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Sample records for highly strained si

  1. Carbon redistribution and precipitation in high temperature ion-implanted strained Si/SiGe/Si multi-layered structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaiduk, Peter; Hansen, John Lundsgaard; Nylandsted Larsen, Arne

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract Carbon depth profiles after high temperature implantation in strained Si/SiGe/Si multilayered system and induced structural defects.......Graphical abstract Carbon depth profiles after high temperature implantation in strained Si/SiGe/Si multilayered system and induced structural defects....

  2. Orientation Effects in Ballistic High-Strained P-type Si Nanowire FETs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Yu

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to design and optimize high-sensitivity silicon nanowire-field-effect transistor (SiNW FET pressure sensors, this paper investigates the effects of channel orientations and the uniaxial stress on the ballistic hole transport properties of a strongly quantized SiNW FET placed near the high stress regions of the pressure sensors. A discrete stress-dependent six-band k.p method is used for subband structure calculation, coupled to a two-dimensional Poisson solver for electrostatics. A semi-classical ballistic FET model is then used to evaluate the ballistic current-voltage characteristics of SiNW FETs with and without strain. Our results presented here indicate that [110] is the optimum orientation for the p-type SiNW FETs and sensors. For the ultra-scaled 2.2 nm square SiNW, due to the limit of strong quantum confinement, the effect of the uniaxial stress on the magnitude of ballistic drive current is too small to be considered, except for the [100] orientation. However, for larger 5 nm square SiNW transistors with various transport orientations, the uniaxial tensile stress obviously alters the ballistic performance, while the uniaxial compressive stress slightly changes the ballistic hole current. Furthermore, the competition of injection velocity and carrier density related to the effective hole masses is found to play a critical role in determining the performance of the nanotransistors.

  3. Different strain relaxation mechanisms in strained Si/Si sub 1 sub - sub x Ge sub x /Si heterostructures by high dose B sup + and BF sub 2 sup + doping

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, C C; Zhang, S L; Zhu, D Z; Vantomme, A

    2002-01-01

    Strained Si/Si sub 0 sub . sub 8 Ge sub 0 sub . sub 2 /Si heterostructures are implanted at room temperature with 7.5 keV B sup + and 33 keV BF sub 2 sup + ions to a high dose of 2x10 sup 1 sup 5 ions/cm sup 2 , respectively. The samples are subsequently subjected to three-step anneals (spacer anneal, oxidation anneal and rapid thermal anneal), which are used to simulate a real fabrication process of SiGe-based MOSFET devices. The damage induced by implantation and its recovery are characterized by 2 MeV sup 4 He sup + RBS/channeling spectrometry. A damage layer on the surface is induced by B sup + implantation, but BF sup + sub 2 ion implantation amorphizes the surface of Si/Si sub 0 sub . sub 8 Ge sub 0 sub . sub 2 /Si heterostructure. Channeling angular scans along the axial direction demonstrate that the strain stored in the SiGe layer could be nearly completely retained for the B sup + implanted and subsequently annealed sample. However, the strain in the BF sub 2 sup + implanted/annealed SiGe layer has...

  4. Ge nanobelts with high compressive strain fabricated by secondary oxidation of self-assembly SiGe rings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Weifang; Li, Cheng; Lin, Guangyang

    2015-01-01

    Curled Ge nanobelts were fabricated by secondary oxidation of self-assembly SiGe rings, which were exfoliated from the SiGe stripes on the insulator. The Ge-rich SiGe stripes on insulator were formed by hololithography and modified Ge condensation processes of Si0.82Ge0.18 on SOI substrate. Ge...... nanobelts under a residual compressive strain of 2% were achieved, and the strain should be higher before partly releasing through bulge islands and breakage of the curled Ge nanobelts during the secondary oxidation process. The primary factor leading to compressive strain is thermal shrinkage of Ge...... nanobelts, which extrudes to Ge nanobelts in radial and tangent directions during the cooling process. This technique is promising for application in high-mobility Ge nano-scale transistors...

  5. High strain amount in recessed junctions induced by selectively deposited boron-doped SiGe layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radamson, H.H. [School of Information and Communication Technology, KTH (Royal Institute of Technology) Isafjordsg. 22-26, Electrum 229, 16640 Kista (Sweden)], E-mail: rad@kth.se; Kolahdouz, M.; Ghandi, R.; Ostling, M. [School of Information and Communication Technology, KTH (Royal Institute of Technology) Isafjordsg. 22-26, Electrum 229, 16640 Kista (Sweden)

    2008-12-05

    This work presents the selective epitaxial growth (SEG) of Si{sub 1-x}Ge{sub x} (x = 0.15-0.315) layers with high amount of boron (1 x 10{sup 20}-1 x 10{sup 21} cm{sup -3}) in recessed or unprocessed (elevated) openings for source/drain applications in CMOS has been studied. The influence of the growth rate and strain on boron incorporation has been studied. A focus has been made on the strain distribution and boron incorporation in SEG of SiGe layers.

  6. High strain amount in recessed junctions induced by selectively deposited boron-doped SiGe layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radamson, H.H.; Kolahdouz, M.; Ghandi, R.; Ostling, M.

    2008-01-01

    This work presents the selective epitaxial growth (SEG) of Si 1-x Ge x (x = 0.15-0.315) layers with high amount of boron (1 x 10 20 -1 x 10 21 cm -3 ) in recessed or unprocessed (elevated) openings for source/drain applications in CMOS has been studied. The influence of the growth rate and strain on boron incorporation has been studied. A focus has been made on the strain distribution and boron incorporation in SEG of SiGe layers

  7. Strain relaxation near high-k/Si interface by post-deposition annealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emoto, T.; Akimoto, K.; Yoshida, Y.; Ichimiya, A.; Nabatame, T.; Toriumi, A.

    2005-01-01

    We studied the effect of post-deposition annealing on a HfO 2 /Si interface of by extremely asymmetric X-ray diffraction. Comparing the rocking curves before annealing the sample with those of the annealed sample, it is found that an interfacial layer with a density of 3 g/cm 3 grows at the interface between the HfO 2 layer and the substrate during post-deposition annealing. The wavelength dependency of the integrated intensities of the rocking curve for the as-deposited sample fluctuated with the observation position. This fluctuation was suppressed by annealing. From these results we concluded that the strain introduced into the substrate becomes homogeneous by annealing. Moreover, a quantitative estimation of the strain by curve fitting reveals the existence of compressive strain under the HfO 2 layer

  8. Electrical characteristics of thermal CVD B-doped Si films on highly strained Si epitaxially grown on Ge(100) by plasma CVD without substrate heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugawara, Katsutoshi; Sakuraba, Masao; Murota, Junichi

    2010-01-01

    Using an 84% relaxed Ge(100) buffer layer formed on Si(100) by electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (CVD), influence of strain upon electrical characteristics of B-doped Si film epitaxially grown on the Ge buffer have been investigated. For the thinner B-doped Si film, surface strain amount is larger than that of the thicker film, for example, strain amount reaches 2.0% for the thickness of 2.2 nm. It is found that the hole mobility is enhanced by the introduction of strain to Si, and the maximum enhancement of about 3 is obtained. This value is higher than that of the usually reported mobility enhancement by strain using Si 1 -x Ge x buffer. Therefore, introduction of strain using relaxed Ge film formed by ECR plasma enhanced CVD is useful to improve future Si-based device performance.

  9. Strained Si/SiGe MOS transistor model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatjana Pešić-Brđanin

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we describe a new model of surfacechannel strained-Si/SiGe MOSFET based on the extension of non-quasi-static (NQS circuit model previously derived for bulk-Si devices. Basic equations of the NQS model have been modified to account for the new physical parameters of strained-Si and relaxed-SiGe layers. From the comparisons with measurements, it is shown that a modified NQS MOS including steady-state self heating can accurately predict DC characteristics of Strained Silicon MOSFETs.

  10. Mobility-limiting mechanisms in single and dual channel strained Si/SiGe MOSFETs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsen, S.H.; Dobrosz, P.; Escobedo-Cousin, E.; Bull, S.J.; O'Neill, A.G.

    2005-01-01

    Dual channel strained Si/SiGe CMOS architectures currently receive great attention due to maximum performance benefits being predicted for both n- and p-channel MOSFETs. Epitaxial growth of a compressively strained SiGe layer followed by tensile strained Si can create a high mobility buried hole channel and a high mobility surface electron channel on a single relaxed SiGe virtual substrate. However, dual channel n-MOSFETs fabricated using a high thermal budget exhibit compromised mobility enhancements compared with single channel devices, in which both electron and hole channels form in strained Si. This paper investigates the mobility-limiting mechanisms of dual channel structures. The first evidence of increased interface roughness due to the introduction of compressively strained SiGe below the tensile strained Si channel is presented. Interface corrugations degrade electron mobility in the strained Si. Roughness measurements have been carried out using AFM and TEM. Filtering AFM images allowed roughness at wavelengths pertinent to carrier transport to be studied and the results are in agreement with electrical data. Furthermore, the first comparison of strain measurements in the surface channels of single and dual channel architectures is presented. Raman spectroscopy has been used to study channel strain both before and after processing and indicates that there is no impact of the buried SiGe layer on surface macrostrain. The results provide further evidence that the improved performance of the single channel devices fabricated using a high thermal budget arises from improved surface roughness and reduced Ge diffusion into the Si channel

  11. Assessment of homogeneity of the shear-strain pattern in Al–7 wt%Si casting alloy processed by high-pressure torsion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cepeda-Jiménez, C.M., E-mail: carmen.cepeda@imdea.org [Department of Physical Metallurgy, CENIM, CSIC, Av. Gregorio del Amo 8, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Orozco-Caballero, A.; García-Infanta, J.M. [Department of Physical Metallurgy, CENIM, CSIC, Av. Gregorio del Amo 8, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Zhilyaev, A.P. [Institute for Metals Superplasticity Problems, Russian Academy of Science, 39 Khalturina, 450001 Ufa (Russian Federation); Ruano, O.A.; Carreño, F. [Department of Physical Metallurgy, CENIM, CSIC, Av. Gregorio del Amo 8, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2014-03-01

    An as-cast Al–7 wt%Si alloy was subjected to processing by high-pressure torsion (HPT) at room temperature, through 1/4, 1/2, 1 and 5 turns at a pressure of 6 GPa and two rotation speeds, 0.1 and 1 rpm. Vickers microhardness was measured along diameters of HPT disk surfaces. The final hardness values were higher than in the initial as-cast condition and, unexpectedly, nearly constant under all different processing conditions, and along the disk diameter. The microstructure was characterised by optical and scanning electron microscopy. The as-cast microstructure comprises equiaxed primary α dendrite cells embedded in the Al–Si eutectic constituent. The morphology and distribution of the eutectic constituent in the HPT processed materials is used to delineate the shear strain, which was analysed in the cross-section planes of the disks. A high degree of homogeneity in the imposed shear strain throughout the samples was observed, being congruent with the ideal rigid-body torsion. In addition, the high compressive pressure applied, causing compressive strain prior to the torsional strain, is responsible for the deformation-induced precipitation of small Si particles and for the (sub)grain refinement in the primary Al constituent. The role of torsional strain is that of increasing monothonically the redistribution of the eutectic silicon and the misorientation of the (sub)grains.

  12. Oblique roughness replication in strained SiGe/Si multilayers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holy, V.; Darhuber, A.A.; Stangl, J.; Bauer, G.; Nützel, J.-F.; Abstreiter, G.

    1998-01-01

    The replication of the interface roughness in SiGe/Si multilayers grown on miscut Si(001) substrates has been studied by means of x-ray reflectivity reciprocal space mapping. The interface profiles were found to be highly correlated and the direction of the maximal replication was inclined with

  13. Improved thermal stability and hole mobilities in a strained-Si/strained-Si1-yGe y/strained-Si heterostructure grown on a relaxed Si1-xGe x buffer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Saurabh; Lee, Minjoo L.; Isaacson, David M.; Fitzgerald, Eugene A.

    2005-01-01

    A dual channel heterostructure consisting of strained-Si/strained-Si 1-y Ge y on relaxed Si 1-x Ge x (y > x), provides a platform for fabricating metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) with high hole mobilities (μ eff ) which depend directly on Ge concentration and strain in the strained-Si 1-y Ge y layer. Ge out-diffuses from the strained-Si 1-y Ge y layer into relaxed Si 1-x Ge x during high temperature processing, reducing peak Ge concentration and strain in the strained-Si 1-y Ge y layer and degrades hole μ eff in these dual channel heterostructures. A heterostructure consisting of strained-Si/strained-Si 1-y Ge y /strained-Si, referred to as a trilayer heterostructure, grown on relaxed Si 1-x Ge x has much reduced Ge out-flux from the strained-Si 1-y Ge y layer and retains higher μ eff after thermal processing. Improved hole μ eff over similar dual channel heterostructures is also observed in this heterostructure. This could be a result of preventing the hole wavefunction tunneling into the low μ eff relaxed Si 1-x Ge x layer due to the additional valence band offset provided by the underlying strained-Si layer. A diffusion coefficient has been formulated and implemented in a finite difference scheme for predicting the thermal budget of the strained SiGe heterostructures. It shows that the trilayer heterostructures have superior thermal budgets at higher Ge concentrations. Ring-shaped MOSFETs were fabricated on both platforms and subjected to various processing temperatures in order to compare the extent of μ eff reduction with thermal budget. Hole μ eff enhancements are retained to a much higher extent in a trilayer heterostructure after high temperature processing as compared to a dual channel heterostructure. The improved thermal stability and hole μ eff of a trilayer heterostructure makes it an ideal platform for fabricating high μ eff MOSFETs that can be processed over higher temperatures without significant losses in hole

  14. Strain and strain-release engineering at epitaxial SiGe islands on Si(0 0 1) for microelectronic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vastola, G.; Marzegalli, A.; Montalenti, F.; Miglio, Leo

    2009-01-01

    We report original finite element method simulations of the strain components at nanometric GeSi island on Si(0 0 1), for realistic shape, sizes and average composition, discussing the main mechanisms acting in the misfit strain relaxation. The tensile strain induced in a 30 nm Si capping layer and the one upon removing the island, after fixing the top part of the Si layer, is discussed in view of application as a field effect transistor channel, with high career mobility induced by the lattice deformation. The large shear components obtained for steeper island morphologies are predicted to be particularly performing, especially in comparison to one another strained-silicon configuration (totally top-down originated), recently developed by IBM corporation.

  15. Strained Si engineering for nanoscale MOSFETs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jea-Gun; Lee, Gon-Sub; Kim, Tae-Hyun; Hong, Seuck-Hoon; Kim, Seong-Je; Song, Jin-Hwan; Shim, Tae-Hun

    2006-01-01

    We have revealed a strain relaxation mechanism for strained Si grown on a relaxed SiGe-on-insulator structure fabricated by the bonding, dislocation sink, or condensation method. Strain relaxation for both the bonding and dislocation sink methods was achieved by grading the Ge concentration; in contrast, the relaxation for the condensation method was achieved through Ge atom condensation during oxidation. In addition, we estimated the surface roughness and threading-dislocation pit density for relaxed SiGe layer fabricated by the bonding, dislocation sink, or condensation method. The surface roughness and threading-dislocation pit density for the bonding, dislocation sink, and condensation methods were 2.45, 0.46, and 0.40 nm and 5.0 x 10 3 , 9 x 10 3 , and 0, respectively. In terms of quality and cost-effectiveness, the condensation method was superior to the bonding and dislocation sink methods for forming strained Si on a relaxed SiGe-on-insulator structure

  16. Structural and electrical evaluation for strained Si/SiGe on insulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Dong; Ii, Seiichiro; Ikeda, Ken-ichi; Nakashima, Hideharu; Ninomiya, Masaharu; Nakamae, Masahiko; Nakashima, Hiroshi

    2006-01-01

    Three strained Si/SiGe on insulator wafers having different Ge fractions were evaluated using dual-metal-oxide-semiconductor (dual-MOS) deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) methods. The interface of SiGe/buried oxide (BOX) shows roughness less than 1 nm by high resolution TEM observation. The interface states densities (D it ) of SiGe/BOX are approximately 1 x 10 12 cm -2 eV -1 , which is approximately one order of magnitude higher than that of Si/BOX in a Si on insulator wafer measured as reference by the same method of dual-MOS DLTS. The high D it of SiGe/BOX is not due to interface roughness but due to Ge atoms. The threading dislocations were also clearly observed by TEM and were analyzed

  17. Ultrathin highly uniform Ni(Al) germanosilicide layer with modulated B8 type Ni5(SiGe)3 phase formed on strained Si1−xGex layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Linjie; Xu, Dawei; Jin, Lei; Knoll, Lars; Wirths, Stephan; Nichau, Alexander; Buca, Dan; Mussler, Gregor; Holländer, Bernhard; Zhao, Qing-Tai; Mantl, Siegfried; Feng Di, Zeng; Zhang, Miao

    2013-01-01

    We present a method to form ultrathin highly uniform Ni(Al) germanosilicide layers on compressively strained Si 1−x Ge x substrates and their structural characteristics. The uniform Ni(Al) germanosilicide film is formed with Ni/Al alloy at an optimized temperature of 400 °C with an optimized Al atomic content of 20 at. %. We find only two kinds of grains in the layer. Both grains show orthogonal relationship with modified B8 type phase. The growth plane is identified to be (10-10)-type plane. After germanosilicidation the strain in the rest Si 1−x Ge x layer is conserved, which provides a great advantage for device application

  18. Physical studies of strained Si/SiGe heterostructures. From virtual substrates to nanodevices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minamisawa, Renato Amaral

    2011-10-21

    achieving high quality, strained doped layers. The knowledge acquired was further applied in the fabrication of p-MOSFETs using strained Si/strained Si{sub 0.5}Ge{sub 0.5}/SSOI substrates and HfO{sub 2}/TiN gate stacks. Moreover, rare earth GdScO{sub 3} was integrated for the first time into MOSFETs with high mobility strained SiGe channels using a gate-first process. Transistors with channel length ranging from 65 nm to 1.5 {mu}m were fabricated and characterized. The hole mobility and effective velocity were extracted from devices with <110> and <100> channel orientations. The mobility for the <100> direction is 18% higher than for <110> direction. However, this enhancement translates in only 8% increase in effective velocity.

  19. High-Cycle Fatigue Resistance of Si-Mo Ductile Cast Iron as Affected by Temperature and Strain Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matteis, Paolo; Scavino, Giorgio; Castello, Alessandro; Firrao, Donato

    2015-09-01

    Silicon-molybdenum ductile cast irons are used to fabricate exhaust manifolds of internal combustion engines of large series cars, where the maximum pointwise temperature at full engine load may be higher than 973 K (700 °C). In this application, high-temperature oxidation and thermo-mechanical fatigue (the latter being caused by the engine start and stop and by the variation of its power output) have been the subject of several studies and are well known, whereas little attention has been devoted to the high-cycle fatigue, arising from the engine vibration. Therefore, the mechanical behavior of Si-Mo cast iron is studied here by means of stress-life fatigue tests up to 10 million cycles, at temperatures gradually increasing up to 973 K (700 °C). The mechanical characterization is completed by tensile and compressive tests and ensuing fractographic examinations; the mechanical test results are correlated with the cast iron microstructure and heat treatment.

  20. Study of strained-Si p-channel MOSFETs with HfO2 gate dielectric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, Diana; Das, Sanghamitra; Dash, Tara Prasanna

    2016-10-01

    In this work, the transconductance of strained-Si p-MOSFETs with high-K dielectric (HfO2) as gate oxide, has been presented through simulation using the TCAD tool Silvaco-ATLAS. The results have been compared with a SiO2/strained-Si p-MOSFET device. Peak transconductance enhancement factors of 2.97 and 2.73 has been obtained for strained-Si p-MOSFETs in comparison to bulk Si channel p-MOSFETs with SiO2 and high-K dielectric respectively. This behavior is in good agreement with the reported experimental results. The transconductance of the strained-Si device at low temperatures has also been simulated. As expected, the mobility and hence the transconductance increases at lower temperatures due to reduced phonon scattering. However, the enhancements with high-K gate dielectric is less as compared to that with SiO2.

  1. Highly effective strain-induced band-engineering of (111) oriented, direct-gap GeSn crystallized on amorphous SiO{sub 2} layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Haofeng; Wang, Xiaoxin; Liu, Jifeng, E-mail: Jifeng.Liu@dartmouth.edu [Thayer School of Engineering, Dartmouth College, 14 Engineering Drive, Hanover, New Hampshire 03755 (United States)

    2016-03-07

    We demonstrate highly effective strain-induced band-engineering of (111) oriented direct-gap Ge{sub 1−x}Sn{sub x} thin films (0.074 < x < 0.085) crystallized on amorphous SiO{sub 2} towards 3D photonic integration. Due to a much smaller Poisson's ratio for (111) vs. (100) orientation, 0.44% thermally induced biaxial tensile strain reduces the direct-gap by 0.125 eV towards enhanced direct-gap semiconductor properties, twice as effective as the tensile strain in Ge(100) films. Correspondingly, the optical response is extended to λ = 2.8 μm. A dilatational deformation potential of a = −12.8 ± 0.8 eV is derived. These GeSn films also demonstrate high thermal stability, offering both excellent direct-gap optoelectronic properties and fabrication/operation robustness for integrated photonics.

  2. Selective epitaxial growth properties and strain characterization of Si1- x Ge x in SiO2 trench arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Sangmo; Jang, Hyunchul; Ko, Dae-Hong

    2017-04-01

    In this study, we investigated the formation of a Si1- x Ge x fin structure in SiO2 trench arrays via an ultra-high-vacuum chemical-vapor deposition (UHV-CVD) selective epitaxial growth (SEG) process. Defect generation and microstructures of Si1- x Ge x fin structures with different Ge concentrations ( x = 0.2, 0.3 and 0.45) were examined. In addition, the strain evolution of a Si1- x Ge x fin structure was analyzed by using reciprocal space mapping (RSM). An (111) facet was formed from the Si1- x Ge x epi-layer and SiO2 trench wall interface to minimize the interface and the surface energy. The Si1- x Ge x fin structures were fully relaxed along the direction perpendicular to the trenches regardless of the Ge concentration. On the other hand, the fin structures were fully or partially strained along the direction parallel to the trenches depending on the Ge concentration: fully strained Si0.8Ge0.2 and Si0.7Ge0.3, and a Si0.55Ge0.45 strain-relaxed buffer. We further confirmed that the strain on the Si1- x Ge x fin structures remained stable after oxide removal and H2/N2 post-annealing.

  3. A TEM study of strained SiGe/Si and related heteroepitaxial structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benedetti, Alessandro

    2002-01-01

    The role of SiGe/Si heterostructures and related materials has become increasingly important within the last few decades. In order to increase the scale of integration, however, devices with active elements not larger than few tens of nanometer have been recently introduced. There is, therefore, a strong need for an analytical technique capable of giving information about submicron-sized components. An investigation on a nanometre scale can be performed by the combination of a fully equipped Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) with a Field Emission Gun (PEG) electron source, which enables one to use a wide range of analytical techniques with an electron probe as small as 0.5 nm. In this work, two different types of SiGe/Si-based devices were investigated. Strained-Si n-channel MOSFETs. The use of Strained-Si n-channel grown on SiGe should improve both carrier mobility and transconductance with respect to conventional MOSFETs. Materials analysed in this work showed an extremely high transconductance but a rather low mobility. In order to relate their microstructural properties to their electrical performance, as well as to improve the device design, a full quantitative and qualitative structural characterisation was performed. SiGe Multiple Quantum Wells (MQW) IR detectors Light detection is achieved by collecting the photogenerated carriers, injected from the SiGe QWs layers into the Si substrate. A key factor is the Ge profile across a single QW, since it governs the band structure and therefore the device performances. Four different TEM techniques were used to determine the Ge distribution across a single well, showing an overall good agreement among the results. The Ge profiles broadening, consistent with data available in literature, was successfully explained and theoretically predicted by the combined effect of Ge segregation and gas dwell times within the reactor. (author)

  4. Strain and defect microstructure in ion-irradiated GeSi/Si strained layers as a function of annealing temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glasko, J.M.; Elliman, R.G.; Zou, J.; Cockayne, D.J.H.; Fitz Gerald, J.D.

    1998-01-01

    High energy (1 MeV), ion irradiation of GeSi/Si strained layers at elevated temperatures can cause strain relaxation. In this study, the effect of subsequent thermal annealing was investigated. Three distinct annealing stages were identified and correlated with the evolution of the defect microstructure. In the temperature range from 350 to 600 deg C, a gradual recovery of strain is observed. This is believed to result from the annealing of small defect clusters and the growth of voids. The voids are visible at annealing temperatures in excess of 600 deg C, consistent with an excess vacancy concentration in the irradiated alloy layer. The 600 to 750 deg C range is marked by pronounced maximal recovery of strain, and is correlated with the dissolution of faulted loops in the substrate. At temperatures in the range 750-1000 deg C, strain relaxation is observed and is correlated with the growth of intrinsic dislocations within the alloy layer. These dislocations nucleate at the alloy-substrate interface and grow within the alloy layer, towards the surface. (authors)

  5. Studying the impact of carbon on device performance for strained-Si MOSFETs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, M.H.; Chang, S.T.; Peng, C.-Y.; Hsieh, B.-F.; Maikap, S.; Liao, S.-H.

    2008-01-01

    The strained-Si:C long channel MOSFET on a relaxed SiGe buffer is demonstrated in this study. The extracted electron mobility showed an enhancement of ∼40% with the incorporation of 0.25% carbon in strained-Si long channel NMOSFETs. However, no improvement was seen in the output characteristics of the strained-Si:C PMOSFET. The performance enhancement seen is less than the theoretical prediction for increasing carbon content; this is due to the high alloy scattering potential with carbon incorporation, high interface state density (D it ) at the oxide/strained-Si:C interface and interstitial carbon induced Coulomb scattering. However, increased amounts of C may result in degraded device performance. Therefore, a balance must be struck to minimize C-induced extra Coulomb and alloy scattering rates in the fabrication of these devices

  6. UV-Photoreflectance and Raman Characterization of Strain Relaxation in Si on Silicon-Germanium Films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Current, Michael; Chism, Will; Yoo, Woo Sik; Vartanian, Victor

    2011-01-01

    Photoreflectance (PR), using a uv (374 nm) diode laser probe beam, and Raman spectroscopy, using a multi-wavelength Ar + laser coupled to a high-resolution multi-wavelength spectrometer, were used to characterize the strain relaxation of Si top layers grown on a graded and relaxed SiGe buffer stack with a final Ge concentration of 20%. The Si top layer thicknesses ranged from 1.6 to 18 nm. Considerable radial variation in the strain relaxation was seen in all sampled wafers, highlighting the need for rapid, local strain characterization. Strong correlation between shift in the Si layer dielectric response, measured by uv-PR, and the Si top layer strain, measured by Raman, is reported.

  7. Narrow photoluminescence peak from Ge(Si) islands embedded between tensile-strained Si layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaleev, Mikhail; Novikov, Alexey; Baydakova, Nataliya; Yablonskiy, Artem; Drozdov, Yuriy; Lobanov, Dmitriy; Krasilnik, Zakhary [Institute for Physics of Microstructures, Russian Academy of Sciences, GSP-105, 603950 Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation); Kuznetsov, Oleg [Physical-Technical Research Institute, Nizhny Novgorod State University, pr. Gagarina 23, 603950 Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation)

    2011-03-15

    The influence of thickness of the strained Si layers, measurement temperature and optical pumping power on width of the photoluminescence line from Ge(Si) self-assembled nanoislands grown on relaxed SiGe/Si(001) buffer layers and embedded between tensile-stained Si layers was studied. This line appears due to the II-type optical transition between the holes localized in islands and the electrons confined in tensile-strained Si layers under and above the islands. The possibility of tuning the photoluminescence line width by changing the strained Si layer thicknesses under and above the islands is showed. The decrease of the photoluminescence line width from Ge(Si) islands down to values comparable with width of the PL line from InAs/GaAs quantum dots was achieved due to the quantum confinement of electrons in thin strained Si layers and taking into account of the higher diffusion-induced smearing of strained Si layer above the islands. (copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  8. Ion-beam synthesis of Ge{sub x}Si{sub 1-x} strained layers for high speed electronic device applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliman, R.G.; Jiang, H.; Wong, W.C.; Kringhoj, P. [Australian National Univ., Canberra, ACT (Australia)

    1996-12-31

    It is shown that Ge{sub x}S{sub 1-x} strained layers can be fabricated by Ge implantation and solid-phase epitaxy and that the use of these layers can improve the performance of electronic devices. Several materials science issues are addressed, including the effect of Ge on solid-phase-epitaxy, the effect of oxidation on the implanted Ge distribution, and the effect of Ge on the oxidation rate of Si. The process is demonstrated for metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect-transistors (MOSFETs). 6 refs., 5 figs.

  9. Ion-beam synthesis of Ge{sub x}Si{sub 1-x} strained layers for high speed electronic device applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliman, R G; Jiang, H; Wong, W C; Kringhoj, P [Australian National Univ., Canberra, ACT (Australia)

    1997-12-31

    It is shown that Ge{sub x}S{sub 1-x} strained layers can be fabricated by Ge implantation and solid-phase epitaxy and that the use of these layers can improve the performance of electronic devices. Several materials science issues are addressed, including the effect of Ge on solid-phase-epitaxy, the effect of oxidation on the implanted Ge distribution, and the effect of Ge on the oxidation rate of Si. The process is demonstrated for metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect-transistors (MOSFETs). 6 refs., 5 figs.

  10. Internal photoemission study on charge trapping behavior in rapid thermal oxides on strained-Si/SiGe heterolayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bera, M.K.; Mahata, C.; Bhattacharya, S.; Chakraborty, A.K.; Armstrong, B.M.; Gamble, H.S.; Maiti, C.K.

    2008-01-01

    A comparative study on the nature of defects and their relationship to charge trapping with enhanced photosensitivity has been investigated through magnetic resonance and internal photoemission (IPE) experiments for rapid thermal grown oxides (RTO) on strained-Si/Si 0.8 Ge 0.2 and on co-processed bulk-Si (1 0 0) substrates. Both the band and defect-related electronic states were characterized through EPR, IPE, C-V and I-V measurements under UV-illumination. Surface chemical characterization of as-grown ultrathin oxides (5-7 nm) has been performed using high-resolution XPS. Enhancement in Ge-segregation with increasing oxidation temperature is reported. Comparative studies on interface properties and leakage current behavior of rapid thermal oxides have also been studied through fabricating metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor structures. A degraded electrical property with increasing oxidation temperature is reported. Constant voltage stressing (CVS) in the range of 5.5-7 V was used to study the breakdown characteristics of different samples. We observe a distinguishably different time-to-breakdown (t bd ) phenomenon for bulk-Si and strained-Si/SiGe samples. Whereas the oxide on bulk-Si shows a typical breakdown behavior, the RTO grown oxide on strained-Si/SiGe samples showed a quasi-or soft-breakdown with lower t bd value. It may be pointed out that quasi-breakdown may be a stronger reliability limiting factor for strained-Si/SiGe devices in the oxide thickness range studied

  11. Microstructure and strain distribution in freestanding Si membrane strained by Si{sub x}N{sub y} deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao Hongye, E-mail: qgaohongye@msn.com [Faculty of Engineering Sciences, Kyushu University, 6-1 Kasuga-koen, Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan); Ikeda, Ken-ichi; Hata, Satoshi; Nakashima, Hideharu [Faculty of Engineering Sciences, Kyushu University, 6-1 Kasuga-koen, Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan); Wang Dong; Nakashima, Hiroshi [Art, Science and Technology Center for Cooperative Research, Kyushu University, 6-1 Kasuga-koen, Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan)

    2010-09-25

    Research highlights: {yields} Strain is introduced by deposition of amorphous Si{sub x}N{sub y} to improve the carrier mobility for a relatively large-size freestanding semiconductor film, which can be used for the fabrication of relatively large devices such like a bipolar junction transistor. However, standard Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction cannot provide sufficient lateral resolution to the strain in a relatively long (x {mu}m in length) and thin (x nm in thickness) freestanding semiconductor film. {yields} In present research, strain in a bridge-shaped freestanding Si membrane (FSSM) was measured by convergent-beam electron diffraction (CBED) and finite element method (FEM). Compressive strain distribution was shown in three dimensions (3D) in FSSM, where no threading dislocation or stacking fault was found. Relaxation of the strain in FSSM in 3D was discussed based on a comparison of the strain magnitudes in FSSM as measured by CBED and FEM. - Abstract: Strain in a bridge-shaped freestanding Si membrane (FSSM) induced by depositing an amorphous Si{sub x}N{sub y} layer was measured by convergent-beam electron diffraction (CBED). CBED results show that the strain magnitude depends negatively on the FSSM thickness. FEM is a supplement of the result of CBED due to the relaxation of TEM samples during fabricating. The FEM analysis results ascertain the strain property in three dimensions, and show that the strain magnitude depends negatively on the length of FSSM, and the magnitude of the compressive strain in FSSM increases as the position is closer to the upper Si/Si{sub x}N{sub y} interface.

  12. Reliability study of ultra-thin gate oxides on strained-Si/SiGe MOS structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varzgar, John B.; Kanoun, Mehdi; Uppal, Suresh; Chattopadhyay, Sanatan; Tsang, Yuk Lun; Escobedo-Cousins, Enrique; Olsen, Sarah H.; O'Neill, Anthony; Hellstroem, Per-Erik; Edholm, Jonas; Ostling, Mikael; Lyutovich, Klara; Oehme, Michael; Kasper, Erich

    2006-01-01

    The reliability of gate oxides on bulk Si and strained Si (s-Si) has been evaluated using constant voltage stressing (CVS) to investigate their breakdown characteristics. The s-Si architectures exhibit a shorter life time compared to that of bulk Si, which is attributed to higher bulk oxide charges (Q ox ) and increased surface roughness in the s-Si structures. The gate oxide in the s-Si structure exhibits a hard breakdown (HBD) at 1.9 x 10 4 s, whereas HBD is not observed in bulk Si up to a measurement period of 1.44 x 10 5 s. The shorter lifetime of the s-Si gate oxide is attributed to a larger injected charge (Q inj ) compared to Q inj in bulk Si. Current-voltage (I-V) measurements for bulk Si samples at different stress intervals show an increase in stress induced leakage current (SILC) of two orders in the low voltage regime from zero stress time to up to 5 x 10 4 s. In contrast, superior performance enhancements in terms of drain current, maximum transconductance and effective channel mobility are observed in s-Si MOSFET devices compared to bulk Si. The results from this study indicate that further improvement in gate oxide reliability is needed to exploit the sustained performance enhancement of s-Si devices over bulk Si

  13. Strain distribution analysis in Si/SiGe line structures for CMOS technology using Raman spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hecker, M; Roelke, M; Hermann, P; Zschech, E; Vartanian, V

    2010-01-01

    Strained silicon underneath the field-effect transistor gate increases significantly the charge carrier mobility and thus improves the performance of leading-edge Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) devices. For better understanding of the structure-strain relationship on the nanoscale and for optimization of device structures, the measurement of the local strain state has become essential. Raman spectroscopy is used in the present investigation to analyze the strain distribution in and close to silicon/embedded silicon-germanium (SiGe) line structures in conjunction with strain modeling applying finite element analysis. Both experimental results and modeling indicate the impact of geometry on the stress state. An increase of compressive stress within the Si lines is obtained for increasing SiGe line widths and decreasing Si line widths. The stress state within the Si lines is shown to be a mixed one deviating from a pure uniaxial state. Underneath the SiGe cavities, the presence of a tensile stress was observed. To investigate a procedure to scale down the spatial resolution of the Raman measurements, tip-enhanced Raman scattering experiments have been performed on free-standing SiGe lines with 100nm line width and line distance. The results show superior resolution and strain information not attainable in conventional Raman scans.

  14. Effects of C and Si on strain aging of strain-based API X60 pipeline steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Hyo Kyung; Lee, Dong Ho; Lee, Sunghak; Lee, Byeong-Joo; Hong, Seung-Pyo; Kim, Young-Woon; Yoo, Jang Yong; Hwang, Byoungchul; Shin, Sang Yong

    2017-05-01

    Four types of strain-based API X60 pipeline steels were fabricated by varying the C and Si contents, and the effects of C and Si on strain aging were investigated. The 0.05 wt% C steels consisted mainly of polygonal ferrite (PF), whereas the 0.08 wt% C steels consisted of acicular ferrite (AF). The volume fraction of AF increased with increasing C content because C is an austenite stabilizer element. The volume fractions of bainitic ferrite (BF) of the 0.15 wt% Si steels were higher than those of the 0.25 wt% Si steels, whereas the volume fractions of the secondary phases were lower. From the tensile properties before and after the aging process of the strainbased API X60 pipeline steels, the yield strength increased and the uniform and total elongation decreased, which is the strain aging effect. The strain aging effect in the strain-based API X60 pipeline steels was minimized when the volume fraction of AF was increased and secondary phases were distributed uniformly. On the other hand, an excessively high C content formed fine precipitates, and the strain aging effect occurred because of the interactions among dislocations and fine precipitates.

  15. Amorphization threshold in Si-implanted strained SiGe alloy layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, T.W.; Love, D.; Endisch, E.; Goldberg, R.D.; Mitchell, I.V.; Haynes, T.E.; Baribeau, J.M.

    1994-12-01

    The authors have examined the damage produced by Si-ion implantation into strained Si 1-x Ge x epilayers. Damage accumulation in the implanted layers was monitored in situ by time-resolved reflectivity and measured by ion channeling techniques to determine the amorphization threshold in strained Si 1-x Ge x (x = 0.16 and 0.29) over the temperature range 30--110 C. The results are compared with previously reported measurements on unstrained Si 1-x Ge x , and with the simple model used to describe those results. They report here data which lend support to this model and which indicate that pre-existing strain does not enhance damage accumulation in the alloy layer

  16. Pseudomorphic GeSiSn, SiSn and Ge layers in strained heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timofeev, V. A.; Nikiforov, A. I.; Tuktamyshev, A. R.; Mashanov, V. I.; Loshkarev, I. D.; Bloshkin, A. A.; Gutakovskii, A. K.

    2018-04-01

    The GeSiSn, SiSn layer growth mechanisms on Si(100) were investigated and the kinetic diagrams of the morphological GeSiSn, SiSn film states in the temperature range of 150 °C-450 °C at the tin content from 0% to 35% were built. The phase diagram of the superstructural change on the surface of Sn grown on Si(100) in the annealing temperature range of 0 °C-850 °C was established. The specular beam oscillations were first obtained during the SiSn film growth from 150 °C to 300 °C at the Sn content up to 35%. The transmission electron microscopy and x-ray diffractometry data confirm the crystal perfection and the pseudomorphic GeSiSn, SiSn film state, and also the presence of smooth heterointerfaces between GeSiSn or SiSn and Si. The photoluminescence for the multilayer periodic GeSiSn/Si structures in the range of 0.6-0.8 eV was detected. The blue shift with the excitation power increase is observed suggesting the presence of a type II heterostructure. The creation of tensile strained Ge films, which are pseudomorphic to the underlying GeSn layer, is confirmed by the results of the formation and analysis of the reciprocal space map in the x-ray diffractometry. The tensile strain in the Ge films reached the value in the range of 0.86%-1.5%. The GeSn buffer layer growth in the Sn content range from 8% to 12% was studied. The band structure of heterosystems based on pseudomorphic GeSiSn, SiSn and Ge layers was calculated and the valence and conduction band subband position dependences on the Sn content were built. Based on the calculation, the Sn content range in the GeSiSn, SiSn, and GeSn layers, which corresponds to the direct bandgap GeSiSn, SiSn, and Ge material, was obtained.

  17. Strain distribution in freestanding Si/Si{sub x}N{sub y} membranes studied by transmission electron microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Hongye, E-mail: hongye18@mm.kyushu-u.ac.j [Faculty of Engineering Sciences, Kyushu University, 6-1 Kasuga-koen, Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan); Ikeda, Ken-ichi; Hata, Satoshi; Nakashima, Hideharu [Faculty of Engineering Sciences, Kyushu University, 6-1 Kasuga-koen, Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan); Wang, Dong; Nakashima, Hiroshi [Art, Science and Technology Center for Cooperative Research, Kyushu University, 6-1 Kasuga-koen, Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan)

    2010-09-30

    Strain was induced in a bridge-shaped freestanding Si membrane (FSSM) by depositing an amorphous Si{sub x}N{sub y} layer to surround the Si membrane. Convergent beam electron diffraction revealed that compressive strain is distributed uniformly along the horizontal direction in Si{sub x}N{sub y}-deposited FSSM. On the other hand, strain decreases to almost zero at the ends of the FSSM, where the Si{sub x}N{sub y} layer beneath the Si layer is replaced by a SiO{sub 2} buried oxide layer.

  18. Optical investigation of strain in Si-doped GaN films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez-Paramo, J.; Calleja, J. M.; Sanchez-Garcia, M. A.; Calleja, E.

    2001-06-25

    The effects of Si doping on the growth mode and residual strain of GaN layers grown on Si(111) substrates by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy are studied by Raman scattering and photoluminescence. As the Si concentration increases a progressive decrease of the high-energy E{sub 2} mode frequency is observed, together with a redshift of the excitonic emission. Both effects indicate an enhancement of the biaxial tensile strain of thermal origin for increasing doping level, which is confirmed by x-ray diffraction measurements. Beyond Si concentrations of 5{times}10{sup 18}cm{sup {minus}3} both the phonon frequency and the exciton emission energy increase again. This change indicates a partial strain relaxation due to a change in the growth mode. {copyright} 2001 American Institute of Physics.

  19. Optical investigation of strain in Si-doped GaN films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez-Paramo, J.; Calleja, J. M.; Sanchez-Garcia, M. A.; Calleja, E.

    2001-01-01

    The effects of Si doping on the growth mode and residual strain of GaN layers grown on Si(111) substrates by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy are studied by Raman scattering and photoluminescence. As the Si concentration increases a progressive decrease of the high-energy E 2 mode frequency is observed, together with a redshift of the excitonic emission. Both effects indicate an enhancement of the biaxial tensile strain of thermal origin for increasing doping level, which is confirmed by x-ray diffraction measurements. Beyond Si concentrations of 5x10 18 cm -3 both the phonon frequency and the exciton emission energy increase again. This change indicates a partial strain relaxation due to a change in the growth mode. [copyright] 2001 American Institute of Physics

  20. Thermoelectric energy conversion in layered structures with strained Ge quantum dots grown on Si surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korotchenkov, Oleg; Nadtochiy, Andriy; Kuryliuk, Vasyl; Wang, Chin-Chi; Li, Pei-Wen; Cantarero, Andres

    2014-03-01

    The efficiency of the energy conversion devices depends in many ways on the materials used and various emerging cost-effective nanomaterials have promised huge potentials in highly efficient energy conversion. Here we show that thermoelectric voltage can be enhanced by a factor of 3 using layer-cake growth of Ge quantum dots through thermal oxidation of SiGe layers stacked in SiO2/Si3N4 multilayer structure. The key to achieving this behavior has been to strain the Ge/Si interface by Ge dots migrating to Si substrate. Calculations taking into account the carrier trapping in the dot with a quantum transmission into the neighboring dot show satisfactory agreement with experiments above ≈200 K. The results may be of interest for improving the functionality of thermoelectric devices based on Ge/Si.

  1. Strain field mapping of dislocations in a Ge/Si heterostructure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quanlong Liu

    Full Text Available Ge/Si heterostructure with fully strain-relaxed Ge film was grown on a Si (001 substrate by using a two-step process by ultra-high vacuum chemical vapor deposition. The dislocations in the Ge/Si heterostructure were experimentally investigated by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM. The dislocations at the Ge/Si interface were identified to be 90° full-edge dislocations, which are the most efficient way for obtaining a fully relaxed Ge film. The only defect found in the Ge epitaxial film was a 60° dislocation. The nanoscale strain field of the dislocations was mapped by geometric phase analysis technique from the HRTEM image. The strain field around the edge component of the 60° dislocation core was compared with those of the Peierls-Nabarro and Foreman dislocation models. Comparison results show that the Foreman model with a = 1.5 can describe appropriately the strain field around the edge component of a 60° dislocation core in a relaxed Ge film on a Si substrate.

  2. Strain field mapping of dislocations in a Ge/Si heterostructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Quanlong; Zhao, Chunwang; Su, Shaojian; Li, Jijun; Xing, Yongming; Cheng, Buwen

    2013-01-01

    Ge/Si heterostructure with fully strain-relaxed Ge film was grown on a Si (001) substrate by using a two-step process by ultra-high vacuum chemical vapor deposition. The dislocations in the Ge/Si heterostructure were experimentally investigated by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). The dislocations at the Ge/Si interface were identified to be 90° full-edge dislocations, which are the most efficient way for obtaining a fully relaxed Ge film. The only defect found in the Ge epitaxial film was a 60° dislocation. The nanoscale strain field of the dislocations was mapped by geometric phase analysis technique from the HRTEM image. The strain field around the edge component of the 60° dislocation core was compared with those of the Peierls-Nabarro and Foreman dislocation models. Comparison results show that the Foreman model with a = 1.5 can describe appropriately the strain field around the edge component of a 60° dislocation core in a relaxed Ge film on a Si substrate.

  3. X-ray grazing incidence study of inhomogeneous strain relaxation in Si/SiGe wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hesse, A.; Zhuang, Y.; Holy, V.; Stangl, J.; Zerlauth, S.; Schaeffler, F.; Bauer, G.; Darowski, N.; Pietsch, U.

    2003-01-01

    The elastic strain relaxation in a series of dry-etched periodic multilayer Si/SiGe wire samples with different etching depths was investigated systematically by means of grazing incidence diffraction (GID). The samples were patterned by holographic lithography and reactive ion etching from a Si/SiGe superlattice grown by molecular beam epitaxy. Scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy were employed to obtain information on the shape of the wires. The inhomogeneous strain distribution in the etched wires and in the non-etched part of the multilayers was derived by means of finite element calculations which were used as an input for simulations of the scattered X-ray intensities in depth dependent GID. The theoretical calculations for the scattered intensities are based on distorted-wave Born approximation. The unperturbed scattering potential was chosen with a reduced optical density corresponding to the ratio of wire width and wire period, in order to reflect the main interaction between the incident X-rays and the patterned samples. The calculations are in good agreement with the experimental data demonstrating the variation of strain relaxation with depth

  4. Boron diffusion in strained and strain-relaxed SiGe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, C.C.; Sheu, Y.M.; Liu, Sally; Duffy, R.; Heringa, A.; Cowern, N.E.B.; Griffin, P.B.

    2005-01-01

    SiGe has been utilized for aggressive CMOS technologies development recently and there are many references [M. Shima, T. Ueno, T. Kumise, H. Shido, Y. Sakuma, S. Nakamura, Symposium on VLSI Technology Technical Digest, 2002, pp. 94-95; T. Ghani, M. Armstrong, C. Auth, M. Bost, P. Charvat, G. Glass, T. Hoffmann, K. Johnson, C. Kenyon, J. Klaus, B. McIntyre, K. Mistry, A. Murthy, J. Sandford, M. Silberstein, S. Sivakumar, P. Smith, K. Zawadzki, S. Thompson, M. Bohr, International Electron Devices Meeting Technical Digest, December 2003, pp. 978-980; P. Bai, C. Auth, S. Balakrishnan, M. Bost, R. Brain, V. Chikarmane, R. Heussner, M. Hussein, J. Hwang, D. Ingerly, R. James, J. Jeong, C. Kenyon, E. Lee, S. Lee, N. Lindert, M. Liu, Z. Ma, T. Marieb, A. Murthy, R. Nagisetty, S. Natarajan, J. Neirynck, A. Ott, C. Parker, J. Sebastian, R. Shaheed, S. Sivakumar, J. Steigerwald, S. Tyagi, C. Weber, B. Woolery, A. Yeoh, K. Zhang, M. Bohr, International Electron Devices Meeting Technical Digest, December 2004, pp. 657-660] presenting the advantages brought by it. A better understanding regarding the boron diffusion behavior within and in the vicinity of SiGe is necessary to optimize the extension and the source/drain in pMOSFET. In order to achieve the goal, both effects from mechanical strain and Ge doping on boron diffusion have been investigated. However, only a few publications discuss the impacts of both. Furthermore, most researches investigate these two effects under the conditions of low boron concentration [P. Kuo, J.L. Hoyt, J.F. Gibbons, J.E. Turner, D. Lefforge, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66 (January (5)) (1995) 580-582; N.R. Zangenberg, J. Fage-Pedersen, J. Lundsgaard Hansen, A. Nylandsted Larsen, J. Appl. Phys. 94 (September (6)) (2003) 3883-3890] and high thermal budget anneal [P. Kuo, J.L. Hoyt, J.F. Gibbons, J.E. Turner, D. Lefforge, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66 (January (5)) (1995) 580-582; N.R. Zangenberg, J. Fage-Pedersen, J. Lundsgaard Hansen, A. Nylandsted Larsen, J. Appl

  5. Strain-symmetrized Si/SiGe multi-quantum well structures grown by molecular beam epitaxy for intersubband engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, M.; Karim, A.; Ni, W.-X.; Pidgeon, C.R.; Phillips, P.J.; Carder, D.; Murdin, B.N.; Fromherz, T.; Paul, D.J.

    2006-01-01

    Three strain-symmetrized Si/SiGe multi-quantum well structures, designed for probing the carrier lifetime of intrawell intersubband transitions between heavy hole 1 (HH1) and light hole 1 (LH1) states with transition energies below the optical phonon energy, were grown by molecular beam epitaxy at low temperature on fully relaxed SiGe virtual substrates. The grown structures were characterized by using various experimental techniques, showing a high crystalline quality and very precise growth control. The lifetime of the LH1 excited state was determined directly with pump-probe spectroscopy. The measurements indicated an increase of the lifetime by a factor of ∼2 due to the increasingly unconfined LH1 state, which agreed very well with the design. It also showed a very long lifetime of several hundred picoseconds for the holes excited out of the well to transit back to the well through a diagonal process

  6. Conduction band structure and electron mobility in uniaxially strained Si via externally applied strain in nanomembranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Feng [Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710049 (China); Euaruksakul, Chanan; Himpsel, F J; Lagally, Max G [University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Liu Zheng; Liu Feng, E-mail: lagally@engr.wisc.edu [University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States)

    2011-08-17

    Strain changes the band structure of semiconductors. We use x-ray absorption spectroscopy to study the change in the density of conduction band (CB) states when silicon is uniaxially strained along the [1 0 0] and [1 1 0] directions. High stress can be applied to silicon nanomembranes, because their thinness allows high levels of strain without fracture. Strain-induced changes in both the sixfold degenerate {Delta} valleys and the eightfold degenerate L valleys are determined quantitatively. The uniaxial deformation potentials of both {Delta} and L valleys are directly extracted using a strain tensor appropriate to the boundary conditions, i.e., confinement in the plane in the direction orthogonal to the straining direction, which correspond to those of strained CMOS in commercial applications. The experimentally determined deformation potentials match the theoretical predictions well. We predict electron mobility enhancement created by strain-induced CB modifications.

  7. High-performance a -Si/c-Si heterojunction photoelectrodes for photoelectrochemical oxygen and hydrogen evolution

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Hsin Ping; Sun, Ke; Noh, Sun Young; Kargar, Alireza; Tsai, Meng Lin; Huang, Ming Yi; Wang, Deli; He, Jr-Hau

    2015-01-01

    Amorphous Si (a-Si)/crystalline Si (c-Si) heterojunction (SiHJ) can serve as highly efficient and robust photoelectrodes for solar fuel generation. Low carrier recombination in the photoelectrodes leads to high photocurrents and photovoltages

  8. Atomic-scale Ge diffusion in strained Si revealed by quantitative scanning transmission electron microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radtke, G.; Favre, L.; Couillard, M.; Amiard, G.; Berbezier, I.; Botton, G. A.

    2013-05-01

    Aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy is employed to investigate the local chemistry in the vicinity of a Si0.8Ge0.2/Si interface grown by molecular-beam epitaxy. Atomic-resolution high-angle annular dark field contrast reveals the presence of a nonuniform diffusion of Ge from the substrate into the strained Si thin film. On the basis of multislice calculations, a model is proposed to quantify the experimental contrast, showing that the Ge concentration in the thin film reaches about 4% at the interface and decreases monotonically on a typical length scale of 10 nm. Diffusion occurring during the growth process itself therefore appears as a major factor limiting the abruptness of interfaces in the Si-Ge system.

  9. Evaluation of local strain in Si using UV-Raman spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogura, Atsushi [School of Science and Technology, Meiji University, 1-1-1 Higashimita, Tama-ku, Kawasaki, Kanagawa 214-8571 (Japan)], E-mail: a_ogura@isc.meiji.ac.jp; Kosemura, Daisuke; Takei, Munehisa [School of Science and Technology, Meiji University, 1-1-1 Higashimita, Tama-ku, Kawasaki, Kanagawa 214-8571 (Japan); Uchida, Hidetsugu; Hattori, Nobuyoshi [Semiconductor Technology Academic Research Center, 3-17-2 Shinyokohama, Kouhoku-ku, Yokohama 220-0033 (Japan); Yoshimaru, Masaki [Semiconductor Business Group, Sony Corporation, Atsugi Tec., 4-14-1 Asahi-cho, Atsugi-shi, Kanagawa 243-0014 (Japan); Mayuzumi, Satoru [School of Science and Technology, Meiji University, 1-1-1 Higashimita, Tama-ku, Kawasaki, Kanagawa 214-8571 (Japan); Semiconductor Business Group, Sony Corporation, Atsugi Tec., 4-14-1 Asahi-cho, Atsugi-shi, Kanagawa 243-0014 (Japan); Wakabayashi, Hitoshi [Semiconductor Business Group, Sony Corporation, Atsugi Tec., 4-14-1 Asahi-cho, Atsugi-shi, Kanagawa 243-0014 (Japan)

    2009-03-15

    'Strained-Si', in which intentional strain is introduced in Si crystal to improve carrier mobility by using a modulated band structure, is recognized as one of the most important technologies in post-scaling-generation LSIs. Strain-evaluation technology to probe strain in shallow surfaces that correspond to the channels of MOSFETs is crucial to achieving strained-Si technology. In this paper, we introduce the results we obtained by evaluating strain with the new UV-Raman spectroscopy we developed. Quasi-line shape illumination enabled Raman measurements with 200-nm intervals on the sample. The local-strain mechanism caused by SiN stressors covering a MOSFET was clarified by measuring one-dimensional strain profiles induced by patterned SiN film on Si. We also demonstrated that the induced strain was proportional to the inner stresses of SiN film and that it is more effective to introduce strain in SOI substrates than in bulk substrates. In the evaluation of a actual device fabricated by using the gate-last process in which strain was significantly enhanced after the dummy gate was removed, the size effect, i.e., an increase in induced strain with a decrease in gate length, was confirmed through one-dimensional strain-profile measurements with various gate lengths.

  10. Evaluation of local strain in Si using UV-Raman spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogura, Atsushi; Kosemura, Daisuke; Takei, Munehisa; Uchida, Hidetsugu; Hattori, Nobuyoshi; Yoshimaru, Masaki; Mayuzumi, Satoru; Wakabayashi, Hitoshi

    2009-01-01

    'Strained-Si', in which intentional strain is introduced in Si crystal to improve carrier mobility by using a modulated band structure, is recognized as one of the most important technologies in post-scaling-generation LSIs. Strain-evaluation technology to probe strain in shallow surfaces that correspond to the channels of MOSFETs is crucial to achieving strained-Si technology. In this paper, we introduce the results we obtained by evaluating strain with the new UV-Raman spectroscopy we developed. Quasi-line shape illumination enabled Raman measurements with 200-nm intervals on the sample. The local-strain mechanism caused by SiN stressors covering a MOSFET was clarified by measuring one-dimensional strain profiles induced by patterned SiN film on Si. We also demonstrated that the induced strain was proportional to the inner stresses of SiN film and that it is more effective to introduce strain in SOI substrates than in bulk substrates. In the evaluation of a actual device fabricated by using the gate-last process in which strain was significantly enhanced after the dummy gate was removed, the size effect, i.e., an increase in induced strain with a decrease in gate length, was confirmed through one-dimensional strain-profile measurements with various gate lengths.

  11. Reliability implications of defects in high temperature annealed Si/SiO2/Si structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warren, W.L.; Fleetwood, D.M.; Shaneyfelt, M.R.; Winokur, P.S.; Devine, R.A.B.; Mathiot, D.; Wilson, I.H.; Xu, J.B.

    1994-01-01

    High-temperature post-oxidation annealing of poly-Si/SiO 2 /Si structures such as metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitors and metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistors is known to result in enhanced radiation sensitivity, increased 1/f noise, and low field breakdown. The authors have studied the origins of these effects from a spectroscopic standpoint using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and atomic force microscopy. One result of high temperature annealing is the generation of three types of paramagnetic defect centers, two of which are associated with the oxide close to the Si/SiO 2 interface (oxygen-vacancy centers) and the third with the bulk Si substrate (oxygen-related donors). In all three cases, the origin of the defects may be attributed to out-diffusion of O from the SiO 2 network into the Si substrate with associated reduction of the oxide. The authors present a straightforward model for the interfacial region which assumes the driving force for O out-diffusion is the chemical potential difference of the O in the two phases (SiO 2 and the Si substrate). Experimental evidence is provided to show that enhanced hole trapping and interface-trap and border-trap generation in irradiated high-temperature annealed Si/SiO 2 /Si systems are all related either directly, or indirectly, to the presence of oxygen vacancies

  12. Full-Field Strain Mapping at a Ge/Si Heterostructure Interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buwen Cheng

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The misfit dislocations and strain fields at a Ge/Si heterostructure interface were investigated experimentally using a combination of high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and quantitative electron micrograph analysis methods. The type of misfit dislocation at the interface was determined to be 60° dislocation and 90° full-edge dislocation. The full-field strains at the Ge/Si heterostructure interface were mapped by using the geometric phase analysis (GPA and peak pairs analysis (PPA, respectively. The effect of the mask size on the GPA and PPA results was analyzed in detail. For comparison, the theoretical strain fields of the misfit dislocations were also calculated by the Peierls-Nabarro and Foreman dislocation models. The results showed that the optimal mask sizes in GPA and PPA were approximately three tenths and one-tenth of the reciprocal lattice vector, respectively. The Foreman dislocation model with an alterable factor a = 4 can best describe the strain field of the misfit dislocation at the Ge/Si heterostructure interface.

  13. XRD analysis of strained Ge-SiGe heterostructures on relaxed SiGe graded buffers grown by hybrid epitaxy on Si(0 0 1) substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franco, N.; Barradas, N.P.; Alves, E.; Vallera, A.M.; Morris, R.J.H.; Mironov, O.A.; Parker, E.H.C.

    2005-01-01

    Ge/Si 1-x Ge x inverted modulation doped heterostructures with Ge channel thickness of 16 and 20 nm were grown by a method of hybrid epitaxy followed by ex situ annealing at 650 deg. C for p-HMOS application. The thicker layers of the virtual substrate (6000 nm graded SiGe up to x = 0.6 and 1000 nm uniform composition with x = 0.6) were produced by ultrahigh vacuum chemical vapor deposition (UHV-CVD) while the thinner, Si(2 nm)-SiGe(20 nm)-Ge-SiGe(15 nm + 5 nm B-doped + 20 nm) active layers were grown by low temperature solid-source (LT-SS) MBE at T = 350 deg. C. As-grown and annealed samples were measured by X-ray diffraction (XRD). Reciprocal space maps (RSMs) allowed us to determine non-destructively the precise composition (∼1%) and strain of the Ge channel, along with similar information regarding the other layers that made up the whole structure. Layer thickness was determined with complementary high-resolution Rutherford backscattering (RBS) experiments

  14. Experiments and Modeling of Si-Ge Interdiffusion with Partial Strain Relaxation in Epitaxial SiGe Heterostructures

    KAUST Repository

    Dong, Y.

    2014-07-26

    Si-Ge interdiffusion and strain relaxation were studied in a metastable SiGe epitaxial structure. With Ge concentration profiling and ex-situ strain analysis, it was shown that during thermal anneals, both Si-Ge interdiffusion and strain relaxation occurred. Furthermore, the time evolutions of both strain relaxation and interdiffusion were characterized. It showed that during the ramp-up stage of thermal anneals at higher temperatures (800°C and 840°C), the degree of relaxation, R, reached a “plateau”, while interdiffusion was negligible. With the approximation that the R value is constant after the ramp-up stage, a quantitative interdiffusivity model was built to account for both the effect of strain relaxation and the impact of the relaxation induced dislocations, which gave good agreement with the experiment data.

  15. A study of channeling patterns from strained Si1-xGex/Si bilayers close to (011) axes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breese, MBH; Smulders, PJM

    This paper characterises the angular intensity distribution of MeV protons transmitted through strained Si1-xGex/Si bilayers close to the axis. The ring-like intensity distribution produced by the front layer axis when it is aligned close to the beam direction is projected either towards or away

  16. Coherently Strained Si-SixGe1-x Core-Shell Nanowire Heterostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillen, David C; Wen, Feng; Kim, Kyounghwan; Tutuc, Emanuel

    2016-01-13

    Coherently strained Si-SixGe1-x core-shell nanowire heterostructures are expected to possess a positive shell-to-core conduction band offset, allowing for quantum confinement of electrons in the Si core. We report the growth of epitaxial, coherently strained Si-SixGe1-x core-shell heterostructures through the vapor-liquid-solid mechanism for the Si core, followed in situ by the epitaxial SixGe1-x shell growth using ultrahigh vacuum chemical vapor deposition. The Raman spectra of individual nanowires reveal peaks associated with the Si-Si optical phonon mode in the Si core and the Si-Si, Si-Ge, and Ge-Ge vibrational modes of the SixGe1-x shell. The core Si-Si mode displays a clear red-shift compared to unstrained, bare Si nanowires thanks to the lattice mismatch-induced tensile strain, in agreement with calculated values using a finite-element continuum elasticity model combined with lattice dynamic theory. N-type field-effect transistors using Si-SixGe1-x core-shell nanowires as channel are demonstrated.

  17. Piezoresistance of Silicon and Strained Si0.9Ge0.1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richter, Jacob; Hansen, Ole; Larsen, A. Nylandsted

    2005-01-01

    We present experimentally obtained results of the piezoresistive effect in p-type silicon and strained Si0.9Ge0.1. Today, strained Si1-xGex is used for high speed electronic devices. This paper investigates if this area of use can be expanded to also cover piezoresistive micro electro mechanical...... systems (MEMS) devices. The measurements are performed on microfabricated test chips where resistors are defined in layers grown by molecular beam epitaxy on (0 0 1) silicon substrates. A uniaxial stress along the [1 1 0] direction is applied to the chip, with the use of a four point bending fixture....... The investigation covers materials with doping levels of N-A = 10(18) cm(-3) and NA = 1019 cm(-3), respectively. The results show that the pi(66) piezoresistive coefficient in strained Si0.9Ge0.1 is approximately 30% larger than the comparable pi(44) piezoresistive coefficient in silicon at a doping level of N...

  18. Effect of strain on bond-specific reaction kinetics during the oxidation of H-terminated (111) Si

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gokce, Bilal; Aspnes, David E.; Gundogdu, Kenan

    2011-01-01

    Although strain is used in semiconductor technology for manipulating optical, electronic, and chemical properties of semiconductors, the understanding of the microscopic phenomena that are affected or influenced by strain is still incomplete. Second-harmonic generation data obtained during the air oxidation of H-terminated (111) Si reveal the effect of compressive strain on this chemical reaction. Even small amounts of strain manipulate the reaction kinetics of surface bonds significantly, with tensile strain enhancing oxidation and compressive strain retarding it. This dramatic change suggests a strain-driven charge transfer mechanism between Si-H up bonds and Si-Si back bonds in the outer layer of Si atoms.

  19. High-dose MeV electron irradiation of Si-SiO2 structures implanted with high doses Si+

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaschieva, S.; Angelov, Ch; Dmitriev, S. N.

    2018-03-01

    The influence was studied of 22-MeV electron irradiation on Si-SiO2 structures implanted with high-fluence Si+ ions. Our earlier works demonstrated that Si redistribution is observed in Si+-ion-implanted Si-SiO2 structures (after MeV electron irradiation) only in the case when ion implantation is carried out with a higher fluence (1016 cm-2). We focused our attention on the interaction of high-dose MeV electron irradiation (6.0×1016 cm-2) with n-Si-SiO2 structures implanted with Si+ ions (fluence 5.4×1016 cm-2 of the same order magnitude). The redistribution of both oxygen and silicon atoms in the implanted Si-SiO2 samples after MeV electron irradiation was studied by Rutherford back-scattering (RBS) spectroscopy in combination with a channeling technique (RBS/C). Our results demonstrated that the redistribution of oxygen and silicon atoms in the implanted samples reaches saturation after these high doses of MeV electron irradiation. The transformation of amorphous SiO2 surface into crystalline Si nanostructures (after MeV electron irradiation) was evidenced by atomic force microscopy (AFM). Silicon nanocrystals are formed on the SiO2 surface after MeV electron irradiation. The shape and number of the Si nanocrystals on the SiO2 surface depend on the MeV electron irradiation, while their size increases with the dose. The mean Si nanocrystals height is 16-20 nm after irradiation with MeV electrons at the dose of 6.0×1016 cm-2.

  20. Investigation of capacitance voltage characteristics of strained Si/SiGe n-channel MODFET varactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elogail, Y.; Kasper, E.; Gunzer, F.; Shaker, A.; Schulze, J.

    2016-06-01

    This work is concerned with the investigation of Capacitance-Voltage (CV) behavior of n-channel Si/SiGe MODFET varactors. This investigation provides a valuable insight into the high frequency response of the device under test and its dependence on design parameters; especially regarding the modulation layer doping concentration. The heterostructure under consideration is much more complicated than conventional MOS varactor with respect to non-uniform doping, energy band offsets and the pn-junction in series. Subsequently, CV characterization has never been applied to such MODFET varactor structure. Experimental CV measurements have shown a non-monotonic behavior with a transition point minimum and higher saturation levels on both sides, in contradiction to the conventional high frequency MOS characteristics. This behavior was confirmed qualitatively using simulations. Moreover, we explain some fundamental capacitance properties of the structure, which provide already very interesting perceptions of the MODFET varactor operation, modeling and possible applications using the obtained stimulating results.

  1. DotFETs : MOSFETs strained by a Single SiGE dot in a Low-Temperature ELA Technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biasotto, C.

    2011-01-01

    The work presented in this thesis was performed in the context of the European Sixth Framework Program FP6 project “Disposable Dot Field Effect Transistor for High Speed Si Integrated Circuits”, referred to as the D-DotFET project. The project had the goal of realizing strain-enhanced mobility in

  2. Tailoring the strain in Si nano-structures for defect-free epitaxial Ge over growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaumseil, P; Yamamoto, Y; Schubert, M A; Capellini, G; Skibitzki, O; Zoellner, M H; Schroeder, T

    2015-09-04

    We investigate the structural properties and strain state of Ge nano-structures selectively grown on Si pillars of about 60 nm diameter with different SiGe buffer layers. A matrix of TEOS SiO2 surrounding the Si nano-pillars causes a tensile strain in the top part at the growth temperature of the buffer that reduces the misfit and supports defect-free initial growth. Elastic relaxation plays the dominant role in the further increase of the buffer thickness and subsequent Ge deposition. This method leads to Ge nanostructures on Si that are free from misfit dislocations and other structural defects, which is not the case for direct Ge deposition on these pillar structures. The Ge content of the SiGe buffer is thereby not a critical parameter; it may vary over a relatively wide range.

  3. Thermomechanically induced residual strains in Al/SiCp metal-matrix composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorentzen, T.; Clarke, A.P.

    1998-01-01

    Residual lattice strains in the aluminium and SiC phases of F3S.20S extruded A359 20% SiC metal-matrix composite were measured by using neutron diffi action at room and elevated temperatures to monitor the effects of in situ uniaxial plastic deformations. The results are interpreted with referenc...

  4. Cavities at the Si projected range by high dose and energy Si ion implantation in Si

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canino, M.; Regula, G.; Lancin, M.; Xu, M.; Pichaud, B.; Ntzoenzok, E.; Barthe, M.F.

    2009-01-01

    Two series of n-type Si samples α and β are implanted with Si ions at high dose (1 x 10 16 ) and high energies, 0.3 and 1.0 MeV, respectively. Both sort of samples are then implanted with 5 x 10 16 He cm -2 (at 10 or 50 keV) and eventually with B atoms. Some of the samples are annealed at temperatures ranging from 800 to 1000 deg. C to allow the thermal growth of He-cavities, located between sample surface and the projected range (R p ) of Si. After the triple ion implantation, which corresponds to defect engineering, samples were characterized by cross-section transmission electron microscopy (XTEM). Voids (or bubbles) are observed not only at the R p (He) on all annealed samples, but also at the R p (Si) on β samples implanted with He at 50 keV. The samples are also studied by positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS) and the spectra confirm that as-implanted samples contain di-vacancies and that the annealed ones, even at high temperature have bigger open volumes, which are assumed to be the same voids observed by XTEM. It is demonstrated that a sole Si implantation at high energy and dose is efficient to create cavities which are thermally stable up to 1000 deg. C only in the presence of He.

  5. The Effects of Annealing Temperatures on Composition and Strain in Si x Ge1-x Obtained by Melting Growth of Electrodeposited Ge on Si (100).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abidin, Mastura Shafinaz Zainal; Morshed, Tahsin; Chikita, Hironori; Kinoshita, Yuki; Muta, Shunpei; Anisuzzaman, Mohammad; Park, Jong-Hyeok; Matsumura, Ryo; Mahmood, Mohamad Rusop; Sadoh, Taizoh; Hashim, Abdul Manaf

    2014-02-24

    The effects of annealing temperatures on composition and strain in Si x Ge 1- x , obtained by rapid melting growth of electrodeposited Ge on Si (100) substrate were investigated. Here, a rapid melting process was performed at temperatures of 1000, 1050 and 1100 °C for 1 s. All annealed samples show single crystalline structure in (100) orientation. A significant appearance of Si-Ge vibration mode peak at ~400 cm -1 confirms the existence of Si-Ge intermixing due to out-diffusion of Si into Ge region. On a rapid melting process, Ge melts and reaches the thermal equilibrium in short time. Si at Ge/Si interface begins to dissolve once in contact with the molten Ge to produce Si-Ge intermixing. The Si fraction in Si-Ge intermixing was calculated by taking into account the intensity ratio of Ge-Ge and Si-Ge vibration mode peaks and was found to increase with the annealing temperatures. It is found that the strain turns from tensile to compressive as the annealing temperature increases. The Si fraction dependent thermal expansion coefficient of Si x Ge 1- x is a possible cause to generate such strain behavior. The understanding of compositional and strain characteristics is important in Ge/Si heterostructure as these properties seem to give significant effects in device performance.

  6. Direct evidence of strain transfer for InAs island growth on compliant Si substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marçal, L. A. B.; Magalhães-Paniago, R.; Malachias, Angelo, E-mail: angeloms@fisica.ufmg.br [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Av. Antonio Carlos 6627, CEP 31270-901, Belo Horizonte (Brazil); Richard, M.-I. [European Synchrotron (ESRF), ID01 beamline, CS 40220, 38043 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Aix-Marseille University, IM2NP-CNRS, Faculté des Sciences de St Jérôme, 13397 Marseille (France); Cavallo, F. [Center for High Technology Materials, University of New Mexico, 1313 Goddard St., Albuquerque, New Mexico 87106 (United States); University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1500 Engineering Drive, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Lagally, M. G. [University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1500 Engineering Drive, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Schmidt, O. G. [Institute for Integrative Nanosciences, IFW-Dresden, D-01171 Dresden (Germany); Schülli, T. Ü. [European Synchrotron (ESRF), ID01 beamline, CS 40220, 38043 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Deneke, Ch. [Laboratório Nacional de Nanotecnologia (LNNano/CNPEM), C.P. 6192, CEP 13083-970, Campinas (Brazil)

    2015-04-13

    Semiconductor heteroepitaxy on top of thin compliant layers has been explored as a path to make inorganic electronics mechanically flexible as well as to integrate materials that cannot be grown directly on rigid substrates. Here, we show direct evidences of strain transfer for InAs islands on freestanding Si thin films (7 nm). Synchrotron X-ray diffraction measurements using a beam size of 300 × 700 nm{sup 2} can directly probe the strain status of the compliant substrate underneath deposited islands. Using a recently developed diffraction mapping technique, three-dimensional reciprocal space maps were reconstructed around the Si (004) peak for specific illuminated positions of the sample. The strain retrieved was analyzed using continuous elasticity theory via Finite-element simulations. The comparison of experiment and simulations yields the amount of strain from the InAs islands, which is transferred to the compliant Si thin film.

  7. Monte-Carlo investigation of in-plane electron transport in tensile strained Si and Si{_{1-y}}C{_y} (y {leq 0.03})

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dollfus, Ph.; Galdin, S.; Hesto, P.

    1999-07-01

    Electron transport properties in tensile strained Si-based materials are theoretically analyzed using Monte-Carlo calculation. We focus our interest on in-plane transport in Si and Si{1-y}Cy (yleq 0.03), grown respectively on Effect-Transistor application. In comparison with unstrained Si, the tensile strain effect is shown to be very attractive in Si: drift mobilities greater than 3000 cm^2/Vs are obtained at 300 K for a Ge fraction mole of 0.2 in the pseudo-substrate. In the Si{1-y}Cy/Si system, that does not need any pseudo-substrate, the beneficial strain effect on transport is counterbalanced by the alloy scattering whose influence on mobility is studied. If the alloy potential is greater than about 1 eV, the advantage of strain-induced reduction of effective mass is lost in terms of stationary transport performance at 300 K.

  8. Strain-engineered band parameters of graphene-like SiC monolayer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behera, Harihar; Mukhopadhyay, Gautam

    2014-01-01

    Using full-potential density functional theory (DFT) calculations we show that the band gap and effective masses of charge carriers in SiC monolayer (ML-SiC) in graphene-like two-dimensional honeycomb structure are tunable by strain engineering. ML-SiC was found to preserve its flat 2D graphene-like structure under compressive strain up to 7%. A transition from indirect-to-direct gap-phase is predicted to occur for a strain value lying within the interval (1.11 %, 1.76%). In both gap-phases band gap decreases with increasing strain, although the rate of decrease is different in the two gap-phases. Effective mass of electrons show a non-linearly decreasing trend with increasing tensile strain in the direct gap-phase. The strain-sensitive properties of ML-SiC, may find applications in future strain-sensors, nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS) and nano-optomechanical systems (NOMS) and other nano-devices

  9. Enhanced Electron Mobility in Nonplanar Tensile Strained Si Epitaxially Grown on SixGe1-x Nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Feng; Tutuc, Emanuel

    2018-01-10

    We report the growth and characterization of epitaxial, coherently strained Si x Ge 1-x -Si core-shell nanowire heterostructure through vapor-liquid-solid growth mechanism for the Si x Ge 1-x core, followed by an in situ ultrahigh-vacuum chemical vapor deposition for the Si shell. Raman spectra acquired from individual nanowire reveal the Si-Si, Si-Ge, and Ge-Ge modes of the Si x Ge 1-x core and the Si-Si mode of the shell. Because of the compressive (tensile) strain induced by lattice mismatch, the core (shell) Raman modes are blue (red) shifted compared to those of unstrained bare Si x Ge 1-x (Si) nanowires, in good agreement with values calculated using continuum elasticity model coupled with lattice dynamic theory. A large tensile strain of up to 2.3% is achieved in the Si shell, which is expected to provide quantum confinement for electrons due to a positive core-to-shell conduction band offset. We demonstrate n-type metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors using Si x Ge 1-x -Si core-shell nanowires as channel and observe a 40% enhancement of the average electron mobility compared to control devices using Si nanowires due to an increased electron mobility in the tensile-strained Si shell.

  10. Development of high temperature strain gage, (5)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuuki, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Yukio; Kanai, Kenji; Yamaura, Yoshio

    1976-01-01

    Development and improvement of resistance wire type strain gages usable for experimental measurement of thermal strains generated at high temperature in various structures and equipments that consist of a Fast Breeder Reactor have been carried out, and various characteristics of the strain gages have been investigated. Based on the results obtained up to now, development and research of this time mainly aim to improve strain and fatigue characteristics. As the results, characteristics of strain gages with sensing elements of nichrome V are improved, specifically mechanical hysteresis is decreased, strain limit is increased, etc. Also, improvement is recognized in thermal output, and it becomes clear that dummy gages work effectively. However, a filling method of MgO and an inserting method of active-dummy elements are selected as primary objects to improve strain characteristics, and many hours are taken for these objects, so confirmations of characteristics of platinum-tungsten strain gages, strain sensing elements of which are troublesome to produce, have not been completely done, though the performance of the gages has been improved in several points. As to nichrome V strain gages, there is a fair prospect of obtaining ones, specifications of which are quite close to the goal, though problems in manufacturing technics remain for future. As to platinum-tungsten strain gages, it is expected that similar strain gages to nichrome V are obtainable by improvement in manufacturing of sensing elements. (auth.)

  11. High quality Ge epilayer on Si (1 0 0) with an ultrathin Si1-x Ge x /Si buffer layer by RPCVD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Da; Guo, Qinglei; Zhang, Nan; Xu, Anli; Wang, Bei; Li, Ya; Wang, Gang

    2017-07-01

    The authors report a method to grow high quality strain-relaxed Ge epilayer on a combination of low temperature Ge seed layer and Si1-x Ge x /Si superlattice buffer layer by reduced pressure chemical vapor deposition system without any subsequent annealing treatment. Prior to the growth of high quality Ge epilayer, an ultrathin Si1-x Ge x /Si superlattice buffer layer with the thickness of 50 nm and a 460 nm Ge seed layer were deposited successively at low temperature. Then an 840 nm Ge epilayer was grown at high deposition rate with the surface root-mean-square roughness of 0.707 nm and threading dislocation density of 2.5  ×  106 cm-2, respectively. Detailed investigations of the influence of ultrathin low-temperature Si1-x Ge x /Si superlattice buffer layer on the quality of Ge epilayer were performed, which indicates that the crystalline quality of Ge epilayer can be significantly improved by enhancing the Ge concentration of Si1-x Ge x /Si superlattice buffer layer.

  12. Deformation mechanisms of bent Si nanowires governed by the sign and magnitude of strain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Lihua, E-mail: wlh@bjut.edu.cn, E-mail: xdhan@bjut.edu.cn, E-mail: j.zou@uq.edu.au [Beijing Key Lab of Microstructure and Property of Advanced Material, Institute of Microstructure and Properties of Advanced Materials, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100124 (China); Materials Engineering, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD 4072 (Australia); Kong, Deli; Xin, Tianjiao; Shu, Xinyu; Zheng, Kun; Xiao, Lirong; Sha, Xuechao; Lu, Yan; Han, Xiaodong, E-mail: wlh@bjut.edu.cn, E-mail: xdhan@bjut.edu.cn, E-mail: j.zou@uq.edu.au [Beijing Key Lab of Microstructure and Property of Advanced Material, Institute of Microstructure and Properties of Advanced Materials, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100124 (China); Zhang, Ze [Department of Materials Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310008 (China); Zou, Jin, E-mail: wlh@bjut.edu.cn, E-mail: xdhan@bjut.edu.cn, E-mail: j.zou@uq.edu.au [Materials Engineering, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD 4072 (Australia); Centre for Microscopy and Microanalysis, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD 4072 (Australia)

    2016-04-11

    In this study, the deformation mechanisms of bent Si nanowires are investigated at the atomic scale with bending strain up to 12.8%. The sign and magnitude of the applied strain are found to govern their deformation mechanisms, in which the dislocation types (full or partial dislocations) can be affected by the sign (tensile or compressive) and magnitude of the applied strain. In the early stages of bending, plastic deformation is controlled by 60° full dislocations. As the bending increases, Lomer dislocations can be frequently observed. When the strain increases to a significant level, 90° partial dislocations induced from the tensile surfaces of the bent nanowires are observed. This study provides a deeper understanding of the effect of the sign and magnitude of the bending strain on the deformation mechanisms in bent Si nanowires.

  13. SPICE compatible analytical electron mobility model for biaxial strained-Si-MOSFETs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaudhry, Amit; Sangwan, S. [UIET, Panjab University, Chandigarh (India); Roy, J. N., E-mail: amit_chaudhry01@yahoo.com [Solar Semiconductro Pvt. Ltd, Hyderabad (India)

    2011-05-15

    This paper describes an analytical model for bulk electron mobility in strained-Si layers as a function of strain. Phonon scattering, columbic scattering and surface roughness scattering are included to analyze the full mobility model. Analytical explicit calculations of all of the parameters to accurately estimate the electron mobility have been made. The results predict an increase in the electron mobility with the application of biaxial strain as also predicted from the basic theory of strain physics of metal oxide semiconductor (MOS) devices. The results have also been compared with numerically reported results and show good agreement. (semiconductor devices)

  14. SPICE compatible analytical electron mobility model for biaxial strained-Si-MOSFETs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudhry, Amit; Sangwan, S.; Roy, J. N.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes an analytical model for bulk electron mobility in strained-Si layers as a function of strain. Phonon scattering, columbic scattering and surface roughness scattering are included to analyze the full mobility model. Analytical explicit calculations of all of the parameters to accurately estimate the electron mobility have been made. The results predict an increase in the electron mobility with the application of biaxial strain as also predicted from the basic theory of strain physics of metal oxide semiconductor (MOS) devices. The results have also been compared with numerically reported results and show good agreement. (semiconductor devices)

  15. Induced electrostatic confinement of electron gas in W-designed strain-compensated Si/Si1-x Ge x /Si type-II quantum wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sfina, N.; Lazzari, J.-L.; Christol, P.; Cuminal, Y.; Said, M.

    2006-01-01

    We present a numerical modeling of the conduction- and the valence-band diagrams of W designed Si/Si 0.4 Ge 0.6 /Si type II quantum wells. These W structures, strain-compensated on relaxed Si 0.75 Ge 0.25 pseudo-substrates, are potentially interesting for emission and photo-detection around a 1.55μm wavelength. Two main features have been extrapolated by solving self-consistently Schroedinger and Poisson equations, taking into account the electrostatic attraction induced by carrier injection: (i) Coulomb attraction strongly modifies the band profiles and increases the electron probability density at the quantum well interfaces. (ii) The injected carrier concentration enhances the in-plane oscillator strength and the electron-hole wave-function overlap

  16. Measurement of strain and strain relaxation in free-standing Si membranes by convergent beam electron diffraction and finite element method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, H., E-mail: hongye18@mm.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Faculty of Engineering Sciences, Kyushu University, 6-1 Kasuga-koen, Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan); Ikeda, K.; Hata, S.; Nakashima, H. [Faculty of Engineering Sciences, Kyushu University, 6-1 Kasuga-koen, Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan); Wang, D.; Nakashima, H. [Art, Science and Technology Center for Cooperative Research, Kyushu University, 6-1 Kasuga-koen, Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan)

    2011-04-15

    Bridge-shaped free-standing Si membranes (FSSM), strained by low-pressure (LP) Si{sub x}N{sub y}, plasma-enhanced (PE) Si{sub x}N{sub y} and Si{sub x}Ge{sub 1-x} stressors, were measured by convergent beam electron diffraction (CBED) and the finite element method (FEM). The results of CBED show that, while the strain along the length of the FSSM is compressive in an LPSi{sub x}N{sub y}/Si sample, those along the length of the FSSM are tensile in PESi{sub x}N{sub y}/Si and Si{sub x}Ge{sub 1-x}/Si samples. The average absolute values of strains are different in FSSM with LPSi{sub x}N{sub y}, PESi{sub x}N{sub y} and Si{sub x}Ge{sub 1-x} as stressors. The FEM was used to compensate the results of CBED taking into account the strain relaxation in transmission electron microscopy (TEM) sample preparation. The FEM results give the strain properties in three dimensions, and are in good agreement with the results of CBED. There is approximately no strain relaxation along the length of FSSM, and the elastic strains along the other two axes in FSSM are partially relaxed by thinning down for the preparation of TEM samples.

  17. Measurement of strain and strain relaxation in free-standing Si membranes by convergent beam electron diffraction and finite element method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, H.; Ikeda, K.; Hata, S.; Nakashima, H.; Wang, D.; Nakashima, H.

    2011-01-01

    Bridge-shaped free-standing Si membranes (FSSM), strained by low-pressure (LP) Si x N y , plasma-enhanced (PE) Si x N y and Si x Ge 1-x stressors, were measured by convergent beam electron diffraction (CBED) and the finite element method (FEM). The results of CBED show that, while the strain along the length of the FSSM is compressive in an LPSi x N y /Si sample, those along the length of the FSSM are tensile in PESi x N y /Si and Si x Ge 1-x /Si samples. The average absolute values of strains are different in FSSM with LPSi x N y , PESi x N y and Si x Ge 1-x as stressors. The FEM was used to compensate the results of CBED taking into account the strain relaxation in transmission electron microscopy (TEM) sample preparation. The FEM results give the strain properties in three dimensions, and are in good agreement with the results of CBED. There is approximately no strain relaxation along the length of FSSM, and the elastic strains along the other two axes in FSSM are partially relaxed by thinning down for the preparation of TEM samples.

  18. Strain relaxation in epitaxial GaAs/Si (0 0 1) nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozak, Roksolana; Prieto, Ivan; Arroyo Rojas Dasilva, Yadira; Erni, Rolf; Skibitzki, Oliver; Capellini, Giovanni; Schroeder, Thomas; von Känel, Hans; Rossell, Marta D.

    2017-11-01

    Crystal defects, present in 100 nm GaAs nanocrystals grown by metal organic vapour phase epitaxy on top of (0 0 1)-oriented Si nanotips (with a tip opening 50-90 nm), have been studied by means of high-resolution aberration-corrected high-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy. The role of 60° perfect, 30° and 90° Shockley partial misfit dislocations (MDs) in the plastic strain relaxation of GaAs on Si is discussed. Formation conditions of stair-rod dislocations and coherent twin boundaries in the GaAs nanocrystals are explained. Also, although stacking faults are commonly observed, we show here that synthesis of GaAs nanocrystals with a minimum number of these defects is possible. On the other hand, from the number of MDs, we have to conclude that the GaAs nanoparticles are fully relaxed plastically, such that for the present tip sizes no substrate compliance can be observed.

  19. Capacitor-less memory cell fabricated on nano-scale strained Si on a relaxed SiGe layer-on-insulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Tae-Hyun; Park, Jea-Gun

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the combined effect of the strained Si channel and hole confinement on the memory margin enhancement for a capacitor-less memory cell fabricated on nano-scale strained Si on a relaxed SiGe layer-on-insulator (ε-Si SGOI). The memory margin for the ε-Si SGOI capacitor-less memory cell was higher than that of the memory cell fabricated on an unstrained Si-on-insulator (SOI) and increased with increasing Ge concentration of the relaxed SiGe layer; i.e. the memory margin for the ε-Si SGOI capacitor-less memory cell (138.6 µA) at a 32 at% Ge concentration was 3.3 times higher than the SOI capacitor-less memory cell (43 µA). (paper)

  20. DotFETs: MOSFETs strained by a Single SiGE dot in a Low-Temperature ELA Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Biasotto, C.

    2011-01-01

    The work presented in this thesis was performed in the context of the European Sixth Framework Program FP6 project “Disposable Dot Field Effect Transistor for High Speed Si Integrated Circuits”, referred to as the D-DotFET project. The project had the goal of realizing strain-enhanced mobility in CMOS transistors by transferring strain from a self-assembled germanium dot to the channel of a transistor fabricated above the dot. The initial idea was to dispose of the Ge dot underneath the chann...

  1. Towards highly sensitive strain sensing based on nanostructured materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dao, Dzung Viet; Nakamura, Koichi; Sugiyama, Susumu; Bui, Tung Thanh; Dau, Van Thanh; Yamada, Takeo; Hata, Kenji

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents our recent theoretical and experimental study of piezo-effects in nanostructured materials for highly sensitive, high resolution mechanical sensors. The piezo-effects presented here include the piezoresistive effect in a silicon nanowire (SiNW) and single wall carbon nanotube (SWCNT) thin film, as well as the piezo-optic effect in a Si photonic crystal (PhC) nanocavity. Firstly, the electronic energy band structure of the silicon nanostructure is discussed and simulated by using the First-Principles Calculations method. The result showed a remarkably different energy band structure compared with that of bulk silicon. This difference in the electronic state will result in different physical, chemical, and therefore, sensing properties of silicon nanostructures. The piezoresistive effects of SiNW and SWCNT thin film were investigated experimentally. We found that, when the width of ( 110 ) p-type SiNW decreases from 500 to 35 nm, the piezoresistive effect increases by more than 60%. The longitudinal piezoresistive coefficient of SWCNT thin film was measured to be twice that of bulk p-type silicon. Finally, theoretical investigations of the piezo-optic effect in a PhC nanocavity based on Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) showed extremely high resolution strain sensing. These nanostructures were fabricated based on top-down nanofabrication technology. The achievements of this work are significant for highly sensitive, high resolution and miniaturized mechanical sensors

  2. High-performance a -Si/c-Si heterojunction photoelectrodes for photoelectrochemical oxygen and hydrogen evolution

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Hsin Ping

    2015-05-13

    Amorphous Si (a-Si)/crystalline Si (c-Si) heterojunction (SiHJ) can serve as highly efficient and robust photoelectrodes for solar fuel generation. Low carrier recombination in the photoelectrodes leads to high photocurrents and photovoltages. The SiHJ was designed and fabricated into both photoanode and photocathode with high oxygen and hydrogen evolution efficiency, respectively, by simply coating of a thin layer of catalytic materials. The SiHJ photoanode with sol-gel NiOx as the catalyst shows a current density of 21.48 mA/cm2 at the equilibrium water oxidation potential. The SiHJ photocathode with 2 nm sputter-coated Pt catalyst displays excellent hydrogen evolution performance with an onset potential of 0.640 V and a solar to hydrogen conversion efficiency of 13.26%, which is the highest ever reported for Si-based photocathodes. © 2015 American Chemical Society.

  3. SiC Nanoparticles Toughened-SiC/MoSi2-SiC Multilayer Functionally Graded Oxidation Protective Coating for Carbon Materials at High Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdollahi, Alireza; Ehsani, Naser; Valefi, Zia; Khalifesoltani, Ali

    2017-05-01

    A SiC nanoparticle toughened-SiC/MoSi2-SiC functionally graded oxidation protective coating on graphite was prepared by reactive melt infiltration (RMI) at 1773 and 1873 K under argon atmosphere. The phase composition and anti-oxidation behavior of the coatings were investigated. The results show that the coating was composed of MoSi2, α-SiC and β-SiC. By the variations of Gibbs free energy (calculated by HSC Chemistry 6.0 software), it could be suggested that the SiC coating formed at low temperatures by solution-reprecipitation mechanism and at high temperatures by gas-phase reactions and solution-reprecipitation mechanisms simultaneously. SiC nanoparticles could improve the oxidation resistance of SiC/MoSi2-SiC multiphase coating. Addition of SiC nanoparticles increases toughness of the coating and prevents spreading of the oxygen diffusion channels in the coating during the oxidation test. The mass loss and oxidation rate of the SiC nanoparticle toughened-SiC/MoSi2-SiC-coated sample after 10-h oxidation at 1773 K were only 1.76% and 0.32 × 10-2 g/cm3/h, respectively.

  4. Strain relaxation of GaAs/Ge crystals on patterned Si substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taboada, A. G., E-mail: gonzalez@phys.ethz.ch; Kreiliger, T.; Falub, C. V.; Känel, H. von [Laboratory for Solid State Physics, ETH Zürich, Otto-Stern-Weg 1, CH-8093 Zürich (Switzerland); Isa, F.; Isella, G. [L-NESS, Department of Physics, Politecnico di Milano, via Anzani 42, I-22100 Como (Italy); Salvalaglio, M.; Miglio, L. [L-NESS, Department of Materials Science, Università di Milano-Bicocca, via Cozzi 55, I-20125 Milano (Italy); Wewior, L.; Fuster, D.; Alén, B. [IMM, Instituto de Microelectrónica de Madrid (CNM, CSIC), C/Isaac Newton 8, E-28760 Tres Cantos, Madrid (Spain); Richter, M.; Uccelli, E. [Functional Materials Group, IBM Research-Zürich, Säumerstrasse 4, CH-8803 Rüschlikon (Switzerland); Niedermann, P.; Neels, A.; Dommann, A. [Centre Suisse d' Electronique et Microtechnique, Jaquet-Droz 1, CH-2002 Neuchatel (Switzerland); Mancarella, F. [CNR-IMM of Bologna, Via Gobetti 101, I-40129 Bologna (Italy)

    2014-01-13

    We report on the mask-less integration of GaAs crystals several microns in size on patterned Si substrates by metal organic vapor phase epitaxy. The lattice parameter mismatch is bridged by first growing 2-μm-tall intermediate Ge mesas on 8-μm-tall Si pillars by low-energy plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. We investigate the morphological evolution of the GaAs crystals towards full pyramids exhibiting energetically stable (111) facets with decreasing Si pillar size. The release of the strain induced by the mismatch of thermal expansion coefficients in the GaAs crystals has been studied by X-ray diffraction and photoluminescence measurements. The strain release mechanism is discussed within the framework of linear elasticity theory by Finite Element Method simulations, based on realistic geometries extracted from scanning electron microscopy images.

  5. Strain relaxation of GaAs/Ge crystals on patterned Si substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taboada, A. G.; Kreiliger, T.; Falub, C. V.; Känel, H. von; Isa, F.; Isella, G.; Salvalaglio, M.; Miglio, L.; Wewior, L.; Fuster, D.; Alén, B.; Richter, M.; Uccelli, E.; Niedermann, P.; Neels, A.; Dommann, A.; Mancarella, F.

    2014-01-01

    We report on the mask-less integration of GaAs crystals several microns in size on patterned Si substrates by metal organic vapor phase epitaxy. The lattice parameter mismatch is bridged by first growing 2-μm-tall intermediate Ge mesas on 8-μm-tall Si pillars by low-energy plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. We investigate the morphological evolution of the GaAs crystals towards full pyramids exhibiting energetically stable (111) facets with decreasing Si pillar size. The release of the strain induced by the mismatch of thermal expansion coefficients in the GaAs crystals has been studied by X-ray diffraction and photoluminescence measurements. The strain release mechanism is discussed within the framework of linear elasticity theory by Finite Element Method simulations, based on realistic geometries extracted from scanning electron microscopy images

  6. Generation of uniaxial tensile strain of over 1% on a Ge substrate for short-channel strained Ge n-type Metal–Insulator–Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistors with SiGe stressors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moriyama, Yoshihiko; Kamimuta, Yuuichi; Ikeda, Keiji; Tezuka, Tsutomu

    2012-01-01

    Tensile strain of over 1% in Ge stripes sandwiched between a pair of SiGe source-drain stressors was demonstrated. The Metal–Oxide–Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistor (MOSFET)-like structures were fabricated on a (001)-Ge substrate having SiO 2 dummy-gate stripes with widths down to 26 nm. Recess-regions adjacent to the dummy-gate stripes were formed by an anisotropic wet etching technique. A damage-free and well-controlled anisotropic wet etching process is developed in order to avoid plasma-induced damage during a conventional Reactive-ion Etching process. The SiGe stressors were epitaxially grown on the recesses to simulate strained Ge n-channel Metal–Insulator–Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistors (MISFETs) having high electron mobility. A micro-Raman spectroscopy measurement revealed tensile strain in the narrow Ge regions which became higher for narrower regions. Tensile strain of up to 1.2% was evaluated from the measurement under an assumption of uniaxial strain configuration. These results strongly suggest that higher electron mobility than the upper limit for a Si-MOSFET is obtainable in short-channel strained Ge-nMISFETs with the embedded SiGe stressors.

  7. Analysis of Strain and Intermixing in a Single Layer Ge/Si dots using polarized Raman Spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    PEROVA, TANIA; MOORE, ROBERT

    2006-01-01

    PUBLISHED The built-in strain and composition of as-grown and Si-capped single layers of Ge?Si dots grown at various temperatures (460?800 ?C) are studied by a comparative analysis of the Ge-Ge and Si-Ge modes in the polarized Raman spectra of the dots. A pronounced reduction of the strain and Ge content in the dots after deposition of the cap layer at low temperatures is observed, indicating that strain-induced Si diffusion from the cap layer is occurring. For large dots grown at 700?800...

  8. Strain-induced formation of fourfold symmetric SiGe quantum dot molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinovyev, V A; Dvurechenskii, A V; Kuchinskaya, P A; Armbrister, V A

    2013-12-27

    The strain field distribution at the surface of a multilayer structure with disklike SiGe nanomounds formed by heteroepitaxy is exploited to arrange the symmetric quantum dot molecules typically consisting of four elongated quantum dots ordered along the [010] and [100] directions. The morphological transition from fourfold quantum dot molecules to continuous fortresslike quantum rings with an increasing amount of deposited Ge is revealed. We examine key mechanisms underlying the formation of lateral quantum dot molecules by using scanning tunneling microscopy and numerical calculations of the strain energy distribution on the top of disklike SiGe nanomounds. Experimental data are well described by a simple thermodynamic model based on the accurate evaluation of the strain dependent part of the surface chemical potential. The spatial arrangement of quantum dots inside molecules is attributed to the effect of elastic property anisotropy.

  9. High Strain Rate Characterisation of Composite Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Rasmus Normann Wilken

    -reinforced polymers, were considered, and it was first shown that the loading history controls equilibrium process. Then the High-speed servo-hydraulic test machine was analysed in terms its ability to create a state of constant strain rate in the specimen. The invertible inertial forces in the load train prevented...... from designing and constructing a high-speed servo-hydraulic test machine and by performing a comprehensive test series. The difficulties encountered in the test work could be addressed with the developed analysis. The conclusion was that the High-speed servo-hydraulic test machine is less suited...... for testing fibre-reinforced polymers due to their elastic behaviour and low strain to failure. This is problematic as the High-speed servo-hydraulic test machine closes the gap between quasi-static tests rates and lower strain rates, which are achievable with the Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar. The Split...

  10. Assessing strain mapping by electron backscatter diffraction and confocal Raman microscopy using wedge-indented Si

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedman, Lawrence H.; Vaudin, Mark D.; Stranick, Stephan J.; Stan, Gheorghe; Gerbig, Yvonne B.; Osborn, William; Cook, Robert F.

    2016-01-01

    The accuracy of electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) and confocal Raman microscopy (CRM) for small-scale strain mapping are assessed using the multi-axial strain field surrounding a wedge indentation in Si as a test vehicle. The strain field is modeled using finite element analysis (FEA) that is adapted to the near-indentation surface profile measured by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The assessment consists of (1) direct experimental comparisons of strain and deformation and (2) comparisons in which the modeled strain field is used as an intermediate step. Direct experimental methods (1) consist of comparisons of surface elevation and gradient measured by AFM and EBSD and of Raman shifts measured and predicted by CRM and EBSD, respectively. Comparisons that utilize the combined FEA–AFM model (2) consist of predictions of distortion, strain, and rotation for comparison with EBSD measurements and predictions of Raman shift for comparison with CRM measurements. For both EBSD and CRM, convolution of measurements in depth-varying strain fields is considered. The interconnected comparisons suggest that EBSD was able to provide an accurate assessment of the wedge indentation deformation field to within the precision of the measurements, approximately 2×10"−"4 in strain. CRM was similarly precise, but was limited in accuracy to several times this value. - Highlights: • We map strain by electron backscatter diffraction and confocal Raman microscopy. • The test vehicle is the multi-axial strain field of wedge-indented silicon. • Strain accuracy is assessed by direct experimental intercomparison. • Accuracy is also assessed by atomic force microscopy and finite element analyses. • Electron diffraction measurements are accurate; Raman measurements need refinement.

  11. Assessing strain mapping by electron backscatter diffraction and confocal Raman microscopy using wedge-indented Si

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedman, Lawrence H.; Vaudin, Mark D.; Stranick, Stephan J.; Stan, Gheorghe; Gerbig, Yvonne B.; Osborn, William; Cook, Robert F., E-mail: robert.cook@nist.gov

    2016-04-15

    The accuracy of electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) and confocal Raman microscopy (CRM) for small-scale strain mapping are assessed using the multi-axial strain field surrounding a wedge indentation in Si as a test vehicle. The strain field is modeled using finite element analysis (FEA) that is adapted to the near-indentation surface profile measured by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The assessment consists of (1) direct experimental comparisons of strain and deformation and (2) comparisons in which the modeled strain field is used as an intermediate step. Direct experimental methods (1) consist of comparisons of surface elevation and gradient measured by AFM and EBSD and of Raman shifts measured and predicted by CRM and EBSD, respectively. Comparisons that utilize the combined FEA–AFM model (2) consist of predictions of distortion, strain, and rotation for comparison with EBSD measurements and predictions of Raman shift for comparison with CRM measurements. For both EBSD and CRM, convolution of measurements in depth-varying strain fields is considered. The interconnected comparisons suggest that EBSD was able to provide an accurate assessment of the wedge indentation deformation field to within the precision of the measurements, approximately 2×10{sup −4} in strain. CRM was similarly precise, but was limited in accuracy to several times this value. - Highlights: • We map strain by electron backscatter diffraction and confocal Raman microscopy. • The test vehicle is the multi-axial strain field of wedge-indented silicon. • Strain accuracy is assessed by direct experimental intercomparison. • Accuracy is also assessed by atomic force microscopy and finite element analyses. • Electron diffraction measurements are accurate; Raman measurements need refinement.

  12. Anomalous radial and angular strain relaxation around dilute p-, isoelectronic-, and n-type dopants in Si crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Mingshu [School of Physical Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui Province 230026 (China); Dong, Juncai, E-mail: dongjc@ihep.ac.cn [Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Chen, Dongliang [Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China)

    2017-02-01

    Doping is widely applied in yielding desirable properties and functions in silicon technology; thus, fully understanding the relaxation mechanism for lattice-mismatch strain is of fundamental importance. Here we systematically study the local lattice distortion near dilute IIIA-, IVA-, and VA-group substitutional dopants in Si crystal using density functional theory, and anomalous radial and angular strain relaxation modes are first revealed. Both the nearest-neighbor (NN) bond-distances and the tetrahedral bond-angles are found to exhibit completely opposite dependence on the electronic configurations for the low Z (Z<26) and high Z (Z>26) dopants. More surprisingly, negative and positive angular shifts for the second NN twelve Si2 atoms are unveiled surrounding the p- and n-type dopants, respectively. While electron localization function shows that the doped hole and electron are highly localized near the dopants, hence being responsible for the abnormal angular shifts, a universal radial strain relaxation mechanism dominated by a competition of the Coulomb interactions among the ion-core, bond-charge, and the localized hole or electron is also proposed. These findings may prove to be instrumental in precise design of silicon-based solotronics.

  13. Highly Stretchable, Strain Sensing Hydrogel Optical Fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jingjing; Liu, Xinyue; Jiang, Nan; Yetisen, Ali K; Yuk, Hyunwoo; Yang, Changxi; Khademhosseini, Ali; Zhao, Xuanhe; Yun, Seok-Hyun

    2016-12-01

    A core-clad fiber made of elastic, tough hydrogels is highly stretchable while guiding light. Fluorescent dyes are easily doped into the hydrogel fiber by diffusion. When stretched, the transmission spectrum of the fiber is altered, enabling the strain to be measured and also its location. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. High-temperature elastic properties of in situ-reinforced Si3N4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swift, Geoffrey A.; Uestuendag, Ersan; Clausen, Bjoern; Bourke, Mark A.M.; Lin, H.-T.

    2003-01-01

    A high-temperature tensile stress study of a monolithic silicon nitride (Si 3 N 4 ) was performed with time-of-flight neutron diffraction. A dedicated engineering diffractometer was employed at temperatures reaching 1375 deg. C. Rietveld refinements of diffraction spectra allowed the determination of (1) the coefficient of thermal expansion tensor during heating and (2) lattice strains during loading. The stress-strain response of individual lattice reflections was used to calculate the single-crystal elastic stiffness tensor of Si 3 N 4 at 1375 deg. C via a self-consistent model

  15. Microstructural optimization of high temperature SiC/SiC composites by nite process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimoda, K.; Park, J.S.; Hinoki, T.; Kohyama, A.

    2007-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: SiC/SiC composites are one of the promising structural materials for future fusion reactor because of the excellent potentiality in thermal and mechanical properties under very severe environment including high temperature and high energy neutron bombardment. For fusion-grade SiC/SiC composites, high-crystallinity and near-stoichiometric characteristic are required to keep excellent stability against neutron irradiation. The realization of the reactor will be strongly depend on optimization of SiC/SiC composites microstructure, particularly in regard to the materials and processes used for the fiber, interphase and matrix constituents. One of the important accomplishments is the new process, called nano-particle infiltration and transient eutectic phase (NITE) process developed in our group. The microstructure of NITE-SiC/SiC composites, such as fiber volume fraction, porosity and type of pores, can be controlled precisely by the selection of sintering temperature/applied stress history. The objective of this study is to investigate thermal stability and mechanical properties of NITE-SiC/SiC composites at high-temperature. Two kinds of highly-densified SiC/SiC composites with the difference of fiber volume fraction were prepared, and were subjected to exposure tests from 1000 deg. C to 1500 deg. C in an argon-oxygen gas mixture with an oxygen partial pressure of 0.1 Pa. The thermal stability of the composites was characterized through mass change and TEM/SEM observation. The in-situ tensile tests at 1300 deg. C and 1500 deg. C were carried out in the same atmosphere. Most of SiC/SiC composites, even for the advanced CVI-SiC/SiC composites with multi-layered SiC/C inter-phases, underwent reduction in the maximum strength by about 20% at 1300 deg. C. In particular, this reduction was attributed to a slight burnout of the carbon interphase due to oxygen impurities in test atmosphere. However, there was no significant degradation for

  16. Microstructural optimization of high temperature SiC/SiC composites by nite process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimoda, K. [Kyoto Univ., Graduate School of Energy Science (Japan); Park, J.S. [Kyoto Univ., Institute of Advanced Energy (Japan); Hinoki, T.; Kohyama, A. [Kyoto Univ., lnstitute of Advanced Energy, Gokasho, Uji (Japan)

    2007-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: SiC/SiC composites are one of the promising structural materials for future fusion reactor because of the excellent potentiality in thermal and mechanical properties under very severe environment including high temperature and high energy neutron bombardment. For fusion-grade SiC/SiC composites, high-crystallinity and near-stoichiometric characteristic are required to keep excellent stability against neutron irradiation. The realization of the reactor will be strongly depend on optimization of SiC/SiC composites microstructure, particularly in regard to the materials and processes used for the fiber, interphase and matrix constituents. One of the important accomplishments is the new process, called nano-particle infiltration and transient eutectic phase (NITE) process developed in our group. The microstructure of NITE-SiC/SiC composites, such as fiber volume fraction, porosity and type of pores, can be controlled precisely by the selection of sintering temperature/applied stress history. The objective of this study is to investigate thermal stability and mechanical properties of NITE-SiC/SiC composites at high-temperature. Two kinds of highly-densified SiC/SiC composites with the difference of fiber volume fraction were prepared, and were subjected to exposure tests from 1000 deg. C to 1500 deg. C in an argon-oxygen gas mixture with an oxygen partial pressure of 0.1 Pa. The thermal stability of the composites was characterized through mass change and TEM/SEM observation. The in-situ tensile tests at 1300 deg. C and 1500 deg. C were carried out in the same atmosphere. Most of SiC/SiC composites, even for the advanced CVI-SiC/SiC composites with multi-layered SiC/C inter-phases, underwent reduction in the maximum strength by about 20% at 1300 deg. C. In particular, this reduction was attributed to a slight burnout of the carbon interphase due to oxygen impurities in test atmosphere. However, there was no significant degradation for

  17. Model-independent determination of the strain distribution for a SiGe/Si superlattice using X-ray diffractometry data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikulin, A.Y.; Stevenson, A.W.; Hashizume, H.

    1996-01-01

    The strain distribution in a Si 0.9 Ge 0.l/Si superlattice is determined from x-ray diffractometry data with a 25 Angstroms depth resolution. A logarithmic dispersion relation is used to determine the phase of the structure factor with information available a priori on the sample structure. Phase information is obtained from the observed reflection intensity via a logarithmic Hilbert transform and the a priori information is used to select the zeros to be included in the solution. The reconstructed lattice strain profile clearly resolves SiGe and Si layers of 90 - 160 Angstroms thickness alternately stacked on a silicon substrate. The SiGe layer is found to have a lattice spacing in the surface-normal direction significantly smaller than predicted by Vegard's law. The result is supported by very good agreement of the simulated rocking curve profile with the observation. 18 refs., 1 tab., 5 figs

  18. High strain rate behaviour of polypropylene microfoams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martínez A.B.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Microcellular materials such as polypropylene foams are often used in protective applications and passive safety for packaging (electronic components, aeronautical structures, food, etc. or personal safety (helmets, knee-pads, etc.. In such applications the foams which are used are often designed to absorb the maximum energy and are generally subjected to severe loadings involving high strain rates. The manufacture process to obtain polymeric microcellular foams is based on the polymer saturation with a supercritical gas, at high temperature and pressure. This method presents several advantages over the conventional injection moulding techniques which make it industrially feasible. However, the effect of processing conditions such as blowing agent, concentration and microfoaming time and/or temperature on the microstructure of the resulting microcellular polymer (density, cell size and geometry is not yet set up. The compressive mechanical behaviour of several microcellular polypropylene foams has been investigated over a wide range of strain rates (0.001 to 3000 s−1 in order to show the effects of the processing parameters and strain rate on the mechanical properties. High strain rate tests were performed using a Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar apparatus (SHPB. Polypropylene and polyethylene-ethylene block copolymer foams of various densities were considered.

  19. High strain rate behaviour of polypropylene microfoams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-del Río, T.; Garrido, M. A.; Rodríguez, J.; Arencón, D.; Martínez, A. B.

    2012-08-01

    Microcellular materials such as polypropylene foams are often used in protective applications and passive safety for packaging (electronic components, aeronautical structures, food, etc.) or personal safety (helmets, knee-pads, etc.). In such applications the foams which are used are often designed to absorb the maximum energy and are generally subjected to severe loadings involving high strain rates. The manufacture process to obtain polymeric microcellular foams is based on the polymer saturation with a supercritical gas, at high temperature and pressure. This method presents several advantages over the conventional injection moulding techniques which make it industrially feasible. However, the effect of processing conditions such as blowing agent, concentration and microfoaming time and/or temperature on the microstructure of the resulting microcellular polymer (density, cell size and geometry) is not yet set up. The compressive mechanical behaviour of several microcellular polypropylene foams has been investigated over a wide range of strain rates (0.001 to 3000 s-1) in order to show the effects of the processing parameters and strain rate on the mechanical properties. High strain rate tests were performed using a Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar apparatus (SHPB). Polypropylene and polyethylene-ethylene block copolymer foams of various densities were considered.

  20. Enhanced relaxation of strained Ge{sub x}Si{sub 1-x} layers induced by Co/Ge{sub x}Si{sub 1-x} thermal reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ridgway, M C; Elliman, R G; Rao, M R [Australian National Univ., Canberra, ACT (Australia); Baribeau, J M [National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    1994-12-31

    Enhanced relaxation of strained Ge{sub x}Si{sub l-x} layers during the formation of CoSi{sub 2} by Co/Ge{sub x}Si{sub 1-x} thermal reaction has been observed. Raman spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy were used to monitor the extent of relaxation. Possible mechanisms responsible for the enhanced relaxation, including metal-induced dislocation nucleation, chemical and/or structural inhomogeneities at the reacted layer/Ge{sub x}Si{sub 1-x} interface and point defect injection due to silicide formation will be discussed. Also, methodologies for inhibiting relaxation will be presented. 11 refs., 1 fig.

  1. Enhanced relaxation of strained Ge{sub x}Si{sub 1-x} layers induced by Co/Ge{sub x}Si{sub 1-x} thermal reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ridgway, M.C.; Elliman, R.G.; Rao, M.R. [Australian National Univ., Canberra, ACT (Australia); Baribeau, J.M. [National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    1993-12-31

    Enhanced relaxation of strained Ge{sub x}Si{sub l-x} layers during the formation of CoSi{sub 2} by Co/Ge{sub x}Si{sub 1-x} thermal reaction has been observed. Raman spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy were used to monitor the extent of relaxation. Possible mechanisms responsible for the enhanced relaxation, including metal-induced dislocation nucleation, chemical and/or structural inhomogeneities at the reacted layer/Ge{sub x}Si{sub 1-x} interface and point defect injection due to silicide formation will be discussed. Also, methodologies for inhibiting relaxation will be presented. 11 refs., 1 fig.

  2. Effect of particle shapes on effective strain gradient of SiC particle reinforced aluminum composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, X; Cao, D F; Mei, H; Liu, L S; Lei, Z T

    2013-01-01

    The stress increments depend not only on the plastic strain but also on the gradient of plastic strain, when the characteristic length scale associated with non-uniform plastic deformation is on the order of microns. In the present research, the Taylor-based nonlocal theory of plasticity (TNT plasticity), with considering both geometrically necessary dislocations and statistically stored dislocations, is applied to investigated the effect of particle shapes on the strain gradient and mechanical properties of SiC particle reinforced aluminum composites (SiC/Al composites). Based on this theory, a two-dimensional axial symmetry cell model is built in the ABAQUS finite element code through its USER-ELEMENT (UEL) interface. Some comparisons with the classical plastic theory demonstrate that the effective stress predicted by TNT plasticity is obviously higher than that predicted by classical plastic theory. The results also demonstrate that the irregular particles cause higher effective gradient strain which is attributed to the fact that angular shape particles give more geometrically.

  3. A study of strain in thin epitaxial films of yttrium silicide on Si(111)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegal, Michelle F.; Martínez-Miranda, L. J.; Santiago-Avilés, J. J.; Graham, W. R.; Siegal, M. P.

    1994-02-01

    We present the results of an x-ray diffraction analysis of epitaxial yttrium silicide films grown on Si(111), with thicknesses ranging from 14 to 100 Å. The macroscopic strain along the out-of-plane direction for films containing pits or pinholes follows the trend observed previously in films of thicknesses up to 510 Å. The out-of-plane lattice parameter decreases linearly with film thickness. We show preliminary evidence that pinhole-free films do not follow the above trend, and that strain in these films has the opposite sign than in films with pinholes. Finally, our results also indicate that the mode of growth, coupled to the interfacial thermal properties of the films, affects the observed value for the strain in the films.

  4. A study of strain in thin epitaxial films of yttrium silicide on Si(111)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siegal, M.F.; Martinez-Miranda, L.J.; Santiago-Aviles, J.J.; Graham, W.R.; Siegal, M.P.

    1994-01-01

    We present the results of an x-ray diffraction analysis of epitaxial yttrium silicide films grown on Si(111), with thicknesses ranging from 14 to 100 A. The macroscopic strain along the out-of-plane direction for films containing pits or pinholes follows the trend observed previously in films of thicknesses up to 510 A. The out-of-plane lattice parameter decreases linearly with film thickness. We show preliminary evidence that pinhole-free films do not follow the above trend, and that strain in these films has the opposite sign than in films with pinholes. Finally, our results also indicate that the mode of growth, coupled to the interfacial thermal properties of the films, affects the observed value for the strain in the films

  5. Relaxation of a strained 3C-SiC(1 1 1) thin film on silicon by He+ and O+ ion beam defect engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Häberlen, M.; Murphy, B.; Stritzker, B.; Lindner, J.K.N.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we report on the successful reduction of tensile strain in a thin strained ion-beam synthesized 3C-SiC(1 1 1) layer on silicon. The creation of a near-interface defect structure consisting of nanometric voids and stacking fault type defects by He ion implantation and subsequent annealing yields significant relaxation in the top SiC film. The microstructure of the defect layer is studied by transmission electron microscopy, and the strain state of the 3C-SiC layer was studied by high-resolution X-ray diffraction in a parallel beam configuration. Typical process conditions for the growth of GaN films on the SiC layer were emulated by high temperature treatments in a rapid thermal annealer or a quartz tube furnace. It is found that prolonged annealing at high temperatures leads to ripening of the voids and to a weaker reduction of the tensile strain. It is shown that this problem can be overcome by the co-implantation of oxygen ions to form highly thermally stable void/extended defect structures.

  6. V3Si multifilamentary superconductor with high overall Jc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeuchi, Takao; Inoue, Kiyoshi; Kosuge, Michio; Iijima, Yasuo; Watanabe, Kazuo

    1994-01-01

    V 3 Si is one of the A15-type superconducting compounds from which single crystals can be quite easily obtained due to the nature of the equilibrium phase diagram. Thus, the fundamental characteristics of A15 compounds (such as electronic structure and cubic-to-tetragonal structural transformation) have been studied with this compound. V 3 Si is, however, also promising in practical use as an alternative to Nb 3 Sn for high field magnets, since the upper critical field H c2 (4.2 K) is more than 20 T. Although the open-quotes bronze process,close quotes the established commercial process to produce Nb 3 Sn conductors, is also available for V 3 Si, the ternary section of the Cu-V-Si phase diagram indicates two diffusion paths are possible: One from the bronze with low Si content (Si 3 Si, and the other from the bronze with higher Si content to V 3 Si via V 5 Si 3 . The high Si bronze is likely to be advantageous in reducing the bronze volume fraction and hence achieving high overall critical current density J c . This is because the initially formed V 5 Si 3 is eventually converted to V 3 Si as long as the total proportion of V to Si in the composite (overall V/Si molar ratio) is kept around 3. However, long times at high temperatures are necessary for appreciable V 3 Si layer growth, thereby yielding grain growth of V 3 Si and lowering the J c of the V 3 Si compound and the overall J c accordingly. In the present study, in order to improve the overall J c , the authors have realized ∼1μm filament diameter by preparing a double-stacked Cu-8.5at.%Si/V composite. The primary bundle is sheathed with a Ta tube. The Si in the bronze inside the Ta is available only for the diffusion reaction, and the overall V/Si ratios is ∼3

  7. Strain sensors for high field pulse magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, Christian [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Zheng, Yan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Easton, Daniel [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Farinholt, Kevin M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Park, Gyuhae [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we present an investigation into several strain sensing technologies that are being considered to monitor mechanical deformation within the steel reinforcement shells used in high field pulsed magnets. Such systems generally operate at cryogenic temperatures to mitigate heating issues that are inherent in the coils of nondestructive, high field pulsed magnets. The objective of this preliminary study is to characterize the performance of various strain sensing technologies at liquid nitrogen temperatures (-196 C). Four sensor types are considered in this investigation: fiber Bragg gratings (FBG), resistive foil strain gauges (RFSG), piezoelectric polymers (PVDF), and piezoceramics (PZT). Three operational conditions are considered for each sensor: bond integrity, sensitivity as a function of temperature, and thermal cycling effects. Several experiments were conducted as part of this study, investigating adhesion with various substrate materials (stainless steel, aluminum, and carbon fiber), sensitivity to static (FBG and RFSG) and dynamic (RFSG, PVDF and PZT) load conditions, and sensor diagnostics using PZT sensors. This work has been conducted in collaboration with the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory (NHMFL), and the results of this study will be used to identify the set of sensing technologies that would be best suited for integration within high field pulsed magnets at the NHMFL facility.

  8. Effect of strain, substrate surface and growth rate on B-doping in selectively grown SiGe layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghandi, R.; Kolahdouz, M.; Hallstedt, J.; Wise, R.; Wejtmans, Hans; Radamson, H.H.

    2008-01-01

    In this work, the role of strain and growth rate on boron incorporation in selective epitaxial growth (SEG) of B-doped Si 1-x Ge x (x = 0.15-0.25) layers in recessed or unprocessed (elevated) openings for source/drain applications in CMOS has been studied. A focus has been made on the strain distribution and B incorporation in SEG of SiGe layers

  9. Effect of strain, substrate surface and growth rate on B-doping in selectively grown SiGe layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghandi, R. [School of Information and Communication Technology, KTH (Royal Institute of Technology), Isafjordsg. 22-26, Electrum 229, 16640 Kista (Sweden)], E-mail: ghandi@kth.se; Kolahdouz, M.; Hallstedt, J. [School of Information and Communication Technology, KTH (Royal Institute of Technology), Isafjordsg. 22-26, Electrum 229, 16640 Kista (Sweden); Wise, R.; Wejtmans, Hans [Texas Instrument, 13121 TI Boulevard, Dallas, Tx 75243 (United States); Radamson, H.H. [School of Information and Communication Technology, KTH (Royal Institute of Technology), Isafjordsg. 22-26, Electrum 229, 16640 Kista (Sweden)

    2008-11-03

    In this work, the role of strain and growth rate on boron incorporation in selective epitaxial growth (SEG) of B-doped Si{sub 1-x}Ge{sub x} (x = 0.15-0.25) layers in recessed or unprocessed (elevated) openings for source/drain applications in CMOS has been studied. A focus has been made on the strain distribution and B incorporation in SEG of SiGe layers.

  10. High strain rate studies in rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grady, D.

    1977-01-01

    Dynamic compression studies using high velocity impact are usually considered to involve a catastrophic process of indeterminate loading rate by which a material is brough to a shock compressed state. Although this is frequently the case, methods are also available to control the rate of strain during the shock compression process. One of the most accurate of these methods makes use of the anomalous nonlinear elastic property of glass to transform an initial shock or step wave input into a ramp wave of known amplitude and duration. Fused silica is the most carefully calibrated material for this purpose and, when placed between the test specimen and the impact projectile, can provide loading strain rates in the range of 10 4 /s to 10 6 /s for final stress states of approximately 3.9 GPa or less.Ramp wave compression experiments have been conducted on dolomite at strain rates of 3 x 10 4 /s. Both initial yielding and subsequent deformation at this strain rate agrees well with previous shock wave studies (epsilon-dotapprox.10 6 /s) and differs substantially from quasi-static measurements (epsilon-dotapprox.10 -4 /s). The ramp wave studies have also uncovered a pressure-induced phase transition in dolomite initiating at 4.0 GPa

  11. Influence of Stored Strain on Fabricating of Al/SiC Nanocomposite by Friction Stir Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khorrami, M. Sarkari; Kazeminezhad, M.; Kokabi, A. H.

    2015-05-01

    In this work, 1050 aluminum (Al) sheets were annealed and severely deformed by 1, 2, and 3 passes of constrained groove pressing process to obtain the various initial stored strain values of 0, 1.16, 2.32, and 3.48, respectively. Friction stir processing (FSP) was then applied using SiC nanoparticles to fabricate Al/SiC nanocomposite with approximately 1.5 vol pct reinforced particles. Microstructural examinations revealed that an increase in the initial stored strain of the base metal led to the formation of finer grain structure after 1 pass of FSP. The finer grain structure occurred in the stir zone where a sufficient amount of nanoparticles with a relatively proper distribution existed. However, the initial stored strain value had a contrary influence in the regions with low volume fraction of nanoparticles. In fact, more stored strain in the base metal provided more driving force for both nucleation and grain growth of newly recrystallized grains at the stir zone. Pinning effect of well-distributed nanoparticles could effectively retard grain growth leading to the formation of very fine grain structure. Also it was observed that the initial stored strain values did not have impressive rule in the microstructural evolutions at the stir zone during the second and third FSP passes signifying that all of the stored energy in the base metal would be released after 1 pass of FSP. The results obtained with microhardness measurement at the stir zone were fairly in agreement with those achieved by the microstructure assessments.

  12. A Combined Precipitation, Yield Stress, and Work Hardening Model for Al-Mg-Si Alloys Incorporating the Effects of Strain Rate and Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myhr, Ole Runar; Hopperstad, Odd Sture; Børvik, Tore

    2018-05-01

    In this study, a combined precipitation, yield strength, and work hardening model for Al-Mg-Si alloys known as NaMo has been further developed to include the effects of strain rate and temperature on the resulting stress-strain behavior. The extension of the model is based on a comprehensive experimental database, where thermomechanical data for three different Al-Mg-Si alloys are available. In the tests, the temperature was varied between 20 °C and 350 °C with strain rates ranging from 10-6 to 750 s-1 using ordinary tension tests for low strain rates and a split-Hopkinson tension bar system for high strain rates, respectively. This large span in temperatures and strain rates covers a broad range of industrial relevant problems from creep to impact loading. Based on the experimental data, a procedure for calibrating the different physical parameters of the model has been developed, starting with the simplest case of a stable precipitate structure and small plastic strains, from which basic kinetic data for obstacle limited dislocation glide were extracted. For larger strains, when work hardening becomes significant, the dynamic recovery was linked to the Zener-Hollomon parameter, again using a stable precipitate structure as a basis for calibration. Finally, the complex situation of concurrent work hardening and dynamic evolution of the precipitate structure was analyzed using a stepwise numerical solution algorithm where parameters representing the instantaneous state of the structure were used to calculate the corresponding instantaneous yield strength and work hardening rate. The model was demonstrated to exhibit a high degree of predictive power as documented by a good agreement between predictions and measurements, and it is deemed well suited for simulations of thermomechanical processing of Al-Mg-Si alloys where plastic deformation is carried out at various strain rates and temperatures.

  13. Atomistic Origins of High Capacity and High Structural Stability of Polymer-Derived SiOC Anode Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hong; Zhao, Kejie

    2017-10-11

    Capacity and structural stability are often mutually exclusive properties of electrodes in Li-ion batteries (LIBs): a gain in capacity is usually accompanied by the undesired large volumetric change of the host material upon lithiation. Polymer-derived ceramics, such as silicon oxycarbide (SiOC) of hybrid Si-O-C bonds, show an exceptional combination of high capacity and superior structural stability. We investigate the atomistic origins of the unique chemomechanical performance of carbon-rich SiOC using the first-principles theoretical approach. The atomic model of SiOC is composed of continuous Si-O-C units caged by a graphene-like cellular network and percolated nanovoids. The segregated sp 2 carbon network serves as the backbone to maintain the structural stability of the lattice. Li insertion is first absorbed at the nanovoid sites, and then it is accommodated by the SiOC tetrahedral units, excess C atoms, and topological defects at the edge of or within the segregated carbon network. SiOC expands up to 22% in volumetric strain at the fully lithiated capacity of 1230 mA h/g. We examine in great detail the evolution of the microscopic features of the SiOC molecule in the course of Li reactions. The first-principles modeling provides a fundamental understanding of the physicochemical properties of Si-based glass ceramics for their application in LIBs.

  14. Recovery of strain-hardening rate in Ni-Si alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, C. L.; Zhang, Z. J.; Cai, T.; Zhang, P.; Zhang, Z. F.

    2015-10-01

    In this study, the recovery of strain-hardening rate (RSHR) was discovered for the first time in polycrystalline materials (Ni-Si alloys) that have only dislocation activities during tensile test. Detailed microstructure characterizations show that the activation of dislocations in the secondary slip systems during tensile deformation is the major reason for this RSHR. By taking into account other metals that also exhibit RSHR during tension, a more general mechanism for the RSHR was proposed, i.e. the occurrence of a sharp decrease of dislocation mean free path (Λ) during plastic deformation, caused by either planar defects or linear defects.

  15. High density plasma via hole etching in SiC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, H.; Lee, K.P.; Leerungnawarat, P.; Chu, S.N.G.; Ren, F.; Pearton, S.J.; Zetterling, C.-M.

    2001-01-01

    Throughwafer vias up to 100 μm deep were formed in 4H-SiC substrates by inductively coupled plasma etching with SF 6 /O 2 at a controlled rate of ∼0.6 μm min-1 and use of Al masks. Selectivities of >50 for SiC over Al were achieved. Electrical (capacitance-voltage: current-voltage) and chemical (Auger electron spectroscopy) analysis techniques showed that the etching produced only minor changes in reverse breakdown voltage, Schottky barrier height, and near surface stoichiometry of the SiC and had high selectivity over common frontside metallization. The SiC etch rate was a strong function of the incident ion energy during plasma exposure. This process is attractive for power SiC transistors intended for high current, high temperature applications and also for SiC micromachining

  16. Transformation of sludge Si to nano-Si/SiOx structure by oxygen inward diffusion as precursor for high performance anodes in lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Qiqi; Dai, Dongyang; Zhang, Chengzhi; Han, Fei; Lv, Tiezheng; Li, Xiaoshan; Wang, Shijie; Zhu, Rui; Liao, Haojie; Zhang, Shiguo

    2018-05-01

    Although several Si/C composite structures have been proposed for high-performance lithium-ion batteries (LIBs), they have still suffered from expensive and complex processes of nano-Si production. Herein, a simple, controllable oxygen inward diffusion was utilized to transform Si sludge obtained from the photovoltaic (PV) industry into the nano-Si/SiOx structure as a result of the high diffusion efficiency of O inside Si and high surface area of the sludge. After further process, a yolk/shell Si/C structure was obtained as an anode material for LIBs. This composite demonstrated an excellent cycling stability, with a high reversible capacity (˜ 1250 mAh/g for 500 cycles), by void space originally left by the SiOx accommodate inner Si expansion. We believe this is a rather simple way to convert the waste Si into a valuable nano-Si for LIB applications.

  17. Technique for producing highly planar Si/SiO0.64Ge0.36/Si metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistor channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasby, T. J.; Parry, C. P.; Phillips, P. J.; McGregor, B. M.; Morris, , R. J. H.; Braithwaite, G.; Whall, T. E.; Parker, E. H. C.; Hammond, R.; Knights, A. P.; Coleman, P. G.

    1999-03-01

    Si/Si0.64Ge0.36/Si heterostructures have been grown at low temperature (450 °C) to avoid the strain-induced roughening observed for growth temperatures of 550 °C and above. The electrical properties of these structures are poor, and thought to be associated with grown-in point defects as indicated in positron annihilation spectroscopy. However, after an in situ annealing procedure (800 °C for 30 min) the electrical properties dramatically improve, giving an optimum 4 K mobility of 2500 cm2 V-1 s-1 for a sheet density of 6.2×1011 cm-2. The low temperature growth yields highly planar interfaces, which are maintained after anneal as evidenced from transmission electron microscopy. This and secondary ion mass spectroscopy measurements demonstrate that the metastably strained alloy layer can endure the in situ anneal procedure necessary for enhanced electrical properties. Further studies have shown that the layers can also withstand a 120 min thermal oxidation at 800 °C, commensurate with metal-oxide-semiconductor device fabrication.

  18. Growth of light-emitting SiGe heterostructures on strained silicon-on-insulator substrates with a thin oxide layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baidakova, N. A., E-mail: banatale@ipmras.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute for Physics of Microstructures (Russian Federation); Bobrov, A. I. [University of Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation); Drozdov, M. N.; Novikov, A. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute for Physics of Microstructures (Russian Federation); Pavlov, D. A. [University of Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation); Shaleev, M. V.; Yunin, P. A.; Yurasov, D. V.; Krasilnik, Z. F. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute for Physics of Microstructures (Russian Federation)

    2015-08-15

    The possibility of using substrates based on “strained silicon on insulator” structures with a thin (25 nm) buried oxide layer for the growth of light-emitting SiGe structures is studied. It is shown that, in contrast to “strained silicon on insulator” substrates with a thick (hundreds of nanometers) oxide layer, the temperature stability of substrates with a thin oxide is much lower. Methods for the chemical and thermal cleaning of the surface of such substrates, which make it possible to both retain the elastic stresses in the thin Si layer on the oxide and provide cleaning of the surface from contaminating impurities, are perfecte. It is demonstrated that it is possible to use the method of molecular-beam epitaxy to grow light-emitting SiGe structures of high crystalline quality on such substrates.

  19. Strain, doping, and disorder effects in GaAs/Ge/Si heterostructures: A Raman spectroscopy investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mlayah, A.; Carles, R.; Leycuras, A.

    1992-01-01

    The present work is devoted to a Raman study of GaAs/Ge/Si heterostructures grown by the vapor-phase epitaxy technique. We first show that the GaAs epilayers are submitted to a biaxial tensile strain. The strain relaxation generates misfit dislocations and thus disorder effects which we analyze in terms of translational invariance loss and Raman selection rules violation. The first-order Raman spectra of annealed samples exhibit an unexpected broadband we identify as due to scattering by a coupled LO phonon-damped plasmon mode. This is corroborated by an accurate line-shape analysis which accounts for the recorded spectra and makes evident the presence of free carriers within the GaAs layers. Their density is estimated from the deduced plasmon frequency and also using a method we have presented in a previous work.

  20. Strain-softening behavior of an Fe-6.5 wt%Si alloy during warm deformation and its applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu Huadong; Zhang Zhihao; Yang Qiang; Xie Jianxin

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → An Fe-6.5 wt%Si alloy exhibits strain-softening behavior after large deformation. → The decrease of the order degree is responsible for the strain-softening behavior. → The strain-softening behavior of Fe-6.5 wt%Si alloy can be applied in cold rolling. → An Fe-6.5 wt%Si thin strip with thickness of 0.20 mm is fabricated by cold rolling. - Abstract: An Fe-6.5 wt%Si alloy with columnar grains was compressed at a temperature below its recrystallization temperature. The Vickers hardness and structure of the alloy before and after deformation were investigated. The results showed that with an increase in the degree of deformation, Vickers hardness of the alloy initially increased rapidly and then decreased slowly, indicating that the alloy had a strain-softening behavior after a large deformation. Meanwhile, the work-hardening exponent of the alloy decreased significantly. Transmission electron microscopy confirmed that the decrease of the order degree was responsible for the strain-softening behavior of the deformed alloy. Applying its softening behavior, the Fe-6.5 wt%Si alloy with columnar grains was rolled at 400 deg. C and then at room temperature. An Fe-6.5 wt%Si thin strip with thickness of 0.20 mm was fabricated. The surface of the strip was bright and had no obvious edge cracks.

  1. Effect of addition of V and C on strain recovery characteristics in Fe-Mn-Si alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Chengxin; Wang Guixin; Wu Yandong; Liu Qingsuo; Zhang Jianjun

    2006-01-01

    Shape recoverable strain, recovery stress and low-temperature stress relaxation characteristics in an Fe-17Mn-5Si-10Cr-4Ni (0.08C) alloy and an Fe-17Mn-2Cr-5Si-2Ni-1V (0.23C) alloy have been studied by means of X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and measurement of recoverable strain and recovery stress. The amount of stress-induced ε martensite under tensile deformation at room temperature, recoverable strain and recovery stress are increased obviously with addition V and C in Fe-Mn-Si alloy, which is owing to the influence of addition V and C on strengthening austenitic matrix. Addition of V and C in Fe-Mn-Si alloy is evidently effective to reduce the degree of low-temperature stress relaxation, for the dispersed VC particles 50-180 nm in size precipitated during annealing restrain the stress induced martensitic transformation

  2. Characterization of carrier transport properties in strained crystalline Si wall-like structures in the quasi-quantum regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayberry, C. S.; Huang, Danhong, E-mail: danhong.huang@us.af.mil; Kouhestani, C. [Air Force Research Laboratory, Space Vehicles Directorate, Kirtland Air Force Base, New Mexico 87117 (United States); Balakrishnan, G. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87106 (United States); Islam, N. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Missouri-Columbia, Columbia, Missouri 65211 (United States); Brueck, S. R. J. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87106 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87106 (United States); Sharma, A. K. [Air Force Research Laboratory, Space Vehicles Directorate, Kirtland Air Force Base, New Mexico 87117 (United States); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87106 (United States)

    2015-10-07

    We report the transport characteristics of both electrons and holes through narrow constricted crystalline Si “wall-like” long-channels that were surrounded by a thermally grown SiO{sub 2} layer. The strained buffering depth inside the Si region (due to Si/SiO{sub 2} interfacial lattice mismatch) is where scattering is seen to enhance some modes of the carrier-lattice interaction, while suppressing others, thereby changing the relative value of the effective masses of both electrons and holes, as compared to bulk Si. In the narrowest wall devices, a considerable increase in conductivity was observed as a result of higher carrier mobilities due to lateral constriction and strain. The strain effects, which include the reversal splitting of light- and heavy-hole bands as well as the decrease of conduction-band effective mass by reduced Si bandgap energy, are formulated in our microscopic model for explaining the experimentally observed enhancements in both conduction- and valence-band mobilities with reduced Si wall thickness. Also, the enhancements of the valence-band and conduction-band mobilities are found to be associated with different aspects of theoretical model.

  3. Positron annihilation in Si and Si-related materials in thermal equilibrium at high temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uedono, A.; Muramatsu, M.; Ubukata, T.; Tanino, H.; Shiraishi, T.; Tanigawa, S.; Takasu, S.

    2001-01-01

    Annihilation characteristics of positrons in the carbon/Si structure in thermal equilibrium at high temperature were studied using a monoenergetic positron beam. Doppler broadening spectra of the annihilation radiation were measured as a function of incident positron energy in the temperature range between 298 K and 1473 K. Above 1173 K, the value of S corresponding to the annihilation of positrons near the carbon/Si interface started to increase, which was attributed to the carbonization of Si and the introduction of open-space defects due to the diffusion of Si atoms toward the carbon layer. The behavior of Ps in a thermally grown SiO 2 film was also studied at 298-1523 K. (orig.)

  4. High strain rate deformation of layered nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae-Hwang; Veysset, David; Singer, Jonathan P; Retsch, Markus; Saini, Gagan; Pezeril, Thomas; Nelson, Keith A; Thomas, Edwin L

    2012-01-01

    Insight into the mechanical behaviour of nanomaterials under the extreme condition of very high deformation rates and to very large strains is needed to provide improved understanding for the development of new protective materials. Applications include protection against bullets for body armour, micrometeorites for satellites, and high-speed particle impact for jet engine turbine blades. Here we use a microscopic ballistic test to report the responses of periodic glassy-rubbery layered block-copolymer nanostructures to impact from hypervelocity micron-sized silica spheres. Entire deformation fields are experimentally visualized at an exceptionally high resolution (below 10 nm) and we discover how the microstructure dissipates the impact energy via layer kinking, layer compression, extreme chain conformational flattening, domain fragmentation and segmental mixing to form a liquid phase. Orientation-dependent experiments show that the dissipation can be enhanced by 30% by proper orientation of the layers.

  5. High strain rate deformation of layered nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae-Hwang; Veysset, David; Singer, Jonathan P.; Retsch, Markus; Saini, Gagan; Pezeril, Thomas; Nelson, Keith A.; Thomas, Edwin L.

    2012-11-01

    Insight into the mechanical behaviour of nanomaterials under the extreme condition of very high deformation rates and to very large strains is needed to provide improved understanding for the development of new protective materials. Applications include protection against bullets for body armour, micrometeorites for satellites, and high-speed particle impact for jet engine turbine blades. Here we use a microscopic ballistic test to report the responses of periodic glassy-rubbery layered block-copolymer nanostructures to impact from hypervelocity micron-sized silica spheres. Entire deformation fields are experimentally visualized at an exceptionally high resolution (below 10 nm) and we discover how the microstructure dissipates the impact energy via layer kinking, layer compression, extreme chain conformational flattening, domain fragmentation and segmental mixing to form a liquid phase. Orientation-dependent experiments show that the dissipation can be enhanced by 30% by proper orientation of the layers.

  6. Effect of strain rate and temperature at high strains on fatigue behavior of SAP alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blucher, J.T.; Knudsen, Per; Grant, N.J.

    1968-01-01

    Fatigue behavior of three SAP alloys of two nominal compositions (7 and 13% Al2O3) was studied in terms of strain rate and temperature at high strains; strain rate had no effect on life at 80 F, but had increasingly greater effect with increasing temperature above 500 F; life decreased with decre......Fatigue behavior of three SAP alloys of two nominal compositions (7 and 13% Al2O3) was studied in terms of strain rate and temperature at high strains; strain rate had no effect on life at 80 F, but had increasingly greater effect with increasing temperature above 500 F; life decreased...

  7. EVALUATION OF DISTAL UPPER EXTREMITY (DUE MUSCULOSKELETAL DISORDERS BY STRAIN INDEX (SI IN AN IRONWORK INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed-Ali Moussavi-Najarkola

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims:Work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDS is one of the mostimportant problems in working populations of Iranian industries; so, in order to evaluate theintegrated roles and effects of various ergonomic risk factors inducing such disorders, the StrainIndex (SI methods was used.Methods: This was a cross-sectional study conducted on 448 male subjects including 63controls working in administrative jobs and 385 cases working in lathing, welding, melting andfoundry jobs using integrated procedure which includes observations, interview, NordicMusculoskeletal Questionnaire (NMQ methods and SI model. All workers were questioned.Data were analyzed using SPSS software v. 11 and Excel package.Results: The most prevalent MSDs in upper limbs were found in melting lathing, foundry andwelding respectively. There was a significant relationship between age and job groups (c2=7.33;df=16; p<0.001. One-way analysis of variance showed a significant differences among means ofcalculated Strain Indices of administrative (1.06, lathing (6.52, welding (3.68, melting (7.79and foundry (6.33 jobs (F=5.92; df=16; p=0.005. Also it was revealed that melting job wasattributed as "hazardous job" (4 risk level, lathing and foundry jobs were referred to "moderaterisk level" (3 risk level, welding job was allocated as "uncertain risk level" (2 risk level, andadministrative job was attributed as "safe risk level" (1 risk level. Moreover, there was asignificant relationship between DUE and job groups (c2=11.92; df=12; p=0.004.The paired ttestshowed significant difference with direct and relatively complete correlation between meansof Strain Indices in right (6.53 and left (4.29 hands (r=0.69; t=3.15; p<0.001.Conclusion: The Strain Index (SI model can be referred as an efficient and applicable methodfor the assessment of ergonomics risk factors inducing upper extremity musculoskeletal disorders(UEMSDs, classifying jobs, correcting and modifying work situations

  8. Strain engineered pyrochlore at high pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rittman, Dylan R.; Turner, Katlyn M.; Park, Sulgiye; Fuentes, Antonio F.; Park, Changyong; Ewing, Rodney C.; Mao, Wendy L.

    2017-05-22

    Strain engineering is a promising method for next-generation materials processing techniques. Here, we use mechanical milling and annealing followed by compression in diamond anvil cell to tailor the intrinsic and extrinsic strain in pyrochlore, Dy2Ti2O7 and Dy2Zr2O7. Raman spectroscopy, X-ray pair distribution function analysis, and X-ray diffraction were used to characterize atomic order over short-, medium-, and long-range spatial scales, respectively, under ambient conditions. Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction were further employed to interrogate the material in situ at high pressure. High-pressure behavior is found to depend on the species and concentration of defects in the sample at ambient conditions. Overall, we show that defects can be engineered to lower the phase transformation onset pressure by ~50% in the ordered pyrochlore Dy2Zr2O7, and lower the phase transformation completion pressure by ~20% in the disordered pyrochlore Dy2Zr2O7. These improvements are achieved without significantly sacrificing mechanical integrity, as characterized by bulk modulus.

  9. Ultra-high current density thin-film Si diode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qi [Littleton, CO

    2008-04-22

    A combination of a thin-film .mu.c-Si and a-Si:H containing diode structure characterized by an ultra-high current density that exceeds 1000 A/cm.sup.2, comprising: a substrate; a bottom metal layer disposed on the substrate; an n-layer of .mu.c-Si deposited the bottom metal layer; an i-layer of .mu.c-Si deposited on the n-layer; a buffer layer of a-Si:H deposited on the i-layer, a p-layer of .mu.c-Si deposited on the buffer layer; and a top metal layer deposited on the p-layer.

  10. Surface Morphology Transformation Under High-Temperature Annealing of Ge Layers Deposited on Si(100).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shklyaev, A A; Latyshev, A V

    2016-12-01

    We study the surface morphology and chemical composition of SiGe layers after their formation under high-temperature annealing at 800-1100 °C of 30-150 nm Ge layers deposited on Si(100) at 400-500 °C. It is found that the annealing leads to the appearance of the SiGe layers of two types, i.e., porous and continuous. The continuous layers have a smoothened surface morphology and a high concentration of threading dislocations. The porous and continuous layers can coexist. Their formation conditions and the ratio between their areas on the surface depend on the thickness of deposited Ge layers, as well as on the temperature and the annealing time. The data obtained suggest that the porous SiGe layers are formed due to melting of the strained Ge layers and their solidification in the conditions of SiGe dewetting on Si. The porous and dislocation-rich SiGe layers may have properties interesting for applications.

  11. The structural and electrical characterisation of SiGe heterostructures deposited on strain relaxed virtual substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammond, R.

    1998-09-01

    The influence of lateral dimensions on the relaxation mechanism and the resulting effect on the surface topography of limited-area, linearly graded Si 1-x Ge x virtual substrates has been investigated for the first time. A dramatic change in the relaxation mechanism of such buffer layers has been observed for depositions on Si mesa pillars of lateral dimensions of 10μm and below. For such depositions, misfit dislocations are able to extend, unhindered, and terminate at the edges of the growth zone. In this manner, orthogonal misfit dislocation interactions are avoided, yielding a surface free of the problematic surface cross-hatch roughening. However, as the lateral dimension of the growth zone is increased to 20μm, orthogonal misfit interactions occur and relaxation is dominated by the Modified Frank-Read (MFR) multiplication mechanism. The resulting surface morphology shows a pronounced surface cross-hatch roughening. It is proposed that such cross-hatch roughening is a direct consequence of the cooperative stress fields associated with the MFR mechanism. It is postulated that the method of limited-area, linearly graded buffer layers provides a unique opportunity, by which 'ideal' virtual substrates, free of surface cross-hatch and threading dislocations, may be produced to any Ge content. In addition, a unique method by which the electrical performance of low temperature, strained layer depositions may be optimised is discussed. The method relies on the elimination of as-grown lattice imperfections via a post growth thermal anneal treatment. A 25-fold increase in low temperature hole mobility of a Si 0.5 Ge 0.5 /Si 0.7 Ge 0.3 heterostructure has been demonstrated using a 30minute, 750 deg C in-situ, post growth anneal. (author)

  12. Comparative Study of Si and SiC MOSFETs for High Voltage Class D Audio Amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Dennis; Knott, Arnold; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2014-01-01

    Silicon (Si) Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistors (MOSFETs) are traditional utilised in class D audio amplifiers. It has been proposed to replace the traditional inefficient electrodynamic transducer with the electrostatic transducer. This imposes new high voltage requirements...... on the MOSFETs of class D amplifiers, and significantly reduces the selection of suitable MOSFETs. As a consequence it is investigated, if Silicon-Carbide (SiC) MOSFETs could represent a valid alternative. The theory of pulse timing errors are revisited for the application of high voltage and capactive loaded...... class D amplifiers. It is shown, that SiC MOSFETs can compete with Si MSOFETs in terms of THD. Validation is done using simulations and a 500 V amplifier driving a 100 nF load. THD+N below 0.3 % is reported...

  13. Coated Porous Si for High Performance On-Chip Supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigoras, K.; Keskinen, J.; Grönberg, L.; Ahopelto, J.; Prunnila, M.

    2014-11-01

    High performance porous Si based supercapacitor electrodes are demonstrated. High power density and stability is provided by ultra-thin TiN coating of the porous Si matrix. The TiN layer is deposited by atomic layer deposition (ALD), which provides sufficient conformality to reach the bottom of the high aspect ratio pores. Our porous Si supercapacitor devices exhibit almost ideal double layer capacitor characteristic with electrode volumetric capacitance of 7.3 F/cm3. Several orders of magnitude increase in power and energy density is obtained comparing to uncoated porous silicon electrodes. Good stability of devices is confirmed performing several thousands of charge/discharge cycles.

  14. Fabrication of highly oriented D03-Fe3Si nanocrystals by solid-state dewetting of Si ultrathin layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naito, Muneyuki; Nakagawa, Tatsuhiko; Machida, Nobuya; Shigematsu, Toshihiko; Nakao, Motoi; Sudoh, Koichi

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, highly oriented nanocrystals of Fe 3 Si with a D0 3 structure are fabricated on SiO 2 using ultrathin Si on insulator substrate. First, (001) oriented Si nanocrystals are formed on the SiO 2 layer by solid state dewetting of the top Si layer. Then, Fe addition to the Si nanocrystals is performed by reactive deposition epitaxy and post-deposition annealing at 500 °C. The structures of the Fe–Si nanocrystals are analyzed by cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy and nanobeam electron diffraction. We observe that Fe 3 Si nanocrystals with D0 3 , B2, and A2 structures coexist on the 1-h post-annealed samples. Prolonged annealing at 500 °C is effective in obtaining Fe 3 Si nanocrystals with a D0 3 single phase, thereby promoting structural ordering in the nanocrystals. We discuss the formation process of the highly oriented D0 3 -Fe 3 Si nanocrystals on the basis of the atomistic structural information. - Highlights: • Highly oriented Fe–Si nanocrystals (NCs) are fabricated by reactive deposition. • Si NCs formed by solid state dewetting of Si thin layers are used as seed crystals. • The structures of Fe–Si NCs are analyzed by nanobeam electron diffraction. • Most of Fe–Si NCs possess the D0 3 structure after post-deposition annealing

  15. A benchmark of co-flow and cyclic deposition/etch approaches for the selective epitaxial growth of tensile-strained Si:P

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, J. M.; Veillerot, M.; Prévitali, B.

    2017-10-01

    We have compared co-flow and cyclic deposition/etch processes for the selective epitaxial growth of Si:P layers. High growth rates, relatively low resistivities and significant amounts of tensile strain (up to 10 nm min-1, 0.55 mOhm cm and a strain equivalent to 1.06% of substitutional C in Si:C layers) were obtained at 700 °C, 760 Torr with a co-flow approach and a SiH2Cl2 + PH3 + HCl chemistry. This approach was successfully used to thicken the sources and drains regions of n-type fin-shaped Field Effect Transistors. Meanwhile, the (Si2H6 + PH3/HCl + GeH4) CDE process evaluated yielded at 600 °C, 80 Torr even lower resistivities (0.4 mOhm cm, typically), at the cost however of the tensile strain which was lost due to (i) the incorporation of Ge atoms (1.5%, typically) into the lattice during the selective etch steps and (ii) a reduction by a factor of two of the P atomic concentration in CDE layers compared to that in layers grown in a single step (5 × 1020 cm-3 compared to 1021 cm-3).

  16. Biotechnological Potential of Bacillus salmalaya 139SI: A Novel Strain for Remediating Water Polluted with Crude Oil Waste

    OpenAIRE

    Ismail, Salmah; Dadrasnia, Arezoo

    2015-01-01

    Environmental contamination by petroleum hydrocarbons, mainly crude oil waste from refineries, is becoming prevalent worldwide. This study investigates the bioremediation of water contaminated with crude oil waste. Bacillus salamalaya 139SI, a bacterium isolated from a private farm soil in the Kuala Selangor in Malaysia, was found to be a potential degrader of crude oil waste. When a microbial population of 108 CFU ml-1 was used, the 139SI strain degraded 79% and 88% of the total petroleum hy...

  17. Strain-engineering of Janus SiC monolayer functionalized with H and F atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drissi, L. B.; Sadki, K.; Kourra, M.-H.; Bousmina, M.

    2018-05-01

    Based on ab initio density functional theory calculations, the structural, electronic, mechanical, acoustic, thermodynamic, and piezoelectric properties of (F,H) Janus SiC monolayers are studied. The new set of derivatives shows buckled structures and different band gap values. Under strain, the buckling changes and the structures pass from semiconducting to metallic. The elastic limits and the metastable regions are determined. The Young's modulus and Poisson ratio reveal stronger behavior for the modified conformers with respect to graphene. The values of the Debye temperature make the new materials suitable for thermal application. Moreover, all the conformers show in-plane and out-of-plane piezoelectric responses comparable with known two-dimensional materials. If engineered, such piezoelectric Janus structures may be promising materials for various nanoelectromechanical applications.

  18. Investigation of stress–strain models for confined high strength ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    High strength concrete; confined concrete; stress–strain models; ... One of its advantages is the lessening column cross-sectional areas. It was ..... Ahmad S H, Shah S P 1982 Stress–strain curves of concrete confined by spiral reinforcement.

  19. Analytical modeling of subthreshold current and subthreshold swing of Gaussian-doped strained-Si-on-insulator MOSFETs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rawat, Gopal; Kumar, Sanjay; Goel, Ekta; Kumar, Mirgender; Jit, S.; Dubey, Sarvesh

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the analytical modeling of subthreshold current and subthreshold swing of short-channel fully-depleted (FD) strained-Si-on-insulator (SSOI) MOSFETs having vertical Gaussian-like doping profile in the channel. The subthreshold current and subthreshold swing have been derived using the parabolic approximation method. In addition to the effect of strain on silicon layer, various other device parameters such as channel length (L), gate-oxide thickness (t ox ), strained-Si channel thickness (t s-Si ), peak doping concentration (N P ), project range (R p ) and straggle (σ p ) of the Gaussian profile have been considered while predicting the device characteristics. The present work may help to overcome the degradation in subthreshold characteristics with strain engineering. These subthreshold current and swing models provide valuable information for strained-Si MOSFET design. Accuracy of the proposed models is verified using the commercially available ATLAS™, a two-dimensional (2D) device simulator from SILVACO. (semiconductor devices)

  20. Magnetostriction-strain-induced enhancement and modulation of photovoltaic performance in Si-p-n/TbxDy1-xFe2 composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Zheng; Zhang, Yihe; Fang, Cong; Ma, Ke; Lin, He; Jia, Yanmin; Chen, Jianrong; Wang, Yu; Chan, Helen Lai Wa

    2014-01-01

    High photovoltaic efficiency is a key index in the application of silicon (Si) solar cells. In this study, a composite of a photovoltaic Si p-n junction solar cell and a magnetostrictive Tb x Dy 1-x Fe 2 alloy was fabricated. By utilizing the magnetostrictive strain to modulate the energy bandgap of Si, the open-circuit voltage and the maximum photovoltaic output power of the Si p-n junction solar cell could be enhanced by ∝12% and 9.1% under a dc magnetic field of ∝250 mT, respectively. The significantly enhanced photovoltaic performance and the simple fabrication process make the Si-p-n/Tb x Dy 1-x Fe 2 composite a promising material for high-efficiency solar cell devices. The structure of the proposed Si-p-n/Tb x Dy 1-x Fe 2 laminated composite. (copyright 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  1. Magnetostriction-strain-induced enhancement and modulation of photovoltaic performance in Si-p-n/Tb{sub x}Dy{sub 1-x}Fe{sub 2} composite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Zheng [School of Materials Science and Technology, China University of Geosciences, Beijing (China); Department of Physics and College of Geography and Environmental Sciences, Zhejiang Normal University, Jinhua (China); Zhang, Yihe [School of Materials Science and Technology, China University of Geosciences, Beijing (China); Fang, Cong; Ma, Ke; Lin, He; Jia, Yanmin; Chen, Jianrong [Department of Physics and College of Geography and Environmental Sciences, Zhejiang Normal University, Jinhua (China); Wang, Yu; Chan, Helen Lai Wa [Department of Applied Physics, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University (China)

    2014-03-15

    High photovoltaic efficiency is a key index in the application of silicon (Si) solar cells. In this study, a composite of a photovoltaic Si p-n junction solar cell and a magnetostrictive Tb{sub x}Dy{sub 1-x}Fe{sub 2} alloy was fabricated. By utilizing the magnetostrictive strain to modulate the energy bandgap of Si, the open-circuit voltage and the maximum photovoltaic output power of the Si p-n junction solar cell could be enhanced by ∝12% and 9.1% under a dc magnetic field of ∝250 mT, respectively. The significantly enhanced photovoltaic performance and the simple fabrication process make the Si-p-n/Tb{sub x}Dy{sub 1-x}Fe{sub 2} composite a promising material for high-efficiency solar cell devices. The structure of the proposed Si-p-n/Tb{sub x}Dy{sub 1-x}Fe{sub 2} laminated composite. (copyright 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  2. Partial transformation of austenite in Al-Mn-Si TRIP steel upon tensile straining: an in situ EBSD study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lomholt, Trine Nybo; Adachi, Y.; da Silva Fanta, Alice Bastos

    2013-01-01

    The transformation of austenite to martensite in an Al–Mn–Si transformation-induced plasticity steel was investigated with in situ electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) measurements under tensile straining. The visualisation of the microstructure upon straining allows for an investigation...... to be more stable than large grains, while austenite grains located beside bainitic ferrite are the most stable. Moreover, it is demonstrated that austenite grains transform gradually...

  3. Strain characterization of fin-shaped field effect transistors with SiGe stressors using nanobeam electron diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sun-Wook; Byeon, Dae-Seop; Jang, Hyunchul; Koo, Sang-Mo; Ko, Dae-Hong; Lee, Hoo-Jeong

    2014-01-01

    This study undertook strain analysis on fin-shaped field effect transistor structures with epitaxial Si 1−x Ge x stressors, using nano-beam electron diffraction and finite elements method. Combining the two methods disclosed dynamic strain distribution in the source/drain and channel region of the fin structure, and the effects of dimensional factors such as the stressor thickness and fin width, offering valuable information for device design.

  4. Strain characterization of fin-shaped field effect transistors with SiGe stressors using nanobeam electron diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sun-Wook; Byeon, Dae-Seop; Jang, Hyunchul; Koo, Sang-Mo; Ko, Dae-Hong, E-mail: dhko@yonsei.ac.kr [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Hoo-Jeong, E-mail: hlee@skku.edu [Department of Advanced Materials Science and Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-08-25

    This study undertook strain analysis on fin-shaped field effect transistor structures with epitaxial Si{sub 1−x}Ge{sub x} stressors, using nano-beam electron diffraction and finite elements method. Combining the two methods disclosed dynamic strain distribution in the source/drain and channel region of the fin structure, and the effects of dimensional factors such as the stressor thickness and fin width, offering valuable information for device design.

  5. Band structure of Si/Ge core-shell nanowires along the [110] direction modulated by external uniaxial strain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Xihong; Tang Fu; Logan, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Strain modulated electronic properties of Si/Ge core-shell nanowires along the [110] direction were reported, on the basis of first principles density-functional theory calculations. In particular, the energy dispersion relationship of the conduction/valence band was explored in detail. At the Γ point, the energy levels of both bands are significantly altered by applied uniaxial strain, which results in an evident change of the band gap. In contrast, for the K vectors far away from Γ, the variation of the conduction/valence band with strain is much reduced. In addition, with a sufficient tensile strain (∼1%), the valence band edge shifts away from Γ, which indicates that the band gap of the Si/Ge core-shell nanowires experiences a transition from direct to indirect. Our studies further showed that effective masses of charge carriers can also be tuned using the external uniaxial strain. The effective mass of the hole increases dramatically with tensile strain, while strain shows a minimal effect on tuning the effective mass of the electron. Finally, the relation between strain and the conduction/valence band edge is discussed thoroughly in terms of site-projected wavefunction characters.

  6. Behaviors of SiC fibers at high temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colin, C.; Falanga, V.; Gelebart, L.

    2010-01-01

    On the one hand, considering the improvements of mechanical and thermal behaviours of the last generation of SiC fibers (Hi-Nicalon S, Tyranno SA3); on the other hand, regarding physical and chemical properties and stability under irradiation, SiC/SiC composites are potential candidates for nuclear applications in advanced fission and fusion reactors. CEA must characterize and optimize these composites before their uses in reactors. In order to study this material, CEA is developing a multi-scale approach by modelling from fibers to bulk composite specimen: fibres behaviours must be well known in first. Thus, CEA developed a specific tensile test device on single fibers at high temperature, named MecaSiC. Using this device, we have already characterized the thermoelastic and thermoelectric behaviours of SiC fibers. Additional results about the plastic properties at high temperatures were also obtained. Indeed, we performed tensile tests between 1200 degrees C up to 1700 degrees C to characterize this plastic behaviour. Some thermal annealing, up to 3 hours at 1700 degrees C, had been also performed. Furthermore, we compare the mechanical behaviours with the thermal evolution of the electric resistivity of these SiC fibers. Soon, MecaSiC will be coupled to a new charged particle accelerator. Thus, in this configuration, we will be able to study in-situ irradiation effects on fibre behaviours, as swelling or creep for example

  7. InSitu SEM Investigation of Microstructural Damage Evolution and Strain Relaxation in a Melt Infiltrated SiC/SiC Composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevener, Kathy; Chen, Zhe; Daly, Sam; Tracy, Jared; Kiser, Doug

    2016-01-01

    With CMC components poised to complete flight certification in turbine engines on commercial aircraft within the near future, there are many efforts within the aerospace community to model the mechanical and environmental degradation of CMCs. Direct observations of damage evolution are needed to support these modeling efforts and provide quantitative measures of damage parameters used in the various models. This study was performed to characterize the damage evolution during tensile loading of a melt infiltrated (MI) silicon carbide reinforced silicon carbide (SiC/SiC) composite. A SiC/SiC tensile coupon was loaded to a maximum global stress of 30 ksi in a tensile fixture within an SEM while observations were made at 5 ksi increments. Both traditional image analysis and DIC (digital image correlation) were used to quantify damage evolution. With the DIC analysis, microscale damage was observed at the fiber-matrix interfaces at stresses as low as 5 ksi. First matrix cracking took place between 20 and 25 ksi, accompanied by an observable relaxation in strain near matrix cracks. Matrix crack opening measurements at the maximum load ranged from 200 nm to 1.5 m. Crack opening along the fiber-matrix interface was also characterized as a function of load and angular position relative to the loading axis. This characterization was funded by NASA GRC and was performed to support NASA GRC modeling of SiC/SiC environmental degradation

  8. Engineering of nearly strain-free ZnO films on Si(1 1 1) by tuning AlN buffer thickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkatachalapathy, Vishnukanthan; Galeckas, Augustinas; Lee, In-Hwan; Kuznetsov, Andrej Yu.

    2012-01-01

    ZnO properties were investigated as a function of AlN buffer layer thickness (0–100 nm) in ZnO/AlN/Si(1 1 1) structures grown by metal organic vapor phase epitaxy. A significant improvement of ZnO film crystallinity by tuning AlN buffer thickness was confirmed by x-ray diffraction, topography and photoluminescence measurements. An optimal AlN buffer layer thickness of 50 nm is defined, which allows for growth of nearly strain-free ZnO films. The presence of free excitons at 10 K suggests high crystal quality for all ZnO samples grown on AlN/Si(1 1 1) templates. The intensities of neutral and ionized donor bound exciton lines are found to correlate with the in-plane and out-of-plane strain in the films, respectively.

  9. Engineering of nearly strain-free ZnO films on Si(1 1 1) by tuning AlN buffer thickness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venkatachalapathy, Vishnukanthan, E-mail: vishnukanthan.venkatachalapathy@smn.uio.no [Department of Physics/Centre for Materials Science and Nanotechnology, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1048 Blindern, NO-0316 Oslo (Norway); Galeckas, Augustinas [Department of Physics/Centre for Materials Science and Nanotechnology, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1048 Blindern, NO-0316 Oslo (Norway); Lee, In-Hwan [School of Advanced Materials Engineering, Research Centre for Advanced Materials Development (RCAMD), Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Kuznetsov, Andrej Yu. [Department of Physics/Centre for Materials Science and Nanotechnology, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1048 Blindern, NO-0316 Oslo (Norway)

    2012-05-15

    ZnO properties were investigated as a function of AlN buffer layer thickness (0-100 nm) in ZnO/AlN/Si(1 1 1) structures grown by metal organic vapor phase epitaxy. A significant improvement of ZnO film crystallinity by tuning AlN buffer thickness was confirmed by x-ray diffraction, topography and photoluminescence measurements. An optimal AlN buffer layer thickness of 50 nm is defined, which allows for growth of nearly strain-free ZnO films. The presence of free excitons at 10 K suggests high crystal quality for all ZnO samples grown on AlN/Si(1 1 1) templates. The intensities of neutral and ionized donor bound exciton lines are found to correlate with the in-plane and out-of-plane strain in the films, respectively.

  10. Investigation of high mobility pseudomorphic SiGe p-channels in Si MOSFETS at low and high electric fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, Martin John

    2001-01-01

    Silicon Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Field Effect Transistors (MOSFETs) for high speed, high current applications are rapidly approaching the physical and financial limits of the technology. This opens opportunities for the incorporation of materials with intrinsically better transport characteristics. An alloy of silicon and germanium is one such material that is gaining much recognition as the active component of MOSFETs and as the secondary structures (such as the gate electrode). This work examines a batch of buried channel Si 0.64 Ge 0.36 p-MOSFETs, with a minimum effective length of 0.35 μm, under different bias conditions and at different temperatures. High current and transconductance enhancements are apparent at long gate lengths. The carrier mobility is up to a factor of 2.5 times that of silicon at room temperature and 7.5 times at 4 K. A clear trend of decreasing peak mobility with decreasing silicon cap thickness is evident. Simulations show that scattering caused by the roughness of the SiO 2 /Si interface dominates, rather than alloy scattering or Si/SiGe roughness, even for a buried channel. This scattering increases with the proximity of the carriers to the interface. An increase of interface trap density with decreasing cap thickness, demonstrates that segregated germanium exists some distance into the cap and interferes with the oxidation process. This will increase scattering through increased SiO 2 /Si roughness and increased trapped charge. The short channel, high field results are comparable or slightly worse than those of silicon due to lower saturation drift velocity. However, fitting to a drift-diffusion model shows an apparent increase in saturation velocity for short channels, especially at low temperatures. This effect correlates with the low field mobility and is greater for devices containing SiGe. This is an indication of velocity overshoot, which may enhance the performance of SiGe MOSFETs at deep submicron gate lengths. (author)

  11. Enhancement of breakdown voltage for fully-vertical GaN-on-Si p-n diode by using strained layer superlattice as drift layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mase, Suguru; Hamada, Takeaki; Freedsman, Joseph J.; Egawa, Takashi

    2018-06-01

    We have demonstrated a vertical GaN-on-Si p-n diode with breakdown voltage (BV) as high as 839 V by using a low Si-doped strained layer superlattice (SLS). The p-n vertical diode fabricated by using the n‑-SLS layer as a part of the drift layer showed a remarkable enhancement in BV, when compared with the conventional n‑-GaN drift layer of similar thickness. The vertical GaN-on-Si p-n diodes with 2.3 μm-thick n‑-GaN drift layer and 3.0 μm-thick n‑-SLS layer exhibited a differential on-resistance of 4.0 Ω · cm2 and a BV of 839 V.

  12. Periodically structured Si pillars for high-performing heterojunction photodetectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melvin David Kumar, M.; Yun, Ju-Hyung; Kim, Joondong

    2015-03-01

    A periodical array of silicon (Si) micro pillar structures was fabricated on Si substrates using PR etching process. Indium tin oxide (ITO) layer of 80 nm thickness was deposited over patterned Si substrates so as to make ITO/n-Si heterojunction devices. The influences of width and period of pillars on the optical and electrical properties of prepared devices were investigated. The surface morphology of the Si substrates revealed the uniform array of pillar structures. The 5/10 (width/period) Si pillar pattern reduced the optical reflectance to 6.5% from 17% which is of 5/7 pillar pattern. The current rectifying ratio was found higher for the device in which the pillars are situated in optimum periods. At both visible (600 nm) and near infrared (900 nm) range of wavelengths, the 5/7 and 5/10 pillar patterned device exhibited the better photoresponses which are suitable for making advanced photodetectors. This highly transmittance and photoresponsive pillar patterned Si substrates with an ITO layer would be a promising device for various photoelectric applications.

  13. Metallization of ion beam synthesized Si/3C-SiC/Si layer systems by high-dose implantation of transition metal ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindner, J.K.N.; Wenzel, S.; Stritzker, B.

    2001-01-01

    The formation of metal silicide layers contacting an ion beam synthesized buried 3C-SiC layer in silicon by means of high-dose titanium and molybdenum implantations is reported. Two different strategies to form such contact layers are explored. The titanium implantation aims to convert the Si top layer of an epitaxial Si/SiC/Si layer sequence into TiSi 2 , while Mo implantations were performed directly into the SiC layer after selectively etching off all capping layers. Textured and high-temperature stable C54-TiSi 2 layers with small additions of more metal-rich silicides are obtained in the case of the Ti implantations. Mo implantations result in the formation of the high-temperature phase β-MoSi 2 , which also grows textured on the substrate. The formation of cavities in the silicon substrate at the lower SiC/Si interface due to the Si consumption by the growing silicide phase is observed in both cases. It probably constitutes a problem, occurring whenever thin SiC films on silicon have to be contacted by silicide forming metals independent of the deposition technique used. It is shown that this problem can be solved with ion beam synthesized contact layers by proper adjustment of the metal ion dose

  14. Onset temperature for Si nanostructure growth on Si substrate during high vacuum electron beam annealing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, F; Markwitz, A

    2009-05-01

    Silicon nanostructures, called Si nanowhiskers, are successfully synthesized on Si(100) substrate by high vacuum electron beam annealing. The onset temperature and duration needed for the Si nanowhiskers to grow was investigated. It was found that the onset and growth morphology of Si nanowhiskers strongly depend on the annealing temperature and duration applied in the annealing cycle. The onset temperature for nanowhisker growth was determined as 680 degrees C using an annealing duration of 90 min and temperature ramps of +5 degrees C s(-1) for heating and -100 degrees C s(-1) for cooling. Decreasing the annealing time at peak temperature to 5 min required an increase in peak temperature to 800 degrees C to initiate the nanowhisker growth. At 900 degrees C the duration for annealing at peak temperature can be set to 0 s to grow silicon nanowhiskers. A correlation was found between the variation in annealing temperature and duration and the nanowhisker height and density. Annealing at 900 degrees C for 0 s, only 2-3 nanowhiskers (average height 2.4 nm) grow on a surface area of 5 x 5 microm, whereas more than 500 nanowhiskers with an important average height of 4.6 nm for field emission applications grow on the same surface area for a sample annealed at 970 degrees C for 0 s. Selected results are presented showing the possibility of controlling the density and height of Si nanowhisker growth for field emission applications by applying different annealing temperature and duration.

  15. Characterization of Carrier Transport Properties in Strained Crystalline Si Wall-Like Structures as a Function of Scaling into the Quasi-Quantum Regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-03

    multi-gate or tri-gate architectures , also known as FinFET technology, although these devices have achieved performance enhancement by virtue of...Strain distribution around SiO2/Si interface in Si nanowires: A Molecular Dynamics Study,” Japanese Journal of Applied Physics 46, p. 3277, 2007

  16. The Effects of Annealing Temperatures on Composition and Strain in SixGe1−x Obtained by Melting Growth of Electrodeposited Ge on Si (100)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abidin, Mastura Shafinaz Zainal; Morshed, Tahsin; Chikita, Hironori; Kinoshita, Yuki; Muta, Shunpei; Anisuzzaman, Mohammad; Park, Jong-Hyeok; Matsumura, Ryo; Mahmood, Mohamad Rusop; Sadoh, Taizoh; Hashim, Abdul Manaf

    2014-01-01

    The effects of annealing temperatures on composition and strain in SixGe1−x, obtained by rapid melting growth of electrodeposited Ge on Si (100) substrate were investigated. Here, a rapid melting process was performed at temperatures of 1000, 1050 and 1100°C for 1 s. All annealed samples show single crystalline structure in (100) orientation. A significant appearance of Si-Ge vibration mode peak at ~00 cm−1 confirms the existence of Si-Ge intermixing due to out-diffusion of Si into Ge region. On a rapid melting process, Ge melts and reaches the thermal equilibrium in short time. Si at Ge/Si interface begins to dissolve once in contact with the molten Ge to produce Si-Ge intermixing. The Si fraction in Si-Ge intermixing was calculated by taking into account the intensity ratio of Ge-Ge and Si-Ge vibration mode peaks and was found to increase with the annealing temperatures. It is found that the strain turns from tensile to compressive as the annealing temperature increases. The Si fraction dependent thermal expansion coefficient of SixGe1−x is a possible cause to generate such strain behavior. The understanding of compositional and strain characteristics is important in Ge/Si heterostructure as these properties seem to give significant effects in device performance. PMID:28788521

  17. The Effects of Annealing Temperatures on Composition and Strain in SixGe1−x Obtained by Melting Growth of Electrodeposited Ge on Si (100

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mastura Shafinaz Zainal Abidin

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The effects of annealing temperatures on composition and strain in SixGe1−x, obtained by rapid melting growth of electrodeposited Ge on Si (100 substrate were investigated. Here, a rapid melting process was performed at temperatures of 1000, 1050 and 1100 °C for 1 s. All annealed samples show single crystalline structure in (100 orientation. A significant appearance of Si-Ge vibration mode peak at ~400 cm−1 confirms the existence of Si-Ge intermixing due to out-diffusion of Si into Ge region. On a rapid melting process, Ge melts and reaches the thermal equilibrium in short time. Si at Ge/Si interface begins to dissolve once in contact with the molten Ge to produce Si-Ge intermixing. The Si fraction in Si-Ge intermixing was calculated by taking into account the intensity ratio of Ge-Ge and Si-Ge vibration mode peaks and was found to increase with the annealing temperatures. It is found that the strain turns from tensile to compressive as the annealing temperature increases. The Si fraction dependent thermal expansion coefficient of SixGe1−x is a possible cause to generate such strain behavior. The understanding of compositional and strain characteristics is important in Ge/Si heterostructure as these properties seem to give significant effects in device performance.

  18. The effect of cooling and strain on martensitic transformation in Fe-Ni-Cr-Mn-Si alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Shin Hwa; Nam, Won Jong; Yoon, Man Son; Kang, Shin Wang; Lee, Dong Hyung

    1991-01-01

    In Fe-Ni-Cr-Mn-Si shape memory alloy, the effect of cooling methods and strain on the martensitic transformation was investigated. After the solution treatment at 900 deg C for 30 minutes, the specimens were air cooled, water cooled and quenched in liquid nitrogen. For air cooled specimens only austenite phase was detected, whereas austenite and ε-martensite phases were detected for specimens water cooled or quenched in liquid nitrogen. The amount of ε-martensite was increased with the cooling rate and strain. But the increasing rate of the amount of ε-martensite was decreased at 5% strain in air cooling and at 3% strain in water cooling, respectively. The occurrence of α-martensite was found at about 5% strain in air cooled specimens. For water cooled specimens it was found at about 3% strain. These strains almost coinceded with the strains at which the increasing rate of the amount of ε-martensite was changed. The occurrence of α-martensite in specimens quenched in liquid nitrogen was found less than 0.5% strain. (Author)

  19. Si-FeSi2/C nanocomposite anode materials produced by two-stage high-energy mechanical milling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yun Mo; Loka, Chadrasekhar; Kim, Dong Phil; Joo, Sin Yong; Moon, Sung Whan; Choi, Yi Sik; Park, Jung Han; Lee, Kee-Sun

    2017-05-01

    High capacity retention Silicon-based nanocomposite anode materials have been extensively explored for use in lithium-ion rechargeable batteries. Here we report the preparation of Si-FeSi2/C nanocomposite through scalable a two-stage high-energy mechanical milling process, in which nano-scale Si-FeSi2 powders are besieged by the carbon (graphite/amorphous phase) layer; and investigation of their structure, morphology and electrochemical performance. Raman analysis revealed that the carbon layer structure comprised of graphitic and amorphous phase rather than a single amorphous phase. Anodes fabricated with the Si-FeSi2/C showed excellent electrochemical behavior such as a first discharge capacity of 1082 mAh g-1 and a high capacity retention until the 30th cycle. A remarkable coulombic efficiency of 99.5% was achieved within a few cycles. Differential capacity plots of the Si-FeSi2/C anodes revealed a stable lithium reaction with Si for lithiation/delithiation. The enhanced electrochemical properties of the Si-FeSi2/C nanocomposite are mainly attributed to the nano-size Si and stable solid electrolyte interface formation and highly conductive path driven by the carbon layer.

  20. Research on low strain magnetic mechanical hysteresis damping performance of Fe-15Cr-3Mo-0.5Si alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Hui; Huang, Huawei; Hong, Xiaofeng; Yin, Changgeng; Huang, Zhaohua; Chen, Le

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Heat treatment system has a great effect on the alloy damping performance. • Damping performance does not improve monotonously with temperature. • Furnace cooling is higher than that of alloy after air cooling. • There is an optimum annealing temperature and grain size to obtain high damping. - Abstract: This paper studies the preparation of Fe-15Cr-3Mo-0.5Si alloy by using vacuum induction melting furnace and vacuum annealing furnace, the damping performance of which in different heat treatment states is tested with dynamic mechanical thermal analyzer (DMA). Through microstructure observation with metallographic microscope (OM), grain boundary observation with scanning electron microscopy (SEM), phase structure analysis with X-ray diffraction (XRD) and internal stress of S-B model analysis, the effect law of annealing temperature, types of cooling, holding time and grain sizes on the damping performance of alloy and the related mechanism can be concluded as follows. The annealing temperature and grain sizes have a significant impact on the damping strain amplitude as well as the magnetic and mechanical damping performance of this ferromagnetic alloy. Proper annealing temperature and grain size is the necessary condition to get high damping performance of the alloy. It is not conducive to improvement of the damping performance if the annealing temperature is too high or too low and the grain size is too small or too large. For Fe-15Cr-3Mo-0.5Si alloy, within the range of the low strain amplitude, alloy damping performance does not improve monotonously with the increase of the annealing temperature and grain size. The maximum value appears at the annealing temperature of 1100 °C/1 h with the grain size of about 300 μm. At high annealing temperature of 1100 °C, the damping performance of alloy in the slow cooling furnace is higher than that with air cooling treatment. The extension or shortening of the holding time, to a certain extent

  1. Research on low strain magnetic mechanical hysteresis damping performance of Fe-15Cr-3Mo-0.5Si alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Hui, E-mail: qinghe5525@163.com; Huang, Huawei; Hong, Xiaofeng; Yin, Changgeng; Huang, Zhaohua; Chen, Le

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • Heat treatment system has a great effect on the alloy damping performance. • Damping performance does not improve monotonously with temperature. • Furnace cooling is higher than that of alloy after air cooling. • There is an optimum annealing temperature and grain size to obtain high damping. - Abstract: This paper studies the preparation of Fe-15Cr-3Mo-0.5Si alloy by using vacuum induction melting furnace and vacuum annealing furnace, the damping performance of which in different heat treatment states is tested with dynamic mechanical thermal analyzer (DMA). Through microstructure observation with metallographic microscope (OM), grain boundary observation with scanning electron microscopy (SEM), phase structure analysis with X-ray diffraction (XRD) and internal stress of S-B model analysis, the effect law of annealing temperature, types of cooling, holding time and grain sizes on the damping performance of alloy and the related mechanism can be concluded as follows. The annealing temperature and grain sizes have a significant impact on the damping strain amplitude as well as the magnetic and mechanical damping performance of this ferromagnetic alloy. Proper annealing temperature and grain size is the necessary condition to get high damping performance of the alloy. It is not conducive to improvement of the damping performance if the annealing temperature is too high or too low and the grain size is too small or too large. For Fe-15Cr-3Mo-0.5Si alloy, within the range of the low strain amplitude, alloy damping performance does not improve monotonously with the increase of the annealing temperature and grain size. The maximum value appears at the annealing temperature of 1100 °C/1 h with the grain size of about 300 μm. At high annealing temperature of 1100 °C, the damping performance of alloy in the slow cooling furnace is higher than that with air cooling treatment. The extension or shortening of the holding time, to a certain extent

  2. Technique for producing highly planar Si/SiO0.64Ge0.36/Si metal–oxide–semiconductor field effect transistor channels

    OpenAIRE

    Grasby, T. J.; Parry, C. P.; Phillips, P. J. (Peter J.); McGregor, Barry M.; Morris, R. J. H. (Richard J. H.); Braithwaite, Glyn; Whall, Terry E.; Parker, Evan H. C.; Hammond, Richard; Knights, Andrew P.; Coleman, P. G.

    1999-01-01

    Si/Si0.64Ge0.36/Si heterostructures have been grown at low temperature (450 °C) to avoid the strain-induced roughening observed for growth temperatures of 550 °C and above. The electrical properties of these structures are poor, and thought to be associated with grown-in point defects as indicated in positron annihilation spectroscopy. However, after an in situ annealing procedure (800 °C for 30 min) the electrical properties dramatically improve, giving an optimum 4 K mobility of 2500 cm2 V ...

  3. The strain effect in the surface barrier structures prepared on the basis of n-Si and p-Si

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mamatkarimov, O.O.; Tuychiev, U.A.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: One of the ways of creation of large deformations in small volume of the semiconductor is the deformation created by a needle. At insignificant change of external influence the large deformation under a needle in small volume of the semiconductor the significant change of electrophysical parameters of the semiconductor in small volume is created. Therefore, in the present work the results of researches of local pressure influence on physical properties of surface barrier structures has been performed on the basis of silicon with Ni and Mn impurity. The relative changes of a direct current made on the basis n-Si and p-Si from a different degree of compensation are given depending on size of local pressure are shown. Change of current in structures Au-Si -Sb with specific resistance of base ρ=80 Ω·cm and ρ=200 Ω·cm are I p /I 0 =3-3.5 times and I P /I ) =2-2.5 times at pressure P=1.6·10 8 Pa respectively. These data show, that in structures received on the basis of initial silicon, change of a direct current with pressure is in inverse proportion to size of resistance of base of the diode. And in structures Au-Si -Sb with specific resistance of base ρ=5·10 2 Ω·cm and ρ=3·10 3 Ω·cm these changes accordingly are I P /I 0 =7 and I P /I 0 =14. Changes of direct current relative to initial value for structures on the basis p-Si with specific resistance ρ=7·10 2 Ω·cm and ρ=4·10 3 Ω·cm) are I P /I 0 =9 and I P /I 0 =16 respectively. The same changes of direct current of structures on the basis P-Si at local pressure are I P /I 0 =2-2.5. The given values I P /I 0 testify that as in structures Au-Si -Sb, and structures Sb-p-Si -Au, unlike structures on the basis of initial silicon, the values I P /I 0 are increased with increase of specific resistance of base of structures

  4. Depth profile of strain and composition in Si/Ge dot multilayers by microscopic phonon Raman spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, P.H.; Bougeard, D.; Abstreiter, G.; Brunner, K.

    2005-01-01

    We characterized strain and Ge content depending on depth in a self-assembled Si/Ge dot multilayer by scanning a microscopic Raman probe at a (110) cleavage plane. The multilayer structure was deposited by molecular-beam epitaxy on a (001) Si substrate and consisted of 80 periods, each of them composed by 25 nm Si spacers and 8 monolayer Ge forming laterally and vertically uncorrelated islands with a height of 2 nm and a lateral diameter of about 20 nm. An average biaxial strain of -3.5% within the core regions of islands is determined from the splitting of longitudinal and transversal optical Ge-Ge phonon modes observed in polarized Raman measurements. The absolute mode frequencies further enable analysis of a Ge content of 0.82. The analyzed strain and composition of islands are nearly independent from depths below the sample surface. This indicates well-controlled deposition parameters and negligible intermixing during deposition of subsequent layers. These Raman results are in agreement with x-ray diffraction data. Small, local Raman frequency shifts were observed and discussed with respect to partial elastic strain relaxation of the multilayer stack after cleavage, undefined Raman-scattering geometries at the sample edge, and local heating by the laser probe

  5. GaN transistors on Si for switching and high-frequency applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Tetsuzo; Ishida, Masahiro; Tanaka, Tsuyoshi; Ueda, Daisuke

    2014-10-01

    In this paper, recent advances of GaN transistors on Si for switching and high-frequency applications are reviewed. Novel epitaxial structures including superlattice interlayers grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) relieve the strain and eliminate the cracks in the GaN over large-diameter Si substrates up to 8 in. As a new device structure for high-power switching application, Gate Injection Transistors (GITs) with a p-AlGaN gate over an AlGaN/GaN heterostructure successfully achieve normally-off operations maintaining high drain currents and low on-state resistances. Note that the GITs on Si are free from current collapse up to 600 V, by which the drain current would be markedly reduced after the application of high drain voltages. Highly efficient operations of an inverter and DC-DC converters are presented as promising applications of GITs for power switching. The high efficiencies in an inverter, a resonant LLC converter, and a point-of-load (POL) converter demonstrate the superior potential of the GaN transistors on Si. As for high-frequency transistors, AlGaN/GaN heterojuction field-effect transistors (HFETs) on Si designed specifically for microwave and millimeter-wave frequencies demonstrate a sufficiently high output power at these frequencies. Output powers of 203 W at 2.5 GHz and 10.7 W at 26.5 GHz are achieved by the fabricated GaN transistors. These devices for switching and high-frequency applications are very promising as future energy-efficient electronics because of their inherent low fabrication cost and superior device performance.

  6. Parallel Microcracks-based Ultrasensitive and Highly Stretchable Strain Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amjadi, Morteza; Turan, Mehmet; Clementson, Cameron P; Sitti, Metin

    2016-03-02

    There is an increasing demand for flexible, skin-attachable, and wearable strain sensors due to their various potential applications. However, achieving strain sensors with both high sensitivity and high stretchability is still a grand challenge. Here, we propose highly sensitive and stretchable strain sensors based on the reversible microcrack formation in composite thin films. Controllable parallel microcracks are generated in graphite thin films coated on elastomer films. Sensors made of graphite thin films with short microcracks possess high gauge factors (maximum value of 522.6) and stretchability (ε ≥ 50%), whereas sensors with long microcracks show ultrahigh sensitivity (maximum value of 11,344) with limited stretchability (ε ≤ 50%). We demonstrate the high performance strain sensing of our sensors in both small and large strain sensing applications such as human physiological activity recognition, human body large motion capturing, vibration detection, pressure sensing, and soft robotics.

  7. High thermal conductivity SiC/SiC composites for fusion applications -- 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kowbel, W.; Tsou, K.T.; Withers, J.C.; Youngblood, G.E.

    1998-01-01

    This report covers material presented at the IEA/Jupiter Joint International Workshop on SiC/SiC Composites for Fusion Structural Applications held in conjunction with ICFRM-8, Sendai, Japan, Oct. 23--24, 1997. An unirradiated SiC/SiC composite made with MER-developed CVR SiC fiber and a hybrid PIP/CVI SiC matrix exhibited room temperature transverse thermal conductivity of 45 W/mK. An unirradiated SiC/SiC composite made from C/C composite totally CVR-converted to a SiC/SiC composite exhibited transverse thermal conductivity values of 75 and 35 W/mK at 25 and 1000 C, respectively. Both types of SiC/SiC composites exhibited non-brittle failure in flexure testing

  8. Analytical threshold voltage modeling of ion-implanted strained-Si double-material double-gate (DMDG) MOSFETs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, Ekta; Singh, Balraj; Kumar, Sanjay; Singh, Kunal; Jit, Satyabrata

    2017-04-01

    Two dimensional threshold voltage model of ion-implanted strained-Si double-material double-gate MOSFETs has been done based on the solution of two dimensional Poisson's equation in the channel region using the parabolic approximation method. Novelty of the proposed device structure lies in the amalgamation of the advantages of both the strained-Si channel and double-material double-gate structure with a vertical Gaussian-like doping profile. The effects of different device parameters (such as device channel length, gate length ratios, germanium mole fraction) and doping parameters (such as projected range, straggle parameter) on threshold voltage of the proposed structure have been investigated. It is observed that the subthreshold performance of the device can be improved by simply controlling the doping parameters while maintaining other device parameters constant. The modeling results show a good agreement with the numerical simulation data obtained by using ATLAS™, a 2D device simulator from SILVACO.

  9. Biotechnological potential of Bacillus salmalaya 139SI: a novel strain for remediating water polluted with crude oil waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Salmah; Dadrasnia, Arezoo

    2015-01-01

    Environmental contamination by petroleum hydrocarbons, mainly crude oil waste from refineries, is becoming prevalent worldwide. This study investigates the bioremediation of water contaminated with crude oil waste. Bacillus salamalaya 139SI, a bacterium isolated from a private farm soil in the Kuala Selangor in Malaysia, was found to be a potential degrader of crude oil waste. When a microbial population of 108 CFU ml-1 was used, the 139SI strain degraded 79% and 88% of the total petroleum hydrocarbons after 42 days of incubation in mineral salt media containing 2% and 1% of crude oil waste, respectively, under optimum conditions. In the uninoculated medium containing 1% crude oil waste, 6% was degraded. Relative to the control, the degradation was significantly greater when a bacteria count of 99 × 108 CFU ml-1 was added to the treatments polluted with 1% oil. Thus, this isolated strain is useful for enhancing the biotreatment of oil in wastewater.

  10. Biotechnological potential of Bacillus salmalaya 139SI: a novel strain for remediating water polluted with crude oil waste.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salmah Ismail

    Full Text Available Environmental contamination by petroleum hydrocarbons, mainly crude oil waste from refineries, is becoming prevalent worldwide. This study investigates the bioremediation of water contaminated with crude oil waste. Bacillus salamalaya 139SI, a bacterium isolated from a private farm soil in the Kuala Selangor in Malaysia, was found to be a potential degrader of crude oil waste. When a microbial population of 108 CFU ml-1 was used, the 139SI strain degraded 79% and 88% of the total petroleum hydrocarbons after 42 days of incubation in mineral salt media containing 2% and 1% of crude oil waste, respectively, under optimum conditions. In the uninoculated medium containing 1% crude oil waste, 6% was degraded. Relative to the control, the degradation was significantly greater when a bacteria count of 99 × 108 CFU ml-1 was added to the treatments polluted with 1% oil. Thus, this isolated strain is useful for enhancing the biotreatment of oil in wastewater.

  11. High temperature flow behaviour of SiC reinforced lithium

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The compressive flow behaviour of lithium aluminosilicate (LAS) glass, with and without SiC particulate reinforcements, was studied. The LAS glass crystallized to spodumene during high-temperature testing. The flow behaviour of LAS glass changed from Newtonian to non-Newtonian due to the presence of crystalline ...

  12. Capacitance high temperature strain transducer by Interatom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fortmann, M.

    1987-01-01

    Special strain transducers are necessary to perform structure mechanical experiments on real components under creep-fatigue load. The new development of the transducer was able to solve the problem. In the meantime, different characteristics of the transducer have been examined and many successful applications have been effected. Some important aspects are given in this report. Up to now the longest operation period has been 24000 h on a pipe at 630 0 C service temperature in a conventional power station. (orig./DG) [de

  13. Mechanical strength model for plastic bonded granular materials at high strain rates and large strains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Browning, R.V.; Scammon, R.J.

    1998-01-01

    Modeling impact events on systems containing plastic bonded explosive materials requires accurate models for stress evolution at high strain rates out to large strains. For example, in the Steven test geometry reactions occur after strains of 0.5 or more are reached for PBX-9501. The morphology of this class of materials and properties of the constituents are briefly described. We then review the viscoelastic behavior observed at small strains for this class of material, and evaluate large strain models used for granular materials such as cap models. Dilatation under shearing deformations of the PBX is experimentally observed and is one of the key features modeled in cap style plasticity theories, together with bulk plastic flow at high pressures. We propose a model that combines viscoelastic behavior at small strains but adds intergranular stresses at larger strains. A procedure using numerical simulations and comparisons with results from flyer plate tests and low rate uniaxial stress tests is used to develop a rough set of constants for PBX-9501. Comparisons with the high rate flyer plate tests demonstrate that the observed characteristic behavior is captured by this viscoelastic based model. copyright 1998 American Institute of Physics

  14. Theoretical Prediction of an Antimony-Silicon Monolayer (penta-Sb2Si): Band Gap Engineering by Strain Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morshedi, Hosein; Naseri, Mosayeb; Hantehzadeh, Mohammad Reza; Elahi, Seyed Mohammad

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, using a first principles calculation, a two-dimensional structure of silicon-antimony named penta-Sb2Si is predicted. The structural, kinetic, and thermal stabilities of the predicted monolayer are confirmed by the cohesive energy calculation, phonon dispersion analysis, and first principles molecular dynamic simulation, respectively. The electronic properties investigation shows that the pentagonal Sb2Si monolayer is a semiconductor with an indirect band gap of about 1.53 eV (2.1 eV) from GGA-PBE (PBE0 hybrid functional) calculations which can be effectively engineered by employing external biaxial compressive and tensile strain. Furthermore, the optical characteristics calculation indicates that the predicted monolayer has considerable optical absorption and reflectivity in the ultraviolet region. The results suggest that a Sb2Si monolayer has very good potential applications in new nano-optoelectronic devices.

  15. Experiments and Modeling of Si-Ge Interdiffusion with Partial Strain Relaxation in Epitaxial SiGe Heterostructures

    KAUST Repository

    Dong, Y.; Mooney, P. M.; Cai, F.; Anjum, Dalaver H.; Ur-Rehman, N.; Zhang, Xixiang; Xia, G. (Maggie)

    2014-01-01

    ”, while interdiffusion was negligible. With the approximation that the R value is constant after the ramp-up stage, a quantitative interdiffusivity model was built to account for both the effect of strain relaxation and the impact of the relaxation induced

  16. Methodology to measure strains at high temperatures using electrical strain gages with free filaments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atanazio Filho, Nelson N.; Gomes, Paulo T. Vida; Scaldaferri, Denis H.B.; Silva, Luiz L. da; Rabello, Emerson G.; Mansur, Tanius R.

    2013-01-01

    An experimental methodology used for strains measuring at high temperatures is show in this work. In order to do the measurements, it was used electric strain gages with loose filaments attached to a stainless steel 304 beam with specific cements. The beam has triangular shape and a constant thickness, so the strain is the same along its length. Unless the beam surface be carefully prepared, the strain gage attachment is not efficient. The showed results are for temperatures ranging from 20 deg C to 300 deg C, but the experimental methodology could be used to measure strains at a temperature up to 900 deg C. Analytical calculations based on solid mechanics were used to verify the strain gage electrical installation and the measured strains. At a first moment, beam deformations as a temperature function were plotted. After that, beam deformations with different weighs were plotted as a temperature function. The results shown allowed concluding that the experimental methodology is trustable to measure strains at temperatures up to 300 deg C. (author)

  17. Twinning in copper deformed at high strain rates

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Copper samples having varying microstructures were deformed at high strain rates using a split-. Hopkinson pressure bar. Transmission electron microscopy results show deformation twins present in samples that were both annealed and strained, whereas samples that were annealed and left unstrained, as well ...

  18. High-Temperature Photovoltaic Effect in La.Ca.MnO/SiO/Si Heterojunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Ni

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We fabricated a heterojunction of La0.4Ca0.6MnO3/SiO/n-Si and investigated its electronic transport and ultraviolet photovoltaic properties at higher temperature up to 673 K. The rectifying behaviors vanished with the energy-band structure evolvement from 300 to 673 K. Under irradiation of a 248 nm pulse laser, the peak values of open-circuit photovoltage and short-circuit photocurrent decreased drastically. This understanding of the temperature-related current-voltage behavior and ultraviolet photodetection of oxide heterostructures should open a route for devising future microelectronic devices working at high temperature. PACS: 73.40.Lq, 71.27.+ a, 73.50.Pz.

  19. High energy X-ray diffraction analysis of strain and residual stress in silicon nitride ceramic diffusion bonds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vila, M.; Prieto, C.; Miranzo, P.; Osendi, M.I.; Terry, A.E.; Vaughan, G.B.M.

    2005-01-01

    High resolution X-ray scanning diffractometry is used to study the residual stress in binary metal/ceramic (Ni/Si 3 N 4 ) diffusion bonds fabricated by simultaneous high temperature heating and uniaxial pressing. In order to diminish the experimental error on the stress determination, the method consists of three steps: (i) to measure the axial and radial strains following some selected lines at the inner volume of the ceramic; (ii) to fit the strain data using finite element method (FEM) analysis and (iii) to determinate stresses by using the results obtained from the FEM method in the strain calculation

  20. Synthesis of SiC decorated carbonaceous nanorods and its hierarchical composites Si@SiC@C for high-performance lithium ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Chundong [School of Optical and Electronic Information, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Center of Super-Diamond and Advanced Films (COSDAF), Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR (China); Li, Yi, E-mail: liyi@suda.edu.cn [College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Soochow University, Suzhou (China); Center of Super-Diamond and Advanced Films (COSDAF), Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR (China); Ostrikov, Kostya [School of Chemistry, Physics and Mechanical Engineering, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Queensland 4000 (Australia); Plasma Nanoscience, Industrial Innovation Program, CSIRO Manufacturing Flagship, Lindfield, New South Wales 2070 (Australia); Yang, Yonggang [College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Soochow University, Suzhou (China); Zhang, Wenjun, E-mail: apwjzh@cityu.edu.hk [Center of Super-Diamond and Advanced Films (COSDAF), Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR (China)

    2015-10-15

    SiC- based nanomaterials possess superior electric, thermal and mechanical properties. However, due to the tricky synthesis process, which needs to be carried out under high temperature with multi-step reaction procedures, the further application is dramatically limited. Herein, a simple as well as a controllable approach is proposed for synthesis of SiC- based nanostructures under low temperature. Phenyl-bridged polysilsesquioxane was chosen as the starting material to react with magnesium at 650 °C, following which SiC@C nanocomposites were finally obtained, and it maintains the original bent rod-like architecture of polysilsesquioxanes. The possible formation process for the nanocomposites can proposed as well. The electrochemical behaviour of nanocomposites was accessed, verifying that the synthesized SiC@C nanocomposites deliver good electrochemical performance. Moreover, SiC@C also shows to be a promising scaffold in supporting Si thin film electrode in achieving stable cycling performance in lithium ion batteries. - Highlights: • SiC@C bent nanorods were synthesized with a magnesium reaction approach. • Carbon nanorod spines studded with ultrafine β-SiC nanocrystallines was realized. • The synthesized SiC@C keeps the original rod-like structure of polysilsesquioxanes. • The possible formation process for the nanocomposites was analysed and proposed. • Si@SiC@C nanocomposites reveal good electrochemical performance in LIBs.

  1. Assessment of the growth/etch back technique for the production of Ge strain-relaxed buffers on Si

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, J. M.; Aubin, J.

    2018-04-01

    Thick Ge layers grown on Si(0 0 1) are handy for the production of GeOI wafers, as templates for the epitaxy of III-V and GeSn-based heterostructures and so on. Perfecting their crystalline quality would enable to fabricate suspended Ge micro-bridges with extremely high levels of tensile strain (for mid IR lasers). In this study, we have used a low temperature (400 °C)/high temperature (750 °C) approach to deposit with GeH4 various thickness Ge layers in the 0.5 μm - 5 μm range. They were submitted afterwards to short duration thermal cycling under H2 (in between 750 °C and 875-890 °C) to lower the Threading Dislocation Density (TDD). Some of the thickest layers were partly etched at 750 °C with gaseous HCl to recover wafer bows compatible with device processing later on. X-ray Diffraction (XRD) showed that the layers were slightly tensile-strained, with a 104.5-105.5% degree of strain relaxation irrespective of the thickness. The surface was cross-hatched, with a roughness slightly decreasing with the thickness, from 2.0 down to 0.8 nm. The TDD (from Omega scans in XRD) decreased from 8 × 107 cm-2 down to 107 cm-2 as the Ge layer thickness increased from 0.5 up to 5 μm. The lack of improvement when growing 5 μm thick layers then etching a fraction of them with HCl over same thickness layers grown in a single run was at variance with Thin Solid Films 520, 3216 (2012). Low temperature HCl defect decoration confirmed those findings, with (i) a TDD decreasing from slightly more 107 cm-2 down to 5 × 106 cm-2 as the Ge layer thickness increased from 1.3 up to 5 μm and (ii) no TDD hysteresis between growth and growth then HCl etch-back.

  2. In situ observation of low temperature growth of Ge on Si(1 1 1) by reflection high energy electron diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimm, Andreas; Fissel, Andreas; Bugiel, Eberhard; Wietler, Tobias F.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Investigation of the initial stages of epitaxial growth of Ge on Si(1 1 1) in situ by RHEED. • Impact of growth temperature on strain evolution for temperatures between 200 °C and 400 °C. • Epitaxy with a high degree of structural perfection already at growth temperature of 200 °C. • Ordered interfacial dislocation networks already at 200 °C. • Tensile strain contribution of Si(1 1 1) 7 × 7-surface reconstruction to strain relaxation process for epitaxial growth of Ge. - Abstract: In this paper we investigate the initial stages of epitaxial growth of Ge on Si(1 1 1) and the impact of growth temperature on strain evolution in situ by reflection high energy electron diffraction (RHEED) for temperatures between 200 °C and 400 °C. The change in surface morphology from a flat wetting layer to subsequent islanding that is characteristic for Stranski–Krastanov growth is monitored by spot intensity analysis. The corresponding critical layer thickness is determined to 3.1 < d c < 3.4 ML. In situ monitoring of the strain relaxation process reveals a contribution of the Si(1 1 1) 7 × 7-surface reconstruction to the strain relaxation process. High resolution transmission electron microscopy confirms that the Ge islands exhibit a high degree of structural perfection and an ordered interfacial misfit dislocation network already at a growth temperature of 200 °C is established. The temperature dependency of island shape, density and height is characterized by atomic force microscopy and compared to the RHEED investigations.

  3. Strained Si channel NMOSFETs using a stress field with Si1-yC y source and drain stressors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, S.T.; Tasi, H.-S.; Kung, C.Y.

    2006-01-01

    The strain field in the silicon channel of a metal-oxide-semiconductor transistor with silicon-carbon alloy source and drain stressors was evaluated using the commercial process simulator FLOOPS-ISE TM . The physical origin of the strain components in the transistor channel region was explained. The magnitude and distribution of the strain components, and their dependence on device design parameters such as the spacing L G between the silicon-carbon alloy stressors, the carbon mole fraction in the stressors and stressor depth were investigated. Reducing the stressor spacing L G or increasing the carbon mole fraction in the stressors and stressor depth increases the magnitude of the vertical compressive stress and the lateral tensile stress in the portion of the N channel region where the inversion charge resides. This is beneficial for improving the electron mobility in n-channel metal-oxide-semiconductor transistors. A simple guiding principle for an optimum combination of the above-mentioned device design parameters in terms of mobility enhancement, drain current enhancement and the tradeoff consideration for junction leakage current degradation

  4. High resolution investigation of the 30Si(þ, þ)30Si reaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walinga, J.; Rinsvelt, H.A. van; Endt, P.M.

    The differential cross section for elastic scattering of protons on 30Si was measured with surface barrier counters at four angles. Thirty-six 30Si(þ, γ)31P resonances are known in the Ep=1–2MeV region. Fifteen of these were also observed in the 30Si(þ, þ)30Si reaction, with natural widths varying

  5. Construction of acetoin high-producing Bacillus subtilis strain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanjun Tian

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the construction and selection of a high-producing mutant, Bacillus subtilis HB-32, with enhanced acetoin yield and productivity. The mutant was obtained by the protoplast fusion of a Bacillus subtilis mutant TH-49 (Val− producing acetoin and Bacillus licheniformis AD-30 producing α-acetolactate decarboxylase, with the fusogen polyethylene glycol and after the regeneration and selection, etc. of the fusant. The acetoin production reached 49.64 g/L, which is an increase of 61.8% compared to that of B. subtilis strain TH-49. Random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis was performed to determine the mutagenic and protoplast fusion effects and the genomic changes in the acetoin high-producing strain compared to the parent strains at the molecular level. The constructed strain was shown to be promising for large-scale acetoin production. Future studies should focus on the application of the mutant strain in practice.

  6. The effects of drain scatterings on the electron transport properties of strained-Si diodes with ballistic and non-ballistic channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasenjan Ghupur; Mamtimin Geni; Mamatrishat Mamat; Abudukelimu Abudureheman

    2015-01-01

    The effects of multiple scattering on the electron transport properties in drain regions are numerically investigated for the cases of strained-Si diodes with or without scattering in the channel. The performance of non-ballistic (with scattering) channel Si-diodes is compared with that of ballistic (without scattering) channel Si-diodes, using the strain and scattering model. Our results show that the values of the electron velocity and the current in the strain model are higher than the respective values in the unstrained model, and the values of the velocity and the current in the ballistic channel model are higher than the respective values in the non-ballistic channel model. In the strain and scattering models, the effect of each carrier scattering mechanism on the performance of the Si-diodes is analyzed in the drain region. For the ballistic channel model, our results show that inter-valley optical phonon scattering improves device performance, whereas intra-valley acoustic phonon scattering degrades device performance. For the strain model, our results imply that the larger energy splitting of the strained Si could suppress the inter-valley phonon scattering rate. In conclusion, for the drain region, investigation of the strained-Si and scattering mechanisms are necessary, in order to improve the performance of nanoscale ballistic regime devices. (paper)

  7. Interwell coupling effect in Si/SiGe quantum wells grown by ultra high vacuum chemical vapor deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loh Ter-Hoe

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractSi/Si0.66Ge0.34coupled quantum well (CQW structures with different barrier thickness of 40, 4 and 2 nm were grown on Si substrates using an ultra high vacuum chemical vapor deposition (UHV-CVD system. The samples were characterized using high resolution x-ray diffraction (HRXRD, cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (XTEM and photoluminescence (PL spectroscopy. Blue shift in PL peak energy due to interwell coupling was observed in the CQWs following increase in the Si barrier thickness. The Si/SiGe heterostructure growth process and theoretical band structure model was validated by comparing the energy of the no-phonon peak calculated by the 6 + 2-bandk·pmethod with experimental PL data. Close agreement between theoretical calculations and experimental data was obtained.

  8. A temperature-compensated high spatial resolution distributed strain sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belal, Mohammad; Cho, Yuh Tat; Ibsen, Morten; Newson, Trevor P

    2010-01-01

    We propose and demonstrate a scheme which utilizes the temperature dependence of spontaneous Raman scattering to provide temperature compensation for a high spatial resolution Brillouin frequency-based strain sensor

  9. Highly stable carbon-doped Cu films on barrierless Si

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, X.Y.; Li, X.N.; Nie, L.F.; Chu, J.P.; Wang, Q.; Lin, C.H.; Dong, C.

    2011-01-01

    Electrical resistivities and thermal stabilities of carbon-doped Cu films on silicon have been investigated. The films were prepared by magnetron sputtering using a Cu-C alloy target. After annealing at 400 deg. C for 1 h, the resistivity maintains a low level at 2.7 μΩ-cm and no Cu-Si reaction is detected in the film by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observations. According to the secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) results, carbon is enriched near the interfacial region of Cu(C)/Si, and is considered responsible for the growth of an amorphous Cu(C)/Si interlayer that inhibits the Cu-Si inter-diffusion. Fine Cu grains, less than 100 nm, were present in the Cu(C) films after long-term and high-temperature annealings. The effect of C shows a combination of forming a self-passivated interface barrier layer and maintaining a fine-grained structure of Cu. A low current leakage measured on this Cu(C) film also provides further evidence for the carbon-induced diffusion barrier interlayer performance.

  10. Wafer-scale high-throughput ordered arrays of Si and coaxial Si/Si(1-x)Ge(x) wires: fabrication, characterization, and photovoltaic application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Caofeng; Luo, Zhixiang; Xu, Chen; Luo, Jun; Liang, Renrong; Zhu, Guang; Wu, Wenzhuo; Guo, Wenxi; Yan, Xingxu; Xu, Jun; Wang, Zhong Lin; Zhu, Jing

    2011-08-23

    We have developed a method combining lithography and catalytic etching to fabricate large-area (uniform coverage over an entire 5-in. wafer) arrays of vertically aligned single-crystal Si nanowires with high throughput. Coaxial n-Si/p-SiGe wire arrays are also fabricated by further coating single-crystal epitaxial SiGe layers on the Si wires using ultrahigh vacuum chemical vapor deposition (UHVCVD). This method allows precise control over the diameter, length, density, spacing, orientation, shape, pattern and location of the Si and Si/SiGe nanowire arrays, making it possible to fabricate an array of devices based on rationally designed nanowire arrays. A proposed fabrication mechanism of the etching process is presented. Inspired by the excellent antireflection properties of the Si/SiGe wire arrays, we built solar cells based on the arrays of these wires containing radial junctions, an example of which exhibits an open circuit voltage (V(oc)) of 650 mV, a short-circuit current density (J(sc)) of 8.38 mA/cm(2), a fill factor of 0.60, and an energy conversion efficiency (η) of 3.26%. Such a p-n radial structure will have a great potential application for cost-efficient photovoltaic (PV) solar energy conversion. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  11. Evaluation test on stability of high temperature strain gage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Toshimi (Kyowa Electronic Instruments Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)); Ito, Haruhiko; Tanaka, Isao; Komori, Yoshihiro

    1983-08-01

    This report deals with the results on a stability test of high temperature strain gage which is utilized for development of the Stethoscope for OGL - 1 Components in Elevated Temperature Services (ab. SOCETS). The test has proved that the weldable strain gage (KHC - 20 - G5) exhibits excellent stability at 500/sup 0/C during 3000 to 4000 hours service and can be applied sufficiently to evaluate integrity of OGL - 1 high temperature pipings and others.

  12. Evaluation test on stability of high temperature strain gage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Toshimi; Ito, Haruhiko; Tanaka, Isao; Komori, Yoshihiro.

    1983-01-01

    This report deals with the results on a stability test of high temperature strain gage which is utilized for development of the Stethoscope for OGL - 1 Components in Elevated Temperature Services (ab. SOCETS). The test has proved that the weldable strain gage (KHC - 20 - G5) exhibits excellent stability at 500 0 C during 3000 to 4000 hours service and can be applied sufficiently to evaluate integrity of OGL - 1 high temperature pipings and others. (author)

  13. High-efficient production of SiC/SiO2 core-shell nanowires for effective microwave absorption

    KAUST Repository

    Zhong, Bo; Sai, Tianqi; Xia, Long; Yu, Yuanlie; Wen, Guangwu

    2017-01-01

    In the current report, we have demonstrated that the high-efficient production of SiC/SiO2 core-shell nanowires can be achieved through the introduction of trace of water vapor during the chemical vapor deposition process. The yield of the SiC/SiO2 core-shell nanowires is dramatically improved due to the introduction of water vapor. The SiC/SiO2 core-shell nanowires exhibit an excellent microwave absorption property in the frequency range of 2.0–18.0GHz with a very low weight percentage of 0.50wt.% in the absorbers. A minimum reflection loss value of −32.72dB (>99.99% attenuation) at 13.84GHz has been observed with the absorber thickness of 3.0mm. Moreover, the SiC/SiO2 core-shell nanowires based absorber can reach an effective absorption bandwidth (<−10dB) of 5.32GHz with the absorber thickness of 3.5mm. Furthermore, a possible absorption mechanism is also proposed in detail for such effective attenuation of microwave which can be attributed to the dielectric loss and magnetic loss of SiC/SiO2 core-shell nanowires.

  14. High-efficient production of SiC/SiO2 core-shell nanowires for effective microwave absorption

    KAUST Repository

    Zhong, Bo

    2017-02-21

    In the current report, we have demonstrated that the high-efficient production of SiC/SiO2 core-shell nanowires can be achieved through the introduction of trace of water vapor during the chemical vapor deposition process. The yield of the SiC/SiO2 core-shell nanowires is dramatically improved due to the introduction of water vapor. The SiC/SiO2 core-shell nanowires exhibit an excellent microwave absorption property in the frequency range of 2.0–18.0GHz with a very low weight percentage of 0.50wt.% in the absorbers. A minimum reflection loss value of −32.72dB (>99.99% attenuation) at 13.84GHz has been observed with the absorber thickness of 3.0mm. Moreover, the SiC/SiO2 core-shell nanowires based absorber can reach an effective absorption bandwidth (<−10dB) of 5.32GHz with the absorber thickness of 3.5mm. Furthermore, a possible absorption mechanism is also proposed in detail for such effective attenuation of microwave which can be attributed to the dielectric loss and magnetic loss of SiC/SiO2 core-shell nanowires.

  15. Selective epitaxial growth of stepwise SiGe:B at the recessed sources and drains: A growth kinetics and strain distribution study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangmo Koo

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The selective epitaxial growth of Si1-xGex and the related strain properties were studied. Epitaxial Si1-xGex films were deposited on (100 and (110 orientation wafers and on patterned Si wafers with recessed source and drain structures via ultrahigh vacuum chemical vapor deposition using different growing steps and Ge concentrations. The stepwise process was split into more than 6 growing steps that ranged in thicknesses from a few to 120 nm in order to cover the wide stages of epitaxial growth. The growth rates of SiGe on the plane and patterned wafers were examined and a dependence on the surface orientation was identified. As the germanium concentration increased, defects were generated with thinner Si1-xGex growth. The defect generation was the result of the strain evolution which was examined for channel regions with a Si1-xGex source/drain (S/D structure.

  16. Stretching of red blood cells at high strain rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancuso, J. E.; Ristenpart, W. D.

    2017-10-01

    Most work on the mechanical behavior of red blood cells (RBCs) in flow has focused on simple shear flows. Relatively little work has examined RBC deformations in the physiologically important extensional flow that occurs at the entrance to a constriction. In particular, previous work suggests that RBCs rapidly stretch out and then retract upon entering the constriction, but to date no model predicts this behavior for the extremely high strain rates typically experienced there. In this Rapid Communication, we use high speed video to perform systematic measurements of the dynamic stretching behavior of RBCs as they enter a microfluidic constriction. We demonstrate that both the Kelvin-Voigt and Skalak viscoelastic models capture the observed stretching dynamics, up to strain rates as high as 2000 s-1. The results indicate that the effective elastic modulus of the RBC membrane at these strain rates is an order of magnitude larger than moduli measured by micropipette aspiration or other low strain rate techniques.

  17. Minimization of spurious strains by using a Si bent-perfect-crystal monochromator: neutron surface strain scanning of a shot-peened sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebelo Kornmeier, Joana; Gibmeier, Jens; Hofmann, Michael

    2011-06-01

    Neutron strain measurements are critical at the surface. When scanning close to a sample surface, aberration peak shifts arise due to geometrical and divergence effects. These aberration peak shifts can be of the same order as the peak shifts related to residual strains. In this study it will be demonstrated that by optimizing the horizontal bending radius of a Si (4 0 0) monochromator, the aberration peak shifts from surface effects can be strongly reduced. A stress-free sample of fine-grained construction steel, S690QL, was used to find the optimal instrumental conditions to minimize aberration peak shifts. The optimized Si (4 0 0) monochromator and instrument settings were then applied to measure the residual stress depth gradient of a shot-peened SAE 4140 steel sample to validate the effectiveness of the approach. The residual stress depth profile is in good agreement with results obtained by x-ray diffraction measurements from an international round robin test (BRITE-EURAM-project ENSPED). The results open very promising possibilities to bridge the gap between x-ray diffraction and conventional neutron diffraction for non-destructive residual stress analysis close to surfaces.

  18. Minimization of spurious strains by using a Si bent-perfect-crystal monochromator: neutron surface strain scanning of a shot-peened sample

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebelo Kornmeier, Joana; Hofmann, Michael; Gibmeier, Jens

    2011-01-01

    Neutron strain measurements are critical at the surface. When scanning close to a sample surface, aberration peak shifts arise due to geometrical and divergence effects. These aberration peak shifts can be of the same order as the peak shifts related to residual strains. In this study it will be demonstrated that by optimizing the horizontal bending radius of a Si (4 0 0) monochromator, the aberration peak shifts from surface effects can be strongly reduced. A stress-free sample of fine-grained construction steel, S690QL, was used to find the optimal instrumental conditions to minimize aberration peak shifts. The optimized Si (4 0 0) monochromator and instrument settings were then applied to measure the residual stress depth gradient of a shot-peened SAE 4140 steel sample to validate the effectiveness of the approach. The residual stress depth profile is in good agreement with results obtained by x-ray diffraction measurements from an international round robin test (BRITE-EURAM-project ENSPED). The results open very promising possibilities to bridge the gap between x-ray diffraction and conventional neutron diffraction for non-destructive residual stress analysis close to surfaces

  19. Preparation and Anodizing of SiCp/Al Composites with Relatively High Fraction of SiCp

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    By properly proportioned SiC particles with different sizes and using squeeze infiltration process, SiCp/Al composites with high volume fraction of SiC content (Vp = 60.0%, 61.2%, 63.5%, 67.4%, and 68.0%) were achieved for optical application. The flexural strength of the prepared SiCp/Al composites was higher than 483 MPa and the elastic modulus was increased from 174.2 to 206.2 GPa. With an increase in SiC volume fraction, the flexural strength and Poisson's ratio decreased with the increase in elastic modulus. After the anodic oxidation treatment, an oxidation film with porous structure was prepared on the surface of the composite and the oxidation film was uniformly distributed. The anodic oxide growth rate of composite decreased with SiC content increased and linearly increased with anodizing time. PMID:29682145

  20. Preparation and Anodizing of SiCp/Al Composites with Relatively High Fraction of SiCp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bin; Qu, Shengguan; Li, Xiaoqiang

    2018-01-01

    By properly proportioned SiC particles with different sizes and using squeeze infiltration process, SiCp/Al composites with high volume fraction of SiC content (Vp = 60.0%, 61.2%, 63.5%, 67.4%, and 68.0%) were achieved for optical application. The flexural strength of the prepared SiC p /Al composites was higher than 483 MPa and the elastic modulus was increased from 174.2 to 206.2 GPa. With an increase in SiC volume fraction, the flexural strength and Poisson's ratio decreased with the increase in elastic modulus. After the anodic oxidation treatment, an oxidation film with porous structure was prepared on the surface of the composite and the oxidation film was uniformly distributed. The anodic oxide growth rate of composite decreased with SiC content increased and linearly increased with anodizing time.

  1. Preparation and Anodizing of SiCp/Al Composites with Relatively High Fraction of SiCp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Wang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available By properly proportioned SiC particles with different sizes and using squeeze infiltration process, SiCp/Al composites with high volume fraction of SiC content (Vp = 60.0%, 61.2%, 63.5%, 67.4%, and 68.0% were achieved for optical application. The flexural strength of the prepared SiCp/Al composites was higher than 483 MPa and the elastic modulus was increased from 174.2 to 206.2 GPa. With an increase in SiC volume fraction, the flexural strength and Poisson’s ratio decreased with the increase in elastic modulus. After the anodic oxidation treatment, an oxidation film with porous structure was prepared on the surface of the composite and the oxidation film was uniformly distributed. The anodic oxide growth rate of composite decreased with SiC content increased and linearly increased with anodizing time.

  2. Novel High Temperature Strain Gauge, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advanced high-temperature sensor technology and bonding methods are of great interests in designing and developing advanced future aircraft. Current state-of-the-art...

  3. Reliability, Construct Validity and Interpretability of the Brazilian version of the Rapid Upper Limb Assessment (RULA) and Strain Index (SI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentim, Daniela Pereira; Sato, Tatiana de Oliveira; Comper, Maria Luiza Caíres; Silva, Anderson Martins da; Boas, Cristiana Villas; Padula, Rosimeire Simprini

    There are very few observational methods for analysis of biomechanical exposure available in Brazilian-Portuguese. This study aimed to cross-culturally adapt and test the measurement properties of the Rapid Upper Limb Assessment (RULA) and Strain Index (SI). The cross-cultural adaptation and measurement properties test were established according to Beaton et al. and COSMIN guidelines, respectively. Several tasks that required static posture and/or repetitive motion of upper limbs were evaluated (n>100). The intra-raters' reliability for the RULA ranged from poor to almost perfect (k: 0.00-0.93), and SI from poor to excellent (ICC 2.1 : 0.05-0.99). The inter-raters' reliability was very poor for RULA (k: -0.12 to 0.13) and ranged from very poor to moderate for SI (ICC 2.1 : 0.00-0.53). The agreement was good for RULA (75-100% intra-raters, and 42.24-100% inter-raters) and to SI (EPM: -1.03% to 1.97%; intra-raters, and -0.17% to 1.51% inter-raters). The internal consistency was appropriate for RULA (α=0.88), and low for SI (α=0.65). Moderate construct validity were observed between RULA and SI, in wrist/hand-wrist posture (rho: 0.61) and strength/intensity of exertion (rho: 0.39). The adapted versions of the RULA and SI presented semantic and cultural equivalence for the Brazilian Portuguese. The RULA and SI had reliability estimates ranged from very poor to almost perfect. The internal consistency for RULA was better than the SI. The correlation between methods was moderate only of muscle request/movement repetition. Previous training is mandatory to use of observations methods for biomechanical exposure assessment, although it does not guarantee good reproducibility of these measures. Copyright © 2017 Associação Brasileira de Pesquisa e Pós-Graduação em Fisioterapia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  4. A comparison of EBSD based strain indicators for the study of Fe-3Si steel subjected to cyclic loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schayes, Claire [Université Lille 1 sciences et technologies, UMET – UMR CNRS 8207/ENSCL/Université de Lille, team Métallurgie Physique et Génie des Matériaux, Bâtiment C6, 59655 Villeneuve d' Ascq (France); Valeo Engine Electrical Systems, 2 Rue André Boulle, 94046 Créteil (France); Bouquerel, Jérémie, E-mail: jeremie.bouquerel@univ-lille1.fr [Université Lille 1 sciences et technologies, UMET – UMR CNRS 8207/ENSCL/Université de Lille, team Métallurgie Physique et Génie des Matériaux, Bâtiment C6, 59655 Villeneuve d' Ascq (France); Vogt, Jean-Bernard [Université Lille 1 sciences et technologies, UMET – UMR CNRS 8207/ENSCL/Université de Lille, team Métallurgie Physique et Génie des Matériaux, Bâtiment C6, 59655 Villeneuve d' Ascq (France); Palleschi, Frédéric [Valeo Engine Electrical Systems, 2 Rue André Boulle, 94046 Créteil (France); Zaefferer, Stefan [Max-Planck-Institut für Eisenforschung, Abteilung Mikrostrukturphysik und Umformtechnik, Max-Planck-Strasse 1, 40237 Düsseldorf (Germany)

    2016-05-15

    The current work aims at proposing an EBSD-based indicator for fatigue damage of a Fe-3Si steel. At the same time direct observation of dislocation structures is provided by electron channelling contrast imaging (ECCI). The investigation consisted in processing the EBSD data from patterns collected on specimen subjected to low cycle fatigue. It revealed two different regimes depending on the applied total strain variation which is explained by the identification of the dislocations structures and their evolution. At low strain variation, strain accommodation occurs by planar glide of dislocations uniformly distributed throughout the grains. No misorientation evolution is observed. At higher strain variation, the vein-channel structure is observed within the grain and the wall-channel structure in the vicinity of grain boundaries. The misorientation between these two dislocation structures is evaluated at about 0.7° which is detected by the EBSD analyses and explains the increase of the different misorientation based criteria. The EBSD study enables also the prediction of crack initiation mode. Finally, this study points out the limits of the EBSD technique as no misorientation evolution is detected at small strain variation. Indeed, the lattice distortion is too weak to be detected by conventional EBSD. - Highlights: • Microstructure investigation of the fatigue behaviour of an iron-silicon steel • Use of cECCI to investigate the fatigue dislocations structures • Characterisation of local plastic accommodation through EBSD misorientation criteria.

  5. Subband Structure and Effective Mass in the Inversion Layer of a Strain Si-Based Alloy P-Type MOSFET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kuan-Ting; Fan, Jun Wei; Chang, Shu-Tong; Lin, Chung-Yi

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, the subband structure and effective mass of an Si-based alloy inversion layer in a PMOSFET are studied theoretically. The strain condition considered in our calculations is the intrinsic strain resulting from growth of the silicon-carbon alloy on a (001) Si substrate and mechanical uniaxial stress. The quantum confinement effect resulting from the vertically effective electric field was incorporated into the k · p calculation. The distinct effective mass, such as the quantization effective mass and the density-of-states (DOS) effective mass, as well as the subband structure of the silicon-carbon alloy inversion layer for a PMOSFET under substrate strain and various effective electric field strengths, were all investigated. Ore results show that subband structure of relaxed silicon-carbon alloys with low carbon content are almost the same as silicon. We find that an external stress applied parallel to the channel direction can efficiently reduce the effective mass along the channel direction, thus producing hole mobility enhancement.

  6. Thermally induced formation of SiC nanoparticles from Si/C/Si multilayers deposited by ultra-high-vacuum ion beam sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, C-K; Wu, B-H

    2006-01-01

    A novel approach for the formation of SiC nanoparticles (np-SiC) is reported. Deposition of Si/C/Si multilayers on Si(100) wafers by ultra-high-vacuum ion beam sputtering was followed by thermal annealing in vacuum for conversion into SiC nanoparticles. The annealing temperature significantly affected the size, density, and distribution of np-SiC. No nanoparticles were formed for multilayers annealed at 500 0 C, while a few particles started to appear when the annealing temperature was increased to 700 0 C. At an annealing temperature of 900 0 C, many small SiC nanoparticles, of several tens of nanometres, surrounding larger submicron ones appeared with a particle density approximately 16 times higher than that observed at 700 0 C. The higher the annealing temperature was, the larger the nanoparticle size, and the higher the density. The higher superheating at 900 0 C increased the amount of stable nuclei, and resulted in a higher particle density compared to that at 700 0 C. These particles grew larger at 900 0 C to reduce the total surface energy of smaller particles due to the higher atomic mobility and growth rate. The increased free energy of stacking defects during particle growth will limit the size of large particles, leaving many smaller particles surrounding the large ones. A mechanism for the np-SiC formation is proposed in this paper

  7. Surface sputtering in high-dose Fe ion implanted Si

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishimaru, Manabu

    2007-01-01

    Microstructures and elemental distributions in high-dose Fe ion implanted Si were characterized by means of transmission electron microscopy and Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy. Single crystalline Si(0 0 1) substrates were implanted at 350 deg. C with 120 keV Fe ions to fluences ranging from 0.1 x 10 17 to 4.0 x 10 17 /cm 2 . Extensive damage induced by ion implantation was observed inside the substrate below 1.0 x 10 17 /cm 2 , while a continuous iron silicide layer was formed at 4.0 x 10 17 /cm 2 . It was found that the spatial distribution of Fe projectiles drastically changes at the fluence between 1.0 x 10 17 and 4.0 x 10 17 /cm 2 due to surface sputtering during implantation

  8. Electroluminescence of a-Si/c-Si heterojunction solar cells after high energy irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrara, Manuela

    2009-11-24

    The crystalline silicon as absorber material will certainly continue to dominate the market for space applications of solar cells. In the contribution under consideration the applicability of a-Si:H/c-Si heterojunction solar cells in space has been tested by the investigation of the cell modification by high energy protons and comparing the results to the degradation of homojunction crystalline silicon reference cells. The investigated solar cells have been irradiated with protons of different energies and doses. For all investigated solar cells the maximum damage happens for an energy of about 1.7 MeV and is mainly due to the decrease of the effective minority carrier diffusion length in the crystalline silicon absorber. Simulations carried out by AFORS-HET, a heterojunction simulation program, also confirmed this result. The main degradation mechanism for all types of devices is the monotonically decreasing charge carrier diffusion length in the p-type monocrystalline silicon absorber layer. For the heterojunction solar cell an enhancement of the photocurrent in the blue wavelength region has been observed but only in the case of heterojunction solar cell with intrinsic a-Si:H buffer layer. Additionally to the traditional characterization techniques the electroluminescence technique used for monitoring the modifications of the heteroluminescence technique used for monitoring the modifications of the heterointerface between amorphous silicon and crystalline silicon in solar cells after proton irradiation. A direct relation between minority carrier diffusion length and electroluminescence quantum efficiency has been observed but also details of the interface modification could be monitored by this technique.

  9. An electrostatic Si e-gun and a high temperature elemental B source for Si heteroepitaxial growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarinci, F.; Casella, A.; Lagomarsino, S.; Fiordelisi, M.; Strappaveccia, P.; Gambacorti, N.; Grimaldi, M. G.; Xue, LiYing

    1996-08-01

    In this paper we present two kind of sources used in Si MBE growth: a Si source where an electron beam is electrostatically deflected onto a Si rod and a high temperature B source to be used for p-doping. Both sources have been designed and constructed at IESS. The Si source is constituted of a Si rod mounted on a 3/4″ flange with high-voltage connector. A W filament held at high voltage (up to 2000 V) is heated by direct current. Electrons from the filament are electrostatically focused onto the Si rod which is grounded. This mounting allows a minimum heating dispersion and no contamination, because the only hot objects are the Si rod and the W filament which is mounted in such a way that it cannot see the substrate. Growth rates of 10 Å/min on a substrate at 20 cm from the source have been measured. Auger and LEED have shown no contamination. The B source is constituted of a graphite block heated by direct current. A pyrolitic graphite crucible put in the graphite heater contains the elemental B. The cell is water cooled and contains Ta screens to avoid heat dispersion. It has been tested up to a temperature of 1700°C. P-doped Si 1- xGe x layers have been grown and B concentration has been measured by SIMS. A good control and reproducibility has been attained.

  10. Evolution of a novel Si-18Mn-16Ti-11P alloy in Al-Si melt and its influence on microstructure and properties of high-Si Al-Si alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Lu Zhou

    Full Text Available A novel Si-18Mn-16Ti-11P master alloy has been developed to refine primary Si to 14.7 ± 1.3 μm, distributed uniformly in Al-27Si alloy. Comparing with traditional Cu-14P and Al-3P, Si-18Mn-16Ti-11P provided a much better refining effect, with in-situ highly active AlP. The refined Al-27Si alloy exhibited a CTE of 16.25 × 10−6/K which is slightly higher than that of Sip/Al composites fabricated by spray deposition. The UTS and elongation of refined Al-27Si alloy were increased by 106% and 235% comparing with those of unrefined alloy. It indicates that the novel Si-18Mn-16Ti-11P alloy is more suitable for high-Si Al-Si alloys and may be a candidate for refining hypereutectic Al-Si alloy for electronic packaging applications. Moreover, studies showed that TiP is the only P-containing phase in Si-18Mn-16Ti-11P master alloy. A core-shell reaction model was established to reveal mechanism of the transformation of TiP to AlP in Al-Si melts. The transformation is a liquid-solid diffusion reaction driven by chemical potential difference and the reaction rate is controlled by diffusion. It means sufficient holding time is necessary for Si-18Mn-16Ti-11P master alloy to achieve better refining effect. Keywords: Hypereutectic Al-Si alloy, Primary Si, Refinement, AlP, Thermal expansion behavior, Si-18Mn-16Ti-11P master alloy

  11. Physical nature of strain rate sensitivity of metals and alloys at high strain rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borodin, E. N.; Gruzdkov, A. A.; Mayer, A. E.; Selyutina, N. S.

    2018-04-01

    The role of instabilities of plastic flow at plastic deformation of various materials is one of the important cross-disciplinary problems which is equally important in physics, mechanics and material science. The strain rate sensitivities under slow and high strain rate conditions of loading have different physical nature. In the case of low strain rate, the sensitivity arising from the inertness of the defect structures evolution can be expressed by a single parameter characterizing the plasticity mechanism. In our approach, this is the value of the characteristic relaxation time. In the dynamic case, there are additional effects of “high-speed sensitivity” associated with the micro-localization of the plastic flow near the stress concentrators. In the frames of mechanical description, this requires to introduce additional strain rate sensitivity parameters, which is realized in numerous modifications of Johnson–Cook and Zerilli–Armstrong models. The consideration of both these factors is fundamental for an adequate description of the problems of dynamic deformation of highly inhomogeneous metallic materials such as steels and alloys. The measurement of the dispersion of particle velocities on the free surface of a shock-loaded material can be regarded as an experimental expression of the effect of micro-localization. This is also confirmed by our results of numerical simulation of the propagation of shock waves in a two-dimensional formulation and analytical estimations.

  12. The Degradation Behavior of SiCf/SiO2 Composites in High-Temperature Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiang; Cao, Feng; Qing, Wang; Peng, Zhi-hang; Wang, Yi

    2018-04-01

    SiCf/SiO2 composites had been fabricated efficiently by Sol-Gel method. The oxidation behavior, thermal shock property and ablation behavior of SiCf/SiO2 composites was investigated. SiCf/SiO2 composites showed higher oxidation resistance in oxidation atmosphere, the flexural strength retention ratio was larger than 90.00%. After 1300 °C thermal shock, the mass retention ratio was 97.00%, and the flexural strength retention ratio was 92.60%, while after 1500 °C thermal shock, the mass retention ratio was 95.37%, and the flexural strength retention ratio was 83.34%. After 15 s ablation, the mass loss rate was 0.049 g/s and recession loss rate was 0.067 mm/s. The SiO2 matrix was melted in priority and becomes loosen and porous. With the ablation going on, the oxides were washed away by the shearing action of the oxyacetylene flame. The evaporation of SiO2 took away large amount of heat, which is also beneficial to the protection for SiCf/SiO2 composites.

  13. Electro optical system to measure strains at high temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciammarella, Cesar A.

    1991-12-01

    The measurement of strains at temperatures of the order of 1000 C has become a very important field of research. Technological advances in areas such as the analysis of high speed aircraft structures and high efficiency thermal engines require operational temperatures of this order of magnitude. Current techniques for the measurement of strains, such as electrical strain gages, are at the limit of their useful range and new methods need to be developed. Optical techniques are very attractive in this type of application because of their noncontacting nature. Holography is of particular interest because a minimal preparation of the surfaces is required. Optoelectronics holography is specially suited for this type of application, from the point of view of industrial use. There are a number of technical problems that need to be overcome to measure strains using holographic interferometry at high temperatures. Some of these problems are discussed, and solutions are given. A specimen instrumented with high temperature strains gages is used to compare the results of both technologies.

  14. Dynamic High-Temperature Characterization of an Iridium Alloy in Compression at High Strain Rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Bo [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Experimental Environment Simulation Dept.; Nelson, Kevin [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Mechanics of Materials Dept.; Lipinski, Ronald J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycle Technology Dept.; Bignell, John L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Structural and Thermal Analysis Dept.; Ulrich, G. B. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Radioisotope Power Systems Program; George, E. P. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Radioisotope Power Systems Program

    2014-06-01

    Iridium alloys have superior strength and ductility at elevated temperatures, making them useful as structural materials for certain high-temperature applications. However, experimental data on their high-temperature high-strain-rate performance are needed for understanding high-speed impacts in severe elevated-temperature environments. Kolsky bars (also called split Hopkinson bars) have been extensively employed for high-strain-rate characterization of materials at room temperature, but it has been challenging to adapt them for the measurement of dynamic properties at high temperatures. Current high-temperature Kolsky compression bar techniques are not capable of obtaining satisfactory high-temperature high-strain-rate stress-strain response of thin iridium specimens investigated in this study. We analyzed the difficulties encountered in high-temperature Kolsky compression bar testing of thin iridium alloy specimens. Appropriate modifications were made to the current high-temperature Kolsky compression bar technique to obtain reliable compressive stress-strain response of an iridium alloy at high strain rates (300 – 10000 s-1) and temperatures (750°C and 1030°C). Uncertainties in such high-temperature high-strain-rate experiments on thin iridium specimens were also analyzed. The compressive stress-strain response of the iridium alloy showed significant sensitivity to strain rate and temperature.

  15. Highly sensitive work function hydrogen gas sensor based on PdNPs/SiO2/Si structure at room temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Behzadi pour

    Full Text Available In this study, fabrication of highly sensitive PdNPs/SiO2/Si hydrogen gas sensor using experimental and theoretical methods has been investigated. Using chemical method the PdNPs are synthesized and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD. The average size of PdNPs is 11 nm. The thickness of the oxide film was 20 nm and the surface of oxide film analyzed using Atomic-force microscopy (AFM. The C-V curve for the PdNPs/SiO2/Si hydrogen gas sensor in 1% hydrogen concentration and at the room temperature has been reported. The response time and recovery time for 1% hydrogen concentration at room temperature were 1.2 s and 10 s respectively. The response (R% for PdNPs/SiO2/Si MOS capacitor hydrogen sensor was 96%. The PdNPs/SiO2/Si MOS capacitor hydrogen sensor showed very fast response and recovery times compared to SWCNTs/PdNPs, graphene/PdNPs, nanorod/PdNPs and nanowire/PdNPs hydrogen gas sensors. Keywords: Sensitive, Oxide film, Capacitive, Resistance

  16. Standard guide for high-temperature static strain measurement

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1998-01-01

    1.1 This guide covers the selection and application of strain gages for the measurement of static strain up to and including the temperature range from 425 to 650°C (800 to 1200°F). This guide reflects some current state-of-the-art techniques in high temperature strain measurement, and will be expanded and updated as new technology develops. 1.2 This practice assumes that the user is familiar with the use of bonded strain gages and associated signal conditioning and instrumentation as discussed in Refs. (1) and (2). The strain measuring systems described are those that have proven effective in the temperature range of interest and were available at the time of issue of this practice. It is not the intent of this practice to limit the user to one of the gage types described nor is it the intent to specify the type of system to be used for a specific application. However, in using any strain measuring system including those described, the proposer must be able to demonstrate the capability of the proposed sy...

  17. Influence of tempering on mechanical strains in Mo2Si films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zscheile, H.D.

    1984-01-01

    Amorphous or crystalline MoSi 2 films on (111) silicon wafers, deposited by DC triode sputtering, showed compressive stress. Tensile stress was found in the same films formed by dual electron beam evaporation. By isochronous tempering in the temperature range of 300 to 1270 K the compressive stress of the sputtered films was converted into tensile stress

  18. Temperature dependence of the interband critical points of bulk Ge and strained Ge on Si

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernando, Nalin S.; Nunley, T. Nathan; Ghosh, Ayana; Nelson, Cayla M.; Cooke, Jacqueline A.; Medina, Amber A.; Zollner, Stefan; Xu, Chi; Menendez, Jose; Kouvetakis, John

    2017-11-01

    Epitaxial Ge layers on a Si substrate experience a tensile biaxial stress due to the difference between the thermal expansion coefficients of the Ge epilayer and the Si substrate, which can be measured using asymmetric X-ray diffraction reciprocal space maps. This stress depends on temperature and affects the band structure, interband critical points, and optical spectra. This manuscripts reports careful measurements of the temperature dependence of the dielectric function and the interband critical point parameters of bulk Ge and Ge epilayers on Si using spectroscopic ellipsometry from 80 to 780 K and from 0.8 to 6.5 eV. The authors find a temperature-dependent redshift of the E1 and E1 + Δ1 critical points in Ge on Si (relative to bulk Ge). This redshift can be described well with a model based on thermal expansion coefficients, continuum elasticity theory, and the deformation potential theory for interband transitions. The interband transitions leading to E0‧ and E2 critical points have lower symmetry and therefore are not affected by the stress.

  19. SiC nanofibers grown by high power microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honda, Shin-ichi; Baek, Yang-Gyu; Ikuno, Takashi; Kohara, Hidekazu; Katayama, Mitsuhiro; Oura, Kenjiro; Hirao, Takashi

    2003-01-01

    Silicon carbide (SiC) nanofibers have been synthesized on Si substrates covered by Ni thin films using high power microwave chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Characterization using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) combined with electron energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) revealed that the resultant fibrous nanostructures were assigned to β-SiC with high crystallinity. The formation of SiC nanofibers can be explained by the vapor liquid solid (VLS) mechanism in which precipitation of SiC occurs from the supersaturated Ni nanoparticle containing Si and C

  20. Simulation of vacancy migration energy in Cu under high strain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, K.; Yoshiie, T.; Satoh, Y.; Xu, Q.; Kiritani, M.

    2003-01-01

    The activation energy for the migration of vacancies in Cu under high strain was calculated by computer simulation using static methods. The migration energy of vacancies was 0.98 eV in the absence of deformation. It varied with the migration direction and stress direction because the distance between a vacancy and its neighboring atoms changes by deformation. For example, the migration energy for the shortest migration distance was reduced to 9.6 and 39.4% of its initial value by 10% compression and 20% elongation, respectively, while that for the longest migration distance was raised to 171.7 by 20% elongation. If many vacancies are created during high-speed deformation, the lowering of migration energy enables vacancies to escape to sinks such as surfaces, even during the shorter deformation period. The critical strain rate above which the strain rate dependence of vacancy accumulation ceases to exist increases with the lowering of vacancy migration energy

  1. High-temperature deformation of SiC-whisker-reinforced MgO-PSZ/mullite composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parthasarathy, T.A.; Hay, R.S.; Ruh, R.

    1996-01-01

    The effect of 33.5 vol% SiC whisker loading on high-temperature deformation of 1 wt% MgO-38.5 wt% zirconia-mullite composites was studied between 1,300 and 1,400 C. At strain rates of 10 -6 to 5 x 10 -4 /s the creep resistance of zirconia-mullite composites without SiC reinforcement was inferior to monolithic mullite of similar grain size. Analysis of the results suggested that the decreased creep resistance of mullite-zirconia composites compared to pure mullite could be at least partially explained by mechanical effects of the weaker zirconia phase, increased effective diffusivity of mullite by zirconia addition, and to the differences in mullite grain morphology. With SiC whisker reinforcement, the deformation rate at high stress was nearly the same as that of the unreinforced material, but at low stress the creep rates of the SiC-reinforced material were significantly lowered. The stress dependence of the creep rate of unreinforced material suggested that diffusional creep was the operative mechanism, while the reinforced material behaved as if a threshold stress for creep existed. The threshold stress could be rationalized based on a whisker network model. This was supported by data on other whisker-containing materials; however, the threshold stress had a temperature dependence that was orders of magnitude higher than the elastic constants, leaving the physical model incomplete. The effects of residual stresses and amorphous phases at whisker/matrix interfaces are invoked to help complete the physical model for creep threshold stress

  2. Fabrication of Al-20 wt%Si powder using scrap Si by ultra high-energy milling process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Won-Kyung [Division of Advanced Materials Engineering and Institute for Rare Metals, Kongju National University, 275, Budae-dong, Cheonan, Chungnam 330-717 (Korea, Republic of); Y Latin-Small-Letter-Dotless-I lmaz, Fikret [Department of Physics, Faculty of Art and Science, Gaziosmanpasa University, Tasliciftlik Campus, 60240 Tokat (Turkey); Kim, Hyo-Seob; Koo, Jar-Myung [Division of Advanced Materials Engineering and Institute for Rare Metals, Kongju National University, 275, Budae-dong, Cheonan, Chungnam 330-717 (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Soon-Jik, E-mail: hongsj@kongju.ac.kr [Division of Advanced Materials Engineering and Institute for Rare Metals, Kongju National University, 275, Budae-dong, Cheonan, Chungnam 330-717 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-09-25

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High energy ball milling process has been successfully employed to produce Al-20Si alloy using scrap Si powders. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fully finer and homogenous structure could be achieved after 60 min of milling time. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Si particles were not dissolved but uniformly dispersed in the Al matrix in a milled state. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The hardness of as-milled Al-20Si powder increased steadily with the increase of milling time. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Grain size and dispersion strengthening are two mechanisms being responsible for hardness increment. - Abstract: In this study, microstructural evolution and mechanical properties of Al-20 wt%Si and pure Al powders fabricated by ultra high-energy ball milling technique were investigated as a function of milling time. The microstructure and mechanical properties of the as-milled powders were examined by scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS), X-ray diffractometer (XRD) and Vickers hardness tester. SEM observation showed that the particle size increased at an early stage of milling, and then decreased drastically with further milling. XRD and cross-sectional EDS-mapping analyses revealed that Si particles were not dissolved but uniformly dispersed in the Al matrix in a milled state. Vickers hardness of both pure Al and Al-Si powder increases with milling time, which attributes to the grain size strengthening and dispersion strengthening.

  3. Effects of SiNx on two-dimensional electron gas and current collapse of AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, Ren; Zhi-Biao, Hao; Lei, Wang; Lai, Wang; Hong-Tao, Li; Yi, Luo

    2010-01-01

    SiN x is commonly used as a passivation material for AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs). In this paper, the effects of SiN x passivation film on both two-dimensional electron gas characteristics and current collapse of AlGaN/GaN HEMTs are investigated. The SiN x films are deposited by high- and low-frequency plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition, and they display different strains on the AlGaN/GaN heterostructure, which can explain the experiment results. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  4. Strain modulated defect luminescence in ZnO nanostructures grown on Si substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Hung-Ing; Hsiao, Jui-Ju; Huang, Yi-Jen; Wang, Jen-Cheng [Graduate Institute of Electro-Optical Engineering and Department of Electronic Engineering, Chang Gung University, 259 Wen-Hwa 1st Road, Kwei-Shan, Tao-Yuan 333, Taiwan, ROC (China); Wu, Ya-Fen [Department of Electronic Engineering, Ming Chi University of Technology, Taishan, New Taipei 243, Taiwan, ROC (China); Lu, Bing-Yuh [Department of Electrical Engineering, Tun Gnan University, Shenkeng, New Taipei 222, Taiwan, ROC (China); Nee, Tzer-En, E-mail: neete@mail.cgu.edu.tw [Graduate Institute of Electro-Optical Engineering and Department of Electronic Engineering, Chang Gung University, 259 Wen-Hwa 1st Road, Kwei-Shan, Tao-Yuan 333, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2015-12-15

    The strain modulated defect green luminescence from ZnO nanostructures grown on silicon substrates has been investigated in-depth. According to the Warren–Averbach Fourier analysis of the X-ray diffraction profiles, both the internal strain and the average crystallite size of the well-ordered nano-size ZnO nanostructures could be subtly modulated by careful adjustment of the aqueous solution of zinc nitrate (Zn(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}) and ammonium hydroxide (NH{sub 3}OH) used in the hydrothermal treatment. Visible defect-related and ultraviolet band-to-band emissions were characterized using temperature-dependent photoluminescence measurements over a broad temperature range from 20 to 300 K. It was found that the thermal-related tensile strain led to the blueshift of the green emission with increasing temperature, while the violet and ultraviolet emissions were thermally insensitive. These spectral observations were substantially corroborated by the deformation potential theory. - Highlights: • The strain modulated defect green luminescence from ZnO nanostructures. • Visible and ultraviolet emissions were characterized using photoluminescence. • The tensile strain led to the blueshift of the green emission. • The spectral observations were corroborated by the deformation potential theory.

  5. Effect of Si content on fatigue fracture behavior of hot-rolled high-silicon steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umezawa, Osamu; Kanda, Jyunichi; Yamazaki, Takao

    2017-05-01

    As the Si content was increased from 1.5 to 5 mass%, both the yield stress and ultimate tensile strength were increased, respectively. The work hardening rate was also increased as the increase of Si content. On the contrary, the elongation was decreased as the increase of Si content, and the fracture manner was shifted from ductile to brittle. The 107 cycles fatigue strength was higher as the increase of Si content. The small misorientation distribution as ladder-like was detected in the grains of 1.5 mass%Si steel. Around the grain boundary, the strain incompatibility was detected in the steels containing over 3 mass%Si. The lattice rotation was locally detected in the vicinity of grain boundaries.

  6. Fabrication of highly oriented D0{sub 3}-Fe{sub 3}Si nanocrystals by solid-state dewetting of Si ultrathin layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naito, Muneyuki, E-mail: naito22@center.konan-u.ac.jp [Department of Chemistry, Konan University, Okamoto, Higashinada, Kobe, Hyogo 658-8501 (Japan); Nakagawa, Tatsuhiko; Machida, Nobuya; Shigematsu, Toshihiko [Department of Chemistry, Konan University, Okamoto, Higashinada, Kobe, Hyogo 658-8501 (Japan); Nakao, Motoi [Graduate School of Engineering, Kyushu Institute of Technology, Sensui, Tobata, Kitakyushu, Fukuoka 804-8550 (Japan); Sudoh, Koichi [The Institute of Scientific and Industrial Research, Osaka University, Mihogaoka, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan)

    2013-07-31

    In this paper, highly oriented nanocrystals of Fe{sub 3}Si with a D0{sub 3} structure are fabricated on SiO{sub 2} using ultrathin Si on insulator substrate. First, (001) oriented Si nanocrystals are formed on the SiO{sub 2} layer by solid state dewetting of the top Si layer. Then, Fe addition to the Si nanocrystals is performed by reactive deposition epitaxy and post-deposition annealing at 500 °C. The structures of the Fe–Si nanocrystals are analyzed by cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy and nanobeam electron diffraction. We observe that Fe{sub 3}Si nanocrystals with D0{sub 3}, B2, and A2 structures coexist on the 1-h post-annealed samples. Prolonged annealing at 500 °C is effective in obtaining Fe{sub 3}Si nanocrystals with a D0{sub 3} single phase, thereby promoting structural ordering in the nanocrystals. We discuss the formation process of the highly oriented D0{sub 3}-Fe{sub 3}Si nanocrystals on the basis of the atomistic structural information. - Highlights: • Highly oriented Fe–Si nanocrystals (NCs) are fabricated by reactive deposition. • Si NCs formed by solid state dewetting of Si thin layers are used as seed crystals. • The structures of Fe–Si NCs are analyzed by nanobeam electron diffraction. • Most of Fe–Si NCs possess the D0{sub 3} structure after post-deposition annealing.

  7. Comparative genomic analyses of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae pathogenic 168 strain and its high-passaged attenuated strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae is the causative agent of porcine enzootic pneumonia (EP), a mild, chronic pneumonia of swine. Despite presenting with low direct mortality, EP is responsible for major economic losses in the pig industry. To identify the virulence-associated determinants of M. hyopneumoniae, we determined the whole genome sequence of M. hyopneumoniae strain 168 and its attenuated high-passage strain 168-L and carried out comparative genomic analyses. Results We performed the first comprehensive analysis of M. hyopneumoniae strain 168 and its attenuated strain and made a preliminary survey of coding sequences (CDSs) that may be related to virulence. The 168-L genome has a highly similar gene content and order to that of 168, but is 4,483 bp smaller because there are 60 insertions and 43 deletions in 168-L. Besides these indels, 227 single nucleotide variations (SNVs) were identified. We further investigated the variants that affected CDSs, and compared them to reported virulence determinants. Notably, almost all of the reported virulence determinants are included in these variants affected CDSs. In addition to variations previously described in mycoplasma adhesins (P97, P102, P146, P159, P216, and LppT), cell envelope proteins (P95), cell surface antigens (P36), secreted proteins and chaperone protein (DnaK), mutations in genes related to metabolism and growth may also contribute to the attenuated virulence in 168-L. Furthermore, many mutations were located in the previously described repeat motif, which may be of primary importance for virulence. Conclusions We studied the virulence attenuation mechanism of M. hyopneumoniae by comparative genomic analysis of virulent strain 168 and its attenuated high-passage strain 168-L. Our findings provide a preliminary survey of CDSs that may be related to virulence. While these include reported virulence-related genes, other novel virulence determinants were also detected. This new information will form

  8. Mechanical characterization of rocks at high strain rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinov A.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the dynamic characterization in tension and compression of three rocks, Carrara marble, Onsernone gneiss and Peccia Marble, at high strain-rates. Two versions of a Split Hopkinson Bar have been used. The version for direct tension tests is installed at the DynaMat Laboratory of the University of Applied Sciences of Southern Switzerland, while the traditional version in compression is installed at the Laboratory of Dynamic Investigation of Materials of Lobachevsky State University. Results of the tests show a significantly strain-rate sensitive behaviour, exhibiting dynamic strength increasing with strain-rate. The experimental research has been developed in the frame of the Swiss-Russian Joint Research Program.

  9. Computer Aided Multi-scale Design of SiC-Si3N4 Nanoceramic Composites for High-Temperature Structural Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vikas Tomer; John Renaud

    2010-08-31

    It is estimated that by using better and improved high temperature structural materials, the power generation efficiency of the power plants can be increased by 15% resulting in significant cost savings. One such promising material system for future high-temperature structural applications in power plants is Silicon Carbide-Silicon Nitride (SiC-Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}) nanoceramic matrix composites. The described research work focuses on multiscale simulation-based design of these SiC-Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} nanoceramic matrix composites. There were two primary objectives of the research: (1) Development of a multiscale simulation tool and corresponding multiscale analyses of the high-temperature creep and fracture resistance properties of the SiC-Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} nanocomposites at nano-, meso- and continuum length- and timescales; and (2) Development of a simulation-based robust design optimization methodology for application to the multiscale simulations to predict the range of the most suitable phase morphologies for the desired high-temperature properties of the SiC-Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} nanocomposites. The multiscale simulation tool is based on a combination of molecular dynamics (MD), cohesive finite element method (CFEM), and continuum level modeling for characterizing time-dependent material deformation behavior. The material simulation tool is incorporated in a variable fidelity model management based design optimization framework. Material modeling includes development of an experimental verification framework. Using material models based on multiscaling, it was found using molecular simulations that clustering of the SiC particles near Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} grain boundaries leads to significant nanocomposite strengthening and significant rise in fracture resistance. It was found that a control of grain boundary thicknesses by dispersing non-stoichiometric carbide or nitride phases can lead to reduction in strength however significant rise in fracture strength. The

  10. GaSb and GaSb/AlSb Superlattice Buffer Layers for High-Quality Photodiodes Grown on Commercial GaAs and Si Substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, M.; Lloret, F.; Jurczak, P.; Wu, J.; Liu, H. Y.; Araújo, D.

    2018-05-01

    The objective of this work is the integration of InGaAs/GaSb/GaAs heterostructures, with high indium content, on GaAs and Si commercial wafers. The design of an interfacial misfit dislocation array, either on GaAs or Si substrates, allowed growth of strain-free devices. The growth of purposely designed superlattices with their active region free of extended defects on both GaAs and Si substrates is demonstrated. Transmission electron microscopy technique is used for the structural characterization and plastic relaxation study. In the first case, on GaAs substrates, the presence of dopants was demonstrated to reduce several times the threading dislocation density through a strain-hardening mechanism avoiding dislocation interactions, while in the second case, on Si substrates, similar reduction of dislocation interactions is obtained using an AlSb/GaSb superlattice. The latter is shown to redistribute spatially the interfacial misfit dislocation array to reduce dislocation interactions.

  11. From plastic to elastic stress relaxation in highly mismatched SiGe/Si heterostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isa, Fabio; Salvalaglio, Marco; Dasilva, Yadira Arroyo Rojas; Jung, Arik; Isella, Giovanni; Erni, Rolf; Niedermann, Philippe; Gröning, Pierangelo; Montalenti, Francesco; Känel, Hans von

    2016-01-01

    We present a detailed experimental and theoretical analysis of the epitaxial stress relaxation process in micro-structured compositionally graded alloys. We focus on the pivotal SiGe/Si(001) system employing patterned Si substrates at the micrometre-size scale to address the distribution of threading and misfit dislocations within the heterostructures. SiGe alloys with linearly increasing Ge content were deposited by low energy plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition resulting in isolated, tens of micrometre tall 3D crystals. We demonstrate that complete elastic relaxation is achieved by appropriate choice of the Ge compositional grading rate and Si pillar width. We investigate the nature and distribution of dislocations along the [001] growth direction in SiGe crystals by transmission electron microscopy, chemical defect etching and etch pit counting. We show that for 3 μm wide Si pillars and a Ge grading rate of 1.5% μm −1 , only misfit dislocations are present while their fraction is reduced for higher Ge grading rates and larger structures due to dislocation interactions. The experimental results are interpreted with the help of theoretical calculations based on linear elasticity theory describing the competition between purely elastic and plastic stress relaxation with increasing crystal width and Ge compositional grading rate.

  12. Spallation model for the high strain rates range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekel, E.; Eliezer, S.; Henis, Z.; Moshe, E.; Ludmirsky, A.; Goldberg, I. B.

    1998-11-01

    Measurements of the dynamic spall strength in aluminum and copper shocked by a high power laser to pressures of hundreds of kbars show a rapid increase in the spall strength with the strain rate at values of about 107 s-1. We suggest that this behavior is a result of a change in the spall mechanism. At low strain rates the spall is caused by the motion and coalescence of material's initial flaws. At high strain rates there is not enough time for the flaws to move and the spall is produced by the formation and coalescence of additional cavities where the interatomic forces become dominant. Material under tensile stress is in a metastable condition and cavities of a critical radius are formed in it due to thermal fluctuations. These cavities grow due to the tension. The total volume of the voids grow until the material disintegrates at the spall plane. Simplified calculations based on this model, describing the metal as a viscous liquid, give results in fairly good agreement with the experimental data and predict the increase in spall strength at high strain rates.

  13. Resonant tunneling with high peak to valley current ratio in SiO2/nc-Si/SiO2 multi-layers at room temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, D. Y.; Sun, Y.; He, Y. J.; Xu, L.; Xu, J.

    2014-01-01

    We have investigated carrier transport in SiO 2 /nc-Si/SiO 2 multi-layers by room temperature current-voltage measurements. Resonant tunneling signatures accompanied by current peaks are observed. Carrier transport in the multi-layers were analyzed by plots of ln(I/V 2 ) as a function of 1/V and ln(I) as a function of V 1/2 . Results suggest that besides films quality, nc-Si and barrier sub-layer thicknesses are important parameters that restrict carrier transport. When thicknesses are both small, direct tunneling dominates carrier transport, resonant tunneling occurs only at certain voltages and multi-resonant tunneling related current peaks can be observed but with peak to valley current ratio (PVCR) values smaller than 1.5. When barrier thickness is increased, trap-related and even high field related tunneling is excited, causing that multi-current peaks cannot be observed clearly, only one current peak with higher PVCR value of 7.7 can be observed. While if the thickness of nc-Si is large enough, quantum confinement is not so strong, a broad current peak with PVCR value as high as 60 can be measured, which may be due to small energy difference between the splitting energy levels in the quantum dots of nc-Si. Size distribution in a wide range may cause un-controllability of the peak voltages

  14. Synthesis of SiC microstructures in Si technology by high dose carbon implantation: Etch-stop properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serre, C.; Perez-Rodriguez, A.; Romano-Rodriguez, A.; Calvo-Barrio, L.; Morante, J.R.; Esteve, J.; Acero, M.C.; Skorupa, W.; Koegler, R.

    1997-01-01

    The use of high dose carbon ion implantation in Si for the production of membranes and microstructures is investigated. Si wafers were implanted with carbon doses of 10 17 and 5 x 10 17 cm -2 , at an energy of 300 keV and a temperature of 500 C. The structural analysis of these samples revealed the formation of a highly stable buried layer of crystalline β-SiC precipitates aligned with the Si matrix. The etch-stop properties of this layer have been investigated using tetramethyl-ammonium hydroxide as etchant solution. Secondary ion mass spectrometry measurements performed on the etched samples have allowed an estimate of the minimum dose needed for obtaining an etch-stop layer to a value in the range 2 to 3 x 10 17 ions/cm 2 . This behavior has been explained assuming the existence of a percolation process in a SiC/Si binary system. Finally, very thin crystalline membranes and self-standing structures with average surface roughness in the range 6 to 7 nm have been obtained

  15. High efficiency three-phase power factor correction rectifier using SiC switches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kouchaki, Alireza; Nymand, Morten

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents designing procedure of a high efficiency 5 kW silicon-carbide (SiC) based threephase power factor correction (PFC). SiC switches present low capacitive switching loss compared to the alternative Si switches. Therefore, the switching frequency can be increased and hence the siz...

  16. High efficiency battery converter with SiC devices for residential PV systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pham, Cam; Teodorescu, Remus; Kerekes, Tamas

    2013-01-01

    The demand for high efficiency and higher power density is a challenge for Si-based semiconductors due to the physical characteristics of material. These can be overcome by employing wide-band-gap materials like SiC. This paper compares a second generator SiC MOSFETs against a normally-on Trench...

  17. Strain sensors for civil engineering application based on CoFeCrSiB amorphous ribbons

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bydžovský, J.; Kollár, M.; Jančárik, V.; Švec, P.; Kraus, Luděk

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 52, Suppl. A (2002), s. A117-A120 ISSN 0011-4626. [Czech and Slovak Conference on Magnetism. Košice, 20.08.2001-23.08.2001] Grant - others:NATO(XX) SfP973649; VEGA(XX) 1/7609/20 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010914 Keywords : magnetic amorphous ribbon * stress-induced anisotropy * strain sensor Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.311, year: 2002

  18. Strain relaxation during solid-phase epitaxial crystallisation of Ge{sub x}Si{sub 1-x} alloy layers with depth dependent G{sub e} compositions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, Wahchung; Elliman, R G; Kringhoj, P [Australian National Univ., Canberra, ACT (Australia). Research School of Physical Sciences

    1994-12-31

    The solid-phase epitaxial crystallisation of depth dependent Ge{sub x}Si{sub lx} alloy layers produced by implanting Ge into Si substrates was studied. In-situ monitoring was done using time-resolved reflectivity (TRR) whilst post-anneal defect structures were characterised by Rutherford backscattering and channeling spectrometry (RBS-C) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Particular attention was directed at Ge concentrations above the critical concentration for the growth of fully strained layers. Strain relief is shown to be correlated with a sudden reduction in crystallisation velocity caused by roughening of the crystalline/amorphous interface. 11 refs., 1 tab., 2 figs.

  19. Strain relaxation during solid-phase epitaxial crystallisation of Ge{sub x}Si{sub 1-x} alloy layers with depth dependent G{sub e} compositions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, Wahchung; Elliman, R.G.; Kringhoj, P. [Australian National Univ., Canberra, ACT (Australia). Research School of Physical Sciences

    1993-12-31

    The solid-phase epitaxial crystallisation of depth dependent Ge{sub x}Si{sub lx} alloy layers produced by implanting Ge into Si substrates was studied. In-situ monitoring was done using time-resolved reflectivity (TRR) whilst post-anneal defect structures were characterised by Rutherford backscattering and channeling spectrometry (RBS-C) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Particular attention was directed at Ge concentrations above the critical concentration for the growth of fully strained layers. Strain relief is shown to be correlated with a sudden reduction in crystallisation velocity caused by roughening of the crystalline/amorphous interface. 11 refs., 1 tab., 2 figs.

  20. Estimation of interface resistivity in bonded Si for the development of high performance radiation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanno, Ikuo; Yamashita, Makoto; Nomiya, Seiichiro; Onabe, Hideaki

    2007-01-01

    For the development of high performance radiation detectors, direct bonding of Si wafers would be an useful method. Previously, p-n bonded Si were fabricated and they showed diode characteristics. The interface resistivity was, however, not investigated in detail. For the study of interface resistivity, n-type Si wafers with different resistivities were bonded. The resistivity of bonded Si wafers were measured and the interface resistivity was estimated by comparing with the results of model calculations. (author)

  1. High performance a-Si solar cells and new fabrication methods for a-Si solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, S.; Kuwano, Y.; Ohnishi, M.

    1986-12-01

    The super chamber, a separated UHV reaction-chamber system has been developed. A conversion efficiency of 11.7% was obtained for an a-Si solar cell using a high-quality i-layer deposited by the super chamber, and a p-layer fabricated by a photo-CVD method. As a new material, amorphous superlattice-structure films were fabricated by the photo-CVD method for the first time. Superlattice structure p-layer a-Si solar cells were fabricated, and a conversion efficiency of 10.5% was obtained. For the fabrication of integrated type a-Si solar cell modules, a laser pattering method was investigated. A thermal analysis of the multilayer structure was done. It was confirmed that selective scribing for a-Si, TCO and metal film is possible by controlling the laser power density. Recently developed a-Si solar power generation systems and a-Si solar cell roofing tiles are also described.

  2. On the response of rubbers at high strain rates.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niemczura, Johnathan Greenberg (University of Texas-Austin)

    2010-02-01

    In this report, we examine the propagation of tensile waves of finite deformation in rubbers through experiments and analysis. Attention is focused on the propagation of one-dimensional dispersive and shock waves in strips of latex and nitrile rubber. Tensile wave propagation experiments were conducted at high strain-rates by holding one end fixed and displacing the other end at a constant velocity. A high-speed video camera was used to monitor the motion and to determine the evolution of strain and particle velocity in the rubber strips. Analysis of the response through the theory of finite waves and quantitative matching between the experimental observations and analytical predictions was used to determine an appropriate instantaneous elastic response for the rubbers. This analysis also yields the tensile shock adiabat for rubber. Dispersive waves as well as shock waves are also observed in free-retraction experiments; these are used to quantify hysteretic effects in rubber.

  3. Properties of three-dimensional structures prepared by Ge dewetting from Si(111) at high temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shklyaev, Alexander, E-mail: shklyaev@isp.nsc.ru [A. V. Rzhanov Institute of Semiconductor Physics, SB RAS, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State University, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Bolotov, Leonid; Poborchii, Vladimir; Tada, Tetsuya [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Higashi 1-1-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8562 (Japan)

    2015-05-28

    The formation of three-dimensional (3D) structures during Ge deposition on Si(111) at about 800 °C is studied with scanning tunneling, Kelvin probe and electron microscopies, and scanning tunneling and Raman spectroscopies. The observed surface morphology is formed by dewetting of Ge from Si(111), since it occurs mainly by means of minimization of surface and interfacial energies. The dewetting proceeds through massive Si eroding around growing 3D structures, providing them to be composed of SiGe with about a 30% Ge content, and leads to the significant reduction of the SiGe/Si interface area. It is found that the SiGe top component of 3D structures forms sharp interfaces with the underlying Si. The minimization of interfacial and strain energies occurs on the way that the 3D structures appear to get the dendrite-like shape. The Ge distribution in the 3D SiGe structures is inhomogeneous in the lateral dimension with a higher Ge concentration in their central areas and Ge segregation on their surface.

  4. Properties of three-dimensional structures prepared by Ge dewetting from Si(111) at high temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shklyaev, Alexander; Bolotov, Leonid; Poborchii, Vladimir; Tada, Tetsuya

    2015-01-01

    The formation of three-dimensional (3D) structures during Ge deposition on Si(111) at about 800 °C is studied with scanning tunneling, Kelvin probe and electron microscopies, and scanning tunneling and Raman spectroscopies. The observed surface morphology is formed by dewetting of Ge from Si(111), since it occurs mainly by means of minimization of surface and interfacial energies. The dewetting proceeds through massive Si eroding around growing 3D structures, providing them to be composed of SiGe with about a 30% Ge content, and leads to the significant reduction of the SiGe/Si interface area. It is found that the SiGe top component of 3D structures forms sharp interfaces with the underlying Si. The minimization of interfacial and strain energies occurs on the way that the 3D structures appear to get the dendrite-like shape. The Ge distribution in the 3D SiGe structures is inhomogeneous in the lateral dimension with a higher Ge concentration in their central areas and Ge segregation on their surface

  5. [Agrobacterium rubi strains from blueberry plants are highly diverse].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrahamovich, Eliana; López, Ana C; Alippi, Adriana M

    2014-01-01

    The diversity of a collection of Agrobacterium rubi strains isolated from blueberries from different regions of Argentina was studied by conventional microbiological tests and molecular techniques. Results from biochemical and physiological reactions, as well as from rep-PCR and RFLP analysis of PCR-amplified 23S rDNA showed high phenotypic and genotypic intraspecific variation. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  6. High-speed Si/GeSi hetero-structure Electro Absorption Modulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastronardi, L; Banakar, M; Khokhar, A Z; Hattasan, N; Rutirawut, T; Bucio, T Domínguez; Grabska, K M; Littlejohns, C; Bazin, A; Mashanovich, G; Gardes, F Y

    2018-03-19

    The ever-increasing demand for integrated, low power interconnect systems is pushing the bandwidth density of CMOS photonic devices. Taking advantage of the strong Franz-Keldysh effect in the C and L communication bands, electro-absorption modulators in Ge and GeSi are setting a new standard in terms of device footprint and power consumption for next generation photonics interconnect arrays. In this paper, we present a compact, low power electro-absorption modulator (EAM) Si/GeSi hetero-structure based on an 800 nm SOI overlayer with a modulation bandwidth of 56 GHz. The device design and fabrication tolerant process are presented, followed by the measurement analysis. Eye diagram measurements show a dynamic ER of 5.2 dB at a data rate of 56 Gb/s at 1566 nm, and calculated modulator power is 44 fJ/bit.

  7. Strain-Compensated InGaAsP Superlattices for Defect Reduction of InP Grown on Exact-Oriented (001 Patterned Si Substrates by Metal Organic Chemical Vapor Deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludovico Megalini

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available We report on the use of InGaAsP strain-compensated superlattices (SC-SLs as a technique to reduce the defect density of Indium Phosphide (InP grown on silicon (InP-on-Si by Metal Organic Chemical Vapor Deposition (MOCVD. Initially, a 2 μm thick gallium arsenide (GaAs layer was grown with very high uniformity on exact oriented (001 300 mm Si wafers; which had been patterned in 90 nm V-grooved trenches separated by silicon dioxide (SiO2 stripes and oriented along the [110] direction. Undercut at the Si/SiO2 interface was used to reduce the propagation of defects into the III–V layers. Following wafer dicing; 2.6 μm of indium phosphide (InP was grown on such GaAs-on-Si templates. InGaAsP SC-SLs and thermal annealing were used to achieve a high-quality and smooth InP pseudo-substrate with a reduced defect density. Both the GaAs-on-Si and the subsequently grown InP layers were characterized using a variety of techniques including X-ray diffraction (XRD; atomic force microscopy (AFM; transmission electron microscopy (TEM; and electron channeling contrast imaging (ECCI; which indicate high-quality of the epitaxial films. The threading dislocation density and RMS surface roughness of the final InP layer were 5 × 108/cm2 and 1.2 nm; respectively and 7.8 × 107/cm2 and 10.8 nm for the GaAs-on-Si layer.

  8. High Strain Rate and Shock-Induced Deformation in Metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravelo, Ramon

    2012-02-01

    Large-scale non-equilibrium molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations are now commonly used to study material deformation at high strain rates (10^9-10^12 s-1). They can provide detailed information-- such as defect morphology, dislocation densities, and temperature and stress profiles, unavailable or hard to measure experimentally. Computational studies of shock-induced plasticity and melting in fcc and bcc single, mono-crystal metals, exhibit generic characteristics: high elastic limits, large directional anisotropies in the yield stress and pre-melting much below the equilibrium melt temperature for shock wave propagation along specific crystallographic directions. These generic features in the response of single crystals subjected to high strain rates of deformation can be explained from the changes in the energy landscape of the uniaxially compressed crystal lattice. For time scales relevant to dynamic shock loading, the directional-dependence of the yield strength in single crystals is shown to be due to the onset of instabilities in elastic-wave propagation velocities. The elastic-plastic transition threshold can accurately be predicted by a wave-propagation stability analysis. These strain-induced instabilities create incipient defect structures, which can be quite different from the ones, which characterize the long-time, asymptotic state of the compressed solid. With increase compression and strain rate, plastic deformation via extended defects gives way to amorphization associated with the loss in shear rigidity along specific deformation paths. The hot amorphous or (super-cooled liquid) metal re-crystallizes at rates, which depend on the temperature difference between the amorphous solid and the equilibrium melt line. This plastic-amorphous transition threshold can be computed from shear-waves stability analyses. Examples from selected fcc and bcc metals will be presented employing semi-empirical potentials of the embedded atom method (EAM) type as well as

  9. Theoretical and experimental study of high strain, high strain rate materials viscoplastic behaviour. Application to Mars 190 steel and tantalum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juanicotena, A.

    1998-01-01

    This work enters in the general framework of the study and modelling of metallic materials viscoplastic behaviour in the area of high strain and high strain rate, from 10 4 to 10 5 s -1 . We define a methodology allowing to describe the behaviour of armor steel Mars 190 and tantalum in the initial area. In a first time, the study of visco-plasticity physical mechanisms shows the necessity to take into account some fundamental processes of the plastic deformation. Then, the examination of various constitutive relations allows to select the Preston-Tonks-Wallace model, that notably reproduce the physical phenomenon of the flow stress saturation. In a second part, a mechanical characterization integrating loading direction, strain rate and temperature effects is conducted on the two materials. Moreover, these experimental results allow to calculate associated constants to Preston-Tonks-Wallace, Zerilli-Armstrong and Johnson-Cook models for each material. In a third time, in order to evaluate and to validate these constitutive laws, we conceive and develop an experimental device open to reach the area of study: the expanding spherical shell test. It concerns to impose a free radial expanding to a thin spherical shell by means a shock wave generated by an explosive. By the radial expanding velocity measure, we can determine stress, strain rate and strain applied on the spherical shell at each time. In a four and last part, we evaluate constitutive models out of their optimization area's. This validation is undertaken by comparisons 'experimental results/calculations' with the help of global experiences like expanding spherical shell test and Taylor test. (author)

  10. Elastic response of URu{sub 2}Si{sub 2} under high magnetic fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanagisawa, Tatsuya; Mombetsu, Shota; Hidaka, Hiroyuki; Amitsuka, Hiroshi [Dept. of Physics, Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan); Akatsu, Mitsuhiro [Grad. School of Science and Technology, Niigata Univ., Niigata (Japan); Yasin, S.; Zherlitsyn, S.; Wosnitza, J. [Hochfeld-Magnetlabor Dresden, Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf and TU Dresden, Dresden (Germany); Huang, K.; Janoschek, M.; Maple, M.B. [Dept. of Physics, Univ. of California, San Diego, La Jolla (United States)

    2015-07-01

    We have measured the elastic constants, C{sub 44}, C{sub 66}, (C{sub 11}-C{sub 12})/2 in URu{sub 2}Si{sub 2} by means of high-frequency ultrasonic measurements in pulsed magnetic fields up to 68.7 T in a wide temperature range from 1.5 to ∝120 K. We found a reduction of (C{sub 11}-C{sub 12})/2 for magnetic field H parallel [001] that appears only in the temperature and magnetic field region in which URu{sub 2}Si{sub 2} exhibits a heavy-electron state and hidden order. This change in (C{sub 11}-C{sub 12})/2 appears to be a response of the 5f electrons to an orthorhombic and volume conservative strain field ε{sub xx}-ε{sub yy} with Γ{sub 3} symmetry. The lattice instability is likely related to a symmetry-breaking band instability that arises due to the hybridization of the localized 5f electrons with the conduction electrons and is probably linked to the hidden-order parameter of this compound. Recent progress obtained by our measurements of the transverse ultrasonic modes C{sub 44} and C{sub 66} will also be discussed.

  11. Behavior of fiber reinforced metal laminates at high strain rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newaz, Golam; Sasso, Marco; Amodio, Dario; Mancini, Edoardo

    2018-05-01

    Carbon Fiber Reinforced Aluminum Laminate (CARALL) is a good system for energy absorption through plastic deformation in aluminum and micro-cracking in the composite layers. Moreover, CARALL FMLs also provide excellent impact resistance due to the presence of aluminum layer. The focus of this research is to characterize the CARALL behavior under dynamic conditions. High strain rate tests on sheet laminate samples have been carried out by means of direct Split Hopkinson Tension Bar. The sample geometry and the clamping system were optimized by FEM simulations. The clamping system has been designed and optimized in order reduce impedance disturbance due to the fasteners and to avoid the excessive plastic strain outside the gauge region of the samples.

  12. Advances in analytical tools for high throughput strain engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marcellin, Esteban; Nielsen, Lars Keld

    2018-01-01

    The emergence of inexpensive, base-perfect genome editing is revolutionising biology. Modern industrial biotechnology exploits the advances in genome editing in combination with automation, analytics and data integration to build high-throughput automated strain engineering pipelines also known...... as biofoundries. Biofoundries replace the slow and inconsistent artisanal processes used to build microbial cell factories with an automated design–build–test cycle, considerably reducing the time needed to deliver commercially viable strains. Testing and hence learning remains relatively shallow, but recent...... advances in analytical chemistry promise to increase the depth of characterization possible. Analytics combined with models of cellular physiology in automated systems biology pipelines should enable deeper learning and hence a steeper pitch of the learning cycle. This review explores the progress...

  13. Photoelastic colloidal gel for a high-sensitivity strain sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Hui; Chen, Zhixin; Zhu, Shenmin; Jiang, Chun; Zhang, Di

    2018-04-01

    Nanoparticles, having the ability to self-assemble into an ordered structure in their suspensions, analogous to liquid crystals, have attracted extensive attention. Herein, we report a new type of colloidal gel with an ordered crystal structure assembled from 1D and 2D nanoparticles. The material has high elasticity and, more interestingly, it shows significant photoelasticity. Its refractive index can be tuned under external stress and exhibits an ultra-wide dynamic range (Δn) of the order of 10-2. Due to the large Δn, the material shows an extremely high strain sensibility of 720 nm/ɛ, an order of magnitude higher than the reported ones.

  14. High performance Si immersion gratings patterned with electron beam lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gully-Santiago, Michael A.; Jaffe, Daniel T.; Brooks, Cynthia B.; Wilson, Daniel W.; Muller, Richard E.

    2014-07-01

    Infrared spectrographs employing silicon immersion gratings can be significantly more compact than spectro- graphs using front-surface gratings. The Si gratings can also offer continuous wavelength coverage at high spectral resolution. The grooves in Si gratings are made with semiconductor lithography techniques, to date almost entirely using contact mask photolithography. Planned near-infrared astronomical spectrographs require either finer groove pitches or higher positional accuracy than standard UV contact mask photolithography can reach. A collaboration between the University of Texas at Austin Silicon Diffractive Optics Group and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory Microdevices Laboratory has experimented with direct writing silicon immersion grating grooves with electron beam lithography. The patterning process involves depositing positive e-beam resist on 1 to 30 mm thick, 100 mm diameter monolithic crystalline silicon substrates. We then use the facility JEOL 9300FS e-beam writer at JPL to produce the linear pattern that defines the gratings. There are three key challenges to produce high-performance e-beam written silicon immersion gratings. (1) E- beam field and subfield stitching boundaries cause periodic cross-hatch structures along the grating grooves. The structures manifest themselves as spectral and spatial dimension ghosts in the diffraction limited point spread function (PSF) of the diffraction grating. In this paper, we show that the effects of e-beam field boundaries must be mitigated. We have significantly reduced ghost power with only minor increases in write time by using four or more field sizes of less than 500 μm. (2) The finite e-beam stage drift and run-out error cause large-scale structure in the wavefront error. We deal with this problem by applying a mark detection loop to check for and correct out minuscule stage drifts. We measure the level and direction of stage drift and show that mark detection reduces peak-to-valley wavefront error

  15. Magnetotransport, structural and optical characterization of p-type modulation doped heterostructures with high Ge content Si1-xGex channel grown by SS-MBE on Si1-yGey/Si(001) virtual substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myronov, M.

    2001-04-01

    This thesis is a report on experimental investigations of magnetotransport, structural and optical properties of p-type modulation doped (MOD) heterostructures with Si 1-x Ge x channel of high Ge content (0.6 1-y Ge y /Si(001) virtual substrate (VS). The active layers of MOD heterostructures were grown by solid source molecular beam epitaxy (SS-MBE). The VSs were grown either by SS-MBE or low-pressure chemical vapour deposition (LP-CVD). The influence of thermal annealing on magnetotransport, structural and optical properties of Si 1-x Ge x /Si 1-y Ge y heterostructures was studied by performing the post growth furnace thermal annealing (FTA) treatments in the temperature range of 600-900C for 30min and rapid thermal annealing (RTA) treatments at temperature 750C for 30sec. Structural and optical analysis of p-type MOD Si 1-x Ge x /Si 1-y Ge y heterostructures involved the techniques of cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy, ultra low energy secondary ion mass spectrometry, photoluminescence spectroscopy, micro-Raman spectroscopy and scanning white-light interferometry. From the combinations of experimental results obtained by these techniques the Ge composition in the SiGe heteroepilayers, their thicknesses, state of strain in the heteroepilayers and dislocations microstructure in VSs were obtained. After post growth thermal annealing treatments were observed broadening of the Si 1-x Ge x channel accompanied with the reduction of Ge content in the channel and smearing of Si 1-x Ge x /Si 1-y Ge y interfaces. The Si 0.7 Ge 0.3 on low-temperature Si buffer VSs with very good structural properties were designed and grown by SS-MBE. These include: relatively thin 850nm total thickness of VS, 4-6nm Peak-to-Valley values of surface roughness, less than 10 5 cm -2 threading dislocations density and more than 95% degree of relaxation in the top layers of VS. The Hall mobility and sheet carrier density of as-grown and annealed p-type MOD Si 1-x Ge x /Si 1-y Ge y

  16. High strain-rate soft material characterization via inertial cavitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada, Jonathan B.; Barajas, Carlos; Henann, David L.; Johnsen, Eric; Franck, Christian

    2018-03-01

    Mechanical characterization of soft materials at high strain-rates is challenging due to their high compliance, slow wave speeds, and non-linear viscoelasticity. Yet, knowledge of their material behavior is paramount across a spectrum of biological and engineering applications from minimizing tissue damage in ultrasound and laser surgeries to diagnosing and mitigating impact injuries. To address this significant experimental hurdle and the need to accurately measure the viscoelastic properties of soft materials at high strain-rates (103-108 s-1), we present a minimally invasive, local 3D microrheology technique based on inertial microcavitation. By combining high-speed time-lapse imaging with an appropriate theoretical cavitation framework, we demonstrate that this technique has the capability to accurately determine the general viscoelastic material properties of soft matter as compliant as a few kilopascals. Similar to commercial characterization algorithms, we provide the user with significant flexibility in evaluating several constitutive laws to determine the most appropriate physical model for the material under investigation. Given its straightforward implementation into most current microscopy setups, we anticipate that this technique can be easily adopted by anyone interested in characterizing soft material properties at high loading rates including hydrogels, tissues and various polymeric specimens.

  17. Processing of high-temperature superconductors at high strain rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mamalis, A.G.; Pantazsopoulos, G.; Manolakos, D.E.; Szalay, A.

    2000-01-01

    This new book provides, for the first time, a systematic, unified presentation of all steps in the processing of high-temperature superconductor materials, ranging from synthesis of various systems to fabrication and industrial applications. Also covered are characterization techniques and current directions in research and development. The authors are leading specialists who bring to this new book their many years of experience in research, education and industrial engineering work in superconductor materials. This book is primarily focused on the bulk-fabrication techniques of high-temperature ceramic superconducting components, especially on the combination of dynamic powder-consolidation and subsequent deformation processing. The properties of these ceramics, which are difficult-to-form materials by applying conventional techniques, are combined for the net-shape manufacturing of such components for the construction of HTS deviceshor e llipsis. However, very important topics such as superconducting structures, chemical synthesis, film fabrication and characterization techniques are also reviewedhor e llipsis to provide a complete, comprehensive view of superconductors engineering

  18. Development of high temperature resistant ceramic matrix composites based on SiC- and novel SiBNC-fibres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daenicke, Enrico

    2014-01-01

    Novel ceramic fibres in the quaternary system Si-B-C-N exhibit excellent high temperature stability and creep resistance. In th is work it was investigated, to what extent these outstanding properties of SiBNC-fibres can be transferred into ceramic matrix composites (CMC) in comparison to commercial silicon carbide (SiC) fibres. For the CMC development the liquid silicon infiltration (LSI) as well as the polymer infiltration and pyrolysis process (PIP) was applied. Extensive correlations between fibre properties, fibre coating (without, pyrolytic carbon, lanthanum phosphate), process parameters of the CMC manufacturing method and the mechanical and microstructural properties of the CMC before and after exposure to air could be established. Hence, the potential of novel CMCs can be assessed and application fields can be derived.

  19. Strain and texture evolution of ED-rotated cubes during quasi-static and dynamic tensile testing of Al-Mg-Si-profiles in the as-extruded T1-temper condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathiesen, R.H.; Forbord, B.; Mardalen, J.; Furu, T.; Lange, H.I.

    2007-01-01

    High-energy synchrotron X-ray diffraction has been used to study through-thickness deformation response in extruded Al-Mg-Si-profiles during tensile testing, in terms of micro- and mesoscopic distributions and dynamical evolution of elastic strains and grain rotations. Local averaging with analysis at intermediate length scales reveals strongly inhomogeneous through-profile elastic strains, caused by the presence of three distinct microstructure regions and the compatibility relations that apply at their interfaces. Variations in elastic strains at characteristic microstructure lengths are found to be large; typically 1σ Gaussian spreads for the different ε ij -components of the elastic strain tensor are minimal and of the order 1.0 x 10 -3 in the central profile region at low stresses. The spread increases with the tensile loads, but even more dramatically with decreasing distance to the surfaces where maximum 1σ spreads up to 6-7 x 10 -3 are encountered. The evolution and distribution of certain texture components have been analysed, showing grain rotations to be a non-negligible part of the deformation response that activates at quite modest plastic deformations. Inhomogeneous strain response at local and intermediate length scales together with the strain and texture component relations that apply across the microstructure region boundaries are found to be decisive to surface roughening. All together, the results point in the direction that strain and texture evolution should be considered together in order to provide a more complete description of microstructure mechanics in metals

  20. Alkyl-terminated Si(111) surfaces: A high-resolution, core level photoelectron spectroscopy study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terry, J.; Linford, M.R.; Wigren, C.; Cao, R.; Pianetta, P.; Chidsey, C.E. [Stanford University, Stanford, California 94309 (United States)

    1999-01-01

    The bonding of alkyl monolayers to Si(111) surfaces has been studied with high-resolution core level photoelectron spectroscopy (PES). Two very different wet-chemical methods have been used to prepare the alkyl monolayers: (i) Olefin insertion into the H{endash}Si bond of the H{endash}Si(111) surface, and (ii) replacement of Cl on the Cl{endash}Si(111) surface by an alkyl group from an alkyllithium reagent. In both cases, PES has revealed a C 1s component shifted to lower binding energy and a Si 2p component shifted to higher binding energy. Both components are attributed to the presence of a C{endash}Si bond at the interface. Along with photoelectron diffraction data [Appl. Phys. Lett. {bold 71}, 1056, (1997)], these data are used to show that these two synthetic methods can be used to functionalize the Si(111) surface. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}

  1. Phase retrieval of diffraction from highly strained crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newton, Marcus C.; Harder, Ross; Huang Xiaojing; Xiong Gang; Robinson, Ian K.

    2010-01-01

    An important application of phase retrieval methods is to invert coherent x-ray diffraction measurements to obtain real-space images of nanoscale crystals. The phase information is currently recovered from reciprocal-space amplitude measurements by the application of iterative projective algorithms that solve the nonlinear and nonconvex optimization problem. Various algorithms have been developed each of which apply constraints in real and reciprocal space on the reconstructed object. In general, these methods rely on experimental data that is oversampled above the Nyquist frequency. To date, support-based methods have worked well, but are less successful for highly strained structures, defined as those which contain (real-space) phase information outside the range of ±π/2. As a direct result the acquired experimental data is, in general, inadvertently subsampled below the Nyquist frequency. In recent years, a new theory of 'compressive sensing' has emerged, which dictates that an appropriately subsampled (or compressed) signal can be recovered exactly through iterative reconstruction and various routes to minimizing the l 1 norm or total variation in that signal. This has proven effective in solving several classes of convex optimization problems. Here we report on a 'density-modification' phase reconstruction algorithm that applies the principles of compressive sensing to solve the nonconvex phase retrieval problem for highly strained crystalline materials. The application of a nonlinear operator in real-space minimizes the l 1 norm of the amplitude by a promotion-penalization (or 'propenal') operation that confines the density bandwidth. This was found to significantly aid in the reconstruction of highly strained nanocrystals. We show how this method is able to successfully reconstruct phase information that otherwise could not be recovered.

  2. Structure of highly perfect semiconductor strained-layer superlattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandenberg, J.M.

    1989-01-01

    High-resolution x-ray diffraction (HRXRD) measurements of strained-layer superlattices (SLS's) have been carried out using a four-crystal monochromator. A wide asymmetric range of sharp higher-order x-ray satellite peaks is observed indicating well-defined periodic structures. Using a kinematical diffraction step model very good agreement between measured and simulated x-ray satellite patterns could be achieved. These results show that this x- ray method is a powerful tool to evaluate the crystal quality of SLS's

  3. Behavior of quenched and tempered steels under high strain rate compression loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, L.W.; Seifert, K.; Abdel-Malek, S.

    1997-01-01

    Two quenched and tempered steels were tested under compression loading at strain rates of ε = 2.10 2 s -1 and ε = 2.10 3 s -1 . By applying the thermal activation theory, the flow stress at very high strain rates of 10 5 to 10 6 s -1 is derived from low temperature and high strain rate tests. Dynamic true stress - true strain behaviour presents, that stress increases with increasing strain until a maximum, then it decreases. Because of the adiabatic process under dynamic loading the maximum flow stress will occur at a lower strain if the strain rate is increased. Considering strain rate, strain hardening, strain rate hardening and strain softening, a constitutive equation with different additive terms is successfully used to describe the behaviour of material under dynamic compression loading. Results are compared with other models of constitutive equations. (orig.)

  4. High temperature oxidation behavior of SiC coating in TRISO coated particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Rongzheng; Liu, Bing; Zhang, Kaihong; Liu, Malin; Shao, Youlin; Tang, Chunhe

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • High temperature oxidation tests of SiC coating in TRISO particles were carried out. • The dynamic oxidation process was established. • Oxidation mechanisms were proposed. • The existence of silicon oxycarbides at the SiO 2 /SiC interface was demonstrated. • Carbon was detected at the interface at high temperatures and long oxidation time. - Abstract: High temperature oxidation behavior of SiC coatings in tristructural-isotropic (TRISO) coated particles is crucial to the in-pile safety of fuel particles for a high temperature gas cooled reactor (HTGR). The postulated accident condition of air ingress was taken into account in evaluating the reliability of the SiC layer. Oxidation tests of SiC coatings were carried out in the ranges of temperature between 800 and 1600 °C and time between 1 and 48 h in air atmosphere. Based on the microstructure evolution of the oxide layer, the mechanisms and kinetics of the oxidation process were proposed. The existence of silicon oxycarbides (SiO x C y ) at the SiO 2 /SiC interface was demonstrated by X-ray photospectroscopy (XPS) analysis. Carbon was detected by Raman spectroscopy at the interface under conditions of very high temperatures and long oxidation time. From oxidation kinetics calculation, activation energies were 145 kJ/mol and 352 kJ/mol for the temperature ranges of 1200–1500 °C and 1550–1600 °C, respectively

  5. Processing, Microstructure and Creep Behavior of Mo-Si-B-Based Intermetallic Alloys for Very High Temperature Structural Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vijay Vasudevan

    2008-03-31

    This research project is concerned with developing a fundamental understanding of the effects of processing and microstructure on the creep behavior of refractory intermetallic alloys based on the Mo-Si-B system. In the first part of this project, the compression creep behavior of a Mo-8.9Si-7.71B (in at.%) alloy, at 1100 and 1200 C was studied, whereas in the second part of the project, the constant strain rate compression behavior at 1200, 1300 and 1400 C of a nominally Mo-20Si-10B (in at.%) alloy, processed such as to yield five different {alpha}-Mo volume fractions ranging from 5 to 46%, was studied. In order to determine the deformation and damage mechanisms and rationalize the creep/high temperature deformation data and parameters, the microstructure of both undeformed and deformed samples was characterized in detail using x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with back scattered electron imaging (BSE) and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS), electron back scattered diffraction (EBSD)/orientation electron microscopy in the SEM and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The microstructure of both alloys was three-phase, being composed of {alpha}-Mo, Mo{sub 3}Si and T2-Mo{sub 5}SiB{sub 2} phases. The values of stress exponents and activation energies, and their dependence on microstructure were determined. The data suggested the operation of both dislocation as well as diffusional mechanisms, depending on alloy, test temperature, stress level and microstructure. Microstructural observations of post-crept/deformed samples indicated the presence of many voids in the {alpha}-Mo grains and few cracks in the intermetallic particles and along their interfaces with the {alpha}-Mo matrix. TEM observations revealed the presence of recrystallized {alpha}-Mo grains and sub-grain boundaries composed of dislocation arrays within the grains (in Mo-8.9Si-7.71B) or fine sub-grains with a high density of b = 1/2<111> dislocations (in Mo-20Si-10B), which

  6. Strain Rate Effect on Tensile Behavior for a High Specific Strength Steel: From Quasi-Static to Intermediate Strain Rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Wang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The strain rate effect on the tensile behaviors of a high specific strength steel (HSSS with dual-phase microstructure has been investigated. The yield strength, the ultimate strength and the tensile toughness were all observed to increase with increasing strain rates at the range of 0.0006 to 56/s, rendering this HSSS as an excellent candidate for an energy absorber in the automobile industry, since vehicle crushing often happens at intermediate strain rates. Back stress hardening has been found to play an important role for this HSSS due to load transfer and strain partitioning between two phases, and a higher strain rate could cause even higher strain partitioning in the softer austenite grains, delaying the deformation instability. Deformation twins are observed in the austenite grains at all strain rates to facilitate the uniform tensile deformation. The B2 phase (FeAl intermetallic compound is less deformable at higher strain rates, resulting in easier brittle fracture in B2 particles, smaller dimple size and a higher density of phase interfaces in final fracture surfaces. Thus, more energy need be consumed during the final fracture for the experiments conducted at higher strain rates, resulting in better tensile toughness.

  7. Strain evolution in Si substrate due to implantation of MeV ion observed by extremely asymmetric x-ray diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emoto, T.; Ghatak, J.; Satyam, P. V.; Akimoto, K.

    2009-01-01

    We studied the strain introduced in a Si(111) substrate due to MeV ion implantation using extremely asymmetric x-ray diffraction and measured the rocking curves of asymmetrical 113 diffraction for the Si substrates implanted with a 1.5 MeV Au 2+ ion at fluence values of 1x10 13 , 5x10 13 , and 1x10 14 /cm 2 . The measured curves consisted of a bulk peak and accompanying subpeak with an interference fringe. The positional relationship of the bulk peak to the subpeak and the intensity variation of those peaks with respect to the wavelengths of the x rays indicated that crystal lattices near the surface were strained; the lattice spacing of surface normal (111) planes near the surface was larger than that of the bulk. Detailed strain profiles along the depth direction were successfully estimated using a curve-fitting method based on Darwin's dynamical diffraction theory. Comparing the shapes of resultant strain profiles, we found that a strain evolution rapidly occurred within a depth of ∼300 nm at fluence values between 1x10 13 and 5x10 13 /cm 2 . This indicates that formation of the complex defects progressed near the surface when the fluence value went beyond a critical value between 1x10 13 and 5x10 13 /cm 2 and the defects brought a large strain to the substrate.

  8. A low knee voltage and high breakdown voltage of 4H-SiC TSBS employing poly-Si/Ni Schottky scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong Young; Seok, Ogyun; Park, Himchan; Bahng, Wook; Kim, Hyoung Woo; Park, Ki Cheol

    2018-02-01

    We report a low knee voltage and high breakdown voltage 4H-SiC TSBS employing poly-Si/Ni dual Schottky contacts. A knee voltage was significantly improved from 0.75 to 0.48 V by utilizing an alternative low work-function material of poly-Si as an anode electrode. Also, reverse breakdown voltage was successfully improved from 901 to 1154 V due to a shrunk low-work-function Schottky region by a proposed self-align etching process between poly-Si and SiC. SiC TSBS with poly-Si/Ni dual Schottky scheme is a suitable structure for high-efficiency rectification and high-voltage blocking operation.

  9. Three-dimensional stress and strain around real shape Si particles in cast aluminum alloy under cyclic loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teranishi, Masaki [Department of Nuclear Power & Energy Safety Engineering, University of Fukui (Japan); Kuwazuru, Osamu, E-mail: kuwa@u-fukui.ac.jp [Department of Nuclear Power & Energy Safety Engineering, University of Fukui (Japan); Gennai, Shota [Department of Nuclear Power & Energy Safety Engineering, University of Fukui (Japan); Kobayashi, Masakazu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Toyohashi University of Technology (Japan); Toda, Hiroyuki [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Kyushu University (Japan)

    2016-12-15

    The crack initiation mechanism of cast Al-Si-Mg alloy under low-cycle fatigue was addressed by using the synchrotron X-ray computed tomography (CT) and the image-based finite element analysis. The fatigue test and its in situ CT observation were conducted to visualize the crack initiation behavior. In the low-cycle fatigue, the cracking generally started with the voiding by the fracture of silicon particles, and the coalescence of these voids formed the crack. To elucidate the mechanism of silicon particle fracture, the finite element elastic-plastic analyses were performed with regard to twelve silicon particles including the fractured and intact particles detected by the chronological CT observation. By using the image-based modeling technique, the interested particle was embedded in the finite element model along with the surrounding particles as they were in the specimen. The material properties of silicon phase and aluminum matrix were identified by the nanoindentation tests. Ten cycles of loading by the uniform stress which was equivalent to the load in the fatigue test was applied to the finite element model, and the stress, strain and their cyclic response around the silicon particles were simulated. The morphology analysis was also carried out for the interested particles, and the geometrical parameters affecting the particle fracture were examined. By comparing the results of fractured and intact particles, we found that there were some geometrical conditions for the fracture of silicon particles, and a certain magnitude of hydrostatic stress was required to break the particles.

  10. Stable and low contact resistance electrical contacts for high temperature SiGe thermoelectric generators

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Bo; Zheng, Tao; Wang, Qingxiao; Guo, Zaibing; Kim, Moon J.; Alshareef, Husam N.; Gnade, Bruce E.

    2018-01-01

    that no interdiffusion takes place between TaAlN and SiGe. A specific contact resistivity of (2.1±1.3)×10−6Ω-cm2 for p-type SiGe and (2.8±1.6)×10−5 Ω-cm2 for n-type SiGe is demonstrated after the high temperature annealing. These results show that TaAlN is a promising

  11. High Temperature Memories in SiC Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Ekström, Mattias

    2014-01-01

    This thesis is part of the Working On Venus (WOV) project. The aim of the project is to design electronics in silicon carbide (SiC) that can withstand the extreme surface environmen  of Venus. This thesis investigates some possible computer memory technologies that could survive on the surface of Venus. A memory must be able to function at 460 °C and after a total radiation dose of at least 200 Gy (SiC). This thesis is a literature survey. The thesis covers several Random-Access Memory (RAM) ...

  12. Ultra high hole mobilities in a pure strained Ge quantum well

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mironov, O.A.; Hassan, A.H.A.; Morris, R.J.H.; Dobbie, A.; Uhlarz, M.; Chrastina, D.; Hague, J.P.; Kiatgamolchai, S.; Beanland, R.; Gabani, S.; Berkutov, I.B.; Helm, M.; Drachenko, O.; Myronov, M.; Leadley, D.R.

    2014-01-01

    Hole mobilities at low and room temperature (RT) have been studied for a strained sGe/SiGe heterostructure using standard Van der Pauw resistivity and Hall effect measurements. The range of magnetic field and temperatures used were − 14 T < B < + 14 T and 1.5 K < T < 300 K respectively. Using maximum entropy-mobility spectrum analysis (ME-MSA) and Bryan's algorithm mobility spectrum (BAMS) analysis, a RT two dimensional hole gas drift mobility of (3.9 ± 0.4) × 10 3 cm 2 /V s was determined for a sheet density (p s ) 9.8 × 10 10 cm −2 (by ME-MSA) and (3.9 ± 0.2) × 10 3 cm 2 /V s for a sheet density (p s ) 5.9 × 10 10 cm −2 (by BAMS). - Highlights: • Pure strained Ge channel grown by reduced pressure chemical vapor deposition • Maximum entropy-mobility spectrum analysis • Bryan's algorithm mobility spectrum analysis • High room temperature hole drift mobility of (3.9 ± 0.4) × 10 3 cm 2 /V s • Extremely high hole mobility of 1.1 × 10 6 cm 2 /V s at 12 K

  13. High Performance Li4Ti5O12/Si Composite Anodes for Li-Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunhui Chen

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Improving the energy capacity of spinel Li4Ti5O12 (LTO is very important to utilize it as a high-performance Li-ion battery (LIB electrode. In this work, LTO/Si composites with different weight ratios were prepared and tested as anodes. The anodic and cathodic peaks from both LTO and silicon were apparent in the composites, indicating that each component was active upon Li+ insertion and extraction. The composites with higher Si contents (LTO:Si = 35:35 exhibited superior specific capacity (1004 mAh·g−1 at lower current densities (0.22 A·g−1 but the capacity deteriorated at higher current densities. On the other hand, the electrodes with moderate Si contents (LTO:Si = 50:20 were able to deliver stable capacity (100 mAh·g−1 with good cycling performance, even at a very high current density of 7 A·g−1. The improvement in specific capacity and rate performance was a direct result of the synergy between LTO and Si; the former can alleviate the stresses from volumetric changes in Si upon cycling, while Si can add to the capacity of the composite. Therefore, it has been demonstrated that the addition of Si and concentration optimization is an easy yet an effective way to produce high performance LTO-based electrodes for lithium-ion batteries.

  14. Control of the oxidation kinetics of H-terminated (111)Si by using the carrier concentration and the strain: a second-harmonic-generation investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gokce, B.; Gundogdu, K.; Aspnes, D. E.

    2012-01-01

    We discuss recent results regarding the effects of strain, carrier type and concentration on the oxidation of H-terminated (111)Si. Second-harmonic-generation data show that this is a two-stage process where the H of the 'up' bonds of the outermost Si layer is replaced by OH, followed by O insertion into the 'back' bonds. These data provide additional detailed information about both stages. In particular, directional control of the in-plane surface chemistry by using the applied uniaxial stress provides new opportunities for interface control.

  15. Control of the oxidation kinetics of H-terminated (111)Si by using the carrier concentration and the strain: a second-harmonic-generation investigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gokce, B.; Gundogdu, K. [North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC (United States); Aspnes, D. E. [Kyung Hee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    We discuss recent results regarding the effects of strain, carrier type and concentration on the oxidation of H-terminated (111)Si. Second-harmonic-generation data show that this is a two-stage process where the H of the 'up' bonds of the outermost Si layer is replaced by OH, followed by O insertion into the 'back' bonds. These data provide additional detailed information about both stages. In particular, directional control of the in-plane surface chemistry by using the applied uniaxial stress provides new opportunities for interface control.

  16. A remorin gene SiREM6, the target gene of SiARDP, from foxtail millet (Setaria italica) promotes high salt tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Jing; Li, Cong; Liu, Yuwei; Yu, Jingjuan

    2014-01-01

    Remorin proteins (REMs) form a plant-specific protein family, with some REMs being responsive to abiotic stress. However, the precise functions of REMs in abiotic stress tolerance are not clear. In this study, we identified 11 remorin genes from foxtail millet (Setaria italica) and cloned a remorin gene, SiREM6, for further investigation. The transcript level of SiREM6 was increased by high salt stress, low temperature stress and abscisic acid (ABA) treatment, but not by drought stress. The potential oligomerization of SiREM6 was examined by negative staining electron microscopy. The overexpression of SiREM6 improved high salt stress tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis at the germination and seedling stages as revealed by germination rate, survival rate, relative electrolyte leakage and proline content. The SiREM6 promoter contains two dehydration responsive elements (DRE) and one ABA responsive element (ABRE). An ABA responsive DRE-binding transcription factor, SiARDP, and an ABRE-binding transcription factor, SiAREB1, were cloned from foxtail millet. SiARDP could physically bind to the DREs, but SiAREB1 could not. These results revealed that SiREM6 is a target gene of SiARDP and plays a critical role in high salt stress tolerance.

  17. A remorin gene SiREM6, the target gene of SiARDP, from foxtail millet (Setaria italica promotes high salt tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Yue

    Full Text Available Remorin proteins (REMs form a plant-specific protein family, with some REMs being responsive to abiotic stress. However, the precise functions of REMs in abiotic stress tolerance are not clear. In this study, we identified 11 remorin genes from foxtail millet (Setaria italica and cloned a remorin gene, SiREM6, for further investigation. The transcript level of SiREM6 was increased by high salt stress, low temperature stress and abscisic acid (ABA treatment, but not by drought stress. The potential oligomerization of SiREM6 was examined by negative staining electron microscopy. The overexpression of SiREM6 improved high salt stress tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis at the germination and seedling stages as revealed by germination rate, survival rate, relative electrolyte leakage and proline content. The SiREM6 promoter contains two dehydration responsive elements (DRE and one ABA responsive element (ABRE. An ABA responsive DRE-binding transcription factor, SiARDP, and an ABRE-binding transcription factor, SiAREB1, were cloned from foxtail millet. SiARDP could physically bind to the DREs, but SiAREB1 could not. These results revealed that SiREM6 is a target gene of SiARDP and plays a critical role in high salt stress tolerance.

  18. High temperature flow behaviour of SiC reinforced lithium ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Verdier (1996) explored the effect of SiC particulate rein- forcements in oxynitride glasses. Like in silicate compo- sites, non-Newtonian behaviour was observed in oxynitride glasses but instead of shear thinning they observed shear thickening. This was attributed to change in composition of grain boundary glass coupled ...

  19. A novel program to design siRNAs simultaneously effective to highly variable virus genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hui Sun; Ahn, Jeonghyun; Jun, Eun Jung; Yang, Sanghwa; Joo, Chul Hyun; Kim, Yoo Kyum; Lee, Heuiran

    2009-07-10

    A major concern of antiviral therapy using small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) targeting RNA viral genome is high sequence diversity and mutation rate due to genetic instability. To overcome this problem, it is indispensable to design siRNAs targeting highly conserved regions. We thus designed CAPSID (Convenient Application Program for siRNA Design), a novel bioinformatics program to identify siRNAs targeting highly conserved regions within RNA viral genomes. From a set of input RNAs of diverse sequences, CAPSID rapidly searches conserved patterns and suggests highly potent siRNA candidates in a hierarchical manner. To validate the usefulness of this novel program, we investigated the antiviral potency of universal siRNA for various Human enterovirus B (HEB) serotypes. Assessment of antiviral efficacy using Hela cells, clearly demonstrates that HEB-specific siRNAs exhibit protective effects against all HEBs examined. These findings strongly indicate that CAPSID can be applied to select universal antiviral siRNAs against highly divergent viral genomes.

  20. Net-shape forming and properties of high volume fraction SiCp/Al composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren Shubin; Qu Xuanhui; Guo Jia; He Xinbo; Qin Mingli; Shen Xiaoyu

    2009-01-01

    High performance SiCp/Al composites have been realized their net-shape forming by use of a novel process-ceramic injection molding (CIM) for the preparation of SiC preform and pressureless infiltration of aluminum alloys. The dimension precision of prepared SiCp/Al parts could reach about ±0.3%, and their properties could also better meet the requirement of electronic packaging on the materials. In this paper, the CIM process to fabricate SiC preform and the infiltration of SiC preform by Al alloys have been discussed in detail. Additionally, the properties of prepared SiCp/Al composites have also been given research and evaluation.

  1. Preparation of a Si/SiO2 -Ordered-Mesoporous-Carbon Nanocomposite as an Anode for High-Performance Lithium-Ion and Sodium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Lingxing; Liu, Renpin; Han, Lei; Luo, Fenqiang; Chen, Xi; Wang, Jianbiao; Qian, Qingrong; Chen, Qinghua; Wei, Mingdeng

    2018-04-03

    In this work, an Si/SiO 2 -ordered-mesoporous carbon (Si/SiO 2 -OMC) nanocomposite was initially fabricated through a magnesiothermic reduction strategy by using a two-dimensional bicontinuous mesochannel of SiO 2 -OMC as a precursor, combined with an NaOH etching process, in which crystal Si/amorphous SiO 2 nanoparticles were encapsulated into the OMC matrix. Not only can such unique porous crystal Si/amorphous SiO 2 nanoparticles uniformly dispersed in the OMC matrix mitigate the volume change of active materials during the cycling process, but they can also improve electrical conductivity of Si/SiO 2 and facilitate the Li + /Na + diffusion. When applied as an anode for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs), the Si/SiO 2 -OMC composite displayed superior reversible capacity (958 mA h g -1 at 0.2 A g -1 after 100 cycles) and good cycling life (retaining a capacity of 459 mA h g -1 at 2 A g -1 after 1000 cycles). For sodium-ion batteries (SIBs), the composite maintained a high capacity of 423 mA h g -1 after 100 cycles at 0.05 A g -1 and an extremely stable reversible capacity of 190 mA h g -1 was retained even after 500 cycles at 1 A g -1 . This performance is one of the best long-term cycling properties of Si-based SIB anode materials. The Si/SiO 2 -OMC composites exhibited great potential as an alternative material for both lithium- and sodium-ion battery anodes. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Formation of radiative centers in SiO2 by tin high-dose implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komarov, F.F.; Parkhomenko, I.N.; Vlasukova, L.A.; Mil'chanin, O.V.; Mokhovikov, M.A.; Wendler, E.; Wesch, W.

    2013-01-01

    The structural transformations in SiO 2 layers implanted with high fluence of Sn ions have been investigated. It has been found that post-implantation annealing results in the β-Sn precipitation as well as the formation of SnO 2 -enriched regions in SiO 2 :Sn matrix. The intensive emission in the range of photon energies 1.5 – 3.5 eV is registered for the implanted and annealed samples. We attribute it to the oxygen deficiency centers created in the SiO 2 :Sn matrix and at the 'nanocluster/SiO 2 ' interfaces. (authors)

  3. Origin of the high p-doping in F intercalated graphene on SiC

    KAUST Repository

    Cheng, Yingchun; Kaloni, T. P.; Huang, G. S.; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo

    2011-01-01

    and the SiC, which restores the Dirac point in the band structure. Second, saturation of the topmost Si dangling bonds introduces p-doping up to 0.37 eV. Third, F atoms bond covalently to the graphene to enhance the p-doping. Our model explains the highly p

  4. Effect of surface passivation by SiN/SiO2 of AlGaN/GaN high-electron mobility transistors on Si substrate by deep level transient spectroscopy method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gassoumi, Malek; Mosbahi, Hana; Zaidi, Mohamed Ali; Gaquiere, Christophe; Maaref, Hassen

    2013-01-01

    Device performance and defects in AlGaN/GaN high-electron mobility transistors have been correlated. The effect of SiN/SiO 2 passivation of the surface of AlGaN/GaN high-electron mobility transistors on Si substrates is reported on DC characteristics. Deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) measurements were performed on the device after the passivation by a (50/100 nm) SiN/SiO 2 film. The DLTS spectra from these measurements showed the existence of the same electron trap on the surface of the device

  5. Magnetoresistance of Si(001) MOSFETs with high concentration of electrons

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Smrčka, Ludvík; Makarovsky, O. N.; Schemenchinskii, S. G.; Vašek, Petr; Jurka, Vlastimil

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 22, - (2004), s. 320-323 ISSN 1386-9477. [International Conference on Electronic Properties of Two-Dimensional Systems /15./. Nara, 14.07.2003-18.07.2003] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/01/0754; GA ČR GA202/96/0036 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010914 Keywords : Si MOSFET * magnetoresistance * Hall effect Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.898, year: 2004

  6. Bonding of Si wafers by surface activation method for the development of high efficiency high counting rate radiation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanno, Ikuo; Yamashita, Makoto; Onabe, Hideaki

    2006-01-01

    Si wafers with two different resistivities ranging over two orders of magnitude were bonded by the surface activation method. The resistivities of bonded Si wafers were measured as a function of annealing temperature. Using calculations based on a model, the interface resistivities of bonded Si wafers were estimated as a function of the measured resistivities of bonded Si wafers. With thermal treatment from 500degC to 900degC, all interfaces showed high resistivity, with behavior that was close to that of an insulator. Annealing at 1000degC decreased the interface resistivity and showed close to ideal bonding after thermal treatment at 1100degC. (author)

  7. Oxidation Study of an Ultra High Temperature Ceramic Coatings Based on HfSiCN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacksteder, Dagny; Waters, Deborah L.; Zhu, Dongming

    2018-01-01

    High temperature fiber-reinforced ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) are important for aerospace applications because of their low density, high strength, and significantly higher-temperature capabilities compared to conventional metallic systems. The use of the SiCf/SiC and Cf/SiC CMCs allows the design of lighter-weight, more fuel efficient aircraft engines and also more advanced spacecraft airframe thermal protection systems. However, CMCs have to be protected with advanced environmental barrier coatings when they are incorporated into components for the harsh environments such as in aircraft engine or spacecraft applications. In this study, high temperature oxidation kinetics of an advanced HfSiCN coating on Cf/SiC CMC substrates were investigated at 1300 C, 1400 C, and 1500 C by using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The coating oxidation reaction parabolic rate constant and activation energy were estimated from the experimental results. The oxidation reaction studies showed that the coatings formed the most stable, predominant HfSiO4-HfO2 scales at 1400 C. A peroxidation test at 1400 C then followed by subsequent oxidation tests at various temperatures also showed more adherent scales and slower scale growth because of reduced the initial transient oxidation stage and increased HfSiO4-HfO2 content in the scales formed on the HfSiCN coatings.

  8. High capacitance density MIS capacitor using Si nanowires by MACE and ALD alumina dielectric

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leontis, I.; Nassiopoulou, A. G., E-mail: A.Nassiopoulou@inn.demokritos.gr [INN, NCSR Demokritos, Patriarchou Grigoriou and Neapoleos, Aghia Paraskevi, 153 10 Athens (Greece); Botzakaki, M. A.; Georga, S. N. [Department of Physics, University of Patras, 26 504 Rion (Greece)

    2016-06-28

    High capacitance density three-dimensional (3D) metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) capacitors using Si nanowires (SiNWs) by metal-assisted chemical etching and atomic-layer-deposited alumina dielectric film were fabricated and electrically characterized. A chemical treatment was used to remove structural defects from the nanowire surface, in order to reduce the density of interface traps at the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/SiNW interface. SiNWs with two different lengths, namely, 1.3 μm and 2.4 μm, were studied. A four-fold capacitance density increase compared to a planar reference capacitor was achieved with the 1.3 μm SiNWs. In the case of the 2.4 μm SiNWs this increase was ×7, reaching a value of 4.1 μF/cm{sup 2}. Capacitance-voltage (C-V) measurements revealed that, following a two-cycle chemical treatment, frequency dispersion at accumulation regime and flat-band voltage shift disappeared in the case of the 1.3 μm SiNWs, which is indicative of effective removal of structural defects at the SiNW surface. In the case of the 2.4 μm SiNWs, frequency dispersion at accumulation persisted even after the two-step chemical treatment. This is attributed to a porous Si layer at the SiNW tops, which is not effectively removed by the chemical treatment. The electrical losses of MIS capacitors in both cases of SiNW lengths were studied and will be discussed.

  9. High capacitance density MIS capacitor using Si nanowires by MACE and ALD alumina dielectric

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leontis, I.; Nassiopoulou, A. G.; Botzakaki, M. A.; Georga, S. N.

    2016-01-01

    High capacitance density three-dimensional (3D) metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) capacitors using Si nanowires (SiNWs) by metal-assisted chemical etching and atomic-layer-deposited alumina dielectric film were fabricated and electrically characterized. A chemical treatment was used to remove structural defects from the nanowire surface, in order to reduce the density of interface traps at the Al_2O_3/SiNW interface. SiNWs with two different lengths, namely, 1.3 μm and 2.4 μm, were studied. A four-fold capacitance density increase compared to a planar reference capacitor was achieved with the 1.3 μm SiNWs. In the case of the 2.4 μm SiNWs this increase was ×7, reaching a value of 4.1 μF/cm"2. Capacitance-voltage (C-V) measurements revealed that, following a two-cycle chemical treatment, frequency dispersion at accumulation regime and flat-band voltage shift disappeared in the case of the 1.3 μm SiNWs, which is indicative of effective removal of structural defects at the SiNW surface. In the case of the 2.4 μm SiNWs, frequency dispersion at accumulation persisted even after the two-step chemical treatment. This is attributed to a porous Si layer at the SiNW tops, which is not effectively removed by the chemical treatment. The electrical losses of MIS capacitors in both cases of SiNW lengths were studied and will be discussed.

  10. Laser-engraved carbon nanotube paper for instilling high sensitivity, high stretchability, and high linearity in strain sensors

    KAUST Repository

    Xin, Yangyang

    2017-06-29

    There is an increasing demand for strain sensors with high sensitivity and high stretchability for new applications such as robotics or wearable electronics. However, for the available technologies, the sensitivity of the sensors varies widely. These sensors are also highly nonlinear, making reliable measurement challenging. Here we introduce a new family of sensors composed of a laser-engraved carbon nanotube paper embedded in an elastomer. A roll-to-roll pressing of these sensors activates a pre-defined fragmentation process, which results in a well-controlled, fragmented microstructure. Such sensors are reproducible and durable and can attain ultrahigh sensitivity and high stretchability (with a gauge factor of over 4.2 × 10(4) at 150% strain). Moreover, they can attain high linearity from 0% to 15% and from 22% to 150% strain. They are good candidates for stretchable electronic applications that require high sensitivity and linearity at large strains.

  11. Experimental design and analysis for irradiation of SiC/SiC composite tubes under a prototypic high heat flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrie, Christian M.; Koyanagi, Takaaki; McDuffee, Joel L.; Deck, Christian P.; Katoh, Yutai; Terrani, Kurt A.

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of this work is to design an irradiation vehicle for testing silicon carbide (SiC) fiber-reinforced SiC matrix composite cladding materials under conditions representative of a light water reactor in order to validate thermo-mechanical models of stress states in these materials due to irradiation swelling and differential thermal expansion. The design allows for a constant tube outer surface temperature in the range of 300-350 °C under a representative high heat flux (∼0.66 MW/m2) during one cycle of irradiation in an un-instrumented ;rabbit; capsule in the High Flux Isotope Reactor. An engineered aluminum foil was developed to absorb the expansion of the cladding tubes, due to irradiation swelling, without changing the thermal resistance of the gap between the cladding and irradiation capsule. Finite-element analyses of the capsule were performed, and the models used to calculate thermal contact resistance were validated by out-of-pile testing and post-irradiation examination of the foils and passive SiC thermometry. Six irradiated cladding tubes (both monoliths and composites) were irradiated and subsequently disassembled in a hot cell. The calculated temperatures of passive SiC thermometry inside the capsules showed good agreement with temperatures measured post-irradiation, with two calculated temperatures falling within 10 °C of experimental measurements. The success of this design could lead to new opportunities for irradiation applications with materials that suffer from irradiation swelling, creep, or other dimensional changes that can affect the specimen temperature during irradiation.

  12. Experimental design and analysis for irradiation of SiC/SiC composite tubes under a prototypic high heat flux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrie, Christian M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Koyanagi, Takaaki [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); McDuffee, Joel L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Deck, Christian P. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Katoh, Yutai [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Terrani, Kurt A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-05-04

    The purpose of this work is to design an irradiation vehicle for testing silicon carbide (SiC) fiber-reinforced SiC matrix composite cladding materials under conditions representative of a light water reactor in order to validate thermo-mechanical models of stress states in these materials due to irradiation swelling and differential thermal expansion. The design allows for a constant tube outer surface temperature in the range of 300–350 °C under a representative high heat flux (~0.66 MW/m2) during one cycle of irradiation in an un-instrumented “rabbit” capsule in the High Flux Isotope Reactor. An engineered aluminum foil was developed to absorb the expansion of the cladding tubes, due to irradiation swelling, without changing the thermal resistance of the gap between the cladding and irradiation capsule. Finite-element analyses of the capsule were performed, and the models used to calculate thermal contact resistance were validated by out-of-pile testing and post-irradiation examination of the foils and passive SiC thermometry. Six irradiated cladding tubes (both monoliths and composites) were irradiated and subsequently disassembled in a hot cell. The calculated temperatures of passive SiC thermometry inside the capsules showed good agreement with temperatures measured post-irradiation, with two calculated temperatures falling within 10 °C of experimental measurements. Furthermore, the success of this design could lead to new opportunities for irradiation applications with materials that suffer from irradiation swelling, creep, or other dimensional changes that can affect the specimen temperature during irradiation.

  13. Stable and low contact resistance electrical contacts for high temperature SiGe thermoelectric generators

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Bo

    2018-04-14

    The thermal stability and contact resistance of TaAlN thin films as electrical contacts to SiGe thermoelectric elements are reported. We demonstrate that a sharp interface is maintained after the device annealed at 800°C for over 100h, indicating that no interdiffusion takes place between TaAlN and SiGe. A specific contact resistivity of (2.1±1.3)×10−6Ω-cm2 for p-type SiGe and (2.8±1.6)×10−5 Ω-cm2 for n-type SiGe is demonstrated after the high temperature annealing. These results show that TaAlN is a promising contact material for high temperature thermoelectrics such as SiGe.

  14. Formation, structure, and phonon confinement effect of nanocrystalline Si1-xGex in SiO2-Si-Ge cosputtered films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Y.M.; Wu, X.L.; Siu, G.G.; Huang, G.S.; Shen, J.C.; Hu, D.S.

    2004-01-01

    Using magnetron cosputtering of SiO 2 , Ge, and Si targets, Si-based SiO 2 :Ge:Si films were fabricated for exploring the influence of Si target proportion (P Si ) and annealing temperature (Ta) on formation, local structure, and phonon properties of nanocrystalline Si 1-x Ge x (nc-Si 1-x Ge x ). At low P Si and Ta higher than 800 deg. C, no nc-Si 1-x Ge x but a kind of composite nanocrystal consisting of a Ge core, GeSi shell, and amorphous Si outer shell is formed in the SiO 2 matrix. At moderate P Si , nc-Si 1-x Ge x begins to be formed at Ta=800 deg. C and coexists with nc-Ge at Ta=1100 deg. C. At high P Si , it was disclosed that both optical phonon frequency and lattice spacing of nc-Si 1-x Ge x increase with raising Ta. The possible origin of this phenomenon is discussed by considering three factors, the phonon confinement, strain effect, and composition variation of nc-Si 1-x Ge x . This work will be helpful in understanding the growth process of ternary GeSiO films and beneficial to further investigations on optical properties of nc-Ge 1-x Si x in the ternary matrix

  15. Relating high-temperature flow stress of AISI 316 stainless steel to strain and strain rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matteazzi, S.; Paitti, G.; Boerman, D.

    1982-01-01

    The authors have performed an experimental determination of tensile stress-strain curves for different strain rates (4.67 x 10 - 5 , 4.67 x 10 - 2 s - 1 ) and for a variety of temperature conditions (773-1073 K) of AISI 316H stainless steel (annealed conditions) and also a computer analysis of the experimental curves using a fitting program which takes into consideration different constitutive relations describing the plastic flow behaviour of the metals. The results show that the materials tested are clearly affected by strain rate only at the highest temperature investigated (1073 K) and that the plastic strain is the more significant variable. Of the constitutive equations considered, Voce's relation gives the best fit for the true stress-time-strain curves. However, the Ludwik and Ludwigson equations also provide a description of the experimental data, whereas Hollomon's equation does not suitably characterize AISI 316H stainless steel and can be applied with some accuracy only at 1073 K. (author)

  16. Applications of Si/SiGe heterostructures to CMOS devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sidek, R.M.

    1999-03-01

    For more than two decades, advances in MOSFETs used in CMOS VLSI applications have been made through scaling to ever smaller dimensions for higher packing density, faster circuit speed and lower power dissipation. As scaling now approaches nanometer regime, the challenge for further scaling becomes greater in terms of technology as well as device reliability. This work presents an alternative approach whereby non-selectively grown Si/SiGe heterostructure system is used to improve device performance or to relax the technological challenge. SiGe is considered to be of great potential because of its promising properties and its compatibility with Si, the present mainstream material in microelectronics. The advantages of introducing strained SiGe in CMOS technology are examined through two types of device structure. A novel structure has been fabricated in which strained SiGe is incorporated in the source/drain of P-MOSFETs. Several advantages of the Si/SiGe source/drain P-MOSFETs over Si devices are experimentally, demonstrated for the first time. These include reduction in off-state leakage and punchthrough susceptibility, degradation of parasitic bipolar transistor (PBT) action, suppression of CMOS latchup and suppression of PBT-induced breakdown. The improvements due to the Si/SiGe heterojunction are supported by numerical simulations. The second device structure makes use of Si/SiGe heterostructure as a buried channel to enhance the hole mobility of P-MOSFETs. The increase in the hole mobility will benefit the circuit speed and device packing density. Novel fabrication processes have been developed to integrate non-selective Si/SiGe MBE layers into self-aligned PMOS and CMOS processes based on Si substrate. Low temperature processes have been employed including the use of low-pressure chemical vapor deposition oxide and plasma anodic oxide. Low field mobilities, μ 0 are extracted from the transfer characteristics, Id-Vg of SiGe channel P-MOSFETs with various Ge

  17. Highly hydrolytic reuteransucrase from probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri strain ATCC 55730

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kralj, S.; Stripling, E.; Sanders, P.; Geel-Schutten, G.H. van; Dijkhuizen, L.

    2005-01-01

    Lactobacillus reuteri strain ATCC 55730 (LB BIO) was isolated as a pure culture from a Reuteri tablet purchased from the BioGaia company. This probiotic strain produces a soluble glucan (reuteran), in which the majority of the linkages are of the α-(1→4) glucosidic type (∼70%). This reuteran also

  18. A High-Efficiency Compact SiC-based Power Converter System, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Wide-bandgap SiC semiconductors have been recently investigated for use in power devices, because of their potential capabilities of operating at high power...

  19. The Strain Index (SI) and Threshold Limit Value (TLV) for Hand Activity Level (HAL): risk of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) in a prospective cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, A; Kapellusch, J; Hegmann, K; Wertsch, J; Merryweather, A; Deckow-Schaefer, G; Malloy, E J

    2012-01-01

    A cohort of 536 workers was enrolled from 10 diverse manufacturing facilities and was followed monthly for six years. Job physical exposures were individually measured. Worker demographics, medical history, psychosocial factors, current musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) and nerve conduction studies (NCS) were obtained. Point and lifetime prevalence of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) at baseline (symptoms + abnormal NCS) were 10.3% and 19.8%. During follow-up, there were 35 new CTS cases (left, right or both hands). Factors predicting development of CTS included: job physical exposure (American conference of governmental industrial hygienists Threshold Limit Value (ACGIH TLV) for Hand Activity Level (HAL) and the Strain Index (SI)), age, BMI, other MSDs, inflammatory arthritis, gardening outside of work and feelings of depression. In the adjusted models, the TLV for HAL and the SI were both significant per unit increase in exposure with hazard ratios (HR) increasing up to a maximum of 5.4 (p = 0.05) and 5.3 (p = 0.03), respectively; however, similar to other reports, both suggested lower risk at higher exposures. Data suggest that the TLV for HAL and the SI are useful metrics for estimating exposure to biomechanical stressors. This study was conducted to determine how well the TLV for HAL and the SI predict risk of CTS using a prospective cohort design with survival analysis. Both the TLV for HAL and the SI were found to predict risk of CTS when adjusted for relevant covariates.

  20. Fabrication of 4H-SiC Schottky barrier diodes with high breakdown voltages

    CERN Document Server

    Kum, B H; Shin, M W; Park, J D

    1999-01-01

    This paper discusses the fabrication and the breakdown characteristics of 4H-SiC Schottky barrier diodes (SBDs). Optimal processing conditions for the ohmic contacts were extracted using the transmission-line method (TLM) and were applied to the device fabrication. The Ti/4H-SiC SBDs with Si sub x B sub y passivation showed a maximum reverse breakdown voltage of 268 V with a forward current density as high as 70 mA/cm sup 2 at a forward voltage of 2 V. The breakdown of the Pt. 4H-SiC SBDs without any passivation occurred at near 110 V. It is concluded that the breakdown enhancement in the Ti/4H-SiC SBDs can be attributed to the passivation; otherwise, excess surface charge near the edge of the Schottky contact would lead to electric fields of sufficient magnitude to cause field emission.

  1. 3D printed high performance strain sensors for high temperature applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Md Taibur; Moser, Russell; Zbib, Hussein M.; Ramana, C. V.; Panat, Rahul

    2018-01-01

    Realization of high temperature physical measurement sensors, which are needed in many of the current and emerging technologies, is challenging due to the degradation of their electrical stability by drift currents, material oxidation, thermal strain, and creep. In this paper, for the first time, we demonstrate that 3D printed sensors show a metamaterial-like behavior, resulting in superior performance such as high sensitivity, low thermal strain, and enhanced thermal stability. The sensors were fabricated using silver (Ag) nanoparticles (NPs), using an advanced Aerosol Jet based additive printing method followed by thermal sintering. The sensors were tested under cyclic strain up to a temperature of 500 °C and showed a gauge factor of 3.15 ± 0.086, which is about 57% higher than that of those available commercially. The sensor thermal strain was also an order of magnitude lower than that of commercial gages for operation up to a temperature of 500 °C. An analytical model was developed to account for the enhanced performance of such printed sensors based on enhanced lateral contraction of the NP films due to the porosity, a behavior akin to cellular metamaterials. The results demonstrate the potential of 3D printing technology as a pathway to realize highly stable and high-performance sensors for high temperature applications.

  2. Mechanical characterization of alloys in extreme conditions of high strain rates and high temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadoni, Ezio

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this paper is the description of the mechanical characterization of alloys under extreme conditions of temperature and loading. In fact, in the frame of the Cost Action CA15102 “Solutions for Critical Raw Materials Under Extreme Conditions (CRM-EXTREME)” this aspect is crucial and many industrial applications have to consider the dynamic response of materials. Indeed, for a reduction and substitution of CRMs in alloys is necessary to design the materials and understand if the new materials behave better or if the substitution or reduction badly affect their performance. For this reason, a deep knowledge of the mechanical behaviour at high strain-rates of considered materials is required. In general, machinery manufacturing industry or transport industry as well as energy industry have important dynamic phenomena that are simultaneously affected by extended strain, high strain-rate, damage and pressure, as well as conspicuous temperature gradients. The experimental results in extreme conditions of high strain rate and high temperature of an austenitic stainless steel as well as a high-chromium tempered martensitic reduced activation steel Eurofer97 are presented.

  3. The High Strain Rate Deformation Behavior of High Purity Magnesium and AZ31B Magnesium Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livescu, Veronica; Cady, Carl M.; Cerreta, Ellen K.; Henrie, Benjamin L.; Gray, George T.

    The deformation in compression of pure magnesium and AZ31B magnesium alloy, both with a strong basal pole texture, has been investigated as a function of temperature, strain rate, and specimen orientation. The mechanical response of both metals is highly dependent upon the orientation of loading direction with respect to the basal pole. Specimens compressed along the basal pole direction have a high sensitivity to strain rate and temperature and display a concave down work hardening behavior. Specimens loaded perpendicularly to the basal pole have a yield stress that is relatively insensitive to strain rate and temperature and a work hardening behavior that is parabolic and then linearly upwards. Both specimen orientations display a mechanical response that is sensitive to temperature and strain rate. Post mortem characterization of the pure magnesium was conducted on a subset of specimens to determine the microstructural and textural evolution during deformation and these results are correlated with the observed work hardening behavior and strain rate sensitivities were calculated.

  4. A study on microstructure and strain-hardening rate of friction stir welded Al-Mg-Si alloys using a weak beam technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sukedai, E; Yokoyama, T

    2012-01-01

    Mechanical properties of a friction stir welded Al-Mg-Si (6061-T6Al) alloy are evaluated by a tensile test. It is found that the strain-hardening rate is higher than that of a base material. In order to investigate the origin, TEM observations have been performed about 4 kinds of materials; base- and friction stir welded-materials, and both materials deformed to 5 % strain by tension. There are not so large differences about dislocation density, size and density of precipitates and crystal defects between the base material and the friction stir welded-materials, but a significant decrease of grain-size in the friction stir welded-materials is recognized. These results suggest a dynamic recovery occurs during FSW process, and it is speculated that the recovery leads to the differences of yield stress and strain-hardening rate between both materials.

  5. CoSi2 growth on Si(001) by reactive deposition epitaxy: Effects of high-flux, low-energy ion irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, C. W.; Greene, J. E.; Petrov, I.

    2006-01-01

    CoSi 2 layers, CoSi 2 (parallel sign)(001) Si and [100] CoSi 2 (parallel sign)[100] Si , contain fourfold symmetric (111) twinned domains oriented such that (221) CoSi 2 (parallel sign)(001) Si and CoSi 2 (parallel sign)[110] Si . We demonstrate that high-flux low-energy (E Ar + =9.6 eV) Ar + ion irradiation during deposition dramatically increases the area fraction f u of untwinned regions from 0.17 in films grown under standard magnetically balanced conditions in which the ratio J Ar + /J Co of the incident Ar + to Co fluxes is 1.4 to 0.72 with J Ar + /J Co =13.3. TEM analyses show that the early stages of RDE CoSi 2 (001) film growth proceed via the Volmer-Weber mode with independent nucleation of both untwinned and twinned islands. Increasing J Ar + /J Co results in larger values of both the number density and area of untwinned with respect to twinned islands. The intense Ar + ion bombardment creates additional low-energy adsorption sites that favor the nucleation of untwinned islands while collisionally enhancing Co surface mobilities which, in turn, increases the probability of itinerant Co adatoms reaching these sites

  6. Expression of a single siRNA against a conserved region of NP gene strongly inhibits in vitro replication of different Influenza A virus strains of avian and swine origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoppani, Elena; Bassi, Ivan; Dotti, Silvia; Lizier, Michela; Ferrari, Maura; Lucchini, Franco

    2015-08-01

    Influenza A virus is the principal agent responsible of the respiratory tract's infections in humans. Every year, highly pathogenic and infectious strains with new antigenic assets appear, making ineffective vaccines so far developed. The discovery of RNA interference (RNAi) opened the way to the progress of new promising drugs against Influenza A virus and also to the introduction of disease resistance traits in genetically modified animals. In this paper, we show that Madin-Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK) cell line expressing short hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) cassette, designed on a specific conserved region of the nucleoprotein (NP) viral genome, can strongly inhibit the viral replication of four viral strains sharing the target sequence, reducing the viral mRNA respectively to 2.5×10(-4), 7.5×10(-5), 1.7×10(-3), 1.9×10(-4) compared to the control, as assessed by real-time PCR. Moreover, we demonstrate that during the challenge with a viral strain bearing a single mismatch on the target sequence, although a weaker inhibition is observed, viral mRNA is still lowered down to 1.2×10(-3) folds in the shRNA-expressing clone compared to the control, indicating a broad potential use of this approach. In addition, we developed a highly predictive and fast screening test of siRNA sequences based on dual-luciferase assay, useful for the in vitro prediction of the potential effect of viral inhibition. In conclusion, these findings reveal new siRNA sequences able to inhibit Influenza A virus replication and provide a basis for the development of siRNAs as prophylaxis and therapy for influenza infection both in humans and animals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Microstructure and High Temperature Plastic Deformation Behavior of Al-12Si Based Alloy Fabricated by an Electromagnetic Casting and Stirring Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, Kyung-Soo; Roh, Heung-Ryeol; Kim, Mok-Soon [Inha University, Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jong-Ho; Park, Joon-Pyo [Research Institute of Industrial Science and Technology, Pohang (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    An as-received EMC/S (electromagnetic casting and stirring)-processed Al-12Si based alloy billet was homogenized to examine its microstructure and high temperature plastic deformation behavior, using compressive tests over the temperature range from 623 to 743 K and a strain rate range from 1.0×10{sup -3} to 1.0×10{sup 0}s{sup -1}. The results were compared with samples processed by the direct chill casting (DC) method. The fraction of equiaxed structure for the as-received EMC/S billet(41%) was much higher than that of the as-received DC billet(6 %). All true stress – true strain curves acquired from the compressive tests exhibited a peak stress at the initial stage of plastic deformation. Flow stress showed a steady state region after the appearance of peak stress with increasing strain. The peak stress decreased with increasing temperature at a given strain rate and a decreasing strain rate at a given temperature. A constitutive equation was made for each alloy, which could be used to predict the peak stress. A recrystallized grain structure was observed in all the deformed specimens, indicating that dynamic recrystallization is the predominant mechanism during high temperature plastic deformation of both the homogenized EMC/S and DC-processed Al-12Si based alloys.

  8. High resolution x-ray scattering studies of strain in epitaxial thin films of yttrium silicide grown on silicon (111)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marthinez-Miranda, L.J.; Santiago-Aviles, J.J.; Siegal, M.P.; Graham, W.R.; Heiney, P.A.

    1990-01-01

    The authors have used high resolution grazing incidence x-ray scattering (GIXS) to study the in- plane and out-of-plane structure of epitaxial YSi 2-x films grown on Si(111), with thicknesses ranging from 85 Angstrom to 510 Angstrom. Their results indicate that the films are strained, and that film strain increases as a function of thickness, with lattice parameters varying from a = 3.846 Angstrom/c = 4.142 Angstrom for the 85 Angstrom film to a = 3.877 Angstrom/c = 4.121 Angstrom for the 510 Angstrom film. The authors correlate these results with an increase in pinhole areal coverage as a function of thickness. In addition, the authors' measurements show no evidence for the existence of ordered silicon vacancies in the films

  9. TRP 9904 - Constitutive Behavior of High Strength Multiphase Sheel Steel Under High Strain Rate Deformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Matlock; John Speer

    2005-03-31

    The focus of the research project was to systematically assess the strain rate dependence of strengthening mechanisms in new advanced high strength sheet steels. Data were obtained on specially designed and produced Duel Phase and TRIP steels and compared to the properties of automotive steels currently in use.

  10. Highly sensitive strain sensors based on fragmentized carbon nanotube/polydimethylsiloxane composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yang; Fang, Xiaoliang; Tan, Jianping; Lu, Ting; Pan, Likun; Xuan, Fuzhen

    2018-06-01

    Wearable strain sensors based on nanomaterial/elastomer composites have potential applications in flexible electronic skin, human motion detection, human–machine interfaces, etc. In this research, a type of high performance strain sensors has been developed using fragmentized carbon nanotube/polydimethylsiloxane (CNT/PDMS) composites. The CNT/PDMS composites were ground into fragments, and a liquid-induced densification method was used to fabricate the strain sensors. The strain sensors showed high sensitivity with gauge factors (GFs) larger than 200 and a broad strain detection range up to 80%, much higher than those strain sensors based on unfragmentized CNT/PDMS composites (GF composite particles during mechanical deformation, which causes significant resistance change in the strain sensors. The strain sensors can differentiate mechanical stimuli and monitor various human body motions, such as bending of the fingers, human breathing, and blood pulsing.

  11. Highly sensitive strain sensors based on fragmentized carbon nanotube/polydimethylsiloxane composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yang; Fang, Xiaoliang; Tan, Jianping; Lu, Ting; Pan, Likun; Xuan, Fuzhen

    2018-06-08

    Wearable strain sensors based on nanomaterial/elastomer composites have potential applications in flexible electronic skin, human motion detection, human-machine interfaces, etc. In this research, a type of high performance strain sensors has been developed using fragmentized carbon nanotube/polydimethylsiloxane (CNT/PDMS) composites. The CNT/PDMS composites were ground into fragments, and a liquid-induced densification method was used to fabricate the strain sensors. The strain sensors showed high sensitivity with gauge factors (GFs) larger than 200 and a broad strain detection range up to 80%, much higher than those strain sensors based on unfragmentized CNT/PDMS composites (GF sensors is ascribed to the sliding of individual fragmentized-CNT/PDMS-composite particles during mechanical deformation, which causes significant resistance change in the strain sensors. The strain sensors can differentiate mechanical stimuli and monitor various human body motions, such as bending of the fingers, human breathing, and blood pulsing.

  12. Molecular Characterization of Salmonella Typhimurium Highly Successful Outbreak Strains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Randi Føns; Litrup, Eva; Larsson, Jonas T.

    2011-01-01

    we detected changes in three of five MLVA loci in a small fraction of isolates. These changes were mainly due to the gain or loss of single repeats. Optical Mapping of the large cluster strain indicated no increased content of virulence genes; however, Optical Mapping did reveal a large insert......, a probable prophage, in the main cluster. This probable prophage may give the cluster strain a competitive advantage. The molecular methods employed suggested that the four clusters represented four distinct strains, although they seemed to be epidemiologically linked and shared genotypic characteristics....

  13. The millimeter-wave spectrum of highly vibrationally excited SiO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mollaaghababa, R.; Gottlieb, C.A.; Vrtilek, J.M.; Thaddeus, P.

    1991-01-01

    The millimeter-wave rotational spectra of SiO in high vibrational states (v = 0-40) in its electronic ground state were measured between 228 and 347 GHz in a laboratory discharge through SiH4 and CO. On ascending the vibrational ladder, populations decline precipitously for the first few levels, with a vibrational temperature of about 1000 K; at v of roughly 3, however, they markedly flatten out, and from there to v of roughly 40 the temperature is of the order of 10,000 K. With the Dunham coefficients determined here, the rotational spectrum of highly vibrationally excited SiO can now be calculated into the far-infrared to accuracies required for radioastronomy. Possible astronomical sources of highly vibrationally excited SiO are certain stellar atmospheres, ultracompact H II regions, very young supernova ejecta, and dense interstellar shocks. 16 refs

  14. Stress/strain/time properties of highly compacted bentonite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pusch, R.

    1983-05-01

    In this paper, a recently developed creep theory based on statistical mechanics has been used to analyze a number of experimental creep curves, the conclusion being that the creep behavior of dense MX-80 bentonite is in agreement with the physical model, and that the average bond strength is within the hydrogen bond region. The latter conclusion thus indicates that interparticle displacements leading to macroscopic creep takes place in interparticle and intraparticle water lattices. These findings were taken as a justification to apply the creep theory to a prediction of the settlement over a one million year period. It gave an estimated settlement of 1 cm at maximum, which is of no practical significance. The thixotropic and viscous properties of highly compacted bentonite present certain difficulties in the determination and evaluation of the stress/strain/time parameters that are required for ordinary elastic and elasto-plastic analyses. Still, these parameters could be sufficiently well identified to allow for a preliminary estimation of the stresses induced in the metal canisters by slight rock displacements. The analysis, suggests that a 1 cm rapid shear perpendicular to the axes of the canisters can take place without harming them. (author)

  15. Prediction of failure strain and burst pressure in high yield-to-tensile strength ratio linepipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Law, M.; Bowie, G.

    2007-01-01

    Failure pressures and strains were predicted for a number of burst tests as part of a project to explore failure strain in high yield-to-tensile strength ratio linepipe. Twenty-three methods for predicting the burst pressure and six methods of predicting the failure strain are compared with test results. Several methods were identified which gave accurate and reliable estimates of burst pressure. No method of accurately predicting the failure strain was found, though the best was noted

  16. Prediction of failure strain and burst pressure in high yield-to-tensile strength ratio linepipe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Law, M. [Institute of Materials and Engineering Science, Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO), Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia)]. E-mail: mlx@ansto.gov.au; Bowie, G. [BlueScope Steel Ltd., Level 11, 120 Collins St, Melbourne, Victoria 3000 (Australia)

    2007-08-15

    Failure pressures and strains were predicted for a number of burst tests as part of a project to explore failure strain in high yield-to-tensile strength ratio linepipe. Twenty-three methods for predicting the burst pressure and six methods of predicting the failure strain are compared with test results. Several methods were identified which gave accurate and reliable estimates of burst pressure. No method of accurately predicting the failure strain was found, though the best was noted.

  17. High strain fatigue behaviour of a high-temperature, low-alloyed forging steel subject to a servicelike loading history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kloos, K.H.; Granacher, J.; Rieth, P.

    1979-01-01

    A test plan was developed for selected cases of service-like long-time high strain load of a heated surface of massive components, which includes service-like anisothermic high strain tests with pressure-strain in the start-up phase and pull-strain in the shutdown phase, comparable isothermal tests at the highest cycle temperature, and finally tests with 'packaged' high strain and creep strain periods, which should enable long-time-tests with only short use of the large-scale high-strain-test-technique. The tests started on the melts of the high-temperature steel 28 Cr Mo NiV 4 9 have reached a longest tests time of nearly 1000 at a maximum temperature of 525 0 C. On the basis of there results, the carrying-out of 'packaged' long-time high strain tests with short creep strain periods seem to be a good way of determining the long-time high-strain behaviour of this steel under service-like strain cycles. (orig./RW) 891 RW/orig.- 892 RKD [de

  18. High Temperature Multimode Harvester for Wireless Strain Applications, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Monitoring of structural strain is a well-established method for assessing the fatigue life and operational loads of aerospace vessels, aircraft, bridges, and other...

  19. Modelling of behaviour of metals at high strain rates

    OpenAIRE

    Panov, Vili

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the work presented in this thesis was to produce the improvement of the existing simulation tools used for the analysis of materials and structures, which are dynamically loaded and subjected to the different levels of temperatures and strain rates. The main objective of this work was development of tools for modelling of strain rate and temperature dependant behaviour of aluminium alloys, typical for aerospace structures with pronounced orthotropic properties, and their implementa...

  20. High genetic diversity among Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains in Tehran, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taher Azimi

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Tuberculosis (TB still remains an important public health problem in Iran. The genotyping of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates is expected to lead to a better understanding of M. tuberculosis transmission in Tehran, the most populated city of Iran. Materials and Methods: A total of 2300 clinical specimens were obtained from TB suspected patients who were referred to a TB center in Tehran from Jan 2014 to Dec 2016. Identification was performed using both conventional and molecular methods. The presence of resistance to rifampicin was examined by the GeneXpert MTB/RIF. The standard 15-locus mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units-variable number of tandem repeats (MIRU-VNTR typing method was applied to genotype of clinical isolates. Results: Of 2300 specimens, 80 isolates were identified as M. tuberculosis by using biochemical and molecular tests. Of 80 M. tuberculosis isolates, 76 (95% had unique genotypic profiles and 4 (5% shared a profile with one or more other strains. Based on single loci variation (SLV 4 clonal complexes were observed. NEW-1 was found to be the most predominant lineage (22.5% followed by West African (1.25%, Central Asian (CAS/Delhi (1.25%, Bovis (1.25%, H37Rv (1.25% and multiple matches (1.25%. Loci MIRU10, MIRU26, MTUB21 and QUB26 were found as highly discriminative. No mutation was detected in the hotspot region of rifampicin by using GeneXpert MTB/RIF. Conclusions: Our study findings show that there was considerable genotypic diversity among M. tuberculosis isolates in Tehran. The 15-locus MIRU-VNTR showed high HGDI and could be used as a first-line genotyping method for epidemiological studies. Keywords: Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Genotyping, MIRU-VNTR, Tehran, Iran

  1. Yield strength of molybdenum, tantalum and tungsten at high strain rates and very high temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Škoro, G.P.; Bennett, J.R.J.; Edgecock, T.R.; Booth, C.N.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► New experimental data on the yield strength of molybdenum, tantalum and tungsten. ► High strain rate effects at record high temperatures (up to 2700 K). ► Test of the consistency of the Zerilli–Armstrong model at very high temperatures. - Abstract: Recently reported results of the high strain rate, high temperature measurements of the yield strength of tantalum and tungsten have been analyzed along with new experimental results on the yield strength of molybdenum. Thin wires are subjected to high stress by passing a short, fast, high current pulse through a thin wire; the amplitude of the current governs the stress and the repetition rate of the pulses determines the temperature of the wire. The highest temperatures reached in the experiments were 2100 °C (for molybdenum), 2250 °C (for tantalum) and 2450 °C (for tungsten). The strain-rates in the tests were in the range from 500 to 1500 s −1 . The parameters for the constitutive equation developed by Zerilli and Armstrong have been determined from the experimental data and the results have been compared with the data obtained at lower temperatures. An exceptionally good fit is obtained for the deformation of tungsten.

  2. Effect of high power ultrasound on mechanical properties of Al-Si alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, N.; Gupta, R.; Chaudhari, G. P.

    2018-03-01

    Effect of high power ultrasonic treatment on the solidification microstructures of Al-Si alloys containing varying content of solute Si (1, 2, 3 and 5 wt %) is investigated. Large variation in microstructures is seen and refinement of primary α-Al grains is observed. It is observed that increasing the weight percentage of solute along with ultrasonic treatment resulted in finer primary phase. By increasing the solute content from 1% to 5 wt.% in Al-Si alloys, hardness increased by about 38% without and 48% with ultrasonic treatment. Tensile strength of the alloys with ultrasonic treatment is higher as compared to those without ultrasonic treated.

  3. High spin-polarization in ultrathin Co2MnSi/CoPd multilayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galanakis, I.

    2015-03-01

    Half-metallic Co2MnSi finds a broad spectrum of applications in spintronic devices either in the form of thin films or as spacer in multilayers. Using state-of-the-art ab-initio electronic structure calculations we exploit the electronic and magnetic properties of ultrathin Co2MnSi/CoPd multilayers. We show that these heterostructures combine high values of spin-polarization at the Co2MnSi spacer with the perpendicular magnetic anisotropy of binary compounds such as CoPd. Thus they could find application in spintronic/magnetoelectronic devices.

  4. High strain and strain-rate behaviour of PTFE/aluminium/tungsten mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Addiss, John; Walley, Stephen; Proud, William; Cai Jing; Nesterenko, Vitali

    2007-01-01

    Conventional drop-weight techniques were modified to accommodate low-amplitude force transducer signals from low-strength, cold isostatically pressed 'heavy' composites of polytetrafluoroethylene, aluminum and tungsten (W). The failure strength, strain and the post-critical behavior of failed samples were measured for samples of different porosity and tungsten grain size. Unusual phenomenon of significantly higher strength (55 MPa) of porous composites (density 5.9 g/cm 3 ) with small W particles ( 3 ) with larger W particles (44 μm) at the same volume content of components was observed. This is attributed to force chains created by a network of small W particles. Interrupted tests at different levels of strain revealed the mechanisms of fracture under dynamic compression

  5. Microstructure of buried CoSi2 layers formed by high-dose Co implantation into (100) and (111) Si substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulle-Lieuwma, C.W.T.; Van Ommen, A.H.; Vandenhoudt, D.E.W.; Ottenheim, J.J.M.; de Jong, A.F.

    1991-01-01

    Heteroepitaxial Si/CoSi 2 /Si structures have been synthesized by implanting 170-keV Co + with doses in the range 1--3x10 17 Co + ions/cm 2 into (100) and (111) Si substrates and subsequent annealing. The microstructure of both the as-implanted and annealed structures is investigated in great detail by transmission electron microscopy, high-resolution electron microscopy, and x-ray diffraction. In the as-implanted samples, the Co is present as CoSi 2 precipitates, occurring both in aligned (A-type) and twinned (B-type) orientation. For the highest dose, a continuous layer of stoichiometric CoSi 2 is already formed during implantation. It is found that the formation of a connected layer, already during implantation, is crucial for the formation of a buried CoSi 2 layer upon subsequent annealing. Particular attention is given to the coordination of the interfacial Co atoms at the Si/CoSi 2 (111) interfaces of both types of precipitates. We find that the interfacial Co atoms at the A-type interfaces are fully sevenfold coordinated, whereas at the B-type interfaces they appear to be eightfold coordinated

  6. Experimental investigation on high temperature anisotropic compression properties of ceramic-fiber-reinforced SiO{sub 2} aerogel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Duoqi; Sun, Yantao [School of Energy and Power Engineering, Beihang University, P.O. Box 405, Beijing 100191 (China); Feng, Jian [National Key Laboratory of Science and Technology on Advanced Ceramic Fibers and Composites, College of Aerospace Science and Engineering, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073 (China); Yang, Xiaoguang, E-mail: yxg@buaa.edu.cn [School of Energy and Power Engineering, Beihang University, P.O. Box 405, Beijing 100191 (China); Han, Shiwei; Mi, Chunhu [School of Energy and Power Engineering, Beihang University, P.O. Box 405, Beijing 100191 (China); Jiang, Yonggang [National Key Laboratory of Science and Technology on Advanced Ceramic Fibers and Composites, College of Aerospace Science and Engineering, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073 (China); Qi, Hongyu [School of Energy and Power Engineering, Beihang University, P.O. Box 405, Beijing 100191 (China)

    2013-11-15

    Compression tests were conducted on a ceramic-fiber-reinforced SiO{sub 2} aerogel at high temperature. Anisotropic mechanical property was found. In-plane Young's modulus is more than 10 times higher than that of out-of-plane, but fracture strain is much lower by a factor of 100. Out-of-plane Young's modulus decreases with increasing temperature, but the in-plane modulus and fracture stress increase with temperature. The out-of-plane property does not change with loading rates. Viscous flow at high temperature is found to cause in-plane shrinkage, and both in-plane and out-of-plane properties change. Compression induced densification of aerogel matrix was also found by Scanning Electron Microscope analysis.

  7. Experimental investigation on high temperature anisotropic compression properties of ceramic-fiber-reinforced SiO2 aerogel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, Duoqi; Sun, Yantao; Feng, Jian; Yang, Xiaoguang; Han, Shiwei; Mi, Chunhu; Jiang, Yonggang; Qi, Hongyu

    2013-01-01

    Compression tests were conducted on a ceramic-fiber-reinforced SiO 2 aerogel at high temperature. Anisotropic mechanical property was found. In-plane Young's modulus is more than 10 times higher than that of out-of-plane, but fracture strain is much lower by a factor of 100. Out-of-plane Young's modulus decreases with increasing temperature, but the in-plane modulus and fracture stress increase with temperature. The out-of-plane property does not change with loading rates. Viscous flow at high temperature is found to cause in-plane shrinkage, and both in-plane and out-of-plane properties change. Compression induced densification of aerogel matrix was also found by Scanning Electron Microscope analysis

  8. High-temperature mechanical and material design for SiC composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghoniem, N.M.

    1992-01-01

    Silicon Carbide (SiC) fiber reinforced composites (FRC's) are strong potential candidate structural and high heat flux materials for fusion reactors. During this past decade, they have been vigorously developed for use in aerospace and transportation applications. Recent fusion reactor systems studies, such as ARIES, have concluded that further development of SiC composites will result in significant safety, operational, and waste disposal advantages for fusion systems. A concise discussion of the main material and design issues related to the use of SiC FRC's as structural materials in future fusion systems is given in this paper. The status of material processing of SiC/SiC composites is first reviewed. The advantages and shortcomings of the leading processing technology, known as Chemical Vapor Infiltration are particularly highlighted. A brief outline of the design-relevant physical, mechanical, and radiation data base is then presented. SiC/SiC FRC's possess the advantage of increased apparent toughness under mechanical loading conditions. This increased toughness, however, is associated with the nucleation and propagation of small crack patterns in the structure. Design approaches and failure criteria under these conditions are discussed

  9. Structure of MnSi on SiC(0001)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meynell, S. A.; Spitzig, A.; Edwards, B.; Robertson, M. D.; Kalliecharan, D.; Kreplak, L.; Monchesky, T. L.

    2016-11-01

    We report on the growth and magnetoresistance of MnSi films grown on SiC(0001) by molecular beam epitaxy. The growth resulted in a textured MnSi(111) film with a predominantly [1 1 ¯0 ] MnSi (111 )∥[11 2 ¯0 ] SiC(0001) epitaxial relationship, as demonstrated by transmission electron microscopy, reflection high energy electron diffraction, and atomic force microscopy. The 500 ∘C temperature required to crystallize the film leads to a dewetting of the MnSi layer. Although the sign of the lattice mismatch suggested the films would be under compressive stress, the films acquire an in-plane tensile strain likely driven by the difference in thermal expansion coefficients between the film and substrate during annealing. As a result, the magnetoresistive response demonstrates that the films possess a hard-axis out-of-plane magnetocrystalline anisotropy.

  10. Development of high performance readout ASICs for silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, Wei

    2012-01-01

    Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPMs) are novel kind of solid state photon detectors with extremely high photon detection resolution. They are composed of hundreds or thousands of avalanche photon diode pixels connected in parallel. These avalanche photon diodes are operated in Geiger Mode. SiPMs have the same magnitude of multiplication gain compared to the conventional photomultipliers (PMTs). Moreover, they have a lot of advantages such as compactness, relatively low bias voltage and magnetic field immunity etc. Special readout electronics are required to preserve the high performance of the detector. KLauS and STiC are two CMOS ASIC chips designed in particular for SiPMs. KLauS is used for SiPM charge readout applications. Since SiPMs have a much larger detector capacitance compared to other solid state photon detectors such as PIN diodes and APDs, a few special techniques are used inside the chip to make sure a descent signal to noise ratio for pixel charge signal can be obtained. STiC is a chip dedicated to SiPM time-of-flight applications. High bandwidth and low jitter design schemes are mandatory for such applications where time jitter less than tens of picoseconds is required. Design schemes and error analysis as well as measurement results are presented in the thesis.

  11. Si, Ge and SiGe wires for sensor application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Druzhinin, A.A.; Khoverko, Yu.M.; Ostrovskii, I.P.; Nichkalo, S.I.; Nikolaeva, A.A.; Konopko, L.A.; Stich, I.

    2011-01-01

    Resistance and magnetoresistance of Si, Ge and Si-Ge micro- and nanowires were studied in temperature range 4,2-300 K at magnetic fields up to 14 T. The wires diameters range from 200 nm to 20 μm. Ga-In gates were created to wires and ohmic I-U characteristics were observed in all temperature range. It was found high elastic strain for Ge nanowires (of about 0,7%) as well as high magnitude of magnetoresistance (of about 250% at 14 T), which was used to design multifunctional sensor of simultaneous measurements of strain and magnetic field intensity. (authors)

  12. The improvement of the superconducting Y-Ba-Cu-O magnet characteristics through shape recovery strain of Fe-Mn-Si alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimpo, Y.; Seki, H.; Wongsatanawarid, A.; Taniguchi, S.; Maruyama, T.; Kurita, T.; Murakami, M.

    2010-01-01

    Since bulk Y-Ba-Cu-O superconductors are brittle ceramics, reinforcement of mechanical properties is important for practical applications. It has been reported that bulk Y-Ba-Cu-O can be reinforced with Al or Fe based alloy ring, in that compression force acts on bulk Y-Ba-Cu-O due to a difference in thermal expansion coefficients. However, the shrinkage of the metal ring was not so large, and therefore careful adjustment of the circumference of the bulk and the metal rings was necessary. In this study, we employed Fe-Mn-Si shape memory alloy rings to reinforce bulk Y-Ba-Cu-O. The advantage of the shape memory alloy is that the shrinkage can take place on heating, and furthermore, the alloy shrinks and compresses the bulk body on cooling. Bulk Y-Ba-Cu-O superconductor 22.8 mm in diameter was inserted in a Fe-Mn-Si ring 23.0 mm in inner diameter at room temperature. Beforehand, the Fe-Mn-Si ring was expanded by 12% strain at room temperature. Then the composite was heated to 673 K. At room temperature, the Fe-Mn-Si ring firmly gripped the bulk superconductor. We then measured trapped fields before and after the ring reinforcement, and found that the trapped field was improved through the treatment.

  13. Flash-lamp-crystallized polycrystalline silicon films with high hydrogen concentration formed from Cat-CVD a-Si films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohdaira, Keisuke; Tomura, Naohito; Ishii, Shohei; Matsumura, Hideki

    2011-01-01

    We investigate residual forms of hydrogen (H) atoms such as bonding configuration in poly-crystalline silicon (poly-Si) films formed by the flash-lamp-induced crystallization of catalytic chemical vapor deposited (Cat-CVD) a-Si films. Raman spectroscopy reveals that at least part of H atoms in flash-lamp-crystallized (FLC) poly-Si films form Si-H 2 bonds as well as Si-H bonds with Si atoms even using Si-H-rich Cat-CVD a-Si films, which indicates the rearrangement of H atoms during crystallization. The peak desorption temperature during thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS) is as high as 900 o C, similar to the reported value for bulk poly-Si.

  14. Tensile behaviour at room and high temperatures of novel metal matrix composites based on hyper eutectic Al-Si alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valer, J.; Rodriguez, J.M.; Urcola, J.J.

    1997-01-01

    This work shows the improvement obtained on tensile stress at room and high temperatures of hyper eutectic Al-Si alloys. These alloys are produced by a combination of spray-forming, extrusion and thixoforming process, in comparison with conventional casting alloys.Al-25% Si-5%Cu. Al-25%Si-5%Cu-2%Mg and Al-30%Si-5%Cu alloys have been studied relating their microstructural parameters with tensile stress obtained and comparing them with conventional Al-20%Si. Al-36%Si and Al-50%Si alloys. Al-25%Si-5%Cu alloy-was tested before and after semi-solid forming, in order to distinguish the different behaviour of this alloy due to the different microstructure. The properties obtained with these alloys were also related to Al-SiC composites formed by similar processes. (Author) 20 refs

  15. Strain rate dependent tensile behavior of advanced high strength steels: Experiment and constitutive modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ji-Hoon; Kim, Daeyong; Han, Heung Nam; Barlat, F.; Lee, Myoung-Gyu

    2013-01-01

    High strain rate tensile tests were conducted for three advanced high strength steels: DP780, DP980 and TRIP780. A high strain rate tensile test machine was used for applying the strain rate ranging from 0.1/s to 500/s. Details of the measured stress–strain responses were comparatively analyzed for the DP780 and TRIP780 steels which show similar microstructural feature and ultimate tensile strength, but different strengthening mechanisms. The experimental observations included: usual strain rate dependent plastic flow stress behavior in terms of the yield stress (YS), the ultimate tensile strength (UTS), the uniform elongation (UE) and the total elongation (TE) which were observed for the three materials. But, higher strain hardening rate at early plastic strain under quasi-static condition than that of some increased strain rates was featured for TRIP780 steel, which might result from more active transformation during deformation with lower velocity. The uniform elongation that explains the onset of instability and the total elongation were larger in case of TRIP steel than the DP steel for the whole strain rate range, but interestingly the fracture strain measured by the reduction of area (RA) method showed that the TRIP steel has lower values than DP steel. The fractographs using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) at the fractured surfaces were analyzed to relate measured fracture strain and the microstructural difference of the two materials during the process of fracture under various strain rates. Finally, constitutive modeling for the plastic flow stresses under various strain rates was provided in this study. The proposed constitutive law could represent both Hollomon-like and Voce-like hardening laws and the ratio between the two hardening types was efficiently controlled as a function of strain rate. The new strength model was validated successfully under various strain rates for several grades of steels such as mild steels, DP780, TRIP780, DP980 steels.

  16. Nickel--chromium strain gages for cryogenic stress analysis of superconducting structures in high magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freynik, H.S. Jr.; Roach, D.R.; Deis, D.W.; Hirzel, D.G.

    1977-01-01

    Evaluation and calibration measurements were performed on commercial nickel-chromium metal-foil strain gages in a high-magnetic-field (12 T), liquid-helium (4.2 K) environment. The purpose was to fully characterize strain gages for use at cryogenic temperatures in high magnetic fields. In this study, the magnetoresistance of a number of strain gages was measured in three orthogonal directions at mechanical strain levels to 8900 μm/m. As a result, a unique calibration curve was defined for magnetoresistance strain errors that is independent of strain level and field direction to 12 T at 4.2 K. A current strain-gage application is the measurement of superconductor mechanical properties. These gages will soon be used in the stress analysis of superconducting fusion magnets during cooldown from ambient temperatures and during operation at 4.2 K with magnetic fields to 12 T

  17. Effect of simultaneous ion irradiation on microstructural change of SiC/SiC composites at high temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taguchi, T.; Wakai, E.; Igawa, N.; Nogami, S.; Snead, L.L.; Hasegawa, A.; Jitsukawa, S.

    2002-01-01

    The effect of simultaneous triple ion irradiation of He, H and Si on microstructural evolution of two kinds of SiC/SiC composites (HNS composite (using Hi-Nicalon type S SiC fiber) and TSA composite (using Tyranno SA SiC fiber)) at 1000 deg. C has been investigated. The microstructure observations of SiC/SiC composites irradiated to 10 dpa were examined by transmission electron microscopy. He bubbles were hardly formed in matrix of TSA composite, but many helium bubbles and some cracks were observed at grain boundaries of matrix of HNS composite. He bubbles and cracks were not, on the other hand, observed in the both fiber fabrics of HNS and TSA composites. Debonding between fiber and carbon layer following irradiation region was not observed in the both composites. Under these irradiation conditions, TSA composite showed the better microstructural stability against ion beams irradiation than one of HNS composite

  18. Comparison of Biochemical Activities between High and Low Lipid-Producing Strains of Mucor circinelloides: An Explanation for the High Oleaginicity of Strain WJ11.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Tang

    Full Text Available The oleaginous fungus, Mucor circinelloides, is one of few fungi that produce high amounts of γ-linolenic acid (GLA; however, it usually only produces <25% lipid. Nevertheless, a new strain (WJ11 isolated in this laboratory can produce lipid up to 36% (w/w cell dry weight (CDW. We have investigated the potential mechanism of high lipid accumulation in M. circinelloides WJ11 by comparative biochemical analysis with a low lipid-producing strain, M. circinelloides CBS 277.49, which accumulates less than 15% (w/w lipid. M. circinelloides WJ11 produced more cell mass than that of strain CBS 277.49, although with slower glucose consumption. In the lipid accumulation phase, activities of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase in strain WJ11 were greater than in CBS 277.49 by 46% and 17%, respectively, and therefore may provide more NADPH for fatty acid biosynthesis. The activities of NAD+:isocitrate dehydrogenase and NADP+:isocitrate dehydrogenase, however, were 43% and 54%, respectively, lower in WJ11 than in CBS 277.49 and may retard the tricarboxylic acid cycle and thereby provide more substrate for ATP:citrate lyase (ACL to produce acetyl-CoA. Also, the activities of ACL and fatty acid synthase in the high lipid-producing strain, WJ11, were 25% and 56%, respectively, greater than in strain CBS 277.49. These enzymes may therefore cooperatively regulate the fatty acid biosynthesis in these two strains.

  19. Comparison of Biochemical Activities between High and Low Lipid-Producing Strains of Mucor circinelloides: An Explanation for the High Oleaginicity of Strain WJ11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xin; Chen, Haiqin; Chen, Yong Q; Chen, Wei; Garre, Victoriano; Song, Yuanda; Ratledge, Colin

    2015-01-01

    The oleaginous fungus, Mucor circinelloides, is one of few fungi that produce high amounts of γ-linolenic acid (GLA); however, it usually only produces <25% lipid. Nevertheless, a new strain (WJ11) isolated in this laboratory can produce lipid up to 36% (w/w) cell dry weight (CDW). We have investigated the potential mechanism of high lipid accumulation in M. circinelloides WJ11 by comparative biochemical analysis with a low lipid-producing strain, M. circinelloides CBS 277.49, which accumulates less than 15% (w/w) lipid. M. circinelloides WJ11 produced more cell mass than that of strain CBS 277.49, although with slower glucose consumption. In the lipid accumulation phase, activities of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase in strain WJ11 were greater than in CBS 277.49 by 46% and 17%, respectively, and therefore may provide more NADPH for fatty acid biosynthesis. The activities of NAD+:isocitrate dehydrogenase and NADP+:isocitrate dehydrogenase, however, were 43% and 54%, respectively, lower in WJ11 than in CBS 277.49 and may retard the tricarboxylic acid cycle and thereby provide more substrate for ATP:citrate lyase (ACL) to produce acetyl-CoA. Also, the activities of ACL and fatty acid synthase in the high lipid-producing strain, WJ11, were 25% and 56%, respectively, greater than in strain CBS 277.49. These enzymes may therefore cooperatively regulate the fatty acid biosynthesis in these two strains.

  20. Enrichment of intersubtype HIV-1 recombinants in a dual infection system using HIV-1 strain-specific siRNAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Intersubtype HIV-1 recombinants in the form of unique or stable circulating recombinants forms (CRFs) are responsible for over 20% of infections in the worldwide epidemic. Mechanisms controlling the generation, selection, and transmission of these intersubtype HIV-1 recombinants still require further investigation. All intersubtype HIV-1 recombinants are generated and evolve from initial dual infections, but are difficult to identify in the human population. In vitro studies provide the most practical system to study mechanisms, but the recombination rates are usually very low in dual infections with primary HIV-1 isolates. This study describes the use of HIV-1 isolate-specific siRNAs to enrich intersubtype HIV-1 recombinants and inhibit the parental HIV-1 isolates from a dual infection. Results Following a dual infection with subtype A and D primary HIV-1 isolates and two rounds of siRNA treatment, nearly 100% of replicative virus was resistant to a siRNA specific for an upstream target sequence in the subtype A envelope (env) gene as well as a siRNA specific for a downstream target sequence in the subtype D env gene. Only 20% (10/50) of the replicating virus had nucleotide substitutions in the siRNA-target sequence whereas the remaining 78% (39/50) harbored a recombination breakpoint that removed both siRNA target sequences, and rendered the intersubtype D/A recombinant virus resistant to the dual siRNA treatment. Since siRNAs target the newly transcribed HIV-1 mRNA, the siRNAs only enrich intersubtype env recombinants and do not influence the recombination process during reverse transcription. Using this system, a strong bias is selected for recombination breakpoints in the C2 region, whereas other HIV-1 env regions, most notably the hypervariable regions, were nearly devoid of intersubtype recombination breakpoints. Sequence conservation plays an important role in selecting for recombination breakpoints, but the lack of breakpoints in many conserved

  1. Origin of the high p-doping in F intercalated graphene on SiC

    KAUST Repository

    Cheng, Yingchun

    2011-08-04

    The atomic and electronic structures of F intercalated epitaxialgraphene on a SiC(0001) substrate are studied by first-principles calculations. A three-step fluorination process is proposed. First, F atoms are intercalated between the graphene and the SiC, which restores the Dirac point in the band structure. Second, saturation of the topmost Si dangling bonds introduces p-doping up to 0.37 eV. Third, F atoms bond covalently to the graphene to enhance the p-doping. Our model explains the highly p-doped state of graphene on SiC after fluorination [A. L. Walter et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 184102 (2011)].

  2. High spin-polarization in ultrathin Co{sub 2}MnSi/CoPd multilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galanakis, I., E-mail: galanakis@upatras.gr

    2015-03-01

    Half-metallic Co{sub 2}MnSi finds a broad spectrum of applications in spintronic devices either in the form of thin films or as spacer in multilayers. Using state-of-the-art ab-initio electronic structure calculations we exploit the electronic and magnetic properties of ultrathin Co{sub 2}MnSi/CoPd multilayers. We show that these heterostructures combine high values of spin-polarization at the Co{sub 2}MnSi spacer with the perpendicular magnetic anisotropy of binary compounds such as CoPd. Thus they could find application in spintronic/magnetoelectronic devices. - Highlights: • Ab-initio study of ultrathin Co{sub 2}MnSi/CoPd multilayers. • Large values of spin-polarization at the Fermi are retained. • Route for novel spintronic/magnetoelectronic devices.

  3. High spin-polarization in ultrathin Co2MnSi/CoPd multilayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galanakis, I.

    2015-01-01

    Half-metallic Co 2 MnSi finds a broad spectrum of applications in spintronic devices either in the form of thin films or as spacer in multilayers. Using state-of-the-art ab-initio electronic structure calculations we exploit the electronic and magnetic properties of ultrathin Co 2 MnSi/CoPd multilayers. We show that these heterostructures combine high values of spin-polarization at the Co 2 MnSi spacer with the perpendicular magnetic anisotropy of binary compounds such as CoPd. Thus they could find application in spintronic/magnetoelectronic devices. - Highlights: • Ab-initio study of ultrathin Co 2 MnSi/CoPd multilayers. • Large values of spin-polarization at the Fermi are retained. • Route for novel spintronic/magnetoelectronic devices

  4. High level active n+ doping of strained germanium through co-implantation and nanosecond pulsed laser melting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastor, David; Gandhi, Hemi H.; Monmeyran, Corentin P.; Akey, Austin J.; Milazzo, Ruggero; Cai, Yan; Napolitani, Enrico; Gwilliam, Russell M.; Crowe, Iain F.; Michel, Jurgen; Kimerling, L. C.; Agarwal, Anuradha; Mazur, Eric; Aziz, Michael J.

    2018-04-01

    Obtaining high level active n+ carrier concentrations in germanium (Ge) has been a significant challenge for further development of Ge devices. By ion implanting phosphorus (P) and fluorine (F) into Ge and restoring crystallinity using Nd:YAG nanosecond pulsed laser melting (PLM), we demonstrate 1020 cm-3 n+ carrier concentration in tensile-strained epitaxial germanium-on-silicon. Scanning electron microscopy shows that after laser treatment, samples implanted with P have an ablated surface, whereas P + F co-implanted samples have good crystallinity and a smooth surface topography. We characterize P and F concentration depth profiles using secondary ion mass spectrometry and spreading resistance profiling. The peak carrier concentration, 1020 cm-3 at 80 nm below the surface, coincides with the peak F concentration, illustrating the key role of F in increasing donor activation. Cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy of the co-implanted sample shows that the Ge epilayer region damaged during implantation is a single crystal after PLM. High-resolution X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy measurements both indicate that the as-grown epitaxial layer strain is preserved after PLM. These results demonstrate that co-implantation and PLM can achieve the combination of n+ carrier concentration and strain in Ge epilayers necessary for next-generation, high-performance Ge-on-Si devices.

  5. 2-D analytical modeling of subthreshold current and subthreshold swing for ion-implanted strained-Si double-material double-gate (DMDG) MOSFETs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, Ekta; Singh, Kunal; Singh, Balraj; Kumar, Sanjay; Jit, Satyabrata

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, the subthreshold behavior of ion-implanted strained-Si double-material double-gate (DMDG) MOSFETs has been analyzed by means of subthreshold current and subthreshold swing. The surface potential based formulation of subthreshold current and subthreshold swing is done by solving the 2-D Poisson's equations in the channel region using parabolic approximation method. The dependence of subthreshold characteristics on various device parameters such as gate length ratio, Ge mole fraction, peak doping concentration, projected range, straggle parameter etc. has been studied. The modeling results are found to be well matched with the simulation data obtained by a 2-D device simulator, ATLAS™, from SILVACO.

  6. High incidence of multidrug-resistant strains of methicill inresistant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Infections of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) are becoming an increasingly concerning clinical problem. The aim of this study was to assess the development of multidrug resistant strains of MRSA from clinical samples andpossibilities for reducing resistance. This study included a total of seventy-five (75) ...

  7. Strain and crystalline defects in epitaxial GaN layers studied by high-resolution X-ray diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chierchia, Rosa

    2007-07-01

    This thesis treats strain and dislocations in MOVPE GaN layers. The mosaic structure of metalorganic vapour phase epitaxy (MOVPE)-grown GaN layers was studied in dependence on the grain diameter utilizing high-resolution XRD. Different models for the defect structure were analyzed, the edge type TD densities were calculated under the assumption that the dislocations are not randomly distributed but localized at the grain boundaries. Moreover, in situ measurements have shown that the layers are under tension in the c-plane when a nucleation layer is used. The second part of this thesis treats a particular approach to reduce dislocations in MOVPE GaN layers, i.e. maskless pendeo epitaxial growth of MOVPE GAN layers. FE simulations assuming the strain to be completely induced during cooling of the structures after growth agree only partly with experimental data. The strain state of single layers and stripes of GaN grown on SiC was studied to exploit the evolution of the strain in the different phases of the PE growth. The biaxial compressive stress, due to the lattice mismatch between the GaN layer and the AlN nucleation layer is plastically relieved before overgrowth. Temperature dependent measurements show a linear reduction of the wing tilt with increasing temperature varying from sample to sample. Bent TDs have been observed in TEM images of maskless PE samples. Stress induced from the mismatch between the AlN buffer layer and the GaN also contributes to the remaining part of the wing tilt not relieved thermally. It has to be noted that the rest tilt value varies from sample to sample at the growth temperature. In fact some of the data indicate that the wing tilt decreases with increasing V/III ratio. In the last Chapter the application of X-ray techniques for the analysis of strain and composition in layers of inhomogeneous composition is explored. In the first part of the Chapter the strain state and the Al content of AlGaN buffer layers grown directly on (0001

  8. The stress-strain relationship for multilayers of the high Tc superconducting oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hidaka, H.; Yamamura, H.

    1988-01-01

    This paper reports the calculation of the stress-strain relationship for multilayers of the high Tc superconducting oxides. The elucidation of this relationship is expected quite helpful for the preparation of high-quality multilayers of these materials. This calculation is possible to do in the same way of Timoshenko's bi-metal treatment. The authors did computation of the residual stress and strain, and the state of stress and strain for these multilayers has been acquired in detail by this calculation

  9. Screening of siRNA nanoparticles for delivery to airway epithelial cells using high-content analysis

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hibbitts, Alan

    2011-08-01

    Aims: Delivery of siRNA to the lungs via inhalation offers a unique opportunity to develop a new treatment paradigm for a range of respiratory conditions. However, progress has been greatly hindered by safety and delivery issues. This study developed a high-throughput method for screening novel nanotechnologies for pulmonary siRNA delivery. Methodology: Following physicochemical analysis, the ability of PEI–PEG–siRNA nanoparticles to facilitate siRNA delivery was determined using high-content analysis (HCA) in Calu-3 cells. Results obtained from HCA were validated using confocal microscopy. Finally, cytotoxicity of the PEI–PEG–siRNA particles was analyzed by HCA using the Cellomics® multiparameter cytotoxicity assay. Conclusion: PEI–PEG–siRNA nanoparticles facilitated increased siRNA uptake and luciferase knockdown in Calu-3 cells compared with PEI–siRNA.

  10. Anomalously high yield of doubly charged Si ions sputtered from cleaned Si surface by keV neutral Ar impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shinde, N.; Morita, K. E-mail: k-morita@mail.nucl.nagoya-u.ac.jp; Dhole, S.D.; Ishikawa, D

    2001-08-01

    The energy spectra of positively charged and neutral species ejected from the Si(1 1 1) surfaces by keV Ar impact have been measured by means of a combined technique of the time-of-flight (TOF) analysis with the multi-photon resonance ionization spectroscopy (MPRIS). It is shown that positively charged species of Si{sup +}, Si{sup 2+} and SiO{sup +} are ejected from the as-cleaned 7x7 surface by 11 keV Ar impact. It is also shown that Ar sputter cleaning of the as-cleaned 7x7 surface for 14 min at the flux of 2x10{sup 13}/cm{sup 2}s removes completely the oxygen impurity and the yields of Si{sup 2+} is comparable to that of Si{sup +}. Moreover, the ionization probability of Si atoms sputtered is shown to be expressed as an exponential function of the inverse of their velocity. The production mechanism for the doubly charged Si ion is discussed based on the L-shell ionization of Si atoms due to quasi-molecule formation in the collisions of the surface atoms with energetic recoils and subsequent Auger decay of the L-shell vacancy to doubly ionized Si ions.

  11. High Strain Rate Testing of Welded DOP-26 Iridium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneibel, J. H. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Miller, R. G. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Carmichael, C. A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Fox, E. E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Ulrich, G. B. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); George, E. P. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-08-01

    The iridium alloy DOP-26 is used to produce Clad Vent Set cups that protect the radioactive fuel in radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs) which provide electric power for spacecraft and rovers. In a previous study, the tensile properties of DOP-26 were measured over a wide range of strain rates and temperatures and reported in ORNL/TM-2007/81. While that study established the properties of the base material, the fabrication of the heat sources requires welding, and the mechanical properties of welded DOP-26 have not been extensively characterized in the past. Therefore, this study was undertaken to determine the mechanical properties of DOP-26 specimens containing a transverse weld in the center of their gage sections. Tensile tests were performed at room temperature, 750, 900, and 1090°C and engineering strain rates of 1×10-3 and 10 s-1. Room temperature testing was performed in air, while testing at elevated temperatures was performed in a vacuum better than 1×10-4 Torr. The welded specimens had a significantly higher yield stress, by up to a factor of ~2, than the non-welded base material. The yield stress did not depend on the strain rate except at 1090°C, where it was slightly higher for the faster strain rate. The ultimate tensile stress, on the other hand, was significantly higher for the faster strain rate at temperatures of 750°C and above. At 750°C and above, the specimens deformed at 1×10-3 s-1 showed pronounced necking resulting sometimes in perfect chisel-edge fracture. The specimens deformed at 10 s-1 exhibited this fracture behavior only at the highest test temperature, 1090°C. Fracture occurred usually in the fusion zone of the weld and was, in most cases, primarily intergranular.

  12. Modeling the Monotonic and Cyclic Tensile Stress-Strain Behavior of 2D and 2.5D Woven C/SiC Ceramic-Matrix Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, L. B.

    2018-05-01

    The deformation of 2D and 2.5 C/SiC woven ceramic-matrix composites (CMCs) in monotonic and cyclic loadings has been investigated. Statistical matrix multicracking and fiber failure models and the fracture mechanics interface debonding approach are used to determine the spacing of matrix cracks, the debonded length of interface, and the fraction of broken fibers. The effects of fiber volume fraction and fiber Weibull modulus on the damage evolution in the composites and on their tensile stress-strain curves are analyzed. When matrix multicracking and fiber/matrix interface debonding occur, the fiber slippage relative to the matrix in the debonded interface region of the 0° warp yarns is the main reason for the emergance of stress-strain hysteresis loops for 2D and 2.5D woven CMCs. A model of these loops is developed, and histeresis loops for the composites in cyclic loadings/unloadings are predicted.

  13. Experimental characterization and modelling of UO2 mechanical behaviour at high temperatures and high strain rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salvo, Maxime

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this work is to characterize and model the mechanical behavior of uranium dioxide (UO 2 ) during a Reactivity Initiated Accident (RIA). The fuel loading during a RIA is characterized by high strain rates (up to 1/s) and high temperatures (1000 C - 2500 C). Two types of UO 2 pellets (commercial and high density) were therefore tested in compression with prescribed displacement rates (0.1 to 100 mm/min corresponding to strain rates of 10 -4 - 10 -1 /s) and temperatures (1100 C - 1350 C - 1550 C et 1700 C). Experimental results (geometry, yield stress and microstructure) allowed us to define a hyperbolic sine creep law and a Drucker-Prager criterion with associated plasticity, in order to model grain boundaries fragmentation at the macroscopic scale. Finite Element Simulations of these tests and of more than 200 creep tests were used to assess the model response to a wide range of temperatures (1100 C - 1700 C) and strain rates (10 -9 /s - 10 -1 /s). Finally, a constitutive law called L3F was developed for UO 2 by adding to the previous model irradiation creep and tensile macroscopic cracking. The L3F law was then introduced in the 1.5D scheme of the fuel performance code ALCYONE-RIA to simulate the REP-Na tests performed in the experimental reactor CABRI. Simulation results are in good agreement with post tests examinations. (author) [fr

  14. Highly efficient holograms based on c-Si metasurfaces in the visible range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Augusto; Li, Juntao; da Mota, Achiles F; Wang, Yin; Neto, Luiz G; do Carmo, João P; Teixeira, Fernando L; Martins, Emiliano R; Borges, Ben-Hur V

    2018-04-16

    This paper reports on the first hologram in transmission mode based on a c-Si metasurface in the visible range. The hologram shows high fidelity and high efficiency, with measured transmission and diffraction efficiencies of ~65% and ~40%, respectively. Although originally designed to achieve full phase control in the range [0-2π] at 532 nm, these holograms have also performed well at 444.9 nm and 635 nm. The high tolerance to both fabrication and wavelength variations demonstrate that holograms based on c-Si metasurfaces are quite attractive for diffractive optics applications, and particularly for full-color holograms.

  15. Surface segregation of Ge during Si growth on Ge/Si(0 0 1) at low temperature observed by high-resolution RBS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajima, K.; Hosaka, N.; Hattori, T.; Kimura, K.

    2002-01-01

    The Si/Ge/Si(0 0 1) multilayer with about 1 ML Ge layer is fabricated by evaporating Si overlayer on a Ge/Si(0 0 1) surface at 20-300 deg. C. The depth profile of the Ge atoms is observed by high-resolution Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy to investigate the possibility of Ge delta doping in Si. The observed profile of the Ge atoms spreads over several atomic layers even at 20 deg. C and a significant amount of Ge is located in the surface layer at higher temperatures. The results at 20-150 deg. C are well explained with two-layer model for surface segregation of the Ge atoms and the segregation rates are estimated. The activation energy for surface segregation of Ge atoms in amorphous Si is evaluated to be 0.035 eV, which is much smaller than the value reported for Si deposition at 500 deg. C. The small activation energy suggests that local heating during the Si deposition is dominant at low temperature

  16. High fluence swift heavy ion structure modification of the SiO{sub 2}/Si interface and gate insulator in 65 nm MOSFETs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Yao [Key Laboratory of Radiation Physics and Technology of Ministry of Education, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); Key Lab of Microelectronics Sichuan Province, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610064 (China); College of Physical Science and Technology, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610064 (China); Gao, Bo, E-mail: gaobo@scu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Radiation Physics and Technology of Ministry of Education, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); Key Lab of Microelectronics Sichuan Province, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610064 (China); College of Physical Science and Technology, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610064 (China); Gong, Min [Key Laboratory of Radiation Physics and Technology of Ministry of Education, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); Key Lab of Microelectronics Sichuan Province, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610064 (China); College of Physical Science and Technology, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610064 (China); Willis, Maureen [College of Physical Science and Technology, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610064 (China); Yang, Zhimei [Key Laboratory of Radiation Physics and Technology of Ministry of Education, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); Key Lab of Microelectronics Sichuan Province, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610064 (China); Guan, Mingyue [College of Physical Science and Technology, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610064 (China); Li, Yun [Key Laboratory of Radiation Physics and Technology of Ministry of Education, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); Key Lab of Microelectronics Sichuan Province, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610064 (China); College of Physical Science and Technology, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610064 (China)

    2017-04-01

    In this work, a study of the structure modification, induced by high fluence swift heavy ion radiation, of the SiO{sub 2}/Si structures and gate oxide interface in commercial 65 nm MOSFETs is performed. A key and novel point in this study is the specific use of the transmission electron microscopy (TEM) technique instead of the conventional atomic force microscope (AFM) or scanning electron microscope (SEM) techniques which are typically performed following the chemical etching of the sample to observe the changes in the structure. Using this method we show that after radiation, the appearance of a clearly visible thin layer between the SiO{sub 2} and Si is observed presenting as a variation in the TEM intensity at the interface of the two materials. Through measuring the EDX line scans we reveal that the Si:O ratio changed and that this change can be attributed to the migration of the Si towards interface after the Si-O bond is destroyed by the swift heavy ions. For the 65 nm MOSFET sample, the silicon substrate, the SiON insulator and the poly-silicon gate interfaces become blurred under the same irradiation conditions.

  17. Highly selective SiO2 etching over Si3N4 using a cyclic process with BCl3 and fluorocarbon gas chemistries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Miyako; Kuwahara, Kenichi

    2018-06-01

    A cyclic process for highly selective SiO2 etching with atomic-scale precision over Si3N4 was developed by using BCl3 and fluorocarbon gas chemistries. This process consists of two alternately performed steps: a deposition step using BCl3 mixed-gas plasma and an etching step using CF4/Ar mixed-gas plasma. The mechanism of the cyclic process was investigated by analyzing the surface chemistry at each step. BCl x layers formed on both SiO2 and Si3N4 surfaces in the deposition step. Early in the etching step, the deposited BCl x layers reacted with CF x radicals by forming CCl x and BF x . Then, fluorocarbon films were deposited on both surfaces in the etching step. We found that the BCl x layers formed in the deposition step enhanced the formation of the fluorocarbon films in the CF4 plasma etching step. In addition, because F radicals that radiated from the CF4 plasma reacted with B atoms while passing through the BCl x layers, the BCl x layers protected the Si3N4 surface from F-radical etching. The deposited layers, which contained the BCl x , CCl x , and CF x components, became thinner on SiO2 than on Si3N4, which promoted the ion-assisted etching of SiO2. This is because the BCl x component had a high reactivity with SiO2, and the CF x component was consumed by the etching reaction with SiO2.

  18. Investigation of the atomic interface structure of mesotaxial Si/CoSi2(100) layers formed by high-dose implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulle-Lieuwma, C.W.T.; Jong, A.F. de; Vandenhoudt, D.E.W.

    1991-01-01

    Aligned mesotaxial films of CoSi 2 in monocrystalline (100) oriented Si substrates have been formed by high-dose ion implantation of Co, followed by a high temperature treatment. The atomic structures of both the lower and upper Si/CoSi 2 (100) interfaces of the buried CoSi 2 layer have been investigated by high-resolution electron microscopy (HREM) combined with image simulations. A domain-like structure is observed consisting of areas with different interfaces. In order to derive the atomic configuration, image simulations of different proposed models are presented. By comparing simulated images and HREM images, two different atomic structure models for the Si/CoSi 2 (100) interface have been found. In the first model the interfacial Co atoms are six-fold coordinated and the tetrahedral coordination and bond lengths of silicon atoms are everywhere maintained. In the second model we found evidence for a 2 x 1 interface reconstruction, involving a difference in composition. The interfacial Co atoms are seven-fold coordinated. It is shown that the boundaries between the domains are associated with interfacial dislocations of edge-type with Burgers vectors b a/4 inclined and b = a/2 parallel to the interfacial plane. (author)

  19. High strain rate tensile properties of annealed 2 1/4 Cr--1 Mo steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klueh, R.L.; Oakes, R.E. Jr.

    1975-01-01

    The high strain rate tensile properties of annealed 2 1 / 4 Cr-1 Mo steel were determined and the tensile behavior from 25 to 566 0 C and strain rates of 2.67 x 10 -6 to 144/s were described. Above 0.1/s at 25 0 C, both the yield stress and the ultimate tensile strength increased rapidly with increasing strain rate. As the temperature was increased, a dynamic strain aging peak appeared in the ultimate tensile strength-temperature curves. The peak height was a maximum at about 350 0 C and 2.67 x 10 -6 /s. With increasing strain rate, a peak of decreased height occurred at progressively higher temperatures. The major effect of strain rate on ductility occurred at elevated temperatures, where a decrease in strain rate caused an increase in total elongation and reduction in area

  20. Effects of deposition rates on laser damage threshold of TiO2/SiO2 high reflectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao Jianke; Xu Cheng; Ma Jianyong; Fang Ming; Fan Zhengxiu; Jin Yunxia; Zhao Yuanan; He Hongbo; Shao Jianda

    2009-01-01

    TiO 2 single layers and TiO 2 /SiO 2 high reflectors (HR) are prepared by electron beam evaporation at different TiO 2 deposition rates. It is found that the changes of properties of TiO 2 films with the increase of rate, such as the increase of refractive index and extinction coefficient and the decrease of physical thickness, lead to the spectrum shift and reflectivity bandwidth broadening of HR together with the increase of absorption and decrease of laser-induced damage threshold. The damages are found of different morphologies: a shallow pit to a seriously delaminated and deep crater, and the different amorphous-to-anatase-to-rutile phase transition processes detected by Raman study. The frequency shift of Raman vibration mode correlates with the strain in film. Energy dispersive X-ray analysis reveals that impurities and non-stoichiometric defects are two absorption initiations resulting to the laser-induced transformation.

  1. Angular dependence of Si3N4 etch rates and the etch selectivity of SiO2 to Si3N4 at different bias voltages in a high-density C4F8 plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jin-Kwan; Lee, Gyeo-Re; Min, Jae-Ho; Moon, Sang Heup

    2007-01-01

    The dependence of Si 3 N 4 etch rates and the etch selectivity of SiO 2 to Si 3 N 4 on ion-incident angles was studied for different bias voltages in a high-density C 4 F 8 plasma. A Faraday cage and specially designed substrate holders were used to accurately control the angles of incident ions on the substrate surface. The normalized etch yield (NEY), defined as the etch yield obtained at a given ion-incident angle normalized to that obtained on a horizontal surface, was unaffected by the bias voltage in Si 3 N 4 etching, but it increased with the bias voltage in SiO 2 etching in the range of -100 to -300 V. The NEY changed showing a maximum with an increase in the ion-incident angle in the etching of both substrates. In the Si 3 N 4 etching, a maximum NEY of 1.7 was obtained at 70 deg. in the above bias voltage range. However, an increase in the NEY at high ion-incident angles was smaller for SiO 2 than for Si 3 N 4 and, consequently, the etch selectivity of SiO 2 to Si 3 N 4 decreased with an increase in the ion-incident angle. The etch selectivity decreased to a smaller extent at high bias voltage because the NEY of SiO 2 had increased. The characteristic changes in the NEY for different substrates could be correlated with the thickness of a steady-state fluorocarbon (CF x ) film formed on the substrates

  2. Growth and characterization of high-purity SiC single crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustine, G.; Balakrishna, V.; Brandt, C. D.

    2000-04-01

    High-purity SiC single crystals with diameter up to 50 mm have been grown by the physical vapor transport method. Finite element analysis was used for thermal modeling of the crystal growth cavity in order to reduce stress in the grown crystal. Crystals are grown in high-purity growth ambient using purified graphite furniture and high-purity SiC sublimation sources. Undoped crystals up to 50 mm in diameter with micropipe density less than 100 cm -2 have been grown using this method. These undoped crystals exhibit resistivities in the 10 3 Ω cm range and are p-type due to the presence of residual acceptor impurities, mainly boron. Semi-insulating SiC material is obtained by doping the crystal with vanadium. Vanadium has a deep donor level located near the middle of the band gap, which compensates the residual acceptor resulting in semi-insulating behavior.

  3. Increased effects of machining damage in beryllium observed at high strain rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beitscher, S.; Brewer, A.W.; Corle, R.R.

    1980-01-01

    Tensile tests at both low and high strain rates, and also impact shear tests, were performed on a weldable grade powder-source beryllium. Impact energies increased by a factor of 2 to 3 from the as-machined level after etching or annealing. Similar increases in the ductility from machining damage removal were observed from the tensile data at the higher strain rate (10 s -1 ) while an insignificant increase in elongation was measured at the lower strain rate (10 -4 s -1 ). High strain-rate tests appear to be more sensitive and reliable for evaluating machining practice and damage removal methods for beryllium components subjected to sudden loads. 2 tables

  4. Characterization of a highly toxic strain of Bacillus thuringiensis serovar kurstaki very similar to the HD-73 strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinoso-Pozo, Yaritza; Del Rincón-Castro, Ma Cristina; Ibarra, Jorge E

    2016-09-01

    The LBIT-1200 strain of Bacillus thuringiensis was recently isolated from soil, and showed a 6.4 and 9.5 increase in toxicity, against Manduca sexta and Trichoplusia ni, respectively, compared to HD-73. However, LBIT-1200 was still highly similar to HD-73, including the production of bipyramidal crystals containing only one protein of ∼130 000 kDa, its flagellin gene sequence related to the kurstaki serotype, plasmid and RepPCR patterns similar to HD-73, no production of β-exotoxin and no presence of VIP genes. Sequencing of its cry gene showed the presence of a cry1Ac-type gene with four amino acid differences, including two amino acid replacements in domain III, compared to Cry1Ac1, which may explain its higher toxicity. In conclusion, the LBIT-1200 strain is a variant of the HD-73 strain but shows a much higher toxicity, which makes this new strain an important candidate to be developed as a bioinsecticide, once it passes other tests, throughout its biotechnological development. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Thermal SiO as a probe of high velocity motions in regions of star formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Downes, D.; Genzel, R.; Hjalmarson, A.; Nyman, L.A.; Roennaeng, B.

    1982-01-01

    New observations of the v = 0, J = = 2→1 line of SiO at 86.8 GHz show a close association of the thermal SiO emission and infrared and maser sources in regions of star formation. In addition to SiO emission with low velocity dispersion (Δν -1 ), we report the first detection of high velocity (''plateau'') emission toward W49 and W51. The low velocity SiO component may come from the core of the molecular cloud which contains the infrared and maser sources. The ''plateau'' may indicate mass clusters. In Orion KL, the positional centroid of the high velocity SiO emission (Vertical BarΔνVertical Bar> or =20 km s -1 ) is near that of the component we identify as the ''18 km s -1 flow''. However, the centriods of the blue- and redshifted wings are displaced from each other by a few arcseconds, to the NW and NE of the position of the 18 km s -1 component. The mass-loss rates of the high velocity flow and the 18 km s -1 flow are similar

  6. Mechanisms of large strain, high strain rate plastic flow in the explosively driven collapse of Ni-Al laminate cylinders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olney, K L; Chiu, P H; Nesterenko, V F; Higgins, A; Serge, M; Weihs, T P; Fritz, G; Stover, A; Benson, D J

    2014-01-01

    Ni-Al laminates have shown promise as reactive materials due to their high energy release through intermetallic reaction. In addition to the traditional ignition methods, the reaction may be initiated in hot spots that can be created during mechanical loading. The explosively driven thick walled cylinder (TWC) technique was performed on two Ni-Al laminates composed of thin foil layers with different mesostructues: concentric and corrugated. These experiments were conducted to examine how these materials accommodate large plastic strain under high strain rates. Finite element simulations of these specimens with mesostuctures digitized from the experimental samples were conducted to provide insight into the mesoscale mechanisms of plastic flow. The dependence of dynamic behaviour on mesostructure may be used to tailor the hot spot formation and therefore the reactivity of the material system.

  7. Si effects on radiation induced segregation in high purity Fe-18Cr-14Ni alloys irradiated by Ni ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohta, Joji; Kako, Kenji; Mayuzumi, Masami; Kusanagi, Hideo; Suzuki, Takayoshi

    1999-01-01

    To illustrate the effects of the element Si on radiation induced segregation, which causes irradiation assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC), we investigated grain boundary chemistry of high purity Fe-18Cr-14Ni-Si alloys irradiated by Ni ions using FE-TEM. The addition of Si up to 1% does not affect the Cr depletion at grain boundaries, while it slightly enhances the depletion of Fe and the segregation of Ni and Si. The addition of 2% Si causes the depletion of Cr and Fe and the segregation of Ni and Si at grain boundaries. Thus, the Si content should be as low as possible. In order to reduce the depletion of Cr at grain boundaries, which is one of the major causes of IASCC, Si content should be less than 1%. (author)

  8. Bio-Engineering High Performance Microbial Strains for MEOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiangdong Fang; Qinghong Wang; Patrick Shuler

    2007-12-30

    The main objectives of this three-year research project are: (1) to employ the latest advances in genetics and bioengineering, especially Directed Protein Evolution technology, to improve the effectiveness of the microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) process. (2) to improve the surfactant activity and the thermal stability of bio-surfactant systems for MEOR; and (3) to develop improved laboratory methods and tools that screen quickly candidate bio-systems for EOR. Biosurfactants have been receiving increasing attention as Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) agents because of their unique properties (i.e., mild production conditions, lower toxicity, and higher biodegradability) compared to their synthetic chemical counterparts. Rhamnolipid as a potent natural biosurfactant has a wide range of potential applications, including EOR and bioremediation. During the three-year of the project period, we have successfully cloned the genes involved in the rhamnolipid bio-synthesis. And by using the Transposon containing Rhamnosyltransferase gene rhlAB, we engineered the new mutant strains P. aeruginosa PEER02 and E. coli TnERAB so they can produce rhamnolipid biosurfactans. We were able to produce rhamnolipds in both P. aeroginosa PAO1-RhlA- strain and P. fluorescens ATCC15453 strain, with the increase of 55 to 175 fold in rhamnolipid production comparing with wild type bacteria strain. We have also completed the first round direct evolution studies using Error-prone PCR technique and have constructed the library of RhlAB-containing Transposon to express mutant gene in heterologous hosts. Several methods, such as colorimetric agar plate assay, colorimetric spectrophotometer assay, bioactive assay and oil spreading assay have been established to detect and screen rhamnolipid production. Our engineered P. aeruginosa PEER02 strain can produce rhamnolipids with different carbon sources as substrate. Interfacial tension analysis (IFT) showed that different rhamnolipids from different

  9. Development of High Quality 4H-SiC Thick Epitaxy for Reliable High Power Electronics Using Halogenated Precursors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-02

    defects :=()llowed by a second buffer epilayer gro\\\\ th with ~: urn thickness with high n-type dopi:1g (- 5£17 cm-3) for the same C/Si ratio of ~1.4 at...gradient, pressure , etc.) can further reduce the parasitic deposition, especially in TFS-growth. • Thick epitaxy on-axis 4H-SiC Growth at High Growth...From - To) 08/02/2016 Final Technical Report 01-Apr-10 Through 31-Mar-14 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Development of High Quality 4H

  10. Strain-rate dependent fatigue behavior of 316LN stainless steel in high-temperature water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, Jibo [CAS Key Laboratory of Nuclear Materials and Safety Assessment, Liaoning Key Laboratory for Safety and Assessment Technique of Nuclear Materials, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China); Wu, Xinqiang, E-mail: xqwu@imr.ac.cn [CAS Key Laboratory of Nuclear Materials and Safety Assessment, Liaoning Key Laboratory for Safety and Assessment Technique of Nuclear Materials, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China); Han, En-Hou; Ke, Wei; Wang, Xiang [CAS Key Laboratory of Nuclear Materials and Safety Assessment, Liaoning Key Laboratory for Safety and Assessment Technique of Nuclear Materials, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China); Sun, Haitao [Nuclear and Radiation Safety Center, SEPA, Beijing 100082 (China)

    2017-06-15

    Low cycle fatigue behavior of forged 316LN stainless steel was investigated in high-temperature water. It was found that the fatigue life of 316LN stainless steel decreased with decreasing strain rate from 0.4 to 0.004 %s{sup −1} in 300 °C water. The stress amplitude increased with decreasing strain rate during fatigue tests, which was a typical characteristic of dynamic strain aging. The fatigue cracks mainly initiated at pits and slip bands. The interactive effect between dynamic strain aging and electrochemical factors on fatigue crack initiation is discussed. - Highlights: •The fatigue lives of 316LN stainless steel decrease with decreasing strain rate. •Fatigue cracks mainly initiated at pits and persistent slip bands. •Dynamic strain aging promoted fatigue cracks initiation in high-temperature water.

  11. Laser processing for bevel termination of high voltage pn junction in SiC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubiak, A; Ruta, Ł; Rosowski, A; French, P

    2016-01-01

    Proper edge termination of the p-n junction in silicon carbide is a key requirement in the fabrication of discrete devices able to withstand high voltages in reverse polarization. Due to the hardness of SiC the creation of the bevel termination remains difficult using mechanical machining. The use of laser beam sources with medium wavelength (532 nm) gives new possibilities in the machining of the silicon carbide. The paper presents the fabrication of the bevel termination structure in SiC using a green DPSS laser equipped with scanner and dedicated rotating sample holder. Characterization of the resulting structures proves the high potential of the proposed approach. (paper)

  12. Strain-free Ge/GeSiSn Quantum Cascade Lasers Based on L-Valley Intersubband Transitions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Soret, R. A; Sun, G; Cheng, H; Menendez, J; Khurgin, J

    2007-01-01

    The authors propose a Ge/Ge0.76Si0.19Sn0.05 quantum cascade laser using intersubband transitions at L valleys of the conduction band which has a clean offset of 150 meV situated below other energy valleys Gamma and X...

  13. High mobility AlGaN/GaN heterostructures grown on Si substrates using a large lattice-mismatch induced stress control technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Jianpeng; Yang, Xuelin; Sang, Ling; Guo, Lei; Hu, Anqi; Xu, Fujun; Tang, Ning; Wang, Xinqiang; Shen, Bo

    2015-01-01

    A large lattice-mismatch induced stress control technology with a low Al content AlGaN layer has been used to grow high quality GaN layers on 4-in. Si substrates. The use of this technology allows for high mobility AlGaN/GaN heterostructures with electron mobility of 2040 cm 2 /(V·s) at sheet charge density of 8.4 × 10 12  cm −2 . Strain relaxation and dislocation evolution mechanisms have been investigated. It is demonstrated that the large lattice mismatch between the low Al content AlGaN layer and AlN buffer layer could effectively promote the edge dislocation inclination with relatively large bend angles and therefore significantly reduce the dislocation density in the GaN epilayer. Our results show a great potential for fabrication of low-cost and high performance GaN-on-Si power devices

  14. Measurement of strains at high temperatures by means of electro-optics holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciammarella, Cesar A.; Bhat, G.; Vaitekunas, Jeffrey

    Electro-optics holographic-moire interferometry is used to measure strains at temperatures up to 1000 C. A description of the instrumentation developed to carry out the measurements is given. The data processing technique is also explained. Main problems encountered in recording patterns at high temperatures are analyzed and possible solutions are outlined. Optical results are compared with strain gage values obtained with instrumented specimens and with theoretical results. Very good agreement is found between optical, strain gage and theoretical results.

  15. Irradiation effects on high efficiency Si solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Duy, T.; Amingual, D.; Colardelle, P.; Bernard, J.

    1974-01-01

    By optimizing the diffusion parameters, high efficiency cells are obtained with 2ohmsxcm (13.5% AMO) and 10ohmsxcm (12.5% AMO) silicon material. These new cells have been submitted to radiation tests under 1MeV, 2MeV electrons and 2.5MeV protons. Their behavior under irradiation is found to be dependent only on the bulk material. By using the same resistivity silicon, the rate of degradation is exactly the same than those of conventional cells. The power increase, due to a better superficial response of the cell, is maintained after irradiation. These results show that new high efficiency cells offer an E.O.L. power higher than conventional cells [fr

  16. High-temperature protective coatings for C/SiC composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Yang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Carbon fiber-reinforced silicon carbide (C/SiC composites were well-established light weight materials combining high specific strength and damage tolerance. For high-temperature applications, protective coatings had to provide oxidation and corrosion resistance. The literature data introduced various technologies and materials, which were suitable for the application of coatings. Coating procedures and conditions, materials design limitations related to the reactivity of the components of C/SiC composites, new approaches and coating systems to the selection of protective coatings materials were examined. The focus of future work was on optimization by further multilayer coating systems and the anti-oxidation ability of C/SiC composites at temperatures up to 2073 K or higher in water vapor.

  17. A micro-structured Si-based electrodes for high capacity electrical double layer capacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krikscikas, Valdas; Oguchi, Hiroyuki; Hara, Motoaki; Kuwano, Hiroki; Yanazawa, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    We challenged to make basis for Si electrodes of electric double layer capacitors (EDLC) used as a power source of micro-sensor nodes. Mcroelectromechanical systems (MEMS) processes were successfully introduced to fabricate micro-structured Si-based electrodes to obtain high surface area which leads to high capacity of EDLCs. Study of fundamental properties revealed that the microstructured electrodes benefit from good wettability to electrolytes, but suffer from electric resistance. We found that this problem can be solved by metal-coating of the electrode surface. Finally we build an EDLC consisting of Au-coated micro-structured Si electrodes. This EDLC showed capacity of 14.3 mF/cm 2 , which is about 530 times larger than that of an EDLC consisting of flat Au electrodes

  18. Highly efficient transparent Zn2SiO4:Mn2+ phosphor film on quartz glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, K.I.; Park, J.H.; Kim, J.S.; Kim, G.C.; Yoo, J.H.

    2009-01-01

    Highly efficient transparent Zn 2 SiO 4 :Mn 2+ film phosphors on quartz substrates were deposited by the thermal diffusion of sputtered ZnO:Mn film. They show a textured structure with some preferred orientations. Our film phosphor shows, for the best photoluminescence (PL) brightness, a green PL brightness of about 20% of a commercial Zn 2 SiO 4 :Mn 2+ powder phosphor screen. The film shows a high transmittance of more than 10% at the red-color region. The excellence in PL brightness and transmittance can be explained in terms of the textured crystal growth with a continuous gradient of Zn 2 SiO 4 : Mn 2+ crystals.

  19. Split-Hopkinson Pressure Bar: an experimental technique for high strain rate tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, S.; Chavan, V.M.; Agrawal, R.G.; Patel, R.J.; Kapoor, R.; Chakravartty, J.K.

    2011-06-01

    Mechanical properties of materials are, in general, strain rate dependent, i.e. they respond differently at quasi-static and higher strain rate condition. The Split-Hopkinson Pressure Bar (SHPB), also referred to as Kolsky bar is a commonly used setup for high strain rate testing. SHPB is suitable for high strain rate test in strain rate range of 10 2 to 10 4 s -1 . These high strain rate data are required for safety and structural integrity assessment of structures subjected to dynamic loading. As high strain rate data are not easily available in open literature need was felt for setting up such high strain rate testing machine. SHPB at BARC was designed and set-up inhouse jointly by Refuelling Technology Division and Mechanical Metallurgy Division, at Hall no. 3, BARC. A number of conceptual designs for SHPB were thought of and the optimized design was worked out. The challenges of precision tolerance, straightness in bars and design and proper functioning of pneumatic gun were met. This setup has been used extensively to study the high strain rate material behavior. This report introduces the SHPB in general and the setup at BARC in particular. The history of development of SHPB, the basic formulations of one dimensional wave propagation, the relations between the wave velocity, particle velocity and elastic strain in a one dimensional bar, and the equations used to obtain the final stress vs. strain curves are described. The calibration of the present setup, the pre-test calculations and the posttest analysis of data are described. Finally some of the experimental results on different materials such as Cu, SS305, SA516 and Zr, at room temperature and elevated temperatures are presented. (author)

  20. Electric Field Induced Strain in Electrostrictive Polymers Under High Hydrostatic Pressure - System Development and Material Characterization

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zhang, Q

    2000-01-01

    ... of (i) developing a high performance piezo-bimorph based dilatometer which can be used to characterize the electric field induced strain response in polymer films under high hydrostatic pressure, (ii...

  1. Natural plasmid transformation in a high-frequency-of transformation marine Vibrio strain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frischer, M.E.; Thurmond, J.M.; Paul, J.H.

    1990-01-01

    The estuarine bacterium Vibrio strain DI-9 has been shown to be naturally transformable with both broad host range plasmid multimers and homologous chromosomal DNA at average frequencies of 3.5 x 10 -9 and 3.4 x 10 -7 transformants per recipient, respectively. Growth of plasmid transformants in nonselective medium resulted in cured strains that transformed 6 to 42,857 times more frequently than the parental strain, depending on the type of transforming DNA. These high-frequency-of-transformation (HfT) strains were transformed at frequencies ranging from 1.1 x 10 -8 to 1.3 x 10 -4 transformants per recipient with plasmid DNA and at an average frequency of 8.3 x 10 -5 transformants per recipient with homologous chromosomal DNA. The highest transformation frequencies were observed by using multimers of an R1162 derivative carrying the transposon Tn5 (pQSR50). Probing of total DNA preparations from one of the cured strains demonstrated that no plasmid DNA remained in the cured strains which may have provided homology to the transforming DNA. All transformants and cured strains could be differentiated from the parental strains by colony morphology. DNA binding studies indicated that late-log-phase HfT strains bound [ 3 H]bacteriophage lambda DNA 2.1 times more rapidly than the parental strain. These results suggest that the original plasmid transformation event of strain DI-9 was the result of uptake and expression of plasmid DNA by a competent mutant (HfT strain). Additionally, it was found that a strain of Vibrio parahaemolyticus, USFS 3420, could be naturally transformed with plasmid DNA. Natural plasmid transformation by high-transforming mutants may be a means of plasmid acquisition by natural aquatic bacterial populations

  2. Highly flexible and robust N-doped SiC nanoneedle field emitters

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Shanliang

    2015-01-23

    Flexible field emission (FE) emitters, whose unique advantages are lightweight and conformable, promise to enable a wide range of technologies, such as roll-up flexible FE displays, e-papers and flexible light-emitting diodes. In this work, we demonstrate for the first time highly flexible SiC field emitters with low turn-on fields and excellent emission stabilities. n-Type SiC nanoneedles with ultra-sharp tips and tailored N-doping levels were synthesized via a catalyst-assisted pyrolysis process on carbon fabrics by controlling the gas mixture and cooling rate. The turn-on field, threshold field and current emission fluctuation of SiC nanoneedle emitters with an N-doping level of 7.58 at.% are 1.11 V μm-1, 1.55 V μm-1 and 8.1%, respectively, suggesting the best overall performance for such flexible field emitters. Furthermore, characterization of the FE properties under repeated bending cycles and different bending states reveal that the SiC field emitters are mechanically and electrically robust with unprecedentedly high flexibility and stabilities. These findings underscore the importance of concurrent morphology and composition controls in nanomaterial synthesis and establish SiC nanoneedles as the most promising candidate for flexible FE applications. © 2015 Nature Publishing Group All rights reserved.

  3. Development of a Si-PM-based high-resolution PET system for small animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Seiichi; Imaizumi, Masao; Watabe, Tadashi; Shimosegawa, Eku; Hatazawa, Jun; Watabe, Hiroshi; Kanai, Yasukazu

    2010-01-01

    A Geiger-mode avalanche photodiode (Si-PM) is a promising photodetector for PET, especially for use in a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) system, because it has high gain and is less sensitive to a static magnetic field. We developed a Si-PM-based depth-of-interaction (DOI) PET system for small animals. Hamamatsu 4 x 4 Si-PM arrays (S11065-025P) were used for its detector blocks. Two types of LGSO scintillator of 0.75 mol% Ce (decay time: ∼45 ns; 1.1 mm x 1.2 mm x 5 mm) and 0.025 mol% Ce (decay time: ∼31 ns; 1.1 mm x 1.2 mm x 6 mm) were optically coupled in the DOI direction to form a DOI detector, arranged in a 11 x 9 matrix, and optically coupled to the Si-PM array. Pulse shape analysis was used for the DOI detection of these two types of LGSOs. Sixteen detector blocks were arranged in a 68 mm diameter ring to form the PET system. Spatial resolution was 1.6 mm FWHM and sensitivity was 0.6% at the center of the field of view. High-resolution mouse and rat images were successfully obtained using the PET system. We confirmed that the developed Si-PM-based PET system is promising for molecular imaging research.

  4. Highly flexible and robust N-doped SiC nanoneedle field emitters

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Shanliang; Ying, Pengzhan; Wang, Lin; Wei, Guodong; Gao, Fengmei; Zheng, Jinju; Shang, Minhui; Yang, Zuobao; Yang, Weiyou; Wu, Tao

    2015-01-01

    Flexible field emission (FE) emitters, whose unique advantages are lightweight and conformable, promise to enable a wide range of technologies, such as roll-up flexible FE displays, e-papers and flexible light-emitting diodes. In this work, we demonstrate for the first time highly flexible SiC field emitters with low turn-on fields and excellent emission stabilities. n-Type SiC nanoneedles with ultra-sharp tips and tailored N-doping levels were synthesized via a catalyst-assisted pyrolysis process on carbon fabrics by controlling the gas mixture and cooling rate. The turn-on field, threshold field and current emission fluctuation of SiC nanoneedle emitters with an N-doping level of 7.58 at.% are 1.11 V μm-1, 1.55 V μm-1 and 8.1%, respectively, suggesting the best overall performance for such flexible field emitters. Furthermore, characterization of the FE properties under repeated bending cycles and different bending states reveal that the SiC field emitters are mechanically and electrically robust with unprecedentedly high flexibility and stabilities. These findings underscore the importance of concurrent morphology and composition controls in nanomaterial synthesis and establish SiC nanoneedles as the most promising candidate for flexible FE applications. © 2015 Nature Publishing Group All rights reserved.

  5. Development of High-Temperature, High-Power, High-Efficiency, High-Voltage Converters Using Silicon Carbide (SiC) Delivery Order 0003: SiC High Voltage Converters, N-Type Ohmic Contract Development for SiC Power Devices

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cheng, Lin; Mazzola, Michael S

    2006-01-01

    ... ? SiC interfaces and silicide top surfaces is important for producing uniformly low contact resistances to achieve device operation at high-current levels without hot spot formation and contact degradation...

  6. Entropy-driven crystal formation on highly strained substrates

    KAUST Repository

    Savage, John R.

    2013-05-20

    In heteroepitaxy, lattice mismatch between the deposited material and the underlying surface strongly affects nucleation and growth processes. The effect of mismatch is well studied in atoms with growth kinetics typically dominated by bond formation with interaction lengths on the order of one lattice spacing. In contrast, less is understood about how mismatch affects crystallization of larger particles, such as globular proteins and nanoparticles, where interparticle interaction energies are often comparable to thermal fluctuations and are short ranged, extending only a fraction of the particle size. Here, using colloidal experiments and simulations, we find particles with short-range attractive interactions form crystals on isotropically strained lattices with spacings significantly larger than the interaction length scale. By measuring the free-energy cost of dimer formation on monolayers of increasing uniaxial strain, we show the underlying mismatched substrate mediates an entropy-driven attractive interaction extending well beyond the interaction length scale. Remarkably, because this interaction arises from thermal fluctuations, lowering temperature causes such substrate-mediated attractive crystals to dissolve. Such counterintuitive results underscore the crucial role of entropy in heteroepitaxy in this technologically important regime. Ultimately, this entropic component of lattice mismatched crystal growth could be used to develop unique methods for heterogeneous nucleation and growth of single crystals for applications ranging from protein crystallization to controlling the assembly of nanoparticles into ordered, functional superstructures. In particular, the construction of substrates with spatially modulated strain profiles would exploit this effect to direct self-assembly, whereby nucleation sites and resulting crystal morphology can be controlled directly through modifications of the substrate.

  7. Reduced Pressure-Chemical Vapour Deposition of Si/SiGe heterostructures for nanoelectronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartmann, J.M.; Andrieu, F.; Lafond, D.; Ernst, T.; Bogumilowicz, Y.; Delaye, V.; Weber, O.; Rouchon, D.; Papon, A.M.; Cherkashin, N.

    2008-01-01

    We have first of all quantified the impact of pressure on Si and SiGe growth kinetics. Definite growth rate and Ge concentration increases with the pressure have been evidenced at low temperatures (650-750 deg. C). By contrast, the high temperature (950-1050 deg. C) Si growth rate either increases or decreases with pressure (gaseous precursor depending). We have then described the selective epitaxial growth process we use to form Si or Si 0.7 Ge 0.3 :B raised sources and drains on ultra-thin patterned Silicon-On-Insulator (SOI) substrates. We have afterwards presented the specifics of SiGe virtual substrates and of the tensile-strained Si layers grown on top (used as templates for the elaboration of tensily strained-SOI wafers). The tensile strain, which can be tailored from 1.3 up to 3 GPa, leads to an electron mobility gain by a factor of 2 in n-Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistors (MOSFETs) built on top. High Ge content SiGe virtual substrates can also be used for the elaboration of compressively strained Ge channels, with impressive hole mobility gains (x9) compared to bulk Si. After that, we have described the main structural features of thick Ge layers grown directly on Si (that can be used as donor wafers for the elaboration of GeOI wafers or as the active medium of near infrared photo-detectors). Finally, we have shown how Si/SiGe multilayers can be used for the formation of high performance 3D devices such as multi-bridge channel or nano-beam gate-all-around FETs, the SiGe sacrificial layers being removed thanks to plasma dry etching, wet etching or in situ gaseous HCl etching

  8. Strain relief InGaN/GaN MQW micro-pillars for high brightness LEDs

    KAUST Repository

    Shen, Chao

    2013-01-01

    Micro-structured group-III-nitrides are considered as promising strain relief structures for high efficiency solid state lighting. In this work, the strain field in InGaN/GaN multi-quantum wells (MQWs) micro-pillars is investigated using micro-Raman spectroscopy and the design of micro-pillars were studied experimentally. We distinguished the strained and strain-relieved signatures of the GaN layer from the E2 phonon peak split from the Raman scattering signatures at 572 cm-1 and 568 cm-1, respectively. The extent of strain relief is examined considering the height and size of micro-pillars fabricated using focused ion beam (FIB) micro-machining technique. A significant strain relief can be achieved when one micro-machined through the entire epi-layers, 3 μm in our study. The dependence of strain relief on micro-pillar diameter (D) suggested that micro-pillar with D < 3 μm showed high degree of strain relief. Our results shed new insights into designing strain-relieved InGaN/GaN microstructures for high brightness light emitting diode arrays. © 2013 IEEE.

  9. Stability of Retained Austenite in High-Al, Low-Si TRIP-Assisted Steels Processed via Continuous Galvanizing Heat Treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermid, J. R.; Zurob, H. S.; Bian, Y.

    2011-12-01

    Two galvanizable high-Al, low-Si transformation-induced plasticity (TRIP)-assisted steels were subjected to isothermal bainitic transformation (IBT) temperatures compatible with the continuous galvanizing (CGL) process and the kinetics of the retained austenite (RA) to martensite transformation during room temperature deformation studied as a function of heat treatment parameters. It was determined that there was a direct relationship between the rate of strain-induced transformation and optimal mechanical properties, with more gradual transformation rates being favored. The RA to martensite transformation kinetics were successfully modeled using two methodologies: (1) the strain-based model of Olsen and Cohen and (2) a simple relationship with the normalized flow stress, ( {{{σ_{{flow}} - σ_{YS} }/{σ_{YS }}}} ) . For the strain-based model, it was determined that the model parameters were a strong function of strain and alloy thermal processing history and a weak function of alloy chemistry. It was verified that the strain-based model in the present work agrees well with those derived by previous workers using TRIP-assisted steels of similar composition. It was further determined that the RA to martensite transformation kinetics for all alloys and heat treatments could be described using a simple model vs the normalized flow stress, indicating that the RA to martensite transformation is stress-induced rather than strain-induced for temperatures above the Ms^{σ }.

  10. Microstructural evolution at high strain rates in solution-hardened interstitial free steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uenishi, A.; Teodosiu, C.; Nesterova, E.V.

    2005-01-01

    Comprehensive transmission electron microscopical studies have been conducted for solution-hardened steels deformed at high (1000 s -1 ) and low (0.001 s -1 ) strain rates, in order to clarify the effects of strain rate and a jump in strain rate on the evolution of the microstructure and its connection with the mechanical response. It was revealed that the various types of microstructure, observed even within the same specimen, depend on the corresponding grain orientations and their evolution with progressive deformation depends on these microstructure types. At high strain rates, the dislocation density increases especially at low strains and the onset of dislocation organization is delayed. A jump in strain rate causes an increase of the dislocation density inside an organized structure. These results corroborated the mechanical behaviour at high strain rates after compensation for the cross-sectional reduction and temperature increase. The higher work-hardening rate at high strain rates could be connected to a delay in the dislocation organization. The high work-hardening rate just after a jump could be due to an increase of the density of dislocations distributed uniformly inside an organized structure

  11. Microstructure and high-temperature tribological properties of Si-doped hydrogenated diamond-like carbon films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Teng Fei; Wan, Zhi Xin; Ding, Ji Cheng; Zhang, Shihong; Wang, Qi Min; Kim, Kwang Ho

    2018-03-01

    Si-doped DLC films have attracted great attention for use in tribological applications. However, their high-temperature tribological properties remain less investigated, especially in harsh oxidative working conditions. In this study, Si-doped hydrogenated DLC films with various Si content were synthesized and the effects of the addition of Si on the microstructural, mechanical and high-temperature tribological properties of the films were investigated. The results indicate that Si doping leads to an obvious increase in the sp3/sp2 ratio of DLC films, likely due to the silicon atoms preferentially substitute the sp2-hybridized carbon atoms and augment the number of sp3 sites. With Si doping, the mechanical properties, including hardness and adhesion strength, were improved, while the residual stress of the DLC films was reduced. The addition of Si leads to higher thermal and mechanical stability of DLC films because the Si atoms inhibit the graphitization of the films at an elevated temperature. Better high-temperature tribological properties of the Si-DLC films under oxidative conditions were observed, which can be attributed to the enhanced thermal stability and formation of a Si-containing lubricant layer on the surfaces of the wear tracks. The nano-wear resistance of the DLC films was also improved by Si doping.

  12. High-throughput screening of effective siRNAs using luciferase-linked chimeric mRNA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shen Pang

    Full Text Available The use of siRNAs to knock down gene expression can potentially be an approach to treat various diseases. To avoid siRNA toxicity the less transcriptionally active H1 pol III promoter, rather than the U6 promoter, was proposed for siRNA expression. To identify highly efficacious siRNA sequences, extensive screening is required, since current computer programs may not render ideal results. Here, we used CCR5 gene silencing as a model to investigate a rapid and efficient screening approach. We constructed a chimeric luciferase-CCR5 gene for high-throughput screening of siRNA libraries. After screening approximately 900 shRNA clones, 12 siRNA sequences were identified. Sequence analysis demonstrated that most (11 of the 12 sequences of these siRNAs did not match those identified by available siRNA prediction algorithms. Significant inhibition of CCR5 in a T-lymphocyte cell line and primary T cells by these identified siRNAs was confirmed using the siRNA lentiviral vectors to infect these cells. The inhibition of CCR5 expression significantly protected cells from R5 HIV-1JRCSF infection. These results indicated that the high-throughput screening method allows efficient identification of siRNA sequences to inhibit the target genes at low levels of expression.

  13. Low-temperature magnetotransport in Si/SiGe heterostructures on 300 mm Si wafers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scappucci, Giordano; Yeoh, L.; Sabbagh, D.; Sammak, A.; Boter, J.; Droulers, G.; Kalhor, N.; Brousse, D.; Veldhorst, M.; Vandersypen, L. M. K.; Thomas, N.; Roberts, J.; Pillarisetty, R.; Amin, P.; George, H. C.; Singh, K. J.; Clarke, J. S.

    Undoped Si/SiGe heterostructures are a promising material stack for the development of spin qubits in silicon. To deploy a qubit into high volume manufacturing in a quantum computer requires stringent control over substrate uniformity and quality. Electron mobility and valley splitting are two key electrical metrics of substrate quality relevant for qubits. Here we present low-temperature magnetotransport measurements of strained Si quantum wells with mobilities in excess of 100000 cm2/Vs fabricated on 300 mm wafers within the framework of advanced semiconductor manufacturing. These results are benchmarked against the results obtained in Si quantum wells deposited on 100 mm Si wafers in an academic research environment. To ensure rapid progress in quantum wells quality we have implemented fast feedback loops from materials growth, to heterostructure FET fabrication, and low temperature characterisation. On this topic we will present recent progress in developing a cryogenic platform for high-throughput magnetotransport measurements.

  14. Microstructure, electrical, and optical properties of evaporated PtSi/p-Si(100) Schottky barriers as high quantum efficient infrared detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Jihhuah; Chang Rongsen; Horng Gwoji

    2004-01-01

    The effects of the microstructure and the electrical and optical properties on the formation at highly efficient infrared PtSi Schottky barrier detectors (SBD) have been studied in detail. Two- to twelve-nanometer-thick PtSi films were grown by evaporation at temperature ranging from 350 to 550 deg. C. The electron diffraction patterns indicate the existence of both the (11-bar0) and (12-bar1) orientations when PtSi films formed at 350 deg. C. However, the diffraction patterns show only the (12-bar1) orientation when the PtSi films are formed at 450 deg. C or above. The electrical barrier height of the Schottky barrier detector that formed at 350 deg. C was about 20 meV higher than that formed at 450 deg. C or above. The grain size and the film thickness had a negligible effect on the electrical barrier height. However, the optical performance was strongly dependent on the film thickness and the growth conditions. The 350 deg. C PtSi film showed increased quantum efficiency as the film thickness decreased. The optimal thickness that provided the highest responsivity was 2 nm. On the other hand, the optimal thickness shifted to 8 nm for PtSi film formed at 450 deg. C or above. These results indicate that the quantum efficiency of a detector can be improved if the PtSi film has an orientation at (12-bar1), a larger grain size, and an optimal film thickness

  15. New High-Performance SiC Fiber Developed for Ceramic Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiCarlo, James A.; Yun, Hee Mann

    2002-01-01

    Sylramic-iBN fiber is a new type of small-diameter (10-mm) SiC fiber that was developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center and was recently given an R&D 100 Award for 2001. It is produced by subjecting commercially available Sylramic (Dow Corning, Midland, MI) SiC fibers, fabrics, or preforms to a specially designed high-temperature treatment in a controlled nitrogen environment for a specific time. It can be used in a variety of applications, but it currently has the greatest advantage as a reinforcement for SiC/SiC ceramic composites that are targeted for long-term structural applications at temperatures higher than the capability of metallic superalloys. The commercial Sylramic SiC fiber, which is the precursor for the Sylramic-iBN fiber, is produced by Dow Corning, Midland, Michigan. It is derived from polymers at low temperatures and then pyrolyzed and sintered at high temperatures using boron-containing sintering aids (ref. 1). The sintering process results in very strong fibers (>3 GPa) that are dense, oxygen-free, and nearly stoichiometric. They also display an optimum grain size that is beneficial for high tensile strength, good creep resistance, and good thermal conductivity (ref. 2). The NASA-developed treatment allows the excess boron in the bulk to diffuse to the fiber surface where it reacts with nitrogen to form an in situ boron nitride (BN) coating on the fiber surface (thus the product name of Sylramic-iBN fiber). The removal of boron from the fiber bulk allows the retention of high tensile strength while significantly improving creep resistance and electrical conductivity, and probably thermal conductivity since the grains are slightly larger and the grain boundaries cleaner (ref. 2). Also, as shown in the graph, these improvements allow the fiber to display the best rupture strength at high temperatures in air for any available SiC fiber. In addition, for CMC applications under oxidizing conditions, the formation of an in situ BN surface layer

  16. Comparative Genomic Characterization of the Highly Persistent and Potentially Virulent Cronobacter sakazakii ST83, CC65 Strain H322 and Other ST83 Strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah R. Chase

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Cronobacter (C. sakazakii is an opportunistic pathogen and has been associated with serious infections with high mortality rates predominantly in pre-term, low-birth weight and/or immune compromised neonates and infants. Infections have been epidemiologically linked to consumption of intrinsically and extrinsically contaminated lots of reconstituted powdered infant formula (PIF, thus contamination of such products is a challenging task for the PIF producing industry. We present the draft genome of C. sakazakii H322, a highly persistent sequence type (ST 83, clonal complex (CC 65, serotype O:7 strain obtained from a batch of non-released contaminated PIF product. The presence of this strain in the production environment was traced back more than 4 years. Whole genome sequencing (WGS of this strain together with four more ST83 strains (PIF production environment-associated confirmed a high degree of sequence homology among four of the five strains. Phylogenetic analysis using microarray (MA and WGS data showed that the ST83 strains were highly phylogenetically related and MA showed that between 5 and 38 genes differed from one another in these strains. All strains possessed the pESA3-like virulence plasmid and one strain possessed a pESA2-like plasmid. In addition, a pCS1-like plasmid was also found. In order to assess the potential in vivo pathogenicity of the ST83 strains, each strain was subjected to infection studies using the recently developed zebrafish embryo model. Our results showed a high (90–100% zebrafish mortality rate for all of these strains, suggesting a high risk for infections and illness in neonates potentially exposed to PIF contaminated with ST83 C. sakazakii strains. In summary, virulent ST83, CC65, serotype CsakO:7 strains, though rarely found intrinsically in PIF, can persist within a PIF manufacturing facility for years and potentially pose significant quality assurance challenges to the PIF manufacturing industry.

  17. Thin film solar modules: the low cost, high throughput and versatile alternative to Si wafers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hegedus, S. [Delaware Univ., Inst. of Energy Conversion, Newark, DE (United States)

    2006-07-01

    Thin film solar cells (TFSC) have passed adolescence and are ready to make a substantial contribution to the world's electricity generation. They can have advantages over c-Si solar modules in ease of large area, lower cost manufacturing and in several types of applications. Factors which limit TFSC module performance relative to champion cell performance are discussed along with the importance of increased throughput and yield. The consensus of several studies is that all TFSC can achieve costs below 1 $/W if manufactured at sufficiently large scale >100 MW using parallel lines of cloned equipment with high material utilization and spray-on encapsulants. There is significant new commercial interest in TFSC from small investors and large corporations, validating the thin film approach. Unique characteristics are discussed which give TFSC an advantage over c-Si in two specific markets: small rural solar home systems and building integrated photovoltaic installations. TFSC have outperformed c-Si in annual energy production (kWhrs/kW), have demonstrated outdoor durability comparable to c-Si and are being used in MW scale installations worldwide. The merits of the thin film approach cannot be judged on the basis of efficiency alone but must also account for module performance and potential for low cost. TFSC advocates should promote their unique virtues compared to c-Si: lower cost, higher kWhr/kW output, higher battery charging current, attractive visual appearance, flexible substrates, long-term stability comparable to c-Si, and multiple pathways for deposition with room for innovation and evolutionary improvement. There is a huge market for TFSC even at today's efficiency if costs can be reduced. A brief window of opportunity exists for TFSC over the next few years due the Si shortage. The demonstrated capabilities and advantages of TFSC must be proclaimed more persistently to funding decision-makers and customers without minimizing the remaining

  18. SiGe HBT linear-in-dB high dynamic range RF envelope detectors and wideband high linearity amplifiers

    OpenAIRE

    Pan, Hsuan-yu

    2010-01-01

    This research work aims on exploiting SiGe HBT technologies in high dynamic range wideband RF linear-in- dB envelope detectors and linear amplifiers. First, an improved all-npn broadband highly linear SiGe HBT differential amplifier is presented based on a variation of Caprio's Quad. A broadband linear amplifier with 46dBm OIP₃ at 20MHz, 34dBm OIP₃ at 1GHz, 6dB noise figure and 10.3dBm P₁dB is demonstrated. Second, an improved exact dynamic model of a fast-settling linear-in-dB Automatic Gain...

  19. Simultaneous measurement of dynamic strain and temperature distribution using high birefringence PANDA fiber Bragg grating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Mengshi; Murayama, Hideaki

    2017-04-01

    New approach in simultaneous measurement of dynamic strain and temperature has been done by using a high birefringence PANDA fiber Bragg grating sensor. By this technique, we have succeeded in discriminating dynamic strain and temperature distribution at the sampling rate of 800 Hz and the spatial resolution of 1 mm. The dynamic distribution of strain and temperature were measured with the deviation of 5mm spatially. In addition, we have designed an experimental setup by which we can apply quantitative dynamic strain and temperature distribution to the fiber under testing without bounding it to a specimen.

  20. Screening on the high yield validamycin producing strain by implantation with N+ and Ti+ ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Long; An Xiao

    2007-01-01

    In order to compared the mutagenic effects of the validamycin producing the strain (Streptomyces hygroscopicus var. Jingganggensis Yen.) was implanted with two kinds of ion sources. The results showed that when two kinds of ion sources implanted into the strain by turns, more positive mutants and higher yield would be acquired. Using this method, a high-yielding strain B1-3 was obtained, which produce the titer of validamycin A of 21514, and was 54.4% higher than that of the original strain. (authors)

  1. Effect of Strain Rate on Microscopic Deformation Behavior of High-density Polyethylene under Uniaxial Stretching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kida Takumitsu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The microscopic deformation behaviors such as the load sharing and the molecular orientation of high-density polyethylene under uniaxial stretching at various strain rates were investigated by using in-situ Raman spectroscopy. The chains within crystalline phase began to orient toward the stretching direction beyond the yielding region and the orientation behavior was not affected by the strain rate. While the stretching stress along the crystalline chains was also not affected by the strain rate, the peak shifts of the Raman bands at 1130, 1418, 1440 and 1460 cm-1, which are sensitive to the interchain interactions obviously, depended on the strain rate; the higher strain rates lead to the stronger stretching stress or negative pressure on the crystalline and amorphous chains. These effects of the strain rate on the microscopic deformation was associated with the cavitation and the void formation leading to the release of the internal pressure.

  2. Highly sensitive wearable strain sensor based on silver nanowires and nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shengbo, Sang; Lihua, Liu; Aoqun, Jian; Qianqian, Duan; Jianlong, Ji; Qiang, Zhang; Wendong, Zhang

    2018-06-01

    Here, we propose a highly sensitive and stretchable strain sensor based on silver nanoparticles and nanowires (Ag NPs and NWs), advancing the rapid development of electronic skin. To improve the sensitivity of strain sensors based on silver nanowires (Ag NWs), Ag NPs and NWs were added to polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) as an aid filler. Silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) increase the conductive paths for electrons, leading to the low resistance of the resulting sensor (14.9 Ω). The strain sensor based on Ag NPs and NWs showed strong piezoresistivity with a tunable gauge factor (GF) at 3766, and a change in resistance as the strain linearly increased from 0% to 28.1%. The high GF demonstrates the irreplaceable role of Ag NPs in the sensor. Moreover, the applicability of our high-performance strain sensor has been demonstrated by its ability to sense movements caused by human talking, finger bending, wrist raising and walking.

  3. High-resolution x-ray diffraction studies of self-organized SiGe(C) islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stangl, S.

    2000-06-01

    The scope of this thesis is the investigation of semiconductor heterostructures with various x-ray scattering techniques. The work focuses on self-organized Si-based nanostructures. Their small size and the difference in band gap with respect to the surrounding matrix lead to quantum confinement, with increased density of states and carrier localization as most important consequences. These make the use of such nanostructures in novel electrical and optical devices promising. A big challenge in the fabrication of nanostructures lies in the required high areal density at extremely low defect densities. Self-organized growth is in this aspect superior to, e.g. the post-growth lithographic patterning of planar heterostructures. There are, however, other difficulties: the dependence of the internal structure and the size and size homogeneity of self-organized nanostructures on various growth parameters has not yet been fully understood, leaving the fabrication of structures with predictable properties difficult. The investigation of self-organized nanostructures presented in this thesis intends to contribute to the understanding of the growth processes. In particular, the correlation properties of SiGe quantum dots in multilayers, and the determination of the strain and composition distribution within free-standing SiGe dots are major topics of this work. Another main part of the presented thesis is the conception and setup of a new x-ray diffractometer, expanding the possibilities of structural characterization at the 'Institut fuer Halbleiterphysik'. A detailed description of this instrument shall serve as an operating manual and quick reference. (author)

  4. CHARACTERIZATION OF A NEW BACILLUS-STEAROTHERMOPHILUS ISOLATE - A HIGHLY THERMOSTABLE ALPHA-AMYLASE-PRODUCING STRAIN

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WIND, RD; BUITELAAR, RM; EGGINK, G; HUIZING, HJ; DIJKHUIZEN, L

    A novel strain of Bacillus stearothermophilus was isolated from samples of a potato-processing industry. Compared to known alpha-amylases from other B. stearothermophilus strains, the isolate was found to produce a highly thermostable alpha-amylase. The half-time of inactivation of this

  5. Highly uniform and reliable resistive switching characteristics of a Ni/WOx/p+-Si memory device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae-Hyeon; Kim, Sungjun; Kim, Hyungjin; Kim, Min-Hwi; Bang, Suhyun; Cho, Seongjae; Park, Byung-Gook

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, we investigate the resistive switching behavior of a bipolar resistive random-access memory (RRAM) in a Ni/WOx/p+-Si RRAM with CMOS compatibility. Highly unifrom and reliable bipolar resistive switching characteristics are observed by a DC voltage sweeping and its switching mechanism can be explained by SCLC model. As a result, the possibility of metal-insulator-silicon (MIS) structural WOx-based RRAM's application to Si-based 1D (diode)-1R (RRAM) or 1T (transistor)-1R (RRAM) structure is demonstrated.

  6. Transport and stability studies on high band gap a-Si:H films ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    which are responsible for light-induced degradation by strong Si–Si bonds. This results in ... The films reported have very high deposition rate (4–5 Å/s) compared to that reported .... Room temperature dark conductivity of the SC films ranges from ~10−10 to ... dilution increases σd considerably with smaller activation energy.

  7. A Photodetector Based on p-Si/n-ZnO Nanotube Heterojunctions with High Ultraviolet Responsivity

    KAUST Repository

    Flemban, Tahani H.; Haque, Mohammed; Ajia, Idris A.; Alwadai, Norah Mohammed Mosfer; Mitra, Somak; Wu, Tao; Roqan, Iman S.

    2017-01-01

    properties on a p-type Si(100) substrate are successfully fabricated by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) to produce a UV PD with high responsivity, for the first time. We measure the current–voltage characteristics of the device under dark and illuminated

  8. High reflectivity YDH/SiO2 distributed Bragg reflector for UV-C wavelength regime

    KAUST Repository

    Alias, Mohd Sharizal; Alatawi, Abdullah; Wong, Ka Chun; Tangi, Malleswararao; Holguin Lerma, Jorge Alberto; Stegenburgs, Edgars; Shakfa, Mohammad Khaled; Ng, Tien Khee; Rahman, Abdul; Alyamani, Ahmed; Ooi, Boon S.

    2018-01-01

    A distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) composed of Y2O3-doped HfO2 (YDH)/SiO2 layers with high reflectivity spectrum centered at a wavelength of ~240 nm is deposited using radio-frequency magnetron sputtering. Before the DBR deposition, optical

  9. Performance evaluation of a high power DC-DC boost converter for PV applications using SiC power devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almasoudi, Fahad M.; Alatawi, Khaled S.; Matin, Mohammad

    2016-09-01

    The development of Wide band gap (WBG) power devices has been attracted by many commercial companies to be available in the market because of their enormous advantages over the traditional Si power devices. An example of WBG material is SiC, which offers a number of advantages over Si material. For example, SiC has the ability of blocking higher voltages, reducing switching and conduction losses and supports high switching frequency. Consequently, SiC power devices have become the affordable choice for high frequency and power application. The goal of this paper is to study the performance of 4.5 kW, 200 kHz, 600V DC-DC boost converter operating in continuous conduction mode (CCM) for PV applications. The switching behavior and turn on and turn off losses of different switching power devices such as SiC MOSFET, SiC normally ON JFET and Si MOSFET are investigated and analyzed. Moreover, a detailed comparison is provided to show the overall efficiency of the DC-DC boost converter with different switching power devices. It is found that the efficiency of SiC power switching devices are higher than the efficiency of Si-based switching devices due to low switching and conduction losses when operating at high frequencies. According to the result, the performance of SiC switching power devices dominate the conventional Si power devices in terms of low losses, high efficiency and high power density. Accordingly, SiC power switching devices are more appropriate for PV applications where a converter of smaller size with high efficiency, and cost effective is required.

  10. High-rate synthesis of microcrystalline silicon films using high-density SiH4/H2 microwave plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia, Haijun; Saha, Jhantu K.; Ohse, Naoyuki; Shirai, Hajime

    2007-01-01

    A high electron density (> 10 11 cm -3 ) and low electron temperature (1-2 eV) plasma is produced by using a microwave plasma source utilizing a spoke antenna, and is applied for the high-rate synthesis of high quality microcrystalline silicon (μc-Si) films. A very fast deposition rate of ∼ 65 A/s is achieved at a substrate temperature of 150 deg. C with a high Raman crystallinity and a low defect density of (1-2) x 10 16 cm -3 . Optical emission spectroscopy measurements reveal that emission intensity of SiH and intensity ratio of H α /SiH are good monitors for film deposition rate and film crystallinity, respectively. A high flux of film deposition precursor and atomic hydrogen under a moderate substrate temperature condition is effective for the fast deposition of highly crystallized μc-Si films without creating additional defects as well as for the improvement of film homogeneity

  11. A novel strategy to construct yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains for very high gravity fermentation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianglin Tao

    Full Text Available Very high gravity (VHG fermentation is aimed to considerably increase both the fermentation rate and the ethanol concentration, thereby reducing capital costs and the risk of bacterial contamination. This process results in critical issues, such as adverse stress factors (ie., osmotic pressure and ethanol inhibition and high concentrations of metabolic byproducts which are difficult to overcome by a single breeding method. In the present paper, a novel strategy that combines metabolic engineering and genome shuffling to circumvent these limitations and improve the bioethanol production performance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains under VHG conditions was developed. First, in strain Z5, which performed better than other widely used industrial strains, the gene GPD2 encoding glycerol 3-phosphate dehydrogenase was deleted, resulting in a mutant (Z5ΔGPD2 with a lower glycerol yield and poor ethanol productivity. Second, strain Z5ΔGPD2 was subjected to three rounds of genome shuffling to improve its VHG fermentation performance, and the best performing strain SZ3-1 was obtained. Results showed that strain SZ3-1 not only produced less glycerol, but also increased the ethanol yield by up to 8% compared with the parent strain Z5. Further analysis suggested that the improved ethanol yield in strain SZ3-1 was mainly contributed by the enhanced ethanol tolerance of the strain. The differences in ethanol tolerance between strains Z5 and SZ3-1 were closely associated with the cell membrane fatty acid compositions and intracellular trehalose concentrations. Finally, genome rearrangements in the optimized strain were confirmed by karyotype analysis. Hence, a combination of genome shuffling and metabolic engineering is an efficient approach for the rapid improvement of yeast strains for desirable industrial phenotypes.

  12. Preliminary study of the characteristics of a high Mg containing Al-Mg-Si alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, F; McKay, B J; Fan, Z; Chen, M F

    2012-01-01

    An Al-20Mg-4Si high Mg containing alloy has been produced and its characteristics investigated. The as-cast alloy revealed primary Mg 2 Si particles evenly distributed throughout an α-Al matrix with a β-Al 3 Mg 2 fully divorced eutectic phase observed in interdendritic regions. The Mg 2 Si particles displayed octahedral, truncated octahedral, and hopper morphologies. Additions of Sb, Ti and Zr had a refining influence reducing the size of the Mg 2 Si from 52 ± 4 μm to 25 ± 0.1 μm, 35 ± 1 μm and 34 ± 1 μm respectively. HPDC tensile test samples could be produced with a 0.6 wt.% Mn addition which prevented die soldering. Solution heating for 1 hr was found to dissolve the majority of the Al 3 Mg 2 eutectic phase with no evidence of any effect on the primary Mg 2 Si. Preliminary results indicate that the heat treatment has a beneficial effect on the elongation and the UTS.

  13. Ni3Si2 nanowires grown in situ on Ni foam for high-performance supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yizhe; Li, Zhihui; Li, Beibei; Zhang, Jinying; Niu, Chunming

    2016-07-01

    Ni3Si2 nanowires and nanoawls have grown in situ on the surface of Ni foams by a controlled low pressure chemical vapor deposition process. Structural characterization shows that the individual Ni3Si2 nanowire is single crystal covered with a thin layer (1-2 nm) of SiO2 with a diameter of ∼20-30 nm and length of ten's micrometers. Individual nanoawl with a circular cone shape is polycrystalline. Both Ni3Si2 nanowire and nanoawl samples are evaluated as potential electrode materials for supercapacitors. The nanowire electrode delivers a very high specific capacitance and excellent rate capability. A specific capacitance of 760 F g-1 is measured at current density of 0.5 A g-1, which decreases to 518 F g-1 when the current density increases to 10 A g-1. The capacitance is dominated by pseudocapacitance with a mechanism similar to that of NiO or Ni(OH)2 widely studied in the literature. An asymmetric supercapacitor fabricated by pairing Ni3Si2 nanowire electrode with an activated carbon electrode exhibits energy densities of 17.5 Wh kg-1 and 8.8 Wh kg-1 at power densites of 301 W kg-1 and 3000 W kg-1.

  14. High-energy ion-beam-induced phase separation in SiOx films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnoldbik, W.M.; Tomozeiu, N.; Hattum, E.D. van; Lof, R.W.; Vredenberg, A.M.; Habraken, F.H.P.M.

    2005-01-01

    The modification of the nanostructure of silicon suboxide (SiO x ) films as a result of high-energy heavy-ion irradiation has been studied for the entire range 0.1≤x x films have been obtained by radio-frequency magnetron sputter deposition. For 50 MeV 63 Cu 8+ ions and an angle of incidence of 20 deg. with the plane of the surface, and for x≥0.5, it takes a fluence of about 10 14 /cm 2 to reach a Si-O-Si infrared absorption spectrum, which is supposed to be characteristic for a Si-SiO 2 composite film structure. For smaller x values, it takes a much larger fluence. The interpretation of the IR spectra is corroborated for the surface region by results from x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The results present evidence for a mechanism, in which the phase separation takes place in the thermal spike, initiated by the energy deposited in many overlapping independent ion tracks. Such a process is possible since the suboxides fulfill the conditions for spinodal decomposition

  15. Interfacial stability of CoSi2/Si structures grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, T.; Fathauer, R. W.

    1992-01-01

    The stability of CoSi2/Si interfaces was examined in this study using columnar silicide structures grown on (111) Si substrates. In the first set of experiments, Co and Si were codeposited using MBE at 800 C and the resulting columnar silicide layer was capped by epitaxial Si. Deposition of Co on the surface of the Si capping layer at 800 C results in the growth of the buried silicide columns. The buried columns grow by subsurface diffusion of the deposited Co, suppressing the formation of surface islands of CoSi2. The column sidewalls appear to be less stable than the top and bottom interfaces, resulting in preferential lateral growth and ultimately in the coalescence of the columns to form a continuous buried CoSi2 layer. In the second set of experiments, annealing of a 250 nm-thick buried columnar layer at 1000 C under a 100 nm-thick Si capping layer results in the formation of a surface layer of CoSi2 with a reduction in the sizes of the CoSi2 columns. For a sample having a thicker Si capping layer the annealing leads to Ostwald ripening producing buried equiaxed columns. The high CoSi2/Si interfacial strain could provide the driving force for the observed behavior of the buried columns under high-temperature annealing.

  16. Dynamic tensile behaviour and deformational mechanism of C5191 phosphor bronze under high strain rates deformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Dao-chun [College of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing 210016 (China); College of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Taizhou Vocational & Technical College, Taizhou 318000 (China); Chen, Ming-he, E-mail: meemhchen@nuaa.edu.cn [College of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing 210016 (China); Wang, Lei; Cheng, Hu [College of Mechanical Engineering, Taizhou University, Taizhou 318000 (China)

    2016-01-01

    High speed stamping process is used to high strength and high electrical conductivity phosphor bronze with extremely high strain rates more than 10{sup 3} s{sup −1}. This study on the dynamic tensile behaviour and deformational mechanism is to optimise the high speed stamping processes and improve geometrical precision in finished products. Thus, the tensile properties and deformation behaviour of C5191 phosphor bronze under quasi-static tensile condition at a strain rate of 0.001 s{sup −1} by electronic universal testing machine, and dynamic tensile condition at strain rate of 500, 1000 and 1500 s{sup −1} by split Hopkinson tensile bar (SHTB) apparatus were studied. The effects of strain rate and the deformation mechanism were investigated by means of SEM and TEM. The results showed that the yield strength and tensile strength of C5191 phosphor bronze under high strain rates deformation increased by 32.77% and 11.07% respectively compared with quasi-static condition, the strain hardening index increases from 0.075 to 0.251, and the strength of the material strain rates sensitivity index change from 0.005 to 0.022, which presented a clear sensitive to strain rates. Therefore, it is claimed that the dominant deformation mechanism was changed by the dislocation motion under different strain rates, and the ability of plastic deformation of C5191 phosphor bronze increased due to the number of movable dislocations increased significantly, started multi-line slip, and the soft effect of adiabatic temperature rise at the strain rate ranging from 500 to 1500 s{sup −1}.

  17. Characterization of thick and thin film SiCN for pressure sensing at high temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leo, Alfin; Andronenko, Sergey; Stiharu, Ion; Bhat, Rama B

    2010-01-01

    Pressure measurement in high temperature environments is important in many applications to provide valuable information for performance studies. Information on pressure patterns is highly desirable for improving performance, condition monitoring and accurate prediction of the remaining life of systems that operate in extremely high temperature environments, such as gas turbine engines. A number of technologies have been recently investigated, however these technologies target specific applications and they are limited by the maximum operating temperature. Thick and thin films of SiCN can withstand high temperatures. SiCN is a polymer-derived ceramic with liquid phase polymer as its starting material. This provides the advantage that it can be molded to any shape. CERASET™ also yields itself for photolithography, with the addition of photo initiator 2, 2-Dimethoxy-2-phenyl-acetophenone (DMPA), thereby enabling photolithographical patterning of the pre-ceramic polymer using UV lithography. SiCN fabrication includes thermosetting, crosslinking and pyrolysis. The technology is still under investigation for stability and improved performance. This work presents the preparation of SiCN films to be used as the body of a sensor for pressure measurements in high temperature environments. The sensor employs the phenomenon of drag effect. The pressure sensor consists of a slender sensitive element and a thick blocking element. The dimensions and thickness of the films depend on the intended application of the sensors. Fabrication methods of SiCN ceramics both as thin (about 40-60 μm) and thick (about 2-3 mm) films for high temperature applications are discussed. In addition, the influence of thermosetting and annealing processes on mechanical properties is investigated.

  18. Characterization of Thick and Thin Film SiCN for Pressure Sensing at High Temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rama B. Bhat

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Pressure measurement in high temperature environments is important in many applications to provide valuable information for performance studies. Information on pressure patterns is highly desirable for improving performance, condition monitoring and accurate prediction of the remaining life of systems that operate in extremely high temperature environments, such as gas turbine engines. A number of technologies have been recently investigated, however these technologies target specific applications and they are limited by the maximum operating temperature. Thick and thin films of SiCN can withstand high temperatures. SiCN is a polymer-derived ceramic with liquid phase polymer as its starting material. This provides the advantage that it can be molded to any shape. CERASET™ also yields itself for photolithography, with the addition of photo initiator 2, 2-Dimethoxy-2-phenyl-acetophenone (DMPA, thereby enabling photolithographical patterning of the pre-ceramic polymer using UV lithography. SiCN fabrication includes thermosetting, crosslinking and pyrolysis. The technology is still under investigation for stability and improved performance. This work presents the preparation of SiCN films to be used as the body of a sensor for pressure measurements in high temperature environments. The sensor employs the phenomenon of drag effect. The pressure sensor consists of a slender sensitive element and a thick blocking element. The dimensions and thickness of the films depend on the intended application of the sensors. Fabrication methods of SiCN ceramics both as thin (about 40–60 µm and thick (about 2–3 mm films for high temperature applications are discussed. In addition, the influence of thermosetting and annealing processes on mechanical properties is investigated.

  19. Soft Magnetic Properties of High-Entropy Fe-Co-Ni-Cr-Al-Si Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Chung Lin

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Soft magnetic properties of Fe-Co-Ni-Al-Cr-Si thin films were studied. As-deposited Fe-Co-Ni-Al-Cr-Si nano-grained thin films showing no magnetic anisotropy were subjected to field-annealing at different temperatures to induce magnetic anisotropy. Optimized magnetic and electrical properties of Fe-Co-Ni-Al-Cr-Si films annealed at 200 °C are saturation magnetization 9.13 × 105 A/m, coercivity 79.6 A/m, out-of-plane uniaxial anisotropy field 1.59 × 103 A/m, and electrical resistivity 3.75 μΩ·m. Based on these excellent properties, we employed such films to fabricate magnetic thin film inductor. The performance of the high entropy alloy thin film inductors is superior to that of air core inductor.

  20. Nitride passivation of the interface between high-k dielectrics and SiGe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sardashti, Kasra [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093-0358 (United States); Materials Science and Engineering Program, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093-0411 (United States); Hu, Kai-Ting [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093-0358 (United States); Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093-0411 (United States); Tang, Kechao; McIntyre, Paul [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Madisetti, Shailesh; Oktyabrsky, Serge [Colleges of Nanoscale Science and Engineering, SUNY Polytechnic Institute, Albany, New York 12222 (United States); Siddiqui, Shariq; Sahu, Bhagawan [TD Research, GLOBALFOUNDRIES US, Inc., Albany, New York 12203 (United States); Yoshida, Naomi; Kachian, Jessica; Dong, Lin [Applied Materials, Inc., Santa Clara, California 95054 (United States); Fruhberger, Bernd [California Institute for Telecommunications and Information Technology, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093-0436 (United States); Kummel, Andrew C., E-mail: akummel@ucsd.edu [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093-0358 (United States)

    2016-01-04

    In-situ direct ammonia (NH{sub 3}) plasma nitridation has been used to passivate the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/SiGe interfaces with Si nitride and oxynitride. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy of the buried Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/SiGe interface shows that NH{sub 3} plasma pre-treatment should be performed at high temperatures (300 °C) to fully prevent Ge nitride and oxynitride formation at the interface and Ge out-diffusion into the oxide. C-V and I-V spectroscopy results show a lower density of interface traps and smaller gate leakage for samples with plasma nitridation at 300 °C.

  1. Silver-coated Si nanograss as highly sensitive surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Jing; Kuo, Huei Pei; Hu, Min; Li, Zhiyong; Williams, R.S. [Hewlett-Packard Laboratories, Information and Quantum Systems Laboratory, Palo Alto, CA (United States); Ou, Fung Suong [Hewlett-Packard Laboratories, Information and Quantum Systems Laboratory, Palo Alto, CA (United States); Rice University, Department of Applied Physics, Houston, TX (United States); Stickle, William F. [Hewlett-Packard Company, Advanced Diagnostic Lab, Corvallis, OR (United States)

    2009-09-15

    We created novel surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) substrates by metalization (Ag) of Si nanograss prepared by a Bosch process which involves deep reactive ion etching of single crystalline silicon. No template or lithography was needed for making the Si nanograss, thus providing a simple and inexpensive method to achieve highly sensitive large-area SERS substrates. The dependence of the SERS effect on the thickness of the metal deposition and on the surface morphology and topology of the substrate prior to metal deposition was studied in order to optimize the SERS signals. We observed that the Ag-coated Si nanograss can achieve uniform SERS enhancement over large area ({proportional_to}1 cm x 1 cm) with an average EF (enhancement factor) of 4.2 x 10{sup 8} for 4-mercaptophenol probe molecules. (orig.)

  2. High-field specific heats of A15 V3Si and Nb3Sn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, G.R.; Brandt, B.L.

    1984-01-01

    In order to further understand the anomalous behavior of the specific heat of Nb 3 Sn in an 18-T magnetic field discovered by Stewart, Cort, and Webb [Phys. Rev. B 24, 3841 (1981)], we have performed specific-heat measurements on a different sample of Nb 3 Sn at lower fields both in the normal and mixed states, as well as measurement to 19 T on both transforming and nontransforming V 3 Si. The high-field data for V 3 Si indicate that this material behaves quite normally, and that γ/sup trans/ 3 Sn, however, remains anomalous, with both the same ''kink'' in the normal-state field data as observed by Stewart, Cort, and Webb (although at a slightly higher temperature) and unusual mixed-state behavior. The mixed-state specific heat of the V 3 Si samples is as expected, based on earlier work on the mixed-state specific heat of V and Nb

  3. Restoring defect structures in 3C-SiC/Si (001) from spherical aberration-corrected high-resolution transmission electron microscope images by means of deconvolution processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, C; Wan, W; Li, F H; Tang, D

    2015-04-01

    The [110] cross-sectional samples of 3C-SiC/Si (001) were observed with a spherical aberration-corrected 300 kV high-resolution transmission electron microscope. Two images taken not close to the Scherzer focus condition and not representing the projected structures intuitively were utilized for performing the deconvolution. The principle and procedure of image deconvolution and atomic sort recognition are summarized. The defect structure restoration together with the recognition of Si and C atoms from the experimental images has been illustrated. The structure maps of an intrinsic stacking fault in the area of SiC, and of Lomer and 60° shuffle dislocations at the interface have been obtained at atomic level. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Highly Stretchable and Transparent Microfluidic Strain Sensors for Monitoring Human Body Motions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Sun Geun; Koo, Hyung-Jun; Chang, Suk Tai

    2015-12-16

    We report a new class of simple microfluidic strain sensors with high stretchability, transparency, sensitivity, and long-term stability with no considerable hysteresis and a fast response to various deformations by combining the merits of microfluidic techniques and ionic liquids. The high optical transparency of the strain sensors was achieved by introducing refractive-index matched ionic liquids into microfluidic networks or channels embedded in an elastomeric matrix. The microfluidic strain sensors offer the outstanding sensor performance under a variety of deformations induced by stretching, bending, pressing, and twisting of the microfluidic strain sensors. The principle of our microfluidic strain sensor is explained by a theoretical model based on the elastic channel deformation. In order to demonstrate its capability of practical usage, the simple-structured microfluidic strain sensors were performed onto a finger, wrist, and arm. The highly stretchable and transparent microfluidic strain sensors were successfully applied as potential platforms for distinctively monitoring a wide range of human body motions in real time. Our novel microfluidic strain sensors show great promise for making future stretchable electronic devices.

  5. High reflectivity YDH/SiO2 distributed Bragg reflector for UV-C wavelength regime

    KAUST Repository

    Alias, Mohd Sharizal

    2018-02-15

    A distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) composed of Y2O3-doped HfO2 (YDH)/SiO2 layers with high reflectivity spectrum centered at a wavelength of ~240 nm is deposited using radio-frequency magnetron sputtering. Before the DBR deposition, optical properties for a single layer of YDH, SiO2, and HfO2 thin films were studied using spectroscopic ellipsometry and spectrophotometry. To investigate the performance of YDH as a material for the high refractive index layer in the DBR, a comparison of its optical properties was made with HfO2 thin films. Due to larger optical bandgap, the YDH thin films demonstrated higher transparency, lower extinction coefficient, and lower absorption coefficient in the UV-C regime (especially for wavelengths below 250 nm) compared to the HfO2 thin films. The deposited YDH/SiO2 DBR consisting of 15 periods achieved a reflectivity higher than 99.9% at the wavelength of ~240 nm with a stopband of ~50 nm. The high reflectivity and broad stopband of YDH/SiO2 DBRs will enable further advancement of various photonic devices such as vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers, resonant-cavity light-emitting diodes, and resonant-cavity photodetectors operating in the UV-C wavelength regime.

  6. Electrocatalytic oxidation of alcohols on single gold particles in highly ordered SiO2 cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Na; Zhou, Qun; Tian, Shu; Zhao, Hong; Li, Xiaowei; Adkins, Jason; Gu, Zhuomin; Zhao, Lili; Zheng, Junwei

    2013-01-01

    In the present work, we report a new and simple approach for preparing a highly ordered Au (1 1 1) nanoparticle (NP) array in SiO 2 cavities on indium-doped tin oxide (ITO) electrodes. We fabricated a SiO 2 cavity array on the surface of an ITO electrode using highly ordered self-assembly of polystyrene spheres as a template. Gold NPs were electrodeposited at the bottom of the SiO 2 cavities, and single gold NPs dominated with (1 1 1) facets were generated in each cavity by annealing the electrode at a high temperature. Such (1 1 1) facets were the predominate trait of the single gold particle which exhibited considerable electrocatalytic activity toward oxidation of methanol, ethanol, and glycerol. This has been attributed to the formation of incipient hydrous oxides at unusually low potential on the specific (1 1 1) facet of the gold particles. Moreover, each cavity of the SiO 2 possibly behaves as an independent electrochemical cell in which the methanol molecules are trapped; this produces an environment advantageous to catalyzing electrooxidation. The oxidation of methanol on the electrodes is a mixed control mechanism (both by diffusion and electrode kinetics). This strategy both provided an approach to study electrochemical reactions on a single particle in a microenvironment and may supply a way to construct alcohols sensors

  7. Structural analysis of highly-durable Si-O-C composite anode prepared by electrodeposition for lithium secondary batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nara, Hiroki; Yokoshima, Tokihiko; Otaki, Mitsutoshi; Momma, Toshiyuki; Osaka, Tetsuya

    2013-01-01

    The structure of the highly durable silicon-based anode prepared by electrodeposition was investigated for volume change and chemical structure. With repeated charge–discharge cycles, the volume change resulting from the anode film thickness decreased, and, after 100 cycles, essentially no difference was observed between the charged and discharged states. The buffering effect of the volume change was considered to be achieved by the formation of Li 2 O, Li 2 CO 3 , and lithium silicates such as Li 4 SiO 4 , whose existence were supported by STEM, EELS, and XPS analyses. From the structural analyses, the main reactions related to the capacity of the silicon-based anode were considered to be the formation of Li x Si and Li 2 Si 2 O 5 . Li x Si and Li 2 Si 2 O 5 can be delithiated into Si and SiO 2 , respectively

  8. Is the association between high strain work and depressive symptoms modified by private life social support

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Ida E H; Jorgensen, Anette F B; Borritz, Marianne

    2014-01-01

    be modified by factors outside the working environment. This article examines the modifying role of private life social support in the relation between high strain work and the development of severe depressive symptoms. METHODS: Data were questionnaire-based, collected from a cross-occupational sample of 1......,074 Danish employees. At baseline, all participants were free of severe depressive symptoms, measured by the Mental Health Inventory. High strain work was defined by the combination of high psychological demands at work and low control, measured with multi-dimensional scales. Private life social support......, neither high strain work nor low private life social support statistically significantly predicted depressive symptoms. However, participants with joint exposure to high strain work and low private life social support had an Odds ratio (OR) for severe depressive symptoms of 3.41 (95% CI: 1...

  9. Synthesis of FeSiBPNbCu nanocrystalline soft-magnetic alloys with high saturation magnetization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Zongzhen [China Iron and Steel Research Institute Group, Advanced Technology and Materials Co., Ltd., Beijing 100081 (China); Wang, Anding; Chang, Chuntao [Key Laboratory of Magnetic Materials and Devices, Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 519 Zhuangshi Road, Zhenhai District, Ningbo, Zhejiang 315201 (China); Wang, Yanguo [Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, PO Box 603, Beijing 100080 (China); Dong, Bangshao [China Iron and Steel Research Institute Group, Advanced Technology and Materials Co., Ltd., Beijing 100081 (China); Zhou, Shaoxiong, E-mail: sxzhou@atmcn.com [China Iron and Steel Research Institute Group, Advanced Technology and Materials Co., Ltd., Beijing 100081 (China)

    2014-10-25

    Highlights: • Thermal stability of the FeSiBPNbCu alloys is strongly dependent on the Fe content. • The FeSiBPNbCu alloys with high Fe content exhibit good soft magnetic properties. • The coexistence of Cu, P and Nb leads to the excellent soft magnetic properties. - Abstract: A series of [Fe{sub 0.76+x}(Si{sub 0.4}B{sub 0.4}P{sub 0.2}){sub 0.24−x}]{sub 98.25}Nb{sub 1}Cu{sub 0.75} (x = 0–0.08) nanocrystalline soft-magnetic alloys with high saturation magnetization were synthesized by adjusting Fe content and improving the crystallization behavior, soft-magnetic properties and microstructure. It is found that the temperature interval between the two crystallization peaks is significantly enlarged from 50 to 180 °C when the Fe content of the alloys increases from x = 0 to x = 0.08, which greatly expands the optimum annealing temperature range. The alloys with higher Fe content are prone to form more uniform nanocomposite microstructure with better thermal stability and soft magnetic properties. The Fe-rich FeSiBPNbCu nanocrystalline alloys with x = 0.08 exhibit excellent soft-magnetic properties, including the high saturation magnetic flux density of up to 1.74 T, low coercivity of about 3.3 A/m and high effective permeability of more than 2.2 × 10{sup 4} at 1 kHz under a field of 1 A/m. The combination of excellent soft-magnetic properties, low cost and good productivity makes the FeSiBPNbCu alloys to be a kind of promising soft-magnetic materials for electrical and electronic industry applications.

  10. A High Frequency (HF) Inductive Power Transfer Circuit for High Temperature Applications Using SiC Schottky Diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Jennifer L.; Ponchak, George E.; Spry, David J.; Neudeck, Philip G.

    2018-01-01

    Wireless sensors placed in high temperature environments, such as aircraft engines, are desirable to reduce the mass and complexity of routing wires. While communication with the sensors is straight forward, providing power wirelessly is still a challenge. This paper introduces an inductive wireless power transfer circuit incorporating SiC Schottky diodes and its operation from room temperature (25 C) to 500 C.

  11. Band structure of semiconductor compounds of Mg sub 2 Si and Mg sub 2 Ge with strained crystal lattice

    CERN Document Server

    Krivosheeva, A V; Shaposhnikov, V L; Krivosheev, A E; Borisenko, V E

    2002-01-01

    The effect of isotopic and unaxial deformation of the crystal lattice on the electronic band structure of indirect band gap semiconductors Mg sub 2 Si and Mg sub 2 Ge has been simulated by means of the linear augmented plane wave method. The reduction of the lattice constant down to 95 % results in a linear increase of the direct transition in magnesium silicide by 48%. The stresses arising under unaxial deformation shift the bands as well as result in splitting of degenerated states. The dependence of the interband transitions on the lattice deformation is nonlinear in this case

  12. Strain quantification in epitaxial thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cushley, M

    2008-01-01

    Strain arising in epitaxial thin films can be beneficial in some cases but devastating in others. By altering the lattice parameters, strain may give a thin film properties hitherto unseen in the bulk material. On the other hand, heavily strained systems are prone to develop lattice defects in order to relieve the strain, which can cause device failure or, at least, a decrease in functionality. Using convergent beam electron diffraction (CBED) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), it is possible to determine local strains within a material. By comparing the results from CBED and HRTEM experiments, it is possible to gain a complete view of a material, including the strain and any lattice defects present. As well as looking at how the two experimental techniques differ from each other, I will also look at how results from different image analysis algorithms compare. Strain in Si/SiGe samples and BST/SRO/MgO capacitor structures will be discussed.

  13. Measurement of minute local strain in semiconductor materials and electronic devices by using a highly parallel X-ray microbeam

    CERN Document Server

    Matsui, J; Yokoyama, K; Takeda, S; Katou, M; Kurihara, H; Watanabe, K; Kagoshima, Y; Kimura, S

    2003-01-01

    We have developed an X-ray microbeam with a small angular divergence by adopting X-ray optics with successive use of asymmetric Bragg reflection from silicon crystals for the both polarizations of the synchrotron X-rays. The microbeam actually obtained is several microns in size and possesses an angular divergence of less than 2 arcsec which enables us to measure the strain of 10 sup - sup 5 -10 sup - sup 6. By scanning the sample against the microbeam, distribution of the minute local strain in various regions of semiconductor crystals for electronic devices, e.g., the strain around the SiO sub 2 /Si film edge in silicon devices, the strain in an InGaAsP/InP stripe laser were measured.

  14. Measurement of minute local strain in semiconductor materials and electronic devices by using a highly parallel X-ray microbeam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsui, J.; Tsusaka, Y.; Yokoyama, K.; Takeda, S.; Katou, M.; Kurihara, H.; Watanabe, K.; Kagoshima, Y.; Kimura, S.

    2003-01-01

    We have developed an X-ray microbeam with a small angular divergence by adopting X-ray optics with successive use of asymmetric Bragg reflection from silicon crystals for the both polarizations of the synchrotron X-rays. The microbeam actually obtained is several microns in size and possesses an angular divergence of less than 2 arcsec which enables us to measure the strain of 10 -5 -10 -6 . By scanning the sample against the microbeam, distribution of the minute local strain in various regions of semiconductor crystals for electronic devices, e.g., the strain around the SiO 2 /Si film edge in silicon devices, the strain in an InGaAsP/InP stripe laser were measured

  15. Measurement of minute local strain in semiconductor materials and electronic devices by using a highly parallel X-ray microbeam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsui, J. E-mail: matsui@sci.himeji-tech.ac.jp; Tsusaka, Y.; Yokoyama, K.; Takeda, S.; Katou, M.; Kurihara, H.; Watanabe, K.; Kagoshima, Y.; Kimura, S

    2003-01-01

    We have developed an X-ray microbeam with a small angular divergence by adopting X-ray optics with successive use of asymmetric Bragg reflection from silicon crystals for the both polarizations of the synchrotron X-rays. The microbeam actually obtained is several microns in size and possesses an angular divergence of less than 2 arcsec which enables us to measure the strain of 10{sup -5}-10{sup -6}. By scanning the sample against the microbeam, distribution of the minute local strain in various regions of semiconductor crystals for electronic devices, e.g., the strain around the SiO{sub 2}/Si film edge in silicon devices, the strain in an InGaAsP/InP stripe laser were measured.

  16. Re-evaluation of SiC permeation coefficients at high temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, Yasushi, E-mail: yama3707@kansai-u.ac.jp [Faculty of Engineering Science, Kansai Univ., Yamate-cho, Suita, Osaka 564-8680 (Japan); Murakami, Yuichiro; Yamaguchi, Hirosato; Yamamoto, Takehiro; Yonetsu, Daigo [Faculty of Engineering Science, Kansai Univ., Yamate-cho, Suita, Osaka 564-8680 (Japan); Noborio, Kazuyuki [Hydrogen Isotope Research Center, Univ. of Toyama, Toyama, Toyama 930-8555 (Japan); Konishi, Satoshi [Institute of Advanced Energy, Kyoto Univ., Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • The deuterium permeation coefficients of CVD-SiC at 600–950 °C were evaluated. • The wraparound flow was reduced to less than 1/100th of the permeation flow. • CVD-SiC materials are very effective as hydrogen isotope permeation barriers. - Abstract: Since 2007, our group has studied the deuterium permeation and diffusion coefficients for SiC materials at temperatures above 600 °C as a means of evaluating the tritium inventory and permeation in fusion blankets. During such measurements, control and evaluation of the wraparound flow through the sample holder are important, and so the heated sample holder is enclosed by a glass tube and kept under vacuum during experimental trials. However, detailed studies regarding the required degree of vacuum based on model calculations have shown that the wraparound flow is much larger than expected, and so can affect measurements at high temperatures. We therefore modified the measurement apparatus based on calculations involving reduced pressure in the glass tube, and are now confident that the measurement error is only several percent, even at 950 °C. In this paper, recent experimental results obtained with a chemical vapor deposition (CVD)-SiC sample over the temperature range of 600–950 °C are presented, showing that the permeation coefficient for CVD-SiC is more than three orders of magnitude smaller than that for stainless steel (SS316) at 600 °C, and that at 950 °C, the coefficient for CVD-SiC is almost equal to that for SUS316 at 550 °C.

  17. High-temperature protective coatings for C/SiC composites

    OpenAIRE

    Xiang Yang; Chen Zhao-hui; Cao Feng

    2014-01-01

    Carbon fiber-reinforced silicon carbide (C/SiC) composites were well-established light weight materials combining high specific strength and damage tolerance. For high-temperature applications, protective coatings had to provide oxidation and corrosion resistance. The literature data introduced various technologies and materials, which were suitable for the application of coatings. Coating procedures and conditions, materials design limitations related to the reactivity of the components of C...

  18. Magnetic phase diagram of UNi2Si2 under magnetic field and high-pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honda, F.; Oomi, G.; Svoboda, P.; Syshchenko, A.; Sechovsky, V.; Khmelevski, S.; Divis, M.; Andreev, A.V.; Takeshita, N.; Mori, N.; Menovsky, A.A.

    2001-01-01

    Measurements of electrical resistance under high pressure and neutron diffraction in high-magnetic field of single crystalline UNi 2 Si 2 have been performed. We have found the analogy between the p-T and B-T magnetic phase diagrams. It is also found that the propagation vector q Z of incommensurate antiferromagnetic phase decreases with increasing magnetic field. A new pronounced pressure-induced incommensurate-commensurate magnetic phase transition has been detected

  19. Thermal Investigation of Three-Dimensional GaN-on-SiC High Electron Mobility Transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-01

    University of L’Aquila, (2011). 23 Rao, H. & Bosman, G. Hot-electron induced defect generation in AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors. Solid...AFRL-RY-WP-TR-2017-0143 THERMAL INVESTIGATION OF THREE- DIMENSIONAL GaN-on-SiC HIGH ELECTRON MOBILITY TRANSISTORS Qing Hao The University of Arizona...clarification memorandum dated 16 Jan 09. This report is available to the general public, including foreign nationals. Copies may be obtained from the

  20. On the compliant behaviour of free-standing Si nanostructures on Si(001) for Ge nanoheteroepitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozlowski, Grzegorz

    2012-04-24

    Selective chemical vapor deposition Ge heteroepitaxy approaches for high quality Ge nanostructure growth with reasonable thermal budget must be developed for local Ge photonic module integration. A promising vision is offered by the compliant substrate effects within nanometer scale Ge/Si heteroepitaxial structures. Here, in contrast to the classical Ge deposition on bulk Si substrates, the thermal and lattice mismatch strain energy accumulated in the Ge epilayer is partially shifted to the free-standing Si nanostructure. This strain partitioning phenomenon is at the very heart of the nanoheteroepitaxy theory (NHE) and, if strain energy levels are correctly balanced, offers the vision to grow defect-free nanostructures of lattice mismatched semiconductors on Si. In case of the Ge/Si heterosystem with a lattice mismatch of 4.2%, the strain partitioning phenomenon is expected to be triggered when free-standing Si nanopillars with the width of 50 nm and below are used. In order to experimentally verify NHE with its compliant substrate effects, a set of free-standing Ge/Si nanostructures with diameter ranging from 150 to 50 nm were fabricated and investigated. The main limitation corresponds to a simultaneous detection of (a) the strain partitioning phenomenon between Ge and Si and (b) the absence of defects on the nano-scale. In this respect, synchrotron-based grazing incidence X-ray diffraction was applied to study the epitaxial relationship, defect and strain characteristics with high resolution and sensitivity in a non-destructive way. Raman spectroscopy supported by finite element method calculations were used to investigate the strain distribution within a single Ge/Si nanostructure. Special focus was devoted to transmission electron microscopy to determine the quality of the Ge epilayer. It was found, that although high quality Ge nanoclusters can be achieved by thermal annealing on Si pillars bigger than 50 nm in width, no proof of strain partitioning

  1. Highly Sensitive Multifilament Fiber Strain Sensors with Ultrabroad Sensing Range for Textile Electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jaehong; Shin, Sera; Lee, Sanggeun; Song, Jaekang; Kang, Subin; Han, Heetak; Kim, SeulGee; Kim, Seunghoe; Seo, Jungmok; Kim, DaeEun; Lee, Taeyoon

    2018-05-22

    Highly stretchable fiber strain sensors are one of the most important components for various applications in wearable electronics, electronic textiles, and biomedical electronics. Herein, we present a facile approach for fabricating highly stretchable and sensitive fiber strain sensors by embedding Ag nanoparticles into a stretchable fiber with a multifilament structure. The multifilament structure and Ag-rich shells of the fiber strain sensor enable the sensor to simultaneously achieve both a high sensitivity and largely wide sensing range despite its simple fabrication process and components. The fiber strain sensor simultaneously exhibits ultrahigh gauge factors (∼9.3 × 10 5 and ∼659 in the first stretching and subsequent stretching, respectively), a very broad strain-sensing range (450 and 200% for the first and subsequent stretching, respectively), and high durability for more than 10 000 stretching cycles. The fiber strain sensors can also be readily integrated into a glove to control a hand robot and effectively applied to monitor the large volume expansion of a balloon and a pig bladder for an artificial bladder system, thereby demonstrating the potential of the fiber strain sensors as candidates for electronic textiles, wearable electronics, and biomedical engineering.

  2. High-Strain Composite Deployable Radiators for CubeSats, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In response to NASA's need for compact, lightweight and efficient, low-cost deployable radiators for CubeSats, Roccor proposes to develop a high-strain laminate...

  3. Title: High-level cefotaxime-resistant Proteus mirabilis strain isolated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    oaca

    High-level cefotaxime-resistant Proteus mirabilis strain isolated from a Tunisian .... UV- visible) at 37°C. Specific activity is calculated on depending of. Ross and ..... Performance standards for antimicrobial susceptibility testing;. Seventeenth ...

  4. A Facile and General Approach to Recoverable High-Strain Multishape Shape Memory Polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xingjian; Pan, Yi; Zheng, Zhaohui; Ding, Xiaobin

    2018-03-01

    Fabricating a single polymer network with no need to design complex structures to achieve an ideal combination of tunable high-strain multiple-shape memory effects and highly recoverable shape memory property is a great challenge for the real applications of advanced shape memory devices. Here, a facile and general approach to recoverable high-strain multishape shape memory polymers is presented via a random copolymerization of acrylate monomers and a chain-extended multiblock copolymer crosslinker. As-prepared shape memory networks show a large width at the half-peak height of the glass transition, far wider than current classical multishape shape memory polymers. A combination of tunable high-strain multishape memory effect and as high as 1000% recoverable strain in a single chemical-crosslinking network can be obtained. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first thermosetting material with a combination of highly recoverable strain and tunable high-strain multiple-shape memory effects. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. High-Tg TOPAS mPOF strain sensing at 110 degrees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kristian; Markos, Christos; Stefani, Alessio

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate a mPOF made of high-Tg TOPAS grade 5013 with Tg = 135°C. We inscribe FBGs into the fiber and demonstrate strain sensing of 2.5% strain at 98°C, further we also demonstrate strain sensing at a record high temperature of 110°C. The Bragg wavelengths of the FBGs are around 860 nm, whe...... the propagation loss is 5.1dB/m, close to the fiber loss minimum of 3.67dB/m at 787nm....

  6. The elastic plastic behaviour of a 1/2% Cr Mo V steam turbine steel during high strain thermal fatigue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, M.C.; Batte, A.D.; Stringer, M.B.

    1979-01-01

    High strain fatigue problem in steam turbine. Cyclic stress strain hysteresis loops and stress relaxation behaviour in 16 h dwell period tests. Variation of stress and strain during tests under nominally strain controlled conditions. Definition of test conditions and of criteria for crack initiation and failure. Comparison of reverse bend and push pull failure data. (orig.) 891 RW/orig. 892 RKD [de

  7. Investigation of creep threshold stresses using in situ TEM straining experiment in an Al-5Y2O3-10SiC composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deshmukh, S.P.; Mishra, R.S.; Robertson, I.M.

    2010-01-01

    Creep behavior of metal matrix composites is similar to dispersion strengthen alloys and characterized by the presence of a threshold stress below which the creep rate is negligible. This threshold stress is attributed, at least in dispersion-strengthened alloys, to dislocation particle interactions in which the detachment of the dislocations from the particle is the rate-limiting step. Creep experiments were performed on an Al-5Y 2 O 3 -10SiC composite in the temperature range of 473 and 573 K and the nature of the dislocation-particle interaction was determined by performing in situ straining experiments at elevated temperature in a transmission electron microscope. The threshold stress and the detachment stress are temperature dependent and the detachment stress is less than the threshold stress emphasizing the contribution of load transfer from the matrix to the reinforcement phase.

  8. High Productivity DRIE solutions for 3D-SiP and MEMS Volume Manufacturing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puech, M; Thevenoud, J M; Launay, N; Arnal, N; Godinat, P; Andrieu, B; Gruffat, J M

    2006-01-01

    Emerging 3D-SiP technologies and high volume MEMS applications require high productivity mass production DRIE systems. The Alcatel DRIE product range has recently been optimised to reach the highest process and hardware production performances. A study based on sub-micron high aspect ratio structures encountered in the most stringent 3D-SiP has been carried out. The optimization of the Bosch process parameters has resulted in ultra high silicon etch rates, with unrivalled uniformity and repeatability leading to excellent process. In parallel, most recent hardware and proprietary design optimization including vacuum pumping lines, process chamber, wafer chucks, pressure control system, gas delivery are discussed. These improvements have been monitored in a mass production environment for a mobile phone application. Field data analysis shows a significant reduction of cost of ownership thanks to increased throughput and much lower running costs. These benefits are now available for all 3D-SiP and high volume MEMS applications. The typical etched patterns include tapered trenches for CMOS imagers, through silicon via holes for die stacking, well controlled profile angle for 3D high precision inertial sensors, and large exposed area features for inkjet printer heads and Silicon microphones

  9. High-Strain Rate Failure Modeling Incorporating Shear Banding and Fracture

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-22

    High Strain Rate Failure Modeling Incorporating Shear Banding and Fracture The views, opinions and/or findings contained in this report are those of...SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 1. REPORT DATE (DD-MM-YYYY) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 12. DISTRIBUTION AVAILIBILITY STATEMENT 6. AUTHORS...Report as of 05-Dec-2017 Agreement Number: W911NF-13-1-0238 Organization: Columbia University Title: High Strain Rate Failure Modeling Incorporating

  10. Microstructurally Based Prediction of High Strain Failure Modes in Crystalline Solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-05

    interfaces in hcp– fcc systems subjected to high strain-rate deformation and fracture modes, Journal of Materials Research, (8 2015): 0. doi: 10.1557/jmr...rupture • Comparison and validation with experimental observations/ measurements • New dislocation-density crystalline plasticity that accounts for...relationships between coherent interfaces in hcp– fcc systems subjected to high strain-rate deformation and fracture modes, Journal of Materials Research, Vol. 30

  11. To Crack or Not to Crack: Strain in High Temperature Superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godeke, Arno

    2007-01-01

    Round wire Bi 2212 is emerging as a viable successor of Nb3Sn in High Energy Physics and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, to generate magnetic fields that surpass the intrinsic limitations of Nb3Sn. Rather bold claims are made on achievable magnetic fields in applications using Bi 2212, due to the materials' estimated critical magnetic field of 100 Tor higher. High transport currents in high magnetic fields, however, lead to large stress on, and resulting large strain in the superconductor. The effect of strain on the critical properties of Bi-2212 is far from understood, and strain is, as with Nb3Sn, often treated as a secondary parameter in the design of superconducting magnets. Reversibility of the strain induced change of the critical surface of Nb3Sn, points to an electronic origin of the observed strain dependence. Record breaking high field magnets are enabled by virtue of such reversible behavior. Strain effects on the critical surface of Bi-2212, in contrast, are mainly irreversible and suggest a non-electronic origin of the observed strain dependence, which appears to be dominated by the formation of cracks in the superconductor volumes. A review is presented of available results on the effects of strain on the critical surface of Bi-2212, Bi-2223 and YBCO. It is shown how a generic behavior emerges for the (axial) strain dependence of the critical current density, and how the irreversible reduction of the critical current density is dominated by strain induced crack formation in the superconductor. From this generic model it becomes clear that magnets using high temperature superconductors will be strain limited far before the intrinsic magnetic field limitations will be approached, or possibly even before the magnetic field limitation of Nb3Sn can be surpassed. On a positive note, in a very promising recent result from NIST on the axial strain dependence of the critical current density in extremely well aligned YBCO, reversible behavior was observed. This

  12. Facile synthesis of uniform MWCNT@Si nanocomposites as high-performance anode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yifan; Du, Ning, E-mail: dna1122@zju.edu.cn; Zhang, Hui; Yang, Deren

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • A uniform SiO{sub 2} layer was deposited on multi-walled carbon nanotube. • Synthesis of uniform (MWCNT)@Si nanocomposites via the magnesiothermic reduction. • The MWCNT@Si nanocomposites show high reversible capacity and good cyclability. • Enhanced performance is attributed to porous nanostructure, introduction of MWCNTs. - Abstract: We demonstrate the synthesis of uniform multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT)@Si nanocomposites via the magnesiothermic reduction of pre-synthesized MWCNT@SiO{sub 2} nanocables. At first, the acid vapor steaming is used to treat the surface, which can facilitate the uniform deposition of SiO{sub 2} layer via the TEOS hydrolysis. Then, the uniform MWCNT@Si nanocomposites are obtained on the basis of MWCNT@SiO{sub 2} nanocables via a simple magnesiothermic reduction. When used as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries, the as-synthesized MWCNT@Si nanocomposites show high reversible capacity and good cycling performance, which is better than bulk Si and bare MWCNTs. It is believed that the good electrochemical performance can be attributed to the novel porous nanostructure and the introduction of MWCNTs that can buffer the volume change, maintain the electrical conductive network, and enhance the electronic conductivity and lithium-ion transport.

  13. SEMICONDUCTOR TECHNOLOGY: Wet etching characteristics of a HfSiON high-k dielectric in HF-based solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yongliang, Li; Qiuxia, Xu

    2010-03-01

    The wet etching properties of a HfSiON high-k dielectric in HF-based solutions are investigated. HF-based solutions are the most promising wet chemistries for the removal of HfSiON, and etch selectivity of HF-based solutions can be improved by the addition of an acid and/or an alcohol to the HF solution. Due to densification during annealing, the etch rate of HfSiON annealed at 900 °C for 30 s is significantly reduced compared with as-deposited HfSiON in HF-based solutions. After the HfSiON film has been completely removed by HF-based solutions, it is not possible to etch the interfacial layer and the etched surface does not have a hydrophobic nature, since N diffuses to the interface layer or Si substrate formation of Si-N bonds that dissolves very slowly in HF-based solutions. Existing Si-N bonds at the interface between the new high-k dielectric deposit and the Si substrate may degrade the carrier mobility due to Coulomb scattering. In addition, we show that N2 plasma treatment before wet etching is not very effective in increasing the wet etch rate for a thin HfSiON film in our case.

  14. Wet etching characteristics of a HfSiON high-k dielectric in HF-based solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yongliang; Xu Qiuxia

    2010-01-01

    The wet etching properties of a HfSiON high-k dielectric in HF-based solutions are investigated. HF-based solutions are the most promising wet chemistries for the removal of HfSiON, and etch selectivity of HF-based solutions can be improved by the addition of an acid and/or an alcohol to the HF solution. Due to densification during annealing, the etch rate of HfSiON annealed at 900 0 C for 30 s is significantly reduced compared with as-deposited HfSiON in HF-based solutions. After the HfSiON film has been completely removed by HF-based solutions, it is not possible to etch the interfacial layer and the etched surface does not have a hydrophobic nature, since N diffuses to the interface layer or Si substrate formation of Si-N bonds that dissolves very slowly in HF-based solutions. Existing Si-N bonds at the interface between the new high-k dielectric deposit and the Si substrate may degrade the carrier mobility due to Coulomb scattering. In addition, we show that N 2 plasma treatment before wet etching is not very effective in increasing the wet etch rate for a thin HfSiON film in our case. (semiconductor technology)

  15. High-resolution spatiotemporal strain mapping reveals non-uniform deformation in micropatterned elastomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksoy, B.; Rehman, A.; Bayraktar, H.; Alaca, B. E.

    2017-04-01

    Micropatterns are generated on a vast selection of polymeric substrates for various applications ranging from stretchable electronics to cellular mechanobiological systems. When these patterned substrates are exposed to external loading, strain field is primarily affected by the presence of microfabricated structures and similarly by fabrication-related defects. The capturing of such nonhomogeneous strain fields is of utmost importance in cases where study of the mechanical behavior with a high spatial resolution is necessary. Image-based non-contact strain measurement techniques are favorable and have recently been extended to scanning tunneling microscope and scanning electron microscope images for the characterization of mechanical properties of metallic materials, e.g. steel and aluminum, at the microscale. A similar real-time analysis of strain heterogeneity in elastomers is yet to be achieved during the entire loading sequence. The available measurement methods for polymeric materials mostly depend on cross-head displacement or precalibrated strain values. Thus, they suffer either from the lack of any real-time analysis, spatiotemporal distribution or high resolution in addition to a combination of these factors. In this work, these challenges are addressed by integrating a tensile stretcher with an inverted optical microscope and developing a subpixel particle tracking algorithm. As a proof of concept, the patterns with a critical dimension of 200 µm are generated on polydimethylsiloxane substrates and strain distribution in the vicinity of the patterns is captured with a high spatiotemporal resolution. In the field of strain measurement, there is always a tradeoff between minimum measurable strain value and spatial resolution. Current noncontact techniques on elastomers can deliver a strain resolution of 0.001% over a minimum length of 5 cm. More importantly, inhomogeneities within this quite large region cannot be captured. The proposed technique can

  16. High-resolution spatiotemporal strain mapping reveals non-uniform deformation in micropatterned elastomers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aksoy, B; Alaca, B E; Rehman, A; Bayraktar, H

    2017-01-01

    Micropatterns are generated on a vast selection of polymeric substrates for various applications ranging from stretchable electronics to cellular mechanobiological systems. When these patterned substrates are exposed to external loading, strain field is primarily affected by the presence of microfabricated structures and similarly by fabrication-related defects. The capturing of such nonhomogeneous strain fields is of utmost importance in cases where study of the mechanical behavior with a high spatial resolution is necessary. Image-based non-contact strain measurement techniques are favorable and have recently been extended to scanning tunneling microscope and scanning electron microscope images for the characterization of mechanical properties of metallic materials, e.g. steel and aluminum, at the microscale. A similar real-time analysis of strain heterogeneity in elastomers is yet to be achieved during the entire loading sequence. The available measurement methods for polymeric materials mostly depend on cross-head displacement or precalibrated strain values. Thus, they suffer either from the lack of any real-time analysis, spatiotemporal distribution or high resolution in addition to a combination of these factors. In this work, these challenges are addressed by integrating a tensile stretcher with an inverted optical microscope and developing a subpixel particle tracking algorithm. As a proof of concept, the patterns with a critical dimension of 200 µ m are generated on polydimethylsiloxane substrates and strain distribution in the vicinity of the patterns is captured with a high spatiotemporal resolution. In the field of strain measurement, there is always a tradeoff between minimum measurable strain value and spatial resolution. Current noncontact techniques on elastomers can deliver a strain resolution of 0.001% over a minimum length of 5 cm. More importantly, inhomogeneities within this quite large region cannot be captured. The proposed technique can

  17. The H_6_0Si_6C_5_4 heterofullerene as high-capacity hydrogen storage medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yong, Yongliang; Zhou, Qingxiao; Li, Xiaohong; Lv, Shijie

    2016-01-01

    With the great success in Si atoms doped C_6_0 fullerene and the well-established methods for synthesis of hydrogenated carbon fullerenes, this leads naturally to wonder whether Si-doped fullerenes are possible for special applications such as hydrogen storage. Here by using first-principles calculations, we design a novel high-capacity hydrogen storage material, H_6_0Si_6C_5_4 heterofullerene, and confirm its geometric stability. It is found that the H_6_0Si_6C_5_4 heterofullerene has a large HOMO-LUMO gap and a high symmetry, indicating it is high chemically stable. Further, our finite temperature simulations indicate that the H_6_0Si_6C_5_4 heterofullerene is thermally stable at 300 K. H_2 molecules would enter into the cage from the Si-hexagon ring because of lower energy barrier. Through our calculation, a maximum of 21 H_2 molecules can be stored inside the H_6_0Si_6C_5_4 cage in molecular form, leading to a gravimetric density of 11.11 wt% for 21H_2@H_6_0Si_6C_5_4 system, which suggests that the hydrogenated Si_6C_5_4 heterofullerene could be suitable as a high-capacity hydrogen storage material.

  18. Guiding principle for crystalline Si photovoltaic modules with high tolerance to acetic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Atsushi; Hara, Yukiko

    2018-04-01

    A guiding principle for highly reliable crystalline Si photovoltaic modules, especially those with high tolerance to acetic acid generated by hydrolysis reaction between water vapor and an ethylene-vinyl acetate (EVA) encapsulant, is proposed. Degradation behavior evaluated by the damp heat test strongly depends on Ag finger electrodes and also EVA encapsulants. The acetic acid concentration in EVA on the glass side directly determines the degradation behavior. The most important factor for high tolerance is the type of Ag finger electrode materials when using an EVA encapsulant. Photovoltaic modules using newly developed crystalline Si cells with improved Ag finger electrode materials keep their maximum power of 80% of the initial value even after the damp heat test at 85 °C and 85% relative humidity for 10000 h. The pattern of dark regions in electroluminescence images is also discussed on the basis of the dynamics of acetic acid in the modules.

  19. Low Cost Al-Si Casting Alloy As In-Situ Composite for High Temperature Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jonathan A.

    2000-01-01

    A new aluminum-silicon (Al-Si) alloy has been successfully developed at NASA- Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) that has significant improvement in tensile and fatigue strength at elevated temperatures (500 F-700 F). The alloy offers a number of benefits such as light weight, high hardness, low thermal expansion and high surface wear resistance. In hypereutectic form, this alloy is considered as an in-situ Al-Si composite with tensile strength of about 90% higher than the auto industry 390 alloy at 600 F. This composite is very economically produced by using either conventional permanent steel molds or die casting. The projected material cost is less than $0.90 per pound, and automotive components such as pistons can be cast for high production rate using conventional casting techniques with a low and fully accounted cost. Key Words: Metal matrix composites, In-situ composite, aluminum-silicon alloy, hypereutectic alloy, permanent mold casting, die casting.

  20. Strain induced irreversible critical current degradation in highly dense Bi-2212 round wire

    CERN Document Server

    Bjoerstad, R; Rikel, M.O.; Ballarino, A; Bottura, L; Jiang, J; Matras, M; Sugano, M; Hudspeth, J; Di Michiel, M

    2015-01-01

    The strain induced critical current degradation of overpressure processed straight Bi 2212/Ag wires has been studied at 77 K in self-field. For the first time superconducting properties, lattice distortions, composite wire stress and strain have been measured simultaneously in a high energy synchrotron beamline. A permanent Ic degradation of 5% occurs when the wire strain exceeds 0.60%. At a wire strain of about 0.65% a drastic n value and Ic reduction occur, and the composite stress and the Bi-2212 lattice parameter reach a plateau, indicating Bi-2212 filament fracturing. The XRD measurements show that Bi-2212 exhibits linear elastic behaviour up to the irreversible strain limit.

  1. Instantaneous strain measurements during high-temperature stress cycling of a dispersion-strengthened niobium alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farkas, D.M.; Mishra, R.S.; Mukherjee, A.K.

    1995-01-01

    Experimental results obtained from stress cycling tests performed during high-temperature creep of a dispersion strengthened niobium alloy indicate that the instantaneous strain following the stress change decreases with accumulated strain. The true work-hardening rate was shown to be a small fraction of the elastic modulus which remained fairly constant throughout the strain history. The instantaneous strain change from a stress addition was typically greater than the strain from the corresponding stress reduction. This effect is quite pronounced for small stress changes and diminishes as the magnitude of the stress change increases. This implies that the mobility of dislocations is impeded in the reverse direction unless the magnitude of stress reduction exceeds the value of the internal stress

  2. The mutagenesis and breeding of high productive strains of streptomyces jingyangensis '5406'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi Hongyan; Yin Xinyun

    1988-03-01

    The purpose of these experiments is to explore the mutagenesis rhythm and breed high productive strains of actinomycete '5406'. The single colony agar pieces of strain F 358 were treated with fast neutron and 60 Co-γ ray irradiation Two mutants have been selected from 20025 treated single colonies. The output of cytokinins from them is higher than from strain F 358 . The original strain 'Mu-Tan-al' rejuvenated by freezing was treated with several physical and chemical mutagens. The mutagenesis rhythm has been summed up tentatively. Eight mutants obtained from 93014 treated single colonies produced more '5406' antibiotics than that of strain 'Mu-Tan-al,. The effect of mutant 'N2-10-Ra3' was the best

  3. An Investigation of Carbon-Doping-Induced Current Collapse in GaN-on-Si High Electron Mobility Transistors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    An-Jye Tzou

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the successful fabrication of a GaN-on-Si high electron mobility transistor (HEMT with a 1702 V breakdown voltage (BV and low current collapse. The strain and threading dislocation density were well-controlled by 100 pairs of AlN/GaN superlattice buffer layers. Relative to the carbon-doped GaN spacer layer, we grew the AlGaN back barrier layer at a high temperature, resulting in a low carbon-doping concentration. The high-bandgap AlGaN provided an effective barrier for blocking leakage from the channel to substrate, leading to a BV comparable to the ordinary carbon-doped GaN HEMTs. In addition, the AlGaN back barrier showed a low dispersion of transiently pulsed ID under substrate bias, implying that the buffer traps were effectively suppressed. Therefore, we obtained a low-dynamic on-resistance with this AlGaN back barrier. These two approaches of high BV with low current collapse improved the device performance, yielding a device that is reliable in power device applications.

  4. Modeling the Effects of Cu Content and Deformation Variables on the High-Temperature Flow Behavior of Dilute Al-Fe-Si Alloys Using an Artificial Neural Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakiba, Mohammad; Parson, Nick; Chen, X-Grant

    2016-06-30

    The hot deformation behavior of Al-0.12Fe-0.1Si alloys with varied amounts of Cu (0.002-0.31 wt %) was investigated by uniaxial compression tests conducted at different temperatures (400 °C-550 °C) and strain rates (0.01-10 s -1 ). The results demonstrated that flow stress decreased with increasing deformation temperature and decreasing strain rate, while flow stress increased with increasing Cu content for all deformation conditions studied due to the solute drag effect. Based on the experimental data, an artificial neural network (ANN) model was developed to study the relationship between chemical composition, deformation variables and high-temperature flow behavior. A three-layer feed-forward back-propagation artificial neural network with 20 neurons in a hidden layer was established in this study. The input parameters were Cu content, temperature, strain rate and strain, while the flow stress was the output. The performance of the proposed model was evaluated using the K-fold cross-validation method. The results showed excellent generalization capability of the developed model. Sensitivity analysis indicated that the strain rate is the most important parameter, while the Cu content exhibited a modest but significant influence on the flow stress.

  5. Dynamic Behavior of AA2519-T8 Aluminum Alloy Under High Strain Rate Loading in Compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olasumboye, A. T.; Owolabi, G. M.; Odeshi, A. G.; Yilmaz, N.; Zeytinci, A.

    2018-02-01

    In this study, the effects of strain rate on the dynamic behavior, microstructure evolution and hence, failure of the AA2519-T8 aluminum alloy were investigated under compression at strain rates ranging from 1000 to 3500 s-1. Cylindrical specimens of dimensions 3.3 mm × 3.3 mm (L/D = 1) were tested using the split-Hopkinson pressure bar integrated with a digital image correlation system. The microstructure of the alloy was assessed using optical and scanning electron microscopes. Results showed that the dynamic yield strength of the alloy is strain rate dependent, with the maximum yield strength attained by the material being 500 MPa. The peak flow stress of 562 MPa was attained by the material at 3500 s-1. The alloy also showed a significant rate of strain hardening that is typical of other Al-Cu alloys; the rate of strain hardening, however, decreased with increase in strain rate. It was determined that the strain rate sensitivity coefficient of the alloy within the range of high strain rates used in this study is approximately 0.05 at 0.12 plastic strain; a more significant value than what was reported in literature under quasi-static loading. Micrographs obtained showed potential sites for the evolution of adiabatic shear band at 3500 s-1, with a characteristic circular-shaped surface profile comprising partially dissolved second phase particles in the continuous phase across the incident plane of the deformed specimen. The regions surrounding the site showed little or no change in the size of particles. However, the constituent coarse particles were observed as agglomerations of fractured pieces, thus having a shape factor different from those contained in the as-received alloy. Since the investigated alloy is a choice material for military application where it can be exposed to massive deformation at high strain rates, this study provides information on its microstructural and mechanical responses to such extreme loading condition.

  6. Spectroscopic XPEEM of highly conductive SI-doped GaN wires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renault, O., E-mail: olivier.renault@cea.fr [Univ. Grenoble Alpes, F-38000 Grenoble (France); CEA, LETI, MINATEC Campus, F-38054 Grenoble (France); Morin, J. [Univ. Grenoble Alpes, F-38000 Grenoble (France); CEA, LETI, MINATEC Campus, F-38054 Grenoble (France); Tchoulfian, P. [Univ. Grenoble Alpes, F-38000 Grenoble (France); CEA, LETI, MINATEC Campus, F-38054 Grenoble (France); CNRS, Inst. NEEL, F-38042 Grenoble (France); Chevalier, N. [Univ. Grenoble Alpes, F-38000 Grenoble (France); CEA, LETI, MINATEC Campus, F-38054 Grenoble (France); Feyer, V. [Peter Grünberg Institute (PGI-6) and JARA-FIT, Research Center Jülich, D-52425 Jülich (Germany); Pernot, J. [Univ. Grenoble Alpes, F-38000 Grenoble (France); CNRS, Inst. NEEL, F-38042 Grenoble (France); Institut Universitaire de France, F-75005 Paris (France); Schneider, C.M. [Peter Grünberg Institute (PGI-6) and JARA-FIT, Research Center Jülich, D-52425 Jülich (Germany)

    2015-12-15

    Using soft X-ray photoelectron emission microscopy (XPEEM), complemented by scanning Auger microscopy (SAM) and scanning capacitance microscopy, we have quantitatively studied the incorporation of silicon and band bending at the surface (m-facet) of an individual, highly conductive Si-doped GaN micro-wires (Tchoulfian et al., Applied Physics Letters 102 (12), 2013). Electrically active n-dopants Si atoms in Ga interstitial sites are detected as nitride bonding states in the high-resolution Si2p core level spectra, and represent only a small fraction (<10%) of the overall Si surface concentration measured by SAM. The derived carrier concentration of 2×10{sup 21} at cm{sup −3} is in reasonable agreement with electrical measurements. A consistent surface band bending of ~1 eV is directly evidenced by surface photo-voltage measurements. Such an approach combining different surface-sensitive microscopies is of interest for studying other heavily doped semiconducting wires. - Highlights: • XPEEM analysis of state-of-the-art, heavily doped GaN wires with insights on the issue of the origin of the increased conductivity. • Combined microscopic approach with Scanning Auger microscopy and X-ray Photoeletron Emission Microscopy, to quantity the electrically active Si-dopants in GaN. • The determined concentration is found in reasonable agreement with the one derived from bulk electrical measurements. • The proposed method is of interest for studying the electronics and chemistry of doping in other heavily doped semiconducting wires.

  7. 3D printing of highly elastic strain sensors using polyurethane/multiwall carbon nanotube composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christ, Josef F.; Hohimer, Cameron J.; Aliheidari, Nahal; Ameli, Amir; Mo, Changki; Pötschke, Petra

    2017-04-01

    As the desire for wearable electronics increases and the soft robotics industry advances, the need for novel sensing materials has also increased. Recently, there have been many attempts at producing novel materials, which exhibit piezoresistive behavior. However, one of the major shortcomings in strain sensing technologies is in the fabrication of such sensors. While there is significant research and literature covering the various methods for developing piezoresistive materials, fabricating complex sensor platforms is still a manufacturing challenge. Here, we report a facile method to fabricate multidirectional embedded strain sensors using additive manufacturing technology. Pure thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) and TPU/multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) nanocomposites were 3D printed in tandem using a low-cost multi-material FDM printer to fabricate uniaxial and biaxial strain sensors with conductive paths embedded within the insulative TPU platform. The sensors were then subjected to a series of cyclic strain loads. The results revealed excellent piezoresistive responses of the sensors with cyclic repeatability in both the axial and transverse directions and in response to strains as high as 50%. Further, while strain-softening did occur in the embedded printed strain sensors, it was predictable and similar to the results found in the literature for bulk polymer nanocomposites. This works demonstrates the possibility of manufacturing embedded and multidirectional flexible strain sensors using an inexpensive and versatile method, with potential applications in soft robotics and flexible electronics and health monitoring.

  8. Strain-temperature monitor of high speed railway switch by fiber Bragg grating gauges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Weilai; Huang, Xiaomei; Cheng, Jian; Pan, Jianjun

    2010-10-01

    On the 350km/h high speed railway there is a seamless track switch on a bridge. 32 Fiber Bragg Grating (FGB) gauges are used along the neutral line of the tracks to monitor the strain generated by thermal, geological and vibrational factors, and these FBG strain gauges have the function of strain expansion. Meanwhile other 6 FBG sensors are used to measure the temperature for strain compensating purpose. The Finite Element Analysis method is used to analyze the special shape of the gauges. A testing unit was used to test the FBG gauges and bare FBG on the track samples under measurable pressure and tension. The fixing and encapsulating technology of FBG gauges on the surface of the track and to protect the fiber cable to survive in the harsh conditions are discussed. The strain status of switch tracks could be obtained by processing the data from FBG strain gauges and FBG temperature sensors. The results of measurement showed that in 9 days, the strain in the track shifted 350 μɛ, and the strain curves closely correlated with the temperature curves.

  9. Problems associated with use of the logarithmic equivalent strain in high pressure torsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonas, J J; Aranas, C Jr

    2014-01-01

    The logarithmic 'equivalent' strain is frequently recommended for description of the experimental flow curves determined in high pressure torsion (HPT) tests. Some experimental results determined at -196 and 190 °C on a 2024 aluminum alloy are plotted using both the von Mises and logarithmic equivalent strains. Three types of problems associated with use of the latter are described. The first involves the lack of work conjugacy between the logarithmic and shear stress/shear strain curves, a topic that has been discussed earlier. The second concerns the problems associated with testing at constant logarithmic strain rate, a feature of particular importance when the material is rate sensitive. The third type of problem involves the 'history dependence' of this measure in that the incremental logarithmic strain depends on whether the prior strain accumulated in the sample is known or not. This is a difficulty that does not affect use of the von Mises equivalent strain. For these reasons, it is concluded that the qualifier 'equivalent' should not be used when the logarithmic strain is employed to describe HPT results

  10. High-frequency rugose exopolysaccharide production by Vibrio cholerae strains isolated in Haiti.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafizur Rahman

    Full Text Available In October, 2010, epidemic cholera was reported for the first time in Haiti in over 100 years. Establishment of cholera endemicity in Haiti will be dependent in large part on the continued presence of toxigenic V. cholerae O1 in aquatic reservoirs. The rugose phenotype of V. cholerae, characterized by exopolysaccharide production that confers resistance to environmental stress, is a potential contributor to environmental persistence. Using a microbiologic medium promoting high-frequency conversion of smooth to rugose (S-R phenotype, 80 (46.5% of 172 V. cholerae strains isolated from clinical and environmental sources in Haiti were able to convert to a rugose phenotype. Toxigenic V. cholerae O1 strains isolated at the beginning of the epidemic (2010 were significantly less likely to shift to a rugose phenotype than clinical strains isolated in 2012/2013, or environmental strains. Frequency of rugose conversion was influenced by incubation temperature and time. Appearance of the biofilm produced by a Haitian clinical rugose strain (altered biotype El Tor HC16R differed from that of a typical El Tor rugose strain (N16961R by confocal microscopy. On whole-genome SNP analysis, there was no phylogenetic clustering of strains showing an ability to shift to a rugose phenotype. Our data confirm the ability of Haitian clinical (and environmental strains to shift to a protective rugose phenotype, and suggest that factors such as temperature influence the frequency of transition to this phenotype.

  11. Understanding the elastic relaxation mechanisms of strain in Ge islands on pit-patterned Si(001) substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vastola, G; Montalenti, F; Miglio, Leo

    2008-01-01

    Substrate pre-patterning is a new and effective route for growing ordered arrays of heteroepitaxial nanoislands. Here, by exploiting elasticity theory solved by using finite element methods, we show why islands growing inside pits are better relaxed with respect to the flat-substrate case. Pit pre-patterning is demonstrated to be more important than previously realized, allowing for further degrees of freedom in controlling not only positioning but also shape, strain, and coherence of the growing islands. Our results offer a solid interpretation for the recent experimental results obtained by the group of Professor Guenther Bauer.

  12. Parameters of compensating centers in n-type Si highly compensated by irradiation. Parametry kompensiruyushchikh tsentrov v n-Si sil'no kompensirovannym oblucheniem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klinger, P M; Fistul' , V I [Moskovskij Gosudarstvennyj Univ., Moscow (USSR)

    1990-06-01

    Resuls of investigations into effect of {gamma}- and neutron irradiation on defect formation in high-ohmic n-Si

    using technique of capacity temperature dependence (CTD) are given. Radiation dose varied from 4.8x10{sup 17} up to 1.7x10{sup 18} cm{sup -2}. CTD technique is shown to be successfully applied to investigate into defect formation at irradiation of highly compensated silicon. Rate of admission of Ec-0.40 eV deep acceptor levels in n-Si at pulsed electron irradiation does not depend on fine impurity cocentration. Positions of energy levels of deep acceptors introduced into n-Si do not coincide and constitute, respectively, E{sub c}-0.40 and E{sub c}-049 eV.

  13. High temperature piezoresistive {beta}-SiC-on-SOI pressure sensor for combustion engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, J. von; Ziermann, R.; Reichert, W.; Obermeier, E. [Tech. Univ. Berlin (Germany). Microsensor and Actuator Technol. Center; Eickhoff, M.; Kroetz, G. [Daimler Benz AG, Munich (Germany); Thoma, U.; Boltshauser, T.; Cavalloni, C. [Kistler Instrumente AG, Winterthur (Switzerland); Nendza, J.P. [TRW Deutschland GmbH, Barsinghausen (Germany)

    1998-08-01

    For measuring the cylinder pressure in combustion engines of automobiles a high temperature pressure sensor has been developed. The sensor is made of a membrane based piezoresistive {beta}-SiC-on-SOI (SiCOI) sensor chip and a specially designed housing. The SiCOI sensor was characterized under static pressures of up to 200 bar in the temperature range between room temperature and 300 C. The sensitivity of the sensor at room temperature is approximately 0.19 mV/bar and decreases to about 0.12 mV/bar at 300 C. For monitoring the dynamic cylinder pressure the sensor was placed into the combustion chamber of a gasoline engine. The measurements were performed at 1500 rpm under different loads, and for comparison a quartz pressure transducer from Kistler AG was used as a reference. The maximum pressure at partial load operation amounts to about 15 bar. The difference between the calibrated SiCOI sensor and the reference sensor is significantly less than 1 bar during the whole operation. (orig.) 8 refs.

  14. Highly Sensitive and Very Stretchable Strain Sensor Based on a Rubbery Semiconductor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hae-Jin; Thukral, Anish; Yu, Cunjiang

    2018-02-07

    There is a growing interest in developing stretchable strain sensors to quantify the large mechanical deformation and strain associated with the activities for a wide range of species, such as humans, machines, and robots. Here, we report a novel stretchable strain sensor entirely in a rubber format by using a solution-processed rubbery semiconductor as the sensing material to achieve high sensitivity, large mechanical strain tolerance, and hysteresis-less and highly linear responses. Specifically, the rubbery semiconductor exploits π-π stacked poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl) nanofibrils (P3HT-NFs) percolated in silicone elastomer of poly(dimethylsiloxane) to yield semiconducting nanocomposite with a large mechanical stretchability, although P3HT is a well-known nonstretchable semiconductor. The fabricated strain sensors exhibit reliable and reversible sensing capability, high gauge factor (gauge factor = 32), high linearity (R 2 > 0.996), and low hysteresis (degree of hysteresis wearable smart gloves. Systematic investigations in the materials design and synthesis, sensor fabrication and characterization, and mechanical analysis reveal the key fundamental and application aspects of the highly sensitive and very stretchable strain sensors entirely from rubbers.

  15. Strain hardening by dynamic slip band refinement in a high-Mn lightweight steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welsch, E.; Ponge, D.; Hafez Haghighat, S.M.; Sandlöbes, S.; Choi, P.; Herbig, M.; Zaefferer, S.; Raabe, D.

    2016-01-01

    The strain hardening mechanism of a high-Mn lightweight steel (Fe-30.4Mn-8Al-1.2C (wt%)) is investigated by electron channeling contrast imaging (ECCI) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The alloy is characterized by a constant high strain hardening rate accompanied by high strength and high ductility (ultimate tensile strength: 900 MPa, elongation to fracture: 68%). Deformation microstructures at different strain levels are studied in order to reveal and quantify the governing structural parameters at micro- and nanometer scales. As the material deforms mainly by planar dislocation slip causing the formation of slip bands, we quantitatively study the evolution of the slip band spacing during straining. The flow stress is calculated from the slip band spacing on the basis of the passing stress. The good agreement between the calculated values and the tensile test data shows dynamic slip band refinement as the main strain hardening mechanism, enabling the excellent mechanical properties. This novel strain hardening mechanism is based on the passing stress acting between co-planar slip bands in contrast to earlier attempts to explain the strain hardening in high-Mn lightweight steels that are based on grain subdivision by microbands. We discuss in detail the formation of the finely distributed slip bands and the gradual reduction of the spacing between them, leading to constantly high strain hardening. TEM investigations of the precipitation state in the as-quenched state show finely dispersed atomically ordered clusters (size < 2 nm). The influence of these zones on planar slip is discussed.

  16. Effect of high-intensity ultrasonic irradiation on the modification of solidification microstructure in a Si-rich hypoeutectic Al-Si alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, A., E-mail: A.Das@swansea.ac.uk [Materials Research Centre, School of Engineering, Swansea University, Singleton Park, Swansea, SA2 8PP (United Kingdom); Kotadia, H.R. [Brunel Centre for Advanced Solidification Technology, Brunel University, Uxbridge, UB8 3PH (United Kingdom)

    2011-02-15

    Effect of high-intensity ultrasound irradiation in modifying complex solidification microstructure is explored in a high Si containing Al-Si alloy and the origin of microstructural changes explained on the basis of nucleation and growth behaviour. Complete suppression of dendritic growth and dramatic refinement to globular morphology were observed for primary {alpha}-Al grains. Strong supportive evidence is presented towards enhanced and prolonged heterogeneous nucleation triggered by cavitation induced increase in the equilibrium melting point and effective dissipation of latent heat at the solidification front. Morphological evolution of eutectic Si and intermetallic particles is found to be dominated by coarsening and spherodisation from strong fluid flow in areas of intense cavitation near the ultrasonic radiator. Outside the region of direct energy transfer, Si particle morphology appears to be controlled predominantly by the imposed cooling conditions. Extremely fine and short Si-platelets observed in the intergranular spaces near the radiator are explained on the basis of probable rapid cooling of final liquid pockets of small volume and large surface area, rather than refinement through ultrasound.

  17. High-quality GaN epitaxially grown on Si substrate with serpentine channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Tiantian; Zong, Hua; Jiang, Shengxiang; Yang, Yue; Liao, Hui; Xie, Yahong; Wang, Wenjie; Li, Junze; Tang, Jun; Hu, Xiaodong

    2018-06-01

    A novel serpentine-channeled mask was introduced to Si substrate for low-dislocation GaN epitaxial growth and the fully coalesced GaN film on the masked Si substrate was achieved for the first time. Compared with the epitaxial lateral overgrowth (ELOG) growth method, this innovative mask only requires one-step epitaxial growth of GaN which has only one high-dislocation region per mask opening. This new growth method can effectively reduce dislocation density, thus improving the quality of GaN significantly. High-quality GaN with low dislocation density ∼2.4 × 107 cm-2 was obtained, which accounted for about eighty percent of the GaN film in area. This innovative technique is promising for the growth of high-quality GaN templates and the subsequent fabrication of high-performance GaN-based devices like transistors, laser diodes (LDs), and light-emitting diodes (LEDs) on Si substrate.

  18. Spin accumulation in Si channels using CoFe/MgO/Si and CoFe/AlOx/Si tunnel contacts with high quality tunnel barriers prepared by radical-oxygen annealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akushichi, T.; Shuto, Y.; Sugahara, S.; Takamura, Y.

    2015-01-01

    We investigate spin injection into Si channels using three-terminal spin-accumulation (3T-SA) devices with high-quality CoFe/MgO/n-Si and CoFe/AlO x /n-Si tunnel spin-injectors whose tunnel barriers are formed by radical oxidation of Mg and Al thin films deposited on Si(100) substrates and successive annealing under radical-oxygen exposure. When the MgO and AlO x barriers are not treated by the radical-oxygen annealing, the Hanle-effect signals obtained from the 3T-SA devices are closely fitted by a single Lorentz function representing a signal due to trap spins. On the other hand, when the tunnel barriers are annealed under radical-oxygen exposure, the Hanle-effect signals can be accurately fitted by the superposition of a Lorentz function and a non-Lorentz function representing a signal due to accumulated spins in the Si channel. These results suggest that the quality improvement of tunnel barriers treated by radical-oxygen annealing is highly effective for spin-injection into Si channels

  19. Extreme implanting in Si: A study of ion-induced damage at high temperature and high dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holland, O.W.

    1994-01-01

    Ion-solid interactions near room temperature and below have been well studied in single-crystal Si. While this has led to a better understanding of the mechanisms responsible for nucleation and growth of lattice damage during irradiation, these studies have not, in general, been extended to high temperatures (e.g., >200 degrees C). This is the case despite the commercialization of ion beam technologies which utilize high-temperature processing, such as separation by implantation of oxygen (SIMOX). In this process, a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) material is produced by implanting a high dose of oxygen ions into a Si wafer to form a buried, stoichiometric oxide layer. Results will be presented of a study of damage accumulation during high-dose implantation of Si at elevated temperatures. In particular, O + -ions were used because of the potential impact of the results on the SIMOX technology. It will be shown that the nature of the damage accumulation at elevated temperatures is quite distinctive and portends the presence of a new mechanism, one which is only dominant under the extreme conditions encountered during ion beam synthesis (i.e., high temperature and high dose). This mechanism is discussed and shown to be quite general and not dependent on the chemical identity of the ions. Also, techniques for suppressing this mechanism by open-quotes defect engineeringclose quotes are discussed. Such techniques are technologically relevant because they offer the possibility of reducing the defect density of the SOI produced by SIMOX

  20. Room Temperature Electroluminescence from Tensile-Strained Si0.13Ge0.87/Ge Multiple Quantum Wells on a Ge Virtual Substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangyang Lin

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Direct band electroluminescence (EL from tensile-strained Si0.13Ge0.87/Ge multiple quantum wells (MQWs on a Ge virtual substrate (VS at room temperature is reported herein. Due to the competitive result of quantum confinement Stark effect and bandgap narrowing induced by tensile strain in Ge wells, electroluminescence from Γ1-HH1 transition in 12-nm Ge wells was observed at around 1550 nm. As injection current density increases, additional emission shoulders from Γ2-HH2 transition in Ge wells and Ge VS appeared at around 1300–1400 nm and 1600–1700 nm, respectively. The peak energy of EL shifted to the lower energy side superquadratically with an increase of injection current density as a result of the Joule heating effect. During the elevation of environmental temperature, EL intensity increased due to a reduction of energy between L and Γ valleys of Ge. Empirical fitting of the relationship between the integrated intensity of EL (L and injection current density (J with L~Jm shows that the m factor increased with injection current density, suggesting higher light emitting efficiency of the diode at larger injection current densities, which can be attributed to larger carrier occupations in the Γ valley and the heavy hole (HH valance band at higher temperatures.

  1. High strain rate tensile behavior of Al-4.8Cu-1.2Mg alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bobbili, Ravindranadh; Paman, Ashish; Madhu, V.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the current study is to perform quasi static and high strain rate tensile tests on Al-4.8Cu-1.2Mg alloy under different strain rates ranging from 0.01–3500/s and also at temperatures of 25,100, 200 and 300 °C. The combined effect of strain rate, temperature and stress triaxiality on the material behavior is studied by testing both smooth and notched specimens. Johnson–Cook (J–C) constitutive and fracture models are established based on high strain rate tensile data obtained from Split hopkinson tension bar (SHTB) and quasi-static tests. By modifying the strain hardening and strain rate hardening terms in the Johnson–Cook (J–C) constitutive model, a new J–C constitutive model of Al-4.8Cu-1.2Mg alloy was obtained. The improved Johnson–Cook constitutive model matched the experiment results very well. With the Johnson–Cook constitutive and fracture models, numerical simulations of tensile tests at different conditions for Al-4.8Cu-1.2Mg alloy were conducted. Numerical simulations are performed using a non-linear explicit finite element code autodyn. Good agreement is obtained between the numerical simulation results and the experiment results. The fracture surfaces of specimens tested under various strain rates and temperatures were studied under scanning electron microscopy (SEM).

  2. Influence of Cyclic Straining on Fatigue, Deformation, and Fracture Behavior of High-Strength Alloy Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manigandan, K.; Srivatsan, T. S.; Vasudevan, V. K.; Tammana, D.; Poorganji, B.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the results of a study on microstructural influences on mechanical behavior of the high-strength alloy steel Tenax™ 310 are presented and discussed. Under the influence of fully reversed strain cycling, the stress response of this alloy steel revealed softening from the onset of deformation. Cyclic strain resistance exhibited a linear trend for the variation of both elastic strain amplitude with reversals-to-failure, and plastic strain amplitude with reversals-to-failure. Fracture morphology was essentially the same at the macroscopic level over the entire range of cyclic strain amplitudes examined. However, at the fine microscopic level, this high-strength alloy steel revealed fracture to be mixed-mode with features reminiscent of "locally" ductile and brittle mechanisms. The macroscopic mechanisms governing stress response at the fine microscopic level, resultant fatigue life, and final fracture behavior are presented and discussed in light of the mutually interactive influences of intrinsic microstructural effects, deformation characteristics of the microstructural constituents during fully reversed strain cycling, cyclic strain amplitude, and resultant response stress.

  3. Parameters of straining-induced corrosion cracking in low-alloy steels in high temperature water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lenz, E.; Liebert, A.; Stellwag, B.; Wieling, N.

    Tensile tests with slow deformation speed determine parameters of corrosion cracking at low strain rates of low-alloy steels in high-temperature water. Besides the strain rate the temperature and oxygen content of the water prove to be important for the deformation behaviour of the investigated steels 17MnMoV64, 20 MnMoNi55 and 15NiCuMoNb 5. Temperatures about 240 0 C, increased oxygen contents in the water and low strain rates cause a decrease of the material ductility as against the behaviour in air. Tests on the number of stress cycles until incipient cracking show that the parameters important for corrosion cracking at low strain velocities apply also to low-frequency cyclic loads with high strain amplitude. In knowledge of these influencing parameters the strain-induced corrosion cracking is counteracted by concerted measures taken in design, construction and operation of nuclear power stations. Essential aims in this matter are to avoid as far as possible inelastic strains and to fix and control suitable media conditions. (orig.) [de

  4. Metallographic assessment of Al-12Si high-pressure die casting escalator steps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vander Voort, George Frederic; Suárez-Peña, Beatriz; Asensio-Lozano, Juan

    2014-10-01

    A microstructural characterization study was performed on high-pressure die cast specimens extracted from escalator steps manufactured from an Al-12 wt.% Si alloy designed for structural applications. Black and white, color light optical imaging and scanning electron microscopy techniques were used to conduct the microstructural analysis. Most regions in the samples studied contained globular-rosette primary α-Al grains surrounded by an Al-Si eutectic aggregate, while primary dendritic α-Al grains were present in the surface layer. This dendritic microstructure was observed in the regions where the melt did not impinge directly on the die surface during cavity filling. Consequently, microstructures in the surface layer were nonuniform. Utilizing physical metallurgy principles, these results were analyzed in terms of the applied pressure and filling velocity during high-pressure die casting. The effects of these parameters on solidification at different locations of the casting are discussed.

  5. Nanofabrication on a Si surface by slow highly charged ion impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tona, Masahide; Watanabe, Hirofumi; Takahashi, Satoshi; Nakamura, Nobuyuki; Yoshiyasu, Nobuo; Sakurai, Makoto; Terui, Toshifumi; Mashiko, Shinro; Yamada, Chikashi; Ohtani, Shunsuke

    2007-01-01

    We have observed surface chemical reactions which occur at the impact sites on a Si(1 1 1)-(7 x 7) surface and a highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) surface bombarded by highly charged ions (HCIs) by using a scanning tunneling microscope (STM). Crater structures are formed on the Si(1 1 1)-(7 x 7) surface by single I 50+ -impacts. STM-observation for the early step of oxidation on the surface suggests that the impact site is so active that dangling bonds created by HCI impacts are immediately quenched by reaction with residual gas molecules. We show also the selective adsorption of organic molecules at a HCI-induced impact site on the HOPG surface

  6. Reconstructing the highly virulent Classical Swine Fever Virus strain Koslov

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fahnøe, Ulrik; Pedersen, Anders Gorm; Nielsen, Jens

    -prone nature of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase resulting in the majority of circulating forms being non-functional. However, since any infectious virus particle should necessarily be the offspring of a functional virus, we hypothesized that it should be possible to synthesize a highly virulent form...

  7. Design of High Performance Si/SiGe Heterojunction Tunneling FETs with a T-Shaped Gate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Liu, Hongxia; Wang, Shulong; Chen, Shupeng; Yang, Zhaonian

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, a new Si/SiGe heterojunction tunneling field-effect transistor with a T-shaped gate (HTG-TFET) is proposed and investigated by Silvaco-Atlas simulation. The two source regions of the HTG-TFET are placed on both sides of the gate to increase the tunneling area. The T-shaped gate is designed to overlap with N+ pockets in both the lateral and vertical directions, which increases the electric field and tunneling rate at the top of tunneling junctions. Moreover, using SiGe in the pocket regions leads to the smaller tunneling distance. Therefore, the proposed HTG-TFET can obtain the higher on-state current. The simulation results show that on-state current of HTG-TFET is increased by one order of magnitude compared with that of the silicon-based counterparts. The average subthreshold swing (SS) of HTG-TFET is 44.64 mV/dec when V g is varied from 0.1 to 0.4 V, and the point SS is 36.59 mV/dec at V g = 0.2 V. Besides, this design cannot bring the sever Miller capacitance for the TFET circuit design. By using the T-shaped gate and SiGe pocket regions, the overall performance of the TFET is optimized.

  8. Design of High Performance Si/SiGe Heterojunction Tunneling FETs with a T-Shaped Gate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Liu, Hongxia; Wang, Shulong; Chen, Shupeng; Yang, Zhaonian

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, a new Si/SiGe heterojunction tunneling field-effect transistor with a T-shaped gate (HTG-TFET) is proposed and investigated by Silvaco-Atlas simulation. The two source regions of the HTG-TFET are placed on both sides of the gate to increase the tunneling area. The T-shaped gate is designed to overlap with N + pockets in both the lateral and vertical directions, which increases the electric field and tunneling rate at the top of tunneling junctions. Moreover, using SiGe in the pocket regions leads to the smaller tunneling distance. Therefore, the proposed HTG-TFET can obtain the higher on-state current. The simulation results show that on-state current of HTG-TFET is increased by one order of magnitude compared with that of the silicon-based counterparts. The average subthreshold swing (SS) of HTG-TFET is 44.64 mV/dec when V g is varied from 0.1 to 0.4 V, and the point SS is 36.59 mV/dec at V g  = 0.2 V. Besides, this design cannot bring the sever Miller capacitance for the TFET circuit design. By using the T-shaped gate and SiGe pocket regions, the overall performance of the TFET is optimized.

  9. Designing Si/porous-C composite with buffering voids as high capacity anode for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yue, Lu; Zhang, Wenhui; Yang, Jingfeng; Zhang, Lingzhi

    2014-01-01

    A novel Si/porous-C composite with buffering voids was prepared by the co-assembly of phenol-formaldehyde resin, SiO 2 and Si nanoparticles, followed by a carbonizing process and subsequent removal of SiO 2 template. Si nanoparticle was coated with a layer of porous carbon shell with rationally designed void in between which provides the accommodating space for the volume change of Si over cycling. The as-prepared composite electrode exhibited good electrochemical performances as an anode material in lithium-ion cells, showing a stable reversible capacity of 980 mAh g −1 over 80 cycles with small capacity fade of 0.17%/cycle and high rate capability (721 mAh g −1 at 2000 mA g −1 )

  10. Influence of refining process on the porosity of high pressure die casting alloy Al-Si

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.W. Orlowicz

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available This study presents research results of the influence that refining and transfer of AlSi12S alloy on the porosity of high pressure diecastings.Tests were conducted under production conditions of Die-casting Foundry META-ZEL Sp z o.o. The operation of refining was conducted in a melting furnace, with the use of an FDU Mini Degasser. Decay of the refining effect was assessed by evaluating the porosity content and metallographic examination.

  11. High Resolution Topography Analysis on Threading Edge Dislocations in 4H-SiC Epilayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamata, I.; Nagano, M.; Tsuchida, H.; Chen, Y.; Dudley, M.

    2009-01-01

    Threading edge dislocations (TEDs) in a 4H-SiC epitaxial layer are investigated using high-resolution synchrotron topography. Six types of TED image are confirmed to correspond to the Burgers vector directions by a comparison of computer simulated images and observed topography images in crystal boundaries. Using a mapping method, a wide spatial distribution of the six types of TED is examined in a quarter section of a 2-inch wafer.

  12. Positron annihilation studies of silicon-rich SiO2 produced by high dose ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghislotti, G.; Nielsen, B.; Asoka-Kumar, P.; Lynn, K.G.; Di Mauro, L.F.; Corni, F.; Tonini, R.

    1997-01-01

    Positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS) is used to study Si-rich SiO 2 samples prepared by implantation of Si (160 keV) ions at doses in the range 3x10 16 endash 3x10 17 cm -2 and subsequent thermal annealing at high temperature (up to 1100 degree C). Samples implanted at doses higher than 5x10 16 cm -2 and annealed above 1000 degree C showed a PAS spectrum with an annihilation peak broader than the unimplanted sample. We discuss how these results are related to the process of silicon precipitation inside SiO 2 . copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  13. Microstructure and strain-stress analysis of the dynamic strain aging in inconel 625 at high temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maj, P.; Zdunek, J.; Mizera, J.; Kurzydlowski, K. J.; Sakowicz, B.; Kaminski, M.

    2017-01-01

    Serrated flow is a result of unstable plastic flow, which occurs during tensile and compression tests on some dilute alloys. This phenomenon is referred as the Portevin Le-Chatelier effect (PLC effect). The aim of this research was to investigate and analyze this phenomenon in Inconel 625 solution strengthened superalloy. The tested material was subjected to tensile tests carried out within the temperature range 200-700 °C, with three different strain rates: 0.002 1/s, 0.01/s, and 0.05 1/s and additional compression tests with high deformation speeds of 0.1, 1, and 10 1/s. The tensile strain curves were analyzed in terms of intensity and the observed patterns of serrations Using a modified stress drop method proposed by the authors, the activation energy was calculated with the assumption that the stress drops' distribution is a direct representation of an average solute atom's interaction with dislocations. Subsequently, two models, the standard vacancy diffusion Bilby-Cottrell model and the realistic cross-core diffusion mechanism proposed by Zhang and Curtin, were compared. The results obtained show that the second one agrees with the experimental data. Additional microstructure analysis was performed to identify microstructure elements that may be responsible for the PLC effect. Based on the results, the relationship between the intensity of the phenomenon and the conditions of the tests were determined.

  14. A Model for High-Strain-Rate Deformation of Uranium-Niobium Alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    F.L.Addessio; Q.H.Zuo; T.A.Mason; L.C.Brinson

    2003-05-01

    A thermodynamic approach is used to develop a framework for modeling uranium-niobium alloys under the conditions of high strain rate. Using this framework, a three-dimensional phenomenological model, which includes nonlinear elasticity (equation of state), phase transformation, crystal reorientation, rate-dependent plasticity, and porosity growth is presented. An implicit numerical technique is used to solve the evolution equations for the material state. Comparisons are made between the model and data for low-strain-rate loading and unloading as well as for heating and cooling experiments. Comparisons of the model and data also are made for low- and high-strain-rate uniaxial stress and uniaxial strain experiments. A uranium-6 weight percent niobium alloy is used in the comparisons of model and experiment.

  15. Effect of cyclic pre-strain on low cycle fatigue life at middle high temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakane, Motoki; Kanno, Satoshi; Takagi, Yoshio

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the effect of cyclic plastic pre-strain on low cycle fatigue life at middle high temperature to evaluate the structural integrity of the nuclear components introduced plastic strain to the local portion by the large seismic load. The materials selected in this study were austenitic steel (SUS316NG) and ferritic steel (SFVQ1A, STS410: JIS (Japanese Industrial Standards). The low cycle fatigue tests at RT and middle high temperature (300 degrees C) were carried out using cyclic plastic pre-strained materials. The results obtained here show that the damage by the cyclic plastic pre-strain, which is equivalent to usage factor UF=0.2, does not affect the fatigue lives of the materials. In addition, it is confirmed that the estimation based on the usage factor UF can also be useful for the life prediction at 300 degrees C as well as RT. (author)

  16. High-quality GaN nanowires grown on Si and porous silicon by thermal evaporation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shekari, L., E-mail: lsg09_phy089@student.usm.my [Nano-Optoelectronics Research and Technology Laboratory, School of Physics, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 USM, Penang (Malaysia); Ramizy, A.; Omar, K.; Hassan, H. Abu; Hassan, Z. [Nano-Optoelectronics Research and Technology Laboratory, School of Physics, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 USM, Penang (Malaysia)

    2012-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A new kind of substrate (porous silicon) was used. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Also this research introduces an easy and safe method to grow high quality GaN NWs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This is a new growth process to decrease the cost, complexity of growth of GaN NWs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It is a controllable method to synthesize GaN NWs by thermal evaporation. - Abstract: Nanowires (NWs) of GaN thin films were prepared on as-grown Si (1 1 1) and porous silicon (PS) substrates using thermal evaporation method. The film growth produced high-quality wurtzite GaN NWs. The size, morphology, and nanostructures of the crystals were investigated through scanning electron microscopy, high-resolution X-ray diffraction and photoluminescence spectroscopy. The NWs grown on porous silicon were thinner, longer and denser compared with those on as-grown Si. The energy band gap of the NWs grown on PS was larger than that of NWs on as-grown Si. This is due to the greater quantum confinement effects of the crystalline structure of the NWs grown on PS.

  17. Soluble and meltable hyperbranched polyborosilazanes toward high-temperature stable SiBCN ceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Jie; Wang, Minjun; Zou, Jianhua; An, Linan

    2015-04-01

    High-temperature stable siliconborocarbonitride (SiBCN) ceramics produced from single-source preceramic polymers have received increased attention in the last two decades. In this contribution, soluble and meltable polyborosilazanes with hyperbranched topology (hb-PBSZ) were synthesized via a convenient solvent-free, catalyst-free and one-pot A2 + B6 strategy, an aminolysis reaction of the A2 monomer of dichloromethylsilane and the B6 monomer of tris(dichloromethylsilylethyl)borane in the presence of hexamethyldisilazane. The amine transition reaction between the intermediates of dichlorotetramethyldisilazane and tri(trimethylsilylmethylchlorosilylethyl)borane led to the formation of dendritic units of aminedialkylborons rather than trialkylborons. The cross-linked hb-PBSZ precursors exhibited a ceramic yield higher 80%. The resultant SiBCN ceramics with a boron atomic composition of 6.0-8.5% and a representative formula of Si1B(0.19)C(1.21)N(0.39)O(0.08) showed high-temperature stability and retained their amorphous structure up to 1600 °C. These hyperbranched polyborosilazanes with soluble and meltable characteristics provide a new perspective for the design of preceramic polymers possessing advantages for high-temperature stable polymer-derived ceramics with complex structures/shapes.

  18. SiGe epitaxial memory for neuromorphic computing with reproducible high performance based on engineered dislocations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Shinhyun; Tan, Scott H.; Li, Zefan; Kim, Yunjo; Choi, Chanyeol; Chen, Pai-Yu; Yeon, Hanwool; Yu, Shimeng; Kim, Jeehwan

    2018-01-01

    Although several types of architecture combining memory cells and transistors have been used to demonstrate artificial synaptic arrays, they usually present limited scalability and high power consumption. Transistor-free analog switching devices may overcome these limitations, yet the typical switching process they rely on—formation of filaments in an amorphous medium—is not easily controlled and hence hampers the spatial and temporal reproducibility of the performance. Here, we demonstrate analog resistive switching devices that possess desired characteristics for neuromorphic computing networks with minimal performance variations using a single-crystalline SiGe layer epitaxially grown on Si as a switching medium. Such epitaxial random access memories utilize threading dislocations in SiGe to confine metal filaments in a defined, one-dimensional channel. This confinement results in drastically enhanced switching uniformity and long retention/high endurance with a high analog on/off ratio. Simulations using the MNIST handwritten recognition data set prove that epitaxial random access memories can operate with an online learning accuracy of 95.1%.

  19. Strengthening of Cu–Ni–Si alloy using high-pressure torsion and aging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seungwon, E-mail: chominamlsw@gmail.com [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); WPI, International Institute for Carbon-Neutral Energy Research (I2CNER), Kyushu University, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Matsunaga, Hirotaka [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Sauvage, Xavier [University of Rouen, CNRS UMR 6634, Groupe de Physique des Matériaux, Faculté des Sciences, BP 12, 76801 Saint-Etienne du Rouvray (France); Horita, Zenji [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); WPI, International Institute for Carbon-Neutral Energy Research (I2CNER), Kyushu University, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan)

    2014-04-01

    An age-hardenable Cu–2.9%Ni–0.6%Si alloy was subjected to high-pressure torsion. Aging behavior was investigated in terms of hardness, electrical conductivity and microstructural features. Transmission electron microscopy showed that the grain size is refined to ∼ 150 nm and the Vickers microhardness was significantly increased through the HPT processing. Aging treatment of the HPT-processed alloy led to a further increase in the hardness. Electrical conductivity is also improved with the aging treatment. It was confirmed that the simultaneous strengthening by grain refinement and fine precipitation is achieved while maintaining high electrical conductivity. Three dimensional atom probe analysis including high-resolution transmission electron microscopy revealed that nanosized precipitates having compositions of a metastable Cu{sub 3}Ni{sub 5}Si{sub 2} phase and a stable NiSi phase were formed in the Cu matrix by aging of the HPT-processed samples and these particles are responsible for the additional increase in strength after the HPT processing. - Highlights: • Grain refinement is achieved in Corson alloy the size of ∼150nm by HPT. • Aging at 300°C after HPT leads to further increase in the mechanical property. • Electrical conductivity reaches 40% IACS after aging for 100 h. • 3D-APT revealed the formation of nanosized-precipitates during aging treatment. • Simultaneous hardening in both grain refinement and precipitation is achieved.

  20. Comparative genome analysis of the high pathogenicity Salmonella Typhimurium strain UK-1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingqin Luo

    Full Text Available Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, a gram-negative facultative rod-shaped bacterium causing salmonellosis and foodborne disease, is one of the most common isolated Salmonella serovars in both developed and developing nations. Several S. Typhimurium genomes have been completed and many more genome-sequencing projects are underway. Comparative genome analysis of the multiple strains leads to a better understanding of the evolution of S. Typhimurium and its pathogenesis. S. Typhimurium strain UK-1 (belongs to phage type 1 is highly virulent when orally administered to mice and chickens and efficiently colonizes lymphoid tissues of these species. These characteristics make this strain a good choice for use in vaccine development. In fact, UK-1 has been used as the parent strain for a number of nonrecombinant and recombinant vaccine strains, including several commercial vaccines for poultry. In this study, we conducted a thorough comparative genome analysis of the UK-1 strain with other S. Typhimurium strains and examined the phenotypic impact of several genomic differences. Whole genomic comparison highlights an extremely close relationship between the UK-1 strain and other S. Typhimurium strains; however, many interesting genetic and genomic variations specific to UK-1 were explored. In particular, the deletion of a UK-1-specific gene that is highly similar to the gene encoding the T3SS effector protein NleC exhibited a significant decrease in oral virulence in BALB/c mice. The complete genetic complements in UK-1, especially those elements that contribute to virulence or aid in determining the diversity within bacterial species, provide key information in evaluating the functional characterization of important genetic determinants and for development of vaccines.