WorldWideScience

Sample records for highly transcribed noncoding

  1. Transcribing for Greater Musicality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinz, Bob

    1995-01-01

    States that transcribing is notating the performance of a musical composition or improvisation as the music is grasped aurally. Maintains that transcribing is effective for high school and college students who want to understand jazz techniques. Includes eight suggestions for teaching transcribing. (CFR)

  2. Molecular phylogeny of 21 tropical bamboo species reconstructed by integrating non-coding internal transcribed spacer (ITS1 and 2) sequences and their consensus secondary structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Jayadri Sekhar; Bhattacharya, Samik; Pal, Amita

    2017-06-01

    The unavailability of the reproductive structure and unpredictability of vegetative characters for the identification and phylogenetic study of bamboo prompted the application of molecular techniques for greater resolution and consensus. We first employed internal transcribed spacer (ITS1, 5.8S rRNA and ITS2) sequences to construct the phylogenetic tree of 21 tropical bamboo species. While the sequence alone could grossly reconstruct the traditional phylogeny amongst the 21-tropical species studied, some anomalies were encountered that prompted a further refinement of the phylogenetic analyses. Therefore, we integrated the secondary structure of the ITS sequences to derive individual sequence-structure matrix to gain more resolution on the phylogenetic reconstruction. The results showed that ITS sequence-structure is the reliable alternative to the conventional phenotypic method for the identification of bamboo species. The best-fit topology obtained by the sequence-structure based phylogeny over the sole sequence based one underscores closer clustering of all the studied Bambusa species (Sub-tribe Bambusinae), while Melocanna baccifera, which belongs to Sub-Tribe Melocanneae, disjointedly clustered as an out-group within the consensus phylogenetic tree. In this study, we demonstrated the dependability of the combined (ITS sequence+structure-based) approach over the only sequence-based analysis for phylogenetic relationship assessment of bamboo.

  3. Dynamic Epigenetic Control of Highly Conserved Noncoding Elements

    KAUST Repository

    Seridi, Loqmane

    2014-10-07

    Background Many noncoding genomic loci have remained constant over long evolutionary periods, suggesting that they are exposed to strong selective pressures. The molecular functions of these elements have been partially elucidated, but the fundamental reason for their extreme conservation is still unknown. Results To gain new insights into the extreme selection of highly conserved noncoding elements (HCNEs), we used a systematic analysis of multi-omic data to study the epigenetic regulation of such elements during the development of Drosophila melanogaster. At the sequence level, HCNEs are GC-rich and have a characteristic oligomeric composition. They have higher levels of stable nucleosome occupancy than their flanking regions, and lower levels of mononucleosomes and H3.3, suggesting that these regions reside in compact chromatin. Furthermore, these regions showed remarkable modulations in histone modification and the expression levels of adjacent genes during development. Although HCNEs are primarily initiated late in replication, about 10% were related to early replication origins. Finally, HCNEs showed strong enrichment within lamina-associated domains. Conclusion HCNEs have distinct and protective sequence properties, undergo dynamic epigenetic regulation, and appear to be associated with the structural components of the chromatin, replication origins, and nuclear matrix. These observations indicate that such elements are likely to have essential cellular functions, and offer insights into their epigenetic properties.

  4. Dynamic Epigenetic Control of Highly Conserved Noncoding Elements

    KAUST Repository

    Seridi, Loqmane; Ryu, Tae Woo; Ravasi, Timothy

    2014-01-01

    Background Many noncoding genomic loci have remained constant over long evolutionary periods, suggesting that they are exposed to strong selective pressures. The molecular functions of these elements have been partially elucidated, but the fundamental reason for their extreme conservation is still unknown. Results To gain new insights into the extreme selection of highly conserved noncoding elements (HCNEs), we used a systematic analysis of multi-omic data to study the epigenetic regulation of such elements during the development of Drosophila melanogaster. At the sequence level, HCNEs are GC-rich and have a characteristic oligomeric composition. They have higher levels of stable nucleosome occupancy than their flanking regions, and lower levels of mononucleosomes and H3.3, suggesting that these regions reside in compact chromatin. Furthermore, these regions showed remarkable modulations in histone modification and the expression levels of adjacent genes during development. Although HCNEs are primarily initiated late in replication, about 10% were related to early replication origins. Finally, HCNEs showed strong enrichment within lamina-associated domains. Conclusion HCNEs have distinct and protective sequence properties, undergo dynamic epigenetic regulation, and appear to be associated with the structural components of the chromatin, replication origins, and nuclear matrix. These observations indicate that such elements are likely to have essential cellular functions, and offer insights into their epigenetic properties.

  5. Highly conserved non-coding sequences are associated with vertebrate development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Woolfe

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In addition to protein coding sequence, the human genome contains a significant amount of regulatory DNA, the identification of which is proving somewhat recalcitrant to both in silico and functional methods. An approach that has been used with some success is comparative sequence analysis, whereby equivalent genomic regions from different organisms are compared in order to identify both similarities and differences. In general, similarities in sequence between highly divergent organisms imply functional constraint. We have used a whole-genome comparison between humans and the pufferfish, Fugu rubripes, to identify nearly 1,400 highly conserved non-coding sequences. Given the evolutionary divergence between these species, it is likely that these sequences are found in, and furthermore are essential to, all vertebrates. Most, and possibly all, of these sequences are located in and around genes that act as developmental regulators. Some of these sequences are over 90% identical across more than 500 bases, being more highly conserved than coding sequence between these two species. Despite this, we cannot find any similar sequences in invertebrate genomes. In order to begin to functionally test this set of sequences, we have used a rapid in vivo assay system using zebrafish embryos that allows tissue-specific enhancer activity to be identified. Functional data is presented for highly conserved non-coding sequences associated with four unrelated developmental regulators (SOX21, PAX6, HLXB9, and SHH, in order to demonstrate the suitability of this screen to a wide range of genes and expression patterns. Of 25 sequence elements tested around these four genes, 23 show significant enhancer activity in one or more tissues. We have identified a set of non-coding sequences that are highly conserved throughout vertebrates. They are found in clusters across the human genome, principally around genes that are implicated in the regulation of development

  6. On the classification of long non-coding RNAs

    KAUST Repository

    Ma, Lina; Bajic, Vladimir B.; Zhang, Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been found to perform various functions in a wide variety of important biological processes. To make easier interpretation of lncRNA functionality and conduct deep mining on these transcribed sequences

  7. Simultaneous sequencing of coding and noncoding RNA reveals a human transcriptome dominated by a small number of highly expressed noncoding genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boivin, Vincent; Deschamps-Francoeur, Gabrielle; Couture, Sonia; Nottingham, Ryan M; Bouchard-Bourelle, Philia; Lambowitz, Alan M; Scott, Michelle S; Abou-Elela, Sherif

    2018-07-01

    Comparing the abundance of one RNA molecule to another is crucial for understanding cellular functions but most sequencing techniques can target only specific subsets of RNA. In this study, we used a new fragmented ribodepleted TGIRT sequencing method that uses a thermostable group II intron reverse transcriptase (TGIRT) to generate a portrait of the human transcriptome depicting the quantitative relationship of all classes of nonribosomal RNA longer than 60 nt. Comparison between different sequencing methods indicated that FRT is more accurate in ranking both mRNA and noncoding RNA than viral reverse transcriptase-based sequencing methods, even those that specifically target these species. Measurements of RNA abundance in different cell lines using this method correlate with biochemical estimates, confirming tRNA as the most abundant nonribosomal RNA biotype. However, the single most abundant transcript is 7SL RNA, a component of the signal recognition particle. S tructured n on c oding RNAs (sncRNAs) associated with the same biological process are expressed at similar levels, with the exception of RNAs with multiple functions like U1 snRNA. In general, sncRNAs forming RNPs are hundreds to thousands of times more abundant than their mRNA counterparts. Surprisingly, only 50 sncRNA genes produce half of the non-rRNA transcripts detected in two different cell lines. Together the results indicate that the human transcriptome is dominated by a small number of highly expressed sncRNAs specializing in functions related to translation and splicing. © 2018 Boivin et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press for the RNA Society.

  8. RNA expression in a cartilaginous fish cell line reveals ancient 3′ noncoding regions highly conserved in vertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forest, David; Nishikawa, Ryuhei; Kobayashi, Hiroshi; Parton, Angela; Bayne, Christopher J.; Barnes, David W.

    2007-01-01

    We have established a cartilaginous fish cell line [Squalus acanthias embryo cell line (SAE)], a mesenchymal stem cell line derived from the embryo of an elasmobranch, the spiny dogfish shark S. acanthias. Elasmobranchs (sharks and rays) first appeared >400 million years ago, and existing species provide useful models for comparative vertebrate cell biology, physiology, and genomics. Comparative vertebrate genomics among evolutionarily distant organisms can provide sequence conservation information that facilitates identification of critical coding and noncoding regions. Although these genomic analyses are informative, experimental verification of functions of genomic sequences depends heavily on cell culture approaches. Using ESTs defining mRNAs derived from the SAE cell line, we identified lengthy and highly conserved gene-specific nucleotide sequences in the noncoding 3′ UTRs of eight genes involved in the regulation of cell growth and proliferation. Conserved noncoding 3′ mRNA regions detected by using the shark nucleotide sequences as a starting point were found in a range of other vertebrate orders, including bony fish, birds, amphibians, and mammals. Nucleotide identity of shark and human in these regions was remarkably well conserved. Our results indicate that highly conserved gene sequences dating from the appearance of jawed vertebrates and representing potential cis-regulatory elements can be identified through the use of cartilaginous fish as a baseline. Because the expression of genes in the SAE cell line was prerequisite for their identification, this cartilaginous fish culture system also provides a physiologically valid tool to test functional hypotheses on the role of these ancient conserved sequences in comparative cell biology. PMID:17227856

  9. Battles and hijacks: Noncoding transcription in plants

    KAUST Repository

    Ariel, Federico

    2015-06-01

    Noncoding RNAs have emerged as major components of the eukaryotic transcriptome. Genome-wide analyses revealed the existence of thousands of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) in several plant species. Plant lncRNAs are transcribed by the plant-specific RNA polymerases Pol IV and Pol V, leading to transcriptional gene silencing, as well as by Pol II. They are involved in a wide range of regulatory mechanisms impacting on gene expression, including chromatin remodeling, modulation of alternative splicing, fine-tuning of miRNA activity, and the control of mRNA translation or accumulation. Recently, dual noncoding transcription by alternative RNA polymerases was implicated in epigenetic and chromatin conformation dynamics. This review integrates the current knowledge on the regulatory mechanisms acting through plant noncoding transcription. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

  10. (ISSR) and internal transcribed spacer

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cladistic relationships within the genus Cinnamomum (Lauraceae) in Taiwan based on analysis of leaf morphology and inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) molecular markers.

  11. Motif signatures of transcribed enhancers

    KAUST Repository

    Kleftogiannis, Dimitrios A.; Ashoor, Haitham; Zarokanellos, Nikolaos; Bajic, Vladimir B.

    2017-01-01

    In mammalian cells, transcribed enhancers (TrEn) play important roles in the initiation of gene expression and maintenance of gene expression levels in spatiotemporal manner. One of the most challenging questions in biology today is how the genomic

  12. Noncoding Elements: Evolution and Epigenetic Regulation

    KAUST Repository

    Seridi, Loqmane

    2016-03-09

    When the human genome project was completed, it revealed a surprising result. 98% of the genome did not code for protein of which more than 50% are repeats— later known as ”Junk DNA”. However, comparative genomics unveiled that many noncoding elements are evolutionarily constrained; thus luckily to have a role in genome stability and regulation. Though, their exact functions remained largely unknown. Several large international consortia such as the Functional Annotation of Mammalian Genomes (FANTOM) and the Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE) were set to understand the structure and the regulation of the genome. Specifically, these endeavors aim to measure and reveal the transcribed components and functional elements of the genome. One of the most the striking findings of these efforts is that most of the genome is transcribed, including non-conserved noncoding elements and repeat elements. Specifically, we investigated the evolution and epigenetic properties of noncoding elements. 1. We compared genomes of evolutionarily distant species and showed the ubiquity of constrained noncoding elements in metazoa. 2. By integrating multi-omic data (such as transcriptome, nucleosome profiling, histone modifications), I conducted a comprehensive analysis of epigenetic properties (chromatin states) of conserved noncoding elements in insects. We showed that those elements have distinct and protective sequence features, undergo dynamic epigenetic regulation, and appear to be associated with the structural components of the chromatin, replication origins, and nuclear matrix. 3. I focused on the relationship between enhancers and repetitive elements. Using Cap Analysis of Gene Expression (CAGE) and RNASeq, I compiled a full catalog of active enhancers (a class of noncoding elements) during myogenesis of human primary cells of healthy donors and donors affected by Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Comparing the two time-courses, a significant change in the epigenetic

  13. Expression of Mitochondrial Non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) Is Modulated by High Risk Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Oncogenes*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villota, Claudio; Campos, América; Vidaurre, Soledad; Oliveira-Cruz, Luciana; Boccardo, Enrique; Burzio, Verónica A.; Varas, Manuel; Villegas, Jaime; Villa, Luisa L.; Valenzuela, Pablo D. T.; Socías, Miguel; Roberts, Sally; Burzio, Luis O.

    2012-01-01

    The study of RNA and DNA oncogenic viruses has proved invaluable in the discovery of key cellular pathways that are rendered dysfunctional during cancer progression. An example is high risk human papillomavirus (HPV), the etiological agent of cervical cancer. The role of HPV oncogenes in cellular immortalization and transformation has been extensively investigated. We reported the differential expression of a family of human mitochondrial non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) between normal and cancer cells. Normal cells express a sense mitochondrial ncRNA (SncmtRNA) that seems to be required for cell proliferation and two antisense transcripts (ASncmtRNAs). In contrast, the ASncmtRNAs are down-regulated in cancer cells. To shed some light on the mechanisms that trigger down-regulation of the ASncmtRNAs, we studied human keratinocytes (HFK) immortalized with HPV. Here we show that immortalization of HFK with HPV-16 or 18 causes down-regulation of the ASncmtRNAs and induces the expression of a new sense transcript named SncmtRNA-2. Transduction of HFK with both E6 and E7 is sufficient to induce expression of SncmtRNA-2. Moreover, E2 oncogene is involved in down-regulation of the ASncmtRNAs. Knockdown of E2 in immortalized cells reestablishes in a reversible manner the expression of the ASncmtRNAs, suggesting that endogenous cellular factors(s) could play functions analogous to E2 during non-HPV-induced oncogenesis. PMID:22539350

  14. Expression of mitochondrial non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) is modulated by high risk human papillomavirus (HPV) oncogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villota, Claudio; Campos, América; Vidaurre, Soledad; Oliveira-Cruz, Luciana; Boccardo, Enrique; Burzio, Verónica A; Varas, Manuel; Villegas, Jaime; Villa, Luisa L; Valenzuela, Pablo D T; Socías, Miguel; Roberts, Sally; Burzio, Luis O

    2012-06-15

    The study of RNA and DNA oncogenic viruses has proved invaluable in the discovery of key cellular pathways that are rendered dysfunctional during cancer progression. An example is high risk human papillomavirus (HPV), the etiological agent of cervical cancer. The role of HPV oncogenes in cellular immortalization and transformation has been extensively investigated. We reported the differential expression of a family of human mitochondrial non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) between normal and cancer cells. Normal cells express a sense mitochondrial ncRNA (SncmtRNA) that seems to be required for cell proliferation and two antisense transcripts (ASncmtRNAs). In contrast, the ASncmtRNAs are down-regulated in cancer cells. To shed some light on the mechanisms that trigger down-regulation of the ASncmtRNAs, we studied human keratinocytes (HFK) immortalized with HPV. Here we show that immortalization of HFK with HPV-16 or 18 causes down-regulation of the ASncmtRNAs and induces the expression of a new sense transcript named SncmtRNA-2. Transduction of HFK with both E6 and E7 is sufficient to induce expression of SncmtRNA-2. Moreover, E2 oncogene is involved in down-regulation of the ASncmtRNAs. Knockdown of E2 in immortalized cells reestablishes in a reversible manner the expression of the ASncmtRNAs, suggesting that endogenous cellular factors(s) could play functions analogous to E2 during non-HPV-induced oncogenesis.

  15. Motif signatures of transcribed enhancers

    KAUST Repository

    Kleftogiannis, Dimitrios

    2017-09-14

    In mammalian cells, transcribed enhancers (TrEn) play important roles in the initiation of gene expression and maintenance of gene expression levels in spatiotemporal manner. One of the most challenging questions in biology today is how the genomic characteristics of enhancers relate to enhancer activities. This is particularly critical, as several recent studies have linked enhancer sequence motifs to specific functional roles. To date, only a limited number of enhancer sequence characteristics have been investigated, leaving space for exploring the enhancers genomic code in a more systematic way. To address this problem, we developed a novel computational method, TELS, aimed at identifying predictive cell type/tissue specific motif signatures. We used TELS to compile a comprehensive catalog of motif signatures for all known TrEn identified by the FANTOM5 consortium across 112 human primary cells and tissues. Our results confirm that distinct cell type/tissue specific motif signatures characterize TrEn. These signatures allow discriminating successfully a) TrEn from random controls, proxy of non-enhancer activity, and b) cell type/tissue specific TrEn from enhancers expressed and transcribed in different cell types/tissues. TELS codes and datasets are publicly available at http://www.cbrc.kaust.edu.sa/TELS.

  16. Long non-coding RNAs: Mechanism of action and functional utility

    OpenAIRE

    Bhat, Shakil Ahmad; Ahmad, Syed Mudasir; Mumtaz, Peerzada Tajamul; Malik, Abrar Ahad; Dar, Mashooq Ahmad; Urwat, Uneeb; Shah, Riaz Ahmad; Ganai, Nazir Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    Recent RNA sequencing studies have revealed that most of the human genome is transcribed, but very little of the total transcriptomes has the ability to encode proteins. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are non-coding transcripts longer than 200 nucleotides. Members of the non-coding genome include microRNA (miRNA), small regulatory RNAs and other short RNAs. Most of long non-coding RNA (lncRNAs) are poorly annotated. Recent recognition about lncRNAs highlights their effects in many biological ...

  17. Emerging properties and functional consequences of noncoding transcription

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ard, Ryan; Allshire, Robin C; Marquardt, Sebastian

    2017-01-01

    specific lncRNAs, support grows for the notion that the act of transcription rather than the RNA product itself is functionally important in many cases. Indeed, this alternative mechanism might better explain how low-abundance lncRNAs transcribed from noncoding DNA function in organisms. Here, we highlight......Eukaryotic genomes are rich in transcription units encoding "long noncoding RNAs" (lncRNAs). The purpose of all this transcription is unclear since most lncRNAs are quickly targeted for destruction during synthesis or shortly thereafter. As debates continue over the functional significance of many...... some of the recently emerging features that distinguish coding from noncoding transcription and discuss how these differences might have important implications for the functional consequences of noncoding transcription....

  18. Long Non-Coding RNA in Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damjan Glavač

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs are pervasively transcribed in the genome and are emerging as new players in tumorigenesis due to their various functions in transcriptional, posttranscriptional and epigenetic mechanisms of gene regulation. LncRNAs are deregulated in a number of cancers, demonstrating both oncogenic and tumor suppressive roles, thus suggesting their aberrant expression may be a substantial contributor in cancer development. In this review, we will summarize their emerging role in human cancer and discuss their perspectives in diagnostics as potential biomarkers.

  19. Distanced Data: Transcribing Other People's Research Tapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilley, Susan A.; Powick, Kelly D.

    2004-01-01

    In this article, we report on our qualitative study involving eight individuals hired to transcribe research tapes in university contexts. We consider issues of data analysis and data trustworthiness and the implications for both when transcription is assigned to someone other than the researcher. We explore the challenges transcribers faced…

  20. Panning for Long Noncoding RNAs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Yang

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The recent advent of high-throughput approaches has revealed widespread transcription of the human genome, leading to a new appreciation of transcription regulation, especially from noncoding regions. Distinct from most coding and small noncoding RNAs, long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs are generally expressed at low levels, are less conserved and lack protein-coding capacity. These intrinsic features of lncRNAs have not only hampered their full annotation in the past several years, but have also generated controversy concerning whether many or most of these lncRNAs are simply the result of transcriptional noise. Here, we assess these intrinsic features that have challenged lncRNA discovery and further summarize recent progress in lncRNA discovery with integrated methodologies, from which new lessons and insights can be derived to achieve better characterization of lncRNA expression regulation. Full annotation of lncRNA repertoires and the implications of such annotation will provide a fundamental basis for comprehensive understanding of pervasive functions of lncRNAs in biological regulation.

  1. NONCODE v2.0: decoding the non-coding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Shunmin; Liu, Changning; Skogerbø, Geir; Zhao, Haitao; Wang, Jie; Liu, Tao; Bai, Baoyan; Zhao, Yi; Chen, Runsheng

    2008-01-01

    The NONCODE database is an integrated knowledge database designed for the analysis of non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs). Since NONCODE was first released 3 years ago, the number of known ncRNAs has grown rapidly, and there is growing recognition that ncRNAs play important regulatory roles in most organisms. In the updated version of NONCODE (NONCODE v2.0), the number of collected ncRNAs has reached 206 226, including a wide range of microRNAs, Piwi-interacting RNAs and mRNA-like ncRNAs. The improvements brought to the database include not only new and updated ncRNA data sets, but also an incorporation of BLAST alignment search service and access through our custom UCSC Genome Browser. NONCODE can be found under http://www.noncode.org or http://noncode.bioinfo.org.cn.

  2. Decoding the function of nuclear long non-coding RNAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ling-Ling; Carmichael, Gordon G

    2010-06-01

    Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are mRNA-like, non-protein-coding RNAs that are pervasively transcribed throughout eukaryotic genomes. Rather than silently accumulating in the nucleus, many of these are now known or suspected to play important roles in nuclear architecture or in the regulation of gene expression. In this review, we highlight some recent progress in how lncRNAs regulate these important nuclear processes at the molecular level. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Functional long non-coding RNA transcription in Schizosaccharomyces pombe

    OpenAIRE

    Ard, Ryan Anthony

    2016-01-01

    Eukaryotic genomes are pervasively transcribed and frequently generate long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs). However, most lncRNAs remain uncharacterized. In this work, a set of positionally conserved intergenic lncRNAs in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe genome are selected for further analysis. Deleting one of these lncRNA genes (ncRNA.1343) exhibited a clear phenotype: increased drug sensitivity. Further analyses revealed that deleting ncRNA.1343 also disrupted a prev...

  4. Overexpression of long non-coding RNA TUG1 predicts poor prognosis and promotes cancer cell proliferation and migration in high-grade muscle-invasive bladder cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iliev, Robert; Kleinova, Renata; Juracek, Jaroslav; Dolezel, Jan; Ozanova, Zuzana; Fedorko, Michal; Pacik, Dalibor; Svoboda, Marek; Stanik, Michal; Slaby, Ondrej

    2016-10-01

    Long non-coding RNA TUG1 is involved in the development and progression of a variety of tumors. Little is known about TUG1 function in high-grade muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC). The aims of our study were to determine expression levels of long non-coding RNA TUG1 in tumor tissue, to evaluate its relationship with clinico-pathological features of high-grade MIBC, and to describe its function in MIBC cells in vitro. TUG1 expression levels were determined in paired tumor and adjacent non-tumor bladder tissues of 47 patients with high-grade MIBC using real-time PCR. Cell line T-24 and siRNA silencing were used to study the TUG1 function in vitro. We observed significantly increased levels of TUG1 in tumor tissue in comparison to adjacent non-tumor bladder tissue (P TUG1 levels were significantly increased in metastatic tumors (P = 0.0147) and were associated with shorter overall survival of MIBC patients (P = 0.0241). TUG1 silencing in vitro led to 34 % decrease in cancer cell proliferation (P = 0.0004) and 23 % reduction in migration capacity of cancer cells (P TUG1 silencing on cell cycle distribution and number of apoptotic cells. Our study confirmed overexpression of TUG1 in MIBC tumor tissue and described its association with worse overall survival in high-grade MIBC patients. Together with in vitro observations, these data suggest an oncogenic role of TUG1 and its potential usage as biomarker or therapeutic target in MIBC.

  5. Exploration of noncoding sequences in metagenomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabián Tobar-Tosse

    Full Text Available Environment-dependent genomic features have been defined for different metagenomes, whose genes and their associated processes are related to specific environments. Identification of ORFs and their functional categories are the most common methods for association between functional and environmental features. However, this analysis based on finding ORFs misses noncoding sequences and, therefore, some metagenome regulatory or structural information could be discarded. In this work we analyzed 23 whole metagenomes, including coding and noncoding sequences using the following sequence patterns: (G+C content, Codon Usage (Cd, Trinucleotide Usage (Tn, and functional assignments for ORF prediction. Herein, we present evidence of a high proportion of noncoding sequences discarded in common similarity-based methods in metagenomics, and the kind of relevant information present in those. We found a high density of trinucleotide repeat sequences (TRS in noncoding sequences, with a regulatory and adaptive function for metagenome communities. We present associations between trinucleotide values and gene function, where metagenome clustering correlate with microorganism adaptations and kinds of metagenomes. We propose here that noncoding sequences have relevant information to describe metagenomes that could be considered in a whole metagenome analysis in order to improve their organization, classification protocols, and their relation with the environment.

  6. The Long Non-coding RNA HOTTIP Enhances Pancreatic Cancer Cell Proliferation, Survival and Migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    ABSTRACTHOTTIP is a long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) transcribed from the 5' tip of the HOXA locus and is associated with the polycomb repressor complex 2 (PRC2) and WD repeat containing protein 5 (WDR5)/mixed lineage leukemia 1 (MLL1) chromatin modifying complexes. HOTTIP is expres...

  7. The High Degree of Sequence Plasticity of the Arenavirus Noncoding Intergenic Region (IGR) Enables the Use of a Nonviral Universal Synthetic IGR To Attenuate Arenaviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasaki, Masaharu; Cubitt, Beatrice; Sullivan, Brian M; de la Torre, Juan C

    2016-01-06

    Hemorrhagic fever arenaviruses (HFAs) pose important public health problems in regions where they are endemic. Concerns about human-pathogenic arenaviruses are exacerbated because of the lack of FDA-licensed arenavirus vaccines and because current antiarenaviral therapy is limited to an off-label use of ribavirin that is only partially effective. We have recently shown that the noncoding intergenic region (IGR) present in each arenavirus genome segment, the S and L segments (S-IGR and L-IGR, respectively), plays important roles in the control of virus protein expression and that this knowledge could be harnessed for the development of live-attenuated vaccine strains to combat HFAs. In this study, we further investigated the sequence plasticity of the arenavirus IGR. We demonstrate that recombinants of the prototypic arenavirus lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (rLCMVs), whose S-IGRs were replaced by the S-IGR of Lassa virus (LASV) or an entirely nonviral S-IGR-like sequence (Ssyn), are viable, indicating that the function of S-IGR tolerates a high degree of sequence plasticity. In addition, rLCMVs whose L-IGRs were replaced by Ssyn or S-IGRs of the very distantly related reptarenavirus Golden Gate virus (GGV) were viable and severely attenuated in vivo but able to elicit protective immunity against a lethal challenge with wild-type LCMV. Our findings indicate that replacement of L-IGR by a nonviral Ssyn could serve as a universal molecular determinant of arenavirus attenuation. Hemorrhagic fever arenaviruses (HFAs) cause high rates of morbidity and mortality and pose important public health problems in regions where they are endemic. Implementation of live-attenuated vaccines (LAVs) will represent a major step to combat HFAs. Here we document that the arenavirus noncoding intergenic region (IGR) has a high degree of plasticity compatible with virus viability. This observation led us to generate recombinant LCMVs containing nonviral synthetic IGRs. These r

  8. iMir: an integrated pipeline for high-throughput analysis of small non-coding RNA data obtained by smallRNA-Seq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giurato, Giorgio; De Filippo, Maria Rosaria; Rinaldi, Antonio; Hashim, Adnan; Nassa, Giovanni; Ravo, Maria; Rizzo, Francesca; Tarallo, Roberta; Weisz, Alessandro

    2013-12-13

    Qualitative and quantitative analysis of small non-coding RNAs by next generation sequencing (smallRNA-Seq) represents a novel technology increasingly used to investigate with high sensitivity and specificity RNA population comprising microRNAs and other regulatory small transcripts. Analysis of smallRNA-Seq data to gather biologically relevant information, i.e. detection and differential expression analysis of known and novel non-coding RNAs, target prediction, etc., requires implementation of multiple statistical and bioinformatics tools from different sources, each focusing on a specific step of the analysis pipeline. As a consequence, the analytical workflow is slowed down by the need for continuous interventions by the operator, a critical factor when large numbers of datasets need to be analyzed at once. We designed a novel modular pipeline (iMir) for comprehensive analysis of smallRNA-Seq data, comprising specific tools for adapter trimming, quality filtering, differential expression analysis, biological target prediction and other useful options by integrating multiple open source modules and resources in an automated workflow. As statistics is crucial in deep-sequencing data analysis, we devised and integrated in iMir tools based on different statistical approaches to allow the operator to analyze data rigorously. The pipeline created here proved to be efficient and time-saving than currently available methods and, in addition, flexible enough to allow the user to select the preferred combination of analytical steps. We present here the results obtained by applying this pipeline to analyze simultaneously 6 smallRNA-Seq datasets from either exponentially growing or growth-arrested human breast cancer MCF-7 cells, that led to the rapid and accurate identification, quantitation and differential expression analysis of ~450 miRNAs, including several novel miRNAs and isomiRs, as well as identification of the putative mRNA targets of differentially expressed mi

  9. Manuscript Transcription by Crowdsourcing: Transcribe Bentham

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Moyle

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Transcribe Bentham is testing the feasibility of outsourcing the work of manuscript transcription to members of the public. UCL Library Services holds 60,000 folios of manuscripts of the philosopher and jurist Jeremy Bentham (1748–1832. Transcribe Bentham will digitise 12,500 Bentham folios, and, through a wiki-based interface, allow volunteer transcribers to take temporary ownership of manuscript images and to create TEI-encoded transcription text for final approval by UCL experts. Approved transcripts will be stored and preserved, with the manuscript images, in UCL’s public Digital Collections repository. The project makes innovative use of traditional library material. It will stimulate public engagement with UCL’s scholarly archive collections and the challenges of palaeography and manuscript transcription; it will raise the profile of the work and thought of Jeremy Bentham; and it will create new digital resources for future use by professional researchers. Towards the end of the project, the transcription tool will be made available to other projects and services. This paper is based on a presentation given by the lead author at LIBER’s 39th Annual General Conference in Aarhus, Denmark, 2010.

  10. 3' terminal diversity of MRP RNA and other human noncoding RNAs revealed by deep sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldfarb, Katherine C; Cech, Thomas R

    2013-09-21

    Post-transcriptional 3' end processing is a key component of RNA regulation. The abundant and essential RNA subunit of RNase MRP has been proposed to function in three distinct cellular compartments and therefore may utilize this mode of regulation. Here we employ 3' RACE coupled with high-throughput sequencing to characterize the 3' terminal sequences of human MRP RNA and other noncoding RNAs that form RNP complexes. The 3' terminal sequence of MRP RNA from HEK293T cells has a distinctive distribution of genomically encoded termini (including an assortment of U residues) with a portion of these selectively tagged by oligo(A) tails. This profile contrasts with the relatively homogenous 3' terminus of an in vitro transcribed MRP RNA control and the differing 3' terminal profiles of U3 snoRNA, RNase P RNA, and telomerase RNA (hTR). 3' RACE coupled with deep sequencing provides a valuable framework for the functional characterization of 3' terminal sequences of noncoding RNAs.

  11. 3′ terminal diversity of MRP RNA and other human noncoding RNAs revealed by deep sequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Post-transcriptional 3′ end processing is a key component of RNA regulation. The abundant and essential RNA subunit of RNase MRP has been proposed to function in three distinct cellular compartments and therefore may utilize this mode of regulation. Here we employ 3′ RACE coupled with high-throughput sequencing to characterize the 3′ terminal sequences of human MRP RNA and other noncoding RNAs that form RNP complexes. Results The 3′ terminal sequence of MRP RNA from HEK293T cells has a distinctive distribution of genomically encoded termini (including an assortment of U residues) with a portion of these selectively tagged by oligo(A) tails. This profile contrasts with the relatively homogenous 3′ terminus of an in vitro transcribed MRP RNA control and the differing 3′ terminal profiles of U3 snoRNA, RNase P RNA, and telomerase RNA (hTR). Conclusions 3′ RACE coupled with deep sequencing provides a valuable framework for the functional characterization of 3′ terminal sequences of noncoding RNAs. PMID:24053768

  12. Structure of noncoding RNA is a determinant of function of RNA binding proteins in transcriptional regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oyoshi Takanori

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The majority of the noncoding regions of mammalian genomes have been found to be transcribed to generate noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs, resulting in intense interest in their biological roles. During the past decade, numerous ncRNAs and aptamers have been identified as regulators of transcription. 6S RNA, first described as a ncRNA in E. coli, mimics an open promoter structure, which has a large bulge with two hairpin/stalk structures that regulate transcription through interactions with RNA polymerase. B2 RNA, which has stem-loops and unstructured single-stranded regions, represses transcription of mRNA in response to various stresses, including heat shock in mouse cells. The interaction of TLS (translocated in liposarcoma with CBP/p300 was induced by ncRNAs that bind to TLS, and this in turn results in inhibition of CBP/p300 histone acetyltransferase (HAT activity in human cells. Transcription regulator EWS (Ewing's sarcoma, which is highly related to TLS, and TLS specifically bind to G-quadruplex structures in vitro. The carboxy terminus containing the Arg-Gly-Gly (RGG repeat domains in these proteins are necessary for cis-repression of transcription activation and HAT activity by the N-terminal glutamine-rich domain. Especially, the RGG domain in the carboxy terminus of EWS is important for the G-quadruplex specific binding. Together, these data suggest that functions of EWS and TLS are modulated by specific structures of ncRNAs.

  13. Long Noncoding RNA Identification: Comparing Machine Learning Based Tools for Long Noncoding Transcripts Discrimination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siyu Han

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Long noncoding RNA (lncRNA is a kind of noncoding RNA with length more than 200 nucleotides, which aroused interest of people in recent years. Lots of studies have confirmed that human genome contains many thousands of lncRNAs which exert great influence over some critical regulators of cellular process. With the advent of high-throughput sequencing technologies, a great quantity of sequences is waiting for exploitation. Thus, many programs are developed to distinguish differences between coding and long noncoding transcripts. Different programs are generally designed to be utilised under different circumstances and it is sensible and practical to select an appropriate method according to a certain situation. In this review, several popular methods and their advantages, disadvantages, and application scopes are summarised to assist people in employing a suitable method and obtaining a more reliable result.

  14. nocoRNAc: Characterization of non-coding RNAs in prokaryotes

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    Nieselt Kay

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The interest in non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs constantly rose during the past few years because of the wide spectrum of biological processes in which they are involved. This led to the discovery of numerous ncRNA genes across many species. However, for most organisms the non-coding transcriptome still remains unexplored to a great extent. Various experimental techniques for the identification of ncRNA transcripts are available, but as these methods are costly and time-consuming, there is a need for computational methods that allow the detection of functional RNAs in complete genomes in order to suggest elements for further experiments. Several programs for the genome-wide prediction of functional RNAs have been developed but most of them predict a genomic locus with no indication whether the element is transcribed or not. Results We present NOCORNAc, a program for the genome-wide prediction of ncRNA transcripts in bacteria. NOCORNAc incorporates various procedures for the detection of transcriptional features which are then integrated with functional ncRNA loci to determine the transcript coordinates. We applied RNAz and NOCORNAc to the genome of Streptomyces coelicolor and detected more than 800 putative ncRNA transcripts most of them located antisense to protein-coding regions. Using a custom design microarray we profiled the expression of about 400 of these elements and found more than 300 to be transcribed, 38 of them are predicted novel ncRNA genes in intergenic regions. The expression patterns of many ncRNAs are similarly complex as those of the protein-coding genes, in particular many antisense ncRNAs show a high expression correlation with their protein-coding partner. Conclusions We have developed NOCORNAc, a framework that facilitates the automated characterization of functional ncRNAs. NOCORNAc increases the confidence of predicted ncRNA loci, especially if they contain transcribed ncRNAs. NOCORNAc is not restricted to

  15. Annotating pathogenic non-coding variants in genic regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelfman, Sahar; Wang, Quanli; McSweeney, K Melodi; Ren, Zhong; La Carpia, Francesca; Halvorsen, Matt; Schoch, Kelly; Ratzon, Fanni; Heinzen, Erin L; Boland, Michael J; Petrovski, Slavé; Goldstein, David B

    2017-08-09

    Identifying the underlying causes of disease requires accurate interpretation of genetic variants. Current methods ineffectively capture pathogenic non-coding variants in genic regions, resulting in overlooking synonymous and intronic variants when searching for disease risk. Here we present the Transcript-inferred Pathogenicity (TraP) score, which uses sequence context alterations to reliably identify non-coding variation that causes disease. High TraP scores single out extremely rare variants with lower minor allele frequencies than missense variants. TraP accurately distinguishes known pathogenic and benign variants in synonymous (AUC = 0.88) and intronic (AUC = 0.83) public datasets, dismissing benign variants with exceptionally high specificity. TraP analysis of 843 exomes from epilepsy family trios identifies synonymous variants in known epilepsy genes, thus pinpointing risk factors of disease from non-coding sequence data. TraP outperforms leading methods in identifying non-coding variants that are pathogenic and is therefore a valuable tool for use in gene discovery and the interpretation of personal genomes.While non-coding synonymous and intronic variants are often not under strong selective constraint, they can be pathogenic through affecting splicing or transcription. Here, the authors develop a score that uses sequence context alterations to predict pathogenicity of synonymous and non-coding genetic variants, and provide a web server of pre-computed scores.

  16. Noncoding RNAs in Cancer Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Cerchia

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Several signalling proteins involved in cell growth and differentiation represent attractive candidate targets for cancer diagnosis and/or therapy since they can act as oncogenes. Because of their high specificity and low immunogeneicity, using artificial small noncoding RNA (ncRNAs as therapeutics has recently become a highly promising and rapidly expanding field of interest. Indeed, ncRNAs may either interfere with RNA transcription, stability, translation or directly hamper the function of the targets by binding to their surface. The recent finding that the expression of several genes is under the control of small single-stranded regulatory RNAs, including miRNAs, makes these genes as appropriate targets for ncRNA gene silencing. Furthermore, another class of small ncRNA, aptamers, act as high-affinity ligands and potential antagonists of disease-associated proteins. We will review here the recent and innovative methods that have been developed and the possible applications of ncRNAs as inhibitors or tracers in cancer medicine.

  17. At the intersection of non-coding transcription, DNA repair, chromatin structure, and cellular senescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryosuke eOhsawa

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available It is well accepted that non-coding RNAs play a critical role in regulating gene expression. Recent paradigm-setting studies are now revealing that non-coding RNAs, other than microRNAs, also play intriguing roles in the maintenance of chromatin structure, in the DNA damage response, and in adult human stem cell aging. In this review, we will discuss the complex inter-dependent relationships among non-coding RNA transcription, maintenance of genomic stability, chromatin structure and adult stem cell senescence. DNA damage-induced non-coding RNAs transcribed in the vicinity of the DNA break regulate recruitment of the DNA damage machinery and DNA repair efficiency. We will discuss the correlation between non-coding RNAs and DNA damage repair efficiency and the potential role of changing chromatin structures around double-strand break sites. On the other hand, induction of non-coding RNA transcription from the repetitive Alu elements occurs during human stem cell aging and hinders efficient DNA repair causing entry into senescence. We will discuss how this fine balance between transcription and genomic instability may be regulated by the dramatic changes to chromatin structure that accompany cellular senescence.

  18. Infection-Induced Retrotransposon-Derived Noncoding RNAs Enhance Herpesviral Gene Expression via the NF-κB Pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Karijolich

    Full Text Available Short interspersed nuclear elements (SINEs are highly abundant, RNA polymerase III-transcribed noncoding retrotransposons that are silenced in somatic cells but activated during certain stresses including viral infection. How these induced SINE RNAs impact the host-pathogen interaction is unknown. Here we reveal that during murine gammaherpesvirus 68 (MHV68 infection, rapidly induced SINE RNAs activate the antiviral NF-κB signaling pathway through both mitochondrial antiviral-signaling protein (MAVS-dependent and independent mechanisms. However, SINE RNA-based signaling is hijacked by the virus to enhance viral gene expression and replication. B2 RNA expression stimulates IKKβ-dependent phosphorylation of the major viral lytic cycle transactivator protein RTA, thereby enhancing its activity and increasing progeny virion production. Collectively, these findings suggest that SINE RNAs participate in the innate pathogen response mechanism, but that herpesviruses have evolved to co-opt retrotransposon activation for viral benefit.

  19. PCR-Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) genes sequencing and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: DNA extraction, purification, amplification and sequencing of Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) genes were per- formed using ... Keywords: Internal transcribed spacer genes, phylogenetic, genetic relationship, clinical and environmental fungi, HIV-TB. ... Nigeria. An Ethical clearance was obtained from the Eth-.

  20. Genome-wide identification and characterization of long intergenic non-coding RNAs in Ganoderma lucidum.

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    Jianqin Li

    Full Text Available Ganoderma lucidum is a white-rot fungus best-known for its medicinal activities. We have previously sequenced its genome and annotated the protein coding genes. However, long non-coding RNAs in G. lucidum genome have not been analyzed. In this study, we have identified and characterized long intergenic non-coding RNAs (lincRNA in G. lucidum systematically. We developed a computational pipeline, which was used to analyze RNA-Seq data derived from G. lucidum samples collected from three developmental stages. A total of 402 lincRNA candidates were identified, with an average length of 609 bp. Analysis of their adjacent protein-coding genes (apcGenes revealed that 46 apcGenes belong to the pathways of triterpenoid biosynthesis and lignin degradation, or families of cytochrome P450, mating type B genes, and carbohydrate-active enzymes. To determine if lincRNAs and these apcGenes have any interactions, the corresponding pairs of lincRNAs and apcGenes were analyzed in detail. We developed a modified 3' RACE method to analyze the transcriptional direction of a transcript. Among the 46 lincRNAs, 37 were found unidirectionally transcribed, and 9 were found bidirectionally transcribed. The expression profiles of 16 of these 37 lincRNAs were found to be highly correlated with those of the apcGenes across the three developmental stages. Among them, 11 are positively correlated (r>0.8 and 5 are negatively correlated (r<-0.8. The co-localization and co-expression of lincRNAs and those apcGenes playing important functions is consistent with the notion that lincRNAs might be important regulators for cellular processes. In summary, this represents the very first study to identify and characterize lincRNAs in the genomes of basidiomycetes. The results obtained here have laid the foundation for study of potential lincRNA-mediated expression regulation of genes in G. lucidum.

  1. Molecular Evolution of the non-coding Eosinophil Granule Ontogeny Transcript EGOT

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    Dominic eRose

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Eukaryotic genomes are pervasively transcribed. A large fraction of the transcriptional output consists of long, mRNA-like, non-protein-coding transcripts (mlncRNAs. The evolutionary history of mlncRNAs is still largely uncharted territory.In this contribution, we explore in detail the evolutionary traces of the eosinophil granule ontogeny transcript (EGOT, an experimentally confirmed representative of an abundant class of totally intronic non-coding transcripts (TINs. EGOT is located antisense to an intron of the ITPR1 gene. We computationally identify putative EGOT orthologs in the genomes of 32 different amniotes, including orthologs from primates, rodents, ungulates, carnivores, afrotherians, and xenarthrans, as well as putative candidates from basal amniotes, such as opossum or platypus. We investigate the EGOT gene phylogeny, analyse patterns of sequence conservation, and the evolutionary conservation of the EGOT gene structure. We show that EGO-B, the spliced isoform, may be present throughout the placental mammals, but most likely dates back even further. We demonstrat here for the first time that the whole EGOT locus is highly structured, containing several evolutionary conserved and thermodynamic stable secondary structures.Our analyses allow us to postulate novel functional roles of a hitherto poorly understood region at the intron of EGO-B which is highly conserved at the sequence level. The region contains a novel ITPR1 exon and also conserved RNA secondary structures together with a conserved TATA-like element, which putatively acts as a promoter of an independent regulatory element.

  2. Bistability in self-activating genes regulated by non-coding RNAs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miro-Bueno, Jesus

    2015-01-01

    Non-coding RNA molecules are able to regulate gene expression and play an essential role in cells. On the other hand, bistability is an important behaviour of genetic networks. Here, we propose and study an ODE model in order to show how non-coding RNA can produce bistability in a simple way. The model comprises a single gene with positive feedback that is repressed by non-coding RNA molecules. We show how the values of all the reaction rates involved in the model are able to control the transitions between the high and low states. This new model can be interesting to clarify the role of non-coding RNA molecules in genetic networks. As well, these results can be interesting in synthetic biology for developing new genetic memories and biomolecular devices based on non-coding RNAs

  3. A revised nomenclature for transcribed human endogenous retroviral loci

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) and ERV-like sequences comprise 8% of the human genome. A hitherto unknown proportion of ERV loci are transcribed and thus contribute to the human transcriptome. A small proportion of these loci encode functional proteins. As the role of ERVs in normal and diseased biological processes is not yet established, transcribed ERV loci are of particular interest. As more transcribed ERV loci are likely to be identified in the near future, the development of a systematic nomenclature is important to ensure that all information on each locus can be easily retrieved. Results Here we present a revised nomenclature of transcribed human endogenous retroviral loci that sorts loci into groups based on Repbase classifications. Each symbol is of the format ERV + group symbol + unique number. Group symbols are based on a mixture of Repbase designations and well-supported symbols used in the literature. The presented guidelines will allow newly identified loci to be easily incorporated into the scheme. Conclusions The naming system will be employed by the HUGO Gene Nomenclature Committee for naming transcribed human ERV loci. We hope that the system will contribute to clarifying a certain aspect of a sometimes confusing nomenclature for human endogenous retroviruses. The presented system may also be employed for naming transcribed loci of human non-ERV repeat loci. PMID:21542922

  4. Induction of long noncoding RNA MALAT1 in hypoxic mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lelli A

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Aurelia Lelli,1,2,* Karen A Nolan,1,2,* Sara Santambrogio,1,2 Ana Filipa Gonçalves,1,2 Miriam J Schönenberger,1,2 Anna Guinot,1,2 Ian J Frew,1,2 Hugo H Marti,3 David Hoogewijs,1,2,4 Roland H Wenger1,2 1Institute of Physiology and Zurich Center for Human Physiology (ZIHP, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland; 2National Center of Competence in Research "Kidney.CH", Zurich, Switzerland; 3Institute of Physiology and Pathophysiology, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany; 4Institute of Physiology, University of Duisburg-Essen, Essen, Germany *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Long thought to be “junk DNA”, in recent years it has become clear that a substantial fraction of intergenic genomic DNA is actually transcribed, forming long noncoding RNA (lncRNA. Like mRNA, lncRNA can also be spliced, capped, and polyadenylated, affecting a multitude of biological processes. While the molecular mechanisms underlying the function of lncRNAs have just begun to be elucidated, the conditional regulation of lncRNAs remains largely unexplored. In genome-wide studies our group and others recently found hypoxic transcriptional induction of a subset of lncRNAs, whereof nuclear-enriched abundant/autosomal transcript 1 (NEAT1 and metastasis-associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1 (MALAT1 appear to be the lncRNAs most ubiquitously and most strongly induced by hypoxia in cultured cells. Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF-2 rather than HIF-1 seems to be the preferred transcriptional activator of these lncRNAs. For the first time, we also found strong induction primarily of MALAT1 in organs of mice exposed to inspiratory hypoxia. Most abundant hypoxic levels of MALAT1 lncRNA were found in kidney and testis. In situ hybridization revealed that the hypoxic induction in the kidney was confined to proximal rather than distal tubular epithelial cells. Direct oxygen-dependent regulation of MALAT1 lncRNA was confirmed using isolated primary

  5. Long non-coding RNAs: Mechanism of action and functional utility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakil Ahmad Bhat

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Recent RNA sequencing studies have revealed that most of the human genome is transcribed, but very little of the total transcriptomes has the ability to encode proteins. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs are non-coding transcripts longer than 200 nucleotides. Members of the non-coding genome include microRNA (miRNA, small regulatory RNAs and other short RNAs. Most of long non-coding RNA (lncRNAs are poorly annotated. Recent recognition about lncRNAs highlights their effects in many biological and pathological processes. LncRNAs are dysfunctional in a variety of human diseases varying from cancerous to non-cancerous diseases. Characterization of these lncRNA genes and their modes of action may allow their use for diagnosis, monitoring of progression and targeted therapies in various diseases. In this review, we summarize the functional perspectives as well as the mechanism of action of lncRNAs. Keywords: LncRNA, X-chromosome inactivation, Genome imprinting, Transcription regulation, Cancer, Immunity

  6. Detecting non-coding selective pressure in coding regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanchette Mathieu

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Comparative genomics approaches, where orthologous DNA regions are compared and inter-species conserved regions are identified, have proven extremely powerful for identifying non-coding regulatory regions located in intergenic or intronic regions. However, non-coding functional elements can also be located within coding region, as is common for exonic splicing enhancers, some transcription factor binding sites, and RNA secondary structure elements affecting mRNA stability, localization, or translation. Since these functional elements are located in regions that are themselves highly conserved because they are coding for a protein, they generally escaped detection by comparative genomics approaches. Results We introduce a comparative genomics approach for detecting non-coding functional elements located within coding regions. Codon evolution is modeled as a mixture of codon substitution models, where each component of the mixture describes the evolution of codons under a specific type of coding selective pressure. We show how to compute the posterior distribution of the entropy and parsimony scores under this null model of codon evolution. The method is applied to a set of growth hormone 1 orthologous mRNA sequences and a known exonic splicing elements is detected. The analysis of a set of CORTBP2 orthologous genes reveals a region of several hundred base pairs under strong non-coding selective pressure whose function remains unknown. Conclusion Non-coding functional elements, in particular those involved in post-transcriptional regulation, are likely to be much more prevalent than is currently known. With the numerous genome sequencing projects underway, comparative genomics approaches like that proposed here are likely to become increasingly powerful at detecting such elements.

  7. The specificity of long noncoding RNA expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gloss, Brian S; Dinger, Marcel E

    2016-01-01

    Over the last decade, long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have emerged as a fundamental molecular class whose members play pivotal roles in the regulation of the genome. The observation of pervasive transcription of mammalian genomes in the early 2000s sparked a revolution in the understanding of information flow in eukaryotic cells and the incredible flexibility and dynamic nature of the transcriptome. As a molecular class, distinct loci yielding lncRNAs are set to outnumber those yielding mRNAs. However, like many important discoveries, the road leading to uncovering this diverse class of molecules that act through a remarkable repertoire of mechanisms, was not a straight one. The same characteristic that most distinguishes lncRNAs from mRNAs, i.e. their developmental-stage, tissue-, and cell-specific expression, was one of the major impediments to their discovery and recognition as potentially functional regulatory molecules. With growing numbers of lncRNAs being assigned to biological functions, the specificity of lncRNA expression is now increasingly recognized as a characteristic that imbues lncRNAs with great potential as biomarkers and for the development of highly targeted therapeutics. Here we review the history of lncRNA research and how technological advances and insight into biological complexity have gone hand-in-hand in shaping this revolution. We anticipate that as increasing numbers of these molecules, often described as the dark matter of the genome, are characterized and the structure-function relationship of lncRNAs becomes better understood, it may ultimately be feasible to decipher what these non-(protein)-coding genes encode. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Clues to long noncoding RNA taxonomy1, edited by Dr. Tetsuro Hirose and Dr. Shinichi Nakagawa. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. The anti-tumor drug bleomycin preferentially cleaves at the transcription start sites of actively transcribed genes in human cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Vincent; Chen, Jon K; Galea, Anne M

    2014-04-01

    The genome-wide pattern of DNA cleavage at transcription start sites (TSSs) for the anti-tumor drug bleomycin was examined in human HeLa cells using next-generation DNA sequencing. It was found that actively transcribed genes were preferentially cleaved compared with non-transcribed genes. The 143,600 identified human TSSs were split into non-transcribed genes (82,596) and transcribed genes (61,004) for HeLa cells. These transcribed genes were further split into quintiles of 12,201 genes comprising the top 20, 20-40, 40-60, 60-80, and 80-100 % of expressed genes. The bleomycin cleavage pattern at highly transcribed gene TSSs was greatly enhanced compared with purified DNA and non-transcribed gene TSSs. The top 20 and 20-40 % quintiles had a very similar enhanced cleavage pattern, the 40-60 % quintile was intermediate, while the 60-80 and 80-100 % quintiles were close to the non-transcribed and purified DNA profiles. The pattern of bleomycin enhanced cleavage had peaks that were approximately 200 bp apart, and this indicated that bleomycin was identifying the presence of phased nucleosomes at TSSs. Hence bleomycin can be utilized to detect chromatin structures that are present at actively transcribed genes. In this study, for the first time, the pattern of DNA damage by a clinically utilized cancer chemotherapeutic agent was performed on a human genome-wide scale at the nucleotide level.

  9. Altered expression of long non-coding RNAs during genotoxic stress-induced cell death in human glioma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qian; Sun, Shanquan; Yu, Wei; Jiang, Jin; Zhuo, Fei; Qiu, Guoping; Xu, Shiye; Jiang, Xuli

    2015-04-01

    Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), a recently discovered class of non-coding genes, are transcribed throughout the genome. Emerging evidence suggests that lncRNAs may be involved in modulating various aspects of tumor biology, including regulating gene activity in response to external stimuli or DNA damage. No data are available regarding the expression of lncRNAs during genotoxic stress-induced apoptosis and/or necrosis in human glioma cells. In this study, we detected a change in the expression of specific candidate lncRNAs (neat1, GAS5, TUG1, BC200, Malat1, MEG3, MIR155HG, PAR5, and ST7OT1) during DNA damage-induced apoptosis in human glioma cell lines (U251 and U87) using doxorubicin (DOX) and resveratrol (RES). We also detected the expression pattern of these lncRNAs in human glioma cell lines under necrosis induced using an increased dose of DOX. Our results reveal that the lncRNA expression patterns are distinct between genotoxic stress-induced apoptosis and necrosis in human glioma cells. The sets of lncRNA expressed during genotoxic stress-induced apoptosis were DNA-damaging agent-specific. Generally, MEG3 and ST7OT1 are up-regulated in both cell lines under apoptosis induced using both agents. The induction of GAS5 is only clearly detected during DOX-induced apoptosis, whereas the up-regulation of neat1 and MIR155HG is only found during RES-induced apoptosis in both cell lines. However, TUG1, BC200 and MIR155HG are down regulated when necrosis is induced using a high dose of DOX in both cell lines. In conclusion, our findings suggest that the distinct regulation of lncRNAs may possibly involve in the process of cellular defense against genotoxic agents.

  10. A Direct TeX-to-Braille Transcribing Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papasalouros, Andreas; Tsolomitis, Antonis

    2017-01-01

    The TeX/LaTeX typesetting system is the most wide-spread system for creating documents in Mathematics and Science. However, no reliable tool exists to this day for automatically transcribing documents from the above formats into Braille/Nemeth code. Thus, visually impaired students of related fields do not have access to the bulk of study material…

  11. Ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer 1 and internal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-07-26

    Jul 26, 2010 ... in some East Asian countries such as China, Korea and. *Corresponding author. E-mail: soonkwan@kangwon.ac.kr. Tel: +82 33 250 6476. Fax: +82 33 250 6470. Abbreviations: nrDNA, Nuclear ribosomal DNA; ITS, internal transcribed spacer; PCR, polymerase chain reaction; BLAST, basic local alignment ...

  12. ncRNA-class Web Tool: Non-coding RNA feature extraction and pre-miRNA classification web tool

    KAUST Repository

    Kleftogiannis, Dimitrios A.; Theofilatos, Konstantinos A.; Papadimitriou, Stergios; Tsakalidis, Athanasios K.; Likothanassis, Spiridon D.; Mavroudi, Seferina P.

    2012-01-01

    Until recently, it was commonly accepted that most genetic information is transacted by proteins. Recent evidence suggests that the majority of the genomes of mammals and other complex organisms are in fact transcribed into non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs), many of which are alternatively spliced and/or processed into smaller products. Non coding RNA genes analysis requires the calculation of several sequential, thermodynamical and structural features. Many independent tools have already been developed for the efficient calculation of such features but to the best of our knowledge there does not exist any integrative approach for this task. The most significant amount of existing work is related to the miRNA class of non-coding RNAs. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that play a significant role in gene regulation and their prediction is a challenging bioinformatics problem. Non-coding RNA feature extraction and pre-miRNA classification Web Tool (ncRNA-class Web Tool) is a publicly available web tool ( http://150.140.142.24:82/Default.aspx ) which provides a user friendly and efficient environment for the effective calculation of a set of 58 sequential, thermodynamical and structural features of non-coding RNAs, plus a tool for the accurate prediction of miRNAs. © 2012 IFIP International Federation for Information Processing.

  13. Mycobacterial RNA isolation optimized for non-coding RNA: high fidelity isolation of 5S rRNA from Mycobacterium bovis BCG reveals novel post-transcriptional processing and a complete spectrum of modified ribonucleosides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hia, Fabian; Chionh, Yok Hian; Pang, Yan Ling Joy; DeMott, Michael S; McBee, Megan E; Dedon, Peter C

    2015-03-11

    A major challenge in the study of mycobacterial RNA biology is the lack of a comprehensive RNA isolation method that overcomes the unusual cell wall to faithfully yield the full spectrum of non-coding RNA (ncRNA) species. Here, we describe a simple and robust procedure optimized for the isolation of total ncRNA, including 5S, 16S and 23S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) and tRNA, from mycobacteria, using Mycobacterium bovis BCG to illustrate the method. Based on a combination of mechanical disruption and liquid and solid-phase technologies, the method produces all major species of ncRNA in high yield and with high integrity, enabling direct chemical and sequence analysis of the ncRNA species. The reproducibility of the method with BCG was evident in bioanalyzer electrophoretic analysis of isolated RNA, which revealed quantitatively significant differences in the ncRNA profiles of exponentially growing and non-replicating hypoxic bacilli. The method also overcame an historical inconsistency in 5S rRNA isolation, with direct sequencing revealing a novel post-transcriptional processing of 5S rRNA to its functional form and with chemical analysis revealing seven post-transcriptional ribonucleoside modifications in the 5S rRNA. This optimized RNA isolation procedure thus provides a means to more rigorously explore the biology of ncRNA species in mycobacteria. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  14. Non-coding RNAs and epigenome: de novo DNA methylation, allelic exclusion and X-inactivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Halytskiy

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Non-coding RNAs are widespread class of cell RNAs. They participate in many important processes in cells – signaling, posttranscriptional silencing, protein biosynthesis, splicing, maintenance of genome stability, telomere lengthening, X-inactivation. Nevertheless, activity of these RNAs is not restricted to posttranscriptional sphere, but cover also processes that change or maintain the epigenetic information. Non-coding RNAs can directly bind to the DNA targets and cause their repression through recruitment of DNA methyltransferases as well as chromatin modifying enzymes. Such events constitute molecular mechanism of the RNA-dependent DNA methylation. It is possible, that the RNA-DNA interaction is universal mechanism triggering DNA methylation de novo. Allelic exclusion can be also based on described mechanism. This phenomenon takes place, when non-coding RNA, which precursor is transcribed from one allele, triggers DNA methylation in all other alleles present in the cell. Note, that miRNA-mediated transcriptional silencing resembles allelic exclusion, because both miRNA gene and genes, which can be targeted by this miRNA, contain elements with the same sequences. It can be assumed that RNA-dependent DNA methylation and allelic exclusion originated with the purpose of counteracting the activity of mobile genetic elements. Probably, thinning and deregulation of the cellular non-coding RNA pattern allows reactivation of silent mobile genetic elements resulting in genome instability that leads to ageing and carcinogenesis. In the course of X-inactivation, DNA methylation and subsequent hete­rochromatinization of X chromosome can be triggered by direct hybridization of 5′-end of large non-coding RNA Xist with DNA targets in remote regions of the X chromosome.

  15. Battles and hijacks: Noncoding transcription in plants

    KAUST Repository

    Ariel, Federico; Romero-Barrios, Natali; Jé gu, Teddy; Benhamed, Moussa; Crespi, Martin

    2015-01-01

    splicing, fine-tuning of miRNA activity, and the control of mRNA translation or accumulation. Recently, dual noncoding transcription by alternative RNA polymerases was implicated in epigenetic and chromatin conformation dynamics. This review integrates

  16. Characterization of noncoding regulatory DNA in the human genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkon, Ran; Agami, Reuven

    2017-08-08

    Genetic variants associated with common diseases are usually located in noncoding parts of the human genome. Delineation of the full repertoire of functional noncoding elements, together with efficient methods for probing their biological roles, is therefore of crucial importance. Over the past decade, DNA accessibility and various epigenetic modifications have been associated with regulatory functions. Mapping these features across the genome has enabled researchers to begin to document the full complement of putative regulatory elements. High-throughput reporter assays to probe the functions of regulatory regions have also been developed but these methods separate putative regulatory elements from the chromosome so that any effects of chromatin context and long-range regulatory interactions are lost. Definitive assignment of function(s) to putative cis-regulatory elements requires perturbation of these elements. Genome-editing technologies are now transforming our ability to perturb regulatory elements across entire genomes. Interpretation of high-throughput genetic screens that incorporate genome editors might enable the construction of an unbiased map of functional noncoding elements in the human genome.

  17. Robust identification of noncoding RNA from transcriptomes requires phylogenetically-informed sampling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stinus Lindgreen

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Noncoding RNAs are integral to a wide range of biological processes, including translation, gene regulation, host-pathogen interactions and environmental sensing. While genomics is now a mature field, our capacity to identify noncoding RNA elements in bacterial and archaeal genomes is hampered by the difficulty of de novo identification. The emergence of new technologies for characterizing transcriptome outputs, notably RNA-seq, are improving noncoding RNA identification and expression quantification. However, a major challenge is to robustly distinguish functional outputs from transcriptional noise. To establish whether annotation of existing transcriptome data has effectively captured all functional outputs, we analysed over 400 publicly available RNA-seq datasets spanning 37 different Archaea and Bacteria. Using comparative tools, we identify close to a thousand highly-expressed candidate noncoding RNAs. However, our analyses reveal that capacity to identify noncoding RNA outputs is strongly dependent on phylogenetic sampling. Surprisingly, and in stark contrast to protein-coding genes, the phylogenetic window for effective use of comparative methods is perversely narrow: aggregating public datasets only produced one phylogenetic cluster where these tools could be used to robustly separate unannotated noncoding RNAs from a null hypothesis of transcriptional noise. Our results show that for the full potential of transcriptomics data to be realized, a change in experimental design is paramount: effective transcriptomics requires phylogeny-aware sampling.

  18. Both noncoding and protein-coding RNAs contribute to gene expression evolution in the primate brain.

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    Babbitt, Courtney C; Fedrigo, Olivier; Pfefferle, Adam D; Boyle, Alan P; Horvath, Julie E; Furey, Terrence S; Wray, Gregory A

    2010-01-18

    Despite striking differences in cognition and behavior between humans and our closest primate relatives, several studies have found little evidence for adaptive change in protein-coding regions of genes expressed primarily in the brain. Instead, changes in gene expression may underlie many cognitive and behavioral differences. Here, we used digital gene expression: tag profiling (here called Tag-Seq, also called DGE:tag profiling) to assess changes in global transcript abundance in the frontal cortex of the brains of 3 humans, 3 chimpanzees, and 3 rhesus macaques. A substantial fraction of transcripts we identified as differentially transcribed among species were not assayed in previous studies based on microarrays. Differentially expressed tags within coding regions are enriched for gene functions involved in synaptic transmission, transport, oxidative phosphorylation, and lipid metabolism. Importantly, because Tag-Seq technology provides strand-specific information about all polyadenlyated transcripts, we were able to assay expression in noncoding intragenic regions, including both sense and antisense noncoding transcripts (relative to nearby genes). We find that many noncoding transcripts are conserved in both location and expression level between species, suggesting a possible functional role. Lastly, we examined the overlap between differential gene expression and signatures of positive selection within putative promoter regions, a sign that these differences represent adaptations during human evolution. Comparative approaches may provide important insights into genes responsible for differences in cognitive functions between humans and nonhuman primates, as well as highlighting new candidate genes for studies investigating neurological disorders.

  19. DNA barcode and identification of the varieties and provenances of Taiwan's domestic and imported made teas using ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 2 sequences.

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    Lee, Shih-Chieh; Wang, Chia-Hsiang; Yen, Cheng-En; Chang, Chieh

    2017-04-01

    The major aim of made tea identification is to identify the variety and provenance of the tea plant. The present experiment used 113 tea plants [Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze] housed at the Tea Research and Extension Substation, from which 113 internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) fragments, 104 trnL intron, and 98 trnL-trnF intergenic sequence region DNA sequences were successfully sequenced. The similarity of the ITS2 nucleotide sequences between tea plants housed at the Tea Research and Extension Substation was 0.379-0.994. In this polymerase chain reaction-amplified noncoding region, no varieties possessed identical sequences. Compared with the trnL intron and trnL-trnF intergenic sequence fragments of chloroplast cpDNA, the proportion of ITS2 nucleotide sequence variation was large and is more suitable for establishing a DNA barcode database to identify tea plant varieties. After establishing the database, 30 imported teas and 35 domestic made teas were used in this model system to explore the feasibility of using ITS2 sequences to identify the varieties and provenances of made teas. A phylogenetic tree was constructed using ITS2 sequences with the unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean, which indicated that the same variety of tea plant is likely to be successfully categorized into one cluster, but contamination from other tea plants was also detected. This result provides molecular evidence that the similarity between important tea varieties in Taiwan remains high. We suggest a direct, wide collection of made tea and original samples of tea plants to establish an ITS2 sequence molecular barcode identification database to identify the varieties and provenances of tea plants. The DNA barcode comparison method can satisfy the need for a rapid, low-cost, frontline differentiation of the large amount of made teas from Taiwan and abroad, and can provide molecular evidence of their varieties and provenances. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Advanced Design of Dumbbell-shaped Genetic Minimal Vectors Improves Non-coding and Coding RNA Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xiaoou; Yu, Han; Teo, Cui Rong; Tan, Genim Siu Xian; Goh, Sok Chin; Patel, Parasvi; Chua, Yiqiang Kevin; Hameed, Nasirah Banu Sahul; Bertoletti, Antonio; Patzel, Volker

    2016-09-01

    Dumbbell-shaped DNA minimal vectors lacking nontherapeutic genes and bacterial sequences are considered a stable, safe alternative to viral, nonviral, and naked plasmid-based gene-transfer systems. We investigated novel molecular features of dumbbell vectors aiming to reduce vector size and to improve the expression of noncoding or coding RNA. We minimized small hairpin RNA (shRNA) or microRNA (miRNA) expressing dumbbell vectors in size down to 130 bp generating the smallest genetic expression vectors reported. This was achieved by using a minimal H1 promoter with integrated transcriptional terminator transcribing the RNA hairpin structure around the dumbbell loop. Such vectors were generated with high conversion yields using a novel protocol. Minimized shRNA-expressing dumbbells showed accelerated kinetics of delivery and transcription leading to enhanced gene silencing in human tissue culture cells. In primary human T cells, minimized miRNA-expressing dumbbells revealed higher stability and triggered stronger target gene suppression as compared with plasmids and miRNA mimics. Dumbbell-driven gene expression was enhanced up to 56- or 160-fold by implementation of an intron and the SV40 enhancer compared with control dumbbells or plasmids. Advanced dumbbell vectors may represent one option to close the gap between durable expression that is achievable with integrating viral vectors and short-term effects triggered by naked RNA.

  1. Non-coding RNAs in the Ovarian Follicle

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    Rosalia Battaglia

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The mammalian ovarian follicle is the complex reproductive unit comprising germ cell, somatic cells (Cumulus and Granulosa cells, and follicular fluid (FF: paracrine communication among the different cell types through FF ensures the development of a mature oocyte ready for fertilization. This paper is focused on non-coding RNAs in ovarian follicles and their predicted role in the pathways involved in oocyte growth and maturation. We determined the expression profiles of microRNAs in human oocytes and FF by high-throughput analysis and identified 267 microRNAs in FF and 176 in oocytes. Most of these were FF microRNAs, while 9 were oocyte specific. By bioinformatic analysis, independently performed on FF and oocyte microRNAs, we identified the most significant Biological Processes and the pathways regulated by their validated targets. We found many pathways shared between the two compartments and some specific for oocyte microRNAs. Moreover, we found 41 long non-coding RNAs able to interact with oocyte microRNAs and potentially involved in the regulation of folliculogenesis. These data are important in basic reproductive research and could also be useful for clinical applications. In fact, the characterization of non-coding RNAs in ovarian follicles could improve reproductive disease diagnosis, provide biomarkers of oocyte quality in Assisted Reproductive Treatment, and allow the development of therapies for infertility disorders.

  2. On the classification of long non-coding RNAs

    KAUST Repository

    Ma, Lina

    2013-06-01

    Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been found to perform various functions in a wide variety of important biological processes. To make easier interpretation of lncRNA functionality and conduct deep mining on these transcribed sequences, it is convenient to classify lncRNAs into different groups. Here, we summarize classification methods of lncRNAs according to their four major features, namely, genomic location and context, effect exerted on DNA sequences, mechanism of functioning and their targeting mechanism. In combination with the presently available function annotations, we explore potential relationships between different classification categories, and generalize and compare biological features of different lncRNAs within each category. Finally, we present our view on potential further studies. We believe that the classifications of lncRNAs as indicated above are of fundamental importance for lncRNA studies, helpful for further investigation of specific lncRNAs, for formulation of new hypothesis based on different features of lncRNA and for exploration of the underlying lncRNA functional mechanisms. © 2013 Landes Bioscience.

  3. The expanding universe of noncoding RNAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannon, G J; Rivas, F V; Murchison, E P; Steitz, J A

    2006-01-01

    The 71st Cold Spring Harbor Symposium on Quantitative Biology celebrated the numerous and expanding roles of regulatory RNAs in systems ranging from bacteria to mammals. It was clearly evident that noncoding RNAs are undergoing a renaissance, with reports of their involvement in nearly every cellular process. Previously known classes of longer noncoding RNAs were shown to function by every possible means-acting catalytically, sensing physiological states through adoption of complex secondary and tertiary structures, or using their primary sequences for recognition of target sites. The many recently discovered classes of small noncoding RNAs, generally less than 35 nucleotides in length, most often exert their effects by guiding regulatory complexes to targets via base-pairing. With the ability to analyze the RNA products of the genome in ever greater depth, it has become clear that the universe of noncoding RNAs may extend far beyond the boundaries we had previously imagined. Thus, as much as the Symposium highlighted exciting progress in the field, it also revealed how much farther we must go to understand fully the biological impact of noncoding RNAs.

  4. Long Noncoding RNAs in Lung Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Anna; Diederichs, Sven

    2016-01-01

    Despite great progress in research and treatment options, lung cancer remains the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Oncogenic driver mutations in protein-encoding genes were defined and allow for personalized therapies based on genetic diagnoses. Nonetheless, diagnosis of lung cancer mostly occurs at late stages, and chronic treatment is followed by a fast onset of chemoresistance. Hence, there is an urgent need for reliable biomarkers and alternative treatment options. With the era of whole genome and transcriptome sequencing technologies, long noncoding RNAs emerged as a novel class of versatile, functional RNA molecules. Although for most of them the mechanism of action remains to be defined, accumulating evidence confirms their involvement in various aspects of lung tumorigenesis. They are functional on the epigenetic, transcriptional, and posttranscriptional level and are regulators of pathophysiological key pathways including cell growth, apoptosis, and metastasis. Long noncoding RNAs are gaining increasing attention as potential biomarkers and a novel class of druggable molecules. It has become clear that we are only beginning to understand the complexity of tumorigenic processes. The clinical integration of long noncoding RNAs in terms of prognostic and predictive biomarker signatures and additional cancer targets could provide a chance to increase the therapeutic benefit. Here, we review the current knowledge about the expression, regulation, biological function, and clinical relevance of long noncoding RNAs in lung cancer.

  5. Non-Coding RNAs in Hodgkin Lymphoma

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    Anna Cordeiro

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs, small non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression by binding to the 3’-UTR of their target genes, can act as oncogenes or tumor suppressors. Recently, other types of non-coding RNAs—piwiRNAs and long non-coding RNAs—have also been identified. Hodgkin lymphoma (HL is a B cell origin disease characterized by the presence of only 1% of tumor cells, known as Hodgkin and Reed-Stenberg (HRS cells, which interact with the microenvironment to evade apoptosis. Several studies have reported specific miRNA signatures that can differentiate HL lymph nodes from reactive lymph nodes, identify histologic groups within classical HL, and distinguish HRS cells from germinal center B cells. Moreover, some signatures are associated with survival or response to chemotherapy. Most of the miRNAs in the signatures regulate genes related to apoptosis, cell cycle arrest, or signaling pathways. Here we review findings on miRNAs in HL, as well as on other non-coding RNAs.

  6. Bleomycin Can Cleave an Oncogenic Noncoding RNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelbello, Alicia J; Disney, Matthew D

    2018-01-04

    Noncoding RNAs are pervasive in cells and contribute to diseases such as cancer. A question in biomedical research is whether noncoding RNAs are targets of medicines. Bleomycin is a natural product that cleaves DNA; however, it is known to cleave RNA in vitro. Herein, an in-depth analysis of the RNA cleavage preferences of bleomycin A5 is presented. Bleomycin A5 prefers to cleave RNAs with stretches of AU base pairs. Based on these preferences and bioinformatic analysis, the microRNA-10b hairpin precursor was identified as a potential substrate for bleomycin A5. Both in vitro and cellular experiments demonstrated cleavage. Importantly, chemical cleavage by bleomycin A5 in the microRNA-10b hairpin precursors occurred near the Drosha and Dicer enzymatic processing sites and led to destruction of the microRNA. Evidently, oncogenic noncoding RNAs can be considered targets of cancer medicines and might elicit their pharmacological effects by targeting noncoding RNA. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Noncoding sequence classification based on wavelet transform analysis: part I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paredes, O.; Strojnik, M.; Romo-Vázquez, R.; Vélez Pérez, H.; Ranta, R.; Garcia-Torales, G.; Scholl, M. K.; Morales, J. A.

    2017-09-01

    DNA sequences in human genome can be divided into the coding and noncoding ones. Coding sequences are those that are read during the transcription. The identification of coding sequences has been widely reported in literature due to its much-studied periodicity. Noncoding sequences represent the majority of the human genome. They play an important role in gene regulation and differentiation among the cells. However, noncoding sequences do not exhibit periodicities that correlate to their functions. The ENCODE (Encyclopedia of DNA elements) and Epigenomic Roadmap Project projects have cataloged the human noncoding sequences into specific functions. We study characteristics of noncoding sequences with wavelet analysis of genomic signals.

  8. Saprolegniaceae identified on amphibian eggs throughout the Pacific Northwest, USA, by internal transcribed spacer sequences and phylogenetic analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jill E. Petrisko; Christopher A. Pearl; David S. Pilliod; Peter P. Sheridan; Charles F. Williams; Charles R. Peterson; R. Bruce Bury

    2008-01-01

    We assessed the diversity and phylogeny of Saprolegniaceae on amphibian eggs from the Pacific Northwest, with particular focus on Saprolegnia ferax, a species implicated in high egg mortality. We identified isolates from eggs of six amphibians with the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and 5.8S gene regions and BLAST of the GenBank database. We...

  9. Long Non-Coding RNAs: A Novel Paradigm for Toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempsey, Joseph L; Cui, Julia Yue

    2017-01-01

    Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are over 200 nucleotides in length and are transcribed from the mammalian genome in a tissue-specific and developmentally regulated pattern. There is growing recognition that lncRNAs are novel biomarkers and/or key regulators of toxicological responses in humans and animal models. Lacking protein-coding capacity, the numerous types of lncRNAs possess a myriad of transcriptional regulatory functions that include cis and trans gene expression, transcription factor activity, chromatin remodeling, imprinting, and enhancer up-regulation. LncRNAs also influence mRNA processing, post-transcriptional regulation, and protein trafficking. Dysregulation of lncRNAs has been implicated in various human health outcomes such as various cancers, Alzheimer's disease, cardiovascular disease, autoimmune diseases, as well as intermediary metabolism such as glucose, lipid, and bile acid homeostasis. Interestingly, emerging evidence in the literature over the past five years has shown that lncRNA regulation is impacted by exposures to various chemicals such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, benzene, cadmium, chlorpyrifos-methyl, bisphenol A, phthalates, phenols, and bile acids. Recent technological advancements, including next-generation sequencing technologies and novel computational algorithms, have enabled the profiling and functional characterizations of lncRNAs on a genomic scale. In this review, we summarize the biogenesis and general biological functions of lncRNAs, highlight the important roles of lncRNAs in human diseases and especially during the toxicological responses to various xenobiotics, evaluate current methods for identifying aberrant lncRNA expression and molecular target interactions, and discuss the potential to implement these tools to address fundamental questions in toxicology. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e

  10. Novel classes of non-coding RNAs and cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sana Jiri

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract For the many years, the central dogma of molecular biology has been that RNA functions mainly as an informational intermediate between a DNA sequence and its encoded protein. But one of the great surprises of modern biology was the discovery that protein-coding genes represent less than 2% of the total genome sequence, and subsequently the fact that at least 90% of the human genome is actively transcribed. Thus, the human transcriptome was found to be more complex than a collection of protein-coding genes and their splice variants. Although initially argued to be spurious transcriptional noise or accumulated evolutionary debris arising from the early assembly of genes and/or the insertion of mobile genetic elements, recent evidence suggests that the non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs may play major biological roles in cellular development, physiology and pathologies. NcRNAs could be grouped into two major classes based on the transcript size; small ncRNAs and long ncRNAs. Each of these classes can be further divided, whereas novel subclasses are still being discovered and characterized. Although, in the last years, small ncRNAs called microRNAs were studied most frequently with more than ten thousand hits at PubMed database, recently, evidence has begun to accumulate describing the molecular mechanisms by which a wide range of novel RNA species function, providing insight into their functional roles in cellular biology and in human disease. In this review, we summarize newly discovered classes of ncRNAs, and highlight their functioning in cancer biology and potential usage as biomarkers or therapeutic targets.

  11. Kinetic models of gene expression including non-coding RNAs

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    Zhdanov, Vladimir P., E-mail: zhdanov@catalysis.r

    2011-03-15

    In cells, genes are transcribed into mRNAs, and the latter are translated into proteins. Due to the feedbacks between these processes, the kinetics of gene expression may be complex even in the simplest genetic networks. The corresponding models have already been reviewed in the literature. A new avenue in this field is related to the recognition that the conventional scenario of gene expression is fully applicable only to prokaryotes whose genomes consist of tightly packed protein-coding sequences. In eukaryotic cells, in contrast, such sequences are relatively rare, and the rest of the genome includes numerous transcript units representing non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs). During the past decade, it has become clear that such RNAs play a crucial role in gene expression and accordingly influence a multitude of cellular processes both in the normal state and during diseases. The numerous biological functions of ncRNAs are based primarily on their abilities to silence genes via pairing with a target mRNA and subsequently preventing its translation or facilitating degradation of the mRNA-ncRNA complex. Many other abilities of ncRNAs have been discovered as well. Our review is focused on the available kinetic models describing the mRNA, ncRNA and protein interplay. In particular, we systematically present the simplest models without kinetic feedbacks, models containing feedbacks and predicting bistability and oscillations in simple genetic networks, and models describing the effect of ncRNAs on complex genetic networks. Mathematically, the presentation is based primarily on temporal mean-field kinetic equations. The stochastic and spatio-temporal effects are also briefly discussed.

  12. Estradiol-Induced Transcriptional Regulation of Long Non-Coding RNA, HOTAIR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhan, Arunoday; Mandal, Subhrangsu S

    2016-01-01

    HOTAIR (HOX antisense intergenic RNA) is a 2.2 kb long non-coding RNA (lncRNA), transcribed from the antisense strand of homeobox C (HOXC) gene locus in chromosome 12. HOTAIR acts as a scaffolding lncRNA. It interacts and guides various chromatin-modifying complexes such as PRC2 (polycomb-repressive complex 2) and LSD1 (lysine-specific demethylase 1) to the target gene promoters leading to their gene silencing. Various studies have demonstrated that HOTAIR overexpression is associated with breast cancer. Recent studies from our laboratory demonstrate that HOTAIR is required for viability of breast cancer cells and is transcriptionally regulated by estradiol (E2) in vitro and in vivo. This chapter describes protocols for analysis of the HOTAIR promoter, cloning, transfection and dual luciferase assays, knockdown of protein synthesis by antisense oligonucleotides, and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay. These protocols are useful for studying the estrogen-mediated transcriptional regulation of lncRNA HOTAIR, as well as other protein coding genes and non-coding RNAs.

  13. Integrated Analysis of Long Noncoding RNA and Coding RNA Expression in Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

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    Wei Cao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Tumorigenesis is a complex dynamic biological process that includes multiple steps of genetic and epigenetic alterations, aberrant expression of noncoding RNA, and changes in the expression profiles of coding genes. We call the collection of those perturbations in genome space the “cancer initiatome.” Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs are pervasively transcribed in the genome and they have key regulatory functions in chromatin remodeling and gene expression. Spatiotemporal variation in the expression of lncRNAs has been observed in development and disease states, including cancer. A few dysregulated lncRNAs have been studied in cancers, but the role of lncRNAs in the cancer initiatome remains largely unknown, especially in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC. We conducted a genome-wide screen of the expression of lncRNAs and coding RNAs from ESCC and matched adjacent nonneoplastic normal tissues. We identified differentially expressed lncRNAs and coding RNAs in ESCC relative to their matched normal tissue counterparts and validated the result using polymerase chain reaction analysis. Furthermore, we identified differentially expressed lncRNAs that are co-located and co-expressed with differentially expressed coding RNAs in ESCC and the results point to a potential interaction between lncRNAs and neighboring coding genes that affect ether lipid metabolism, and the interaction may contribute to the development of ESCC. These data provide compelling evidence for a potential novel genomic biomarker of esophageal squamous cell cancer.

  14. Transcribed DNA is preferentially located in the perichromatin region of mammalian cell nuclei

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    Niedojadlo, Janusz [Centre of Electron Microscopy, University of Lausanne, Bugnon 27, CH-1005 Lausanne (Switzerland); Department of Cell Biology, Institute of General and Molecular Biology, Nicolaus Copernicus University, PL-87-100 Torun (Poland); Perret-Vivancos, Cecile [Centre of Electron Microscopy, University of Lausanne, Bugnon 27, CH-1005 Lausanne (Switzerland); Kalland, Karl-Henning [Centre for Research in Virology, The Gade Institute, University of Bergen, Jonas Liesv. 91, N-5009 Bergen (Norway); Cmarko, Dusan [Centre of Electron Microscopy, University of Lausanne, Bugnon 27, CH-1005 Lausanne (Switzerland); Charles University in Prague, First Faculty of Medicine, Institute of Cellular Biology and Pathology, and Department of Cell Biology, Institute of Physiology, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, v.v.i., Albertov 4, CZ-12801 Prague (Czech Republic); Cremer, Thomas [Department of Biology II, LMU Biozentrum, Grosshaderner Strasse 2, D-82152 Planegg-Martinsried (Germany); Center for Integrated Protein Science Munich (CIPSM), LMU Munich, Munich (Germany); Driel, Roel van, E-mail: r.vandriel@uva.nl [Swammerdam Institute for Life Sciences, University of Amsterdam, P.O. Box 94215, 1090GE Amsterdam (Netherlands); Fakan, Stanislav, E-mail: sfakan@lrz.uni-muenchen.de [Centre of Electron Microscopy, University of Lausanne, Bugnon 27, CH-1005 Lausanne (Switzerland); Department of Biology II, LMU Biozentrum, Grosshaderner Strasse 2, D-82152 Planegg-Martinsried (Germany); Center for Integrated Protein Science Munich (CIPSM), LMU Munich, Munich (Germany)

    2011-02-15

    The precise localization of transcribed DNA and resulting RNA is an important aspect of the functional architecture of the nucleus. To this end we have developed a novel in situ hybridization approach in combination with immunoelectron microscopy, using sense and anti-sense RNA probes that are derived from total cellular or cytoplasmic poly(A+) RNA. This new technology is much more gentle than classical in situ hybridization using DNA probes and shows excellent preservation of nuclear structure. Carried out on ultrathin sections of fixed and resin-embedded COS-7 cells, it revealed at high resolution the localization of the genes that code for the cellular mRNAs. Quantitative analysis shows that most transcribed DNA is concentrated in the perichromatin region, i.e. the interface between subchromosomal compact chromatin domains and the interchromatin space essentially devoid of DNA. The RNA that is produced is found mainly in the perichromatin region and the interchromatin space. These results imply that in the mammalian nucleus the chromatin fiber is folded so that active genes are predominantly present in the perichromatin region, which is the most prominent site of transcription.

  15. Global Intersection of Long Non-Coding RNAs with Processed and Unprocessed Pseudogenes in the Human Genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael John Milligan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Pseudogenes are abundant in the human genome and had long been thought of purely as nonfunctional gene fossils. Recent observations point to a role for pseudogenes in regulating genes transcriptionally and post-transcriptionally in human cells. To computationally interrogate the network space of integrated pseudogene and long non-coding RNA regulation in the human transcriptome, we developed and implemented an algorithm to identify all long non-coding RNA (lncRNA transcripts that overlap the genomic spans, and specifically the exons, of any human pseudogenes in either sense or antisense orientation. As inputs to our algorithm, we imported three public repositories of pseudogenes: GENCODE v17 (processed and unprocessed, Ensembl 72; Retroposed Pseudogenes V5 (processed only and Yale Pseudo60 (processed and unprocessed, Ensembl 60; two public lncRNA catalogs: Broad Institute, GENCODE v17; NCBI annotated piRNAs; and NHGRI clinical variants. The data sets were retrieved from the UCSC Genome Database using the UCSC Table Browser. We identified 2277 loci containing exon-to-exon overlaps between pseudogenes, both processed and unprocessed, and long non-coding RNA genes. Of these loci we identified 1167 with Genbank EST and full-length cDNA support providing direct evidence of transcription on one or both strands with exon-to-exon overlaps. The analysis converged on 313 pseudogene-lncRNA exon-to-exon overlaps that were bidirectionally supported by both full-length cDNAs and ESTs. In the process of identifying transcribed pseudogenes, we generated a comprehensive, positionally non-redundant encyclopedia of human pseudogenes, drawing upon multiple, and formerly disparate public pseudogene repositories. Collectively, these observations suggest that pseudogenes are pervasively transcribed on both strands and are common drivers of gene regulation.

  16. A new method for species identification via protein-coding and non-coding DNA barcodes by combining machine learning with bioinformatic methods.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ai-bing Zhang

    Full Text Available Species identification via DNA barcodes is contributing greatly to current bioinventory efforts. The initial, and widely accepted, proposal was to use the protein-coding cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI region as the standard barcode for animals, but recently non-coding internal transcribed spacer (ITS genes have been proposed as candidate barcodes for both animals and plants. However, achieving a robust alignment for non-coding regions can be problematic. Here we propose two new methods (DV-RBF and FJ-RBF to address this issue for species assignment by both coding and non-coding sequences that take advantage of the power of machine learning and bioinformatics. We demonstrate the value of the new methods with four empirical datasets, two representing typical protein-coding COI barcode datasets (neotropical bats and marine fish and two representing non-coding ITS barcodes (rust fungi and brown algae. Using two random sub-sampling approaches, we demonstrate that the new methods significantly outperformed existing Neighbor-joining (NJ and Maximum likelihood (ML methods for both coding and non-coding barcodes when there was complete species coverage in the reference dataset. The new methods also out-performed NJ and ML methods for non-coding sequences in circumstances of potentially incomplete species coverage, although then the NJ and ML methods performed slightly better than the new methods for protein-coding barcodes. A 100% success rate of species identification was achieved with the two new methods for 4,122 bat queries and 5,134 fish queries using COI barcodes, with 95% confidence intervals (CI of 99.75-100%. The new methods also obtained a 96.29% success rate (95%CI: 91.62-98.40% for 484 rust fungi queries and a 98.50% success rate (95%CI: 96.60-99.37% for 1094 brown algae queries, both using ITS barcodes.

  17. A new method for species identification via protein-coding and non-coding DNA barcodes by combining machine learning with bioinformatic methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ai-bing; Feng, Jie; Ward, Robert D; Wan, Ping; Gao, Qiang; Wu, Jun; Zhao, Wei-zhong

    2012-01-01

    Species identification via DNA barcodes is contributing greatly to current bioinventory efforts. The initial, and widely accepted, proposal was to use the protein-coding cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) region as the standard barcode for animals, but recently non-coding internal transcribed spacer (ITS) genes have been proposed as candidate barcodes for both animals and plants. However, achieving a robust alignment for non-coding regions can be problematic. Here we propose two new methods (DV-RBF and FJ-RBF) to address this issue for species assignment by both coding and non-coding sequences that take advantage of the power of machine learning and bioinformatics. We demonstrate the value of the new methods with four empirical datasets, two representing typical protein-coding COI barcode datasets (neotropical bats and marine fish) and two representing non-coding ITS barcodes (rust fungi and brown algae). Using two random sub-sampling approaches, we demonstrate that the new methods significantly outperformed existing Neighbor-joining (NJ) and Maximum likelihood (ML) methods for both coding and non-coding barcodes when there was complete species coverage in the reference dataset. The new methods also out-performed NJ and ML methods for non-coding sequences in circumstances of potentially incomplete species coverage, although then the NJ and ML methods performed slightly better than the new methods for protein-coding barcodes. A 100% success rate of species identification was achieved with the two new methods for 4,122 bat queries and 5,134 fish queries using COI barcodes, with 95% confidence intervals (CI) of 99.75-100%. The new methods also obtained a 96.29% success rate (95%CI: 91.62-98.40%) for 484 rust fungi queries and a 98.50% success rate (95%CI: 96.60-99.37%) for 1094 brown algae queries, both using ITS barcodes.

  18. An expanding universe of noncoding RNAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storz, Gisela

    2002-05-17

    Noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) have been found to have roles in a great variety of processes, including transcriptional regulation, chromosome replication, RNA processing and modification, messenger RNA stability and translation, and even protein degradation and translocation. Recent studies indicate that ncRNAs are far more abundant and important than initially imagined. These findings raise several fundamental questions: How many ncRNAs are encoded by a genome? Given the absence of a diagnostic open reading frame, how can these genes be identified? How can all the functions of ncRNAs be elucidated?

  19. Targeting Non-Coding RNAs in Plants with the CRISPR-Cas Technology is a Challenge yet Worth Accepting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basak, Jolly; Nithin, Chandran

    2015-01-01

    Non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) have emerged as versatile master regulator of biological functions in recent years. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small endogenous ncRNAs of 18-24 nucleotides in length that originates from long self-complementary precursors. Besides their direct involvement in developmental processes, plant miRNAs play key roles in gene regulatory networks and varied biological processes. Alternatively, long ncRNAs (lncRNAs) are a large and diverse class of transcribed ncRNAs whose length exceed that of 200 nucleotides. Plant lncRNAs are transcribed by different RNA polymerases, showing diverse structural features. Plant lncRNAs also are important regulators of gene expression in diverse biological processes. There has been a breakthrough in the technology of genome editing, the CRISPR-Cas9 (clustered regulatory interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR-associated protein 9) technology, in the last decade. CRISPR loci are transcribed into ncRNA and eventually form a functional complex with Cas9 and further guide the complex to cleave complementary invading DNA. The CRISPR-Cas technology has been successfully applied in model plants such as Arabidopsis and tobacco and important crops like wheat, maize, and rice. However, all these studies are focused on protein coding genes. Information about targeting non-coding genes is scarce. Hitherto, the CRISPR-Cas technology has been exclusively used in vertebrate systems to engineer miRNA/lncRNAs, but it is still relatively unexplored in plants. While briefing miRNAs, lncRNAs and applications of the CRISPR-Cas technology in human and animals, this review essentially elaborates several strategies to overcome the challenges of applying the CRISPR-Cas technology in editing ncRNAs in plants and the future perspective of this field.

  20. Targeting non-coding RNAs in Plants with the CRISPR-Cas technology is a challenge yet worth accepting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolly eBasak

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs have emerged as versatile master regulator of biological functions in recent years. MicroRNAs (miRNAs are small endogenous ncRNAs of 18-24 nucleotides in length that originates from long self-complementary precursors. Besides their direct involvement in developmental processes, plant miRNAs play key roles in gene regulatory networks and varied biological processes. Alternatively, long ncRNAs (lncRNAs are a large and diverse class of transcribed ncRNAs whose length exceed that of 200 nucleotides. Plant lncRNAs are transcribed by different RNA polymerases, showing diverse structural features. Plant lncRNAs also are important regulators of gene expression in diverse biological processes. There has been a breakthrough in the technology of genome editing, the CRISPR-Cas9 (clustered regulatory interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR-associated protein 9 technology, in the last decade. CRISPR loci are transcribed into ncRNA and eventually form a functional complex with Cas9 and further guide the complex to cleave complementary invading DNA. The CRISPR-Cas technology has been successfully applied in model plants such as Arabidopsis and tobacco and important crops like wheat, maize and rice. However, all these studies are focused on protein coding genes. Information about targeting non-coding genes is scarce. Hitherto, the CRISPR-Cas technology has been exclusively used in vertebrate systems to engineer miRNA/lncRNAs, but it is still relatively unexplored in plants. While briefing miRNAs, lncRNAs and applications of the CRISPR-Cas technology in human and animals, this review essentially elaborates several strategies to overcome the challenges of applying the CRISPR-Cas technology in editing ncRNAs in plants and the future perspective of this field.

  1. Clinical implication of long noncoding RNA 91H expression profile in osteosarcoma patients

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    Xia WK

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Wen-Kai Xia,1 Qing-Feng Lin,2 Dong Shen,2 Zhi-Li Liu,2 Jun Su,2 Wei-Dong Mao2 1Department of Nephrology, 2Department of Oncology, The Affiliated Jiangyin Hospital, School of Medicine, Southeast University, Jiangyin, Jiangsu, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Long noncoding RNAs have been documented as having widespread roles in carcinogenesis and cancer progression. However, roles of long noncoding RNAs in osteosarcoma remain unclear. This study is to investigate the clinical relevance and biological functions of long noncoding RNA 91H in osteosarcoma. Herein, we confirmed that 91H expression was notably increased in osteosarcoma patients and cell lines compared to healthy controls and normal human bone cell lines. High expression of 91H was significantly correlated with advanced clinical stage, chemotherapy after surgery, and tumor size >5 cm. Furthermore, 91H was an independent prognostic factor for overall survival in osteosarcoma patients after treatments. Additionally, the knockdown of 91H expression inhibited osteosarcoma cells’ proliferation and promoted their apoptosis in vitro. In summary, these findings indicate that 91H may be a novel biomarker for risk prognostication and also provide a clue to the molecular etiology of osteosarcoma. Keywords: long noncoding RNA, 91H, osteosarcoma, survival

  2. Extracellular vesicle associated long non-coding RNAs functionally enhance cell viability

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    Chris Hewson

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Cells communicate with one another to create microenvironments and share resources. One avenue by which cells communicate is through the action of exosomes. Exosomes are extracellular vesicles that are released by one cell and taken up by neighbouring cells. But how exosomes instigate communication between cells has remained largely unknown. We present evidence here that particular long non-coding RNA molecules are preferentially packaged into exosomes. We also find that a specific class of these exosome associated non-coding RNAs functionally modulate cell viability by direct interactions with l-lactate dehydrogenase B (LDHB, high-mobility group protein 17 (HMG-17, and CSF2RB, proteins involved in metabolism, nucleosomal architecture and cell signalling respectively. Knowledge of this endogenous cell to cell pathway, those proteins interacting with exosome associated non-coding transcripts and their interacting domains, could lead to a better understanding of not only cell to cell interactions but also the development of exosome targeted approaches in patient specific cell-based therapies. Keywords: Non-coding RNA, Extracellular RNA, Exosomes, Retroelement, Pseudogene

  3. Medical Terminology of the Circulatory System. Medical Records. Instructional Unit for the Medical Transcriber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosman, Minna L.

    Developed as a result of an analysis of the task of transcribing as practiced in a health facility, this study guide was designed to teach the knowledge and skills required of a medical transcriber. The medical record department was identified as a major occupational area, and a task inventory for medical records was developed and used as a basis…

  4. Medical Terminology of the Musculoskeletal System. Medical Records. Instructional Unit for the Medical Transcriber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosman, Minna L.

    Following an analysis of the task of transcribing as practiced in a health facility, this study guide was developed to teach the knowledge and skills required of a medical transcriber. The medical record department was identified as a major occupational area, and a task inventory for medical records was developed and used as a basis for a…

  5. Non-Coding RNAs and Endometrial Cancer

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    Cristina Vallone

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs are involved in the regulation of cell metabolism and neoplastic transformation. Recent studies have tried to clarify the significance of these information carriers in the genesis and progression of various cancers and their use as biomarkers for the disease; possible targets for the inhibition of growth and invasion by the neoplastic cells have been suggested. The significance of ncRNAs in lung cancer, bladder cancer, kidney cancer, and melanoma has been amply investigated with important results. Recently, the role of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs has also been included in cancer studies. Studies on the relation between endometrial cancer (EC and ncRNAs, such as small ncRNAs or micro RNAs (miRNAs, transfer RNAs (tRNAs, ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs, antisense RNAs (asRNAs, small nuclear RNAs (snRNAs, Piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs, small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs, competing endogenous RNAs (ceRNAs, lncRNAs, and long intergenic ncRNAs (lincRNAs have been published. The recent literature produced in the last three years was extracted from PubMed by two independent readers, which was then selected for the possible relation between ncRNAs, oncogenesis in general, and EC in particular.

  6. Non-coding RNA in Deinococcus radiodurans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Zhongzhong; Wang Liangyan; Lin Jun; Tian Bing; Hua Yuejin

    2006-01-01

    Researches on DNA damage and repair pathways of Deinococcus radiodurans show its extreme resistance to ionizing radiation, ultraviolet radiation and reactive oxygen species. Non-coding (ncRNA) RNAs are involved in a variety of processes such as transcriptional regulations, RNA processing and modification, mRNA translation, protein transportation and stability. The conserved secondary structures of intergenic regions of Deinococcus radiodurans R1 were predicted using Stochastic Context Free Grammar (SCFG) scan strategy. Results showed that 28 ncRNA families were present in the non-coding regions of the genome of Deinococcus radiodurans R1. Among these families, IRE is the largest family, followed by Histone3, tRNA, SECIS. DicF, ctRNA-pGA1 and tmRNA are one discovered in bacteria. Results from the comparison with other organisms showed that these ncRNA can be applied to the study of biological function of Deinococcus radiodurans and supply reference for the further study of DNA damage and repair mechanisms of this bacterium. (authors)

  7. Female-biased expression of long non-coding RNAs in domains that escape X-inactivation in mouse

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    Lu Lu

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sexual dimorphism in brain gene expression has been recognized in several animal species. However, the relevant regulatory mechanisms remain poorly understood. To investigate whether sex-biased gene expression in mammalian brain is globally regulated or locally regulated in diverse brain structures, and to study the genomic organisation of brain-expressed sex-biased genes, we performed a large scale gene expression analysis of distinct brain regions in adult male and female mice. Results This study revealed spatial specificity in sex-biased transcription in the mouse brain, and identified 173 sex-biased genes in the striatum; 19 in the neocortex; 12 in the hippocampus and 31 in the eye. Genes located on sex chromosomes were consistently over-represented in all brain regions. Analysis on a subset of genes with sex-bias in more than one tissue revealed Y-encoded male-biased transcripts and X-encoded female-biased transcripts known to escape X-inactivation. In addition, we identified novel coding and non-coding X-linked genes with female-biased expression in multiple tissues. Interestingly, the chromosomal positions of all of the female-biased non-coding genes are in close proximity to protein-coding genes that escape X-inactivation. This defines X-chromosome domains each of which contains a coding and a non-coding female-biased gene. Lack of repressive chromatin marks in non-coding transcribed loci supports the possibility that they escape X-inactivation. Moreover, RNA-DNA combined FISH experiments confirmed the biallelic expression of one such novel domain. Conclusion This study demonstrated that the amount of genes with sex-biased expression varies between individual brain regions in mouse. The sex-biased genes identified are localized on many chromosomes. At the same time, sexually dimorphic gene expression that is common to several parts of the brain is mostly restricted to the sex chromosomes. Moreover, the study uncovered

  8. The Effect of Transcribing on Elementary Iranian EFL Learners’ Listening Comprehension

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    Mohammad Afsharrad

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study is motivated by the gap existing between theory and practice in teaching listening. Most of the techniques used to teach listening put more emphasis on top-down processing while listeners’ problems are more of perceptive ones (bottom-up. In order to address the pervasive decoding problem in listening, this study suggests using transcribing exercise as an input enhancement device and investigates its effect on beginning learners’ listening ability. To this end, 31 learners participated in the study. The control group did not have any transcribing practice while the experimental group received transcribing exercise. In the data analysis step, an independent samples t test was employed to compare the two groups. The results show that transcribing has a significant positive effect on beginning learners’ listening comprehension. The findings of the study as well as advantages of transcribing exercise are discussed. Implications of the study and scope for future research are also addressed.

  9. Introduction of in vitro transcribed ENO1 mRNA into neuroblastoma cells induces cell death

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ejeskär, Katarina; Krona, Cecilia; Carén, Helena; Zaibak, Faten; Li, Lingli; Martinsson, Tommy; Ioannou, Panayiotis A

    2005-01-01

    Neuroblastoma is a solid tumour of childhood often with an unfavourable outcome. One common genetic feature in aggressive tumours is 1p-deletion. The α-enolase (ENO1) gene is located in chromosome region 1p36.2, within the common region of deletion in neuroblastoma. One alternative translated product of the ENO1 gene, known as MBP-1, acts as a negative regulator of the c-myc oncogene, making the ENO1 gene a candidate as a tumour suppressor gene. Methods used in this study are transfection of cDNA-vectors and in vitro transcribed mRNA, cell growth assay, TUNEL-assay, real-time RT-PCR (TaqMan) for expression studies, genomic sequencing and DHPLC for mutation detection. Here we demonstrate that transfection of ENO1 cDNA into 1p-deleted neuroblastoma cell lines causes' reduced number of viable cells over time compared to a negative control and that it induces apoptosis. Interestingly, a similar but much stronger dose-dependent reduction of cell growth was observed by transfection of in vitro transcribed ENO1 mRNA into neuroblastoma cells. These effects could also be shown in non-neuroblastoma cells (293-cells), indicating ENO1 to have general tumour suppressor activity. Expression of ENO1 is detectable in primary neuroblastomas of all different stages and no difference in the level of expression can be detected between 1p-deleted and 1p-intact tumour samples. Although small numbers (11 primary neuroblastomas), there is some evidence that Stage 4 tumours has a lower level of ENO1-mRNA than Stage 2 tumours (p = 0.01). However, mutation screening of 44 primary neuroblastomas of all different stages, failed to detect any mutations. Our studies indicate that ENO1 has tumour suppressor activity and that high level of ENO1 expression has growth inhibitory effects

  10. Noncoding RNA in the Transcriptional Landscape of Human Neural Progenitor Cell Differentiation

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    Patrick eHecht

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Increasing evidence suggests that noncoding RNAs play key roles in cellular processes, particularly in the brain. The present study used RNA sequencing to identify the transcriptional landscape of two human neural progenitor cell lines, SK-N-SH and ReNcell CX, as they differentiate into human cortical projection neurons. Protein coding genes were found to account for 54.8% and 57.0% of expressed genes, respectively, and alignment of RNA sequencing reads revealed that only 25.5-28.1% mapped to exonic regions of the genome. Differential expression analysis in the two cell lines identified altered gene expression in both protein coding and noncoding RNAs as they undergo neural differentiation with 222 differentially expressed genes observed in SK-N-SH cells and 19 differentially expressed genes in ReNcell CX. Interestingly, genes showing differential expression in SK-N-SH cells are enriched in genes implicated in autism spectrum disorder, but not in gene sets related to cancer or Alzheimer’s disease. Weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA was used to detect modules of co-expressed protein coding and noncoding RNAs in SK-N-SH cells and found four modules to be associated with neural differentiation. These modules contain varying levels of noncoding RNAs ranging from 10.7% to 49.7% with gene ontology suggesting roles in numerous cellular processes important for differentiation. These results indicate that noncoding RNAs are highly expressed in human neural progenitor cells and likely hold key regulatory roles in gene networks underlying neural differentiation and neurodevelopmental disorders.

  11. Identification of coding and non-coding mutational hotspots in cancer genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piraino, Scott W; Furney, Simon J

    2017-01-05

    The identification of mutations that play a causal role in tumour development, so called "driver" mutations, is of critical importance for understanding how cancers form and how they might be treated. Several large cancer sequencing projects have identified genes that are recurrently mutated in cancer patients, suggesting a role in tumourigenesis. While the landscape of coding drivers has been extensively studied and many of the most prominent driver genes are well characterised, comparatively less is known about the role of mutations in the non-coding regions of the genome in cancer development. The continuing fall in genome sequencing costs has resulted in a concomitant increase in the number of cancer whole genome sequences being produced, facilitating systematic interrogation of both the coding and non-coding regions of cancer genomes. To examine the mutational landscapes of tumour genomes we have developed a novel method to identify mutational hotspots in tumour genomes using both mutational data and information on evolutionary conservation. We have applied our methodology to over 1300 whole cancer genomes and show that it identifies prominent coding and non-coding regions that are known or highly suspected to play a role in cancer. Importantly, we applied our method to the entire genome, rather than relying on predefined annotations (e.g. promoter regions) and we highlight recurrently mutated regions that may have resulted from increased exposure to mutational processes rather than selection, some of which have been identified previously as targets of selection. Finally, we implicate several pan-cancer and cancer-specific candidate non-coding regions, which could be involved in tumourigenesis. We have developed a framework to identify mutational hotspots in cancer genomes, which is applicable to the entire genome. This framework identifies known and novel coding and non-coding mutional hotspots and can be used to differentiate candidate driver regions from

  12. The Non-Coding Regulatory RNA Revolution in Archaea

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    Diego Rivera Gelsinger

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Small non-coding RNAs (sRNAs are ubiquitously found in the three domains of life playing large-scale roles in gene regulation, transposable element silencing and defense against foreign elements. While a substantial body of experimental work has been done to uncover function of sRNAs in Bacteria and Eukarya, the functional roles of sRNAs in Archaea are still poorly understood. Recently, high throughput studies using RNA-sequencing revealed that sRNAs are broadly expressed in the Archaea, comprising thousands of transcripts within the transcriptome during non-challenged and stressed conditions. Antisense sRNAs, which overlap a portion of a gene on the opposite strand (cis-acting, are the most abundantly expressed non-coding RNAs and they can be classified based on their binding patterns to mRNAs (3′ untranslated region (UTR, 5′ UTR, CDS-binding. These antisense sRNAs target many genes and pathways, suggesting extensive roles in gene regulation. Intergenic sRNAs are less abundantly expressed and their targets are difficult to find because of a lack of complete overlap between sRNAs and target mRNAs (trans-acting. While many sRNAs have been validated experimentally, a regulatory role has only been reported for very few of them. Further work is needed to elucidate sRNA-RNA binding mechanisms, the molecular determinants of sRNA-mediated regulation, whether protein components are involved and how sRNAs integrate with complex regulatory networks.

  13. Long noncoding RNA in hematopoiesis and immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satpathy, Ansuman T; Chang, Howard Y

    2015-05-19

    Dynamic gene expression during cellular differentiation is tightly coordinated by transcriptional and post-transcriptional mechanisms. An emerging theme is the central role of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) in the regulation of this specificity. Recent advances demonstrate that lncRNAs are expressed in a lineage-specific manner and control the development of several cell types in the hematopoietic system. Moreover, specific lncRNAs are induced to modulate innate and adaptive immune responses. lncRNAs can function via RNA-DNA, RNA-RNA, and RNA-protein target interactions. As a result, they affect several stages of gene regulation, including chromatin modification, mRNA biogenesis, and protein signaling. We discuss recent advances, future prospects, and challenges in understanding the roles of lncRNAs in immunity and immune-mediated diseases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Non-coding RNA networks in cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastasiadou, Eleni; Jacob, Leni S; Slack, Frank J

    2018-01-01

    Thousands of unique non-coding RNA (ncRNA) sequences exist within cells. Work from the past decade has altered our perception of ncRNAs from 'junk' transcriptional products to functional regulatory molecules that mediate cellular processes including chromatin remodelling, transcription, post-transcriptional modifications and signal transduction. The networks in which ncRNAs engage can influence numerous molecular targets to drive specific cell biological responses and fates. Consequently, ncRNAs act as key regulators of physiological programmes in developmental and disease contexts. Particularly relevant in cancer, ncRNAs have been identified as oncogenic drivers and tumour suppressors in every major cancer type. Thus, a deeper understanding of the complex networks of interactions that ncRNAs coordinate would provide a unique opportunity to design better therapeutic interventions.

  15. IW-Scoring: an Integrative Weighted Scoring framework for annotating and prioritizing genetic variations in the noncoding genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Dayem Ullah, Abu Z; Chelala, Claude

    2018-01-30

    The vast majority of germline and somatic variations occur in the noncoding part of the genome, only a small fraction of which are believed to be functional. From the tens of thousands of noncoding variations detectable in each genome, identifying and prioritizing driver candidates with putative functional significance is challenging. To address this, we implemented IW-Scoring, a new Integrative Weighted Scoring model to annotate and prioritise functionally relevant noncoding variations. We evaluate 11 scoring methods, and apply an unsupervised spectral approach for subsequent selective integration into two linear weighted functional scoring schemas for known and novel variations. IW-Scoring produces stable high-quality performance as the best predictors for three independent data sets. We demonstrate the robustness of IW-Scoring in identifying recurrent functional mutations in the TERT promoter, as well as disease SNPs in proximity to consensus motifs and with gene regulatory effects. Using follicular lymphoma as a paradigmatic cancer model, we apply IW-Scoring to locate 11 recurrently mutated noncoding regions in 14 follicular lymphoma genomes, and validate 9 of these regions in an extension cohort, including the promoter and enhancer regions of PAX5. Overall, IW-Scoring demonstrates greater versatility in identifying trait- and disease-associated noncoding variants. Scores from IW-Scoring as well as other methods are freely available from http://www.snp-nexus.org/IW-Scoring/. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  16. Transparency in Transcribing: Making Visible Theoretical Bases Impacting Knowledge Construction from Open-Ended Interview Records

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audra Skukauskaite

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a reflexive analysis of two transcripts of an open-ended interview and argues for transparency in transcribing processes and outcomes. By analyzing ways in which a researcher's theories become consequential in producing and using transcripts of an open-ended interview, this paper makes visible the importance of examining and presenting theoretical bases of transcribing decisions. While scholars across disciplines have argued that transcribing is a theoretically laden process (GREEN, FRANQUIZ & DIXON, 1997; KVALE & BRINKMAN, 2009, few have engaged in reflexive analyses of the data history to demonstrate the consequences particular theoretical and methodological approaches pose in producing knowledge claims and inciting dialogues across traditions. The article demonstrates how theory-method-claim relationships in transcribing influence research transparency and warrantability. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs1201146

  17. Transcribing and digitizing eighteenth- and nineteenth-century letters for a historical digital repository.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunster, Emily S; Kipnis, Daniel G; Angelo, F Michael

    2014-01-01

    In fall 2011, the Scott Memorial Library purchased 53 letters belonging to an 1841 graduate of Jefferson Medical College, John Plimpton Green. The library staff transcribed and digitized the letters, creating an online collection in the university's institutional repository, Jefferson Digital Commons. This article will detail the process of transcribing and digitizing the collection along with sharing statistics and the benefits of this project to global researchers.

  18. De-culturising the Bible: Translation as Truth-Transcribed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabih, Joshua

    In the field of Bible translation, modern translations of the Bible into Arabic have not received the scholarly attention it deserves. The attention that Pre-modern translations of of the Bible into Arabic and its various language varieties that have been produced by Arabic speaking Jews...... and Christians can be seen in the high number of scholarly contributions. It is undeniable that these translations had a huge impact on medieval Arab-Islamic culture, its lingual, literary and religious landscapes. Modern translations of the Bible into standard Arabic and/or in its vernacular varieties since...... 1865 have introduced new religious Christian denominations into the Arab world. In these translations, the issue of the relationship between culture and religion is seen to be inscribed within the very conception of translation itself. This paper shall look into Jehovah’s Witnesses’ Arabic Bible...

  19. Long non-coding RNA expression profiling of mouse testis during postnatal development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Sun

    Full Text Available Mammalian testis development and spermatogenesis play critical roles in male fertility and continuation of a species. Previous research into the molecular mechanisms of testis development and spermatogenesis has largely focused on the role of protein-coding genes and small non-coding RNAs, such as microRNAs and piRNAs. Recently, it has become apparent that large numbers of long (>200 nt non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs are transcribed from mammalian genomes and that lncRNAs perform important regulatory functions in various developmental processes. However, the expression of lncRNAs and their biological functions in post-natal testis development remain unknown. In this study, we employed microarray technology to examine lncRNA expression profiles of neonatal (6-day-old and adult (8-week-old mouse testes. We found that 8,265 lncRNAs were expressed above background levels during post-natal testis development, of which 3,025 were differentially expressed. Candidate lncRNAs were identified for further characterization by an integrated examination of genomic context, gene ontology (GO enrichment of their associated protein-coding genes, promoter analysis for epigenetic modification, and evolutionary conservation of elements. Many lncRNAs overlapped or were adjacent to key transcription factors and other genes involved in spermatogenesis, such as Ovol1, Ovol2, Lhx1, Sox3, Sox9, Plzf, c-Kit, Wt1, Sycp2, Prm1 and Prm2. Most differentially expressed lncRNAs exhibited epigenetic modification marks similar to protein-coding genes and tend to be expressed in a tissue-specific manner. In addition, the majority of differentially expressed lncRNAs harbored evolutionary conserved elements. Taken together, our findings represent the first systematic investigation of lncRNA expression in the mammalian testis and provide a solid foundation for further research into the molecular mechanisms of lncRNAs function in mammalian testis development and spermatogenesis.

  20. Orion: Detecting regions of the human non-coding genome that are intolerant to variation using population genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gussow, Ayal B; Copeland, Brett R; Dhindsa, Ryan S; Wang, Quanli; Petrovski, Slavé; Majoros, William H; Allen, Andrew S; Goldstein, David B

    2017-01-01

    There is broad agreement that genetic mutations occurring outside of the protein-coding regions play a key role in human disease. Despite this consensus, we are not yet capable of discerning which portions of non-coding sequence are important in the context of human disease. Here, we present Orion, an approach that detects regions of the non-coding genome that are depleted of variation, suggesting that the regions are intolerant of mutations and subject to purifying selection in the human lineage. We show that Orion is highly correlated with known intolerant regions as well as regions that harbor putatively pathogenic variation. This approach provides a mechanism to identify pathogenic variation in the human non-coding genome and will have immediate utility in the diagnostic interpretation of patient genomes and in large case control studies using whole-genome sequences.

  1. Internal Transcribed Spacer 1 (ITS1 based sequence typing reveals phylogenetically distinct Ascaris population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koushik Das

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Taxonomic differentiation among morphologically identical Ascaris species is a debatable scientific issue in the context of Ascariasis epidemiology. To explain the disease epidemiology and also the taxonomic position of different Ascaris species, genome information of infecting strains from endemic areas throughout the world is certainly crucial. Ascaris population from human has been genetically characterized based on the widely used genetic marker, internal transcribed spacer1 (ITS1. Along with previously reported and prevalent genotype G1, 8 new sequence variants of ITS1 have been identified. Genotype G1 was significantly present among female patients aged between 10 to 15 years. Intragenic linkage disequilibrium (LD analysis at target locus within our study population has identified an incomplete LD value with potential recombination events. A separate cluster of Indian isolates with high bootstrap value indicate their distinct phylogenetic position in comparison to the global Ascaris population. Genetic shuffling through recombination could be a possible reason for high population diversity and frequent emergence of new sequence variants, identified in present and other previous studies. This study explores the genetic organization of Indian Ascaris population for the first time which certainly includes some fundamental information on the molecular epidemiology of Ascariasis.

  2. Hypoxic regulation of the noncoding genome and NEAT1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhry, Hani

    2016-01-01

    Activation of hypoxia pathways is both associated with and contributes to an aggressive phenotype across multiple types of solid cancers. The regulation of gene transcription by hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) is a key element in this response. HIF directly upregulates the expression of many hundreds of protein-coding genes, which act to both improve oxygen delivery and to reduce oxygen demand. However, it is now becoming apparent that many classes of noncoding RNAs are also regulated by hypoxia, with several (e.g. micro RNAs, long noncoding RNAs and antisense RNAs) under direct transcriptional regulation by HIF. These hypoxia-regulated, noncoding RNAs may act as effectors of the indirect response to HIF by acting on specific coding transcripts or by affecting generic RNA-processing pathways. In addition, noncoding RNAs may also act as modulators of the HIF pathway, either by integrating other physiological responses or, in the case of HIF-regulated, noncoding RNAs, by providing negative or positive feedback and feedforward loops that affect upstream or downstream components of the HIF cascade. These hypoxia-regulated, noncoding transcripts play important roles in the aggressive hypoxic phenotype observed in cancer. PMID:26590207

  3. Transcriptomic profiling of interacting nasal staphylococci species reveals global changes in gene and non-coding RNA expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermansen, Grith Miriam Maigaard; Sazinas, Pavelas; Kofod, Ditte

    2018-01-01

    Interspecies interactions between bacterial pathogens and the commensal microbiota can influence disease outcome. In the nasal cavities, Staphylococcus epidermidis has been shown to be a determining factor for Staphylococcus aureus colonization and biofilm formation. However, the interaction...... between S. epidermidis and S. aureus has mainly been described by phenotypic analysis, and little is known about how this interaction modulates gene expression.This study aimed to determine the interactome of nasal S. aureus and S. epidermidis isolates to understand the molecular effect of interaction...... also identified putative non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) and, interestingly, detected a putative ncRNA transcribed antisense to esp, the serine protease of S. epidermidis, that has previously been shown to inhibit nasal colonization of S. aureus. In our study, the gene encoding Esp and the antisense nc...

  4. Long noncoding RNAs: Undeciphered cellular codes encrypting keys of colorectal cancer pathogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Taewan; Croce, Carlo M.

    2018-01-01

    Long noncoding RNAs are non-protein coding transcripts longer than 200 nucleotides in length. By the advance in genetic and bioinformatic technologies, the new genomic landscape including noncoding transcripts has been revealed. Despite their non-capacity to be translated into proteins, lncRNAs have a versatile functions through various mechanisms interacting with other cellular molecules including DNA, protein, and RNA. Recent research interest and endeavor have identified the functional role of lncRNAs in various diseases including cancer. Colorectal cancer (CRC) is not only one of the most frequent cancer but also one of the cancer types with remarkable achievements in lncRNA research. Of the numerous notable lncRNAs identified and characterized in CRC, we will focus on key lncRNAs with the high potential as CRC-specific biomarkers in this review. PMID:29306015

  5. The Voice Transcription Technique: Use of Voice Recognition Software to Transcribe Digital Interview Data in Qualitative Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matheson, Jennifer L.

    2007-01-01

    Transcribing interview data is a time-consuming task that most qualitative researchers dislike. Transcribing is even more difficult for people with physical limitations because traditional transcribing requires manual dexterity and the ability to sit at a computer for long stretches of time. Researchers have begun to explore using an automated…

  6. De novo ORFs in Drosophila are important to organismal fitness and evolved rapidly from previously non-coding sequences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josephine A Reinhardt

    Full Text Available How non-coding DNA gives rise to new protein-coding genes (de novo genes is not well understood. Recent work has revealed the origins and functions of a few de novo genes, but common principles governing the evolution or biological roles of these genes are unknown. To better define these principles, we performed a parallel analysis of the evolution and function of six putatively protein-coding de novo genes described in Drosophila melanogaster. Reconstruction of the transcriptional history of de novo genes shows that two de novo genes emerged from novel long non-coding RNAs that arose at least 5 MY prior to evolution of an open reading frame. In contrast, four other de novo genes evolved a translated open reading frame and transcription within the same evolutionary interval suggesting that nascent open reading frames (proto-ORFs, while not required, can contribute to the emergence of a new de novo gene. However, none of the genes arose from proto-ORFs that existed long before expression evolved. Sequence and structural evolution of de novo genes was rapid compared to nearby genes and the structural complexity of de novo genes steadily increases over evolutionary time. Despite the fact that these genes are transcribed at a higher level in males than females, and are most strongly expressed in testes, RNAi experiments show that most of these genes are essential in both sexes during metamorphosis. This lethality suggests that protein coding de novo genes in Drosophila quickly become functionally important.

  7. A 3' UTR-Derived Small RNA Provides the Regulatory Noncoding Arm of the Inner Membrane Stress Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Yanjie; Vogel, Jörg

    2016-02-04

    Small RNAs (sRNAs) from conserved noncoding genes are crucial regulators in bacterial signaling pathways but have remained elusive in the Cpx response to inner membrane stress. Here we report that an alternative biogenesis pathway releasing the conserved mRNA 3' UTR of stress chaperone CpxP as an ∼60-nt sRNA provides the noncoding arm of the Cpx response. This so-called CpxQ sRNA, generated by general mRNA decay through RNase E, acts as an Hfq-dependent repressor of multiple mRNAs encoding extracytoplasmic proteins. Both CpxQ and the Cpx pathway are required for cell survival under conditions of dissipation of membrane potential. Our discovery of CpxQ illustrates how the conversion of a transcribed 3' UTR into an sRNA doubles the output of a single mRNA to produce two factors with spatially segregated functions during inner membrane stress: a chaperone that targets problematic proteins in the periplasm and a regulatory RNA that dampens their synthesis in the cytosol. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Identification of Clinical Staphylococcal Isolates from Humans by Internal Transcribed Spacer PCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couto, Isabel; Pereira, Sandro; Miragaia, Maria; Sanches, Ilda Santos; de Lencastre, Hermínia

    2001-01-01

    The emergence of coagulase-negative staphylococci not only as human pathogens but also as reservoirs of antibiotic resistance determinants requires the deployment and development of methods for their rapid and reliable identification. Internal transcribed spacer-PCR (ITS-PCR) was used to identify a collection of 617 clinical staphylococcal isolates. The amplicons were resolved in high-resolution agarose gels and visually compared with the patterns obtained for the control strains of 29 staphylococcal species. Of the 617 isolates studied, 592 (95.95%) were identified by ITS-PCR and included 11 species: 302 isolates of Staphylococcus epidermidis, 157 of S. haemolyticus, 79 of S. aureus, 21 of S. hominis, 14 of S. saprophyticus, 8 of S. warneri, 6 of S. simulans, 2 of S. lugdunensis, and 1 each of S. caprae, S. carnosus, and S. cohnii. All species analyzed had unique ITS-PCR patterns, although some were very similar, namely, the group S. saprophyticus, S. cohnii, S. gallinarum, S. xylosus, S. lentus, S. equorum, and S. chromogenes, the pair S. schleiferi and S. vitulus, and the pair S. piscifermentans and S. carnosus. Four species, S. aureus, S. caprae, S. haemolyticus, and S. lugdunensis, showed polymorphisms on their ITS-PCR patterns. ITS-PCR proved to be a valuable alternative for the identification of staphylococci, offering, within the same response time and at lower cost, higher reliability than the currently available commercial systems. PMID:11526135

  9. Identification of clinical staphylococcal isolates from humans by internal transcribed spacer PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couto, I; Pereira, S; Miragaia, M; Sanches, I S; de Lencastre, H

    2001-09-01

    The emergence of coagulase-negative staphylococci not only as human pathogens but also as reservoirs of antibiotic resistance determinants requires the deployment and development of methods for their rapid and reliable identification. Internal transcribed spacer-PCR (ITS-PCR) was used to identify a collection of 617 clinical staphylococcal isolates. The amplicons were resolved in high-resolution agarose gels and visually compared with the patterns obtained for the control strains of 29 staphylococcal species. Of the 617 isolates studied, 592 (95.95%) were identified by ITS-PCR and included 11 species: 302 isolates of Staphylococcus epidermidis, 157 of S. haemolyticus, 79 of S. aureus, 21 of S. hominis, 14 of S. saprophyticus, 8 of S. warneri, 6 of S. simulans, 2 of S. lugdunensis, and 1 each of S. caprae, S. carnosus, and S. cohnii. All species analyzed had unique ITS-PCR patterns, although some were very similar, namely, the group S. saprophyticus, S. cohnii, S. gallinarum, S. xylosus, S. lentus, S. equorum, and S. chromogenes, the pair S. schleiferi and S. vitulus, and the pair S. piscifermentans and S. carnosus. Four species, S. aureus, S. caprae, S. haemolyticus, and S. lugdunensis, showed polymorphisms on their ITS-PCR patterns. ITS-PCR proved to be a valuable alternative for the identification of staphylococci, offering, within the same response time and at lower cost, higher reliability than the currently available commercial systems.

  10. Analysis of sequence diversity through internal transcribed spacers and simple sequence repeats to identify Dendrobium species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y T; Chen, R K; Lin, S J; Chen, Y C; Chin, S W; Chen, F C; Lee, C Y

    2014-04-08

    The Orchidaceae is one of the largest and most diverse families of flowering plants. The Dendrobium genus has high economic potential as ornamental plants and for medicinal purposes. In addition, the species of this genus are able to produce large crops. However, many Dendrobium varieties are very similar in outward appearance, making it difficult to distinguish one species from another. This study demonstrated that the 12 Dendrobium species used in this study may be divided into 2 groups by internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequence analysis. Red and yellow flowers may also be used to separate these species into 2 main groups. In particular, the deciduous characteristic is associated with the ITS genetic diversity of the A group. Of 53 designed simple sequence repeat (SSR) primer pairs, 7 pairs were polymorphic for polymerase chain reaction products that were amplified from a specific band. The results of this study demonstrate that these 7 SSR primer pairs may potentially be used to identify Dendrobium species and their progeny in future studies.

  11. Chromosome preference of disease genes and vectorization for the prediction of non-coding disease genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Hui; Lan, Chaowang; Liu, Yuansheng; Liu, Tao; Blumenstein, Michael; Li, Jinyan

    2017-10-03

    Disease-related protein-coding genes have been widely studied, but disease-related non-coding genes remain largely unknown. This work introduces a new vector to represent diseases, and applies the newly vectorized data for a positive-unlabeled learning algorithm to predict and rank disease-related long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) genes. This novel vector representation for diseases consists of two sub-vectors, one is composed of 45 elements, characterizing the information entropies of the disease genes distribution over 45 chromosome substructures. This idea is supported by our observation that some substructures (e.g., the chromosome 6 p-arm) are highly preferred by disease-related protein coding genes, while some (e.g., the 21 p-arm) are not favored at all. The second sub-vector is 30-dimensional, characterizing the distribution of disease gene enriched KEGG pathways in comparison with our manually created pathway groups. The second sub-vector complements with the first one to differentiate between various diseases. Our prediction method outperforms the state-of-the-art methods on benchmark datasets for prioritizing disease related lncRNA genes. The method also works well when only the sequence information of an lncRNA gene is known, or even when a given disease has no currently recognized long non-coding genes.

  12. Quantification of non-coding RNA target localization diversity and its application in cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Lixin; Leung, Kwong-Sak

    2018-04-01

    Subcellular localization is pivotal for RNAs and proteins to implement biological functions. The localization diversity of protein interactions has been studied as a crucial feature of proteins, considering that the protein-protein interactions take place in various subcellular locations. Nevertheless, the localization diversity of non-coding RNA (ncRNA) target proteins has not been systematically studied, especially its characteristics in cancers. In this study, we provide a new algorithm, non-coding RNA target localization coefficient (ncTALENT), to quantify the target localization diversity of ncRNAs based on the ncRNA-protein interaction and protein subcellular localization data. ncTALENT can be used to calculate the target localization coefficient of ncRNAs and measure how diversely their targets are distributed among the subcellular locations in various scenarios. We focus our study on long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), and our observations reveal that the target localization diversity is a primary characteristic of lncRNAs in different biotypes. Moreover, we found that lncRNAs in multiple cancers, differentially expressed cancer lncRNAs, and lncRNAs with multiple cancer target proteins are prone to have high target localization diversity. Furthermore, the analysis of gastric cancer helps us to obtain a better understanding that the target localization diversity of lncRNAs is an important feature closely related to clinical prognosis. Overall, we systematically studied the target localization diversity of the lncRNAs and uncovered its association with cancer.

  13. nRC: non-coding RNA Classifier based on structural features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiannaca, Antonino; La Rosa, Massimo; La Paglia, Laura; Rizzo, Riccardo; Urso, Alfonso

    2017-01-01

    Non-coding RNA (ncRNA) are small non-coding sequences involved in gene expression regulation of many biological processes and diseases. The recent discovery of a large set of different ncRNAs with biologically relevant roles has opened the way to develop methods able to discriminate between the different ncRNA classes. Moreover, the lack of knowledge about the complete mechanisms in regulative processes, together with the development of high-throughput technologies, has required the help of bioinformatics tools in addressing biologists and clinicians with a deeper comprehension of the functional roles of ncRNAs. In this work, we introduce a new ncRNA classification tool, nRC (non-coding RNA Classifier). Our approach is based on features extraction from the ncRNA secondary structure together with a supervised classification algorithm implementing a deep learning architecture based on convolutional neural networks. We tested our approach for the classification of 13 different ncRNA classes. We obtained classification scores, using the most common statistical measures. In particular, we reach an accuracy and sensitivity score of about 74%. The proposed method outperforms other similar classification methods based on secondary structure features and machine learning algorithms, including the RNAcon tool that, to date, is the reference classifier. nRC tool is freely available as a docker image at https://hub.docker.com/r/tblab/nrc/. The source code of nRC tool is also available at https://github.com/IcarPA-TBlab/nrc.

  14. MytiBase: a knowledgebase of mussel (M. galloprovincialis transcribed sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roch Philippe

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although Bivalves are among the most studied marine organisms due to their ecological role, economic importance and use in pollution biomonitoring, very little information is available on the genome sequences of mussels. This study reports the functional analysis of a large-scale Expressed Sequence Tag (EST sequencing from different tissues of Mytilus galloprovincialis (the Mediterranean mussel challenged with toxic pollutants, temperature and potentially pathogenic bacteria. Results We have constructed and sequenced seventeen cDNA libraries from different Mediterranean mussel tissues: gills, digestive gland, foot, anterior and posterior adductor muscle, mantle and haemocytes. A total of 24,939 clones were sequenced from these libraries generating 18,788 high-quality ESTs which were assembled into 2,446 overlapping clusters and 4,666 singletons resulting in a total of 7,112 non-redundant sequences. In particular, a high-quality normalized cDNA library (Nor01 was constructed as determined by the high rate of gene discovery (65.6%. Bioinformatic screening of the non-redundant M. galloprovincialis sequences identified 159 microsatellite-containing ESTs. Clusters, consensuses, related similarities and gene ontology searches have been organized in a dedicated, searchable database http://mussel.cribi.unipd.it. Conclusion We defined the first species-specific catalogue of M. galloprovincialis ESTs including 7,112 unique transcribed sequences. Putative microsatellite markers were identified. This annotated catalogue represents a valuable platform for expression studies, marker validation and genetic linkage analysis for investigations in the biology of Mediterranean mussels.

  15. Antimelanoma CTL recognizes peptides derived from an ORF transcribed from the antisense strand of the 3′ untranslated region of TRIT1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolf K Swoboda

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Noncoding regions of the genome play an important role in tumorigenesis of cancer. Using expression cloning, we have identified a cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL–defined antigen that recognizes a protein sequence derived from an open reading frame transcribed from the reverse strand in the 3′ untranslated region of tRNA isopentenyltransferase 1 (TRIT1. A peptide derived from this open reading frame (ORF sequence and predicted to bind to HLA-B57, sensitized HLA-B57+ tumor cells to lysis by CTL793. The peptide also induced a CTL response in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC of patient 793 and in two other melanoma patients. The CTL lysed peptide-pulsed HLA-B57+ target cells and melanoma cells with endogenous antigen expression. The recognition of this antigen is not limited to HLA-B57-restricted CTLs. An HLA-A2 peptide derived from the ORF was able to induce CTLs in PBMC of 2 HLA-A2+ patients. This study describes for the first time a CTL-defined melanoma antigen that is derived from an ORF on the reverse strand of the putative tumor suppressor gene TRIT1. This antigen has potential use as a vaccine or its ability to induce CTLs in vitro could be used as a predictive biomarker.

  16. A Novel Type of Non-coding RNA, nc886, Implicated in Tumor Sensing and Suppression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Sun Lee

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available nc886 (=vtRNA2-1, pre-miR-886, or CBL3 is a newly identified non-coding RNA (ncRNA that represses the activity of protein kinase R (PKR. nc886 is transcribed by RNA polymerase III (Pol III and is intriguingly the first case of a Pol III gene whose expression is silenced by CpG DNA hypermethylation in several types of cancer. PKR is a sensor protein that recognizes evading viruses and induces apoptosis to eliminate infected cells. Like viral infection, nc886 silencing activates PKR and induces apoptosis. Thus, the significance of the nc886:PKR pathway in cancer is to sense and eliminate pre-malignant cells, which is analogous to PKR's role in cellular innate immunity. Beyond this tumor sensing role, nc886 plays a putative tumor suppressor role as supported by experimental evidence. Collectively, nc886 provides a novel example how epigenetic silencing of a ncRNA contributes to tumorigenesis by controlling the activity of its protein ligand.

  17. Noncoding transcription by alternative rna polymerases dynamically regulates an auxin-driven chromatin loop

    KAUST Repository

    Ariel, Federico D.; Jé gu, Teddy; Latrasse, David; Romero-Barrios, Natali; Christ, Auré lie; Benhamed, Moussa; Crespi, Martí n D.

    2014-01-01

    The eukaryotic epigenome is shaped by the genome topology in three-dimensional space. Dynamic reversible variations in this epigenome structure directly influence the transcriptional responses to developmental cues. Here, we show that the Arabidopsis long intergenic noncoding RNA (lincRNA) APOLO is transcribed by RNA polymerases II and V in response to auxin, a phytohormone controlling numerous facets of plant development. This dual APOLO transcription regulates the formation of a chromatin loop encompassing the promoter of its neighboring gene PID, a key regulator of polar auxin transport. Altering APOLO expression affects chromatin loop formation, whereas RNA-dependent DNA methylation, active DNA demethylation, and Polycomb complexes control loop dynamics. This dynamic chromatin topology determines PID expression patterns. Hence, the dual transcription of a lincRNA influences local chromatin topology and directs dynamic auxin-controlled developmental outputs on neighboring genes. This mechanism likely underscores the adaptive success of plants in diverse environments and may be widespread in eukaryotes. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.

  18. Mycoplasma non-coding RNA: identification of small RNAs and targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franciele Maboni Siqueira

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bacterial non-coding RNAs act by base-pairing as regulatory elements in crucial biological processes. We performed the identification of trans-encoded small RNAs (sRNA from the genomes of Mycoplama hyopneumoniae, Mycoplasma flocculare and Mycoplasma hyorhinis, which are Mycoplasma species that have been identified in the porcine respiratory system. Results A total of 47, 15 and 11 putative sRNAs were predicted in M. hyopneumoniae, M. flocculare and M. hyorhinis, respectively. A comparative genomic analysis revealed the presence of species or lineage specific sRNA candidates. Furthermore, the expression profile of some M. hyopneumoniae sRNAs was determined by a reverse transcription amplification approach, in three different culture conditions. All tested sRNAs were transcribed in at least one condition. A detailed investigation revealed a differential expression profile for two M. hyopneumoniae sRNAs in response to oxidative and heat shock stress conditions, suggesting that their expression is influenced by environmental signals. Moreover, we analyzed sRNA-mRNA hybrids and accessed putative target genes for the novel sRNA candidates. The majority of the sRNAs showed interaction with multiple target genes, some of which could be linked to pathogenesis and cell homeostasis activity. Conclusion This study contributes to our knowledge of Mycoplasma sRNAs and their response to environmental changes. Furthermore, the mRNA target prediction provides a perspective for the characterization and comprehension of the function of the sRNA regulatory mechanisms.

  19. Noncoding transcription by alternative rna polymerases dynamically regulates an auxin-driven chromatin loop

    KAUST Repository

    Ariel, Federico D.

    2014-08-01

    The eukaryotic epigenome is shaped by the genome topology in three-dimensional space. Dynamic reversible variations in this epigenome structure directly influence the transcriptional responses to developmental cues. Here, we show that the Arabidopsis long intergenic noncoding RNA (lincRNA) APOLO is transcribed by RNA polymerases II and V in response to auxin, a phytohormone controlling numerous facets of plant development. This dual APOLO transcription regulates the formation of a chromatin loop encompassing the promoter of its neighboring gene PID, a key regulator of polar auxin transport. Altering APOLO expression affects chromatin loop formation, whereas RNA-dependent DNA methylation, active DNA demethylation, and Polycomb complexes control loop dynamics. This dynamic chromatin topology determines PID expression patterns. Hence, the dual transcription of a lincRNA influences local chromatin topology and directs dynamic auxin-controlled developmental outputs on neighboring genes. This mechanism likely underscores the adaptive success of plants in diverse environments and may be widespread in eukaryotes. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.

  20. Quantitative Profiling of Peptides from RNAs classified as non-coding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabakaran, Sudhakaran; Hemberg, Martin; Chauhan, Ruchi; Winter, Dominic; Tweedie-Cullen, Ry Y.; Dittrich, Christian; Hong, Elizabeth; Gunawardena, Jeremy; Steen, Hanno; Kreiman, Gabriel; Steen, Judith A.

    2014-01-01

    Only a small fraction of the mammalian genome codes for messenger RNAs destined to be translated into proteins, and it is generally assumed that a large portion of transcribed sequences - including introns and several classes of non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) do not give rise to peptide products. A systematic examination of translation and physiological regulation of ncRNAs has not been conducted. Here, we use computational methods to identify the products of non-canonical translation in mouse neurons by analyzing unannotated transcripts in combination with proteomic data. This study supports the existence of non-canonical translation products from both intragenic and extragenic genomic regions, including peptides derived from anti-sense transcripts and introns. Moreover, the studied novel translation products exhibit temporal regulation similar to that of proteins known to be involved in neuronal activity processes. These observations highlight a potentially large and complex set of biologically regulated translational events from transcripts formerly thought to lack coding potential. PMID:25403355

  1. Long Noncoding RNA PANDA Positively Regulates Proliferation of Osteosarcoma Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotake, Yojiro; Goto, Taiki; Naemura, Madoka; Inoue, Yasutoshi; Okamoto, Haruna; Tahara, Keiichiro

    2017-01-01

    A long noncoding RNA, p21-associated ncRNA DNA damage-activated (PANDA), associates with nuclear transcription factor Y subunit alpha (NF-YA) and inhibits its binding to promoters of apoptosis-related genes, thereby repressing apoptosis in normal human fibroblasts. Here, we show that PANDA is involved in regulating proliferation in the U2OS human osteosarcoma cell line. U2OS cells were transfected with siRNAs against PANDA 72 h later and they were subjected to reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), quantitative RT-PCR and cell-cycle analysis. PANDA was highly expressed in U2OS cells, and its expression was induced by DNA damage. Silencing PANDA caused arrest at the G 1 phase of the cell cycle, leading to inhibition of cell proliferation. Quantitative RT-PCR showed that silencing PANDA increased mRNA levels of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p18, which caused G 1 phase arrest. These results suggest that PANDA promotes G 1 -S transition by repressing p18 transcription, and thus promotes U2OS cell proliferation. Copyright© 2017 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  2. Selective constraint on noncoding regions of hominid genomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliot C Bush

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available An important challenge for human evolutionary biology is to understand the genetic basis of human-chimpanzee differences. One influential idea holds that such differences depend, to a large extent, on adaptive changes in gene expression. An important step in assessing this hypothesis involves gaining a better understanding of selective constraint on noncoding regions of hominid genomes. In noncoding sequence, functional elements are frequently small and can be separated by large nonfunctional regions. For this reason, constraint in hominid genomes is likely to be patchy. Here we use conservation in more distantly related mammals and amniotes as a way of identifying small sequence windows that are likely to be functional. We find that putatively functional noncoding elements defined in this manner are subject to significant selective constraint in hominids.

  3. Selective Constraint on Noncoding Regions of Hominid Genomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available An important challenge for human evolutionary biology is to understand the genetic basis of human-chimpanzee differences. One influential idea holds that such differences depend, to a large extent, on adaptive changes in gene expression. An important step in assessing this hypothesis involves gaining a better understanding of selective constraint on noncoding regions of hominid genomes. In noncoding sequence, functional elements are frequently small and can be separated by large nonfunctional regions. For this reason, constraint in hominid genomes is likely to be patchy. Here we use conservation in more distantly related mammals and amniotes as a way of identifying small sequence windows that are likely to be functional. We find that putatively functional noncoding elements defined in this manner are subject to significant selective constraint in hominids.

  4. Transcribed enhancers lead waves of coordinated transcription in transitioning mammalian cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arner, Erik; Daub, Carsten O.; Vitting-Seerup, Kristoffer

    2015-01-01

    Although it is generally accepted that cellular differentiation requires changes to transcriptional networks, dynamic regulation of promoters and enhancers at specific sets of genes has not been previously studied en masse. Exploiting the fact that active promoters and enhancers are transcribed, ...

  5. Identification of human chromosome 22 transcribed sequences with ORF expressed sequence tags

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Souza, S J; Camargo, A A; Briones, M R

    2000-01-01

    Transcribed sequences in the human genome can be identified with confidence only by alignment with sequences derived from cDNAs synthesized from naturally occurring mRNAs. We constructed a set of 250,000 cDNAs that represent partial expressed gene sequences and that are biased toward the central ...

  6. Identification of human chromosome 22 transcribed sequences with ORF expressed sequence tags

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Sandro J.; Camargo, Anamaria A.; Briones, Marcelo R. S.; Costa, Fernando F.; Nagai, Maria Aparecida; Verjovski-Almeida, Sergio; Zago, Marco A.; Andrade, Luis Eduardo C.; Carrer, Helaine; El-Dorry, Hamza F. A.; Espreafico, Enilza M.; Habr-Gama, Angelita; Giannella-Neto, Daniel; Goldman, Gustavo H.; Gruber, Arthur; Hackel, Christine; Kimura, Edna T.; Maciel, Rui M. B.; Marie, Suely K. N.; Martins, Elizabeth A. L.; Nóbrega, Marina P.; Paçó-Larson, Maria Luisa; Pardini, Maria Inês M. C.; Pereira, Gonçalo G.; Pesquero, João Bosco; Rodrigues, Vanderlei; Rogatto, Silvia R.; da Silva, Ismael D. C. G.; Sogayar, Mari C.; de Fátima Sonati, Maria; Tajara, Eloiza H.; Valentini, Sandro R.; Acencio, Marcio; Alberto, Fernando L.; Amaral, Maria Elisabete J.; Aneas, Ivy; Bengtson, Mário Henrique; Carraro, Dirce M.; Carvalho, Alex F.; Carvalho, Lúcia Helena; Cerutti, Janete M.; Corrêa, Maria Lucia C.; Costa, Maria Cristina R.; Curcio, Cyntia; Gushiken, Tsieko; Ho, Paulo L.; Kimura, Elza; Leite, Luciana C. C.; Maia, Gustavo; Majumder, Paromita; Marins, Mozart; Matsukuma, Adriana; Melo, Analy S. A.; Mestriner, Carlos Alberto; Miracca, Elisabete C.; Miranda, Daniela C.; Nascimento, Ana Lucia T. O.; Nóbrega, Francisco G.; Ojopi, Élida P. B.; Pandolfi, José Rodrigo C.; Pessoa, Luciana Gilbert; Rahal, Paula; Rainho, Claudia A.; da Ro's, Nancy; de Sá, Renata G.; Sales, Magaly M.; da Silva, Neusa P.; Silva, Tereza C.; da Silva, Wilson; Simão, Daniel F.; Sousa, Josane F.; Stecconi, Daniella; Tsukumo, Fernando; Valente, Valéria; Zalcberg, Heloisa; Brentani, Ricardo R.; Reis, Luis F. L.; Dias-Neto, Emmanuel; Simpson, Andrew J. G.

    2000-01-01

    Transcribed sequences in the human genome can be identified with confidence only by alignment with sequences derived from cDNAs synthesized from naturally occurring mRNAs. We constructed a set of 250,000 cDNAs that represent partial expressed gene sequences and that are biased toward the central coding regions of the resulting transcripts. They are termed ORF expressed sequence tags (ORESTES). The 250,000 ORESTES were assembled into 81,429 contigs. Of these, 1,181 (1.45%) were found to match sequences in chromosome 22 with at least one ORESTES contig for 162 (65.6%) of the 247 known genes, for 67 (44.6%) of the 150 related genes, and for 45 of the 148 (30.4%) EST-predicted genes on this chromosome. Using a set of stringent criteria to validate our sequences, we identified a further 219 previously unannotated transcribed sequences on chromosome 22. Of these, 171 were in fact also defined by EST or full length cDNA sequences available in GenBank but not utilized in the initial annotation of the first human chromosome sequence. Thus despite representing less than 15% of all expressed human sequences in the public databases at the time of the present analysis, ORESTES sequences defined 48 transcribed sequences on chromosome 22 not defined by other sequences. All of the transcribed sequences defined by ORESTES coincided with DNA regions predicted as encoding exons by genscan. (http://genes.mit.edu/GENSCAN.html). PMID:11070084

  7. Differential Reading, Naming, and Transcribing Speeds of Japanese Romaji and Hiragana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Jun; Leong, Che Kan

    2005-01-01

    The morpho-syllabic Japanese writing system consists of the phonetic scripts of hiragana and katakana, the logographic kanji derived from Chinese characters and the less well researched romaji based on the Roman alphabet. In four experiments we investigated the speed with which Japanese college students read, named, and transcribed romaji as…

  8. Phylogenetic relationships of the genus Phanerochaete inferred from the internal transcribed spacer region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodorus H. de Koker; Karen K. Nakasone; Jacques Haarhof; Harold H. Burdsall; Bernard J.H. Janse

    2003-01-01

    Phanerochaete is a genus of resupinate homobasidiomycetes that are saprophytic on woody debris and logs. Morphological studies in the past indicated that Phanerochaete is a heterogeneous assemblage of species. In this study the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of the nuclear ribosomal DNA was used to test the monophyly of the genus Phanerochaete and to infer...

  9. Transcribing Gail Jefferson: The 1977 Boston talk as it actually was

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nevile, Maurice Richard

    2015-01-01

    A talk by Gail Jefferson, one of the founders of Conversation Analysis, has been recently made available, and Maurice Nevile undertook to transcribe it for the benefit of the language-in-interaction community. Here he reports on what it meant to him, and what we can all get out of such a powerful...

  10. Phylogenetic analysis of cercospora and mycosphaerella based on the internal transcribed spacer region of ribosomal DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, S B; Dunkle, L D; Zismann, V L

    2001-07-01

    ABSTRACT Most of the 3,000 named species in the genus Cercospora have no known sexual stage, although a Mycosphaerella teleomorph has been identified for a few. Mycosphaerella is an extremely large and important genus of plant pathogens, with more than 1,800 named species and at least 43 associated anamorph genera. The goal of this research was to perform a large-scale phylogenetic analysis to test hypotheses about the past evolutionary history of Cercospora and Mycosphaerella. Based on the phylogenetic analysis of internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequence data (ITS1, 5.8S rRNA gene, ITS2), the genus Mycosphaerella is monophyletic. In contrast, many anamorph genera within Mycosphaerella were polyphyletic and were not useful for grouping species. One exception was Cercospora, which formed a highly supported monophyletic group. Most Cercospora species from cereal crops formed a subgroup within the main Cercospora cluster. Only species within the Cercospora cluster produced the toxin cercosporin, suggesting that the ability to produce this compound had a single evolutionary origin. Intraspecific variation for 25 taxa in the Mycosphaerella clade averaged 1.7 nucleotides (nts) in the ITS region. Thus, isolates with ITS sequences that differ by two or more nucleotides may be distinct species. ITS sequences of groups I and II of the gray leaf spot pathogen Cercospora zeae-maydis differed by 7 nts and clearly represent different species. There were 6.5 nt differences on average between the ITS sequences of the sorghum pathogen Cercospora sorghi and the maize pathogen Cercospora sorghi var. maydis, indicating that the latter is a separate species and not simply a variety of Cercospora sorghi. The large monophyletic Mycosphaerella cluster contained a number of anamorph genera with no known teleomorph associations. Therefore, the number of anamorph genera related to Mycosphaerella may be much larger than suspected previously.

  11. Molecular analysis of fungal populations in patients with oral candidiasis using internal transcribed spacer region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ieda, Shinsuke; Moriyama, Masafumi; Takeshita, Toru; Takashita, Toru; Maehara, Takashi; Imabayashi, Yumi; Shinozaki, Shoichi; Tanaka, Akihiko; Hayashida, Jun-Nosuke; Furukawa, Sachiko; Ohta, Miho; Yamashita, Yoshihisa; Nakamura, Seiji

    2014-01-01

    Oral candidiasis is closely associated with changes in the oral fungal flora and is caused primarily by Candida albicans. Conventional methods of fungal culture are time-consuming and not always conclusive. However, molecular genetic analysis of internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions of fungal rRNA is rapid, reproducible and simple to perform. In this study we examined the fungal flora in patients with oral candidiasis and investigated changes in the flora after antifungal treatment using length heterogeneity-polymerization chain reaction (LH-PCR) analysis of ITS regions. Fifty-two patients with pseudomembranous oral candidiasis (POC) and 30 healthy controls were included in the study. Fungal DNA from oral rinse was examined for fungal species diversity by LH-PCR. Fungal populations were quantified by real-time PCR and previously-unidentified signals were confirmed by nucleotide sequencing. Relationships between the oral fungal flora and treatment-resistant factors were also examined. POC patients showed significantly more fungal species and a greater density of fungi than control individuals. Sixteen fungi were newly identified. The fungal populations from both groups were composed predominantly of C. albicans, though the ratio of C. dubliniensis was significantly higher in POC patients than in controls. The diversity and density of fungi were significantly reduced after treatment. Furthermore, fungal diversity and the proportion of C. dubliniensis were positively correlated with treatment duration. These results suggest that C. dubliniensis and high fungal flora diversity might be involved in the pathogenesis of oral candidiasis. We therefore conclude that LH-PCR is a useful technique for diagnosing and assessing the severity of oral candidal infection.

  12. Reliable differentiation of Meyerozyma guilliermondii from Meyerozyma caribbica by internal transcribed spacer restriction fingerprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romi, Wahengbam; Keisam, Santosh; Ahmed, Giasuddin; Jeyaram, Kumaraswamy

    2014-02-28

    Meyerozyma guilliermondii (anamorph Candida guilliermondii) and Meyerozyma caribbica (anamorph Candida fermentati) are closely related species of the genetically heterogenous M. guilliermondii complex. Conventional phenotypic methods frequently misidentify the species within this complex and also with other species of the Saccharomycotina CTG clade. Even the long-established sequencing of large subunit (LSU) rRNA gene remains ambiguous. We also faced similar problem during identification of yeast isolates of M. guilliermondii complex from indigenous bamboo shoot fermentation in North East India. There is a need for development of reliable and accurate identification methods for these closely related species because of their increasing importance as emerging infectious yeasts and associated biotechnological attributes. We targeted the highly variable internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region (ITS1-5.8S-ITS2) and identified seven restriction enzymes through in silico analysis for differentiating M. guilliermondii from M. caribbica. Fifty five isolates of M. guilliermondii complex which could not be delineated into species-specific taxonomic ranks by API 20 C AUX and LSU rRNA gene D1/D2 sequencing were subjected to ITS-restriction fragment length polymorphism (ITS-RFLP) analysis. TaqI ITS-RFLP distinctly differentiated the isolates into M. guilliermondii (47 isolates) and M. caribbica (08 isolates) with reproducible species-specific patterns similar to the in silico prediction. The reliability of this method was validated by ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 sequencing, mitochondrial DNA RFLP and electrophoretic karyotyping. We herein described a reliable ITS-RFLP method for distinct differentiation of frequently misidentified M. guilliermondii from M. caribbica. Even though in silico analysis differentiated other closely related species of M. guilliermondii complex from the above two species, it is yet to be confirmed by in vitro analysis using reference strains. This method can be used

  13. Targeted detection of in vivo endogenous DNA base damage reveals preferential base excision repair in the transcribed strand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, António M C; Mills, Wilbur K; Ramachandran, Ilangovan; Friedberg, Errol C; Thompson, David; Queimado, Lurdes

    2012-01-01

    Endogenous DNA damage is removed mainly via base excision repair (BER), however, whether there is preferential strand repair of endogenous DNA damage is still under intense debate. We developed a highly sensitive primer-anchored DNA damage detection assay (PADDA) to map and quantify in vivo endogenous DNA damage. Using PADDA, we documented significantly higher levels of endogenous damage in Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells in stationary phase than in exponential phase. We also documented that yeast BER-defective cells have significantly higher levels of endogenous DNA damage than isogenic wild-type cells at any phase of growth. PADDA provided detailed fingerprint analysis at the single-nucleotide level, documenting for the first time that persistent endogenous nucleotide damage in CAN1 co-localizes with previously reported spontaneous CAN1 mutations. To quickly and reliably quantify endogenous strand-specific DNA damage in the constitutively expressed CAN1 gene, we used PADDA on a real-time PCR setting. We demonstrate that wild-type cells repair endogenous damage preferentially on the CAN1 transcribed strand. In contrast, yeast BER-defective cells accumulate endogenous damage preferentially on the CAN1 transcribed strand. These data provide the first direct evidence for preferential strand repair of endogenous DNA damage and documents the major role of BER in this process.

  14. Identification of Novel Long Non-coding and Circular RNAs in Human Papillomavirus-Mediated Cervical Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongbo Wang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer is the third most common cancer worldwide and the fourth leading cause of cancer-associated mortality in women. Accumulating evidence indicates that long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs and circular RNAs (circRNAs may play key roles in the carcinogenesis of different cancers; however, little is known about the mechanisms of lncRNAs and circRNAs in the progression and metastasis of cervical cancer. In this study, we explored the expression profiles of lncRNAs, circRNAs, miRNAs, and mRNAs in HPV16 (human papillomavirus genotype 16 mediated cervical squamous cell carcinoma and matched adjacent non-tumor (ATN tissues from three patients with high-throughput RNA sequencing (RNA-seq. In total, we identified 19 lncRNAs, 99 circRNAs, 28 miRNAs, and 304 mRNAs that were commonly differentially expressed (DE in different patients. Among the non-coding RNAs, 3 lncRNAs and 44 circRNAs are novel to our knowledge. Functional enrichment analysis showed that DE lncRNAs, miRNAs, and mRNAs were enriched in pathways crucial to cancer as well as other gene ontology (GO terms. Furthermore, the co-expression network and function prediction suggested that all 19 DE lncRNAs could play different roles in the carcinogenesis and development of cervical cancer. The competing endogenous RNA (ceRNA network based on DE coding and non-coding RNAs showed that each miRNA targeted a number of lncRNAs and circRNAs. The link between part of the miRNAs in the network and cervical cancer has been validated in previous studies, and these miRNAs targeted the majority of the novel non-coding RNAs, thus suggesting that these novel non-coding RNAs may be involved in cervical cancer. Taken together, our study shows that DE non-coding RNAs could be further developed as diagnostic and therapeutic biomarkers of cervical cancer. The complex ceRNA network also lays the foundation for future research of the roles of coding and non-coding RNAs in cervical cancer.

  15. Identification of Novel Long Non-coding and Circular RNAs in Human Papillomavirus-Mediated Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongbo; Zhao, Yingchao; Chen, Mingyue; Cui, Jie

    2017-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the third most common cancer worldwide and the fourth leading cause of cancer-associated mortality in women. Accumulating evidence indicates that long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) and circular RNAs (circRNAs) may play key roles in the carcinogenesis of different cancers; however, little is known about the mechanisms of lncRNAs and circRNAs in the progression and metastasis of cervical cancer. In this study, we explored the expression profiles of lncRNAs, circRNAs, miRNAs, and mRNAs in HPV16 (human papillomavirus genotype 16) mediated cervical squamous cell carcinoma and matched adjacent non-tumor (ATN) tissues from three patients with high-throughput RNA sequencing (RNA-seq). In total, we identified 19 lncRNAs, 99 circRNAs, 28 miRNAs, and 304 mRNAs that were commonly differentially expressed (DE) in different patients. Among the non-coding RNAs, 3 lncRNAs and 44 circRNAs are novel to our knowledge. Functional enrichment analysis showed that DE lncRNAs, miRNAs, and mRNAs were enriched in pathways crucial to cancer as well as other gene ontology (GO) terms. Furthermore, the co-expression network and function prediction suggested that all 19 DE lncRNAs could play different roles in the carcinogenesis and development of cervical cancer. The competing endogenous RNA (ceRNA) network based on DE coding and non-coding RNAs showed that each miRNA targeted a number of lncRNAs and circRNAs. The link between part of the miRNAs in the network and cervical cancer has been validated in previous studies, and these miRNAs targeted the majority of the novel non-coding RNAs, thus suggesting that these novel non-coding RNAs may be involved in cervical cancer. Taken together, our study shows that DE non-coding RNAs could be further developed as diagnostic and therapeutic biomarkers of cervical cancer. The complex ceRNA network also lays the foundation for future research of the roles of coding and non-coding RNAs in cervical cancer. PMID:28970820

  16. Non-Coding RNAs in Arabidopsis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Wonterghem, Miranda

    This work evolves around elucidating the mechanisms of micro RNAs (miRNAs) in Arabidopsis thaliana. I identified a new class of nuclear non-coding RNAs derived from protein coding genes. The genes are miRNA targets with extensive gene body methylation. The RNA species are nuclear localized and de...

  17. Circadian changes in long noncoding RNAs in the pineal gland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coon, Steven L; Munson, Peter J; Cherukuri, Praveen F

    2012-01-01

    Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) play a broad range of biological roles, including regulation of expression of genes and chromosomes. Here, we present evidence that lncRNAs are involved in vertebrate circadian biology. Differential night/day expression of 112 lncRNAs (0.3 to >50 kb) occurs in the ra...

  18. The Functional Characterization of Long Noncoding RNA SPRY4-IT1 in Human Melanoma Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Mazar, Joseph; Zhao, Wei; Khalil, Ahmad M.; Lee, Bongyong; Shelley, John; Govindarajan, Subramaniam S.; Yamamoto, Fumiko; Ratnam, Maya; Aftab, Muhammad Nauman; Collins, Sheila; Finck, Brian N.; Han, Xianlin; Mattick, John S.; Dinger, Marcel E.; Perera, Ranjan J.

    2014-01-01

    Expression of the long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) SPRY4-IT1 is low in normal human melanocytes but high in melanoma cells. siRNA knockdown of SPRY4-IT1 blocks melanoma cell invasion and proliferation, and increases apoptosis. To investigate its function further, we affinity purified SPRY4-IT1 from melanoma cells and used mass spectrometry to identify the protein lipin 2, an enzyme that converts phosphatidate to diacylglycerol (DAG), as a major binding partner. SPRY4-IT1 knockdown increases the ac...

  19. Proviruses selected for high and stable expression of transduced genes accumulate in broadly transcribed genome areas

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Plachý, Jiří; Kotáb, Jan; Divina, Petr; Reinišová, Markéta; Šenigl, Filip; Hejnar, Jiří

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 84, č. 9 (2010), s. 4204-4211 ISSN 0022-538X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA204/07/1030; GA ČR GP301/09/P667 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : avian sarcoma virus * retrovirus integration * position effects Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 5.189, year: 2010

  20. Malignant transformation of colonic epithelial cells by a colon-derived long noncoding RNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franklin, Jeffrey L.; Rankin, Carl R.; Levy, Shawn; Snoddy, Jay R.; Zhang, Bing; Washington, Mary Kay; Thomson, J. Michael; Whitehead, Robert H.; Coffey, Robert J.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Non-coding RNAs are found in the colonic crypt progenitor compartment. •Colonocytes transformed by ncNRFR are highly invasive and metastatic. •ncNRFR has a region similar to the miRNA, let-7 family. •ncNRFR expression alters let-7 activity as measured by reporter construct. •ncNRFR expression upregulates let-7b targets. -- Abstract: Recent progress has been made in the identification of protein-coding genes and miRNAs that are expressed in and alter the behavior of colonic epithelia. However, the role of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) in colonic homeostasis is just beginning to be explored. By gene expression profiling of post-mitotic, differentiated tops and proliferative, progenitor-compartment bottoms of microdissected adult mouse colonic crypts, we identified several lncRNAs more highly expressed in crypt bottoms. One identified lncRNA, designated non-coding Nras functional RNA (ncNRFR), resides within the Nras locus but appears to be independent of the Nras coding transcript. Stable overexpression of ncNRFR in non-transformed, conditionally immortalized mouse colonocytes results in malignant transformation, as determined by growth in soft agar and formation of highly invasive tumors in nude mice. Moreover, ncNRFR appears to inhibit the function of the tumor suppressor let-7. These results suggest precise regulation of ncNRFR is necessary for proper cell growth in the colonic crypt, and its misregulation results in neoplastic transformation

  1. Increased expression of hepatocyte nuclear factor 4 alpha transcribed by promoter 2 indicates a poor prognosis in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Shao-Hang; Lu, Shi-Xun; Liu, Li-Li; Zhang, Chris Zhiyi; Yun, Jing-Ping

    2017-10-01

    Hepatocyte nuclear factor 4 alpha (HNF4α) plays an important role in tumourigenesis. There is growing evidence indicating that HNF4α transcribed by promoter 1 (P1-HNF4α) is expressed at relatively low levels in HCC and its presence predicts a favourable outcome for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients. However, the role of HNF4α transcribed by promoter 2 (P2-HNF4α) in HCC remains unclear. A total of 615 HCC specimens were obtained to construct tissue microarrays and perform immunohistochemistry. The relationship between P2-HNF4α and clinical features of HCC patients were analysed. Kaplan-Meier analysis was conducted to assess the prognostic value of P2-HNF4α. The results showed that the expression of P2-HNF4α in HCC was noticeably increased in HCC tissues compared with the nontumourous tissues. In addition, P1-HNF4α expression was negatively correlated with P2-HNF4α expression ( p  = 0.023). High P2-HNF4α expression was significantly associated with poor differentiation of HCC ( p = 0.002) and vascular invasion ( p = 0.017). Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that P2-HNF4α expression was closely correlated with overall survival in the training group ( p = 0.01), validation group ( p = 0.034), and overall group of patients with HCC ( p P2-HNF4α, different from P1-HNF4α, is markedly upregulated and serves as an oncogene-associated protein in HCC. Our study therefore provides a promising biomarker for prognostic prediction and a potential therapeutic target for HCC.

  2. DNA rearrangements from γ-irradiated normal human fibroblasts preferentially occur in transcribed regions of the genome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forrester, H.B.; Radford, I.R.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: DNA rearrangement events leading to chromosomal aberrations are central to ionizing radiation-induced cell death. Although DNA double-strand breaks are probably the lesion that initiates formation of chromosomal aberrations, little is understood about the molecular mechanisms that generate and modulate DNA rearrangement. Examination of the sequences that flank sites of DNA rearrangement may provide information regarding the processes and enzymes involved in rearrangement events. Accordingly, we developed a method using inverse PCR that allows the detection and sequencing of putative radiation-induced DNA rearrangements in defined regions of the human genome. The method can detect single copies of a rearrangement event that has occurred in a particular region of the genome and, therefore, DNA rearrangement detection does not require survival and continued multiplication of the affected cell. Ionizing radiation-induced DNA rearrangements were detected in several different regions of the genome of human fibroblast cells that were exposed to 30 Gy of γ-irradiation and then incubated for 24 hours at 37 deg C. There was a 3- to 5-fold increase in the number of products amplified from irradiated as compared with control cells in the target regions 5' to the C-MYC, CDKN1A, RB1, and FGFR2 genes. Sequences were examined from 121 DNA rearrangements. Approximately half of the PCR products were derived from possible inter-chromosomal rearrangements and the remainder were from intra-chromosomal events. A high proportion of the sequences that rearranged with target regions were located in genes, suggesting that rearrangements may occur preferentially in transcribed regions. Eighty-four percent of the sequences examined by reverse transcriptase PCR were from transcribed sequences in IMR-90 cells. The distribution of DNA rearrangements within the target regions is non-random and homology occurs between the sequences involved in rearrangements in some cases but is not

  3. Function and Application Areas in Medicine of Non-Coding RNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Figen Guzelgul

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available RNA is the genetic material converting the genetic code that it gets from DNA into protein. While less than 2 % of RNA is converted into protein , more than 98 % of it can not be converted into protein and named as non-coding RNAs. 70 % of noncoding RNAs consists of introns , however, the rest part of them consists of exons. Non-coding RNAs are examined in two classes according to their size and functions. Whereas they are classified as long non-coding and small non-coding RNAs according to their size , they are grouped as housekeeping non-coding RNAs and regulating non-coding RNAs according to their function. For long years ,these non-coding RNAs have been considered as non-functional. However, today, it has been proved that these non-coding RNAs play role in regulating genes and in structural, functional and catalitic roles of RNAs converted into protein. Due to its taking a role in gene silencing mechanism, particularly in medical world , non-coding RNAs have led to significant developments. RNAi technolgy , which is used in designing drugs to be used in treatment of various diseases , is a ray of hope for medical world. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2009; 18(3.000: 141-155

  4. The noncoding-RNA landscape in cardiovascular health and disease

    OpenAIRE

    Vittoria Di Mauro; Maria Barandalla-Sobrados; Daniele Catalucci

    2018-01-01

    The cardiovascular system plays a pivotal role in regulating and maintaining homeostasis in the human body. Therefore any alteration in regulatory networks that orchestrate heart development as well as adaptation to physiological and environmental stress might result in pathological conditions, which represent the leading cause of death worldwide [1]. The latest advances in genome-wide techniques challenged the “protein-central dogma” with the discovery of the so-called non-coding RNAs (ncRNA...

  5. Therapeutic targeting of non-coding RNAs in cancer

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Slabý, O.; Laga, Richard; Sedláček, Ondřej

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 474, č. 24 (2017), s. 4219-4251 ISSN 0264-6021 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LQ1604; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : non-coding RNA * RNA delivery * polymer carriers Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: Biochemical research methods Impact factor: 3.797, year: 2016

  6. Long intergenic non-coding RNA TUG1 is overexpressed in urothelial carcinoma of the bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yonghua; Liu, Yuchen; Gui, Yaoting; Cai, Zhiming

    2013-04-01

    Long intergenic non-coding RNAs (lincRNAs) are a class of non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression via chromatin reprogramming. Taurine Up-regulated Gene 1 (TUG1) is a lincRNA that is associated with chromatin-modifying complexes and plays roles in gene regulation. In this study, we determined the expression patterns of TUG1 and the cell proliferation inhibition and apoptosis induced by silencing TUG1 in urothelial carcinoma of the bladder. The expression levels of TUG1 were determined using Real-Time qPCR in a total of 44 patients with bladder urothelial carcinomas. Bladder urothelial carcinoma T24 and 5637 cells were transfected with TUG1 siRNA or negative control siRNA. Cell proliferation was evaluated using MTT assay. Apoptosis was determined using ELISA assay. TUG1 was up-regulated in bladder urothelial carcinoma compared to paired normal urothelium. High TUG1 expression levels were associated with high grade and stage carcinomas. Cell proliferation inhibition and apoptosis induction were observed in TUG1 siRNA-transfected bladder urothelial carcinoma T24 and 5637 cells. Our data suggest that lincRNA TUG1 is emerging as a novel player in the disease state of bladder urothelial carcinoma. TUG1 may have potential roles as a biomarker and/or a therapeutic target in bladder urothelial carcinoma. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Evolutionary analysis reveals regulatory and functional landscape of coding and non-coding RNA editing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rui; Deng, Patricia; Jacobson, Dionna; Li, Jin Billy

    2017-02-01

    Adenosine-to-inosine RNA editing diversifies the transcriptome and promotes functional diversity, particularly in the brain. A plethora of editing sites has been recently identified; however, how they are selected and regulated and which are functionally important are largely unknown. Here we show the cis-regulation and stepwise selection of RNA editing during Drosophila evolution and pinpoint a large number of functional editing sites. We found that the establishment of editing and variation in editing levels across Drosophila species are largely explained and predicted by cis-regulatory elements. Furthermore, editing events that arose early in the species tree tend to be more highly edited in clusters and enriched in slowly-evolved neuronal genes, thus suggesting that the main role of RNA editing is for fine-tuning neurological functions. While nonsynonymous editing events have been long recognized as playing a functional role, in addition to nonsynonymous editing sites, a large fraction of 3'UTR editing sites is evolutionarily constrained, highly edited, and thus likely functional. We find that these 3'UTR editing events can alter mRNA stability and affect miRNA binding and thus highlight the functional roles of noncoding RNA editing. Our work, through evolutionary analyses of RNA editing in Drosophila, uncovers novel insights of RNA editing regulation as well as its functions in both coding and non-coding regions.

  8. Noncoding RNA Profiles in Tobacco- and Alcohol-Associated Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayra Soares do Amaral

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco and alcohol are the leading environmental risk factors in the development of human diseases, such as cancer, cardiovascular disease, and liver injury. Despite the copious amount of research on this topic, by 2030, 8.3 million deaths are projected to occur worldwide due to tobacco use. The expression of noncoding RNAs, primarily microRNAs (miRNAs and long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs, is modulated by tobacco and alcohol consumption. Drinking alcohol and smoking cigarettes can modulate the expression of miRNAs and lncRNAs through various signaling pathways, such as apoptosis, angiogenesis, and inflammatory pathways—primarily interleukin 6 (IL-6/signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3, which seems to play a major role in the development of diseases associated with these risk factors. Since they may be predictive and prognostic biomarkers, they can be used both as predictors of the response to therapy and as a targeted therapy. Further, circulating miRNAs might be valuable noninvasive tools that can be used to examine diseases that are related to the use of tobacco and alcohol. This review discusses the function of noncoding RNAs in cancer and other human tobacco- and alcohol-associated diseases.

  9. Gene expression and adaptive noncoding changes during human evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babbitt, Courtney C; Haygood, Ralph; Nielsen, William J; Wray, Gregory A

    2017-06-05

    Despite evidence for adaptive changes in both gene expression and non-protein-coding, putatively regulatory regions of the genome during human evolution, the relationship between gene expression and adaptive changes in cis-regulatory regions remains unclear. Here we present new measurements of gene expression in five tissues of humans and chimpanzees, and use them to assess this relationship. We then compare our results with previous studies of adaptive noncoding changes, analyzing correlations at the level of gene ontology groups, in order to gain statistical power to detect correlations. Consistent with previous studies, we find little correlation between gene expression and adaptive noncoding changes at the level of individual genes; however, we do find significant correlations at the level of biological function ontology groups. The types of function include processes regulated by specific transcription factors, responses to genetic or chemical perturbations, and differentiation of cell types within the immune system. Among functional categories co-enriched with both differential expression and noncoding adaptation, prominent themes include cancer, particularly epithelial cancers, and neural development and function.

  10. The human noncoding genome defined by genetic diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    di Iulio, Julia; Bartha, Istvan; Wong, Emily H M; Yu, Hung-Chun; Lavrenko, Victor; Yang, Dongchan; Jung, Inkyung; Hicks, Michael A; Shah, Naisha; Kirkness, Ewen F; Fabani, Martin M; Biggs, William H; Ren, Bing; Venter, J Craig; Telenti, Amalio

    2018-03-01

    Understanding the significance of genetic variants in the noncoding genome is emerging as the next challenge in human genomics. We used the power of 11,257 whole-genome sequences and 16,384 heptamers (7-nt motifs) to build a map of sequence constraint for the human species. This build differed substantially from traditional maps of interspecies conservation and identified regulatory elements among the most constrained regions of the genome. Using new Hi-C experimental data, we describe a strong pattern of coordination over 2 Mb where the most constrained regulatory elements associate with the most essential genes. Constrained regions of the noncoding genome are up to 52-fold enriched for known pathogenic variants as compared to unconstrained regions (21-fold when compared to the genome average). This map of sequence constraint across thousands of individuals is an asset to help interpret noncoding elements in the human genome, prioritize variants and reconsider gene units at a larger scale.

  11. Long noncoding RNA in prostate, bladder, and kidney cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martens-Uzunova, Elena S; Böttcher, René; Croce, Carlo M; Jenster, Guido; Visakorpi, Tapio; Calin, George A

    2014-06-01

    Genomic regions without protein-coding potential give rise to millions of protein-noncoding RNA transcripts (noncoding RNA) that participate in virtually all cellular processes. Research over the last 10 yr has accumulated evidence that long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are often altered in human urologic cancers. To review current progress in the biology and implication of lncRNAs associated with prostate, bladder, and kidney cancer. The PubMed database was searched for articles in the English language with combinations of the Medical Subject Headings terms long non coding RNA, long noncoding RNA, long untranslated RNA, cancer, neoplasms, prostate, bladder, and kidney. We summarise existing knowledge on the systematics, biology, and function of lncRNAs, particularly these involved in prostate, kidney, and bladder cancer. We also discuss the possible utilisation of lncRNAs as novel biomarkers and potential therapeutic targets in urologic malignancies and portray the major challenges and future perspectives of ongoing lncRNA research. LncRNAs are important regulators of gene expression interacting with the major pathways of cell growth, proliferation, differentiation, and survival. Alterations in the function of lncRNAs promote tumour formation, progression, and metastasis of prostate, bladder, and kidney cancer. LncRNAs can be used as noninvasive tumour markers in urologic malignancies. Increased knowledge of the molecular mechanisms by which lncRNAs perform their function in the normal and malignant cell will lead to a better understanding of tumour biology and could provide novel therapeutic targets for the treatment of urologic cancers. In this paper we reviewed current knowledge of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) for the detection and treatment of urologic cancers. We conclude that lncRNAs can be used as novel biomarkers in prostate, kidney, or bladder cancer. LncRNAs hold promise as future therapeutic targets, but more research is needed to gain a better

  12. The human PINK1 locus is regulated in vivo by a non-coding natural antisense RNA during modulation of mitochondrial function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahlestedt Claes

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mutations in the PTEN induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1 are implicated in early-onset Parkinson's disease. PINK1 is expressed abundantly in mitochondria rich tissues, such as skeletal muscle, where it plays a critical role determining mitochondrial structural integrity in Drosophila. Results Herein we characterize a novel splice variant of PINK1 (svPINK1 that is homologous to the C-terminus regulatory domain of the protein kinase. Naturally occurring non-coding antisense provides sophisticated mechanisms for diversifying genomes and we describe a human specific non-coding antisense expressed at the PINK1 locus (naPINK1. We further demonstrate that PINK1 varies in vivo when human skeletal muscle mitochondrial content is enhanced, supporting the idea that PINK1 has a physiological role in mitochondrion. The observation of concordant regulation of svPINK1 and naPINK1 during in vivo mitochondrial biogenesis was confirmed using RNAi, where selective targeting of naPINK1 results in loss of the PINK1 splice variant in neuronal cell lines. Conclusion Our data presents the first direct observation that a mammalian non-coding antisense molecule can positively influence the abundance of a cis-transcribed mRNA under physiological abundance conditions. While our analysis implies a possible human specific and dsRNA-mediated mechanism for stabilizing the expression of svPINK1, it also points to a broader genomic strategy for regulating a human disease locus and increases the complexity through which alterations in the regulation of the PINK1 locus could occur.

  13. Identifying noncoding risk variants using disease-relevant gene regulatory networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Long; Uzun, Yasin; Gao, Peng; He, Bing; Ma, Xiaoke; Wang, Jiahui; Han, Shizhong; Tan, Kai

    2018-02-16

    Identifying noncoding risk variants remains a challenging task. Because noncoding variants exert their effects in the context of a gene regulatory network (GRN), we hypothesize that explicit use of disease-relevant GRNs can significantly improve the inference accuracy of noncoding risk variants. We describe Annotation of Regulatory Variants using Integrated Networks (ARVIN), a general computational framework for predicting causal noncoding variants. It employs a set of novel regulatory network-based features, combined with sequence-based features to infer noncoding risk variants. Using known causal variants in gene promoters and enhancers in a number of diseases, we show ARVIN outperforms state-of-the-art methods that use sequence-based features alone. Additional experimental validation using reporter assay further demonstrates the accuracy of ARVIN. Application of ARVIN to seven autoimmune diseases provides a holistic view of the gene subnetwork perturbed by the combinatorial action of the entire set of risk noncoding mutations.

  14. An expanding universe of noncoding RNAs between the poles of basic science and clinical investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weil, Patrick P; Hensel, Kai O; Weber, David; Postberg, Jan

    2016-03-01

    The Keystone Symposium 'MicroRNAs and Noncoding RNAs in Cancer', Keystone, CO, USA, 7-12 June 2015 Since the discovery of RNAi, great efforts have been undertaken to unleash the potential biomedical applicability of small noncoding RNAs, mainly miRNAs, involving their use as biomarkers for personalized diagnostics or their usability as active agents or therapy targets. The research's focus on the noncoding RNA world is now slowly moving from a phase of basic discoveries into a new phase, where every single molecule out of many hundreds of cataloged noncoding RNAs becomes dissected in order to investigate these molecules' biomedical relevance. In addition, RNA classes neglected before, such as long noncoding RNAs or circular RNAs attract more attention. Numerous timely results and hypotheses were presented at the 2015 Keystone Symposium 'MicroRNAs and Noncoding RNAs in Cancer'.

  15. Metagenomic data of fungal internal transcribed spacer from serofluid dish, a traditional Chinese fermented food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Chen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Serofluid dish (or Jiangshui, in Chinese, a traditional food in the Chinese culture for thousands of years, is made from vegetables by fermentation. In this work, microorganism community of the fermented serofluid dish was investigated by the culture-independent method. The metagenomic data in this article contains the sequences of fungal internal transcribed spacer (ITS regions of rRNA genes from 12 different serofluid dish samples. The metagenome comprised of 50,865 average raw reads with an average of 8,958,220 bp and G + C content is 45.62%. This is the first report on metagenomic data of fungal ITS from serofluid dish employing Illumina platform to profile the fungal communities of this little known fermented food from Gansu Province, China. The Metagenomic data of fungal internal transcribed spacer can be accessed at NCBI, SRA database accession no. SRP067411. Keywords: Serofluid dish, Jiangshui, Fungal ITS, Cultivation-independent, Microbial diversity

  16. Decoding the usefulness of non-coding RNAs as breast cancer markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amorim, Maria; Salta, Sofia; Henrique, Rui; Jerónimo, Carmen

    2016-09-15

    Although important advances in the management of breast cancer (BC) have been recently accomplished, it still constitutes the leading cause of cancer death in women worldwide. BC is a heterogeneous and complex disease, making clinical prediction of outcome a very challenging task. In recent years, gene expression profiling emerged as a tool to assist in clinical decision, enabling the identification of genetic signatures that better predict prognosis and response to therapy. Nevertheless, translation to routine practice has been limited by economical and technical reasons and, thus, novel biomarkers, especially those requiring non-invasive or minimally invasive collection procedures, while retaining high sensitivity and specificity might represent a significant development in this field. An increasing amount of evidence demonstrates that non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs), particularly microRNAs (miRNAs) and long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs), are aberrantly expressed in several cancers, including BC. miRNAs are of particular interest as new, easily accessible, cost-effective and non-invasive tools for precise management of BC patients because they circulate in bodily fluids (e.g., serum and plasma) in a very stable manner, enabling BC assessment and monitoring through liquid biopsies. This review focus on how ncRNAs have the potential to answer present clinical needs in the personalized management of patients with BC and comprehensively describes the state of the art on the role of ncRNAs in the diagnosis, prognosis and prediction of response to therapy in BC.

  17. Regulation of the Apolipoprotein Gene Cluster by a Long Noncoding RNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Halley

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Apolipoprotein A1 (APOA1 is the major protein component of high-density lipoprotein (HDL in plasma. We have identified an endogenously expressed long noncoding natural antisense transcript, APOA1-AS, which acts as a negative transcriptional regulator of APOA1 both in vitro and in vivo. Inhibition of APOA1-AS in cultured cells resulted in the increased expression of APOA1 and two neighboring genes in the APO cluster. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP analyses of a ∼50 kb chromatin region flanking the APOA1 gene demonstrated that APOA1-AS can modulate distinct histone methylation patterns that mark active and/or inactive gene expression through the recruitment of histone-modifying enzymes. Targeting APOA1-AS with short antisense oligonucleotides also enhanced APOA1 expression in both human and monkey liver cells and induced an increase in hepatic RNA and protein expression in African green monkeys. Furthermore, the results presented here highlight the significant local modulatory effects of long noncoding antisense RNAs and demonstrate the therapeutic potential of manipulating the expression of these transcripts both in vitro and in vivo.

  18. Non-Coding RNAs: Multi-Tasking Molecules in the Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Quintal Gomes

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In the last years it has become increasingly clear that the mammalian transcriptome is highly complex and includes a large number of small non-coding RNAs (sncRNAs and long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs. Here we review the biogenesis pathways of the three classes of sncRNAs, namely short interfering RNAs (siRNAs, microRNAs (miRNAs and PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs. These ncRNAs have been extensively studied and are involved in pathways leading to specific gene silencing and the protection of genomes against virus and transposons, for example. Also, lncRNAs have emerged as pivotal molecules for the transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression which is supported by their tissue-specific expression patterns, subcellular distribution, and developmental regulation. Therefore, we also focus our attention on their role in differentiation and development. SncRNAs and lncRNAs play critical roles in defining DNA methylation patterns, as well as chromatin remodeling thus having a substantial effect in epigenetics. The identification of some overlaps in their biogenesis pathways and functional roles raises the hypothesis that these molecules play concerted functions in vivo, creating complex regulatory networks where cooperation with regulatory proteins is necessary. We also highlighted the implications of biogenesis and gene expression deregulation of sncRNAs and lncRNAs in human diseases like cancer.

  19. Comparisons between Arabidopsis thaliana and Drosophila melanogaster in relation to Coding and Noncoding Sequence Length and Gene Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Caldwell

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a continuing interest in the analysis of gene architecture and gene expression to determine the relationship that may exist. Advances in high-quality sequencing technologies and large-scale resource datasets have increased the understanding of relationships and cross-referencing of expression data to the large genome data. Although a negative correlation between expression level and gene (especially transcript length has been generally accepted, there have been some conflicting results arising from the literature concerning the impacts of different regions of genes, and the underlying reason is not well understood. The research aims to apply quantile regression techniques for statistical analysis of coding and noncoding sequence length and gene expression data in the plant, Arabidopsis thaliana, and fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, to determine if a relationship exists and if there is any variation or similarities between these species. The quantile regression analysis found that the coding sequence length and gene expression correlations varied, and similarities emerged for the noncoding sequence length (5′ and 3′ UTRs between animal and plant species. In conclusion, the information described in this study provides the basis for further exploration into gene regulation with regard to coding and noncoding sequence length.

  20. Lncident: A Tool for Rapid Identification of Long Noncoding RNAs Utilizing Sequence Intrinsic Composition and Open Reading Frame Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siyu Han

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available More and more studies have demonstrated that long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs play critical roles in diversity of biological process and are also associated with various types of disease. How to rapidly identify lncRNAs and messenger RNA is the fundamental step to uncover the function of lncRNAs identification. Here, we present a novel method for rapid identification of lncRNAs utilizing sequence intrinsic composition features and open reading frame information based on support vector machine model, named as Lncident (LncRNAs identification. The 10-fold cross-validation and ROC curve are used to evaluate the performance of Lncident. The main advantage of Lncident is high speed without the loss of accuracy. Compared with the exiting popular tools, Lncident outperforms Coding-Potential Calculator, Coding-Potential Assessment Tool, Coding-Noncoding Index, and PLEK. Lncident is also much faster than Coding-Potential Calculator and Coding-Noncoding Index. Lncident presents an outstanding performance on microorganism, which offers a great application prospect to the analysis of microorganism. In addition, Lncident can be trained by users’ own collected data. Furthermore, R package and web server are simultaneously developed in order to maximize the convenience for the users. The R package “Lncident” can be easily installed on multiple operating system platforms, as long as R is supported.

  1. Decoding the principles underlying the frequency of association with nucleoli for RNA polymerase III–transcribed genes in budding yeast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belagal, Praveen; Normand, Christophe; Shukla, Ashutosh; Wang, Renjie; Léger-Silvestre, Isabelle; Dez, Christophe; Bhargava, Purnima; Gadal, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    The association of RNA polymerase III (Pol III)–transcribed genes with nucleoli seems to be an evolutionarily conserved property of the spatial organization of eukaryotic genomes. However, recent studies of global chromosome architecture in budding yeast have challenged this view. We used live-cell imaging to determine the intranuclear positions of 13 Pol III–transcribed genes. The frequency of association with nucleolus and nuclear periphery depends on linear genomic distance from the tethering elements—centromeres or telomeres. Releasing the hold of the tethering elements by inactivating centromere attachment to the spindle pole body or changing the position of ribosomal DNA arrays resulted in the association of Pol III–transcribed genes with nucleoli. Conversely, ectopic insertion of a Pol III–transcribed gene in the vicinity of a centromere prevented its association with nucleolus. Pol III–dependent transcription was independent of the intranuclear position of the gene, but the nucleolar recruitment of Pol III–transcribed genes required active transcription. We conclude that the association of Pol III–transcribed genes with the nucleolus, when permitted by global chromosome architecture, provides nucleolar and/or nuclear peripheral anchoring points contributing locally to intranuclear chromosome organization. PMID:27559135

  2. Improved resolution of reef-coral endosymbiont (Symbiodinium species diversity, ecology, and evolution through psbA non-coding region genotyping.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd C LaJeunesse

    Full Text Available Ribosomal DNA sequence data abounds from numerous studies on the dinoflagellate endosymbionts of corals, and yet the multi-copy nature and intragenomic variability of rRNA genes and spacers confound interpretations of symbiont diversity and ecology. Making consistent sense of extensive sequence variation in a meaningful ecological and evolutionary context would benefit from the application of additional genetic markers. Sequences of the non-coding region of the plastid psbA minicircle (psbA(ncr were used to independently examine symbiont genotypic and species diversity found within and between colonies of Hawaiian reef corals in the genus Montipora. A single psbA(ncr haplotype was recovered in most samples through direct sequencing (~80-90% and members of the same internal transcribed spacer region 2 (ITS2 type were phylogenetically differentiated from other ITS2 types by substantial psbA(ncr sequence divergence. The repeated sequencing of bacterially-cloned fragments of psbA(ncr from samples and clonal cultures often recovered a single numerically common haplotype accompanied by rare, highly-similar, sequence variants. When sequence artifacts of cloning and intragenomic variation are factored out, these data indicate that most colonies harbored one dominant Symbiodinium genotype. The cloning and sequencing of ITS2 DNA amplified from these same samples recovered numerically abundant variants (that are diagnostic of distinct Symbiodinium lineages, but also generated a large amount of sequences comprising PCR/cloning artifacts combined with ancestral and/or rare variants that, if incorporated into phylogenetic reconstructions, confound how small sequence differences are interpreted. Finally, psbA(ncr sequence data from a broad sampling of Symbiodinium diversity obtained from various corals throughout the Indo-Pacific were concordant with ITS lineage membership (defined by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis screening, yet exhibited

  3. Differences in the second internal transcribed spacer of four species of Nematodirus (Nematoda: Molineidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, L A; Chilton, N B; Beveridge, I; Gasser, R B

    1998-02-01

    Genetic differences among Nematodirus spathiger, Nematodirus filicollis, Nematodirus helvetianus and Nematodirus battus in the nucleotide sequence of the second internal transcribed spacer (ITS-2) of ribosomal DNA ranged from 3.9 to 24.7%. Pairwise comparisons of their ITS-2 sequences indicated that the most genetically similar species were N. spathiger and N. helvetianus. N. battus was the most genetically distinct species, with differences ranging from 22.8 to 24.7% with respect to the other three species. Some of the nucleotide differences among species provided different endonuclease restriction sites that could be used in restriction fragment length polymorphism studies. The ITS-2 sequence data may prove useful in studies of the systematics of molineid nematodes.

  4. A novel TBP-TAF complex on RNA polymerase II-transcribed snRNA genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaborowska, Justyna; Taylor, Alice; Roeder, Robert G; Murphy, Shona

    2012-01-01

    Initiation of transcription of most human genes transcribed by RNA polymerase II (RNAP II) requires the formation of a preinitiation complex comprising TFIIA, B, D, E, F, H and RNAP II. The general transcription factor TFIID is composed of the TATA-binding protein and up to 13 TBP-associated factors. During transcription of snRNA genes, RNAP II does not appear to make the transition to long-range productive elongation, as happens during transcription of protein-coding genes. In addition, recognition of the snRNA gene-type specific 3' box RNA processing element requires initiation from an snRNA gene promoter. These characteristics may, at least in part, be driven by factors recruited to the promoter. For example, differences in the complement of TAFs might result in differential recruitment of elongation and RNA processing factors. As precedent, it already has been shown that the promoters of some protein-coding genes do not recruit all the TAFs found in TFIID. Although TAF5 has been shown to be associated with RNAP II-transcribed snRNA genes, the full complement of TAFs associated with these genes has remained unclear. Here we show, using a ChIP and siRNA-mediated approach, that the TBP/TAF complex on snRNA genes differs from that found on protein-coding genes. Interestingly, the largest TAF, TAF1, and the core TAFs, TAF10 and TAF4, are not detected on snRNA genes. We propose that this snRNA gene-specific TAF subset plays a key role in gene type-specific control of expression.

  5. ITSoneDB: a comprehensive collection of eukaryotic ribosomal RNA Internal Transcribed Spacer 1 (ITS1) sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santamaria, Monica; Fosso, Bruno; Licciulli, Flavio; Balech, Bachir; Larini, Ilaria; Grillo, Giorgio; De Caro, Giorgio; Liuni, Sabino; Pesole, Graziano

    2018-01-04

    A holistic understanding of environmental communities is the new challenge of metagenomics. Accordingly, the amplicon-based or metabarcoding approach, largely applied to investigate bacterial microbiomes, is moving to the eukaryotic world too. Indeed, the analysis of metabarcoding data may provide a comprehensive assessment of both bacterial and eukaryotic composition in a variety of environments, including human body. In this respect, whereas hypervariable regions of the 16S rRNA are the de facto standard barcode for bacteria, the Internal Transcribed Spacer 1 (ITS1) of ribosomal RNA gene cluster has shown a high potential in discriminating eukaryotes at deep taxonomic levels. As metabarcoding data analysis rely on the availability of a well-curated barcode reference resource, a comprehensive collection of ITS1 sequences supplied with robust taxonomies, is highly needed. To address this issue, we created ITSoneDB (available at http://itsonedb.cloud.ba.infn.it/) which in its current version hosts 985 240 ITS1 sequences spanning over 134 000 eukaryotic species. Each ITS1 is mapped on the NCBI reference taxonomy with its start and end positions precisely annotated. ITSoneDB has been developed in agreement to the FAIR guidelines by enabling the users to query and download its content through a simple web-interface and access relevant metadata by cross-linking to European Nucleotide Archive. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  6. Cigarette smoke exposure-associated alterations to noncoding RNA

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    Matthew Alan Maccani

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Environmental exposures vary by timing, severity, and frequency and may have a number of deleterious effects throughout the life course. The period of in utero development, for example, is one of the most crucial stages of development during which adverse environmental exposures can both alter the growth and development of the fetus as well as lead to aberrant fetal programming, increasing disease risk. During fetal development and beyond, the plethora of exposures, including nutrients, drugs, stress, and trauma, influence health, development, and survival. Recent research in environmental epigenetics has investigated the roles of environmental exposures in influencing epigenetic modes of gene regulation during pregnancy and at various stages of life. Many relatively common environmental exposures, such as cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, and drug use, may have consequences for the expression and function of noncoding RNA (ncRNA, important post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression. A number of ncRNA have been discovered, including microRNA (miRNA, Piwi-interacting RNA (piRNA, and long noncoding RNA (long ncRNA. The best-characterized species of ncRNA are miRNA, the mature forms of which are ~22 nucleotides in length and capable of post-transcriptionally regulating target mRNA utilizing mechanisms based largely on the degree of complementarity between miRNA and target mRNA. Because miRNA can still negatively regulate gene expression when imperfectly base-paired with a target mRNA, a single miRNA can have a large number of potential mRNA targets and can regulate many different biological processes critical for health and development. The following review analyzes the current literature detailing links between cigarette smoke exposure and aberrant expression and function of noncoding RNA, assesses how such alterations may have consequences throughout the life course, and proposes future directions for this intriguing field of

  7. Alteration of Epigenetic Regulation by Long Noncoding RNAs in Cancer

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    Mariangela Morlando

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs are important regulators of the epigenetic status of the human genome. Besides their participation to normal physiology, lncRNA expression and function have been already associated to many diseases, including cancer. By interacting with epigenetic regulators and by controlling chromatin topology, their misregulation may result in an aberrant regulation of gene expression that may contribute to tumorigenesis. Here, we review the functional role and mechanisms of action of lncRNAs implicated in the aberrant epigenetic regulation that has characterized cancer development and progression.

  8. Biocomputational prediction of small non-coding RNAs in Streptomyces

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pánek, Josef; Bobek, Jan; Mikulík, Karel; Basler, Marek; Vohradský, Jiří

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 217 (2008), s. 1-14 ISSN 1471-2164 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP204/07/P361; GA ČR GA203/05/0106; GA ČR GA310/07/1009 Grant - others:XE(XE) EC Integrated Project ActinoGEN, LSHM-CT-2004-005224. Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : non-coding RNA * streptomyces * biocomputational prediction Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science Impact factor: 3.926, year: 2008

  9. Annotating non-coding regions of the genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Roger P; Fang, Gang; Rozowsky, Joel; Snyder, Michael; Gerstein, Mark B

    2010-08-01

    Most of the human genome consists of non-protein-coding DNA. Recently, progress has been made in annotating these non-coding regions through the interpretation of functional genomics experiments and comparative sequence analysis. One can conceptualize functional genomics analysis as involving a sequence of steps: turning the output of an experiment into a 'signal' at each base pair of the genome; smoothing this signal and segmenting it into small blocks of initial annotation; and then clustering these small blocks into larger derived annotations and networks. Finally, one can relate functional genomics annotations to conserved units and measures of conservation derived from comparative sequence analysis.

  10. Long Non-coding RNAs in Response to Genotoxic Stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaoman Li; Dong Pan; Baoquan Zhao; Burong Hu

    2016-01-01

    Long non-coding RNAs(lncRNAs) are increasingly involved in diverse biological processes.Upon DNA damage,the DNA damage response(DDR) elicits a complex signaling cascade,which includes the induction of lncRNAs.LncRNA-mediated DDR is involved in non-canonical and canonical manners.DNA-damage induced lncRNAs contribute to the regulation of cell cycle,apoptosis,and DNA repair,thereby playing a key role in maintaining genome stability.This review summarizes the emerging role of lncRNAs in DNA damage and repair.

  11. Junk DNA and the long non-coding RNA twist in cancer genetics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Ling (Hui); K. Vincent; M. Pichler; R. Fodde (Riccardo); I. Berindan-Neagoe (Ioana); F.J. Slack (Frank); G.A. Calin (George)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractThe central dogma of molecular biology states that the flow of genetic information moves from DNA to RNA to protein. However, in the last decade this dogma has been challenged by new findings on non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) such as microRNAs (miRNAs). More recently, long non-coding RNAs

  12. An atlas of over 90.000 conserved noncoding sequences provides insight into crucifer regulatory regions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haudry, A.; Platts, A.E.; Vello, E.; Hoen, D.R.; Leclerq, M.; Williamson, R.J.; Forczek, E.; Joly-Lopez, Z.; Steffen, J.G.; Hazzouri, K.M.; Dewar, K.; Stinchcombe, J.R.; Schoen, D.J.; Wang, X.; Schmutz, J.; Town, C.D.; Edger, P.P.; Pires, J.C.; Schumaker, K.S.; Jarvis, D.E.; Mandakova, T.; Lysak, M.; Bergh, van den E.; Schranz, M.E.; Harrison, P.M.

    2013-01-01

    Despite the central importance of noncoding DNA to gene regulation and evolution, understanding of the extent of selection on plant noncoding DNA remains limited compared to that of other organisms. Here we report sequencing of genomes from three Brassicaceae species (Leavenworthia alabamica,

  13. Saprolegniaceae identified on amphibian eggs throughout the Pacific Northwest, USA, by internal transcribed spacer sequences and phylogenetic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrisko, Jill E; Pearl, Christopher A; Pilliod, David S; Sheridan, Peter P; Williams, Charles F; Peterson, Charles R; Bury, R Bruce

    2008-01-01

    We assessed the diversity and phylogeny of Saprolegniaceae on amphibian eggs from the Pacific Northwest, with particular focus on Saprolegnia ferax, a species implicated in high egg mortality. We identified isolates from eggs of six amphibians with the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and 5.8S gene regions and BLAST of the GenBank database. We identified 68 sequences as Saprolegniaceae and 43 sequences as true fungi from at least nine genera. Our phylogenetic analysis of the Saprolegniaceae included isolates within the genera Saprolegnia, Achlya and Leptolegnia. Our phylogeny grouped S. semihypogyna with Achlya rather than with the Saprolegnia reference sequences. We found only one isolate that grouped closely with S. ferax, and this came from a hatchery-raised salmon (Idaho) that we sampled opportunistically. We had representatives of 7-12 species and three genera of Saprolegniaceae on our amphibian eggs. Further work on the ecological roles of different species of Saprolegniaceae is needed to clarify their potential importance in amphibian egg mortality and potential links to population declines.

  14. A systematic analysis of the early transcribed membrane protein family throughout the life cycle of Plasmodium yoelii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKellar, Drew C; Vaughan, Ashley M; Aly, Ahmed S I; DeLeon, Sasha; Kappe, Stefan H I

    2011-11-01

    The early transcribed membrane proteins (ETRAMPs) are a family of small, highly charged transmembrane proteins unique to malaria parasites. Some members of the ETRAMP family have been localized to the parasitophorous vacuole membrane that separates the intracellular parasite from the host cell and thus presumably have a role in host-parasite interactions. Although it was previously shown that two ETRAMPs are critical for rodent malaria parasite liver-stage development, the importance of most ETRAMPs during the parasite life cycle remains unknown. Here, we comprehensively identify nine new etramps in the genome of the rodent malaria parasite Plasmodium yoelii, and elucidate their conservation in other malaria parasites. etramp expression profiles are diverse throughout the parasite life cycle as measured by RT-PCR. Epitope tagging of two ETRAMPs demonstrates protein expression in blood and liver stages, and reveals differences in both their timing of expression and their subcellular localization. Gene targeting studies of each of the nine uncharacterized etramps show that two are refractory to deletion and thus likely essential for blood-stage replication. Seven etramps are not essential for any life cycle stage. Systematic characterization of the members of the ETRAMP family reveals the diversity in importance of each family member at the interface between host and parasite throughout the developmental cycle of the malaria parasite. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. The Heterogeneity of the Internal Transcribed Spacers (ITS of rDNAs in Imperata cylindrica in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Chu Tsai

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Ribosomal DNA for internal transcribed spacers ITS, ITS1, 5.8S rRNA gene, ITS2 and the adjoining regions of the 17S and 25S rRNA genes were obtained from 45 individuals of Imperata cylindrica (Cogongrass in Taiwan via PCR amplification. The length of each PCR product was 692 bp, except for one sample (about 702 bp. All ITS DNA fragments were digested with EcoRV, CfoI, BanI, HaeIII, MspI, HinfI, BstOI, Sau96I, StyI and Eco109I, respectively. The ITS, including ITS1, 5.8S rRNA gene and ITS2, were very heterogeneous within an individual of Cogongrass in Taiwan. Of 45 individuals of Cogongrass in Taiwan, the ITS1 and ITS2 regions showed at least eight type variants, and 5.8S rRNA gene showed at least five type variants among Cogongrass population in Taiwan based on PCR-amplified RFLP. In conclusion, the ITS repeat sequences from Cogongrass in Taiwan was very high heterogeneous.

  16. Sequence analysis of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region reveals a novel clade of Ichthyophonus sp. from rainbow trout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, C; Purcell, M K; Gregg, J L; LaPatra, S E; Winton, J R; Hershberger, P K

    2010-03-09

    The mesomycetozoean parasite Ichthyophonus hoferi is most commonly associated with marine fish hosts but also occurs in some components of the freshwater rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss aquaculture industry in Idaho, USA. It is not certain how the parasite was introduced into rainbow trout culture, but it might have been associated with the historical practice of feeding raw, ground common carp Cyprinus carpio that were caught by commercial fisherman. Here, we report a major genetic division between west coast freshwater and marine isolates of Ichthyophonus hoferi. Sequence differences were not detected in 2 regions of the highly conserved small subunit (18S) rDNA gene; however, nucleotide variation was seen in internal transcribed spacer loci (ITS1 and ITS2), both within and among the isolates. Intra-isolate variation ranged from 2.4 to 7.6 nucleotides over a region consisting of approximately 740 bp. Majority consensus sequences from marine/anadromous hosts differed in only 0 to 3 nucleotides (99.6 to 100% nucleotide identity), while those derived from freshwater rainbow trout had no nucleotide substitutions relative to each other. However, the consensus sequences between isolates from freshwater rainbow trout and those from marine/anadromous hosts differed in 13 to 16 nucleotides (97.8 to 98.2% nucleotide identity).

  17. Barcoding the Dendrobium (Orchidaceae Species and Analysis of the Intragenomic Variation Based on the Internal Transcribed Spacer 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyue Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Many species belonging to the genus Dendrobium are of great commercial value. However, their difficult growth conditions and high demand have caused many of these species to become endangered. Indeed, counterfeit Dendrobium products are common, especially in medicinal markets. This study aims to assess the suitability of the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2 region as a marker for identifying Dendrobium and to evaluate its intragenomic variation in Dendrobium species. In total, 29,624 ITS2 copies from 18 species were obtained using 454 pyrosequencing to evaluate intragenomic variation. In addition, 513 ITS2 sequences from 26 Dendrobium species were used to assess its identification suitability. The highest intragenomic genetic distance was observed in Dendrobium chrysotoxum (0.081. The average intraspecific genetic distances of each species ranged from 0 to 0.032. Phylogenetic trees based on ITS2 sequences showed that most Dendrobium species are monophyletic. The intragenomic and intraspecies divergence analysis showed that greater intragenomic divergence is mostly correlated with larger intraspecific variation. As a major ITS2 variant becomes more common in genome, there are fewer intraspecific variable sites in ITS2 sequences at the species level. The results demonstrated that the intragenomic multiple copies of ITS2 did not affect species identification.

  18. Barcoding the Dendrobium (Orchidaceae) Species and Analysis of the Intragenomic Variation Based on the Internal Transcribed Spacer 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoyue; Chen, Xiaochen; Yang, Pei; Wang, Lili; Han, Jianping

    2017-01-01

    Many species belonging to the genus Dendrobium are of great commercial value. However, their difficult growth conditions and high demand have caused many of these species to become endangered. Indeed, counterfeit Dendrobium products are common, especially in medicinal markets. This study aims to assess the suitability of the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) region as a marker for identifying Dendrobium and to evaluate its intragenomic variation in Dendrobium species. In total, 29,624 ITS2 copies from 18 species were obtained using 454 pyrosequencing to evaluate intragenomic variation. In addition, 513 ITS2 sequences from 26 Dendrobium species were used to assess its identification suitability. The highest intragenomic genetic distance was observed in Dendrobium chrysotoxum (0.081). The average intraspecific genetic distances of each species ranged from 0 to 0.032. Phylogenetic trees based on ITS2 sequences showed that most Dendrobium species are monophyletic. The intragenomic and intraspecies divergence analysis showed that greater intragenomic divergence is mostly correlated with larger intraspecific variation. As a major ITS2 variant becomes more common in genome, there are fewer intraspecific variable sites in ITS2 sequences at the species level. The results demonstrated that the intragenomic multiple copies of ITS2 did not affect species identification.

  19. Comprehensive reconstruction andvisualization of non-coding regulatorynetworks in human

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo eBonnici

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Research attention has been powered to understand the functional roles of non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs. Many studies have demonstrated their deregulation in cancer and other human disorders. ncRNAs are also present in extracellular human body fluids such as serum and plasma, giving them a great potential as non-invasive biomarkers. However, non-coding RNAs have been relatively recently discovered and a comprehensive database including all of them is still missing. Reconstructing and visualizing the network of ncRNAs interactions are important steps to understand their regulatory mechanism in complex systems. This work presents ncRNA-DB, a NoSQL database that integrates ncRNAs data interactions from a large number of well established online repositories. The interactions involve RNA, DNA, proteins and diseases. ncRNA-DB is available at http://ncrnadb.scienze.univr.it/ncrnadb/. It is equipped with three interfaces: web based, command line and a Cytoscape app called ncINetView. By accessing only one resource, users can search for ncRNAs and their interactions, build a network annotated with all known ncRNAs and associated diseases, and use all visual and mining features available in Cytoscape.

  20. The interplay between noncoding RNAs and insulin in diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yan; Xu, Jia; Du, Xiao; Fu, Xianghui

    2018-04-10

    Noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs), including microRNAs, long noncoding RNAs and circular RNAs, regulate various biological processes and are involved in the initiation and progression of human diseases. Insulin, a predominant hormone secreted from pancreatic β cells, is an essential factor in regulation of systemic metabolism through multifunctional insulin signaling. Insulin production and action are tightly controlled. Dysregulations of insulin production and action can impair metabolic homeostasis, and eventually lead to the development of multiple metabolic diseases, especially diabetes. Accumulating data indicates that ncRNAs modulate β cell mass, insulin synthesis, secretion and signaling, and their role in diabetes is dramatically emerging. This review summarizes our current knowledge of ncRNAs as regulators of insulin, with particular emphasis on the implications of this interplay in the development of diabetes. We outline the role of ncRNAs in pancreatic β cell mass and function, which is critical for insulin production and secretion. We also highlight the involvement of ncRNAs in insulin signaling in peripheral tissues including liver, muscle and adipose, and discuss ncRNA-mediated inter-organ crosstalk under diabetic conditions. A more in-depth understanding of the interplay between ncRNAs and insulin may afford valuable insights and novel therapeutic strategies for treatment of diabetes, as well as other human diseases. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Fluorogenic RNA Mango aptamers for imaging small non-coding RNAs in mammalian cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Autour, Alexis; C Y Jeng, Sunny; D Cawte, Adam; Abdolahzadeh, Amir; Galli, Angela; Panchapakesan, Shanker S S; Rueda, David; Ryckelynck, Michael; Unrau, Peter J

    2018-02-13

    Despite having many key roles in cellular biology, directly imaging biologically important RNAs has been hindered by a lack of fluorescent tools equivalent to the fluorescent proteins available to study cellular proteins. Ideal RNA labelling systems must preserve biological function, have photophysical properties similar to existing fluorescent proteins, and be compatible with established live and fixed cell protein labelling strategies. Here, we report a microfluidics-based selection of three new high-affinity RNA Mango fluorogenic aptamers. Two of these are as bright or brighter than enhanced GFP when bound to TO1-Biotin. Furthermore, we show that the new Mangos can accurately image the subcellular localization of three small non-coding RNAs (5S, U6, and a box C/D scaRNA) in fixed and live mammalian cells. These new aptamers have many potential applications to study RNA function and dynamics both in vitro and in mammalian cells.

  2. Prognostic value of long noncoding RNA MALAT1 in digestive system malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Hui; Li, Xiao-Mei; Maimaiti, Ailifeire; Chen, Qing-Jie; Liao, Wu; Lai, Hong-Mei; Liu, Fen; Yang, Yi-Ning

    2015-01-01

    MALAT1, a newly discovered long noncoding RNA (lncRNA), has been reported to be highly expressed in many types of cancers. This meta-analysis summarizes its potential prognostic value in digestive system malignancies. A quantitative meta-analysis was performed through a systematic search in PubMed, Cochrane Library, Web of Science and Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) for eligible papers on the prognostic impact of MALAT1 in digestive system malignancies from inception to Apr. 25, 2015. Pooled hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence interval (95% CI) were calculated to summarize the effect. Five studies were included in the study, with a total of 527 patients. A significant association was observed between MALAT1 abundance and poor overall survival (OS) of patients with digestive system malignancies, with pooled hazard ratio (HR) of 7.68 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 4.32-13.66, Pdigestive system malignancies.

  3. TFIIS-Dependent Non-coding Transcription Regulates Developmental Genome Rearrangements.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamila Maliszewska-Olejniczak

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Because of their nuclear dimorphism, ciliates provide a unique opportunity to study the role of non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs in the communication between germline and somatic lineages. In these unicellular eukaryotes, a new somatic nucleus develops at each sexual cycle from a copy of the zygotic (germline nucleus, while the old somatic nucleus degenerates. In the ciliate Paramecium tetraurelia, the genome is massively rearranged during this process through the reproducible elimination of repeated sequences and the precise excision of over 45,000 short, single-copy Internal Eliminated Sequences (IESs. Different types of ncRNAs resulting from genome-wide transcription were shown to be involved in the epigenetic regulation of genome rearrangements. To understand how ncRNAs are produced from the entire genome, we have focused on a homolog of the TFIIS elongation factor, which regulates RNA polymerase II transcriptional pausing. Six TFIIS-paralogs, representing four distinct families, can be found in P. tetraurelia genome. Using RNA interference, we showed that TFIIS4, which encodes a development-specific TFIIS protein, is essential for the formation of a functional somatic genome. Molecular analyses and high-throughput DNA sequencing upon TFIIS4 RNAi demonstrated that TFIIS4 is involved in all kinds of genome rearrangements, including excision of ~48% of IESs. Localization of a GFP-TFIIS4 fusion revealed that TFIIS4 appears specifically in the new somatic nucleus at an early developmental stage, before IES excision. RT-PCR experiments showed that TFIIS4 is necessary for the synthesis of IES-containing non-coding transcripts. We propose that these IES+ transcripts originate from the developing somatic nucleus and serve as pairing substrates for germline-specific short RNAs that target elimination of their homologous sequences. Our study, therefore, connects the onset of zygotic non coding transcription to the control of genome plasticity in Paramecium

  4. Non-coding RNAs and plant male sterility: current knowledge and future prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Ankita; Bohra, Abhishek

    2018-02-01

    Latest outcomes assign functional role to non-coding (nc) RNA molecules in regulatory networks that confer male sterility to plants. Male sterility in plants offers great opportunity for improving crop performance through application of hybrid technology. In this respect, cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) and sterility induced by photoperiod (PGMS)/temperature (TGMS) have greatly facilitated development of high-yielding hybrids in crops. Participation of non-coding (nc) RNA molecules in plant reproductive development is increasingly becoming evident. Recent breakthroughs in rice definitively associate ncRNAs with PGMS and TGMS. In case of CMS, the exact mechanism through which the mitochondrial ORFs exert influence on the development of male gametophyte remains obscure in several crops. High-throughput sequencing has enabled genome-wide discovery and validation of these regulatory molecules and their target genes, describing their potential roles performed in relation to CMS. Discovery of ncRNA localized in plant mtDNA with its possible implication in CMS induction is intriguing in this respect. Still, conclusive evidences linking ncRNA with CMS phenotypes are currently unavailable, demanding complementing genetic approaches like transgenics to substantiate the preliminary findings. Here, we review the recent literature on the contribution of ncRNAs in conferring male sterility to plants, with an emphasis on microRNAs. Also, we present a perspective on improved understanding about ncRNA-mediated regulatory pathways that control male sterility in plants. A refined understanding of plant male sterility would strengthen crop hybrid industry to deliver hybrids with improved performance.

  5. Short-lived non-coding transcripts (SLiTs): Clues to regulatory long non-coding RNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tani, Hidenori

    2017-03-22

    Whole transcriptome analyses have revealed a large number of novel long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs). Although the importance of lncRNAs has been documented in previous reports, the biological and physiological functions of lncRNAs remain largely unknown. The role of lncRNAs seems an elusive problem. Here, I propose a clue to the identification of regulatory lncRNAs. The key point is RNA half-life. RNAs with a long half-life (t 1/2 > 4 h) contain a significant proportion of ncRNAs, as well as mRNAs involved in housekeeping functions, whereas RNAs with a short half-life (t 1/2 regulatory ncRNAs and regulatory mRNAs. This novel class of ncRNAs with a short half-life can be categorized as Short-Lived non-coding Transcripts (SLiTs). I consider that SLiTs are likely to be rich in functionally uncharacterized regulatory RNAs. This review describes recent progress in research into SLiTs.

  6. Aberrant expression of long noncoding RNAs in cumulus cells isolated from PCOS patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xin; Hao, Cuifang; Bao, Hongchu; Wang, Meimei; Dai, Huangguan

    2016-01-01

    To describe the long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) profiles in cumulus cells isolated from polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) patients by employing a microarray and in-depth bioinformatics analysis. This information will help us understand the occurrence and development of PCOS. In this study, we used a microarray to describe lncRNA profiles in cumulus cells isolated from ten patients (five PCOS and five normal women). Several differentially expressed lncRNAs were chosen to validate the microarray results by quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR). Then, the differentially expressed lncRNAs were classified into three subgroups (HOX loci lncRNA, enhancer-like lncRNA, and lincRNA) to deduce their potential features. Furthermore, a lncRNA/mRNA co-expression network was constructed by using the Cytoscape software (V2.8.3, http://www.cytoscape.org/ ). We observed that 623 lncRNAs and 260 messenger RNAs (mRNAs) were significantly up- or down-regulated (≥2-fold change), and these differences could be used to discriminate cumulus cells of PCOS from those of normal patients. Five differentially expressed lncRNAs (XLOC_011402, ENST00000454271, ENST00000433673, ENST00000450294, and ENST00000432431) were selected to validate the microarray results using quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR). The qRT-PCR results were consistent with the microarray data. Further analysis indicated that many differentially expressed lncRNAs were transcribed from chromosome 2 and may act as enhancers to regulate their neighboring protein-coding genes. Forty-three lncRNAs and 29 mRNAs were used to construct the coding-non-coding gene co-expression network. Most pairs positively correlated, and one mRNA correlated with one or more lncRNAs. Our study is the first to determine genome-wide lncRNA expression patterns in cumulus cells isolated from PCOS patients by microarray. The results show that clusters of lncRNAs were aberrantly expressed in cumulus cells of PCOS patients compared with those of normal women, which revealed

  7. Identifying different transcribed proteins in the newly described Theraphosidae Pamphobeteus verdolaga.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada-Gómez, Sebastian; Vargas-Muñoz, Leidy Johana; Saldarriaga-Córdoba, Mónica; Cifuentes, Yeimy; Perafan, Carlos

    2017-04-01

    Theraphosidae spider venoms are well known for possess a complex mixture of protein and non-protein compounds in their venom. The objective of this study was to report and identify different proteins translated from the venom gland DNA information of the recently described Theraphosidae spider Pamphobeteus verdolaga. Using a venom gland transcriptomic analysis, we reported a set of the first complete sequences of seven different proteins of the recenlty described Theraphosidae spider P. verdolaga. Protein analysis indicates the presence of different proteins on the venom composition of this new spider, some of them uncommon in the Theraphosidae family. MS/MS analysis of P. verdolaga showed different fragments matching sphingomyelinases (sicaritoxin), barytoxins, hexatoxins, latroinsectotoxins, and linear (zadotoxins) peptides. Only four of the MS/MS fragments showed 100% sequence similarity with one of the transcribed proteins. Transcriptomic analysis showed the presence of different groups of proteins like phospholipases, hyaluronidases, inhibitory cysteine knots (ICK) peptides among others. The three database of protein domains used in this study (Pfam, SMART and CDD) showed congruency in the search of unique conserved protein domain for only four of the translated proteins. Those proteins matched with EF-hand proteins, cysteine rich secretory proteins, jingzhaotoxins, theraphotoxins and hexatoxins, from different Mygalomorphae spiders belonging to the families Theraphosidae, Barychelidae and Hexathelidae. None of the analyzed sequences showed a complete 100% similarity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Internal transcribed spacer 2 barcode: A good tool for identifying Acanthopanacis cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sha eZhao

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Acanthopanacis cortex has been used in clinical applications for a long time. Considering some historical and geographical factors, Acanthopanacis cortex is easily confused with other herbs in medicine markets, thereby causing potential safety issues. In this study, we used the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2 barcode to identify 69 samples belonging to six species, including Acanthopanacis cortex and its adulterants. The nearest distance, single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs, and neighbor-joining (NJ tree methods were used to evaluate the identification ability of the ITS2 barcode. According to the kimura-2-parameter model, the intraspecific distance of Eleutherococcus nodiflorus ITS2 sequences ranged from 0 to 0.0132. The minimum interspecific distance between E. nodiflorus and E. giraldii was 0.0221, which was larger than the maximum intraspecific distance of E. nodiflorus. Three stable SNPs in ITS2 can be used to distinguish Acanthopanacis cortex and its closely related species. The NJ tree indicated that the Acanthopanacis cortex samples clustered into one clade, which can be distinguished clearly from the adulterants of this herb. A secondary structure of ITS2 provided another dimensionality to identify species. In conclusion, the ITS2 barcode effectively identifies Acanthopanacis cortex, and DNA barcoding is a convenient tool for medicine market supervision.

  9. Definition of Eight Mulberry Species in the Genus Morus by Internal Transcribed Spacer-Based Phylogeny.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiwei Zeng

    Full Text Available Mulberry, belonging to the order Rosales, family Moraceae, and genus Morus, has received attention because of both its economic and medicinal value, as well as for its important ecological function. The genus Morus has a worldwide distribution, however, its taxonomy remains complex and disputed. Many studies have attempted to classify Morus species, resulting in varied numbers of designated Morus spp. To address this issue, we used information from internal transcribed spacer (ITS genetic sequences to study the taxonomy of all the members of generally accepted genus Morus. We found that intraspecific 5.8S rRNA sequences were identical but that interspecific 5.8S sequences were diverse. M. alba and M. notabilis showed the shortest (215 bp and the longest (233 bp ITS1 sequence length, respectively. With the completion of the mulberry genome, we could identify single nucleotide polymorphisms within the ITS locus in the M. notabilis genome. From reconstruction of a phylogenetic tree based on the complete ITS data, we propose that the Morus genus should be classified into eight species, including M. alba, M. nigra, M. notabilis, M. serrata, M. celtidifolia, M. insignis, M. rubra, and M. mesozygia. Furthermore, the classification of the ITS sequences of known interspecific hybrid clones into both paternal and maternal clades indicated that ITS variation was sufficient to distinguish interspecific hybrids in the genus Morus.

  10. Definition of Eight Mulberry Species in the Genus Morus by Internal Transcribed Spacer-Based Phylogeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Qiwei; Chen, Hongyu; Zhang, Chao; Han, Minjing; Li, Tian; Qi, Xiwu; Xiang, Zhonghuai; He, Ningjia

    2015-01-01

    Mulberry, belonging to the order Rosales, family Moraceae, and genus Morus, has received attention because of both its economic and medicinal value, as well as for its important ecological function. The genus Morus has a worldwide distribution, however, its taxonomy remains complex and disputed. Many studies have attempted to classify Morus species, resulting in varied numbers of designated Morus spp. To address this issue, we used information from internal transcribed spacer (ITS) genetic sequences to study the taxonomy of all the members of generally accepted genus Morus. We found that intraspecific 5.8S rRNA sequences were identical but that interspecific 5.8S sequences were diverse. M. alba and M. notabilis showed the shortest (215 bp) and the longest (233 bp) ITS1 sequence length, respectively. With the completion of the mulberry genome, we could identify single nucleotide polymorphisms within the ITS locus in the M. notabilis genome. From reconstruction of a phylogenetic tree based on the complete ITS data, we propose that the Morus genus should be classified into eight species, including M. alba, M. nigra, M. notabilis, M. serrata, M. celtidifolia, M. insignis, M. rubra, and M. mesozygia. Furthermore, the classification of the ITS sequences of known interspecific hybrid clones into both paternal and maternal clades indicated that ITS variation was sufficient to distinguish interspecific hybrids in the genus Morus.

  11. INTERNAL TRANSCRIBED SPACER (ITS), AN IDEAL DNA BARCODE FOR SPECIES DISCRIMINATION IN CRAWFURDIA WALL. (GENTIANACEAE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dequan; Jiang, Bei; Duan, Lizhen; Zhou, Nong

    2016-01-01

    DNA barcoding is a technique used to identify species based on species-specific differences in short regions of their DNA. It is widely used in species discrimination of medicinal plants and traditional medicines. In the present study, four potential DNA barcodes, namely rbcL , matK , trnH-psbA and ITS (nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer) were adopted for species discrimination in Crawfurdia Wall (Genetiaceae). Identification ability of these DNA barcodes and combinations were evaluated using three classic methods (Distance, Blast and Tree-Building). As a result, ITS, trnH-psbA and rbcL regions showed great universality for a success rate of 100%; whereas matK was disappointing for which only 65% samples gained useful DNA sequences. ITS region, which could clearly and effectively identify the five species in Crawfurdia , performed very well in this study. On the contrary, trnH-psbA and rbcL performed poorly in discrimination among these species. ITS marker was an ideal DNA barcode in Crawfurdia and it should be incorporated into one of the core barcodes for seed plants.

  12. Opposite replication polarities of transcribed and nontranscribed histone H5 genes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trempe, J.P.; Lindstrom, Y.I.; Leffak, M.

    1988-01-01

    The authors used an in vitro nuclear runoff replication assay to analyze the direction of replication of the active and inactive histone H5 genes in avian cells. In embryonic erythrocytes the transcribed histone H5 gene displayed sensitivity to endogenous nuclease cleavage. In contrast, this gene was insensitive to endogenous nuclease digestion under the same conditions in nuclei of the lymphoblastoid cell line MSB-1, and histone H5 gene transcripts were not detectable by dot-blot analysis of MSB-1 cell RNA. When nuclei were isolated from embryonic erythrocyctes and incubated with bromodeoxyuridine triphosphate, runoff replication from endogenous nuclease cleavage sites led to a relative enrichment for fragments near the 3' end of the histone H5 gene in the density-labeled DNA. In nuclei of MSB-1 cells or chicken embryo fibroblasts, however, runoff replication from restriction enzyme-cut sites (or induced endogenous nuclease-cut sites in MSB-1 nuclei) led to a relative enrichment for fragments near the 5' end of the H5 gene in dense DNA. Based on the enhanced incorporation of bromodeoxyuridine into origin-distal regions of DNA during the in vitro runoff replication assay, the authors conclude that the active histone H5 gene in embryonic erythrocytes is preferentially replicated in the transcriptional direction from an origin in the 5'-flanking DNA, whereas its inactive counterparts in MSB-1 cells and chicken embryo fibroblasts are preferentially replicated in the opposite direction

  13. Intra-Genomic Internal Transcribed Spacer Region Sequence Heterogeneity and Molecular Diagnosis in Clinical Microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ying; Tsang, Chi-Ching; Xiao, Meng; Cheng, Jingwei; Xu, Yingchun; Lau, Susanna K P; Woo, Patrick C Y

    2015-10-22

    Internal transcribed spacer region (ITS) sequencing is the most extensively used technology for accurate molecular identification of fungal pathogens in clinical microbiology laboratories. Intra-genomic ITS sequence heterogeneity, which makes fungal identification based on direct sequencing of PCR products difficult, has rarely been reported in pathogenic fungi. During the process of performing ITS sequencing on 71 yeast strains isolated from various clinical specimens, direct sequencing of the PCR products showed ambiguous sequences in six of them. After cloning the PCR products into plasmids for sequencing, interpretable sequencing electropherograms could be obtained. For each of the six isolates, 10-49 clones were selected for sequencing and two to seven intra-genomic ITS copies were detected. The identities of these six isolates were confirmed to be Candida glabrata (n=2), Pichia (Candida) norvegensis (n=2), Candida tropicalis (n=1) and Saccharomyces cerevisiae (n=1). Multiple sequence alignment revealed that one to four intra-genomic ITS polymorphic sites were present in the six isolates, and all these polymorphic sites were located in the ITS1 and/or ITS2 regions. We report and describe the first evidence of intra-genomic ITS sequence heterogeneity in four different pathogenic yeasts, which occurred exclusively in the ITS1 and ITS2 spacer regions for the six isolates in this study.

  14. Definition of Eight Mulberry Species in the Genus Morus by Internal Transcribed Spacer-Based Phylogeny

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Qiwei; Chen, Hongyu; Zhang, Chao; Han, Minjing; Li, Tian; Qi, Xiwu; Xiang, Zhonghuai; He, Ningjia

    2015-01-01

    Mulberry, belonging to the order Rosales, family Moraceae, and genus Morus, has received attention because of both its economic and medicinal value, as well as for its important ecological function. The genus Morus has a worldwide distribution, however, its taxonomy remains complex and disputed. Many studies have attempted to classify Morus species, resulting in varied numbers of designated Morus spp. To address this issue, we used information from internal transcribed spacer (ITS) genetic sequences to study the taxonomy of all the members of generally accepted genus Morus. We found that intraspecific 5.8S rRNA sequences were identical but that interspecific 5.8S sequences were diverse. M. alba and M. notabilis showed the shortest (215 bp) and the longest (233 bp) ITS1 sequence length, respectively. With the completion of the mulberry genome, we could identify single nucleotide polymorphisms within the ITS locus in the M. notabilis genome. From reconstruction of a phylogenetic tree based on the complete ITS data, we propose that the Morus genus should be classified into eight species, including M. alba, M. nigra, M. notabilis, M. serrata, M. celtidifolia, M. insignis, M. rubra, and M. mesozygia. Furthermore, the classification of the ITS sequences of known interspecific hybrid clones into both paternal and maternal clades indicated that ITS variation was sufficient to distinguish interspecific hybrids in the genus Morus. PMID:26266951

  15. EWS and FUS bind a subset of transcribed genes encoding proteins enriched in RNA regulatory functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yonglun; Blechingberg, Jenny; Fernandes, Ana Miguel; Li, Shengting; Fryland, Tue; Børglum, Anders D; Bolund, Lars; Nielsen, Anders Lade

    2015-11-14

    FUS (TLS) and EWS (EWSR1) belong to the FET-protein family of RNA and DNA binding proteins. FUS and EWS are structurally and functionally related and participate in transcriptional regulation and RNA processing. FUS and EWS are identified in translocation generated cancer fusion proteins and involved in the human neurological diseases amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and fronto-temporal lobar degeneration. To determine the gene regulatory functions of FUS and EWS at the level of chromatin, we have performed chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by next generation sequencing (ChIP-seq). Our results show that FUS and EWS bind to a subset of actively transcribed genes, that binding often is downstream the poly(A)-signal, and that binding overlaps with RNA polymerase II. Functional examinations of selected target genes identified that FUS and EWS can regulate gene expression at different levels. Gene Ontology analyses showed that FUS and EWS target genes preferentially encode proteins involved in regulatory processes at the RNA level. The presented results yield new insights into gene interactions of EWS and FUS and have identified a set of FUS and EWS target genes involved in pathways at the RNA regulatory level with potential to mediate normal and disease-associated functions of the FUS and EWS proteins.

  16. Molecular Phylogenetic Screening of Withania somnifera Relative From Indonesia Based on Internal Transcribed Spacer Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Topik Hidayat

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Withania somnifera (family Solanaceae, known commonly as Ashwaganda, is one of the important medicinal plants, and recent studies reported that Withanone, one of the chemical components in this plant, has ability to kill cancer cell. Because of endemic state of this plant to South Asia, exploring plant species under the same family which grow well in Indonesia has been of interest. The purpose of this study was to screen the Indonesian plant which has strong phylogenetic relationship with Ashwaganda. Thus, phylogenetic analysis using DNA sequences of internal transcribed spacer (ITS region was conducted. Thus, 19 species of Solanaceae and two species of Convolvulaceae as outgroup were examined. Five ITS regions of Ashwaganda retrieved from GenBank were included in the phylogenetic analysis. Parsimony analysis showed that Indonesia Solanaceae comprises seven groups which is consistent with the global Solanaceae relationship as previously reported. Furthermore, our study revealed that two species, Physalis angulata and Physalis peruviana, are relative to W. somnifera. Morphologically, they share characters of flower and fruit. This result indicated that these two species are potential to have similar chemical properties as Ashwaganda, thus we can have new variants of Withanone originated from Indonesia with similar effect.

  17. Decoding the principles underlying the frequency of association with nucleoli for RNA polymerase III-transcribed genes in budding yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belagal, Praveen; Normand, Christophe; Shukla, Ashutosh; Wang, Renjie; Léger-Silvestre, Isabelle; Dez, Christophe; Bhargava, Purnima; Gadal, Olivier

    2016-10-15

    The association of RNA polymerase III (Pol III)-transcribed genes with nucleoli seems to be an evolutionarily conserved property of the spatial organization of eukaryotic genomes. However, recent studies of global chromosome architecture in budding yeast have challenged this view. We used live-cell imaging to determine the intranuclear positions of 13 Pol III-transcribed genes. The frequency of association with nucleolus and nuclear periphery depends on linear genomic distance from the tethering elements-centromeres or telomeres. Releasing the hold of the tethering elements by inactivating centromere attachment to the spindle pole body or changing the position of ribosomal DNA arrays resulted in the association of Pol III-transcribed genes with nucleoli. Conversely, ectopic insertion of a Pol III-transcribed gene in the vicinity of a centromere prevented its association with nucleolus. Pol III-dependent transcription was independent of the intranuclear position of the gene, but the nucleolar recruitment of Pol III-transcribed genes required active transcription. We conclude that the association of Pol III-transcribed genes with the nucleolus, when permitted by global chromosome architecture, provides nucleolar and/or nuclear peripheral anchoring points contributing locally to intranuclear chromosome organization. © 2016 Belagal et al. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). Two months after publication it is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  18. Metformin-Induced Changes of the Coding Transcriptome and Non-Coding RNAs in the Livers of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jun; Zhou, Yuan; Cheng, Yafen; Fang, Weiwei; Hu, Gang; Wei, Jie; Lin, Yajun; Man, Yong; Guo, Lixin; Sun, Mingxiao; Cui, Qinghua; Li, Jian

    2018-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested that changes in non-coding mRNA play a key role in the progression of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Metformin is now recommended and effective for the treatment of NAFLD. We hope the current analyses of the non-coding mRNA transcriptome will provide a better presentation of the potential roles of mRNAs and long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) that underlie NAFLD and metformin intervention. The present study mainly analysed changes in the coding transcriptome and non-coding RNAs after the application of a five-week metformin intervention. Liver samples from three groups of mice were harvested for transcriptome profiling, which covered mRNA, lncRNA, microRNA (miRNA) and circular RNA (circRNA), using a microarray technique. A systematic alleviation of high-fat diet (HFD)-induced transcriptome alterations by metformin was observed. The metformin treatment largely reversed the correlations with diabetes-related pathways. Our analysis also suggested interaction networks between differentially expressed lncRNAs and known hepatic disease genes and interactions between circRNA and their disease-related miRNA partners. Eight HFD-responsive lncRNAs and three metformin-responsive lncRNAs were noted due to their widespread associations with disease genes. Moreover, seven miRNAs that interacted with multiple differentially expressed circRNAs were highlighted because they were likely to be associated with metabolic or liver diseases. The present study identified novel changes in the coding transcriptome and non-coding RNAs in the livers of NAFLD mice after metformin treatment that might shed light on the underlying mechanism by which metformin impedes the progression of NAFLD. © 2018 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Increased expression of hepatocyte nuclear factor 4 alpha transcribed by promoter 2 indicates a poor prognosis in hepatocellular carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Cai, Shao-hang; Lu, Shi-xun; Liu, Li-li; Zhang, Chris Zhiyi; Yun, Jing-ping

    2017-01-01

    Background: Hepatocyte nuclear factor 4 alpha (HNF4α) plays an important role in tumourigenesis. There is growing evidence indicating that HNF4α transcribed by promoter 1 (P1-HNF4α) is expressed at relatively low levels in HCC and its presence predicts a favourable outcome for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients. However, the role of HNF4α transcribed by promoter 2 (P2-HNF4α) in HCC remains unclear. Methods: A total of 615 HCC specimens were obtained to construct tissue microarrays and pe...

  20. 16S partial gene mitochondrial DNA and internal transcribed spacers ribosomal DNA as differential markers of Trichuris discolor populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callejón, R; Halajian, A; de Rojas, M; Marrugal, A; Guevara, D; Cutillas, C

    2012-05-25

    Comparative morphological, biometrical and molecular studies of Trichuris discolor isolated from Bos taurus from Spain and Iran was carried out. Furthermore, Trichuris ovis isolated from B. taurus and Capra hircus from Spain has been, molecularly, analyzed. Morphological studies revealed clear differences between T. ovis and T. discolor isolated from B. taurus but differences were not observed between populations of T. discolor isolated from different geographical regions. Nevertheless, the molecular studies based on the amplification and sequencing of the internal transcribed spacers 1 and 2 ribosomal DNA and 16S partial gene mitochondrial DNA showed clear differences between both populations of T. discolor from Spain and Iran suggesting two cryptic species. Phylogenetic studies corroborated these data. Thus, phylogenetic trees based on ITS1, ITS2 and 16S partial gene sequences showed that individuals of T. discolor from B. taurus from Iran clustered together and separated, with high bootstrap values, of T. discolor isolated from B. taurus from Spain, while populations of T. ovis from B. taurus and C. hircus from Spain clustered together but separated with high bootstrap values of both populations of T. discolor. Furthermore, a comparative phylogenetic study has been carried out with the ITS1and ITS2 sequences of Trichuris species from different hosts. Three clades were observed: the first clustered all the species of Trichuris parasitizing herbivores (T. discolor, T. ovis, Trichuris leporis and Trichuris skrjabini), the second clustered all the species of Trichuris parasitizing omnivores (Trichuris trichiura and Trichuris suis) and finally, the third clustered species of Trichuris parasitizing carnivores (Trichuris muris, Trichuris arvicolae and Trichuris vulpis). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Maternally expressed gene 3, an imprinted noncoding RNA gene, is associated with meningioma pathogenesis and progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xun; Gejman, Roger; Mahta, Ali; Zhong, Ying; Rice, Kimberley A; Zhou, Yunli; Cheunsuchon, Pornsuk; Louis, David N; Klibanski, Anne

    2010-03-15

    Meningiomas are common tumors, representing 15% to 25% of all central nervous system tumors. NF2 gene inactivation on chromosome 22 has been shown as an early event in tumorigenesis; however, few factors underlying tumor growth and progression have been identified. The chromosomal abnormalities of 14q32 are often associated with meningioma pathogenesis and progression; therefore, it has been proposed that an as yet unidentified tumor suppressor is present at this locus. Maternally expressed gene 3 (MEG3) is an imprinted gene located at 14q32 which encodes a noncoding RNA with an antiproliferative function. We found that MEG3 mRNA is highly expressed in normal arachnoidal cells. However, MEG3 is not expressed in the majority of human meningiomas or the human meningioma cell lines IOMM-Lee and CH157-MN. There is a strong association between loss of MEG3 expression and tumor grade. Allelic loss at the MEG3 locus is also observed in meningiomas, with increasing prevalence in higher grade tumors. In addition, there is an increase in CpG methylation within the promoter and the imprinting control region of MEG3 gene in meningiomas. Functionally, MEG3 suppresses DNA synthesis in both IOMM-Lee and CH157-MN cells by approximately 60% in bromodeoxyuridine incorporation assays. Colony-forming efficiency assays show that MEG3 inhibits colony formation in CH157-MN cells by approximately 80%. Furthermore, MEG3 stimulates p53-mediated transactivation in these cell lines. Therefore, these data are consistent with the hypothesis that MEG3, which encodes a noncoding RNA, may be a tumor suppressor gene at chromosome 14q32 involved in meningioma progression via a novel mechanism.

  2. Developmental programming of long non-coding RNAs during postnatal liver maturation in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lai Peng

    Full Text Available The liver is a vital organ with critical functions in metabolism, protein synthesis, and immune defense. Most of the liver functions are not mature at birth and many changes happen during postnatal liver development. However, it is unclear what changes occur in liver after birth, at what developmental stages they occur, and how the developmental processes are regulated. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs are involved in organ development and cell differentiation. Here, we analyzed the transcriptome of lncRNAs in mouse liver from perinatal (day -2 to adult (day 60 by RNA-Sequencing, with an attempt to understand the role of lncRNAs in liver maturation. We found around 15,000 genes expressed, including about 2,000 lncRNAs. Most lncRNAs were expressed at a lower level than coding RNAs. Both coding RNAs and lncRNAs displayed three major ontogenic patterns: enriched at neonatal, adolescent, or adult stages. Neighboring coding and non-coding RNAs showed the trend to exhibit highly correlated ontogenic expression patterns. Gene ontology (GO analysis revealed that some lncRNAs enriched at neonatal ages have their neighbor protein coding genes also enriched at neonatal ages and associated with cell proliferation, immune activation related processes, tissue organization pathways, and hematopoiesis; other lncRNAs enriched at adolescent ages have their neighbor protein coding genes associated with different metabolic processes. These data reveal significant functional transition during postnatal liver development and imply the potential importance of lncRNAs in liver maturation.

  3. Flavivirus RNAi suppression: decoding non-coding RNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pijlman, Gorben P

    2014-08-01

    Flaviviruses are important human pathogens that are transmitted by invertebrate vectors, mostly mosquitoes and ticks. During replication in their vector, flaviviruses are subject to a potent innate immune response known as antiviral RNA interference (RNAi). This defense mechanism is associated with the production of small interfering (si)RNA that lead to degradation of viral RNA. To what extent flaviviruses would benefit from counteracting antiviral RNAi is subject of debate. Here, the experimental evidence to suggest the existence of flavivirus RNAi suppressors is discussed. I will highlight the putative role of non-coding, subgenomic flavivirus RNA in suppression of RNAi in insect and mammalian cells. Novel insights from ongoing research will reveal how arthropod-borne viruses modulate innate immunity including antiviral RNAi. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Decoding the non-coding RNAs in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schonrock, Nicole; Götz, Jürgen

    2012-11-01

    Non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) are integral components of biological networks with fundamental roles in regulating gene expression. They can integrate sequence information from the DNA code, epigenetic regulation and functions of multimeric protein complexes to potentially determine the epigenetic status and transcriptional network in any given cell. Humans potentially contain more ncRNAs than any other species, especially in the brain, where they may well play a significant role in human development and cognitive ability. This review discusses their emerging role in Alzheimer's disease (AD), a human pathological condition characterized by the progressive impairment of cognitive functions. We discuss the complexity of the ncRNA world and how this is reflected in the regulation of the amyloid precursor protein and Tau, two proteins with central functions in AD. By understanding this intricate regulatory network, there is hope for a better understanding of disease mechanisms and ultimately developing diagnostic and therapeutic tools.

  5. Paraspeckles: Where Long Noncoding RNA Meets Phase Separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Archa H; Nakagawa, Shinichi; Hirose, Tetsuro; Bond, Charles S

    2018-02-01

    Long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) molecules are some of the newest and least understood players in gene regulation. Hence, we need good model systems with well-defined RNA and protein components. One such system is paraspeckles - protein-rich nuclear organelles built around a specific lncRNA scaffold. New discoveries show how paraspeckles are formed through multiple RNA-protein and protein-protein interactions, some of which involve extensive polymerization, and others with multivalent interactions driving phase separation. Once formed, paraspeckles influence gene regulation through sequestration of component proteins and RNAs, with subsequent depletion in other compartments. Here we focus on the dual aspects of paraspeckle structure and function, revealing an emerging role for these dynamic bodies in a multitude of cellular settings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Functions and mechanisms of long noncoding RNAs in lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng ZZ

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Zhenzi Peng, Chunfang Zhang, Chaojun Duan Institute of Medical Sciences, Key Laboratory of Cancer Proteomics of Chinese Ministry of Health, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Lung cancer is a heterogeneous disease, and there is a lack of adequate biomarkers for diagnosis. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs are emerging as an important set of molecules because of their roles in various key pathophysiological pathways, including cell growth, apoptosis, and metastasis. We review the current knowledge of the lncRNAs in lung cancer. In-depth analyses of lncRNAs in lung cancer have increased the number of potential effective biomarkers, thus providing options to increase the therapeutic benefit. In this review, we summarize the functions, mechanisms, and regulatory networks of lncRNAs in lung cancer, providing a basis for further research in this field. Keywords: ncRNA, tumorigenesis, biomarker, network, proliferation, apoptosis 

  7. Role of Exosomal Noncoding RNAs in Lung Carcinogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Sun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer is the major cause of cancer death worldwide. Novel, recently discovered classes of noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs have diverse functional and regulatory activities and increasing evidence suggests crucial roles for deregulated ncRNAs in the onset and progression of cancer, including lung cancer. Exosomes are small extracellular membrane vesicles of endocytic origin that are released by many cells and are found in most body fluids. Tumor-derived exosomes mediate tumorigenesis by facilitating tumor growth and metastasis. MicroRNAs (miRNAs are a subclass of ncRNAs that are present in exosomes. miRNAs are taken up by neighboring or distant cells and modulate various functions of recipient cells. Here, we review exosome-derived ncRNAs with a focus on miRNAs and their role in lung cancer biology.

  8. Systematic identification of long noncoding RNAs expressed during zebrafish embryogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pauli, Andrea; Valen, Eivind; Lin, Michael F.

    2012-01-01

    Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) comprise a diverse class of transcripts that structurally resemble mRNAs but do not encode proteins. Recent genome-wide studies in human and mouse have annotated lncRNAs expressed in cell lines and adult tissues, but a systematic analysis of lncRNAs expressed during...... of genes with developmental functions. The temporal expression profile of lncRNAs revealed two novel properties: lncRNAs are expressed in narrower time windows than protein-coding genes and are specifically enriched in early-stage embryos. In addition, several lncRNAs show tissue-specific expression...... and distinct subcellular localization patterns. Integrative computational analyses associated individual lncRNAs with specific pathways and functions, ranging from cell cycle regulation to morphogenesis. Our study provides the first systematic identification of lncRNAs in a vertebrate embryo and forms...

  9. Long noncoding RNAs as Organizers of Nuclear Architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Lu; Ming, Hui; Zhu, Minzhe; Wen, Bo

    2016-03-01

    In the eukaryotic cell nucleus, chromatin and its associated macromolecules must be organized into a higher-ordered conformation to function normally. However, mechanisms underlying the organization and dynamics of the nucleus remain unclear. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs), i.e., transcripts longer than 200 nucleotides with little or no protein-coding capacity, are increasingly recognized as important regulators in diverse biological processes. Recent studies have shown that some lncRNAs are involved in various aspects of genome organization, including the facilitation of chromosomal interactions and establishment of nuclear bodies, suggesting that lncRNAs act as general organizers of the nuclear architecture. Here, we discuss recent advances in this emerging and intriguing field.

  10. Evaluation of Agency Non-Code Layered Pressure Vessels (LPVs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prosser, William H.

    2014-01-01

    In coordination with the Office of Safety and Mission Assurance and the respective Center Pressure System Managers (PSMs), the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) was requested to formulate a consensus draft proposal for the development of additional testing and analysis methods to establish the technical validity, and any limitation thereof, for the continued safe operation of facility non-code layered pressure vessels. The PSMs from each NASA Center were asked to participate as part of the assessment team by providing, collecting, and reviewing data regarding current operations of these vessels. This report contains the outcome of the assessment and the findings, observations, and NESC recommendations to the Agency and individual NASA Centers.

  11. Novel Approach to Analyzing MFE of Noncoding RNA Sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Tina P; Thomas, Tessamma

    2016-01-01

    Genomic studies have become noncoding RNA (ncRNA) centric after the study of different genomes provided enormous information on ncRNA over the past decades. The function of ncRNA is decided by its secondary structure, and across organisms, the secondary structure is more conserved than the sequence itself. In this study, the optimal secondary structure or the minimum free energy (MFE) structure of ncRNA was found based on the thermodynamic nearest neighbor model. MFE of over 2600 ncRNA sequences was analyzed in view of its signal properties. Mathematical models linking MFE to the signal properties were found for each of the four classes of ncRNA analyzed. MFE values computed with the proposed models were in concordance with those obtained with the standard web servers. A total of 95% of the sequences analyzed had deviation of MFE values within ±15% relative to those obtained from standard web servers.

  12. Rfam: annotating families of non-coding RNA sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daub, Jennifer; Eberhardt, Ruth Y; Tate, John G; Burge, Sarah W

    2015-01-01

    The primary task of the Rfam database is to collate experimentally validated noncoding RNA (ncRNA) sequences from the published literature and facilitate the prediction and annotation of new homologues in novel nucleotide sequences. We group homologous ncRNA sequences into "families" and related families are further grouped into "clans." We collate and manually curate data cross-references for these families from other databases and external resources. Our Web site offers researchers a simple interface to Rfam and provides tools with which to annotate their own sequences using our covariance models (CMs), through our tools for searching, browsing, and downloading information on Rfam families. In this chapter, we will work through examples of annotating a query sequence, collating family information, and searching for data.

  13. The Long Noncoding RNA Landscape of the Mouse Eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Weiwei; Yang, Shuai; Zhou, Zhonglou; Zhao, Xiaoting; Zhong, Jiayun; Reinach, Peter S; Yan, Dongsheng

    2017-12-01

    Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are important regulators of diverse biological functions. However, an extensive in-depth analysis of their expression profile and function in mammalian eyes is still lacking. Here we describe comprehensive landscapes of stage-dependent and tissue-specific lncRNA expression in the mouse eye. Affymetrix transcriptome array profiled lncRNA signatures from six different ocular tissue subsets (i.e., cornea, lens, retina, RPE, choroid, and sclera) in newborn and 8-week-old mice. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis validated array findings. Cis analyses and Gene Ontology (GO) annotation of protein-coding genes adjacent to signature lncRNA loci clarified potential lncRNA roles in maintaining tissue identity and regulating eye maturation during the aforementioned phase. In newborn and 8-week-old mice, we identified 47,332 protein-coding and noncoding gene transcripts. LncRNAs comprise 19,313 of these transcripts annotated in public data banks. During this maturation phase of these six different tissue subsets, more than 1000 lncRNAs expression levels underwent ≥2-fold changes. qRT-PCR analysis confirmed part of the gene microarray analysis results. K-means clustering identified 910 lncRNAs in the P0 groups and 686 lncRNAs in the postnatal 8-week-old groups, suggesting distinct tissue-specific lncRNA clusters. GO analysis of protein-coding genes proximal to lncRNA signatures resolved close correlations with their tissue-specific functional maturation between P0 and 8 weeks of age in the 6 tissue subsets. Characterizating maturational changes in lncRNA expression patterns as well as tissue-specific lncRNA signatures in six ocular tissues suggest important contributions made by lncRNA to the control of developmental processes in the mouse eye.

  14. EG-10LONG NON-CODING RNAs IN GLIOBLASTOMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastori, Chiara; Kapranov, Philipp; Penas, Clara; Laurent, Georges St.; Ayad, Nagi; Wahlestedt, Claes

    2014-01-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common, aggressive and incurable primary brain tumor in adults. Genome studies have confirmed that GBM is extremely heterogeneous with many genetically different subgroups. Consequently, there is much current interest in epigenetic drugs that may be active across genetically distinct tumors. In support of this, some epigenetic drugs has recently shown efficacy against several cancers including glioblastoma. Much recent interest has also been devoted to long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), which can modulate gene expression regulating chromatin architecture, in part through the interaction with epigenetic protein machineries. To date, however, only a few lncRNAs have been studied in human cancer. We therefore embarked on a comprehensive genomic and functional analysis of lncRNAs in GBM. Using the Helicos Single Molecule Sequencing platform glioblastoma samples were sequenced resulting in the identification of hundreds of dysregulated lncRNAs. Among these the lncRNA HOTAIR was found massively increased in GBM. This observation parallels findings in other cancers where HOTAIR's increased expression has been linked to poor prognosis due to metastatic events. Interestingly, here we show that in glioblastoma HOTAIR does not promote metastasis, but instead sustains the ability of these cells to proliferate. In fact, we demonstrate that HOTAIR knockdown in GBM strongly impairs cell proliferation and induces apoptosis in vitro and in vivo. Further, we implicate HOTAIR in the mechanism of action of certain epigenetic drugs. In summary, long noncoding RNAs (newly discovered epigenomic factors) play a vital role in GBM and deserve attention as entirely novel drug targets as well as biomarkers.

  15. Noncoding DNA in lipofection of HeLa cells-a few insights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symens, Nathalie; Rejman, Joanna; Lucas, Bart; Demeester, Joseph; De Smedt, Stefaan C; Remaut, Katrien

    2013-03-04

    In cationic carrier-mediated gene delivery, the disproportional relationship between the quantity of delivered DNA and the amount of encoded protein produced is a well-known phenomenon. The numerous intracellular barriers which need to be overcome by pDNA to reach the nucleoplasm play a major role in it. In contrast to what one would expect, a partial replacement of coding pDNA by noncoding DNA does not lead to a decrease in transfection efficiency. The mechanism underlying this observation is still unclear. Therefore, we investigated which constituents of the transfection process might contribute to this phenomenon. Our data reveal that the topology of the noncoding plasmid DNA plays a major role. Noncoding pDNA can be used only in a supercoiled form to replace coding pDNA in Lipofectamine lipoplexes, without a loss in transfection levels. When noncoding pDNA is linearized or partly digested, it diminishes the transfection potential of coding pDNA, as does noncoding salmon DNA. The difference in transfection efficiencies could not be attributed to diverse physicochemical characteristics of the Lipofectamine lipoplexes containing different types of noncoding DNA or to the extent of their internalization. At the level of endosomal release, however, nucleic acid release from the endosomal compartment proceeds faster when lipoplexes contain noncoding salmon DNA. Since the half-life of pDNA in the cytosol hardly exceeds 90 min, it is conceivable that prolonged release of coding pDNA from complexes carrying supercoiled noncoding pDNA may explain its positive effect on transfection, while this depot effect does not exist when noncoding salmon DNA is used.

  16. Identification of a noncanonically transcribed subgenomic mRNA of infectious bronchitis virus and other gammacoronaviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, Kirsten; Keep, Sarah May; Armesto, Maria; Britton, Paul

    2013-02-01

    Coronavirus subgenomic mRNA (sgmRNA) synthesis occurs via a process of discontinuous transcription involving transcription regulatory sequences (TRSs) located in the 5' leader sequence (TRS-L) and upstream of each structural and group-specific gene (TRS-B). Several gammacoronaviruses including infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) contain a putative open reading frame (ORF), localized between the M gene and gene 5, which is controversial due to the perceived absence of a TRS. We have studied the transcription of a novel sgmRNA associated with this potential ORF and found it to be transcribed via a previously unidentified noncanonical TRS-B. Using an IBV reverse genetics system, we demonstrated that the template-switching event during intergenic region (IR) sgmRNA synthesis occurs at the 5' end of the noncanonical TRS-B and recombines between nucleotides 5 and 6 of the 8-nucleotide consensus TRS-L. Introduction of a complete TRS-B showed that higher transcription levels are achieved by increasing the number of nucleotide matches between TRS-L and TRS-B. Translation of a protein from the sgmRNA was demonstrated using enhanced green fluorescent protein, suggesting the translation of a fifth, novel, group-specific protein for IBV. This study has resolved an issue concerning the number of ORFs expressed by members of the Gammacoronavirus genus and proposes the existence of a fifth IBV accessory protein. We confirmed previous reports that coronaviruses can produce sgmRNAs from noncanonical TRS-Bs, which may expand their repertoire of proteins. We also demonstrated that noncanonical TRS-Bs may provide a mechanism by which coronaviruses can control protein expression levels by reducing sgmRNA synthesis.

  17. Nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region as a universal DNA barcode marker for Fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoch, Conrad L; Seifert, Keith A; Huhndorf, Sabine; Robert, Vincent; Spouge, John L; Levesque, C André; Chen, Wen

    2012-04-17

    Six DNA regions were evaluated as potential DNA barcodes for Fungi, the second largest kingdom of eukaryotic life, by a multinational, multilaboratory consortium. The region of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 used as the animal barcode was excluded as a potential marker, because it is difficult to amplify in fungi, often includes large introns, and can be insufficiently variable. Three subunits from the nuclear ribosomal RNA cistron were compared together with regions of three representative protein-coding genes (largest subunit of RNA polymerase II, second largest subunit of RNA polymerase II, and minichromosome maintenance protein). Although the protein-coding gene regions often had a higher percent of correct identification compared with ribosomal markers, low PCR amplification and sequencing success eliminated them as candidates for a universal fungal barcode. Among the regions of the ribosomal cistron, the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region has the highest probability of successful identification for the broadest range of fungi, with the most clearly defined barcode gap between inter- and intraspecific variation. The nuclear ribosomal large subunit, a popular phylogenetic marker in certain groups, had superior species resolution in some taxonomic groups, such as the early diverging lineages and the ascomycete yeasts, but was otherwise slightly inferior to the ITS. The nuclear ribosomal small subunit has poor species-level resolution in fungi. ITS will be formally proposed for adoption as the primary fungal barcode marker to the Consortium for the Barcode of Life, with the possibility that supplementary barcodes may be developed for particular narrowly circumscribed taxonomic groups.

  18. Polyadenylation of RNA transcribed from mammalian SINEs by RNA polymerase III: Complex requirements for nucleotide sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borodulina, Olga R; Golubchikova, Julia S; Ustyantsev, Ilia G; Kramerov, Dmitri A

    2016-02-01

    It is generally accepted that only transcripts synthesized by RNA polymerase II (e.g., mRNA) were subject to AAUAAA-dependent polyadenylation. However, we previously showed that RNA transcribed by RNA polymerase III (pol III) from mouse B2 SINE could be polyadenylated in an AAUAAA-dependent manner. Many species of mammalian SINEs end with the pol III transcriptional terminator (TTTTT) and contain hexamers AATAAA in their A-rich tail. Such SINEs were united into Class T(+), whereas SINEs lacking the terminator and AATAAA sequences were classified as T(-). Here we studied the structural features of SINE pol III transcripts that are necessary for their polyadenylation. Eight and six SINE families from classes T(+) and T(-), respectively, were analyzed. The replacement of AATAAA with AACAAA in T(+) SINEs abolished the RNA polyadenylation. Interestingly, insertion of the polyadenylation signal (AATAAA) and pol III transcription terminator in T(-) SINEs did not result in polyadenylation. The detailed analysis of three T(+) SINEs (B2, DIP, and VES) revealed areas important for the polyadenylation of their pol III transcripts: the polyadenylation signal and terminator in A-rich tail, β region positioned immediately downstream of the box B of pol III promoter, and τ region located upstream of the tail. In DIP and VES (but not in B2), the τ region is a polypyrimidine motif which is also characteristic of many other T(+) SINEs. Most likely, SINEs of different mammals acquired these structural features independently as a result of parallel evolution. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Molecular phylogeny of Oncaeidae (Copepoda using nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS rDNA.

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    Iole Di Capua

    Full Text Available Copepods belonging to the Oncaeidae family are commonly and abundantly found in marine zooplankton. In the Mediterranean Sea, forty-seven oncaeid species occur, of which eleven in the Gulf of Naples. In this Gulf, several Oncaea species were morphologically analysed and described at the end of the XIX century by W. Giesbrecht. In the same area, oncaeids are being investigated over seasonal and inter-annual scales at the long-term coastal station LTER-MC. In the present work, we identified six oncaeid species using the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacers (ITS rDNA and the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (mtCOI. Phylogenetic analyses based on these two genomic regions validated the sisterhood of the genera Triconia and the Oncaea sensu stricto. ITS1 and ITS2 phylogenies produced incongruent results about the position of Oncaea curta, calling for further investigations on this species. We also characterised the ITS2 region by secondary structure predictions and found that all the sequences analysed presented the distinct eukaryotic hallmarks. A Compensatory Base Change search corroborated the close relationship between O. venusta and O. curta and between O. media and O. venusta already identified by ITS phylogenies. The present results, which stem from the integration of molecular and morphological taxonomy, represent an encouraging step towards an improved knowledge of copepod biodiversity: The two complementary approaches, when applied to long-term copepod monitoring, will also help to better understanding their genetic variations and ecological niches of co-occurring species.

  20. Poly A tail length analysis of in vitro transcribed mRNA by LC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beverly, Michael; Hagen, Caitlin; Slack, Olga

    2018-02-01

    The 3'-polyadenosine (poly A) tail of in vitro transcribed (IVT) mRNA was studied using liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Poly A tails were cleaved from the mRNA using ribonuclease T1 followed by isolation with dT magnetic beads. Extracted tails were then analyzed by LC-MS which provided tail length information at single-nucleotide resolution. A 2100-nt mRNA with plasmid-encoded poly A tail lengths of either 27, 64, 100, or 117 nucleotides was used for these studies as enzymatically added poly A tails showed significant length heterogeneity. The number of As observed in the tails closely matched Sanger sequencing results of the DNA template, and even minor plasmid populations with sequence variations were detected. When the plasmid sequence contained a discreet number of poly As in the tail, analysis revealed a distribution that included tails longer than the encoded tail lengths. These observations were consistent with transcriptional slippage of T7 RNAP taking place within a poly A sequence. The type of RNAP did not alter the observed tail distribution, and comparison of T3, T7, and SP6 showed all three RNAPs produced equivalent tail length distributions. The addition of a sequence at the 3' end of the poly A tail did, however, produce narrower tail length distributions which supports a previously described model of slippage where the 3' end can be locked in place by having a G or C after the poly nucleotide region. Graphical abstract Determination of mRNA poly A tail length using magnetic beads and LC-MS.

  1. Unified English Braille in the United Kingdom: Part 2--Examination by Literary Braille Users, Braille Teachers, and Transcribers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cryer, Heather; Home, Sarah; Morley Wilkins, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    To inform decision-making around the adoption of the Unified English Braille (UEB) code in the United Kingdom, a suite of research was carried out. This study involved a variety of braille stakeholders--student braille readers (in full time education), adult braille readers, braille teachers, and braille transcribers. Participants were sent…

  2. Employing 454 amplicon pyrosequencing to reveal intragenomic divergence in the internal transcribed spacer rDNA region in fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel L. Lindner; Tor Carlsen; Henrik Nilsson; Marie Davey; Trond Schumacher; Havard. Kauserud

    2013-01-01

    The rDNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region has been accepted as a DNA barcoding marker for fungi and is widely used in phylogenetic studies; however, intragenomic ITS variability has been observed in a broad range of taxa, including prokaryotes, plants, animals, and fungi, and this variability has the potential to inflate species richness estimates in molecular...

  3. The carB gene encoding the large subunit of carbamoylphosphate synthetase from Lactococcus lactis is transcribed monocistronically

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinussen, Jan; Hammer, Karin

    1998-01-01

    The biosynthesis of carbamoylphosphate is catalysed by the heterodimeric enzyme carbamoylphosphate synthetase (CPSase). The genes encoding the two subunits in procaryotes are normally transcribed as an operon, whereas in Lactococcus lactis, the gene encoding the large subunit (carB) is shown...

  4. Transcription Matters: Transcribing Talk and Interaction to Facilitate Conversation Analysis of the Taken-for-Granted in Young Children's Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Christina

    2010-01-01

    The development of transcripts is central to the work of many researchers yet questions of what and how researchers transcribe, and why, receive little attention in research literature. Conversation analysis is one research approach that has consistently addressed the integral relationship between theoretical and methodological perspectives,…

  5. RAPD and Internal Transcribed Spacer Sequence Analyses Reveal Zea nicaraguensis as a Section Luxuriantes Species Close to Zea luxurians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pei; Lu, Yanli; Zheng, Mingmin; Rong, Tingzhao; Tang, Qilin

    2011-01-01

    Genetic relationship of a newly discovered teosinte from Nicaragua, Zea nicaraguensis with waterlogging tolerance, was determined based on randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers and the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences of nuclear ribosomal DNA using 14 accessions from Zea species. RAPD analysis showed that a total of 5,303 fragments were produced by 136 random decamer primers, of which 84.86% bands were polymorphic. RAPD-based UPGMA analysis demonstrated that the genus Zea can be divided into section Luxuriantes including Zea diploperennis, Zea luxurians, Zea perennis and Zea nicaraguensis, and section Zea including Zea mays ssp. mexicana, Zea mays ssp. parviglumis, Zea mays ssp. huehuetenangensis and Zea mays ssp. mays. ITS sequence analysis showed the lengths of the entire ITS region of the 14 taxa in Zea varied from 597 to 605 bp. The average GC content was 67.8%. In addition to the insertion/deletions, 78 variable sites were recorded in the total ITS region with 47 in ITS1, 5 in 5.8S, and 26 in ITS2. Sequences of these taxa were analyzed with neighbor-joining (NJ) and maximum parsimony (MP) methods to construct the phylogenetic trees, selecting Tripsacum dactyloides L. as the outgroup. The phylogenetic relationships of Zea species inferred from the ITS sequences are highly concordant with the RAPD evidence that resolved two major subgenus clades. Both RAPD and ITS sequence analyses indicate that Zea nicaraguensis is more closely related to Zea luxurians than the other teosintes and cultivated maize, which should be regarded as a section Luxuriantes species. PMID:21525982

  6. Low variation in ribosomal DNA and internal transcribed spacers of the symbiotic fungi of leaf-cutting ants (Attini: Formicidae

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    Silva-Pinhati A.C.O.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Leaf-cutting ants of the genera Atta and Acromyrmex (tribe Attini are symbiotic with basidiomycete fungi of the genus Leucoagaricus (tribe Leucocoprineae, which they cultivate on vegetable matter inside their nests. We determined the variation of the 28S, 18S, and 5.8S ribosomal DNA (rDNA gene loci and the rapidly evolving internal transcribed spacers 1 and 2 (ITS1 and ITS2 of 15 sympatric and allopatric fungi associated with colonies of 11 species of leafcutter ants living up to 2,600 km apart in Brazil. We found that the fungal rDNA and ITS sequences from different species of ants were identical (or nearly identical to each other, whereas 10 GenBank Leucoagaricus species showed higher ITS variation. Our findings suggest that Atta and Acromyrmex leafcutters living in geographic sites that are very distant from each other cultivate a single fungal species made up of closely related lineages of Leucoagaricus gongylophorus. We discuss the strikingly high similarity in the ITS1 and ITS2 regions of the Atta and Acromyrmex symbiotic L. gongylophorus studied by us, in contrast to the lower similarity displayed by their non-symbiotic counterparts. We suggest that the similarity of our L. gongylophorus isolates is an indication of the recent association of the fungus with these ants, and propose that both the intense lateral transmission of fungal material within leafcutter nests and the selection of more adapted fungal strains are involved in the homogenization of the symbiotic fungal stock.

  7. The Non-Coding RNA Ontology (NCRO): a comprehensive resource for the unification of non-coding RNA biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jingshan; Eilbeck, Karen; Smith, Barry; Blake, Judith A; Dou, Dejing; Huang, Weili; Natale, Darren A; Ruttenberg, Alan; Huan, Jun; Zimmermann, Michael T; Jiang, Guoqian; Lin, Yu; Wu, Bin; Strachan, Harrison J; He, Yongqun; Zhang, Shaojie; Wang, Xiaowei; Liu, Zixing; Borchert, Glen M; Tan, Ming

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, sequencing technologies have enabled the identification of a wide range of non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs). Unfortunately, annotation and integration of ncRNA data has lagged behind their identification. Given the large quantity of information being obtained in this area, there emerges an urgent need to integrate what is being discovered by a broad range of relevant communities. To this end, the Non-Coding RNA Ontology (NCRO) is being developed to provide a systematically structured and precisely defined controlled vocabulary for the domain of ncRNAs, thereby facilitating the discovery, curation, analysis, exchange, and reasoning of data about structures of ncRNAs, their molecular and cellular functions, and their impacts upon phenotypes. The goal of NCRO is to serve as a common resource for annotations of diverse research in a way that will significantly enhance integrative and comparative analysis of the myriad resources currently housed in disparate sources. It is our belief that the NCRO ontology can perform an important role in the comprehensive unification of ncRNA biology and, indeed, fill a critical gap in both the Open Biological and Biomedical Ontologies (OBO) Library and the National Center for Biomedical Ontology (NCBO) BioPortal. Our initial focus is on the ontological representation of small regulatory ncRNAs, which we see as the first step in providing a resource for the annotation of data about all forms of ncRNAs. The NCRO ontology is free and open to all users, accessible at: http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/ncro.owl.

  8. Molecular Characterization of Fasciola Samples Using Sequences of Second Internal Transcribed Spacer-rDNA in Different Geographical Localities of Sistan and Balouchestan Province, Iran

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    Mahsa Shahbakhsh

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Fasciola trematodes are the most common liver flukes, living in a range of animals with global distribution and resulting in profound economic loss and public health challenges. Previous studies have indicated that the sequences of the second internal transcribed spacer (ITS-2 of ribosomal DNA (rDNA provide reliable genetic markers for molecular systemic studies of Fasciola. Objectives: The objective of the present study was to characterize Fasciola samples from different geographical regions of Sistan and Balouchestan province using sequences of second internal transcribed spacer (ITS-2 of ribosomal DNA (rDNA. Materials and Methods: Twenty adult trematodes were collected from the livers of slaughtered infected cattle. Total genomic DNA was extracted and ITS-2 rDNA targets were amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR. All samples were sequenced and investigated using the ClustalW2 sequence alignment tool and MEGA software. The sequences of some Iranian and non-Iranian isolates were used for comparison, in order to evaluate the variation in sequence homology between geographically different trematode populations. Results: The results of comparing the ITS-2 sequences with the BLAST GenBank database showed one type of sequence for F. hepatica and three different types of sequences for F. gigantica in the specimens. Conclusions: The present study demonstrated that Fasciola samples from cattle in two geographical locations in Sistan and Balouchestan province represented no genetic diversity in F. hepatica and high genetic variation in F. gigantica.

  9. Toward understanding non-coding RNA roles in intracranial aneurysms and subarachnoid hemorrhage

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    Huang Fengzhen

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH is a common and frequently life-threatening cerebrovascular disease, which is mostly related with a ruptured intracranial aneurysm. Its complications include rebleeding, early brain injury, cerebral vasospasm, delayed cerebral ischemia, chronic hydrocephalus, and also non neurological problems. Non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs, comprising of microRNAs (miRNAs, small interfering RNAs (siRNAs and long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs, play an important role in intracranial aneurysms and SAH. Here, we review the non-coding RNAs expression profile and their related mechanisms in intracranial aneurysms and SAH. Moreover, we suggest that these non-coding RNAs function as novel molecular biomarkers to predict intracranial aneurysms and SAH, and may yield new therapies after SAH in the future.

  10. Non-Coding Transcript Heterogeneity in Mesothelioma: Insights from Asbestos-Exposed Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felley-Bosco, Emanuela; Rehrauer, Hubert

    2018-04-11

    Mesothelioma is an aggressive, rapidly fatal cancer and a better understanding of its molecular heterogeneity may help with making more efficient therapeutic strategies. Non-coding RNAs represent a larger part of the transcriptome but their contribution to diseases is not fully understood yet. We used recently obtained RNA-seq data from asbestos-exposed mice and performed data mining of publicly available datasets in order to evaluate how non-coding RNA contribute to mesothelioma heterogeneity. Nine non-coding RNAs are specifically elevated in mesothelioma tumors and contribute to human mesothelioma heterogeneity. Because some of them have known oncogenic properties, this study supports the concept of non-coding RNAs as cancer progenitor genes.

  11. Prognostic value of long noncoding RNA ZFAS1 in various carcinomas: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Dan; Mu, Zhongyi; Wang, Wei; Xin, Na; Song, Xiaowen; Shao, Yue; Zhao, Chenghai

    2017-10-13

    A number of studies have revealed that zinc finger antisense 1 (ZFAS1), a long noncoding RNA (lncRNA), is aberrantly regulated in various cancers, and high ZFAS1 expression is associated with poor prognosis and increased risk of lymph node metastasis (LNM). This meta-analysis was conducted to identify the potential value of ZFAS1 as a biomarker for cancer prognosis. We searched electronic database PubMed, Web of Science, and China Wanfang Data (up to June 1, 2017) to collect all relevant studies and explore the association of ZFAS1 expression with overall survival (OS) and LNM. The results showed that cancer patients with high ZFAS1 expression had a worse OS than those with low ZFAS1 expression (HR: 1.94, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.41-2.47, P analysis revealed that high ZFAS1 expression was significantly related to high incidence of LNM in subgroups of sample size more than 88 (OR: 3.16, 95% CI: 2.06-4.86, P value and publication year did not result in the inter-study heterogeneity. In conclusion, the present meta-analysis demonstrates that high ZFAS1 expression may potentially serve as a reliable biomarker for poor clinical outcome in various cancers.

  12. Conservation of σ28-Dependent Non-Coding RNA Paralogs and Predicted σ54-Dependent Targets in Thermophilic Campylobacter Species.

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    My Thanh Le

    Full Text Available Assembly of flagella requires strict hierarchical and temporal control via flagellar sigma and anti-sigma factors, regulatory proteins and the assembly complex itself, but to date non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs have not been described to regulate genes directly involved in flagellar assembly. In this study we have investigated the possible role of two ncRNA paralogs (CjNC1, CjNC4 in flagellar assembly and gene regulation of the diarrhoeal pathogen Campylobacter jejuni. CjNC1 and CjNC4 are 37/44 nt identical and predicted to target the 5' untranslated region (5' UTR of genes transcribed from the flagellar sigma factor σ54. Orthologs of the σ54-dependent 5' UTRs and ncRNAs are present in the genomes of other thermophilic Campylobacter species, and transcription of CjNC1 and CNC4 is dependent on the flagellar sigma factor σ28. Surprisingly, inactivation and overexpression of CjNC1 and CjNC4 did not affect growth, motility or flagella-associated phenotypes such as autoagglutination. However, CjNC1 and CjNC4 were able to mediate sequence-dependent, but Hfq-independent, partial repression of fluorescence of predicted target 5' UTRs in an Escherichia coli-based GFP reporter gene system. This hints towards a subtle role for the CjNC1 and CjNC4 ncRNAs in post-transcriptional gene regulation in thermophilic Campylobacter species, and suggests that the currently used phenotypic methodologies are insufficiently sensitive to detect such subtle phenotypes. The lack of a role of Hfq in the E. coli GFP-based system indicates that the CjNC1 and CjNC4 ncRNAs may mediate post-transcriptional gene regulation in ways that do not conform to the paradigms obtained from the Enterobacteriaceae.

  13. Conservation of σ28-Dependent Non-Coding RNA Paralogs and Predicted σ54-Dependent Targets in Thermophilic Campylobacter Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, My Thanh; van Veldhuizen, Mart; Porcelli, Ida; Bongaerts, Roy J.; Gaskin, Duncan J. H.; Pearson, Bruce M.; van Vliet, Arnoud H. M.

    2015-01-01

    Assembly of flagella requires strict hierarchical and temporal control via flagellar sigma and anti-sigma factors, regulatory proteins and the assembly complex itself, but to date non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) have not been described to regulate genes directly involved in flagellar assembly. In this study we have investigated the possible role of two ncRNA paralogs (CjNC1, CjNC4) in flagellar assembly and gene regulation of the diarrhoeal pathogen Campylobacter jejuni. CjNC1 and CjNC4 are 37/44 nt identical and predicted to target the 5' untranslated region (5' UTR) of genes transcribed from the flagellar sigma factor σ54. Orthologs of the σ54-dependent 5' UTRs and ncRNAs are present in the genomes of other thermophilic Campylobacter species, and transcription of CjNC1 and CNC4 is dependent on the flagellar sigma factor σ28. Surprisingly, inactivation and overexpression of CjNC1 and CjNC4 did not affect growth, motility or flagella-associated phenotypes such as autoagglutination. However, CjNC1 and CjNC4 were able to mediate sequence-dependent, but Hfq-independent, partial repression of fluorescence of predicted target 5' UTRs in an Escherichia coli-based GFP reporter gene system. This hints towards a subtle role for the CjNC1 and CjNC4 ncRNAs in post-transcriptional gene regulation in thermophilic Campylobacter species, and suggests that the currently used phenotypic methodologies are insufficiently sensitive to detect such subtle phenotypes. The lack of a role of Hfq in the E. coli GFP-based system indicates that the CjNC1 and CjNC4 ncRNAs may mediate post-transcriptional gene regulation in ways that do not conform to the paradigms obtained from the Enterobacteriaceae. PMID:26512728

  14. Non-coding RNAs in endometriosis: a narrative review.

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    Panir, Kavita; Schjenken, John E; Robertson, Sarah A; Hull, M Louise

    2018-04-25

    Endometriosis is a benign gynaecological disorder, which affects 10% of reproductive-aged women and is characterized by endometrial cells from the lining of the uterus being found outside the uterine cavity. However, the pathophysiological mechanisms causing the development of this heterogeneous disease remain enigmatic, and a lack of effective biomarkers necessitates surgical intervention for diagnosis. There is international recognition that accurate non-invasive diagnostic tests and more effective therapies are urgently needed. Non-coding RNA (ncRNA) molecules, which are important regulators of cellular function, have been implicated in many chronic conditions. In endometriosis, transcriptome profiling of tissue samples and functional in vivo and in vitro studies demonstrate that ncRNAs are key contributors to the disease process. In this review, we outline the biogenesis of various ncRNAs relevant to endometriosis and then summarize the evidence indicating their roles in regulatory pathways that govern disease establishment and progression. Articles from 2000 to 2016 were selected for relevance, validity and quality, from results obtained in PubMed, MEDLINE and Google Scholar using the following search terms: ncRNA and reproduction; ncRNA and endometriosis; miRNA and endometriosis; lncRNA and endometriosis; siRNA and endometriosis; endometriosis; endometrial; cervical; ovary; uterus; reproductive tract. All articles were independently screened for eligibility by the authors. This review integrates extensive information from all relevant published studies focusing on microRNAs, long ncRNAs and short inhibitory RNAs in endometriosis. We outline the biological function and synthesis of microRNAs, long ncRNAs and short inhibitory RNAs and provide detailed findings from human research as well as functional studies carried out both in vitro and in vivo, including animal models. Although variability in findings between individual studies exists, collectively, the

  15. Purifying selection acts on coding and non-coding sequences of paralogous genes in Arabidopsis thaliana.

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    Hoffmann, Robert D; Palmgren, Michael

    2016-06-13

    Whole-genome duplications in the ancestors of many diverse species provided the genetic material for evolutionary novelty. Several models explain the retention of paralogous genes. However, how these models are reflected in the evolution of coding and non-coding sequences of paralogous genes is unknown. Here, we analyzed the coding and non-coding sequences of paralogous genes in Arabidopsis thaliana and compared these sequences with those of orthologous genes in Arabidopsis lyrata. Paralogs with lower expression than their duplicate had more nonsynonymous substitutions, were more likely to fractionate, and exhibited less similar expression patterns with their orthologs in the other species. Also, lower-expressed genes had greater tissue specificity. Orthologous conserved non-coding sequences in the promoters, introns, and 3' untranslated regions were less abundant at lower-expressed genes compared to their higher-expressed paralogs. A gene ontology (GO) term enrichment analysis showed that paralogs with similar expression levels were enriched in GO terms related to ribosomes, whereas paralogs with different expression levels were enriched in terms associated with stress responses. Loss of conserved non-coding sequences in one gene of a paralogous gene pair correlates with reduced expression levels that are more tissue specific. Together with increased mutation rates in the coding sequences, this suggests that similar forces of purifying selection act on coding and non-coding sequences. We propose that coding and non-coding sequences evolve concurrently following gene duplication.

  16. Activity of Posaconazole and Other Antifungal Agents against Mucorales Strains Identified by Sequencing of Internal Transcribed Spacers▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alastruey-Izquierdo, Ana; Castelli, Maria Victoria; Cuesta, Isabel; Monzon, Araceli; Cuenca-Estrella, Manuel; Rodriguez-Tudela, Juan Luis

    2009-01-01

    The antifungal susceptibility profiles of 77 clinical strains of Mucorales species, identified by internal transcribed spacer sequencing, were analyzed. MICs obtained at 24 and 48 h were compared. Amphotericin B was the most active agent against all isolates, except for Cunninghamella and Apophysomyces isolates. Posaconazole also showed good activity for all species but Cunninghamella bertholletiae. Voriconazole had no activity against any of the fungi tested. Terbinafine showed good activity, except for Rhizopus oryzae, Mucor circinelloides, and Rhizomucor variabilis isolates. PMID:19171801

  17. Activity of posaconazole and other antifungal agents against Mucorales strains identified by sequencing of internal transcribed spacers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alastruey-Izquierdo, Ana; Castelli, Maria Victoria; Cuesta, Isabel; Monzon, Araceli; Cuenca-Estrella, Manuel; Rodriguez-Tudela, Juan Luis

    2009-04-01

    The antifungal susceptibility profiles of 77 clinical strains of Mucorales species, identified by internal transcribed spacer sequencing, were analyzed. MICs obtained at 24 and 48 h were compared. Amphotericin B was the most active agent against all isolates, except for Cunninghamella and Apophysomyces isolates. Posaconazole also showed good activity for all species but Cunninghamella bertholletiae. Voriconazole had no activity against any of the fungi tested. Terbinafine showed good activity, except for Rhizopus oryzae, Mucor circinelloides, and Rhizomucor variabilis isolates.

  18. Dynamic Nature of Noncoding RNA Regulation of Adaptive Immune Response

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    Franca Citarella

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Immune response plays a fundamental role in protecting the organism from infections; however, dysregulation often occurs and can be detrimental for the organism, leading to a variety of immune-mediated diseases. Recently our understanding of the molecular and cellular networks regulating the immune response, and, in particular, adaptive immunity, has improved dramatically. For many years, much of the focus has been on the study of protein regulators; nevertheless, recent evidence points to a fundamental role for specific classes of noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs in regulating development, activation and homeostasis of the immune system. Although microRNAs (miRNAs are the most comprehensive and well-studied, a number of reports suggest the exciting possibility that long ncRNAs (lncRNAs could mediate host response and immune function. Finally, evidence is also accumulating that suggests a role for miRNAs and other small ncRNAs in autocrine, paracrine and exocrine signaling events, thus highlighting an elaborate network of regulatory interactions mediated by different classes of ncRNAs during immune response. This review will explore the multifaceted roles of ncRNAs in the adaptive immune response. In particular, we will focus on the well-established role of miRNAs and on the emerging role of lncRNAs and circulating ncRNAs, which all make indispensable contributions to the understanding of the multilayered modulation of the adaptive immune response.

  19. Rethinking the central dogma: noncoding RNAs are biologically relevant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Victoria L

    2009-01-01

    Non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) are a large class of functional molecules with over 100 unique classes described to date. ncRNAs are diverse in terms of their function and size. A relatively new class of small ncRNA, called microRNAs (miRNA), have received a great deal of attention in the literature in recent years. miRNAs are endogenously encoded gene families that demonstrate striking evolutionary conservation. miRNAs serve essential and diverse physiological functions such as differentiation and development, proliferation, maintaining cell type phenotypes, and many others. The discovery and ongoing investigation of miRNAs is part of a revolution in biology that is changing the basic concepts of gene expression and RNA functionality. A single miRNA can participate in controlling the expression of up to several hundred protein-coding genes by interacting with mRNAs, generally in 3' untranslated regions. Our new and developing understanding of miRNAs, and other ncRNAs, promises to lead to significant contributions to medicine. Specifically, miRNAs are likely to serve as the basis for novel therapies and diagnostic tools.

  20. Adaptive evolution of conserved noncoding elements in mammals.

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    Su Yeon Kim

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Conserved noncoding elements (CNCs are an abundant feature of vertebrate genomes. Some CNCs have been shown to act as cis-regulatory modules, but the function of most CNCs remains unclear. To study the evolution of CNCs, we have developed a statistical method called the "shared rates test" to identify CNCs that show significant variation in substitution rates across branches of a phylogenetic tree. We report an application of this method to alignments of 98,910 CNCs from the human, chimpanzee, dog, mouse, and rat genomes. We find that approximately 68% of CNCs evolve according to a null model where, for each CNC, a single parameter models the level of constraint acting throughout the phylogeny linking these five species. The remaining approximately 32% of CNCs show departures from the basic model including speed-ups and slow-downs on particular branches and occasionally multiple rate changes on different branches. We find that a subset of the significant CNCs have evolved significantly faster than the local neutral rate on a particular branch, providing strong evidence for adaptive evolution in these CNCs. The distribution of these signals on the phylogeny suggests that adaptive evolution of CNCs occurs in occasional short bursts of evolution. Our analyses suggest a large set of promising targets for future functional studies of adaptation.

  1. Associating schizophrenia, long non-coding RNAs and neurostructural dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merelo, Veronica; Durand, Dante; Lescallette, Adam R.; Vrana, Kent E.; Hong, L. Elliot; Faghihi, Mohammad Ali; Bellon, Alfredo

    2015-01-01

    Several lines of evidence indicate that schizophrenia has a strong genetic component. But the exact nature and functional role of this genetic component in the pathophysiology of this mental illness remains a mystery. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are a recently discovered family of molecules that regulate gene transcription through a variety of means. Consequently, lncRNAs could help us bring together apparent unrelated findings in schizophrenia; namely, genomic deficiencies on one side and neuroimaging, as well as postmortem results on the other. In fact, the most consistent finding in schizophrenia is decreased brain size together with enlarged ventricles. This anomaly appears to originate from shorter and less ramified dendrites and axons. But a decrease in neuronal arborizations cannot explain the complex pathophysiology of this psychotic disorder; however, dynamic changes in neuronal structure present throughout life could. It is well recognized that the structure of developing neurons is extremely plastic. This structural plasticity was thought to stop with brain development. However, breakthrough discoveries have shown that neuronal structure retains some degree of plasticity throughout life. What the neuroscientific field is still trying to understand is how these dynamic changes are regulated and lncRNAs represent promising candidates to fill this knowledge gap. Here, we present evidence that associates specific lncRNAs with schizophrenia. We then discuss the potential role of lncRNAs in neurostructural dynamics. Finally, we explain how dynamic neurostructural modifications present throughout life could, in theory, reconcile apparent unrelated findings in schizophrenia. PMID:26483630

  2. Associating schizophrenia, long non-coding RNAs and neurostructural dynamics

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    Veronica eMerelo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Several lines of evidence indicate that schizophrenia has a strong genetic component. But the exact nature and functional role of this genetic component in the pathophysiology of this mental illness remains a mystery. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs are a recently discovered family of molecules that regulate gene transcription through a variety of means. Consequently, lncRNAs could help us bring together apparent unrelated findings in schizophrenia; namely, genomic deficiencies on one side and neuroimaging, as well as postmortem results on the other. In fact, the most consistent finding in schizophrenia is decreased brain size together with enlarged ventricles. This anomaly appears to originate from shorter and less ramified dendrites and axons. But a decrease in neuronal arborizations cannot explain the complex pathophysiology of this psychotic disorder; however, dynamic changes in neuronal structure present throughout life could. It is well recognized that the structure of developing neurons is extremely plastic. This structural plasticity was thought to stop with brain development. However, breakthrough discoveries have shown that neuronal structure retains some degree of plasticity throughout life. What the neuroscientific field is still trying to understand is how these dynamic changes are regulated and lncRNAs represent promising candidates to fill this knowledge gap. Here, we present evidence that associates specific lncRNAs with schizophrenia. We then discuss the potential role of lncRNAs in neurostructural dynamics. Finally, we explain how dynamic neurostructural modifications present throughout life could, in theory, reconcile apparent unrelated findings in schizophrenia.

  3. Regulatory Non-Coding RNAs in Pluripotent Stem Cells

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    Alessandro Rosa

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The most part of our genome encodes for RNA transcripts are never translated into proteins. These include families of RNA molecules with a regulatory function, which can be arbitrarily subdivided in short (less than 200 nucleotides and long non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs. MicroRNAs, which act post-transcriptionally to repress the function of target mRNAs, belong to the first group. Included in the second group are multi-exonic and polyadenylated long ncRNAs (lncRNAs, localized either in the nucleus, where they can associate with chromatin remodeling complexes to regulate transcription, or in the cytoplasm, acting as post-transcriptional regulators. Pluripotent stem cells, such as embryonic stem cells (ESCs or induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs, represent useful systems for modeling normal development and human diseases, as well as promising tools for regenerative medicine. To fully explore their potential, however, a deep understanding of the molecular basis of stemness is crucial. In recent years, increasing evidence of the importance of regulation by ncRNAs in pluripotent cells is accumulating. In this review, we will discuss recent findings pointing to multiple roles played by regulatory ncRNAs in ESC and iPSCs, where they act in concert with signaling pathways, transcriptional regulatory circuitries and epigenetic factors to modulate the balance between pluripotency and differentiation.

  4. Expression Signatures of Long Noncoding RNAs in Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis

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    Xiao-Yang Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS, the most common pediatric spinal deformity, is considered a complex genetic disease. Causing genes and pathogenesis of AIS are still unclear. This study was designed to identify differentially expressed long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs involving the pathogenesis of AIS. Methods. We first performed comprehensive screening of lncRNA and mRNA in AIS patients and healthy children using Agilent human lncRNA + mRNA Array V3.0 microarray. LncRNAs expression in different AIS patients was further evaluated using quantitative PCR. Results. A total of 139 lncRNAs and 546 mRNAs were differentially expressed between AIS patients and healthy control. GO and Pathway analysis showed that these mRNAs might be involved in bone mineralization, neuromuscular junction, skeletal system morphogenesis, nucleotide and nucleic acid metabolism, and regulation of signal pathway. Four lncRNAs (ENST00000440778.1, ENST00000602322.1, ENST00000414894.1, and TCONS_00028768 were differentially expressed between different patients when grouped according to age, height, classification, severity of scoliosis, and Risser grade. Conclusions. This study demonstrates the abnormal expression of lncRNAs and mRNAs in AIS, and the expression of some lncRNAs was related to clinical features. This study is helpful for further understanding of lncRNAs in pathogenesis, treatment, and prognosis of AIS.

  5. DNA watermarks in non-coding regulatory sequences

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    Pyka Martin

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background DNA watermarks can be applied to identify the unauthorized use of genetically modified organisms. It has been shown that coding regions can be used to encrypt information into living organisms by using the DNA-Crypt algorithm. Yet, if the sequence of interest presents a non-coding DNA sequence, either the function of a resulting functional RNA molecule or a regulatory sequence, such as a promoter, could be affected. For our studies we used the small cytoplasmic RNA 1 in yeast and the lac promoter region of Escherichia coli. Findings The lac promoter was deactivated by the integrated watermark. In addition, the RNA molecules displayed altered configurations after introducing a watermark, but surprisingly were functionally intact, which has been verified by analyzing the growth characteristics of both wild type and watermarked scR1 transformed yeast cells. In a third approach we introduced a second overlapping watermark into the lac promoter, which did not affect the promoter activity. Conclusion Even though the watermarked RNA and one of the watermarked promoters did not show any significant differences compared to the wild type RNA and wild type promoter region, respectively, it cannot be generalized that other RNA molecules or regulatory sequences behave accordingly. Therefore, we do not recommend integrating watermark sequences into regulatory regions.

  6. Expression and Functional Studies on the Noncoding RNA, PRINS

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    Márta Széll

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available PRINS, a noncoding RNA identified earlier by our research group, contributes to psoriasis susceptibility and cellular stress response. We have now studied the cellular and histological distribution of PRINS by using in situ hybridization and demonstrated variable expressions in different human tissues and a consistent staining pattern in epidermal keratinocytes and in vitro cultured keratinocytes. To identify the cellular function(s of PRINS, we searched for a direct interacting partner(s of this stress-induced molecule. In HaCaT and NHEK cell lysates, the protein proved to be nucleophosmin (NPM protein as a potential physical interactor with PRINS. Immunohistochemical experiments revealed an elevated expression of NPM in the dividing cells of the basal layers of psoriatic involved skin samples as compared with healthy and psoriatic uninvolved samples. Others have previously shown that NPM is a ubiquitously expressed nucleolar phosphoprotein which shuttles to the nucleoplasm after UV-B irradiation in fibroblasts and cancer cells. We detected a similar translocation of NPM in UV-B-irradiated cultured keratinocytes. The gene-specific silencing of PRINS resulted in the retention of NPM in the nucleolus of UV-B-irradiated keratinocytes; suggesting that PRINS may play a role in the NPM-mediated cellular stress response in the skin.

  7. The noncoding-RNA landscape in cardiovascular health and disease

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    Vittoria Di Mauro

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The cardiovascular system plays a pivotal role in regulating and maintaining homeostasis in the human body. Therefore any alteration in regulatory networks that orchestrate heart development as well as adaptation to physiological and environmental stress might result in pathological conditions, which represent the leading cause of death worldwide [1]. The latest advances in genome-wide techniques challenged the “protein-central dogma” with the discovery of the so-called non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs. Despite their lack of protein coding potential, ncRNAs have been largely demonstrated to regulate the majority of biological processes and have also been largely implicated in cardiovascular disorders. This review will first discuss the important mechanistic aspects of some of the classes of ncRNAs such as biogenesis, mechanism of action, as well as their involvement in cardiac diseases. The ncRNA potential uses as therapeutic molecules, with a specific focus on the latest technologies for their in vivo delivery as drug targets, will be described.

  8. In Vivo Enhancer Analysis Chromosome 16 Conserved NoncodingSequences

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    Pennacchio, Len A.; Ahituv, Nadav; Moses, Alan M.; Nobrega,Marcelo; Prabhakar, Shyam; Shoukry, Malak; Minovitsky, Simon; Visel,Axel; Dubchak, Inna; Holt, Amy; Lewis, Keith D.; Plajzer-Frick, Ingrid; Akiyama, Jennifer; De Val, Sarah; Afzal, Veena; Black, Brian L.; Couronne, Olivier; Eisen, Michael B.; Rubin, Edward M.

    2006-02-01

    The identification of enhancers with predicted specificitiesin vertebrate genomes remains a significant challenge that is hampered bya lack of experimentally validated training sets. In this study, weleveraged extreme evolutionary sequence conservation as a filter toidentify putative gene regulatory elements and characterized the in vivoenhancer activity of human-fish conserved and ultraconserved1 noncodingelements on human chromosome 16 as well as such elements from elsewherein the genome. We initially tested 165 of these extremely conservedsequences in a transgenic mouse enhancer assay and observed that 48percent (79/165) functioned reproducibly as tissue-specific enhancers ofgene expression at embryonic day 11.5. While driving expression in abroad range of anatomical structures in the embryo, the majority of the79 enhancers drove expression in various regions of the developingnervous system. Studying a set of DNA elements that specifically droveforebrain expression, we identified DNA signatures specifically enrichedin these elements and used these parameters to rank all ~;3,400human-fugu conserved noncoding elements in the human genome. The testingof the top predictions in transgenic mice resulted in a three-foldenrichment for sequences with forebrain enhancer activity. These datadramatically expand the catalogue of in vivo-characterized human geneenhancers and illustrate the future utility of such training sets for avariety of iological applications including decoding the regulatoryvocabulary of the human genome.

  9. The noncoding human genome and the future of personalised medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowie, Philip; Hay, Elizabeth A; MacKenzie, Alasdair

    2015-01-30

    Non-coding cis-regulatory sequences act as the 'eyes' of the genome and their role is to perceive, organise and relay cellular communication information to RNA polymerase II at gene promoters. The evolution of these sequences, that include enhancers, silencers, insulators and promoters, has progressed in multicellular organisms to the extent that cis-regulatory sequences make up as much as 10% of the human genome. Parallel evidence suggests that 75% of polymorphisms associated with heritable disease occur within predicted cis-regulatory sequences that effectively alter the 'perception' of cis-regulatory sequences or render them blind to cell communication cues. Cis-regulatory sequences also act as major functional targets of epigenetic modification thus representing an important conduit through which changes in DNA-methylation affects disease susceptibility. The objectives of the current review are (1) to describe what has been learned about identifying and characterising cis-regulatory sequences since the sequencing of the human genome; (2) to discuss their role in interpreting cell signalling pathways pathways; and (3) outline how this role may be altered by polymorphisms and epigenetic changes. We argue that the importance of the cis-regulatory genome for the interpretation of cellular communication pathways cannot be overstated and understanding its role in health and disease will be critical for the future development of personalised medicine.

  10. Isolation of oogenesis-specific genes transcribed in the germ-line of Calliphora erythrocephala and Drosophila melanogaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tucker, M.A.

    1988-01-01

    Poly(A) + RNA from early or mid-stage ovarian follicles of C. erythrocephala was used to generate radiolabelled oogenesis-specific cDNA probes for screening the phage libraries. A cDNA probe made from mid-stage embryo poly(A) + RNA was used as the differential screening probe. Thus plaques hybridizing to the two oogenesis-specific probes but not the mid-stage embryo probe were selected as potentially containing oogenesis-specific genes. Two further rounds of screening were used to eliminate false positives and, after plaque purification, restriction digests of the remaining clones were screened by Southern blot hybridization to identify DNA fragments transcribed in an oogenesis-specific manner. In situ hybridization to sections of ovarian follicles has been used to determine the cell types within the follicles in which the various genes are expressed. Radiolabelled RNA probes for four of the C. erythrocephala oogenesis-specific clones and the two D. melanogaster clones have been hybridized to ovarian follicles. Further studies have been concentrated on the two germ-line transcribed, oogenesis-specific clones isolated from the D. melanogaster clone library. Detailed genetic mapping of the DA clone and of these mutations was performed to determine which mutations might represent the DA gene. cDNA clones have been isolated for the transcribed region of clone DA and have been used to further define the transcription unit from this region of the D. melanogaster genome

  11. The long non-coding RNA GAS5 cooperates with the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E to regulate c-Myc translation.

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    Guangzhen Hu

    Full Text Available Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs are important regulators of transcription; however, their involvement in protein translation is not well known. Here we explored whether the lncRNA GAS5 is associated with translation initiation machinery and regulates translation. GAS5 was enriched with eukaryotic translation initiation factor-4E (eIF4E in an RNA-immunoprecipitation assay using lymphoma cell lines. We identified two RNA binding motifs within eIF4E protein and the deletion of each motif inhibited the binding of GAS5 with eIF4E. To confirm the role of GAS5 in translation regulation, GAS5 siRNA and in vitro transcribed GAS5 RNA were used to knock down or overexpress GAS5, respectively. GAS5 siRNA had no effect on global protein translation but did specifically increase c-Myc protein level without an effect on c-Myc mRNA. The mechanism of this increase in c-Myc protein was enhanced association of c-Myc mRNA with the polysome without any effect on protein stability. In contrast, overexpression of in vitro transcribed GAS5 RNA suppressed c-Myc protein without affecting c-Myc mRNA. Interestingly, GAS5 was found to be bound with c-Myc mRNA, suggesting that GAS5 regulates c-Myc translation through lncRNA-mRNA interaction. Our findings have uncovered a role of GAS5 lncRNA in translation regulation through its interactions with eIF4E and c-Myc mRNA.

  12. Sequence analysis of the 5.8S ribosomal DNA and internal transcribed spacers (ITS1 and ITS2) from five species of the Oxalis tuberosa alliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosto, D S; Hopp, H E

    1996-01-01

    The internal transcribed spacer region (ITS1 and ITS2) of the 18S-25S nuclear ribosomal DNA sequence and the intervening 5.8S region from five species of the genus Oxalis was amplified by polymerase chain reaction and subjected to direct DNA sequencing. On the basis of cytogenetic studies some species of this genus were postulated to be related by the number of chromosomes. Sequence homologies in the ITS1, 5.8S and ITS2 among species are in good agreement with previous relationships established on the basis of chromosome numbers. We also identified a highly conserved sequence of six bp in the ITS1, reported to be present in a wide range of flowering plants, but not in the Oxalidaceae family to which the genus Oxalis belongs to.

  13. Evaluation of Long Stress-Induced Non-coding Transcripts 5 Polymorphism in Iranian Patients with Bladder Cancer

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    Mahla Nazari

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bladder cancer (BC is the most commonly diagnosed genitourinary cancer in Iran, presented in both men and women. BC is a multifactorial trait resulting from the complex interaction between several genes and environmental factors. Long stress-induced non-coding transcript 5 (LSINCT5, a member of the long non-coding RNAs, is abundantly expressed in high proliferative cells, as well as the cells vulnerable to cellular stress in response to chemical carcinogens. This case-control study aimed to determine any association between LSINCT5 rs2962586 polymorphism and bladder cancer. Materials and Methods: A group of 150 patients with BC were compared with 143 subjects as a control group. Genotyping of the rs2962586 polymorphism was done using tetra- primer amplification refractory mutation system-polymerase chain reaction (T-ARMS PCR method. Results: Genotype and allele distribution were not significantly different between the case and control groups. Smoking was found to be the confounding risk factor for bladder cancer. Conclusion: Considering the result of our analyses, it seems that LSINCT5 could not affect individual susceptibility to BC among Iranian patients, however, it can be considered as a disease predictor among smokers.

  14. Insights into inner ear-specific gene regulation: epigenetics and non-coding RNAs in inner ear development and regeneration

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    Avraham, Karen B.

    2016-01-01

    The vertebrate inner ear houses highly specialized sensory organs, tuned to detect and encode sound, head motion and gravity. Gene expression programs under the control of transcription factors orchestrate the formation and specialization of the non-sensory inner ear labyrinth and its sensory constituents. More recently, epigenetic factors and non-coding RNAs emerged as an additional layer of gene regulation, both in inner ear development and disease. In this review, we provide an overview on how epigenetic modifications and non-coding RNAs, in particular microRNAs (miRNAs), influence gene expression and summarize recent discoveries that highlight their critical role in the proper formation of the inner ear labyrinth and its sensory organs. In contrast to non-mammalian vertebrates, adult mammals lack the ability to regenerate inner ear mechano-sensory hair cells. Finally, we discuss recent insights into how epigenetic factors and miRNAs may facilitate, or in the case of mammals, restrict sensory hair cell regeneration. PMID:27836639

  15. Identification of long non-coding RNAs in two anthozoan species and their possible implications for coral bleaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chen; Morlighem, Jean-Étienne R L; Cai, Jing; Liao, Qiwen; Perez, Carlos Daniel; Gomes, Paula Braga; Guo, Min; Rádis-Baptista, Gandhi; Lee, Simon Ming-Yuen

    2017-07-13

    Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been shown to play regulatory roles in a diverse range of biological processes and are associated with the outcomes of various diseases. The majority of studies about lncRNAs focus on model organisms, with lessened investigation in non-model organisms to date. Herein, we have undertaken an investigation on lncRNA in two zoanthids (cnidarian): Protolpalythoa varibilis and Palythoa caribaeorum. A total of 11,206 and 13,240 lncRNAs were detected in P. variabilis and P. caribaeorum transcriptome, respectively. Comparison using NONCODE database indicated that the majority of these lncRNAs is taxonomically species-restricted with no identifiable orthologs. Even so, we found cases in which short regions of P. caribaeorum's lncRNAs were similar to vertebrate species' lncRNAs, and could be associated with lncRNA conserved regulatory functions. Consequently, some high-confidence lncRNA-mRNA interactions were predicted based on such conserved regions, therefore revealing possible involvement of lncRNAs in posttranscriptional processing and regulation in anthozoans. Moreover, investigation of differentially expressed lncRNAs, in healthy colonies and colonial individuals undergoing natural bleaching, indicated that some up-regulated lncRNAs in P. caribaeorum could posttranscriptionally regulate the mRNAs encoding proteins of Ras-mediated signal transduction pathway and components of innate immune-system, which could contribute to the molecular response of coral bleaching.

  16. Prognostic value of long non-coding RNA TUG1 in various tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Na; Shi, Ke; Kang, Xinmei; Li, Wei

    2017-09-12

    Taurine up-regulated gene 1 (TUG1) is a long non-coding RNA (lncRNA), has been reported that be dysregulated in various tumors, involved in proliferation and apoptosis in a variety of tumor cells. To detect the clinical significance of TUG1 expression in tumor patients, we carried out current systematic review and meta-analysis investigating its relation with the prognosis and clinicopathological features of cancers. A total of 15 studies comprise 1560 patients were analyzed. The pooled results showed that no significant relationship between high TUG1 expression and overall survival (OS) (HR = 1.28, 95% CI: 0.96-1.69, P = 0.091) in various tumors. In the subgroup analysis by cancer type, elevated TUG1 expression was associated with poorer survival in cancer patients with high TUG1 expression subgroup but better survival in patients with low TUG1 expression subgroup. Over-expression of TUG1 associated with significantly unfavorable survival for bladder cancer (HR=2.67, 95% CI: 1.47-4.87, P = 0.001). Up-regulation of TUG1 correlated with distant metastasis (DM) (OR = 4.22, 95% CI: 2.66-6.70, P TUG1 may be a useful prognostic biomarker in cancer patients.

  17. CRNDE: a long non-coding RNA involved in CanceR, Neurobiology and DEvelopment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blake C. Ellis

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available CRNDE is the gene symbol for Colorectal Neoplasia Differentially Expressed (non protein-coding, a long non-coding RNA (lncRNA gene that expresses multiple splice variants and displays a very tissue-specific pattern of expression. CRNDE was initially identified as a lncRNA whose expression is highly elevated in colorectal cancer, but it is also upregulated in many other solid tumors and in leukemias. Indeed, CRNDE is the most upregulated lncRNA in gliomas and here, as in other cancers, it is associated with a stemness signature. CRNDE is expressed in specific regions within the human and mouse brain; the mouse ortholog is high in induced pluripotent stem cells and increases further during neuronal differentiation. We suggest that CRNDE is a multifunctional lncRNA whose different splice forms provide specific functional scaffolds for regulatory complexes, such as the polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2 and CoREST chromatin-modifying complexes, which CRNDE helps pilot to target genes.

  18. Long Noncoding RNAs in Digestive System Malignancies: A Novel Class of Cancer Biomarkers and Therapeutic Targets?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athina Kladi-Skandali

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available High throughput methodologies have revealed the existence of an unexpectedly large number of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs. The unconventional role of lncRNAs in gene expression regulation and their broad implication in oncogenic and tumor suppressive pathways have introduced lncRNAs as novel biological tumor markers. The most prominent example of lncRNAs application in routine clinical practice is PCA3, a FDA-approved biomarker for prostate cancer. Regarding digestive system malignancies, the oncogenic HOTAIR is one of the most widely studied lncRNAs in the preclinical level and has already been identified as a potent prognostic marker for major malignancies of the gastrointestinal tract. Here, we provide an overview of recent findings regarding the emerging role of lncRNAs not only as key regulators of cancer initiation and progression in colon, stomach, pancreatic, liver, and esophageal cancers, but also as reliable tumor markers and therapeutic tools. lncRNAs can be easily, rapidly, and cost-effectively determined in tissues, serum, and gastric juice, making them highly versatile analytes. Taking also into consideration the largely unmet clinical need for early diagnosis and more accurate prognostic/predictive markers for gastrointestinal cancer patients, we comment upon the perspectives of lncRNAs as efficient molecular tools that could aid in the clinical management.

  19. Long noncoding RNA LISPR1 is required for S1P signaling and endothelial cell function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josipovic, Ivana; Pflüger, Beatrice; Fork, Christian; Vasconez, Andrea E; Oo, James A; Hitzel, Juliane; Seredinski, Sandra; Gamen, Elisabetta; Heringdorf, Dagmar Meyer Zu; Chen, Wei; Looso, Mario; Pullamsetti, Soni Savai; Brandes, Ralf P; Leisegang, Matthias S

    2018-03-01

    Sphingosine-1-Phosphate (S1P) is a potent signaling lipid. The effects of S1P are mediated by the five S1P receptors (S1PR). In the endothelium S1PR1 is the predominant receptor and thus S1PR1 abundance limits S1P signaling. Recently, lncRNAs were identified as a novel class of molecules regulating gene expression. Interestingly, the lncRNA NONHSAT004848 (LISPR1, Long intergenic noncoding RNA antisense to S1PR1), is closely positioned to the S1P1 receptors gene and in part shares its promoter region. We hypothesize that LISPR1 controls endothelial S1PR1 expression and thus S1P-induced signaling in endothelial cells. In vitro transcription and translation as well as coding potential assessment showed that LISPR1 is indeed noncoding. LISPR1 was localized in both cytoplasm and nucleus and harbored a PolyA tail at the 3'end. In human umbilical vein endothelial cells, as well as human lung tissue, qRT-PCR and RNA-Seq revealed high expression of LISPR1. S1PR1 and LISPR1 were downregulated in human pulmonary diseases such as COPD. LISPR1 but also S1PR1 were induced by inflammation, shear stress and statins. Knockdown of LISPR1 attenuated endothelial S1P-induced migration and spheroid outgrowth of endothelial cells. LISPR1 knockdown decreased S1PR1 expression, which was paralleled by an increase of the binding of the transcriptional repressor ZNF354C to the S1PR1 promoter and a reduction of the recruitment of RNA Polymerase II to the S1PR1 5'end. This resulted in attenuated S1PR1 expression and attenuated S1P downstream signaling. Collectively, the disease relevant lncRNA LISPR1 acts as a novel regulatory unit important for S1PR1 expression and endothelial cell function. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. MicroRNA-encoding long non-coding RNAs

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    Zhu Xiaopeng

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent analysis of the mouse transcriptional data has revealed the existence of ~34,000 messenger-like non-coding RNAs (ml-ncRNAs. Whereas the functional properties of these ml-ncRNAs are beginning to be unravelled, no functional information is available for the large majority of these transcripts. Results A few ml-ncRNA have been shown to have genomic loci that overlap with microRNA loci, leading us to suspect that a fraction of ml-ncRNA may encode microRNAs. We therefore developed an algorithm (PriMir for specifically detecting potential microRNA-encoding transcripts in the entire set of 34,030 mouse full-length ml-ncRNAs. In combination with mouse-rat sequence conservation, this algorithm detected 97 (80 of them were novel strong miRNA-encoding candidates, and for 52 of these we obtained experimental evidence for the existence of their corresponding mature microRNA by microarray and stem-loop RT-PCR. Sequence analysis of the microRNA-encoding RNAs revealed an internal motif, whose presence correlates strongly (R2 = 0.9, P-value = 2.2 × 10-16 with the occurrence of stem-loops with characteristics of known pre-miRNAs, indicating the presence of a larger number microRNA-encoding RNAs (from 300 up to 800 in the ml-ncRNAs population. Conclusion Our work highlights a unique group of ml-ncRNAs and offers clues to their functions.

  1. A 3' UTR-derived non-coding RNA RibS increases expression of cfa and promotes biofilm formation of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xin; Liu, Rui; Tang, Hao; Osei-Adjei, George; Xu, Shungao; Zhang, Ying; Huang, Xinxiang

    2018-05-08

    Bacterial non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) are widely studied and found to play important roles in regulating various cellular processes. Recently, many ncRNAs have been discovered to be transcribed or processed from 3' untranslated regions (3' UTRs). Here we reported a novel 3' UTR-derived ncRNA, RibS, which could influence biofilm formation of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi). RibS was confirmed to be a ∼700 nt processed product produced by RNase III-catalyzed cleavage from the 3' UTR of riboflavin synthase subunit alpha mRNA, RibE. Overexpression of RibS increased the expression of the cyclopropane fatty acid synthase gene, cfa, which was located at the antisense strand. Biofilm formation of S. Typhi was enhanced by overexpressing RibS both in the wild type strain and cfa deletion mutant. Deletion of cfa attenuated biofilm formation of S. Typhi, while complementation of cfa partly restored the phenotype. Moreover, overexpressing cfa enhanced the biofilm formation of S. Typhi. In summary, RibS has been identified as a novel ncRNA derived from the 3' UTR of RibE that promotes biofilm formation of S. Typhi, and it appears to do so, at least in part, by increasing the expression of cfa. Copyright © 2018 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Noncoding Genomics in Gastric Cancer and the Gastric Precancerous Cascade: Pathogenesis and Biomarkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Sandoval-Bórquez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Gastric cancer is the fifth most common cancer and the third leading cause of cancer-related death, whose patterns vary among geographical regions and ethnicities. It is a multifactorial disease, and its development depends on infection by Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV, host genetic factors, and environmental factors. The heterogeneity of the disease has begun to be unraveled by a comprehensive mutational evaluation of primary tumors. The low-abundance of mutations suggests that other mechanisms participate in the evolution of the disease, such as those found through analyses of noncoding genomics. Noncoding genomics includes single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs, regulation of gene expression through DNA methylation of promoter sites, miRNAs, other noncoding RNAs in regulatory regions, and other topics. These processes and molecules ultimately control gene expression. Potential biomarkers are appearing from analyses of noncoding genomics. This review focuses on noncoding genomics and potential biomarkers in the context of gastric cancer and the gastric precancerous cascade.

  3. Impact of nutrition on noncoding RNA epigenetics in breast and gynecological cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosanna H. E. Krakowsky

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Cancer is the second leading cause of death in females. According to the American Cancer Society, there are 327,660 new cases in breast and gynecological cancers estimated in 2014, placing emphasis on the need for cancer prevention and new cancer treatment strategies. One important approach to cancer prevention involves phytochemicals, biologically active compounds derived from plants. A variety of studies on the impact of dietary compounds found in cruciferous vegetables, green tea and spices like curry and black pepper have revealed epigenetic changes in female cancers. Thus, an important emerging topic comprises epigenetic changes due to the modulation of noncoding RNA levels. Since it has been shown that noncoding RNAs such as microRNAs and long noncoding RNAs are aberrantly expressed in cancer and furthermore are linked to distinct cancer phenotypes, understanding the effects of dietary compounds and supplements on the epigenetic modulator noncoding RNA is of great interest. This article reviews the current findings on nutrition-induced changes in breast and gynecological cancers at the noncoding RNA level.

  4. Long non-coding RNA TUG1 promotes cell proliferation and metastasis in human breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Teng; Liu, Yun; Xiao, Haifeng; Xu, Guanghui

    2017-07-01

    Long non-coding RNAs (LncRNAs) utilize a wide variety of mechanisms to regulate RNAs or proteins on the transcriptional or post-transcriptional levels. Accumulating studies have identified numerous LncRNAs to exert critical effects on different physiological processes, genetic disorders, and human diseases. Both clinical tissues from breast cancer patients and cultured cells were used for the qRT-PCR analysis. Specific siRNAs were included to assess the roles of TUG1 with cell viability assay, transwell assay, and cell apoptosis assay, respectively. The expression of TUG1 was enhanced in breast cancerous tissues and in highly invasive breast cancer cell lines and was associated with clinical variables, including tumor size, distant metastasis and TNM staging. Knockdown of TUG1 significantly slowed down cell proliferation, cell migration, and invasion in breast cancer cell lines MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-436. In addition, cell apoptotic rate was shown to increase upon siTUG1 treatment as evidenced by increases of the activities of caspase-3 and caspase-9. The identification of TUG1 as a critical mediator of breast cancer progression implied that it might serve as a biomarker for the diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer in clinic.

  5. Long noncoding RNA-MEG3 is involved in diabetes mellitus-related microvascular dysfunction

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    Qiu, Gui-Zhen [Department of Health, Linyi People' s Hospital, Shandong University, Shandong (China); Tian, Wei [Department of Nursing, Linyi Oncosurgical Hospital, Shandong (China); Fu, Hai-Tao [Department of Ophthalmology, Linyi People' s Hospital, Shandong University, Shandong (China); Li, Chao-Peng, E-mail: lcpcn@163.com [Eye Institute of Xuzhou, Jiangsu (China); Liu, Ban, E-mail: liuban@126.com [Department of Cardiology, Shanghai Tenth People' s Hospital, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai (China)

    2016-02-26

    Microvascular dysfunction is an important characteristic of diabetic retinopathy. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) play important roles in diverse biological processes. In this study, we investigated the role of lncRNA-MEG3 in diabetes-related microvascular dysfunction. We show that MEG3 expression level is significantly down-regulated in the retinas of STZ-induced diabetic mice, and endothelial cells upon high glucose and oxidative stress. MEG3 knockdown aggravates retinal vessel dysfunction in vivo, as shown by serious capillary degeneration, and increased microvascular leakage and inflammation. MEG3 knockdown also regulates retinal endothelial cell proliferation, migration, and tube formation in vitro. The role of MEG3 in endothelial cell function is mainly mediated by the activation of PI3k/Akt signaling. MEG3 up-regulation may serve as a therapeutic strategy for treating diabetes-related microvascular complications. - Highlights: • LncRNA-MEG3 level is down-regulated upon diabetic stress. • MEG3 knockdown aggravates retinal vascular dysfunction in vivo. • MEG3 regulates retinal endothelial cell function in vitro. • MEG3 regulates endothelial cell function through PI3k/Akt signaling.

  6. Long noncoding RNA-MEG3 is involved in diabetes mellitus-related microvascular dysfunction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu, Gui-Zhen; Tian, Wei; Fu, Hai-Tao; Li, Chao-Peng; Liu, Ban

    2016-01-01

    Microvascular dysfunction is an important characteristic of diabetic retinopathy. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) play important roles in diverse biological processes. In this study, we investigated the role of lncRNA-MEG3 in diabetes-related microvascular dysfunction. We show that MEG3 expression level is significantly down-regulated in the retinas of STZ-induced diabetic mice, and endothelial cells upon high glucose and oxidative stress. MEG3 knockdown aggravates retinal vessel dysfunction in vivo, as shown by serious capillary degeneration, and increased microvascular leakage and inflammation. MEG3 knockdown also regulates retinal endothelial cell proliferation, migration, and tube formation in vitro. The role of MEG3 in endothelial cell function is mainly mediated by the activation of PI3k/Akt signaling. MEG3 up-regulation may serve as a therapeutic strategy for treating diabetes-related microvascular complications. - Highlights: • LncRNA-MEG3 level is down-regulated upon diabetic stress. • MEG3 knockdown aggravates retinal vascular dysfunction in vivo. • MEG3 regulates retinal endothelial cell function in vitro. • MEG3 regulates endothelial cell function through PI3k/Akt signaling.

  7. Sequence-based heuristics for faster annotation of non-coding RNA families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberg, Zasha; Ruzzo, Walter L

    2006-01-01

    Non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) are functional RNA molecules that do not code for proteins. Covariance Models (CMs) are a useful statistical tool to find new members of an ncRNA gene family in a large genome database, using both sequence and, importantly, RNA secondary structure information. Unfortunately, CM searches are extremely slow. Previously, we created rigorous filters, which provably sacrifice none of a CM's accuracy, while making searches significantly faster for virtually all ncRNA families. However, these rigorous filters make searches slower than heuristics could be. In this paper we introduce profile HMM-based heuristic filters. We show that their accuracy is usually superior to heuristics based on BLAST. Moreover, we compared our heuristics with those used in tRNAscan-SE, whose heuristics incorporate a significant amount of work specific to tRNAs, where our heuristics are generic to any ncRNA. Performance was roughly comparable, so we expect that our heuristics provide a high-quality solution that--unlike family-specific solutions--can scale to hundreds of ncRNA families. The source code is available under GNU Public License at the supplementary web site.

  8. An atlas of human long non-coding RNAs with accurate 5′ ends

    KAUST Repository

    Hon, Chung-Chau

    2017-02-28

    Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are largely heterogeneous and functionally uncharacterized. Here, using FANTOM5 cap analysis of gene expression (CAGE) data, we integrate multiple transcript collections to generate a comprehensive atlas of 27,919 human lncRNA genes with high-confidence 5′ ends and expression profiles across 1,829 samples from the major human primary cell types and tissues. Genomic and epigenomic classification of these lncRNAs reveals that most intergenic lncRNAs originate from enhancers rather than from promoters. Incorporating genetic and expression data, we show that lncRNAs overlapping trait-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms are specifically expressed in cell types relevant to the traits, implicating these lncRNAs in multiple diseases. We further demonstrate that lncRNAs overlapping expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL)-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms of messenger RNAs are co-expressed with the corresponding messenger RNAs, suggesting their potential roles in transcriptional regulation. Combining these findings with conservation data, we identify 19,175 potentially functional lncRNAs in the human genome.

  9. Noncoding origins of anthropoid traits and a new null model of transposon functionalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Rosario, Ricardo C H; Rayan, Nirmala Arul; Prabhakar, Shyam

    2014-09-01

    Little is known about novel genetic elements that drove the emergence of anthropoid primates. We exploited the sequencing of the marmoset genome to identify 23,849 anthropoid-specific constrained (ASC) regions and confirmed their robust functional signatures. Of the ASC base pairs, 99.7% were noncoding, suggesting that novel anthropoid functional elements were overwhelmingly cis-regulatory. ASCs were highly enriched in loci associated with fetal brain development, motor coordination, neurotransmission, and vision, thus providing a large set of candidate elements for exploring the molecular basis of hallmark primate traits. We validated ASC192 as a primate-specific enhancer in proliferative zones of the developing brain. Unexpectedly, transposable elements (TEs) contributed to >56% of ASCs, and almost all TE families showed functional potential similar to that of nonrepetitive DNA. Three L1PA repeat-derived ASCs displayed coherent eye-enhancer function, thus demonstrating that the "gene-battery" model of TE functionalization applies to enhancers in vivo. Our study provides fundamental insights into genome evolution and the origins of anthropoid phenotypes and supports an elegantly simple new null model of TE exaptation. © 2014 del Rosario et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  10. From structure prediction to genomic screens for novel non-coding RNAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorodkin, Jan; Hofacker, Ivo L

    2011-08-01

    Non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) are receiving more and more attention not only as an abundant class of genes, but also as regulatory structural elements (some located in mRNAs). A key feature of RNA function is its structure. Computational methods were developed early for folding and prediction of RNA structure with the aim of assisting in functional analysis. With the discovery of more and more ncRNAs, it has become clear that a large fraction of these are highly structured. Interestingly, a large part of the structure is comprised of regular Watson-Crick and GU wobble base pairs. This and the increased amount of available genomes have made it possible to employ structure-based methods for genomic screens. The field has moved from folding prediction of single sequences to computational screens for ncRNAs in genomic sequence using the RNA structure as the main characteristic feature. Whereas early methods focused on energy-directed folding of single sequences, comparative analysis based on structure preserving changes of base pairs has been efficient in improving accuracy, and today this constitutes a key component in genomic screens. Here, we cover the basic principles of RNA folding and touch upon some of the concepts in current methods that have been applied in genomic screens for de novo RNA structures in searches for novel ncRNA genes and regulatory RNA structure on mRNAs. We discuss the strengths and weaknesses of the different strategies and how they can complement each other.

  11. Urinary long noncoding RNAs in nonmuscle-invasive bladder cancer: new architects in cancer prognostic biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terracciano, Daniela; Ferro, Matteo; Terreri, Sara; Lucarelli, Giuseppe; D'Elia, Carolina; Musi, Gennaro; de Cobelli, Ottavio; Mirone, Vincenzo; Cimmino, Amelia

    2017-06-01

    Several reports over the last 10 years provided evidence that long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are often altered in bladder cancers. lncRNAs are longer than 200 nucleotides and function as important regulators of gene expression, interacting with the major pathways of cell growth, proliferation, differentiation, and survival. A large number of lncRNAs has oncogenic function and is more expressed in tumor compared with normal tissues. Their overexpression may be associated with tumor formation, progression, and metastasis in a variety of tumors including bladder cancer. Although lncRNAs have been shown to have critical regulatory roles in cancer biology, the biological functions and prognostic values in nonmuscle-invasive bladder cancer remain largely unknown. Nevertheless, a growing body of evidence suggests that several lncRNAs expression profiles in bladder malignancies are associated with poor prognosis, and they can be detected in biological fluids, such as urines. Here, we review current progress in the biology and the implication of lncRNAs associated with bladder cancer, and we discuss their potential use as diagnosis and prognosis biomarkers in bladder malignancies with a focus on their role in high-risk nonmuscle-invasive tumors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Prognostic value of long non-coding RNA MALAT1 in cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yihua; Lu, Wei; Xu, Jinming; Shi, Yu; Zhang, Honghe; Xia, Dajing

    2016-01-01

    Metastasis associated in lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1 (MALAT1) was identified to be the first long non-coding RNA as a biomarker of independent prognostic value for early stage non-small cell lung cancer patient survival. In recent years, the association between upregulated tissue MALAT1 level and incidence of various cancers including bladder cancer, colorectal cancer, and renal cancer has been widely discussed. The aim of our present study was to assess the potential prognostic value of MALAT1 in various human cancers. PubMed, Embase, Ovid, and Cochrane Library databases were systematically searched, and eligible studies evaluating the prognostic value of MALAT1 in various cancers were included. Finally, 11 studies encompassing 1216 participants reporting with sufficient data were enrolled in the current meta-analysis. The pooled hazard ratio (HR) was 2.05 (95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.64-2.55, p < 0.01) for overall survival (OS) and 2.66 (95 % CI 1.86-3.80, p < 0.01) for disease-free survival (DFS). In conclusion, high tissue MALAT1 level was associated with an inferior clinical outcome in various cancers, suggesting that MALAT1 might serve as a potential prognostic biomarker for various cancers.

  13. Long non-coding RNA PVT1: Emerging biomarker in digestive system cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Dan-Dan; Liu, Xiu-Fen; Lu, Cheng-Wei; Pant, Om Prakash; Liu, Xiao-Dong

    2017-12-01

    The digestive system cancers are leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide, and have high risks of morbidity and mortality. More and more long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been studied to be abnormally expressed in cancers and play a key role in the process of digestive system tumour progression. Plasmacytoma variant translocation 1 (PVT1) seems fairly novel. Since 1984, PVT1 was identified to be an activator of MYC in mice. Its role in human tumour initiation and progression has long been a subject of interest. The expression of PVT1 is elevated in digestive system cancers and correlates with poor prognosis. In this review, we illustrate the various functions of PVT1 during the different stages in the complex process of digestive system tumours (including oesophageal cancer, gastric cancer, colorectal cancer, hepatocellular carcinoma and pancreatic cancer). The growing evidence shows the involvement of PVT1 in both proliferation and differentiation process in addition to its involvement in epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT). These findings lead us to conclude that PVT1 promotes proliferation, survival, invasion, metastasis and drug resistance in digestive system cancer cells. We will also discuss PVT1's potential in diagnosis and treatment target of digestive system cancer. There was a great probability PVT1 could be a novel biomarker in screening tumours, prognosis biomarkers and future targeted therapy to improve the survival rate in cancer patients. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Non-coding RNAs as epigenetic regulator of glioma stem-like cell differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keisuke eKatsushima

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Glioblastomas show heterogeneous histological features. These distinct phenotypic states are thought to be associated with the presence of glioma stem cells (GSCs, which are highly tumorigenic and self-renewing sub-population of tumor cells that have different functional characteristics. Differentiation of GSCs may be regulated by multi-tiered epigenetic mechanisms that orchestrate the expression of thousands of genes. One such regulatory mechanism involves functional non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs, such as microRNAs (miRNAs; a large number of ncRNAs have been identified and shown to regulate the expression of genes associated with cell differentiation programs. Given the roles of miRNAs in cell differentiation, it is possible they are involved in the regulation of gene expression networks in GSCs that are important for the maintenance of the pluripotent state and for directing differentiation. Here, we review recent findings on ncRNAs associated with GSC differentiation and discuss how these ncRNAs contribute to the establishment of tissue heterogeneity during glioblastoma tumor formation.

  15. The emerging molecular biology toolbox for the study of long noncoding RNA biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fok, Ezio T; Scholefield, Janine; Fanucchi, Stephanie; Mhlanga, Musa M

    2017-10-01

    Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been implicated in many biological processes. However, due to the unique nature of lncRNAs and the consequential difficulties associated with their characterization, there is a growing disparity between the rate at which lncRNAs are being discovered and the assignment of biological function to these transcripts. Here we present a molecular biology toolbox equipped to help dissect aspects of lncRNA biology and reveal functionality. We outline an approach that begins with a broad survey of genome-wide, high-throughput datasets to identify potential lncRNA candidates and then narrow the focus on specific methods that are well suited to interrogate the transcripts of interest more closely. This involves the use of imaging-based strategies to validate these candidates and observe the behaviors of these transcripts at single molecule resolution in individual cells. We also describe the use of gene editing tools and interactome capture techniques to interrogate functionality and infer mechanism, respectively. With the emergence of lncRNAs as important molecules in healthy and diseased cellular function, it remains crucial to deepen our understanding of their biology.

  16. Aberrant Long Noncoding RNAs Expression Profiles Affect Cisplatin Resistance in Lung Adenocarcinoma

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    Lijuan Hu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs have been shown to be involved in the mechanism of cisplatin resistance in lung adenocarcinoma (LAD. However, the roles of lncRNAs in cisplatin resistance in LAD are not well understood. Methods. We used a high-throughput microarray to compare the lncRNA and mRNA expression profiles in cisplatin resistance cell A549/DDP and cisplatin sensitive cell A549. Several candidate cisplatin resistance-associated lncRNAs were verified by real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (PCR analysis. Results. We found that 1,543 lncRNAs and 1,713 mRNAs were differentially expressed in A549/DDP cell and A549 cell, hinting that many lncRNAs were irregular from cisplatin resistance in LAD. We also obtain the fact that 12 lncRNAs were aberrantly expressed in A549/DDP cell compared with A549 cell by quantitative PCR. Among these, UCA1 was the aberrantly expressed lncRNA and can significantly reduce the IC50 of cisplatin in A549/DDP cell after knockdown, while it can increase the IC50 of cisplatin after UCA1 was overexpressed in NCI-H1299. Conclusions. We obtained patterns of irregular lncRNAs and they may play a key role in cisplatin resistance of LAD.

  17. Long Non-Coding RNAs: The Key Players in Glioma Pathogenesis

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    Kiang, Karrie Mei-Yee; Zhang, Xiao-Qin; Leung, Gilberto Ka-Kit, E-mail: gilberto@hku.hk [Department of Surgery, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Queen Mary Hospital, Hong Kong (China)

    2015-07-29

    Long non-coding RNAs (LncRNAs) represent a novel class of RNAs with no functional protein-coding ability, yet it has become increasingly clear that interactions between lncRNAs with other molecules are responsible for important gene regulatory functions in various contexts. Given their relatively high expressions in the brain, lncRNAs are now thought to play important roles in normal brain development as well as diverse disease processes including gliomagenesis. Intriguingly, certain lncRNAs are closely associated with the initiation, differentiation, progression, recurrence and stem-like characteristics in glioma, and may therefore be exploited for the purposes of sub-classification, diagnosis and prognosis. LncRNAs may also serve as potential therapeutic targets as well as a novel biomarkers in the treatment of glioma. In this article, the functional aspects of lncRNAs, particularly within the central nervous system (CNS), will be briefly discussed, followed by highlights of the important roles of lncRNAs in mediating critical steps during glioma development. In addition, the key lncRNA players and their possible mechanistic pathways associated with gliomagenesis will be addressed.

  18. RNA regulatory networks in animals and plants: a long noncoding RNA perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Youhuang; Dai, Xiaozhuan; Harrison, Andrew P; Chen, Ming

    2015-03-01

    A recent highlight of genomics research has been the discovery of many families of transcripts which have function but do not code for proteins. An important group is long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs), which are typically longer than 200 nt, and whose members originate from thousands of loci across genomes. We review progress in understanding the biogenesis and regulatory mechanisms of lncRNAs. We describe diverse computational and high throughput technologies for identifying and studying lncRNAs. We discuss the current knowledge of functional elements embedded in lncRNAs as well as insights into the lncRNA-based regulatory network in animals. We also describe genome-wide studies of large amount of lncRNAs in plants, as well as knowledge of selected plant lncRNAs with a focus on biotic/abiotic stress-responsive lncRNAs. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Long Non-Coding RNAs: The Key Players in Glioma Pathogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiang, Karrie Mei-Yee; Zhang, Xiao-Qin; Leung, Gilberto Ka-Kit

    2015-01-01

    Long non-coding RNAs (LncRNAs) represent a novel class of RNAs with no functional protein-coding ability, yet it has become increasingly clear that interactions between lncRNAs with other molecules are responsible for important gene regulatory functions in various contexts. Given their relatively high expressions in the brain, lncRNAs are now thought to play important roles in normal brain development as well as diverse disease processes including gliomagenesis. Intriguingly, certain lncRNAs are closely associated with the initiation, differentiation, progression, recurrence and stem-like characteristics in glioma, and may therefore be exploited for the purposes of sub-classification, diagnosis and prognosis. LncRNAs may also serve as potential therapeutic targets as well as a novel biomarkers in the treatment of glioma. In this article, the functional aspects of lncRNAs, particularly within the central nervous system (CNS), will be briefly discussed, followed by highlights of the important roles of lncRNAs in mediating critical steps during glioma development. In addition, the key lncRNA players and their possible mechanistic pathways associated with gliomagenesis will be addressed

  20. Understanding Epistatic Interactions between Genes Targeted by Non-coding Regulatory Elements in Complex Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Kyung Sung

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Genome-wide association studies have proven the highly polygenic architecture of complex diseases or traits; therefore, single-locus-based methods are usually unable to detect all involved loci, especially when individual loci exert small effects. Moreover, the majority of associated single-nucleotide polymorphisms resides in non-coding regions, making it difficult to understand their phenotypic contribution. In this work, we studied epistatic interactions associated with three common diseases using Korea Association Resource (KARE data: type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM, hypertension (HT, and coronary artery disease (CAD. We showed that epistatic single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs were enriched in enhancers, as well as in DNase I footprints (the Encyclopedia of DNA Elements [ENCODE] Project Consortium 2012, which suggested that the disruption of the regulatory regions where transcription factors bind may be involved in the disease mechanism. Accordingly, to identify the genes affected by the SNPs, we employed whole-genome multiple-cell-type enhancer data which discovered using DNase I profiles and Cap Analysis Gene Expression (CAGE. Assigned genes were significantly enriched in known disease associated gene sets, which were explored based on the literature, suggesting that this approach is useful for detecting relevant affected genes. In our knowledge-based epistatic network, the three diseases share many associated genes and are also closely related with each other through many epistatic interactions. These findings elucidate the genetic basis of the close relationship between DM, HT, and CAD.

  1. Functional interrogation of non-coding DNA through CRISPR genome editing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canver, Matthew C; Bauer, Daniel E; Orkin, Stuart H

    2017-05-15

    Methodologies to interrogate non-coding regions have lagged behind coding regions despite comprising the vast majority of the genome. However, the rapid evolution of clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-based genome editing has provided a multitude of novel techniques for laboratory investigation including significant contributions to the toolbox for studying non-coding DNA. CRISPR-mediated loss-of-function strategies rely on direct disruption of the underlying sequence or repression of transcription without modifying the targeted DNA sequence. CRISPR-mediated gain-of-function approaches similarly benefit from methods to alter the targeted sequence through integration of customized sequence into the genome as well as methods to activate transcription. Here we review CRISPR-based loss- and gain-of-function techniques for the interrogation of non-coding DNA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The role of epigenetics and long noncoding RNA MIAT in neuroendocrine prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crea, Francesco; Venalainen, Erik; Ci, Xinpei; Cheng, Hongwei; Pikor, Larissa; Parolia, Abhijit; Xue, Hui; Nur Saidy, Nur Ridzwan; Lin, Dong; Lam, Wan; Collins, Colin; Wang, Yuzhuo

    2016-05-01

    Neuroendocrine prostate cancer (NEPC) is the most lethal prostatic neoplasm. NEPC is thought to originate from the transdifferentiation of AR-positive adenocarcinoma cells. We have previously shown that an epigenetic/noncoding interactome (ENI) orchestrates cancer cells' plasticity, thereby allowing the emergence of metastatic, drug-resistant neoplasms. The primary objective of this manuscript is to discuss evidence indicating that some components of the ENI (Polycomb genes, miRNAs) play a key role in NEPC initiation and progression. Long noncoding RNAs represent vast and largely unexplored component of the ENI. Their role in NEPC has not been investigated. We show preliminary evidence indicating that a lncRNA (MIAT) is selectively upregulated in NEPCs and might interact with Polycomb genes. Our results indicate that long noncoding RNAs can be exploited as new biomarkers and therapeutic targets for NEPC.

  3. SF Treg cells transcribing high levels of Bcl-2 and microRNA-21 demonstrate limited apoptosis in RA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Geest, Kornelis S. M.; Smigielska, Katarzyna; Park, Ji-Ah; Abdulahad, Wayel H.; Kim, Hye-Won; Kroesen, Bart-Jan; van den Berg, Anke; Boots, Annemieke M. H.; Lee, Eun-Bong; Brouwer, Elisabeth

    Objective. The aim of this study was to investigate the turnover of Treg cells in the SF of RA patients. Methods. Treg cells were enumerated in peripheral blood and SF of RA patients and analysed by flow cytometry for expression of the proliferation marker Ki-67 and binding of the apoptosis marker

  4. Poly[d(C-A)].poly[d(G-T)] is highly transcribed in the testes of Drosophila hydei

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijser, P; Beckers, L; Top, B; Hermans, M; Sinke, R; Hennig, W

    1990-01-01

    Microdissection of the lampbrush loops "threads" and "pseudonucleolus" of Y chromosomes from primary spermatocytes of Drosophila hydei and subsequent microcloning of the DNA yielded several recombinant DNA clones which cross-hybridized in screening the different clone banks. By DNA sequencing we

  5. Systematic analysis of coding and noncoding DNA sequences using methods of statistical linguistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantegna, R. N.; Buldyrev, S. V.; Goldberger, A. L.; Havlin, S.; Peng, C. K.; Simons, M.; Stanley, H. E.

    1995-01-01

    We compare the statistical properties of coding and noncoding regions in eukaryotic and viral DNA sequences by adapting two tests developed for the analysis of natural languages and symbolic sequences. The data set comprises all 30 sequences of length above 50 000 base pairs in GenBank Release No. 81.0, as well as the recently published sequences of C. elegans chromosome III (2.2 Mbp) and yeast chromosome XI (661 Kbp). We find that for the three chromosomes we studied the statistical properties of noncoding regions appear to be closer to those observed in natural languages than those of coding regions. In particular, (i) a n-tuple Zipf analysis of noncoding regions reveals a regime close to power-law behavior while the coding regions show logarithmic behavior over a wide interval, while (ii) an n-gram entropy measurement shows that the noncoding regions have a lower n-gram entropy (and hence a larger "n-gram redundancy") than the coding regions. In contrast to the three chromosomes, we find that for vertebrates such as primates and rodents and for viral DNA, the difference between the statistical properties of coding and noncoding regions is not pronounced and therefore the results of the analyses of the investigated sequences are less conclusive. After noting the intrinsic limitations of the n-gram redundancy analysis, we also briefly discuss the failure of the zeroth- and first-order Markovian models or simple nucleotide repeats to account fully for these "linguistic" features of DNA. Finally, we emphasize that our results by no means prove the existence of a "language" in noncoding DNA.

  6. Complex organisation and structure of the ghrelin antisense strand gene GHRLOS, a candidate non-coding RNA gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herington Adrian C

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The peptide hormone ghrelin has many important physiological and pathophysiological roles, including the stimulation of growth hormone (GH release, appetite regulation, gut motility and proliferation of cancer cells. We previously identified a gene on the opposite strand of the ghrelin gene, ghrelinOS (GHRLOS, which spans the promoter and untranslated regions of the ghrelin gene (GHRL. Here we further characterise GHRLOS. Results We have described GHRLOS mRNA isoforms that extend over 1.4 kb of the promoter region and 106 nucleotides of exon 4 of the ghrelin gene, GHRL. These GHRLOS transcripts initiate 4.8 kb downstream of the terminal exon 4 of GHRL and are present in the 3' untranslated exon of the adjacent gene TATDN2 (TatD DNase domain containing 2. Interestingly, we have also identified a putative non-coding TATDN2-GHRLOS chimaeric transcript, indicating that GHRLOS RNA biogenesis is extremely complex. Moreover, we have discovered that the 3' region of GHRLOS is also antisense, in a tail-to-tail fashion to a novel terminal exon of the neighbouring SEC13 gene, which is important in protein transport. Sequence analyses revealed that GHRLOS is riddled with stop codons, and that there is little nucleotide and amino-acid sequence conservation of the GHRLOS gene between vertebrates. The gene spans 44 kb on 3p25.3, is extensively spliced and harbours multiple variable exons. We have also investigated the expression of GHRLOS and found evidence of differential tissue expression. It is highly expressed in tissues which are emerging as major sites of non-coding RNA expression (the thymus, brain, and testis, as well as in the ovary and uterus. In contrast, very low levels were found in the stomach where sense, GHRL derived RNAs are highly expressed. Conclusion GHRLOS RNA transcripts display several distinctive features of non-coding (ncRNA genes, including 5' capping, polyadenylation, extensive splicing and short open reading

  7. Properties of non-coding DNA and identification of putative cis-regulatory elements in Theileria parva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Xiang

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Parasites in the genus Theileria cause lymphoproliferative diseases in cattle, resulting in enormous socio-economic losses. The availability of the genome sequences and annotation for T. parva and T. annulata has facilitated the study of parasite biology and their relationship with host cell transformation and tropism. However, the mechanism of transcriptional regulation in this genus, which may be key to understanding fundamental aspects of its parasitology, remains poorly understood. In this study, we analyze the evolution of non-coding sequences in the Theileria genome and identify conserved sequence elements that may be involved in gene regulation of these parasitic species. Results Intergenic regions and introns in Theileria are short, and their length distributions are considerably right-skewed. Intergenic regions flanked by genes in 5'-5' orientation tend to be longer and slightly more AT-rich than those flanked by two stop codons; intergenic regions flanked by genes in 3'-5' orientation have intermediate values of length and AT composition. Intron position is negatively correlated with intron length, and positively correlated with GC content. Using stringent criteria, we identified a set of high-quality orthologous non-coding sequences between T. parva and T. annulata, and determined the distribution of selective constraints across regions, which are shown to be higher close to translation start sites. A positive correlation between constraint and length in both intergenic regions and introns suggests a tight control over length expansion of non-coding regions. Genome-wide searches for functional elements revealed several conserved motifs in intergenic regions of Theileria genomes. Two such motifs are preferentially located within the first 60 base pairs upstream of transcription start sites in T. parva, are preferentially associated with specific protein functional categories, and have significant similarity to know

  8. FACT prevents the accumulation of free histones evicted from transcribed chromatin and a subsequent cell cycle delay in G1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macarena Morillo-Huesca

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The FACT complex participates in chromatin assembly and disassembly during transcription elongation. The yeast mutants affected in the SPT16 gene, which encodes one of the FACT subunits, alter the expression of G1 cyclins and exhibit defects in the G1/S transition. Here we show that the dysfunction of chromatin reassembly factors, like FACT or Spt6, down-regulates the expression of the gene encoding the cyclin that modulates the G1 length (CLN3 in START by specifically triggering the repression of its promoter. The G1 delay undergone by spt16 mutants is not mediated by the DNA-damage checkpoint, although the mutation of RAD53, which is otherwise involved in histone degradation, enhances the cell-cycle defects of spt16-197. We reveal how FACT dysfunction triggers an accumulation of free histones evicted from transcribed chromatin. This accumulation is enhanced in a rad53 background and leads to a delay in G1. Consistently, we show that the overexpression of histones in wild-type cells down-regulates CLN3 in START and causes a delay in G1. Our work shows that chromatin reassembly factors are essential players in controlling the free histones potentially released from transcribed chromatin and describes a new cell cycle phenomenon that allows cells to respond to excess histones before starting DNA replication.

  9. Xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group C cells remove pyrimidine dimers selectively from the transcribed strand of active genes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venema, J.; van Hoffen, A.; Karcagi, V.; Natarajan, A.T.; van Zeeland, A.A.; Mullenders, L.H.

    1991-01-01

    The authors have measured the removal of UV-induced pyrimidine dimers from DNA fragments of the adenosine deaminase (ADA) and dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) genes in primary normal human and xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group C (XP-C) cells. Using strand-specific probes, we show that in normal cells, preferential repair of the 5' part of the ADA gene is due to the rapid and efficient repair of the transcribed strand. Within 8 h after irradiation with UV at 10 J m-2, 70% of the pyrimidine dimers in this strand are removed. The nontranscribed strand is repaired at a much slower rate, with 30% dimers removed after 8 h. Repair of the transcribed strand in XP-C cells occurs at a rate indistinguishable from that in normal cells, but the nontranscribed strand is not repaired significantly in these cells. Similar results were obtained for the DHFR gene. In the 3' part of the ADA gene, however, both normal and XP-C cells perform fast and efficient repair of either strand, which is likely to be caused by the presence of transcription units on both strands. The factor defective in XP-C cells is apparently involved in the processing of DNA damage in inactive parts of the genome, including nontranscribed strands of active genes. These findings have important implications for the understanding of the mechanism of UV-induced excision repair and mutagenesis in mammalian cells

  10. FANCD2 binding identifies conserved fragile sites at large transcribed genes in avian cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pentzold, Constanze; Shah, Shiraz Ali; Hansen, Niels Richard

    2018-01-01

    Common Chromosomal Fragile Sites (CFSs) are specific genomic regions prone to form breaks on metaphase chromosomes in response to replication stress. Moreover, CFSs are mutational hotspots in cancer genomes, showing that the mutational mechanisms that operate at CFSs are highly active in cancer c...

  11. Predicting effects of noncoding variants with deep learning-based sequence model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jian; Troyanskaya, Olga G

    2015-10-01

    Identifying functional effects of noncoding variants is a major challenge in human genetics. To predict the noncoding-variant effects de novo from sequence, we developed a deep learning-based algorithmic framework, DeepSEA (http://deepsea.princeton.edu/), that directly learns a regulatory sequence code from large-scale chromatin-profiling data, enabling prediction of chromatin effects of sequence alterations with single-nucleotide sensitivity. We further used this capability to improve prioritization of functional variants including expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs) and disease-associated variants.

  12. Systematic review regulatory principles of non-coding RNAs in cardiovascular diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yongsheng; Huo, Caiqin; Pan, Tao; Li, Lili; Jin, Xiyun; Lin, Xiaoyu; Chen, Juan; Zhang, Jinwen; Guo, Zheng; Xu, Juan; Li, Xia

    2017-08-16

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) continue to be a major cause of morbidity and mortality, and non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) play critical roles in CVDs. With the recent emergence of high-throughput technologies, including small RNA sequencing, investigations of CVDs have been transformed from candidate-based studies into genome-wide undertakings, and a number of ncRNAs in CVDs were discovered in various studies. A comprehensive review of these ncRNAs would be highly valuable for researchers to get a complete picture of the ncRNAs in CVD. To address these knowledge gaps and clinical needs, in this review, we first discussed dysregulated ncRNAs and their critical roles in cardiovascular development and related diseases. Moreover, we reviewed >28 561 published papers and documented the ncRNA-CVD association benchmarking data sets to summarize the principles of ncRNA regulation in CVDs. This data set included 13 249 curated relationships between 9503 ncRNAs and 139 CVDs in 12 species. Based on this comprehensive resource, we summarized the regulatory principles of dysregulated ncRNAs in CVDs, including the complex associations between ncRNA and CVDs, tissue specificity and ncRNA synergistic regulation. The highlighted principles are that CVD microRNAs (miRNAs) are highly expressed in heart tissue and that they play central roles in miRNA-miRNA functional synergistic network. In addition, CVD-related miRNAs are close to one another in the functional network, indicating the modular characteristic features of CVD miRNAs. We believe that the regulatory principles summarized here will further contribute to our understanding of ncRNA function and dysregulation mechanisms in CVDs. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Long noncoding RNA MALAT1 as a potential novel biomarker in digestive system cancers: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Wei; Zhang, Run J; Zou, Shu B

    2016-08-01

    Metastasis-associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1 (MALAT1), a newly discovered long non-coding RNA (lncRNA), has been reported to be overexpressed in various cancers. However, the clinical value of MALAT1 in digestive system cancers is unclear. This study was designed to investigate the potential value of MALAT1 as a prognostic biomarker in digestive system cancers. We searched the Medline, Embase and Cochrane Library databases. All studies that explored the correlation between lncRNA MALAT1 expression and survival in digestive system tumors were selected. A quantitative meta-analysis was performed for the correlation between lncRNA MALAT1 expression and survival in digestive system tumors. Five studies were eligible for analysis, which included 547 patients. Meta-analysis showed that high expression of MALAT1 could predict poor overall survival (OS) in digestive system cancers (pooled HR: 1.85, 95% CI: 1.41-2.43, Pdigestive system cancers.

  14. Identification of small non-coding RNA classes expressed in swine whole blood during HP-PRRSV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Damarius S; Miller, Laura C

    2018-04-01

    It has been established that reduced susceptibility to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) has a genetic component. This genetic component may take the form of small non-coding RNAs (sncRNA), which are molecules that function as regulators of gene expression. Various sncRNAs have emerged as having an important role in the immune system in humans. The study uses transcriptomic read counts to profile the type and quantity of both well and lesser characterized sncRNAs, such as microRNAs and small nucleolar RNAs to identify and quantify the classes of sncRNA expressed in whole blood between healthy and highly pathogenic PRRSV-infected pigs. Our results returned evidence on nine classes of sncRNA, four of which were consistently statistically significantly different based on Fisher's Exact Test, that can be detected and possibly interrogated for their effect on host dysregulation during PRRSV infections. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Translational regulation of gene expression by an anaerobically induced small non-coding RNA in Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boysen, Anders; Møller-Jensen, Jakob; Kallipolitis, Birgitte H.

    2010-01-01

    Small non-coding RNAs (sRNA) have emerged as important elements of gene regulatory circuits. In enterobacteria such as Escherichia coli and Salmonella many of these sRNAs interact with the Hfq protein, an RNA chaperone similar to mammalian Sm-like proteins and act in the post...... that adaptation to anaerobic growth involves the action of a small regulatory RNA....... of at least one sRNA regulator. Here, we extend this view by the identification and characterization of a highly conserved, anaerobically induced small sRNA in E. coli, whose expression is strictly dependent on the anaerobic transcriptional fumarate and nitrate reductase regulator (FNR). The sRNA, named Fnr...

  16. Identification of microRNAs and long non-coding RNAs involved in fatty acid biosynthesis in tree peony seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Dan-Dan; Li, Shan-Shan; Shu, Qing-Yan; Gu, Zhao-Yu; Wu, Qian; Feng, Cheng-Yong; Xu, Wen-Zhong; Wang, Liang-Sheng

    2018-08-05

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) and long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) act as important molecular regulators in a wide range of biological processes during plant development and seed formation, including oil production. Tree peony seeds contain >90% unsaturated fatty acids (UFAs) and high proportions of α-linolenic acid (ALA, > 40%). To dissect the non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) pathway involved in fatty acids synthesis in tree peony seeds, we construct six small RNA libraries and six transcriptome libraries from developing seeds of two cultivars (J and S) containing different content of fatty acid compositions. After deep sequencing the RNA libraries, the ncRNA expression profiles of tree peony seeds in two cultivars were systematically and comparatively analyzed. A total of 318 known and 153 new miRNAs and 22,430 lncRNAs were identified, among which 106 conserved and 9 novel miRNAs and 2785 lncRNAs were differentially expressed between the two cultivars. In addition, potential target genes of the microRNA and lncRNAs were also predicted and annotated. Among them, 9 miRNAs and 39 lncRNAs were predicted to target lipid related genes. Results showed that all of miR414, miR156b, miR2673b, miR7826, novel-m0027-5p, TR24651|c0_g1, TR24544|c0_g15, and TR27305|c0_g1 were up-regulated and expressed at a higher level in high-ALA cultivar J when compared to low-ALA cultivar S, suggesting that these ncRNAs and target genes are possibly involved in different fatty acid synthesis and lipid metabolism through post-transcriptional regulation. These results provide a better understanding of the roles of ncRNAs during fatty acid biosynthesis and metabolism in tree peony seeds. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Allele-Selective Transcriptome Recruitment to Polysomes Primed for Translation: Protein-Coding and Noncoding RNAs, and RNA Isoforms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roshan Mascarenhas

    Full Text Available mRNA translation into proteins is highly regulated, but the role of mRNA isoforms, noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs, and genetic variants remains poorly understood. mRNA levels on polysomes have been shown to correlate well with expressed protein levels, pointing to polysomal loading as a critical factor. To study regulation and genetic factors of protein translation we measured levels and allelic ratios of mRNAs and ncRNAs (including microRNAs in lymphoblast cell lines (LCL and in polysomal fractions. We first used targeted assays to measure polysomal loading of mRNA alleles, confirming reported genetic effects on translation of OPRM1 and NAT1, and detecting no effect of rs1045642 (3435C>T in ABCB1 (MDR1 on polysomal loading while supporting previous results showing increased mRNA turnover of the 3435T allele. Use of high-throughput sequencing of complete transcript profiles (RNA-Seq in three LCLs revealed significant differences in polysomal loading of individual RNA classes and isoforms. Correlated polysomal distribution between protein-coding and non-coding RNAs suggests interactions between them. Allele-selective polysome recruitment revealed strong genetic influence for multiple RNAs, attributable either to differential expression of RNA isoforms or to differential loading onto polysomes, the latter defining a direct genetic effect on translation. Genes identified by different allelic RNA ratios between cytosol and polysomes were enriched with published expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs affecting RNA functions, and associations with clinical phenotypes. Polysomal RNA-Seq combined with allelic ratio analysis provides a powerful approach to study polysomal RNA recruitment and regulatory variants affecting protein translation.

  18. Secondary structure analyses of the nuclear rRNA internal transcribed spacers and assessment of its phylogenetic utility across the Brassicaceae (mustards.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick P Edger

    Full Text Available The internal transcribed spacers of the nuclear ribosomal RNA gene cluster, termed ITS1 and ITS2, are the most frequently used nuclear markers for phylogenetic analyses across many eukaryotic groups including most plant families. The reasons for the popularity of these markers include: 1. Ease of amplification due to high copy number of the gene clusters, 2. Available cost-effective methods and highly conserved primers, 3. Rapidly evolving markers (i.e. variable between closely related species, and 4. The assumption (and/or treatment that these sequences are non-functional, neutrally evolving phylogenetic markers. Here, our analyses of ITS1 and ITS2 for 50 species suggest that both sequences are instead under selective constraints to preserve proper secondary structure, likely to maintain complete self-splicing functions, and thus are not neutrally-evolving phylogenetic markers. Our results indicate the majority of sequence sites are co-evolving with other positions to form proper secondary structure, which has implications for phylogenetic inference. We also found that the lowest energy state and total number of possible alternate secondary structures are highly significantly different between ITS regions and random sequences with an identical overall length and Guanine-Cytosine (GC content. Lastly, we review recent evidence highlighting some additional problematic issues with using these regions as the sole markers for phylogenetic studies, and thus strongly recommend additional markers and cost-effective approaches for future studies to estimate phylogenetic relationships.

  19. Comparison of GAS5 Long non-coding RNA Expression and NEAT1 in Breast Cancer Patients and Healthy People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Arshi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Breast cancer entails 10% of all cancers in the world.  Among all types of cancers, 30 percent of women are infected with breast cancer. Non-coding of long RNA (lncRNA is a new group of known genes in the human genome transcribed from large parts of the genome of eukaryotes and play an important role in the regulation of different biological processes. The aim of the present study was to compare the expression level of GAS5 lncRNA and NEAT1  in normal and neoplastic samples from breast cancer patients by RT-qPCR. Methods: In the present case-control study, 40 samples from patients with breast cancer tumor and 40 patients from non-tumor under the direct supervision of a pathologist specialist due to clinical presentation and laboratory findings were collected. After extracting DNA from normal and tumor tissues, cDNA synthesis method according to the protocol and RT-qPCR was performed by SYBR®Premix Ex TaqTM II kit.  LncRNA expression levels of genes GAS5 and NEAT1 was calculated using ΔΔCT. Data were analyzed using t-test. Results: The results of Real Time Reverse transcription-PCR indicated that partial expression levels of GAS5 lncRNA gene in tumor samples compared to normal GAS5 lncRNA of the gene, decreasing the expression, and the mean relative expression levels of lncRNA and NEAT1 gene in tumor samples compared to normal was overexpressed. These variation gene expression of LncRNA related to GAS5 about 1.5 times and 2 times to  lncRNA from  NEAT1 gene was observed respectively. Conclusion: Due to the previous reports, these lncRNAs act as tumor suppressor in breast cancer and had differential expression in tumor and normal tissues, which could be used as biomarker for cancer diagnosis. Moreover, expression of these lncRNAs in different breast cancer subtypes and patient with other blood raises the importance of this molecules as a biomarker for cancer diagnosis and prognosis.

  20. A long and abundant non-coding RNA in Lactobacillus salivarius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cousin, Fabien J; Lynch, Denise B; Chuat, Victoria; Bourin, Maxence J B; Casey, Pat G; Dalmasso, Marion; Harris, Hugh M B; McCann, Angela; O'Toole, Paul W

    2017-09-01

    Lactobacillus salivarius , found in the intestinal microbiota of humans and animals, is studied as an example of the sub-dominant intestinal commensals that may impart benefits upon their host. Strains typically harbour at least one megaplasmid that encodes functions contributing to contingency metabolism and environmental adaptation. RNA sequencing (RNA-seq)transcriptomic analysis of L. salivarius strain UCC118 identified the presence of a novel unusually abundant long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) encoded by the megaplasmid, and which represented more than 75 % of the total RNA-seq reads after depletion of rRNA species. The expression level of this 520 nt lncRNA in L. salivarius UCC118 exceeded that of the 16S rRNA, it accumulated during growth, was very stable over time and was also expressed during intestinal transit in a mouse. This lncRNA sequence is specific to the L. salivarius species; however, among 45 L . salivarius genomes analysed, not all (only 34) harboured the sequence for the lncRNA. This lncRNA was produced in 27 tested L. salivarius strains, but at strain-specific expression levels. High-level lncRNA expression correlated with high megaplasmid copy number. Transcriptome analysis of a deletion mutant lacking this lncRNA identified altered expression levels of genes in a number of pathways, but a definitive function of this new lncRNA was not identified. This lncRNA presents distinctive and unique properties, and suggests potential basic and applied scientific developments of this phenomenon.

  1. Extensive localization of long noncoding RNAs to the cytosol and mono- and polyribosomal complexes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heesch, S. van; Iterson, M. van; Jacobi, J.; Boymans, S.; Essers, P.B.; Bruijn, E. de; Hao, W.; Macinnes, A.W.; Cuppen, E.; Simonis, M.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) form an abundant class of transcripts, but the function of the majority of them remains elusive. While it has been shown that some lncRNAs are bound by ribosomes, it has also been convincingly demonstrated that these transcripts do not code for proteins. To

  2. LncRNAWiki: harnessing community knowledge in collaborative curation of human long non-coding RNAs

    KAUST Repository

    Ma, L.; Li, A.; Zou, D.; Xu, X.; Xia, L.; Yu, J.; Bajic, Vladimir B.; Zhang, Z.

    2014-01-01

    Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) perform a diversity of functions in numerous important biological processes and are implicated in many human diseases. In this report we present lncRNAWiki (http://lncrna.big.ac.cn), a wiki-based platform that is open

  3. Progressive changes in non-coding RNA profile in leucocytes with age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Culla, Maider; Irizar, Haritz; Gorostidi, Ana; Alberro, Ainhoa; Osorio-Querejeta, Iñaki; Ruiz-Martínez, Javier; Olascoaga, Javier; de Munain, Adolfo López; Otaegui, David

    2017-01-01

    It has been observed that immune cell deterioration occurs in the elderly, as well as a chronic low-grade inflammation called inflammaging. These cellular changes must be driven by numerous changes in gene expression and in fact, both protein-coding and non-coding RNA expression alterations have been observed in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from elder people. In the present work we have studied the expression of small non-coding RNA (microRNA and small nucleolar RNA -snoRNA-) from healthy individuals from 24 to 79 years old. We have observed that the expression of 69 non-coding RNAs (56 microRNAs and 13 snoRNAs) changes progressively with chronological age. According to our results, the age range from 47 to 54 is critical given that it is the period when the expression trend (increasing or decreasing) of age-related small non-coding RNAs is more pronounced. Furthermore, age-related miRNAs regulate genes that are involved in immune, cell cycle and cancer-related processes, which had already been associated to human aging. Therefore, human aging could be studied as a result of progressive molecular changes, and different age ranges should be analysed to cover the whole aging process. PMID:28448962

  4. p53-dependent non-coding RNA networks in chronic lymphocytic leukemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blume, C. J.; Hotz-Wagenblatt, A.; Hüllein, J.; Sellner, L.; Jethwa, A.; Stolz, T.; Slabicki, M.; Lee, K.; Sharathchandra, A.; Benner, A.; Dietrich, S.; Oakes, C. C.; Dreger, P.; te Raa, D.; Kater, A. P.; Jauch, A.; Merkel, O.; Oren, M.; Hielscher, T.; Zenz, T.

    2015-01-01

    Mutations of the tumor suppressor p53 lead to chemotherapy resistance and a dismal prognosis in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Whereas p53 targets are used to identify patient subgroups with impaired p53 function, a comprehensive assessment of non-coding RNA targets of p53 in CLL is missing. We

  5. allele of the noncoding hsrω gene of Drosophila melanogaster is not ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    , Martinez P. et al. 2000 Identification of genes that modify ataxin-1-induced neurodegeneration. Nature 408, 101–. 106. Lakhotia S. C. 2003 The non-coding, developmentally active and stress inducible hsrω gene of Drosophila melanogaster ...

  6. Noncoding RNA of Glutamine Synthetase I Modulates Antibiotic Production in Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D'Alia, Davide; Nieselt, Kay; Steigele, Stephan; Mueller, Jonas; Verburg, Ilse; Takano, Eriko; Alia, Davide D’; Müller, Jonas

    Overexpression of antisense chromosomal cis-encoded noncoding RNAss (ncRNAs) in glutamine synthetase I resulted in a decrease in growth, protein synthesis, and antibiotic production in Streptomyces coelicolor. In addition, we predicted 3,597 cis-encoded ncRNAs and validated 13 of them

  7. Male sterility associated with overexpression of the noncoding hsrω ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    interact with these noncoding transcripts, we examined the in situ ... reduced RNA-processing activities in the nucleus. (Lakhotia et al. 1999 ... This process was repeated for 10 generations. .... wild-type testes were distributed in the anterior part and along the ..... various nuclear RNA-processing proteins to protect them.

  8. Identification of putative noncoding RNA genes in the Burkholderia cenocepacia J2315 genome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coenye, T.; Drevinek, P.; Mahenthiralingam, E.

    2007-01-01

    Noncoding RNA (ncRNA) genes are not involved in the production of mRNA and proteins, but produce transcripts that function directly as structural or regulatory RNAs. In the present study, the presence of ncRNA genes in the genome of Burkholderia cenocepacia J2315 was evaluated by combining...

  9. Non-coding RNA may be associated with cytoplasmic male sterility in Silene vulgaris

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stone, James D.; Koloušková, Pavla; Sloan, D.B.; Štorchová, Helena

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 68, č. 7 (2017), s. 1599-1612 ISSN 0022-0957 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-09220S Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Cytoplasmic male sterility * Editing * Mitochondrion * Non-coding RNA * Silene vulgaris * Splicing * Transcriptome Subject RIV: EF - Botanics OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany Impact factor: 5.830, year: 2016

  10. Analysis of the first and second internal transcribed spacer sequences of the ribosomal DNA in Biomphalaria tenagophila complex (Mollusca: Planorbidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teofânia HDA Vidigal

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available The first and second internal transcribed spacer regions (ITS1 and ITS2 of the ribosomal DNA of Biomphalaria tenagophila complex (B. tenagophila, B. occidentalis, and B. t. guaibensis were sequenced and compared. The alignment lengths of these regions were about 655 bp and 481 bp, respectively. Phylogenetic relationships among the Biomphalaria species were inferred by Maximum Parsimony and Neighbor-joining methods. The phylogenetic trees produced, in most of the cases, were in accordance with morphological systematics and other molecular data previously obtained by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. The present results provide support for the proposal that B. tenagophila represents a complex comprising B. tenagophila, B. occidentalis and B. t. guaibensis.

  11. Rapid authentication of the precious herb saffron by loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) based on internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Mingming; Shi, Yuhua; Wu, Lan; Guo, Licheng; Liu, Wei; Xiong, Chao; Yan, Song; Sun, Wei; Chen, Shilin

    2016-05-05

    Saffron is one of the most expensive species of Chinese herbs and has been subjected to various types of adulteration because of its high price and limited production. The present study introduces a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) technique for the differentiation of saffron from its adulterants. This novel technique is sensitive, efficient and simple. Six specific LAMP primers were designed on the basis of the nucleotide sequence of the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) nuclear ribosomal DNA of Crocus sativus. All LAMP amplifications were performed successfully, and visual detection occurred within 60 min at isothermal conditions of 65 °C. The results indicated that the LAMP primers are accurate and highly specific for the discrimination of saffron from its adulterants. In particular, 10 fg of genomic DNA was determined to be the limit for template accuracy of LAMP in saffron. Thus, the proposed novel, simple, and sensitive LAMP assay is well suited for immediate on-site discrimination of herbal materials. Based on the study, a practical standard operating procedure (SOP) for utilizing the LAMP protocol for herbal authentication is provided.

  12. Development and evaluation of specific PCR primers targeting the ribosomal DNA-internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of peritrich ciliates in environmental samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Lei; Zhang, Qianqian; Gong, Jun

    2017-07-01

    Peritrich ciliates are highly diverse and can be important bacterial grazers in aquatic ecosystems. Morphological identifications of peritrich species and assemblages in the environment are time-consuming and expertise-demanding. In this study, two peritrich-specific PCR primers were newly designed to amplify a fragment including the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of ribosomal rDNA from environmental samples. The primers showed high specificity in silico, and in tests with peritrich isolates and environmental DNA. Application of these primers in clone library construction and sequencing yielded exclusively sequences of peritrichs for water and sediment samples. We also found the ITS1, ITS2, ITS, D1 region of 28S rDNA, and ITS+D1 region co-varied with, and generally more variable than, the V9 region of 18S rDNA in peritrichs. The newly designed specific primers thus provide additional tools to study the molecular diversity, community composition, and phylogeography of these ecologically important protists in different systems.

  13. Genome-wide identification of coding and non-coding conserved sequence tags in human and mouse genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maggi Giorgio P

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The accurate detection of genes and the identification of functional regions is still an open issue in the annotation of genomic sequences. This problem affects new genomes but also those of very well studied organisms such as human and mouse where, despite the great efforts, the inventory of genes and regulatory regions is far from complete. Comparative genomics is an effective approach to address this problem. Unfortunately it is limited by the computational requirements needed to perform genome-wide comparisons and by the problem of discriminating between conserved coding and non-coding sequences. This discrimination is often based (thus dependent on the availability of annotated proteins. Results In this paper we present the results of a comprehensive comparison of human and mouse genomes performed with a new high throughput grid-based system which allows the rapid detection of conserved sequences and accurate assessment of their coding potential. By detecting clusters of coding conserved sequences the system is also suitable to accurately identify potential gene loci. Following this analysis we created a collection of human-mouse conserved sequence tags and carefully compared our results to reliable annotations in order to benchmark the reliability of our classifications. Strikingly we were able to detect several potential gene loci supported by EST sequences but not corresponding to as yet annotated genes. Conclusion Here we present a new system which allows comprehensive comparison of genomes to detect conserved coding and non-coding sequences and the identification of potential gene loci. Our system does not require the availability of any annotated sequence thus is suitable for the analysis of new or poorly annotated genomes.

  14. Maternally Expressed Gene 3, an imprinted non-coding RNA gene, is associated with meningioma pathogenesis and progression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xun; Gejman, Roger; Mahta, Ali; Zhong, Ying; Rice, Kimberley A.; Zhou, Yunli; Cheunsuchon, Pornsuk; Louis, David N.; Klibanski, Anne

    2010-01-01

    Meningiomas are common tumors, representing 15-25% of all central nervous system tumors. NF2 gene inactivation on chromosome 22 has been shown as an early event in tumorigenesis; however, few factors underlying tumor growth and progression have been identified. Chromosomal abnormalities of 14q32 are often associated with meningioma pathogenesis and progression; therefore it has been proposed that an as yet unidentified tumor suppressor is present at this locus. MEG3 is an imprinted gene located at 14q32 that encodes a non-coding RNA with an anti-proliferative function. We found that MEG3 mRNA is highly expressed in normal arachnoidal cells. However, MEG3 is not expressed in the majority of human meningiomas or the human meningioma cell lines IOMM-Lee and CH157-MN. There is a strong association between loss of MEG3 expression and tumor grade. Allelic loss at the MEG3 locus is also observed in meningiomas, with increasing prevalence in higher grade tumors. In addition, there is an increase in CpG methylation within the promoter and the imprinting control region of MEG3 gene in meningiomas. Functionally, MEG3 suppresses DNA synthesis in both IOMM-Lee and CH157-MN cells by approximately 60% in BrdU incorporation assays. Colony-forming efficiency assays show that MEG3 inhibits colony formation in CH157-MN cells by approximately 80%. Furthermore, MEG3 stimulates p53-mediated transactivation in these cell lines. Therefore, these data are consistent with the hypothesis that MEG3, which encodes a non-coding RNA, may be a tumor suppressor gene at chromosome 14q32 involved in meningioma progression via a novel mechanism. PMID:20179190

  15. Genetic variants in long non-coding RNA MIAT contribute to risk of paranoid schizophrenia in a Chinese Han population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Shu-Quan; Hu, Hui-Ling; Ye, Ning; Shen, Yan; Xu, Qi

    2015-08-01

    The heritability of schizophrenia has been reported to be as high as ~80%, but the contribution of genetic variants identified to this heritability remains to be estimated. Long non-coding RNAs (LncRNAs) are involved in multiple processes critical to normal cellular function and dysfunction of lncRNA MIAT may contribute to the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. However, the genetic evidence of lncRNAs involved in schizophrenia has not been documented. Here, we conducted a two-stage association analysis on 8 tag SNPs that cover the whole MIAT locus in two independent Han Chinese schizophrenia case-control cohorts (discovery sample from Shanxi Province: 1093 patients with paranoid schizophrenia and 1180 control subjects; replication cohort from Jilin Province: 1255 cases and 1209 healthy controls). In discovery stage, significant genetic association with paranoid schizophrenia was observed for rs1894720 (χ(2)=74.20, P=7.1E-18), of which minor allele (T) had an OR of 1.70 (95% CI=1.50-1.91). This association was confirmed in the replication cohort (χ(2)=22.66, P=1.9E-06, OR=1.32, 95%CI 1.18-1.49). Besides, a weak genotypic association was detected for rs4274 (χ(2)=4.96, df=2, P=0.03); the AA carriers showed increased disease risk (OR=1.30, 95%CI=1.03-1.64). No significant association was found between any haplotype and paranoid schizophrenia. The present studies showed that lncRNA MIAT was a novel susceptibility gene for paranoid schizophrenia in the Chinese Han population. Considering that most lncRNAs locate in non-coding regions, our result may explain why most susceptibility loci for schizophrenia identified by genome wide association studies were out of coding regions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. From structure prediction to genomic screens for novel non-coding RNAs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Gorodkin

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs are receiving more and more attention not only as an abundant class of genes, but also as regulatory structural elements (some located in mRNAs. A key feature of RNA function is its structure. Computational methods were developed early for folding and prediction of RNA structure with the aim of assisting in functional analysis. With the discovery of more and more ncRNAs, it has become clear that a large fraction of these are highly structured. Interestingly, a large part of the structure is comprised of regular Watson-Crick and GU wobble base pairs. This and the increased amount of available genomes have made it possible to employ structure-based methods for genomic screens. The field has moved from folding prediction of single sequences to computational screens for ncRNAs in genomic sequence using the RNA structure as the main characteristic feature. Whereas early methods focused on energy-directed folding of single sequences, comparative analysis based on structure preserving changes of base pairs has been efficient in improving accuracy, and today this constitutes a key component in genomic screens. Here, we cover the basic principles of RNA folding and touch upon some of the concepts in current methods that have been applied in genomic screens for de novo RNA structures in searches for novel ncRNA genes and regulatory RNA structure on mRNAs. We discuss the strengths and weaknesses of the different strategies and how they can complement each other.

  17. Regulation of bacterial photosynthesis genes by the small noncoding RNA PcrZ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mank, Nils N; Berghoff, Bork A; Hermanns, Yannick N; Klug, Gabriele

    2012-10-02

    The small RNA PcrZ (photosynthesis control RNA Z) of the facultative phototrophic bacterium Rhodobacter sphaeroides is induced upon a drop of oxygen tension with similar kinetics to those of genes for components of photosynthetic complexes. High expression of PcrZ depends on PrrA, the response regulator of the PrrB/PrrA two-component system with a central role in redox regulation in R. sphaeroides. In addition the FnrL protein, an activator of some photosynthesis genes at low oxygen tension, is involved in redox-dependent expression of this small (s)RNA. Overexpression of full-length PcrZ in R. sphaeroides affects expression of a small subset of genes, most of them with a function in photosynthesis. Some mRNAs from the photosynthetic gene cluster were predicted to be putative PcrZ targets and results from an in vivo reporter system support these predictions. Our data reveal a negative effect of PcrZ on expression of its target mRNAs. Thus, PcrZ counteracts the redox-dependent induction of photosynthesis genes, which is mediated by protein regulators. Because PrrA directly activates photosynthesis genes and at the same time PcrZ, which negatively affects photosynthesis gene expression, this is one of the rare cases of an incoherent feed-forward loop including an sRNA. Our data identified PcrZ as a trans acting sRNA with a direct regulatory function in formation of photosynthetic complexes and provide a model for the control of photosynthesis gene expression by a regulatory network consisting of proteins and a small noncoding RNA.

  18. Unravelling the Long Non-Coding RNA Profile of Undifferentiated Large Cell Lung Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Sudhanshu

    2018-02-05

    Undifferentiated large cell lung carcinoma (LCLC) accounts for 2.9-9% of total lung cancers. Recently, RNA-seq based studies have revealed major genomic aberrations in LCLC. In this study, we aim to identify long non-coding RNAs (LncRNAs) expression pattern specific to LCLC. The RNA-seq profile of LCLC and other non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) was downloaded from Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) and analyzed. Using 10 LCLC samples, we found that 18% of all the annotated LncRNAs are expressed in LCLC samples. Among 1794 expressed LncRNAs, 11 were overexpressed and 14 were downregulated in LCLC compared to normal samples. Based on receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis, we showed that the top five differentially expressed LncRNAs were able to differentiate between LCLC and normal samples with high sensitivity and specificity. Guilt by association analysis using genes correlating with differentially expressed LncRNAs identified several cancer-associated pathways, suggesting the role of these deregulated LncRNA in LCLC biology. We also identified the LncRNA differentially expressed in LCLC compared to lung squamous carcinoma (LUSC) and Lung-adenocarcinoma (LUAD). We found that LCLC sample showed more deregulated LncRNA in LUSC than LUAD. Interestingly, LCLC had more downregulated LncRNA compared to LUAD and LUSC. Our study provides novel insight into LncRNA deregulation in LCLC. This study also finds tools to diagnose LCLC and differentiate LCLC with other Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer.

  19. Non-coding keratin variants associate with liver fibrosis progression in patients with hemochromatosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Strnad

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Keratins 8 and 18 (K8/K18 are intermediate filament proteins that protect the liver from various forms of injury. Exonic K8/K18 variants associate with adverse outcome in acute liver failure and with liver fibrosis progression in patients with chronic hepatitis C infection or primary biliary cirrhosis. Given the association of K8/K18 variants with end-stage liver disease and progression in several chronic liver disorders, we studied the importance of keratin variants in patients with hemochromatosis. METHODS: The entire K8/K18 exonic regions were analyzed in 162 hemochromatosis patients carrying homozygous C282Y HFE (hemochromatosis gene mutations. 234 liver-healthy subjects were used as controls. Exonic regions were PCR-amplified and analyzed using denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography and DNA sequencing. Previously-generated transgenic mice overexpressing K8 G62C were studied for their susceptibility to iron overload. Susceptibility to iron toxicity of primary hepatocytes that express K8 wild-type and G62C was also assessed. RESULTS: We identified amino-acid-altering keratin heterozygous variants in 10 of 162 hemochromatosis patients (6.2% and non-coding heterozygous variants in 6 additional patients (3.7%. Two novel K8 variants (Q169E/R275W were found. K8 R341H was the most common amino-acid altering variant (4 patients, and exclusively associated with an intronic KRT8 IVS7+10delC deletion. Intronic, but not amino-acid-altering variants associated with the development of liver fibrosis. In mice, or ex vivo, the K8 G62C variant did not affect iron-accumulation in response to iron-rich diet or the extent of iron-induced hepatocellular injury. CONCLUSION: In patients with hemochromatosis, intronic but not exonic K8/K18 variants associate with liver fibrosis development.

  20. Modeling post-transcriptional regulation activity of small non-coding RNAs in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rui-Sheng; Jin, Guangxu; Zhang, Xiang-Sun; Chen, Luonan

    2009-04-29

    Transcriptional regulation is a fundamental process in biological systems, where transcription factors (TFs) have been revealed to play crucial roles. In recent years, in addition to TFs, an increasing number of non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) have been shown to mediate post-transcriptional processes and regulate many critical pathways in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. On the other hand, with more and more high-throughput biological data becoming available, it is possible and imperative to quantitatively study gene regulation in a systematic and detailed manner. Most existing studies for inferring transcriptional regulatory interactions and the activity of TFs ignore the possible post-transcriptional effects of ncRNAs. In this work, we propose a novel framework to infer the activity of regulators including both TFs and ncRNAs by exploring the expression profiles of target genes and (post)transcriptional regulatory relationships. We model the integrated regulatory system by a set of biochemical reactions which lead to a log-bilinear problem. The inference process is achieved by an iterative algorithm, in which two linear programming models are efficiently solved. In contrast to available related studies, the effects of ncRNAs on transcription process are considered in this work, and thus more reasonable and accurate reconstruction can be expected. In addition, the approach is suitable for large-scale problems from the viewpoint of computation. Experiments on two synthesized data sets and a model system of Escherichia coli (E. coli) carbon source transition from glucose to acetate illustrate the effectiveness of our model and algorithm. Our results show that incorporating the post-transcriptional regulation of ncRNAs into system model can mine the hidden effects from the regulation activity of TFs in transcription processes and thus can uncover the biological mechanisms in gene regulation in a more accurate manner. The software for the algorithm in this paper is available

  1. Non-coding RNA detection methods combined to improve usability, reproducibility and precision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kreikemeyer Bernd

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Non-coding RNAs gain more attention as their diverse roles in many cellular processes are discovered. At the same time, the need for efficient computational prediction of ncRNAs increases with the pace of sequencing technology. Existing tools are based on various approaches and techniques, but none of them provides a reliable ncRNA detector yet. Consequently, a natural approach is to combine existing tools. Due to a lack of standard input and output formats combination and comparison of existing tools is difficult. Also, for genomic scans they often need to be incorporated in detection workflows using custom scripts, which decreases transparency and reproducibility. Results We developed a Java-based framework to integrate existing tools and methods for ncRNA detection. This framework enables users to construct transparent detection workflows and to combine and compare different methods efficiently. We demonstrate the effectiveness of combining detection methods in case studies with the small genomes of Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes and Streptococcus pyogenes. With the combined method, we gained 10% to 20% precision for sensitivities from 30% to 80%. Further, we investigated Streptococcus pyogenes for novel ncRNAs. Using multiple methods--integrated by our framework--we determined four highly probable candidates. We verified all four candidates experimentally using RT-PCR. Conclusions We have created an extensible framework for practical, transparent and reproducible combination and comparison of ncRNA detection methods. We have proven the effectiveness of this approach in tests and by guiding experiments to find new ncRNAs. The software is freely available under the GNU General Public License (GPL, version 3 at http://www.sbi.uni-rostock.de/moses along with source code, screen shots, examples and tutorial material.

  2. Phylogenomic Resolution of the Phylogeny of Laurasiatherian Mammals: Exploring Phylogenetic Signals within Coding and Noncoding Sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Meng-Yun; Liang, Dan; Zhang, Peng

    2017-08-01

    The interordinal relationships of Laurasiatherian mammals are currently one of the most controversial questions in mammalian phylogenetics. Previous studies mainly relied on coding sequences (CDS) and seldom used noncoding sequences. Here, by data mining public genome data, we compiled an intron data set of 3,638 genes (all introns from a protein-coding gene are considered as a gene) (19,055,073 bp) and a CDS data set of 10,259 genes (20,994,285 bp), covering all major lineages of Laurasiatheria (except Pholidota). We found that the intron data contained stronger and more congruent phylogenetic signals than the CDS data. In agreement with this observation, concatenation and species-tree analyses of the intron data set yielded well-resolved and identical phylogenies, whereas the CDS data set produced weakly supported and incongruent results. Further analyses showed that the phylogeny inferred from the intron data is highly robust to data subsampling and change in outgroup, but the CDS data produced unstable results under the same conditions. Interestingly, gene tree statistical results showed that the most frequently observed gene tree topologies for the CDS and intron data are identical, suggesting that the major phylogenetic signal within the CDS data is actually congruent with that within the intron data. Our final result of Laurasiatheria phylogeny is (Eulipotyphla,((Chiroptera, Perissodactyla),(Carnivora, Cetartiodactyla))), favoring a close relationship between Chiroptera and Perissodactyla. Our study 1) provides a well-supported phylogenetic framework for Laurasiatheria, representing a step towards ending the long-standing "hard" polytomy and 2) argues that intron within genome data is a promising data resource for resolving rapid radiation events across the tree of life. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  3. The long noncoding RNA RNCR2 directs mouse retinal cell specification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blackshaw Seth

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent work has identified that many long mRNA-like noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs are expressed in the developing nervous system. Despite their abundance, the function of these ncRNAs has remained largely unexplored. We have investigated the highly abundant lncRNA RNCR2 in regulation of mouse retinal cell differentiation. Results We find that the RNCR2 is selectively expressed in a subset of both mitotic progenitors and postmitotic retinal precursor cells. ShRNA-mediated knockdown of RNCR2 results in an increase of both amacrine cells and Müller glia, indicating a role for this lncRNA in regulating retinal cell fate specification. We further report that RNCR2 RNA, which is normally nuclear-retained, can be exported from the nucleus when fused to an IRES-GFP sequence. Overexpression of RNCR2-IRES-GFP phenocopies the effects of shRNA-mediated knockdown of RNCR2, implying that forced mislocalization of RNCR2 induces a dominant-negative phenotype. Finally, we use the IRES-GFP fusion approach to identify specific domains of RNCR2 that are required for repressing both amacrine and Müller glial differentiation. Conclusion These data demonstrate that the lncRNA RNCR2 plays a critical role in regulating mammalian retinal cell fate specification. Furthermore, we present a novel approach for generating dominant-negative constructs of lncRNAs, which may be generally useful in the functional analysis of this class of molecules.

  4. Long non-coding RNA TUG1 promotes progression of oral squamous cell carcinoma through upregulating FMNL2 by sponging miR-219

    OpenAIRE

    Yan, Guangqi; Wang, Xue; Yang, Mingliang; Lu, Li; Zhou, Qing

    2017-01-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is a prevalent oral disease with a high morbidity and mortality rate. Several long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) were identified as important regulators of carcinogenesis. However, the pathogenic implications of TUG1 in OSCC are still unclear. In the present study, the expression of TUG1 was increased in OSCC cells. Knockdown of TUG1 inhibited cell proliferation, migration, and invasion, and induced cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 phase, whereas overexpression of TU...

  5. Diversity of 16S-23S rDNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS reveals phylogenetic relationships in Burkholderia pseudomallei and its near-neighbors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew P Liguori

    Full Text Available Length polymorphisms within the 16S-23S ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS have been described as stable genetic markers for studying bacterial phylogenetics. In this study, we used these genetic markers to investigate phylogenetic relationships in Burkholderia pseudomallei and its near-relative species. B. pseudomallei is known as one of the most genetically recombined bacterial species. In silico analysis of multiple B. pseudomallei genomes revealed approximately four homologous rRNA operons and ITS length polymorphisms therein. We characterized ITS distribution using PCR and analyzed via a high-throughput capillary electrophoresis in 1,191 B. pseudomallei strains. Three major ITS types were identified, two of which were commonly found in most B. pseudomallei strains from the endemic areas, whereas the third one was significantly correlated with worldwide sporadic strains. Interestingly, mixtures of the two common ITS types were observed within the same strains, and at a greater incidence in Thailand than Australia suggesting that genetic recombination causes the ITS variation within species, with greater recombination frequency in Thailand. In addition, the B. mallei ITS type was common to B. pseudomallei, providing further support that B. mallei is a clone of B. pseudomallei. Other B. pseudomallei near-neighbors possessed unique and monomorphic ITS types. Our data shed light on evolutionary patterns of B. pseudomallei and its near relative species.

  6. Extensive 5.8S nrDNA polymorphism in Mammillaria (Cactaceae) with special reference to the identification of pseudogenic internal transcribed spacer regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harpke, Doerte; Peterson, Angela

    2008-05-01

    The internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region (ITS1, 5.8S rDNA, ITS2) represents the most widely applied nuclear marker in eukaryotic phylogenetics. Although this region has been assumed to evolve in concert, the number of investigations revealing high degrees of intra-individual polymorphism connected with the presence of pseudogenes has risen. The 5.8S rDNA is the most important diagnostic marker for functionality of the ITS region. In Mammillaria, intra-individual 5.8S rDNA polymorphisms of up to 36% and up to nine different types have been found. Twenty-eight of 30 cloned genomic Mammillaria sequences were identified as putative pseudogenes. For the identification of pseudogenic ITS regions, in addition to formal tests based on substitution rates, we attempted to focus on functional features of the 5.8S rDNA (5.8S motif, secondary structure). The importance of functional data for the identification of pseudogenes is outlined and discussed. The identification of pseudogenes is essential, because they may cause erroneous phylogenies and taxonomic problems.

  7. Kekerabatan Genetik Caplak Rhiphicephalus (Boophilus microplus Asal IndonesiaBerdasarkan Sekuen Internal Transcribed Spacer-2 (GENETIC RELATIONSHIP INDONESIAN RHIPHICEPHALUS (BOOPHILUS MICROPLUS TICK BASED ON INTERNAL TRANSCRIBED SPACER-2 SEQUENSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Sahara

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Rhiphicephalus (Boophilus microplus is important obligatory blood feeding ectoparasites transmittingmany different viral, bacterial and protozoan and plays a role as a vector of Babesia sp., The leria sp. andAnaplasma sp. in cattle. The accuracy in identifying and distinguishing interspecies and intraspeciesdiversity among parasites is needed to understand the epidemiology, biology and capacity as a vector.Variations in the DNA base sequence of the internal transcribed spacer region2 (ITS 2 has been used asa molecular marker for identification in an effort to determine phylogenetic relationships. The aim of thisstudy was to determine the ITS 2 gene nucleotide sequence of R. microplus, which was expected to beuseful for accurate identification the parasite diversity and phylogenetic relationship among many differentspecies. DNA amplification was conducted using BOO2 forward dan BOO2 reverse primers. The DNAsamples containing ITS2 region fragment of 1099 nt were derived from the nucleotide sequence multiplealignments of R.microplus and other ticks genes obtained from Gene bank using Clustal W software, andthen analyzed using the MEGA program version 6. Genetic distances based on nucleotide sequence weredetermined with Kimura 2-parameter method producing the smallest genetic distance of 0 % and 1.2 %.Construction of phylogenetic trees using the Neighbor joining method showed that ticks from variousregions in Indonesia was species complex which have a closer with R.microplus isolates from India, Laos,South Africa, China and Australia R.australis origin.

  8. ChIPBase: a database for decoding the transcriptional regulation of long non-coding RNA and microRNA genes from ChIP-Seq data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jian-Hua; Li, Jun-Hao; Jiang, Shan; Zhou, Hui; Qu, Liang-Hu

    2013-01-01

    Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) and microRNAs (miRNAs) represent two classes of important non-coding RNAs in eukaryotes. Although these non-coding RNAs have been implicated in organismal development and in various human diseases, surprisingly little is known about their transcriptional regulation. Recent advances in chromatin immunoprecipitation with next-generation DNA sequencing (ChIP-Seq) have provided methods of detecting transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs) with unprecedented sensitivity. In this study, we describe ChIPBase (http://deepbase.sysu.edu.cn/chipbase/), a novel database that we have developed to facilitate the comprehensive annotation and discovery of transcription factor binding maps and transcriptional regulatory relationships of lncRNAs and miRNAs from ChIP-Seq data. The current release of ChIPBase includes high-throughput sequencing data that were generated by 543 ChIP-Seq experiments in diverse tissues and cell lines from six organisms. By analysing millions of TFBSs, we identified tens of thousands of TF-lncRNA and TF-miRNA regulatory relationships. Furthermore, two web-based servers were developed to annotate and discover transcriptional regulatory relationships of lncRNAs and miRNAs from ChIP-Seq data. In addition, we developed two genome browsers, deepView and genomeView, to provide integrated views of multidimensional data. Moreover, our web implementation supports diverse query types and the exploration of TFs, lncRNAs, miRNAs, gene ontologies and pathways.

  9. A two-locus global DNA barcode for land plants: the coding rbcL gene complements the non-coding trnH-psbA spacer region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kress, W John; Erickson, David L

    2007-06-06

    A useful DNA barcode requires sufficient sequence variation to distinguish between species and ease of application across a broad range of taxa. Discovery of a DNA barcode for land plants has been limited by intrinsically lower rates of sequence evolution in plant genomes than that observed in animals. This low rate has complicated the trade-off in finding a locus that is universal and readily sequenced and has sufficiently high sequence divergence at the species-level. Here, a global plant DNA barcode system is evaluated by comparing universal application and degree of sequence divergence for nine putative barcode loci, including coding and non-coding regions, singly and in pairs across a phylogenetically diverse set of 48 genera (two species per genus). No single locus could discriminate among species in a pair in more than 79% of genera, whereas discrimination increased to nearly 88% when the non-coding trnH-psbA spacer was paired with one of three coding loci, including rbcL. In silico trials were conducted in which DNA sequences from GenBank were used to further evaluate the discriminatory power of a subset of these loci. These trials supported the earlier observation that trnH-psbA coupled with rbcL can correctly identify and discriminate among related species. A combination of the non-coding trnH-psbA spacer region and a portion of the coding rbcL gene is recommended as a two-locus global land plant barcode that provides the necessary universality and species discrimination.

  10. An integrative approach to predicting the functional effects of small indels in non-coding regions of the human genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferlaino, Michael; Rogers, Mark F; Shihab, Hashem A; Mort, Matthew; Cooper, David N; Gaunt, Tom R; Campbell, Colin

    2017-10-06

    Small insertions and deletions (indels) have a significant influence in human disease and, in terms of frequency, they are second only to single nucleotide variants as pathogenic mutations. As the majority of mutations associated with complex traits are located outside the exome, it is crucial to investigate the potential pathogenic impact of indels in non-coding regions of the human genome. We present FATHMM-indel, an integrative approach to predict the functional effect, pathogenic or neutral, of indels in non-coding regions of the human genome. Our method exploits various genomic annotations in addition to sequence data. When validated on benchmark data, FATHMM-indel significantly outperforms CADD and GAVIN, state of the art models in assessing the pathogenic impact of non-coding variants. FATHMM-indel is available via a web server at indels.biocompute.org.uk. FATHMM-indel can accurately predict the functional impact and prioritise small indels throughout the whole non-coding genome.

  11. The SET1 Complex Selects Actively Transcribed Target Genes via Multivalent Interaction with CpG Island Chromatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, David A; Di Cerbo, Vincenzo; Feldmann, Angelika; Ahn, Jaewoo; Ito, Shinsuke; Blackledge, Neil P; Nakayama, Manabu; McClellan, Michael; Dimitrova, Emilia; Turberfield, Anne H; Long, Hannah K; King, Hamish W; Kriaucionis, Skirmantas; Schermelleh, Lothar; Kutateladze, Tatiana G; Koseki, Haruhiko; Klose, Robert J

    2017-09-05

    Chromatin modifications and the promoter-associated epigenome are important for the regulation of gene expression. However, the mechanisms by which chromatin-modifying complexes are targeted to the appropriate gene promoters in vertebrates and how they influence gene expression have remained poorly defined. Here, using a combination of live-cell imaging and functional genomics, we discover that the vertebrate SET1 complex is targeted to actively transcribed gene promoters through CFP1, which engages in a form of multivalent chromatin reading that involves recognition of non-methylated DNA and histone H3 lysine 4 trimethylation (H3K4me3). CFP1 defines SET1 complex occupancy on chromatin, and its multivalent interactions are required for the SET1 complex to place H3K4me3. In the absence of CFP1, gene expression is perturbed, suggesting that normal targeting and function of the SET1 complex are central to creating an appropriately functioning vertebrate promoter-associated epigenome. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The SET1 Complex Selects Actively Transcribed Target Genes via Multivalent Interaction with CpG Island Chromatin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A. Brown

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Chromatin modifications and the promoter-associated epigenome are important for the regulation of gene expression. However, the mechanisms by which chromatin-modifying complexes are targeted to the appropriate gene promoters in vertebrates and how they influence gene expression have remained poorly defined. Here, using a combination of live-cell imaging and functional genomics, we discover that the vertebrate SET1 complex is targeted to actively transcribed gene promoters through CFP1, which engages in a form of multivalent chromatin reading that involves recognition of non-methylated DNA and histone H3 lysine 4 trimethylation (H3K4me3. CFP1 defines SET1 complex occupancy on chromatin, and its multivalent interactions are required for the SET1 complex to place H3K4me3. In the absence of CFP1, gene expression is perturbed, suggesting that normal targeting and function of the SET1 complex are central to creating an appropriately functioning vertebrate promoter-associated epigenome.

  13. Molecular Identification of Isolated Fungi from Unopened Containers of Greek Yogurt by DNA Sequencing of Internal Transcribed Spacer Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irshad M. Sulaiman

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In our previous study, we described the development of an internal transcribed spacer (ITS1 sequencing method, and used this protocol in species-identification of isolated fungi collected from the manufacturing areas of a compounding company known to have caused the multistate fungal meningitis outbreak in the United States. In this follow-up study, we have analyzed the unopened vials of Greek yogurt from the recalled batch to determine the possible cause of microbial contamination in the product. A total of 15 unopened vials of Greek yogurt belonging to the recalled batch were examined for the detection of fungi in these samples known to cause foodborne illness following conventional microbiological protocols. Fungi were isolated from all of the 15 Greek yogurt samples analyzed. The isolated fungi were genetically typed by DNA sequencing of PCR-amplified ITS1 region of rRNA gene. Analysis of data confirmed all of the isolated fungal isolates from the Greek yogurt to be Rhizomucor variabilis. The generated ITS1 sequences matched 100% with the published sequences available in GenBank. In addition, these yogurt samples were also tested for the presence of five types of bacteria (Salmonella, Listeria, Staphylococcus, Bacillus and Escherichia coli causing foodborne disease in humans, and found negative for all of them.

  14. Genetic variability in Melipona quinquefasciata (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Meliponini) from northeastern Brazil determined using the first internal transcribed spacer (ITS1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, J O P; Freitas, B M; Jorge, D M M; Torres, D C; Soares, C E A; Grangeiro, T B

    2009-01-01

    Melipona quinquefasciata is a ground-nesting South American stingless bee whose geographic distribution was believed to comprise only the central and southern states of Brazil. We obtained partial sequences (about 500-570 bp) of first internal transcribed spacer (ITS1) nuclear ribosomal DNA from Melipona specimens putatively identified as M. quinquefasciata collected from different localities in northeastern Brazil. To confirm the taxonomic identity of the northeastern samples, specimens from the state of Goiás (Central region of Brazil) were included for comparison. All sequences were deposited in GenBank (accession numbers EU073751-EU073759). The mean nucleotide divergence (excluding sites with insertions/deletions) in the ITS1 sequences was only 1.4%, ranging from 0 to 4.1%. When the sites with insertions/deletions were also taken into account, sequence divergences varied from 0 to 5.3%. In all pairwise comparisons, the ITS1 sequence from the specimens collected in Goiás was most divergent compared to the ITS1 sequences of the bees from the other locations. However, neighbor-joining phylogenetic analysis showed that all ITS1 sequences from northeastern specimens along with the sample of Goiás were resolved in a single clade with a bootstrap support of 100%. The ITS1 sequencing data thus support the occurrence of M. quinquefasciata in northeast Brazil.

  15. A 3'-coterminal nested set of independently transcribed mRNAs is generated during Berne virus replication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snijder, E.J.; Horzinek, M.C.; Spaan, W.J.

    1990-01-01

    By using poly(A)-selected RNA from Berne virus (BEV)-infected embryonic mule skin cells as a template, cDNA was prepared and cloned in plasmid pUC9. Recombinants covering a contiguous sequence of about 10 kilobases were identified. Northern (RNA) blot hybridizations with various restriction fragments from these clones showed that the five BEV mRNAs formed a 3'-coterminal nested set. Sequence analysis revealed the presence of four complete open reading frames of 4743, 699, 426, and 480 nucleotides, with initiation codons coinciding with the 5' ends of BEV RNAs 2 through 5, respectively. By using primer extension analysis and oligonucleotide hybridizations, RNA 5 was found to be contiguous on the consensus sequence. The transcription of BEV mRNAs was studied by means of UV mapping. BEV RNAs 1, 2, and 3 were shown to be transcribed independently, which is also likely--although not rigorously proven--for RNAs 4 and 5. Upstream of the AUG codon of each open reading frame a conserved sequence pattern was observed which is postulated to function as a core promoter sequence in subgenomic RNA transcription. In the area surrounding the core promoter region of the two most abundant subgenomic BEV RNAs, a number of homologous sequence motifs were identified

  16. Identification of forensically important Chrysomya (Diptera: Calliphoridae) species using the second ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Leigh A; Wallman, James F; Dowton, Mark

    2008-05-20

    The identification of forensically important blowflies of the genus Chrysomya (Diptera: Calliphoridae) may be hampered by their close morphological similarities, especially as immatures. In contrast to most previous studies, the utility of a nuclear rather than mitochondrial genetic marker was investigated to solve this problem. The second internal transcribed spacer (ITS2) of ribosomal DNA (rDNA) was amplified and sequenced from all nine Chrysomya species known from Australia. Difficulties encountered with direct sequencing of ITS2 for Chrysomya flavifrons necessitated cloning prior to sequencing for this species, which revealed a low level (0-0.23%) of intraindividual variation. Five restriction enzymes (DraI, BsaXI, BciVI, AseI and HinfI) were identified that were able to differentiate most members of the genus by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). The PCR-RFLP analysis revealed characteristic restriction profiles for all species except the closely related species pairs Chrysomya latifrons+Chrysomya semimetallica and Chrysomya incisuralis+Chrysomya rufifacies. Ch. incisuralis and Ch. rufifacies were able to be separated using the size differences resulting from amplification of the entire ITS region. The lack of intraspecific ITS2 sequence variation among eight Ch. incisuralis specimens was verified by the identical restriction profiles generated from these specimens. A DNA-based approach, such as PCR-RFLP, has the capacity to be useful for the identification of forensic entomological evidence in cases where morphological characters are unreliable.

  17. Systematic Internal Transcribed Spacer Sequence Analysis for Identification of Clinical Mold Isolates in Diagnostic Mycology: a 5-Year Study▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciardo, Diana E.; Lucke, Katja; Imhof, Alex; Bloemberg, Guido V.; Böttger, Erik C.

    2010-01-01

    The implementation of internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequencing for routine identification of molds in the diagnostic mycology laboratory was analyzed in a 5-year study. All mold isolates (n = 6,900) recovered in our laboratory from 2005 to 2009 were included in this study. According to a defined work flow, which in addition to troublesome phenotypic identification takes clinical relevance into account, 233 isolates were subjected to ITS sequence analysis. Sequencing resulted in successful identification for 78.6% of the analyzed isolates (57.1% at species level, 21.5% at genus level). In comparison, extended in-depth phenotypic characterization of the isolates subjected to sequencing achieved taxonomic assignment for 47.6% of these, with a mere 13.3% at species level. Optimization of DNA extraction further improved the efficacy of molecular identification. This study is the first of its kind to testify to the systematic implementation of sequence-based identification procedures in the routine workup of mold isolates in the diagnostic mycology laboratory. PMID:20573873

  18. Systematic internal transcribed spacer sequence analysis for identification of clinical mold isolates in diagnostic mycology: a 5-year study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciardo, Diana E; Lucke, Katja; Imhof, Alex; Bloemberg, Guido V; Böttger, Erik C

    2010-08-01

    The implementation of internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequencing for routine identification of molds in the diagnostic mycology laboratory was analyzed in a 5-year study. All mold isolates (n = 6,900) recovered in our laboratory from 2005 to 2009 were included in this study. According to a defined work flow, which in addition to troublesome phenotypic identification takes clinical relevance into account, 233 isolates were subjected to ITS sequence analysis. Sequencing resulted in successful identification for 78.6% of the analyzed isolates (57.1% at species level, 21.5% at genus level). In comparison, extended in-depth phenotypic characterization of the isolates subjected to sequencing achieved taxonomic assignment for 47.6% of these, with a mere 13.3% at species level. Optimization of DNA extraction further improved the efficacy of molecular identification. This study is the first of its kind to testify to the systematic implementation of sequence-based identification procedures in the routine workup of mold isolates in the diagnostic mycology laboratory.

  19. Genetic diversity and molecular evolution of Naga King Chili inferred from internal transcribed spacer sequence of nuclear ribosomal DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehie, Mechuselie; Kumaria, Suman; Devi, Khumuckcham Sangeeta; Tandon, Pramod

    2016-02-01

    Sequences of the Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS1-5.8S-ITS2) of nuclear ribosomal DNAs were explored to study the genetic diversity and molecular evolution of Naga King Chili. Our study indicated the occurrence of nucleotide polymorphism and haplotypic diversity in the ITS regions. The present study demonstrated that the variability of ITS1 with respect to nucleotide diversity and sequence polymorphism exceeded that of ITS2. Sequence analysis of 5.8S gene revealed a much conserved region in all the accessions of Naga King Chili. However, strong phylogenetic information of this species is the distinct 13 bp deletion in the 5.8S gene which discriminated Naga King Chili from the rest of the Capsicum sp. Neutrality test results implied a neutral variation, and population seems to be evolving at drift-mutation equilibrium and free from directed selection pressure. Furthermore, mismatch analysis showed multimodal curve indicating a demographic equilibrium. Phylogenetic relationships revealed by Median Joining Network (MJN) analysis denoted a clear discrimination of Naga King Chili from its closest sister species (Capsicum chinense and Capsicum frutescens). The absence of star-like network of haplotypes suggested an ancient population expansion of this chili.

  20. A PCR method targeting internal transcribed spacers: the simultaneous detection of Babesia bigemina and Babesia bovis in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Junlong; Guan, Guiquan; Liu, Aihong; Li, Youquan; Yin, Hong; Luo, Jianxun

    2014-03-01

    In this study, two pairs of oligonucleotide primers were designed according to the nucleotide sequence of the internal transcribed spacers (ITSs) of Babesia bigemina and B. bovis isolates from China. The primers were used in a multiplex PCR to detect parasite DNA in blood samples from cattle. There was no cross reactions with B. ovata, B. major, B. sp. Kashi, Theileria annulata, T. sergenti, T. sinensis or normal bovine DNA. The sensitivity of multiplex PCR assay was 1 pg and 10 pg DNA for B. bigemina and B. bovis, respectively. A total of 260 field blood samples collected from cattle in five provinces of China were analyzed by multiplex PCR and light microscopy. PCR testing revealed that 7.3% (19/260) and 5.8% (15/260) of cattle were positive for B. bigemina and B. bovis and 1.2% (3/260) of cattle were co-infected with B. bigemina and B. bovis. Using light microscopy, 2.3% (6/260) and 1.5% (4/260) of cattle were infected by B. bigemina and B. bovis, respectively, and no co-infection was found. The results showed that the multiplex PCR developed in the present study could be an alternative diagnostic tool for the detection of B. bovis and B. bigemina infection in cattle.

  1. Characterization of four species of Trichuris (Nematoda: Enoplida) by their second internal transcribed spacer ribosomal DNA sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveros, R; Cutillas, C; De Rojas, M; Arias, P

    2000-12-01

    Adult worms of Trichuris ovis and T. globulosa were collected from Ovis aries (sheep) and Capra hircus (goats). T. suis was isolated from Sus scrofa domestica (swine) and T. leporis was isolated from Lepus europaeus (rabbits) in Spain. Genomic DNA was isolated and a ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS2) was amplified and sequenced using polymerase-chain-reaction (PCR) techniques. The ITS2 of T. ovis and T. globulosa was 407 nucleotides in length and had a GC content of about 62%. Furthermore, the ITS2 of T. suis and T. leporis was 534 and 418 nucleotides in length and had a GC content of about 64.8% and 62.4%, respectively. There was evidence of slight variation in the sequence within individuals of all species analyzed, indicating intraindividual variation in the sequence of different copies of the ribosomal DNA. Furthermore, low-level intraspecific variation was detected. Sequence analyses of ITS2 products of T. ovis and T. globulosa demonstrated no sequence difference between them. Nevertheless, differences were detected between the ITS2 sequences of T. suis, T. leporis, and T. ovis, indicating that Trichuris species can reliably be differentiated by their ITS2 sequences and PCR-linked restriction-fragment-length polymorphism (RFLP).

  2. Non-Coding RNAs are Differentially Expressed by Nocardia brasiliensis in Vitro and in Experimental Actinomycetoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Rabadán, Josué S; Miranda-Ríos, Juan; Espín-Ocampo, Guadalupe; Méndez-Tovar, Luis J; Maya-Pineda, Héctor Rubén; Hernández-Hernández, Francisca

    2017-01-01

    Nocardia spp. are common soil-inhabiting bacteria that frequently infect humans through traumatic injuries or inhalation routes and cause infections, such as actinomycetoma and nocardiosis, respectively. Nocardia brasiliensis is the main aetiological agent of actinomycetoma in various countries. Many bacterial non-coding RNAs are regulators of genes associated with virulence factors. The aim of this work was to identify non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) expressed during infection conditions and in free-living form ( in vitro ) in Nocardia brasiliensis . The N. brasiliensis transcriptome (predominately brasiliensis infection compared with the in vitro conditions. The results of this work suggest a possible role for these transcripts in the regulation of virulence genes in actinomycetoma pathogenesis.

  3. Laminar and Temporal Expression Dynamics of Coding and Noncoding RNAs in the Mouse Neocortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Fertuzinhos

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The hallmark of the cerebral neocortex is its organization into six layers, each containing a characteristic set of cell types and synaptic connections. The transcriptional events involved in laminar development and function still remain elusive. Here, we employed deep sequencing of mRNA and small RNA species to gain insights into transcriptional differences among layers and their temporal dynamics during postnatal development of the mouse primary somatosensory neocortex. We identify a number of coding and noncoding transcripts with specific spatiotemporal expression and splicing patterns. We also identify signature trajectories and gene coexpression networks associated with distinct biological processes and transcriptional overlap between these processes. Finally, we provide data that allow the study of potential miRNA and mRNA interactions. Overall, this study provides an integrated view of the laminar and temporal expression dynamics of coding and noncoding transcripts in the mouse neocortex and a resource for studies of neurodevelopment and transcriptome.

  4. Divergent evolutionary rates in vertebrate and mammalian specific conserved non-coding elements (CNEs) in echolocating mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Kalina T J; Tsagkogeorga, Georgia; Rossiter, Stephen J

    2014-12-19

    The majority of DNA contained within vertebrate genomes is non-coding, with a certain proportion of this thought to play regulatory roles during development. Conserved Non-coding Elements (CNEs) are an abundant group of putative regulatory sequences that are highly conserved across divergent groups and thus assumed to be under strong selective constraint. Many CNEs may contain regulatory factor binding sites, and their frequent spatial association with key developmental genes - such as those regulating sensory system development - suggests crucial roles in regulating gene expression and cellular patterning. Yet surprisingly little is known about the molecular evolution of CNEs across diverse mammalian taxa or their role in specific phenotypic adaptations. We examined 3,110 vertebrate-specific and ~82,000 mammalian-specific CNEs across 19 and 9 mammalian orders respectively, and tested for changes in the rate of evolution of CNEs located in the proximity of genes underlying the development or functioning of auditory systems. As we focused on CNEs putatively associated with genes underlying the development/functioning of auditory systems, we incorporated echolocating taxa in our dataset because of their highly specialised and derived auditory systems. Phylogenetic reconstructions of concatenated CNEs broadly recovered accepted mammal relationships despite high levels of sequence conservation. We found that CNE substitution rates were highest in rodents and lowest in primates, consistent with previous findings. Comparisons of CNE substitution rates from several genomic regions containing genes linked to auditory system development and hearing revealed differences between echolocating and non-echolocating taxa. Wider taxonomic sampling of four CNEs associated with the homeobox genes Hmx2 and Hmx3 - which are required for inner ear development - revealed family-wise variation across diverse bat species. Specifically within one family of echolocating bats that utilise

  5. The role of non-coding RNAs in cytoplasmic male sterility in flowering plants

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Štorchová, Helena

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 11 (2017), č. článku 2429. E-ISSN 1422-0067 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA16-09220S Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Cytoplasmic male sterility * Gene expression * Global transcriptome * Non-coding RNA * Pollen development Subject RIV: EF - Botanics OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany Impact factor: 3.226, year: 2016

  6. Overexpression of Long Non-Coding RNA TUG1 Promotes Colon Cancer Progression

    OpenAIRE

    Zhai, Hui-yuan; Sui, Ming-hua; Yu, Xiao; Qu, Zhen; Hu, Jin-chen; Sun, Hai-qing; Zheng, Hai-tao; Zhou, Kai; Jiang, Li-xin

    2016-01-01

    Background Colon cancer is one of the most prevalent and deadly cancers worldwide. It is still necessary to further define the mechanisms and explore therapeutic targets of colon cancer. Dysregulation of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) has been shown to be correlated with diverse biological processes, including tumorigenesis. This study aimed to characterize the biological mechanism of taurine-upregulated gene 1 (TUG1) in colon cancer. Material/Methods qRT-PCR was used to analyze the expression...

  7. Identification and characterization of long intergenic noncoding RNAs in bovine mammary glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Chao; Chen, Qiaoling; Zhao, Lili; Ma, Junfei; Ibeagha-Awemu, Eveline M; Zhao, Xin

    2017-06-19

    Mammary glands of dairy cattle produce milk for the newborn offspring and for human consumption. Long intergenic noncoding RNAs (lincRNAs) play various functions in eukaryotic cells. However, types and roles of lincRNAs in bovine mammary glands are still poorly understood. Using computational methods, 886 unknown intergenic transcripts (UITs) were identified from five RNA-seq datasets from bovine mammary glands. Their non-coding potentials were predicted by using the combination of four software programs (CPAT, CNCI, CPC and hmmscan), with 184 lincRNAs identified. By comparison to the NONCODE2016 database and a domestic-animal long noncoding RNA database (ALDB), 112 novel lincRNAs were revealed in bovine mammary glands. Many lincRNAs were found to be located in quantitative trait loci (QTL). In particular, 36 lincRNAs were found in 172 milk related QTLs, whereas one lincRNA was within clinical mastitis QTL region. In addition, targeted genes for 10 lincRNAs with the highest fragments per kilobase of transcript per million fragments mapped (FPKM) were predicted by LncTar for forecasting potential biological functions of these lincRNAs. Further analyses indicate involvement of lincRNAs in several biological functions and different pathways. Our study has provided a panoramic view of lincRNAs in bovine mammary glands and suggested their involvement in many biological functions including susceptibility to clinical mastitis as well as milk quality and production. This integrative annotation of mammary gland lincRNAs broadens and deepens our understanding of bovine mammary gland biology.

  8. Non-coding, mRNA-like RNAs database Y2K.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdmann, V A; Szymanski, M; Hochberg, A; Groot, N; Barciszewski, J

    2000-01-01

    In last few years much data has accumulated on various non-translatable RNA transcripts that are synthesised in different cells. They are lacking in protein coding capacity and it seems that they work mainly or exclusively at the RNA level. All known non-coding RNA transcripts are collected in the database: http://www. man.poznan.pl/5SData/ncRNA/index.html

  9. Hominoid-specific de novo protein-coding genes originating from long non-coding RNAs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Xie

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Tinkering with pre-existing genes has long been known as a major way to create new genes. Recently, however, motherless protein-coding genes have been found to have emerged de novo from ancestral non-coding DNAs. How these genes originated is not well addressed to date. Here we identified 24 hominoid-specific de novo protein-coding genes with precise origination timing in vertebrate phylogeny. Strand-specific RNA-Seq analyses were performed in five rhesus macaque tissues (liver, prefrontal cortex, skeletal muscle, adipose, and testis, which were then integrated with public transcriptome data from human, chimpanzee, and rhesus macaque. On the basis of comparing the RNA expression profiles in the three species, we found that most of the hominoid-specific de novo protein-coding genes encoded polyadenylated non-coding RNAs in rhesus macaque or chimpanzee with a similar transcript structure and correlated tissue expression profile. According to the rule of parsimony, the majority of these hominoid-specific de novo protein-coding genes appear to have acquired a regulated transcript structure and expression profile before acquiring coding potential. Interestingly, although the expression profile was largely correlated, the coding genes in human often showed higher transcriptional abundance than their non-coding counterparts in rhesus macaque. The major findings we report in this manuscript are robust and insensitive to the parameters used in the identification and analysis of de novo genes. Our results suggest that at least a portion of long non-coding RNAs, especially those with active and regulated transcription, may serve as a birth pool for protein-coding genes, which are then further optimized at the transcriptional level.

  10. An expanding universe of the non-coding genome in cancer biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Bin; He, Lin

    2014-06-01

    Neoplastic transformation is caused by accumulation of genetic and epigenetic alterations that ultimately convert normal cells into tumor cells with uncontrolled proliferation and survival, unlimited replicative potential and invasive growth [Hanahan,D. et al. (2011) Hallmarks of cancer: the next generation. Cell, 144, 646-674]. Although the majority of the cancer studies have focused on the functions of protein-coding genes, emerging evidence has started to reveal the importance of the vast non-coding genome, which constitutes more than 98% of the human genome. A number of non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) derived from the 'dark matter' of the human genome exhibit cancer-specific differential expression and/or genomic alterations, and it is increasingly clear that ncRNAs, including small ncRNAs and long ncRNAs (lncRNAs), play an important role in cancer development by regulating protein-coding gene expression through diverse mechanisms. In addition to ncRNAs, nearly half of the mammalian genomes consist of transposable elements, particularly retrotransposons. Once depicted as selfish genomic parasites that propagate at the expense of host fitness, retrotransposon elements could also confer regulatory complexity to the host genomes during development and disease. Reactivation of retrotransposons in cancer, while capable of causing insertional mutagenesis and genome rearrangements to promote oncogenesis, could also alter host gene expression networks to favor tumor development. Taken together, the functional significance of non-coding genome in tumorigenesis has been previously underestimated, and diverse transcripts derived from the non-coding genome could act as integral functional components of the oncogene and tumor suppressor network. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Identification of Circulating Long Noncoding RNA Linc00152 as a Novel Biomarker for Diagnosis and Monitoring of Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nandi Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs have been reported to play vital roles in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC. Recently, long noncoding RNA Linc00152 has been reported to play important roles in various cancers. In this study, our aim was to investigate its expression pattern and clinical significance and further evaluate its diagnostic value for NSCLC. Methods. The levels of Linc00152 were detected in NSCLC tissues and plasma samples by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC curves were depicted to evaluate the diagnostic value. Results. We found that Linc00152 levels were upregulated in both NSCLC tissues and plasma samples. Plasma Linc00152 levels were significantly lower in postoperative samples than in preoperative samples. Besides, high Linc00152 expression was significantly correlated with tumor size (r=0.293, P=0.005 and tumor stage (r=0.324, P=0.011. The ROC curves indicated that plasma Linc00152 has high diagnostic accuracy for NSCLC, and the area under curve (AUC for NSCLC versus healthy was 0.816 (95% CI: 0.757–0.875. Moreover, we found that the combination of Linc00152 and CEA could provide a more powerful diagnosis efficiency than Linc00152 or CEA alone (AUC = 0.881, 95% CI: 0.836–0.926. Conclusions. Plasma Linc00152 could serve as a promising biomarker for diagnosing and monitoring NSCLC.

  12. Myxobolus cerebralis internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS-1) sequences support recent spread of the parasite to North America and within Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whipps, Christopher M.; El-Matbouli, M.; Hedrick, R.P.; Blazer, V.; Kent, M.L.

    2004-01-01

    Molecular approaches for resolving relationships among the Myxozoa have relied mainly on small subunit (SSU) ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequence analysis. This region of the gene is generally used for higher phylogenetic studies, and the conservative nature of this gene may make it inadequate for intraspecific comparisons. Previous intraspecific studies of Myxobolus cerebralis based on molecular analyses reported that the sequence of SSU rDNA and the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) were highly conserved in representatives of the parasite from North America and Europe. Considering that the ITS is usually a more variable region than the SSU, we reanalyzed available sequences on GenBank and obtained sequences from other M. cerebralis representatives from the states of California and West Virginia in the USA and from Germany and Russia. With the exception of 7 base pairs, most of the sequence designated as ITS-1 in GenBank was a highly conserved portion of the rDNA near the 3-prime end of the SSU region. Nonetheless, the additional ITS-1 sequences obtained from the available geographic representatives were well conserved. It is unlikely that we would have observed virtually identical ITS-1 sequences between European and American M. cerebralis samples had it spread naturally over time, particularly when compared to the variation seen between isolates of another myxozoan (Kudoa thyrsites) that has most likely spread naturally. These data further support the hypothesis that the current distribution of M. cerebralis in North America is a result of recent introductions followed by dispersal via anthropogenic means, largely through the stocking of infected trout for sport fishing.

  13. Noncoding RNAs and HIV: viral manipulation of host dark matter to shape the cellular environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha eBarichievy

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available On October 28th 1943 Winston Churchill said we shape our buildings, and afterwards our buildings shape us (Humes, 1994. Churchill was pondering how and when to rebuild the British House of Commons, which had been destroyed by enemy bombs on May 10th 1941. The old House had been small and insufficient to hold all its members, but was restored to its original form in 1950 in order to recapture the convenience and dignity that the building had shaped into its parliamentary members. The circular loop whereby buildings or dwellings are shaped and go on to shape those that reside in them is also true of pathogens and their hosts. As obligate parasites, pathogens need to alter their cellular host environments to ensure survival. Typically pathogens modify cellular transcription profiles and in doing so, the pathogen in turn is affected, thereby closing the loop. As key orchestrators of gene expression, noncoding RNAs provide a vast and extremely precise set of tools for pathogens to target in order to shape the cellular environment. This review will focus on host noncoding RNAs that are manipulated by the infamous intracellular pathogen, the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV. We will briefly describe both short and long host noncoding RNAs and discuss how HIV gains control of these factors to ensure widespread dissemination throughout the host as well as the establishment of lifelong, chronic infection.

  14. A small noncoding RNA signature found in exosomes of GBM patient serum as a diagnostic tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manterola, Lorea; Guruceaga, Elizabeth; Gállego Pérez-Larraya, Jaime; González-Huarriz, Marisol; Jauregui, Patricia; Tejada, Sonia; Diez-Valle, Ricardo; Segura, Victor; Samprón, Nicolás; Barrena, Cristina; Ruiz, Irune; Agirre, Amaia; Ayuso, Angel; Rodríguez, Javier; González, Alvaro; Xipell, Enric; Matheu, Ander; López de Munain, Adolfo; Tuñón, Teresa; Zazpe, Idoya; García-Foncillas, Jesús; Paris, Sophie; Delattre, Jean Yves; Alonso, Marta M

    2014-04-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most frequent malignant brain tumor in adults, and its prognosis remains dismal despite intensive research and therapeutic advances. Diagnostic biomarkers would be clinically meaningful to allow for early detection of the tumor and for those cases in which surgery is contraindicated or biopsy results are inconclusive. Recent findings show that GBM cells release microvesicles that contain a select subset of cellular proteins and RNA. The aim of this hypothesis-generating study was to assess the diagnostic potential of miRNAs found in microvesicles isolated from the serum of GBM patients. To control disease heterogeneity, we used patients with newly diagnosed GBM. In the discovery stage, PCR-based TaqMan Low Density Arrays followed by individual quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction were used to test the differences in the miRNA expression levels of serum microvesicles among 25 GBM patients and healthy controls paired by age and sex. The detected noncoding RNAs were then validated in another 50 GBM patients. We found that the expression levels of 1 small noncoding RNA (RNU6-1) and 2 microRNAs (miR-320 and miR-574-3p) were significantly associated with a GBM diagnosis. In addition, RNU6-1 was consistently an independent predictor of a GBM diagnosis. Altogether our results uncovered a small noncoding RNA signature in microvesicles isolated from GBM patient serum that could be used as a fast and reliable differential diagnostic biomarker.

  15. Methods for Using Small Non-Coding RNAs to Improve Recombinant Protein Expression in Mammalian Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Inwood

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The ability to produce recombinant proteins by utilizing different “cell factories” revolutionized the biotherapeutic and pharmaceutical industry. Chinese hamster ovary (CHO cells are the dominant industrial producer, especially for antibodies. Human embryonic kidney cells (HEK, while not being as widely used as CHO cells, are used where CHO cells are unable to meet the needs for expression, such as growth factors. Therefore, improving recombinant protein expression from mammalian cells is a priority, and continuing effort is being devoted to this topic. Non-coding RNAs are RNA segments that are not translated into a protein and often have a regulatory role. Since their discovery, major progress has been made towards understanding their functions. Non-coding RNA has been investigated extensively in relation to disease, especially cancer, and recently they have also been used as a method for engineering cells to improve their protein expression capability. In this review, we provide information about methods used to identify non-coding RNAs with the potential of improving recombinant protein expression in mammalian cell lines.

  16. Long noncoding RNAs responsive to Fusarium oxysporum infection in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Qian-Hao; Stephen, Stuart; Taylor, Jennifer; Helliwell, Chris A; Wang, Ming-Bo

    2014-01-01

    Short noncoding RNAs have been demonstrated to play important roles in regulation of gene expression and stress responses, but the repertoire and functions of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) remain largely unexplored, particularly in plants. To explore the role of lncRNAs in disease resistance, we used a strand-specific RNA-sequencing approach to identify lncRNAs responsive to Fusarium oxysporum infection in Arabidopsis thaliana. Antisense transcription was found in c. 20% of the annotated A. thaliana genes. Several noncoding natural antisense transcripts responsive to F. oxysporum infection were found in genes implicated in disease defense. While the majority of the novel transcriptionally active regions (TARs) were adjacent to annotated genes and could be an extension of the annotated transcripts, 159 novel intergenic TARs, including 20 F. oxysporum-responsive lncTARs, were identified. Ten F. oxysporum-induced lncTARs were functionally characterized using T-DNA insertion or RNA-interference knockdown lines, and five were demonstrated to be related to disease development. Promoter analysis suggests that some of the F. oxysporum-induced lncTARs are direct targets of transcription factor(s) responsive to pathogen attack. Our results demonstrated that strand-specific RNA sequencing is a powerful tool for uncovering hidden levels of transcriptome and that IncRNAs are important components of the antifungal networks in A. thaliana. © 2013 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2013 New Phytologist Trust.

  17. Boundary Associated Long Noncoding RNA Mediates Long-Range Chromosomal Interactions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ifeoma Jane Nwigwe

    Full Text Available CCCTC binding factor (CTCF is involved in organizing chromosomes into mega base-sized, topologically associated domains (TADs along with other factors that define sub-TAD organization. CTCF-Cohesin interactions have been shown to be critical for transcription insulation activity as it stabilizes long-range interactions to promote proper gene expression. Previous studies suggest that heterochromatin boundary activity of CTCF may be independent of Cohesin, and there may be additional mechanisms for defining topological domains. Here, we show that a boundary site we previously identified known as CTCF binding site 5 (CBS5 from the homeotic gene cluster A (HOXA locus exhibits robust promoter activity. This promoter activity from the CBS5 boundary element generates a long noncoding RNA that we designate as boundary associated long noncoding RNA-1 (blncRNA1. Functional characterization of this RNA suggests that the transcript stabilizes long-range interactions at the HOXA locus and promotes proper expression of HOXA genes. Additionally, our functional analysis also shows that this RNA is not needed in the stabilization of CTCF-Cohesin interactions however CTCF-Cohesin interactions are critical in the transcription of blncRNA1. Thus, the CTCF-associated boundary element, CBS5, employs both Cohesin and noncoding RNA to establish and maintain topologically associated domains at the HOXA locus.

  18. Strand bias in complementary single-nucleotide polymorphisms of transcribed human sequences: evidence for functional effects of synonymous polymorphisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majewski Jacek

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Complementary single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs may not be distributed equally between two DNA strands if the strands are functionally distinct, such as in transcribed genes. In introns, an excess of A↔G over the complementary C↔T substitutions had previously been found and attributed to transcription-coupled repair (TCR, demonstrating the valuable functional clues that can be obtained by studying such asymmetry. Here we studied asymmetry of human synonymous SNPs (sSNPs in the fourfold degenerate (FFD sites as compared to intronic SNPs (iSNPs. Results The identities of the ancestral bases and the direction of mutations were inferred from human-chimpanzee genomic alignment. After correction for background nucleotide composition, excess of A→G over the complementary T→C polymorphisms, which was observed previously and can be explained by TCR, was confirmed in FFD SNPs and iSNPs. However, when SNPs were separately examined according to whether they mapped to a CpG dinucleotide or not, an excess of C→T over G→A polymorphisms was found in non-CpG site FFD SNPs but was absent from iSNPs and CpG site FFD SNPs. Conclusion The genome-wide discrepancy of human FFD SNPs provides novel evidence for widespread selective pressure due to functional effects of sSNPs. The similar asymmetry pattern of FFD SNPs and iSNPs that map to a CpG can be explained by transcription-coupled mechanisms, including TCR and transcription-coupled mutation. Because of the hypermutability of CpG sites, more CpG site FFD SNPs are relatively younger and have confronted less selection effect than non-CpG FFD SNPs, which can explain the asymmetric discrepancy of CpG site FFD SNPs vs. non-CpG site FFD SNPs.

  19. Comparative analysis of the mating-type loci from Neurospora crassa and Sordaria macrospora: identification of novel transcribed ORFs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pöggeler, S; Kück, U

    2000-03-01

    The mating-type locus controls mating and sexual development in filamentous ascomycetes. In the heterothallic ascomycete Neurospora crassa, the genes that confer mating behavior comprise dissimilar DNA sequences (idiomorphs) in the mat a and mat A mating partners. In the homothallic fungus Sordaria macrospora, sequences corresponding to both idiomorphs are located contiguously in the mating-type locus, which contains one chimeric gene, Smt A-3, that includes sequences which are similar to sequences found at the mat A and mat a mating-type idiomorphs in N. crassa. In this study, we describe the comparative transcriptional analysis of the chimeric mating-type region of S. macrospora and the corresponding region of the N. crassa mat a idiomorph. By means of RT-PCR experiments, we identified novel intervening sequences in the mating-type loci of both ascomycetes and, hence, concluded that an additional ORF, encoding a putative polypeptide of 79 amino acids, is present in the N. crassa mat a idiomorph. Furthermore, our analysis revealed co-transcription of the novel gene with the mat a-1 gene in N. crassa. The same mode of transcription was found in the corresponding mating-type region of S. macrospora, where the chimeric Smt A-3 gene is co-transcribed with the mat a-specific Smt a-1 gene. Analysis of a Smt A-3 cDNA revealed optional splicing of two introns. We believe that this is the first report of co-transcription of protein-encoding nuclear genes in filamentous fungi. Possible functions of the novel ORFs in regulating mating-type gene expression are discussed.

  20. Authentication of ruta graveolens and its adulterant using internal transcribed spacer (its) sequences of nuclear ribosomal DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qurainy, F.A.; Khan, S.; Ali, M.A.; Hemaid, M.A.; Ashraf, M.

    2011-01-01

    Ruta graveolens L. (Rutaceae) is commonly known as 'Sudab' which is well known for hippocratic medicine and is commonly used in indigenous health-care system in India. Euphorbia dracunculoides Lam. (Euphorbiaceae) in raw drug trading has almost similar morphology to R. graveolens in dried state, is being sold locally or used clinically as an adulterant of R. graveolens (genuine) at a relatively low price under the same name 'Sudab' which has ultimately reduced the efficacy and quality of this herb. The internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequence of nuclear ribosomal DNA gene of genuine and adulterant were sequenced and analyzed to assess species admixture in raw drug trading of genuine herbal drug. The BLAST search results of ITS sequence of genuine sample of 'Sudab' i.e., R. graveolens showed 99% similarity to the sequence of R. graveolens, however, E. dracunculoides showed 100% similarity to the species of Euphorbia and did not show any similarity with R. graveolens. The sequence alignment of both species was entirely different to each other. Phylogenetic analysis based on ITS sequence of adulterant sample i.e., E. dracunculoides together with sequences of Euphorbia species available in the GenBank has also clearly showed its nesting within the Euphorbia tree. The generated ITS sequences of both samples in the present study may be referred hereafter as species-specific DNA barcode signature, which can be used in authenticating and validating the exact species identities to discriminate the genuine sample of 'Sudab' from its adulterants if any available to guarantee the quality and purity of this drug in the herbal drug market. (author)

  1. Molecular Strain Typing of Clinical Isolates, Trichophyton rubrum using Non Transcribed Spacer (NTS) Region as a Molecular Marker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramaraj, Vijayakumar; Vijayaraman, Rajyoganandh S; Elavarashi, Elangovan; Rangarajan, Sudha; Kindo, Anupma Jyoti

    2017-05-01

    Dermatophytes are a group of fungi which infect keratinized tissues and causes superficial mycoses in humans and animals. The group comprises of three major genera, Trichophyton , Microsporum and Epidermophyton . Among them Trichophyton rubrum is a predominant anthropophilic fungi which causes chronic infections. Although, the infection is superficial and treatable, reinfection/coinfection causes inflation in the treatment cost. Identifying the source and mode of transmission is essential to prevent its transmission. Accurate discrimination is required to understand the clinical (relapse or reinfection) and epidemiological implications of the genetic heterogeneity of this species. Polymorphism in the Non Transcribed Spacer (NTS) region of ribosomal DNA (rDNA) clusters renders an effective way to discriminate strains among T. rubrum . To carry out the strain typing of the clinical isolates, Trichophyton rubrum using NTS as a molecular marker. Seventy T.rubrum clinical isolates obtained from April-2011-March 2013, from Sri Ramachandra Medical Centre, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India, were identified by conventional phenotypic methods and included in this prospective study. The isolates were then subjected to Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) targeting two subrepeat elements (SREs), TRS-1 and TRS-2 of the NTS region. Strain-specific polymorphism was observed in both subrepeat loci. Total, nine different strains were obtained on combining both TRS-1 and TRS-2, SREs. The outcome has given a strong representation for using NTS region amplification in discriminating the T. rubrum clinical isolates. The method can be adapted as a tool for conducting epidemiology and population based study in T. rubrum infections. This will help in future exploration of the epidemiology of T. rubrum .

  2. Nuclear internal transcribed spacer-1 as a sensitive genetic marker for environmental DNA studies in common carp Cyprinus carpio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minamoto, Toshifumi; Uchii, Kimiko; Takahara, Teruhiko; Kitayoshi, Takumi; Tsuji, Satsuki; Yamanaka, Hiroki; Doi, Hideyuki

    2017-03-01

    The recently developed environmental DNA (eDNA) analysis has been used to estimate the distribution of aquatic vertebrates by using mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) as a genetic marker. However, mtDNA markers have certain drawbacks such as variable copy number and maternal inheritance. In this study, we investigated the potential of using nuclear DNA (ncDNA) as a more reliable genetic marker for eDNA analysis by using common carp (Cyprinus carpio). We measured the copy numbers of cytochrome b (CytB) gene region of mtDNA and internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) region of ribosomal DNA of ncDNA in various carp tissues and then compared the detectability of these markers in eDNA samples. In the DNA extracted from the brain and gill tissues and intestinal contents, CytB was detected at 95.1 ± 10.7 (mean ± 1 standard error), 29.7 ± 1.59 and 24.0 ± 4.33 copies per cell, respectively, and ITS1 was detected at 1760 ± 343, 2880 ± 503 and 1910 ± 352 copies per cell, respectively. In the eDNA samples from mesocosm, pond and lake water, the copy numbers of ITS1 were about 160, 300 and 150 times higher than those of CytB, respectively. The minimum volume of pond water required for quantification was 33 and 100 mL for ITS1 and CytB, respectively. These results suggested that ITS1 is a more sensitive genetic marker for eDNA studies of C. carpio. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Rhabdovirus-like endogenous viral elements in the genome of Spodoptera frugiperda insect cells are actively transcribed: Implications for adventitious virus detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geisler, Christoph; Jarvis, Donald L

    2016-07-01

    Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf) cell lines are used to produce several biologicals for human and veterinary use. Recently, it was discovered that all tested Sf cell lines are persistently infected with Sf-rhabdovirus, a novel rhabdovirus. As part of an effort to search for other adventitious viruses, we searched the Sf cell genome and transcriptome for sequences related to Sf-rhabdovirus. To our surprise, we found intact Sf-rhabdovirus N- and P-like ORFs, and partial Sf-rhabdovirus G- and L-like ORFs. The transcribed and genomic sequences matched, indicating the transcripts were derived from the genomic sequences. These appear to be endogenous viral elements (EVEs), which result from the integration of partial viral genetic material into the host cell genome. It is theoretically impossible for the Sf-rhabdovirus-like EVEs to produce infectious virus particles as 1) they are disseminated across 4 genomic loci, 2) the G and L ORFs are incomplete, and 3) the M ORF is missing. Our finding of transcribed virus-like sequences in Sf cells underscores that MPS-based searches for adventitious viruses in cell substrates used to manufacture biologics should take into account both genomic and transcribed sequences to facilitate the identification of transcribed EVE's, and to avoid false positive detection of replication-competent adventitious viruses. Copyright © 2016 International Alliance for Biological Standardization. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Comparison of the Sequences of the Internal Transcribed Spacer Regions and PbGP43 Genes of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis from Patients and Armadillos (Dasypus novemcinctus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebeler-Barbosa, Flavia; Morais, Flavia V.; Montenegro, Mario R.; Kuramae, Eiko E.; Montes, Beatriz; McEwen, Juan G.; Bagagli, Eduardo; Puccia, Rosana

    2003-01-01

    Paracoccidioides brasiliensis isolates from 10 nine-banded armadillos (Dasypus novemcinctus) were comparable with 19 clinical isolates by sequence analysis of the PbGP43 gene and ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) and ITS2 and by random amplified polymorphic DNA. In this original ITS study, eight isolates differed by one or three sites among five total substitution sites. PMID:14662970

  5. Rapid and accurate identification of isolates of Candida species by melting peak and melting curve analysis of the internally transcribed spacer region 2 fragment (ITS2-MCA)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Decat, E.; van Mechelen, E.; Saerens, B.; Vermeulen, S.J.T.; Boekhout, T.; de Blaiser, S.; Vaneechoutte, M.; Deschaght, P.

    2013-01-01

    Rapid identification of clinically important yeasts can facilitate the initiation of anti-fungal therapy, since susceptibility is largely species-dependent. We evaluated melting peak and melting curve analysis of the internally transcribed spacer region 2 fragment (ITS2-MCA) as an identification

  6. Relationships between 16S-23S rRNA gene internal transcribed spacer DNA and genomic DNA similarities in the taxonomy of phototrophic bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamura, K; Hisada, T; Takata, K; Hiraishi, A

    2013-01-01

    Rapid and accurate identification of microbial species is essential task in microbiology and biotechnology. In prokaryotic systematics, genomic DNA-DNA hybridization is the ultimate tool to determine genetic relationships among bacterial strains at the species level. However, a practical problem in this assay is that the experimental procedure is laborious and time-consuming. In recent years, information on the 16S-23S rRNA gene internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region has been used to classify bacterial strains at the species and intraspecies levels. It is unclear how much information on the ITS region can reflect the genome that contain it. In this study, therefore, we evaluate the quantitative relationship between ITS DNA and entire genomic DNA similarities. For this, we determined ITS sequences of several species of anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria belonging to the order Rhizobiales, and compared with DNA-DNA relatedness among these species. There was a high correlation between the two genetic markers. Based on the regression analysis of this relationship, 70% DNA-DNA relatedness corresponded to 92% ITS sequence similarity. This suggests the usefulness of the ITS sequence similarity as a criterion for determining the genospecies of the phototrophic bacteria. To avoid the effects of polymorphism bias of ITS on similarities, PCR products from all loci of ITS were used directly as genetic probes for comparison. The results of ITS DNA-DNA hybridization coincided well with those of genomic DNA-DNA relatedness. These collective data indicate that the whole ITS DNA-DNA similarity can be used as an alternative to genomic DNA-DNA similarity.

  7. Long Intergenic Noncoding RNA 00511 Acts as an Oncogene in Non–small-cell Lung Cancer by Binding to EZH2 and Suppressing p57

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Cao Sun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs play crucial roles in carcinogenesis. However, the function and mechanism of lncRNAs in human non–small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC are still remaining largely unknown. Long intergenic noncoding RNA 00511 (LINC00511 has been found to be upregulated and acts as an oncogene in breast cancer, but little is known about its expression pattern, biological function and underlying mechanism in NSCLC. Herein, we identified LINC00511 as an oncogenic lncRNA by driving tumorigenesis in NSCLC. We found LINC00511 was upregulated and associated with oncogenesis, tumor size, metastasis, and poor prognosis in NSCLC. Moreover, LINC00511 affected cell proliferation, invasiveness, metastasis, and apoptosis in multiple NSCLC cell lines. Mechanistically, LINC00511 bound histone methyltransferase enhancer of zeste homolog 2 ((EZH2, the catalytic subunit of the polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2, a highly conserved protein complex that regulates gene expression by methylating lysine 27 on histone H3, and acted as a modular scaffold of EZH2/PRC2 complexes, coordinated their localization, and specified the histone modification pattern on the target genes, including p57, and consequently altered NSCLC cell biology. Thus, LINC00511 is mechanistically, functionally, and clinically oncogenic in NSCLC. Targeting LINC00511 and its pathway may be meaningful for treating patients with NSCLC.

  8. An RNA-Seq strategy to detect the complete coding and non-coding transcriptome including full-length imprinted macro ncRNAs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ru Huang

    Full Text Available Imprinted macro non-protein-coding (nc RNAs are cis-repressor transcripts that silence multiple genes in at least three imprinted gene clusters in the mouse genome. Similar macro or long ncRNAs are abundant in the mammalian genome. Here we present the full coding and non-coding transcriptome of two mouse tissues: differentiated ES cells and fetal head using an optimized RNA-Seq strategy. The data produced is highly reproducible in different sequencing locations and is able to detect the full length of imprinted macro ncRNAs such as Airn and Kcnq1ot1, whose length ranges between 80-118 kb. Transcripts show a more uniform read coverage when RNA is fragmented with RNA hydrolysis compared with cDNA fragmentation by shearing. Irrespective of the fragmentation method, all coding and non-coding transcripts longer than 8 kb show a gradual loss of sequencing tags towards the 3' end. Comparisons to published RNA-Seq datasets show that the strategy presented here is more efficient in detecting known functional imprinted macro ncRNAs and also indicate that standardization of RNA preparation protocols would increase the comparability of the transcriptome between different RNA-Seq datasets.

  9. Transcriptomics Profiling of Alzheimer’s Disease Reveal Neurovascular Defects, Altered Amyloid-β Homeostasis, and Deregulated Expression of Long Noncoding RNAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magistri, Marco; Velmeshev, Dmitry; Makhmutova, Madina; Faghihi, Mohammad Ali

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The underlying genetic variations of late-onset Alzheimer’s disease (LOAD) cases remain largely unknown. A combination of genetic variations with variable penetrance and lifetime epigenetic factors may converge on transcriptomic alterations that drive LOAD pathological process. Transcriptome profiling using deep sequencing technology offers insight into common altered pathways regardless of underpinning genetic or epigenetic factors and thus represents an ideal tool to investigate molecular mechanisms related to the pathophysiology of LOAD. We performed directional RNA sequencing on high quality RNA samples extracted from hippocampi of LOAD and age-matched controls. We further validated our data using qRT-PCR on a larger set of postmortem brain tissues, confirming downregulation of the gene encoding substance P (TAC1) and upregulation of the gene encoding the plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (SERPINE1). Pathway analysis indicates dysregulation in neural communication, cerebral vasculature, and amyloid-β clearance. Beside protein coding genes, we identified several annotated and non-annotated long noncoding RNAs that are differentially expressed in LOAD brain tissues, three of them are activity-dependent regulated and one is induced by Aβ1 - 42 exposure of human neural cells. Our data provide a comprehensive list of transcriptomics alterations in LOAD hippocampi and warrant holistic approach including both coding and non-coding RNAs in functional studies aimed to understand the pathophysiology of LOAD. PMID:26402107

  10. A Positive Regulatory Loop between a Wnt-Regulated Non-coding RNA and ASCL2 Controls Intestinal Stem Cell Fate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giakountis, Antonis; Moulos, Panagiotis; Zarkou, Vasiliki; Oikonomou, Christina; Harokopos, Vaggelis; Hatzigeorgiou, Artemis G; Reczko, Martin; Hatzis, Pantelis

    2016-06-21

    The canonical Wnt pathway plays a central role in stem cell maintenance, differentiation, and proliferation in the intestinal epithelium. Constitutive, aberrant activity of the TCF4/β-catenin transcriptional complex is the primary transforming factor in colorectal cancer. We identify a nuclear long non-coding RNA, termed WiNTRLINC1, as a direct target of TCF4/β-catenin in colorectal cancer cells. WiNTRLINC1 positively regulates the expression of its genomic neighbor ASCL2, a transcription factor that controls intestinal stem cell fate. WiNTRLINC1 interacts with TCF4/β-catenin to mediate the juxtaposition of its promoter with the regulatory regions of ASCL2. ASCL2, in turn, regulates WiNTRLINC1 transcriptionally, closing a feedforward regulatory loop that controls stem cell-related gene expression. This regulatory circuitry is highly amplified in colorectal cancer and correlates with increased metastatic potential and decreased patient survival. Our results uncover the interplay between non-coding RNA-mediated regulation and Wnt signaling and point to the diagnostic and therapeutic potential of WiNTRLINC1. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Nuclear stability and transcriptional directionality separate functionally distinct RNA species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Robin; Refsing Andersen, Peter; Valen, Eivind

    2014-01-01

    Mammalian genomes are pervasively transcribed, yielding a complex transcriptome with high variability in composition and cellular abundance. Although recent efforts have identified thousands of new long non-coding (lnc) RNAs and demonstrated a complex transcriptional repertoire produced by protei...

  12. Preferential repair of ionizing radiation-induced damage in the transcribed strand of an active human gene is defective in Cockayne syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leadon, S.A.; Copper, P.K.

    1993-01-01

    Cells from patients with Cockayne syndrome (CS), which are sensitive to killing by UV although overall damage removal appears normal, are specifically defective in repair of UV damage in actively transcribe genes. Because several CS strains display cross-sensitivity to killing by ionizing radiation, the authors examined whether ionizing radiation-induced damage in active genes is preferentially repaired by normal cells and whether the radiosensitivity of CS cells can be explained by a defect in this process. They found that ionizing radiation-induced damage was repaired more rapidly in the transcriptionally active metallothionein IIA (MTIIA) gene than in the inactive MTIIB gene or in the genome overall in normal cells as a result of faster repair on the transcribed strand of MTIIA. Cells of the radiosensitive CS strain CS1AN are completely defective in this strand-selective repair of ionizing radiation-induced damage, although their overall repair rate appears normal. CS3BE cells, which are intermediate in radiosensitivity, do exhibit more rapid repair of the transcribed strand but at a reduced rate compared to normal cells. Xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group A cells, which are hypersensitive to UV light because of a defect in the nucleotide excision repair pathway but do not show increased sensitivity to ionizing radiation, preferentially repair ionizing radiation-induced damage on the transcribed strand of MTIIA. Thus, the ability to rapidly repair ionizing radiation-induced damage in actively transcribing genes correlates with cell survival. The results extend the generality of preferential repair in active genes to include damage other than bulky lesions

  13. Long non-coding RNA PVT1 as a novel potential biomarker for predicting the prognosis of colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Heng; Zhu, Jian-Hua; Yao, Xue-Qing

    2018-05-01

    Long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) plays a very important role in the occurrence and development of various tumors, and is a potential biomarker for cancer diagnosis and prognosis. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between the expression of lncRNA plasmacytoma variant translocation 1 (PVT1) and the prognostic significance in patients with colorectal cancer. The expression of PVT1 was measured by real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) in cancerous and adjacent tissues of 210 colorectal cancer patients. The disease-free survival and overall survival of colorectal cancer patients were evaluated by Kaplan-Meier analysis, and univariate and multivariate analysis were performed by Cox proportional-hazards model. Our results revealed that PVT1 expression in cancer tissues of colorectal cancer was significantly higher than that of adjacent tissues ( Pcolorectal cancer patients, whether at TNM I/II stage or at TNM III/IV stage. A multivariate Cox regression analysis demonstrated that high PVT1 expression was an independent predictor of poor prognosis in colorectal cancer patients. Our results suggest that high PVT1 expression might be a potential biomarker for assessing tumor recurrence and prognosis in colorectal cancer patients.

  14. Defining RNA-Small Molecule Affinity Landscapes Enables Design of a Small Molecule Inhibitor of an Oncogenic Noncoding RNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velagapudi, Sai Pradeep; Luo, Yiling; Tran, Tuan; Haniff, Hafeez S; Nakai, Yoshio; Fallahi, Mohammad; Martinez, Gustavo J; Childs-Disney, Jessica L; Disney, Matthew D

    2017-03-22

    RNA drug targets are pervasive in cells, but methods to design small molecules that target them are sparse. Herein, we report a general approach to score the affinity and selectivity of RNA motif-small molecule interactions identified via selection. Named High Throughput Structure-Activity Relationships Through Sequencing (HiT-StARTS), HiT-StARTS is statistical in nature and compares input nucleic acid sequences to selected library members that bind a ligand via high throughput sequencing. The approach allowed facile definition of the fitness landscape of hundreds of thousands of RNA motif-small molecule binding partners. These results were mined against folded RNAs in the human transcriptome and identified an avid interaction between a small molecule and the Dicer nuclease-processing site in the oncogenic microRNA (miR)-18a hairpin precursor, which is a member of the miR-17-92 cluster. Application of the small molecule, Targapremir-18a, to prostate cancer cells inhibited production of miR-18a from the cluster, de-repressed serine/threonine protein kinase 4 protein (STK4), and triggered apoptosis. Profiling the cellular targets of Targapremir-18a via Chemical Cross-Linking and Isolation by Pull Down (Chem-CLIP), a covalent small molecule-RNA cellular profiling approach, and other studies showed specific binding of the compound to the miR-18a precursor, revealing broadly applicable factors that govern small molecule drugging of noncoding RNAs.

  15. Long noncoding RNA HOTAIR is relevant to cellular proliferation, invasiveness, and clinical relapse in small-cell lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, Hiroshi; Motoi, Noriko; Nagano, Hiroko; Miyauchi, Eisaku; Ushijima, Masaru; Matsuura, Masaaki; Okumura, Sakae; Nishio, Makoto; Hirose, Tetsuro; Inase, Naohiko; Ishikawa, Yuichi

    2014-01-01

    Small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) is a subtype of lung cancer with poor prognosis. To identify accurate predictive biomarkers and effective therapeutic modalities, we focus on a long noncoding RNA, Hox transcript antisense intergenic RNA (HOTAIR), and investigated its expression, cellular functions, and clinical relevance in SCLC. In this study, HOTAIR expression was assessed in 35 surgical SCLC samples and 10 SCLC cell lines. The efficacy of knockdown of HOTAIR by siRNA transfection was evaluated in SBC-3 cells in vitro, and the gene expression was analyzed using microarray. HOTAIR was expressed highly in pure, rather than combined, SCLC (P = 0.012), that the subgroup with high expression had significantly more pure SCLC (P = 0.04), more lymphatic invasion (P = 0.03) and more relapse (P = 0.04) than the low-expression subgroup. The knockdown of HOTAIR in SBC-3 cells led to decreased proliferation activity and decreased invasiveness in vitro. Gene expression analysis indicated that depletion of HOTAIR resulted in upregulation of cell adhesion-related genes such as ASTN1, PCDHA1, and mucin production-related genes such as MUC5AC, and downregulation of genes involved in neuronal growth and signal transduction including NTM and PTK2B. Our results suggest that HOTAIR has an oncogenic role in SCLC and could be a prognostic biomarker and therapeutic target

  16. Long Noncoding RNA-1604 Orchestrates Neural Differentiation through the miR-200c/ZEB Axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Rong; Lu, Chenqi; Liu, Xiaoqin; Li, Guoping; Lan, Yuanyuan; Qiao, Jing; Bai, Mingliang; Wang, Zhaojie; Guo, Xudong; Ye, Dan; Jiapaer, Zeyidan; Yang, Yiwei; Xia, Chenliang; Wang, Guiying; Kang, Jiuhong

    2018-03-01

    Clarifying the regulatory mechanisms of embryonic stem cell (ESC) neural differentiation is helpful not only for understanding neural development but also for obtaining high-quality neural progenitor cells required by stem cell therapy of neurodegenerative diseases. Here, we found that long noncoding RNA 1604 (lncRNA-1604) was highly expressed in cytoplasm during neural differentiation, and knockdown of lncRNA-1604 significantly repressed neural differentiation of mouse ESCs both in vitro and in vivo. Bioinformatics prediction and mechanistic analysis revealed that lncRNA-1604 functioned as a novel competing endogenous RNA of miR-200c and regulated the core transcription factors ZEB1 and ZEB2 during neural differentiation. Furthermore, we also demonstrated the critical role of miR-200c and ZEB1/2 in mouse neural differentiation. Either introduction of miR-200c sponge or overexpression of ZEB1/2 significantly reversed the lncRNA-1604 knockdown-induced repression of mouse ESC neural differentiation. Collectively, these findings not only identified a previously unknown role of lncRNA-1604 and ZEB1/2 but also elucidated a new regulatory lncRNA-1604/miR-200c/ZEB axis in neural differentiation. Stem Cells 2018;36:325-336. © 2017 AlphaMed Press.

  17. Hypoxic exosomes facilitate bladder tumor growth and development through transferring long non-coding RNA-UCA1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Mei; Chen, Wei; Xiang, An; Wang, Ruiqi; Chen, He; Pan, Jingjing; Pang, Huan; An, Hongli; Wang, Xiang; Hou, Huilian; Li, Xu

    2017-08-25

    To overcome the hostile hypoxic microenvironment of solid tumors, tumor cells secrete a large number of non-coding RNA-containing exosomes that facilitate tumor development and metastasis. However, the precise mechanisms of tumor cell-derived exosomes during hypoxia are unknown. Here, we aim to clarify whether hypoxia affects tumor growth and progression by transferring long non-coding RNA-urothelial cancer-associated 1 (lncRNA-UCA1) enriched exosomes secreted from bladder cancer cells. We used bladder cancer 5637 cells with high expression of lncRNA-UCA1 as exosome-generating cells and bladder cancer UMUC2 cells with low expression of lncRNA-UCA1 as recipient cells. Exosomes derived from 5637 cells cultured under normoxic or hypoxic conditions were isolated and identified by transmission electron microscopy, nanoparticle tracking analysis and western blotting analysis. These exosomes were co-cultured with UMUC2 cells to evaluate cell proliferation, migration and invasion. We further investigated the roles of exosomal lncRNA-UCA1 derived from hypoxic 5637 cells by xenograft models. The availability of lncRNA-UCA1 in serum-derived exosomes as a biomarker for bladder cancer was also assessed. We found that hypoxic exosomes derived from 5637 cells promoted cell proliferation, migration and invasion, and hypoxic exosomal RNAs could be internalized by three bladder cancer cell lines. Importantly, lncRNA-UCA1 was secreted in hypoxic 5637 cell-derived exosomes. Compared with normoxic exosomes, hypoxic exosomes derived from 5637 cells showed the higher expression levels of lncRNA-UCA1. Moreover, Hypoxic exosomal lncRNA-UCA1 could promote tumor growth and progression though epithelial-mesenchymal transition, in vitro and in vivo. In addition, the expression levels of lncRNA-UCA1 in the human serum-derived exosomes of bladder cancer patients were higher than that in the healthy controls. Together, our results demonstrate that hypoxic bladder cancer cells remodel tumor

  18. TriMEDB: A database to integrate transcribed markers and facilitate genetic studies of the tribe Triticeae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshida Takuhiro

    2008-06-01

    assembled to form 2737 unique marker groups as contigs. These contigs were applied for pairwise comparison among linkage maps obtained from different EST map resources. Conclusion TriMEDB provides information regarding transcribed genetic markers and functions as a semantic knowledgebase offering an informatics facility for the acceleration of QTL analysis and for population genetics studies of Triticeae.

  19. Paenibacillus larvae 16S-23S rDNA intergenic transcribed spacer (ITS) regions: DNA fingerprinting and characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dingman, Douglas W

    2012-07-01

    Paenibacillus larvae is the causative agent of American foulbrood in honey bee (Apis mellifera) larvae. PCR amplification of the 16S-23S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) intergenic transcribed spacer (ITS) regions, and agarose gel electrophoresis of the amplified DNA, was performed using genomic DNA collected from 134 P. larvae strains isolated in Connecticut, six Northern Regional Research Laboratory stock strains, four strains isolated in Argentina, and one strain isolated in Chile. Following electrophoresis of amplified DNA, all isolates exhibited a common migratory profile (i.e., ITS-PCR fingerprint pattern) of six DNA bands. This profile represented a unique ITS-PCR DNA fingerprint that was useful as a fast, simple, and accurate procedure for identification of P. larvae. Digestion of ITS-PCR amplified DNA, using mung bean nuclease prior to electrophoresis, characterized only three of the six electrophoresis bands as homoduplex DNA and indicating three true ITS regions. These three ITS regions, DNA migratory band sizes of 915, 1010, and 1474 bp, signify a minimum of three types of rrn operons within P. larvae. DNA sequence analysis of ITS region DNA, using P. larvae NRRL B-3553, identified the 3' terminal nucleotides of the 16S rRNA gene, 5' terminal nucleotides of the 23S rRNA gene, and the complete DNA sequences of the 5S rRNA, tRNA(ala), and tRNA(ile) genes. Gene organization within the three rrn operon types was 16S-23S, 16S-tRNA(ala)-23S, and l6S-5S-tRNA(ile)-tRNA(ala)-23S and these operons were named rrnA, rrnF, and rrnG, respectively. The 23S rRNA gene was shown by I-CeuI digestion and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of genomic DNA to be present as seven copies. This was suggestive of seven rrn operon copies within the P. larvae genome. Investigation of the 16S-23S rDNA regions of this bacterium has aided the development of a diagnostic procedure and has helped genomic mapping investigations via characterization of the ITS regions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc

  20. Confinement of Reinforced-Concrete Columns with Non-Code Compliant Confining Reinforcement plus Supplemental Pen-Binder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anang Kristianto

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available One of the important requirements for earthquake resistant building related to confinement is the use of seismic hooks in the hoop or confining reinforcement of reinforced-concrete column elements. However, installation of a confining reinforcement with a 135-degree hook is not easy. Therefore, in practice, many construction workers apply a confining reinforcement with a 90-degreehook (non-code compliant. Based on research and records of recent earthquakes in Indonesia, the use of a non-code compliant confining reinforcement for concrete columns produces structures with poor seismic performance. This paper presents a study that introduces an additional element that is expected to improve the effectiveness of concrete columns confined with a non-code compliant confining reinforcement. The additional element, named a pen-binder, is used to keep the non-code compliant confining reinforcement in place. The effectiveness of this element under pure axial concentric loading was investigatedcomprehensively.The specimens tested in this study were 18 concrete columns,with a cross-section of 170 mm x 170 mm and a height of 480 mm. The main test variables were the material type of the pen-binder, the angle of the hook, and the confining reinforcement configuration.The test results indicate that adding pen-binders can effectively improve the strength and ductility of the column specimens confined with a non-code compliant confining reinforcement

  1. The pyrH gene of Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris encoding UMP kinase is transcribed as part of an operon including the frr1 gene encoding ribosomal recycling factor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wadskov-Hansen, Steen Lüders; Martinussen, Jan; Hammer, Karin

    2000-01-01

    establishing the ability of the encoded protein to synthesize UDP. The pyrH gene in L. lactis is flanked downstream by frr1 encoding ribosomal recycling factor 1 and upstream by an open reading frame, orfA, of unknown function. The three genes were shown to constitute an operon transcribed in the direction orf......A-pyrH-frr1 from a promoter immediately in front of orfA. This operon belongs to an evolutionary highly conserved gene cluster, since the organization of pyrH on the chromosomal level in L. lactis shows a high resemblance to that found in Bacillus subtilis as well as in Escherichia coli and several other...

  2. Upregulation of the long noncoding RNA TUG1 promotes proliferation and migration of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Youtao; Wang, Jie; Qiu, Mantang; Xu, Lei; Li, Ming; Jiang, Feng; Yin, Rong; Xu, Lin

    2015-03-01

    Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is one of the prevalent and deadly cancers worldwide, especially in Eastern Asia. The prognosis of ESCC remains poor; thus, it is still necessary to further dissect the underlying mechanisms and explore therapeutic targets of ESCC. Recent studies show that long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have critical roles in diverse biological processes, including tumorigenesis. Some lncRNAs, such as HOTAIR and POU3F3, were reported to play important roles in ESCC. Here, we characterized the expression profile of taurine-upregulated gene 1 (TUG1), a lncRNA recruiting and binding to polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2), in ESCC. In a cohort of 62 patients, TUG1 was significantly overexpressed in ESCC tissues compared with paired adjacent normal tissues, and high expression level of TUG1 was associated with family history and upper segment of esophageal cancer (p TUG1 via siRNA inhibited the proliferation and migration of ESCC cells and blocked the progression of cell cycle. Therefore, our study indicates that TUG1 promotes proliferation and migration of ESCC cells and is a potential oncogene of ESCC.

  3. The long noncoding RNA TUG1 regulates blood-tumor barrier permeability by targeting miR-144.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Heng; Xue, Yixue; Wang, Ping; Wang, Zhenhua; Li, Zhen; Hu, Yi; Li, Zhiqing; Shang, Xiuli; Liu, Yunhui

    2015-08-14

    Blood-tumor barrier (BTB) limits the delivery of chemotherapeutic agent to brain tumor tissues. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been shown to play critical regulatory roles in various biologic processes of tumors. However, the role of lncRNAs in BTB permeability is unclear. LncRNA TUG1 (taurine upregulated gene 1) was highly expressed in glioma vascular endothelial cells from glioma tissues. It also upregulated in glioma co-cultured endothelial cells (GEC) from BTB model in vitro. Knockdown of TUG1 increased BTB permeability, and meanwhile down-regulated the expression of the tight junction proteins ZO-1, occludin, and claudin-5. Both bioinformatics and luciferase reporter assays demonstrated that TUG1 influenced BTB permeability via binding to miR-144. Furthermore, Knockdown of TUG1 also down-regulated Heat shock transcription factor 2 (HSF2), a transcription factor of the heat shock transcription factor family, which was defined as a direct and functional downstream target of miR-144. HSF2 up-regulated the promoter activities and interacted with the promoters of ZO-1, occludin, and claudin-5 in GECs. In conclusion, our results indicate that knockdown of TUG1 increased BTB permeability via binding to miR-144 and then reducing EC tight junction protein expression by targeting HSF2. Thus, TUG1 may represent a useful future therapeutic target for enhancing BTB permeability.

  4. CCAT2, a novel noncoding RNA mapping to 8q24, underlies metastatic progression and chromosomal instability in colon cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Hui; Spizzo, Riccardo; Atlasi, Yaser; Nicoloso, Milena; Shimizu, Masayoshi; Redis, Roxana S.; Nishida, Naohiro; Gafà, Roberta; Song, Jian; Guo, Zhiyi; Ivan, Cristina; Barbarotto, Elisa; De Vries, Ingrid; Zhang, Xinna; Ferracin, Manuela; Churchman, Mike; van Galen, Janneke F.; Beverloo, Berna H.; Shariati, Maryam; Haderk, Franziska; Estecio, Marcos R.; Garcia-Manero, Guillermo; Patijn, Gijs A.; Gotley, David C.; Bhardwaj, Vikas; Shureiqi, Imad; Sen, Subrata; Multani, Asha S.; Welsh, James; Yamamoto, Ken; Taniguchi, Itsuki; Song, Min-Ae; Gallinger, Steven; Casey, Graham; Thibodeau, Stephen N.; Le Marchand, Loïc; Tiirikainen, Maarit; Mani, Sendurai A.; Zhang, Wei; Davuluri, Ramana V.; Mimori, Koshi; Mori, Masaki; Sieuwerts, Anieta M.; Martens, John W.M.; Tomlinson, Ian; Negrini, Massimo; Berindan-Neagoe, Ioana; Foekens, John A.; Hamilton, Stanley R.; Lanza, Giovanni; Kopetz, Scott; Fodde, Riccardo; Calin, George A.

    2013-01-01

    The functional roles of SNPs within the 8q24 gene desert in the cancer phenotype are not yet well understood. Here, we report that CCAT2, a novel long noncoding RNA transcript (lncRNA) encompassing the rs6983267 SNP, is highly overexpressed in microsatellite-stable colorectal cancer and promotes tumor growth, metastasis, and chromosomal instability. We demonstrate that MYC, miR–17–5p, and miR–20a are up-regulated by CCAT2 through TCF7L2-mediated transcriptional regulation. We further identify the physical interaction between CCAT2 and TCF7L2 resulting in an enhancement of WNT signaling activity. We show that CCAT2 is itself a WNT downstream target, which suggests the existence of a feedback loop. Finally, we demonstrate that the SNP status affects CCAT2 expression and the risk allele G produces more CCAT2 transcript. Our results support a new mechanism of MYC and WNT regulation by the novel lncRNA CCAT2 in colorectal cancer pathogenesis, and provide an alternative explanation of the SNP-conferred cancer risk. PMID:23796952

  5. Generation of Recombinant Polioviruses Harboring RNA Affinity Tags in the 5′ and 3′ Noncoding Regions of Genomic RNAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flather, Dylan; Cathcart, Andrea L.; Cruz, Casey; Baggs, Eric; Ngo, Tuan; Gershon, Paul D.; Semler, Bert L.

    2016-01-01

    Despite being intensely studied for more than 50 years, a complete understanding of the enterovirus replication cycle remains elusive. Specifically, only a handful of cellular proteins have been shown to be involved in the RNA replication cycle of these viruses. In an effort to isolate and identify additional cellular proteins that function in enteroviral RNA replication, we have generated multiple recombinant polioviruses containing RNA affinity tags within the 3′ or 5′ noncoding region of the genome. These recombinant viruses retained RNA affinity sequences within the genome while remaining viable and infectious over multiple passages in cell culture. Further characterization of these viruses demonstrated that viral protein production and growth kinetics were unchanged or only slightly altered relative to wild type poliovirus. However, attempts to isolate these genetically-tagged viral genomes from infected cells have been hindered by high levels of co-purification of nonspecific proteins and the limited matrix-binding efficiency of RNA affinity sequences. Regardless, these recombinant viruses represent a step toward more thorough characterization of enterovirus ribonucleoprotein complexes involved in RNA replication. PMID:26861382

  6. Genome-wide identification of potato long intergenic noncoding RNAs responsive to Pectobacterium carotovorum subspecies brasiliense infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwenda, Stanford; Birch, Paul R J; Moleleki, Lucy N

    2016-08-11

    Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) represent a class of RNA molecules that are implicated in regulation of gene expression in both mammals and plants. While much progress has been made in determining the biological functions of lncRNAs in mammals, the functional roles of lncRNAs in plants are still poorly understood. Specifically, the roles of long intergenic nocoding RNAs (lincRNAs) in plant defence responses are yet to be fully explored. In this study, we used strand-specific RNA sequencing to identify 1113 lincRNAs in potato (Solanum tuberosum) from stem tissues. The lincRNAs are expressed from all 12 potato chromosomes and generally smaller in size compared to protein-coding genes. Like in other plants, most potato lincRNAs possess single exons. A time-course RNA-seq analysis between a tolerant and a susceptible potato cultivar showed that 559 lincRNAs are responsive to Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. brasiliense challenge compared to mock-inoculated controls. Moreover, coexpression analysis revealed that 17 of these lincRNAs are highly associated with 12 potato defence-related genes. Together, these results suggest that lincRNAs have potential functional roles in potato defence responses. Furthermore, this work provides the first library of potato lincRNAs and a set of novel lincRNAs implicated in potato defences against P. carotovorum subsp. brasiliense, a member of the soft rot Enterobacteriaceae phytopathogens.

  7. Japanese encephalitis virus non-coding RNA inhibits activation of interferon by blocking nuclear translocation of interferon regulatory factor 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ruey-Yi; Hsu, Ta-Wen; Chen, Yen-Lin; Liu, Shu-Fan; Tsai, Yi-Jer; Lin, Yun-Tong; Chen, Yi-Shiuan; Fan, Yi-Hsin

    2013-09-27

    Noncoding RNA (ncRNA) plays a critical role in modulating a broad range of diseases. All arthropod-borne flaviviruses produce short fragment ncRNA (sfRNA) collinear with highly conserved regions of the 3'-untranslated region (UTR) in the viral genome. We show that the molar ratio of sfRNA to genomic RNA in Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) persistently infected cells is greater than that in acutely infected cells, indicating an sfRNA role in establishing persistent infection. Transfecting excess quantities of sfRNA into JEV-infected cells reduced interferon-β (IFN-β) promoter activity by 57% and IFN-β mRNA levels by 52%, compared to mock-transfected cells. Transfection of sfRNA into JEV-infected cells also reduced phosphorylation of interferon regulatory factor-3 (IRF-3), the IFN-β upstream regulator, and blocked roughly 30% of IRF-3 nuclear localization. Furthermore, JEV-infected sfRNA transfected cells produced 23% less IFN-β-stimulated apoptosis than mock-transfected groups did. Taken together, these results suggest that sfRNA plays a role against host-cell antiviral responses, prevents cells from undergoing apoptosis, and thus contributes to viral persistence. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. The PRC2-binding long non-coding RNAs in human and mouse genomes are associated with predictive sequence features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Shiqi; Yuan, Guo-Cheng; Shao, Zhen

    2017-01-01

    Recently, long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have emerged as an important class of molecules involved in many cellular processes. One of their primary functions is to shape epigenetic landscape through interactions with chromatin modifying proteins. However, mechanisms contributing to the specificity of such interactions remain poorly understood. Here we took the human and mouse lncRNAs that were experimentally determined to have physical interactions with Polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2), and systematically investigated the sequence features of these lncRNAs by developing a new computational pipeline for sequences composition analysis, in which each sequence is considered as a series of transitions between adjacent nucleotides. Through that, PRC2-binding lncRNAs were found to be associated with a set of distinctive and evolutionarily conserved sequence features, which can be utilized to distinguish them from the others with considerable accuracy. We further identified fragments of PRC2-binding lncRNAs that are enriched with these sequence features, and found they show strong PRC2-binding signals and are more highly conserved across species than the other parts, implying their functional importance.

  9. Trans-acting GC-rich non-coding RNA at var expression site modulates gene counting in malaria parasite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guizetti, Julien; Barcons-Simon, Anna; Scherf, Artur

    2016-11-16

    Monoallelic expression of the var multigene family enables immune evasion of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum in its human host. At a given time only a single member of the 60-member var gene family is expressed at a discrete perinuclear region called the 'var expression site'. However, the mechanism of var gene counting remains ill-defined. We hypothesize that activation factors associating specifically with the expression site play a key role in this process. Here, we investigate the role of a GC-rich non-coding RNA (ncRNA) gene family composed of 15 highly homologous members. GC-rich genes are positioned adjacent to var genes in chromosome-central gene clusters but are absent near subtelomeric var genes. Fluorescence in situ hybridization demonstrates that GC-rich ncRNA localizes to the perinuclear expression site of central and subtelomeric var genes in trans. Importantly, overexpression of distinct GC-rich ncRNA members disrupts the gene counting process at the single cell level and results in activation of a specific subset of var genes in distinct clones. We identify the first trans-acting factor targeted to the elusive perinuclear var expression site and open up new avenues to investigate ncRNA function in antigenic variation of malaria and other protozoan pathogens. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  10. microRNA dependent and independent deregulation of long non-coding RNAs by an oncogenic herpesvirus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunantha Sethuraman

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Kaposi's sarcoma (KS is a highly prevalent cancer in AIDS patients, especially in sub-Saharan Africa. Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV is the etiological agent of KS and other cancers like Primary Effusion Lymphoma (PEL. In KS and PEL, all tumors harbor latent KSHV episomes and express latency-associated viral proteins and microRNAs (miRNAs. The exact molecular mechanisms by which latent KSHV drives tumorigenesis are not completely understood. Recent developments have highlighted the importance of aberrant long non-coding RNA (lncRNA expression in cancer. Deregulation of lncRNAs by miRNAs is a newly described phenomenon. We hypothesized that KSHV-encoded miRNAs deregulate human lncRNAs to drive tumorigenesis. We performed lncRNA expression profiling of endothelial cells infected with wt and miRNA-deleted KSHV and identified 126 lncRNAs as putative viral miRNA targets. Here we show that KSHV deregulates host lncRNAs in both a miRNA-dependent fashion by direct interaction and in a miRNA-independent fashion through latency-associated proteins. Several lncRNAs that were previously implicated in cancer, including MEG3, ANRIL and UCA1, are deregulated by KSHV. Our results also demonstrate that KSHV-mediated UCA1 deregulation contributes to increased proliferation and migration of endothelial cells.

  11. DeepBase: annotation and discovery of microRNAs and other noncoding RNAs from deep-sequencing data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jian-Hua; Qu, Liang-Hu

    2012-01-01

    Recent advances in high-throughput deep-sequencing technology have produced large numbers of short and long RNA sequences and enabled the detection and profiling of known and novel microRNAs (miRNAs) and other noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) at unprecedented sensitivity and depth. In this chapter, we describe the use of deepBase, a database that we have developed to integrate all public deep-sequencing data and to facilitate the comprehensive annotation and discovery of miRNAs and other ncRNAs from these data. deepBase provides an integrative, interactive, and versatile web graphical interface to evaluate miRBase-annotated miRNA genes and other known ncRNAs, explores the expression patterns of miRNAs and other ncRNAs, and discovers novel miRNAs and other ncRNAs from deep-sequencing data. deepBase also provides a deepView genome browser to comparatively analyze these data at multiple levels. deepBase is available at http://deepbase.sysu.edu.cn/.

  12. Targeted deletion of the 9p21 noncoding coronary artery disease risk interval in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Visel, Axel; Zhu, Yiwen; May, Dalit; Afzal, Veena; Gong, Elaine; Attanasio, Catia; Blow, Matthew J.; Cohen, Jonathan C.; Rubin, Edward M.; Pennacchio, Len A.

    2010-01-01

    Sequence polymorphisms in a 58kb interval on chromosome 9p21 confer a markedly increased risk for coronary artery disease (CAD), the leading cause of death worldwide 1,2. The variants have a substantial impact on the epidemiology of CAD and other life?threatening vascular conditions since nearly a quarter of Caucasians are homozygous for risk alleles. However, the risk interval is devoid of protein?coding genes and the mechanism linking the region to CAD risk has remained enigmatic. Here we show that deletion of the orthologous 70kb noncoding interval on mouse chromosome 4 affects cardiac expression of neighboring genes, as well as proliferation properties of vascular cells. Chr4delta70kb/delta70kb mice are viable, but show increased mortality both during development and as adults. Cardiac expression of two genes near the noncoding interval, Cdkn2a and Cdkn2b, is severely reduced in chr4delta70kb/delta70kb mice, indicating that distant-acting gene regulatory functions are located in the noncoding CAD risk interval. Allelespecific expression of Cdkn2b transcripts in heterozygous mice revealed that the deletion affects expression through a cis-acting mechanism. Primary cultures of chr4delta70kb/delta70kb aortic smooth muscle cells exhibited excessive proliferation and diminished senescence, a cellular phenotype consistent with accelerated CAD pathogenesis. Taken together, our results provide direct evidence that the CAD risk interval plays a pivotal role in regulation of cardiac Cdkn2a/b expression and suggest that this region affects CAD progression by altering the dynamics of vascular cell proliferation.

  13. CONDOR: a database resource of developmentally associated conserved non-coding elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Sarah

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Comparative genomics is currently one of the most popular approaches to study the regulatory architecture of vertebrate genomes. Fish-mammal genomic comparisons have proved powerful in identifying conserved non-coding elements likely to be distal cis-regulatory modules such as enhancers, silencers or insulators that control the expression of genes involved in the regulation of early development. The scientific community is showing increasing interest in characterizing the function, evolution and language of these sequences. Despite this, there remains little in the way of user-friendly access to a large dataset of such elements in conjunction with the analysis and the visualization tools needed to study them. Description Here we present CONDOR (COnserved Non-coDing Orthologous Regions available at: http://condor.fugu.biology.qmul.ac.uk. In an interactive and intuitive way the website displays data on > 6800 non-coding elements associated with over 120 early developmental genes and conserved across vertebrates. The database regularly incorporates results of ongoing in vivo zebrafish enhancer assays of the CNEs carried out in-house, which currently number ~100. Included and highlighted within this set are elements derived from duplication events both at the origin of vertebrates and more recently in the teleost lineage, thus providing valuable data for studying the divergence of regulatory roles between paralogs. CONDOR therefore provides a number of tools and facilities to allow scientists to progress in their own studies on the function and evolution of developmental cis-regulation. Conclusion By providing access to data with an approachable graphics interface, the CONDOR database presents a rich resource for further studies into the regulation and evolution of genes involved in early development.

  14. Mutations in noncoding regions of GJB1 are a major cause of X-linked CMT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomaselli, Pedro J.; Rossor, Alexander M.; Horga, Alejandro; Jaunmuktane, Zane; Carr, Aisling; Saveri, Paola; Piscosquito, Giuseppe; Pareyson, Davide; Laura, Matilde; Blake, Julian C.; Poh, Roy; Polke, James; Houlden, Henry

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To determine the prevalence and clinical and genetic characteristics of patients with X-linked Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT) due to mutations in noncoding regions of the gap junction β-1 gene (GJB1). Methods: Mutations were identified by bidirectional Sanger sequence analysis of the 595 bases of the upstream promoter region, and 25 bases of the 3′ untranslated region (UTR) sequence in patients in whom mutations in the coding region had been excluded. Clinical and neurophysiologic data were retrospectively collected. Results: Five mutations were detected in 25 individuals from 10 kindreds representing 11.4% of all cases of CMTX1 diagnosed in our neurogenetics laboratory between 1996 and 2016. Four pathogenic mutations, c.-17G>A, c.-17+1G>T, c.-103C>T, and c.-146-90_146-89insT were detected in the 5′UTR. A novel mutation, c.*15C>T, was detected in the 3′ UTR of GJB1 in 2 unrelated families with CMTX1 and is the first pathogenic mutation in the 3′UTR of any myelin-associated CMT gene. Mutations segregated with the phenotype, were at sites predicted to be pathogenic, and were not present in the normal population. Conclusions: Mutations in noncoding DNA are a major cause of CMTX1 and highlight the importance of mutations in noncoding DNA in human disease. Next-generation sequencing platforms for use in inherited neuropathy should therefore include coverage of these regions. PMID:28283593

  15. Functional noncoding sequences derived from SINEs in the mammalian genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishihara, Hidenori; Smit, Arian F A; Okada, Norihiro

    2006-07-01

    Recent comparative analyses of mammalian sequences have revealed that a large number of nonprotein-coding genomic regions are under strong selective constraint. Here, we report that some of these loci have been derived from a newly defined family of ancient SINEs (short interspersed repetitive elements). This is a surprising result, as SINEs and other transposable elements are commonly thought to be genomic parasites. We named the ancient SINE family AmnSINE1, for Amniota SINE1, because we found it to be present in mammals as well as in birds, and some copies predate the mammalian-bird split 310 million years ago (Mya). AmnSINE1 has a chimeric structure of a 5S rRNA and a tRNA-derived SINE, and is related to five tRNA-derived SINE families that we characterized here in the coelacanth, dogfish shark, hagfish, and amphioxus genomes. All of the newly described SINE families have a common central domain that is also shared by zebrafish SINE3, and we collectively name them the DeuSINE (Deuterostomia SINE) superfamily. Notably, of the approximately 1000 still identifiable copies of AmnSINE1 in the human genome, 105 correspond to loci phylogenetically highly conserved among mammalian orthologs. The conservation is strongest over the central domain. Thus, AmnSINE1 appears to be the best example of a transposable element of which a significant fraction of the copies have acquired genomic functionality.

  16. The prognostic potential and carcinogenesis of long non-coding RNA TUG1 in human cholangiocarcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Yi; Leng, Kaiming; Li, Zhenglong; Zhang, Fumin; Zhong, Xiangyu; Kang, Pengcheng; Jiang, Xingming; Cui, Yunfu

    2017-01-01

    Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is a fatal disease with increasing worldwide incidence and is characterized by poor prognosis due to its poor response to conventional chemotherapy or radiotherapy. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) play key roles in multiple human cancers, including CCA. Cancer progression related lncRNA taurine-up-regulated gene 1 (TUG1) was reported to be involved in human carcinomas. However, the impact of TUG1 in CCA is unclear. The aim of this study was to explore the expression pa...

  17. Interplay of noncoding RNAs, mRNAs, and proteins during the growth of eukaryotic cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhdanov, V. P.

    2010-01-01

    Numerous biological functions of noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) in eukaryotic cells are based primarily on their ability to pair with target mRNAs and then either to prevent translation or to result in rapid degradation of the mRNA-ncRNA complex. Using a general model describing this scenario, we show that ncRNAs may help to maintain constant mRNA and protein concentrations during the growth of cells. The possibility of observation of this effect on the global scale is briefly discussed.

  18. Integration and visualization of non-coding RNA and protein interaction networks

    OpenAIRE

    Junge, Alexander; Refsgaard, Jan Christian; Garde, Christian; Pan, Xiaoyong; Santos Delgado, Alberto; Anthon, Christian; Alkan, Ferhat; von Mering, Christian; Workman, Christopher; Jensen, Lars Juhl; Gorodkin, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) fulfill a diverse set of biological functions relying on interactions with other molecular entities. The advent of new experimental and computational approaches makes it possible to study ncRNAs and their associations on an unprecedented scale. We present RAIN (RNA Association and Interaction Networks) - a database that combines ncRNA-ncRNA, ncRNA-mRNA and ncRNA-protein interactions with large-scale protein association networks available in the STRING database. By int...

  19. Integration and visualization of non-coding RNA and protein interaction networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Junge, Alexander; Refsgaard, Jan Christian; Garde, Christian

    Non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) fulfill a diverse set of biological functions relying on interactions with other molecular entities. The advent of new experimental and computational approaches makes it possible to study ncRNAs and their associations on an unprecedented scale. We present RAIN (RNA Associ......) co-occurrences found by text mining Medline abstracts. Each resource was assigned a reliability score by assessing its agreement with a gold standard set of microRNA-target interactions. RAIN is available at: http://rth.dk/resources/rain...

  20. Evaluation of Agency Non-Code Layered Pressure Vessels (LPVs) . Volume 2; Appendices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prosser, William H.

    2014-01-01

    In coordination with the Office of Safety and Mission Assurance and the respective Center Pressure System Managers (PSMs), the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) was requested to formulate a consensus draft proposal for the development of additional testing and analysis methods to establish the technical validity, and any limitation thereof, for the continued safe operation of facility non-code layered pressure vessels. The PSMs from each NASA Center were asked to participate as part of the assessment team by providing, collecting, and reviewing data regarding current operations of these vessels. This document contains the appendices to the main report.

  1. Long noncoding RNAs(lncRNAs) and the molecular hallmarks of aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grammatikakis, Ioannis; Panda, Amaresh C; Abdelmohsen, Kotb; Gorospe, Myriam

    2014-12-01

    During aging, progressive deleterious changes increase the risk of disease and death. Prominent molecular hallmarks of aging are genomic instability, telomere attrition, epigenetic alterations, loss of proteostasis, cellular senescence, stem cell exhaustion, and altered intercellular communication. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) play important roles in a wide range of biological processes, including age-related diseases like cancer, cardiovascular pathologies, and neurodegenerative disorders. Evidence is emerging that lncRNAs influence the molecular processes that underlie age-associated phenotypes. Here, we review our current understanding of lncRNAs that control the development of aging traits.

  2. Roles, Functions, and Mechanisms of Long Non-coding RNAs in Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiwen Fang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs play important roles in cancer. They are involved in chromatin remodeling, as well as transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation, through a variety of chromatin-based mechanisms and via cross-talk with other RNA species. lncRNAs can function as decoys, scaffolds, and enhancer RNAs. This review summarizes the characteristics of lncRNAs, including their roles, functions, and working mechanisms, describes methods for identifying and annotating lncRNAs, and discusses future opportunities for lncRNA-based therapies using antisense oligonucleotides.

  3. Transcribed sequences in the human genome to be held in San Francisco, November 7 and 8, 1992. Final report, September 1, 1992--August 31, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gardiner, K.

    1993-11-01

    The Second International Workshop on the Identification of Transcribed Sequences was held in San Francisco on November 7--8, 1992. The purpose of the workshop was to discuss and evaluate techniques for developing a complete transcriptional map of the human genome. Such a map requires the positions, sequences, and expression patterns of all genes. This goal is being approached from two different directions, each with strengths and weaknesses. One method is to identify the transcribed sequences from genomic DNA of a given region; the other is to systematically sequence and map cDNAs. The cDNA approach yields sequence information rapidly, but mapping each cDNA is a technical challenge. In the first approach, the map locations of genomic sequences are known at the outset, and the challenge is to identify exons. The efficient construction of a transcriptional map will require a diverse array of techniques.

  4. Assessment of phylogenetic relationship of rare plant species collected from Saudi Arabia using internal transcribed spacer sequences of nuclear ribosomal DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Qurainy, F; Khan, S; Nadeem, M; Tarroum, M; Alaklabi, A

    2013-03-11

    The rare and endangered plants of any country are important genetic resources that often require urgent conservation measures. Assessment of phylogenetic relationships and evaluation of genetic diversity is very important prior to implementation of conservation strategies for saving rare and endangered plant species. We used internal transcribed spacer sequences of nuclear ribosomal DNA for the evaluation of sequence identity from the available taxa in the GenBank database by using the Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST). Two rare plant species viz, Heliotropium strigosum claded with H. pilosum (98% branch support) and Pancratium tortuosum claded with P. tenuifolium (61% branch support) clearly. However, some species, viz Scadoxus multiflorus, Commiphora myrrha and Senecio hadiensis showed close relationships with more than one species. We conclude that nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer sequences are useful markers for phylogenetic study of these rare plant species in Saudi Arabia.

  5. Sequencing illustrates the transcriptional response of Legionella pneumophila during infection and identifies seventy novel small non-coding RNAs.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Weissenmayer, Barbara A

    2011-01-01

    Second generation sequencing has prompted a number of groups to re-interrogate the transcriptomes of several bacterial and archaeal species. One of the central findings has been the identification of complex networks of small non-coding RNAs that play central roles in transcriptional regulation in all growth conditions and for the pathogen\\'s interaction with and survival within host cells. Legionella pneumophila is a gram-negative facultative intracellular human pathogen with a distinct biphasic lifestyle. One of its primary environmental hosts in the free-living amoeba Acanthamoeba castellanii and its infection by L. pneumophila mimics that seen in human macrophages. Here we present analysis of strand specific sequencing of the transcriptional response of L. pneumophila during exponential and post-exponential broth growth and during the replicative and transmissive phase of infection inside A. castellanii. We extend previous microarray based studies as well as uncovering evidence of a complex regulatory architecture underpinned by numerous non-coding RNAs. Over seventy new non-coding RNAs could be identified; many of them appear to be strain specific and in configurations not previously reported. We discover a family of non-coding RNAs preferentially expressed during infection conditions and identify a second copy of 6S RNA in L. pneumophila. We show that the newly discovered putative 6S RNA as well as a number of other non-coding RNAs show evidence for antisense transcription. The nature and extent of the non-coding RNAs and their expression patterns suggests that these may well play central roles in the regulation of Legionella spp. specific traits and offer clues as to how L. pneumophila adapts to its intracellular niche. The expression profiles outlined in the study have been deposited into Genbank\\'s Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database under the series accession GSE27232.

  6. Principles of Long Noncoding RNA Evolution Derived from Direct Comparison of Transcriptomes in 17 Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadas Hezroni

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The inability to predict long noncoding RNAs from genomic sequence has impeded the use of comparative genomics for studying their biology. Here, we develop methods that use RNA sequencing (RNA-seq data to annotate the transcriptomes of 16 vertebrates and the echinoid sea urchin, uncovering thousands of previously unannotated genes, most of which produce long intervening noncoding RNAs (lincRNAs. Although in each species, >70% of lincRNAs cannot be traced to homologs in species that diverged >50 million years ago, thousands of human lincRNAs have homologs with similar expression patterns in other species. These homologs share short, 5′-biased patches of sequence conservation nested in exonic architectures that have been extensively rewired, in part by transposable element exonization. Thus, over a thousand human lincRNAs are likely to have conserved functions in mammals, and hundreds beyond mammals, but those functions require only short patches of specific sequences and can tolerate major changes in gene architecture.

  7. CRISPR/Cas9-mediated noncoding RNA editing in human cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jie; Meng, Xiaodan; Pan, Jinchang; Jiang, Nan; Zhou, Chengwei; Wu, Zhenhua; Gong, Zhaohui

    2018-01-02

    Cancer is characterized by multiple genetic and epigenetic alterations, including a higher prevalence of mutations of oncogenes and/or tumor suppressors. Mounting evidences have shown that noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) are involved in the epigenetic regulation of cancer genes and their associated pathways. The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-associated nuclease 9 (CRISPR/Cas9) system, a revolutionary genome-editing technology, has shed light on ncRNA-based cancer therapy. Here, we briefly introduce the classifications and mechanisms of CRISPR/Cas9 system. Importantly, we mainly focused on the applications of CRISPR/Cas9 system as a molecular tool for ncRNA (microRNA, long noncoding RNA and circular RNA, etc.) editing in human cancers, and the novel techniques that are based on CRISPR/Cas9 system. Additionally, the off-target effects and the corresponding solutions as well as the challenges toward CRISPR/Cas9 were also evaluated and discussed. Long- and short-ncRNAs have been employed as targets in precision oncology, and CRISPR/Cas9-mediated ncRNA editing may provide an excellent way to cure cancer.

  8. Comprehensive Reconstruction and Visualization of Non-Coding Regulatory Networks in Human

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnici, Vincenzo; Russo, Francesco; Bombieri, Nicola; Pulvirenti, Alfredo; Giugno, Rosalba

    2014-01-01

    Research attention has been powered to understand the functional roles of non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs). Many studies have demonstrated their deregulation in cancer and other human disorders. ncRNAs are also present in extracellular human body fluids such as serum and plasma, giving them a great potential as non-invasive biomarkers. However, non-coding RNAs have been relatively recently discovered and a comprehensive database including all of them is still missing. Reconstructing and visualizing the network of ncRNAs interactions are important steps to understand their regulatory mechanism in complex systems. This work presents ncRNA-DB, a NoSQL database that integrates ncRNAs data interactions from a large number of well established on-line repositories. The interactions involve RNA, DNA, proteins, and diseases. ncRNA-DB is available at http://ncrnadb.scienze.univr.it/ncrnadb/. It is equipped with three interfaces: web based, command-line, and a Cytoscape app called ncINetView. By accessing only one resource, users can search for ncRNAs and their interactions, build a network annotated with all known ncRNAs and associated diseases, and use all visual and mining features available in Cytoscape. PMID:25540777

  9. The emerging role of non-coding RNAs in drug addiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory Charles Sartor

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Prolonged drug use causes long-lasting neuroadaptations in reward-related brain areas that contribute to addiction. Despite significant amount of research dedicated to understanding the underlying mechanisms of addiction, the molecular underpinnings remain unclear. At the same time, much of the pervasive transcription that encompasses the human genome occurs in the nervous system and contributes to its heterogeneity and complexity. Recent evidence suggests that non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs play an important and dynamic role in transcriptional regulation, epigenetic signaling, stress response, and plasticity in the nervous system. Dysregulation of ncRNAs are thought to contribute to many, and perhaps all, neurological disorders, including addiction. Here, we review recent insights in the functional relevance of ncRNAs, including both microRNAs (miRNAs and long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs, and then illustrate specific examples of ncRNA regulation in the context of drug addiction. We conclude that ncRNAs are importantly involved in the persistent neuroadaptations associated with addiction-related behaviors, and that therapies that target specific ncRNAs may represent new avenues for the treatment of drug addiction.

  10. Long non-coding RNA expression profile in cervical cancer tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hua; Chen, Xiangjian; Hu, Yan; Shi, Zhengzheng; Zhou, Qing; Zheng, Jingjie; Wang, Yifeng

    2017-01-01

    Cervical cancer (CC), one of the most common types of cancer of the female population, presents an enormous challenge in diagnosis and treatment. Long non-coding (lnc)RNAs, non-coding (nc)RNAs with length >200 nucleotides, have been identified to be associated with multiple types of cancer, including CC. This class of nc transcripts serves an important role in tumor suppression and oncogenic signaling pathways. In the present study, the microarray method was used to obtain the expression profile of lncRNAs and protein-coding mRNAs and to compare the expression of lncRNAs between CC tissues and corresponding adjacent non-cancerous tissues in order to screen potential lncRNAs for associations with CC. Overall, 3356 lncRNAs with significantly different expression pattern in CC tissues compared with adjacent non-cancerous tissues were identified, while 1,857 of them were upregulated. These differentially expressed lncRNAs were additionally classified into 5 subgroups. Reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reactions were performed to validate the expression pattern of 5 random selected lncRNAs, and 2lncRNAs were identified to have significantly different expression in CC samples compared with adjacent non-cancerous tissues. This finding suggests that those lncRNAs with different expression may serve important roles in the development of CC, and the expression data may provide information for additional study on the involvement of lncRNAs in CC. PMID:28789353

  11. Noncoded amino acids in protein engineering: Structure-activity relationship studies of hirudin-thrombin interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Filippis, Vincenzo; Acquasaliente, Laura; Pontarollo, Giulia; Peterle, Daniele

    2018-01-01

    The advent of recombinant DNA technology allowed to site-specifically insert, delete, or mutate almost any amino acid in a given protein, significantly improving our knowledge of protein structure, stability, and function. Nevertheless, a quantitative description of the physical and chemical basis that makes a polypeptide chain to efficiently fold into a stable and functionally active conformation is still elusive. This mainly originates from the fact that nature combined, in a yet unknown manner, different properties (i.e., hydrophobicity, conformational propensity, polarizability, and hydrogen bonding capability) into the 20 standard natural amino acids, thus making difficult, if not impossible, to univocally relate the change in protein stability or function to the alteration of physicochemical properties caused by amino acid exchange(s). In this view, incorporation of noncoded amino acids with tailored side chains, allowing to finely tune the structure at a protein site, would facilitate to dissect the effects of a given mutation in terms of one or a few physicochemical properties, thus much expanding the scope of physical organic chemistry in the study of proteins. In this review, relevant applications from our laboratory will be presented on the use of noncoded amino acids in structure-activity relationships studies of hirudin binding to thrombin. © 2017 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  12. The roles of non-coding RNAs in cardiac regenerative medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oi Kuan Choong

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs has challenged the central dogma of molecular biology that dictates that the decryption of genetic information starts from transcription of DNA to RNA, with subsequent translation into a protein. Large numbers of ncRNAs with biological significance have now been identified, suggesting that ncRNAs are important in their own right and their roles extend far beyond what was originally envisaged. ncRNAs do not only regulate gene expression, but are also involved in chromatin architecture and structural conformation. Several studies have pointed out that ncRNAs participate in heart disease; however, the functions of ncRNAs still remain unclear. ncRNAs are involved in cellular fate, differentiation, proliferation and tissue regeneration, hinting at their potential therapeutic applications. Here, we review the current understanding of both the biological functions and molecular mechanisms of ncRNAs in heart disease and describe some of the ncRNAs that have potential heart regeneration effects. Keywords: Non-coding RNAs, Cardiac regeneration, Cardiac fate, Proliferation, Differentiation, Reprograming

  13. The Regulatory Effects of Long Noncoding RNA-ANCR on Dental Tissue-Derived Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Jia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNA have been recognized as important regulators in diverse biological processes, such as transcriptional regulation, stem cell proliferation, and differentiation. Previous study has demonstrated that lncRNA-ANCR (antidifferentiation ncRNA plays a key role in regulating the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs. However, little is known about the role of ANCR in regulating other types of dental tissue-derived stem cells (DTSCs behaviours (including proliferation and multiple-potential of differentiation. In this study, we investigated the regulatory effects of lncRNA-ANCR on the proliferation and differentiation (including osteogenic, adipogenic, and neurogenic differentiation of DTSCs, including dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs, PDLSCs, and stem cells from the apical papilla (SCAP by downregulation of lncRNA-ANCR. We found that downregulation of ANCR exerted little effect on proliferation of DPSCs and SCAP but promoted the osteogenic, adipogenic, and neurogenic differentiation of DTSCs. These data provide an insight into the regulatory effects of long noncoding RNA-ANCR on DTSCs and indicate that ANCR is a very important regulatory factor in stem cell differentiation.

  14. A critical role for noncoding 5S rRNA in regulating Mdmx stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Muyang; Gu, Wei

    2011-09-16

    Both p53 and Mdmx are ubiquitinated and degraded by the same E3 ligase Mdm2; interestingly, however, while p53 is rapidly degraded by Mdm2, Mdmx is a stable protein in most cancer cells. Thus, the mechanism by which Mdmx is degraded by Mdm2 needs further elucidation. Here, we identified the noncoding 5S rRNA as a major component of Mdmx-associated complexes from human cells. We show that 5S rRNA acts as a natural inhibitor of Mdmx degradation by Mdm2. RNAi-mediated knockdown of endogenous 5S rRNA, while not affecting p53 levels, significantly induces Mdmx degradation and, subsequently, activates p53-dependent growth arrest. Notably, 5S rRNA binds the RING domain of Mdmx and blocks its ubiquitination by Mdm2, whereas Mdm2-mediated p53 ubiquitination remains intact. These results provide insights into the differential effects on p53 and Mdmx by Mdm2 in vivo and reveal a critical role for noncoding 5S rRNA in modulating the p53-Mdmx axis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Long Non-Coding RNAs Associated with Metabolic Traits in Human White Adipose Tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Gao

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs belong to a recently discovered class of molecules proposed to regulate various cellular processes. Here, we systematically analyzed their expression in human subcutaneous white adipose tissue (WAT and found that a limited set was differentially expressed in obesity and/or the insulin resistant state. Two lncRNAs herein termed adipocyte-specific metabolic related lncRNAs, ASMER-1 and ASMER-2 were enriched in adipocytes and regulated by both obesity and insulin resistance. Knockdown of either ASMER-1 or ASMER-2 by antisense oligonucleotides in in vitro differentiated human adipocytes revealed that both genes regulated adipogenesis, lipid mobilization and adiponectin secretion. The observed effects could be attributed to crosstalk between ASMERs and genes within the master regulatory pathways for adipocyte function including PPARG and INSR. Altogether, our data demonstrate that lncRNAs are modulators of the metabolic and secretory functions in human fat cells and provide an emerging link between WAT and common metabolic conditions. Keywords: White adipose tissue, Adipocytes, Long non-coding RNAs, Metabolic traits, Lipolysis, Adiponectin

  16. Evaluation of temporary non-code repairs in safety class 3 piping systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godha, P.C.; Kupinski, M.; Azevedo, N.F.

    1996-01-01

    Temporary non-ASME Code repairs in safety class 3 pipe and piping components are permissible during plant operation in accordance with Nuclear Regulatory Commission Generic Letter 90-05. However, regulatory acceptance of such repairs requires the licensee to undertake several timely actions. Consistent with the requirements of GL 90-05, this paper presents an overview of the detailed evaluation and relief request process. The technical criteria encompasses both ductile and brittle piping materials. It also lists appropriate evaluation methods that a utility engineer can select to perform a structural integrity assessment for design basis loading conditions to support the use of temporary non-Code repair for degraded piping components. Most use of temporary non-code repairs at a nuclear generating station is in the service water system which is an essential safety related system providing the ultimate heat sink for various plant systems. Depending on the plant siting, the service water system may use fresh water or salt water as the cooling medium. Various degradation mechanisms including general corrosion, erosion/corrosion, pitting, microbiological corrosion, galvanic corrosion, under-deposit corrosion or a combination thereof continually challenge the pressure boundary structural integrity. A good source for description of corrosion degradation in cooling water systems is provided in a cited reference

  17. The interplay of long non-coding RNAs and MYC in cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Hamilton

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs are a class of RNA molecules that are changing how researchers view eukaryotic gene regulation. Once considered to be non-functional products of low-level aberrant transcription from non-coding regions of the genome, lncRNAs are now viewed as important epigenetic regulators and several lncRNAs have now been demonstrated to be critical players in the development and/or maintenance of cancer. Similarly, the emerging variety of interactions between lncRNAs and MYC, a well-known oncogenic transcription factor linked to most types of cancer, have caught the attention of many biomedical researchers. Investigations exploring the dynamic interactions between lncRNAs and MYC, referred to as the lncRNA-MYC network, have proven to be especially complex. Genome-wide studies have shown that MYC transcriptionally regulates many lncRNA genes. Conversely, recent reports identified lncRNAs that regulate MYC expression both at the transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. These findings are of particular interest because they suggest roles of lncRNAs as regulators of MYC oncogenic functions and the possibility that targeting lncRNAs could represent a novel avenue to cancer treatment. Here, we briefly review the current understanding of how lncRNAs regulate chromatin structure and gene transcription, and then focus on the new developments in the emerging field exploring the lncRNA-MYC network in cancer.

  18. Non-coding RNAs and heme oxygenase-1 in vaccinia virus infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meseda, Clement A.; Srinivasan, Kumar; Wise, Jasen; Catalano, Jennifer; Yamada, Kenneth M.; Dhawan, Subhash

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) induction inhibited vaccinia virus infection of macrophages. • Reduced infectivity inversely correlated with increased expression of non-coding RNAs. • The regulation of HO-1 and ncRNAs suggests a novel host defense response against vaccinia virus infection. - Abstract: Small nuclear RNAs (snRNAs) are <200 nucleotide non-coding uridylate-rich RNAs. Although the functions of many snRNAs remain undetermined, a population of snRNAs is produced during the early phase of infection of cells by vaccinia virus. In the present study, we demonstrate a direct correlation between expression of the cytoprotective enzyme heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), suppression of selective snRNA expression, and inhibition of vaccinia virus infection of macrophages. Hemin induced HO-1 expression, completely reversed virus-induced host snRNA expression, and suppressed vaccinia virus infection. This involvement of specific virus-induced snRNAs and associated gene clusters suggests a novel HO-1-dependent host-defense pathway in poxvirus infection

  19. Comprehensive discovery of noncoding RNAs in acute myeloid leukemia cell transcriptomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jin; Griffith, Malachi; Miller, Christopher A; Griffith, Obi L; Spencer, David H; Walker, Jason R; Magrini, Vincent; McGrath, Sean D; Ly, Amy; Helton, Nichole M; Trissal, Maria; Link, Daniel C; Dang, Ha X; Larson, David E; Kulkarni, Shashikant; Cordes, Matthew G; Fronick, Catrina C; Fulton, Robert S; Klco, Jeffery M; Mardis, Elaine R; Ley, Timothy J; Wilson, Richard K; Maher, Christopher A

    2017-11-01

    To detect diverse and novel RNA species comprehensively, we compared deep small RNA and RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) methods applied to a primary acute myeloid leukemia (AML) sample. We were able to discover previously unannotated small RNAs using deep sequencing of a library method using broader insert size selection. We analyzed the long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) landscape in AML by comparing deep sequencing from multiple RNA-seq library construction methods for the sample that we studied and then integrating RNA-seq data from 179 AML cases. This identified lncRNAs that are completely novel, differentially expressed, and associated with specific AML subtypes. Our study revealed the complexity of the noncoding RNA transcriptome through a combined strategy of strand-specific small RNA and total RNA-seq. This dataset will serve as an invaluable resource for future RNA-based analyses. Copyright © 2017 ISEH – Society for Hematology and Stem Cells. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. MYC Targeted Long Noncoding RNA DANCR Promotes Cancer in Part by Reducing p21 Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yunqi; Hu, Zhongyi; Mangala, Lingegowda S; Stine, Zachary E; Hu, Xiaowen; Jiang, Dahai; Xiang, Yan; Zhang, Youyou; Pradeep, Sunila; Rodriguez-Aguayo, Cristian; Lopez-Berestein, Gabriel; DeMarzo, Angelo M; Sood, Anil K; Zhang, Lin; Dang, Chi V

    2018-01-01

    The MYC oncogene broadly promotes transcription mediated by all nuclear RNA polymerases, thereby acting as a positive modifier of global gene expression. Here, we report that MYC stimulates the transcription of DANCR, a long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) that is widely overexpressed in human cancer. We identified DANCR through its overexpression in a transgenic model of MYC-induced lymphoma, but found that it was broadly upregulated in many human cancer cell lines and cancers, including most notably in prostate and ovarian cancers. Mechanistic investigations indicated that DANCR limited the expression of cell-cycle inhibitor p21 (CDKN1A) and that the inhibitory effects of DANCR loss on cell proliferation could be partially rescued by p21 silencing. In a xenograft model of human ovarian cancer, a nanoparticle-mediated siRNA strategy to target DANCR in vivo was sufficient to strongly inhibit tumor growth. Our observations expand knowledge of how MYC drives cancer cell proliferation by identifying DANCR as a critical lncRNA widely overexpressed in human cancers. Significance: These findings expand knowledge of how MYC drives cancer cell proliferation by identifying an oncogenic long noncoding RNA that is widely overexpressed in human cancers. Cancer Res; 78(1); 64-74. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  1. The origins and evolutionary history of human non-coding RNA regulatory networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherafatian, Masih; Mowla, Seyed Javad

    2017-04-01

    The evolutionary history and origin of the regulatory function of animal non-coding RNAs are not well understood. Lack of conservation of long non-coding RNAs and small sizes of microRNAs has been major obstacles in their phylogenetic analysis. In this study, we tried to shed more light on the evolution of ncRNA regulatory networks by changing our phylogenetic strategy to focus on the evolutionary pattern of their protein coding targets. We used available target databases of miRNAs and lncRNAs to find their protein coding targets in human. We were able to recognize evolutionary hallmarks of ncRNA targets by phylostratigraphic analysis. We found the conventional 3'-UTR and lesser known 5'-UTR targets of miRNAs to be enriched at three consecutive phylostrata. Firstly, in eukaryata phylostratum corresponding to the emergence of miRNAs, our study revealed that miRNA targets function primarily in cell cycle processes. Moreover, the same overrepresentation of the targets observed in the next two consecutive phylostrata, opisthokonta and eumetazoa, corresponded to the expansion periods of miRNAs in animals evolution. Coding sequence targets of miRNAs showed a delayed rise at opisthokonta phylostratum, compared to the 3' and 5' UTR targets of miRNAs. LncRNA regulatory network was the latest to evolve at eumetazoa.

  2. Fragile X mental retardation protein participates in non-coding RNA pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, En-Hui; Zhao, Xin; Zhang, Ce; Liu, Wei

    2018-02-20

    Fragile X syndrome is one of the most common forms of inherited intellectual disability. It is caused by mutations of the Fragile X mental retardation 1(FMR1) gene, resulting in either the loss or abnormal expression of the Fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP). Recent research showed that FMRP participates in non-coding RNA pathways and plays various important roles in physiology, thereby extending our knowledge of the pathogenesis of the Fragile X syndrome. Initial studies showed that the Drosophila FMRP participates in siRNA and miRNA pathways by interacting with Dicer, Ago1 and Ago2, involved in neural activity and the fate determination of the germline stem cells. Subsequent studies showed that the Drosophila FMRP participates in piRNA pathway by interacting with Aub, Ago1 and Piwi in the maintenance of normal chromatin structures and genomic stability. More recent studies showed that FMRP is associated with lncRNA pathway, suggesting a potential role for the involvement in the clinical manifestations. In this review, we summarize the novel findings and explore the relationship between FMRP and non-coding RNA pathways, particularly the piRNA pathway, thereby providing critical insights on the molecular pathogenesis of Fragile X syndrome, and potential translational applications in clinical management of the disease.

  3. Comprehensive reconstruction and visualization of non-coding regulatory networks in human.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnici, Vincenzo; Russo, Francesco; Bombieri, Nicola; Pulvirenti, Alfredo; Giugno, Rosalba

    2014-01-01

    Research attention has been powered to understand the functional roles of non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs). Many studies have demonstrated their deregulation in cancer and other human disorders. ncRNAs are also present in extracellular human body fluids such as serum and plasma, giving them a great potential as non-invasive biomarkers. However, non-coding RNAs have been relatively recently discovered and a comprehensive database including all of them is still missing. Reconstructing and visualizing the network of ncRNAs interactions are important steps to understand their regulatory mechanism in complex systems. This work presents ncRNA-DB, a NoSQL database that integrates ncRNAs data interactions from a large number of well established on-line repositories. The interactions involve RNA, DNA, proteins, and diseases. ncRNA-DB is available at http://ncrnadb.scienze.univr.it/ncrnadb/. It is equipped with three interfaces: web based, command-line, and a Cytoscape app called ncINetView. By accessing only one resource, users can search for ncRNAs and their interactions, build a network annotated with all known ncRNAs and associated diseases, and use all visual and mining features available in Cytoscape.

  4. Ontological function annotation of long non-coding RNAs through hierarchical multi-label classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jingpu; Zhang, Zuping; Wang, Zixiang; Liu, Yuting; Deng, Lei

    2018-05-15

    Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are an enormous collection of functional non-coding RNAs. Over the past decades, a large number of novel lncRNA genes have been identified. However, most of the lncRNAs remain function uncharacterized at present. Computational approaches provide a new insight to understand the potential functional implications of lncRNAs. Considering that each lncRNA may have multiple functions and a function may be further specialized into sub-functions, here we describe NeuraNetL2GO, a computational ontological function prediction approach for lncRNAs using hierarchical multi-label classification strategy based on multiple neural networks. The neural networks are incrementally trained level by level, each performing the prediction of gene ontology (GO) terms belonging to a given level. In NeuraNetL2GO, we use topological features of the lncRNA similarity network as the input of the neural networks and employ the output results to annotate the lncRNAs. We show that NeuraNetL2GO achieves the best performance and the overall advantage in maximum F-measure and coverage on the manually annotated lncRNA2GO-55 dataset compared to other state-of-the-art methods. The source code and data are available at http://denglab.org/NeuraNetL2GO/. leideng@csu.edu.cn. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  5. Long non-coding RNA CCAT2 is associated with poor prognosis in hepatocellular carcinoma and promotes tumor metastasis by regulating Snail2-mediated epithelial–mesenchymal transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Y

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Yongfu Xu,* Binfeng Wang,* Fabiao Zhang, Aidong Wang, Xuefeng Du, Peng Hu, Yu Zhu, Zheping Fang Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery, Taizhou Hospital of Zhejiang Province, Wenzhou Medical University, Linhai, Zhejiang, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Increasing evidence has demonstrated that aberrant expressions of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs are involved in various malignancies, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC. This study aimed to investigate the role of lncRNA colon cancer-associated transcript 2 (CCAT2 in the progression of HCC. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis confirmed that CCAT2 was upregulated in HCC cell lines and cancerous tissues compared with normal liver cell line and adjacent normal tissue samples. The level of CCAT2 was positively associated with tumor–node–metastasis stages and vessel invasion. Survival analyses revealed that high CCAT2 expression predicted poor prognostic outcomes, serving as an independent prognostic factor for HCC patients. Patients with high CCAT2 expression had a 1.849-fold increased risk of death compared with those with low CCAT2 expression. Moreover, we also found that knockdown of CCAT2 expression reduced cell migration and invasion in vitro. We further demonstrated that CCAT2 played a key role in enhancing the epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT through the regulation of vimentin, E-cadherin and transcription factor snail2 expression. Taken together, our findings showed that high CCAT2 expression is associated with poor survival in HCC patients. CCAT2 promotes HCC progression by regulating Snail2-induced EMT. CCAT2 may be a prognostic biomarker and therapeutic target for HCC. Keywords: long non-coding RNA, CCAT2, hepatocellular carcinoma, epithelial–mesenchymal transition, survival

  6. Autism genetic database (AGD: a comprehensive database including autism susceptibility gene-CNVs integrated with known noncoding RNAs and fragile sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talebizadeh Zohreh

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Autism is a highly heritable complex neurodevelopmental disorder, therefore identifying its genetic basis has been challenging. To date, numerous susceptibility genes and chromosomal abnormalities have been reported in association with autism, but most discoveries either fail to be replicated or account for a small effect. Thus, in most cases the underlying causative genetic mechanisms are not fully understood. In the present work, the Autism Genetic Database (AGD was developed as a literature-driven, web-based, and easy to access database designed with the aim of creating a comprehensive repository for all the currently reported genes and genomic copy number variations (CNVs associated with autism in order to further facilitate the assessment of these autism susceptibility genetic factors. Description AGD is a relational database that organizes data resulting from exhaustive literature searches for reported susceptibility genes and CNVs associated with autism. Furthermore, genomic information about human fragile sites and noncoding RNAs was also downloaded and parsed from miRBase, snoRNA-LBME-db, piRNABank, and the MIT/ICBP siRNA database. A web client genome browser enables viewing of the features while a web client query tool provides access to more specific information for the features. When applicable, links to external databases including GenBank, PubMed, miRBase, snoRNA-LBME-db, piRNABank, and the MIT siRNA database are provided. Conclusion AGD comprises a comprehensive list of susceptibility genes and copy number variations reported to-date in association with autism, as well as all known human noncoding RNA genes and fragile sites. Such a unique and inclusive autism genetic database will facilitate the evaluation of autism susceptibility factors in relation to known human noncoding RNAs and fragile sites, impacting on human diseases. As a result, this new autism database offers a valuable tool for the research

  7. RNA-Seq analysis uncovers non-coding small RNA system of Mycobacterium neoaurum in the metabolism of sterols to accumulate steroid intermediates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Min; Zhu, Zhan-Tao; Tao, Xin-Yi; Wang, Feng-Qing; Wei, Dong-Zhi

    2016-04-25

    Understanding the metabolic mechanism of sterols to produce valuable steroid intermediates in mycobacterium by a noncoding small RNA (sRNA) view is still limited. In the work, RNA-seq was implemented to investigate the noncoding transcriptome of Mycobacterium neoaurum (Mn) in the transformation process of sterols to valuable steroid intermediates, including 9α-hydroxy-4-androstene-3,17-dione (9OHAD), 1,4-androstadiene-3,17-dione (ADD), and 22-hydroxy-23, 24-bisnorchola-1,4-dien-3-one (1,4-BNA). A total of 263 sRNA candidates were predicted from the intergenic regions in Mn. Differential expression of sRNA candidates was explored in the wide type Mn with vs without sterol addition, and the steroid intermediate producing Mn strains vs wide type Mn with sterol addition, respectively. Generally, sRNA candidates were differentially expressed in various strains, but there were still some shared candidates with outstandingly upregulated or downregulated expression in these steroid producing strains. Accordingly, four regulatory networks were constructed to reveal the direct and/or indirect interactions between sRNA candidates and their target genes in four groups, including wide type Mn with vs without sterol addition, 9OHAD, ADD, and BNA producing strains vs wide type Mn with sterol addition, respectively. Based on these constructed networks, several highly focused sRNA candidates were discovered to be prevalent in the networks, which showed comprehensive regulatory roles in various cellular processes, including lipid transport and metabolism, amino acid transport and metabolism, signal transduction, cell envelope biosynthesis and ATP synthesis. To explore the functional role of sRNA candidates in Mn cells, we manipulated the overexpression of candidates 131 and 138 in strain Mn-9OHAD, which led to enhanced production of 9OHAD from 1.5- to 2.3-fold during 6 d' fermentation and a slight effect on growth rate. This study revealed the complex and important regulatory

  8. Prognostic role of long non-coding RNA TUG1 expression in various cancers: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yongping; Lu, Yuxuan; Li, Runmin; Yan, Nana; Li, Xiding; Dai, Tu

    2017-11-21

    Several studies were conducted to explore the prognostic role of long non-coding RNA taurine upregulated gene 1 (lncRNA TUG1) expression in various cancers, with contradictory. This study aims to summarize the prognostic role of lncRNA TUG1 expression in various cancers. Embase, PubMed and Cochrane Library were completely retrieved. The cohort studies focusing on the prognostic role of lncRNA TUG1 expression in various cancers were eligible. The endpoints were overall survival (OS) and clinicopathological parameters. 9 studies involving a total of 1,078 patients were identified. The results showed that high lncRNA TUG1 expression was obviously associated with worse OS when compared to the low lncRNA TUG1 expression (HR = 1.37, 95% CI = 1.07-1.76, P = 0.01; I 2 = 85%). However, No distinct relationship was observed between the lncRNA TUG1 expression and age (OR = 0.99, 95% CI = 0.76-1.28, P = 0.92; I2 = 4%), gender (OR = 0.92, 95% CI = 0.70-1.22, P = 0.57; I 2 = 0%), diameter (OR = 0.83, 95% CI = 0.34-2.01, P = 0.67; I 2 = 85%), smoking (OR = 1.09, 95% CI = 0.37-3.21, P = 0.87; I 2 = 73%), TNM stage (OR = 0.60, 95% CI = 0.25-1.43, P = 0.25; I 2 = 86%) and lymph node metastasis (OR = 1.07, 95% CI = 0.47-2.45, P = 0.87; I 2 = 86%). In conclusion, it was revealed that high lncRNA TUG1 expression is an unfavorable predictor of OS in patients with cancers, and lncRNA TUG1 expression is a promising prognostic biomarker for various cancers.

  9. EVLncRNAs: a manually curated database for long non-coding RNAs validated by low-throughput experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Huiying; Yu, Jiafeng; Guo, Chengang; Dou, Xianghua; Song, Feng; Hu, Guodong; Cao, Zanxia; Qu, Yuanxu

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) play important functional roles in various biological processes. Early databases were utilized to deposit all lncRNA candidates produced by high-throughput experimental and/or computational techniques to facilitate classification, assessment and validation. As more lncRNAs are validated by low-throughput experiments, several databases were established for experimentally validated lncRNAs. However, these databases are small in scale (with a few hundreds of lncRNAs only) and specific in their focuses (plants, diseases or interactions). Thus, it is highly desirable to have a comprehensive dataset for experimentally validated lncRNAs as a central repository for all of their structures, functions and phenotypes. Here, we established EVLncRNAs by curating lncRNAs validated by low-throughput experiments (up to 1 May 2016) and integrating specific databases (lncRNAdb, LncRANDisease, Lnc2Cancer and PLNIncRBase) with additional functional and disease-specific information not covered previously. The current version of EVLncRNAs contains 1543 lncRNAs from 77 species that is 2.9 times larger than the current largest database for experimentally validated lncRNAs. Seventy-four percent lncRNA entries are partially or completely new, comparing to all existing experimentally validated databases. The established database allows users to browse, search and download as well as to submit experimentally validated lncRNAs. The database is available at http://biophy.dzu.edu.cn/EVLncRNAs. PMID:28985416

  10. Identification of small non-coding RNA classes expressed in swine whole blood during HP-PRRSV infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    It has been established that reduced susceptibility to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) has a genetic component. This genetic component may take the form of small non-coding RNAs (sncRNA), which are molecules that function as regulators of gene expression. Various sncRNAs ...

  11. Specificity Protein (Sp) Transcription Factors and Metformin Regulate Expression of the Long Non-coding RNA HULC

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is evidence that specificity protein 1 (Sp1) transcription factor (TF) regulates expression of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells. RNA interference (RNAi) studies showed that among several lncRNAs expressed in HepG2, SNU-449 and SK-Hep-1...

  12. microRNA-9 targets the long non-coding RNA MALAT1 for degradation in the nucleus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leucci, Eleonora; Patella, Francesca; Waage, Johannes

    2013-01-01

    -coding RNAs. Here we report that microRNA-9 (miR-9) regulates the expression of the Metastasis Associated Lung Adenocarcinoma Transcript 1 (MALAT-1), one of the most abundant and conserved long non-coding RNAs. Intriguingly, we find that miR-9 targets AGO2-mediated regulation of MALAT1 in the nucleus. Our...

  13. Overview of long non-coding RNA and mRNA expression in response to methamphetamine treatment in vitro

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xiong, Kun; Long, Lingling; Zhang, Xudong; Qu, Hongke; Deng, Haixiao; Ding, Yanjun; Cai, Jifeng; Wang, Shuchao; Wang, Mi; Liao, Lvshuang; Huang, Jufang; Yi, Chun-Xia; Yan, Jie

    2017-01-01

    Long non-coding RNAs (IncRNAs) display multiple functions including regulation of neuronal injury. However, their impact in methamphetamine (METH)-induced neurotoxicity has rarely been reported. Here, using microarray analysis, we investigated the expression profiling of lncRNAs and mRNAs in primary

  14. Non-Coding RNAs in Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer: Regulation of Androgen Receptor Signaling and Cancer Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Jing-Wen; Wang, Ling-Yu; Hung, Chiu-Lien; Kung, Hsing-Jien; Hsieh, Chia-Ling

    2015-12-04

    Hormone-refractory prostate cancer frequently relapses from therapy and inevitably progresses to a bone-metastatic status with no cure. Understanding of the molecular mechanisms conferring resistance to androgen deprivation therapy has the potential to lead to the discovery of novel therapeutic targets for type of prostate cancer with poor prognosis. Progression to castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) is characterized by aberrant androgen receptor (AR) expression and persistent AR signaling activity. Alterations in metabolic activity regulated by oncogenic pathways, such as c-Myc, were found to promote prostate cancer growth during the development of CRPC. Non-coding RNAs represent a diverse family of regulatory transcripts that drive tumorigenesis of prostate cancer and various other cancers by their hyperactivity or diminished function. A number of studies have examined differentially expressed non-coding RNAs in each stage of prostate cancer. Herein, we highlight the emerging impacts of microRNAs and long non-coding RNAs linked to reactivation of the AR signaling axis and reprogramming of the cellular metabolism in prostate cancer. The translational implications of non-coding RNA research for developing new biomarkers and therapeutic strategies for CRPC are also discussed.

  15. An internal duplication in the 5' noncoding region of strain H: a bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) isolated from pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gennip, van H.G.P.; Widjojoatmodjo, M.N.; Smit, de A.J.; Moormann, R.J.M.

    1999-01-01

    A pig pestivirus isolate, strain H, was characterized by using reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) and direct sequencing of the amplicons. A duplication of 74 nucleotides was found at the 5' terminus of the 5' noncoding (NC) region, which was also found in RNA isolates from tonsils from two other

  16. An Abundant Class of Non-coding DNA Can Prevent Stochastic Gene Silencing in the C. elegans Germline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frøkjær-Jensen, Christian; Jain, Nimit; Hansen, Loren

    2016-01-01

    /or structure. Here, we demonstrate that a pervasive non-coding DNA feature in Caenorhabditis elegans, characterized by 10-base pair periodic An/Tn-clusters (PATCs), can license transgenes for germline expression within repressive chromatin domains. Transgenes containing natural or synthetic PATCs are resistant...

  17. Genome-wide characterization of long intergenic non-coding RNAs (lincRNAs) provides new insight into viral diseases in honey bees Apis cerana and Apis mellifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayakodi, Murukarthick; Jung, Je Won; Park, Doori; Ahn, Young-Joon; Lee, Sang-Choon; Shin, Sang-Yoon; Shin, Chanseok; Yang, Tae-Jin; Kwon, Hyung Wook

    2015-09-04

    Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are a class of RNAs that do not encode proteins. Recently, lncRNAs have gained special attention for their roles in various biological process and diseases. In an attempt to identify long intergenic non-coding RNAs (lincRNAs) and their possible involvement in honey bee development and diseases, we analyzed RNA-seq datasets generated from Asian honey bee (Apis cerana) and western honey bee (Apis mellifera). We identified 2470 lincRNAs with an average length of 1011 bp from A. cerana and 1514 lincRNAs with an average length of 790 bp in A. mellifera. Comparative analysis revealed that 5 % of the total lincRNAs derived from both species are unique in each species. Our comparative digital gene expression analysis revealed a high degree of tissue-specific expression among the seven major tissues of honey bee, different from mRNA expression patterns. A total of 863 (57 %) and 464 (18 %) lincRNAs showed tissue-dependent expression in A. mellifera and A. cerana, respectively, most preferentially in ovary and fat body tissues. Importantly, we identified 11 lincRNAs that are specifically regulated upon viral infection in honey bees, and 10 of them appear to play roles during infection with various viruses. This study provides the first comprehensive set of lincRNAs for honey bees and opens the door to discover lincRNAs associated with biological and hormone signaling pathways as well as various diseases of honey bee.

  18. The long noncoding RNA Tug1 connects metabolic changes with kidney disease in podocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Szu Yuan; Susztak, Katalin

    2016-11-01

    An increasing amount of evidence suggests that metabolic alterations play a key role in chronic kidney disease (CKD) pathogenesis. In this issue of the JCI, Long et al. report that the long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) taurine-upregulated 1 (Tug1) contributes to CKD development. The authors show that Tug1 regulates mitochondrial function in podocytes by epigenetic targeting of expression of the transcription factor PPARγ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α, encoded by Ppargc1a). Transgenic overexpression of Tug1 specifically in podocytes ameliorated diabetes-induced CKD in mice. Together, these results highlight an important connection between lncRNA-mediated metabolic alterations in podocytes and kidney disease development.

  19. From structure prediction to genomic screens for novel non-coding RNAs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorodkin, Jan; Hofacker, Ivo L.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract: Non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) are receiving more and more attention not only as an abundant class of genes, but also as regulatory structural elements (some located in mRNAs). A key feature of RNA function is its structure. Computational methods were developed early for folding and prediction....... This and the increased amount of available genomes have made it possible to employ structure-based methods for genomic screens. The field has moved from folding prediction of single sequences to computational screens for ncRNAs in genomic sequence using the RNA structure as the main characteristic feature. Whereas early...... upon some of the concepts in current methods that have been applied in genomic screens for de novo RNA structures in searches for novel ncRNA genes and regulatory RNA structure on mRNAs. We discuss the strengths and weaknesses of the different strategies and how they can complement each other....

  20. Authentication of Botanical Origin in Herbal Teas by Plastid Noncoding DNA Length Polymorphisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uncu, Ali Tevfik; Uncu, Ayse Ozgur; Frary, Anne; Doganlar, Sami

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a DNA barcode assay to authenticate the botanical origin of herbal teas. To reach this aim, we tested the efficiency of a PCR-capillary electrophoresis (PCR-CE) approach on commercial herbal tea samples using two noncoding plastid barcodes, the trnL intron and the intergenic spacer between trnL and trnF. Barcode DNA length polymorphisms proved successful in authenticating the species origin of herbal teas. We verified the validity of our approach by sequencing species-specific barcode amplicons from herbal tea samples. Moreover, we displayed the utility of PCR-CE assays coupled with sequencing to identify the origin of undeclared plant material in herbal tea samples. The PCR-CE assays proposed in this work can be applied as routine tests for the verification of botanical origin in herbal teas and can be extended to authenticate all types of herbal foodstuffs.

  1. A Looking-Glass of Non-Coding RNAs in Oral Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irimie, Alexandra Iulia; Braicu, Cornelia; Sonea, Laura; Zimta, Alina Andreea; Diudea, Diana; Buduru, Smaranda; Berindan-Neagoe, Ioana

    2017-01-01

    Oral cancer is a multifactorial pathology and is characterized by the lack of efficient treatment and accurate diagnostic tools. This is mainly due the late diagnosis; therefore, reliable biomarkers for the timely detection of the disease and patient stratification are required. Non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) are key elements in the physiological and pathological processes of various cancers, which is also reflected in oral cancer development and progression. A better understanding of their role could give a more thorough perspective on the future treatment options for this cancer type. This review offers a glimpse into the ncRNA involvement in oral cancer, which can help the medical community tap into the world of ncRNAs and lay the ground for more powerful diagnostic, prognostic and treatment tools for oral cancer that will ultimately help build a brighter future for these patients. PMID:29206174

  2. Long non-coding RNA expression profiles in hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tørring, Pernille M; Larsen, Martin Jakob; Kjeldsen, Anette D

    2014-01-01

    transcriptome, we wanted to assess whether lncRNAs play a role in the molecular pathogenesis of HHT manifestations. By microarray technology, we profiled lncRNA transcripts from HHT nasal telangiectasial and non-telangiectasial tissue using a paired design. The microarray probes were annotated using the GENCODE...... v.16 dataset, identifying 4,810 probes mapping to 2,811 lncRNAs. Comparing HHT telangiectasial tissue with HHT non-telangiectasial tissue, we identified 42 lncRNAs that are differentially expressed (qUsing GREAT, a tool that assumes cis-regulation, we showed that differently expressed lncRNAs...... to the TGF-β signalling pathway. The exact mechanism of how haploinsufficiency of ENG and ACVRL1 leads to HHT manifestations remains to be identified. As long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are increasingly recognized as key regulators of gene expression and constitute a sizable fraction of the human...

  3. MASTR: multiple alignment and structure prediction of non-coding RNAs using simulated annealing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindgreen, Stinus; Gardner, Paul P; Krogh, Anders

    2007-01-01

    function that considers sequence conservation, covariation and basepairing probabilities. The results show that the method is very competitive to similar programs available today, both in terms of accuracy and computational efficiency. AVAILABILITY: Source code available from http://mastr.binf.ku.dk/......MOTIVATION: As more non-coding RNAs are discovered, the importance of methods for RNA analysis increases. Since the structure of ncRNA is intimately tied to the function of the molecule, programs for RNA structure prediction are necessary tools in this growing field of research. Furthermore......, it is known that RNA structure is often evolutionarily more conserved than sequence. However, few existing methods are capable of simultaneously considering multiple sequence alignment and structure prediction. RESULT: We present a novel solution to the problem of simultaneous structure prediction...

  4. Long noncoding RNA lnc-sox5 modulates CRC tumorigenesis by unbalancing tumor microenvironment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Kaiming; Zhao, Zhenxian; Liu, Kuanzhi; Zhang, Jian; Li, Guanghua; Wang, Liang

    2017-07-03

    Long non-coding RNAs (LncRNAs) have been recently regarded as systemic regulators in multiple biologic processes including tumorigenesis. In this study, we observed the expression of lncRNA lnc-sox5 was significantly increased in colorectal cancer (CRC). Despite the CRC cell growth, cell cycle and cell apoptosis was not affected by lnc-sox5 knock-down, lnc-sox5 knock-down suppressed CRC cell migration and invasion. In addition, xenograft animal model suggested that lnc-sox5 knock-down significantly suppressed the CRC tumorigenesis. Our results also showed that the expression of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO1) was significantly reduced by lnc-sox5 knock-down and therefore modulated the infiltration and cytotoxicity of CD3 + CD8 + T cells. Taken together, these results suggested that lnc-sox5 unbalances tumor microenvironment to regulate colorectal cancer progression.

  5. New technologies accelerate the exploration of non-coding RNAs in horticultural plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Degao; Mewalal, Ritesh; Hu, Rongbin; Tuskan, Gerald A.; Yang, Xiaohan

    2017-07-05

    Non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs), that is, RNAs not translated into proteins, are crucial regulators of a variety of biological processes in plants. While protein-encoding genes have been relatively well-annotated in sequenced genomes, accounting for a small portion of the genome space in plants, the universe of plant ncRNAs is rapidly expanding. Recent advances in experimental and computational technologies have generated a great momentum for discovery and functional characterization of ncRNAs. Here we summarize the classification and known biological functions of plant ncRNAs, review the application of next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology and ribosome profiling technology to ncRNA discovery in horticultural plants and discuss the application of new technologies, especially the new genome-editing tool clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated protein 9 (Cas9) systems, to functional characterization of plant ncRNAs.

  6. Expression of a family of noncoding mitochondrial RNAs distinguishes normal from cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burzio, Verónica A; Villota, Claudio; Villegas, Jaime; Landerer, Eduardo; Boccardo, Enrique; Villa, Luisa L; Martínez, Ronny; Lopez, Constanza; Gaete, Fancy; Toro, Viviana; Rodriguez, Ximena; Burzio, Luis O

    2009-06-09

    We reported the presence in human cells of a noncoding mitochondrial RNA that contains an inverted repeat (IR) of 815 nucleotides (nt) covalently linked to the 5' end of the mitochondrial 16S RNA (16S mtrRNA). The transcript contains a stem-loop structure and is expressed in human proliferating cells but not in resting cells. Here, we demonstrate that, in addition to this transcript, normal human proliferating cells in culture express 2 antisense mitochondrial transcripts. These transcripts also contain stem-loop structures but strikingly they are down-regulated in tumor cell lines and tumor cells present in 17 different tumor types. The differential expression of these transcripts distinguishes normal from tumor cells and might contribute a unique vision on cancer biology and diagnostics.

  7. Non-coding RNAs: New therapeutic targets and opportunities for hepatocellular carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Cuiyun

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Non-coding RNAs (ncRNA are RNA molecules without protein coding functions owing to the lack of an open reading frame (ORF. Based on the length, ncRNAs can be divided into long and short ncRNAs; short ncRNAs include miRNAs and piRNAs. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC is among the most frequent forms of cancer worldwide and its incidence is increasing rapidly. Studies have found that ncRNAs are likely to play a crucial role in a variety of biological processes including the pathogenesis and progression of HCC. In this review, we summarized the regulation mechanism and biological functions of ncRNAs in HCC with respect to its application in HCC diagnosis, therapy and prognosis.

  8. Human Long Noncoding RNA Regulation of Stem Cell Potency and Differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seahyoung Lee

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Because of their capability of differentiation into lineage-specific cells, stem cells are an attractive therapeutic modality in regenerative medicine. To develop an effective stem cell-based therapeutic strategy with predictable results, deeper understanding of the underlying molecular mechanisms of stem cell differentiation and/or pluripotency maintenance is required. Thus, reviewing the key factors involved in the transcriptional and epigenetic regulation of stem cell differentiation and maintenance is important. Accumulating data indicate that long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs mediate numerous biological processes, including stem cell differentiation and maintenance. Here, we review recent findings on the human lncRNA regulation of stem cell potency and differentiation. Although the clinical implication of these lncRNAs is only beginning to be elucidated, it is anticipated that lncRNAs will become important therapeutic targets in the near future.

  9. Zika virus produces noncoding RNAs using a multi-pseudoknot structure that confounds a cellular exonuclease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akiyama, Benjamin M.; Laurence, Hannah M.; University of Colorado, Aurora, CO; University of California, Davis, CA; Massey, Aaron R.

    2016-01-01

    The outbreak of Zika virus (ZIKV) and associated fetal microcephaly mandates efforts to understand the molecular processes of infection. Related flaviviruses produce noncoding subgenomic flaviviral RNAs (sfRNAs) that are linked to pathogenicity in fetal mice. These viruses make sfRNAs by co-opting a cellular exonuclease via structured RNAs called xrRNAs. We found that ZIKV-infected monkey and human epithelial cells, mouse neurons, and mosquito cells produce sfRNAs. The RNA structure that is responsible for ZIKV sfRNA production forms a complex fold that is likely found in many pathogenic flaviviruses. Mutations that disrupt the structure affect exonuclease resistance in vitro and sfRNA formation during infection. The complete ZIKV xrRNA structure clarifies the mechanism of exonuclease resistance and identifies features that may modulate function in diverse flaviviruses.

  10. MetastamiRs: Non-Coding MicroRNAs Driving Cancer Invasion and Metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Rodriguez-Cuevas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are small non-coding RNAs of ~22 nucleotides that function as negative regulators of gene expression by either inhibiting translation or inducing deadenylation-dependent degradation of target transcripts. Notably, deregulation of miRNAs expression is associated with the initiation and progression of human cancers where they act as oncogenes or tumor suppressors contributing to tumorigenesis. Abnormal miRNA expression may provide potential diagnostic and prognostic tumor biomarkers and new therapeutic targets in cancer. Recently, several miRNAs have been shown to initiate invasion and metastasis by targeting multiple proteins that are major players in these cellular events, thus they have been denominated as metastamiRs. Here, we present a review of the current knowledge of miRNAs in cancer with a special focus on metastamiRs. In addition we discuss their potential use as novel specific markers for cancer progression.

  11. The functional role of long non-coding RNA in digestive system carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guang-Yu; Zhu, Yuan-Yuan; Zhang, Yan-Qiao

    2014-09-01

    In recent years, long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are emerging as either oncogenes or tumor suppressor genes. Recent evidences suggest that lncRNAs play a very important role in digestive system carcinomas. However, the biological function of lncRNAs in the vast majority of digestive system carcinomas remains unclear. Recently, increasing studies has begun to explore their molecular mechanisms and regulatory networks that they are implicated in tumorigenesis. In this review, we highlight the emerging functional role of lncRNAs in digestive system carcinomas. It is becoming clear that lncRNAs will be exciting and potentially useful for diagnosis and treatment of digestive system carcinomas, some of these lncRNAs might function as both diagnostic markers and the treatment targets of digestive system carcinomas.

  12. Long Non-Coding RNAs Embedded in the Rb and p53 Pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Subramanian, Murugan; Jones, Matthew F.; Lal, Ashish, E-mail: ashish.lal@nih.gov [Genetics Branch, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States)

    2013-12-04

    In recent years, long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have gained significant attention as a novel class of gene regulators. Although a small number of lncRNAs have been shown to regulate gene expression through diverse mechanisms including transcriptional regulation, mRNA splicing and translation, the physiological function and mechanism of action of the vast majority are not known. Profiling studies in cell lines and tumor samples have suggested a potential role of lncRNAs in cancer. Indeed, distinct lncRNAs have been shown to be embedded in the p53 and Rb networks, two of the major tumor suppressor pathways that control cell cycle progression and survival. Given the fact that inactivation of Rb and p53 is a hallmark of human cancer, in this review we discuss recent evidence on the function of lncRNAs in the Rb and p53 signaling pathways.

  13. Long Non-Coding RNAs Embedded in the Rb and p53 Pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subramanian, Murugan; Jones, Matthew F.; Lal, Ashish

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have gained significant attention as a novel class of gene regulators. Although a small number of lncRNAs have been shown to regulate gene expression through diverse mechanisms including transcriptional regulation, mRNA splicing and translation, the physiological function and mechanism of action of the vast majority are not known. Profiling studies in cell lines and tumor samples have suggested a potential role of lncRNAs in cancer. Indeed, distinct lncRNAs have been shown to be embedded in the p53 and Rb networks, two of the major tumor suppressor pathways that control cell cycle progression and survival. Given the fact that inactivation of Rb and p53 is a hallmark of human cancer, in this review we discuss recent evidence on the function of lncRNAs in the Rb and p53 signaling pathways

  14. Bistability and oscillations in gene regulation mediated by small noncoding RNAs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dengyu Liu

    Full Text Available The interplay of small noncoding RNAs (sRNAs, mRNAs, and proteins has been shown to play crucial roles in almost all cellular processes. As key post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression, the mechanisms and roles of sRNAs in various cellular processes still need to be fully understood. When participating in cellular processes, sRNAs mainly mediate mRNA degradation or translational repression. Here, we show how the dynamics of two minimal architectures is drastically affected by these two mechanisms. A comparison is also given to reveal the implication of the fundamental differences. This study may help us to analyze complex networks assembled by simple modules more easily. A better knowledge of the sRNA-mediated motifs is also of interest for bio-engineering and artificial control.

  15. Diagnostic and prognostic signatures from the small non-coding RNA transcriptome in prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martens-Uzunova, E S; Jalava, S E; Dits, N F

    2011-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) is the most frequent male malignancy and the second most common cause of cancer-related death in Western countries. Current clinical and pathological methods are limited in the prediction of postoperative outcome. It is becoming increasingly evident that small non-coding RNA...... signatures of 102 fresh-frozen patient samples during PCa progression by miRNA microarrays. Both platforms were cross-validated by quantitative reverse transcriptase-PCR. Besides the altered expression of several miRNAs, our deep sequencing analyses revealed strong differential expression of small nucleolar...... RNAs (snoRNAs) and transfer RNAs (tRNAs). From microarray analysis, we derived a miRNA diagnostic classifier that accurately distinguishes normal from cancer samples. Furthermore, we were able to construct a PCa prognostic predictor that independently forecasts postoperative outcome. Importantly...

  16. Evaluation of Agency Non-Code Layered Pressure Vessels (LPVs). Corrected Copy, Aug. 25, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prosser, William H.

    2014-01-01

    In coordination with the Office of Safety and Mission Assurance and the respective Center Pressure System Managers (PSMs), the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) was requested to formulate a consensus draft proposal for the development of additional testing and analysis methods to establish the technical validity, and any limitation thereof, for the continued safe operation of facility non-code layered pressure vessels. The PSMs from each NASA Center were asked to participate as part of the assessment team by providing, collecting, and reviewing data regarding current operations of these vessels. This report contains the outcome of the assessment and the findings, observations, and NESC recommendations to the Agency and individual NASA Centers.

  17. A Looking-Glass of Non-Coding RNAs in Oral Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Iulia Irimie

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Oral cancer is a multifactorial pathology and is characterized by the lack of efficient treatment and accurate diagnostic tools. This is mainly due the late diagnosis; therefore, reliable biomarkers for the timely detection of the disease and patient stratification are required. Non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs are key elements in the physiological and pathological processes of various cancers, which is also reflected in oral cancer development and progression. A better understanding of their role could give a more thorough perspective on the future treatment options for this cancer type. This review offers a glimpse into the ncRNA involvement in oral cancer, which can help the medical community tap into the world of ncRNAs and lay the ground for more powerful diagnostic, prognostic and treatment tools for oral cancer that will ultimately help build a brighter future for these patients.

  18. Heterochromatin Reorganization during Early Mouse Development Requires a Single-Stranded Noncoding Transcript

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Casanova

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The equalization of pericentric heterochromatin from distinct parental origins following fertilization is essential for genome function and development. The recent implication of noncoding transcripts in this process raises questions regarding the connection between RNA and the nuclear organization of distinct chromatin environments. Our study addresses the interrelationship between replication and transcription of the two parental pericentric heterochromatin (PHC domains and their reorganization during early embryonic development. We demonstrate that the replication of PHC is dispensable for its clustering at the late two-cell stage. In contrast, using parthenogenetic embryos, we show that pericentric transcripts are essential for this reorganization independent of the chromatin marks associated with the PHC domains. Finally, our discovery that only reverse pericentric transcripts are required for both the nuclear reorganization of PHC and development beyond the two-cell stage challenges current views on heterochromatin organization.

  19. Long noncoding RNA TUG1 is a diagnostic factor in lung adenocarcinoma and suppresses apoptosis via epigenetic silencing of BAX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huan; Zhou, Guizhi; Fu, Xin; Cui, Haiyan; Pu, Guangrui; Xiao, Yao; Sun, Wei; Dong, Xinhua; Zhang, Libin; Cao, Sijia; Li, Guiqin; Wu, Xiaowei; Yang, Xu

    2017-11-24

    Lung cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer-related mortality, and responds badly to existing treatment. Thus, it is of urgent need to identify novel diagnostic markers and therapeutic targets. Increasing evidences have indicated that long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) play an important role in initiation and progression of lung cancer. However, the role of lncRNA Taurine upregulated 1 (TUG1) in lung adenocarcinoma (LAD) progression is not well known. In this study, we determined the diagnostic value of TUG1 in LAD patients, and further uncovered the underlying functional mechanism. Our results showed that TUG1 was significantly upregulated in LAD cells and serum samples. Receiver operator characteristic (ROC) analysis suggested a relatively higher area under the curve (AUC) of TUG1 (0.756) contrast to cyfra21-1 (0.619). In addition, high TUG1 level was associated with enhanced tumor size, degree of differentiation, lymph node metastases, distant metastasis and TNM stage. Cell functional assays showed that knockdown of TUG1 suppressed LAD cell viability and promoted cell apoptosis. We then sought to reveal the underlying regulatory mechanism, and the pro-apoptotic protein BAX was then identified as the downstream target of TUG1. Gain and loss functional assays showed that inhibition of BAX reversed the induced apoptosis by TUG1 knockdown. Finally, RNA immunoprecipitation and Chromatin immunoprecipitation revealed that TUG1 suppressed BAX expression through physically interacting with EZH2. In conclusion, lncRNA TUG1 is a promising diagnostic marker for LAD patients and suppression of TUG1 levels could be a future direction to promote the prognosis of LAD patients.

  20. Long non-coding RNA discovery across the genus anopheles reveals conserved secondary structures within and beyond the Gambiae complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Adam M; Waterhouse, Robert M; Muskavitch, Marc A T

    2015-04-23

    Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been defined as mRNA-like transcripts longer than 200 nucleotides that lack significant protein-coding potential, and many of them constitute scaffolds for ribonucleoprotein complexes with critical roles in epigenetic regulation. Various lncRNAs have been implicated in the modulation of chromatin structure, transcriptional and post-transcriptional gene regulation, and regulation of genomic stability in mammals, Caenorhabditis elegans, and Drosophila melanogaster. The purpose of this study is to identify the lncRNA landscape in the malaria vector An. gambiae and assess the evolutionary conservation of lncRNAs and their secondary structures across the Anopheles genus. Using deep RNA sequencing of multiple Anopheles gambiae life stages, we have identified 2,949 lncRNAs and more than 300 previously unannotated putative protein-coding genes. The lncRNAs exhibit differential expression profiles across life stages and adult genders. We find that across the genus Anopheles, lncRNAs display much lower sequence conservation than protein-coding genes. Additionally, we find that lncRNA secondary structure is highly conserved within the Gambiae complex, but diverges rapidly across the rest of the genus Anopheles. This study offers one of the first lncRNA secondary structure analyses in vector insects. Our description of lncRNAs in An. gambiae offers the most comprehensive genome-wide insights to date into lncRNAs in this vector mosquito, and defines a set of potential targets for the development of vector-based interventions that may further curb the human malaria burden in disease-endemic countries.

  1. An efficient genetic algorithm for structural RNA pairwise alignment and its application to non-coding RNA discovery in yeast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taneda Akito

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aligning RNA sequences with low sequence identity has been a challenging problem since such a computation essentially needs an algorithm with high complexities for taking structural conservation into account. Although many sophisticated algorithms for the purpose have been proposed to date, further improvement in efficiency is necessary to accelerate its large-scale applications including non-coding RNA (ncRNA discovery. Results We developed a new genetic algorithm, Cofolga2, for simultaneously computing pairwise RNA sequence alignment and consensus folding, and benchmarked it using BRAliBase 2.1. The benchmark results showed that our new algorithm is accurate and efficient in both time and memory usage. Then, combining with the originally trained SVM, we applied the new algorithm to novel ncRNA discovery where we compared S. cerevisiae genome with six related genomes in a pairwise manner. By focusing our search to the relatively short regions (50 bp to 2,000 bp sandwiched by conserved sequences, we successfully predict 714 intergenic and 1,311 sense or antisense ncRNA candidates, which were found in the pairwise alignments with stable consensus secondary structure and low sequence identity (≤ 50%. By comparing with the previous predictions, we found that > 92% of the candidates is novel candidates. The estimated rate of false positives in the predicted candidates is 51%. Twenty-five percent of the intergenic candidates has supports for expression in cell, i.e. their genomic positions overlap those of the experimentally determined transcripts in literature. By manual inspection of the results, moreover, we obtained four multiple alignments with low sequence identity which reveal consensus structures shared by three species/sequences. Conclusion The present method gives an efficient tool complementary to sequence-alignment-based ncRNA finders.

  2. BRAF activated non-coding RNA (BANCR) promoting gastric cancer cells proliferation via regulation of NF-κB1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Zhi-Xin; Liu, Zhi-Qiang; Jiang, Biao; Lu, Xin-Yang; Ning, Xiao-Fei; Yuan, Chuan-Tao; Wang, Ai-Liang

    2015-01-01

    Background and objective: Long non-coding RNA, BANCR, has been demonstrated to contribute to the proliferation and migration of tumors. However, its molecular mechanism underlying gastric cancer is still unknown. In present study, we investigated whether BANCR was involved in the development of gastric cancer cells via regulation of NF-κB1. Methods: Human gastric cancer tissues were isolated as well as human gastric cell lines MGC803 and BGC823 were cultured to investigate the role of BANCR in gastric cancer. Results: BANCR expression was significantly up-regulated in gastric tumor tissues and gastric cell lines. Down-regulation of BANCR inhibited gastric cancer cell growth and promoted cell apoptosis, and it also contributed to a significant decrease of NF-κB1 (P50/105) expression and 3′UTR of NF-κB1 activity. Overexpression of NF-κB1 reversed the effect of BANCR on cancer cell growth and apoptosis. MiroRNA-9 (miR-9) targeted NF-κB1, and miR-9 inhibitor also reversed the effects of BANCR on gastric cancer cell growth and apoptosis. Conclusion: BANCR was highly expressed both in gastric tumor tissues and in cancer cells. NF-κB1 and miR-9 were involved in the role of BANCR in gastric cancer cell growth and apoptosis. - Highlights: • BANCR up-regulated in gastric cancer (GC) tissues and cell lines MGC803 and BGC823. • Down-regulation of BANCR inhibited GC cell growth and promoted cell apoptosis. • Down-regulation of BANCR contributed to decreased 3′UTR of NF-κB1 and its expression. • Overexpressed NF-κB1 reversed the effect of BANCR on GC cell growth. • miR-9 inhibitor reversed the effect of BANCR on cancer GC cell growth

  3. Deep RNA sequencing reveals dynamic regulation of myocardial noncoding RNAs in failing human heart and remodeling with mechanical circulatory support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Kai-Chien; Yamada, Kathryn A; Patel, Akshar Y; Topkara, Veli K; George, Isaac; Cheema, Faisal H; Ewald, Gregory A; Mann, Douglas L; Nerbonne, Jeanne M

    2014-03-04

    Microarrays have been used extensively to profile transcriptome remodeling in failing human heart, although the genomic coverage provided is limited and fails to provide a detailed picture of the myocardial transcriptome landscape. Here, we describe sequencing-based transcriptome profiling, providing comprehensive analysis of myocardial mRNA, microRNA (miRNA), and long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) expression in failing human heart before and after mechanical support with a left ventricular (LV) assist device (LVAD). Deep sequencing of RNA isolated from paired nonischemic (NICM; n=8) and ischemic (ICM; n=8) human failing LV samples collected before and after LVAD and from nonfailing human LV (n=8) was conducted. These analyses revealed high abundance of mRNA (37%) and lncRNA (71%) of mitochondrial origin. miRNASeq revealed 160 and 147 differentially expressed miRNAs in ICM and NICM, respectively, compared with nonfailing LV. Among these, only 2 (ICM) and 5 (NICM) miRNAs are normalized with LVAD. RNASeq detected 18 480, including 113 novel, lncRNAs in human LV. Among the 679 (ICM) and 570 (NICM) lncRNAs differentially expressed with heart failure, ≈10% are improved or normalized with LVAD. In addition, the expression signature of lncRNAs, but not miRNAs or mRNAs, distinguishes ICM from NICM. Further analysis suggests that cis-gene regulation represents a major mechanism of action of human cardiac lncRNAs. The myocardial transcriptome is dynamically regulated in advanced heart failure and after LVAD support. The expression profiles of lncRNAs, but not mRNAs or miRNAs, can discriminate failing hearts of different pathologies and are markedly altered in response to LVAD support. These results suggest an important role for lncRNAs in the pathogenesis of heart failure and in reverse remodeling observed with mechanical support.

  4. Plasma long non-coding RNA BACE1 as a novel biomarker for diagnosis of Alzheimer disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Liang; Liao, Yu-Ting; He, Jin-Cai; Xie, Cheng-Long; Chen, Si-Yan; Fan, Hui-Hui; Su, Zhi-Peng; Wang, Zhen

    2018-01-09

    Long non-coding RNA (LncRNA) have been reported to be involved in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases, but whether it can serve as a biomarker for Alzheimer disease (AD) is not yet known. The present study selected four specific LncRNA (17A, 51A, BACE1 and BC200) as possible AD biomarker. RT-qPCR was performed to validate the LncRNA. Receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) and area under the ROC curve (AUC) were applied to study the potential of LncRNA as a biomarker in a population of 88 AD patients and 72 control individuals. We found that the plasma LncRNA BACE1 level of AD patients was significantly higher than that of healthy controls (p = 0.006). Plasma level of LncRNA 17A, 51A and BC200 did not show a significant difference between two groups (p = 0.098, p = 0.204 and p = 0.232, respectively). ROC curve analysis showed that LncRNA BACE1 was the best candidate of these LncRNA (95% CI: 0.553-0.781, p = 0.003). In addition, no correlation was found for expression of these LncRNA in both control and AD groups with age or MMSE scale (p > 0.05). Our present study compared the plasma level of four LncRNA between AD and non-AD patients, and found that the level of the BACE1 is increased in the plasma of AD patients and have a high specificity (88%) for AD, indicating BACE1 may be a potential candidate biomarker to predict AD.

  5. Identification and Functional Analysis of Long Intergenic Non-coding RNAs Underlying Intramuscular Fat Content in Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Zou

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Intramuscular fat (IMF content is an important trait that can affect pork quality. Previous studies have identified many genes that can regulate IMF. Long intergenic non-coding RNAs (lincRNAs are emerging as key regulators in various biological processes. However, lincRNAs related to IMF in pig are largely unknown, and the mechanisms by which they regulate IMF are yet to be elucidated. Here we reconstructed 105,687 transcripts and identified 1,032 lincRNAs in pig longissimus dorsi muscle (LDM of four stages with different IMF contents based on published RNA-seq. These lincRNAs show typical characteristics such as shorter length and lower expression compared with protein-coding genes. Combined with methylation data, we found that both the promoter and genebody methylation of lincRNAs can negatively regulate lincRNA expression. We found that lincRNAs exhibit high correlation with their protein-coding neighbors in expression. Co-expression network analysis resulted in eight stage-specific modules, gene ontology and pathway analysis of them suggested that some lincRNAs were involved in IMF-related processes, such as fatty acid metabolism and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor signaling pathway. Furthermore, we identified hub lincRNAs and found six of them may play important roles in IMF development. This work detailed some lincRNAs which may affect of IMF development in pig, and facilitated future research on these lincRNAs and molecular assisted breeding for pig.

  6. Annotating Diseases Using Human Phenotype Ontology Improves Prediction of Disease-Associated Long Non-coding RNAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Duc-Hau; Dao, Lan T M

    2018-05-23

    Recently, many long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been identified and their biological function has been characterized; however, our understanding of their underlying molecular mechanisms related to disease is still limited. To overcome the limitation in experimentally identifying disease-lncRNA associations, computational methods have been proposed as a powerful tool to predict such associations. These methods are usually based on the similarities between diseases or lncRNAs since it was reported that similar diseases are associated with functionally similar lncRNAs. Therefore, prediction performance is highly dependent on how well the similarities can be captured. Previous studies have calculated the similarity between two diseases by mapping exactly each disease to a single Disease Ontology (DO) term, and then use a semantic similarity measure to calculate the similarity between them. However, the problem of this approach is that a disease can be described by more than one DO terms. Until now, there is no annotation database of DO terms for diseases except for genes. In contrast, Human Phenotype Ontology (HPO) is designed to fully annotate human disease phenotypes. Therefore, in this study, we constructed disease similarity networks/matrices using HPO instead of DO. Then, we used these networks/matrices as inputs of two representative machine learning-based and network-based ranking algorithms, that is, regularized least square and heterogeneous graph-based inference, respectively. The results showed that the prediction performance of the two algorithms on HPO-based is better than that on DO-based networks/matrices. In addition, our method can predict 11 novel cancer-associated lncRNAs, which are supported by literature evidence. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Roles of Non-Coding RNA in Sugarcane-Microbe Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiebaut, Flávia; Rojas, Cristian A; Grativol, Clícia; Calixto, Edmundo P da R; Motta, Mariana R; Ballesteros, Helkin G F; Peixoto, Barbara; de Lima, Berenice N S; Vieira, Lucas M; Walter, Maria Emilia; de Armas, Elvismary M; Entenza, Júlio O P; Lifschitz, Sergio; Farinelli, Laurent; Hemerly, Adriana S; Ferreira, Paulo C G

    2017-12-20

    Studies have highlighted the importance of non-coding RNA regulation in plant-microbe interaction. However, the roles of sugarcane microRNAs (miRNAs) in the regulation of disease responses have not been investigated. Firstly, we screened the sRNA transcriptome of sugarcane infected with Acidovorax avenae . Conserved and novel miRNAs were identified. Additionally, small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) were aligned to differentially expressed sequences from the sugarcane transcriptome. Interestingly, many siRNAs aligned to a transcript encoding a copper-transporter gene whose expression was induced in the presence of A. avenae , while the siRNAs were repressed in the presence of A. avenae . Moreover, a long intergenic non-coding RNA was identified as a potential target or decoy of miR408. To extend the bioinformatics analysis, we carried out independent inoculations and the expression patterns of six miRNAs were validated by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR). Among these miRNAs, miR408-a copper-microRNA-was downregulated. The cleavage of a putative miR408 target, a laccase, was confirmed by a modified 5'RACE (rapid amplification of cDNA ends) assay. MiR408 was also downregulated in samples infected with other pathogens, but it was upregulated in the presence of a beneficial diazotrophic bacteria. Our results suggest that regulation by miR408 is important in sugarcane sensing whether microorganisms are either pathogenic or beneficial, triggering specific miRNA-mediated regulatory mechanisms accordingly.

  8. Roles of Non-Coding RNA in Sugarcane-Microbe Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grativol, Clícia; Motta, Mariana R.; Ballesteros, Helkin G. F.; Peixoto, Barbara; Vieira, Lucas M.; Walter, Maria Emilia; de Armas, Elvismary M.; Entenza, Júlio O. P.; Lifschitz, Sergio; Farinelli, Laurent; Hemerly, Adriana S.

    2017-01-01

    Studies have highlighted the importance of non-coding RNA regulation in plant-microbe interaction. However, the roles of sugarcane microRNAs (miRNAs) in the regulation of disease responses have not been investigated. Firstly, we screened the sRNA transcriptome of sugarcane infected with Acidovorax avenae. Conserved and novel miRNAs were identified. Additionally, small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) were aligned to differentially expressed sequences from the sugarcane transcriptome. Interestingly, many siRNAs aligned to a transcript encoding a copper-transporter gene whose expression was induced in the presence of A. avenae, while the siRNAs were repressed in the presence of A. avenae. Moreover, a long intergenic non-coding RNA was identified as a potential target or decoy of miR408. To extend the bioinformatics analysis, we carried out independent inoculations and the expression patterns of six miRNAs were validated by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR). Among these miRNAs, miR408—a copper-microRNA—was downregulated. The cleavage of a putative miR408 target, a laccase, was confirmed by a modified 5′RACE (rapid amplification of cDNA ends) assay. MiR408 was also downregulated in samples infected with other pathogens, but it was upregulated in the presence of a beneficial diazotrophic bacteria. Our results suggest that regulation by miR408 is important in sugarcane sensing whether microorganisms are either pathogenic or beneficial, triggering specific miRNA-mediated regulatory mechanisms accordingly. PMID:29657296

  9. CVD-associated non-coding RNA, ANRIL, modulates expression of atherogenic pathways in VSMC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Congrains, Ada; Kamide, Kei; Katsuya, Tomohiro; Yasuda, Osamu; Oguro, Ryousuke; Yamamoto, Koichi; Ohishi, Mitsuru; Rakugi, Hiromi

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► ANRIL maps in the strongest susceptibility locus for cardiovascular disease. ► Silencing of ANRIL leads to altered expression of tissue remodeling-related genes. ► The effects of ANRIL on gene expression are splicing variant specific. ► ANRIL affects progression of cardiovascular disease by regulating proliferation and apoptosis pathways. -- Abstract: ANRIL is a newly discovered non-coding RNA lying on the strongest genetic susceptibility locus for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in the chromosome 9p21 region. Genome-wide association studies have been linking polymorphisms in this locus with CVD and several other major diseases such as diabetes and cancer. The role of this non-coding RNA in atherosclerosis progression is still poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the implication of ANRIL in the modulation of gene sets directly involved in atherosclerosis. We designed and tested siRNA sequences to selectively target two exons (exon 1 and exon 19) of the transcript and successfully knocked down expression of ANRIL in human aortic vascular smooth muscle cells (HuAoVSMC). We used a pathway-focused RT-PCR array to profile gene expression changes caused by ANRIL knock down. Notably, the genes affected by each of the siRNAs were different, suggesting that different splicing variants of ANRIL might have distinct roles in cell physiology. Our results suggest that ANRIL splicing variants play a role in coordinating tissue remodeling, by modulating the expression of genes involved in cell proliferation, apoptosis, extra-cellular matrix remodeling and inflammatory response to finally impact in the risk of cardiovascular disease and other pathologies.

  10. Roles of Non-Coding RNA in Sugarcane-Microbe Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Thiebaut

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Studies have highlighted the importance of non-coding RNA regulation in plant-microbe interaction. However, the roles of sugarcane microRNAs (miRNAs in the regulation of disease responses have not been investigated. Firstly, we screened the sRNA transcriptome of sugarcane infected with Acidovorax avenae. Conserved and novel miRNAs were identified. Additionally, small interfering RNAs (siRNAs were aligned to differentially expressed sequences from the sugarcane transcriptome. Interestingly, many siRNAs aligned to a transcript encoding a copper-transporter gene whose expression was induced in the presence of A. avenae, while the siRNAs were repressed in the presence of A. avenae. Moreover, a long intergenic non-coding RNA was identified as a potential target or decoy of miR408. To extend the bioinformatics analysis, we carried out independent inoculations and the expression patterns of six miRNAs were validated by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR. Among these miRNAs, miR408—a copper-microRNA—was downregulated. The cleavage of a putative miR408 target, a laccase, was confirmed by a modified 5′RACE (rapid amplification of cDNA ends assay. MiR408 was also downregulated in samples infected with other pathogens, but it was upregulated in the presence of a beneficial diazotrophic bacteria. Our results suggest that regulation by miR408 is important in sugarcane sensing whether microorganisms are either pathogenic or beneficial, triggering specific miRNA-mediated regulatory mechanisms accordingly.

  11. CVD-associated non-coding RNA, ANRIL, modulates expression of atherogenic pathways in VSMC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Congrains, Ada; Kamide, Kei [Department of Geriatric Medicine and Nephrology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine (Japan); Katsuya, Tomohiro [Clinical Gene Therapy, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine (Japan); Yasuda, Osamu [Department of Cardiovascular Clinical and Translational Research, Kumamoto University Hospital (Japan); Oguro, Ryousuke; Yamamoto, Koichi [Department of Geriatric Medicine and Nephrology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine (Japan); Ohishi, Mitsuru, E-mail: ohishi@geriat.med.osaka-u.ac.jp [Department of Geriatric Medicine and Nephrology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine (Japan); Rakugi, Hiromi [Department of Geriatric Medicine and Nephrology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine (Japan)

    2012-03-23

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ANRIL maps in the strongest susceptibility locus for cardiovascular disease. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Silencing of ANRIL leads to altered expression of tissue remodeling-related genes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The effects of ANRIL on gene expression are splicing variant specific. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ANRIL affects progression of cardiovascular disease by regulating proliferation and apoptosis pathways. -- Abstract: ANRIL is a newly discovered non-coding RNA lying on the strongest genetic susceptibility locus for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in the chromosome 9p21 region. Genome-wide association studies have been linking polymorphisms in this locus with CVD and several other major diseases such as diabetes and cancer. The role of this non-coding RNA in atherosclerosis progression is still poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the implication of ANRIL in the modulation of gene sets directly involved in atherosclerosis. We designed and tested siRNA sequences to selectively target two exons (exon 1 and exon 19) of the transcript and successfully knocked down expression of ANRIL in human aortic vascular smooth muscle cells (HuAoVSMC). We used a pathway-focused RT-PCR array to profile gene expression changes caused by ANRIL knock down. Notably, the genes affected by each of the siRNAs were different, suggesting that different splicing variants of ANRIL might have distinct roles in cell physiology. Our results suggest that ANRIL splicing variants play a role in coordinating tissue remodeling, by modulating the expression of genes involved in cell proliferation, apoptosis, extra-cellular matrix remodeling and inflammatory response to finally impact in the risk of cardiovascular disease and other pathologies.

  12. Lnc2Catlas: an atlas of long noncoding RNAs associated with risk of cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Chao; An, Gaole; Zhao, Chenghui; Ouyang, Zhangyi; Bo, Xiaochen; Shu, Wenjie

    2018-01-30

    Lnc2Catlas ( http://lnc2catlas.bioinfotech.org/ ) is an atlas of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) associated with cancer risk. LncRNAs are a class of functional noncoding RNAs with lengths over 200 nt and play a vital role in diverse biological processes. Increasing evidence shows that lncRNA dysfunction is associated with many human cancers/diseases. It is therefore important to understand the underlying relationship between lncRNAs and cancers. To this end, we developed Lnc2Catlas to compile quantitative associations between lncRNAs and cancers using three computational methods, assessing secondary structure disruption, lncRNA-protein interactions, and co-expression networks. Lnc2Catlas was constructed based on 27,670 well-annotated lncRNAs, 31,749,216 SNPs, 1,473 cancer-associated proteins, and 10,539 expression profiles of 33 cancers from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). Lnc2Catlas contains 247,124 lncRNA-SNP pairs, over two millions lncRNA-protein interactions, and 6,902 co-expression clusters. We deposited Lnc2Catlas on Alibaba Cloud and developed interactive, mobile device-compatible, user-friendly interfaces to help users search and browse Lnc2Catlas with ultra-low latency. Lnc2Catlas can aid in the investigation of associations between lncRNAs and cancers and can provide candidate lncRNAs for further experimental validation. Lnc2Catlas will facilitate an understanding of the associations between lncRNAs and cancer and will help reveal the critical role of lncRNAs in cancer.

  13. Developing the metacognitive skill of noticing the gap through self-transcribing: The case of students enrolled in an ELT training program in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Millaray D Salas

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the preliminary results of the first phase of an ongoing educational intervention conducted with students enrolled in an ELT training program at PUCV. The study set out to explore the feasibility and effectiveness of the recording and self-transcription methodology (Lynch, 2001, 2007; Mennim, 2003, 2012 as a route to noticing the gap and defossilization. Students (N=20 transcribed the oral texts they produced during the speaking section of the diagnostic test for English 5. The tasks were: (1 transcribing three minutes of their speaking time, (2 highlighting all the errors they identified in their own speech (3 coding them (e.g. grammatical, lexical, phonological and (4 sending the annotated transcript to the instructor by email. Drawing on the theory of questionnaire design and processing (Dörnyei, 2003, a survey was designed and posted online (GoogleForm and emailed to the students. The questionnaire asked students to evaluate the perceived benefits of the self-transcription methodology. The study data consist of the annotated transcripts and the questionnaire responses. The results of this study were much less positive than what has been reported in the literature (Willis & Willis, 1996, Burns & Joyce, 1997; Lynch, 2001, 2007; Mennim, 2003, 2012; Thornbury & Slade, 2006; Boettinger, Park & Timmis 2010; Stillwell et al., 2010, so an attempt is made to see why this might have been the case. Some pedagogical implications of this approach in the Chilean context are discussed.

  14. An intergenic non-coding rRNA correlated with expression of the rRNA and frequency of an rRNA single nucleotide polymorphism in lung cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yih-Horng Shiao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Ribosomal RNA (rRNA is a central regulator of cell growth and may control cancer development. A cis noncoding rRNA (nc-rRNA upstream from the 45S rRNA transcription start site has recently been implicated in control of rRNA transcription in mouse fibroblasts. We investigated whether a similar nc-rRNA might be expressed in human cancer epithelial cells, and related to any genomic characteristics. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using quantitative rRNA measurement, we demonstrated that a nc-rRNA is transcribed in human lung epithelial and lung cancer cells, starting from approximately -1000 nucleotides upstream of the rRNA transcription start site (+1 and extending at least to +203. This nc-rRNA was significantly more abundant in the majority of lung cancer cell lines, relative to a nontransformed lung epithelial cell line. Its abundance correlated negatively with total 45S rRNA in 12 of 13 cell lines (P = 0.014. During sequence analysis from -388 to +306, we observed diverse, frequent intercopy single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in rRNA, with a frequency greater than predicted by chance at 12 sites. A SNP at +139 (U/C in the 5' leader sequence varied among the cell lines and correlated negatively with level of the nc-rRNA (P = 0.014. Modelling of the secondary structure of the rRNA 5'-leader sequence indicated a small increase in structural stability due to the +139 U/C SNP and a minor shift in local configuration occurrences. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The results demonstrate occurrence of a sense nc-rRNA in human lung epithelial and cancer cells, and imply a role in regulation of the rRNA gene, which may be affected by a +139 SNP in the 5' leader sequence of the primary rRNA transcript.

  15. Exploring genomic dark matter: A critical assessment of the performance of homology search methods on noncoding RNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Freyhult, E.; Bollback, J. P.; Gardner, P. P.

    2006-01-01

    Homology search is one of the most ubiquitous bioinformatic tasks, yet it is unknown how effective the currently available tools are for identifying noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs). In this work, we use reliable ncRNA data sets to assess the effectiveness of methods such as BLAST, FASTA, HMMer, and Infer......Homology search is one of the most ubiquitous bioinformatic tasks, yet it is unknown how effective the currently available tools are for identifying noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs). In this work, we use reliable ncRNA data sets to assess the effectiveness of methods such as BLAST, FASTA, HMMer......, and Infernal. Surprisingly, the most popular homology search methods are often the least accurate. As a result, many studies have used inappropriate tools for their analyses. On the basis of our results, we suggest homology search strategies using the currently available tools and some directions for future...

  16. Phylogeny of Alternaria fungi known to produce host-specific toxins on the basis of variation in internal transcribed spacers of ribosomal DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusaba, M; Tsuge, T

    1995-10-01

    The internal transcribed spacer regions (ITS1 and ITS2) of ribosomal DNA from Alternaria species, including seven fungi known to produce host-specific toxins, were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction-amplification and direct sequencing. Phylogenetic analysis of the sequence data by the Neighbor-joining method showed that the seven toxin-producing fungi belong to a monophyletic group together with A. alternata. In contract, A. dianthi, A. panax, A. dauci, A. bataticola, A. porri, A. sesami and A. solani, species that can be morphologically distinguished from A. alternata, could be clearly separated from A. alternata by phylogenetic of the ITS variation. These results suggest that Alternaria pathogens which produce host-specific toxins are pathogenic variants within a single variable species, A. alternata.

  17. Update on Pneumocystis carinii f. sp. hominis Typing Based on Nucleotide Sequence Variations in Internal Transcribed Spacer Regions of rRNA Genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chao-Hung; Helweg-Larsen, Jannik; Tang, Xing; Jin, Shaoling; Li, Baozheng; Bartlett, Marilyn S.; Lu, Jang-Jih; Lundgren, Bettina; Lundgren, Jens D.; Olsson, Mats; Lucas, Sebastian B.; Roux, Patricia; Cargnel, Antonietta; Atzori, Chiara; Matos, Olga; Smith, James W.

    1998-01-01

    Pneumocystis carinii f. sp. hominis isolates from 207 clinical specimens from nine countries were typed based on nucleotide sequence variations in the internal transcribed spacer regions I and II (ITS1 and ITS2, respectively) of rRNA genes. The number of ITS1 nucleotides has been revised from the previously reported 157 bp to 161 bp. Likewise, the number of ITS2 nucleotides has been changed from 177 to 192 bp. The number of ITS1 sequence types has increased from 2 to 15, and that of ITS2 has increased from 3 to 14. The 15 ITS1 sequence types are designated types A through O, and the 14 ITS2 types are named types a through n. A total of 59 types of P. carinii f. sp. hominis were found in this study. PMID:9508304

  18. Nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) variation in the Anastrepha fraterculus cryptic species complex (Diptera, Tephritidae) of the Andean region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Bruce D.; Steck, Gary J.; Norrbom, Allen L.; Rodriguez, Erick J.; Srivastava, Pratibha; Alvarado, Norma Nolazco; Colque, Fredy; Landa, Erick Yábar; Sánchez, Juan José Lagrava; Quisberth, Elizabeth; Peñaranda, Emilio Arévalo; Clavijo, P. A. Rodriguez; Alvarez-Baca, Jeniffer K.; Zapata, Tito Guevara; Ponce, Patricio

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) was sequenced for Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann, 1830) originating from 85 collections from the northern and central Andean countries of South America including Argentina (Tucumán), Bolivia, Perú, Ecuador, Colombia, and Venezuela. The ITS1 regions of additional specimens (17 collections) from Central America (México, Guatemala, Costa Rica, and Panamá), Brazil, Caribbean Colombia, and coastal Venezuela were sequenced and together with published sequences (Paraguay) provided context for interpretation. A total of six ITS1 sequence variants were recognized in the Andean region comprising four groups. Type I predominates in the southernmost range of Anastrepha fraterculus. Type II predominates in its northernmost range. In the central and northern Andes, the geographic distributions overlap and interdigitate with a strong elevational effect. A discussion of relationships between observed ITS1 types and morphometric types is included. PMID:26798259

  19. A Defective mRNA Cleavage and Polyadenylation Complex Facilitates Expansions of Transcribed (GAAn Repeats Associated with Friedreich’s Ataxia

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    Ryan J. McGinty

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Expansions of microsatellite repeats are responsible for numerous hereditary diseases in humans, including myotonic dystrophy and Friedreich’s ataxia. Whereas the length of an expandable repeat is the main factor determining disease inheritance, recent data point to genomic trans modifiers that can impact the likelihood of expansions and disease progression. Detection of these modifiers may lead to understanding and treating repeat expansion diseases. Here, we describe a method for the rapid, genome-wide identification of trans modifiers for repeat expansion in a yeast experimental system. Using this method, we found that missense mutations in the endoribonuclease subunit (Ysh1 of the mRNA cleavage and polyadenylation complex dramatically increase the rate of (GAAn repeat expansions but only when they are actively transcribed. These expansions correlate with slower transcription elongation caused by the ysh1 mutation. These results reveal an interplay between RNA processing and repeat-mediated genome instability, confirming the validity of our approach.

  20. Characterization of Biomphalaria orbignyi, Biomphalaria peregrina and Biomphalaria oligoza by polymerase chain reaction and restriction enzyme digestion of the internal transcribed spacer region of the RNA ribosomal gene

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    Spatz Linus

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The correct identification of Biomphalaria oligoza, B. orbignyi and B. peregrina species is difficult due to the morphological similarities among them. B. peregrina is widely distributed in South America and is considered a potential intermediate host of Schistosoma mansoni. We have reported the use of the polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of the internal transcribed spacer region of the ribosomal DNA for the molecular identification of these snails. The snails were obtained from different localities of Argentina, Brazil and Uruguay. The restriction patterns obtained with MvaI enzyme presented the best profile to identify the three species. The profiles obtained with all enzymes were used to estimate genetic similarities among B. oligoza, B. peregrina and B. orbignyi. This is also the first report of B. orbignyi in Uruguay.

  1. Case Report. Internal transcribed spacer sequence based molecular confirmation and drug efficacy assessment against Toxascaris leonina (Linstow, 1909 infection in Asiatic lions (Panthera leo persica

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    Moudgil A. D.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The eggs recovered during faecal screening of Asiatic lions (kept at MC Zoological Park, Punjab, India were delineated as Toxascaris leonina eggs based on morphometric and molecular studies (polymerase chain reaction targeting internal transcribed spacer sequences. Therapeutic management with fenbendazole @10 mg/kg body weight, once daily orally for three consecutive days proved ineffective with maximum faecal egg count reduction (FECR on day 3 post treatments (69.35 %. But, therapeutic intervention with extended period dose schedule (5 consecutive days with fenbendazole (@10 mg/kg body weight proved effective and showed a maximum FECR of 95.34 % at day 7 post treatments. But, when ivermectin (@100μg/kg body weight was given orally on three alternate days, proved effective as FECR of 95.74 % was recorded at day 7 post treatments. Thus, present study highlights the molecular confi rmation of T. leonina and its management using fenbendazole and ivermectin in Asiatic lions.

  2. Overexpression of long non-coding RNAs following exposure to xenobiotics in the aquatic midge Chironomus riparius

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martínez-Guitarte, José-Luis; Planelló, Rosario; Morcillo, Gloria

    2012-01-01

    Non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) represent an important transcriptional output of eukaryotic genomes. In addition to their functional relevance as housekeeping and regulatory elements, recent studies have suggested their involvement in rather unexpected cellular functions. The aim of this work was to analyse the transcriptional behaviour of non-coding RNAs in the toxic response to pollutants in Chironomus riparius, a reference organism in aquatic toxicology. Three well-characterized long non-coding sequences were studied: telomeric repeats, Cla repetitive elements and the SINE CTRT1. Transcription levels were evaluated by RT-PCR after 24-h exposures to three current aquatic contaminants: bisphenol A (BPA), benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP) and the heavy metal cadmium (Cd). Upregulation of telomeric transcripts was found after BPA treatments. Moreover, BPA significantly activated Cla transcription, which also appeared to be increased by cadmium, whereas BBP did not affect the transcription levels of these sequences. Transcription of SINE CTRT1 was not altered by any of the chemicals tested. These data are discussed in the light of previous studies that have shown a response by long ncRNAS (lncRNAs) to cellular stressors, indicating a relationship with environmental stimuli. Our results demonstrated for the first time the ability of bisphenol A to activate non-coding sequences mainly located at telomeres and centromeres. Overall, this study provides evidence that xenobiotics can induce specific responses in ncRNAs derived from repetitive sequences that could be relevant in the toxic response, and also suggests that ncRNAs could represent a novel class of potential biomarkers in toxicological assessment.

  3. Long non-coding RNA CCAT1 modulates neuropathic pain progression through sponging miR-155

    OpenAIRE

    Dou, Lidong; Lin, Hongqi; Wang, Kaiwei; Zhu, Guosong; Zou, Xuli; Chang, Enqiang; Zhu, Yongfeng

    2017-01-01

    Neuropathic pain is caused by dysfunction or primary injury of the somatosensory nervous system. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) play important roles in the development of neuropathic pain. However, the effects of lncRNA colon cancer associated transcript-1 (CCAT1) in neuropathic pain have not been reported. The model of bilateral sciatic nerve chronic constriction injuries (bCCI) is regarded as long-lasting mechanical hypersensitivity and cold allodynia, which is the representative symptom in ...

  4. Overexpression of long non-coding RNAs following exposure to xenobiotics in the aquatic midge Chironomus riparius

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez-Guitarte, Jose-Luis, E-mail: jlmartinez@ccia.uned.es [Grupo de Biologia y Toxicologia Ambiental, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia, UNED, Senda del Rey 9, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Planello, Rosario; Morcillo, Gloria [Grupo de Biologia y Toxicologia Ambiental, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia, UNED, Senda del Rey 9, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2012-04-15

    Non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) represent an important transcriptional output of eukaryotic genomes. In addition to their functional relevance as housekeeping and regulatory elements, recent studies have suggested their involvement in rather unexpected cellular functions. The aim of this work was to analyse the transcriptional behaviour of non-coding RNAs in the toxic response to pollutants in Chironomus riparius, a reference organism in aquatic toxicology. Three well-characterized long non-coding sequences were studied: telomeric repeats, Cla repetitive elements and the SINE CTRT1. Transcription levels were evaluated by RT-PCR after 24-h exposures to three current aquatic contaminants: bisphenol A (BPA), benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP) and the heavy metal cadmium (Cd). Upregulation of telomeric transcripts was found after BPA treatments. Moreover, BPA significantly activated Cla transcription, which also appeared to be increased by cadmium, whereas BBP did not affect the transcription levels of these sequences. Transcription of SINE CTRT1 was not altered by any of the chemicals tested. These data are discussed in the light of previous studies that have shown a response by long ncRNAS (lncRNAs) to cellular stressors, indicating a relationship with environmental stimuli. Our results demonstrated for the first time the ability of bisphenol A to activate non-coding sequences mainly located at telomeres and centromeres. Overall, this study provides evidence that xenobiotics can induce specific responses in ncRNAs derived from repetitive sequences that could be relevant in the toxic response, and also suggests that ncRNAs could represent a novel class of potential biomarkers in toxicological assessment.

  5. Determination of the differential expression of mitochondrial long non-coding RNAs as a noninvasive diagnosis of bladder cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivas, Alexis; Burzio, Verónica; Landerer, Eduardo; Borgna, Vincenzo; Gatica, Sebastian; Ávila, Rodolfo; López, Constanza; Villota, Claudio; de la Fuente, Rodrigo; Echenique, Javiera; Burzio, Luis O; Villegas, Jaime

    2012-12-18

    Bladder cancer is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality with a high recurrence rate. Early detection of bladder cancer is essential in order to remove the tumor, to preserve the organ and to avoid metastasis. The aim of this study was to analyze the differential expression of mitochondrial non-coding RNAs (sense and antisense) in cells isolated from voided urine of patients with bladder cancer as a noninvasive diagnostic assay. The differential expression of the sense (SncmtRNA) and the antisense (ASncmtRNAs) transcripts in cells isolated from voided urine was determined by fluorescent in situ hybridization. The test uses a multiprobe mixture labeled with different fluorophores and takes about 1 hour to complete. We examined the expression of these transcripts in cells isolated from urine of 24 patients with bladder cancer and from 15 healthy donors. This study indicates that the SncmtRNA and the ASncmtRNAs are stable in cells present in urine. The test reveals that the expression pattern of the mitochondrial transcripts can discriminate between normal and tumor cells. The analysis of 24 urine samples from patients with bladder cancer revealed expression of the SncmtRNA and down-regulation of the ASncmtRNAs. Exfoliated cells recovered from the urine of healthy donors do not express these mitochondrial transcripts. This is the first report showing that the differential expression of these mitochondrial transcripts can detect tumor cells in the urine of patients with low and high grade bladder cancer. This pilot study indicates that fluorescent in situ hybridization of cells from urine of patients with different grades of bladder cancer confirmed the tumor origin of these cells. Samples from the 24 patients with bladder cancer contain cells that express the SncmtRNA and down-regulate the ASncmtRNAs. In contrast, the hybridization of the few exfoliated cells recovered from healthy donors revealed no expression of these mitochondrial transcripts. This assay

  6. Determination of the differential expression of mitochondrial long non-coding RNAs as a noninvasive diagnosis of bladder cancer

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    Rivas Alexis

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bladder cancer is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality with a high recurrence rate. Early detection of bladder cancer is essential in order to remove the tumor, to preserve the organ and to avoid metastasis. The aim of this study was to analyze the differential expression of mitochondrial non-coding RNAs (sense and antisense in cells isolated from voided urine of patients with bladder cancer as a noninvasive diagnostic assay. Methods The differential expression of the sense (SncmtRNA and the antisense (ASncmtRNAs transcripts in cells isolated from voided urine was determined by fluorescent in situ hybridization. The test uses a multiprobe mixture labeled with different fluorophores and takes about 1 hour to complete. We examined the expression of these transcripts in cells isolated from urine of 24 patients with bladder cancer and from 15 healthy donors. Results This study indicates that the SncmtRNA and the ASncmtRNAs are stable in cells present in urine. The test reveals that the expression pattern of the mitochondrial transcripts can discriminate between normal and tumor cells. The analysis of 24 urine samples from patients with bladder cancer revealed expression of the SncmtRNA and down-regulation of the ASncmtRNAs. Exfoliated cells recovered from the urine of healthy donors do not express these mitochondrial transcripts. This is the first report showing that the differential expression of these mitochondrial transcripts can detect tumor cells in the urine of patients with low and high grade bladder cancer. Conclusion This pilot study indicates that fluorescent in situ hybridization of cells from urine of patients with different grades of bladder cancer confirmed the tumor origin of these cells. Samples from the 24 patients with bladder cancer contain cells that express the SncmtRNA and down-regulate the ASncmtRNAs. In contrast, the hybridization of the few exfoliated cells recovered from healthy donors

  7. Decoding the Emerging Patterns Exhibited in Non-coding RNAs Characteristic of Lung Cancer with Regard to their Clinical Significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonea, Laura; Buse, Mihail; Gulei, Diana; Onaciu, Anca; Simon, Ioan; Braicu, Cornelia; Berindan-Neagoe, Ioana

    2018-05-01

    Lung cancer continues to be the leading topic concerning global mortality rate caused by can-cer; it needs to be further investigated to reduce these dramatic unfavorable statistic data. Non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) have been shown to be important cellular regulatory factors and the alteration of their expression levels has become correlated to extensive number of pathologies. Specifically, their expres-sion profiles are correlated with development and progression of lung cancer, generating great interest for further investigation. This review focuses on the complex role of non-coding RNAs, namely miR-NAs, piwi-interacting RNAs, small nucleolar RNAs, long non-coding RNAs and circular RNAs in the process of developing novel biomarkers for diagnostic and prognostic factors that can then be utilized for personalized therapies toward this devastating disease. To support the concept of personalized medi-cine, we will focus on the roles of miRNAs in lung cancer tumorigenesis, their use as diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers and their application for patient therapy.

  8. The novel HSV-1 US5-1 RNA is transcribed off a domain encoding US 5, US 4, US 3, US 2 and α22

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    Roizman Bernard

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The genome of herpes simplex virus 1 encodes at least 84 transcripts from which proteins are translated and several additional RNAs whose status as mRNAs is unknown. These RNAs include latency-associated transcript, OriS1 and OriS2 RNAs and in case of α4 null mutant additional transcript that spans the junction between L and S component of the HSV-1 genome. Current data do not suggest that a peptide is translated from these RNAs. Results We describe here a novel RNA designated US5-1 that spans 4.5 kb of the unique-short (US region. The RNA initiates in US5 and terminates in the α22 open reading frame. It is expressed antisense to US5, US4, US3 and ICP22 mRNAs. This transcript is expressed with γ2 kinetics and has a half-life of 80 minutes. Conclusion These results identify a novel transcript encoded within HSV-1 genome. Since no major hypothetical open-reading frames are present in this transcript it is feasible that this RNA exerts its function as a non-coding RNA.

  9. An Emerging Role for Long Non-Coding RNA Dysregulation in Neurological Disorders

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    Elio Scarpini

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available A novel class of transcripts, long non coding RNAs (lncRNAs, has recently emerged as key players in several biological processes, including dosage compensation, genomic imprinting, chromatin regulation, embryonic development and segmentation, stem cell pluripotency, cell fate determination and potentially many other biological processes, which still are to be elucidated. LncRNAs are pervasively transcribed in the genome and several lines of evidence correlate dysregulation of different lncRNAs to human diseases including neurological disorders. Although their mechanisms of action are yet to be fully elucidated, evidence suggests lncRNA contributions to the pathogenesis of a number of diseases. In this review, the current state of knowledge linking lncRNAs to different neurological disorders is discussed and potential future directions are considered.

  10. An Emerging Role for Long Non-Coding RNA Dysregulation in Neurological Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenoglio, Chiara; Ridolfi, Elisa; Galimberti, Daniela; Scarpini, Elio

    2013-01-01

    A novel class of transcripts, long non coding RNAs (lncRNAs), has recently emerged as key players in several biological processes, including dosage compensation, genomic imprinting, chromatin regulation, embryonic development and segmentation, stem cell pluripotency, cell fate determination and potentially many other biological processes, which still are to be elucidated. LncRNAs are pervasively transcribed in the genome and several lines of evidence correlate dysregulation of different lncRNAs to human diseases including neurological disorders. Although their mechanisms of action are yet to be fully elucidated, evidence suggests lncRNA contributions to the pathogenesis of a number of diseases. In this review, the current state of knowledge linking lncRNAs to different neurological disorders is discussed and potential future directions are considered. PMID:24129177

  11. Targeting long non-coding RNA-TUG1 inhibits tumor growth and angiogenesis in hepatoblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, R; Liu, G-B; Liu, B-H; Chen, G; Li, K; Zheng, S; Dong, K-R

    2016-06-30

    Hepatoblastoma is the most common liver tumor of early childhood, which is usually characterized by unusual hypervascularity. Recently, long non-coding RNAs (lncRNA) have emerged as gene regulators and prognostic markers in several cancers, including hepatoblastoma. We previously reveal that lnRNA-TUG1 is upregulated in hepatoblastoma specimens by microarray analysis. In this study, we aim to elucidate the biological and clinical significance of TUG1 upregulation in hepatoblastoma. We show that TUG1 is significantly upregulated in human hepatoblastoma specimens and metastatic hepatoblastoma cell lines. TUG1 knockdown inhibits tumor growth and angiogenesis in vivo, and decreases hepatoblastoma cell viability, proliferation, migration, and invasion in vitro. TUG1, miR-34a-5p, and VEGFA constitutes to a regulatory network, and participates in regulating hepatoblastoma cell function, tumor progression, and tumor angiogenesis. Overall, our findings indicate that TUG1 upregulation contributes to unusual hypervascularity of hepatoblastoma. TUG1 is a promising therapeutic target for aggressive, recurrent, or metastatic hepatoblastoma.

  12. The prognostic potential and carcinogenesis of long non-coding RNA TUG1 in human cholangiocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yi; Leng, Kaiming; Li, Zhenglong; Zhang, Fumin; Zhong, Xiangyu; Kang, Pengcheng; Jiang, Xingming; Cui, Yunfu

    2017-09-12

    Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is a fatal disease with increasing worldwide incidence and is characterized by poor prognosis due to its poor response to conventional chemotherapy or radiotherapy. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) play key roles in multiple human cancers, including CCA. Cancer progression related lncRNA taurine-up-regulated gene 1 (TUG1) was reported to be involved in human carcinomas. However, the impact of TUG1 in CCA is unclear. The aim of this study was to explore the expression pattern of TUG1 and evaluate its clinical significance as well as prognostic potential in CCA. In addition, the functional roles of TUG1 including cell proliferation, apoptosis, migration, invasion and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), were evaluated after TUG1 silencing. Our data demonstrated up-regulation of TUG1 in both CCA tissues and cell lines. Moreover, overexpression of TUG1 is linked to tumor size ( p =0.005), TNM stage ( p =0.013), postoperative recurrence ( p =0.036) and overall survival ( p =0.010) of CCA patients. Furthermore, down-regulation of TUG1 following RNA silencing reduced cell growth and increased apoptosis in CCA cells. Additionally, TUG1 suppression inhibited metastasis potential in vitro by reversing EMT. Overall, our results suggest that TUG1 may be a rational CCA-related prognostic factor and therapeutic target.

  13. TUG1: a pivotal oncogenic long non-coding RNA of human cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zheng; Shen, Jianxiong; Chan, Matthew T V; Wu, William Ka Kei

    2016-08-01

    Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are a group greater than 200 nucleotides in length. An increasing number of studies has shown that lncRNAs play important roles in diverse cellular processes, including proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, invasion and chromatin remodelling. In this regard, deregulation of lncRNAs has been documented in human cancers. TUG1 is a recently identified oncogenic lncRNA whose aberrant upregulation has been detected in different types of cancer, including B-cell malignancies, oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma, bladder cancer, hepatocellular carcinoma and osteosarcoma. In these malignancies, knock-down of TUG1 has been shown to suppress cell proliferation, invasion and/or colony formation. Interestingly, TUG1 has been found to be downregulated in non-small cell lung carcinoma, indicative of its tissue-specific function in tumourigenesis. Pertinent to clinical practice, TUG1 may act as a prognostic biomarker for tumours. In this review, we summarize current knowledge concerning the role of TUG1 in tumour progression and discuss mechanisms associated with it. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Long noncoding RNA Tug1 regulates mitochondrial bioenergetics in diabetic nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Jianyin; Badal, Shawn S; Ye, Zengchun; Wang, Yin; Ayanga, Bernard A; Galvan, Daniel L; Green, Nathanael H; Chang, Benny H; Overbeek, Paul A; Danesh, Farhad R

    2016-11-01

    The regulatory roles of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) in transcriptional coactivators are still largely unknown. Here, we have shown that the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) coactivator α (PGC-1α, encoded by Ppargc1a) is functionally regulated by the lncRNA taurine-upregulated gene 1 (Tug1). Further, we have described a role for Tug1 in the regulation of mitochondrial function in podocytes. Using a murine model of diabetic nephropathy (DN), we performed an unbiased RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) analysis of kidney glomeruli and identified Tug1 as a differentially expressed lncRNA in the diabetic milieu. Podocyte-specific overexpression (OE) of Tug1 in diabetic mice improved the biochemical and histological features associated with DN. Unexpectedly, we found that Tug1 OE rescued the expression of PGC-1α and its transcriptional targets. Tug1 OE was also associated with improvements in mitochondrial bioenergetics in the podocytes of diabetic mice. Mechanistically, we found that the interaction between Tug1 and PGC-1α promotes the binding of PGC-1α to its own promoter. We identified a Tug1-binding element (TBE) upstream of the Ppargc1a gene and showed that Tug1 binds with the TBE to enhance Ppargc1a promoter activity. These findings indicate that a direct interaction between PGC-1α and Tug1 modulates mitochondrial bioenergetics in podocytes in the diabetic milieu.

  15. The noncoding RNA taurine upregulated gene 1 is required for differentiation of the murine retina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, T L; Matsuda, T; Cepko, C L

    2005-03-29

    With the advent of genome-wide analyses, it is becoming evident that a large number of noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) are expressed in vertebrates. However, of the thousands of ncRNAs identified, the functions of relatively few have been established. In a screen for genes upregulated by taurine in developing retinal cells, we identified a gene that appears to be a ncRNA. Taurine Upregulated Gene 1 (TUG1) is a spliced, polyadenylated RNA that does not encode any open reading frame greater than 82 amino acids in its full-length, 6.7 kilobase (kb) RNA sequence. Analyses of Northern blots and in situ hybridization revealed that TUG1 is expressed in the developing retina and brain, as well as in adult tissues. In the newborn retina, knockdown of TUG1 with RNA interference (RNAi) resulted in malformed or nonexistent outer segments of transfected photoreceptors. Immunofluorescent staining and microarray analyses suggested that this loss of proper photoreceptor differentiation is a result of the disregulation of photoreceptor gene expression. A function for a newly identified ncRNA, TUG1, has been established. TUG1 is necessary for the proper formation of photoreceptors in the developing rodent retina.

  16. Upregulation of long noncoding RNA TUG1 promotes cervical cancer cell proliferation and migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yingying; Sun, Xiangwei; Mao, Chenchen; Guo, Gangqiang; Ye, Sisi; Xu, Jianfeng; Zou, Ruanmin; Chen, Jun; Wang, Ledan; Duan, Ping; Xue, Xiangyang

    2017-02-01

    Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs), a novel class of transcripts that have critical roles in carcinogenesis and progression, have emerged as important gene expression modulators. Recent evidence indicates that lncRNA taurine-upregulated gene 1 (TUG1) functions as an oncogene in numerous types of human cancers. However, its function in the development of cervical cancer remains unknown. The aim of this research was to investigate the clinical significance and biological functions of TUG1 in cervical cancer. TUG1 was found to be significantly upregulated in cervical cancer tissues and four cervical cancer cell lines by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Elevated TUG1 expression was correlated with larger tumor size, advanced international federation of gynecology and obstetrics (FIGO) stage, poor differentiation, and lymph node metastasis. Furthermore, knockdown of TUG1 suppressed cell proliferation with activation of apoptosis, in part by regulating the expression of Bcl-2 and caspase-3. Silencing of TUG1 inhibited cell migration and invasion via the progression of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Taken together, our findings indicate that TUG1 acts as an oncogene in cervical cancer and may represent a novel therapeutic target. © 2016 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Integrative analyses reveal a long noncoding RNA-mediated sponge regulatory network in prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Zhou; Sun, Tong; Hacisuleyman, Ezgi; Fei, Teng; Wang, Xiaodong; Brown, Myles; Rinn, John L; Lee, Mary Gwo-Shu; Chen, Yiwen; Kantoff, Philip W; Liu, X Shirley

    2016-03-15

    Mounting evidence suggests that long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) can function as microRNA sponges and compete for microRNA binding to protein-coding transcripts. However, the prevalence, functional significance and targets of lncRNA-mediated sponge regulation of cancer are mostly unknown. Here we identify a lncRNA-mediated sponge regulatory network that affects the expression of many protein-coding prostate cancer driver genes, by integrating analysis of sequence features and gene expression profiles of both lncRNAs and protein-coding genes in tumours. We confirm the tumour-suppressive function of two lncRNAs (TUG1 and CTB-89H12.4) and their regulation of PTEN expression in prostate cancer. Surprisingly, one of the two lncRNAs, TUG1, was previously known for its function in polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2)-mediated transcriptional regulation, suggesting its sub-cellular localization-dependent function. Our findings not only suggest an important role of lncRNA-mediated sponge regulation in cancer, but also underscore the critical influence of cytoplasmic localization on the efficacy of a sponge lncRNA.

  18. Expression Profile of Long Non-Coding RNAs in Serum of Patients with Multiple Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoro, Massimo; Nociti, Viviana; Lucchini, Matteo; De Fino, Chiara; Losavio, Francesco Antonio; Mirabella, Massimiliano

    2016-05-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic progressive inflammatory disease of the central nervous system (CNS) that leads to severe neurological disability. There is an interest in potential biomarkers that could provide information predicting disease activity and progression. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been reported to be involved in the pathogenesis of various human disorders, such as oncologic, cardiovascular, and neurodegenerative diseases. No studies have so far explored a potential link between lncRNAs and MS pathology. We screened 84 lncRNAs, involved in autoimmunity and human inflammatory response, in the serum of relapsing-remitting MS (RR-MS) patients (n = 12), age-matched controls (n = 12), and in patients with idiopathic inflammatory myopathy (IIM) (n = 12). We used the following criteria for lncRNAs analysis: fold change >2 and p TUG1), and 7SK small nuclear (RN7SK RNA). Literature data showed that NEAT1, TUG1, and RN7SK RNA play an important role in neurodegenerative processes. Our results indicate that these lncRNAs may be involved in MS pathogenesis. Additional experimental data are needed to clarify the molecular mechanisms through which lncRNAs up-regulation may have a role in MS.

  19. Application of Long Noncoding RNAs in Osteosarcoma: Biomarkers and Therapeutic Targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhihong Li

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Osteosarcoma is the most common primary bone malignancy in children and adolescents. Although improvements in therapeutic strategies were achieved, the outcome remains poor for most patients with metastatic or recurrent osteosarcoma. Therefore, it is imperative to identify novel and effective prognostic biomarker and therapeutic targets for the disease. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs are a novel class of RNA molecules defined as transcripts >200 nucleotides that lack protein coding potential. Many lncRNAs are deregulated in cancer and are important regulators for malignancies. Nine lncRNAs (91H, BCAR4, FGFR3-AS1, HIF2PUT, HOTTIP, HULC, MALAT-1, TUG1, UCA1 are upregulated and considered oncogenic for osteosarcoma. Loc285194 and MEG3 are two lncRNAs downregulated and as tumor suppressor for the disease. Moreover, the expressions of LINC00161 and ODRUL are associated with chemo-resistance of osteosarcoma. The mechanisms for these lncRNAs in regulating development of osteosarcoma are diverse, e.g. ceRNA, Wnt/β-catenin pathway, etc. The lncRNAs identified may serve as potential biomarkers or therapeutic targets for osteosarcoma.

  20. Small noncoding RNA GcvB is a novel regulator of acid resistance in Escherichia coli

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    Jin Ye

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The low pH environment of the human stomach is lethal for most microorganisms; but not Escherichia coli, which can tolerate extreme acid stress. Acid resistance in E. coli is hierarchically controlled by numerous regulators among which are small noncoding RNAs (sncRNA. Results In this study, we individually deleted seventy-nine sncRNA genes from the E. coli K12-MG1655 chromosome, and established a single-sncRNA gene knockout library. By systematically screening the sncRNA mutant library, we show that the sncRNA GcvB is a novel regulator of acid resistance in E. coli. We demonstrate that GcvB enhances the ability of E. coli to survive low pH by upregulating the levels of the alternate sigma factor RpoS. Conclusion GcvB positively regulates acid resistance by affecting RpoS expression. These data advance our understanding of the sncRNA regulatory network involved in modulating acid resistance in E. coli.