic with rms-Mach number $M_t\\approx 0.2$. We observe an isotropic, turbulent velocity field with an inertia...

  10. High-altitude and high-latitude O+ and H+ outflows: the effect of finite electromagnetic turbulence wavelength

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Saleh


    Full Text Available The energization of ions, due to interaction with electromagnetic turbulence (i.e. wave-particle interactions, has an important influence on H+ and O+ ions outflows in the polar region. The effects of altitude and velocity dependent wave-particle interaction on H+ and O+ ions outflows in the auroral region were investigated by using Monte Carlo method. The Monte Carlo simulation included the effects of altitude and velocity dependent wave-particle interaction, gravity, polarization electrostatic field, and divergence of auroral geomagnetic field within the simulation tube (1.2–10 earth radii, RE. As the ions are heated due to wave-particle interactions (i.e. ion interactions with electromagnetic turbulence and move to higher altitudes, the ion gyroradius ρi may become comparable to the electromagnetic turbulence wavelength λ⊥ and consequently (k⊥ρi becomes larger than unity. This turns the heating rate to be negligible and the motion of the ions is described by using Liouville theorem. The main conclusions are as follows: (1 the formation of H+ and O+ conics at lower altitudes and for all values of λ⊥; (2 O+ toroids appear at 3.72 RE, 2.76 RE and 2 RE, for λ⊥=100, 10, and 1 km, respectively; however, H+ toroids appear at 6.6 RE, 4.4 RE and 3 RE, for λ⊥=100, 10, and 1 km, respectively; and H+ and O+ ion toroids did not appear for the case λ⊥ goes to infinity, i.e. when the effect of velocity dependent wave-particle interaction was not included; (3 As λ⊥ decreases, H+ and O+ ion drift velocity decreases, H+ and O+ ion density increases, H+ and O+ ion perpendicular temperature and H+ and O+ ion parallel temperature decrease; (4 Finally, including the effect of finite electromagnetic turbulence wavelength, i.e. the effect of velocity dependent diffusion coefficient and consequently, the velocity dependent wave-particle interactions produce realistic H+ and O+ ion temperatures and H+ and O+ toroids, and this is, qualitatively

  11. Large eddy simulation and direct numerical simulation of high speed turbulent reacting flows (United States)

    Adumitroaie, V.; Frankel, S. H.; Madnia, C. K.; Givi, P.

    The objective of this research is to make use of Large Eddy Simulation (LES) and Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) for the computational analyses of high speed reacting flows. Our efforts in the first phase of this research conducted within the past three years have been directed in several issues pertaining to intricate physics of turbulent reacting flows. In our previous 5 semi-annual reports submitted to NASA LaRC, as well as several technical papers in archival journals, the results of our investigations have been fully described. In this progress report which is different in format as compared to our previous documents, we focus only on the issue of LES. The reason for doing so is that LES is the primary issue of interest to our Technical Monitor and that our other findings were needed to support the activities conducted under this prime issue. The outcomes of our related investigations, nevertheless, are included in the appendices accompanying this report. The relevance of the materials in these appendices are, therefore, discussed only briefly within the body of the report. Here, results are presented of a priori and a posterior analyses for validity assessments of assumed Probability Density Function (PDF) methods as potential subgrid scale (SGS) closures for LES of turbulent reacting flows. Simple non-premixed reacting systems involving an isothermal reaction of the type A + B yields Products under both chemical equilibrium and non-equilibrium conditions are considered. A priori analyses are conducted of a homogeneous box flow, and a spatially developing planar mixing layer to investigate the performance of the Pearson Family of PDF's as SGS models. A posteriori analyses are conducted of the mixing layer using a hybrid one-equation Smagorinsky/PDF SGS closure. The Smagorinsky closure augmented by the solution of the subgrid turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) equation is employed to account for hydrodynamic fluctuations, and the PDF is employed for modeling the

  12. Reynolds number effects on the dynamics of the turbulent horseshoe vortex: High resolution experiments and numerical simulations (United States)

    Apsilidis, Nikolaos; Raben, Sam; Diplas, Panayiotis; Dancey, Clinton; Vlachos, Pavlos; Khosronejad, Ali; Sotiropoulos, Fotis


    Turbulent flows past wall-mounted obstacles are dominated by dynamically rich, slowly evolving coherent structures producing most of the turbulence in the junction region. Numerical simulations [Paik et al., Phys. of Fluids 2007] elucidated the large-scale instabilities but important questions still remain unexplored. One such question is with regard to the effect of the Reynolds number on the dynamics of the turbulent horseshoe vortex (THV). We carry out high-resolution laboratory experiments for the flow past a wall mounted cylinder in a laboratory water tunnel for ReD= 26000, 48000 and 117000. We employ the Time-Resolved Particle Image Velocimetry technique to resolve the dynamics of the flow at the symmetry plane of the cylinder and analyze the instantaneous velocity fields using the Proper Orthogonal Decomposition technique. The experimental study is integrated with coherent-structure-resolving numerical simulations providing the first comprehensive investigation of Reynolds number effects on the dynamics of the THV.

  13. Effects of compressibility and free-stream turbulence on boundary layer transition in high-subsonic and transonic flows (United States)

    Murthy, S. V.; Steinle, F. W.


    Based on the existing boundary layer transition data, the effects of compressibility, pressure fluctuations, and free-stream turbulence have been reexamined for subsonic and transonic flow speeds. It is confirmed that the compressibility effects may be adequately expressed in terms of a simple correlation with free-stream Mach number. Pressure fluctuations, especially at low levels, do not seem to significantly affect the transition phenomenon. Effects of free-stream turbulence in high-subsonic and transonic flows are similar to the trends observed for low-speed flows and the transition process is hastened. The trends, as seen from slender cone flow data, seem to suggest power law correlations between transition Reynolds number and free-stream turbulence.

  14. A comparative study of several compressibility corrections to turbulence models applied to high-speed shear layers (United States)

    Viegas, John R.; Rubesin, Morris W.


    Several recently published compressibility corrections to the standard k-epsilon turbulence model are used with the Navier-Stokes equations to compute the mixing region of a large variety of high speed flows. These corrections, specifically developed to address the weakness of higher order turbulence models to accurately predict the spread rate of compressible free shear flows, are applied to two stream flows of the same gas mixing under a large variety of free stream conditions. Results are presented for two types of flows: unconfined streams with either (1) matched total temperatures and static pressures, or (2) matched static temperatures and pressures, and a confined stream.

  15. Transistor Laser Optical NOR Gate for High Speed Optical Logic Processors (United States)


    Transistor Laser Optical NOR Gate for High Speed Optical Logic Processors Milton Feng, Han Wui...Champaign Urbana, Illinois, U.S.A., 61801 ( Abstract: Three-terminal transistor laser is the key element to forming a...junction transistor lasers (TJ-TLs). Keywords: Optical Logic; Semiconductor Laser; Transistor Laser (TL); Vertical Cavity Transistor Laser (VCTL



    Raghunathababu.CH; Dr. Siddaiah.P


    Electro Optic devices in fiber optic Communication systems are playing a Vital Role in telecommunication infrastructure for worldwide broadband networks. Wide bandwidth of signal transmission with low delay, wide transmission bandwidth with less latency, the transmission medium for long distance with high data rate transmission. This paper gives an overview of Electro optic devices for fiber optic systems and their key technologies, their technological trend towards the next generation.

  17. Optical measurements of fluctuating temperatures in a supersonic turbulent flow using one- and two-photon, laser-induced fluorescence (United States)

    Gross, K. P.; Mckenzie, R. L.


    A laser-induced fluorescence technique has been developed that provides a practical means of nonintrusively measuring the instantaneous temperatures in low-temperature turbulent flows. The capabilities of the method are reviewed, and its application to a simple, two-dimensional, turbulent boundary-layer flow at Mach 2 is reported. Measurements of the average temperature distribution through the boundary layer and the magnitudes of temperature fluctuations about their average values are presented.

  18. Group-kinetic theory and modeling of atmospheric turbulence (United States)

    Tchen, C. M.


    A group kinetic method is developed for analyzing eddy transport properties and relaxation to equilibrium. The purpose is to derive the spectral structure of turbulence in incompressible and compressible media. Of particular interest are: direct and inverse cascade, boundary layer turbulence, Rossby wave turbulence, two phase turbulence; compressible turbulence, and soliton turbulence. Soliton turbulence can be found in large scale turbulence, turbulence connected with surface gravity waves and nonlinear propagation of acoustical and optical waves. By letting the pressure gradient represent the elementary interaction among fluid elements and by raising the Navier-Stokes equation to higher dimensionality, the master equation was obtained for the description of the microdynamical state of turbulence.

  19. Turbulent flame speeds and NOx kinetics of HHC fuels with contaminants and high dilution levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petersen, Eric; Krejci, Michael; Mathieu, Olivier; Vissotski, Andrew; Ravi, Sankar; Plichta, Drew; Sikes, Travis; Levacque, Anthony; Aul, Christopher; Petersen, Eric


    This progress report documents the second year of the project, from October 1, 2011 through September 30, 2012. Characterization of the new turbulent flame speed vessel design was completed. Turbulence statistics of three impellers with different geometric features were measured using particle image velocimetry inside a Plexiglas model (~1:1 scale) of a cylindrical flame speed vessel (30.5 cm ID × 35.6 cm L). With four impellers arranged in a central-symmetric configuration, turbulence intensities between 1.2 and 1.7 m/s with negligible mean flow (0.1u´) were attained at the lowest fan speeds. Acceptable ranges for homogeneity and isotropy ratios of the velocity fields were set within a narrow bandwidth near unity (0.9-1.1). Homogeneity ratios were unaffected by changes to the impeller geometry, and the prototype with the higher number of blades caused the flow to become anisotropic. The integral length scale of the flow fields varied between 27 and 20 mm, which correlates well with those typically observed inside a gas turbine combustor. The mechanism to independently vary the intensity level and the integral length scale was established, where turbulence intensity level was dependent on the rotational speed of the fan, and the integral length scale decreased with increasing blade pitch angle. Ignition delay times of H₂/O₂ mixtures highly diluted with Ar and doped with various amounts of N₂O (100, 400, 1600, 3200 ppm) were measured in a shock tube behind reflected shock waves over a wide range of temperatures (940-1675 K). The pressure range investigated during this work (around 1.6, 13, and 30 atm) allows studying the effect of N₂O on hydrogen ignition at pressure conditions that have never been heretofore investigated. Ignition delay times were decreased when N₂O was added to the mixture only for the higher nitrous oxide concentrations, and some changes in the activation energy were also observed at 1.5 and 30 atm. When it occurred, the decrease in

  20. High-speed optical coherence tomography using fiberoptic acousto-optic phase modulation (United States)

    Xie, Tuqiang; Wang, Zhenguo; Pan, Yingtian


    We report a new rapid-scanning optical delay device suitable for high-speed optical coherence tomography (OCT) in which an acousto-optic modulator (AOM) is used to independently modulate the Doppler frequency shift of the reference light beam for optical heterodyne detection. Experimental results show that the fluctuation of the measured Doppler frequency shift is less than +/-0.2% over 95% duty cycle of OCT imaging, thus allowing for enhanced signal-to-noise ratio of optical heterodyne detection. The increased Doppler frequency shift by AOM also permits complete envelop demodulation without the compromise of reducing axial resolution; if used with a resonant rapid-scanning optical delay, it will permit high-performance real-time OCT imaging. Potentially, this new rapid-scanning optical delay device will improve the performance of high-speed Doppler OCT techniques.

  1. Hazard Avoidance Products for Convectively-Induced Turbulence in Support of High-Altitude Global Hawk Aircraft Missions (United States)

    Griffin, Sarah M.; Velden, Christopher S.


    A combination of satellite-based and ground-based information is used to identify regions of intense convection that may act as a hazard to high-altitude aircraft. Motivated by concerns that Global Hawk pilotless aircraft, flying near 60,000 feet, might encounter significant convectively-induced turbulence during research overflights of tropical cyclones, strict rules were put in place to avoid such hazards. However, these rules put constraints on science missions focused on sampling convection with onboard sensors. To address these concerns, three hazard avoidance tools to aid in real-time mission decision support are used to more precisely identify areas of potential turbulence: Satellite-derived Cloud-top height and tropical overshooting tops, and ground-based global network lightning flashes. These tools are used to compare an ER-2 aircraft overflight of tropical cyclone Emily in 2005, which experienced severe turbulence, to Global Hawk overflights of tropical cyclones Karl and Matthew in 2010 that experienced no turbulence. It is found that the ER-2 overflew the lowest cloud tops and had the largest vertical separation from them compared to the Global Hawk flights. Therefore, cold cloud tops alone cannot predict turbulence. Unlike the overflights of Matthew and Karl, Emily exhibited multiple lightning flashes and a distinct overshooting top coincident with the observed turbulence. Therefore, these tools in tandem can better assist in identifying likely regions/periods of intense active convection. The primary outcome of this study is an altering of the Global Hawk overflight rules to be more flexible based on the analyzed conditions.

  2. CCD-based optical CT scanning of highly attenuating phantoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Nowais, Shamsa [Department of Physics, University of Surrey, Guildford (United Kingdom); Doran, Simon J [CRUK Clinical MR Research Group, Institute of Cancer Research, Sutton (United Kingdom)], E-mail:


    The introduction of optical computed tomography (optical-CT) offers economic and easy to use 3-D optical readout for gel dosimeters. However, previous authors have noted some challenges regarding the accuracy of such imaging techniques at high values of optical density. In this paper, we take a closer look at the 'cupping' artefact evident in both light-scattering polymer systems and highly light absorbing phantoms using our CCD-based optical scanner. In addition, a technique is implemented whereby the maximum measurable optical absorbance is extended to correct for any errors that may have occurred in the estimated value of the dark current or ambient light reaching the detector. The results indicate that for absorbance values up to 2.0, the optical scanner results have good accuracy, whereas this is not the case at high absorbance values for reasons yet to be explained.

  3. Optical Transmitter Terminal for Selective RF High Frequency Bans Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of the proposal work is to investigate the highly innovative conceptual design of an optical communication selective frequency transmitter terminal...

  4. An Experimental and Analytical Study of Boundary Layers in Highly Turbulent Free-streams. (United States)


    facility was constructed during 1977 and underwent a series of f-low cualit -.; evaluation tests during 1978. The UTRC Un-iform Heat Flux Flt I odc&’ -.,;as...the measurement anid analysis of tnenea trns~r cst cu:ons cunaa’ loer :orofil!e and t.urbulence data "’iscusse’ 4n recort .rE -erimental and Anl:ia td...ra acquisition and analysis techrniques empice (3 mlt comoonEnt res_’- turbule-nce fiensitv di Stdibut ions and !onrC 4 udiaal ntecrai frionccffo~~ts

  5. High range free space optic transmission using new dual diffuser modulation technique (United States)

    Rahman, A. K.; Julai, N.; Jusoh, M.; Rashidi, C. B. M.; Aljunid, S. A.; Anuar, M. S.; Talib, M. F.; Zamhari, Nurdiani; Sahari, S. k.; Tamrin, K. F.; Jong, Rudiyanto P.; Zaidel, D. N. A.; Mohtadzar, N. A. A.; Sharip, M. R. M.; Samat, Y. S.


    Free space optical communication fsoc is vulnerable with fluctuating atmospheric. This paper focus analyzes the finding of new technique dual diffuser modulation (ddm) to mitigate the atmospheric turbulence effect. The performance of fsoc under the presence of atmospheric turbulence will cause the laser beam keens to (a) beam wander, (b) beam spreading and (c) scintillation. The most deteriorate the fsoc is scintillation where it affected the wavefront cause to fluctuating signal and ultimately receiver can turn into saturate or loss signal. Ddm approach enhances the detecting bit `1' and bit `0' and improves the power received to combat with turbulence effect. The performance focus on signal-to-noise (snr) and bit error rate (ber) where the numerical result shows that the ddm technique able to improves the range where estimated approximately 40% improvement under weak turbulence and 80% under strong turbulence.

  6. High range free space optic transmission using new dual diffuser modulation technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahman A.K


    Full Text Available Free space optical communication fsoc is vulnerable with fluctuating atmospheric. This paper focus analyzes the finding of new technique dual diffuser modulation (ddm to mitigate the atmospheric turbulence effect. The performance of fsoc under the presence of atmospheric turbulence will cause the laser beam keens to (a beam wander, (b beam spreading and (c scintillation. The most deteriorate the fsoc is scintillation where it affected the wavefront cause to fluctuating signal and ultimately receiver can turn into saturate or loss signal. Ddm approach enhances the detecting bit ‘1’ and bit ‘0’ and improves the power received to combat with turbulence effect. The performance focus on signal-to-noise (snr and bit error rate (ber where the numerical result shows that the ddm technique able to improves the range where estimated approximately 40% improvement under weak turbulence and 80% under strong turbulence.

  7. Application of an empirical saturation rule to TGLF to unify low-k and high-k turbulence dominated regimes (United States)

    Jian, Xiang; Chan, Vincent S.; Chen, Jiale; Li, Zeyu; Garofalo, Andrea M.; Zhuang, Ge; the CFETR Physics team


    We propose a phenomenological turbulence saturation model and apply it to the TGLF turbulence transport model (Staebler et al 2007 Phys. Plasmas 14 055909), which captures the physics of interaction between low-k and high-k turbulence consistent with the multi-scale gyro-kinetic simulation result reported by Howard (2016 Nucl. Fusion. 23 056109). The new model, TGLF-Vx is tested with three discharges from DIII-D and EAST tokamak, which cover both low-k and high-k turbulence dominated regimes. It is found that the profile match can be substantially improved over previous models when evolving T e, T i and n e simultaneously. Good agreement for all three discharges is obtained with one fixed parameter in the model when taking experimental uncertainties into consideration. Lastly, TGLF-Vx is applied to explore the sensitivity of the predicted CFETR steady-state performance to different transport models. Our result shows that a scenario using only RF auxiliary heating could be significantly affected.

  8. TOCUSO: Test of Conceptual Understanding on High School Optics Topics (United States)

    Akarsu, Bayram


    Physics educators around the world often need reliable diagnostic materials to measure students' understanding of physics concept in high school. The purpose of this study is to evaluate a new diagnostic tool on High School Optics concept. Test of Conceptual Understanding on High School Optics (TOCUSO) consists of 25 conceptual items that measures…

  9. Application of portable optical laboratory in high schools and colleges (United States)

    Altshuler, Gregory B.; Belashenkov, Nickolai R.; Ermolaev, Vladimir S.; Inochkin, Mickle V.; Karasev, Vyatcheslav B.


    The present paper describes the experience of application of portable optical laboratory in optical practicum developed directly for training and demonstrations of basic optical laws and phenomena in high-schools, colleges and nontechnical universities all over Russia. The laboratory includes the portable optical platform with built-in laser and lamp sources, kit of optical components and software. These accessories provide the attractive and smart teaching in general optics during lectures, lessons and practice at schools and colleges. The portable optical laboratory provides 28 basic lab works and demonstrations in reflection, refraction, absorption and dispersion of light, interference, diffraction, polarization of light, image formation and waveguide propagation of light in optical fibers. Due to their interdependence one can teach and learn a whole course of general optics. The individual work of students and school children with optical kit stimulates and develops their creative abilities and experimental skills, as well increases the effectiveness of education. The kit is provided with optional elements for a number of extra experiments with holography, polarizing light propagation, simple optical devices etc. These extensions allow to modify the education process according to teacher's point of view. The conception of optical class-room based on portable optical laboratories is discussed. The effectiveness of individual and small-group training is analyzed.

  10. High-speed optical correlation-domain reflectometry without using acousto-optic modulator

    CERN Document Server

    Shizuka, Makoto; Hayashi, Neisei; Mizuno, Yosuke; Nakamura, Kentaro


    To achieve a distributed reflectivity measurement along an optical fiber, we develop a simplified cost-effective configuration of optical correlation- (or coherence-) domain reflectometry based on a synthesized optical coherence function by sinusoidal modulation. By excluding conventional optical heterodyne detection (practically, without using an acousto-optic modulator) and by exploiting the foot of the Fresnel reflection spectrum, the electrical bandwidth required for signal processing is lowered down to several megahertz. We evaluate the basic system performance and demonstrate its high-speed operation (10 ms for one scan) by tracking a moving reflection point in real time.

  11. A high-resolution code for large eddy simulation of incompressible turbulent boundary layer flows

    KAUST Repository

    Cheng, Wan


    We describe a framework for large eddy simulation (LES) of incompressible turbulent boundary layers over a flat plate. This framework uses a fractional-step method with fourth-order finite difference on a staggered mesh. We present several laminar examples to establish the fourth-order accuracy and energy conservation property of the code. Furthermore, we implement a recycling method to generate turbulent inflow. We use the stretched spiral vortex subgrid-scale model and virtual wall model to simulate the turbulent boundary layer flow. We find that the case with Reθ ≈ 2.5 × 105 agrees well with available experimental measurements of wall friction, streamwise velocity profiles and turbulent intensities. We demonstrate that for cases with extremely large Reynolds numbers (Reθ = 1012), the present LES can reasonably predict the flow with a coarse mesh. The parallel implementation of the LES code demonstrates reasonable scaling on O(103) cores. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  12. A High Order Accuracy Computational Tool for Unsteady Turbulent Flows and Acoustics Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Accurate simulations of unsteady turbulent flows for aerodynamics applications, such as accurate computation of heat loads on space vehicles as well the interactions...

  13. A High Order Accuracy Computational Tool for Unsteady Turbulent Flows and Acoustics Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The main objective of this research effort is to develop a higher order unsteady turbulent flow solver based on the FDV method, and to exploit its attributes of...

  14. Implications of turbulent flow in connecting capillaries used in high performance liquid chromatography. (United States)

    Halvorson, John; Lenhoff, Abraham M; Dittmann, Monika; Stoll, Dwight R


    The ongoing movement in HPLC toward the use of small columns packed with small particles for high speed separations results in eluted peaks with very small volumetric variances. Avoiding degradation of separation performance under these conditions requires careful consideration of all sources of extra-column peak dispersion. Recent trends towards decreased diameters of connecting capillaries and increased flow rates for analytical-scale separations can result in Reynolds numbers that exceed 2000. This raises the possibility of a transition from laminar to turbulent flow, thereby resulting in a higher than expected pressure drop across the capillary at a given flow rate. In this study we collected pressure drop data as a function of flow rate under many conditions relevant to modern HPLC. The variables studied included capillary diameter (50-120μm) and length (100-550mm), acetonitrile/water composition (0-100%), and temperature (20-80°C). Most of the work involved stainless steel capillaries, but a subset of experiments involved fused silica. We then used the experimental data to train a model that enables prediction of pressure drops for all of the conditions studied. We find that a single global friction factor profile is sufficient to predict pressure drops as a function of flow rate that are in qualitative agreement with the experimental results. The quantitative accuracy of these predictions is generally quite good, with a mean prediction error of about 2% over the entire range of conditions studied. Predictions for some outlying capillaries are not as good, with errors as high as -40%. This variability is probably due mainly to capillary-to-capillary variability, especially in the wall roughness, which is difficult to characterize definitively. We believe the model described here will be very useful to practicing chromatographers for predicting the conditions under which turbulent flow might develop in their connecting capillaries, and the magnitude of the

  15. Universality of spectrum of passive scalar variance at very high Schmidt number in isotropic steady turbulence (United States)

    Gotoh, Toshiyuki


    Spectrum of passive scalar variance at very high Schmidt number up to 1000 in isotropic steady turbulence has been studied by using very high resolution DNS. Gaussian random force and scalar source which are isotropic and white in time are applied at low wavenumber band. Since the Schmidt number is very large, the system was integrated for 72 large eddy turn over time for the system to forgot the initial state. It is found that the scalar spectrum attains the asymptotic k-1 spectrum in the viscous-convective range and the constant CB is found to be 5.7 which is larger than 4.9 obtained by DNS under the uniform mean scalar gradient. Reasons for the difference are inferred as the Reynolds number effect, anisotropy, difference in the scalar injection, duration of time average, and the universality of the constant is discussed. The constant CB is also compared with the prediction by the Lagrangian statistical theory for the passive scalar. The scalar spectrum in the far diffusive range is found to be exponential, which is consistent with the Kraichnan's spectrum. However, the Kraichnan spectrum was derived under the assumption that the velocity field is white in time, therefore theoretical explanation of the agreement needs to be explored. Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research No. 21360082, Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology of Japan.

  16. submitter Superconducting instrumentation for high Reynolds turbulence experiments with low temperature gaseous helium

    CERN Document Server

    Pietropinto, S; Baudet, C; Castaing, B; Chabaud, B; Gagne, Y; Hébral, B; Ladam, Y; Lebrun, P; Pirotte, O; Roche, P


    Turbulence is of common experience and of high interest for industrial applications, despite its physical grounds is still not understood. Cryogenic gaseous helium gives access to extremely high Reynolds numbers (Re). We describe an instrumentation hosted in CERN, which provides a 6 kW @ 4.5 K helium refrigerator directly connected to the experiment. The flow is a round jet; the flow rates range from 20 g/s up to 260 g/s at 4.8 K and about 1.2 bar, giving access to the highest controlled Re flow ever developed. The experimental challenge lies in the range of scales which have to be investigated: from the smallest viscous scale η, typically 1 μm at Re=107 to the largest L∼10 cm. The corresponding frequencies: f=v/η can be as large as 1 MHz. The development of an original micrometric superconducting anemometer using a hot spot and its characteristics will be discussed together with its operation and the perspectives associated with superconducting anemometry.

  17. Application of Nanophotonic Devices in High Speed Optical Communications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vukovic, Dragana

    All-optical signal processing has attracted a significant research interest in the past decade as it might become competitive with electronics in terms of compactness, energy consumption, and reliability. Furthermore it might solve the current bandwidth mismatch between optical transmission...... and electronic components in the physical layer and maintain high data rates, transparency and efficiency in optical networks. The remarkable advance, maturity, and cost reduction of optical components has therefore intensified research for the realization and exploitation of all-optical signal processing...

  18. Miniaturized High Performance Optical Gyroscope Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose a new approach for to the design and fabrication of miniaturized Interferometric Fiber Optical Gyroscope (FOG) that enables the production of smaller IRU...

  19. Study of the Transition from MRI to Magnetic Turbulence via Parasitic Instability by a High-order MHD Simulation Code (United States)

    Hirai, Kenichiro; Katoh, Yuto; Terada, Naoki; Kawai, Soshi


    Magnetic turbulence in accretion disks under ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) conditions is expected to be driven by the magneto-rotational instability (MRI) followed by secondary parasitic instabilities. We develop a three-dimensional ideal MHD code that can accurately resolve turbulent structures, and carry out simulations with a net vertical magnetic field in a local shearing box disk model to investigate the role of parasitic instabilities in the formation process of magnetic turbulence. Our simulations reveal that a highly anisotropic Kelvin–Helmholtz (K–H) mode parasitic instability evolves just before the first peak in turbulent stress and then breaks large-scale shear flows created by MRI. The wavenumber of the enhanced parasitic instability is larger than the theoretical estimate, because the shear flow layers sometimes become thinner than those assumed in the linear analysis. We also find that interaction between antiparallel vortices caused by the K–H mode parasitic instability induces small-scale waves that break the shear flows. On the other hand, at repeated peaks in the nonlinear phase, anisotropic wavenumber spectra are observed only in the small wavenumber region and isotropic waves dominate at large wavenumbers unlike for the first peak. Restructured channel flows due to MRI at the peaks in nonlinear phase seem to be collapsed by the advection of small-scale shear structures into the restructured flow and resultant mixing.

  20. A miniature fiber-optic sensor for high-resolution and high-speed temperature sensing in ocean environment (United States)

    Liu, Guigen; Han, Ming; Hou, Weilin; Matt, Silvia; Goode, Wesley


    Temperature measurement is one of the key quantifies in ocean research. Temperature variations on small and large scales are key to air-sea interactions and climate change, and also regulate circulation patterns, and heat exchange. The influence from rapid temperature changes within microstructures are can have strong impacts to optical and acoustical sensor performance. In this paper, we present an optical fiber sensor for the high-resolution and high-speed temperature profiling. The developed sensor consists of a thin piece of silicon wafer which forms a Fabry-Pérot interferometer (FPI) on the end of fiber. Due to the unique properties of silicon, such as large thermal diffusivity, notable thermo-optic effects and thermal expansion coefficients of silicon, the proposed sensor exhibits excellent sensitivity and fast response to temperature variation. The small mass of the tiny probe also contributes to a fast response due to the large surface-tovolume ratio. The high reflective index at infrared wavelength range and surface flatness of silicon endow the FPI a spectrum with high visibilities, leading to a superior temperature resolution along with a new data processing method developed by us. Experimental results indicate that the fiber-optic temperature sensor can achieve a temperature resolution better than 0.001°C with a sampling frequency as high as 2 kHz. In addition, the miniature footprint of the senor provide high spatial resolutions. Using this high performance thermometer, excellent characterization of the realtime temperature profile within the flow of water turbulence has been realized.

  1. BER performance of MSK in ground-to-satellite uplink optical communication under the influence of atmospheric turbulence and detector noise. (United States)

    Ding, Jiachen; Li, Mi; Tang, Minghui; Li, Yan; Song, Yuejiang


    Minimum shift keying (MSK) has been widely used in fiber optical communication and free-space optical communication. In order to introduce MSK into satellite laser communication, the bit-error rate (BER) performance of the MSK scheme is investigated in uplink communications under the influence of atmospheric turbulence consisting of weak fluctuation and beam wander. Numerical results indicate that the BER performance of MSK is much better than the performance of on-off keying (OOK). With the laser power being 4 W, the improvement is 5 dB in coherent demodulation and 15 dB in delay coherent demodulation. Furthermore, compared with OOK, optimal values of the divergence angle, receiver diameter, and transmitter beam radius are easier and more practical to achieve in the MSK scheme. The work can benefit ground-to-satellite laser uplink communication system design.

  2. Amorphous silicon rich silicon nitride optical waveguides for high density integrated optics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philipp, Hugh T.; Andersen, Karin Nordström; Svendsen, Winnie Edith


    Amorphous silicon rich silicon nitride optical waveguides clad in silica are presented as a high-index contrast platform for high density integrated optics. Performance of different cross-sectional geometries have been measured and are presented with regards to bending loss and insertion loss...

  3. RF/optical shared aperture for high availability wideband communication RF/FSO links (United States)

    Ruggiero, Anthony J; Pao, Hsueh-yuan; Sargis, Paul


    An RF/Optical shared aperture is capable of transmitting and receiving optical signals and RF signals simultaneously. This technology enables compact wide bandwidth communications systems with 100% availability in clear air turbulence, rain and fog. The functions of an optical telescope and an RF reflector antenna are combined into a single compact package by installing an RF feed at either of the focal points of a modified Gregorian telescope.

  4. Dynamic simulation for distortion image with turbulence atmospheric transmission effects (United States)

    Du, Huijie; Fei, Jindong; Qing, Duzheng; Zhao, Hongming; Yu, Hong; Cheng, Chen


    The imaging through atmospheric turbulence is an inevitable problem encountered by infrared imaging sensors working in the turbulence atmospheric environment. Before light-rays enter the window of the imaging sensors, the atmospheric turbulence will randomly interfere with the transmission of the light waves came from the objects, causing the distribution of image intensity values on the focal plane to diffuse, the peak value to decrease, the image to get blurred, and the pixels to deviate, and making image identification very difficult. Owing to the fact of the long processing time and that the atmospheric turbulent flow field is unknown and hard to be described by mathematical models, dynamic simulation for distortion Image with turbulence atmospheric transmission effects is much more difficult and challenging in the world. This paper discusses the dynamic simulation for distortion Image of turbulence atmospheric transmission effect. First of all, with the data and the optical transmission model of the turbulence atmospheric, the ray-tracing method is applied to obtain the propagation path of optical ray which propagates through the high-speed turbulent flow field, and then to calculate the OPD from the reference wave to the reconverted wave front and obtain the point spread function (PSF). Secondly, infrared characteristics models of typical scene were established according to the theory of infrared physics and heat conduction, and then the dynamic infrared image was generated by OpenGL. The last step is to obtain the distortion Image with turbulence atmospheric transmission effects .With the data of atmospheric transmission computation, infrared simulation image of every frame was processed according to the theory of image processing and the real-time image simulation, and then the dynamic distortion simulation images with effects of blurring, jitter and shifting were obtained. Above-mentioned simulation method can provide the theoretical bases for recovering

  5. Fast optical signal processing in high bit rate OTDM systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Henrik Nørskov; Jepsen, Kim Stokholm; Clausen, Anders


    As all-optical signal processing is maturing, optical time division multiplexing (OTDM) has also gained interest for simple networking in high capacity backbone networks. As an example of a network scenario we show an OTDM bus interconnecting another OTDM bus, a single high capacity user...

  6. One-dimensional turbulence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerstein, A.R. [Sandia National Lab., Livermore, CA (United States)


    One-Dimensional Turbulence is a new turbulence modeling strategy involving an unsteady simulation implemented in one spatial dimension. In one dimension, fine scale viscous and molecular-diffusive processes can be resolved affordably in simulations at high turbulence intensity. The mechanistic distinction between advective and molecular processes is thereby preserved, in contrast to turbulence models presently employed. A stochastic process consisting of mapping {open_quote}events{close_quote} applied to a one-dimensional velocity profile represents turbulent advection. The local event rate for given eddy size is proportional to the velocity difference across the eddy. These properties cause an imposed shear to induce an eddy cascade analogous in many respects to the eddy cascade in turbulent flow. Many scaling and fluctuation properties of self-preserving flows, and of passive scalars introduced into these flows, are reproduced.

  7. Turbulence generation by waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaftori, D.; Nan, X.S.; Banerjee, S. [Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States)


    The interaction between two-dimensional mechanically generated waves, and a turbulent stream was investigated experimentally in a horizontal channel, using a 3-D LDA synchronized with a surface position measuring device and a micro-bubble tracers flow visualization with high speed video. Results show that although the wave induced orbital motion reached all the way to the wall, the characteristics of the turbulence wall structures and the turbulence intensity close to the wall were not altered. Nor was the streaky nature of the wall layer. On the other hand, the mean velocity profile became more uniform and the mean friction velocity was increased. Close to the free surface, the turbulence intensity was substantially increased as well. Even in predominantly laminar flows, the introduction of 2-D waves causes three dimensional turbulence. The turbulence enhancement is found to be proportional to the wave strength.

  8. Comparison of slant-path scintillometry, sonic anemometry and high-speed videography for vertical profiling of turbulence in the atmospheric surface layer

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Griffith, DJ


    Full Text Available services for the Rietvlei campaign were provided by the Advanced Fire Information System (AFIS8). REFERENCES [1] Weiss-Wrana, K. and Balfour, L. S., “Statistical analysis of measurements of atmospheric turbulence in different climates,” Optics...

  9. Combined effects of turbulence and different predation regimes on zooplankton in highly colored water-implications for environmental change in lakes. (United States)

    Härkönen, Laura; Pekcan-Hekim, Zeynep; Hellén, Noora; Ojala, Anne; Horppila, Jukka


    In aquatic ecosystems, predation is affected both by turbulence and visibility, but the combined effects are poorly known. Both factors are changing in lakes in the Northern Hemisphere; the average levels of turbulence are predicted to increase due to increasing wind activities, while water transparency is decreasing, e.g., due to variations in precipitation, and sediment resuspension. We explored experimentally how turbulence influenced the effects of planktivorous fish and invertebrate predators on zooplankton when it was combined with low visibility caused by high levels of water color. The study was conducted as a factorial design in 24 outdoor ponds, using the natural zooplankton community as a prey population. Perch and roach were used as vertebrate predators and Chaoborus flavicans larvae as invertebrate predators. In addition to calm conditions, the turbulent dissipation rate used in the experiments was 10-6 m2 s-3, and the water color was 140 mg Pt L-1. The results demonstrated that in a system dominated by invertebrates, predation pressure on cladocerans increased considerably under intermediate turbulence. Under calm conditions, chaoborids caused only a minor reduction in the crustacean biomass. The effect of fish predation on cladocerans was slightly reduced by turbulence, while predation on cyclopoids was strongly enhanced. Surprisingly, under turbulent conditions fish reduced cyclopoid biomass, whereas in calm water it increased in the presence of fish. We thus concluded that turbulence affects fish selectivity. The results suggested that in dystrophic invertebrate-dominated lakes, turbulence may severely affect the abundance of cladocerans. In fish-dominated dystrophic lakes, on the other hand, turbulence-induced changes in planktivory may considerably affect copepods instead of cladocerans. In lakes inhabited by both invertebrates and fish, the response of top-down regulation to turbulence resembles that in fish-dominated systems, due to intraguild

  10. Combined Effects of Turbulence and Different Predation Regimes on Zooplankton in Highly Colored Water—Implications for Environmental Change in Lakes (United States)

    Härkönen, Laura; Pekcan-Hekim, Zeynep; Hellén, Noora; Ojala, Anne; Horppila, Jukka


    In aquatic ecosystems, predation is affected both by turbulence and visibility, but the combined effects are poorly known. Both factors are changing in lakes in the Northern Hemisphere; the average levels of turbulence are predicted to increase due to increasing wind activities, while water transparency is decreasing, e.g., due to variations in precipitation, and sediment resuspension. We explored experimentally how turbulence influenced the effects of planktivorous fish and invertebrate predators on zooplankton when it was combined with low visibility caused by high levels of water color. The study was conducted as a factorial design in 24 outdoor ponds, using the natural zooplankton community as a prey population. Perch and roach were used as vertebrate predators and Chaoborus flavicans larvae as invertebrate predators. In addition to calm conditions, the turbulent dissipation rate used in the experiments was 10−6 m2 s−3, and the water color was 140 mg Pt L−1. The results demonstrated that in a system dominated by invertebrates, predation pressure on cladocerans increased considerably under intermediate turbulence. Under calm conditions, chaoborids caused only a minor reduction in the crustacean biomass. The effect of fish predation on cladocerans was slightly reduced by turbulence, while predation on cyclopoids was strongly enhanced. Surprisingly, under turbulent conditions fish reduced cyclopoid biomass, whereas in calm water it increased in the presence of fish. We thus concluded that turbulence affects fish selectivity. The results suggested that in dystrophic invertebrate-dominated lakes, turbulence may severely affect the abundance of cladocerans. In fish-dominated dystrophic lakes, on the other hand, turbulence-induced changes in planktivory may considerably affect copepods instead of cladocerans. In lakes inhabited by both invertebrates and fish, the response of top-down regulation to turbulence resembles that in fish-dominated systems, due to

  11. Why Would We See 2-D Turbulence in Interstellar Gases? (United States)

    Minter, A.


    Neutral gas in the galaxy traced through the HI 21 cm line and the CO (J 1->0) line, as well as the ionized gas seen in Hα and radio recombination lines have power spectra of density, column density and velocity whose slopes are consistent with 2-Dimensional turbulence on large spatial scales (≳ 0.01-1 pc). We know, however, from in situ measurements that the turbulence in fluids on the Earth and in the solar wind is fully 3-Dimensional. We have every reason to expect the observed turbulence in the interstellar medium to be 3-Dimensional also. A method had been devised to make ``snapshot'' models of the density and velocity fields of a turbulent gas. The desired power spectra (density and velocity) are the only inputs into the model. These models have been used to study how propagation effects and the various modes of observing can change the 3-Dimensional Kolmogorov-like turbulence input into the models into the observed 2-Dimensional turbulence. The following effects can make the observed turbulence appear 2-Dimensional: 1) if the turbulence is contained in a thin filament or slab; 2) if the medium has a high optical depth; and 3) if any method of observation or analysis is used which effectively limits the emission from the medium under study to a thin slab, for example, by analyzing an individual channel map. Straightfoward analysis of data leads to misleading or incomplete results if these effects are not taken into account.

  12. High-resolution retinal imaging using adaptive optics and Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography (United States)

    Olivier, Scot S.; Werner, John S.; Zawadzki, Robert J.; Laut, Sophie P.; Jones, Steven M.


    This invention permits retinal images to be acquired at high speed and with unprecedented resolution in three dimensions (4.times.4.times.6 .mu.m). The instrument achieves high lateral resolution by using adaptive optics to correct optical aberrations of the human eye in real time. High axial resolution and high speed are made possible by the use of Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography. Using this system, we have demonstrated the ability to image microscopic blood vessels and the cone photoreceptor mosaic.

  13. High sensitivity optical measurement of skin gloss

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ezerskaia, A.; Ras, Arno; Bloemen, Pascal; Pereira, S.F.; Urbach, Paul; Varghese, Babu


    We demonstrate a low-cost optical method for measuring the gloss properties with improved sensitivity in the low gloss regime, relevant for skin gloss properties. The gloss estimation method is based on, on the one hand, the slope of the intensity gradient in the transition regime between

  14. Assessing Model Assumptions for Turbulent Premixed Combustion at High Karlovitz Number (United States)


    P. Strakey, T. Sidwell, Laboratory investigations of low- swirl injectors with H2 and CH4 at gas turbine conditions, Proc. Comb. Inst. 32 (2009) 3001...Lenhert, H. Pitsch, A. Sarofim, M. Smooke, W. Tsang, “Development of an experimental database and kinetic models for surrogate jet fuels” in 45th AIAA...Measurements in Turbulent Jets , Flow, Turbul. Combust. 72 (2-4) (2004) 245–271. [69] J. Jiménez, A. A. Wray, P. G. Saffman, R. S. Rogallo, The structure

  15. High-stability 48-core bendable and movable optical cable for FAST telescope optical transmission system (United States)

    Liu, Hongfei; Pan, Gaofeng; Lin, Zhong; Liu, Cheng; Zhu, Wenbai; Nan, Rendong; Li, Chunsheng; Gao, Guanjun; Luo, Wenyong; Jin, Chengjin; Song, Jinyou


    The construction of FAST telescope was completed in Guizhou province of China in September 2016, and a kind of novel high-stability 48-core bendable and movable optical cable was developed and applied in analog data optical transmission system of FAST. Novel structure and selective material of this optical cable ensure high stability of optical power in the process of cables round-trip motion when telescope is tracking a radio source. The 105 times bend and stretch accelerated experiment for this optical cable was implemented, and real-time optical and RF signal power fluctuation were measured. The physical structure of optical cables after 105 times round-trip motion is in good condition; the real-time optical power attenuation fluctuation is smaller than 0.044 dB; the real-time RF power fluctuation is smaller than 0.12 dB. The optical cable developed in this letter meets the requirement of FAST and has been applied in FAST telescope.

  16. Stable, high-order SBP-SAT finite difference operators to enable accurate simulation of compressible turbulent flows on curvilinear grids, with application to predicting turbulent jet noise (United States)

    Byun, Jaeseung; Bodony, Daniel; Pantano, Carlos


    Improved order-of-accuracy discretizations often require careful consideration of their numerical stability. We report on new high-order finite difference schemes using Summation-By-Parts (SBP) operators along with the Simultaneous-Approximation-Terms (SAT) boundary condition treatment for first and second-order spatial derivatives with variable coefficients. In particular, we present a highly accurate operator for SBP-SAT-based approximations of second-order derivatives with variable coefficients for Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions. These terms are responsible for approximating the physical dissipation of kinetic and thermal energy in a simulation, and contain grid metrics when the grid is curvilinear. Analysis using the Laplace transform method shows that strong stability is ensured with Dirichlet boundary conditions while weaker stability is obtained for Neumann boundary conditions. Furthermore, the benefits of the scheme is shown in the direct numerical simulation (DNS) of a Mach 1.5 compressible turbulent supersonic jet using curvilinear grids and skew-symmetric discretization. Particularly, we show that the improved methods allow minimization of the numerical filter often employed in these simulations and we discuss the qualities of the simulation.

  17. Suppressing chromatic dispersion fluctuation for broadband optical parametric gain in highly nonlinear tellurite microstructured optical fibers (United States)

    Tong, Hoang Tuan; Nguyen Phuoc, Trung Hoa; Suzuki, Takenobu; Ohishi, Yasutake


    We investigate the effect of chromatic dispersion fluctuation on the performance of fiber optical parametric amplification (FOPA) using tellurite hybrid microstructured optical fibers which have highly nonlinear coefficient and high freedom in tailoring chromatic dispersion. When a tellurite-glass buffer layer is added around the central core, the new tellurite hybrid microstructured optical fiber can suppress the fluctuation of chromatic dispersion which is caused by the variation in the core diameter and fiber transverse geometry. As a result, high signal gain and broad bandwidth of FOPA can be maintained.

  18. Recent Advances in Ultra-High-Speed Optical Signal Processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mulvad, Hans Christian Hansen; Palushani, Evarist; Hu, Hao


    We review recent advances in the optical signal processing of ultra-high-speed serial data signals up to 1.28 Tbit/s, with focus on applications of time-domain optical Fourier transformation. Experimental methods for the generation of symbol rates up to 1.28 Tbaud are also described....

  19. High-definition optical coherence tomography imaging of melanocytic lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boone, Marc A L M; Norrenberg, Sarah; Jemec, Gregor B E


    High-definition optical coherence tomography (HD-OCT) is a non-invasive in vivo imaging technique with cellular resolution based on the principle of conventional optical coherence tomography. The objective of this study was to evaluate HD-OCT for its ability to identify architectural patterns and...

  20. Fibre optic humidity sensor designed for highly alkaline environments


    K. Bremer; Wollweber, M.; Guenther, S.; Werner, G.; Sun, T.; Grattan, K. T. V.; Roth, B.


    This paper presents the design of a sensor packaging for a Fibre Bragg Grating (FBG) based fibre optic humidity sensor. The evaluation of the developed fibre optic sensor was performed under experimental conditions and verified its capability to withstand highly alkaline environments. Therefore, the sensor can be applied to monitor the concrete humidity level and thus to indicate the maintenance of concrete structures.

  1. Optical Variability Properties of High Luminosity AGN Classes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    INOV) characteristics of radio-loud and radio-quiet quasars, which involves a systematic intra-night optical monitoring of seven sets of high luminosity AGNs covering the redshift range ≃ 0.2 to ≃ 2.2. The sample, matched in the optical ...

  2. Temporal variation of suspended particulate matter and turbulence in a high energy, tide-stirred, coastal sea: Relative contributions of resuspension and disaggregation (United States)

    Jago, C. F.; Jones, S. E.; Sykes, P.; Rippeth, T.


    Measurements of turbulence and suspended particulate matter (SPM) were measured over a 50 h period at a site in high tidal energy, mixed waters of the Irish Sea, NW European shelf. Turbulence parameters included both production (variance method from seabed ADCP) and dissipation (FLY profiler); SPM parameters included mass and volume concentrations and particle size (LISST 100 C). It is shown that the resultant SPM time series was due to a combination of time-varying turbulence at the measurement site and space-varying turbulence advecting through the site. Time asymmetry in turbulence at the site produced an asymmetric M 4 signal in SPM volume concentration due to resuspension and disaggregation of flocs at times of peak turbulent energy. In terms of mass, the disaggregation contribution was 43% as much as the resuspension contribution near the bed, and 20% as much integrated throughout the water column. There was aggregation of flocs at high and low slack waters but the largest flocs occurred at low slack waters. Space-varying ambient turbulence was responsible for a horizontal gradient in floc size with small and large flocs at the high and low ends of the gradient, respectively; this generated a M 2 signal in SPM properties. SPM concentrations and properties at any time resulted from combination of M 2 and M 4 variations which are responsible for the well-known twin peaks signature seen in transmissometer time series in tidal waters.

  3. Turbulent convection experiment at high Rayleigh number to support CAP1400 IVR strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Li, E-mail: [State Nuclear Hua Qing(Beijing) Nuclear Power Technology R& D Centre Co., Ltd, Building A, State Nuclear Power Research Institute, Future Science & Technology Park, Changping Dist., Beijing 102209 (China); Li, Jing, E-mail: [State Nuclear Hua Qing(Beijing) Nuclear Power Technology R& D Centre Co., Ltd, Building A, State Nuclear Power Research Institute, Future Science & Technology Park, Changping Dist., Beijing 102209 (China); Ji, Shui, E-mail: [State Nuclear Hua Qing(Beijing) Nuclear Power Technology R& D Centre Co., Ltd, Building A, State Nuclear Power Research Institute, Future Science & Technology Park, Changping Dist., Beijing 102209 (China); Chang, Huajian, E-mail: [State Nuclear Hua Qing(Beijing) Nuclear Power Technology R& D Centre Co., Ltd, Building A, State Nuclear Power Research Institute, Future Science & Technology Park, Changping Dist., Beijing 102209 (China); Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)


    Highlights: • The facility reached high Ra number at 10{sup 12} of CAP1400 working condition. • The fitting formula Nu = 0.085 × Ra{sup 0.315} was established to calculate the heat flux in the metal layer at high Ra for the CAP1400. • The coupling method can accurately and safely predict the heat flow distribution of metal layer in high Ra number conditions. • The experiment results will predict the relationship between axial and radial heat transfer well. - Abstract: The characteristics of the heat transfer and the calculation of heat flux in metal layer are both the critical problems for in-vessel retention (IVR) strategy. Turbulent convection occurs in the metal layer when the Rayleigh number (Ra) becomes sufficient high. The Globe–Dropkin (G–D) correlation (Globe and Dropkin, 1959) and Chu–Churchill (C–C) correlation (Churchill and Chu, 1975) have been widely used to calculate the heat flux in the metal layer, where the valid range of the Ra is from 1.5 × 10{sup 5} to 6.8 × 10{sup 8} in G–D correlation and less than 10{sup 12} in C–C correlation. However, with the increase of reactor power, both the Rayleigh number and the rate of heat transfer below the bottom of metal layer of the molten pool will increase, and in this case the Rayleigh number even can reach 10{sup 11} for the China Advanced Passive Plant CAP1400. Accordingly, the G–D correlation is not suitable for the CAP1400. Therefore, our experiment purposes are to establish the appropriate correlation at high Ra for the CAP1400 and predict the axial and radial distribution of the heat transfer in the metal layer with the heat transfer behavior of metal layer experiment (HELM) facility. The experiments are divided into two parts. Each part concerns 39 runs and 47 experimental conditions. Its corresponding results are obtained at middle Prandtl number (Pr = 7 for water) and the Nusselt number is found to be proportional to Ra{sup 0.315} in the range 3.93 × 10{sup 8} < Ra < 3.57

  4. Modification of the large-scale features of high Reynolds number wall turbulence by passive surface obtrusions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monty, J.P.; Lien, K.; Chong, M.S. [University of Melbourne, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Parkville, VIC (Australia); Allen, J.J. [New Mexico State University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Las Cruces, NM (United States)


    A high Reynolds number boundary-layer wind-tunnel facility at New Mexico State University was fitted with a regularly distributed braille surface. The surface was such that braille dots were closely packed in the streamwise direction and sparsely spaced in the spanwise direction. This novel surface had an unexpected influence on the flow: the energy of the very large-scale features of wall turbulence (approximately six-times the boundary-layer thickness in length) became significantly attenuated, even into the logarithmic region. To the author's knowledge, this is the first experimental study to report a modification of 'superstructures' in a rough-wall turbulent boundary layer. The result gives rise to the possibility that flow control through very small, passive surface roughness may be possible at high Reynolds numbers, without the prohibitive drag penalty anticipated heretofore. Evidence was also found for the uninhibited existence of the near-wall cycle, well known to smooth-wall-turbulence researchers, in the spanwise space between roughness elements. (orig.)

  5. LDPC-coded MIMO optical communication over the atmospheric turbulence channel using Q-ary pulse-position modulation. (United States)

    Djordjevic, Ivan B


    We describe a coded power-efficient transmission scheme based on repetition MIMO principle suitable for communication over the atmospheric turbulence channel, and determine its channel capacity. The proposed scheme employs the Q-ary pulse-position modulation. We further study how to approach the channel capacity limits using low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes. Component LDPC codes are designed using the concept of pairwise-balanced designs. Contrary to the several recent publications, bit-error rates and channel capacities are reported assuming non-ideal photodetection. The atmospheric turbulence channel is modeled using the Gamma-Gamma distribution function due to Al-Habash et al. Excellent bit-error rate performance improvement, over uncoded case, is found.

  6. Turbulence statistics in a spectral element code: a toolbox for High-Fidelity Simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinuesa, Ricardo [KTH Mechanics, Stockholm (Sweden); Swedish e-Science Research Center (SeRC), Stockholm (Sweden); Fick, Lambert [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Negi, Prabal [KTH Mechanics, Stockholm (Sweden); Swedish e-Science Research Center (SeRC), Stockholm (Sweden); Marin, Oana [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Merzari, Elia [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Schlatter, Phillip [KTH Mechanics, Stockholm (Sweden); Swedish e-Science Research Center (SeRC), Stockholm (Sweden)


    In the present document we describe a toolbox for the spectral-element code Nek5000, aimed at computing turbulence statistics. The toolbox is presented for a small test case, namely a square duct with Lx = 2h, Ly = 2h and Lz = 4h, where x, y and z are the horizontal, vertical and streamwise directions, respectively. The number of elements in the xy-plane is 16 X 16 = 256, and the number of elements in z is 4, leading to a total of 1,204 spectral elements. A polynomial order of N = 5 is chosen, and the mesh is generated using the Nek5000 tool genbox. The toolbox presented here allows to compute mean-velocity components, the Reynolds-stress tensor as well as turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) and Reynolds-stress budgets. Note that the present toolbox allows to compute turbulence statistics in turbulent flows with one homogeneous direction (where the statistics are based on time-averaging as well as averaging in the homogeneous direction), as well as in fully three-dimensional flows (with no periodic directions, where only time-averaging is considered).

  7. Numerical Study on Turbulent Airfoil Noise with High-Order Schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Wei Jun; Shen, Wen Zhong; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær


    step, the incompressible pressure and velocity form input to the acoustic equations. In this paper, sound generation from a NACA 0012 airfoil in turbulent flow condition is studied. The noise source regions are found at the trailing edge and the strength of the sources is depended on the Reynolds...

  8. Investigation of turbulent boundary layer flow over 2D bump using highly resolved large eddy simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cavar, Dalibor; Meyer, Knud Erik


    not provide a direct possibility for wall-damping of, e.g., the Smagorinsky constant in the near-wall region. The grid utilized in the main calculation consisted of approximately 9.4 × 106 grid points and the boundary layer flow results obtained, regarding both mean flow profiles and turbulence quantities...

  9. Revisiting Turbulence Model Validation for High-Mach Number Axisymmetric Compression Corner Flows (United States)

    Georgiadis, Nicholas J.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Huang, George P.


    Two axisymmetric shock-wave/boundary-layer interaction (SWBLI) cases are used to benchmark one- and two-equation Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) turbulence models. This validation exercise was executed in the philosophy of the NASA Turbulence Modeling Resource and the AIAA Turbulence Model Benchmarking Working Group. Both SWBLI cases are from the experiments of Kussoy and Horstman for axisymmetric compression corner geometries with SWBLI inducing flares of 20 and 30 degrees, respectively. The freestream Mach number was approximately 7. The RANS closures examined are the Spalart-Allmaras one-equation model and the Menter family of kappa - omega two equation models including the Baseline and Shear Stress Transport formulations. The Wind-US and CFL3D RANS solvers are employed to simulate the SWBLI cases. Comparisons of RANS solutions to experimental data are made for a boundary layer survey plane just upstream of the SWBLI region. In the SWBLI region, comparisons of surface pressure and heat transfer are made. The effects of inflow modeling strategy, grid resolution, grid orthogonality, turbulent Prandtl number, and code-to-code variations are also addressed.

  10. Measurements of Scalar Power Spectra in High Schmidt Number Turbulent Jets (United States)


    1975). 6 Gibson, C. H.. "IKohnogorov similarity hy!potheses for scalar fields: sampling intermittent turbulent mixing in the ocean and galaxy ," Proc...34 J. Geophys. Res. 92, C5 , 5383-5404 (1987). 13 Komori, S.. Kanzaki, T., Murakami, Y., and Ueda, H., "Simultaneous measure- ments of instantaneous

  11. Decay of high order optical vortices in anisotropic nonlinear optical media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mamaev, A.V.; Saffman, M.; Zozulya, A.A.


    We present an experimental and theoretical study of the decay of high order optical vortices in media with an anisotropic nonlocal nonlinearity. Vortices with charge n decay into an aligned array of n vortices of unit charge.......We present an experimental and theoretical study of the decay of high order optical vortices in media with an anisotropic nonlocal nonlinearity. Vortices with charge n decay into an aligned array of n vortices of unit charge....

  12. Non-Boussinesq turbulent buoyant jet of a low-density gas leaks into high-density ambient

    KAUST Repository

    El-Amin, Mohamed


    In this article, we study the problem of low-density gas jet injected into high-density ambient numerically which is important in applications such as fuel injection and leaks. It is assumed that the local rate of entrainment is consisted of two components; one is the component of entrainment due to jet momentum while the other is the component of entrainment due to buoyancy. The integral models of the mass, momentum and concentration fluxes are obtained and transformed to a set of ordinary differential equations using some similarity transformations. The resulting system is solved to determine the centerline quantities which are used to get the mean axial velocity, mean concentration and mean density of the jet. Therefore, the centerline and mean quantities are used together with the governing equation to determine some important turbulent quantities such as, cross-stream velocity, Reynolds stress, velocity- concentration correlation, turbulent eddy viscosity and turbulent eddy diffusivity. Throughout this paper the developed model is verified by comparing the present results with experimental results and jet/plume theory from the literature. © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Depth profilometry via multiplexed optical high-coherence interferometry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kazemzadeh, Farnoud; Wong, Alexander; Behr, Bradford B; Hajian, Arsen R


    ... such as defect detection, corrosion assessment, and dental assessment to name a few. In this study, we investigate the feasibility of depth profilometry using an Multiplexed Optical High-coherence Interferometry MOHI instrument...

  14. Application of Beyond Bound Decoding for High Speed Optical Communications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Bomin; Larsen, Knud J.; Vegas Olmos, Juan José


    This paper studies the application of beyond bound decoding method for high speed optical communications. This hard-decision decoding method outperforms traditional minimum distance decoding method, with a total net coding gain of 10.36 dB....

  15. Investigating the ion-scale spectral properties of solar wind turbulence with high-resolution hybrid simulations (United States)

    Franci, L.; Landi, S.; Matteini, L.; Verdini, A.; Hellinger, P.


    We investigate the properties of the solar wind turbulence from MHD to sub-ion scales by means of two-dimensional, large-scale, high-resolution hybrid particle-in-cell simulations. These constitute the most accurate hybrid simulations of ion-scale turbulence ever presented so far, and let us explore a very wide range of scales, i.e., three decades in wave vectors simultaneously. We impose an initial ambient magnetic field perpendicular to the simulation box, and we add a spectrum of in-plane large-scale magnetic and kinetic fluctuations, with energy equipartition and vanishing correlation. We perform a set of simulations with many different values of two fundamental parameters, i.e., the plasma beta, β, and the amplitude of the initial fluctuations, Brms, in order to investigate their relevance in determining the spectral properties of the turbulent cascade around ion scales. Once turbulence is fully developed, we observe the power spectrum of the magnetic fluctuations following a power law with a spectral index of -5/3 in the inertial range, with a spectral break around ion scales and a steeper power law in the sub-ion range. The scale at which the steepening of the spectrum occurs changes when exploring the (β,Brms) parameter space. Such a movement of the spectral break is clearer when looking at the spectra of the parallel magnetic fluctuations and of the density fluctuations. Moreover, these share the same power law behavior at sub-ion scales, exhibiting a spectral index of -2.8, which seems to be independent on the values of the two varying parameters. We compare our results with solar wind observations, and we suggest possible explanations for such behavior.

  16. New Architecture of Optical Interconnect for High-Speed Optical Computerized Data Networks (Nonlinear Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Sayed A. El-Badawy


    Full Text Available Although research into the use of optics in computers has increased in the last and current decades, the fact remains that electronics is still superior to optics in almost every way. Research into the use of optics at this stage mirrors the research into electronics after the 2nd World War. The advantages of using fiber optics over wiring are the same as the argument for using optics over electronics in computers. Even through totally optical computers are now a reality, computers that combine both electronics and optics, electro-optic hybrids, have been in use for some time. In the present paper, architecture of optical interconnect is built up on the bases of four Vertical-Cavity Surface- Emitting Laser Diodes (VCSELD and two optical links where thermal effects of both the diodes and the links are included. Nonlinear relations are correlated to investigate the power-current and the voltage-current dependences of the four devices. The good performance (high speed of the interconnect is deeply and parametrically investigated under wide ranges of the affecting parameters. The high speed performance is processed through three different effects, namely the device 3-dB bandwidth, the link dispersion characteristics, and the transmitted bit rate (soliton. Eight combinations are investigated; each possesses its own characteristics. The best architecture is the one composed of VCSELD that operates at 850 nm and the silica fiber whatever the operating set of causes. This combination possesses the largest device 3-dB bandwidth, the largest link bandwidth and the largest soliton transmitted bit rate. The increase of the ambient temperature reduces the high-speed performance of the interconnect

  17. Ultra High Voltage Surge Waveforms Measurement Using an Optical Transducer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco G. PEÑA-LECONA


    Full Text Available Ultra high voltage surge waveforms measurement by means of a portable optical transducer is presented. The sensor system uses a transducer element based on the longitudinal electro-optic effect with a double pass configuration to obtain a better sensitivity. The transducer head is allocated to one meter of distance from the generating element of electric field and it is able to measure waveform surges from 515 kV up to 1090 kV with fast response. It is demonstrated that the telemetry of ultra high voltage surge waveforms can be successfully done by means of this proposed optical transducer.

  18. High-speed optical links for UAV applications (United States)

    Chen, C.; Grier, A.; Malfa, M.; Booen, E.; Harding, H.; Xia, C.; Hunwardsen, M.; Demers, J.; Kudinov, K.; Mak, G.; Smith, B.; Sahasrabudhe, A.; Patawaran, F.; Wang, T.; Wang, A.; Zhao, C.; Leang, D.; Gin, J.; Lewis, M.; Nguyen, D.; Quirk, K.


    High speed optical backbone links between a fleet of UAVs is an integral part of the Facebook connectivity architecture. To support the architecture, the optical terminals need to provide high throughput rates (in excess of tens of Gbps) while achieving low weight and power consumption. The initial effort is to develop and demonstrate an optical terminal capable of meeting the data rate requirements and demonstrate its functions for both air-air and air-ground engagements. This paper is a summary of the effort to date.

  19. High-speed optical signal processing using time lenses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galili, Michael; Hu, Hao; Guan, Pengyu


    This paper will discuss time lenses and their broad range of applications. A number of recent demonstrations of complex high-speed optical signal processing using time lenses will be outlined with focus on the operating principle.......This paper will discuss time lenses and their broad range of applications. A number of recent demonstrations of complex high-speed optical signal processing using time lenses will be outlined with focus on the operating principle....

  20. Antireflective surface structures on optics for high energy lasers (United States)

    Busse, Lynda E.; Florea, Catalin M.; Shaw, L. Brandon; Frantz, Jesse; Bayya, Shyam; Poutous, Menelaos K.; Joshi, Rajendra; Aggarwal, Ishwar D.; Sanghera, Jas S.


    We report results for antireflective surface structures (ARSS) fabricated directly into the surface of optics and lenses which are important as high energy (multi-kW) laser components, including fused silica windows and lenses, YAG crystals and ceramics and spinel ceramics. Very low reflection losses as well as high laser damage thresholds have been measured for optics with ARSS. Progress to scale up the process for large size windows will also be presented..

  1. Hydrodynamic study of the turbulent fluidized beds; Etude hydrodynamique des lits fluidises turbulents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taxil, I.


    Gas-solid turbulent fluidization has already been widely studied in the literature. However, its definition and specificities remain controversial and confused. Most of the studies focussed on the turbulent transition velocities are based on wall pressure drop fluctuations studies. In this work, we first characterize the turbulent regime with the classical study of pressure drop signals with standard deviation analysis, completed with a more specific frequency analysis and also by a stochastic analysis. Then, we evaluate bubble flow properties. Experimental results have been obtained in a 0.2 m I.D. fluidized bed expanding to 0.4 m I.D. in the freeboard in order to limit entrainment at high fluidization velocities. The so lid used was FCC catalyst. It was fluidized by air at ambient conditions. The superficial fluidization velocity ranged 0.2 to 2 m/s. Fast response transducers recorded pressure drop at the wall and bubble flow properties (bubble size, bubble velocity and bubble frequency) could be deduced from a light reflected signal at various bed locations with optical fibers. It has been shown the turbulent regime is delimited by two velocities: Uc (onset of turbulent regime) and Utr (onset of transport regime), which can be determined based on standard deviations, dominant frequencies and width of wave land of pressure signals. The stochastic analysis confirms that the signal enriches in frequencies in the turbulent regime. Bubble size and bubble velocity could be correlated to the main superficial gas velocity. The main change in bubble flow in the turbulent regime was shown to be the stagnation of the bubble frequency at its maximum value. It was also shown that the bubble flow properties in the turbulent regime imply a strong aeration of the emulsion phase. (authors) 76 refs.

  2. Quantitative Imaging of Turbulent Mixing Dynamics in High-Pressure Fuel Injection to Enable Predictive Simulations of Engine Combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frank, Jonathan H. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Reacting Flows Dept.; Pickett, Lyle M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Engine Combustion Dept.; Bisson, Scott E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Remote Sensing and Energetic Materials Dept.; Patterson, Brian D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). combustion Chemistry Dept.; Ruggles, Adam J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Reacting Flows Dept.; Skeen, Scott A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Engine Combustion Dept.; Manin, Julien Luc [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Engine Combustion Dept.; Huang, Erxiong [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Reacting Flows Dept.; Cicone, Dave J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Engine Combustion Dept.; Sphicas, Panos [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Engine Combustion Dept.


    In this LDRD project, we developed a capability for quantitative high - speed imaging measurements of high - pressure fuel injection dynamics to advance understanding of turbulent mixing in transcritical flows, ignition, and flame stabilization mechanisms, and to provide e ssential validation data for developing predictive tools for engine combustion simulations. Advanced, fuel - efficient engine technologies rely on fuel injection into a high - pressure, high - temperature environment for mixture preparation and com bustion. Howe ver, the dynamics of fuel injection are not well understood and pose significant experimental and modeling challenges. To address the need for quantitative high - speed measurements, we developed a Nd:YAG laser that provides a 5ms burst of pulses at 100 kHz o n a robust mobile platform . Using this laser, we demonstrated s patially and temporally resolved Rayleigh scattering imaging and particle image velocimetry measurements of turbulent mixing in high - pressure gas - phase flows and vaporizing sprays . Quantitativ e interpretation of high - pressure measurements was advanced by reducing and correcting interferences and imaging artifacts.

  3. Ultra-high Frequency Linear Fiber Optic Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Lau, Kam


    This book provides an in-depth treatment of both linear fiber-optic systems and their key enabling devices. It presents a concise but rigorous treatment of the theory and practice of analog (linear) fiber-optics links and systems that constitute the foundation of Hybrid Fiber Coax infrastructure in present-day CATV distribution and cable modem Internet access. Emerging applications in remote fiber-optic feed for free-space millimeter wave enterprise campus networks are also described. Issues such as dispersion and interferometric noise are treated quantitatively, and means for mitigating them are explained. This broad but concise text will thus be invaluable not only to students of fiber-optics communication but also to practicing engineers. To the second edition of this book important new aspects of linear fiber-optic transmission technologies are added, such as high level system architectural issues, algorithms for deriving the optimal frequency assignment, directly modulated or externally modulated laser t...

  4. Spectral domain optical coherence tomography - Ultra-high speed, ultra-high resolution ophthalmic imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, T.; Cense, B.; Pierce, M. C.; Nassif, N. A.; Park, B. H.; Yun, S. H.; White, B.; Bouma, B. E.; Tearney, G. J.; de Boer, J.F.


    Objective: To introduce a new ophthalmic optical coherence tomography technology that allows unprecedented simultaneous ultra-high speed and ultra-high resolution. Methods: Using a superluminescent diode source, a clinically viable ultra-high speed, ultra-high resolution spectral domain optical

  5. Hydrodynamical and magnetohydrodynamic global bifurcations in a highly turbulent von Karman flow; Bifurcations globales hydrodynamiques et magnetohydrodynamiques dans un ecoulement de von Karman turbulent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravelet, F


    We report experimental studies of the turbulent von Karman flow, inertially stirred between counter-rotating impellers. We first study the flow and its transition from laminar to turbulent regime. We highlight the role of slowly varying large scales, due to the presence of an azimuthal mixing layer. The large scales of this flow can be unstable in turbulent regime. We study the statistics of the transitions between the different mean states. The second part is dedicated to an experiment in liquid sodium, called VKS2. We optimize the time-averaged flow in order to allow kinematic dynamo action. We report the very first results of the experiment, and discuss the role of the large scales temporal non-stationariness. (author)

  6. Quantitative visualization of high-speed 3D turbulent flow structures using holographic interferometric tomography (United States)

    Timmerman, B. H.; Watt, D. W.; Bryanston-Cross, P. J.


    Using holographic interferometry the three-dimensional structure of unsteady and large-scale motions within subsonic and transonic turbulent jet flows has been studied. The instantaneous 3D flow structure is obtained by tomographic reconstruction techniques from quantitative phase maps recorded using a rapid-switching, double reference beam, double pulse laser system. The reconstruction of the jets studied here reveal a three-dimensional nature of the flow. In particular an increasing complexity can be seen in the turbulence as the flow progresses from the jet nozzle. Furthermore, a coherent three-dimensional, possibly rotating, structure can be seen to exist within these jets. The type of flow features illustrated here are not just of fundamental importance for understanding the behavior of free jet flows, but are also common to a number of industrial applications, ranging from the combustion flow within an IC engine to the transonic flow through the stages of a gas turbine.

  7. High Order Numerical Methods for LES of Turbulent Flows with Shocks (United States)

    Kotov, D. V.; Yee, H. C.; Hadjadj, A.; Wray, A.; Sjögreen, B.


    Simulation of turbulent flows with shocks employing explicit subgrid-scale (SGS) filtering may encounter a loss of accuracy in the vicinity of a shock. In this work we perform a comparative study of different approaches to reduce this loss of accuracy within the framework of the dynamic Germano SGS model. One of the possible approaches is to apply Harten's subcell resolution procedure to locate and sharpen the shock, and to use a one-sided test filter at the grid points adjacent to the exact shock location. The other considered approach is local disabling of the SGS terms in the vicinity of the shock location. In this study we use a canonical shock-turbulence interaction problem for comparison of the considered modifications of the SGS filtering procedure. For the considered test case both approaches show a similar improvement in the accuracy near the shock.

  8. Shafranov shift bifurcation of turbulent transport in the high βp scenario on DIII-D (United States)

    McClenaghan, J.; Garofalo, A. M.; Staebler, G. M.; Qian, J.; Gong, X.; Ding, S. Y.


    The Shafranov shift stabilization of turbulence creates a bifurcation in transport leading to formation of a large radius internal transport barrier (ITB) in the high βp scenario on DIII-D. The high βp scenario exhibits high confinement at high βN and high bootstrap fraction in the absence of rapid rotation or negative central shear. Spontaneous formation of an ITB at fixed βN is examined. The energy confinement improves following formation of the ITB. The improvement is associated with a decrease in the minimum mid-radius characteristic turbulence parameter associated with the Shafranov shift: α - s , where α =q2 Rdβ / dρ is a measure of the Shafranov shift, and s is the magnetic shear. After ITB formation, α - s > 0 within region of ITB and α - s depending on the electron pressure gradient scale length. Before ITB formation, the experimental scale length is on the high-transport side of bifurcation. After ITB formation, experimental scale length is on the low-transport side of the bifurcation in the region of the ITB. Work supported in part by the US Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Fusion Energy Sciences DE-FC02-04ER54698 (Cooperative Agreement #DE-SC0010685), and by the National Magnetic Confinement Fusion Program of China (No. 2015GB102002, 2015GB10.

  9. Very High Speed Discrete Time Optical Signal Generation and Filtering (United States)

    Narayan, Vishwa

    Optical lattice filters constitute a class of devices that generate and operate upon high bandwidth optical signals. This dissertation describes the design, analysis, construction and testing of such devices. We derive elegant z-transform based filter transfer functions and develop a convenient state variable based scattering matrix filter description. A variety of filters are designed and analyzed. We also design locally optimal optical lattice filters with mirror imperfections such as losses and finite reflectivity round-off error. We conduct a quantitative sensitivity analysis of the degrading effects of these imperfections on system performance, and study the distorting effects of phase error on pulse train shape. Experimentally, we use mirror based optical lattice filters to generate 667 GHz repetition rate pulse bursts with step and ramp envelopes, and coded pulse bursts. We also demonstrate the quadrupling and octupling of the 76 MHz repetition rate of a mode-locked laser. We demonstrate the low pass filtering property of optical lattice filters by realizing a high speed discrete time optical integrator. Step functions are integrated to ramps, and ramps to quadratics, at 667 GHz. We also constructed a mechanical variable repetition rate filter with a tuning range of 2.14 to 100 GHz. We design and analyze a gain based mirror filter with active gain elements. Small signal linear constant gain tends to improve filter performance by increasing the output, and reducing fluctuations in the frequency response. We study the behavior of these filters at the stability limit, characterized by large fluctuations in the frequency response. Optical lattice filters may be used as wavelength multiplexers/demultiplexers in lightwave systems, as variable repetition rate pulse train generators for tunable repetition rate optical spectroscopy, as optical clock generators, and as discrete time/analog optical signal filters.

  10. Flame Acceleration and Transition to Detonation in High Speed Turbulent Combustion (United States)


    Inst itute of Mechanics, Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China , April 2014. Effects of Turbulence and Scale on Flame Acceleration, Detonations, and DDT...detonation (DDT>? We are also asking: What are the speci.fic physical mechanisms controlling this process? Work has progressed on five fronts : (1...vYereley Department of Aerospace Engineering University of Maryland Abstract The objective of this project is to address the grand-challenge question

  11. Flame Acceleration and Transition to Detonation in High-Speed Turbulent Combustion (United States)


    2014. Turbulence and Energetic Reactive Flows, E.S. Oran, Inst itute of Mechanics, Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China , April 2014. Effects of...transition to detonation (DDT>? We are also asking: What are the speci.fic physical mechanisms controlling this process? Work has progressed on five...Investigator: Norman ~’ereley Department of Aerospace Engineering University of Maryland Abstract The objective of this project is to address the

  12. Energy transformation, transfer, and release dynamics in high speed turbulent flows (United States)


    for this spatial delay. This was further confirmed by changing kinetics rates experimentally by increasing reactant concentrations , which had a very...including the effects of ignition delay and combustion in distributed- reaction zone (DRZ) regimes. Their evolution-variable manifold (EVM) approach...SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Delay length for chemical- reaction initiation downstream of jet-injection was attributed to turbulent mixing and

  13. High frame-rate en face optical coherence tomography system using KTN optical beam deflector (United States)

    Ohmi, Masato; Shinya, Yusuke; Imai, Tadayuki; Toyoda, Seiji; Kobayashi, Junya; Sakamoto, Tadashi


    We developed high frame-rate en face optical coherence tomography (OCT) system using KTa1-xNbxO3 (KTN) optical beam deflector. In the imaging system, the fast scanning was performed at 200 kHz by the KTN optical beam deflector, while the slow scanning was performed at 800 Hz by the galvanometer mirror. As a preliminary experiment, we succeeded in obtaining en face OCT images of human fingerprint with a frame rate of 800 fps. This is the highest frame-rate obtained using time-domain (TD) en face OCT imaging. The 3D-OCT image of sweat gland was also obtained by our imaging system.

  14. The massive protostar W43-MM1 as seen by Herschel-HIFI water spectra: high turbulence and accretion luminosity (United States)

    Herpin, F.; Chavarría, L.; van der Tak, F.; Wyrowski, F.; van Dishoeck, E. F.; Jacq, T.; Braine, J.; Baudry, A.; Bontemps, S.; Kristensen, L.


    Aims: We present Herschel-HIFI observations of 14 water lines in W43-MM1, a massive protostellar object in the luminous star-cluster-forming region W43. We place our study in the more general context of high-mass star formation. The dynamics of these regions may be represented by either the monolithic collapse of a turbulent core, or competitive accretion. Water turns out to be a particularly good tracer of the structure and kinematics of the inner regions, allowing an improved description of the physical structure of the massive protostar W43-MM1 and an estimation of the amount of water around it. Methods: We analyze the gas dynamics from the line profiles using Herschel-HIFI observations acquired as part of the Water In Star-forming regions with Herschel project of 14 far-IR water lines (H216O, H217O, H218O), CS(11-10), and C18O(9-8) lines, using our modeling of the continuum spectral energy distribution. The spectral modeling tools allow us to estimate outflow, infall, and turbulent velocities and molecular abundances. We compare our results to previous studies of low-, intermediate-, and other high-mass objects. Results: As for lower-mass protostellar objects, the molecular line profiles are a mix of emission and absorption, and can be decomposed into "medium" (full width at half maximum FWHM ≃ 5-10 km s-1), and "broad" velocity components (FWHM ≃ 20-35 km s-1). The broad component is the outflow associated with protostars of all masses. Our modeling shows that the remainder of the water profiles can be well-fitted by an infalling and passively heated envelope, with highly supersonic turbulence varying from 2.2 km s-1 in the inner region to 3.5 km s-1 in the outer envelope. In addition, W43-MM1 has a high accretion rate of between 4.0 × 10-4 and 4.0 × 10-2 M⊙ yr-1, as derived from the fast (0.4-2.9 km s-1) infall observed. We estimate a lower mass limit for gaseous water of 0.11 M⊙ and total water luminosity of 1.5 L⊙ (in the 14 lines presented here

  15. Adaptive optics high resolution spectroscopy: present status and future direction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alcock, C; Angel, R; Ciarlo, D; Fugate, R O; Ge, J; Kuzmenko, P; Lloyd-Hart, M; Macintosh, B; Najita, J; Woolf, N


    High resolution spectroscopy experiments with visible adaptive optics (AO) telescopes at Starfire Optical Range and Mt. Wilson have demonstrated that spectral resolution can be routinely improved by a factor of - 10 over the seeing-limited case with no extra light losses at visible wavelengths. With large CCDs now available, a very wide wavelength range can be covered in a single exposure. In the near future, most large ground-based telescopes will be equipped with powerful A0 systems. Most of these systems are aimed primarily at diffraction-limited operation in the near IR. An exciting new opportunity will thus open up for high resolution IR spectroscopy. Immersion echelle gratings with much coarser grooves being developed by us at LLNL will play a critical role in achieving high spectral resolution with a compact and low cost IR cryogenically cooled spectrograph and simultaneous large wavelength coverage on relatively small IR detectors. We have constructed a new A0 optimized spectrograph at Steward Observatory to provide R = 200,000 in the optical, which is being commissioned at the Starfire Optical Range 3.5m telescope. We have completed the optical design of the LLNL IR Immersion Spectrograph (LISPEC) to take advantage of improved silicon etching technology. Key words: adaptive optics, spectroscopy, high resolution, immersion gratings

  16. Ultra-high-speed Optical Signal Processing using Silicon Photonics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oxenløwe, Leif Katsuo; Ji, Hua; Jensen, Asger Sellerup

    on silicon photonics. In particular we use nano-engineered silicon waveguides (nanowires) [1] enabling efficient phasematched four-wave mixing (FWM), cross-phase modulation (XPM) or self-phase modulation (SPM) for ultra-high-speed optical signal processing of ultra-high bit rate serial data signals. We show......— In supercomputers, the optical inter-connects are getting closer and closer to the processing cores. Today, a single supercomputer system has as many optical links as the whole worldwide web together, and it is envisaged that future computing chips will contain multiple electronic processor cores...... that silicon can indeed be used to control Tbit/s serial data signals [2], perform 640 Gbit/s wavelength conversion [3] 640 Gbit/s serial-to-parallel conversion [4], 160 Gbit/s packet switching as well as all-optical regeneration [5]. We will also discuss the performance limitations of crystalline silicon...

  17. High-Order Modulation for Optical Fiber Transmission

    CERN Document Server

    Seimetz, Matthias


    Catering to the current interest in increasing the spectral efficiency of optical fiber networks by the deployment of high-order modulation formats, this monograph describes transmitters, receivers and performance of optical systems with high-order phase and quadrature amplitude modulation. In the first part of the book, the author discusses various transmitter implementation options as well as several receiver concepts based on direct and coherent detection, including designs of new structures. Hereby, both optical and electrical parts are considered, allowing the assessment of practicability and complexity. In the second part, a detailed characterization of optical fiber transmission systems is presented, regarding a wide range of modulation formats. It provides insight in the fundamental behavior of different formats with respect to relevant performance degradation effects and identifies the major trends in system performance.

  18. High-throughput proteomics : optical approaches.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davidson, George S.


    Realistic cell models could greatly accelerate our ability to engineer biochemical pathways and the production of valuable organic products, which would be of great use in the development of biofuels, pharmaceuticals, and the crops for the next green revolution. However, this level of engineering will require a great deal more knowledge about the mechanisms of life than is currently available. In particular, we need to understand the interactome (which proteins interact) as it is situated in the three dimensional geometry of the cell (i.e., a situated interactome), and the regulation/dynamics of these interactions. Methods for optical proteomics have become available that allow the monitoring and even disruption/control of interacting proteins in living cells. Here, a range of these methods is reviewed with respect to their role in elucidating the interactome and the relevant spatial localizations. Development of these technologies and their integration into the core competencies of research organizations can position whole institutions and teams of researchers to lead in both the fundamental science and the engineering applications of cellular biology. That leadership could be particularly important with respect to problems of national urgency centered around security, biofuels, and healthcare.

  19. Exploring the origin of high optical absorption in conjugated polymers

    KAUST Repository

    Vezie, Michelle S.


    The specific optical absorption of an organic semiconductor is critical to the performance of organic optoelectronic devices. For example, higher light-harvesting efficiency can lead to higher photocurrent in solar cells that are limited by sub-optimal electrical transport. Here, we compare over 40 conjugated polymers, and find that many different chemical structures share an apparent maximum in their extinction coefficients. However, a diketopyrrolopyrrole-thienothiophene copolymer shows remarkably high optical absorption at relatively low photon energies. By investigating its backbone structure and conformation with measurements and quantum chemical calculations, we find that the high optical absorption can be explained by the high persistence length of the polymer. Accordingly, we demonstrate high absorption in other polymers with high theoretical persistence length. Visible light harvesting may be enhanced in other conjugated polymers through judicious design of the structure.

  20. A high-resolution large-eddy simulation of turbulent flow within and above urban-like canopies (United States)

    Maché, M.; Calmet, I.; Sini, J.-F.


    The urban microclimate is a result of the interactions between regional climatology, morphology of urban fabric and thermo-radiative and hydric properties of the materials constituting the urban surfaces. Modern urban planning tries to compact cities for avoiding spreading of the town area in order to reduce the need of transports. The climatic effects of this politic are not well known yet. This work is the first step of a study whose main purpose is to propose an urban planning politic which considers the urban heat island within the context of the climate change. Therefore it aims to understand the effects of building configuration on the momentum, heat and humidity turbulent transfers. Urban structures are quite heterogeneous and complex. To analyse the interactions between urban canopies and the atmosphere, the resolution has to be high enough that mean flow characteristics between the buildings can be observed as well as turbulent structures that develop above roof level. For that purpose, the Large-Eddy Simulation atmospheric model ARPS (Advanced Regional Prediction System) is employed. The subgrid scales are modelled by means of the resolution of an equation for the subgrid-scale turbulent kinetic energy. The version used is this study is based on the developments of Dupont & Brunet (2008) who introduced a drag force approach to simulate the influence of the vegetal covers on the low atmosphere. The application of this model on urban canopies requires adjusting the drag coefficient (Cd) in function of the frontal density (Af) and of the building arrangement. Its dependency on configuration (staggered or aligned arrays) and on frontal density is investigated. In order to put in light the main characteristics of the flow field and to validate the model in urban configurations, the turbulent flow above arrays of obstacles is investigated here for different arrangements and packing densities. The grid spacing is set to a few tens of meters in both horizontal

  1. A Unified Performance Analysis of Free-Space Optical Links over Gamma-Gamma Turbulence Channels with Pointing Errors

    KAUST Repository

    Ansari, Imran Shafique


    In this work, we present a unified performance analysis of a free-space optical (FSO) link that accounts for pointing errors and both types of detection techniques (i.e. intensity modulation/direct detection as well as heterodyne detection). More specifically, we present unified exact closed-form expressions for the cumulative distribution function, the probability density function, the moment generating function, and the moments of the end-to-end signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of a single link FSO transmission system, all in terms of the Meijer\\'s G function except for the moments that is in terms of simple elementary functions. We then capitalize on these unified results to offer unified exact closed-form expressions for various performance metrics of FSO link transmission systems, such as, the outage probability, the higher-order amount of fading (AF), the average error rate for binary and M-ary modulation schemes, and the ergodic capacity, all in terms of Meijer\\'s G functions except for the higher-order AF that is in terms of simple elementary functions. Additionally, we derive the asymptotic results for all the expressions derived earlier in terms of Meijer\\'s G function in the high SNR regime in terms of simple elementary functions via an asymptotic expansion of the Meijer\\'s G function. We also derive new asymptotic expressions for the ergodic capacity in the low as well as high SNR regimes in terms of simple elementary functions via utilizing moments. All the presented results are verified via computer-based Monte-Carlo simulations.

  2. Turbulence feature modifications from high to low wind conditions: results from the CCT observations at Ny-Ålesund, Svalbard. (United States)

    Schiavon, Mario; Mazzola, Mauro; Tampieri, Francesco; Pietro Viola, Angelo; Choi, Taejin


    The turbulence features in the quasi neutral surface layer are investigated as the intensity of the wind decreases, i.e. as the forcing due to the shear decreases. In this aim, a 5-year (2012-2016) set of observations of meteorological and micro-meteorological parameters acquired on the Climate Change Tower (CCT) in Ny-Ålesund, Svalbard Islands, is used. The 34-m high tower, operated by the Italian National Council of Research (CNR) is equipped with four slow response wind and temperature probes and three fast response sonic anemometers and is located on heterogeneous terrain. One of the fast sensors was installed by KOPRI since 2012. The observations are averaged over 10 and 30 minutes intervals. The analysis addresses the share of the mean turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) among the along-wind, cross-wind and vertical velocity variances (respectively , , ), with attention to the parameterizations of the boundary layer commonly used in NWP models: the classical Mellor-Yamada (1982) scheme with the return-to-isotropy term by Rotta(1951) and its modifications, and the recent approach by Zilitinkevich and coworkers (2013). The results show that the share of TKE among the vertical and the total horizontal variance + is weakly dependent on the wind velocity while the share of the total horizontal variance between the along-wind and cross-wind components depends on wind speed. At high velocity (and large wind shear) a clear anisotropy , with ≈ 2 , is observed, quite consistent with literature (Tampieri, 2017, pag. 69). As the velocity decreases, the ratio /( + ) displays a wide flat distribution between 0.2 and 0.8 with median values corresponding approximately to horizontal isotropy: ≈. These features can be parameterized using suitable coefficients, function of the wind intensity in the equations for the TKE share, capturing the average behaviour of the flow. A further investigation based on estimates of the relative importance of the high frequency and low

  3. Design of blue LEDs array with high optical power (United States)

    Lu, Pengzhi; Yang, Hua; Xue, Bin; Xie, Haizhong; Li, Jing; Yi, Xiaoyan; Wang, Junxi; Wang, Guohong; Li, Jinmin


    In this paper, an array of blue LEDs with high optical power was presented and discussed. Optical of the novel design was completed with the help of running simulation in TracePro to predict the performance of the module. 36 Cree XP-E blue LEDs with a square reflector were used in the novel design. Optical simulation obtained from TracePro showed that the total optical power of the LED array could reach 16.83W. To verify the simulation results, Aluminum PCB, Copper PCB and Aluminum square reflector have been made respectively. Firstly, 36 Cree XP-E blue LEDs with small-pitch were fixed on each PCB, then; an Aluminum square reflector was assembled on each PCB. This optical module was installed on a radiator and tested. The optical output power of sample 1 used Aluminum PCB and Aluminum reflector and sample 2 used Copper PCB and Aluminum reflector was 8.126W and 9.445W at 2A, respectively. It could be observed that the optical output power of sample 2 was higher than that of sample 1. It could be attributed to the better thermal dispersion performance of Copper. In order to improve the light reflectivity and reduce the loss of light, ultrathin silver was coated on the Aluminum reflector by electron beam evaporation. The optical output power of sample 3 used Copper PCB and silver-plated Aluminum reflector was 12.541W at 2A. A uniform square spot with high optical power was obtained.

  4. Langmuir Turbulence (United States)


    1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Langmuir Turbulence Eric A. D’Asaro, Ramsey Harcourt...definitive experimental tests of the hypothesis that Langmuir Turbulence , specifically the equations of motion with the addition of the Craik-Leibovich...vortex force and advection by the surface wave Stokes drift, can accurately describe turbulence in the upper ocean boundary layer under conditions of

  5. Application of optical fibers for optical diagnostics in high temperature gas cooled reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shikama, T.; Narui, M. [Oarai Branch, Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Ibaraki-ken (Japan); Kakuta, T. [Tokai Research Establishment, JAERI, Ibaraki-ken (Japan); Ishihara, M.; Sagawa, T.; Arai, T. [Oarai Research Establishment, JAERI, Ibaraki-ken (Japan)


    Visibility of a core region of a high temperature gas cooled reactor (HTGR) is very poor in general with its solid graphite moderator. Realization of optical diagnostics will improve safety and maintenance of the HTGR considerably. The applicability of fused silica core optical fibers for optical diagnostics in a core of the High Temperature Testing Reactor (HTTR) of the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) has been studied in the present research. Optical diagnostics are also expected to play crucial roles in advanced research planned in the HTTR. Optical transmission of the optical fibers was found not to degrade for several hundred hours at 1070K in air and helium environments in the wavelength range of 350-1800nm. In general. the optical fibers were found to be heat-resistant. To study radiation effects, the optical fibers were irradiated in Japan Materials Testing Reactor (JMTR). where the fast neutron(E>1MeV) flux was up to 1.5x10{sup 18}n/m{sup 2}s and the gamma-ray dose rate was up to about 5W/g for iron. The estimated fast neutron flux and the gamma-ray dose rate would be in the order of 10{sup 16}n/m{sup 2} and about 0.1W/g for iron, respectively in the HTTR. In general, optical transmission loss increased substantially with a small irradiation dose in the visible wave length range, although some developed fibers showed better radiation resistance. Good optical transmissivity was kept in the infrared region with absorption rate of less than a few dB/m. Radioluminescence and thermoluminescence from sapphire and silica could be observed with optical fibers under irradiation. Cherenkov radiation was observed in the wavelength range of 600-1800nm, whose intensity was temperature-independent. Black-body radiation was dominant in the wavelength longer than 1200nm at elevated temperatures. The results showed that the silica core optical fibers could be used as an image guide as well as monitors for radiation dosimetry and for monitoring core

  6. Mode profiling of optical fibers at high laser powers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter Carøe; Pedersen, David Bue; Simonsen, R.B.


    is obtained. Choosing a highly reflective rod material and a sufficiently high rotation speed, these measurements can be done with high laser powers, without any additional optical elements between the fiber and analyzer. The performance of the analyzer was evaluated by coupling laser light into different......This paper describes the development of a measuring equipment capable of analysing the beam profile at high optical powers emitted by delivery fibers used in manufacturing processes. Together with the optical delivery system, the output beam quality from the delivery fiber and the shape...... of the focused spot can be determined. The analyser is based on the principle of a rotating wire being swept though the laser beam, while the reflected signal is recorded [1]. By changing the incident angle of the rotating rod from 0° to 360° in relation to the fiber, the full profile of the laser beam...

  7. Free-stream turbulence effects on the boundary layer of a high-lift low-pressure-turbine blade (United States)

    Simoni, D.; Ubaldi, M.; Zunino, P.; Ampellio, E.


    The suction side boundary layer evolution of a high-lift low-pressure turbine cascade has been experimentally investigated at low and high free-stream turbulence intensity conditions. Measurements have been carried out in order to analyze the boundary layer transition and separation processes at a low Reynolds number, under both steady and unsteady inflows. Static pressure distributions along the blade surfaces as well as total pressure distributions in a downstream tangential plane have been measured to evaluate the overall aerodynamic efficiency of the blade for the different conditions. Particle Image Velocimetry has been adopted to analyze the time-mean and time-varying velocity fields. The flow field has been surveyed in two orthogonal planes (a blade-to-blade plane and a wall-parallel one). These measurements allow the identification of the Kelvin-Helmholtz large scale coherent structures shed as a consequence of the boundary layer laminar separation under steady inflow, as well as the investigation of the three-dimensional effects induced by the intermittent passage of low and high speed streaks. A close inspection of the time-mean velocity profiles as well as of the boundary layer integral parameters helps to characterize the suction side boundary layer state, thus justifying the influence of free-stream turbulence intensity on the blade aerodynamic losses measured under steady and unsteady inflows.

  8. Premixed Turbulent Combustion in High Reynolds Number Regimes of Thickened Flamelets and Distributed Reactions (United States)


    which is commonly converted to a length scale using Taylor’s “ frozen turbulence” hypothesis that states that integral length scale (λI) is U0 τ...diagnostics. Combustion in three regimes on the Borghi regime diagram of premixed turbulent flames was quantified for the first time, by imaging the...Year 2000 compliant, e.g. 30-06-1998; xx-06-1998; xx-xx-1998. 2. REPORT TYPE. State the type of report, such as final, technical, interim

  9. Reynolds-Averaged Turbulence Model Assessment for a Highly Back-Pressured Isolator Flowfield (United States)

    Baurle, Robert A.; Middleton, Troy F.; Wilson, L. G.


    The use of computational fluid dynamics in scramjet engine component development is widespread in the existing literature. Unfortunately, the quantification of model-form uncertainties is rarely addressed with anything other than sensitivity studies, requiring that the computational results be intimately tied to and calibrated against existing test data. This practice must be replaced with a formal uncertainty quantification process for computational fluid dynamics to play an expanded role in the system design, development, and flight certification process. Due to ground test facility limitations, this expanded role is believed to be a requirement by some in the test and evaluation community if scramjet engines are to be given serious consideration as a viable propulsion device. An effort has been initiated at the NASA Langley Research Center to validate several turbulence closure models used for Reynolds-averaged simulations of scramjet isolator flows. The turbulence models considered were the Menter BSL, Menter SST, Wilcox 1998, Wilcox 2006, and the Gatski-Speziale explicit algebraic Reynolds stress models. The simulations were carried out using the VULCAN computational fluid dynamics package developed at the NASA Langley Research Center. A procedure to quantify the numerical errors was developed to account for discretization errors in the validation process. This procedure utilized the grid convergence index defined by Roache as a bounding estimate for the numerical error. The validation data was collected from a mechanically back-pressured constant area (1 2 inch) isolator model with an isolator entrance Mach number of 2.5. As expected, the model-form uncertainty was substantial for the shock-dominated, massively separated flowfield within the isolator as evidenced by a 6 duct height variation in shock train length depending on the turbulence model employed. Generally speaking, the turbulence models that did not include an explicit stress limiter more closely

  10. Airfoils in Turbulent Inflow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gilling, Lasse

    . However, it turns out that the velocities in the inner part of the boundary layer only increase slightly, and there is no effect on the obtained surface pressures or lift coefficients. It appears that the resolved turbulence has a too large length scale to cause the effect as seen in experiments...... that is formed in attached boundary layers, but the freestream turbulence can penetrate the boundary layer. The idea is that the resolved turbulence from the freestream should mix high momentum flow into the boundary layer and thereby increase the resistance against separation and increase the maximum lift...

  11. High-performance parallel interface to synchronous optical network gateway (United States)

    St. John, Wallace B.; DuBois, David H.


    A system of sending and receiving gateways interconnects high speed data interfaces, e.g., HIPPI interfaces, through fiber optic links, e.g., a SONET network. An electronic stripe distributor distributes bytes of data from a first interface at the sending gateway onto parallel fiber optics of the fiber optic link to form transmitted data. An electronic stripe collector receives the transmitted data on the parallel fiber optics and reforms the data into a format effective for input to a second interface at the receiving gateway. Preferably, an error correcting syndrome is constructed at the sending gateway and sent with a data frame so that transmission errors can be detected and corrected in a real-time basis. Since the high speed data interface operates faster than any of the fiber optic links the transmission rate must be adapted to match the available number of fiber optic links so the sending and receiving gateways monitor the availability of fiber links and adjust the data throughput accordingly. In another aspect, the receiving gateway must have sufficient available buffer capacity to accept an incoming data frame. A credit-based flow control system provides for continuously updating the sending gateway on the available buffer capacity at the receiving gateway.

  12. Monitoring of High Pressure with Fiber Optic Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pandey N.K.


    Full Text Available Paper reports intensity modulated pressure sensor using microbending in the optical fiber embedded in the structural material. Pressure induced microbends have been created in silica clad graded index multimode optical fiber 50mm, plastic clad PCS200 and plastic clad PCS600 optical fibers embedded in the sample of araldite matrix. The samples have been tested separately with random microbending and periodic microbending of spatial periodicity Λ=5mm under high pressure cyclic loading conditions. The maximum pressure measured with PCS600 is 3.0 MPa, with PCS200 the maximum pressure measured is 1.8 MPa and that with silica clad 50mm maximum pressure measured is 1.6 MPa. The results with PCS600 optical fiber have been found to be linear and most reliable.

  13. High-energy nuclear optics of polarized particles

    CERN Document Server

    Baryshevsky, Vladimir G


    The various phenomena caused by refraction and diffraction of polarized elementary particles in matter have opened up a new research area in the particle physics: nuclear optics of polarized particles. Effects similar to the well-known optical phenomena such as birefringence and Faraday effects, exist also in particle physics, though the particle wavelength is much less than the distance between atoms of matter. Current knowledge of the quasi-optical effects, which exist for all particles in any wavelength range (and energies from low to extremely high), will enable us to investigate different properties of interacting particles (nuclei) in a new aspect. This pioneering book will provide detailed accounts of quasi-optical phenomena in the particle polarization, and will interest physicists and professionals in experimental particle physics.

  14. Forest Ecosystem respiration estimated from eddy covariance and chamber measurements under high turbulence and substantial tree mortality from bark beetles (United States)

    Speckman, Heather N.; Frank, John M.; Bradford, John B.; Miles, Brianna L.; Massman, William J.; Parton, William J.; Ryan, Michael G.


    Eddy covariance nighttime fluxes are uncertain due to potential measurement biases. Many studies report eddy covariance nighttime flux lower than flux from extrapolated chamber measurements, despite corrections for low turbulence. We compared eddy covariance and chamber estimates of ecosystem respiration at the GLEES Ameriflux site over seven growing seasons under high turbulence (summer night mean friction velocity (u*) = 0.7 m s−1), during which bark beetles killed or infested 85% of the aboveground respiring biomass. Chamber-based estimates of ecosystem respiration during the growth season, developed from foliage, wood and soil CO2 efflux measurements, declined 35% after 85% of the forest basal area had been killed or impaired by bark beetles (from 7.1 ±0.22 μmol m−2 s−1 in 2005 to 4.6 ±0.16 μmol m−2 s−1 in 2011). Soil efflux remained at ~3.3 μmol m−2 s−1 throughout the mortality, while the loss of live wood and foliage and their respiration drove the decline of the chamber estimate. Eddy covariance estimates of fluxes at night remained constant over the same period, ~3.0 μmol m−2 s−1 for both 2005 (intact forest) and 2011 (85% basal area killed or impaired). Eddy covariance fluxes were lower than chamber estimates of ecosystem respiration (60% lower in 2005, and 32% in 2011), but the mean night estimates from the two techniques were correlated within a year (r2 from 0.18-0.60). The difference between the two techniques was not the result of inadequate turbulence, because the results were robust to a u* filter of > 0.7 m s−1. The decline in the average seasonal difference between the two techniques was strongly correlated with overstory leaf area (r2=0.92). The discrepancy between methods of respiration estimation should be resolved to have confidence in ecosystem carbon flux estimates.

  15. High-Reynolds-number flat-plate turbulent boundary layer measurements (United States)

    Winkel, Eric S.; Cutbirth, James M.; Perlin, Marc; Ceccio, Steven L.; Dowling, David R.


    A set of experiments was conducted in the U.S. Navy's Large Cavitation Channel (LCC) into the characteristics of a liquid turbulent boundary layer at nearly zero-pressure-gradient. The hydraulically smooth, k^+ centered in the LCC test section. Data was gathered at flow speeds up to 20 m/s to achieve downstream-distance-based Reynolds numbers up to 220 million. Static pressure, skin-friction, and laser-Doppler velocimetry (LDV) measurements are presented. Static pressure measurements along the plate surface show a mild favorable pressure gradient, less than 2.5% flow acceleration over the model. Skin-friction was measured at six stream-wise positions with 15-cm-diameter, flush-mounted drag-balances. Flow profiles of the mean and second-order turbulence statistics of stream-wise and wall-normal velocity components were measured using two-component LDV. When normalized with the measured skin-friction, mean velocity profiles agree with the accepted law-of-the-wall constants and the total near-wall shear stress approaches unity.

  16. 2D MRI-induced turbulence in high β PIC simulation (United States)

    Inchingolo, Giannandrea; Grismayer, Thomas; Loureiro, Nuno F.; Fonseca, Ricardo A.; Silva, Luis O.


    The magnetorotational instability (MRI) is a crucial mechanism of angular momentum transport in a variety of astrophysical scenarios, as accretion disks nearness neutron stars and black holes. The MRI has been widely studied using MHD models and simulations, in order to understand the behaviour of astrophysical fluids in a state of differential rotation. When the timescale for electron and ion collisions is longer than the inflow time in the disk, the plasma is macroscopically collisionless and MHD breaks down. This is the case of the limit of weak magnetic field, i.e., as the ratio of the ion cyclotron frequency to orbital frequency becomes small. Leveraging on the recent addition of the shearing co-rotating frames equations of motion and Maxwell's equations modules in our PIC code OSIRIS 3.0, we intend to present our recent results of the analysis of MRI in collisionless plasma. Increasing the scale of our simulations, we will show the first ab-initio PIC simulations of a 2D turbulence induced consistently during the saturation regime of the MRI. We will demonstrate the existence of a minimum scale λkink that determine the comparison of a drift-kink instability in the plasma. This instability will activate the turbulence during the saturation regime of the MRI.

  17. Measurement and analysis of turbulent liquid metal flow in a high-power spallation neutron source-EURISOL

    CERN Document Server

    Samec, K; Blumenfeld, L; Kharoua, C; Dementjevs, S; Milenkovic, R Z


    The European Isotope Separation On-Line (EURISOL) design study completed in 2009 examined means of producing exotic nuclei for fundamental research. One of the critical components identified in the study was a high-power neutron spallation source in which a target material is impacted by a proton beam producing neutrons by a process known as spallation. Due to the high heat power deposition, liquid metal, in this case mercury, is the only viable choice as target material. Complex issues arise from the use of liquid metal. It is characterised by an unusually low Prandtl number and a higher thermal expansivity than conventional fluids. The turbulence structure in LM is thereby affected and still an object of intense research, hampered in part by measurement difficulties. The use of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) allowed a satisfactory design for the neutron source to be found rapidly with little iteration. However it was feared that the development of the boundary layer and associated turbulence would not b...

  18. A multithreaded and GPU-optimized compact finite difference algorithm for turbulent mixing at high Schmidt number using petascale computing (United States)

    Clay, M. P.; Yeung, P. K.; Buaria, D.; Gotoh, T.


    Turbulent mixing at high Schmidt number is a multiscale problem which places demanding requirements on direct numerical simulations to resolve fluctuations down the to Batchelor scale. We use a dual-grid, dual-scheme and dual-communicator approach where velocity and scalar fields are computed by separate groups of parallel processes, the latter using a combined compact finite difference (CCD) scheme on finer grid with a static 3-D domain decomposition free of the communication overhead of memory transposes. A high degree of scalability is achieved for a 81923 scalar field at Schmidt number 512 in turbulence with a modest inertial range, by overlapping communication with computation whenever possible. On the Cray XE6 partition of Blue Waters, use of a dedicated thread for communication combined with OpenMP locks and nested parallelism reduces CCD timings by 34% compared to an MPI baseline. The code has been further optimized for the 27-petaflops Cray XK7 machine Titan using GPUs as accelerators with the latest OpenMP 4.5 directives, giving 2.7X speedup compared to CPU-only execution at the largest problem size. Supported by NSF Grant ACI-1036170, the NCSA Blue Waters Project with subaward via UIUC, and a DOE INCITE allocation at ORNL.

  19. Optical Processing of High Dimensionality Signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Da Ros, Francesco

    to increase the capacity of future communication systems; on the other hand, the different nonlinear material suitable for providing parametric amplification. Therefore, three different materials, namely silica highly nonlinear fibers (HNLFs), silicon waveguides, and periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN......-division multiplexing (PDM) 16-QAM signal at 1.12 Tbps with significant improvements in received signal quality. Furthermore, the first demonstration of phase regeneration for binary phase-shift keying (BPSK) signals using the silicon platform is presented. The silicon-based OPA relies on a novel design where a reverse......-biased p-i-n junction fabricated along the waveguide allows decreasing the nonlinear absorption, thus achieving phase-sensitive extinction ratios in excess of 20 dB. Finally, a recently proposed quadrature phase-shift keying (QPSK)-to- 2×BPSK wavelength and format converter is characterized experimentally...

  20. Large bandwidth, highly efficient optical gratings through high index materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rathgen, H.; Offerhaus, Herman L.


    We analyze the diffraction characteristics of dielectric gratings that feature a high index grating layer, and devise, through rigorous numeri-cal calculations, large bandwidth, highly efficient, high dispersion dielectric gratings in reflection, transmission, and immersed transmission geometry. A

  1. Aerodynamic Effects of High Turbulence Intensity on a Variable-Speed Power-Turbine Blade With Large Incidence and Reynolds Number Variations (United States)

    Flegel, Ashlie B.; Giel, Paul W.; Welch, Gerard E.


    The effects of high inlet turbulence intensity on the aerodynamic performance of a variable speed power turbine blade are examined over large incidence and Reynolds number ranges. These results are compared to previous measurements made in a low turbulence environment. Both high and low turbulence studies were conducted in the NASA Glenn Research Center Transonic Turbine Blade Cascade Facility. The purpose of the low inlet turbulence study was to examine the transitional flow effects that are anticipated at cruise Reynolds numbers. The current study extends this to LPT-relevant turbulence levels while perhaps sacrificing transitional flow effects. Assessing the effects of turbulence at these large incidence and Reynolds number variations complements the existing database. Downstream total pressure and exit angle data were acquired for 10 incidence angles ranging from +15.8deg to -51.0deg. For each incidence angle, data were obtained at five flow conditions with the exit Reynolds number ranging from 2.12×10(exp 5) to 2.12×10(exp 6) and at a design exit Mach number of 0.72. In order to achieve the lowest Reynolds number, the exit Mach number was reduced to 0.35 due to facility constraints. The inlet turbulence intensity, Tu, was measured using a single-wire hotwire located 0.415 axial-chord upstream of the blade row. The inlet turbulence levels ranged from 8 to 15 percent for the current study. Tu measurements were also made farther upstream so that turbulence decay rates could be calculated as needed for computational inlet boundary conditions. Downstream flow field measurements were obtained using a pneumatic five-hole pitch/yaw probe located in a survey plane 7 percent axial chord aft of the blade trailing edge and covering three blade passages. Blade and endwall static pressures were acquired for each flow condition as well. The blade loading data show that the suction surface separation that was evident at many of the low Tu conditions has been eliminated. At

  2. Fiber optic, Fabry-Perot high temperature sensor (United States)

    James, K.; Quick, B.


    A digital, fiber optic temperature sensor using a variable Fabry-Perot cavity as the sensor element was analyzed, designed, fabricated, and tested. The fiber transmitted cavity reflection spectra is dispersed then converted from an optical signal to electrical information by a charged coupled device (CCD). A microprocessor-based color demodulation system converts the wavelength information to temperature. This general sensor concept not only utilizes an all-optical means of parameter sensing and transmitting, but also exploits microprocessor technology for automated control, calibration, and enhanced performance. The complete temperature sensor system was evaluated in the laboratory. Results show that the Fabry-Perot temperature sensor has good resolution (0.5% of full seale), high accuracy, and potential high temperature ( 1000 C) applications.

  3. Towards highly multimode optical quantum memory for quantum repeaters


    Jobez, Pierre; Timoney, Nuala; Laplane, Cyril; Etesse, Jean; Ferrier, Alban; Goldner, Philippe; Gisin, Nicolas; Afzelius, Mikael


    Long-distance quantum communication through optical fibers is currently limited to a few hundreds of kilometres due to fiber losses. Quantum repeaters could extend this limit to continental distances. Most approaches to quantum repeaters require highly multimode quantum memories in order to reach high communication rates. The atomic frequency comb memory scheme can in principle achieve high temporal multimode storage, without sacrificing memory efficiency. However, previous demonstrations hav...

  4. Active optics: off axis aspherics generation for high contrast imaging (United States)

    Hugot, E.; Laslandes, M.; Ferrari, M.; Vives, S.; Moindrot, S.; El Hadi, K.; Dohlen, K.


    Active Optics methods, based on elasticity theory, allow the aspherisation of optical surfaces by stress polishing but also active aspherisation in situ. Researches in this field will impact the final performance and the final cost of any telescope or instrument. The stress polishing method is well suited for the superpolishing of aspheric components for astronomy. Its principle relies on spherical polishing with a full-sized tool of a warped substrate, which becomes aspherical once unwarped. The main advantage of this technique is the very high optical quality obtained either on form or on high spatial frequency errors. Furthermore, the roughness can be decreased down to a few angstroms, thanks the classical polishing with a large pitch tool, providing a substantial gain on the final scientific performance, for instance on the contrast on coronagraphic images, but also on the polishing time and cost. Stress polishing is based on elasticity theory, and requires an optimised deformation system able to provide the right aspherical form on the optical surface during polishing. The optical quality of the deformation is validated using extensive Finite Element Analysis, allowing an estimation of residuals and an optimisation of the warping harness. We describe here the work realised on stress polishing of toric mirrors for VLT-SPHERE and then our actual work on off axis aspherics (OAA) for the ASPIICS-Proba3 mission for solar coronagraphy. The ASPIICS optical design made by Vives et al is a three mirrors anastigmat including a concave off axis hyperboloid and a convex off axis parabola (OAP). We are developing a prototype in order to demonstrate the feasibility of this type of surface, using a multi-mode warping harness (Lemaitre et al). Furthermore, we present our work on variable OAP, meaning the possibility to adjust the shape of a simple OAP in situ with a minimal number of actuators, typically one actuator per optical mode (Focus, Coma and Astigmatism

  5. High order items of turbulent velocity fluctuations in the Kenics static mixer (United States)

    Meng, HuiBo; Yu, YanFang; Wu, JianHua


    The turbulent flow characteristic of flowing velocity field in the Kenics static mixer (KSM) was studied by measuring the time series of pulsant velocity with Laser Doppler Anemometer. The probability density functions of the Cartesian velocity fluctuations were obtained and compared with the corresponding normal distributions. The deviation from the normal distribution described by skewness and flatness factors was analyzed quantitatively. The experimental results indicate that the value of Skewness fluctuates from -2.79 to 3.12 which mean that the distribution of velocity field is not a normal distribution, and the existence of coherent structure is pointed out by the distribution of Flatness of pulsant velocity with a range of 3~9.5.

  6. Distributed chaos and Rayleigh-Benard turbulence at very high Ra

    CERN Document Server

    Bershadskii, A


    It is shown, by the means of distributed chaos approach and using the experimental data, that at very large Rayleigh number $Ra > 10^{14}$ and Prandtl number $Pr \\sim 1$ the Rayleigh-B\\'{e}nard turbulence can undergo a transition related to spontaneous breaking of the fundamental Lagrangian relabeling symmetry. Due to the Noether's theorem helicity plays central role in this process. After the transition the temperature spectrum has a stretched exponential form $E (k) \\propto \\exp(-k/k_{\\beta})^{\\beta}$ with $\\beta =2/5$ both at the cell midplain and at the near-wall (low boundary) regions. There is a similarity between this phenomenon and the effects of polymer additives.

  7. Analysis of Numerical Simulation Database for Pressure Fluctuations Induced by High-Speed Turbulent Boundary Layers (United States)

    Duan, Lian; Choudhari, Meelan M.


    Direct numerical simulations (DNS) of Mach 6 turbulent boundary layer with nominal freestream Mach number of 6 and Reynolds number of Re(sub T) approximately 460 are conducted at two wall temperatures (Tw/Tr = 0.25, 0.76) to investigate the generated pressure fluctuations and their dependence on wall temperature. Simulations indicate that the influence of wall temperature on pressure fluctuations is largely limited to the near-wall region, with the characteristics of wall-pressure fluctuations showing a strong temperature dependence. Wall temperature has little influence on the propagation speed of the freestream pressure signal. The freestream radiation intensity compares well between wall-temperature cases when normalized by the local wall shear; the propagation speed of the freestream pressure signal and the orientation of the radiation wave front show little dependence on the wall temperature.

  8. Estimating spatially distributed turbulent heat fluxes from high-resolution thermal imagery acquired with a UAV system. (United States)

    Brenner, Claire; Thiem, Christina Elisabeth; Wizemann, Hans-Dieter; Bernhardt, Matthias; Schulz, Karsten


    In this study, high-resolution thermal imagery acquired with a small unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) is used to map evapotranspiration (ET) at a grassland site in Luxembourg. The land surface temperature (LST) information from the thermal imagery is the key input to a one-source and two-source energy balance model. While the one-source model treats the surface as a single uniform layer, the two-source model partitions the surface temperature and fluxes into soil and vegetation components. It thus explicitly accounts for the different contributions of both components to surface temperature as well as turbulent flux exchange with the atmosphere. Contrary to the two-source model, the one-source model requires an empirical adjustment parameter in order to account for the effect of the two components. Turbulent heat flux estimates of both modelling approaches are compared to eddy covariance (EC) measurements using the high-resolution input imagery UAVs provide. In this comparison, the effect of different methods for energy balance closure of the EC data on the agreement between modelled and measured fluxes is also analysed. Additionally, the sensitivity of the one-source model to the derivation of the empirical adjustment parameter is tested. Due to the very dry and hot conditions during the experiment, pronounced thermal patterns developed over the grassland site. These patterns result in spatially variable turbulent heat fluxes. The model comparison indicates that both models are able to derive ET estimates that compare well with EC measurements under these conditions. However, the two-source model, with a more complex treatment of the energy and surface temperature partitioning between the soil and vegetation, outperformed the simpler one-source model in estimating sensible and latent heat fluxes. This is consistent with findings from prior studies. For the one-source model, a time-variant expression of the adjustment parameter (to account for the difference between

  9. Cycloaddition in peptides for high-capacity optical storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lohse, Brian; Berg, Rolf Henrik; Hvilsted, Søren


    Photodimerization of chromophores attached to a short peptide chain is investigated for high-capacity optical digital storage with UV lasers. The length and rigidity of the peptide chain assure an optimal distance and orientation of the chromophores for effective photodimerization. Using a theory...

  10. VCSEL design and integration for high-capacity optical interconnects (United States)

    Larsson, Anders; Gustavsson, Johan S.; Westbergh, Petter; Haglund, Erik; Haglund, Emanuel P.; Simpanen, Ewa; Lengyel, Tamas; Szczerba, Krzysztof; Karlsson, Magnus


    Vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers and multi-mode fibers is the dominating technology for short-reach optical interconnects in datacenters and high performance computing systems at current serial rates of up to 25-28 Gbit/s. This is likely to continue at 50-56 Gbit/s. The technology shows potential for 100 Gbit/s.

  11. Soliton-based ultra-high speed optical communications

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    All these facts are the outcome of research on optical solitons in fibers in spite of the fact that the commonly used RZ format is not always called a soliton format. The overview presented here attempts to incorporate the role of soliton-based communications research in present day ultra-high speed communications.

  12. Closed loop high precision position control system with optical scale (United States)

    Ge, Cheng-liang; Liao, Yuan; He, Zhong-wu; Luo, Zhong-xiang; Huang, Zhi-wei; Wan, Min; Hu, Xiao-yang; Fan, Guo-bin; Liang, Zheng


    With the developments of science of art, there are more and more demands on the high resolution control of position of object to be controlled, such as lathe, product line, elements in the optical resonant cavity, telescope, and so on. As one device with high resolution, the optical scale has more and more utility within the industrial and civil applications. With one optical scale and small DC servo motor, one closed loop high resolution position control system is constructed. This apparatus is used to control the position of the elements of optical system. The optical scale is attached on the object or reference guide way. The object position is sampled by a readhead of non-contact optical encoder. Control system processes the position information and control the position of object through the motion control of servo DC motor. The DC motor is controlled by one controller which is connected to an industrial computer. And the micro frictionless slide table does support the smooth motion of object to be controlled. The control algorithm of system is PID (Proportional-Integral-Differential) methods. The PID control methods have well ROBUST. The needed data to control are position, velocity and acceleration of the object. These three parameters correspond to the PID characters respectively. After the accomplishments of hardware, GUI (Graphical user interface), that is, the software of control system is also programmed. The whole system is assembled by specialized worker. Through calibration experiments, the coefficients of PID are obtained respectively. And then the precision of position control of the system is about 0.1μm.

  13. Can High-Tech Ventures Benefit from Government Guanxi and Business Guanxi? The Moderating Effects of Environmental Turbulence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejin Su


    Full Text Available The construct of guanxi has become an interesting topic for analyzing how to do business more effectively and successfully in China’s economic transition period. Drawing on the guanxi strategy theory, this study examines when government guanxi (guanxi with the government and its officials and business guanxi (guanxi with the business sectors matter to new venture performance under two typical turbulent environments (institutional turbulence and market turbulence. According to empirical results using original data from 146 new ventures in clusters driven by China’s local governments, both government guanxi and business guanxi were positively related to new venture performance, and market turbulence was an important contextual factor influencing performance benefits of guanxi. However, the results reveal no moderating effects of institutional turbulence on direct relationships. Furthermore, the study provides a better conceptual and empirical understanding of why market turbulence is a double-edged sword for performance implications of guanxi in the rapidly changing business environment.

  14. Turbulent Flame Speeds and NOx Kinetics of HHC Fuels with Contaminants and High Dilution Levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petersen, Eric; Krejci, Michael; Mathieu, Olivier; Vissotski, Andrew; Ravi, Sankar; Sikes, Travis; Levacque, Anthony; Aul, Christopher; Peterson, Eric


    This progress report documents the first year of the project, from October 1, 2010 through September 30, 2011. Laminar flame speeds and ignition delay times have been measured for hydrogen and various compositions of H2/CO (syngas) at elevated pressures and elevated temperatures. Two constant-volume cylindrical vessels were used to visualize the spherical growth of the flame through the use of a schlieren optical setup to measure the laminar flame speed of the mixture. Hydrogen experiments were performed at initial pressures up to 10 atm and initial temperatures up to 443 K. A syngas composition of 50/50 was chosen to demonstrate the effect of carbon monoxide on H2-O2 chemical kinetics at standard temperature and pressures up to 10 atm. All atmospheric mixtures were diluted with standard air, while all elevated-pressure experiments were diluted with a He:O2 of 7:1 to minimize hydrodynamic instabilities. The laminar flame speed measurements of hydrogen and syngas are compared to available literature data over a wide range of equivalence ratios where good agreement can be seen with several data sets. Additionally, an improved chemical kinetics model is shown for all conditions within the current study. The model and the data presented herein agree well, which demonstrates the continual, improved accuracy of the chemical kinetics model. A high-pressure shock tube was used to measure ignition delay times for several baseline compositions of syngas at three pressures across a wide range of temperatures. The compositions of syngas (H2/CO) presented in this study include 80/20, 50/50, 40/60, 20/80, and 10/90, all of which are compared to previously published ignition delay times from a hydrogen-oxygen mixture to demonstrate the effect of carbon monoxide addition. Generally, an increase in carbon monoxide increases the ignition delay time, but there does seem to be a pressure dependency. At low temperatures and

  15. High-Density Optical Cable For Public Communications (United States)

    Trunk, Jonas; Monteiro, Ricardo


    Optical fiber networks for public communications are moving toward the subscribers and therefore feeder optical cables with relative great amount of fibers are needed. A 120 fibers cable has been designed with ten UV curable acrilate coated fibers accommodate together inside each plastic loose tube, and twelve these tubes are stranded around a central strength member resulting in a high packaging density construction. A cable prototipe has been manufactured and some tests was made under conditions which simulate the situations found during installation and after due to hostile environments.

  16. Dogs with hearth diseases causing turbulent high-velocity blood flow have changes in patelet function and von Willebrand factor multimer distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarnow, Inge; Kristensen, Annemarie Thuri; Olsen, Lisbeth Høier


    The purpose of this prospective study was to investigate platelet function using in vitro tests based on both high and low shear rates and von Willebrand factor (vWf) multimeric composition in dogs with cardiac disease and turbulent high-velocity blood flow. Client-owned asymptomatic, untreated d...

  17. PREFACE: Turbulent Mixing and Beyond Turbulent Mixing and Beyond (United States)

    Abarzhi, Snezhana I.; Gauthier, Serge; Rosner, Robert


    The goals of the International Conference `Turbulent Mixing and Beyond' are to expose the generic problem of Turbulence and Turbulent Mixing in Unsteady Flows to a wide scientific community, to promote the development of new ideas in tackling the fundamental aspects of the problem, to assist in the application of novel approaches in a broad range of phenomena, where the non-canonical turbulent processes occur, and to have a potential impact on technology. The Conference provides the opportunity to bring together scientists from the areas which include, but are not limited to, high energy density physics, plasmas, fluid dynamics, turbulence, combustion, material science, geophysics, astrophysics, optics and telecommunications, applied mathematics, probability and statistics, and to have their attention focused on the long-standing formidable task. The Turbulent Mixing and Turbulence in Unsteady Flows, including multiphase flows, plays a key role in a wide variety of phenomena, ranging from astrophysical to nano-scales, under either high or low energy density conditions. Inertial confinement and magnetic fusion, light-matter interaction and non-equilibrium heat transfer, properties of materials under high strain rates, strong shocks, explosions, blast waves, supernovae and accretion disks, stellar non-Boussinesq and magneto-convection, planetary interiors and mantle-lithosphere tectonics, premixed and non-premixed combustion, oceanography, atmospheric flows, unsteady boundary layers, hypersonic and supersonic flows, are a few examples to list. A grip on unsteady turbulent processes is crucial for cutting-edge technology such as laser-micromachining and free-space optical telecommunications, and for industrial applications in aeronautics. Unsteady Turbulent Processes are anisotropic, non-local and multi-scale, and their fundamental scaling, spectral and invariant properties depart from the classical Kolmogorov scenario. The singular aspects and similarity of the

  18. High-Resolution Mammography Detector Employing Optical Switching Readout (United States)

    Irisawa, Kaku; Kaneko, Yasuhisa; Yamane, Katsutoshi; Sendai, Tomonari; Hosoi, Yuichi

    Conceiving a new detector structure, FUJIFILM Corporation has successfully put its invention of an X-ray detector employing "Optical Switching" into practical use. Since Optical Switching Technology allows an electrode structure to be easily designed, both high resolution of pixel pitch and low electrical noise readout have been achieved, which have consequently realized the world's smallest pixel size of 50×50 μm2 from a Direct-conversion FPD system as well as high DQE. The digital mammography system equipped with this detector enables to acquire high definition images while maintaining granularity. Its outstanding feature is to be able to acquire high-precision images of microcalcifications which is an important index in breast examination.

  19. High numerical aperture imaging by using multimode fibers with micro-fabricated optics

    KAUST Repository

    Bianchi, Silvio


    Controlling light propagation into multimode optical fibers through spatial light modulators provides highly miniaturized endoscopes and optical micromanipulation probes. We increase the numerical aperture up to nearly 1 by micro-optics fabricated on the fiber-end.

  20. Bendable X-ray Optics for High Resolution Imaging (United States)

    Gubarev, M.; Ramsey, B.; Kilaru, K.; Atkins, C.; Broadway, D.


    Current state-of the-art for x-ray optics fabrication calls for either the polishing of massive substrates into high-angular-resolution mirrors or the replication of thin, lower-resolution, mirrors from perfectly figured mandrels. Future X-ray Missions will require a change in this optics fabrication paradigm in order to achieve sub-arcsecond resolution in light-weight optics. One possible approach to this is to start with perfectly flat, light-weight surface, bend it into a perfect cone, form the desired mirror figure by material deposition, and insert the resulting mirror into a telescope structure. Such an approach is currently being investigated at MSFC, and a status report will be presented detailing the results of finite element analyses, bending tests and differential deposition experiments.

  1. Design method for automotive high-beam LED optics (United States)

    Byzov, Egor V.; Moiseev, Mikhail A.; Doskolovich, Leonid L.; Kazanskiy, Nikolay L.


    New analytical method for the calculation of the LED secondary optics for automotive high-beam lamps is presented. Automotive headlamps should illuminate the road and the curb at the distance of 100-150 meters and create a bright, flat, relatively powerful light beam. To generate intensity distribution of this kind we propose to use TIR optical element (collimator working on the total internal reflection principle) with array of microlenses (optical corrector) on the upper surface. TIR part of the optical element enables reflection of the side rays to the front direction and provides a collimated beam which incidents on the microrelief. Microrelief, in its turn, dissipates the light flux in horizontal direction to meet the requirements of the Regulations 112, 113 and to provide well-illuminated area across the road in the far field. As an example, we computed and simulated the optical element with the diameter of 33 millimeters and the height of 22 millimeters. Simulation data shows that three illuminating modules including Cree XP-G2 LED and lens allow generating an appropriate intensity distribution for the class D of UNECE Regulations.

  2. All-Optical Ultra-High-Speed OFDM to Nyquist-WDM Conversion Based on Complete Optical Fourier Transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guan, Pengyu; Røge, Kasper Meldgaard; Mulvad, Hans Christian Hansen


    We propose a novel all-optical ultra-high-speed orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) to Nyquist wavelength-division multiplexing (Nyquist-WDM) conversion scheme, achieved by exchanging the temporal and spectral profiles using a complete optical Fourier transformation (OFT). This scheme...... enables high-speed OFDM to Nyquist-WDM conversion without complex optical/electrical/optical conversion. The all-optical OFDM transmitter is based on the generation of OFDM symbols with a low duty cycle by rectangular temporal gating, which in combination with optical time-division multiplexing yields...... a higher symbol-rate OFDM signal. In the receiver, the converted Nyquist-WDM super-channel is WDM demultiplexed into individual Nyquist-WDM channels using a rectangular optical bandpass filter, followed by optical sampling at the intersymbol-interference free point. In the experimental demonstration...

  3. A Miniature Fiber-Optic Sensor for High-Resolution and High-Speed Temperature Sensing in Ocean Environment (United States)


    Nebra>.a-Lhcoln, •t s p<Jp(H wrll be pre~rontod at tile _?SA Im aging and Applfed Optics Me~~g (ll.ame o! C<lr ’erunco) 07-JUN · 𔃻-JUN-15 Arlinqon. V...patterns, and heat exchange. The influence from rapid temperature changes within microstructures are can have strong impacts to optical and acoustical ...also affect acoustical signal propagation [4]. While salinity variations could sometimes lead to severe turbulence [5], temperature gradient is the

  4. Turbulence Investigations With High-Resolution Simulations of Dilute Suspension Particle-Laden Gravity Currents (United States)

    Espath, L.; Pinto, L.; Laizet, S.; Silvestrini, J.; Scientific Team of DNS on Gravity Currents


    Gravity currents are very common in nature, either in atmosphere (due to sea-breeze fronts), in mountain avalanches (in airborne snow or debris flow), or in the ocean due to turbidity currents or river plumes (Simpson, 1982). In this numerical study, we focus on particle-laden hyperpycnal flows (negative-buoyancy), where the dynamics play a central role in the formation of hydrocarbon reservoirs (Meiburg & Kneller, 2009). Moreover, these particle-driven gravity currents are often extremely dangerous for the stability of submarine structures placed near the sea-floor (like pipelines or submarines cables). It is clear that the understanding of the physical mechanism associated with these currents and the correct prediction of their main features are of great importance for practical as well as theoretical purposes. For this numerical work, we are interested in the prediction of a mono-disperse dilute suspension particle-laden flow in the typical lock-exchange configuration. We consider only flat surfaces using DNS (Direct Numerical Simulation). Our approach takes into account the possibility of particles deposition but ignores erosion and/or re-suspension. Previous results for this kind of flows were obtained in laboratory experiments with Reynolds numbers up to 10400 (De Rooij & Dalziel, 2001), or by numerical simulations at moderate Reynolds numbers, up to 5000 for a 2D case (Nasr-Azadani, Hall & Meiburg, 2011) and up to 2236 for a 3D (Necker, Härtel, Kleiser & Meiburg, 2002) case with a Reynolds number based on the buoyancy velocity. It was shown that boundary conditions, initial lock configuration and different particle sizes can have a strong influence on the main characteristics of this kind of flows. The main objective of this numerical study is to undertake unprecedented simulations in order to focus on the turbulence and to investigate the effect of the Reynolds number in such flows. We want to investigate the turbulent mechanism in gravity currents such as

  5. Analytical expressions for the angle of arrival fluctuations for optical waves' propagation through moderate-to-strong non-Kolmogorov refractive turbulence. (United States)

    Cui, Linyan; Xue, Bindang; Zhou, Fugen


    The effects of moderate-to-strong non-Kolmogorov turbulence on the angle of arrival (AOA) fluctuations for plane and spherical waves are investigated in detail both analytically and numerically. New analytical expressions for the variance of AOA fluctuations are derived for moderate-to-strong non-Kolmogorov turbulence. The new expressions cover a wider range of non-Kolmogorov turbulence strength and reduce correctly to previously published analytic expressions for the cases of plane and spherical wave propagation through both weak non-Kolmogorov turbulence and moderate-to-strong Kolmogorov turbulence cases. The final results indicate that, as turbulence strength becomes greater, the expressions developed with the Rytov theory deviate from those given in this work. This deviation becomes greater with stronger turbulence, up to moderate-to-strong turbulence strengths. Furthermore, general spectral power law has significant influence on the variance of AOA fluctuations in non-Kolmogorov turbulence. These results are useful for understanding the potential impact of deviations from the standard Kolmogorv spectrum.

  6. Wake Turbulence (United States)


    THIS IS A SAFETY NOTICE. The guidance contained herein supersedes : the guidance provided in the current edition of Order 7110.65, Air Traffic Control, relating to selected wake turbulence separations and aircraft weight classifications. This Notice ...

  7. Suppression of turbulent resistivity in turbulent Couette flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Si, Jiahe, E-mail:; Sonnenfeld, Richard G.; Colgate, Arthur S.; Westpfahl, David J.; Romero, Van D.; Martinic, Joe [New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, Socorro, New Mexico 87801 (United States); Colgate, Stirling A.; Li, Hui [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87544 (United States); Nornberg, Mark D. [University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States)


    Turbulent transport in rapidly rotating shear flow very efficiently transports angular momentum, a critical feature of instabilities responsible both for the dynamics of accretion disks and the turbulent power dissipation in a centrifuge. Turbulent mixing can efficiently transport other quantities like heat and even magnetic flux by enhanced diffusion. This enhancement is particularly evident in homogeneous, isotropic turbulent flows of liquid metals. In the New Mexico dynamo experiment, the effective resistivity is measured using both differential rotation and pulsed magnetic field decay to demonstrate that at very high Reynolds number rotating shear flow can be described entirely by mean flow induction with very little contribution from correlated velocity fluctuations.

  8. Cryogenic turbulence

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva. Audiovisual Unit


    Understanding turbulence is vital in astrophysics, geophysics and many engineering applications, with thermal convection playing a central role. I shall describe progress that has recently been made in understanding this ubiquitous phenomenon by making controlled experiments using low-temperature helium, and a brief account of the frontier topic of superfluid turbulence will also be given. CERN might be able to play a unique role in experiments to probe these two problems.

  9. Optical Histology: High-Resolution Visualization of Tissue Microvasculature (United States)

    Moy, Austin Jing-Ming

    Mammalian tissue requires the delivery of nutrients, growth factors, and the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide gases to maintain normal function. These elements are delivered by the blood, which travels through the connected network of blood vessels, known as the vascular system. The vascular system consists of large feeder blood vessels (arteries and veins) that are connected to the small blood vessels (arterioles and venules), which in turn are connected to the capillaries that are directly connected to the tissue and facilitate gas exchange and nutrient delivery. These small blood vessels and capillaries make up an intricate but organized network of blood vessels that exist in all mammalian tissues known as the microvasculature and are very important in maintaining the health and proper function of mammalian tissue. Due to the importance of the microvasculature in tissue survival, disruption of the microvasculature typically leads to tissue dysfunction and tissue death. The most prevalent method to study the microvasculature is visualization. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) is the gold-standard method to visualize tissue microvasculature. IHC is very well-suited for highly detailed interrogation of the tissue microvasculature at the cellular level but is unwieldy and impractical for wide-field visualization of the tissue microvasculature. The objective my dissertation research was to develop a method to enable wide-field visualization of the microvasculature, while still retaining the high-resolution afforded by optical microscopy. My efforts led to the development of a technique dubbed "optical histology" that combines chemical and optical methods to enable high-resolution visualization of the microvasculature. The development of the technique first involved preliminary studies to quantify optical property changes in optically cleared tissues, followed by development and demonstration of the methodology. Using optical histology, I successfully obtained high

  10. Compact and high-resolution optical orbital angular momentum sorter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenhao Wan


    Full Text Available A compact and high-resolution optical orbital angular momentum (OAM sorter is proposed and demonstrated. The sorter comprises a quadratic fan-out mapper and a dual-phase corrector positioned in the pupil plane and the Fourier plane, respectively. The optical system is greatly simplified compared to previous demonstrations of OAM sorting, and the performance in resolution and efficiency is maintained. A folded configuration is set up using a single reflective spatial light modulator (SLM to demonstrate the validity of the scheme. The two phase elements are implemented on the left and right halves of the SLM and connected by a right-angle prism. Experimental results demonstrate the high resolution of the compact OAM sorter, and the current limit in efficiency can be overcome by replacing with transmissive SLMs and removing the beam splitters. This novel scheme paves the way for the miniaturization and integration of high-resolution OAM sorters.

  11. Prototype high speed optical delay line for stellar interferometry (United States)

    Colavita, M. M.; Hines, B. E.; Shao, M.; Klose, G. J.; Gibson, B. V.


    The long baselines of the next-generation ground-based optical stellar interferometers require optical delay lines which can maintain nm-level path-length accuracy while moving at high speeds. NASA-JPL is currently designing delay lines to meet these requirements. The design is an enhanced version of the Mark III delay line, with the following key features: hardened, large diameter wheels, rather than recirculating ball bearings, to reduce mechanical noise; a friction-drive cart which bears the cable-dragging forces, and drives the optics cart through a force connection only; a balanced PZT assembly to enable high-bandwidth path-length control; and a precision aligned flexural suspension for the optics assembly to minimize bearing noise feedthrough. The delay line is fully programmable in position and velocity, and the system is controlled with four cascaded software feedback loops. Preliminary performance is a jitter in any 5 ms window of less than 10 nm rms for delay rates of up to 28 mm/s; total jitter is less than 10 nm rms for delay rates up to 20 mm/s.

  12. Turbulence in the solar wind

    CERN Document Server

    Bruno, Roberto


    This book provides an overview of solar wind turbulence from both the theoretical and observational perspective. It argues that the interplanetary medium offers the best opportunity to directly study turbulent fluctuations in collisionless plasmas. In fact, during expansion, the solar wind evolves towards a state characterized by large-amplitude fluctuations in all observed parameters, which resembles, at least at large scales, the well-known hydrodynamic turbulence. This text starts with historical references to past observations and experiments on turbulent flows. It then introduces the Navier-Stokes equations for a magnetized plasma whose low-frequency turbulence evolution is described within the framework of the MHD approximation. It also considers the scaling of plasma and magnetic field fluctuations and the study of nonlinear energy cascades within the same framework. It reports observations of turbulence in the ecliptic and at high latitude, treating Alfvénic and compressive fluctuations separately in...

  13. Forest ecosystem respiration estimated from eddy covariance and chamber measurements under high turbulence and substantial tree mortality from bark beetles. (United States)

    Speckman, Heather N; Frank, John M; Bradford, John B; Miles, Brianna L; Massman, William J; Parton, William J; Ryan, Michael G


    Eddy covariance nighttime fluxes are uncertain due to potential measurement biases. Many studies report eddy covariance nighttime flux lower than flux from extrapolated chamber measurements, despite corrections for low turbulence. We compared eddy covariance and chamber estimates of ecosystem respiration at the GLEES Ameriflux site over seven growing seasons under high turbulence [summer night mean friction velocity (u*) = 0.7 m s(-1)], during which bark beetles killed or infested 85% of the aboveground respiring biomass. Chamber-based estimates of ecosystem respiration during the growth season, developed from foliage, wood, and soil CO2 efflux measurements, declined 35% after 85% of the forest basal area had been killed or impaired by bark beetles (from 7.1 ± 0.22 μmol m(-2) s(-1) in 2005 to 4.6 ± 0.16 μmol m(-2) s(-1) in 2011). Soil efflux remained at ~3.3 μmol m(-2) s(-1) throughout the mortality, while the loss of live wood and foliage and their respiration drove the decline of the chamber estimate. Eddy covariance estimates of fluxes at night remained constant over the same period, ~3.0 μmol m(-2) s(-1) for both 2005 (intact forest) and 2011 (85% basal area killed or impaired). Eddy covariance fluxes were lower than chamber estimates of ecosystem respiration (60% lower in 2005, and 32% in 2011), but the mean night estimates from the two techniques were correlated within a year (r(2) from 0.18 to 0.60). The difference between the two techniques was not the result of inadequate turbulence, because the results were robust to a u* filter of >0.7 m s(-1). The decline in the average seasonal difference between the two techniques was strongly correlated with overstory leaf area (r(2) = 0.92). The discrepancy between methods of respiration estimation should be resolved to have confidence in ecosystem carbon flux estimates. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Turbulent Mixing and Combustion for High-Speed Air-Breathing Propulsion Application (United States)


    34* Shan, J. W., Rutgers U. Continuing collaborator. 4.3. Air Force contacts and discussions Meetings and discussions with people listed below from the Air...CeValuatc the accuracy Thc jet was aligned normal to a solid wall (stagnationof the different simulation methodologies. Additionally. new plate assenbly at...250mJ pulse-’ (in the green) with a pulse duration of approximately 6ns. An optical low-pass filter ( Kodak no. 21) was used to isolate the fluorescence

  15. Adaptive optics with pupil tracking for high resolution retinal imaging. (United States)

    Sahin, Betul; Lamory, Barbara; Levecq, Xavier; Harms, Fabrice; Dainty, Chris


    Adaptive optics, when integrated into retinal imaging systems, compensates for rapidly changing ocular aberrations in real time and results in improved high resolution images that reveal the photoreceptor mosaic. Imaging the retina at high resolution has numerous potential medical applications, and yet for the development of commercial products that can be used in the clinic, the complexity and high cost of the present research systems have to be addressed. We present a new method to control the deformable mirror in real time based on pupil tracking measurements which uses the default camera for the alignment of the eye in the retinal imaging system and requires no extra cost or hardware. We also present the first experiments done with a compact adaptive optics flood illumination fundus camera where it was possible to compensate for the higher order aberrations of a moving model eye and in vivo in real time based on pupil tracking measurements, without the real time contribution of a wavefront sensor. As an outcome of this research, we showed that pupil tracking can be effectively used as a low cost and practical adaptive optics tool for high resolution retinal imaging because eye movements constitute an important part of the ocular wavefront dynamics.

  16. Multiserver switch scheduling for high speed optical switches (United States)

    Golla, Prasad; Blanton, John; Damm, Gerard


    A switch matrix implemented as an optical crossbar using semiconductor optical amplifiers is able to accommodate extreme concentrations of data traffic. Due to the need to reduce optical guard band overhead it is beneficial to switch fixed size bursts of data cells on a time slot basis. The high capacity of the optical matrix supports multiple optical ports per burst card, and the implementation of multiple queue servers per burst card helps make better use of the multiplicity of ports. Problems associated with arbitrating multiple ports and multiple servers per burst card have been resolved by extending the operation of existing iterative, single server scheduling algorithms. The multiserver arbitration time will be in proportion to the number of servers -- corresponding to the channels of DWDM link -- unless a reconciliation stage is used after each iteration when an arbiter per server is used. The reconciliation stage sets the problem of broken data dependencies between server arbitrations in this case. Further, to address the time limitations for computing the scheduling solution, parallel arbiter implementations have been developed and tested against single arbiter designs. Again, the broken dependencies between iterations of an arbitration are addressed through the use of a grant reconciliation stage. The use of multiple queue servers per burst card also resolves some of the data loss problems related to polarized traffic. Simulations of the multiple server and parallel arbiter implementations have demonstrated their efficiency compared to previous implementations. Compounded to this problem is maintaining high throughput of the switch matrix while observing data transit time limits. This involves balancing two contradictory requirements; switch or line card efficiency and data transit times. To improve efficiency it is desirable to transmit only full packets. However, to prevent loss of data due to timeout it will be necessary to transmit some incomplete

  17. In vivo skin elastography with high-definition optical videos. (United States)

    Zhang, Yong; Brodell, Robert T; Mostow, Eliot N; Vinyard, Christopher J; Marie, Hazel


    Continuous measurements of biomechanical properties of skin provide potentially valuable information to dermatologists for both clinical diagnosis and quantitative assessment of therapy. This paper presents an experimental study on in vivo imaging of skin elastic properties using high-definition optical videos. The objective is to (i) investigate whether skin property abnormalities can be detected in the computed strain elastograms, (ii) quantify property abnormalities with a Relative Strain Index (RSI), so that an objective rating system can be established, (iii) determine whether certain skin diseases are more amenable to optical elastography and (iv) identify factors that may have an adverse impact on the quality of strain elastograms. There are three steps in optical skin elastography: (i) skin deformations are recorded in a video sequence using a high-definition camcorder, (ii) a dense motion field between two adjacent video frames is obtained using a robust optical flow algorithm, with which a cumulative motion field between two frames of a larger interval is derived and (iii) a strain elastogram is computed by applying two weighted gradient filters to the cumulative motion data. Experiments were carried out using videos of 25 patients. In the three cases presented in this article (hypertrophic lichen planus, seborrheic keratosis and psoriasis vulgaris), abnormal tissues associated with the skin diseases were successfully identified in the elastograms. There exists a good correspondence between the shape of property abnormalities and the area of diseased skin. The computed RSI gives a quantitative measure of the magnitude of property abnormalities that is consistent with the skin stiffness observed on clinical examinations. Optical elastography is a promising imaging modality that is capable of capturing disease-induced property changes. Its main advantage is that an elastogram presents a continuous description of the spatial variation of skin properties on

  18. Structure of high and low shear-stress events in a turbulent boundary layer (United States)

    Gomit, G.; de Kat, R.; Ganapathisubramani, B.


    Simultaneous particle image velocimetry (PIV) and wall-shear-stress sensor measurements were performed to study structures associated with shear-stress events in a flat plate turbulent boundary layer at a Reynolds number Reτ≈4000 . The PIV field of view covers 8 δ (where δ is the boundary layer thickness) along the streamwise direction and captures the entire boundary layer in the wall-normal direction. Simultaneously, wall-shear-stress measurements that capture the large-scale fluctuations were taken using a spanwise array of hot-film skin-friction sensors (spanning 2 δ ). Based on this combination of measurements, the organization of the conditional wall-normal and streamwise velocity fluctuations (u and v ) and of the Reynolds shear stress (-u v ) can be extracted. Conditional averages of the velocity field are computed by dividing the histogram of the large-scale wall-shear-stress fluctuations into four quartiles, each containing 25% of the occurrences. The conditional events corresponding to the extreme quartiles of the histogram (positive and negative) predominantly contribute to a change of velocity profile associated with the large structures and in the modulation of the small scales. A detailed examination of the Reynolds shear-stress contribution related to each of the four quartiles shows that the flow above a low wall-shear-stress event carries a larger amount of Reynolds shear stress than the other quartiles. The contribution of the small and large scales to this observation is discussed based on a scale decomposition of the velocity field.

  19. Modeling, fabrication and high power optical characterization of plasmonic waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lavrinenko, Andrei; Lysenko, Oleg


    , 30 and 45 nm. The fabrication process of such plasmonic waveguides with width in the range of 1-100 μm and their quality inspection are described. The results of optical characterization of plasmonic waveguides using a high power laser with the peak power wavelength 1064 nm show significant deviation......This paper describes modeling, fabrication and high power optical characterization of thin gold films embedded in silicon dioxide. The propagation vector of surface plasmon polaritons has been calculated by the effective index method for the wavelength range of 750-1700 nm and film thickness of 15...... from the linear propagation regime of surface plasmon polaritons at the average input power of 100 mW and above. Possible reasons for this deviation are heating of the waveguides and subsequent changes in the coupling and propagation losses....

  20. Ultra-high-speed optical and electronic distributed devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hietala, V.M.; Plut, T.A.; Kravitz, S.H.; Vawter, G.A.; Wendt, J.R.; Armendariz, M.G.


    This report summarizes work on the development of ultra-high-speed semiconductor optical and electronic devices. High-speed operation is achieved by velocity matching the input stimulus to the output signal along the device`s length. Electronic devices such as field-effect transistors (FET`s), should experience significant speed increases by velocity matching the electrical input and output signals along the device. Likewise, optical devices, which are typically large, can obtain significant bandwidths by velocity matching the light being generated, detected or modulated with the electrical signal on the device`s electrodes. The devices discussed in this report utilize truly distributed electrical design based on slow-wave propagation to achieve velocity matching.

  1. High-speed optical measurement for the drumhead vibration (United States)

    Zhang, Qican; Su, Xianyu


    In this paper, a high-speed optical measurement for the vibrating drumhead is presented and verified by experiment. A projected sinusoidal fringe pattern on the measured drumhead is dynamically deformed with the vibration of the membrane and grabbed by a high-speed camera. The shape deformation of the drumhead at each sampling instant can be recovered from this sequence of obtained fringe patterns. The vibration of the membrane of a Chinese drum has been measured with a high speed sampling rate (1,000 fps) and a standard deviation (0.075 mm). The restored vibration of the drumhead is also presented in an animation.

  2. High-throughput optical coherence tomography at 800 nm. (United States)

    Goda, Keisuke; Fard, Ali; Malik, Omer; Fu, Gilbert; Quach, Alan; Jalali, Bahram


    We report high-throughput optical coherence tomography (OCT) that offers 1,000 times higher axial scan rate than conventional OCT in the 800 nm spectral range. This is made possible by employing photonic time-stretch for chirping a pulse train and transforming it into a passive swept source. We demonstrate a record high axial scan rate of 90.9 MHz. To show the utility of our method, we also demonstrate real-time observation of laser ablation dynamics. Our high-throughput OCT is expected to be useful for industrial applications where the speed of conventional OCT falls short.

  3. A highly scalable particle tracking algorithm using partitioned global address space (PGAS) programming for extreme-scale turbulence simulations (United States)

    Buaria, D.; Yeung, P. K.


    A new parallel algorithm utilizing a partitioned global address space (PGAS) programming model to achieve high scalability is reported for particle tracking in direct numerical simulations of turbulent fluid flow. The work is motivated by the desire to obtain Lagrangian information necessary for the study of turbulent dispersion at the largest problem sizes feasible on current and next-generation multi-petaflop supercomputers. A large population of fluid particles is distributed among parallel processes dynamically, based on instantaneous particle positions such that all of the interpolation information needed for each particle is available either locally on its host process or neighboring processes holding adjacent sub-domains of the velocity field. With cubic splines as the preferred interpolation method, the new algorithm is designed to minimize the need for communication, by transferring between adjacent processes only those spline coefficients determined to be necessary for specific particles. This transfer is implemented very efficiently as a one-sided communication, using Co-Array Fortran (CAF) features which facilitate small data movements between different local partitions of a large global array. The cost of monitoring transfer of particle properties between adjacent processes for particles migrating across sub-domain boundaries is found to be small. Detailed benchmarks are obtained on the Cray petascale supercomputer Blue Waters at the University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign. For operations on the particles in a 81923 simulation (0.55 trillion grid points) on 262,144 Cray XE6 cores, the new algorithm is found to be orders of magnitude faster relative to a prior algorithm in which each particle is tracked by the same parallel process at all times. This large speedup reduces the additional cost of tracking of order 300 million particles to just over 50% of the cost of computing the Eulerian velocity field at this scale. Improving support of PGAS models on

  4. High-throughput optical screening of cellular mechanotransduction


    Compton, JL; Luo, JC; Ma, H.; Botvinick, E; Venugopalan, V


    We introduce an optical platform for rapid, high-throughput screening of exogenous molecules that affect cellular mechanotransduction. Our method initiates mechanotransduction in adherent cells using single laser-microbeam generated microcavitation bubbles without requiring flow chambers or microfluidics. These microcavitation bubbles expose adherent cells to a microtsunami, a transient microscale burst of hydrodynamic shear stress, which stimulates cells over areas approaching 1 mm2. We demo...

  5. Progress Toward Demonstrating a High Performance Optical Tape Recording Technology (United States)

    Oakley, W. S.


    This paper discusses the technology developments achieved during the first year of a program to develop a high performance digital optical tape recording device using a solid state, diode pumped, frequency doubled green laser source. The goal is to demonstrate, within two years, useful read/write data transfer rates to at least 100 megabytes per second and a user capacity of up to one terabyte per cartridge implemented in a system using a '3480' style mono-reel tape cartridge.

  6. Advanced Optical Fibers for High power Fiber lasers (United States)


    unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. propagation of a higher-order mode in a...demonstrated high efficiency and excellent mode quality (see Figure 27(b) and (c)). The fiber also demonstrated robust single- mode behavior near the short...core chirally coupled core optical fibers,” PhotonicsWest, paper 8237-59, 2012. [45] T. A. Birks, G. J. Pearce, D. M. Bird , “Approximate band structure

  7. Turbulent characteristics of shear-thinning fluids in recirculating flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, A.S. [Inst. Superior de Engenharia do Porto (Portugal). Dept. de Engenharia Quimica; Pinho, F.T. [Centro de Estudos de Fenomenos de Transporte, Departamento de Engenharia Mecanica e Gestao Industrial, Faculdade de Engenharia da Universidade do Porto, Rua dos Bragas, 4050-123 Porto (Portugal)


    A miniaturised fibre optic laser-Doppler anemometer was used to carry out a detailed hydrodynamic investigation of the flow downstream of a sudden expansion with 0.1-0.2% by weight shear-thinning aqueous solutions of xanthan gum. Upstream of the sudden expansion the pipe flow was fully-developed and the xanthan gum solutions exhibited drag reduction with corresponding lower radial and tangential normal Reynolds stresses, but higher axial Reynolds stress near the wall and a flatter axial mean velocity profile in comparison with Newtonian flow. The recirculation bubble length was reduced by more than 20% relative to the high Reynolds number Newtonian flow, and this was attributed to the occurrence further upstream of high turbulence for the non-Newtonian solutions, because of advection of turbulence and earlier high turbulence production in the shear layer. Comparisons with the measurements of Escudier and Smith (1999) with similar fluids emphasized the dominating role of inlet turbulence. The present was less anisotropic, and had lower maximum axial Reynolds stresses (by 16%) but higher radial turbulence (20%) than theirs. They reported considerably longer recirculating bubble lengths than we do for similar non-Newtonian fluids and Reynolds numbers. (orig.)

  8. Angstrom-range optical path-length measurement with a high-speed scanning heterodyne optical interferometer. (United States)

    Riza, Nabeel A; Arain, Muzammil A


    A highly accurate method of optical path-length measurement is introduced by use of a scanning heterodyne optical interferometer with no moving parts. The instrument has demonstrated the potential to measure optical path length at angstrom resolution over continuous thickness in the micrometer range. This optical path length can be used to calculate the thickness of any material if the refractive index is known or to measure the refractive index of the material if the thickness is known. The instrument uses a single acousto-optic device in an in-line ultra-stable reflective geometry to implement rapid scanning in the microsecond domain for thickness measurements of the test medium.

  9. Fiber optic chemical sensors: The evolution of high- density fiber-optic DNA microarrays (United States)

    Ferguson, Jane A.


    Sensors were developed for multianalyte monitoring, fermentation monitoring, lactate analysis, remote oxygen detection for use in bioremediation monitoring and in a fuel spill clean-up project, heavy metal analysis, and high density DNA microarrays. The major focus of this thesis involved creating and improving high-density DNA gene arrays. Fiber optic sensors are created using fluorescent indicators, polymeric supports, and optical fiber substrates. The fluorescent indicator is entrapped in a polymer layer and attached to the tip of the optical fiber. The tip of the fiber bearing the sensing layer (the distal end) is placed in the sample of interest while the other end of the fiber (the proximal end) is connected to an analysis system. Any length of fiber can be used without compromising the integrity or sensitivity of the system. A fiber optic oxygen sensor was designed incorporating an oxygen sensitive fluorescent dye and a gas permeable polymer attached to an optical fiber. The construction simplicity and ruggedness of the sensor enabled its deployment for in situ chemical oxidation and bioremediation studies. Optical fibers were also used as the substrate to detect biomolecules in solution. To monitor bioprocesses, the production of the analyte of interest must be coupled with a species that is optically measurable. For example, oxygen is consumed in many metabolic functions. The fiber optic oxygen sensor is equipped with an additional sensing layer. Upon contact with a specific biochemical in the sample, a reaction occurs in the additional sensing layer that either consumes or produces oxygen. This dual layer system was used to monitor the presence of lactate, an important metabolite for clinical and bioprocess analysis. In many biological and environmental systems, the generation of one species occurs coincidentally with the generation or consumption of another species. A multianalyte sensor was prepared that can monitor the simultaneous activity of pH, CO2

  10. Recent progress in developing highly efficient and thermally stable nonlinear optical polymers for electro-optics (United States)

    Luo, Jingdong; Liu, Sen; Haller, Marnie A.; Kang, Jae-Wook; Kim, Tae-Dong; Jang, Sei-Hum; Chen, Baoquan; Tucker, Neil; Li, Hongxiang; Tang, Hong-Zhi; Dalton, Larry R.; Liao, Yi; Robinson, Bruce H.; Jen, Alex K.


    Recent development of high-performance nonlinear optical polymers for electro-optics (E-O) is reviewed in this paper. A highly efficient and thermally stable nonlinear optical (NLO) chromophore, namely 2-[4-(2-{5-[2-(4-{Bis-(tert-butyl-dimethyl-silanyloxy)-ethyl]-amino}-phenyl)-vinyl]-thiophen-2-yl}-vinyl)-3-cyano-5-trifluoromethyl-5H-furan-2-ylidene]-malononitrile, has been prepared and incorporated in amorphous polycarbonate (APC) composites. The result from high electric field poling shows a very large E-O coefficient (r33 = 94 pm/V at 1.3 μm), 80% of which can be maintained at 85 °C for more than 500 hours. In addition to this guest/host sysytem, a high Tg side-chain polymer, derived from a 3-D cardo-type polimide with dendron-encapsulated chromophores as pendent groups has also been synthesized and characterized. A high degree of chromophore dipole orientation and a large r33 of 71 pm/V at 1.3 μm can be achieved in this poled polyimide. More than 90% of its E-O activity can be maintained at 85 °C for more than 600 hours. To access the full potential of poled polymers for device applications, we have developed a new lattice-hardening approach to overcome the "nonlinearity-stability-tradeoff" of conventional thermoset methods. By using the Diels-Alder lattice-hardening process, we can achieve the same high poling efficiency and large r33value as in a guest-host system while maintaining good thermal stability seen in densely-crosslinked polymers. By modifying the electronic properties of the crosslinking reagents, we can fine-tune the processing temperature window of the Diels-Alder reactions to achieve hardened materials with optimal properties.

  11. Error-landscape-based multiobjective calibration of the Smagorinsky eddy-viscosity using high-Reynolds-number decaying turbulence data (United States)

    Meyers, Johan; Meneveau, Charles; Geurts, Bernard J.


    A suite of large-eddy simulations (LESs) of decaying homogeneous isotropic turbulence at high Reynolds numbers is performed and compared to wind-tunnel experiments in the tradition of Comte-Bellot and Corrsin. The error-landscape approach is used for the evaluation of the Smagorinsky model, and the results are used to identify an optimal combination of model parameter and resolution in a statistically robust fashion. The use of experimental reference data in the error-landscape approach allows to evaluate the optimal Smagorinsky coefficient at high Reynolds numbers and to perform detailed comparisons with analytical predictions. We demonstrate, using a pseudospectral discretization, that the optimal so-called Smagorinsky trajectory obtained from the error-landscape analysis converges at high simulation resolutions to the high-Re theoretical Lilly prediction for the Smagorinsky coefficient. Using modified wavenumbers in the same spectral code, the current study also presents error-landscape results based on LES with "second-order" discretization errors. By slightly revising Lilly's analysis, we show that including the effect of numerical discretization when evaluating the strain-rate tensor needed in the subgrid-scale model leads to a good prediction of the optimal Smagorinsky parameter obtained from the corresponding error-landscape. Using similar analytical tools, we further demonstrate that the dynamic procedure can also be adapted to better account for the effects of discretization and test-filter shape.

  12. Comparison of turbulence mitigation algorithms (United States)

    Kozacik, Stephen T.; Paolini, Aaron; Sherman, Ariel; Bonnett, James; Kelmelis, Eric


    When capturing imagery over long distances, atmospheric turbulence often degrades the data, especially when observation paths are close to the ground or in hot environments. These issues manifest as time-varying scintillation and warping effects that decrease the effective resolution of the sensor and reduce actionable intelligence. In recent years, several image processing approaches to turbulence mitigation have shown promise. Each of these algorithms has different computational requirements, usability demands, and degrees of independence from camera sensors. They also produce different degrees of enhancement when applied to turbulent imagery. Additionally, some of these algorithms are applicable to real-time operational scenarios while others may only be suitable for postprocessing workflows. EM Photonics has been developing image-processing-based turbulence mitigation technology since 2005. We will compare techniques from the literature with our commercially available, real-time, GPU-accelerated turbulence mitigation software. These comparisons will be made using real (not synthetic), experimentally obtained data for a variety of conditions, including varying optical hardware, imaging range, subjects, and turbulence conditions. Comparison metrics will include image quality, video latency, computational complexity, and potential for real-time operation. Additionally, we will present a technique for quantitatively comparing turbulence mitigation algorithms using real images of radial resolution targets.

  13. Relaxation, turbulence, and non-equilibrium dynamics of matter fields. From quantum fluids to high-energy physics RETUNE. Abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The following topics were dealt with: Superfluidity and quantum turbulence, quantum vortices and their reconnections, quantum hydrodynamics and turbulence in Bose-Einstein condensates, phase transitions in turbulence, perfect fluidity in relativistic heavy ion collisions, off-shell dynamical approach for relativistic heavy ion collisions, turbulence in the early universe, a superfluid universe, superfluidity and hydrodynamic excitations in out-of-equilibrium polariton condensates, two-dimensional quantum turbulence in Bose-Einstein condensates, nonequilibrium Bose gases with classical fields, turbulence in superfluid {sup 4}He in the T=0 limit, condensation, superfluidity and lasing of coupled light-matter systems, tachyon condensation in Bose-Einstein condensates, Bose-Einstein condensation of magnons in superfluid {sup 3}He-B and its application to vortex studies, wave turbulence in Bose-Einstein condensates, instability in an expanding non-Abelian system, nonabelian plasma instabilities, quantum turbulence in an atomic trapped superfluid, nonthermal fixed points and superfluid turbulence, macroscopic quantum tunneling in Bose-Einstein condensates, pair coherence in many-body quenches, sound waves in non-stationary media, thermalization induced by chaotic behavior in classical Yang-Mills dynamics, chiral superfluidity of the quark-gluon plasma, functional renormalization-group flow for Burger's equation, anomalous scaling in the random-force-driven Burger's equation, Kadanoff-Baym approach to thermalization, many-body resonant tunneling in the Wannier system, generalized Boltzmann equation in ultrasoft region, dynamical view of the Schwinger mechanism, parity violation in hydrogen and squeezing. (HSI)

  14. Unsteady turbulence cascades. (United States)

    Goto, Susumu; Vassilicos, J C


    We have run a total of 311 direct numerical simulations (DNSs) of decaying three-dimensional Navier-Stokes turbulence in a periodic box with values of the Taylor length-based Reynolds number up to about 300 and an energy spectrum with a wide wave-number range of close to -5/3 power-law dependence at the higher Reynolds numbers. On the basis of these runs, we have found a critical time when (i) the rate of change of the square of the integral length scale turns from increasing to decreasing, (ii) the ratio of interscale energy flux to high-pass filtered turbulence dissipation changes from decreasing to very slowly increasing in the inertial range, (iii) the signature of large-scale coherent structures disappears in the energy spectrum, and (iv) the scaling of the turbulence dissipation changes from the one recently discovered in DNSs of forced unsteady turbulence and in wind tunnel experiments of turbulent wakes and grid-generated turbulence to the classical scaling proposed by G. I. Taylor [Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. A 151, 421 (1935)1364-502110.1098/rspa.1935.0158] and A. N. Kolmogorov [Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR 31, 538 (1941)]. Even though the customary theoretical basis for this Taylor-Kolmogorov scaling is a statistically stationary cascade where large-scale energy flux balances dissipation, this is not the case throughout the entire time range of integration in all our DNS runs. The recently discovered dissipation scaling can be reformulated physically as a situation in which the dissipation rates of the small and large scales evolve together. We advance two hypotheses that may form the basis of a theoretical approach to unsteady turbulence cascades in the presence of large-scale coherent structures.

  15. High-dose radiation sensor with wireless optical detection (United States)

    Knapkiewicz, Paweł; Augustyniak, Izabela; Sareło, Katarzyna; Gorecka-Drzazga, Anna; Dziuban, Jan


    We present a miniature silicon-glass MEMS sensor for measurement of high doses of ionizing radiation (above 10 kGy) using a novel wireless optical detection method. The radiation sensor is a miniaturized version of the so-called hydrogen dosimeter. An amount of high-density polyethylene, located inside the MEMS sensor, degrades under ionizing radiation, releasing gaseous hydrogen. The increasing pressure deflects the thin silicon membrane. The sensor’s destructive and proportional modes of work are also proposed. In the destructive mode, sensors provide in situ information on excessive and discrete levels of radiation. The optical detection method is based on an optical head consisting of a moving membrane and a silicon screen with a matrix of micro-holes. Laser light is reflected from the membrane and scattered when the membrane is deflected, in the process illuminating the holes on the silicon screen. The number of illuminated holes is a function of the degree of membrane deflection; the transformation of the holes to the deflection allows for the calculation of pressure and eventually the dose of ionizing radiation.

  16. Workshop on high heat load x-ray optics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    A workshop on High Heat Load X-Ray Optics'' was held at Argonne National Laboratory on August 3--5, 1989. The object of this workshop was to discuss recent advances in the art of cooling x-ray optics subject to high heat loads from synchrotron beams. The cooling of the first optical element in the intense photon beams that will be produced in the next generation of synchrotron sources is recognized as one of the major challenges that must be faced before one will be able to use these very intense beams in future synchrotron experiments. Considerable advances have been made in this art during the last few years, but much work remains to be done before the heating problem can be said to be completely solved. Special emphasis was placed on recent cooling experiments and detailed finite element'' and finite difference'' calculations comparing experiment with theory and extending theory to optimize performance.

  17. High-speed digital fiber optic links for satellite traffic (United States)

    Daryoush, A. S.; Ackerman, E.; Saedi, R.; Kunath, R. R.; Shalkhauser, K.


    Large aperture phased array antennas operating at millimeter wave frequencies are designed for space-based communications and imaging platforms. Array elements are comprised of active T/R modules which are linked to the central processing unit through high-speed fiber-optic networks. The system architecture satisfying system requirements at millimeter wave frequency is T/R level data mixing where data and frequency reference signals are distributed independently before mixing at the T/R modules. This paper demonstrates design procedures of a low loss high-speed fiber-optic link used for transmission of data signals over 600-900 MHz bandwidth inside satellite. The fiber-optic link is characterized for transmission of analog and digital data. A dynamic range of 79 dB/MHz was measured for analog data over the bandwidth. On the other hand, for bursted SMSK satellite traffic at 220 Mbps rates, BER of 2 x 10 to the -7th was measured for E(b)/N(o) of 14.3 dB.

  18. High power compatible internally sensed optical phased array. (United States)

    Roberts, Lyle E; Ward, Robert L; Francis, Samuel P; Sibley, Paul G; Fleddermann, Roland; Sutton, Andrew J; Smith, Craig; McClelland, David E; Shaddock, Daniel A


    The technical embodiment of the Huygens-Fresnel principle, an optical phased array (OPA) is an arrangement of optical emitters with relative phases controlled to create a desired beam profile after propagation. One important application of an OPA is coherent beam combining (CBC), which can be used to create beams of higher power than is possible with a single laser source, especially for narrow linewidth sources. Here we present an all-fiber architecture that stabilizes the relative output phase by inferring the relative path length differences between lasers using the small fraction of light that is back-reflected into the fiber at the OPA's glass-air interface, without the need for any external sampling optics. This architecture is compatible with high power continuous wave laser sources (e.g., fiber amplifiers) up to 100 W per channel. The high-power compatible internally sensed OPA was implemented experimentally using commercial 15 W fiber amplifiers, demonstrating an output RMS phase stability of λ/194, and the ability to steer the beam at up to 10 kHz.

  19. Applications of nonimaging optics for very high solar concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O`Gallagher, J.; Winston, R.


    Using the principles and techniques of nonimaging optics, solar concentrations that approach the theoretical maximum can be achieved. This has applications in solar energy collection wherever concentration is desired. In this paper, we survey recent progress in attaining and using high and ultrahigh solar fluxes. We review a number of potential applications for highly concentrated solar energy and the current status of the associated technology. By making possible new and unique applications for intense solar flux, these techniques have opened a whole new frontier for research and development of potentially economic uses of solar energy.

  20. Short-term optical variability of high-redshift QSO's


    Bachev, R.; Strigachev, A.; Semkov, E.


    This paper presents results of a search for short-term variability in the optical band of selected high-luminosity, high-redshift radio-quiet quasars. Each quasar has been monitored typically for 2 - 4 hours with a time resolution of 2 - 5 minutes and a photometric accuracy of about 0.01 - 0.02 mag. Due to the significant redshift (z>2), the covered wavelength range falls into the UV region (typically 1500 - 2500A). We found no statistical evidence for any continuum variations larger than 0.0...

  1. Turbulent Thermalization

    CERN Document Server

    Micha, Raphael; Micha, Raphael; Tkachev, Igor I.


    We study, analytically and with lattice simulations, the decay of coherent field oscillations and the subsequent thermalization of the resulting stochastic classical wave-field. The problem of reheating of the Universe after inflation constitutes our prime motivation and application of the results. We identify three different stages of these processes. During the initial stage of ``parametric resonance'', only a small fraction of the initial inflaton energy is transferred to fluctuations in the physically relevant case of sufficiently large couplings. A major fraction is transfered in the prompt regime of driven turbulence. The subsequent long stage of thermalization classifies as free turbulence. During the turbulent stages, the evolution of particle distribution functions is self-similar. We show that wave kinetic theory successfully describes the late stages of our lattice calculation. Our analytical results are general and give estimates of reheating time and temperature in terms of coupling constants and...

  2. Optical diffraction tomography for high resolution live cell imaging (United States)

    Sung, Yongjin; Choi, Wonshik; Fang-Yen, Christopher; Badizadegan, Kamran; Dasari, Ramachandra R.; Feld, Michael S.


    We report the experimental implementation of optical diffraction tomography for quantitative 3D mapping of refractive index in live biological cells. Using a heterodyne Mach-Zehnder interferometer, we record complex field images of light transmitted through a sample with varying directions of illumination. To quantitatively reconstruct the 3D map of complex refractive index in live cells, we apply optical diffraction tomography based on the Rytov approximation. In this way, the effect of diffraction is taken into account in the reconstruction process and diffraction-free high resolution 3D images are obtained throughout the entire sample volume. The quantitative refractive index map can potentially serve as an intrinsic assay to provide the molecular concentrations without the addition of exogenous agents and also to provide a method for studying the light scattering properties of single cells. PMID:19129896

  3. Optical fiber distributed sensing for high temperature superconductor magnets (United States)

    Scurti, Federico; Schwartz, Justin


    Over the last two decades, high temperature superconductors (HTS) have achieved performance and technical maturity that make them an enabling technology or an attractive solution for a number of applications like electric motors and generators, particle accelerators and fusion magnets. One of the remaining challenges that hinders a wide use of HTS and needs to be solved is quench detection, since conventional voltage based quench detection puts HTS magnets at risk. In this work we have developed and experimentally investigated the application of Rayleigh-backscattering interrogated optical fibers (RIOF) to the detection of normal zones in superconducting magnets. Different ways to integrate optical fibers into magnets are explored and the earlier detection of RIOF compared to voltage is demonstrated.

  4. Electro-optic polymers for high speed modulators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balakrishnan, M.; Diemeer, Mart; Driessen, A.; Faccini, M.; Verboom, Willem; Reinhoudt, David; Leinse, Arne; Megret, P.; Wuilpart, M.; Bette, S.; Staquet, N.


    Different electro-optic polymer systems are analyzed with respect to their electro-optic activity, glass transition temperature $(T_g)$ and photodefinable properties. The polymers tested are polysulfone (PS) and polycarbonate (PC). The electro-optic chromophore,

  5. High-dynamic-range and high-capacity RF and microwave fiber optic links (United States)

    Weiss, Frank


    Novel fiber optic transmitter control methodologies, high optical power and low RIN source lasers, high performance photodiodes and DWDM laser capability provide high dynamic range and high capacity transport for a wide range of sensing and communications applications. Measured component and system level test data demonstrates these performance improvements. Higher spur free dynamic range in excess of 110 dB·Hz2/3 over broad range of K-band frequencies is demonstrated, increasing the practical use of fiber as a transport method for high sensitivity applications. Multichannel DWDM operation provides simplified capacity expansion without compromising system performance, allowing arrayed photonic systems to be deployed. System characterization for a wide range of optical wavelengths and RF frequencies is provided to demonstrate these levels of performance in practical applications. Photonic component cost reductions combined with compact packaging further increase the ability of high performance fiber optic transport to address a wider range of applications, as the size, weight and performance barriers are eliminated. This paper provides a summary of the current state of the art of commercially available photonic components for high performance externally modulated analog optical links from a practical perspective.

  6. Turbulence closure: turbulence, waves and the wave-turbulence transition – Part 1: Vanishing mean shear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Z. Baumert


    Full Text Available This paper extends a turbulence closure-like model for stably stratified flows into a new dynamic domain in which turbulence is generated by internal gravity waves rather than mean shear. The model turbulent kinetic energy (TKE, K balance, its first equation, incorporates a term for the energy transfer from internal waves to turbulence. This energy source is in addition to the traditional shear production. The second variable of the new two-equation model is the turbulent enstrophy (Ω. Compared to the traditional shear-only case, the Ω-equation is modified to account for the effect of the waves on the turbulence time and space scales. This modification is based on the assumption of a non-zero constant flux Richardson number in the limit of vanishing mean shear when turbulence is produced exclusively by internal waves. This paper is part 1 of a continuing theoretical development. It accounts for mean shear- and internal wave-driven mixing only in the two limits of mean shear and no waves and waves but no mean shear, respectively.

    The new model reproduces the wave-turbulence transition analyzed by D'Asaro and Lien (2000b. At small energy density E of the internal wave field, the turbulent dissipation rate (ε scales like ε~E2. This is what is observed in the deep sea. With increasing E, after the wave-turbulence transition has been passed, the scaling changes to ε~E1. This is observed, for example, in the highly energetic tidal flow near a sill in Knight Inlet. The new model further exhibits a turbulent length scale proportional to the Ozmidov scale, as observed in the ocean, and predicts the ratio between the turbulent Thorpe and Ozmidov length scales well within the range observed in the ocean.

  7. Turbulence Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mogens Peter; Shui, Wan; Johansson, Jens


    In this report a new turbulence model is presented.In contrast to the bulk of modern work, the model is a classical continuum model with a relatively simple constitutive equation. The constitutive equation is, as usual in continuum mechanics, entirely empirical. It has the usual Newton or Stokes...... term with stresses depending linearly on the strain rates. This term takes into account the transfer of linear momentum from one part of the fluid to another. Besides there is another term, which takes into account the transfer of angular momentum. Thus the model implies a new definition of turbulence...

  8. High-Performance Airborne Optical Carbon Dioxide Analyzer Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Environmental species measurement on airborne atmospheric research craft is a demanding application for optical sensing techniques. Yet optical techniques offer many...

  9. Estimation of Wind Turbulence Using Spectral Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soltani, Mohsen; Knudsen, Torben; Bak, Thomas


    The production and loading of wind farms are significantly influenced by the turbulence of the flowing wind field. Estimation of turbulence allows us to optimize the performance of the wind farm. Turbulence estimation is; however, highly challenging due to the chaotic behavior of the wind...... speed outside the wind field. The results show that the method is able to provide estimations which explain more than 50% of the wind turbulence from the distance of about 300 meters....

  10. The strange physics of low frequency mirror mode turbulence in the high temperature plasma of the magnetosheath

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Treumann


    Full Text Available Mirror mode turbulence is the lowest frequency perpendicular magnetic excitation in magnetized plasma proposed already about half a century ago by Rudakov and Sagdeev (1958 and Chandrasekhar et al. (1958 from fluid theory. Its experimental verification required a relatively long time. It was early recognized that mirror modes for being excited require a transverse pressure (or temperature anisotropy. In principle mirror modes are some version of slow mode waves. Fluid theory, however, does not give a correct physical picture of the mirror mode. The linear infinitesimally small amplitude physics is described correctly only by including the full kinetic theory and is modified by existing spatial gradients of the plasma parameters which attribute a small finite frequency to the mode. In addition, the mode is propagating only very slowly in plasma such that convective transport is the main cause of flow in it. As the lowest frequency mode it can be expected that mirror modes serve as one of the dominant energy inputs into plasma. This is however true only when the mode grows to large amplitude leaving the linear stage. At such low frequencies, on the other hand, quasilinear theory does not apply as a valid saturation mechanism. Probably the dominant processes are related to the generation of gradients in the plasma which serve as the cause of drift modes thus transferring energy to shorter wavelength propagating waves of higher nonzero frequency. This kind of theory has not yet been developed as it has not yet been understood why mirror modes in spite of their slow growth rate usually are of very large amplitudes indeed of the order of |B/B0|2~O(1. It is thus highly reasonable to assume that mirror modes are instrumental for the development of stationary turbulence in high temperature plasma. Moreover, since the magnetic field in mirror turbulence forms extended though slightly oblique magnetic bottles, low parallel energy particles can be trapped

  11. High Performance Hybrid RANS-LES Simulation Framework for Turbulent Combusting Flows Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The innovation proposed here is a computational framework for high performance, high fidelity computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to enable accurate, fast and robust...

  12. High Frequency Measurements in Shock-Wave/Turbulent Boundary-Layer Interaction at Duplicated Flight Conditions Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Large amplitude, unsteady heating loads and steep flow gradients produced in regions of shock-wave/turbulent boundary-layer interaction (SWTBLI) pose a serious and...

  13. Full Coverage Shaped Hole Film Cooling in an Accelerating Boundary Layer with High Free-Stream Turbulence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ames, Forrest E. [University of North Dakota; Kingery, Joseph E. [University of North Dakota


    Full coverage shaped-hole film cooling and downstream heat transfer measurements have been acquired in the accelerating flows over a large cylindrical leading edge test surface. The shaped holes had an 8° lateral expansion angled at 30° to the surface with spanwise and streamwise spacings of 3 diameters. Measurements were conducted at four blowing ratios, two Reynolds numbers and six well documented turbulence conditions. Film cooling measurements were acquired over a four to one range in blowing ratio at the lower Reynolds number and at the two lower blowing ratios for the higher Reynolds number. The film cooling measurements were acquired at a coolant to free-stream density ratio of approximately 1.04. The flows were subjected to a low turbulence condition (Tu = 0.7%), two levels of turbulence for a smaller sized grid (Tu = 3.5%, and 7.9%), one turbulence level for a larger grid (8.1%), and two levels of turbulence generated using a mock aero-combustor (Tu = 9.3% and 13.7%). Turbulence level is shown to have a significant influence in mixing away film cooling coverage progressively as the flow develops in the streamwise direction. Effectiveness levels for the aero-combustor turbulence condition are reduced to as low as 20% of low turbulence values by the furthest downstream region. The film cooling discharge is located close to the leading edge with very thin and accelerating upstream boundary layers. Film cooling data at the lower Reynolds number, show that transitional flows have significantly improved effectiveness levels compared with turbulent flows. Downstream effectiveness levels are very similar to slot film cooling data taken at the same coolant flow rates over the same cylindrical test surface. However, slots perform significantly better in the near discharge region. These data are expected to be very useful in grounding computational predictions of full coverage shaped hole film cooling with elevated turbulence levels and acceleration. IR

  14. High-Frequency Electrostatic Wave Generation and Transverse Ion Acceleration by Low Alfvenic Wave Components of BBELF Turbulence (United States)

    Singh, Nagendra; Khazanov, George; Mukhter, Ali


    Satellite observations in the auroral plasma have revealed that extremely low frequency (ELF) waves play a dominant role in the acceleration of electrons and ions in the auroral plasma. The electromagnetic components of the ELF (EMELF) waves are the electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves below the cyclotron frequency of the lightest ion species in a multi-ion plasma. Shear Alfv6n waves (SAWS) constitute the lowest frequency components of the ELF waves below the ion cyclotron frequency of the heaviest ion. The -2 mechanism for the transfer of energy from such EMELF waves to ions affecting transverse ion heating still remains a matter of debate. A very ubiquitous fe8ture of ELF waves now observed in several rocket and satellite experiments is that they occur in conjunction with high-frequency electrostatic waves. The frequency spectrum of the composite wave turbulence extends from the low frequency of the Alfvenic waves to the high frequency of proton plasma frequency and/or the lower hybrid frequency. The spectrum does not show any feature organized by the ion cyclotron frequencies and their harmonics. Such broadband waves consisting of both the EM and ES waves are now popularly referred as BBELF waves. We present results here from 2.5-D particle-in-cell simulations showing that the ES components are directly generated by cross- field plasma instabilities driven by the drifts of the ions and electrons in the EM component of the BBELF waves.

  15. Efficacy of single-component MTV to measure turbulent wall-flow velocity derivative profiles at high resolution (United States)

    Elsnab, John R.; Monty, Jason P.; White, Christopher M.; Koochesfahani, Manoochehr M.; Klewicki, Joseph C.


    Physical interpretations and especially analytical considerations benefit from the ability to accurately estimate derivatives of experimentally measured statistical profiles. Toward this aim, experiments were conducted to investigate the efficacy of single-component molecular tagging velocimetry (1c-MTV) to measure mean velocity profiles that can be differentiated multiple times. Critical effects here pertain to finite measurement uncertainty in the presence of high spatial resolution. Measurements acquired in fully developed turbulent channel flow over a friction Reynolds number range from 390 to 1800 are used to investigate these issues. Each measured profile contains about 880 equally spaced data points that span from near the edge of the viscous sublayer to the channel centreline. As a result of the high spatial resolution, even very small levels of uncertainty in the data adversely affect the capacity to produce smooth velocity derivative profiles. It is demonstrated that the present 1c-MTV measurements can be differentiated twice, with the resulting profile remaining smooth and accurate. The experimental mean velocity profiles and their wall-normal derivatives up to second order are shown to convincingly agree with existing DNS data, including the apparent variations with Reynolds number.

  16. High-sensitivity bend angle measurements using optical fiber gratings. (United States)

    Rauf, Abdul; Zhao, Jianlin; Jiang, Biqiang


    We present a high-sensitivity and more flexible bend measurement method, which is based on the coupling of core mode to the cladding modes at the bending region in concatenation with optical fiber grating serving as band reflector. The characteristics of a bend sensing arm composed of bending region and optical fiber grating is examined for different configurations including single fiber Bragg grating (FBG), chirped FBG (CFBG), and double FBGs. The bend loss curves for coated, stripped, and etched sections of fiber in the bending region with FBG, CFBG, and double FBG are obtained experimentally. The effect of separation between bending region and optical fiber grating on loss is measured. The loss responses for single FBG and CFBG configurations are compared to discover the effectiveness for practical applications. It is demonstrated that the sensitivity of the double FBG scheme is twice that of the single FBG and CFBG configurations, and hence acts as sensitivity multiplier. The bend loss response for different fiber diameters obtained through etching in 40% hydrofluoric acid, is measured in double FBG scheme that resulted in a significant increase in the sensitivity, and reduction of dead-zone.

  17. High Speed and High Spatial Density Parameter Measurement Using Fiber Optic Sensing Technology (United States)

    Parker, Allen R. Jr. (Inventor); Chan, Hon Man (Inventor); Richards, William Lance (Inventor); Piazza, Anthony (Inventor); Hamory, Philip J (Inventor)


    The present invention is an improved fiber optic sensing system (FOSS) having the ability to provide both high spatial resolution and high frequency strain measurements. The inventive hybrid FOSS fiber combines sensors from high acquisition speed and low spatial resolution Wavelength-Division Multiplexing (WDM) systems and from low acquisition speed and high spatial resolution Optical Frequency Domain Reflection (OFDR) systems. Two unique light sources utilizing different wavelengths are coupled with the hybrid FOSS fiber to generate reflected data from both the WDM sensors and OFDR sensors operating on a single fiber optic cable without incurring interference from one another. The two data sets are then de-multiplexed for analysis, optionally with conventionally-available WDM and OFDR system analyzers.

  18. Advances in compressible turbulent mixing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dannevik, W.P.; Buckingham, A.C.; Leith, C.E. [eds.


    This volume includes some recent additions to original material prepared for the Princeton International Workshop on the Physics of Compressible Turbulent Mixing, held in 1988. Workshop participants were asked to emphasize the physics of the compressible mixing process rather than measurement techniques or computational methods. Actual experimental results and their meaning were given precedence over discussions of new diagnostic developments. Theoretical interpretations and understanding were stressed rather than the exposition of new analytical model developments or advances in numerical procedures. By design, compressibility influences on turbulent mixing were discussed--almost exclusively--from the perspective of supersonic flow field studies. The papers are arranged in three topical categories: Foundations, Vortical Domination, and Strongly Coupled Compressibility. The Foundations category is a collection of seminal studies that connect current study in compressible turbulent mixing with compressible, high-speed turbulent flow research that almost vanished about two decades ago. A number of contributions are included on flow instability initiation, evolution, and transition between the states of unstable flow onset through those descriptive of fully developed turbulence. The Vortical Domination category includes theoretical and experimental studies of coherent structures, vortex pairing, vortex-dynamics-influenced pressure focusing. In the Strongly Coupled Compressibility category the organizers included the high-speed turbulent flow investigations in which the interaction of shock waves could be considered an important source for production of new turbulence or for the enhancement of pre-existing turbulence. Individual papers are processed separately.

  19. Assessment of the t-model as a SGS model for LES of high-Re turbulent flows (United States)

    Chandy, Abhilash; Frankel, Steven


    The recently developed optimal prediction-based t-model (PNAS, 2007) is quantitatively assessed as a SGS turbulence model for LES of decaying homogeneous turbulence (DHT) and transition to turbulence for the Taylor-Green vortex (TGV) through comparisons to laboratory measurements and DNS. The t-model is based on the idea the motion of a vortex at one scale is influenced by the past history of motion of vortices in other scales (``long memory'' effects). t-model predictions are compared to the classic non-dynamic Smagorinsky model. Regarding the t-model, this work represents its first application to decaying turbulence with comparison to active-grid-generated decaying turbulence measurements of Kang et al. (J. Fluid Mech., 2003) at Reλ 720 and Re=3000 DNS of transition to turbulence in the TGV of Drikakis et al. (J. Turb., 2007). For DHT non-dynamic Smagorinsky is in excellent agreement with measurements for t.k.e. but higher-order moments show slight discrepancies and for TGV, energy decay rates agree reasonably well with DNS. Regarding the t-model, predictions are worse than Smagorinsky at the same grid resolution due to the insufficient resolution of small scales. Improved results are obtained at higher resolutions, but are still not as good as Smagorinsky.

  20. Turbulent black holes. (United States)

    Yang, Huan; Zimmerman, Aaron; Lehner, Luis


    We demonstrate that rapidly spinning black holes can display a new type of nonlinear parametric instability-which is triggered above a certain perturbation amplitude threshold-akin to the onset of turbulence, with possibly observable consequences. This instability transfers from higher temporal and azimuthal spatial frequencies to lower frequencies-a phenomenon reminiscent of the inverse cascade displayed by (2+1)-dimensional fluids. Our finding provides evidence for the onset of transitory turbulence in astrophysical black holes and predicts observable signatures in black hole binaries with high spins. Furthermore, it gives a gravitational description of this behavior which, through the fluid-gravity duality, can potentially shed new light on the remarkable phenomena of turbulence in fluids.

  1. Tariff Turbulence

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tariff Turbulence. * See also Information File on p. 1340 this issue. licence to practice should he deviate from the norm unduly. The Standard Tariff of fees is reviewed regularly in the light of increased costs, the rise in the cost of living, for the elimination of anomalies and so forth and this tariff for private patients, with its 10% ...

  2. Turbulent combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talbot, L.; Cheng, R.K. [Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, CA (United States)


    Turbulent combustion is the dominant process in heat and power generating systems. Its most significant aspect is to enhance the burning rate and volumetric power density. Turbulent mixing, however, also influences the chemical rates and has a direct effect on the formation of pollutants, flame ignition and extinction. Therefore, research and development of modern combustion systems for power generation, waste incineration and material synthesis must rely on a fundamental understanding of the physical effect of turbulence on combustion to develop theoretical models that can be used as design tools. The overall objective of this program is to investigate, primarily experimentally, the interaction and coupling between turbulence and combustion. These processes are complex and are characterized by scalar and velocity fluctuations with time and length scales spanning several orders of magnitude. They are also influenced by the so-called {open_quotes}field{close_quotes} effects associated with the characteristics of the flow and burner geometries. The authors` approach is to gain a fundamental understanding by investigating idealized laboratory flames. Laboratory flames are amenable to detailed interrogation by laser diagnostics and their flow geometries are chosen to simplify numerical modeling and simulations and to facilitate comparison between experiments and theory.

  3. Simulation of Mean Flow and Turbulence over a 2D Building Array Using High-Resolution CFD and a Distributed Drag Force Approach (United States)


    turbulence over a 2D building array using high- resolution CFD and a distributed drag force approach a Department of Mechanical Engineering, University...has been performed of the disturbed flow through and over a two- dimensional array of rectangular buildings immersed in a neutrally stratified deep...procedure. The predictive capabilities of the high- resolution computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations of urban flow are validated against a very

  4. Holistic design in high-speed optical interconnects (United States)

    Saeedi, Saman

    Integrated circuit scaling has enabled a huge growth in processing capability, which necessitates a corresponding increase in inter-chip communication bandwidth. As bandwidth requirements for chip-to-chip interconnection scale, deficiencies of electrical channels become more apparent. Optical links present a viable alternative due to their low frequency-dependent loss and higher bandwidth density in the form of wavelength division multiplexing. As integrated photonics and bonding technologies are maturing, commercialization of hybrid-integrated optical links are becoming a reality. Increasing silicon integration leads to better performance in optical links but necessitates a corresponding co-design strategy in both electronics and photonics. In this light, holistic design of high-speed optical links with an in-depth understanding of photonics and state-of-the-art electronics brings their performance to unprecedented levels. This thesis presents developments in high-speed optical links by co-designing and co-integrating the primary elements of an optical link: receiver, transmitter, and clocking. In the first part of this thesis a 3D-integrated CMOS/Silicon-photonic receiver will be presented. The electronic chip features a novel design that employs a low-bandwidth TIA front-end, double-sampling and equalization through dynamic offset modulation. Measured results show -14.9dBm of sensitivity and energy eciency of 170fJ/b at 25Gb/s. The same receiver front-end is also used to implement source-synchronous 4-channel WDM-based parallel optical receiver. Quadrature ILO-based clocking is employed for synchronization and a novel frequency-tracking method that exploits the dynamics of IL in a quadrature ring oscillator to increase the effective locking range. An adaptive body-biasing circuit is designed to maintain the per-bit-energy consumption constant across wide data-rates. The prototype measurements indicate a record-low power consumption of 153fJ/b at 32Gb/s. The

  5. Beyond paradigm: Turbulence, transport, and the origin of the radial electric field in low to high confinement mode transitions in the DIII-D tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moyer, R.A.; Burrell, K.H.; Carlstrom, T.N.; Coda, S.; Conn, R.W.; Doyle, E.J.; Gohil, P.; Groebner, R.J.; Kim, J.; Lehmer, R.; Peebles, W.A.; Porkolab, M.; Rettig, C.L.; Rhodes, T.L.; Seraydarian, R.P.; Stockdale, R.; Thomas, D.M.; Tynan, G.R.; Watkins, J.G. [Fusion Energy Research Program, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093-0417 (United States)


    The paradigm of shear suppression of turbulence as the mechanism for the low to high confinement mode (L to H) transition is examined by quantitative comparison of the predictions of the paradigm with experimental results from the DIII-D tokamak [{ital Plasma} {ital Physics} {ital and} {ital Controlled} {ital Fusion} {ital Research} (International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, 1986), p. 159]. The L to H transition trigger is {bold V}{times}{bold B} rotation, not the main ion pressure gradient. The radial electric field {ital E}{sub {ital r}} shear increases before the fluctuation suppression, consistent with increasing {ital E}{sub {ital r}} shear as the cause of the turbulence suppression. The spatial dependence of the turbulence reduction is consistent with shear suppression for negative {ital E}{sub {ital r}} shear. For positive {ital E}{sub {ital r}} shear, the turbulence suppression is consistent with the effect of {ital E}{sub {ital r}} curvature for modes for which an {ital E}{sub {ital r}} well is destabilizing. Finally, the transport barrier depends on the phase angle between the density and potential fluctuations inside the {ital E}{sub {ital r}} well, an effect not included in existing L to H transition models.

  6. Turbulence in Natural Environments (United States)

    Banerjee, Tirtha

    used in related dispersion studies and coupled land atmosphere interaction models. For other more complex biosphere atmosphere interactions such as greenhouse gas emissions from wetlands, the interplay between air and water, often in presence of flexible aquatic vegetation, controls turbulence in water, which in turn affect the gas transfer processes. This process of wind shear induced wave-turbulent-vegetation interaction is studied for the first time in the laboratory and the state of turbulence as well as the bulk flow is found to be highly sensitive to environmental controls such as water height, wind speed, vegetation density and flexibility. This dissertation describes and gradually develops these concepts in an increasing order of complexity of boundary conditions. The first three chapters address the neutral and thermally stratified boundary layers and the last two chapters address the canopy edge problem and the air-water-vegetation experiments respectively.

  7. High-definition optical coherence tomography of melanocytic skin lesions. (United States)

    Gambichler, Thilo; Plura, Iris; Schmid-Wendtner, Monika; Valavanis, Konstantinos; Kulichova, Daniela; Stücker, Markus; Pljakic, Azem; Berking, Carola; Maier, Tanja


    High-definition optical coherence tomography (HD-OCT) scanners have recently been developed. We assessed micromorphological HD-OCT correlates of benign naevi (BN) and malignant melanoma (MM). 28 BN and 20 MM were studied using HD-OCT and histology. Epidermal honeycomb/cobblestone pattern, regular junctional cell nests, and edged papillae are more often observed in BN, whereas fusion of rete ridges, pagetoid cells and junctional and/or dermal nests with atypical cells are more frequently seen in MM. A high overlap of HD-OCT features in BN and MM was observed and in 20% of MM we did not find evidence for malignancy in OCT images at all. Using HD-OCT it is possible to visualize architectural and cellular alterations of melanocytic skin lesions. The overlap of HD-OCT features seen in BN and MM and the absence of suspicious HD-OCT features in some MM represents an important limitation of HD-OCT affecting the sensitivity of HD-OCT in diagnosing MM. High-definition optical coherence tomography and the corresponding vertically sectioned histology of a compound naevus. © 2014 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Reflectively coupled waveguide photodetector for high speed optical interconnection. (United States)

    Hsu, Shih-Hsiang


    To fully utilize GaAs high drift mobility, techniques to monolithically integrate In0.53Ga0.47As p-i-n photodetectors with GaAs based optical waveguides using total internal reflection coupling are reviewed. Metal coplanar waveguides, deposited on top of the polyimide layer for the photodetector's planarization and passivation, were then uniquely connected as a bridge between the photonics and electronics to illustrate the high-speed monitoring function. The photodetectors were efficiently implemented and imposed on the echelle grating circle for wavelength division multiplexing monitoring. In optical filtering performance, the monolithically integrated photodetector channel spacing was 2 nm over the 1,520-1,550 nm wavelength range and the pass band was 1 nm at the -1 dB level. For high-speed applications the full-width half-maximum of the temporal response and 3-dB bandwidth for the reflectively coupled waveguide photodetectors were demonstrated to be 30 ps and 11 GHz, respectively. The bit error rate performance of this integrated photodetector at 10 Gbit/s with 2(7)-1 long pseudo-random bit sequence non-return to zero input data also showed error-free operation.

  9. High-resolution observations of small-scale gravity waves and turbulence features in the OH airglow layer (United States)

    Sedlak, René; Hannawald, Patrick; Schmidt, Carsten; Wüst, Sabine; Bittner, Michael


    A new version of the Fast Airglow Imager (FAIM) for the detection of atmospheric waves in the OH airglow layer has been set up at the German Remote Sensing Data Center (DFD) of the German Aerospace Center (DLR) at Oberpfaffenhofen (48.09° N, 11.28° E), Germany. The spatial resolution of the instrument is 17 m pixel-1 in zenith direction with a field of view (FOV) of 11.1 km × 9.0 km at the OH layer height of ca. 87 km. Since November 2015, the system has been in operation in two different setups (zenith angles 46 and 0°) with a temporal resolution of 2.5 to 2.8 s. In a first case study we present observations of two small wave-like features that might be attributed to gravity wave instabilities. In order to spectrally analyse harmonic structures even on small spatial scales down to 550 m horizontal wavelength, we made use of the maximum entropy method (MEM) since this method exhibits an excellent wavelength resolution. MEM further allows analysing relatively short data series, which considerably helps to reduce problems such as stationarity of the underlying data series from a statistical point of view. We present an observation of the subsequent decay of well-organized wave fronts into eddies, which we tentatively interpret in terms of an indication for the onset of turbulence. Another remarkable event which demonstrates the technical capabilities of the instrument was observed during the night of 4-5 April 2016. It reveals the disintegration of a rather homogenous brightness variation into several filaments moving in different directions and with different speeds. It resembles the formation of a vortex with a horizontal axis of rotation likely related to a vertical wind shear. This case shows a notable similarity to what is expected from theoretical modelling of Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities (KHIs). The comparatively high spatial resolution of the presented new version of the FAIM provides new insights into the structure of atmospheric wave instability and

  10. High resolution observations of small-scale gravity waves and turbulence features in the OH airglow layer (United States)

    Sedlak, René; Hannawald, Patrick; Schmidt, Carsten; Wüst, Sabine; Bittner, Michael


    A new version of the Fast Airglow Imager (FAIM) for the detection of atmospheric waves in the OH airglow layer has been set up at the German Remote Sensing Data Centre (DFD) of the German Aerospace Centre (DLR) at Oberpfaffenhofen (48.09 ° N, 11.28 ° E), Germany. The spatial resolution of the instrument is 17 m/pixel in zenith direction with a field of view (FOV) of 11.1 km x 9.0 km at the OH layer height of ca. 87 km. Since November 2015, the system has been in operation in two different setups (zenith angles 46 ° and 0 °) with a temporal resolution of 2.5 to 2.8 s. In a first case study we present observations of two small wave-like features that might be attributed to gravity wave instabilities. In order to spectrally analyse harmonic structures even on small spatial scales down to 550 m horizontal wavelength, we made use of the Maximum Entropy Method (MEM) since this method exhibits an excellent wavelength resolution. MEM further allows analysing relatively short data series, which considerably helps to reduce problems such as stationarity of the underlying data series from a statistical point of view. We present an observation of the subsequent decay of well-organized wave fronts into eddies, which we tentatively interpret in terms of an indication for the onset of turbulence. Another remarkable event which demonstrates the technical capabilities of the instrument was observed during the night of 4th to 5th April 2016. It reveals the disintegration of a rather homogenous brightness variation into several filaments moving in different directions and with different speeds. It resembles the formation of a vortex with a horizontal axis of rotation likely related to a vertical wind shear. This case shows a notable similarity to what is expected from theoretical modelling of Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities (KHIs). The comparatively high spatial resolution of the presented new version of the FAIM airglow imager provides new insights into the structure of

  11. Optically-gated Non-latched High Gain Power Device (United States)


    switching times of an optically-controlled power bipolar junction transistor ( BJT ) is reported in [20] using light-emitting diode (LED)-phototransistor pair...GaAs based optically-trigegred power transistor (OTPT) has been developed for fast, repetitive, non-latched switching and control of power...OF OPTICAL INTENSITY MODULATION 8 2.1. Optically-triggered power transistor structure 9 2.2 On-state resistance (Ron) of OTPT modulated by optical

  12. Optically Thin Metallic Films for High-radiative-efficiency Plasmonics

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Yi; Hsu, Chia Wei; Miller, Owen D; Joannopoulos, John D; Soljačić, Marin


    Plasmonics enables deep-subwavelength concentration of light and has become important for fundamental studies as well as real-life applications. Two major existing platforms of plasmonics are metallic nanoparticles and metallic films. Metallic nanoparticles allow efficient coupling to far field radiation, yet their synthesis typically leads to poor material quality. Metallic films offer substantially higher quality materials, but their coupling to radiation is typically jeopardized due to the large momentum mismatch with free space. Here, we propose and theoretically investigate optically thin metallic films as an ideal platform for high-radiative-efficiency plasmonics. For far-field scattering, adding a thin high-quality metallic substrate enables a higher quality factor while maintaining the localization and tunability that the nanoparticle provides. For near-field spontaneous emission, a thin metallic substrate, of high quality or not, greatly improves the field overlap between the emitter environment and ...

  13. High contrast ballistic imaging using femtosecond optical Kerr gate of tellurite glass. (United States)

    Tan, Wenjiang; Zhou, Zhiguang; Lin, Aoxiang; Si, Jinhai; Zhan, Pingping; Wu, Bin; Hou, Xun


    We investigated the ballistic imaging technique using femtosecond optical Kerr gate of a tellurite glass. High contrast images of an object hidden behind turbid media were obtained. Compared to the conventional femtosecond optical Kerr gate using fused quartz, the optical Kerr gate using tellurite glass has more capacity to acquire high quality images of the object hidden behind a high optical density turbid medium. The experimental results indicated that the tellurite glass is a good candidate as the optical Kerr material for the ballistic imaging technique due to its large optical nonlinearity.

  14. Turbulent fluxes of momentum and heat over land in the High-Arctic summer: the influence of observation techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Sjöblom


    Full Text Available Different observation techniques for atmospheric turbulent fluxes of momentum and sensible heat were tested in a High-Arctic valley in Svalbard during two consecutive summers (June–August in 2010 and 2011. The gradient method (GM and the bulk method (BM have been compared to the more direct eddy covariance method (ECM in order to evaluate if relatively robust and cheap instrumentation with low power consumption can be used as a means to increase the number of observations, especially at remote locations where instruments need to be left unattended for extended periods. Such campaigns increase knowledge about the snow-free surface exchange processes, an area which is relatively little investigated compared to snow-covered ground. The GM agreed closely to the ECM, especially for momentum flux where the two methods agree within 5%. For sensible heat flux, the GM produces, on average, approximately 40% lower values for unstable stratification and 67% lower for stable stratification. However, this corresponds to only 20 and 12 W m−2, respectively. The BM, however, shows a greater scatter and larger differences for both parameters. In addition to testing these methods, radiation properties were measured and the surface albedo was found to increase through the summer, from approximately 0.1 to 0.2. The surface energy budget shows that the sensible heat flux is usually directed upwards for the whole summer, while the latent heat flux is upwards in June, but becomes downward in July and August.

  15. The High Energy Replicated Optics to Explore the Sun (HEROES) (United States)

    Christe, S.; Shih, A. Y.; Rodriguez, M.; Cramer, A.; Garcia, I.; Gaskin, J.; Chavis, K.; Smith, L.


    Set to fly in the Fall of 2013 from Ft. Sumner, NM, the High Energy Replicated Optics to Explore the Sun (HEROES) mission is a collaboration between NASA Marshall Space Flight Center and Goddard Space Flight Center to upgrade an existing payload to make unique scientific measurements of the Sun (during the day) and astrophysical targets (at night) during a single flight. HEROES will use grazing-incidence x-ray focusing optics combined with position-sensitive detectors to make new high energy (>20 keV) observations of the Sun in order to understand particle acceleration in solar flares. The HEROES science payload consists of 8 mirror modules, housing 110 grazing incidence replicated optics, mounted on a carbon-fiber-Aluminum optical bench 6 m from a matching array of focal-plane detectors (high pressure xenon gas scintillation proportional counters). The solar science objectives for HEROES are to (1) investigate electron acceleration in the non-flaring solar corona by searching for the hard X-ray signature of energetic electrons and to (2) investigate the acceleration and transport of energetic electrons in solar flares. HEROES will image the Sun with an angular resolution of 20 arcsec (FWHM) and will have a sensitivity up to ~100 times better than RHESSI at 20 keV. During 6 hours of solar observations (a minimum requirement for a typical balloon flight), HEROES has a ~75% chance of observing at least one flare with a GOES class above C1, and a ~20% chance of at least one flare above M1. HEROES is expected to observe the faint HXR emission from electrons streaming down the legs of magnetic loops or escaping along open magnetic field lines. Information from this flight will be used to design of a new balloon payload (SuperHERO) capable of capable of observing the Sun for 2-4 weeks using a Long Duration Balloon. This mission is funded by the NASA HOPE (Hands On Project Experience) Training Opportunity awarded by the NASA Academy of Program/Project and Engineering

  16. Modeling of High-Pressure Turbulent Multi-Species Mixing Applicable to the Venus Atmosphere (United States)

    Bellan, J.


    A comprehensive theory of high-pressure multi-species mixing is presented and salient results pertinent to the Venus atmosphere are discussed. The influence of the insights obtained from these results on Venus exploration are addressed.

  17. Magnetized Turbulent Dynamo in Protogalaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonid Malyshkin; Russell M. Kulsrud


    The prevailing theory for the origin of cosmic magnetic fields is that they have been amplified to their present values by the turbulent dynamo inductive action in the protogalactic and galactic medium. Up to now, in calculation of the turbulent dynamo, it has been customary to assume that there is no back reaction of the magnetic field on the turbulence, as long as the magnetic energy is less than the turbulent kinetic energy. This assumption leads to the kinematic dynamo theory. However, the applicability of this theory to protogalaxies is rather limited. The reason is that in protogalaxies the temperature is very high, and the viscosity is dominated by magnetized ions. As the magnetic field strength grows in time, the ion cyclotron time becomes shorter than the ion collision time, and the plasma becomes strongly magnetized. As a result, the ion viscosity becomes the Braginskii viscosity. Thus, in protogalaxies the back reaction sets in much earlier, at field strengths much lower than those which correspond to field-turbulence energy equipartition, and the turbulent dynamo becomes what we call the magnetized turbulent dynamo. In this paper we lay the theoretical groundwork for the magnetized turbulent dynamo. In particular, we predict that the magnetic energy growth rate in the magnetized dynamo theory is up to ten times larger than that in the kinematic dynamo theory. We also briefly discuss how the Braginskii viscosity can aid the development of the inverse cascade of magnetic energy after the energy equipartition is reached.

  18. A New, Adaptable, Optical High-Resolution 3-Axis Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niels Buchhold


    Full Text Available This article presents a new optical, multi-functional, high-resolution 3-axis sensor which serves to navigate and can, for example, replace standard joysticks in medical devices such as electric wheelchairs, surgical robots or medical diagnosis devices. A light source, e.g., a laser diode, is affixed to a movable axis and projects a random geometric shape on an image sensor (CMOS or CCD. The downstream microcontroller’s software identifies the geometric shape’s center, distortion and size, and then calculates x, y, and z coordinates, which can be processed in attached devices. Depending on the image sensor in use (e.g., 6.41 megapixels, the 3-axis sensor features a resolution of 1544 digits from right to left and 1038 digits up and down. Through interpolation, these values rise by a factor of 100. A unique feature is the exact reproducibility (deflection to coordinates and its precise ability to return to its neutral position. Moreover, optical signal processing provides a high level of protection against electromagnetic and radio frequency interference. The sensor is adaptive and adjustable to fit a user’s range of motion (stroke and force. This recommendation aims to optimize sensor systems such as joysticks in medical devices in terms of safety, ease of use, and adaptability.

  19. Polarization-independent optical circulator for high accuracy Faraday depolarization lidar. (United States)

    Shiina, Tatsuo; Noguchi, Kazuo; Fukuchi, Tetsuo


    A high precision, polarization-independent optical circulator was developed for high accuracy Faraday depolarization lidar. Glan laser prisms and other novel optics were utilized in the circulator optics, resulting in a high extinction ratio of polarization of >30 dB. High accuracy is needed to detect a small rotation angle in the polarization plane of the propagating beam. It is generated by the Faraday effect due to the lightning discharge. The developed circulator delivered high performance of insertion loss and isolation as laser transmitter and echo receiver in the inline lidar optics. © 2012 Optical Society of America

  20. Highly integrated optical phased arrays: photonic integrated circuits for optical beam shaping and beam steering (United States)

    Heck, Martijn J. R.


    Technologies for efficient generation and fast scanning of narrow free-space laser beams find major applications in three-dimensional (3D) imaging and mapping, like Lidar for remote sensing and navigation, and secure free-space optical communications. The ultimate goal for such a system is to reduce its size, weight, and power consumption, so that it can be mounted on, e.g. drones and autonomous cars. Moreover, beam scanning should ideally be done at video frame rates, something that is beyond the capabilities of current opto-mechanical systems. Photonic integrated circuit (PIC) technology holds the promise of achieving low-cost, compact, robust and energy-efficient complex optical systems. PICs integrate, for example, lasers, modulators, detectors, and filters on a single piece of semiconductor, typically silicon or indium phosphide, much like electronic integrated circuits. This technology is maturing fast, driven by high-bandwidth communications applications, and mature fabrication facilities. State-of-the-art commercial PICs integrate hundreds of elements, and the integration of thousands of elements has been shown in the laboratory. Over the last few years, there has been a considerable research effort to integrate beam steering systems on a PIC, and various beam steering demonstrators based on optical phased arrays have been realized. Arrays of up to thousands of coherent emitters, including their phase and amplitude control, have been integrated, and various applications have been explored. In this review paper, I will present an overview of the state of the art of this technology and its opportunities, illustrated by recent breakthroughs.

  1. Highly integrated optical phased arrays: photonic integrated circuits for optical beam shaping and beam steering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heck Martijn J.R.


    Full Text Available Technologies for efficient generation and fast scanning of narrow free-space laser beams find major applications in three-dimensional (3D imaging and mapping, like Lidar for remote sensing and navigation, and secure free-space optical communications. The ultimate goal for such a system is to reduce its size, weight, and power consumption, so that it can be mounted on, e.g. drones and autonomous cars. Moreover, beam scanning should ideally be done at video frame rates, something that is beyond the capabilities of current opto-mechanical systems. Photonic integrated circuit (PIC technology holds the promise of achieving low-cost, compact, robust and energy-efficient complex optical systems. PICs integrate, for example, lasers, modulators, detectors, and filters on a single piece of semiconductor, typically silicon or indium phosphide, much like electronic integrated circuits. This technology is maturing fast, driven by high-bandwidth communications applications, and mature fabrication facilities. State-of-the-art commercial PICs integrate hundreds of elements, and the integration of thousands of elements has been shown in the laboratory. Over the last few years, there has been a considerable research effort to integrate beam steering systems on a PIC, and various beam steering demonstrators based on optical phased arrays have been realized. Arrays of up to thousands of coherent emitters, including their phase and amplitude control, have been integrated, and various applications have been explored. In this review paper, I will present an overview of the state of the art of this technology and its opportunities, illustrated by recent breakthroughs.

  2. Fiber Optic Temperature Sensor Insert for High Temperature Environments (United States)

    Black, Richard James (Inventor); Costa, Joannes M. (Inventor); Moslehi, Behzad (Inventor); Zarnescu, Livia (Inventor)


    A thermal protection system (TPS) test plug has optical fibers with FBGs embedded in the optical fiber arranged in a helix, an axial fiber, and a combination of the two. Optionally, one of the optical fibers is a sapphire FBG for measurement of the highest temperatures in the TPS plug. The test plug may include an ablating surface and a non-ablating surface, with an engagement surface with threads formed, the threads having a groove for placement of the optical fiber. The test plug may also include an optical connector positioned at the non-ablating surface for protection of the optical fiber during insertion and removal.

  3. Turbulent exchange of energy, momentum, and reactive gases between high vegetation and the atmospheric boundary layer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shapkalijevski, M.M.


    This thesis deals with the representation of the exchange of energy, momentum and chemically reactive compounds between the land, covered by high vegetation, and the lowest part of the atmosphere, named as atmospheric boundary layer (ABL). The study presented in this thesis introduces the roughness

  4. Turbulence Effects on the High Angle of Attack Aerodynamics of a Vertically Launched Missile (United States)


    Knoche , 1.6., High Incidence Aerody-namics of M~issiles During Launch Phase, NMBB GMNBI-I Report UA-523 80, Januarv 1980. 3. Roane. Donald P., The Effect...Balance. Balance Calibration Laborator\\. NASA-Ames Research Facility, July 1987. 413. Aiello. Gennaro f. and Bateman. Michael C.. .1crod~womic Szabiiic

  5. Large Eddy Simulations of an Airfoil in Turbulent Inflow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gilling, Lasse; Sørensen, Niels


    Wind turbines operate in the turbulent boundary layer of the atmosphere and due to the rotational sampling effect the blades experience a high level of turbulence [1]. In this project the effect of turbulence is investigated by large eddy simulations of the turbulent flow past a NACA 0015 airfoil...

  6. Thermal effects in high average power optical parametric amplifiers. (United States)

    Rothhardt, Jan; Demmler, Stefan; Hädrich, Steffen; Peschel, Thomas; Limpert, Jens; Tünnermann, Andreas


    Optical parametric amplifiers (OPAs) have the reputation of being average power scalable due to the instantaneous nature of the parametric process (zero quantum defect). This Letter reveals serious challenges originating from thermal load in the nonlinear crystal caused by absorption. We investigate these thermal effects in high average power OPAs based on beta barium borate. Absorption of both pump and idler waves is identified to contribute significantly to heating of the nonlinear crystal. A temperature increase of up to 148 K with respect to the environment is observed and mechanical tensile stress up to 40 MPa is found, indicating a high risk of crystal fracture under such conditions. By restricting the idler to a wavelength range far from absorption bands and removing the crystal coating we reduce the peak temperature and the resulting temperature gradient significantly. Guidelines for further power scaling of OPAs and other nonlinear devices are given.

  7. Optical Fiber Strain Instrumentation for High Temperature Aerospace Structural Monitoring (United States)

    Wang, A.


    The objective of the program is the development and laboratory demonstration of sensors based on silica optical fibers for measurement of high temperature strain for aerospace materials evaluations. A complete fiber strain sensor system based on white-light interferometry was designed and implemented. An experiment set-up was constructed to permit testing of strain measurement up to 850 C. The strain is created by bending an alumina cantilever beam to which is the fiber sensor is attached. The strain calibration is provided by the application of known beam deflections. To ensure the high temperature operation capability of the sensor, gold-coated single-mode fiber is used. Moreover, a new method of sensor surface attachment which permits accurate sensor gage length determination is also developed. Excellent results were obtained at temperatures up to 800-850 C.

  8. Read-only high accuracy volume holographic optical correlator (United States)

    Zhao, Tian; Li, Jingming; Cao, Liangcai; He, Qingsheng; Jin, Guofan


    A read-only volume holographic correlator (VHC) is proposed. After the recording of all of the correlation database pages by angular multiplexing, a stand-alone read-only high accuracy VHC will be separated from the VHC recording facilities which include the high-power laser and the angular multiplexing system. The stand-alone VHC has its own low power readout laser and very compact and simple structure. Since there are two lasers that are employed for recording and readout, respectively, the optical alignment tolerance of the laser illumination on the SLM is very sensitive. The twodimensional angular tolerance is analyzed based on the theoretical model of the volume holographic correlator. The experimental demonstration of the proposed read-only VHC is introduced and discussed.

  9. Optical communication equalized technique suitable for high-speed transmission (United States)

    Zhu, Yaolin; Guan, Hao


    To solve the phase distortion and high error rate in optical signal transmission, an equalized technique is proposed, which aims to improve the constant modulus algorithm (CMA). In order to correct phase rotating and reduce the error rate with 64 quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM), the method takes the mean square error as the judgment and utilizes the time-varying step size. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm can improve the convergence speed of constellation points, make the eye opening larger, and the signal noise ratio (SNR) can be increased by 4 dB under the same bit error rate (BER), which is efficient for the recovery of information in high-speed transmission.

  10. X-ray optics high-energy-resolution applications

    CERN Document Server

    Shvyd’ko, Yuri


    The generation of radiation with well-defined frequency and wavelength, and the ability to precisely determine these quantities, are of fundamental importance in physics and other natural sciences Monochromatic radiation enables both very accurate structure determinations and studies of the dynamics of living and non-living matter It is crucial for the realization of standards of time and length, for the determination of fundamental constants, and for many other aspects of basic research Bragg backscattering from perfect crystals is a tool for creating, manipulating, and analyzing x-rays with highest spectral purity It has the unique feature of selecting x-rays with narrow spectral bandwidth This book describes the theoretical foundations and principles of x-ray crystal optics with high spectral resolution Various experimental studies and applications are presented and the author also addresses the development of instrumentation, such as high-resolution x-ray monochromators, analyzers, wavelength meters, reso...

  11. Flocs, turbulence, and biological activity: The seasonal mood-swings of a UK estuary (United States)

    Todd, David; Souza, Alejandro; Jago, Colin


    Both turbulence and biological activity have been shown to be important mediators of floc characteristics. Low turbulence promotes collisions and flocculation, while high levels may result in shear-induced rupture, literally tearing flocs apart. Because of this, turbulence parameterisation is key to understanding the relationship between turbulence and particle size. In addition, biological polysaccharides and other substances have been shown to increase collision efficiency, collision strength, and the strength of the resultant flocs. The results of a measurement campaign undertaken in a hypertidal UK estuary from February-March and May-June 2009 are presented utilising a combination of acoustic and optical instruments, moorings, and CTD stations. The data displays a seasonally varying flocculation signal in which a seasonal regime shift occurs: winter is turbulence-controlled with evidence of flocculation at high and low water under low turbulence conditions and breakup occurring during the higher turbulence conditions of the flood and ebb tides. Conversely, the summer regime is biologically-controlled and dominated by stronger, more shear-resistant flocs that do not break up under the high-turbulence conditions of the peak flood and ebb tides. Instead, the summer regime is dominated by a resuspension signal in which both particle size and concentration increase during the flood and ebb tides. This shift appears to be the result of the presence of biological polysaccharides during the summer months which increase both the floc size, and floc strength through an increase in the collision strength and collision efficiency of the particles, making them more resistant to turbulence-induced shear effects.

  12. RANS / LES coupling applied to high Reynolds number turbulent flows of the nuclear industry; Application du couplage RANS / LES aux ecoulements turbulents a haut nombre de Reynolds de l'industrie nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benarafa, Y


    The main issue to perform a computational study of high Reynolds numbered turbulent flows consists on predicting their unsteadiness without implying a tremendous computational cost. First, the main drawbacks of large-eddy simulation with standard wall model on a coarse mesh for a plane channel flow are highlighted. To correct these drawbacks two coupling RANS/LES methods have been proposed. The first one relies on a sophisticated wall model (TBLE) which consists on solving Thin Boundary Layer Equations with a RANS type turbulent closure in the near wall region. The second one consists on a RANS/LES methods have been proposed. The second one consists on a RANS/LES coupling method using a forcing term approach. These various approaches have been implemented in the TRIO-U code developed at CEA (French Atomic Center) at Grenoble, France. The studied flow configurations are the fully developed plane channel flow and a flow around a surface-mounted cubical obstacle. Both approaches provide encouraging results and allow a surface-mounted cubical obstacle. Both approaches provide encouraging results and allow unsteady simulations for a low computational cost. (author)

  13. Optical Fiber High Temperature Sensor Instrumentation for Energy Intensive Industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, Kristie L.; Wang, Anbo; Pickrell, Gary R.


    This report summarizes technical progress during the program “Optical Fiber High Temperature Sensor Instrumentation for Energy Intensive Industries”, performed by the Center for Photonics Technology of the Bradley Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Virginia Tech. The objective of this program was to use technology recently invented at Virginia Tech to develop and demonstrate the application of self-calibrating optical fiber temperature and pressure sensors to several key energy-intensive industries where conventional, commercially available sensors exhibit greatly abbreviated lifetimes due primarily to environmental degradation. A number of significant technologies were developed under this program, including • a laser bonded silica high temperature fiber sensor with a high temperature capability up to 700°C and a frequency response up to 150 kHz, • the world’s smallest fiber Fabry-Perot high temperature pressure sensor (125 x 20 μm) with 700°C capability, • UV-induced intrinsic Fabry-Perot interferometric sensors for distributed measurement, • a single crystal sapphire fiber-based sensor with a temperature capability up to 1600°C. These technologies have been well demonstrated and laboratory tested. Our work plan included conducting major field tests of these technologies at EPRI, Corning, Pratt & Whitney, and Global Energy; field validation of the technology is critical to ensuring its usefulness to U.S. industries. Unfortunately, due to budget cuts, DOE was unable to follow through with its funding commitment to support Energy Efficiency Science Initiative projects and this final phase was eliminated.

  14. Turbulence at the transition to the high density H-mode in Wendelstein 7-AS plasmas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basse, N.P.; Zoletnik, S.; Baumel, S.


    Recently a new improved confinement regime was found in the Wendelstein 7-AS (W7-AS) stellarator (Renner H. et al 1989 Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 31 1579). The discovery of this high density high confinement mode (HDH-mode) was facilitated by the installation of divertor modules. In this paper......, measurements of short wavelength density fluctuations in the HDH-mode using collective scattering of infrared light are presented. These measurements will be contrasted to fluctuations during normal confinement operation (NC-mode). The autopower spectra of the measurements show a consistent increase...... of the fluctuation level associated with the transition from NC- to HDH-mode. Correlation calculations on a 20 mus timescale between magnetic and density fluctuations lead to the result that the fluctuations are correlated in NC- but not in HDH-mode. Finally, a comparative analysis between the enhanced D-alpha H...

  15. High-resolution Statistics of Solar Wind Turbulence at Kinetic Scales Using the Magnetospheric Multiscale Mission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chasapis, Alexandros; Matthaeus, W. H.; Parashar, T. N.; Maruca, B. A. [University of Delaware, Newark, DE (United States); Fuselier, S. A.; Burch, J. L. [Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, TX (United States); Phan, T. D. [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Moore, T. E.; Pollock, C. J.; Gershman, D. J. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (United States); Torbert, R. B. [University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH (United States); Russell, C. T.; Strangeway, R. J., E-mail: [University of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)


    Using data from the Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) and Cluster missions obtained in the solar wind, we examine second-order and fourth-order structure functions at varying spatial lags normalized to ion inertial scales. The analysis includes direct two-spacecraft results and single-spacecraft results employing the familiar Taylor frozen-in flow approximation. Several familiar statistical results, including the spectral distribution of energy, and the sale-dependent kurtosis, are extended down to unprecedented spatial scales of ∼6 km, approaching electron scales. The Taylor approximation is also confirmed at those small scales, although small deviations are present in the kinetic range. The kurtosis is seen to attain very high values at sub-proton scales, supporting the previously reported suggestion that monofractal behavior may be due to high-frequency plasma waves at kinetic scales.

  16. Mid-infrared ZGP-OPO with a high optical-to-optical conversion efficiency of 75.7. (United States)

    Wang, Li; Xing, Tinglun; Hu, Shuwu; Wu, Xianyou; Wu, Haixin; Wang, Jiyang; Jiang, Haihe


    We experimentally demonstrate a ZnGeP2 based optical parametric oscillator (ZGP-OPO) with a record of the optical-to-optical conversion efficiency. To improve the conversion efficiency, we design and construct a double-pass pumped high-gain OPO and a matched large-sized high-peak-power pump beam to suppress the spatial walk-off and conversion. Pulse energy of 19 mJ with pulse width of 27.8 ns at 5 Hz in the mid-infrared 3-5 μm waveband is obtained in the doubly resonated ZGP-OPO, the beam quality M2 is about 9.6, and the corresponding optical-to-optical conversion efficiency reaches up to 75.7%.

  17. Fiber-Optical Parametric Amplification of Sub-Picosecond Pulses for High-Speed Optical Communications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lali-Dastjerdi, Zohreh; Cristofori, Valentina; Rottwitt, Karsten


    This article reviews recent results of amplification of short optical pulses using fiber-optical parametric amplifiers. This includes chirped-pulse amplification of 400 fs pulses, error-free amplification of a 640-Gbit/s optical time-division multiplexed signal with less than a 1-dB power penalty...

  18. Ultra-high aspect ratio high-resolution nanofabrication for hard X-ray diffractive optics (United States)

    Chang, Chieh; Sakdinawat, Anne


    Although diffractive optics have played a major role in nanoscale soft X-ray imaging, high-resolution and high-efficiency diffractive optics have largely been unavailable for hard X-rays where many scientific, technological and biomedical applications exist. This is owing to the long-standing challenge of fabricating ultra-high aspect ratio high-resolution dense nanostructures. Here we report significant progress in ultra-high aspect ratio nanofabrication of high-resolution, dense silicon nanostructures using vertical directionality controlled metal-assisted chemical etching. The resulting structures have very smooth sidewalls and can be used to pattern arbitrary features, not limited to linear or circular. We focus on the application of X-ray zone plate fabrication for high-efficiency, high-resolution diffractive optics, and demonstrate the process with linear, circular, and spiral zone plates. X-ray measurements demonstrate high efficiency in the critical outer layers. This method has broad applications including patterning for thermoelectric materials, battery anodes and sensors among others.

  19. Monolithic, High-Speed Fiber-Optic Switching Array for Lidar Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This NASA SBIR Phase II effort will develop a 1 x 10 prototype non-mechanical fiber optic switch for use with high power lasers. The proposed optical device is a...

  20. Enhanced poling efficiency in highly thermal and photostable nonlinear optical chromophores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faccini, M.; Balakrishnan, M.; Diemeer, Mart; Hu, Zhi-Peng; Clays, Koen; Asselberghs, Inge; Leinse, Arne; Driessen, A.; Reinhoudt, David; Verboom, Willem

    A series of nonlinear optical chromophores based on the highly thermal and photostable tricyanovinylidenediphenylaminobenzene (TCVDPA) was synthesized and their thermal and optical properties were investigated. Modification of the TCVDPA chromophore with bulky groups provides reduction of

  1. LGSD/NGSD: high speed optical CMOS imagers for E-ELT adaptive optics (United States)

    Downing, Mark; Kolb, Johann; Balard, Philippe; Dierickx, Bart; Defernez, Arnaud; Feautrier, Philippe; Finger, Gert; Fryer, Martin; Gach, Jean-Luc; Guillaume, Christian; Hubin, Norbert; Jerram, Paul; Jorden, Paul; Meyer, Manfred; Payne, Andrew; Pike, Andrew; Reyes, Javier; Simpson, Robert; Stadler, Eric; Stent, Jeremy; Swift, Nick


    The success of the next generation of instruments for ELT class telescopes will depend upon improving the image quality by exploiting sophisticated Adaptive Optics (AO) systems. One of the critical components of the AO systems for the E-ELT has been identified as the optical Laser/Natural Guide Star WFS detector. The combination of large format, 1760×1680 pixels to finely sample the wavefront and the spot elongation of laser guide stars, fast frame rate of 700 frames per second (fps), low read noise ( 90%) makes the development of this device extremely challenging. Design studies concluded that a highly integrated Backside Illuminated CMOS Imager built on High Resistivity silicon as the most likely technology to succeed. Two generations of the CMOS Imager are being developed: a) the already designed and manufactured NGSD (Natural Guide Star Detector), a quarter-sized pioneering device of 880×840 pixels capable of meeting first light needs of the E-ELT; b) the LGSD (Laser Guide Star Detector), the larger full size device. The detailed design is presented including the approach of using massive parallelism (70,400 ADCs) to achieve the low read noise at high pixel rates of ~3 Gpixel/s and the 88 channel LVDS 220Mbps serial interface to get the data off-chip. To enable read noise closer to the goal of 1e- to be achieved, a split wafer run has allowed the NGSD to be manufactured in the more speculative, but much lower read noise, Ultra Low Threshold Transistors in the unit cell. The NGSD has come out of production, it has been thinned to 12μm, backside processed and packaged in a custom 370pin Ceramic PGA (Pin Grid Array). First results of tests performed both at e2v and ESO are presented.

  2. High Data Rate Optical Wireless Communications Based on Ultraviolet Band

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Xiaobin


    Optical wireless communication systems based on ultraviolet (UV)-band has a lot inherent advantages, such as low background solar radiation, low device dark noise. Besides, it also has small restrictive requirements for PAT (pointing, acquisition, and tracking) because of its high atmospheric scattering with molecules and aerosols. And these advantages are driving people to explore and utilize UV band for constructing and implementing a high-data-rate, less PAT communication links, such as diffuse-line-of-sight links (diffuse-LOS) and non-line-of-sight (NLOS). The responsivity of the photodetector at UV range is far lower than that of visible range, high power UV transmitters which can be easily modulated are under investigation. These factors make it is hard to realize a high-data-rate diffuse-LOS or NLOS UV communication links. To achieve a UV link mentioned above with current devices and modulation schemes, this thesis presents some efficient modulation schemes and available devices for the time being. Besides, a demonstration of ultraviolet-B (UVB) communication link is implemented utilizing quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM). The demonstration is based on a 294-nm UVB-light-emitting-diode (UVB-LED) with a full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) of 9 nm, and according to the measured L-I-V curve, we set the bias voltage as 7V for maximum the ac amplitude and thus get a high signal-noise-ratio (SNR) channel, and the light output power is 190 μW with such bias voltage. Besides, there is a unique silica gel lens on top of the LED to concentrate the beam. A -3-dB bandwidth of 29 MHz was measured and a high-speed near-solar-blind communication link with a data rate of 71 Mbit/s was achieved using 8-QAM-OFDM at perfect alignment, and 23.6 Mbit/s using 2-QAM-OFDM when the angle subtended by the pointing direction of the UVB-LED and photodetector (PD) is 12 degrees, thus establishing a diffuse-line-of-sight (LOS) link

  3. Thin film detection of High Energy Materials: Optical Pumping Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Barthwal, Sachin


    We present our work on High Energy Material detection based on thin film of Lithium using the phenomenon of Optical Pumping. The Li atoms present in the thin film are optically pumped to one of the ground hyperfine energy levels so that they can no more absorb light from the resonant light source. Now in presence of a RF signal, which quantifies the ambient magnetic field, this polarized atomic system is again randomized thus making it reabsorb the resonant light. This gives a quantified measurement of the magnetic field surrounding the thin film detector. This is then mapped to the presence of magnetic HEM and hence the HEM are detected. Our approach in this regard starts with verifying the stability of Lithium atoms in various solvents so as to get a suitable liquid medium to form a thin film. In this regard, various UV-visible characterization spectra are presented to finally approach a stable system for the detection. We have worked on around 10 polar and non- polar solvents to see the stability criteria....

  4. Depth profilometry via multiplexed optical high-coherence interferometry. (United States)

    Kazemzadeh, Farnoud; Wong, Alexander; Behr, Bradford B; Hajian, Arsen R


    Depth Profilometry involves the measurement of the depth profile of objects, and has significant potential for various industrial applications that benefit from non-destructive sub-surface profiling such as defect detection, corrosion assessment, and dental assessment to name a few. In this study, we investigate the feasibility of depth profilometry using an Multiplexed Optical High-coherence Interferometry MOHI instrument. The MOHI instrument utilizes the spatial coherence of a laser and the interferometric properties of light to probe the reflectivity as a function of depth of a sample. The axial and lateral resolutions, as well as imaging depth, are decoupled in the MOHI instrument. The MOHI instrument is capable of multiplexing interferometric measurements into 480 one-dimensional interferograms at a location on the sample and is built with axial and lateral resolutions of 40 μm at a maximum imaging depth of 700 μm. Preliminary results, where a piece of sand-blasted aluminum, an NBK7 glass piece, and an optical phantom were successfully probed using the MOHI instrument to produce depth profiles, demonstrate the feasibility of such an instrument for performing depth profilometry.

  5. Depth profilometry via multiplexed optical high-coherence interferometry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farnoud Kazemzadeh

    Full Text Available Depth Profilometry involves the measurement of the depth profile of objects, and has significant potential for various industrial applications that benefit from non-destructive sub-surface profiling such as defect detection, corrosion assessment, and dental assessment to name a few. In this study, we investigate the feasibility of depth profilometry using an Multiplexed Optical High-coherence Interferometry MOHI instrument. The MOHI instrument utilizes the spatial coherence of a laser and the interferometric properties of light to probe the reflectivity as a function of depth of a sample. The axial and lateral resolutions, as well as imaging depth, are decoupled in the MOHI instrument. The MOHI instrument is capable of multiplexing interferometric measurements into 480 one-dimensional interferograms at a location on the sample and is built with axial and lateral resolutions of 40 μm at a maximum imaging depth of 700 μm. Preliminary results, where a piece of sand-blasted aluminum, an NBK7 glass piece, and an optical phantom were successfully probed using the MOHI instrument to produce depth profiles, demonstrate the feasibility of such an instrument for performing depth profilometry.

  6. Low- and high-mode separation of short wavelength turbulence in dithering Wendelstein 7-AS plasmas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basse, N.P.; Zoletnik, S.; Saffman, M.


    measurements can be fitted with the same exponents in L- and H-mode. Correlations between the density fluctuations, the H-alpha-signal and magnetic fluctuations as measured by Mirnov coils were analyzed. Correlation calculations using 50 ms time windows (several dithering periods) with time lag steps of 100......) stellarator [H. Renner , Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 31, 1579 (1989)]. The experimental setup and discharge properties are described. H-alpha-light observing an inner limiter was used to separate low confinement (L)- and H-mode phases of the plasma; the separated density fluctuations are characterized....... It was found that L- (H-) mode fluctuations dominate at high (low) frequencies, respectively, and that they possess well-defined and distinguishable scaling properties. Wavenumber spectra for L- and H-mode measurements are calculated and fitted by power-laws and exponential functions. The separated...

  7. Optical Absorption in Commercial Single Mode Optical Fibers in a High Energy Physics Radiation Field

    CERN Document Server

    Wijnands, T; Kuhnhenn, J; Hoeffgen, S K; Weinand, U


    This paper reports on the radiation induced attenuation of light at 1310 nm and 1550 nm in 12 commercially available single mode (SM) optical fibers. The fiber samples are exposed to gamma rays from a 60Co source and to a high energy physics radiation field. The attenuation is studied as a function of total dose, dose rate, light power and temperature. Radiation hard fibers from one manufacturer show an extraordinary low attenuation for light at 1310 nm that does not exceed 5 dB/km even after a total dose of 1 MGy. 2500 km of this type of fiber have been produced by the manufacturer and quality assurance measurements of the production batches are presently ongoing.

  8. High Sensitivity Polymer Optical Fiber-Bragg-Grating-Based Accelerometer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stefani, Alessio; Andresen, Søren; Yuan, Wu


    We report on the fabrication and characterization of the first accelerometer based on a polymer optical fiber Bragg grating (FBG) for operation at both 850 and 1550 nm. The devices have a flat frequency response over a 1-kHz bandwidth and a resonance frequency of about 3 kHz. The response is linear...... up to at least 15 g and sensitivities as high as 19 pm/g (shift in resonance wavelength per unit acceleration) have been demonstrated. Given that 15 g corresponds to a strain of less than 0.02% and that polymer fibers have an elastic limit of more than 1%, the polymer FBG accelerometer can measure...... very strong accelerations. We compare with corresponding silica FBG accelerometers and demonstrate that using polymer FBGs improves the sensitivity by more than a factor of four and increases the figure of merit, defined as the sensitivity times the resonance frequency squared....

  9. High-speed Integrated Circuits for electrical/Optical Interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Christoffer Felix


    of LC-oscillators with oscillator criteria, phase noise and different topologies are given as background. The theory of PLL circuits is also presented. Guidelines and suggestions for static divider, VCO, LA and CDR design are presented using static divider, 50-100 GHz VCO and 100Gb/s LA+CDR circuits......This thesis is a continuation of the effort to increase the bandwidth of communicationnetworks. The thesis presents the results of the design of several high-speed electrical ircuits for an electrical/optical interface. These circuits have been a contribution to the ESTA project in collaboration...... circuits at the receiver interface, though VCOs are also found in the transmitter where a multitude of independent sources have to be mutually synchronized before multiplexing. The circuits are based on an InP DHBT process (VIP-2) supplied by Vitesse and made publicly available as MPW. The VIP-2 process...

  10. High-temperature sapphire optical sensor fiber coatings (United States)

    Desu, Seshu B.; Claus, Richard O.; Raheem, Ruby; Murphy, Kent A.


    the filter. These modes may be attributed to a number of material degradation mechanisms, such as thermal shock, oxidation corrosion of the material, mechanical loads, or phase changes in the filter material. Development of high temperature optical fiber (sapphire) sensors embedded in the CXF filters would be very valuable for both monitoring the integrity of the filter during its use and understanding the mechanisms of degradation such that durable filter development will be facilitated. Since the filter operating environment is very harsh, the high temperature sapphire optical fibers need to be protected and for some sensing techniques the fiber must also be coated with low refractive index film (cladding). The objective of the present study is to identify materials and develop process technologies for the application of claddings and protective coatings that are stable and compatible with sapphire fibers at both high temperatures and pressures.

  11. Highly stable and low loss electro-optic polymer waveguides for high speed microring modulators using photodefinition


    Balakrishnan, M.; Diemeer, Mart; Driessen, A.; Faccini, M.; Verboom, Willem; Reinhoudt, David; Leinse, Arne; Sidorin, Y.; Waechter, C.A.


    Different electro-optic polymer systems are analyzed with respect to their electro-optic activity, glass transition temperature (Tg) and photodefinable properties. The polymers tested are polysulfone (PS) and SU8. The electro-optic chromophore, tricyanovinylidenediphenylaminobenzene (TCVDPA), which was reported to have a high photochemical stability has been employed in the current work. Tert-butyl-TCVDPA, having bulky side groups, was synthesized and a doubling of the electro-optic coefficie...

  12. Optical interconnection networks for high-performance computing systems. (United States)

    Biberman, Aleksandr; Bergman, Keren


    Enabled by silicon photonic technology, optical interconnection networks have the potential to be a key disruptive technology in computing and communication industries. The enduring pursuit of performance gains in computing, combined with stringent power constraints, has fostered the ever-growing computational parallelism associated with chip multiprocessors, memory systems, high-performance computing systems and data centers. Sustaining these parallelism growths introduces unique challenges for on- and off-chip communications, shifting the focus toward novel and fundamentally different communication approaches. Chip-scale photonic interconnection networks, enabled by high-performance silicon photonic devices, offer unprecedented bandwidth scalability with reduced power consumption. We demonstrate that the silicon photonic platforms have already produced all the high-performance photonic devices required to realize these types of networks. Through extensive empirical characterization in much of our work, we demonstrate such feasibility of waveguides, modulators, switches and photodetectors. We also demonstrate systems that simultaneously combine many functionalities to achieve more complex building blocks. We propose novel silicon photonic devices, subsystems, network topologies and architectures to enable unprecedented performance of these photonic interconnection networks. Furthermore, the advantages of photonic interconnection networks extend far beyond the chip, offering advanced communication environments for memory systems, high-performance computing systems, and data centers.

  13. Stabilized high-accuracy optical tracking system (SHOTS) (United States)

    Ruffatto, Donald; Brown, H. Donald; Pohle, Richard H.; Reiley, Michael F.; Haddock, Delmar D.


    This paper describes an 0.75 meter aperture, Stabilized High-accuracy Optical Tracking System (SHOTS), two of which are being developed by Textron Systems Corporation, under contract to the Navy's Space and Naval Warfare Systems Center, San Diego (SPAWAR-SD). The SHOTS design is optimized to meet the requirements of the Navy's Theater Ballistic Missile Defense (TBMD) testing program being conducted at the Kauai Pacific Missile Range Facility (PMRF). The SHOTS utilizes a high-precision, GPS aided inertial navigation unit (INU) coupled with a 3-axis, rate gyro stabilized mount which allows precision pointing to be achieved on either land or sea-based platforms. The SHOTS mount control system architecture, acquisition, tracking and pointing (ATP) functionality and methodology which allows the system to meet the TBMD mission data collection requirements are discussed. High frame rate visible and MWIR sensors are incorporated into the system design to provide the capability of capturing short duration events, e.g., missile-target intercepts. These sensors along with the supporting high speed data acquisition, recording and control subsystems are described. Simulations of the SHOTS imaging performance in TBMD measurement scenarios are presented along with an example of the image improvement being achieved with post-processing image reconstruction algorithms.

  14. Body-turbulence interaction (United States)

    Bushnell, D. M.


    The paper reviews the area of body-turbulence interaction with particular emphasis upon the influence of the body upon an incident turublent field. Cases considered include two-dimensional (high and low fineness ratio, porous, and impervious) and three-dimensional bodies in-stream, adjacent to, and attached to walls. Particular physics common to several geometric and incident flow configurations include (1) eddy severing at relatively sharp leading edges, (2) production of vorticity of the opposite sense on bluff bodies, and (3) body region production of control vortices which affect the incident turbulence field for the order of 100 boundary-layer thicknesses downstream. The major local effects of the body upon the incident turbulent field include (1) a blocking effect, (2) influence of the body momentum deficit/near wake, (3) distortion due to the body time-averaged flow field, and (4) unsteady body circulation. The review may be of particular interest for turbulence alteration/control using fixed geometry in applications such as drag reduction, separation control, noise reduction, and augmentor optimization.

  15. Turbulence compressibility corrections (United States)

    Coakley, T. J.; Horstman, C. C.; Marvin, J. G.; Viegas, J. R.; Bardina, J. E.; Huang, P. G.; Kussoy, M. I.


    The basic objective of this research was to identify, develop and recommend turbulence models which could be incorporated into CFD codes used in the design of the National AeroSpace Plane vehicles. To accomplish this goal, a combined effort consisting of experimental and theoretical phases was undertaken. The experimental phase consisted of a literature survey to collect and assess a database of well documented experimental flows, with emphasis on high speed or hypersonic flows, which could be used to validate turbulence models. Since it was anticipated that this database would be incomplete and would need supplementing, additional experiments in the NASA Ames 3.5-Foot Hypersonic Wind Tunnel (HWT) were also undertaken. The theoretical phase consisted of identifying promising turbulence models through applications to simple flows, and then investigating more promising models in applications to complex flows. The complex flows were selected from the database developed in the first phase of the study. For these flows it was anticipated that model performance would not be entirely satisfactory, so that model improvements or corrections would be required. The primary goals of the investigation were essentially achieved. A large database of flows was collected and assessed, a number of additional hypersonic experiments were conducted in the Ames HWT, and two turbulence models (kappa-epsilon and kappa-omega models with corrections) were determined which gave superior performance for most of the flows studied and are now recommended for NASP applications.

  16. Heart rate turbulence. (United States)

    Cygankiewicz, Iwona


    Heart rate turbulence (HRT) is a baroreflex-mediated biphasic reaction of heart rate in response to premature ventricular beats. Heart rate turbulence is quantified by: turbulence onset (TO) reflecting the initial acceleration of heart rate following premature beat and turbulence slope (TS) describing subsequent deceleration of heart rate. Abnormal HRT identifies patients with autonomic dysfunction or impaired baroreflex sensitivity due to variety of disorders, but also may reflect changes in autonomic nervous system induced by different therapeutic modalities such as drugs, revascularization, or cardiac resynchronization therapy. More importantly, impaired HRT has been shown to identify patients at high risk of all-cause mortality and sudden death, particularly in postinfarction and congestive heart failure patients. It should be emphasized that abnormal HRT has a well-established role in stratification of postinfarction and heart failure patients with relatively preserved left ventricular ejection fraction. The ongoing clinical trials will document whether HRT can be used to guide implantation of cardioverter-defibrillators in this subset of patients, not covered yet by ICD guidelines. This review focuses on the current state-of-the-art knowledge regarding clinical significance of HRT in detection of autonomic dysfunction and regarding the prognostic significance of this parameter in predicting all-cause mortality and sudden death. © 2013.

  17. Optically triggered high voltage switch network and method for switching a high voltage (United States)

    El-Sharkawi, Mohamed A.; Andexler, George; Silberkleit, Lee I.


    An optically triggered solid state switch and method for switching a high voltage electrical current. A plurality of solid state switches (350) are connected in series for controlling electrical current flow between a compensation capacitor (112) and ground in a reactive power compensator (50, 50') that monitors the voltage and current flowing through each of three distribution lines (52a, 52b and 52c), which are supplying three-phase power to one or more inductive loads. An optical transmitter (100) controlled by the reactive power compensation system produces light pulses that are conveyed over optical fibers (102) to a switch driver (110') that includes a plurality of series connected optical triger circuits (288). Each of the optical trigger circuits controls a pair of the solid state switches and includes a plurality of series connected resistors (294, 326, 330, and 334) that equalize or balance the potential across the plurality of trigger circuits. The trigger circuits are connected to one of the distribution lines through a trigger capacitor (340). In each switch driver, the light signals activate a phototransistor (300) so that an electrical current flows from one of the energy reservoir capacitors through a pulse transformer (306) in the trigger circuit, producing gate signals that turn on the pair of serially connected solid state switches (350).

  18. Optical conductivity and optical effective mass in a high-mobility organic semiconductor: Implications for the nature of charge transport

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Yuan


    We present a multiscale modeling of the infrared optical properties of the rubrene crystal. The results are in very good agreement with the experimental data that point to nonmonotonic features in the optical conductivity spectrum and small optical effective masses. We find that, in the static-disorder approximation, the nonlocal electron-phonon interactions stemming from low-frequency lattice vibrations can decrease the optical effective masses and lead to lighter quasiparticles. On the other hand, the charge-transport and infrared optical properties of the rubrene crystal at room temperature are demonstrated to be governed by localized carriers driven by inherent thermal disorders. Our findings underline that the presence of apparently light carriers in high-mobility organic semiconductors does not necessarily imply bandlike transport.

  19. High contrast all-optical diode based on direction-dependent optical bistability within asymmetric ring cavity (United States)

    Xia, Xiu-Wen; Zhang, Xin-Qin; Xu, Jing-Ping; Yang, Ya-Ping


    We propose a simple all-optical diode which is comprised of an asymmetric ring cavity containing a two-level atomic ensemble. Attributed to spatial symmetry breaking of the ring cavity, direction-dependent optical bistability is obtained in a classical bistable system. Therefore, a giant optical non-reciprocity is generated, which guarantees an all-optical diode with a high contrast up to 22 dB. Furthermore, its application as an all-optical logic AND gate is also discussed. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11274242, 11474221, and 11574229), the Joint Fund of the National Natural Science Foundation of China and the China Academy of Engineering Physics (Grant No. U1330203), and the National Key Basic Research Special Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 2011CB922203 and 2013CB632701).

  20. High-Resolution Global Modeling of the Effects of Subgrid-Scale Clouds and Turbulence on Precipitating Cloud Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogenschutz, Peter [National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States); Moeng, Chin-Hoh [National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States)


    The PI’s at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR), Chin-Hoh Moeng and Peter Bogenschutz, have primarily focused their time on the implementation of the Simplified-Higher Order Turbulence Closure (SHOC; Bogenschutz and Krueger 2013) to the Multi-scale Modeling Framework (MMF) global model and testing of SHOC on deep convective cloud regimes.