WorldWideScience

Sample records for highly specific interconnectivity

  1. High-density hybrid interconnect methodologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    John, J.; Zimmermann, L.; Moor, P.De; Hoof, C.Van

    2003-01-01

    Full text: The presentation gives an overview of the state-of-the-art of hybrid integration and in particular the IMEC technological approaches that will be able to address future hybrid detector needs. The dense hybrid flip-chip integration of an array of detectors and its dedicated readout electronics can be achieved with a variety of solderbump techniques such as pure Indium or Indium alloys, Ph-In, Ni/PbSn, but also conducting polymers... Particularly for cooled applications or ultra-high density applications, Indium solderbump technology (electroplated or evaporated) is the method of choice. The state-of-the-art of solderbump technologies that are to a high degree independent of the underlying detector material will be presented and examples of interconnect densities between 5x1E4cm-2 and 1x1E6 cm-2 will be demonstrated. For several classes of detectors, flip-chip integration is not allowed since the detectors have to be illuminated from the top. This applies to image sensors for EUV applications such as GaN/AlGaN based detectors and to MEMS-based sensors. In such cases, the only viable interconnection method has to be through the (thinned) detector wafer followed by a solderbump-based integration. The approaches for dense and ultra-dense through-the-wafer interconnect 'vias' will be presented and wafer thinning approaches will be shown

  2. Circuit and interconnect design for high bit-rate applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenstra, H.

    2006-01-01

    This thesis presents circuit and interconnect design techniques and design flows that address the most difficult and ill-defined aspects of the design of ICs for high bit-rate applications. Bottlenecks in interconnect design, circuit design and on-chip signal distribution for high bit-rate

  3. Design of a highly parallel board-level-interconnection with 320 Gbps capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohmann, U.; Jahns, J.; Limmer, S.; Fey, D.; Bauer, H.

    2012-01-01

    A parallel board-level interconnection design is presented consisting of 32 channels, each operating at 10 Gbps. The hardware uses available optoelectronic components (VCSEL, TIA, pin-diodes) and a combination of planarintegrated free-space optics, fiber-bundles and available MEMS-components, like the DMD™ from Texas Instruments. As a specific feature, we present a new modular inter-board interconnect, realized by 3D fiber-matrix connectors. The performance of the interconnect is evaluated with regard to optical properties and power consumption. Finally, we discuss the application of the interconnect for strongly distributed system architectures, as, for example, in high performance embedded computing systems and data centers.

  4. High-speed VCSEL-based optical interconnects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishak, Waguih S.

    2001-11-01

    Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Lasers (VCSEL) have made significant inroads into commercial realization especially in the area of data communications. Single VCSEL devices are key components in Gb Ethernet Transceivers. A multi-element VCSEL array is the key enabling technology for high-speed multi Gb/s parallel optical interconnect modules. In 1996, several companies introduced a new generation of fiber optic products based VCSEL technology such as multimode fiber transceivers for the ANSI Fiber Channel and Gigabit Ethernet IEEE 802.3 standards. VCSELs offer unique advantages over its edge-emitting counterparts in several areas. These include low-cost (LED-like) manufacturability, low current operation and array integrability. As data rates continue to increase, VCSELs offer the advantage of being able to provide the highest modulation bandwidth per milliamp of modulation current. Currently, most of the VCSEL-based products use short (780 - 980 nm) wavelength lasers. However, significant research efforts are taking place at universities and industrial research labs around the world to develop reliable, manufacturable and high-power long (1300 - 1550 nm) wavelength VCSELs. These lasers will allow longer (several km) transmission distances and will help alleviate some of the eye-safety issues. Perhaps, the most important advantage of VCSELs is the ability to form two-dimensional arrays much easier than in the case of edge-emitting lasers. These arrays (single and two-dimensional) will allow a whole new family of applications, specifically in very high-speed computer and switch interconnects.

  5. Advanced Modulation Techniques for High-Performance Computing Optical Interconnects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karinou, Fotini; Borkowski, Robert; Zibar, Darko

    2013-01-01

    We experimentally assess the performance of a 64 × 64 optical switch fabric used for ns-speed optical cell switching in supercomputer optical interconnects. More specifically, we study four alternative modulation formats and detection schemes, namely, 10-Gb/s nonreturn-to-zero differential phase-...

  6. Optical interconnection networks for high-performance computing systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biberman, Aleksandr; Bergman, Keren

    2012-01-01

    Enabled by silicon photonic technology, optical interconnection networks have the potential to be a key disruptive technology in computing and communication industries. The enduring pursuit of performance gains in computing, combined with stringent power constraints, has fostered the ever-growing computational parallelism associated with chip multiprocessors, memory systems, high-performance computing systems and data centers. Sustaining these parallelism growths introduces unique challenges for on- and off-chip communications, shifting the focus toward novel and fundamentally different communication approaches. Chip-scale photonic interconnection networks, enabled by high-performance silicon photonic devices, offer unprecedented bandwidth scalability with reduced power consumption. We demonstrate that the silicon photonic platforms have already produced all the high-performance photonic devices required to realize these types of networks. Through extensive empirical characterization in much of our work, we demonstrate such feasibility of waveguides, modulators, switches and photodetectors. We also demonstrate systems that simultaneously combine many functionalities to achieve more complex building blocks. We propose novel silicon photonic devices, subsystems, network topologies and architectures to enable unprecedented performance of these photonic interconnection networks. Furthermore, the advantages of photonic interconnection networks extend far beyond the chip, offering advanced communication environments for memory systems, high-performance computing systems, and data centers. (review article)

  7. Ultra-Stretchable Interconnects for High-Density Stretchable Electronics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salman Shafqat

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The exciting field of stretchable electronics (SE promises numerous novel applications, particularly in-body and medical diagnostics devices. However, future advanced SE miniature devices will require high-density, extremely stretchable interconnects with micron-scale footprints, which calls for proven standardized (complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS-type process recipes using bulk integrated circuit (IC microfabrication tools and fine-pitch photolithography patterning. Here, we address this combined challenge of microfabrication with extreme stretchability for high-density SE devices by introducing CMOS-enabled, free-standing, miniaturized interconnect structures that fully exploit their 3D kinematic freedom through an interplay of buckling, torsion, and bending to maximize stretchability. Integration with standard CMOS-type batch processing is assured by utilizing the Flex-to-Rigid (F2R post-processing technology to make the back-end-of-line interconnect structures free-standing, thus enabling the routine microfabrication of highly-stretchable interconnects. The performance and reproducibility of these free-standing structures is promising: an elastic stretch beyond 2000% and ultimate (plastic stretch beyond 3000%, with <0.3% resistance change, and >10 million cycles at 1000% stretch with <1% resistance change. This generic technology provides a new route to exciting highly-stretchable miniature devices.

  8. Ultra-stretchable Interconnects for high-density stretchable electronics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shafqat, S.; Hoefnagels, J.P.M.; Savov, A.; Joshi, S.; Dekker, R.; Geers, M.G.D.

    2017-01-01

    The exciting field of stretchable electronics (SE) promises numerous novel applications, particularly in-body and medical diagnostics devices. However, future advanced SE miniature devices will require high-density, extremely stretchable interconnects with micron-scale footprints, which calls for

  9. A high-speed interconnect network using ternary logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jens Kargaard; Long, S. I.

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes the design and implementation of a high-speed interconnect network (ICN) for a multiprocessor system using ternary logic. By using ternary logic and a fast point-to-point communication technique called STARI (Self-Timed At Receiver's Input), the communication between...

  10. Optical interconnect technologies for high-bandwidth ICT systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chujo, Norio; Takai, Toshiaki; Mizushima, Akiko; Arimoto, Hideo; Matsuoka, Yasunobu; Yamashita, Hiroki; Matsushima, Naoki

    2016-03-01

    The bandwidth of information and communication technology (ICT) systems is increasing and is predicted to reach more than 10 Tb/s. However, an electrical interconnect cannot achieve such bandwidth because of its density limits. To solve this problem, we propose two types of high-density optical fiber wiring for backplanes and circuit boards such as interface boards and switch boards. One type uses routed ribbon fiber in a circuit board because it has the ability to be formed into complex shapes to avoid interfering with the LSI and electrical components on the board. The backplane is required to exhibit high density and flexibility, so the second type uses loose fiber. We developed a 9.6-Tb/s optical interconnect demonstration system using embedded optical modules, optical backplane, and optical connector in a network apparatus chassis. We achieved 25-Gb/s transmission between FPGAs via the optical backplane.

  11. Fabrication of interconnected microporous biomaterials with high hydroxyapatite nanoparticle loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Wei; Yao Donggang; Zhang Qingwei; Lelkes, Peter I; Zhou, Jack G

    2010-01-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HA) is known to promote osteogenicity and enhance the mechanical properties of biopolymers. However, incorporating a large amount of HA into a porous biopolymer still remains a challenge. In the present work, a new method was developed to produce interconnected microporous poly(glycolic-co-lactic acid) (PLGA) with high HA nanoparticle loading. First, a ternary blend comprising PLGA/PS (polystyrene)/HA (40/40/20 wt%) was prepared by melt blending under conditions for formation of a co-continuous phase structure. Next, a dynamic annealing stage under small-strain oscillation was applied to the blend to facilitate nanoparticle redistribution. Finally, the PS phase was sacrificially extracted, leaving a porous matrix. The results from different characterizations suggested that the applied small-strain oscillation substantially accelerated the migration of HA nanoparticles during annealing from the PS phase to the PLGA phase; nearly all HA particles were uniformly presented in the PLGA phase after a short period of annealing. After dissolution of the PS phase, a PLGA material with interconnected microporous structure was successfully produced, with a high HA loading above 30 wt%. The mechanisms beneath the experimental observations, particularly on the enhanced particle migration process, were discussed, and strategies for producing highly particle loaded biopolymers with interconnected microporous structures were proposed.

  12. Hardware Compilation of Application-Specific Memory-Access Interconnect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Venkataramani, Girish; Bjerregaard, Tobias; Chelcea, Tiberiu

    2006-01-01

    operations dependent on memory reads. More fundamental is that dependences between accesses may not be statically provable (e.g., if the specification language permits pointers), which introduces memory-consistency problems. Addressing these issues with static scheduling results in overly conservative...... enables specifications to include arbitrary memory references (e.g., pointers) and allows the memory system to incorporate features that might cause the latency of a memory access to vary dynamically. This results in raising the level of abstraction in the input specification, enabling faster design times...

  13. Performance evaluation of two highly interconnected Data Center networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andrus, Bogdan-Mihai; Mihai Poncea, Ovidiu; Vegas Olmos, Juan José

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we present the analysis of highly interconnected topologies like hypercube and torus and how they can be implemented in data centers in order to cope with the rapid increase and demands for performance of the internal traffic. By replicating the topologies and subjecting them...... to uniformly distributed traffic routed by shortest path algorithms, we are able to extract relevant statistics related to average throughput, latency and loss rate. A decrease in throughput per connection of only about 5% for the hypercube compared to 16% for the 3D torus was measured when the size...

  14. Synthesis of lanthanum tungstate interconnecting nanoparticles by high voltage electrospinning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keereeta, Yanee, E-mail: ynkeereeta@gmail.com [Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Thongtem, Titipun, E-mail: ttpthongtem@yahoo.com [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Materials Science Research Center, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Thongtem, Somchai [Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Materials Science Research Center, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand)

    2015-10-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • La{sub 2}(WO{sub 4}){sub 3} as one of semiconducting materials. • H.V. electrospinning was used to synthesize La{sub 2}(WO{sub 4}){sub 3} interconnecting nanoparticles. • A promising material for photoemission. - Abstract: Lanthanum tungstate (La{sub 2}(WO{sub 4}){sub 3}) interconnecting nanoparticles in the shape of fibers were successfully synthesized by electrospinning in combination with high temperature calcination. In this research, calcination temperature for the synthesis of the fibers evidently influenced the diameter, morphology and crystalline degree. The crystalline monoclinic La{sub 2}(WO{sub 4}){sub 3} fibers with 200–700 nm in diameter, two main Raman peaks at 945 and 927 cm{sup −1}, FTIR stretching modes at 936 and 847 cm{sup −1}, 2.02 eV energy gap and 415–430 nm blue emission were synthesized by calcination of inorganic/organic hybrid fibers at 750 °C for 5 h, characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), selected area electron diffraction (SAED), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Raman spectroscopy, UV–visible spectroscopy and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. The surface of the composite fibers before calcination was very smooth. Upon calcination the composite fibers at 750 °C for 5 h, they were transformed into nanoparticles join together in the shape of fibers with rough surface.

  15. The high speed interconnect system architecture and operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Steven C.

    The design and operation of a fiber-optic high-speed interconnect system (HSIS) being developed to meet the requirements of future avionics and flight-control hardware with distributed-system architectures are discussed. The HSIS is intended for 100-Mb/s operation of a local-area network with up to 256 stations. It comprises a bus transmission system (passive star couplers and linear media linked by active elements) and network interface units (NIUs). Each NIU is designed to perform the physical, data link, network, and transport functions defined by the ISO OSI Basic Reference Model (1982 and 1983) and incorporates a fiber-optic transceiver, a high-speed protocol based on the SAE AE-9B linear token-passing data bus (1986), and a specialized application interface unit. The operating modes and capabilities of HSIS are described in detail and illustrated with diagrams.

  16. Multimode polymer waveguides for high-speed optical interconnects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamiedakis, N.; Ingham, J. D.; Penty, R. V.; White, I. H.; DeGroot, J. V.; Clapp, T. V.

    2017-11-01

    Polymeric multimode waveguides are of particular interest for optical interconnections in short-reach data links. In some applications, for example in space-borne systems, the use of advanced materials with outstanding performance in extreme environments is required (temperature and radiation). In this paper therefore, we present novel siloxane polymers suitable for these applications. The materials are used to form straight, 90° bent and spiral polymer waveguides by low-cost conventional photolithographic techniques on FR4 substrates. The samples have been tested to investigate their propagation characteristics and demonstrate their potential for high-speed data links. Overall, there is strong evidence that these multimode waveguides can be successfully employed as high-speed short-reach data links. Their excellent thermal properties, their low cost and the simple fabrication process indicate their suitability for a wide range of space applications.

  17. Individual pore and interconnection size analysis of macroporous ceramic scaffolds using high-resolution X-ray tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jerban, Saeed, E-mail: saeed.jerban@usherbrooke.ca; Elkoun, Saïd, E-mail: Said.Elkoun@usherbrooke.ca

    2016-08-15

    The pore interconnection size of β-tricalcium phosphate scaffolds plays an essential role in the bone repair process. Although, the μCT technique is widely used in the biomaterial community, it is rarely used to measure the interconnection size because of the lack of algorithms. In addition, discrete nature of the μCT introduces large systematic errors due to the convex geometry of interconnections. We proposed, verified and validated a novel pore-level algorithm to accurately characterize the individual pores and interconnections. Specifically, pores and interconnections were isolated, labeled, and individually analyzed with high accuracy. The technique was verified thoroughly by visually inspecting and verifying over 3474 properties of randomly selected pores. This extensive verification process has passed a one-percent accuracy criterion. Scanning errors inherent in the discretization, which lead to both dummy and significantly overestimated interconnections, have been examined using computer-based simulations and additional high-resolution scanning. Then accurate correction charts were developed and used to reduce the scanning errors. Only after the corrections, both the μCT and SEM-based results converged, and the novel algorithm was validated. Material scientists with access to all geometrical properties of individual pores and interconnections, using the novel algorithm, will have a more-detailed and accurate description of the substitute architecture and a potentially deeper understanding of the link between the geometric and biological interaction. - Highlights: •An algorithm is developed to analyze individually all pores and interconnections. •After pore isolating, the discretization errors in interconnections were corrected. •Dummy interconnections and overestimated sizes were due to thin material walls. •The isolating algorithm was verified through visual inspection (99% accurate). •After correcting for the systematic errors, algorithm was

  18. Efficient dual layer interconnect coating for high temperature electrochemical devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palcut, Marián; Mikkelsen, Lars; Neufeld, Kai

    2012-01-01

    Effects of novel dual layer coatings Co3O4/La0.85Sr0.15MnO3−δ on high temperature oxidation behaviour of candidate steels for interconnects are studied at 1123 K in flowing simulated ambient air (air + 1% H2O) and oxygen. Four alloys are investigated: Crofer 22 APU, Crofer 22 H, E-Brite and AL 29...... that the oxidation reaction is limited by outward Cr3+ diffusion in the chromia scale. The coating effectively reduces the oxidation rate. Reactions and cation inter-diffusion between the coating and the oxide scale are observed. Long term effects of these interactions are discussed and practical implications...

  19. Ultra-High Capacity Silicon Photonic Interconnects through Spatial Multiplexing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Christine P.

    The market for higher data rate communication is driving the semiconductor industry to develop new techniques of writing at smaller scales, while continuing to scale bandwidth at low power consumption. Silicon photonic (SiPh) devices offer a potential solution to the electronic interconnect bandwidth bottleneck. SiPh leverages the technology commensurate of decades of fabrication development with the unique functionality of next-generation optical interconnects. Finer fabrication techniques have allowed for manufacturing physical characteristics of waveguide structures that can support multiple modes in a single waveguide. By refining modal characteristics in photonic waveguide structures, through mode multiplexing with the asymmetric y-junction and microring resonator, higher aggregate data bandwidth is demonstrated via various combinations of spatial multiplexing, broadening applications supported by the integrated platform. The main contributions of this dissertation are summarized as follows. Experimental demonstrations of new forms of spatial multiplexing combined together exhibit feasibility of data transmission through mode-division multiplexing (MDM), mode-division and wavelength-division multiplexing (MDM-WDM), and mode-division and polarization-division multiplexing (MDM-PDM) through a C-band, Si photonic platform. Error-free operation through mode multiplexers and demultiplexers show how data can be viably scaled on multiple modes and with existing spatial domains simultaneously. Furthermore, we explore expanding device channel support from two to three arms. Finding that a slight mismatch in the third arm can increase crosstalk contributions considerably, especially when increasing data rate, we explore a methodical way to design the asymmetric y-junction device by considering its angles and multiplexer/demultiplexer arm width. By taking into consideration device fabrication variations, we turn towards optimizing device performance post

  20. Deposition and characterisation of copper for high density interconnects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCusker, N.

    1999-09-01

    Copper has been deposited by sputtering and investigated for application as high density interconnects, with a view to maximising its performance and reliability. A sputter deposition process using gettering has been developed, which produces consistently pure, low resistivity films. A relationship between film thickness and resistivity has been explained by studying the grain growth process in copper films using atomic force microscopy. The Maydas-Shatzkes model has been used to separate the contributions of grain boundary and surface scattering to thin film resistivity, in copper and gold. Stress and texture in copper film have been studied. Annealing has been used to promote grain growth and texture development. Electromigration has been studied in copper and aluminium interconnects using a multi-line accelerated test set-up. A difference in failure distributions and void morphologies has been explained by an entirely different damage mechanism. The importance of surface/interface migration in electromigration damage of copper lines has been established and explained using a grain boundary-grooving model. A tantalum overlayer was found to extend the lifetime of copper lines. A composite sputtering target has been used to deposit copper/zirconium alloy films. The composition of the alloys was studied by Rutherford backscattering, Auger and secondary neutral mass spectrometry. The alloy films had an improved electromigration lifetime. A surface controlled mechanism is proposed to explain the advantage. A metal oxide semiconductor (MOS) capacitor technique is used to investigate barrier reliability. Tungsten is shown to be an effective diffusion barrier for copper, up to 700 deg. C. (author)

  1. Interconnected V2O5 nanoporous network for high-performance supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saravanakumar, B; Purushothaman, Kamatchi K; Muralidharan, G

    2012-09-26

    Vanadium pentoxide (V(2)O(5)) has attracted attention for supercapcitor applications because of its extensive multifunctional properties. In the present study, V(2)O(5) nanoporous network was synthesized via simple capping-agent-assisted precipitation technique and it is further annealed at different temperatures. The effect of annealing temperature on the morphology, electrochemical and structural properties, and stability upon oxidation-reduction cycling has been analyzed for supercapacitor application. We achieved highest specific capacitance of 316 F g(-1) for interconnected V(2)O(5) nanoporous network. This interconnected nanoporous network creates facile nanochannels for ion diffusion and facilitates the easy accessibility of ions. Moreover, after six hundred consecutive cycling processes the specific capacitance has changed only by 24%. A simple cost-effective preparation technique of V(2)O(5) nanoporous network with excellent capacitive behavior, energy density, and stability encourages its possible commercial exploitation for the development of high-performance supercapacitors.

  2. High temperature corrosion of metallic interconnects in solid oxide fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bastidas, D. M.

    2006-01-01

    Research and development has made it possible to use metallic interconnects in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) instead of ceramic materials. The use of metallic interconnects was formerly hindered by the high operating temperature, which made the interconnect degrade too much and too fast to be an efficient alternative. When the operating temperature was lowered, the use of metallic interconnects proved to be favourable since they are easier and cheaper to produce than ceramic interconnects. However, metallic interconnects continue to be degraded despite the lowered temperature, and their corrosion products contribute to electrical degradation in the fuel cell. coatings of nickel, chromium, aluminium, zinc, manganese, yttrium or lanthanum between the interconnect and the electrodes reduce this degradation during operation. (Author) 66 refs

  3. High Density Interconnect Microstrip Patch Antenna for 5G Base Stations with Integrated Filtering Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Salucci

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The elementary radiator of a planar array for next generation millimeter-wave (mm-wave 5G base stations is described. The antenna is designed for high density interconnect (HDI manufacturing for yielding a compact, densely-interconnected, and highly-integrable stacked structure. The layout of the single element is determined by directly optimizing key radiation features of the whole planar arrangement according to specific application-driven requirements. In addition, thanks to the exploitation of a spline-shaped modelling of the radiator, suitable performance in terms of impedance matching, realized gain, half-power beamwidth (HPBW, polarization purity, and inter-element isolation are achieved within the 28-GHz pass-band. Moreover, integrated out-of-band filtering capabilities are obtained in selected and wide non-contiguous stop-bands without additional circuitry.

  4. Hot Chips and Hot Interconnects for High End Computing Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, Subhash

    2005-01-01

    I will discuss several processors: 1. The Cray proprietary processor used in the Cray X1; 2. The IBM Power 3 and Power 4 used in an IBM SP 3 and IBM SP 4 systems; 3. The Intel Itanium and Xeon, used in the SGI Altix systems and clusters respectively; 4. IBM System-on-a-Chip used in IBM BlueGene/L; 5. HP Alpha EV68 processor used in DOE ASCI Q cluster; 6. SPARC64 V processor, which is used in the Fujitsu PRIMEPOWER HPC2500; 7. An NEC proprietary processor, which is used in NEC SX-6/7; 8. Power 4+ processor, which is used in Hitachi SR11000; 9. NEC proprietary processor, which is used in Earth Simulator. The IBM POWER5 and Red Storm Computing Systems will also be discussed. The architectures of these processors will first be presented, followed by interconnection networks and a description of high-end computer systems based on these processors and networks. The performance of various hardware/programming model combinations will then be compared, based on latest NAS Parallel Benchmark results (MPI, OpenMP/HPF and hybrid (MPI + OpenMP). The tutorial will conclude with a discussion of general trends in the field of high performance computing, (quantum computing, DNA computing, cellular engineering, and neural networks).

  5. Next Generation Space Interconnect Standard (NGSIS): a modular open standards approach for high performance interconnects for space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, Charles Patrick

    2017-04-01

    The Next Generation Space Interconnect Standard (NGSIS) effort is a Government-Industry collaboration effort to define a set of standards for interconnects between space system components with the goal of cost effectively removing bandwidth as a constraint for future space systems. The NGSIS team has selected the ANSI/VITA 65 OpenVPXTM standard family for the physical baseline. The RapidIO protocol has been selected as the basis for the digital data transport. The NGSIS standards are developed to provide sufficient flexibility to enable users to implement a variety of system configurations, while meeting goals for interoperability and robustness for space. The NGSIS approach and effort represents a radical departure from past approaches to achieve a Modular Open System Architecture (MOSA) for space systems and serves as an exemplar for the civil, commercial, and military Space communities as well as a broader high reliability terrestrial market.

  6. Mechanical response of spiral interconnect arrays for highly stretchable electronics

    KAUST Repository

    Qaiser, Nadeem

    2017-11-21

    A spiral interconnect array is a commonly used architecture for stretchable electronics, which accommodates large deformations during stretching. Here, we show the effect of different geometrical morphologies on the deformation behavior of the spiral island network. We use numerical modeling to calculate the stresses and strains in the spiral interconnects under the prescribed displacement of 1000 μm. Our result shows that spiral arm elongation depends on the angular position of that particular spiral in the array. We also introduce the concept of a unit-cell, which fairly replicates the deformation mechanism for full complex hexagon, diamond, and square shaped arrays. The spiral interconnects which are axially connected between displaced and fixed islands attain higher stretchability and thus experience the maximum deformations. We perform tensile testing of 3D printed replica and find that experimental observations corroborate with theoretical study.

  7. Mechanical response of spiral interconnect arrays for highly stretchable electronics

    KAUST Repository

    Qaiser, Nadeem; Khan, S. M.; Nour, Maha A.; Rehman, M. U.; Rojas, J. P.; Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2017-01-01

    A spiral interconnect array is a commonly used architecture for stretchable electronics, which accommodates large deformations during stretching. Here, we show the effect of different geometrical morphologies on the deformation behavior of the spiral island network. We use numerical modeling to calculate the stresses and strains in the spiral interconnects under the prescribed displacement of 1000 μm. Our result shows that spiral arm elongation depends on the angular position of that particular spiral in the array. We also introduce the concept of a unit-cell, which fairly replicates the deformation mechanism for full complex hexagon, diamond, and square shaped arrays. The spiral interconnects which are axially connected between displaced and fixed islands attain higher stretchability and thus experience the maximum deformations. We perform tensile testing of 3D printed replica and find that experimental observations corroborate with theoretical study.

  8. Three-dimensional interconnected porous graphitic carbon derived from rice straw for high performance supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Hong; Hu, Jingpeng; Wu, Shichao; Wang, Xiaolan; Zhang, Hui; Xu, Hui; Lian, Kun

    2018-04-01

    Three-dimensional interconnected porous graphitic carbon materials are synthesized via a combination of graphitization and activation process with rice straw as the carbon source. The physicochemical properties of the three-dimensional interconnected porous graphitic carbon materials are characterized by Nitrogen adsorption/desorption, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, Scanning electron microscopy and Transmission electron microscopy. The results demonstrate that the as-prepared carbon is a high surface area carbon material (a specific surface area of 3333 m2 g-1 with abundant mesoporous and microporous structures). And it exhibits superb performance in symmetric double layer capacitors with a high specific capacitance of 400 F g-1 at a current density of 0.1 A g-1, good rate performance with 312 F g-1 under a current density of 5 A g-1 and favorable cycle stability with 6.4% loss after 10000 cycles at a current density of 5 A g-1 in the aqueous electrolyte of 6M KOH. Thus, rice straw is a promising carbon source for fabricating inexpensive, sustainable and high performance supercapacitors' electrode materials.

  9. Holistic design in high-speed optical interconnects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeedi, Saman

    Integrated circuit scaling has enabled a huge growth in processing capability, which necessitates a corresponding increase in inter-chip communication bandwidth. As bandwidth requirements for chip-to-chip interconnection scale, deficiencies of electrical channels become more apparent. Optical links present a viable alternative due to their low frequency-dependent loss and higher bandwidth density in the form of wavelength division multiplexing. As integrated photonics and bonding technologies are maturing, commercialization of hybrid-integrated optical links are becoming a reality. Increasing silicon integration leads to better performance in optical links but necessitates a corresponding co-design strategy in both electronics and photonics. In this light, holistic design of high-speed optical links with an in-depth understanding of photonics and state-of-the-art electronics brings their performance to unprecedented levels. This thesis presents developments in high-speed optical links by co-designing and co-integrating the primary elements of an optical link: receiver, transmitter, and clocking. In the first part of this thesis a 3D-integrated CMOS/Silicon-photonic receiver will be presented. The electronic chip features a novel design that employs a low-bandwidth TIA front-end, double-sampling and equalization through dynamic offset modulation. Measured results show -14.9dBm of sensitivity and energy eciency of 170fJ/b at 25Gb/s. The same receiver front-end is also used to implement source-synchronous 4-channel WDM-based parallel optical receiver. Quadrature ILO-based clocking is employed for synchronization and a novel frequency-tracking method that exploits the dynamics of IL in a quadrature ring oscillator to increase the effective locking range. An adaptive body-biasing circuit is designed to maintain the per-bit-energy consumption constant across wide data-rates. The prototype measurements indicate a record-low power consumption of 153fJ/b at 32Gb/s. The

  10. Electrochemical fabrication of interconnected tungsten bronze nanosheets for high performance supercapacitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Gan; Liu, Xiao-Xia

    2018-04-01

    Interconnected H0.12WO3ṡH2O nanosheets with high electrochemical performances are fabricated on partial exfoliated graphite substrate (Ex-GF) by potential-limited pulse galvanostatic method (PLPG). The dead volume problem of bulk pesudocapacitive materials is addressed by the novel interconnected nanosheets structure, enabling a large specific capacitance of 5.95 F cm-2 (495.8 F g-1) at 2 mA cm-2. Merited from the fluent electrolyte penetration channels established by the plenty voids among nanosheets, as well as fast electron transportation in the electronic conductive tungsten bronze which is directly grown from graphite substrate, the obtained WO3/Ex-GF demonstrates excellent rate capability. The material can maintain 60.0% of its capacitance when the discharge current density increases from 2 to 100 mA cm-2. Moreover, WO3/Ex-GF doesn't show capacitance decay after 5000 galvanostatic charge-discharge cycles, displaying its super stability. Furthermore, a high performance asymmetric supercapacitor assembled by using WO3/Ex-GF and electrochemical fabricated MnO2/Ex-GF as negative and positive electrodes, respectively displays a high energy density of 2.88 mWh cm-3 at the power density of 11.1 mW cm-3, demonstrating its potential application for energy storage.

  11. High Speed PAM -8 Optical Interconnects with Digital Equalization based on Neural Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaiarin, Simone; Pang, Xiaodan; Ozolins, Oskars

    2016-01-01

    We experimentally evaluate a high-speed optical interconnection link with neural network equalization. Enhanced equalization performances are shown comparing to standard linear FFE for an EML-based 32 GBd PAM-8 signal after 4-km SMF transmission.......We experimentally evaluate a high-speed optical interconnection link with neural network equalization. Enhanced equalization performances are shown comparing to standard linear FFE for an EML-based 32 GBd PAM-8 signal after 4-km SMF transmission....

  12. Wireless Interconnect in Multilayer Chip-Area-Networks for Future Multimaterial High-Speed Systems Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oluwole John Famoriji

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless chip area network which enables wireless communication among chips fosters development in wireless communication and it is envisioned that future hardware system and developmental functionality will require multimaterial. However, the traditional system architecture is limited by channel bandwidth-limited interfaces, throughput, delay, and power consumption and as a result limits the efficiency and system performance. Wireless interconnect has been proposed to overcome scalability and performance limitations of multihop wired architectures. Characterization and modeling of channel become more important for specification of choice of modulation or demodulation techniques, channel bandwidths, and other mitigation techniques for channel distortion and interference such as equalization. This paper presents an analytical channel model for characterization, modeling, and analysis of wireless chip-to-chip or interchip interconnects in wireless chip area network with a particular focus on large-scale analysis. The proposed model accounts for both static and dynamic channel losses/attenuation in high-speed systems. Simulation and evaluation of the model with experimental data conducted in a computer desktop casing depict that proposed model matched measurement data very closely. The transmission of EM waves via a medium introduces molecular absorption due to various molecules within the material substance. This model is a representative of channel loss profile in wireless chip-area-network communication and good for future electronic circuits and high-speed systems design.

  13. Back-end interconnection. A generic concept for high volume manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bosman, J.; Budel, T.; De Kok, C.J.G.M.

    2013-10-15

    The general method to realize series connection in thin film PV modules is monolithical interconnection through a sequence of laser scribes (P1, P2 and P3) and layer depositions. This method however implies that the deposition processes are interrupted several times, an undesirable situation in high volume processing. In order to eliminate this drawback we focus our developments on the so called 'back-end interconnection concept' in which series interconnection takes place AFTER the deposition of the functional layers of the thin film PV device. The process of making a back-end interconnection combines laser scribing, curing, sintering and inkjet processes. These different processes interacts with each other and are investigated in order to create processing strategies that are robust to ensure high volume production. The generic approach created a technology base that can be applied to any thin film PV technology.

  14. High-performance parallel processors based on star-coupled wavelength division multiplexing optical interconnects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deri, Robert J.; DeGroot, Anthony J.; Haigh, Ronald E.

    2002-01-01

    As the performance of individual elements within parallel processing systems increases, increased communication capability between distributed processor and memory elements is required. There is great interest in using fiber optics to improve interconnect communication beyond that attainable using electronic technology. Several groups have considered WDM, star-coupled optical interconnects. The invention uses a fiber optic transceiver to provide low latency, high bandwidth channels for such interconnects using a robust multimode fiber technology. Instruction-level simulation is used to quantify the bandwidth, latency, and concurrency required for such interconnects to scale to 256 nodes, each operating at 1 GFLOPS performance. Performance scales have been shown to .apprxeq.100 GFLOPS for scientific application kernels using a small number of wavelengths (8 to 32), only one wavelength received per node, and achievable optoelectronic bandwidth and latency.

  15. A Distributed Robust Dispatch Approach for Interconnected Systems with a High Proportion of Wind Power Penetration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianwen Ren

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a distributed robust dispatch approach to solve the economic dispatch problem of the interconnected systems with a high proportion of wind power penetration. First of all, the basic principle of synchronous alternating direction method of multipliers (SADMM is introduced to solve the economic dispatch problem of the two interconnected regions. Next, the polyhedron set of the robust optimization method is utilized to describe the wind power output. To adjust the conservativeness of the polyhedron set, an adjustment factor of robust conservativeness is introduced. Subsequently, considering the operation characteristics of the DC tie line between the interconnected regions, an economic dispatch model with a high proportion of wind power penetration is established and parallel iteration based on SADMM is used to solve the model. In each iteration, the optimized power of DC tie lines is exchanged between the regions without requiring the participation of the superior dispatch center. Finally, the validity of the proposed model is verified by the examples of the 2-area 6-node interconnected system and the interconnection of several modified New England 39-node systems. The results show that the proposed model can meet the needs of the independent dispatch of regional power grids, effectively deal with the uncertainty of wind power output, and maximize the wind power consumption under the condition of ensuring the safe operation of the interconnected systems.

  16. Reliability of spring interconnects for high channel-count polyimide electrode arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Sharif; Ordonez, Juan Sebastian; Stieglitz, Thomas

    2018-05-01

    Active neural implants with a high channel-count need robust and reliable operational assembly for the targeted environment in order to be classified as viable fully implantable systems. The discrete functionality of the electrode array and the implant electronics is vital for intact assembly. A critical interface exists at the interconnection sites between the electrode array and the implant electronics, especially in hybrid assemblies (e.g. retinal implants) where electrodes and electronics are not on the same substrate. Since the interconnects in such assemblies cannot be hermetically sealed, reliable protection against the physiological environment is essential for delivering high insulation resistance and low defusibility of salt ions, which are limited in complexity by current assembly techniques. This work reports on a combination of spring-type interconnects on a polyimide array with silicone rubber gasket insulation for chronically active implantable systems. The spring design of the interconnects on the backend of the electrode array compensates for the uniform thickness of the sandwiched gasket during bonding in assembly and relieves the propagation of extrinsic stresses to the bulk polyimide substrate. The contact resistance of the microflex-bonded spring interconnects with the underlying metallized ceramic test vehicles and insulation through the gasket between adjacent contacts was investigated against the MIL883 standard. The contact and insulation resistances remained stable in the exhausting environmental conditions.

  17. Origin of high photoconductive gain in fully transparent heterojunction nanocrystalline oxide image sensors and interconnects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Sanghun; Song, Ihun; Lee, Sungsik; Ryu, Byungki; Ahn, Seung-Eon; Lee, Eunha; Kim, Young; Nathan, Arokia; Robertson, John; Chung, U-In

    2014-11-05

    A technique for invisible image capture using a photosensor array based on transparent conducting oxide semiconductor thin-film transistors and transparent interconnection technologies is presented. A transparent conducting layer is employed for the sensor electrodes as well as interconnection in the array, providing about 80% transmittance at visible-light wavelengths. The phototransistor is a Hf-In-Zn-O/In-Zn-O heterostructure yielding a high quantum-efficiency in the visible range. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Optical Characteristics of a Multichannel Hybrid Integrated Light Source for Ultra-High-Bandwidth Optical Interconnections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takanori Shimizu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The optical characteristics of a multi-channel hybrid integrated light source were described for an optical interconnection with a bandwidth of over 10 Tbit/s. The power uniformity of the relative intensity of a 1000-channel light source was shown, and the minimum standard deviation s of the optical power of the 200 output ports at each 25-channel laser diode (LD array was estimated to be 0.49 dB. This hybrid integrated light source is expected to be easily adaptable to a photonics-electronics convergence system for ultra-high-bandwidth interchip interconnections.

  19. Preparation of interconnected highly porous polymeric structures by a replication and freeze-drying process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hou, Q.; Grijpma, Dirk W.; Feijen, Jan

    2003-01-01

    Three-dimensional degradable porous polymeric structures with high porosities (93-98%) and well-interconnected pore networks have been prepared by freeze-drying polymer solutions in the presence of a leachable template followed by leaching of the template. Templates of the pore network were prepared

  20. High temperature oxidation of slurry coated interconnect alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, Åsa Helen

    with this interaction mechanism mainly give a geometrical protection against oxidation by blocking oxygen access at the surface of the oxide scale. The protecting effect is gradually reduced as the oxide scale grows thicker than the diameter of the coating particles. Interaction mechanism B entails a chemical reaction...... scale. The incorporated coating particles create a geometrical protection against oxidation that should not loose their effect after the oxide scale has grown thicker than the diameter of the coating particles. The two single layer coatings consisting of (La0.85Sr0.15)MnO3 + 10% excess Mn, LSM, and (La0......In this project, high temperature oxidation experiments of slurry coated ferritic alloys in atmospheres similar to the atmosphere found at the cathode in an SOFC were conducted. From the observations possible interaction mechanisms between the slurry coatings and the growing oxide scale...

  1. Interconnected mesopores and high accessibility in UVM-7-like silicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez-Cabero, Monica [Universitat de Valencia, Institut de Ciencia dels Materials (Spain); Hungria, Ana B. [Universidad de Cadiz, Departamento de Ciencia de Materiales, Ingenieria Metalurgica y Quimica Inorganica (Spain); Morales, Jose Manuel [Universitat de Valencia, Institut de Ciencia dels Materials (Spain); Tortajada, Marta; Ramon, Daniel [Biopolis S. L. (Spain); Moragues, Alaina; El Haskouri, Jamal; Beltran, Aurelio; Beltran, Daniel; Amoros, Pedro, E-mail: pedro.amoros@uv.es [Universitat de Valencia, Institut de Ciencia dels Materials (Spain)

    2012-08-15

    Nanoparticulated bimodal mesoporous silicas (NBS) have proved to constitute adequate supports in a variety of applications requiring enhanced accessibility to the active sites. Mass-transfer kinetics seems to be highly favoured in UVM-7-derived NBS materials. To understand the mass-diffusion phenomena throughout UVM-7-like supports requires well-grounded knowledge about their pore architecture. 3-D reconstructions of the UVM-7 mesostructure carried out by electron tomography reveal the existence of a true hierarchic connectivity involving both inter- and intra-nanoparticle pores. This connectivity makes self-supported nanoparticulated mesoporous bimodal carbon replicas of the supports feasible to obtaining by nanocasting. Both the temperature-induced mobility of gold nanodomains and the fast and efficient enzyme adsorption in UVM-7-like silicas are examples of non-constrained diffusion processes happening inside such an open network.

  2. Interconnected mesopores and high accessibility in UVM-7-like silicas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pérez-Cabero, Mónica; Hungría, Ana B.; Morales, José Manuel; Tortajada, Marta; Ramón, Daniel; Moragues, Alaina; El Haskouri, Jamal; Beltrán, Aurelio; Beltrán, Daniel; Amorós, Pedro

    2012-01-01

    Nanoparticulated bimodal mesoporous silicas (NBS) have proved to constitute adequate supports in a variety of applications requiring enhanced accessibility to the active sites. Mass-transfer kinetics seems to be highly favoured in UVM-7-derived NBS materials. To understand the mass-diffusion phenomena throughout UVM-7-like supports requires well-grounded knowledge about their pore architecture. 3-D reconstructions of the UVM-7 mesostructure carried out by electron tomography reveal the existence of a true hierarchic connectivity involving both inter- and intra-nanoparticle pores. This connectivity makes self-supported nanoparticulated mesoporous bimodal carbon replicas of the supports feasible to obtaining by nanocasting. Both the temperature-induced mobility of gold nanodomains and the fast and efficient enzyme adsorption in UVM-7-like silicas are examples of non-constrained diffusion processes happening inside such an open network.

  3. Fabrication of high aspect ratio through-wafer copper interconnects by reverse pulse electroplating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu, Changdong; Zhang, Tong-Yi; Xu, Hui

    2009-01-01

    This study aims to fabricate high aspect ratio through-wafer copper interconnects by a simple reverse pulse electroplating technique. High aspect-ratio (∼18) through-wafer holes obtained by a two-step deep reactive ion etching (DRIE) process exhibit a taper profile, which might automatically optimize the local current density distribution during the electroplating process, thereby achieving void-free high aspect-ratio copper vias

  4. Highly graphitized laterally interconnected SWCNT network synthesis via a sandwich-grown method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teng, I-Ju; Chen, Kai-Ling; Wang, Li-Chun; Kuo, Cheng-Tzu; Hsu, Hui-Lin; Jian, Sheng-Rui; Chen, Jung-Hsuan; Wang, Wei-Hsiang

    2011-01-01

    We present a sandwich-grown method for growing laterally interconnected single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) networks with a high degree of graphitization by microwave plasma chemical vapour deposition (MPCVD). An Al 2 O 3 -supported Fe catalyst precursor layer deposited on an oxidized Si substrate with an upper Si cover is first pretreated in pure hydrogen, and then exposed to a gas mixture of methane/hydrogen for growth process at a lower growth temperature and a faster rate. The effects of various parameters, such as catalyst film thickness, gas flow rate, working pressure, growth time and plasma power, on the morphologies and structural characteristics of the SWCNT networks are investigated, and therefore provide the essential conditions for direct growth of laterally interconnected SWCNT networks. Analytical results demonstrate that the SWCNT-based lateral architecture comprises a mixture of graphene-sheet-wrapped catalyst particles and laterally interconnected nanotubes, isolated or branched or assembled into bundles. The results also show that the formation of the laterally interconnected SWCNT networks is related to the sandwich-like stack approach and the addition of an Al 2 O 3 layer in the MPCVD process. The successful growth of lateral SWCNT networks provides new experimental information for simply and efficiently preparing lateral SWCNTs on unpatterned substrates, and opens a pathway to create network-structured nanotube-based devices.

  5. Communication Requirements and Interconnect Optimization forHigh-End Scientific Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamil, Shoaib; Oliker, Leonid; Pinar, Ali; Shalf, John

    2007-11-12

    The path towards realizing peta-scale computing isincreasingly dependent on building supercomputers with unprecedentednumbers of processors. To prevent the interconnect from dominating theoverall cost of these ultra-scale systems, there is a critical need forhigh-performance network solutions whose costs scale linearly with systemsize. This work makes several unique contributions towards attaining thatgoal. First, we conduct one of the broadest studies to date of high-endapplication communication requirements, whose computational methodsinclude: finite-difference, lattice-bolzmann, particle in cell, sparselinear algebra, particle mesh ewald, and FFT-based solvers. Toefficiently collect this data, we use the IPM (Integrated PerformanceMonitoring) profiling layer to gather detailed messaging statistics withminimal impact to code performance. Using the derived communicationcharacterizations, we next present fit-trees interconnects, a novelapproach for designing network infrastructure at a fraction of thecomponent cost of traditional fat-tree solutions. Finally, we propose theHybrid Flexibly Assignable Switch Topology (HFAST) infrastructure, whichuses both passive (circuit) and active (packet) commodity switchcomponents to dynamically reconfigure interconnects to suit thetopological requirements of scientific applications. Overall ourexploration leads to a promising directions for practically addressingthe interconnect requirements of future peta-scale systems.

  6. Interconnected carbon nanosheets derived from hemp for ultrafast supercapacitors with high energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huanlei; Xu, Zhanwei; Kohandehghan, Alireza; Li, Zhi; Cui, Kai; Tan, Xuehai; Stephenson, Tyler James; King'ondu, Cecil K; Holt, Chris M B; Olsen, Brian C; Tak, Jin Kwon; Harfield, Don; Anyia, Anthony O; Mitlin, David

    2013-06-25

    We created unique interconnected partially graphitic carbon nanosheets (10-30 nm in thickness) with high specific surface area (up to 2287 m(2) g(-1)), significant volume fraction of mesoporosity (up to 58%), and good electrical conductivity (211-226 S m(-1)) from hemp bast fiber. The nanosheets are ideally suited for low (down to 0 °C) through high (100 °C) temperature ionic-liquid-based supercapacitor applications: At 0 °C and a current density of 10 A g(-1), the electrode maintains a remarkable capacitance of 106 F g(-1). At 20, 60, and 100 °C and an extreme current density of 100 A g(-1), there is excellent capacitance retention (72-92%) with the specific capacitances being 113, 144, and 142 F g(-1), respectively. These characteristics favorably place the materials on a Ragone chart providing among the best power-energy characteristics (on an active mass normalized basis) ever reported for an electrochemical capacitor: At a very high power density of 20 kW kg(-1) and 20, 60, and 100 °C, the energy densities are 19, 34, and 40 Wh kg(-1), respectively. Moreover the assembled supercapacitor device yields a maximum energy density of 12 Wh kg(-1), which is higher than that of commercially available supercapacitors. By taking advantage of the complex multilayered structure of a hemp bast fiber precursor, such exquisite carbons were able to be achieved by simple hydrothermal carbonization combined with activation. This novel precursor-synthesis route presents a great potential for facile large-scale production of high-performance carbons for a variety of diverse applications including energy storage.

  7. High temperature corrosion of metallic interconnects in solid oxide fuel cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bastidas, D. M.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Research and development has made it possible to use metallic interconnects in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC instead of ceramic materials. The use of metallic interconnects was formerly hindered by the high operating temperature, which made the interconnect degrade too much and too fast to be an efficient alternative. When the operating temperature was lowered, the use of metallic interconnects proved to be favourable since they are easier and cheaper to produce than ceramic interconnects. However, metallic interconnects continue to be degraded despite the lowered temperature, and their corrosion products contribute to electrical degradation in the fuel cell. Coatings of nickel, chromium, aluminium, zinc, manganese, yttrium or lanthanum between the interconnect and the electrodes reduce this degradation during operation

    El uso de interconectores metálicos en pilas de combustible de óxido sólido (SOFC en sustitución de materiales cerámicos ha sido posible gracias a la investigación y desarrollo de nuevos materiales metálicos. Inicialmente, el uso de interconectores metálicos fue limitado, debido a la elevada temperatura de trabajo, ocasionando de forma rápida la degradación del material, lo que impedía que fuesen una alternativa. A medida que la temperatura de trabajo de las SOFC descendió, el uso de interconectores metálicos demostró ser una buena alternativa, dado que son más fáciles de fabricar y más baratos que los interconectores cerámicos. Sin embargo, los interconectores metálicos continúan degradándose a pesar de descender la temperatura a la que operan las SOFC y, asimismo, los productos de corrosión favorecen las pérdidas eléctricas de la pila de combustible. Recubrimientos de níquel, cromo, aluminio, zinc, manganeso, itrio y lantano entre el interconector y los electrodos reduce dichas pérdidas eléctricas.

  8. Seismic qualification of multiple interconnected safety-related cabinets in a high seismic zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M.R.; Chen, W.H.W.; Wang, T.Y.

    1993-01-01

    Certain safety-related multiple, interconnected electrical cabinets and the devices contained therein are required to perform their intended safety functions during and after a design basis seismic event. In general, seismic testing is performed to ensure the structural integrity of the cabinets and the functionality of their associated devices. Constrained by the shake table capacity, seismic testing is usually performed only for a limited number of interconnected cabinets. Also, original shake table tests performed usually did not provide detailed response information at various locations inside the cabinets. For operational and maintenance purposes, doors and panels of some cabinets may need to be opened while the adjacent cabinets are required to remain functional. In addition, in-cabinet response spectra need to be generated for the seismic qualification of new devices and the replacement parts. Consequently, seismic analysis of safety-related multiple, interconnected cabinets is frequently required for configurations which are different from the original tested conditions. This paper presents results of seismic tests of three interconnected safety-related cabinets and finite element analyses performed to compare the analytical results with those obtained from the cabinet seismic tests. Parametric analyses are performed to determine how many panels and doors can be opened while the adjacent cabinets still remain functional. The study indicates that for cabinets located in a high seismic zone, the critical damping of the cabinet is significantly higher than 5% to 7% typically used in qualifying electrical equipment. For devices mounted on the cabinet doors to performed their intended safety function, it requires stiffening of doors and that these doors be properly bolted to the cabinet frame. It also shows that even though doors and panels bolted to the cabinet frame are the primary seismic resistant element of the cabinet, opening of a limited number of them

  9. Spine-like Nanostructured Carbon Interconnected by Graphene for High-performance Supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sang-Hoon; Yoon, Seung-Beom; Kim, Hyun-Kyung; Han, Joong Tark; Park, Hae-Woong; Han, Joah; Yun, Seok-Min; Jeong, Han Gi; Roh, Kwang Chul; Kim, Kwang-Bum

    2014-08-01

    Recent studies on supercapacitors have focused on the development of hierarchical nanostructured carbons by combining two-dimensional graphene and other conductive sp2 carbons, which differ in dimensionality, to improve their electrochemical performance. Herein, we report a strategy for synthesizing a hierarchical graphene-based carbon material, which we shall refer to as spine-like nanostructured carbon, from a one-dimensional graphitic carbon nanofiber by controlling the local graphene/graphitic structure via an expanding process and a co-solvent exfoliation method. Spine-like nanostructured carbon has a unique hierarchical structure of partially exfoliated graphitic blocks interconnected by thin graphene sheets in the same manner as in the case of ligaments. Owing to the exposed graphene layers and interconnected sp2 carbon structure, this hierarchical nanostructured carbon possesses a large, electrochemically accessible surface area with high electrical conductivity and exhibits high electrochemical performance.

  10. Study of a chromia-forming alloy behavior as interconnect material for High Temperature Vapor Electrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillou, S.

    2011-01-01

    In High Temperature Vapor Electrolysis (HTVE) system, the materials chosen for the inter-connectors should have a good corrosion behaviour in air and in H 2 -H 2 O mixtures at 800 C, and keep a high electronic conductivity over long durations as well. In this context, the first goal of this study was to evaluate a commercial ferritic alloy (the K41X alloy) as interconnect for HTVE application. Oxidation tests in furnace and in microbalance have therefore been carried out in order to determine oxidation kinetics. Meanwhile, the Area Specific Resistance (ASR) was evaluated by Contact Resistance measurements performed at 800 C. The second objective was to improve our comprehension of chromia-forming alloys oxidation mechanism, in particular in H 2 /H 2 O mixtures. For that purpose, some specific tests have been conducted: tracer experiments, coupled with the characterization of the oxide scale by PEC (Photo-Electro-Chemistry). This approach has also been applied to the study of a LaCrO 3 perovskite oxide coating on the K41X alloy. This phase is indeed of high interest for HTVE applications due to its high conductivity properties. This latter study leads to further understanding on the role of lanthanum as reactive element, which effect is still under discussion in literature.In both media at 800 C, the scale is composed of a Cr 2 O 3 /(Mn,Cr) 3 O 4 duplex scale, covered in the case of H 2 -H 2 O mixture by a thin scale made of Mn 2 TiO 4 spinel. In air, the growth mechanism is found to be cationic, in agreement with literature. The LaCrO 3 coating does not modify the direction of scale growth but lowers the growth kinetics during the first hundreds hours. Moreover, with the coating, the scale adherence is favored and the conductivity appears to be slightly higher. In the H 2 -H 2 O mixture, the growth mechanism is found to be anionic. The LaCrO 3 coating diminishes the oxidation kinetics. Although the scale thickness is about the same in both media, the ASR parameter

  11. Integrated Optical Interconnect Architectures for Embedded Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Nicolescu, Gabriela

    2013-01-01

    This book provides a broad overview of current research in optical interconnect technologies and architectures. Introductory chapters on high-performance computing and the associated issues in conventional interconnect architectures, and on the fundamental building blocks for integrated optical interconnect, provide the foundations for the bulk of the book which brings together leading experts in the field of optical interconnect architectures for data communication. Particular emphasis is given to the ways in which the photonic components are assembled into architectures to address the needs of data-intensive on-chip communication, and to the performance evaluation of such architectures for specific applications.   Provides state-of-the-art research on the use of optical interconnects in Embedded Systems; Begins with coverage of the basics for high-performance computing and optical interconnect; Includes a variety of on-chip optical communication topologies; Features coverage of system integration and opti...

  12. Direct synthesis of highly porous interconnected carbon nanosheets and their application as high-performance supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevilla, Marta; Fuertes, Antonio B

    2014-05-27

    An easy, one-step procedure is proposed for the synthesis of highly porous carbon nanosheets with an excellent performance as supercapacitor electrodes. The procedure is based on the carbonization of an organic salt, i.e., potassium citrate, at a temperature in the 750-900 °C range. In this way, carbon particles made up of interconnected carbon nanosheets with a thickness of <80 nm are obtained. The porosity of the carbon nanosheets consists essentially of micropores distributed in two pore systems of 0.7-0.85 nm and 0.95-1.6 nm. Importantly, the micropore sizes of both systems can be enlarged by simply increasing the carbonization temperature. Furthermore, the carbon nanosheets possess BET surface areas in the ∼1400-2200 m(2) g(-1) range and electronic conductivities in the range of 1.7-7.4 S cm(-1) (measured at 7.1 MPa). These materials behave as high-performance supercapacitor electrodes in organic electrolyte and exhibit an excellent power handling ability and a superb robustness over long-term cycling. Excellent results were obtained with the supercapacitor fabricated from the material synthesized at 850 °C in terms of both gravimetric and volumetric energy and power densities. This device was able to deliver ∼13 Wh kg(-1) (5.2 Wh L(-1)) at an extremely high power density of 78 kW kg(-1) (31 kW L(-1)) and ∼30 Wh kg(-1) (12 Wh L(-1)) at a power density of 13 kW kg(-1) (5.2 kW L(-1)) (voltage range of 2.7 V).

  13. Superconducting Multilayer High-Density Flexible Printed Circuit Board for Very High Thermal Resistance Interconnections

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Broïse, Xavier; Le Coguie, Alain; Sauvageot, Jean-Luc; Pigot, Claude; Coppolani, Xavier; Moreau, Vincent; d'Hollosy, Samuel; Knarosovski, Timur; Engel, Andreas

    2018-05-01

    We have successively developed two superconducting flexible PCBs for cryogenic applications. The first one is monolayer, includes 552 tracks (10 µm wide, 20 µm spacing), and receives 24 wire-bonded integrated circuits. The second one is multilayer, with one track layer between two shielding layers interconnected by microvias, includes 37 tracks, and can be interconnected at both ends by wire bonding or by connectors. The first cold measurements have been performed and show good performances. The novelty of these products is, for the first one, the association of superconducting materials with very narrow pitch and bonded integrated circuits and, for the second one, the introduction of a superconducting multilayer structure interconnected by vias which is, to our knowledge, a world-first.

  14. Interconnected 3 D Network of Graphene-Oxide Nanosheets Decorated with Carbon Dots for High-Performance Supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiao; Li, Ming; Dong, Hanwu; Liu, Yingliang; Hu, Hang; Cai, Yijin; Liang, Yeru; Xiao, Yong; Zheng, Mingtao

    2017-06-22

    Interconnected 3 D nanosheet networks of reduced graphene oxide decorated with carbon dots (rGO/CDs) are successfully fabricated through a simple one-pot hydrothermal process. The as-prepared rGO/CDs present appropriate 3 D interconnectivity and abundant stable oxygen-containing functional groups, to which we can attribute the excellent electrochemical performance such as high specific capacitance, good rate capability, and great cycling stability. Employed as binder-free electrodes for supercapacitors, the resulting rGO/CDs exhibit excellent long-term cycling stability (ca. 92 % capacitance retention after 20 000 charge/discharge cycles at current density of 10 A g -1 ) as well as a maximum specific capacitance of about 308 F g -1 at current density of 0.5 A g -1 , which is much higher than that of rGO (200 F g -1 ) and CDs (2.2 F g -1 ). This work provides a promising strategy to fabricate graphene-based nanomaterials with greatly boosted electrochemical performances by decoration of with CDs. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. New Architecture of Optical Interconnect for High-Speed Optical Computerized Data Networks (Nonlinear Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Sayed A. El-Badawy

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Although research into the use of optics in computers has increased in the last and current decades, the fact remains that electronics is still superior to optics in almost every way. Research into the use of optics at this stage mirrors the research into electronics after the 2nd World War. The advantages of using fiber optics over wiring are the same as the argument for using optics over electronics in computers. Even through totally optical computers are now a reality, computers that combine both electronics and optics, electro-optic hybrids, have been in use for some time. In the present paper, architecture of optical interconnect is built up on the bases of four Vertical-Cavity Surface- Emitting Laser Diodes (VCSELD and two optical links where thermal effects of both the diodes and the links are included. Nonlinear relations are correlated to investigate the power-current and the voltage-current dependences of the four devices. The good performance (high speed of the interconnect is deeply and parametrically investigated under wide ranges of the affecting parameters. The high speed performance is processed through three different effects, namely the device 3-dB bandwidth, the link dispersion characteristics, and the transmitted bit rate (soliton. Eight combinations are investigated; each possesses its own characteristics. The best architecture is the one composed of VCSELD that operates at 850 nm and the silica fiber whatever the operating set of causes. This combination possesses the largest device 3-dB bandwidth, the largest link bandwidth and the largest soliton transmitted bit rate. The increase of the ambient temperature reduces the high-speed performance of the interconnect

  16. 3D interconnected honeycomb-like and high rate performance porous carbons from petroleum asphalt for supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Lei; Li, Xinxin; Wang, Yixian; Liu, Jialiang; Tian, Wei; Ning, Hui; Wu, Mingbo

    2018-06-01

    In this paper, 3D interconnected honeycomb-like hierarchical porous carbons (HPCs) are prepared from petroleum asphalt via in-situ KOH activation in a molten salt medium. As symmetry two electrodes for supercapacitors, HPCs with high specific surface area of 2227 m2 g-1 show high rate performance, i.e. 265 F g-1 at 0.05 A g-1, 221 F g-1 at 20 A g-1, and superior cycle stability with 91.1% capacitance retention at 5 A g-1 after 10,000 cycles in 6 M KOH electrolyte. This facile strategy to prepare massive HPCs from cheap petroleum asphalt can provide high performance electrode materials for energy storage devices.

  17. Interconnection Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Interconnection Guidelines provide general guidance on the steps involved with connecting biogas recovery systems to the utility electrical power grid. Interconnection best practices including time and cost estimates are discussed.

  18. Synthesis of highly interconnected 3D scaffold from Arothron stellatus skin collagen for tissue engineering application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanathan, Giriprasath; Singaravelu, Sivakumar; Raja, M D; Sivagnanam, Uma Tiruchirapalli

    2015-11-01

    The substrate which is avidly used for tissue engineering applications should have good mechanical and biocompatible properties, and all these parameters are often considered as essential for dermal reformation. Highly interconnected three dimensional (3D) wound dressing material with enhanced structural integrity was synthesized from Arothron stellatus fish skin (AsFS) collagen for tissue engineering applications. The synthesized 3D collagen sponge (COL-SPG) was further characterized by different physicochemical methods. The scanning electron microscopy analysis of the material demonstrated that well interconnected pores with homogeneous microstructure on the surface aids higher swelling index and that the material also possessed good mechanical properties with a Young's modulus of 0.89±0.2 MPa. Biocompatibility of the 3D COL-SPG showed 92% growth for both NIH 3T3 fibroblasts and keratinocytes. Overall, the study revealed that synthesized 3D COL-SPG from fish skin will act as a promising wound dressing in skin tissue engineering. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Phosphotyrosine signaling proteins that drive oncogenesis tend to be highly interconnected.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koytiger, Grigoriy; Kaushansky, Alexis; Gordus, Andrew; Rush, John; Sorger, Peter K; MacBeath, Gavin

    2013-05-01

    Mutation and overexpression of receptor tyrosine kinases or the proteins they regulate serve as oncogenic drivers in diverse cancers. To better understand receptor tyrosine kinase signaling and its link to oncogenesis, we used protein microarrays to systematically and quantitatively measure interactions between virtually every SH2 or PTB domain encoded in the human genome and all known sites of tyrosine phosphorylation on 40 receptor tyrosine kinases and on most of the SH2 and PTB domain-containing adaptor proteins. We found that adaptor proteins, like RTKs, have many high affinity bindings sites for other adaptor proteins. In addition, proteins that drive cancer, including both receptors and adaptor proteins, tend to be much more highly interconnected via networks of SH2 and PTB domain-mediated interactions than nononcogenic proteins. Our results suggest that network topological properties such as connectivity can be used to prioritize new drug targets in this well-studied family of signaling proteins.

  20. Interpretation for ''high''-Tc of the totally interconnected solution of the Ma and Lee model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiecko, C.

    1988-09-01

    The already presented totally interconnected (mean-field) approximation of the Ma and Lee model, pictures very well many ingredients of the present status of comprehension of high-T c superconductors. The picture is that of a disordered grain with variable number of particles available for an attractive on-site pairing interaction, embedded in a reservoir of normal particles which fix the chemical potential. Interesting effect of absence of T c and then a sharp increase and slow decay of T c with disorder appears for weak coupling pairing as compared with the hopping probability for single particles. Interpretation is given in terms of one-particle Anderson localization theory and standard mechanisms. (author). 13 refs, 4 figs

  1. Parallel interconnect for a novel system approach to short distance high information transfer data links

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raskin, Glenn; Lebby, Michael S.; Carney, F.; Kazakia, M.; Schwartz, Daniel B.; Gaw, Craig A.

    1997-04-01

    The OPTOBUSTM family of products provides for high performance parallel interconnection utilizing optical links in a 10-bit wide bi-directional configuration. The link is architected to be 'transparent' in that it is totally asynchronous and dc coupled so that it can be treated as a perfect cable with extremely low skew and no losses. An optical link consists of two identical transceiver modules and a pair of connectorized 62.5 micrometer multi mode fiber ribbon cables. The OPTOBUSTM I link provides bi- directional functionality at 4 Gbps (400 Mbps per channel), while the OPTOBUSTM II link will offer the same capability at 8 Gbps (800 Mbps per channel). The transparent structure of the OPTOBUSTM links allow for an arbitrary data stream regardless of its structure. Both the OPTOBUSTM I and OPTOBUSTM II transceiver modules are packaged as partially populated 14 by 14 pin grid arrays (PGA) with optical receptacles on one side of the module. The modules themselves are composed of several elements; including passives, integrated circuits optoelectronic devices and optical interface units (OIUs) (which consist of polymer waveguides and a specially designed lead frame). The initial offering of the modules electrical interface utilizes differential CML. The CML line driver sinks 5 mA of current into one of two pins. When terminated with 50 ohm pull-up resistors tied to a voltage between VCC and VCC-2, the result is a differential swing of plus or minus 250 mV, capable of driving standard PECL I/Os. Future offerings of the OPTOBUSTM links will incorporate LVDS and PECL interfaces as well as CML. The integrated circuits are silicon based. For OPTOBUSTM I links, a 1.5 micrometer drawn emitter NPN bipolar process is used for the receiver and an enhanced 0.8 micrometer CMOS process for the laser driver. For OPTOBUSTM II links, a 0.8 micrometer drawn emitter NPN bipolar process is used for the receiver and the driver IC utilizes 0.8 micrometer BiCMOS technology. The OPTOBUSTM

  2. Investigation on the possible interconnection between Kanata sinkhole, on the high plateau of Tripolis, and springs of Argos area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leontiadis, I.; Dimitroulas, C.; Zouridakis, N.; Dounas, A.; Morfis, A.; Paraskevopoulou, P.

    1984-07-01

    /sup 51/Cr-EDTA has been used as tracer for the investigation of possible interconnection between the sinkhole Kanata, on the high Plateau of Tripolis, and springs of the areas of Argos, Achladokambos and Kinouria. By this experiment, the interconnection between the sinkhole and the submarine spring of Kiveri, as well as the springs of Xovrios Achladokambos river, is proved. Furthermore, the percentage of connection between the sinkhole and the springs, the mean transit time of the water from the sinkhole to the springs, the volume of the underground reservoir feeding the springs, etc., have been calculated.

  3. Developing High PV Penetration Cases for Frequency Response Study of U.S. Western Interconnection: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, Jin; Zhang, Yingchen; Veda, Santosh; Elgindy, Tarek; Liu, Yilu

    2017-04-11

    Recent large penetrations of solar photovoltaic (PV) generation and the inertial characteristics of inverter-based generation technologies have caught the attention of those in the electric power industry in the United States. This paper presents a systematic approach to developing test cases of high penetrations of PV for the Western Interconnection. First, to examine the accuracy of the base case model, the Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC) model is validated by using measurement data from synchronized phasor measurement units. Based on the 2022 Light Spring case, we developed four high PV penetration cases for the WECC system that are of interest to the industry: 5% PV+15 % wind, 25% PV+15% wind, 45% PV+15% wind, 65% PV+15% wind). Additionally, a method to project PV is proposed that is based on collected, realistic PV distribution information, including the current and future PV power plant locations and penetrations in the WECC system. Both the utility-scale PV plant and residential rooftop PV are included in this study.

  4. Oxide-confined 2D VCSEL arrays for high-density inter/intra-chip interconnects

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Roger; Michalzik, Rainer; Jung, Christian; Grabherr, Martin; Eberhard, Franz; Jaeger, Roland; Schnitzer, Peter; Ebeling, Karl J.

    1998-04-01

    We have designed and fabricated 4 X 8 vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) arrays intended to be used as transmitters in short-distance parallel optical interconnects. In order to meet the requirements of 2D, high-speed optical links, each of the 32 laser diodes is supplied with two individual top contacts. The metallization scheme allows flip-chip mounting of the array modules junction-side down on silicon complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) chips. The optical and electrical characteristics across the arrays with device pitch of 250 micrometers are quite homogeneous. Arrays with 3 micrometers , 6 micrometers and 10 micrometers active diameter lasers have been investigated. The small devices show threshold currents of 600 (mu) A, single-mode output powers as high as 3 mW and maximum wavelength deviations of only 3 nm. The driving characteristics of all arrays are fully compatible to advanced 3.3 V CMOS technology. Using these arrays, we have measured small-signal modulation bandwidths exceeding 10 GHz and transmitted pseudo random data at 8 Gbit/s channel over 500 m graded index multimode fiber. This corresponds to a data transmission rate of 256 Gbit/s per array of 1 X 2 mm2 footprint area.

  5. Transurban interconnectivities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Claus Møller

    2012-01-01

    This essay discusses the interpretation of the revolutionary situations of 1848 in light of recent debates on interconnectivity in history. The concept of transurban interconnectivities is proposed as the most precise concept to capture the nature of interconnectivity in 1848. It is argued....... It is argued that circulating political communication accounts for similarities with respect to political agenda, organisational form and political repertoire evident in urban settings across Europe. This argument is supported by a series of examples of local organisation and local appropriations of liberalism...

  6. Optical interconnects

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Ray T

    2006-01-01

    This book describes fully embedded board level optical interconnect in detail including the fabrication of the thin-film VCSEL array, its characterization, thermal management, the fabrication of optical interconnection layer, and the integration of devices on a flexible waveguide film. All the optical components are buried within electrical PCB layers in a fully embedded board level optical interconnect. Therefore, we can save foot prints on the top real estate of the PCB and relieve packaging difficulty reduced by separating fabrication processes. To realize fully embedded board level optical

  7. Low-cost and high-capacity short-range optical interconnects using graded-index plastic optical fiber

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tangdiongga, E.; Yang, H.; Lee, S.C.J.; Okonkwo, C.M.; Boom, van den H.P.A.; Randel, S.; Koonen, A.M.J.

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate a transmission rate of 51.8 Gb/s over 100-meters of perfluorinated multimode graded-index plastic optical fiber using discrete multitone modulation. The results prove suitability of plastic fibers for low-cost high-capacity optical interconnects.

  8. Using high performance interconnects in a distributed computing and mass storage environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ernst, M.

    1994-01-01

    Detector Collaborations of the HERA Experiments typically involve more than 500 physicists from a few dozen institutes. These physicists require access to large amounts of data in a fully transparent manner. Important issues include Distributed Mass Storage Management Systems in a Distributed and Heterogeneous Computing Environment. At the very center of a distributed system, including tens of CPUs and network attached mass storage peripherals are the communication links. Today scientists are witnessing an integration of computing and communication technology with the open-quote network close-quote becoming the computer. This contribution reports on a centrally operated computing facility for the HERA Experiments at DESY, including Symmetric Multiprocessor Machines (84 Processors), presently more than 400 GByte of magnetic disk and 40 TB of automoted tape storage, tied together by a HIPPI open-quote network close-quote. Focussing on the High Performance Interconnect technology, details will be provided about the HIPPI based open-quote Backplane close-quote configured around a 20 Gigabit/s Multi Media Router and the performance and efficiency of the related computer interfaces

  9. Optimization of Silicon MZM Fabrication Parameters for High Speed Short Reach Interconnects at 1310 nm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexis Abraham

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Optical modulators are key components to realize photonic circuits, and Mach-Zehnder modulators (MZM are often used for high speed short reach interconnects. In order to maximize the tolerable path loss of a transmission link at a given bitrate, the MZM needs to be optimized. However, the optimization can be complex since the overall link performance depends on various parameters, and, for the MZM in particular, implies several trade-offs between efficiency, losses, and bandwidth. In this work, we propose a general and rigorous method to optimize silicon MZM. We first describe the optical link, and the numerical method used for this study. Then we present the results associated to the active region for 1310 nm applications. An analytical model is generated, and allows us to quickly optimize the p-n junction depending of the targeted performances for the MZM. Taking into account the required optical link parameters, the maximum tolerable path losses for different length of MZM is determined. By applying this method, simulations show that the optimum MZM length for 25 Gbps applications is 4 mm with an efficiency of 1.87 V·cm, 0.52 dB/mm of losses. A tolerable path loss of more than 25 dB is obtained.

  10. Fabrication method to create high-aspect ratio pillars for photonic coupling of board level interconnects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debaes, C.; Van Erps, J.; Karppinen, M.; Hiltunen, J.; Suyal, H.; Last, A.; Lee, M. G.; Karioja, P.; Taghizadeh, M.; Mohr, J.; Thienpont, H.; Glebov, A. L.

    2008-04-01

    An important challenge that remains to date in board level optical interconnects is the coupling between the optical waveguides on printed wiring boards and the packaged optoelectronics chips, which are preferably surface mountable on the boards. One possible solution is the use of Ball Grid Array (BGA) packages. This approach offers a reliable attachment despite the large CTE mismatch between the organic FR4 board and the semiconductor materials. Collimation via micro-lenses is here typically deployed to couple the light vertically from the waveguide substrate to the optoelectronics while allowing for a small misalignment between board and package. In this work, we explore the fabrication issues of an alternative approach in which the vertical photonic connection between board and package is governed by a micro-optical pillar which is attached both to the board substrate and to the optoelectronic chips. Such an approach allows for high density connections and small, high-speed detector footprints while maintaining an acceptable tolerance between board and package. The pillar should exhibit some flexibility and thus a high-aspect ratio is preferred. This work presents and compares different fabrication methods and applies different materials for such high-aspect ratio pillars. The different fabrication methods are: photolithography, direct laser writing and deep proton writing. The selection of optical materials that was investigated is: SU8, Ormocers, PU and a multifunctional acrylate polymer. The resulting optical pillars have diameters ranging from 20um up to 80um, with total heights ranging between 30um and 100um (symbol for micron). The aspect-ratio of the fabricated structures ranges from 1.5 to 5.

  11. Three-dimensional hierarchical and interconnected honeycomb-like porous carbon derived from pomelo peel for high performance supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jingyuan; Li, Hongpeng; Zhang, Hongsen; Liu, Qi; Li, Rumin; Li, Bin; Wang, Jun

    2018-01-01

    The urgent need for sustainable development of human society has forced material scientists to explore novel materials starting from cheap natural precursors for next-generation energy storage devices by using environmentally friendly strategies. In this work, heteroatom-functionalized porous carbonaceous materials with 3D hierarchical and interconnected honeycomb-like structure have been successfully synthesized by using waste biomass pomelo peel as raw material through the combination of hydrothermal carbonization and followed KOH activation procedure. Benefiting from the unique honeycomb-like structure and high specific surface area, the as-obtained carbon material exhibits satisfactory capacitive behavior: 374 F/g at 0.1 A/g; excellent cycling stability of 92.5% capacitance retention over continuous 5000 cycles. More importantly, the as-assembled symmetric supercapacitors based on as-prepared electrode material can deliver high gravimetric and volumetric energy density of 20 W h/kg and 18.7 W h/L in 6 M KOH, respectively, as well as outstanding cycling stability. The obtained results demonstrate the possibility for taking full advantage of sustainable and large scale advanced carbon materials by choosing waste biomass, particularly the pomelo peel as a raw material.

  12. Brookhaven segment interconnect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morse, W.M.; Benenson, G.; Leipuner, L.B.

    1983-01-01

    We have performed a high energy physics experiment using a multisegment Brookhaven FASTBUS system. The system was composed of three crate segments and two cable segments. We discuss the segment interconnect module which permits communication between the various segments

  13. A peripheral component interconnect express-based scalable and highly integrated pulsed spectrometer for solution state dynamic nuclear polarization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Yugui; Liu, Chaoyang, E-mail: chyliu@wipm.ac.cn [Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics, School of Optical and Electronic Information, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); State Key Laboratory of Magnet Resonance and Atomic and Molecular Physics, Wuhan Institute of Physics and Mathematics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430071 (China); Feng, Jiwen; Wang, Dong; Chen, Fang; Liu, Maili [State Key Laboratory of Magnet Resonance and Atomic and Molecular Physics, Wuhan Institute of Physics and Mathematics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430071 (China); Zhang, Zhi; Wang, Chao [State Key Laboratory of Magnet Resonance and Atomic and Molecular Physics, Wuhan Institute of Physics and Mathematics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430071 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100048 (China)

    2015-08-15

    High sensitivity, high data rates, fast pulses, and accurate synchronization all represent challenges for modern nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometers, which make any expansion or adaptation of these devices to new techniques and experiments difficult. Here, we present a Peripheral Component Interconnect Express (PCIe)-based highly integrated distributed digital architecture pulsed spectrometer that is implemented with electron and nucleus double resonances and is scalable specifically for broad dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) enhancement applications, including DNP-magnetic resonance spectroscopy/imaging (DNP-MRS/MRI). The distributed modularized architecture can implement more transceiver channels flexibly to meet a variety of MRS/MRI instrumentation needs. The proposed PCIe bus with high data rates can significantly improve data transmission efficiency and communication reliability and allow precise control of pulse sequences. An external high speed double data rate memory chip is used to store acquired data and pulse sequence elements, which greatly accelerates the execution of the pulse sequence, reduces the TR (time of repetition) interval, and improves the accuracy of TR in imaging sequences. Using clock phase-shift technology, we can produce digital pulses accurately with high timing resolution of 1 ns and narrow widths of 4 ns to control the microwave pulses required by pulsed DNP and ensure overall system synchronization. The proposed spectrometer is proved to be both feasible and reliable by observation of a maximum signal enhancement factor of approximately −170 for {sup 1}H, and a high quality water image was successfully obtained by DNP-enhanced spin-echo {sup 1}H MRI at 0.35 T.

  14. Efficient modeling of interconnects and capacitive discontinuities in high-speed digital circuits. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, K. S.; Schutt-Aine, J.

    1995-01-01

    Modeling of interconnects and associated discontinuities with the recent advances high-speed digital circuits has gained a considerable interest over the last decade although the theoretical bases for analyzing these structures were well-established as early as the 1960s. Ongoing research at the present time is focused on devising methods which can be applied to more general geometries than the ones considered in earlier days and, at the same time, improving the computational efficiency and accuracy of these methods. In this thesis, numerically efficient methods to compute the transmission line parameters of a multiconductor system and the equivalent capacitances of various strip discontinuities are presented based on the quasi-static approximation. The presented techniques are applicable to conductors embedded in an arbitrary number of dielectric layers with two possible locations of ground planes at the top and bottom of the dielectric layers. The cross-sections of conductors can be arbitrary as long as they can be described with polygons. An integral equation approach in conjunction with the collocation method is used in the presented methods. A closed-form Green's function is derived based on weighted real images thus avoiding nested infinite summations in the exact Green's function; therefore, this closed-form Green's function is numerically more efficient than the exact Green's function. All elements associated with the moment matrix are computed using the closed-form formulas. Various numerical examples are considered to verify the presented methods, and a comparison of the computed results with other published results showed good agreement.

  15. Study on application of a high-speed trigger-type SFCL (TSFCL) for interconnection of power systems with different reliabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hye Ji; Yoon, Yong Tae

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Application of TSFCL to interconnect systems with different reliabilities is proposed. • TSFCL protects a grid by preventing detrimental effects from being delivered through the interconnection line. • A high-speed TSFCL with high impedance for transmission systems is required to be developed. - Abstract: Interconnection of power systems is one effective way to improve power supply reliability. However, differences in the reliability of each power system create a greater obstacle for the stable interconnection of power systems, as after interconnection a high-reliability system is affected by frequent faults in low reliability side systems. Several power system interconnection methods, such as the back-to-back method and the installation of either transformers or series reactors, have been investigated to counteract the damage caused by faults in the other neighboring systems. However, these methods are uneconomical and require complex operational management plans. In this work, a high-speed trigger-type superconducting fault current limiter (TSFCL) with large-impedance is proposed as a solution to maintain reliability and power quality when a high reliability power system is interconnected with a low reliability power system. Through analysis of the reliability index for the numerical examples obtained from a PSCAD/EMTDC simulator, a high-speed TSFCL with a large-impedance is confirmed to be effective for the interconnection between power systems with different reliabilities.

  16. Interconnected networks

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    This volume provides an introduction to and overview of the emerging field of interconnected networks which include multi layer or multiplex networks, as well as networks of networks. Such networks present structural and dynamical features quite different from those observed in isolated networks. The presence of links between different networks or layers of a network typically alters the way such interconnected networks behave – understanding the role of interconnecting links is therefore a crucial step towards a more accurate description of real-world systems. While examples of such dissimilar properties are becoming more abundant – for example regarding diffusion, robustness and competition – the root of such differences remains to be elucidated. Each chapter in this topical collection is self-contained and can be read on its own, thus making it also suitable as reference for experienced researchers wishing to focus on a particular topic.

  17. High Bismuth Alloys as Lead-Free Alternatives for Interconnects in High-Temperature Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallampati, Sandeep

    Predominant high melting point solders for high-temperature electronics (operating temperatures from 200 to 250°C) are Pb-based which are being banned from usage due to their toxic nature. In this study, high bismuth alloy compositions (Bi-14Cu-8Sn, Bi-20Sb-10Cu, Bi-15Sb-10Cu and Bi-10Sb-10Cu) were designed, cast, and characterized to understand their potential as replacements. The desirable aspect of Bi is its high melting temperature, which is 271°C. Alloying elements Sn, Sb and Cu were added to improve some of its properties such as thermal conductivity, plasticity, and reactivity with Cu and Ni surface. Metallographic sectioning and microstructure analysis were performed on the bulk alloys to compare the evolution of phases predicted from equilibrium phase diagrams. Reflow processes were developed to make die-attach samples out of the proposed alloys and die-shear testing was carried out to characterize mechanical integrity of the joint. Thermal shock between -55°C to 200°C and high temperature storage at 200°C were performed on the assembled die-attach samples to study microstructure evolution and mechanical behavior of the reflowed alloys under accelerated testing conditions. In addition, heat dissipation capabilities, using flash diffusivity, were measured on the bulk alloys and also on the die-attach assembly. Finally, tensile testing was performed on the dogbone specimens to identify the potential for plastic deformation and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) analysis was used to study the grain orientations on the fracture surfaces and their influence on the crack propagation. Bi-14Cu-8Sn has formed BiNi by on the die backside metallization and the reaction with Cu was poor. This has resulted in weaker substrate side interface. It was observed that Bi-Sb alloys have strong reactivity with Ni (forming Bi3Ni, BiNi and NiSb intermetallic phases), and with Cu (forming Cu2Sb, Cu4Sb). Spallation was observed in NiSb interfacial intermetallic layer and

  18. Interconnected α-Fe2O3 nanosheet arrays as high-performance anode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai, Dandan; Li, Dongdong; Ding, Liang-Xin; Wang, Suqing; Wang, Haihui

    2016-01-01

    The electrode materials with structure stability and binder-free are urgently required for improving the electrochemical performance of lithium-ion batteries. In this work, interconnected α-Fe 2 O 3 nanosheet arrays directly grown on Ti foil were fabricated via a facile galvanostatic electrodeposition method followed by thermal treatment. The as-prepared α-Fe 2 O 3 has an open network structure constituted of interconnected nanosheets and can be directly used as integrated electrodes for lithium-ion batteries. The α-Fe 2 O 3 nanosheet arrays exhibit a high reversible capacity of 986.3 mAh g −1 at a current density of 100 mA g −1 . Moreover, a reversible capacity of ca. 425.9 mAh g −1 is achieved even at a superhigh current density of 10 A g −1 , which is higher than the theoretical capacity of commercially used graphite. The excellent performance could be attributed to the efficient electron transport, the large electrode/electrolyte interfaces and the good accommodations for volume expansion from the interconnected nanosheet arrays structure.

  19. High frequency P(VDF-TrFE) copolymer broadband annular array ultrasound transducers using high density flexible circuit interconnect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlieb, Emanuel J.; Cannata, Jonathan M.; Hu, Chang Hong; Shung, K. K.

    2005-04-01

    A kerfless eight element high frequency ultrasound annular array transducer using 9 μm P(VDF-TrFE) bonded to a high density flexible interconnect was fabricated. The flexible circuit composed of Kapton polyimide film with gold electrode pattern of equal area annuli apertures on the top side of a 50 μm thick Kapton polyimide film. Each element had several 30 μm diameter electroplated vias that connected to electrode traces on the bottom side of the Kapton polyimide film. There was a 30 μm spacing between elements. The total aperture of the array was 3.12 mm. The transducer's performance has been modeled by implementing the Redwood version of the Mason model into PSpice and using the Krimholtz, Leedom and Matthaei (KLM) model utilized in the commercial software PiezoCAD. The transducer"s performance was evaluated by measuring the electrical impedance with a HP 4194 impedance analyzer, pulse echo response using a Panametrics 5900 pulser/receiver and crosstalk measurement for each element in the array. The measured electrical impedance for each element was 540 Ω and -84° phase. In order to improve device sensitivity an inductor was attached in series with each element to reduce the insertion loss to 33 dB. The measured average center frequency and bandwidth of each element was 55 MHz and 50% respectively. The measured crosstalk at the center frequency was -45 dB in water.

  20. Silicon photonic IC embedded optical-PCB for high-speed interconnect application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallega, Rakshitha; Nambiar, Siddharth; Kumar, Abhai; Ranganath, Praveen; Selvaraja, Shankar Kumar

    2018-02-01

    Optical-Printed Circuit Board (PCB) is an emerging optical interconnect technology to bridge the gap between the board edge and the processing module. The technology so far has been used as a broadband transmitter using polymer waveguides in the PCB. In this paper, we report a Silicon Nitride based photonic IC embedded in the PCB along with the polymers as waveguides in the PCB. The motivation for such integration is to bring routing capability and to reduce the power loss due to broadcasting mode.

  1. Bacterial-cellulose-derived interconnected meso-microporous carbon nanofiber networks as binder-free electrodes for high-performance supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Xiaodong; Wang, Jie; Ding, Bing; Wang, Ya; Chang, Zhi; Dou, Hui; Zhang, Xiaogang

    2017-06-01

    Bacterial cellulose (BC), a typical biomass prepared from the microbial fermentation process, has been proved that it can be an ideal platform for design of three-dimensional (3D) multifunctional nanomaterials in energy storage and conversion field. Here we developed a simple and general silica-assisted strategy for fabrication of interconnected 3D meso-microporous carbon nanofiber networks by confine nanospace pyrolysis of sustainable BC, which can be used as binder-free electrodes for high-performance supercapacitors. The synthesized carbon nanofibers exhibited the features of interconnected 3D networks architecture, large surface area (624 m2 g-1), mesopores-dominated hierarchical porosity, and high graphitization degree. The as-prepared electrode (CN-BC) displayed a maximum specific capacitance of 302 F g-1 at a current density of 0.5 A g-1, high-rate capability and good cyclicity in 6 M KOH electrolyte. This work, together with cost-effective preparation strategy to make high-value utilization of cheap biomass, should have significant implications in the green and mass-producible energy storage.

  2. Interconnection blocks: a method for providing reusable, rapid, multiple, aligned and planar microfluidic interconnections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabourin, D; Snakenborg, D; Dufva, M

    2009-01-01

    In this paper a method is presented for creating 'interconnection blocks' that are re-usable and provide multiple, aligned and planar microfluidic interconnections. Interconnection blocks made from polydimethylsiloxane allow rapid testing of microfluidic chips and unobstructed microfluidic observation. The interconnection block method is scalable, flexible and supports high interconnection density. The average pressure limit of the interconnection block was near 5.5 bar and all individual results were well above the 2 bar threshold considered applicable to most microfluidic applications

  3. MoS2/Ni3S4 composite nanosheets on interconnected carbon shells as an excellent supercapacitor electrode architecture for long term cycling at high current densities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Shengchun; Yao, Tinghui; Guo, Xin; Chen, Qiang; Liu, Dequan; Liu, Qiming; Li, Yali; Li, Junshuai; He, Deyan

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, we report an electrode architecture of molybdenum disulfide (MoS2)/nickel sulfide (Ni3S4) composite nanosheets anchored on interconnected carbon (C) shells (C@MoS2/Ni3S4). Electrochemical measurements indicate that the C@MoS2/Ni3S4 structure possesses excellent supercapacitive properties especially for long term cycling at high current densities. A specific capacitance as high as ∼640.7 F g-1 can still be delivered even after 10,000 cycles at a high current density of 20 A g-1. From comparison of microstructures and electrochemical properties of the related materials/structures, the improved performance of C@MoS2/Ni3S4 can be attributed to the relatively dispersedly distributed nanosheet-shaped MoS2/Ni3S4 that provides efficient contact with electrolyte and effectively buffers the volume change during charge/discharge processes, enhanced cycling stability by MoS2, and reduced equivalent series resistance by the interconnected C shells.

  4. Optical interconnects for in-plane high-speed signal distribution at 10 Gb/s: Analysis and demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yin-Jung

    With decreasing transistor size, increasing chip speed, and larger numbers of processors in a system, the performance of a module/system is being limited by the off-chip and off-module bandwidth-distance products. Optical links have moved from fiber-based long distance communications to the cabinet level of 1m--100m, and recently to the backplane-level (10cm--1m). Board-level inter-chip parallel optical interconnects have been demonstrated recently by researchers from Intel, IBM, Fujitsu, NTT and a few research groups in universities. However, the board-level signal/clock distribution function using optical interconnects, the lightwave circuits, the system design, a practically convenient integration scheme committed to the implementation of a system prototype have not been explored or carefully investigated. In this dissertation, the development of a board-level 1 x 4 optical-to-electrical signal distribution at 10Gb/s is presented. In contrast to other prototypes demonstrating board-level parallel optical interconnects that have been drawing much attention for the past decade, the optical link design for the high-speed signal broadcasting is even more complicated and the pitch between receivers could be varying as opposed to fixed-pitch design that has been widely-used in the parallel optical interconnects. New challenges for the board-level high-speed signal broadcasting include, but are not limited to, a new optical link design, a lightwave circuit as a distribution network, and a novel integration scheme that can be a complete radical departure from the traditional assembly method. One of the key building blocks in the lightwave circuit is the distribution network in which a 1 x 4 multimode interference (MMI) splitter is employed. MMI devices operating at high data rates are important in board-level optical interconnects and need to be characterized in the application of board-level signal broadcasting. To determine the speed limitations of MMI devices, the

  5. Evaluation of hybrid polymers for high-precision manufacturing of 3D optical interconnects by two-photon absorption lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleunitz, A.; Klein, J. J.; Krupp, A.; Stender, B.; Houbertz, R.; Gruetzner, G.

    2017-02-01

    The fabrication of optical interconnects has been widely investigated for the generation of optical circuit boards. Twophoton absorption (TPA) lithography (or high-precision 3D printing) as an innovative production method for direct manufacture of individual 3D photonic structures gains more and more attention when optical polymers are employed. In this regard, we have evaluated novel ORMOCER-based hybrid polymers tailored for the manufacture of optical waveguides by means of high-precision 3D printing. In order to facilitate future industrial implementation, the processability was evaluated and the optical performance of embedded waveguides was assessed. The results illustrate that hybrid polymers are not only viable consumables for industrial manufacture of polymeric micro-optics using generic processes such as UV molding. They also are potential candidates to fabricate optical waveguide systems down to the chip level where TPA-based emerging manufacturing techniques are engaged. Hence, it is shown that hybrid polymers continue to meet the increasing expectations of dynamically growing markets of micro-optics and optical interconnects due to the flexibility of the employed polymer material concept.

  6. Nitrogen-doped biomass-based ultra-thin carbon nanosheets with interconnected framework for High-Performance Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Shasha; Chen, Yaxin; Shi, Liluo; Dong, Yue; Ma, Jing; Chen, Xiaohong; Song, Huaihe

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, a low-cost and environmental friendly synthesis strategy is proposed to fabricate nitrogen-doped biomass-based ultra-thin carbon nanosheets (N-CNS) with interconnected framework by using soybean milk as the carbon precursor and sodium chloride as the template. The interconnected porous nanosheet structure is beneficial for lithium ion transportation, and the defects introduced by pyridine nitrogen doping are favorable for lithium storage. When used as the anodes for lithium-ion batteries, the N-CNS electrode shows a high initial reversible specific capacity of 1334 mAh g-1 at 50 mA g-1, excellent rate performance (1212, 555 and 336 mAh g-1 at 0.05, 0.5 and 2 A g-1, respectively) and good cycling stability (355 mAh g-1 at 1 A g-1 after 1000 cycles). Furthermore, this study demonstrates the prospects of biomass and soybean milk, as the potential anode for the application of electrochemical energy storage devices.

  7. Comparative study on stained InGaAs quantum wells for high-speed optical-interconnect VCSELs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; Jia, Xiaowei

    2018-05-01

    The gain-carrier characteristics of InGaAs quantum well for 980 nm high-speed, energy-efficient vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers are investigated. We specially studied the potentially InGaAs quantum well designs can be used for the active region of energy-efficient, temperature-stable 980-nm VCSEL, which introduced a quantum well gain peak wavelength-to-cavity resonance wavelength offset to improve the dynamic performance at high operation temperature. Several candidate quantum wells are being compared in theory and measurement. We found that ∼5 nm InGaAs QW with ∼6 nm barrier thickness is suitable for the active region of high-speed optical interconnect 980 nm VCSELs, and no significant improvement in the 20% range of In content of InGaAs QWs. The results are useful for next generation green photonic device design.

  8. High Cycling Performance Cathode Material: Interconnected LiFePO4/Carbon Nanoparticles Fabricated by Sol-Gel Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhigao Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Interconnected LiFePO4/carbon nanoparticles for Li-ion battery cathode have been fabricated by sol-gel method followed by a carbon coating process involving redox reactions. The carbon layers coated on the LiFePO4 nanoparticles not only served as a protection layer but also supplied fast electrons by building a 3D conductive network. As a cooperation, LiFePO4 nanoparticles encapsulated in interconnected conductive carbon layers provided the electrode reactions with fast lithium ions by offering the lithium ions shortening and unobstructed pathways. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM and X-ray diffraction (XRD tests showed optimized morphology. Electrochemical characterizations including galvanostatic charge/discharge, cyclic voltammetry (CV, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS tests, together with impedance parameters calculated, all indicated better electrochemical performance and excellent cycling performance at high rate (with less than 9.5% discharge capacity loss over 2000 cycles, the coulombic efficiency maintained about 100%.

  9. Ultra-precision fabrication of high density micro-optical backbone interconnections for data center and mobile application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohmann, U.; Jahns, J.; Wagner, T.; Werner, C.

    2012-10-01

    A microoptical 3D interconnection scheme and fabricated samples of this fiberoptical multi-channel interconnec- tion with an actual capacity of 144 channels were shown. Additionally the aspects of micrometer-fabrication of such microoptical interconnection modules in the view of alignment-tolerances were considered. For the realiza- tion of the interconnection schemes, the approach of planar-integrated free space optics (PIFSO) is used with its well known advantages. This approach offers the potential for complex interconnectivity, and yet compact size.

  10. Highly photocatalytic TiO_2 interconnected porous powder fabricated by sponge-templated atomic layer deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan, Shengqiang; Zhao, Yuting; Huang, Gaoshan; Li, Menglin; Mei, Yongfeng; Wang, Jiao; Zheng, Lirong; Baunack, Stefan; Schmidt, Oliver G; Gemming, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    A titanium dioxide (TiO_2) interconnected porous structure has been fabricated by means of atomic layer deposition of TiO_2 onto a reticular sponge template. The obtained freestanding TiO_2 with large surface area can be easily taken out of the water to solve a complex separation procedure. A compact and conformal nanocoating was evidenced by morphologic characterization. A phase transition, as well as production of oxygen vacancies with increasing annealing temperature, was detected by x-ray diffraction and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, respectively. The photocatalytic experimental results demonstrated that the powder with appropriate annealing treatment possessed excellent photocatalytic ability due to the co-action of high surface area, oxygen vacancies and the optimal crystal structure. (paper)

  11. Low Power CMOS Circuit Techniques for Optical Interconnects and High Speed Pulse Compression Radar

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Jun

    2015-01-01

    High performance computing and high resolution range sensor motivates the intelligent system innovations such as smart car, smart home/community and 3D motion games. Most importantly, 3D graphics technique requires high performance computation to provide high quality and vivid real-time videos. Accurate motion sensing requires high resolution radar sensor. However, in general, data transmission limits the large scale computation while high resolution radar signal processor limits the detectio...

  12. Electromagnetism and interconnections

    CERN Document Server

    Charruau, S

    2009-01-01

    This book covers the theoretical problems of modeling electrical behavior of the interconnections encountered in everyday electronic products. The coverage shows the theoretical tools of waveform prediction at work in the design of a complex and high-speed digital electronic system. Scientists, research engineers, and postgraduate students interested in electromagnetism, microwave theory, electrical engineering, or the development of simulation tools software for high speed electronic system design automation will find this book an illuminating resource.

  13. New High Voltage Interconnections with Islands in the Mediterranean Sea: Malta and Sicily. Analysis of the Effects on Renewable Energy Sources Integration and Benefits for the Electricity Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariano Giuseppe Ippolito

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The present paper shows the benefits coming from the operation of the recent electrical high voltage (HV interconnections between Sicily, Malta and mainland Italy. These new interconnections allow zonal prices of electricity considerably lower than in the past, ensuring greater flexibility to the system and a better integration of Renewable Energy Sources (RES. After briefly illustrating the two high-voltage electrical systems (Sicily and Malta, and having provided a description of the interconnection cable with Malta and its protection devices, the authors hypothesized two modes of operation (Sicily-Malta system islanded or interconnected to the rest of Europe. For the first case (islanded some simulations are performed through the use of an electric network model realized in the Neplan® environment, and for the second case an analysis of one year real data was made. The results of the simulation, thanks to the use of a power flow tracing method, show that this new interconnection between the two islands (Sicily and Malta allows an important improvement in the integration and dispatching of the power generated by RES of the Sicilian territory, better operation of traditional Sicilian generation units, lower electricity zonal prices and a significant reduction in emissions from obsolete fuel oil thermal units located in Malta.

  14. High speed bending of 2nd level interconnects on printed circuit boards for automotive electronics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kouters, M.H.M.; Ubachs, R.; Wiel, H.J. van de; Waal, A. van der; Veer, J. van der

    2011-01-01

    Standard drop tests for portable electronics are not representative for the qualification of automotive electronics. High-frequency vibrations are more dominant than abrupt shocks during normal operation. In this work a high speed board bending (HSB) method is developed to mimic the constant cyclic

  15. Investigation on the possible interconnection of the Kanata sinkhole, on the high plateau of Tripolis, and the springs of Argos areas (Peloponnese, Greece)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leontiadis, Ioannis L.; Dimitroulas, Christos; Zouridakis, N.; Dounas, Athanasios; Morfis, A.; Paraskevopoulou, P.

    1984-07-01

    51 Cr-EDTA has been used as tracer for the investigation of the possible interconnection of the Kanata sinkhole, on the high plateau of Tripolis, and the springs of the Argos areas Achladokampos and Kinouria. By this experiment the interconnection of the sinkhole and the submarine spring of Kiveri, as well as the springs of Xovrios river (Achladokampos) is proved. Furthermore, the percentage of connection between the sinkhole and the springs, the mean transit time of the water from the sinkhole to the springs, the volume of the underground reservoir feeding the springs, etc. have been calculated. (author)

  16. High-Temperature, Dual-Atmosphere Corrosion of Solid-Oxide Fuel Cell Interconnects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gannon, Paul; Amendola, Roberta

    2012-12-01

    High-temperature corrosion of ferritic stainless steel (FSS) surfaces can be accelerated and anomalous when it is simultaneously subjected to different gaseous environments, e.g., when separating fuel (hydrogen) and oxidant (air) streams, in comparison with single-atmosphere exposures, e.g., air only. This so-called "dual-atmosphere" exposure is realized in many energy-conversion systems including turbines, boilers, gasifiers, heat exchangers, and particularly in intermediate temperature (600-800°C) planar solid-oxide fuel cell (SOFC) stacks. It is generally accepted that hydrogen transport through the FSS (plate or tube) and its subsequent integration into the growing air-side surface oxide layer can promote accelerated and anomalous corrosion—relative to single-atmosphere exposure—via defect chemistry changes, such as increased cation vacancy concentrations, decreased oxygen activity, and steam formation within the growing surface oxide layers. Establishment of a continuous and dense surface oxide layer on the fuel side of the FSS can inhibit hydrogen transport and the associated effects on the air side. Minor differences in FSS composition, microstructure, and surface conditions can all have dramatic influences on dual-atmosphere corrosion behaviors. This article reviews high-temperature, dual-atmosphere corrosion phenomena and discusses implications for SOFC stacks, related applications, and future research.

  17. Interconnected High-Voltage Pulsed-Power Converters System Design for H− Ion Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Aguglia, D

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the design and experimental validations of a system of three new high-voltage (HV) pulsedpower converters for the H− sources. The system requires three pulsed voltages (50, 40, and 25 kV to ground) at 2-Hz repetition rate, for 700 μs of usable flat-top. The solution presents ripplefree output voltages and minimal stored energy to protect the ion source from the consequences of arc events. Experimental results on the final full-scale prototype are presented. In case of short-circuit events, the maximal energy delivered to the source is in the Joule range. HV flat-top stability of 1% is experimentally achieved with a simple Proportional-Integral- Derivative regulation and preliminary tuned H− source (e.g., radio frequency control, gas injection, and so forth). The system is running since more than a year with no power converter failures and damage to the source.

  18. High-speed highly temperature stable 980 nm VCSELs operating at 25 Gb/s at up to 85 °C for short reach optical interconnects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutig, Alex; Lott, James A.; Blokhin, Sergey A.; Moser, Philip; Wolf, Philip; Hofmann, Werner; Nadtochiy, Alexey M.; Bimberg, Dieter

    2011-03-01

    The progressive penetration of optical communication links into traditional copper interconnect markets greatly expands the applications of vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs) for the next-generation of board-to-board, moduleto- module, chip-to-chip, and on-chip optical interconnects. Stability of the VCSEL parameters at high temperatures is indispensable for such applications, since these lasers typically reside directly on or near integrated circuit chips. Here we present 980 nm oxide-confined VCSELs operating error-free at bit rates up to 25 Gbit/s at temperatures as high as 85 °C without adjustment of the drive current and peak-to-peak modulation voltage. The driver design is therefore simplified and the power consumption of the driver electronics is lowered, reducing the production and operational costs. Small and large signal modulation experiments at various temperatures from 20 up to 85 °C for lasers with different oxide aperture diameters are presented in order to analyze the physical processes controlling the performance of the VCSELs. Temperature insensitive maximum -3 dB bandwidths of around 13-15 GHz for VCSELs with aperture diameters of 10 μm and corresponding parasitic cut-off frequencies exceeding 22 GHz are observed. Presented results demonstrate the suitability of our VCSELs for practical high speed and high temperature stable short-reach optical links.

  19. Surface and interfacial chemistry of high-k dielectric and interconnect materials on silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsch, Paul Daniel

    Surfaces and interfaces play a critical role in the manufacture and function of silicon based integrated circuits. It is therefore reasonable to study the chemistries at these surfaces and interfaces to improve existing processes and to develop new ones. Model barium strontium titanate high-k dielectric systems have been deposited on ultrathin silicon oxynitride in ultrahigh vacuum. The resulting nanostructures are characterized with secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). An interfacial reaction between Ba and Sr atoms and SiOxNy was found to create silicates, BaSixOy or SrSi xOy. Inclusion of N in the interfacial oxide decreased silicate formation in both Ba and Sr systems. Furthermore, inclusion of N in the interfacial oxide decreased the penetration of Ba and Sr containing species, such as silicides and silicates. Sputter deposited HfO2 was studied on nitrided and unnitrided Si(100) surfaces. XPS and SIMS were used to verify the presence of interfacial HfSixOy and estimate its relative amount on both nitrided and unnitrided samples. More HfSixOy formed without the SiNx interfacial layer. These interfacial chemistry results are then used to explain the electrical measurements obtained from metal oxide semiconductor (MOS) capacitors. MOS capacitors with interfacial SiNx exhibit reduced leakage current and increased capacitance. Lastly, surface science techniques were used to develop a processing technique for reducing thin films of copper (II) and copper (I) oxide to copper. Deuterium atoms (D*) and methyl radicals (CH3*) were shown to reduce Cu 2+ and/or Cu1+ to Cu0 within 30 min at a surface temperature of 400 K under a flux of 1 x 1015 atoms/cm2s. Temperature programmed desorption experiments suggest that oxygen leaves the surface as D2O and CO2 for the D* and CH3* treated surfaces, respectively.

  20. Embedded Ag quantum dots into interconnected Co3O4 nanosheets grown on 3D graphene networks for high stable and flexible supercapacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Junya; Dou, Wei; Zhang, Xuetao; Han, Weihua; Mu, Xuemei; Zhang, Yue; Zhao, Xiaohua; Chen, Youxin; Yang, Zhiwei; Su, Qing; Xie, Erqing; Lan, Wei; Wang, Xinran

    2017-01-01

    High stable, flexible and interconnected Co 3 O 4 nanosheets with embedded Ag quantum dots (AgQDs) were uniformly grown on three dimensional graphene (3DG) networks and served as supercapacitor electrode to enhance the pseudocapacitance performance. The AgQDs were used to facilitate the growth of the Co 3 O 4 nanosheets and improve the electrical conductivity of the hybrid electrode by forming a good ohmic contact and provide direct and stable pathways for rapid electron transport. The AgQDs contribute to produce an improved areal capacitance of 421 mF cm −2 (1052.5 F g −1 ) and 53.3 mF cm −2 for the Ag/Co 3 O 4 /3DG hybrid, for both the three- and the two-electrode configuration, respectively. These values are about three times higher compared to a pristine Co 3 O 4 /3DG electrode. The capacitance retention of ∼120% after 10 4 cycles shows that a Ag/Co 3 O 4 /3DG hybrid can provide a long and stable cycle performance with a high specific capacitance. This study provides an effective strategy to improve the performance of electrode materials for supercapacitors with a high efficiency and long life, which makes them promising candidates for future energy-storage applications.

  1. Microfluidic interconnects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benett, William J.; Krulevitch, Peter A.

    2001-01-01

    A miniature connector for introducing microliter quantities of solutions into microfabricated fluidic devices. The fluidic connector, for example, joins standard high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) tubing to 1 mm diameter holes in silicon or glass, enabling ml-sized volumes of sample solutions to be merged with .mu.l-sized devices. The connector has many features, including ease of connect and disconnect; a small footprint which enables numerous connectors to be located in a small area; low dead volume; helium leak-tight; and tubing does not twist during connection. Thus the connector enables easy and effective change of microfluidic devices and introduction of different solutions in the devices.

  2. Synthesis of three-dimensionally interconnected sulfur-rich polymers for cathode materials of high-rate lithium-sulfur batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hoon; Lee, Joungphil; Ahn, Hyungmin; Kim, Onnuri; Park, Moon Jeong

    2015-06-01

    Elemental sulfur is one of the most attractive cathode active materials in lithium batteries because of its high theoretical specific capacity. Despite the positive aspect, lithium-sulfur batteries have suffered from severe capacity fading and limited rate capability. Here we report facile large-scale synthesis of a class of organosulfur compounds that could open a new chapter in designing cathode materials to advance lithium-sulfur battery technologies. Porous trithiocyanuric acid crystals are synthesized for use as a soft template, where the ring-opening polymerization of elemental sulfur takes place along the thiol surfaces to create three-dimensionally interconnected sulfur-rich phases. Our lithium-sulfur cells display discharge capacity of 945 mAh g-1 after 100 cycles at 0.2 C with high-capacity retention of 92%, as well as lifetimes of 450 cycles. Particularly, the organized amine groups in the crystals increase Li+-ion transfer rate, affording a rate performance of 1210, mAh g-1 at 0.1 C and 730 mAh g-1 at 5 C.

  3. Synthesis of three-dimensionally interconnected sulfur-rich polymers for cathode materials of high-rate lithium–sulfur batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hoon; Lee, Joungphil; Ahn, Hyungmin; Kim, Onnuri; Park, Moon Jeong

    2015-01-01

    Elemental sulfur is one of the most attractive cathode active materials in lithium batteries because of its high theoretical specific capacity. Despite the positive aspect, lithium–sulfur batteries have suffered from severe capacity fading and limited rate capability. Here we report facile large-scale synthesis of a class of organosulfur compounds that could open a new chapter in designing cathode materials to advance lithium–sulfur battery technologies. Porous trithiocyanuric acid crystals are synthesized for use as a soft template, where the ring-opening polymerization of elemental sulfur takes place along the thiol surfaces to create three-dimensionally interconnected sulfur-rich phases. Our lithium–sulfur cells display discharge capacity of 945 mAh g−1 after 100 cycles at 0.2 C with high-capacity retention of 92%, as well as lifetimes of 450 cycles. Particularly, the organized amine groups in the crystals increase Li+-ion transfer rate, affording a rate performance of 1210, mAh g−1 at 0.1 C and 730 mAh g−1 at 5 C. PMID:26065407

  4. Three-dimensionally interconnected Si frameworks derived from natural halloysite clay: a high-capacity anode material for lithium-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Hao; Xiong, Hao; Liu, Xiaohe; Chen, Gen; Zhang, Ning; Wang, Haidong; Ma, Renzhi; Qiu, Guanzhou

    2018-05-23

    On account of its high theoretical capacity, silicon (Si) has been regarded as a promising anode material for Li-ion batteries. Extracting Si content from earth-abundant and low-cost aluminosilicate minerals, rather than from artificial silica (SiO2) precursors, is a more favorable and practical method for the large-scale application of Si anodes. In this work, three-dimensionally interconnected (3D-interconnected) Si frameworks with a branch diameter of ∼15 nm are prepared by the reduction of amorphous SiO2 nanotubes derived from natural halloysite clay. Benefiting from their nanostructure, the as-prepared 3D-interconnected Si frameworks yield high reversible capacities of 2.54 A h g-1 at 0.1 A g-1 after 50 cycles, 1.87 A h g-1 at 0.5 A g-1 after 200 cycles, and 0.97 A h g-1 at 2 A g-1 after a long-term charge-discharge process of 500 cycles, remarkably outperforming the commercial Si material. Further, when the as-prepared Si frameworks and commercial LiCoO2 cathodes are paired in full cells, a high anode capacity of 0.98 A h g-1 is achieved after 100 cycles of rapid charge/discharge at 2 A g-1. This work provides a new strategy for the synthesis of high-capacity Si anodes derived from natural aluminosilicate clay.

  5. Fluxless Bonding Processes Using Silver-Indium System for High Temperature Electronics and Silver Flip-Chip Interconnect Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yuan-Yun

    In this dissertation, fluxless silver (Ag)-indium (In) binary system bonding and Ag solid-state bonding are used between different bonded pairs which have large thermal expansion coefficient (CTE) mismatch and flip-chip interconnect bonding application. In contrast to the conventional soldering process, fluxless bonding technique eliminates contamination and reliability problems caused by flux to fabricate high quality joints. There are two section are reported. In the first section, the reactions of Ag-In binary system are presented. In the second section, the high melting temperature, thermal and electrical conductivity joint materials bonding by either Ag-In binary system bonding or solid-state bonding processes for different bonded pairs and flip-chip application are designed, developed, and reported. Our group have studied Ag-In system for several years and developed the bonding processes successfully. However, the detailed reactions of Ag and In were seldom studied. To design a proper bonding structure, it is necessary to understand the reaction between Ag and In. The systematic experiments were performed to investigate these reactions. A 40 um Ag layer was electroplated on copper (Cu) substrates, followed by indium layers of 1, 3, 5, 10, and 15 um, respectively. The samples were annealed at 180 °C in 0.1 torr vacuum. For samples with In thickness less than 5 mum, the joint compositions are Ag2In only (1 um) or AgIn2, Ag2In, and Ag solid solution (Ag) after annealing. No indium is identified. For 10 and 15 um thick In samples, In covers almost over the entire sample surface after annealing. Later, an Ag layer was annealed at 450 °C for 3 hours to grow Ag grains, followed by plating 10 um In and annealing at 180 °C. By annealing Ag before plating In, more In is kept in the structure during annealing at 180 °C. Based on above results, for those designs with In thinner than 5 um, the Ag layer needs to be annealed, prior to In plating in order to make a

  6. In-situ growth of LiFePO4 nanocrystals on interconnected carbon nanotubes/mesoporous carbon nanosheets for high-performance lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Ruofei; Xia, Guofeng; Shen, Shuiyun; Zhu, Fengjuan; Jiang, Fengjing; Zhang, Junliang

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: In-situ soft-templated LFP nanocrystals on interconnected carbon nanotubes/mesoporous carbon nanosheets (designated as LFP@CNTs/CNSs), exhibited superior electrochemical performance due to the synergetic effect between CNTs and CNSs, which form interconnected conductive network for fast transport of both electrons and lithium ions. - Highlights: • LFP nanocrystals were in-situ synthesized on interconnected CNTs/CNSs framework with an in-situ soft-templated method. • LFP@CNTs/CNSs exhibited superior rate capability and cycling stability, due to interconnected conductive network for fast transport of both electrons and lithium ions. • The synergetic effect between CNTs and CNSs on the electrochemical performance of LFP electrode was demonstrated by a systematically electrochemical study compared with LFP/CNSs and LFP/CNTs. - Abstract: Lithium ion phosphate (LiFePO 4 ) nanocrystals are successfully in-situ grown on interconnected carbon nanotubes/mesoporous carbon nanosheets (designated as LFP@CNTs/CNSs) with a soft-templated method, which involves the multi-constituent co-assembly of a triblock copolymer, CNTs, resol and precursors of LFP followed by thermal treatment. X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, high resolution transmission electron microscopy and N 2 adsorption-desorption techniques are used to characterize the structure and morphology of the as-synthesized materials. When used as the cathode of lithium ion batteries, the LFP@CNTs/CNSs composite exhibits superior rate capability and cycling stability, compared with the samples modified only with CNSs (designated as LFP/CNSs) or with CNTs (designated as LFP/CNTs). This is mainly attributed to the synergetic effect between CNTs and CNSs caused by their unique structure, which forms interconnected conductive network for fast transport of both electrons and lithium ions, and thus remarkably improves the electrode kinetics. Firstly, nano-sized LFP are in-situ grown on the

  7. Misalignment corrections in optical interconnects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Deqiang

    Optical interconnects are considered a promising solution for long distance and high bitrate data transmissions, outperforming electrical interconnects in terms of loss and dispersion. Due to the bandwidth and distance advantage of optical interconnects, longer links have been implemented with optics. Recent studies show that optical interconnects have clear advantages even at very short distances---intra system interconnects. The biggest challenge for such optical interconnects is the alignment tolerance. Many free space optical components require very precise assembly and installation, and therefore the overall cost could be increased. This thesis studied the misalignment tolerance and possible alignment correction solutions for optical interconnects at backplane or board level. First the alignment tolerance for free space couplers was simulated and the result indicated the most critical alignments occur between the VCSEL, waveguide and microlens arrays. An in-situ microlens array fabrication method was designed and experimentally demonstrated, with no observable misalignment with the waveguide array. At the receiver side, conical lens arrays were proposed to replace simple microlens arrays for a larger angular alignment tolerance. Multilayer simulation models in CodeV were built to optimized the refractive index and shape profiles of the conical lens arrays. Conical lenses fabricated with micro injection molding machine and fiber etching were characterized. Active component VCSOA was used to correct misalignment in optical connectors between the board and backplane. The alignment correction capability were characterized for both DC and AC (1GHz) optical signal. The speed and bandwidth of the VCSOA was measured and compared with a same structure VCSEL. Based on the optical inverter being studied in our lab, an all-optical flip-flop was demonstrated using a pair of VCSOAs. This memory cell with random access ability can store one bit optical signal with set or

  8. Metal-interconnection-free integration of InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes with AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Chao; Cai, Yuefei; Liu, Zhaojun; Ma, Jun; Lau, Kei May, E-mail: eekmlau@ust.hk [Photonics Technology Center, Department of Electronic and Computer Engineering, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon (Hong Kong)

    2015-05-04

    We report a metal-interconnection-free integration scheme for InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes (LEDs) and AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) by combining selective epi removal (SER) and selective epitaxial growth (SEG) techniques. SER of HEMT epi was carried out first to expose the bottom unintentionally doped GaN buffer and the sidewall GaN channel. A LED structure was regrown in the SER region with the bottom n-type GaN layer (n-electrode of the LED) connected to the HEMTs laterally, enabling monolithic integration of the HEMTs and LEDs (HEMT-LED) without metal-interconnection. In addition to saving substrate real estate, minimal interface resistance between the regrown n-type GaN and the HEMT channel is a significant improvement over metal-interconnection. Furthermore, excellent off-state leakage characteristics of the driving transistor can also be guaranteed in such an integration scheme.

  9. Metal-interconnection-free integration of InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes with AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Chao; Cai, Yuefei; Liu, Zhaojun; Ma, Jun; Lau, Kei May

    2015-01-01

    We report a metal-interconnection-free integration scheme for InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes (LEDs) and AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) by combining selective epi removal (SER) and selective epitaxial growth (SEG) techniques. SER of HEMT epi was carried out first to expose the bottom unintentionally doped GaN buffer and the sidewall GaN channel. A LED structure was regrown in the SER region with the bottom n-type GaN layer (n-electrode of the LED) connected to the HEMTs laterally, enabling monolithic integration of the HEMTs and LEDs (HEMT-LED) without metal-interconnection. In addition to saving substrate real estate, minimal interface resistance between the regrown n-type GaN and the HEMT channel is a significant improvement over metal-interconnection. Furthermore, excellent off-state leakage characteristics of the driving transistor can also be guaranteed in such an integration scheme

  10. A metallic buried interconnect process for through-wafer interconnection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji, Chang-Hyeon; Herrault, Florian; Allen, Mark G

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we present the design, fabrication process and experimental results of electroplated metal interconnects buried at the bottom of deep silicon trenches with vertical sidewalls. A manual spray-coating process along with a unique trench-formation process has been developed for the electroplating of a metal interconnection structure at the bottom surface of the deep trenches. The silicon etch process combines the isotropic dry etch process and conventional Bosch process to fabricate a deep trench with angled top-side edges and vertical sidewalls. The resulting trench structure, in contrast to the trenches fabricated by wet anisotropic etching, enables spray-coated photoresist patterning with good sidewall and top-side edge coverage while maintaining the ability to form a high-density array of deep trenches without excessive widening of the trench opening. A photoresist spray-coating process was developed and optimized for the formation of electroplating mold at the bottom of 300 µm deep trenches having vertical sidewalls. A diluted positive tone photoresist with relatively high solid content and multiple coating with baking between coating steps has been experimentally proven to provide high quality sidewall and edge coverage. To validate the buried interconnect approach, a three-dimensional daisy chain structure having a buried interconnect as the bottom connector and traces on the wafer surface as the top conductor has been designed and fabricated

  11. Implementation of interconnect simulation tools in spice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satsangi, H.; Schutt-Aine, J. E.

    1993-01-01

    Accurate computer simulation of high speed digital computer circuits and communication circuits requires a multimode approach to simulate both the devices and the interconnects between devices. Classical circuit analysis algorithms (lumped parameter) are needed for circuit devices and the network formed by the interconnected devices. The interconnects, however, have to be modeled as transmission lines which incorporate electromagnetic field analysis. An approach to writing a multimode simulator is to take an existing software package which performs either lumped parameter analysis or field analysis and add the missing type of analysis routines to the package. In this work a traditionally lumped parameter simulator, SPICE, is modified so that it will perform lossy transmission line analysis using a different model approach. Modifying SPICE3E2 or any other large software package is not a trivial task. An understanding of the programming conventions used, simulation software, and simulation algorithms is required. This thesis was written to clarify the procedure for installing a device into SPICE3E2. The installation of three devices is documented and the installations of the first two provide a foundation for installation of the lossy line which is the third device. The details of discussions are specific to SPICE, but the concepts will be helpful when performing installations into other circuit analysis packages.

  12. Regulatory Issues Surrounding Merchant Interconnection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuijlaars, Kees-Jan; Zwart, Gijsbert

    2003-11-01

    We discussed various issues concerning the regulatory perspective on private investment in interconnectors. One might claim that leaving investment in transmission infrastructure to competing market parties is more efficient than relying on regulated investment only (especially in the case of long (DC) lines connecting previously unconnected parts of the grids, so that externalities from e.g. loop flows do not play a significant role). We considered that some aspects of interconnection might reduce these market benefits. In particular, the large fixed costs of interconnection construction may lead to significant under investment (due to both first mover monopoly power and the fact that part of generation cost efficiencies realised by interconnection are not captured by the investor itself, and remain external to the investment decision). Second, merchant ownership restricts future opportunities for adaptation of regulation, as would be required e.g. for introduction of potentially more sophisticated methods of congestion management or market splitting. Some of the disadvantages of merchant investment may be mitigated however by a suitable regulatory framework, and we discussed some views in this direction. The issues we discussed are not intended to give a complete framework, and detailed regulation will certainly involve many more specific requirements. Areas we did not touch upon include e.g. the treatment of deep connection costs, rules for operation and maintenance of the line, and impact on availability of capacity on other interconnections

  13. Regulatory Issues Surrounding Merchant Interconnection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuijlaars, Kees-Jan; Zwart, Gijsbert [Office for Energy Regulation (DTe), The Hague (Netherlands)

    2003-11-01

    We discussed various issues concerning the regulatory perspective on private investment in interconnectors. One might claim that leaving investment in transmission infrastructure to competing market parties is more efficient than relying on regulated investment only (especially in the case of long (DC) lines connecting previously unconnected parts of the grids, so that externalities from e.g. loop flows do not play a significant role). We considered that some aspects of interconnection might reduce these market benefits. In particular, the large fixed costs of interconnection construction may lead to significant under investment (due to both first mover monopoly power and the fact that part of generation cost efficiencies realised by interconnection are not captured by the investor itself, and remain external to the investment decision). Second, merchant ownership restricts future opportunities for adaptation of regulation, as would be required e.g. for introduction of potentially more sophisticated methods of congestion management or market splitting. Some of the disadvantages of merchant investment may be mitigated however by a suitable regulatory framework, and we discussed some views in this direction. The issues we discussed are not intended to give a complete framework, and detailed regulation will certainly involve many more specific requirements. Areas we did not touch upon include e.g. the treatment of deep connection costs, rules for operation and maintenance of the line, and impact on availability of capacity on other interconnections.

  14. High Flux Isotope Reactor technical specifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-11-01

    This report gives technical specifications for the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) on the following: safety limits and limiting safety system settings; limiting conditions for operation; surveillance requirements; design features; and administrative controls

  15. Asymmetric ZnO panel-like hierarchical architectures with highly interconnected pathways for free-electron transport and photovoltaic improvements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yantao; Zhu, Chao; Wang, Lin; Li, Wei; Fung, Kwok Kwong; Wang, Ning

    2013-01-02

    Through a rapid and template-free precipitation approach, we synthesized an asymmetric panel-like ZnO hierarchical architecture (PHA) for photoanodes of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs). The two sides of the PHA are constructed differently using densely interconnected, mono-crystalline and ultrathin ZnO nanosheets. By mixing these PHAs with ZnO nanoparticles (NPs), we developed an effective and feasible strategy to improve the electrical transport and photovoltaic performance of the composite photoanodes of DSCs. The highly crystallized and interconnected ZnO nanosheets largely minimized the total grain boundaries within the composite photoanodes and thus served as direct pathways for the transport and effective collection of free electrons. Through low-temperature (200 °C) annealing, these novel composite photoanodes achieved high conversion efficiencies of up to 5.59% for ZnO-based quasi-solid DSCs. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Scalable synthesis of interconnected porous silicon/carbon composites by the Rochow reaction as high-performance anodes of lithium ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zailei; Wang, Yanhong; Ren, Wenfeng; Tan, Qiangqiang; Chen, Yunfa; Li, Hong; Zhong, Ziyi; Su, Fabing

    2014-05-12

    Despite the promising application of porous Si-based anodes in future Li ion batteries, the large-scale synthesis of these materials is still a great challenge. A scalable synthesis of porous Si materials is presented by the Rochow reaction, which is commonly used to produce organosilane monomers for synthesizing organosilane products in chemical industry. Commercial Si microparticles reacted with gas CH3 Cl over various Cu-based catalyst particles to substantially create macropores within the unreacted Si accompanying with carbon deposition to generate porous Si/C composites. Taking advantage of the interconnected porous structure and conductive carbon-coated layer after simple post treatment, these composites as anodes exhibit high reversible capacity and long cycle life. It is expected that by integrating the organosilane synthesis process and controlling reaction conditions, the manufacture of porous Si-based anodes on an industrial scale is highly possible. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Variation Tolerant On-Chip Interconnects

    CERN Document Server

    Nigussie, Ethiopia Enideg

    2012-01-01

    This book presents design techniques, analysis and implementation of high performance and power efficient, variation tolerant on-chip interconnects.  Given the design paradigm shift to multi-core, interconnect-centric designs and the increase in sources of variability and their impact in sub-100nm technologies, this book will be an invaluable reference for anyone concerned with the design of next generation, high-performance electronics systems. Provides comprehensive, circuit-level explanation of high-performance, energy-efficient, variation-tolerant on-chip interconnect; Describes design techniques to mitigate problems caused by variation; Includes techniques for design and implementation of self-timed on-chip interconnect, delay variation insensitive communication protocols, high speed signaling techniques and circuits, bit-width independent completion detection and process, voltage and temperature variation tolerance.                          

  18. Post-processing of polymer foam tissue scaffolds with high power ultrasound: A route to increased pore interconnectivity, pore size and fluid transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, N.J.; Johal, R.K.; Glover, Z.; Reinwald, Y.; White, L.J.; Ghaemmaghami, A.M.; Morgan, S.P.; Rose, F.R.A.J.; Povey, M.J.W.; Parker, N.G.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this work is to demonstrate that the structural and fluidic properties of polymer foam tissue scaffolds, post-fabrication but prior to the introduction of cells, can be engineered via exposure to high power ultrasound. Our analysis is supported by measurements of fluid uptake during insonification and imaging of the scaffold microstructure via X-ray computed tomography, scanning electron microscopy and acoustic microscopy. The ultrasonic treatment is performed with a frequency of 30 kHz, average intensities up to 80,000 Wm −2 and exposure times up to 20 h. The treatment is found to increase the mean pore size by over 10%. More striking is the improvement in fluid uptake: for scaffolds with only 40% water uptake via standard immersion techniques, we can routinely achieve full saturation of the scaffold over approximately one hour of exposure. These desirable modifications occur with negligible loss of scaffold integrity and mass, and are optimized when the ultrasound treatment is coupled to a pre-wetting stage with ethanol. Our findings suggest that high power ultrasound is highly targeted towards flow obstructions in the scaffold architecture, thereby providing an efficient means to promote pore interconnectivity and fluid transport in thick foam tissue scaffolds. - Highlights: • We expose thick PLA foam tissue scaffolds to high power ultrasound. • This treatment both accelerates and enhances the uptake of fluid into the scaffold. • It leads to significant increases in the mean pore size, pore interconnectivity and porosity. • The ultrasonic treatment is most effective when the scaffold is pre-wet with ethanol. • We demonstrate the use of acoustic microscopy to characterize the scaffold microstructure

  19. Benefits of transmission interconnections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyons, D.

    2006-01-01

    The benefits of new power transmission interconnections from Alberta were discussed with reference to the challenges and measures needed to move forward. Alberta's electricity system has had a long period of sustained growth in generation and demand and this trend is expected to continue. However, no new interconnections have been built since 1985 because the transmission network has not expanded in consequence with the growth in demand. As such, Alberta remains weakly interconnected with the rest of the western region. The benefits of stronger transmission interconnections include improved reliability, long-term generation capability, hydrothermal synergies, a more competitive market, system efficiencies and fuel diversity. It was noted that the more difficult challenges are not technical. Rather, the difficult challenges lie in finding an appropriate business model that recognizes different market structures. It was emphasized that additional interconnections are worthwhile and will require significant collaboration among market participants and governments. It was concluded that interties enable resource optimization between systems and their benefits far exceed their costs. tabs., figs

  20. Photomask specifications for high energy physics detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Pindo, M

    2002-01-01

    Planar technologies used for radiation detector fabrication imply an extensive use of photomasks whose characteristics are critical in determining final detector performance. Compatibly with their manufacturing process, photomasks must satisfy the application-specific requirements dictated both by wafer manufacturers and detector final users. The design and realization of microstrip and pixel detectors, widely used in high energy physics experiments, ask for intensive scientific effort, advanced technology and important economical investments. Photomask specification definition is one of the fundamental steps to optimize detector fabrication processes and fulfill experimental requirements at the most appropriate cost.

  1. Fusion-bonded fluidic interconnects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fazal, I; Elwenspoek, M C

    2008-01-01

    A new approach to realize fluidic interconnects based on the fusion bonding of glass tubes with silicon is presented. Fusion bond strength analyses have been carried out. Experiments with plain silicon wafers and coated with silicon oxide and silicon nitride are performed. The obtained results are discussed in terms of the homogeneity and strength of fusion bond. High pressure testing shows that the bond strength is large enough for most applications of fluidic interconnects. The bond strength for 525 µm thick silicon, with glass tubes having an outer diameter of 6 mm and with a wall thickness of 2 mm, is more than 60 bars after annealing at a temperature of 800 °C

  2. High-throughput optical inter-board interconnects for next-generation on-board digital transparent processors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venet, N.; Sotom, M.; Gachon, H.; Foucal, V.; Pez, M.; Heikkinen, V.; Tuominen, T.; Pantoja, S.

    2017-11-01

    The satellite telecommunication sector is continuously facing new challenges. Operators turn towards increasing capacity payloads with higher number of beams and broader bandwidth, in order to cope with exhausting orbital positions and to lower the cost of in-orbit delivery of bit. Only satellites able to provide high data rate connections to numerous users are expected to achieve affordable communication prices. On the other hand, as the telecom market grows and the range of offered services (HDTV, Video On Demand, Triple Play), operators call for more versatile solutions to quickly grasp new markets and to adapt to these evolutions over the average 15 years of a satellite lifetime. Flexible payloads have found an increasing interest for a number of years. Flexibility is considered as a means for a better commercial exploitation of a satellite fleet and a better allocation of resource in response to traffic evolution and/or changing business plans, with potential advantages such as a wider range of applications, less customization for specific missions, increased production runs of equipment, enhancement of reliability, reduction of equipment cost, reduction of program schedules [1]. Flexibility is expected to be offered in spectrum management and frequency plan, in coverage, or in the repeater power allocation. The industry is taking up the challenge both by improving current telecom satellites and offering new payload technology, more flexible and able to address the new markets. From a system integrator perspective, flexibility is as an opportunity to design more generic payloads, that can be customized during or after fabrication only, thus shortening the design-to-manufacturing cycle, and improving the industry competitiveness.

  3. Production of high specific activity silicon-32

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, D.R.; Brzezinski, M.A.

    1998-01-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development Project (LDRD) at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). There were two primary objectives for the work performed under this project. The first was to take advantage of capabilities and facilities at Los Alamos to produce the radionuclide 32 Si in unusually high specific activity. The second was to combine the radioanalytical expertise at Los Alamos with the expertise at the University of California to develop methods for the application of 32 Si in biological oceanographic research related to global climate modeling. The first objective was met by developing targetry for proton spallation production of 32 Si in KCl targets and chemistry for its recovery in very high specific activity. The second objective was met by developing a validated field-useable, radioanalytical technique, based upon gas-flow proportional counting, to measure the dynamics of silicon uptake by naturally occurring diatoms

  4. Dominant effect of high anisotropy in β-Sn grain on electromigration-induced failure mechanism in Sn-3.0Ag-0.5Cu interconnect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, M.L., E-mail: huang@dlut.edu.cn; Zhao, J.F.; Zhang, Z.J.; Zhao, N.

    2016-09-05

    The effect of high diffusivity anisotropy in β-Sn grain on electromigration behavior of micro-bumps was clearly demonstrated using Sn-3.0Ag-0.5Cu solder interconnects with only two β-Sn grains. The orientation of β-Sn grain (θ is defined as the angle between the c-axis of β-Sn grain and the electron flow direction) is becoming the most crucial factor to dominate the different electromigration-induced failure modes: 1) the excessive dissolution of the cathode Cu, blocking at the grain boundary and massive precipitation of columnar Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} intermetallic compounds (IMCs) in the small angle θ β-Sn grain occur when electrons flow from a small angle θ β-Sn grain to a large one; 2) void formation and propagation occur at the cathode IMC/solder interface and no Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} IMCs precipitate within the large angle θ β-Sn grain when electrons flow in the opposite direction. The EM-induced failure mechanism of the two β-Sn grain solder interconnects is well explained in viewpoint of atomic diffusion flux in β-Sn. - Highlights: • High anisotropy in β-Sn dominates different electromigration-induced failure mode. • Excessive dissolution of cathode Cu occurs if electrons flow in forward direction. • Voids initiate and propagate at cathode if electrons flow in reverse direction. • Failure modes are well explained in viewpoint of atomic diffusion flux in β-Sn.

  5. Thermoelectric Coolers with Sintered Silver Interconnects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kähler, Julian; Stranz, Andrej; Waag, Andreas; Peiner, Erwin

    2014-06-01

    The fabrication and performance of a sintered Peltier cooler (SPC) based on bismuth telluride with sintered silver interconnects are described. Miniature SPC modules with a footprint of 20 mm2 were assembled using pick-and-place pressure-assisted silver sintering at low pressure (5.5 N/mm2) and moderate temperature (250°C to 270°C). A modified flip-chip bonder combined with screen/stencil printing for paste transfer was used for the pick-and-place process, enabling high positioning accuracy, easy handling of the tiny bismuth telluride pellets, and immediate visual process control. A specific contact resistance of (1.4 ± 0.1) × 10-5 Ω cm2 was found, which is in the range of values reported for high-temperature solder interconnects of bismuth telluride pellets. The realized SPCs were evaluated from room temperature to 300°C, considerably outperforming the operating temperature range of standard commercial Peltier coolers. Temperature cycling capability was investigated from 100°C to 235°C over more than 200 h, i.e., 850 cycles, during which no degradation of module resistance or cooling performance occurred.

  6. Multilevel Dual Damascene copper interconnections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshminarayanan, S.

    C, 500oC and 600oC for Ti, TiN and Ta barriers respectively. Via resistivity on the order of 10-9/ /Omegacm2 was measured for Cu/Ta/Cu interfaces and no degradation in the via resistance was observed upto 600oC on the 2 μm and 3 μm wide contact windows. Characterization of diode leakage and subthreshold currents of CMOS transistors fabricated with Ta adhesion layers, showed the failure of the Ta barrier at 450oC. Despite the good barrier performance of the CVD TiN films, obtaining low contact resistivity may be a concern. The potential use of Cu-Mg alloy as the backend metallization has also been studied. Fully encapsulated wiring has been fabricated by causing the Mg to out- diffuse towards the Cu/SiO2 interfaces and the free copper surface. The inter-connects exhibited good stability and oxidation resistance, but via resistances were extremely high, probably due to the presence of insulating films like MgO or MgF2 at the interface between the two metal levels. It may be possible to decrease the via resistance to values comparable to Cu/Ta/Cu by altering the process flow and using a suitable via clean. When used at the contact level, undesirable interaction with the CoSi2 film was observed at temperatures as low as 350oC. Another problem was the high contact resistance at the Cu-Mg/CoSi2 interface. Hence the use of this alloy as a contact fill material is not feasible at this time. An additional barrier layer may be required between the Cu-Mg and CoSi2 films to protect the integrity of the silicide and provide low contact resistance.

  7. The Interconnections of the LHC Cryomagnets

    CERN Document Server

    Jacquemod, A; Skoczen, Blazej; Tock, J P

    2001-01-01

    The main components of the LHC, the next world-class facility in high-energy physics, are the twin-aperture high-field superconducting cryomagnets to be installed in the existing 26.7-km long tunnel. After installation and alignment, the cryomagnets have to be interconnected. The interconnections must ensure the continuity of several functions: vacuum enclosures, beam pipe image currents (RF contacts), cryogenic circuits, electrical power supply, and thermal insulation. In the machine, about 1700 interconnections between cryomagnets are necessary. The interconnections constitute a unique system that is nearly entirely assembled in the tunnel. For each of them, various operations must be done: TIG welding of cryogenic channels (~ 50 000 welds), induction soldering of main superconducting cables (~ 10 000 joints), ultrasonic welding of auxiliary superconducting cables (~ 20 000 welds), mechanical assembly of various elements, and installation of the multi-layer insulation (~ 200 000 m2). Defective junctions cou...

  8. Driving Interconnected Networks to Supercriticality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo Radicchi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Networks in the real world do not exist as isolated entities, but they are often part of more complicated structures composed of many interconnected network layers. Recent studies have shown that such mutual dependence makes real networked systems potentially exposed to atypical structural and dynamical behaviors, and thus there is an urgent necessity to better understand the mechanisms at the basis of these anomalies. Previous research has mainly focused on the emergence of atypical properties in relation to the moments of the intra- and interlayer degree distributions. In this paper, we show that an additional ingredient plays a fundamental role for the possible scenario that an interconnected network can face: the correlation between intra- and interlayer degrees. For sufficiently high amounts of correlation, an interconnected network can be tuned, by varying the moments of the intra- and interlayer degree distributions, in distinct topological and dynamical regimes. When instead the correlation between intra- and interlayer degrees is lower than a critical value, the system enters in a supercritical regime where dynamical and topological phases are no longer distinguishable.

  9. Low power interconnect design

    CERN Document Server

    Saini, Sandeep

    2015-01-01

    This book provides practical solutions for delay and power reduction for on-chip interconnects and buses.  It provides an in depth description of the problem of signal delay and extra power consumption, possible solutions for delay and glitch removal, while considering the power reduction of the total system.  Coverage focuses on use of the Schmitt Trigger as an alternative approach to buffer insertion for delay and power reduction in VLSI interconnects. In the last section of the book, various bus coding techniques are discussed to minimize delay and power in address and data buses.   ·         Provides practical solutions for delay and power reduction for on-chip interconnects and buses; ·         Focuses on Deep Sub micron technology devices and interconnects; ·         Offers in depth analysis of delay, including details regarding crosstalk and parasitics;  ·         Describes use of the Schmitt Trigger as a versatile alternative approach to buffer insertion for del...

  10. Interconnecting with VIPs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Interconnectedness changes lives. It can even save lives. Recently the author got to witness and be part of something in his role as a teacher of primary science that has changed lives: it may even have saved lives. It involved primary science teaching--and the climate. Robert Collins describes how it is all interconnected. The "Toilet…

  11. CAISSON: Interconnect Network Simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, Paul L.

    2006-01-01

    Cray response to HPCS initiative. Model future petaflop computer interconnect. Parallel discrete event simulation techniques for large scale network simulation. Built on WarpIV engine. Run on laptop and Altix 3000. Can be sized up to 1000 simulated nodes per host node. Good parallel scaling characteristics. Flexible: multiple injectors, arbitration strategies, queue iterators, network topologies.

  12. Wp specific methylation of highly proliferated LCLs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jung-Hoon; Jeon, Jae-Pil; Shim, Sung-Mi; Nam, Hye-Young; Kim, Joon-Woo; Han, Bok-Ghee; Lee, Suman

    2007-01-01

    The epigenetic regulation of viral genes may be important for the life cycle of EBV. We determined the methylation status of three viral promoters (Wp, Cp, Qp) from EBV B-lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) by pyrosequencing. Our pyrosequencing data showed that the CpG region of Wp was methylated, but the others were not. Interestingly, Wp methylation was increased with proliferation of LCLs. Wp methylation was as high as 74.9% in late-passage LCLs, but 25.6% in early-passage LCLs. From two Burkitt's lymphoma cell lines, Wp specific hypermethylation was also found (>80%). Interestingly, the expression of EBNA2 gene which located directly next to Wp was associated with its methylation. Our data suggested that Wp specific methylation may be important for the indicator of the proliferation status of LCLs, and the epigenetic viral gene regulation of EBNA2 gene by Wp should be further defined possibly with other biological processes

  13. Economic and environmental benefits of interconnected systems. The Spanish example

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chicharro, A.S.; Dios Alija, R. de

    1996-01-01

    The interconnected systems provide large technical and economic benefits which, evaluated and contrasted with the associated network investment cost, usually produce important net savings. There are continental electrical systems formed by many interconnected subsystems. The optimal size of an interconnection should be defined within an economic background. It is necessary to take into account the global environmental effects. The approach and results of studies carried out by Red Electrica is presented, in order to analyse both economic and environmental benefits resulting from an increase in the present Spanish interconnection capacities. From both economic and environmental points of view, the development of the interconnected systems is highly positive. (author)

  14. 3D Interconnected V6O13 Nanosheets Grown on Carbonized Textile via a Seed-Assisted Hydrothermal Process as High-Performance Flexible Cathodes for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shixing; Cen, Dingcheng; Gao, Peibo; Tang, Huang; Bao, Zhihao

    2018-03-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) free-standing nanostructured materials have been proven to be one of the most promising electrodes for energy storage due to their enhanced electrochemical performance. And they are also widely studied for the wearable energy storage systems. In this work, interconnected V6O13 nanosheets were grown on the flexible carbonized textile (c-textile) via a seed-assisted hydrothermal method to form a 3D free-standing electrode for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). The electrode exhibited a specific capacity of 170 mA h g-1 at a specific current of 300 mA g-1. With carbon nanotube (CNT) coating, its specific capacities further increased 12-40% at the various current rates. It could retain a reversible capacity of 130 mA h g-1, 74% of the initial capacity after 300 cycles at the specific current of 300 mA g-1. It outperformed most of the mixed-valence vanadium oxides. The improved electrochemical performance was ascribed to the synergistic effect of the 3D nanostructure of V6O13 for feasible Li+ diffusion and transport and highly conductive hierarchical conductive network formed by CNT and carbon fiber in c-textile.

  15. Optical Interconnects for Future Data Center Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Bergman, Keren; Tomkos, Ioannis

    2013-01-01

    Optical Interconnects for Future Data Center Networks covers optical networks and how they can provide high bandwidth, energy efficient interconnects with increased communication bandwidth. This volume, with contributions from leading researchers in the field, presents an integrated view of the expected future requirements of data centers and serves as a reference for some of the most advanced and promising solutions proposed by researchers from leading universities, research labs, and companies. The work also includes several novel architectures, each demonstrating different technologies such as optical circuits, optical switching, MIMO optical OFDM, and others. Additionally, Optical Interconnects for Future Data Center Networks provides invaluable insights into the benefits and advantages of optical interconnects and how they can be a promising alternative for future data center networks.

  16. Recent Development of SOFC Metallic Interconnect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu JW, Liu XB

    2010-04-01

    Interest in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) stems from their higher e±ciencies and lower levels of emitted pollu- tants, compared to traditional power production methods. Interconnects are a critical part in SOFC stacks, which connect cells in series electrically, and also separate air or oxygen at the cathode side from fuel at the anode side. Therefore, the requirements of interconnects are the most demanding, i:e:, to maintain high elec- trical conductivity, good stability in both reducing and oxidizing atmospheres, and close coe±cient of thermal expansion (CTE) match and good compatibility with other SOFC ceramic components. The paper reviewed the interconnect materials, and coatings for metallic interconnect materials.

  17. Epidemics in interconnected small-world networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Meng; Li, Daqing; Qin, Pengju; Liu, Chaoran; Wang, Huijuan; Wang, Feilong

    2015-01-01

    Networks can be used to describe the interconnections among individuals, which play an important role in the spread of disease. Although the small-world effect has been found to have a significant impact on epidemics in single networks, the small-world effect on epidemics in interconnected networks has rarely been considered. Here, we study the susceptible-infected-susceptible (SIS) model of epidemic spreading in a system comprising two interconnected small-world networks. We find that the epidemic threshold in such networks decreases when the rewiring probability of the component small-world networks increases. When the infection rate is low, the rewiring probability affects the global steady-state infection density, whereas when the infection rate is high, the infection density is insensitive to the rewiring probability. Moreover, epidemics in interconnected small-world networks are found to spread at different velocities that depend on the rewiring probability.

  18. Epidemics in interconnected small-world networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Liu

    Full Text Available Networks can be used to describe the interconnections among individuals, which play an important role in the spread of disease. Although the small-world effect has been found to have a significant impact on epidemics in single networks, the small-world effect on epidemics in interconnected networks has rarely been considered. Here, we study the susceptible-infected-susceptible (SIS model of epidemic spreading in a system comprising two interconnected small-world networks. We find that the epidemic threshold in such networks decreases when the rewiring probability of the component small-world networks increases. When the infection rate is low, the rewiring probability affects the global steady-state infection density, whereas when the infection rate is high, the infection density is insensitive to the rewiring probability. Moreover, epidemics in interconnected small-world networks are found to spread at different velocities that depend on the rewiring probability.

  19. Photovoltaic sub-cell interconnects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    van Hest, Marinus Franciscus Antonius Maria; Swinger Platt, Heather Anne

    2017-05-09

    Photovoltaic sub-cell interconnect systems and methods are provided. In one embodiment, a photovoltaic device comprises a thin film stack of layers deposited upon a substrate, wherein the thin film stack layers are subdivided into a plurality of sub-cells interconnected in series by a plurality of electrical interconnection structures; and wherein the plurality of electrical interconnection structures each comprise no more than two scribes that penetrate into the thin film stack layers.

  20. Interconnectivity: Benefits and Challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-09-15

    Access to affordable and reliable electricity supplies is a basic prerequisite for economic and social development, prosperity, health, education and all other aspects of modern society. Electricity can be generated both near and far from the consumption areas as transmission lines, grid interconnections and distribution systems can transport it to the final consumer. In the vast majority of countries, the electricity sector used to be owned and run by the state. The wave of privatisation and market introduction in a number of countries and regions which started in the late 1980's has in many cases involved unbundling of generation from transmission and distribution (T and D). This has nearly everywhere exposed transmission bottlenecks limiting the development of well-functioning markets. Transmission on average accounts for about 10-15% of total final kWh cost paid by the end-user but it is becoming a key issue for effective operation of liberalised markets and for their further development. An integrated and adequate transmission infrastructure is of utmost importance for ensuring the delivery of the most competitively priced electricity, including externalities, to customers, both near and far from the power generating facilities. In this report, the role of interconnectivity in the development of energy systems is examined with the associated socio-economic, environmental, financial and regulatory aspects that must be taken into account for successful interconnection projects.

  1. Interconnection of Distributed Energy Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reiter, Emerson [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-04-19

    This is a presentation on interconnection of distributed energy resources, including the relationships between different aspects of interconnection, best practices and lessons learned from different areas of the U.S., and an update on technical advances and standards for interconnection.

  2. Highly-enhanced reflow characteristics of sputter deposited Cu alloy thin films for large scale integrated interconnections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onishi, Takashi [Advanced Technology Information Center, Shinko Research Co., Ltd., 2-7, 4-Chome, Iwaya-Nakamachi, Nada-ku, Kobe 657-0845 (Japan); Mizuno, Masao [Technical Development Group, Electronics Research Laboratory, Kobe Steel, Ltd., 5-5, Takatsukadai 1-chome, Nishi-ku, Kobe 651-2271 (Japan); Yoshikawa, Tetsuya; Munemasa, Jun [Machinery and Engineering Company, Kobe Steel, Ltd., 2-3-1, Shinhama, Arai-cho, Takasago 676-8670 (Japan); Mizuno, Masataka; Kihara, Teruo; Araki, Hideki [Division of Materials and Manufacturing Science, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1, Yamadaoka, Suita 565-0871 (Japan); Shirai, Yasuharu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Kyoto University, Yoshida-Honmachi, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan)

    2011-08-01

    An attempt to improve the reflow characteristics of sputtered Cu films was made by alloying the Cu with various elements. We selected Y, Sb, Nd, Sm, Gd, Dy, In, Sn, Mg, and P for the alloys, and ''the elasto-plastic deformation behavior at high temperature'' and ''the filling level of Cu into via holes'' were estimated for Cu films containing each of these elements. From the results, it was found that adding a small amount of Sb or Dy to the sputtered Cu was remarkably effective in improve the reflow characteristics. The microstructure and imperfections in the Cu films before and after high-temperature high-pressure annealing were investigated by secondary ion micrographs and positron annihilation spectroscopy. The results imply that the embedding or deformation mechanism is different for the Cu-Sb alloy films compared to the Cu-Dy alloy films. We consider that the former is embedded by softening or deformation of the Cu matrix, which has a polycrystalline structure, and the latter is embedded by grain boundary sliding.

  3. Decentralized adaptive neural control for high-order interconnected stochastic nonlinear time-delay systems with unknown system dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Wenjie; Dong, Xunde; Yang, Feifei

    2018-03-01

    This paper is concerned with the problem of decentralized adaptive backstepping state-feedback control for uncertain high-order large-scale stochastic nonlinear time-delay systems. For the control design of high-order large-scale nonlinear systems, only one adaptive parameter is constructed to overcome the over-parameterization, and neural networks are employed to cope with the difficulties raised by completely unknown system dynamics and stochastic disturbances. And then, the appropriate Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional and the property of hyperbolic tangent functions are used to deal with the unknown unmatched time-delay interactions of high-order large-scale systems for the first time. At last, on the basis of Lyapunov stability theory, the decentralized adaptive neural controller was developed, and it decreases the number of learning parameters. The actual controller can be designed so as to ensure that all the signals in the closed-loop system are semi-globally uniformly ultimately bounded (SGUUB) and the tracking error converges in the small neighborhood of zero. The simulation example is used to further show the validity of the design method. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Micro-CT scan reveals an unexpected high-volume and interconnected pore network in a Cretaceous Sanagasta dinosaur eggshell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hechenleitner, E Martín; Grellet-Tinner, Gerald; Foley, Matthew; Fiorelli, Lucas E; Thompson, Michael B

    2016-03-01

    The Cretaceous Sanagasta neosauropod nesting site (La Rioja, Argentina) was the first confirmed instance of extinct dinosaurs using geothermal-generated heat to incubate their eggs. The nesting strategy and hydrothermal activities at this site led to the conclusion that the surprisingly 7 mm thick-shelled eggs were adapted to harsh hydrothermal microenvironments. We used micro-CT scans in this study to obtain the first three-dimensional microcharacterization of these eggshells. Micro-CT-based analyses provide a robust assessment of gas conductance in fossil dinosaur eggshells with complex pore canal systems, allowing calculation, for the first time, of the shell conductance through its thickness. This novel approach suggests that the shell conductance could have risen during incubation to seven times more than previously estimated as the eggshell erodes. In addition, micro-CT observations reveal that the constant widening and branching of pore canals form a complex funnel-like pore canal system. Furthermore, the high density of pore canals and the presence of a lateral canal network in the shell reduce the risks of pore obstruction during the extended incubation of these eggs in a relatively highly humid and muddy nesting environment. © 2016 The Author(s).

  5. High-Rate, Durable Sodium-Ion Battery Cathode Enabled by Carbon-Coated Micro-Sized Na 3 V 2 (PO 4 ) 3 Particles with Interconnected Vertical Nanowalls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Hui [Beijing Key Laboratory of Environment Science and Engineering, School of Material Science and Engineering, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 China; Bi, Xuanxuan [Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South, Cass Avenue Lemont IL 60439 USA; Bai, Ying [Beijing Key Laboratory of Environment Science and Engineering, School of Material Science and Engineering, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 China; Yuan, Yifei [Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South, Cass Avenue Lemont IL 60439 USA; Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Michigan Technological University, 1400 Townsend Drive Houghton MI 49931 USA; Shahbazian-Yassar, Reza [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Michigan Technological University, 1400 Townsend Drive Houghton MI 49931 USA; Wu, Chuan [Beijing Key Laboratory of Environment Science and Engineering, School of Material Science and Engineering, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 China; Collaborative Innovation Center of Electric Vehicles in Beijing, Beijing 100081 China; Wu, Feng [Beijing Key Laboratory of Environment Science and Engineering, School of Material Science and Engineering, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 China; Collaborative Innovation Center of Electric Vehicles in Beijing, Beijing 100081 China; Lu, Jun [Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South, Cass Avenue Lemont IL 60439 USA; Amine, Khalil [Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South, Cass Avenue Lemont IL 60439 USA

    2016-02-08

    Na-ion batteries have been regarded as promising alternatives for Li-ion batteries due to the extensive sodium reserves in the world. Na3V2(PO4)3 has been proved to be a good candidate of the cathode materials in Na-ion batteries but the intrinsic low electrical conductivity and sluggish kinetics handicapped its application. Here, 3D hierarchical Na3V2(PO4)3 particles are synthesized by a facile hydrothermal method, constructed by carbon-coated 2D Na3V2(PO4)3 nanowalls. Superior cell performance of high rate capability and cycle stability are observed in the well-defined structure. As the cathode in Na-ion batteries, it delivers a high capacity almost reaching the theoretical one and exhibits high capacity retention. The enhanced rate capability and cycle performance can be attributed to the improved electrical conductivity from the interconnected carbon layer and the shortened ion diffusion length and high specific surface area from the nanowalls.

  6. Interconnection policy: a theoretical survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Mattos

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This article surveys the theoretical foundations of interconnection policy. The requirement of an interconnection policy should not be taken for granted in all circumstances, even considering the issue of network externalities. On the other hand, when it is required, an encompassing interconnection policy is usually justified. We provide an overview of the theory on interconnection pricing that results in several different prescriptions depending on which problem the regulator aims to address. We also present a survey on the literature on two-way interconnection.

  7. Interconnectivity of macroporous molecularly imprinted polymers fabricated by hydroxyapatite-stabilized Pickering high internal phase emulsions-hydrogels for the selective recognition of protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yanhua; Li, Yuqing; Xu, Jiangfeng; Huang, Ling; Qiu, Tianyun; Zhong, Shian

    2017-07-01

    Hydroxyapatite hybridized molecularly imprinted polydopamine polymers with selective recognition of bovine hemoglobin (BHb) were successfully prepared via Pickering oil-in-water high internal phase emulsions-hydrogels and molecularly imprinting technique. The emulsions were stabilized by hydroxyapatite of which the wettability was modified by 3-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane. The materials were characterized by SEM, IR and TGA. The results showed that the BHb imprinted polymers based on Pickering hydrogels (Hydro-MIPs) possess macropores ranging from 20μm to 50μm, and their large numbers of amino groups and hydroxyl groups result in a favorable adsorption capacity for BHb. The maximum adsorption capacity of Hydro-MIPs for BHb was 438mg/g, 3.27 times more than that of the non-imprinted polymers (Hydro-NIPs). The results indicated that Hydro-MIPs possessing well-defined hierarchical porous structures exhibited outstanding recognition behavior towards the target protein molecules. This work provided a promising alternative method for the fabrication of polymer materials with tunable and interconnected pores structures for the separation and purification of protein in vitro. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. LHC beampipe interconnection

    CERN Document Server

    Particle beams circulate for around 10 hours in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). During this time, the particles make four hundred million revolutions of the machine, travelling a distance equivalent to the diameter of the solar system. The beams must travel in a pipe which is emptied of air, to avoid collisions between the particles and air molecules (which are considerably bigger than protons). The beam pipes are pumped down to an air pressure similar to that on the surface of the moon. Much of the LHC runs at 1.9 degrees above absolute zero. When material is cooled, it contracts. The interconnections must absorb this contraction whilst maintaining electrical connectivity.

  9. The Changing Urban Landscape: Interconnections Between Racial/Ethnic Segregation and Exposure in the Study of Race-Specific Violence Over Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Karen F; Stansfield, Richard

    2015-09-01

    We investigated how racial/ethnic shifts in the urban landscape influence race-specific violence by considering changes in the size of the Hispanic population, racial/ethnic contact, and racial segregation patterns. We used a time-series approach incorporating 4 decennial periods (1980, 1990, 2000, and 2010) to determine whether racial/ethnic demographic changes in 144 US cities influenced White and Black homicide rates. Sources included census and Uniform Crime Reports Supplemental Homicide Report data. The growing diversity in the residential population of US cities contributed to the dramatic decline in homicide rates over time, but the effects differed by racial group. Exposure between Hispanics and Blacks and the growing presence of Hispanics led to a reduced Black homicide trend but had no impact on Whites, after adjustment for economic shifts and other important structural features in US cities. Our research highlights the importance of paying closer attention to exposure and integration between immigrants and existing racial groups. Failure to consider racial/ethnic contact and the racial nature of urban violence may produce misleading results in studies of associations between Hispanic immigration and crime.

  10. Fuel cell system with interconnect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goettler, Richard; Liu, Zhien

    2017-12-12

    The present invention includes a fuel cell system having a plurality of adjacent electrochemical cells formed of an anode layer, a cathode layer spaced apart from the anode layer, and an electrolyte layer disposed between the anode layer and the cathode layer. The fuel cell system also includes at least one interconnect, the interconnect being structured to conduct free electrons between adjacent electrochemical cells. Each interconnect includes a primary conductor embedded within the electrolyte layer and structured to conduct the free electrons.

  11. Policy issues in interconnecting networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiner, Barry M.

    1989-01-01

    To support the activities of the Federal Research Coordinating Committee (FRICC) in creating an interconnected set of networks to serve the research community, two workshops were held to address the technical support of policy issues that arise when interconnecting such networks. The workshops addressed the required and feasible technologies and architectures that could be used to satisfy the desired policies for interconnection. The results of the workshop are documented.

  12. Epidemics on interconnected networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickison, Mark; Havlin, S.; Stanley, H. E.

    2012-06-01

    Populations are seldom completely isolated from their environment. Individuals in a particular geographic or social region may be considered a distinct network due to strong local ties but will also interact with individuals in other networks. We study the susceptible-infected-recovered process on interconnected network systems and find two distinct regimes. In strongly coupled network systems, epidemics occur simultaneously across the entire system at a critical infection strength βc, below which the disease does not spread. In contrast, in weakly coupled network systems, a mixed phase exists below βc of the coupled network system, where an epidemic occurs in one network but does not spread to the coupled network. We derive an expression for the network and disease parameters that allow this mixed phase and verify it numerically. Public health implications of communities comprising these two classes of network systems are also mentioned.

  13. Carbon nanotube and graphene nanoribbon interconnects

    CERN Document Server

    Das, Debaprasad

    2014-01-01

    "The book, Caron Nanotube and Graphene Nanoribbon Interconnects, authored by Drs. Debapraad Das and Hafizur Rahaman serves as a good source of material on CNT and GNR interconnects for readers who wish to get into this area and also for practicing engineers who would like to be updated in advances of this field."-Prof. Ashok Srivastava, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, USA"Mathematical analysis included in each and every chapter is the main strength of the materials. ... The book is very precise and useful for those who are working in this area. ... highly focused, very compact, and easy to apply. ... This book depicts a detailed analysis and modelling of carbon nanotube and graphene nanoribbon interconnects. The book also covers the electrical circuit modelling of carbon nanotubes and graphene nanoribbons."-Prof. Chandan Kumar Sarkar, Jadavpur University, Kolkata, India.

  14. Nominate an Organization | Distributed Generation Interconnection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collaborative | NREL Nominate an Organization Nominate an Organization Do you know of an organization doing high-quality, innovative work on the interconnection of distributed generation? Want to practices by nominating an organization to be profiled in an online case study! Please include your

  15. Location constrained resource interconnection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawkins, D.

    2008-01-01

    This presentation discussed issues related to wind integration from the perspective of the California Independent System Operator (ISO). Issues related to transmission, reliability, and forecasting were reviewed. Renewable energy sources currently used by the ISO were listed, and details of a new transmission financing plan designed to address the location constraints of renewable energy sources and provide for new transmission infrastructure was presented. The financing mechanism will be financed by participating transmission owners through revenue requirements. New transmission interconnections will include network facilities and generator tie-lines. Tariff revisions have also been implemented to recover the costs of new facilities and generators. The new transmission project will permit wholesale transmission access to areas where there are significant energy resources that are not transportable. A rate impact cap of 15 per cent will be imposed on transmission owners to mitigate short-term costs to ratepayers. The presentation also outlined energy resource area designation plans, renewable energy forecasts, and new wind technologies. Ramping issues were also discussed. It was concluded that the ISO expects to ensure that 20 per cent of its energy will be derived from renewable energy sources. tabs., figs

  16. Area array interconnection handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Totta, Paul A

    2012-01-01

    Microelectronic packaging has been recognized as an important "enabler" for the solid­ state revolution in electronics which we have witnessed in the last third of the twentieth century. Packaging has provided the necessary external wiring and interconnection capability for transistors and integrated circuits while they have gone through their own spectacular revolution from discrete device to gigascale integration. At IBM we are proud to have created the initial, simple concept of flip chip with solder bump connections at a time when a better way was needed to boost the reliability and improve the manufacturability of semiconductors. The basic design which was chosen for SLT (Solid Logic Technology) in the 1960s was easily extended to integrated circuits in the '70s and VLSI in the '80s and '90s. Three I/O bumps have grown to 3000 with even more anticipated for the future. The package families have evolved from thick-film (SLT) to thin-film (metallized ceramic) to co-fired multi-layer ceramic. A later famil...

  17. Adapting Memory Hierarchies for Emerging Datacenter Interconnects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江涛; 董建波; 侯锐; 柴琳; 张立新; 孙凝晖; 田斌

    2015-01-01

    Efficient resource utilization requires that emerging datacenter interconnects support both high performance communication and efficient remote resource sharing. These goals require that the network be more tightly coupled with the CPU chips. Designing a new interconnection technology thus requires considering not only the interconnection itself, but also the design of the processors that will rely on it. In this paper, we study memory hierarchy implications for the design of high-speed datacenter interconnects—particularly as they affect remote memory access—and we use PCIe as the vehicle for our investigations. To that end, we build three complementary platforms: a PCIe-interconnected prototype server with which we measure and analyze current bottlenecks; a software simulator that lets us model microarchitectural and cache hierarchy changes;and an FPGA prototype system with a streamlined switchless customized protocol Thunder with which we study hardware optimizations outside the processor. We highlight several architectural modifications to better support remote memory access and communication, and quantify their impact and limitations.

  18. Interconnecting heterogeneous database management systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gligor, V. D.; Luckenbaugh, G. L.

    1984-01-01

    It is pointed out that there is still a great need for the development of improved communication between remote, heterogeneous database management systems (DBMS). Problems regarding the effective communication between distributed DBMSs are primarily related to significant differences between local data managers, local data models and representations, and local transaction managers. A system of interconnected DBMSs which exhibit such differences is called a network of distributed, heterogeneous DBMSs. In order to achieve effective interconnection of remote, heterogeneous DBMSs, the users must have uniform, integrated access to the different DBMs. The present investigation is mainly concerned with an analysis of the existing approaches to interconnecting heterogeneous DBMSs, taking into account four experimental DBMS projects.

  19. Universal Interconnection Technology Workshop Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheaffer, P.; Lemar, P.; Honton, E. J.; Kime, E.; Friedman, N. R.; Kroposki, B.; Galdo, J.

    2002-10-01

    The Universal Interconnection Technology (UIT) Workshop - sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy, Distributed Energy and Electric Reliability (DEER) Program, and Distribution and Interconnection R&D - was held July 25-26, 2002, in Chicago, Ill., to: (1) Examine the need for a modular universal interconnection technology; (2) Identify UIT functional and technical requirements; (3) Assess the feasibility of and potential roadblocks to UIT; (4) Create an action plan for UIT development. These proceedings begin with an overview of the workshop. The body of the proceedings provides a series of industry representative-prepared papers on UIT functions and features, present interconnection technology, approaches to modularization and expandability, and technical issues in UIT development as well as detailed summaries of group discussions. Presentations, a list of participants, a copy of the agenda, and contact information are provided in the appendices of this document.

  20. A one-semester course in modeling of VSLI interconnections

    CERN Document Server

    Goel, Ashok

    2015-01-01

    Quantitative understanding of the parasitic capacitances and inductances, and the resultant propagation delays and crosstalk phenomena associated with the metallic interconnections on the very large scale integrated (VLSI) circuits has become extremely important for the optimum design of the state-of-the-art integrated circuits. More than 65 percent of the delays on the integrated circuit chip occur in the interconnections and not in the transistors on the chip. Mathematical techniques to model the parasitic capacitances, inductances, propagation delays, crosstalk noise, and electromigration-induced failure associated with the interconnections in the realistic high-density environment on a chip will be discussed. A One-Semester Course in Modeling of VLSI Interconnections also includes an overview of the future interconnection technologies for the nanotechnology circuits.

  1. Next generation space interconnect research and development in space communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, Charles Patrick

    2017-11-01

    Interconnect or "bus" is one of the critical technologies in design of spacecraft avionics systems that dictates its architecture and complexity. MIL-STD-1553B has long been used as the avionics backbone technology. As avionics systems become more and more capable and complex, however, limitations of MIL-STD-1553B such as insufficient 1 Mbps bandwidth and separability have forced current avionics architects and designers to use combination of different interconnect technologies in order to meet various requirements: CompactPCI is used for backplane interconnect; LVDS or RS422 is used for low and high-speed direct point-to-point interconnect; and some proprietary interconnect standards are designed for custom interfaces. This results in a very complicated system that consumes significant spacecraft mass and power and requires extensive resources in design, integration and testing of spacecraft systems.

  2. Optimal interconnection and renewable targets for north-west Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lynch, Muireann Á.; Tol, Richard S.J.; O'Malley, Mark J.

    2012-01-01

    We present a mixed-integer, linear programming model for determining optimal interconnection for a given level of renewable generation using a cost minimisation approach. Optimal interconnection and capacity investment decisions are determined under various targets for renewable penetration. The model is applied to a test system for eight regions in Northern Europe. It is found that considerations on the supply side dominate demand side considerations when determining optimal interconnection investment: interconnection is found to decrease generation capacity investment and total costs only when there is a target for renewable generation. Higher wind integration costs see a concentration of wind in high-wind regions with interconnection to other regions. - Highlights: ► We use mixed-integer linear programming to determine optimal interconnection locations for given renewable targets. ► The model is applied to a test system for eight regions in Northern Europe. ► Interconnection reduces costs only when there is a renewable target. ► Wind integration costs affect the interconnection portfolio.

  3. Study of the oxidation effects on isothermal solidification based high temperature stable Pt/In/Au and Pt/In/Ag thick film interconnections on LTCC substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Duguta Suresh; Khanna, P. K.; Suri, Nikhil; Sharma, R. P.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the presented paper is to determine the oxidized phase compositions of indium lead-free solders during solidification at 190 ° C under room environment with the help of X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDX). Many lead-free solders alloys available oxidizes and have poor wetting properties. The oxidation of pure indium solder foil, Au, Pt, and Ag alloys were identified and investigated, in the process of isothermal solidification based solder joints construction at room environment and humidity. Both EDX and XRD characterization techniques were performed to trace out the amount of oxide levels and variety of oxide formations at solder interface respectively. The paper also aims to report the isothermal solidification technique to provide interconnections to pads on Low temperature co-fired ceramic (LTCC) substrate. It also elaborates advantages of isothermal solidification over the other methods of interconnection. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) used to identify the oxidized spots on the surface of Pt, Ag substrates and In solder. The identified oxides were reported.

  4. Accurate Modeling Method for Cu Interconnect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Kenta; Kitahara, Hiroshi; Asai, Yoshihiko; Sakamoto, Hideo; Okada, Norio; Yasuda, Makoto; Oda, Noriaki; Sakurai, Michio; Hiroi, Masayuki; Takewaki, Toshiyuki; Ohnishi, Sadayuki; Iguchi, Manabu; Minda, Hiroyasu; Suzuki, Mieko

    This paper proposes an accurate modeling method of the copper interconnect cross-section in which the width and thickness dependence on layout patterns and density caused by processes (CMP, etching, sputtering, lithography, and so on) are fully, incorporated and universally expressed. In addition, we have developed specific test patterns for the model parameters extraction, and an efficient extraction flow. We have extracted the model parameters for 0.15μm CMOS using this method and confirmed that 10%τpd error normally observed with conventional LPE (Layout Parameters Extraction) was completely dissolved. Moreover, it is verified that the model can be applied to more advanced technologies (90nm, 65nm and 55nm CMOS). Since the interconnect delay variations due to the processes constitute a significant part of what have conventionally been treated as random variations, use of the proposed model could enable one to greatly narrow the guardbands required to guarantee a desired yield, thereby facilitating design closure.

  5. Specifics of marketing strategy in the segment of high fashion

    OpenAIRE

    Butigan, Ružica; Grilec Kaurić, Alica; Ujević, Darko

    2013-01-01

    The success of high fashion designers is not only in a specificity of the products but also in specific and very well executed marketing strategy. Emphasis is placed on the design of very specific marketing program and marketing strategies that must concider all the characteristics of the high fashion market. Therefore, a scientific research problem is defined as follows: although the market of high fashion at first glance does not imply a completely different marketing approach than other fa...

  6. Computer simulation of electromigration in microelectronics interconnect

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Xiaoxin

    2014-01-01

    Electromigration (EM) is a phenomenon that occurs in metal conductor carrying high density electric current. EM causes voids and hillocks that may lead to open or short circuits in electronic devices. Avoiding these failures therefore is a major challenge in semiconductor device and packaging design and manufacturing, and it will become an even greater challenge for the semiconductor assembly and packaging industry as electronics components and interconnects get smaller and smaller. According...

  7. Characterization of a Cobalt-Tungsten Interconnect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harthøj, Anders; Holt, Tobias; Caspersen, Michael

    2012-01-01

    is to act both as a diffusion barrier for chromium and provide better protection against high temperature oxidation than a pure cobalt coating. This work presents a characterization of a cobalt-tungsten alloy coating electrodeposited on the ferritic steel Crofer 22 H which subsequently was oxidized in air......A ferritic steel interconnect for a solid oxide fuel cell must be coated in order to prevent chromium evaporation from the steel substrate. The Technical University of Denmark and Topsoe Fuel Cell have developed an interconnect coating based on a cobalt-tungsten alloy. The purpose of the coating...... for 300 h at 800 °C. The coating was characterized with Glow Discharge Optical Spectroscopy (GDOES), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD). The oxidation properties were evaluated by measuring weight change of coated samples of Crofer 22 H and Crofer 22 APU as a function...

  8. Manufacturing of planar ceramic interconnects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armstrong, B.L.; Coffey, G.W.; Meinhardt, K.D.; Armstrong, T.R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The fabrication of ceramic interconnects for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) and separator plates for electrochemical separation devices has been a perennial challenge facing developers. Electrochemical vapor deposition (EVD), plasma spraying, pressing, tape casting and tape calendering are processes that are typically utilized to fabricate separator plates or interconnects for the various SOFC designs and electrochemical separation devices. For sake of brevity and the selection of a planar fuel cell or gas separation device design, pressing will be the only fabrication technique discussed here. This paper reports on the effect of the characteristics of two doped lanthanum manganite powders used in the initial studies as a planar porous separator for a fuel cell cathode and as a dense interconnect for an oxygen generator.

  9. Cellular structures with interconnected microchannels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaefer, Robert Shahram; Ghoniem, Nasr M.; Williams, Brian

    2018-01-30

    A method for fabricating a cellular tritium breeder component includes obtaining a reticulated carbon foam skeleton comprising a network of interconnected ligaments. The foam skeleton is then melt-infiltrated with a tritium breeder material, for example, lithium zirconate or lithium titanate. The foam skeleton is then removed to define a cellular breeder component having a network of interconnected tritium purge channels. In an embodiment the ligaments of the foam skeleton are enlarged by adding carbon using chemical vapor infiltration (CVI) prior to melt-infiltration. In an embodiment the foam skeleton is coated with a refractory material, for example, tungsten, prior to melt infiltration.

  10. 3D well-interconnected NiO–graphene–carbon nanotube nanohybrids as high-performance anode materials for Li-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Zhifeng; Zhang, Xia; You, Xiaolong; Zhang, Mengyuan; Walle, Maru Dessie [Central South University, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering (China); Wang, Juan [State Grid Information & Telecommunication Group Co., Ltd. (China); Li, Yajuan, E-mail: yajuanli@csu.edu.cn; Liu, You-Nian [Central South University, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering (China)

    2016-08-15

    3D carbon scaffold built from carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and graphene exhibits the synergistic effects in electronic conductivity and buffers the structural strain of materials. In this paper, NiO–graphene–carbon nanotubes (NiO–G–CNTs) nanohybrids were prepared via a facile hydrothermal–thermal decomposition process. The as-prepared ternary component nanohybrids exhibit high reversible specific capacity, improved cycling stability, and excellent rate capability, compared to those of NiO–graphene hybrids and pure NiO. The NiO–G–CNT electrode reveals a specific capacity of 858.1 mA h g{sup −1} after 50 cycles at a current density of 100 mA g{sup −1}. At a higher current density of 1000 mA g{sup −1}, it still reveals a specific capacity of 676 mA h g{sup −1} after 40 cycles. This outstanding electrochemical performance is attributed to its special 3D network structures, where the NiO nanoparticles are well distributed on the surface of graphene sheets, with the CNTs interwoven between individual graphene sheets. This special structure effectively prevents the restacking of graphene sheets and affords an easy route for the transport of electrons and ions.Graphical abstract.

  11. The Special LHC Interconnections Technologies, Organization and Quality Control

    CERN Document Server

    Tock, J P; Bozzini, D; Cruikshank, P; Desebe, O; Felip, M; Garion, C; Hajduk, L; Jacquemod, A; Kos, N; Laurent, F; Poncet, A; Russenschuck, Stephan; Slits, I; Vaudaux, L; Williams, L

    2008-01-01

    In addition to the standard interconnections (IC) of the continuous cryostat of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), there exists a variety of special ones related to specific components and assemblies, such as cryomagnets of the insertion regions, electrical feedboxes and superconducting links. Though they are less numerous, their specificities created many additional IC types, requiring a larger variety of assembly operations and quality control techniques, keeping very high standards of quality. Considerable flexibility and adaptability from all the teams involved (CERN staff, collaborating institutes, contractors) were the key points to ensure the success of this task. This paper first describes the special IC and presents the employed technologies which are generally adapted from the standard work. Then, the organization adopted for this non-repetitive work is described. Examples of non-conformities that were resolved are also discussed. Figures of merit in terms of quality and productivity are given and com...

  12. Optoelectronic interconnects for 3D wafer stacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, David; Carson, John C.; Lome, Louis S.

    1996-01-01

    Wafer and chip stacking are envisioned as means of providing increased processing power within the small confines of a three-dimensional structure. Optoelectronic devices can play an important role in these dense 3-D processing electronic packages in two ways. In pure electronic processing, optoelectronics can provide a method for increasing the number of input/output communication channels within the layers of the 3-D chip stack. Non-free space communication links allow the density of highly parallel input/output ports to increase dramatically over typical edge bus connections. In hybrid processors, where electronics and optics play a role in defining the computational algorithm, free space communication links are typically utilized for, among other reasons, the increased network link complexity which can be achieved. Free space optical interconnections provide bandwidths and interconnection complexity unobtainable in pure electrical interconnections. Stacked 3-D architectures can provide the electronics real estate and structure to deal with the increased bandwidth and global information provided by free space optical communications. This paper will provide definitions and examples of 3-D stacked architectures in optoelectronics processors. The benefits and issues of these technologies will be discussed.

  13. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, depth profiling, and elemental imaging of metal/polyimide interfaces of high density interconnect packages subjected to temperature and humidity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, David R.; Ibidunni, Bola; Ashraf, Muhammad

    1998-01-01

    X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was used to analyze surfaces and buried interfaces of a tape ball grid array (TBGA) interconnect package that was exposed to temperature and humidity testing (the pressure cooker test or PCT). Two metallization structures, employing 3.5 and 7.5 nm Cr adhesion layers, respectively, showed dramatically different results in the PCT. For the metallization with 3.5 nm Cr, spontaneous failure occurred on the polymer side of the metal/polyimide interface. Copper and other metals were detected by XPS on and below this polymer surface. For the metallization with 7.5 nm Cr, which did not delaminate in the PCT, the metallization was manually peeled away and also showed failure at the polymer side of the interface. Conventional XPS taken from a 1 mm diameter area showed the presence of metals on and below this polymer surface. Detailed spatially-resolved analysis using small area XPS (0.1 mm diameter area) and imaging XPS (7 μm resolution) showed that this metal did not migrate through and below the metal/polymer interface, but around and outside of the metallized area

  14. Fusion-bonded fluidic interconnects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fazal, I.; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt

    2008-01-01

    A new approach to realize fluidic interconnects based on the fusion bonding of glass tubes with silicon is presented. Fusion bond strength analyses have been carried out. Experiments with plain silicon wafers and coated with silicon oxide and silicon nitride are performed. The obtained results are

  15. Nanophotonic Devices for Optical Interconnect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Thourhout, D.; Spuesens, T.; Selvaraja, S.K.

    2010-01-01

    We review recent progress in nanophotonic devices for compact optical interconnect networks. We focus on microdisk-laser-based transmitters and discuss improved design and advanced functionality including all-optical wavelength conversion and flip-flops. Next we discuss the fabrication uniformity...... of the passive routing circuits and their thermal tuning. Finally, we discuss the performance of a wavelength selective detector....

  16. Local Network Wideband Interconnection Alternatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    signal. 3.2.2 Limitations Although satellites offer the advantages of insensitivity to distance, point-to-multipoint communication capability and...Russell, the CATV franchisee for the town of Bedford, has not yit set rates for leasing channels on their network. If this network were interconnected

  17. Interconnection blocks: a method for providing reusable, rapid, multiple, aligned and planar microfluidic interconnections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabourin, David; Snakenborg, Detlef; Dufva, Hans Martin

    2009-01-01

    In this paper a method is presented for creating 'interconnection blocks' that are re-usable and provide multiple, aligned and planar microfluidic interconnections. Interconnection blocks made from polydimethylsiloxane allow rapid testing of microfluidic chips and unobstructed microfluidic observ...

  18. Optical Interconnection Via Computer-Generated Holograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hua-Kuang; Zhou, Shaomin

    1995-01-01

    Method of free-space optical interconnection developed for data-processing applications like parallel optical computing, neural-network computing, and switching in optical communication networks. In method, multiple optical connections between multiple sources of light in one array and multiple photodetectors in another array made via computer-generated holograms in electrically addressed spatial light modulators (ESLMs). Offers potential advantages of massive parallelism, high space-bandwidth product, high time-bandwidth product, low power consumption, low cross talk, and low time skew. Also offers advantage of programmability with flexibility of reconfiguration, including variation of strengths of optical connections in real time.

  19. High-Rate Long-Life Pored Nanoribbon VNb9O25 Built by Interconnected Ultrafine Nanoparticles as Anode for Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Shangshu; Yu, Haoxiang; Yan, Lei; Zhu, Haojie; Cheng, Xing; Xie, Ying; Long, Nengbing; Shui, Miao; Shu, Jie

    2017-09-13

    VNb 9 O 25 is a novel lithium storage material, which has not been systematically investigated so far. Via electrospinning technology, VNb 9 O 25 samples with two different morphologies, pored nanoribbon and rodlike nanoparticles, are prepared in relatively low temperature and time-saving calcination conditions. It is found that the formation process of different morphologies depends on the control of self-aggregation of the precursor by using different sample collectors. Compared with rodlike VNb 9 O 25 (RL-VNb 9 O 25 ), pored nanoribbon VNb 9 O 25 (PR-VNb 9 O 25 ) can deliver a higher specific capacity, lower capacity loss, and better cyclability. Even cycled at 1000 mA g -1 , the reversible capacity of 132.3 mAh g -1 is maintained by PR-VNb 9 O 25 after 500 cycles, whereas RL-VNb 9 O 25 only exhibits a capacity of 102.7 mAh g -1 . The enhancement should be attributed to the pored nanoribbon structure with large specific surface area and shorter pathway for lithium ions transport. Furthermore, the lithium ions insertion/extraction process is verified from refinement results of in situ X-ray diffraction data, which is associated with a lithium occupation process in type III and VI cavities through tunnels I, II, and III. In addition, high structural stability and electrochemical reversibility are also demonstrated. All of these advantages suggest that PR-VNb 9 O 25 is a promising anode material for lithium-ion batteries.

  20. 47 CFR 90.477 - Interconnected systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... part and medical emergency systems in the 450-470 MHz band, interconnection will be permitted only... operating on frequencies in the bands below 800 MHz are not subject to the interconnection provisions of...

  1. System interconnection studies using WASP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bayrak, Y [Turkish Electricity Generation and Transmission Corp., Ankara (Turkey)

    1997-09-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe the application of WASP as a modelling tool for determining the development of two electric systems with interconnections. A case study has been carried out to determine the possibilities of transfer of baseload energy between Turkey and a neighboring country. The objective of this case study is to determine the amount of energy that can be transferred, variations of Loss Probability (LOLP) and unserved energy, and the cost of additional generation with interconnection. The break-even cost will be determined to obtain the minimum charge rate at which TEAS (Turkish Electricity Generation-Transmission Corp.) needs to sell the energy in order to recover the costs. The minimum charge rate for both capacity and energy will be estimated without considering extra capacity additions, except for the ones needed by the Turkish system alone. (author). 2 figs, 3 tabs.

  2. Interconnected Silicon Hollow Nanospheres for Lithium-Ion Battery Anodes with Long Cycle Life

    KAUST Repository

    Yao, Yan

    2011-07-13

    Silicon is a promising candidate for the anode material in lithium-ion batteries due to its high theoretical specific capacity. However, volume changes during cycling cause pulverization and capacity fade, and improving cycle life is a major research challenge. Here, we report a novel interconnected Si hollow nanosphere electrode that is capable of accommodating large volume changes without pulverization during cycling. We achieved the high initial discharge capacity of 2725 mAh g-1 with less than 8% capacity degradation every hundred cycles for 700 total cycles. Si hollow sphere electrodes also show a Coulombic efficiency of 99.5% in later cycles. Superior rate capability is demonstrated and attributed to fast lithium diffusion in the interconnected Si hollow structure. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  3. 18 CFR 292.306 - Interconnection costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Interconnection costs... § 292.306 Interconnection costs. (a) Obligation to pay. Each qualifying facility shall be obligated to pay any interconnection costs which the State regulatory authority (with respect to any electric...

  4. Human face recognition ability is specific and highly heritable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilmer, Jeremy B; Germine, Laura; Chabris, Christopher F; Chatterjee, Garga; Williams, Mark; Loken, Eric; Nakayama, Ken; Duchaine, Bradley

    2010-03-16

    Compared with notable successes in the genetics of basic sensory transduction, progress on the genetics of higher level perception and cognition has been limited. We propose that investigating specific cognitive abilities with well-defined neural substrates, such as face recognition, may yield additional insights. In a twin study of face recognition, we found that the correlation of scores between monozygotic twins (0.70) was more than double the dizygotic twin correlation (0.29), evidence for a high genetic contribution to face recognition ability. Low correlations between face recognition scores and visual and verbal recognition scores indicate that both face recognition ability itself and its genetic basis are largely attributable to face-specific mechanisms. The present results therefore identify an unusual phenomenon: a highly specific cognitive ability that is highly heritable. Our results establish a clear genetic basis for face recognition, opening this intensively studied and socially advantageous cognitive trait to genetic investigation.

  5. Synergy of Two Highly Specific Biomolecular Recognition Events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejlersen, Maria; Christensen, Niels Johan; Sørensen, Kasper K

    2018-01-01

    Two highly specific biomolecular recognition events, nucleic acid duplex hybridization and DNA-peptide recognition in the minor groove, were coalesced in a miniature ensemble for the first time by covalently attaching a natural AT-hook peptide motif to nucleic acid duplexes via a 2'-amino......-LNA scaffold. A combination of molecular dynamics simulations and ultraviolet thermal denaturation studies revealed high sequence-specific affinity of the peptide-oligonucleotide conjugates (POCs) when binding to complementary DNA strands, leveraging the bioinformation encrypted in the minor groove of DNA...

  6. N-tritioacetoxyphthalimide: A new high specific activity tritioacetylating reagent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saljoughian, M.; Morimoto, Hiromi; Than, Chit

    1996-01-01

    The authors' aim was to develop a nonvolatile, stable, and facile tritioacetylating reagent and to demonstrate its use on simple peptides. Accordingly, the authors made the synthesis of high specific activity N-(tritioacetoxy) derivatives of succinimide, phthalimide, and naphthalimide a major focus. As the preferred approach, N-(tritioacetoxy)phthalimide was prepared by radical dehalogenation of N-(iodoacetoxy)phthalimide using high specific activity tributyltin tritide. This tritiated acetylation reagent was characterized by 3 H and 1 H NMR spectroscopy and by radio-HPLC. Efficacy of the reagent was investigated by tritioacetylation of several peptides at their N-terminal amino group. 26 refs., 1 fig

  7. Intense neutron source: high-voltage power supply specifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riedel, A.A.

    1980-08-01

    This report explains the need for and sets forth the electrical, mechanical and safety specifications for a high-voltage power supply to be used with the intense neutron source. It contains sufficient information for a supplier to bid on such a power supply

  8. In-memory interconnect protocol configuration registers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Kevin Y.; Roberts, David A.

    2017-09-19

    Systems, apparatuses, and methods for moving the interconnect protocol configuration registers into the main memory space of a node. The region of memory used for storing the interconnect protocol configuration registers may also be made cacheable to reduce the latency of accesses to the interconnect protocol configuration registers. Interconnect protocol configuration registers which are used during a startup routine may be prefetched into the host's cache to make the startup routine more efficient. The interconnect protocol configuration registers for various interconnect protocols may include one or more of device capability tables, memory-side statistics (e.g., to support two-level memory data mapping decisions), advanced memory and interconnect features such as repair resources and routing tables, prefetching hints, error correcting code (ECC) bits, lists of device capabilities, set and store base address, capability, device ID, status, configuration, capabilities, and other settings.

  9. In-memory interconnect protocol configuration registers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Kevin Y.; Roberts, David A.

    2017-09-19

    Systems, apparatuses, and methods for moving the interconnect protocol configuration registers into the main memory space of a node. The region of memory used for storing the interconnect protocol configuration registers may also be made cacheable to reduce the latency of accesses to the interconnect protocol configuration registers. Interconnect protocol configuration registers which are used during a startup routine may be prefetched into the host's cache to make the startup routine more efficient. The interconnect protocol configuration registers for various interconnect protocols may include one or more of device capability tables, memory-side statistics (e.g., to support two-level memory data mapping decisions), advanced memory and interconnect features such as repair resources and routing tables, prefetching hints, error correcting code (ECC) bits, lists of device capabilities, set and store base address, capability, device ID, status, configuration, capabilities, and other settings.

  10. National Offshore Wind Energy Grid Interconnection Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel, John P. [ABB Inc; Liu, Shu [ABB Inc; Ibanez, Eduardo [National Renewable Energy Laboratory; Pennock, Ken [AWS Truepower; Reed, Greg [University of Pittsburgh; Hanes, Spencer [Duke Energy

    2014-07-30

    The National Offshore Wind Energy Grid Interconnection Study (NOWEGIS) considers the availability and potential impacts of interconnecting large amounts of offshore wind energy into the transmission system of the lower 48 contiguous United States. A total of 54GW of offshore wind was assumed to be the target for the analyses conducted. A variety of issues are considered including: the anticipated staging of offshore wind; the offshore wind resource availability; offshore wind energy power production profiles; offshore wind variability; present and potential technologies for collection and delivery of offshore wind energy to the onshore grid; potential impacts to existing utility systems most likely to receive large amounts of offshore wind; and regulatory influences on offshore wind development. The technologies considered the reliability of various high-voltage ac (HVAC) and high-voltage dc (HVDC) technology options and configurations. The utility system impacts of GW-scale integration of offshore wind are considered from an operational steady-state perspective and from a regional and national production cost perspective.

  11. Message Passing Framework for Globally Interconnected Clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hafeez, M; Riaz, N; Asghar, S; Malik, U A; Rehman, A

    2011-01-01

    In prevailing technology trends it is apparent that the network requirements and technologies will advance in future. Therefore the need of High Performance Computing (HPC) based implementation for interconnecting clusters is comprehensible for scalability of clusters. Grid computing provides global infrastructure of interconnecting clusters consisting of dispersed computing resources over Internet. On the other hand the leading model for HPC programming is Message Passing Interface (MPI). As compared to Grid computing, MPI is better suited for solving most of the complex computational problems. MPI itself is restricted to a single cluster. It does not support message passing over the internet to use the computing resources of different clusters in an optimal way. We propose a model that provides message passing capabilities between parallel applications over the internet. The proposed model is based on Architecture for Java Universal Message Passing (A-JUMP) framework and Enterprise Service Bus (ESB) named as High Performance Computing Bus. The HPC Bus is built using ActiveMQ. HPC Bus is responsible for communication and message passing in an asynchronous manner. Asynchronous mode of communication offers an assurance for message delivery as well as a fault tolerance mechanism for message passing. The idea presented in this paper effectively utilizes wide-area intercluster networks. It also provides scheduling, dynamic resource discovery and allocation, and sub-clustering of resources for different jobs. Performance analysis and comparison study of the proposed framework with P2P-MPI are also presented in this paper.

  12. Epidemic spreading on interconnected networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saumell-Mendiola, Anna; Serrano, M Ángeles; Boguñá, Marián

    2012-08-01

    Many real networks are not isolated from each other but form networks of networks, often interrelated in nontrivial ways. Here, we analyze an epidemic spreading process taking place on top of two interconnected complex networks. We develop a heterogeneous mean-field approach that allows us to calculate the conditions for the emergence of an endemic state. Interestingly, a global endemic state may arise in the coupled system even though the epidemics is not able to propagate on each network separately and even when the number of coupling connections is small. Our analytic results are successfully confronted against large-scale numerical simulations.

  13. Synthesis of high specific activity tritium labelled compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parent, P.

    1986-01-01

    Tritiated methyl iodide of high specific activity is synthetized by Fischer-Tropsch reaction of tritium with carbon monoxide, tritiated methanol obtained is reacted with hydriodic acid. It is used for the synthesis of S-adenosyl L-methionine 3 H-methyl and of diazepam 3 H-methyl derivatives. Synthesis of 3-PPP 3 H: (hydroxy-3 phenyl)-3N-n propyl [ 3 H-2.3] piperidine [ 3 H-2.3] with a specific activity of 4.25 T Bq/mM (115 Ci/mM) and of baclofene 3 H with a specific activity of 0.925 TBq (25 Ci/mM) are also described [fr

  14. Microcoil Spring Interconnects for Ceramic Grid Array Integrated Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickland, S. M.; Hester, J. D.; Gowan, A. K.; Montgomery, R. K.; Geist, D. L.; Blanche, J. F.; McGuire, G. D.; Nash, T. S.

    2011-01-01

    As integrated circuit miniaturization trends continue, they drive the need for smaller higher input/output (I/O) packages. Hermetically sealed ceramic area array parts are the package of choice by the space community for high reliability space flight electronic hardware. Unfortunately, the coefficient of thermal expansion mismatch between the ceramic area array package and the epoxy glass printed wiring board limits the life of the interconnecting solder joint. This work presents the results of an investigation by Marshall Space Flight Center into a method to increase the life of this second level interconnection by the use of compliant microcoil springs. The design of the spring and its attachment process are presented along with thermal cycling results of microcoil springs (MCS) compared with state-of-the-art ball and column interconnections. Vibration testing has been conducted on MCS and high lead column parts. Radio frequency simulation and measurements have been made and the MCS has been modeled and a stress analysis performed. Thermal cycling and vibration testing have shown MCS interconnects to be significantly more reliable than solder columns. Also, MCS interconnects are less prone to handling damage than solder columns. Future work that includes shock testing, incorporation into a digital signal processor board, and process evaluation of expansion from a 400 I/O device to a device with over 1,100 I/O is identified.

  15. Specific Abilities May Increment Psychometric g for High Ability Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-14

    tend to sort themselves into jobs that are commensurate with their ability level ( McCormick , DeNisi, & Staw, 1979; McCormick , Jeanneret, & Mecham...of Genetic Psychology, 153, 229-230. Specific abilities, g, & high ability populations 14 McCormick , E. J., DeNisi, A. S., & Shaw, J. B... McCormick , E. J., Jeanneret, P. R., & Mecham, R. C. (1972). A study of job characteristics and job dimensions as based on the Position Analysis Questionnaire

  16. Accelerator Production and Separations for High Specific Activity Rhenium-186

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jurisson, Silvia S. [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States); Wilbur, D. Scott [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2016-04-01

    Tungsten and osmium targets were evaluated for the production of high specific activity rhenium-186. Rhenium-186 has potential applications in radiotherapy for the treatment of a variety of diseases, including targeting with monoclonal antibodies and peptides. Methods were evaluated using tungsten metal, tungsten dioxide, tungsten disulfide and osmium disulfide. Separation of the rhenium-186 produced and recycling of the enriched tungsten-186 and osmium-189 enriched targets were developed.

  17. Towards energy aware optical networks and interconnects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glesk, Ivan; Osadola, Tolulope; Idris, Siti

    2013-10-01

    In a today's world, information technology has been identified as one of the major factors driving economic prosperity. Datacenters businesses have been growing significantly in the past few years. The equipments in these datacenters need to be efficiently connected to each other and also to the outside world in order to enable effective exchange of information. This is why there is need for highly scalable, energy savvy and reliable network connectivity infrastructure that is capable of accommodating the large volume of data being exchanged at any time within the datacenter network and the outside network in general. These devices that can ensure such effective connectivity currently require large amount of energy in order to meet up with these increasing demands. In this paper, an overview of works being done towards realizing energy aware optical networks and interconnects for datacenters is presented. Also an OCDMA approach is discussed as potential multiple access technique for future optical network interconnections. We also presented some challenges that might inhibit effective implementation of the OCDMA multiplexing scheme.

  18. A first-principles analysis of ballistic conductance, grain boundary scattering and vertical resistance in aluminum interconnects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Tianji; Lanzillo, Nicholas A.; Bhosale, Prasad; Gall, Daniel; Quon, Roger

    2018-05-01

    We present an ab initio evaluation of electron scattering mechanisms in Al interconnects from a back-end-of-line (BEOL) perspective. We consider the ballistic conductance as a function of nanowire size, as well as the impact of surface oxidation on electron transport. We also consider several representative twin grain boundaries and calculate the specific resistivity and reflection coefficients for each case. Lastly, we calculate the vertical resistance across the Al/Ta(N)/Al and Cu/Ta(N)/Cu interfaces, which are representative of typical vertical interconnect structures with diffusion barriers. Despite a high ballistic conductance, the calculated specific resistivities at grain boundaries are 70-100% higher in Al than in Cu, and the vertical resistance across Ta(N) diffusion barriers are 60-100% larger for Al than for Cu. These results suggest that in addition to the well-known electromigration limitations in Al interconnects, electron scattering represents a major problem in achieving low interconnect line resistance at fine dimensions.

  19. Interconnect fatigue design for terrestrial photovoltaic modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mon, G. R.; Moore, D. M.; Ross, R. G., Jr.

    1982-03-01

    The results of comprehensive investigation of interconnect fatigue that has led to the definition of useful reliability-design and life-prediction algorithms are presented. Experimental data indicate that the classical strain-cycle (fatigue) curve for the interconnect material is a good model of mean interconnect fatigue performance, but it fails to account for the broad statistical scatter, which is critical to reliability prediction. To fill this shortcoming the classical fatigue curve is combined with experimental cumulative interconnect failure rate data to yield statistical fatigue curves (having failure probability as a parameter) which enable (1) the prediction of cumulative interconnect failures during the design life of an array field, and (2) the unambiguous--ie., quantitative--interpretation of data from field-service qualification (accelerated thermal cycling) tests. Optimal interconnect cost-reliability design algorithms are derived based on minimizing the cost of energy over the design life of the array field.

  20. Multi-net optimization of VLSI interconnect

    CERN Document Server

    Moiseev, Konstantin; Wimer, Shmuel

    2015-01-01

    This book covers layout design and layout migration methodologies for optimizing multi-net wire structures in advanced VLSI interconnects. Scaling-dependent models for interconnect power, interconnect delay and crosstalk noise are covered in depth, and several design optimization problems are addressed, such as minimization of interconnect power under delay constraints, or design for minimal delay in wire bundles within a given routing area. A handy reference or a guide for design methodologies and layout automation techniques, this book provides a foundation for physical design challenges of interconnect in advanced integrated circuits.  • Describes the evolution of interconnect scaling and provides new techniques for layout migration and optimization, focusing on multi-net optimization; • Presents research results that provide a level of design optimization which does not exist in commercially-available design automation software tools; • Includes mathematical properties and conditions for optimal...

  1. Visualizing interconnections among climate risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, K.; Yokohata, T.; Nishina, K.; Takahashi, K.; Emori, S.; Kiguchi, M.; Iseri, Y.; Honda, Y.; Okada, M.; Masaki, Y.; Yamamoto, A.; Shigemitsu, M.; Yoshimori, M.; Sueyoshi, T.; Hanasaki, N.; Ito, A.; Sakurai, G.; Iizumi, T.; Nishimori, M.; Lim, W. H.; Miyazaki, C.; Kanae, S.; Oki, T.

    2015-12-01

    It is now widely recognized that climate change is affecting various sectors of the world. Climate change impact on one sector may spread out to other sectors including those seemingly remote, which we call "interconnections of climate risks". While a number of climate risks have been identified in the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Fifth Assessment Report (AR5), there has been no attempt to explore their interconnections comprehensively. Here we present a first and most exhaustive visualization of climate risks drawn based on a systematic literature survey. Our risk network diagrams depict that changes in the climate system impact natural capitals (terrestrial water, crop, and agricultural land) as well as social infrastructures, influencing the socio-economic system and ultimately our access to food, water, and energy. Our findings suggest the importance of incorporating climate risk interconnections into impact and vulnerability assessments and call into question the widely used damage function approaches, which address a limited number of climate change impacts in isolation. Furthermore, the diagram is useful to educate decision makers, stakeholders, and general public about cascading risks that can be triggered by the climate change. Socio-economic activities today are becoming increasingly more inter-dependent because of the rapid technological progress, urbanization, and the globalization among others. Equally complex is the ecosystem that is susceptible to climate change, which comprises interwoven processes affecting one another. In the context of climate change, a number of climate risks have been identified and classified according to regions and sectors. These reports, however, did not fully address the inter-relations among risks because of the complexity inherent in this issue. Climate risks may ripple through sectors in the present inter-dependent world, posing a challenge ahead of us to maintain the resilience of the system. It is

  2. Interconnect rise time in superconducting integrating circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preis, D.; Shlager, K.

    1988-01-01

    The influence of resistive losses on the voltage rise time of an integrated-circuit interconnection is reported. A distribution-circuit model is used to present the interconnect. Numerous parametric curves are presented based on numerical evaluation of the exact analytical expression for the model's transient response. For the superconducting case in which the series resistance of the interconnect approaches zero, the step-response rise time is longer but signal strength increases significantly

  3. Broad Frequency LTCC Vertical Interconnect Transition for Multichip Modules and System on Package Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decrossas, Emmanuel; Glover, Michael D.; Porter, Kaoru; Cannon, Tom; Mantooth, H. Alan; Hamilton, M. C.

    2013-01-01

    Various stripline structures and flip chip interconnect designs for high-speed digital communication systems implemented in low temperature co-fired ceramic (LTCC) substrates are studied in this paper. Specifically, two different transition designs from edge launch 2.4 millimeter connectors to stripline transmission lines embedded in LTCC are discussed. After characterizing the DuPont (sup trademark) 9K7 green tape, different designs are proposed to improve signal integrity for high-speed digital data. The full-wave simulations and experimental data validate the presented designs over a broad frequency band from Direct Current to 50 gigahertz and beyond.

  4. An innovative "ChemicalVia" process for the production of high density interconnect printed circuit boards The ATLAS muon chamber quality control with the X-ray tomograph at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Da Silva, Vitor; Watts, David; Van der Bij, Erik; Banhidi, Z; Berbiers, Julien; Lampl, W; Marchesotti, M; Rangod, Stephane; Sbrissa, E; Schuh, S; Voss, Rüdiger; Zhuravlov, V

    2004-01-01

    The ChemicalVia process, patented by CERN, provides a new method of making microvias in high-density multilayer printed circuit boards of different types, such as sequential build-up (SBU), high density interconnected (HDI), or laminated multi-chip modules (MCM-L). The process uses chemical etching instead of laser, plasma or other etching techniques and can be implemented in a chain production line. This results in an overall reduced operation and maintenance cost and a much shorter hole production time as compared with other microvia processes. copy Emerald Group Publishing Limited. 4 Refs.4 An essential part of the Muon Spectrometer of the ATLAS experiment is based on the Monitored Drift Tube (MDT) technology. About 1200 muon drift chambers are being built at 13 institutes all over the world. The MDT chambers require an exceptional mechanical construction accuracy of better than 20 mu m. A dedicated X-ray tomograph has been developed at CERN since 1996 to control the mechanical quality of the chambers. The...

  5. Performance of WCN diffusion barrier for Cu multilevel interconnects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung Yeon; Ju, Byeong-Kwon; Kim, Yong Tae

    2018-04-01

    The electrical and thermal properties of a WCN diffusion barrier have been studied for Cu multilevel interconnects. The WCN has been prepared using an atomic layer deposition system with WF6-CH4-NH3-H2 gases and has a very low resistivity of 100 µΩ cm and 96.9% step coverage on the high-aspect-ratio vias. The thermally stable WCN maintains an amorphous state at 800 °C and Cu/WCN contact resistance remains within a 10% deviation from the initial value after 700 °C. The mean time to failure suggests that the Cu/WCN interconnects have a longer lifetime than Cu/TaN and Cu/WN interconnects because WCN prevents Cu migration owing to the stress evolution from tensile to compressive.

  6. An interconnection between morphological and functional development of highly trained swimmers and a result of overcoming different length distances by means of the butterfly stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Pilipko

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to investigate the influence of indicators of morpho-functional development of highly trained swimmers on the result of overcoming different length distances by means of the butterfly stroke. Material & Methods: analysis of scientific and methodical literature, timing, measurement of morphological and functional indicators using individual techniques, methods of mathematical statistics. Contingent surveyed accounted for athletes who specialize in the distances of 50, 100 and 200 meters by means of the butterfly stroke and had a level of sports qualification: master of sports, international class master of sports. Results: the authors determined the relationship between the degree of correlation of morphological and functional performance highly trained swimmers and sports results at distances of 50, 100 and 200 meters by means butterfly stroke; investigated the significance of morpho-functional indicators, depending on the length of the competitive distance. Conclusion: significance of the indicators of anthropometric development and the functional state of athletes who specialize in swimming by means butterfly stroke differs depending on the length of the competitive distance. The definition of distance specialization of athletes by means butterfly stroke should be carried out taking into account the indicators of morpho-functional development, which most significantly affect the result of overcoming the distances of 50, 100 and 200 meters.

  7. Acridinium esters as high-specific-activity labels in immunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weeks, I.; Beheshti, I.; McCapra, F.; Campbell, A.K.; Woodhead, J.S.

    1983-01-01

    A chemiluminescent acridinium ester has been synthesized that reacts spontaneously with proteins to yield stable, immunoreactive derivatives of high specific activity. The compound has been used to prepare chemiluminescent monoclonal antibodies to human alpha 1-fetoprotein having average incorporation ratios as great as 2.8 mol of label per mole of antibody, which corresponds to a detection limit of approximately 8 X 10(-19) mol. These antibodies have been used in the preliminary development of a two-site immunochemiluminometric assay for human alpha 1-fetoprotein, which requires only a 30-min incubation and a quantification time of 5 s per sample

  8. Production of N-13 labeled compounds with high specific activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Kazutoshi; Sasaki, Motoji; Yoshida, Yuichiro; Haradahira, Terushi; Inoue, Osamu [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan)

    1997-03-01

    Nitrogen-13 was produced by irradiating ultra pure water saturated with a pure gas (N2, O2, He, H2) with 18 MeV protons. Ion species generated by irradiation were analyzed with radio ion chromatography systems. An automated equipment was developed to synthesize anhydrous (13N)NH3 as a synthetic precursor and (13N)p-nitrophenyl carbamate ((13N)NPC) as a model compound, using the (13N)NH3. The radiochemical yield and specific activity of (13N)NPC was high enough to carry out the receptor study with PET. (author)

  9. Procurement specification high vacuum test chamber and pumping system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    The specification establishes requirements for a high-vacuum test chamber, associated vacuum pumps, valves, controls, and instrumentation that shall be designed and fabricated for use as a test chamber for testing a closed loop Brayton Isotope Power System (BIPS) Ground Demonstration System (GDS). The vacuum system shall include all instrumentation required for pressure measurement and control of the vacuum pumping system. A general outline of the BIPS-GDS in the vacuum chamber and the preliminary piping and instrumentation interface to the vacuum chamber are shown

  10. A highly sensitive and specific assay for vertebrate collagenase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sodek, J.; Hurum, S.; Feng, J.

    1981-01-01

    A highly sensitive and specific assay for vertebrate collagenase has been developed using a [ 14 C]-labeled collagen substrate and a combination of SDS-PAGE (sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis) and fluorography to identify and quantitate the digestion products. The assay was sufficiently sensitive to permit the detection and quantitation of collagenase activity in 0.1 μl of gingival sulcal fluid, and in samples of cell culture medium without prior concentration. The assay has also been used to detect the presence of inhibitors of collagenolytic enzymes in various cell culture fluids. (author)

  11. Specific features of modern multifunctional high-rise building construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manukhina, Lyubov; Samosudova, Natal'ja

    2018-03-01

    The article analyzes the main reasons for the development of high-rise building construction the most important of which-is a limitation of the urban areas and, consequently, the high price of land reserved for construction. New engineering and compositional solutions for the creation of new types of buildings are considered - complex technical designs of a large number of storeys completely meet the new requirements for safety and comfort. Some peculiarities of designing high-rise buildings and searching for optimal architectural and planning solutions are revealed since, with external architectural simplicity, high-rise buildings have complex structural and technological and space-planning solutions. We consider the specific features of a high-rise housing in various countries around the world, including Russia, such as the layout of the multi-storey residential buildings, depending on the climatic characteristics of the regions, assessment of the geological risk of the construction site, the choice of parameters and functional purpose of the sections of the territory of high-rise construction, location of the town-planning object for substantiating the overall dimensions of the building, assessment of changes aeration and engineering and hydrological conditions of the site. A special place in the article on the problems of improvement of the territory, the device of courtyards, landscaping, the device of playing and sports grounds. The main conclusion in the article is the following problem - when developing high-rise housing construction, the development of high-rise housing, and an increase in the population density in the territory of large cities of Russia, necessary to create a comfortable and safe level of residents living and not a decrease, but an improvement in the quality of the urban environment.

  12. Differential effects of sporulation temperature on the high pressure resistance of Clostridium botulinum type E spores and the interconnection with sporulation medium cation contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenz, Christian A; Vogel, Rudi F

    2015-04-01

    High pressure thermal (HPT) processing can be used to improve traditional preservation methods and increase food safety and durability, whereas quality related characteristics can be largely maintained. Clostridium (C.) botulinum type E is a non-proteolytic, psychrotrophic, toxin-producing spore former, commonly associated with aquatic environments in temperate regions of the northern hemisphere. Sporulation in nature is likely to occur under varying conditions including temperature and nutrient availability, which might affect resistance properties of resulting spores. In our study, we determined the effect of sporulation temperature (13-38 °C) on the resistance of three Clostridium botulinum type E strains to differently intense HPT treatments (200 MPa at 40 and 80 °C, and 800 MPa at 40 and 80 °C). Furthermore, the effect of cations on sporulation temperature-mediated alterations in HHP resistance was investigated. Results indicate that low and high sporulation temperatures can increase and decrease sporal HPT resistance, respectively, in a treatment-dependent (pressure level, treatment temperature) manner, whereas the trends observed are largely unaffected by pressure dwells (1 s-10 min). Furthermore, results show that the cation content of the sporulation medium (Ca(2+), Mg(2+), Mn(2+)) marginally influences and partially counteracts effects on the HPT resistance of spores grown at low and elevated temperatures, respectively. This suggests that sporulation temperature and medium cations provoke changes in some common spore resistance structures. Sporulation conditions can markedly affect spore resistance properties and, thus, should be considered for the experimental setup of worst case studies aiming to evaluate the effectiveness of food processes in terms of the inactivation of C. botulinum type E spores. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Biomarkers specific to densely-ionising (high LET) radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brenner, D.J.; Okladnikova, N.; Hande, P.; Burak, L.; Geard, C.R.; Azizova, T.

    2001-01-01

    There have been several suggestions of biomarkers that are specific to high LET radiation. Such a biomarker could significantly increase the power of epidemiological studies of individuals exposed to densely-ionising radiations such as alpha particles (e.g. radon, plutonium workers, individuals exposed to depleted uranium) or neutrons (e.g. radiation workers, airline personnel). We discuss here a potentially powerful high LET biomarker (the H value) which is the ratio of induced inter-chromosomal aberrations to intra-arm aberrations. Both theoretical and experimental studies have suggested that this ratio should differ by a factor of about three between high LET radiation and any other likely clastogen, and will yield more discrimination than the previously suggested F value (ratio of inter-chromosomal aberrations to intra-chromosomal inter-arm aberrations). Evidence of the long-term stability of such chromosomal biomarkers has also been generated. Because these stable intra-arm and inter-chromosomal aberrations are (1) frequent and (2) measurable at long times after exposure, this H value appears to be a practical biomarker of high LET exposure, and several in vitro studies have confirmed the approach for unstable aberrations. The approach is currently being tested in a population of Russian radiation workers exposed several decades ago to high- or low LET radiation. (author)

  14. Compact Interconnection Networks Based on Quantum Dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fijany, Amir; Toomarian, Nikzad; Modarress, Katayoon; Spotnitz, Matthew

    2003-01-01

    Architectures that would exploit the distinct characteristics of quantum-dot cellular automata (QCA) have been proposed for digital communication networks that connect advanced digital computing circuits. In comparison with networks of wires in conventional very-large-scale integrated (VLSI) circuitry, the networks according to the proposed architectures would be more compact. The proposed architectures would make it possible to implement complex interconnection schemes that are required for some advanced parallel-computing algorithms and that are difficult (and in many cases impractical) to implement in VLSI circuitry. The difficulty of implementation in VLSI and the major potential advantage afforded by QCA were described previously in Implementing Permutation Matrices by Use of Quantum Dots (NPO-20801), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 25, No. 10 (October 2001), page 42. To recapitulate: Wherever two wires in a conventional VLSI circuit cross each other and are required not to be in electrical contact with each other, there must be a layer of electrical insulation between them. This, in turn, makes it necessary to resort to a noncoplanar and possibly a multilayer design, which can be complex, expensive, and even impractical. As a result, much of the cost of designing VLSI circuits is associated with minimization of data routing and assignment of layers to minimize crossing of wires. Heretofore, these considerations have impeded the development of VLSI circuitry to implement complex, advanced interconnection schemes. On the other hand, with suitable design and under suitable operating conditions, QCA-based signal paths can be allowed to cross each other in the same plane without adverse effect. In principle, this characteristic could be exploited to design compact, coplanar, simple (relative to VLSI) QCA-based networks to implement complex, advanced interconnection schemes. The proposed architectures require two advances in QCA-based circuitry beyond basic QCA-based binary

  15. Fluidic interconnections for microfluidic systems: A new integrated fluidic interconnection allowing plug 'n' play functionality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perozziello, Gerardo; Bundgaard, Frederik; Geschke, Oliver

    2008-01-01

    A crucial challenge in packaging of microsystems is microfluidic interconnections. These have to seal the ports of the system, and have to provide the appropriate interface to other devices or the external environment. Integrated fluidic interconnections appear to be a good solution for interconn...... external metal ferrules and the system. Theoretical calculations are made to dimension and model the integrated fluidic interconnection. Leakage tests are performed on the interconnections, in order to experimentally confirm the model, and detect its limits....

  16. Electric power grid interconnection in Northeast Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun, Won-Cheol; Zhang, Zhong Xiang

    2006-01-01

    In spite of regional closeness, energy cooperation in Northeast Asia has remained unexplored. However, this situation appears to be changing. The government of South Korea seems to be very enthusiastic for power grid interconnection between the Russian Far East and South Korea to overcome difficulties in finding new sites for building power facilities to meet its need for increased electricity supplies. This paper analyzes the feasibility of this electric power grid interconnection route. The issues addressed include electricity market structures; the prospects for electric power industry restructuring in the Russian Federation and South Korea; the political issues related to North Korea; the challenges for the governments involved and the obstacles anticipated in moving this project forward; project financing and the roles and concerns from multilateral and regional banks; and institutional framework for energy cooperation. While there are many technical issues that need to be resolved, we think that the great challenge lies in the financing of this commercial project. Thus, the governments of the Russian Federation and South Korea involved in the project need to foster the development of their internal capital markets and to create confidence with international investors. To this end, on energy side, this involves defining a clear energy policy implemented by independent regulators, speeding up the already started but delayed reform process of restructuring electric power industry and markets, and establishing a fair and transparent dispute resolution mechanism in order to reduce non-commercial risks to a minimum. The paper argues that establishing a framework for energy cooperation in this region will contribute positively towards that end, although views differ regarding its specific form. Finally, given that North Korea has a crucial transit role to play and faces a very unstable political situation, it is concluded that moving the project forward needs to be

  17. Interconnection blocks with minimal dead volumes permitting planar interconnection to thin microfluidic devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabourin, David; Snakenborg, Detlef; Dufva, Martin

    2010-01-01

    We have previously described 'Interconnection Blocks' which are re-usable, non-integrated PDMS blocks which allowing multiple, aligned and planar microfluidic interconnections. Here, we describe Interconnection Block versions with zero dead volumes that allow fluidic interfacing to flat or thin s...

  18. New transmission interconnection reduces consumer costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2008-09-15

    The Central American electric interconnection system (SIEPAC) project will involve the construction of a 1830 km 230 kV transmission system that will link Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Costa Rica, Nicaragua, and Panama. The system is expected to alleviate the region's power shortages and reduce electricity costs for consumers. Costs for the SIEPAC project have been estimated at $370 million. The system will serve approximately 37 million customers, and will include 15 substations. The contract for building the electrical equipment has been awarded to Schweitzer Engineering Laboratories (SEL) who plan to manufacture components at a plant in Mexico. The equipment will include high speed line protection, automation, and control systems. Line current differential systems and satellite-synchronized clocks will also be used. The new transmission system is expected to be fully operational by 2009. 1 fig.

  19. SIDES - Segment Interconnect Diagnostic Expert System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Booth, A.W.; Forster, R.; Gustafsson, L.; Ho, N.

    1989-01-01

    It is well known that the FASTBUS Segment Interconnect (SI) provides a communication path between two otherwise independent, asynchronous bus segments. The SI is probably the most important module in any FASTBUS data acquisition network since it's failure to function can cause whole segments of the network to be inaccessible and sometimes inoperable. This paper describes SIDES, an intelligent program designed to diagnose SI's both in situ as they operate in a data acquisition network, and in the laboratory in an acceptance/repair environment. The paper discusses important issues such as knowledge acquisition; extracting knowledge from human experts and other knowledge sources. SIDES can benefit high energy physics experiments, where SI problems can be diagnosed and solved more quickly. Equipment pool technicians can also benefit from SIDES, first by decreasing the number of SI's erroneously turned in for repair, and secondly as SIDES acts as an intelligent assistant to the technician in the diagnosis and repair process

  20. RapidIO as a multi-purpose interconnect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baymani, Simaolhoda; Alexopoulos, Konstantinos; Valat, Sébastien

    2017-10-01

    RapidIO (http://rapidio.org/) technology is a packet-switched high-performance fabric, which has been under active development since 1997. Originally meant to be a front side bus, it developed into a system level interconnect which is today used in all 4G/LTE base stations world wide. RapidIO is often used in embedded systems that require high reliability, low latency and scalability in a heterogeneous environment - features that are highly interesting for several use cases, such as data analytics and data acquisition (DAQ) networks. We will present the results of evaluating RapidIO in a data analytics environment, from setup to benchmark. Specifically, we will share the experience of running ROOT and Hadoop on top of RapidIO. To demonstrate the multi-purpose characteristics of RapidIO, we will also present the results of investigating RapidIO as a technology for high-speed DAQ networks using a generic multi-protocol event-building emulation tool. In addition we will present lessons learned from implementing native ports of CERN applications to RapidIO.

  1. Network interconnections: an architectural reference model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Butscher, B.; Lenzini, L.; Morling, R.; Vissers, C.A.; Popescu-Zeletin, R.; van Sinderen, Marten J.; Heger, D.; Krueger, G.; Spaniol, O.; Zorn, W.

    1985-01-01

    One of the major problems in understanding the different approaches in interconnecting networks of different technologies is the lack of reference to a general model. The paper develops the rationales for a reference model of network interconnection and focuses on the architectural implications for

  2. Epidemics in interconnected small-world networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, M.; Li, D.; Qin, P.; Liu, C.; Wang, H.; Wang, F.

    2015-01-01

    Networks can be used to describe the interconnections among individuals, which play an important role in the spread of disease. Although the small-world effect has been found to have a significant impact on epidemics in single networks, the small-world effect on epidemics in interconnected networks

  3. Colligation, Or the Logical Inference of Interconnection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falster, Peter

    1998-01-01

    laws or assumptions. Yet interconnection as an abstract concept seems to be without scientific underpinning in pure logic. Adopting a historical viewpoint, our aim is to show that the reasoning of interconnection may be identified with a neglected kind of logical inference, called "colligation...

  4. Colligation or, The Logical Inference of Interconnection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Franksen, Ole Immanuel; Falster, Peter

    2000-01-01

    laws or assumptions. Yet interconnection as an abstract concept seems to be without scientific underpinning in oure logic. Adopting a historical viewpoint, our aim is to show that the reasoning of interconnection may be identified with a neglected kind of logical inference, called "colligation...

  5. 850-nm Zn-diffusion vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with with oxide-relief structure for high-speed and energy-efficient optical interconnects from very-short to medium (2km) reaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jin-Wei; Wei, Chia-Chien; Chen, Jason (Jyehong); Yang, Ying-Jay

    2015-03-01

    High-speed and "green" ~850 nm vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) have lately attracted lots of attention due to their suitability for applications in optical interconnects (OIs). To further enhance the speed and its maximum allowable linking distance of VCSELs are two major trends to meet the requirement of OI in next generation data centers. Recently, by use of the advanced 850 nm VCSEL technique, data rate as high as 64 Gbit/sec over 57m and 20 Gbit/sec over 2km MMF transmission have been demonstrated, respectively. Here, we will review our recent work about 850 nm Zn-diffusion VCSELs with oxide-relief apertures to further enhance the above-mentioned performances. By using Zn-diffusion, we can not only reduce the device resistance but also manipulate the number of optical modes to benefit transmission. Combing such device, which has excellent single-mode (SMSR >30 dB) and high-power (~7mW) performance, with advanced modulation format (OFDM), record-high bit-rate-distance-product through MMF (2.3 km×28 Gbit/sec) has been demonstrated. Furthermore, by selective etching away the oxide aperture inside Zn-diffusion VCSEL, significant enhancement of device speed, D-factor, and reliability can be observed. With such unique VCSEL structure, >40 Gbit/sec energy-efficient transmission over 100m MMF under extremely low-driving current density (<10kA/cm2) has been successfully demonstrated.

  6. Investigation of performance degradation of SOFC using chromium-containing alloy interconnects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beeaff, D.R.; Dinesen, A.; Hendriksen, Peter Vang

    2007-01-01

    The long-term aging of a stack element (fuel cell, current collectors, and interconnect materials) was studied. A pair of tests were made in which one sample contained an interconnect, a high-temperature stainless steel (Crofer 22 APU), treated with an LSMC coating applied to the cathode-side int...

  7. Cascade-robustness optimization of coupling preference in interconnected networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Xue-Jun; Xu, Guo-Qiang; Zhu, Yan-Bo; Xia, Yong-Xiang

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A specific memetic algorithm was proposed to optimize coupling links. • A small toy model was investigated to examine the underlying mechanism. • The MA optimized strategy exhibits a moderate assortative pattern. • A novel coupling coefficient index was proposed to quantify coupling preference. - Abstract: Recently, the robustness of interconnected networks has attracted extensive attentions, one of which is to investigate the influence of coupling preference. In this paper, the memetic algorithm (MA) is employed to optimize the coupling links of interconnected networks. Afterwards, a comparison is made between MA optimized coupling strategy and traditional assortative, disassortative and random coupling preferences. It is found that the MA optimized coupling strategy with a moderate assortative value shows an outstanding performance against cascading failures on both synthetic scale-free interconnected networks and real-world networks. We then provide an explanation for this phenomenon from a micro-scope point of view and propose a coupling coefficient index to quantify the coupling preference. Our work is helpful for the design of robust interconnected networks.

  8. High-Performance, 0.6-eV, GA0.32In0.68As/In0.32P0.68 Thermophotovoltaic Converters and Monolithically Interconnected Modules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duda, A.; Murray, C.S.

    1998-01-01

    Recent progress in the development of high-performance, 0.6-eV Ga0.32In0.68As/InAs0.32P0.68 thermophotovoltaic (TPV) converters and monolithically interconnected modules (MIMs) is described. The converter structure design is based on using a lattice-matched InAs0.32P0.68/Ga0.32In0.68As/InAs0.32P0.68 double-heterostructure (DH) device, which is grown lattice-mismatched on an InP substrate, with an intervening compositionally step-graded region of InAsyP1-y. The Ga0.32In0.68As alloy has a room-temperature band gap of 0.6 eV and contains a p/n junction. The InAs0.32P0.68 layers have a room-temperature band gap of 0.96 eV and serve as passivation/confinement layers for the Ga0.32In0.68As p/n junction. InAsyP1-y step grades have yielded DH converters with superior electronic quality and performance characteristics. Details of the microstructure of the converters are presented. Converters prepared for this work were grown by atmospheric-pressure metalorganic vapor-phase epitaxy (APMOVPE) and were processed using a combination of photolithography, wet-chemical etching, and conventional metal and insulator deposition techniques. Excellent performance characteristics have been demonstrated for the 0.6-eV TPV converters. Additionally, the implementation of MIM technology in these converters has been highly successful

  9. Design and Training of Limited-Interconnect Architectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-07-16

    and signal processing. Neuromorphic (brain like) models, allow an alternative for achieving real-time operation tor such tasks, while having a...compact and robust architecture. Neuromorphic models consist of interconnections of simple computational nodes. In this approach, each node computes a...operational performance. I1. Research Objectives The research objectives were: 1. Development of on- chip local training rules specifically designed for

  10. Holistic face representation is highly orientation-specific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, Gideon; Levakov, Gidon; Avidan, Galia

    2017-09-29

    It has long been argued that face processing requires disproportionate reliance on holistic processing (HP), relative to that required for nonface object recognition. Nevertheless, whether the holistic nature of face perception is achieved via a unique internal representation or by the employment of an automated attention mechanism is still debated. Previous studies had used the face inversion effect (FIE), a unique face-processing marker, or the face composite task, a gold standard paradigm measuring holistic processing, to examine the validity of these two different hypotheses, with some studies combining the two paradigms. However, the results of such studies remain inconclusive, particularly pertaining to the issue of the two proposed HP mechanisms-an internal representation as opposed to an automated attention mechanism. Here, using the complete composite paradigm design, we aimed to examine whether face rotation yields a nonlinear or a linear drop in HP, thus supporting an account that face processing is based either on an orientation-dependent internal representation or on automated attention. Our results reveal that even a relatively small perturbation in face orientation (30 deg away from upright) already causes a sharp decline in HP. These findings support the face internal representation hypothesis and the notion that the holistic processing of faces is highly orientation-specific.

  11. High voltage and high specific capacity dual intercalating electrode Li-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, William C. (Inventor); Blanco, Mario (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    The present invention provides high capacity and high voltage Li-ion batteries that have a carbonaceous cathode and a nonaqueous electrolyte solution comprising LiF salt and an anion receptor that binds the fluoride ion. The batteries can comprise dual intercalating electrode Li ion batteries. Methods of the present invention use a cathode and electrode pair, wherein each of the electrodes reversibly intercalate ions provided by a LiF salt to make a high voltage and high specific capacity dual intercalating electrode Li-ion battery. The present methods and systems provide high-capacity batteries particularly useful in powering devices where minimizing battery mass is important.

  12. SSC [Superconducting Super Collider] magnet mechanical interconnections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bossert, R.C.; Niemann, R.C.; Carson, J.A.; Ramstein, W.L.; Reynolds, M.P.; Engler, N.H.

    1989-03-01

    Installation of superconducting accelerator dipole and quadrupole magnets and spool pieces in the SSC tunnel requires the interconnection of the cryostats. The connections are both of an electrical and mechanical nature. The details of the mechanical connections are presented. The connections include piping, thermal shields and insulation. There are seven piping systems to be connected. These systems must carry cryogenic fluids at various pressures or maintain vacuum and must be consistently leak tight. The interconnection region must be able to expand and contract as magnets change in length while cooling and warming. The heat leak characteristics of the interconnection region must be comparable to that of the body of the magnet. Rapid assembly and disassembly is required. The magnet cryostat development program is discussed. Results of quality control testing are reported. Results of making full scale interconnections under magnet test situations are reviewed. 11 figs., 4 tabs

  13. Synthesis and Characterization of Three Dimensional Nanostructures Based on Interconnected Carbon Nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koizumi, Ryota

    This thesis addresses various types of synthetic methods for novel three dimensional nanomaterials and nanostructures based on interconnected carbon nanomaterials using solution chemistry and chemical vapor deposition (CVD) methods. Carbon nanotube (CNT) spheres with porous and scaffold structures consisting of interconnected CNTs were synthesized by solution chemistry followed by freeze-drying, which have high elasticity under nano-indentation tests. This allows the CNT spheres to be potentially applied to mechanical dampers. CNTs were also grown on two dimensional materials--such as reduced graphene oxide (rGO) and hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN)--by CVD methods, which are chemically interconnected. CNTs on rGO and h-BN interconnected structures performed well as electrodes for supercapacitors. Furthermore, unique interconnected flake structures of alpha-phase molybdenum carbide were developed by a CVD method. The molybdenum carbide can be used for a catalyst of hydrogen evolution reaction activity as well as an electrode for supercapacitors.

  14. Epidemics spreading in interconnected complex networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Y.; Xiao, G.

    2012-01-01

    We study epidemic spreading in two interconnected complex networks. It is found that in our model the epidemic threshold of the interconnected network is always lower than that in any of the two component networks. Detailed theoretical analysis is proposed which allows quick and accurate calculations of epidemic threshold and average outbreak/epidemic size. Theoretical analysis and simulation results show that, generally speaking, the epidemic size is not significantly affected by the inter-network correlation. In interdependent networks which can be viewed as a special case of interconnected networks, however, impacts of inter-network correlation on the epidemic threshold and outbreak size are more significant. -- Highlights: ► We study epidemic spreading in two interconnected complex networks. ► The epidemic threshold is lower than that in any of the two networks. And Interconnection correlation has impacts on threshold and average outbreak size. ► Detailed theoretical analysis is proposed which allows quick and accurate calculations of epidemic threshold and average outbreak/epidemic size. ► We demonstrated and proved that Interconnection correlation does not affect epidemic size significantly. ► In interdependent networks, impacts of inter-network correlation on the epidemic threshold and outbreak size are more significant.

  15. Epidemics spreading in interconnected complex networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Y. [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Institute of High Performance Computing, Agency for Science, Technology and Research (A-STAR), Singapore 138632 (Singapore); Xiao, G., E-mail: egxxiao@ntu.edu.sg [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798 (Singapore)

    2012-09-03

    We study epidemic spreading in two interconnected complex networks. It is found that in our model the epidemic threshold of the interconnected network is always lower than that in any of the two component networks. Detailed theoretical analysis is proposed which allows quick and accurate calculations of epidemic threshold and average outbreak/epidemic size. Theoretical analysis and simulation results show that, generally speaking, the epidemic size is not significantly affected by the inter-network correlation. In interdependent networks which can be viewed as a special case of interconnected networks, however, impacts of inter-network correlation on the epidemic threshold and outbreak size are more significant. -- Highlights: ► We study epidemic spreading in two interconnected complex networks. ► The epidemic threshold is lower than that in any of the two networks. And Interconnection correlation has impacts on threshold and average outbreak size. ► Detailed theoretical analysis is proposed which allows quick and accurate calculations of epidemic threshold and average outbreak/epidemic size. ► We demonstrated and proved that Interconnection correlation does not affect epidemic size significantly. ► In interdependent networks, impacts of inter-network correlation on the epidemic threshold and outbreak size are more significant.

  16. Integrated optoelectronic materials and circuits for optical interconnects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutcheson, L.D.

    1988-01-01

    Conventional interconnect and switching technology is rapidly becoming a critical issue in the realization of systems using high speed silicon and GaAs based technologies. In recent years clock speeds and on-chip density for VLSI/VHSIC technology has made packaging these high speed chips extremely difficult. A strong case can be made for using optical interconnects for on-chip/on-wafer, chip-to-chip and board-to-board high speed communications. GaAs integrated optoelectronic circuits (IOC's) are being developed in a number of laboratories for performing Input/Output functions at all levels. In this paper integrated optoelectronic materials, electronics and optoelectronic devices are presented. IOC's are examined from the standpoint of what it takes to fabricate the devices and what performance can be expected

  17. High plastic concrete temperature specifications for paving mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    This report documents a study performed for the Illinois Department of Transportation (IDOT) regarding : concrete roadway construction in hot weather. The main objective in this project is to develop improved : specifications and procedures with resp...

  18. Interconnect mechanisms in microelectronic packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roma, Maria Penafrancia C.

    alloy showed differences in adhesion strength and IMC formation. Bond strength by wire pull testing showed the 95Ag alloy with higher values while shear bond testing showed the 88Ag higher bond strength. Use of Cu pillars in flip chips and eutectic bonding in wafer level chip scale packages are direct consequences of diminishing interconnect dimension as a result of the drive for miniaturization. The combination of Cu-Sn interdiffusion, Kirkendall mechanism and heterogeneous vacancy precipitation are the main causes of IMC and void formation in Cu pillar - Sn solder - Cu lead frame sandwich structure. However, adding a Ni barrier agent showed less porous IMC layer as well as void formation as a result of the modified Cu and Sn movement well as the void formation. Direct die to die bonding using Al-Ge eutectic bonds is necessary when 3D integration is needed to reduce the footprint of a package. Hermeticity and adhesion strength are a function of the Al/Ge thickness ratio, bonding pressure, temperature and time. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and Focused Ion Beam (FIB) allowed imaging of interfacial microstructures, porosity, grain morphology while Scanning Transmission Electron microscope (STEM) provided diffusion profile and confirmed interdiffusion. Ion polishing technique provided information on porosity and when imaged using backscattered mode, grain structure confirmed mechanical deformation of the bonds. Measurements of the interfacial bond strength are made by wire pull tests and ball shear tests based on existing industry standard tests. However, for the Al-Ge eutectic bonds, no standard strength is available so a test is developed using the stud pull test method using the Dage 4000 Plus to yield consistent results. Adhesion strengths of 30-40 MPa are found for eutectic bonded packages however, as low as 20MPa was measured in low temperature bonded areas.

  19. Development and characterization of high-efficiency, high-specific impulse xenon Hall thrusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofer, Richard Robert

    This dissertation presents research aimed at extending the efficient operation of 1600 s specific impulse Hall thruster technology to the 2000--3000 s range. While recent studies of commercially developed Hall thrusters demonstrated greater than 4000 s specific impulse, maximum efficiency occurred at less than 3000 s. It was hypothesized that the efficiency maximum resulted as a consequence of modern magnetic field designs, optimized for 1600 s, which were unsuitable at high-specific impulse. Motivated by the industry efforts and mission studies, the aim of this research was to develop and characterize xenon Hall thrusters capable of both high-specific impulse and high-efficiency operation. The research divided into development and characterization phases. During the development phase, the laboratory-model NASA-173M Hall thrusters were designed with plasma lens magnetic field topographies and their performance and plasma characteristics were evaluated. Experiments with the NASA-173M version 1 (v1) validated the plasma lens design by showing how changing the magnetic field topography at high-specific impulse improved efficiency. Experiments with the NASA-173M version 2 (v2) showed there was a minimum current density and optimum magnetic field topography at which efficiency monotonically increased with voltage. Between 300--1000 V, total specific impulse and total efficiency of the NASA-173Mv2 operating at 10 mg/s ranged from 1600--3400 s and 51--61%, respectively. Comparison of the thrusters showed that efficiency can be optimized for specific impulse by varying the plasma lens design. During the characterization phase, additional plasma properties of the NASA-173Mv2 were measured and a performance model was derived accounting for a multiply-charged, partially-ionized plasma. Results from the model based on experimental data showed how efficient operation at high-specific impulse was enabled through regulation of the electron current with the magnetic field. The

  20. Vertically aligned multiwalled carbon nanotubes as electronic interconnects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopee, Vimal Chandra

    The drive for miniaturisation of electronic circuits provides new materials challenges for the electronics industry. Indeed, the continued downscaling of transistor dimensions, described by Moore’s Law, has led to a race to find suitable replacements for current interconnect materials to replace copper. Carbon nanotubes have been studied as a suitable replacement for copper due to its superior electrical, thermal and mechanical properties. One of the advantages of using carbon nanotubes is their high current carrying capacity which has been demonstrated to be three orders of magnitude greater than that of copper. Most approaches in the implementation of carbon nanotubes have so far focused on the growth in vias which limits their application. In this work, a process is described for the transfer of carbon nanotubes to substrates allowing their use for more varied applications. Arrays of vertically aligned multiwalled carbon nanotubes were synthesised by photo-thermal chemical vapour deposition with high growth rates. Raman spectroscopy was used to show that the synthesised carbon nanotubes were of high quality. The carbon nanotubes were exposed to an oxygen plasma and the nature of the functional groups present was determined using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Functional groups, such as carboxyl, carbonyl and hydroxyl groups, were found to be present on the surface of the multiwalled carbon nanotubes after the functionalisation process. The multiwalled carbon nanotubes were metallised after the functionalisation process using magnetron sputtering. Two materials, solder and sintered silver, were chosen to bind carbon nanotubes to substrates so as to enable their transfer and also to make electrical contact. The wettability of solder to carbon nanotubes was investigated and it was demonstrated that both functionalisation and metallisation were required in order for solder to bond with the carbon nanotubes. Similarly, functionalisation followed by metallisation

  1. Cross-border versus cross-sector interconnectivity in renewable energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thellufsen, Jakob Zinck; Lund, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    In the transition to renewable energy systems, fluctuating renewable energy, such as wind and solar power, plays a large and important role. This creates a challenge in terms of meeting demands, as the energy production fluctuates based on weather patterns. To utilise high amounts of fluctuating renewable energy, the energy system has to be more flexible in terms of decoupling demand and production. This paper investigates two potential ways to increase flexibility. The first is the interconnection between energy systems, for instance between two countries, labelled as cross-border interconnection, and the second is cross-sector interconnection, i.e., the integration between different parts of an energy system, for instance heat and electricity. This paper seeks to compare the types of interconnectivity and discuss to which extent they are mutually beneficial. To do this, the study investigates two energy systems that represent Northern and Southern Europe. Both systems go through three developmental steps that increase the cross-sector interconnectivity. At each developmental step an increasing level of transmission capacities is examined to identify the benefits of cross-border interconnectivity. The results show that while both measures increase the system utilisation of renewable energy and the system efficiency, the cross-sector interconnection gives the best system performance. To analyse the possible interaction between cross-sector and cross-border interconnectivity, two main aspects have to be clarified. The first part defines the approach and the second is the construction of the two archetypes. - Highlights: • A method to investigate system integration and system interconnection is suggested. • The implementation is investigated across a Northern and Southern energy system. • The study identifies benefits of system integration and system interconnection. • The performance of the energy system benefits most from system integration.

  2. Preparation of [35S]sulfobromophthalein of high specific activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurisu, H.; Nilprabhassorn, P.; Wolkoff, A.W.

    1989-01-01

    Study of the hepatocyte transport mechanism of organic anions such as bilirubin and sulfobromophthalein has been limited by the relatively low specific activities of these ligands. [ 3 H]Bilirubin and [ 35 S]sulfobromophthalein have been available with specific activities of only approximately 100 mCi/mmol. We now report a relatively simple procedure to prepare [ 35 S]sulfobromophthalein at a specific activity of approximately 3000 mCi/mmol. This compound is radiochemically pure and serves as a tracer for authentic sulfobromophthalein as judged by chromatography, hepatocyte uptake, metabolism, and biliary excretion. Use of this material as a photoaffinity probe and as a transported ligand may permit dissection and understanding of its transport mechanism

  3. High Specificity of Quantitative Methylation-Specific PCR Analysis for MGMT Promoter Hypermethylation Detection in Gliomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Parrella

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Normal brain tissue from 28 individuals and 50 glioma samples were analyzed by real-time Quantitative Methylation-Specific PCR (QMSP. Data from this analysis were compared with results obtained on the same samples by MSP. QMSP analysis demonstrated a statistically significant difference in both methylation level (P=.000009 Mann Whitney Test and frequencies (P=.0000007, Z-test in tumour samples as compared with normal brain tissues. Although QMSP and MSP showed similar sensitivity, the specificity of QMSP analysis was significantly higher (93%; CI95%: 84%–100% as compared with MSP (64%; 95%CI: 46%–82%. Our results suggest that QMSP analysis may represent a powerful tool to identify glioma patients that will benefit from alkylating agents chemotherapy.

  4. Integrated Circuit Interconnect Lines on Lossy Silicon Substrate with Finite Element Method

    OpenAIRE

    Sarhan M. Musa,; Matthew N. O. Sadiku

    2014-01-01

    The silicon substrate has a significant effect on the inductance parameter of a lossy interconnect line on integrated circuit. It is essential to take this into account in determining the transmission line electrical parameters. In this paper, a new quasi-TEM capacitance and inductance analysis of multiconductor multilayer interconnects is successfully demonstrated using finite element method (FEM). We specifically illustrate the electrostatic modeling of single and coupled in...

  5. Microtexture of Strain in electroplated copper interconnects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spolenak, R.; Barr, D.L.; Gross, M.E.; Evans-Lutterodt, K.; Brown, W.L.; Tamura, N.; MacDowell, A.A.; Celestre, R.S.; Padmore, H.A.; Valek, B.C.; Bravman, J.C.; Flinn, P.; Marieb, T.; Keller, R.R.; Batterman, B.W.; Patel, J.R.

    2001-01-01

    The microstructure of narrow metal conductors in the electrical interconnections on IC chips has often been identified as of major importance in the reliability of these devices. The stresses and stress gradients that develop in the conductors as a result of thermal expansion differences in the materials and of electromigration at high current densities are believed to be strongly dependent on the details of the grain structure. The present work discusses new techniques based on microbeam x-ray diffraction (MBXRD) that have enabled measurement not only of the microstructure of totally encapsulated conductors but also of the local stresses in them on a micron and submicron scale. White x-rays from the Advanced Light Source were focused to a micron spot size by Kirkpatrick-Baez mirrors. The sample was stepped under the micro-beam and Laue images obtained at each sample location using a CCD area detector. Microstructure and local strain were deduced from these images. Cu lines with widths ranging from 0.8 mm to 5 mm and thickness of 1 mm were investigated. Comparisons are made between the capabilities of MBXRD and the well established techniques of broad beam XRD, electron back scatter diffraction (EBSD) and focused ion beam imagining (FIB)

  6. TEA HF laser with a high specific radiation energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puchikin, A. V.; Andreev, M. V.; Losev, V. F.; Panchenko, Yu. N.

    2017-01-01

    Results of experimental studies of the chemical HF laser with a non-chain reaction are presented. The possibility of the total laser efficiency of 5 % is shown when a traditional C-to-C pumping circuit with the charging voltage of 20-24 kV is used. It is experimentally shown that the specific radiation output energy of 21 J/l is reached at the specific pump energy of 350 J/l in SF6/H2 = 14/1 mixture at the total pressure of 0.27 bar.

  7. Sintering of uranium oxide of high specific surface area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bel, Alain; Francois, Bernard; Delmas, Roger; Caillat, Roger

    1959-01-01

    The extent to which a uranium oxide powder deriving from ammonium uranate or uranium peroxide lends itself to the sintering process depends largely on its specific surface area. When this is greater than 5 m 2 / g there is an optimum temperature for sintering in hydrogen. This temperature becomes less as the specific area of the powder is greater. Reprint of a paper published in Comptes rendus des seances de l'Academie des Sciences, t. 249, p. 1045-1047, sitting of 21 September 1959 [fr

  8. Preparation of tritiated thymidine of high specific activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivan'kova, E.K.; Sidorov, G.V.; Myasoedov, N.F.

    1981-01-01

    Optimum conditions for the reaction are determined; and conditions for reaction component separation on resins of Dowex-1x8 and APA-8p (HCOO - , elution with ammonium formate) are optimized. It is established that the transition from thymine preparations with the specific activity of 0.15 and 1.5 TBq/mmol to the preparation with the specific activity of 3.25 TBq/mmol brings about the reduction in the desoxyribosylation reaction rate and the decrease in the thymidine yield from 85-90 to 65% [ru

  9. Switching Fabric Based on Multi-Level LVDS Compatible Interconnect, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Switching fabric (SF) is the key component of the next generation of back plane interconnects. Low power, TID and SEU resistant and high bandwidth upgradeable...

  10. Superconducting Thin-Film Interconnects for Cryogenic Photon Detector Arrays, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advanced imaging spectrometers for x-ray astronomy will require significant improvements in the high density interconnects between the detector arrays and the first...

  11. System Specification for Immobilized High-Level Waste Interim Storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CALMUS, R.B.

    2000-01-01

    This specification establishes the system-level functional, performance, design, interface, and test requirements for Phase 1 of the IHLW Interim Storage System, located at the Hanford Site in Washington State. The IHLW canisters will be produced at the Hanford Site by a Selected DOE contractor. Subsequent to storage the canisters will be shipped to a federal geologic repository

  12. Construction of programmable interconnected 3D microfluidic networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunziker, Patrick R; Wolf, Marc P; Wang, Xueya; Zhang, Bei; Marsch, Stephan; Salieb-Beugelaar, Georgette B

    2015-01-01

    Microfluidic systems represent a key-enabling platform for novel diagnostic tools for use at the point-of-care in clinical contexts as well as for evolving single cell diagnostics. The design of 3D microfluidic systems is an active field of development, but construction of true interconnected 3D microfluidic networks is still a challenge, in particular when the goal is rapid prototyping, accurate design and flexibility. We report a novel approach for the construction of programmable 3D microfluidic systems consisting of modular 3D template casting of interconnected threads to allow user-programmable flow paths and examine its structural characteristics and its modular function. To overcome problems with thread template casting reported in the literature, low-surface-energy polymer threads were used, that allow solvent-free production. Connected circular channels with excellent roundness and low diameter variability were created. Variable channel termination allowed programming a flow path on-the-fly, thus rendering the resulting 3D microfluidic systems highly customizable even after production. Thus, construction of programmable/reprogrammable fully 3D microfluidic systems by template casting of a network of interconnecting threads is feasible, leads to high-quality and highly reproducible, complex 3D geometries. (paper)

  13. Nanostructured CuS networks composed of interconnected nanoparticles for asymmetric supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Wenbin; Han, Weihua; Zha, Heming; Mei, Junfeng; Li, Yunxia; Zhang, Zemin; Xie, Erqing

    2016-09-21

    Nanostructured metal sulfides with excellent electrochemical activity and electrical conductivity are particularly promising for applications in high-performance energy storage devices. Here, we report on the facile synthesis of nanostructured CuS networks composed of interconnected nanoparticles as novel battery-type materials for asymmetric supercapacitors. We find that the CuS networks exhibit a high specific capacity of 49.8 mA g(-1) at a current density of 1 A g(-1), good rate capability and cycle stability. The superior performance could be attributed to the interconnected nanoparticles of CuS networks, which can facilitate electrolyte diffusion and provide fast electron pathways. Furthermore, an aqueous asymmetric supercapacitor has been assembled by using the CuS networks as the positive electrode and activated carbon as the negative electrode. The assembled device can work at a high operating voltage of 1.6 V and show a maximum energy density of 17.7 W h kg(-1) at a power density of 504 W kg(-1). This study indicates that the CuS networks have great potential for supercapacitor applications.

  14. SDN Data Center Performance Evaluation of Torus and Hypercube Interconnecting Schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andrus, Bogdan-Mihai; Vegas Olmos, Juan José; Mehmeri, Victor

    2015-01-01

    — By measuring throughput, delay, loss-rate and jitter, we present how SDN framework yields a 45% performance increase in highly interconnected topologies like torus and hypercube compared to current Layer2 switching technologies, applied to data center architectures......— By measuring throughput, delay, loss-rate and jitter, we present how SDN framework yields a 45% performance increase in highly interconnected topologies like torus and hypercube compared to current Layer2 switching technologies, applied to data center architectures...

  15. Coaxial plasma thrusters for high specific impulse propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenberg, Kurt F.; Gerwin, Richard A.; Barnes, Cris W.; Henins, Ivars; Mayo, Robert; Moses, Ronald, Jr.; Scarberry, Richard; Wurden, Glen

    1991-01-01

    A fundamental basis for coaxial plasma thruster performance is presented and the steady-state, ideal MHD properties of a coaxial thruster using an annular magnetic nozzle are discussed. Formulas for power usage, thrust, mass flow rate, and specific impulse are acquired and employed to assess thruster performance. The performance estimates are compared with the observed properties of an unoptimized coaxial plasma gun. These comparisons support the hypothesis that ideal MHD has an important role in coaxial plasma thruster dynamics.

  16. Human face recognition ability is specific and highly heritable

    OpenAIRE

    Wilmer, Jeremy B.; Germine, Laura; Chabris, Christopher F.; Chatterjee, Garga; Williams, Mark; Loken, Eric; Nakayama, Ken; Duchaine, Bradley

    2010-01-01

    Compared with notable successes in the genetics of basic sensory transduction, progress on the genetics of higher level perception and cognition has been limited. We propose that investigating specific cognitive abilities with well-defined neural substrates, such as face recognition, may yield additional insights. In a twin study of face recognition, we found that the correlation of scores between monozygotic twins (0.70) was more than double the dizygotic twin correlation (0.29), evidence fo...

  17. Competitive Advantage of Interconnected Firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nell, Phillip Christopher; Andersson, Ulf

    We model the complex interplay between firm-level variables, notably capabilities and performance, and relationship-level variables: relationship-specific assets and network context. We test how the network context of individual exchange relationships as well as firm-level capabilities jointly af...

  18. Comprehensive evaluation of global energy interconnection development index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lin; Zhang, Yi

    2018-04-01

    Under the background of building global energy interconnection and realizing green and low-carbon development, this article constructed the global energy interconnection development index system which based on the current situation of global energy interconnection development. Through using the entropy method for the weight analysis of global energy interconnection development index, and then using gray correlation method to analyze the selected countries, this article got the global energy interconnection development index ranking and level classification.

  19. Overvoltages related to distributed generation-power system interconnection transformer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zamanillo, G.R.; Gomez, J.C.; Florena, E.F. [Rio Cuarto National University (IPSEP/UNRC), Cordoba (Argentina). Electric Power Systems Protection Institute], Email: jcgomez@ing.unrc.edu.ar

    2009-07-01

    The energy crisis that experiences the world drives to carry to an extreme, the use of all energy sources which are available. The sources need to be connected to the electric network in their next point, requiring of electric-electronic interfaces. The traditional electric power systems are changing their characteristics, in what concerns to structure, operation and on overvoltage generation. This change is not taking place in coordinated form among the involved sectors. The interconnection of a Distributed Generator (DG) directly with the power system is objectionable and risky. It is required of an interconnection transformer which performs several functions. Rigid specifications do not exist in this respect, for the variety of systems in use in the world, nevertheless there are utilities recommendations. Overvoltages caused by the DG, which arise due to the change of structure of the electric system, are explained. The transformer connection selection, presents positive and negative aspects that impact the utility and the user in a different or many times in an antagonistic way. The phenomenon of balanced and unbalanced ferroresonance overvoltage is studied. This phenomenon can takes place when using DG, either with synchronous or asynchronous generator, and for any type of connection of the transformer. The necessary conditions so that the phenomenon appears are presented. Eight interconnection transformer connection ways were studied. It is concluded that the solutions to reach by means of the employment of the DG, offer technical-economic advantages so much to the utility as to the user. It is also concluded in this work that the more advisable interconnection type is function of the system connection type. (author)

  20. Conductive polymer/metal composites for interconnect of flexible devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakita, Jin; Hashimoto Shinoda, Yasuo; Shuto, Takanori; Chikyow, Toyohiro

    2015-06-01

    An interconnect of flexible and foldable devices based on advanced electronics requires high electrical conductivity, flexibility, adhesiveness on a plastic substrate, and efficient productivity. In this study, we investigated the applicability of a conductive polymer/metal composite to the interconnect of flexible devices. By combining an inkjet process and a photochemical reaction, micropatterns of a polypyrrole/silver composite were formed on flexible plastic substrates with an average linewidth of approximately 70 µm within 10 min. The conductivity of the composite was improved to 6.0 × 102 Ω-1·cm-1. From these results, it is expected that the conducting polymer/metal composite can be applied to the microwiring of flexible electronic devices.

  1. TEM sample preparation by FIB for carbon nanotube interconnects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ke, Xiaoxing; Bals, Sara; Romo Negreira, Ainhoa; Hantschel, Thomas; Bender, Hugo; Van Tendeloo, Gustaaf

    2009-01-01

    A powerful method to study carbon nanotubes (CNTs) grown in patterned substrates for potential interconnects applications is transmission electron microscopy (TEM). However, high-quality TEM samples are necessary for such a study. Here, TEM specimen preparation by focused ion beam (FIB) has been used to obtain lamellae of patterned samples containing CNTs grown inside contact holes. A dual-cap Pt protection layer and an extensive 5 kV cleaning procedure are applied in order to preserve the CNTs and avoid deterioration during milling. TEM results show that the inner shell structure of the carbon nanotubes has been preserved, which proves that focused ion beam is a useful technique to prepare TEM samples of CNT interconnects.

  2. TEM sample preparation by FIB for carbon nanotube interconnects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ke, Xiaoxing, E-mail: xiaoxing.ke@ua.ac.be [EMAT, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Bals, Sara [EMAT, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Romo Negreira, Ainhoa [IMEC, Kapeldreef 75, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Metallurgy and Materials Engineering Department, KU Leuven, Kasteelpark Arenberg 44, Leuven B-3001 (Belgium); Hantschel, Thomas; Bender, Hugo [IMEC, Kapeldreef 75, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Van Tendeloo, Gustaaf [EMAT, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium)

    2009-10-15

    A powerful method to study carbon nanotubes (CNTs) grown in patterned substrates for potential interconnects applications is transmission electron microscopy (TEM). However, high-quality TEM samples are necessary for such a study. Here, TEM specimen preparation by focused ion beam (FIB) has been used to obtain lamellae of patterned samples containing CNTs grown inside contact holes. A dual-cap Pt protection layer and an extensive 5 kV cleaning procedure are applied in order to preserve the CNTs and avoid deterioration during milling. TEM results show that the inner shell structure of the carbon nanotubes has been preserved, which proves that focused ion beam is a useful technique to prepare TEM samples of CNT interconnects.

  3. Interconnection test framework for the CMS level-1 trigger system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammer, J.; Magrans de Abril, M.; Wulz, C.E.

    2012-01-01

    The Level-1 Trigger Control and Monitoring System is a software package designed to configure, monitor and test the Level-1 Trigger System of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment at CERN's Large Hadron Collider. It is a large and distributed system that runs over 50 PCs and controls about 200 hardware units. The objective of this paper is to describe and evaluate the architecture of a distributed testing framework - the Interconnection Test Framework (ITF). This generic and highly flexible framework for creating and executing hardware tests within the Level-1 Trigger environment is meant to automate testing of the 13 major subsystems interconnected with more than 1000 links. Features include a web interface to create and execute tests, modeling using finite state machines, dependency management, automatic configuration, and loops. Furthermore, the ITF will replace the existing heterogeneous testing procedures and help reducing both maintenance and complexity of operation tasks. (authors)

  4. Packaging and interconnection for superconductive circuitry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anacker, W.

    1976-01-01

    A three dimensional microelectronic module packaged for reduced signal propagation delay times including a plurality of circuit carrying means, which may comprise unbacked chips, with integrated superconductive circuitry thereon is described. The circuit carrying means are supported on their edges and have contact lands in the vicinity of, or at, the edges to provide for interconnecting circuitry. The circuit carrying means are supported by supporting means which include slots to provide a path for interconnection wiring to contact the lands of the circuit carrying means. Further interconnecting wiring may take the form of integrated circuit wiring on the reverse side of the supporting means. The low heat dissipation of the superconductive circuitry allows the circuit carrying means to be spaced approximately no less than 30 mils apart. The three dimensional arrangement provides lower random propagation delays than would a planar array of circuits

  5. Laser printing of 3D metallic interconnects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beniam, Iyoel; Mathews, Scott A.; Charipar, Nicholas A.; Auyeung, Raymond C. Y.; Piqué, Alberto

    2016-04-01

    The use of laser-induced forward transfer (LIFT) techniques for the printing of functional materials has been demonstrated for numerous applications. The printing gives rise to patterns, which can be used to fabricate planar interconnects. More recently, various groups have demonstrated electrical interconnects from laser-printed 3D structures. The laser printing of these interconnects takes place through aggregation of voxels of either molten metal or of pastes containing dispersed metallic particles. However, the generated 3D structures do not posses the same metallic conductivity as a bulk metal interconnect of the same cross-section and length as those formed by wire bonding or tab welding. An alternative is to laser transfer entire 3D structures using a technique known as lase-and-place. Lase-and-place is a LIFT process whereby whole components and parts can be transferred from a donor substrate onto a desired location with one single laser pulse. This paper will describe the use of LIFT to laser print freestanding, solid metal foils or beams precisely over the contact pads of discrete devices to interconnect them into fully functional circuits. Furthermore, this paper will also show how the same laser can be used to bend or fold the bulk metal foils prior to transfer, thus forming compliant 3D structures able to provide strain relief for the circuits under flexing or during motion from thermal mismatch. These interconnect "ridges" can span wide gaps (on the order of a millimeter) and accommodate height differences of tens of microns between adjacent devices. Examples of these laser printed 3D metallic bridges and their role in the development of next generation electronics by additive manufacturing will be presented.

  6. EUROPEAN ENERGY INTERCONNECTION EFFECTS ON THE ROMANIAN ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionescu Mihaela

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the author wants to exemplify the extent to which economic growth in Romania is influenced by the current power system infrastructure investments in Europe. Electricity transmission infrastructure in Romania is at a turning point. The high level of security of supply, delivery efficiency in a competitive internal market are dependent on significant investment, both within the country and across borders. Since the economic crisis makes investment financing is increasingly difficult, it is necessary that they be targeted as well. The European Union has initiated the “Connecting Europe” through which investments are allocated to European energy network interconnection of energy. The action plan for this strategy will put a greater emphasis on investments that require hundreds of billions of euro in new technologies, infrastructure, improve energy intensity, low carbon energy technologies. Romania's energy challenge will depend on the new interconnection modern and smart, both within the country and other European countries, energy saving practices and technologies. This challenge is particularly important as Romania has recovered severe gaps in the level of economic performance compared to developed countries. Such investment will have a significant impact on transmission costs, especially electricity, while network tariffs will rise slightly. Some costs will be higher due to support programs in renewable energy nationwide.Measures are more economically sustainable to maintain or even reinforce the electricity market, which system can be flexible in order to address any issues of adequacy. These measures include investments in border infrastructure (the higher the network, so it is easier to evenly distribute energy from renewable sources, to measure demand response and energy storage solutions.An integrated European infrastructure will ensure economic growth in countries interconnected and thus Romania. Huge energy potential of

  7. Optical interconnect for large-scale systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dress, William

    2013-02-01

    This paper presents a switchless, optical interconnect module that serves as a node in a network of identical distribution modules for large-scale systems. Thousands to millions of hosts or endpoints may be interconnected by a network of such modules, avoiding the need for multi-level switches. Several common network topologies are reviewed and their scaling properties assessed. The concept of message-flow routing is discussed in conjunction with the unique properties enabled by the optical distribution module where it is shown how top-down software control (global routing tables, spanning-tree algorithms) may be avoided.

  8. Regulate or deregulate. Influencing network interconnection charges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van De Wielle, B.

    2003-06-01

    We study the choice between regulating interconnection charges or delegating their determination to the operators, both in a non-mature and a mature market. Three regulatory regimes are considered: full, cost-based and bill-and-keep. Delegation corresponds to bargaining about the interconnection charges using the regulatory schemes as disagreement outcomes. Applying regulation benefits the consumers. Under full regulation, access charges account for asymmetries and allow a unique Ramsey price. Delegation benefits the operators. In a mature market delegation robs the government of any market influence. In a non-mature market government preferences coincide with those of the largest operator and are disadvantageous for entry.

  9. Digital optical interconnects for photonic computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilfoyle, Peter S.; Stone, Richard V.; Zeise, Frederick F.

    1994-05-01

    A 32-bit digital optical computer (DOC II) has been implemented in hardware utilizing 8,192 free-space optical interconnects. The architecture exploits parallel interconnect technology by implementing microcode at the primitive level. A burst mode of 0.8192 X 1012 binary operations per sec has been reliably demonstrated. The prototype has been successful in demonstrating general purpose computation. In addition to emulating the RISC instruction set within the UNIX operating environment, relational database text search operations have been implemented on DOC II.

  10. Production of high-specific activity radionuclides using SM high-flux reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karelin, Ye.A.; Toporov, Yu.G.; Filimonov, V.T.; Vakhetov, F.Z.; Tarasov, V.A.; Kuznetsov, R.A.; Lebedev, V.M.; Andreev, O.I.; Melnik, M.I.; Gavrilov, V.D.

    1997-01-01

    The development of High Specific Activity (HSA) radionuclides production technologies is one of the directions of RIAR activity, and the high flux research reactor SM, having neutron flux density up to 2.10 15 cm -2 s 1 in a wide range of neutron spectra hardness, plays the principal role in this development. The use of a high-flux reactor for radionuclide production provides the following advantages: production of radionuclides with extremely high specific activity, decreasing of impurities content in irradiated targets (both radioactive and non-radioactive), cost-effective use of expensive isotopically enriched target materials. The production technologies of P-33, Gd-153, W-188, Ni-63, Fe-55,59, Sn-113,117m,119m, Sr- 89, applied in industry, nuclear medicine, research, etc, were developed by RIAR during the last 5-10 years. The research work included the development of calculation procedures for radionuclide reactor accumulation forecast, experimental determination of neutron cross-sections, the development of irradiated materials reprocessing procedures, isolation and purification of radionuclides. The principal results are reviewed in the paper. (authors)

  11. Welfare and competition effects of electricity interconnection between Ireland and Great Britain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malaguzzi Valeri, Laura

    2009-01-01

    This study analyzes the effects of additional interconnection on welfare and competition in the Irish electricity market. I simulate the wholesale electricity markets of the island of Ireland and Great Britain for 2005. I find that in order for the two markets to be integrated in 2005, additional interconnection would have to be large. The amount of interconnection decreases for high costs of carbon, since this causes the markets to become more similar. This suggests that in the absence of strategic behavior of firms, most of the gains from trade derive not from differences in size between countries, but from technology differences and are strongly influenced by fuel and carbon costs. Social welfare increases with interconnection, although at a decreasing rate. As the amount of interconnection increases, there are also positive effects on competition in Ireland, the less competitive of the two markets. Finally, it is unlikely that private investors will pay for the optimal amount of interconnection since their returns are significantly smaller than the total social benefit of interconnection. (author)

  12. Eating on an interconnected planet

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Graham K.

    2013-06-01

    (Carr et al 2012). A central finding of Fader et al 's study is that domestic crop production could theoretically replace imports and allow food self-sufficiency in many countries. Embracing this potential could lessen the need to increase imports as populations grow. Yet, in their extreme scenario—assuming no yield improvements, no agricultural expansion and high population growth rates—roughly 51% of the global population would be import dependent by 2050. While improbable, this case raises the question of how such a spike in crop demands might ricochet across producing countries. Exporters could alter their production and export rates in response to various internal or external drivers, such as land-use policies, concerns over grain stocks, or climate change impacts (Hertel et al 2010, Lambin and Meyfroidt 2011, Headey 2011). Suweis et al (2013) suggest that water-rich nations are unlikely to maintain their current crop export rates amidst global change, questioning the persistence of global food trade relationships in the absence of mitigative actions. The uneven role of a relatively small number of nations to the food security of many is apparent when considering the origins of key crops imported by countries that Fader et al estimate have already crossed a resource boundary limiting food self-sufficiency (figure 1). Figure 1. Figure 1. The origins of key crops (maize, milled/paddy rice, soybean, and wheat) imported by 49 countries that have exceeded a land or water constraint boundary currently limiting food self-sufficiency. The map of countries exceeding at least one boundary circa 2000, shaded in black, is based on figure 1(B) in Fader et al (2013). The size of the lines indicate the relative quantity of kilocalories imported, calculated using FAO (2013) import matrices and crop kilocalorie contents (FAO 2001) averaged for the period 2000-2010. Internal trade among countries that had exceeded a land or water boundary totaled ~6%. Small island nations and 11

  13. Chip-package nano-structured copper and nickel interconnections with metallic and polymeric bonding interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Ankur

    With the semiconductor industry racing toward a historic transition, nano chips with less than 45 nm features demand I/Os in excess of 20,000 that support computing speed in terabits per second, with multi-core processors aggregately providing highest bandwidth at lowest power. On the other hand, emerging mixed signal systems are driving the need for 3D packaging with embedded active components and ultra-short interconnections. Decreasing I/O pitch together with low cost, high electrical performance and high reliability are the key technological challenges identified by the 2005 International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS). Being able to provide several fold increase in the chip-to-package vertical interconnect density is essential for garnering the true benefits of nanotechnology that will utilize nano-scale devices. Electrical interconnections are multi-functional materials that must also be able to withstand complex, sustained and cyclic thermo-mechanical loads. In addition, the materials must be environmentally-friendly, corrosion resistant, thermally stable over a long time, and resistant to electro-migration. A major challenge is also to develop economic processes that can be integrated into back end of the wafer foundry, i.e. with wafer level packaging. Device-to-system board interconnections are typically accomplished today with either wire bonding or solders. Both of these are incremental and run into either electrical or mechanical barriers as they are extended to higher density of interconnections. Downscaling traditional solder bump interconnect will not satisfy the thermo-mechanical reliability requirements at very fine pitches of the order of 30 microns and less. Alternate interconnection approaches such as compliant interconnects typically require lengthy connections and are therefore limited in terms of electrical properties, although expected to meet the mechanical requirements. A novel chip-package interconnection technology is

  14. Surprisingly high substrate specificities observed in complex biofilms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nierychlo, Marta; Kindaichi, Tomonori; Kragelund, Caroline

    The behavior of microorganisms in natural ecosystems (e.g. biofilms) differs significantly from laboratory studies. In nature microorganisms experience alternating periods of surplus nutrients, nutrient-limitation, and starvation. Literature data suggests that to survive and compete successfully......, microorganisms can regulate their metabolism expressing wide range of uptake and catabolic systems. However, ecophysiological studies of natural biofilms indicate that bacteria are very specialized in their choice of substrate, so even minor changes in substrate composition can affect the community composition...... by selection for different specialized species. We hypothesized that bacteria growing in natural environment express strongly conserved substrate specificity which is independent on short-term (few hours) variations in growth conditions. In this study, biofilm from Aalborg wastewater treatment plant was used...

  15. Application specific integrated circuit for high temperature oil well applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fallet, T.; Gakkestad, J.; Forre, G.

    1994-12-31

    This paper describes the design of an integrated BiCMOS circuit for high temperature applications. The circuit contains Pierce oscillators with automatic gain control, and measurements show that it is operating up to 266{sup o}C. The relative frequency variation up to 200 {sup o}C is less than 60 ppm caused mainly by the crystal element itself. 4 refs., 7 figs.

  16. 32 x 16 CMOS smart pixel array for optical interconnects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jongwoo; Guilfoyle, Peter S.; Stone, Richard V.; Hessenbruch, John M.; Choquette, Kent D.; Kiamilev, Fouad E.

    2000-05-01

    Free space optical interconnects can increase throughput capacities and eliminate much of the energy consumption required for `all electronic' systems. High speed optical interconnects can be achieved by integrating optoelectronic devices with conventional electronics. Smart pixel arrays have been developed which use optical interconnects. An individual smart pixel cell is composed of a vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL), a photodetector, an optical receiver, a laser driver, and digital logic circuitry. Oxide-confined VCSELs are being developed to operate at 850 nm with a threshold current of approximately 1 mA. Multiple quantum well photodetectors are being fabricated from AlGaAs for use with the 850 nm VCSELs. The VCSELs and photodetectors are being integrated with complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) circuitry using flip-chip bonding. CMOS circuitry is being integrated with a 32 X 16 smart pixel array. The 512 smart pixels are serially linked. Thus, an entire data stream may be clocked through the chip and output electrically by the last pixel. Electrical testing is being performed on the CMOS smart pixel array. Using an on-chip pseudo random number generator, a digital data sequence was cycled through the chip verifying operation of the digital circuitry. Although, the prototype chip was fabricated in 1.2 micrometers technology, simulations have demonstrated that the array can operate at 1 Gb/s per pixel using 0.5 micrometers technology.

  17. Chip-Level Electromigration Reliability for Cu Interconnects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gall, M.; Oh, C.; Grinshpon, A.; Zolotov, V.; Panda, R.; Demircan, E.; Mueller, J.; Justison, P.; Ramakrishna, K.; Thrasher, S.; Hernandez, R.; Herrick, M.; Fox, R.; Boeck, B.; Kawasaki, H.; Haznedar, H.; Ku, P.

    2004-01-01

    Even after the successful introduction of Cu-based metallization, the electromigration (EM) failure risk has remained one of the most important reliability concerns for most advanced process technologies. Ever increasing operating current densities and the introduction of low-k materials in the backend process scheme are some of the issues that threaten reliable, long-term operation at elevated temperatures. The traditional method of verifying EM reliability only through current density limit checks is proving to be inadequate in general, or quite expensive at the best. A Statistical EM Budgeting (SEB) methodology has been proposed to assess more realistic chip-level EM reliability from the complex statistical distribution of currents in a chip. To be valuable, this approach requires accurate estimation of currents for all interconnect segments in a chip. However, no efficient technique to manage the complexity of such a task for very large chip designs is known. We present an efficient method to estimate currents exhaustively for all interconnects in a chip. The proposed method uses pre-characterization of cells and macros, and steps to identify and filter out symmetrically bi-directional interconnects. We illustrate the strength of the proposed approach using a high-performance microprocessor design for embedded applications as a case study

  18. High Specific Power Motors in LN2 and LH2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Gerald V.; Jansen, Ralph H.; Trudell, Jeffrey J.

    2007-01-01

    A switched reluctance motor has been operated in liquid nitrogen (LN2) with a power density as high as that reported for any motor or generator. The high performance stems from the low resistivity of Cu at LN2 temperature and from the geometry of the windings, the combination of which permits steady-state rms current density up to 7000 A/sq cm, about 10 times that possible in coils cooled by natural convection at room temperature. The Joule heating in the coils is conducted to the end turns for rejection to the LN2 bath. Minimal heat rejection occurs in the motor slots, preserving that region for conductor. In the end turns, the conductor layers are spaced to form a heat-exchanger-like structure that permits nucleate boiling over a large surface area. Although tests were performed in LN2 for convenience, this motor was designed as a prototype for use with liquid hydrogen (LH2) as the coolant. End-cooled coils would perform even better in LH2 because of further increases in copper electrical and thermal conductivities. Thermal analyses comparing LN2 and LH2 cooling are presented verifying that end-cooled coils in LH2 could be either much longer or could operate at higher current density without thermal runaway than in LN2.

  19. High efficiency video coding coding tools and specification

    CERN Document Server

    Wien, Mathias

    2015-01-01

    The video coding standard High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC) targets at improved compression performance for video resolutions of HD and beyond, providing Ultra HD video at similar compressed bit rates as for HD video encoded with the well-established video coding standard H.264 | AVC. Based on known concepts, new coding structures and improved coding tools have been developed and specified in HEVC. The standard is expected to be taken up easily by established industry as well as new endeavors, answering the needs of todays connected and ever-evolving online world. This book presents the High Efficiency Video Coding standard and explains it in a clear and coherent language. It provides a comprehensive and consistently written description, all of a piece. The book targets at both, newbies to video coding as well as experts in the field. While providing sections with introductory text for the beginner, it suits as a well-arranged reference book for the expert. The book provides a comprehensive reference for th...

  20. Green interconnecting materials for semiconductor industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matin, M.A.; Vellinga, W.P.; Geers, M.G.D.; Sawada, K.; Ishida, M.

    2009-01-01

    Interconnecting materials experience a complex thermo-mechanical load in applications. This may lead to the formation of macroscopic cracks resulting from induced stresses of the differences in thermal expansion coefficients on a sample scale (since different materials are involved) and on a grain

  1. Electric network interconnection of Mashreq Arab Countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Amin, I.M.; Al-Shehri, A.M.; Opoku, G.; Al-Baiyat, S.A.; Zedan, F.M.

    1994-01-01

    Power system interconnection is a well established practice for a variety of technical and economical reasons. Several interconnected networks exist worldwide for a number of factors. Some of these networks cross international boundaries. This presentation discusses the future developments of the power systems of Mashreq Arab Countries (MAC). MAC consists of Bahrain, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates (UAE), and Yemen. Mac power systems are operated by government or semigovernment bodies. Many of these countries have national or regional electric grids but are generally isolated from each other. With the exception of Saudi Arabia power systems, which employ 60 Hz, all other MAC utilities use 50 Hz frequency. Each country is served by one utility, except Saudi Arabia, which is served by four major utilities and some smaller utilities serving remote towns and small load centers. The major utilities are the Saudi Consolidated electric Company in the Eastern Province (SCECO East), SCECO Center, SCECO West, and SCECO South. These are the ones considered in this study. The energy resources in MAC are varied. Countries such as Egypt, Iraq, and Syria have significant hydro resources.The gulf countries and Iraq have abundant fossil fuel, The variation in energy resources as well as the characteristics of the electric load make it essential to look into interconnections beyond the national boundaries. Most of the existing or planned interconnections involve few power systems. A study involving 12 countries and over 20 utilities with different characteristics represents a very large scale undertaking

  2. Health and the environment: Examining some interconnections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nair, G.; Castelino, J.; Parr, R.M.

    1994-01-01

    In various ways, the IAEA is working with national and international agencies to broaden scientific understanding of the interconnections between the environment and human health. Often nuclear and related technologies are applied in the search for answers to complex and puzzling questions. This article highlights some of that work, illustrating the dimensions of both the problems and the potential solutions

  3. Systems theory of interconnected port contact systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eberard, D.; Maschke, B.M.; Schaft, A.J. van der

    2005-01-01

    Port-based network modeling of a large class of complex physical systems leads to dynamical systems known as port-Hamiltonian systems. The key ingredient of any port-Hamiltonian system is a power-conserving interconnection structure (mathematically formalized by the geometric notion of a Dirac

  4. Experimental demonstration of titanium nitride plasmonic interconnects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kinsey, N.; Ferrera, M.; Naik, G. V.

    2014-01-01

    An insulator-metal-insulator plasmonic interconnect using TiN, a CMOS-compatible material, is proposed and investigated experimentally at the telecommunication wavelength of 1.55 mu m. The TiN waveguide was shown to obtain propagation losses less than 0.8 dB/mm with a mode size of 9.8 mu m...

  5. Patterned electrodeposition of interconnects using microcontact printing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hovestad, A.; Rendering, H.; Maijenburg, A.W.

    2012-01-01

    Microcontact printing combined with electroless deposition is a potential low cost technique to make electrical interconnects for opto-electronic devices. Microcontact printed inhibitors locally prevent electroless deposition resulting in a pre-defined pattern of metal tracks. The inhibition of

  6. An architectural model for network interconnection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Sinderen, Marten J.; Vissers, C.A.; Kalin, T.

    1983-01-01

    This paper presents a technique of successive decomposition of a common users' activity to illustrate the problems of network interconnection. The criteria derived from this approach offer a structuring principle which is used to develop an architectural model that embeds heterogeneous subnetworks

  7. Identifying influential spreaders in interconnected networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Dawei; Li, Lixiang; Huo, Yujia; Yang, Yixian; Li, Shudong

    2014-01-01

    Identifying the most influential spreaders in spreading dynamics is of the utmost importance for various purposes for understanding or controlling these processes. The existing relevant works are limited to a single network. Most real networks are actually not isolated, but typically coupled and affected by others. The properties of epidemic spreading have recently been found to have some significant differences in interconnected networks from those in a single network. In this paper, we focus on identifying the influential spreaders in interconnected networks. We find that the well-known k-shell index loses effectiveness; some insignificant spreaders in a single network become the influential spreaders in the whole interconnected networks while some influential spreaders become no longer important. The simulation results show that the spreading capabilities of the nodes not only depend on their influence for the network topology, but also are dramatically influenced by the spreading rate. Based on this perception, a novel index is proposed for measuring the influential spreaders in interconnected networks. We then support the efficiency of this index with numerical simulations. (paper)

  8. Laser printed interconnects for flexible electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pique, Alberto; Beniam, Iyoel; Mathews, Scott; Charipar, Nicholas

    Laser-induced forward transfer (LIFT) can be used to generate microscale 3D structures for interconnect applications non-lithographically. The laser printing of these interconnects takes place through aggregation of voxels of either molten metal or dispersed metallic nanoparticles. However, the resulting 3D structures do not achieve the bulk conductivity of metal interconnects of the same cross-section and length as those formed by wire bonding or tab welding. It is possible, however, to laser transfer entire structures using a LIFT technique known as lase-and-place. Lase-and-place allows whole components and parts to be transferred from a donor substrate onto a desired location with one single laser pulse. This talk will present the use of LIFT to laser print freestanding solid metal interconnects to connect individual devices into functional circuits. Furthermore, the same laser can bend or fold the thin metal foils prior to transfer, thus forming compliant 3D structures able to provide strain relief due to flexing or thermal mismatch. Examples of these laser printed 3D metallic bridges and their role in the development of next generation flexible electronics by additive manufacturing will be presented. This work was funded by the Office of Naval Research (ONR) through the Naval Research Laboratory Basic Research Program.

  9. Electro-optic techniques for VLSI interconnect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neff, J. A.

    1985-03-01

    A major limitation to achieving significant speed increases in very large scale integration (VLSI) lies in the metallic interconnects. They are costly not only from the charge transport standpoint but also from capacitive loading effects. The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, in pursuit of the fifth generation supercomputer, is investigating alternatives to the VLSI metallic interconnects, especially the use of optical techniques to transport the information either inter or intrachip. As the on chip performance of VLSI continues to improve via the scale down of the logic elements, the problems associated with transferring data off and onto the chip become more severe. The use of optical carriers to transfer the information within the computer is very appealing from several viewpoints. Besides the potential for gigabit propagation rates, the conversion from electronics to optics conveniently provides a decoupling of the various circuits from one another. Significant gains will also be realized in reducing cross talk between the metallic routings, and the interconnects need no longer be constrained to the plane of a thin film on the VLSI chip. In addition, optics can offer an increased programming flexibility for restructuring the interconnect network.

  10. Reprogrammable Controller Design From High-Level Specification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Benmohammed

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Existing techniques in high-level synthesis mostly assume a simple controller architecture model in the form of a single FSM. However, in reality more complex controller architectures are often used. On the other hand, in the case of programmable processors, the controller architecture is largely defined by the available control-flow instructions in the instruction set. With the wider acceptance of behavioral synthesis, the application of these methods for the design of programmable controllers is of fundamental importance in embedded system technology. This paper describes an important extension of an existing architectural synthesis system targeting the generation of ASIP reprogrammable architectures. The designer can then generate both style of architecture, hardwired and programmable, using the same synthesis system and can quickly evaluate the trade-offs of hardware decisions.

  11. High Performance Computing - Power Application Programming Interface Specification.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laros, James H.,; Kelly, Suzanne M.; Pedretti, Kevin; Grant, Ryan; Olivier, Stephen Lecler; Levenhagen, Michael J.; DeBonis, David

    2014-08-01

    Measuring and controlling the power and energy consumption of high performance computing systems by various components in the software stack is an active research area [13, 3, 5, 10, 4, 21, 19, 16, 7, 17, 20, 18, 11, 1, 6, 14, 12]. Implementations in lower level software layers are beginning to emerge in some production systems, which is very welcome. To be most effective, a portable interface to measurement and control features would significantly facilitate participation by all levels of the software stack. We present a proposal for a standard power Application Programming Interface (API) that endeavors to cover the entire software space, from generic hardware interfaces to the input from the computer facility manager.

  12. Review of Interconnection Practices and Costs in the Western States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, Lori A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Flores-Espino, Francisco [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Volpi, Christina M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ardani, Kristen B [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Manning, David [Western Interstate Energy Board (WIEB); McAllister, Richard [Western Interstate Energy Board (WIEB)

    2018-04-27

    The objective of this report is to evaluate the nature of barriers to interconnecting distributed PV, assess costs of interconnection, and compare interconnection practices across various states in the Western Interconnection. The report addresses practices for interconnecting both residential and commercial-scale PV systems to the distribution system. This study is part of a larger, joint project between the Western Interstate Energy Board (WIEB) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, to examine barriers to distributed PV in the 11 states wholly within the Western Interconnection.

  13. Unallocated Off-Specification Highly Enriched Uranium: Recommendations for Disposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bridges, D. N.; Boeke, S. G.; Tousley, D. R.; Bickford, W.; Goergen, C.; Williams, W.; Hassler, M.; Nelson, T.; Keck, R.; Arbital, J.

    2002-02-27

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has made significant progress with regard to disposition planning for 174 metric tons (MTU) of surplus Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU). Approximately 55 MTU of this 174 MTU are ''offspec'' HEU. (''Off-spec'' signifies that the isotopic or chemical content of the material does not meet the American Society for Testing and Materials standards for commercial nuclear reactor fuel.) Approximately 33 of the 55 MTU have been allocated to off-spec commercial reactor fuel per an Interagency Agreement between DOE and the Tennessee Valley Authority (1). To determine disposition plans for the remaining {approx}22 MTU, the DOE National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) Office of Fissile Materials Disposition (OFMD) and the DOE Office of Environmental Management (EM) co-sponsored this technical study. This paper represents a synopsis of the formal technical report (NNSA/NN-0014). The {approx} 22 MTU of off-spec HEU inventory in this study were divided into two main groupings: one grouping with plutonium (Pu) contamination and one grouping without plutonium. This study identified and evaluated 26 potential paths for the disposition of this HEU using proven decision analysis tools. This selection process resulted in recommended and alternative disposition paths for each group of HEU. The evaluation and selection of these paths considered criteria such as technical maturity, programmatic issues, cost, schedule, and environment, safety and health compliance. The primary recommendations from the analysis are comprised of 7 different disposition paths. The study recommendations will serve as a technical basis for subsequent programmatic decisions as disposition of this HEU moves into the implementation phase.

  14. Cesium reservoir and interconnective components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-03-01

    The program objective is to demonstrate the technology readiness of a TFE (thermionic fuel element) suitable for use as the basic element in a thermionic reactor with electric power output in the 0.5 to 5.0 MW range. A thermionic converter must be supplied with cesium vapor for two reasons. Cesium atoms adsorbed on the surface of the emitter cause a reduction of the emitter work function to permit high current densities without excessive heating of the emitter. The second purpose of the cesium vapor is to provide space-charge neutralization in the emitter-collector gap so that the high current densities may flow across the gap unattenuated. The function of the cesium reservoir is to provide a source of cesium atoms, and to provide a reserve in the event that cesium is lost from the plasma by any mechanism. This can be done with a liquid cesium metal reservoir in which case it is heated to the desired temperature with auxiliary heaters. In a TFE, however, it is desirable to have the reservoir passively heated by the nuclear fuel. In this case, the reservoir must operate at a temperature intermediate between the emitter and the collector, ruling out the use of liquid reservoirs. Integral reservoirs contained within the TFE will produce cesium vapor pressures in the desired range at typical electrode temperatures. The reservoir material that appears to be the best able to meet requirements is graphite. Cesium intercalates easily into graphite, and the cesium pressure is insensitive to loading for a given intercalation stage. The goals of the cesium reservoir test program were to verify the performance of Cs-graphite reservoirs in the temperature-pressure range of interest to TFE operation, and to test the operation of these reservoirs after exposure to a fast neutron fluence corresponding to seven year mission lifetime. In addition, other materials were evaluated for possible use in the integral reservoir

  15. Cross-border versus cross-sector interconnectivity in renewable energy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thellufsen, Jakob Zinck; Lund, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    . The results show that while both measures increase the system utilisation of renewable energy and the system efficiency, the cross-sector interconnection gives the best system performance. To analyse the possible interaction between cross-sector and cross-border interconnectivity, two main aspects have......In the transition to renewable energy systems, fluctuating renewable energy, such as wind and solar power, plays a large and important role. This creates a challenge in terms of meeting demands, as the energy production fluctuates based on weather patterns. To utilise high amounts of fluctuating...... renewable energy, the energy system has to be more flexible in terms of decoupling demand and production. This paper investigates two potential ways to increase flexibility. The first is the interconnection between energy systems, for instance between two countries, labelled as cross-border interconnection...

  16. First experience with the InfiniBand interconnect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwickerath, Ulrich; Heiss, Andreas

    2004-01-01

    A test cluster of dual Intel-Xeon processor server nodes has been equipped with 10 GBit/s InfiniBand interconnect. Capabilities of this new technique were tested and compared to Gigabit-Ethernet (GE) with respect to both High-Performance Computing (MPI-based parallel computing applications) and High-Throughput Computing (HTC). RFIO, a protocol for fast and efficient file transfers, has been ported to make immediate use of InfiniBand, utilizing the remote direct memory access (RDMA) capabilities of the InfiniBand hardware. The performance is compared to Gigabit-Ethernet

  17. On the Distribution of Lightning Current among Interconnected Grounding Systems in Medium Voltage Grids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido Ala

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of a first investigation on the effects of lightning stroke on medium voltage installations’ grounding systems, interconnected with the metal shields of the Medium Voltage (MV distribution grid cables or with bare buried copper ropes. The study enables us to evaluate the distribution of the lightning current among interconnected ground electrodes in order to estimate if the interconnection, usually created to reduce ground potential rise during a single-line-to-ground fault, can give place to dangerous situations far from the installation hit by the lightning stroke. Four different case studies of direct lightning stroke are presented and discussed: (1 two secondary substations interconnected by the cables’ shields; (2 two secondary substations interconnected by a bare buried conductor; (3 a high voltage/medium voltage station connected with a secondary substation by the medium voltage cables’ shields; (4 a high voltage/medium voltage station connected with a secondary substation by a bare buried conductor. The results of the simulations show that a higher peak-lowering action on the lighting-stroke current occurs due to the use of bare conductors as interconnection elements in comparison to the cables’ shields.

  18. National Offshore Wind Energy Grid Interconnection Study Executive Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel, John P. [ABB, Inc., Cary, NC (United States); Liu, Shu [ABB, Inc., Cary, NC (United States); Ibanez, Eduardo [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Pennock, Ken [AWS Truepower, Albany, NY (United States); Reed, Gregory [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Hanes, Spencer [Duke Energy, Charlotte, NC (United States)

    2014-07-30

    The National Offshore Wind Energy Grid Interconnection Study (NOWEGIS) considers the availability and potential impacts of interconnecting large amounts of offshore wind energy into the transmission system of the lower 48 contiguous United States.

  19. Development and operation of interconnections in a restructuring context

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    In many countries the electrical network is not fully interconnected and the best technical solution to achieve interconnection has to be found. At the same time the electricity industry is being restructured and interconnecting independent energy markets presents technical challenges. It is therefore timely to consider interconnection development and operation options: examine the benefits of interconnecting electrical networks and the development strategies, review the interconnection design options and the technologies available, identify the operational issues, the security problems of large interconnected systems, the protection issues, consider the impact of the restructuring of the electrical supply industry, assess the political, environmental and social implications of interconnections. reorganized in slovenia from 5-7 april 2004. (author)

  20. National Offshore Wind Energy Grid Interconnection Study Full Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel, John P. [ABB, Inc., Cary, NC (United States); Liu, Shu [ABB, Inc., Cary, NC (United States); Ibanez, Eduardo [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Pennock, Ken [AWS Truepower, Albany, NY (United States); Reed, Gregory [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Hanes, Spencer [Duke Energy, Charlotte, NC (United States)

    2014-07-30

    The National Offshore Wind Energy Grid Interconnection Study (NOWEGIS) considers the availability and potential impacts of interconnecting large amounts of offshore wind energy into the transmission system of the lower 48 contiguous United States.

  1. Interconnection of bundled solid oxide fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Michael; Bessette, II, Norman F; Litka, Anthony F; Schmidt, Douglas S

    2014-01-14

    A system and method for electrically interconnecting a plurality of fuel cells to provide dense packing of the fuel cells. Each one of the plurality of fuel cells has a plurality of discrete electrical connection points along an outer surface. Electrical connections are made directly between the discrete electrical connection points of adjacent fuel cells so that the fuel cells can be packed more densely. Fuel cells have at least one outer electrode and at least one discrete interconnection to an inner electrode, wherein the outer electrode is one of a cathode and and anode and wherein the inner electrode is the other of the cathode and the anode. In tubular solid oxide fuel cells the discrete electrical connection points are spaced along the length of the fuel cell.

  2. Si micro photonics for optical interconnection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wada, K.; Ahn, D.H.; Lim, D.R.; Michel, J.; Kimerling, L.C.

    2006-01-01

    This paper reviews current status of silicon microphotonics and the recent prototype of on-chip optical interconnection. Si microphotonics pursues complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS)-compatibility of photonic devices to reduce the materials diversity eventually to integrate on Si chips. Fractal optical H-trees have been implemented on a chip and found to be a technology breakthrough beyond metal interconnection. It has shown that large RC time constants associated with metal can be eliminated at least long distant data communication on a chip, and eventually improve yield and power issues. This has become the world's first electronic and photonic integrated circuits (EPICs) and the possibility of at least 10 GHz clocking for personal computers has been demonstrated

  3. Copper Nanowire Production for Interconnect Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jin-Woo (Inventor); Meyyappan, Meyya (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A method of fabricating metallic Cu nanowires with lengths up to about 25 micrometers and diameters in a range 20-100 nanometers, or greater if desired. Vertically oriented or laterally oriented copper oxide structures (CuO and/or Cu2O) are grown on a Cu substrate. The copper oxide structures are reduced with 99+ percent H or H2, and in this reduction process the lengths decrease (to no more than about 25 micrometers), the density of surviving nanostructures on a substrate decreases, and the diameters of the surviving nanostructures have a range, of about 20-100 nanometers. The resulting nanowires are substantially pure Cu and can be oriented laterally (for local or global interconnects) or can be oriented vertically (for standard vertical interconnects).

  4. Architecture for on-die interconnect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khare, Surhud; More, Ankit; Somasekhar, Dinesh; Dunning, David S.

    2016-03-15

    In an embodiment, an apparatus includes: a plurality of islands configured on a semiconductor die, each of the plurality of islands having a plurality of cores; and a plurality of network switches configured on the semiconductor die and each associated with one of the plurality of islands, where each network switch includes a plurality of output ports, a first set of the output ports are each to couple to the associated network switch of an island via a point-to-point interconnect and a second set of the output ports are each to couple to the associated network switches of a plurality of islands via a point-to-multipoint interconnect. Other embodiments are described and claimed.

  5. Development of Interconnect Technologies for Particle Detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tripathi, Mani [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)

    2015-01-29

    This final report covers the three years of this grant, for the funding period 9/1/2010 - 8/31/2013. The project consisted of generic detector R&D work at UC Davis, with an emphasis on developing interconnect technologies for applications in HEP. Much of the work is done at our Facility for Interconnect Technologies (FIT) at UC Davis. FIT was established using ARRA funds, with further studies supported by this grant. Besides generic R&D work at UC Davis, FIT is engaged in providing bump bonding help to several DOE supported detector R&D efforts. Some of the developmental work was also supported by funding from other sources: continuing CMS project funds and the Linear Collider R&D funds. The latter program is now terminated. The three year program saw a good deal of progress on several fronts, which are reported here.

  6. Interconnection of psychology, color and design

    OpenAIRE

    Minchuk, A. M.; Kudryashova, Aleksandra Vladimirovna

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents the direct interconnection between color, design and psychology on the basis of theoretical and historical analysis. It describes the peculiarities of how peopleperceive color. In the paper some of the historical details concerning the way our ancestors used color are presented and the modern scientific discoveries in the field of psychology, which give the evidence of the great psychological, emotional and physical influence of color on a person are shown as well. The pape...

  7. Viewing Integrated-Circuit Interconnections By SEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton, Russel A.; Gauldin, Robert E.; Ruiz, Ronald P.

    1990-01-01

    Back-scattering of energetic electrons reveals hidden metal layers. Experiment shows that with suitable operating adjustments, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) used to look for defects in aluminum interconnections in integrated circuits. Enables monitoring, in situ, of changes in defects caused by changes in temperature. Gives truer picture of defects, as etching can change stress field of metal-and-passivation pattern, causing changes in defects.

  8. The first LHC sector is fully interconnected

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Sector 7-8 is the first sector of the LHC to become fully operational. All the magnets, cryogenic line, vacuum chambers and services are interconnected. The cool down of this sector can soon commence. LHC project leader Lyn Evans, the teams from CERN's AT/MCS, AT/VAC and AT/MEL groups, and the members of the IEG consortium celebrate the completion of the first LHC sector. The 10th of November was a red letter day for the LHC accelerator teams, marking the completion of the first sector of the machine. The magnets of sector 7-8, together with the cryogenic line, the vacuum chambers and the distribution feedboxes (DFBs) are now all completely interconnected. Sector 7-8 has thus been closed and is the first LHC sector to become operational. The interconnection work required several thousand electrical, cryogenic and insulating connections to be made on the 210 interfaces between the magnets in the arc, the 30 interfaces between the special magnets and the interfaces with the cryogenic line. 'This represent...

  9. The variability of interconnected wind plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katzenstein, Warren; Fertig, Emily; Apt, Jay

    2010-01-01

    We present the first frequency-dependent analyses of the geographic smoothing of wind power's variability, analyzing the interconnected measured output of 20 wind plants in Texas. Reductions in variability occur at frequencies corresponding to times shorter than ∼24 h and are quantified by measuring the departure from a Kolmogorov spectrum. At a frequency of 2.8x10 -4 Hz (corresponding to 1 h), an 87% reduction of the variability of a single wind plant is obtained by interconnecting 4 wind plants. Interconnecting the remaining 16 wind plants produces only an additional 8% reduction. We use step change analyses and correlation coefficients to compare our results with previous studies, finding that wind power ramps up faster than it ramps down for each of the step change intervals analyzed and that correlation between the power output of wind plants 200 km away is half that of co-located wind plants. To examine variability at very low frequencies, we estimate yearly wind energy production in the Great Plains region of the United States from automated wind observations at airports covering 36 years. The estimated wind power has significant inter-annual variability and the severity of wind drought years is estimated to be about half that observed nationally for hydroelectric power.

  10. Highly specific expression of luciferase gene in lungs of naive nude mice directed by prostate-specific antigen promoter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Hongwei; Li Jinzhong; Helm, Gregory A.; Pan Dongfeng

    2005-01-01

    PSA promoter has been demonstrated the utility for tissue-specific toxic gene therapy in prostate cancer models. Characterization of foreign gene overexpression in normal animals elicited by PSA promoter should help evaluate therapy safety. Here we constructed an adenovirus vector (AdPSA-Luc), containing firefly luciferase gene under the control of the 5837 bp long prostate-specific antigen promoter. A charge coupled device video camera was used to non-invasively image expression of firefly luciferase in nude mice on days 3, 7, 11 after injection of 2 x 10 9 PFU of AdPSA-Luc virus via tail vein. The result showed highly specific expression of the luciferase gene in lungs of mice from day 7. The finding indicates the potential limitations of the suicide gene therapy of prostate cancer based on selectivity of PSA promoter. By contrary, it has encouraging implications for further development of vectors via PSA promoter to enable gene therapy for pulmonary diseases

  11. Comparative Analysis and Considerations for PV Interconnection Standards in the United States and China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2017-01-01

    The main objectives of this report are to evaluate China's photovoltaic (PV) interconnection standards and the U.S. counterparts and to propose recommendations for future revisions to these standards. This report references the 2013 report Comparative Study of Standards for Grid-Connected PV System in China, the U.S. and European Countries, which compares U.S., European, and China's PV grid interconnection standards; reviews various metrics for the characterization of distribution network with PV; and suggests modifications to China's PV interconnection standards and requirements. The recommendations are accompanied by assessments of four high-penetration PV grid interconnection cases in the United States to illustrate solutions implemented to resolve issues encountered at different sites. PV penetration in China and in the United States has significantly increased during the past several years, presenting comparable challenges depending on the conditions of the grid at the point of interconnection; solutions are generally unique to each interconnected PV installation or PV plant.

  12. Ring-array processor distribution topology for optical interconnects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yao; Ha, Berlin; Wang, Ting; Wang, Sunyu; Katz, A.; Lu, X. J.; Kanterakis, E.

    1992-01-01

    The existing linear and rectangular processor distribution topologies for optical interconnects, although promising in many respects, cannot solve problems such as clock skews, the lack of supporting elements for efficient optical implementation, etc. The use of a ring-array processor distribution topology, however, can overcome these problems. Here, a study of the ring-array topology is conducted with an aim of implementing various fast clock rate, high-performance, compact optical networks for digital electronic multiprocessor computers. Practical design issues are addressed. Some proof-of-principle experimental results are included.

  13. 100 GHz Externally Modulated Laser for Optical Interconnects Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ozolins, Oskars; Pang, Xiaodan; Iglesias Olmedo, Miguel

    2017-01-01

    We report on a 116 Gb/s on-off keying (OOK), four pulse amplitude modulation (PAM) and 105-Gb/s 8-PAM optical transmitter using an InP-based integrated and packaged externally modulated laser for high-speed optical interconnects with up to 30 dB static extinction ratio and over 100-GHz 3-d......B bandwidth with 2 dB ripple. In addition, we study the tradeoff between power penalty and equalizer length to foresee transmission distances with standard single mode fiber....

  14. Nonlinear optical properties of interconnected gold nanoparticles on silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesuffleur, Antoine; Gogol, Philippe; Beauvillain, Pierre; Guizal, B.; Van Labeke, D.; Georges, P.

    2008-12-01

    We report second harmonic generation (SHG) measurements in reflectivity from chains of gold nanoparticles interconnected with metallic bridges. We measured more than 30 times a SHG enhancement when a surface plasmon resonance was excited in the chains of nanoparticles, which was influenced by coupling due to the electrical connectivity of the bridges. This enhancement was confirmed by rigorous coupled wave method calculations and came from high localization of the electric field at the bridge. The introduction of 10% random defects into the chains of nanoparticles dropped the SHG by a factor of 2 and was shown to be very sensitive to the fundamental wavelength.

  15. Facilitated charge transport in ternary interconnected electrodes for flexible supercapacitors with excellent power characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wanjun; He, Yongmin; Li, Xiaodong; Zhou, Jinyuan; Zhang, Zhenxing; Zhao, Changhui; Gong, Chengshi; Li, Shuankui; Pan, Xiaojun; Xie, Erqing

    2013-11-01

    Flexible and high performance supercapacitors are very critical in modern society. In order to develop the flexible supercapacitors with high power density, free-standing and flexible three-dimensional graphene/carbon nanotubes/MnO2 (3DG/CNTs/MnO2) composite electrodes with interconnected ternary 3D structures were fabricated, and the fast electron and ion transport channels were effectively constructed in the rationally designed electrodes. Consequently, the obtained 3DG/CNTs/MnO2 composite electrodes exhibit superior specific capacitance and rate capability compared to 3DG/MnO2 electrodes. Furthermore, the 3DG/CNTs/MnO2 based asymmetric supercapacitor demonstrates the maximum energy and power densities of 33.71 W h kg-1 and up to 22 727.3 W kg-1, respectively. Moreover, the asymmetric supercapacitor exhibits excellent cycling stability with 95.3% of the specific capacitance maintained after 1000 cycle tests. Our proposed synthesis strategy to construct the novel ternary 3D structured electrodes can be efficiently applied to other high performance energy storage/conversion systems.Flexible and high performance supercapacitors are very critical in modern society. In order to develop the flexible supercapacitors with high power density, free-standing and flexible three-dimensional graphene/carbon nanotubes/MnO2 (3DG/CNTs/MnO2) composite electrodes with interconnected ternary 3D structures were fabricated, and the fast electron and ion transport channels were effectively constructed in the rationally designed electrodes. Consequently, the obtained 3DG/CNTs/MnO2 composite electrodes exhibit superior specific capacitance and rate capability compared to 3DG/MnO2 electrodes. Furthermore, the 3DG/CNTs/MnO2 based asymmetric supercapacitor demonstrates the maximum energy and power densities of 33.71 W h kg-1 and up to 22 727.3 W kg-1, respectively. Moreover, the asymmetric supercapacitor exhibits excellent cycling stability with 95.3% of the specific capacitance maintained

  16. Energetic diversification in the interconnected electric system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villanueva M, C.; Beltran M, H.; Serrano G, J.A.

    2007-01-01

    In the interconnected electric system of Mexico the demanded electricity in different timetable periods it is synthesized in the annual curve of load duration, which is characterized by three regions. The energy in every period is quantified according to the under curve areas in each region, which depend of the number of hours in that the power demand exceeds the minimum and the intermediate demands respectively that are certain percentages of the yearly maximum demand. In that context, the generating power stations are dispatched according to the marginal costs of the produced electricity and the electric power to be generated every year by each type of central it is located in some of the regions of the curve of load duration, as they are their marginal costs and their operation characteristic techniques. By strategic reasons it is desirable to diversify the primary energy sources that are used in the national interconnected system to generate the electricity that demand the millions of consumers that there are in Mexico. On one hand, when intensifying the use of renewable sources and of nucleo electric centrals its decrease the import volumes of natural gas, which has very volatile prices and it is a fuel when burning in the power stations produces hothouse gases that are emitted to the atmosphere. On the other hand, when diversifying the installed capacity of the different central types in the interconnected system, a better adaptation of the produced electricity volumes is achieved by each type to the timetable variation, daily, weekly and seasonal of the electric demand, as one manifests this in the curve of load duration. To exemplify a possible diversification plan of the installed capacity in the national interconnected system that includes nucleo electric centrals and those that use renewable energy, charts are presented that project of 2005 at 2015 the capacity, energy and ost of the electricity of different central types, located in each one of the

  17. Actual issues concerning nuclear power plants and interconnected grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medjimorec, D.; Brkic, S.

    2004-01-01

    Nuclear power plants and transmission grid have always been mutually of special relevance. In countries and/or regions where nuclear power plants are located they are almost as a rule counted among strongest nodes of the grid. Hence, they are treated as such from grid point of view in various aspects (operational, planning). In interconnected high-voltage transmission grid of European mainland, usually called UCTE interconnected system, this importance could be shown in a range of issues and several cases, particularly under present situation in which there are numerous demanding and challenging tasks put on transmission system operators, largely due to the opening of electricity markets in the most of European countries. Among these issues definitely worth of mentioning is relevant influence to both commercial paths and physical power flows, and also to exchange programmes between control areas and blocks. In this context there is also relation to cross-border transactions and mechanism applied to them. In respect to security of supply issues and future of nuclear power generation under present regulative framework of most European countries it is needed to comply with connecting conditions (and other stipulations) from national grid codes where different approaches could be observed. Furthermore, nuclear issues significantly influence approach to extension of UCTE system. In certain extent this also applies to pending re-connection of present two synchronous zones of UCTE, particularly to area of broader region directly affected with this complex process. Some of these also reflect to Croatian high-voltage transmission grid as a part of UCTE interconnected system with certain peculiarities.(author)

  18. CATO: a CAD tool for intelligent design of optical networks and interconnects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chlamtac, Imrich; Ciesielski, Maciej; Fumagalli, Andrea F.; Ruszczyk, Chester; Wedzinga, Gosse

    1997-10-01

    Increasing communication speed requirements have created a great interest in very high speed optical and all-optical networks and interconnects. The design of these optical systems is a highly complex task, requiring the simultaneous optimization of various parts of the system, ranging from optical components' characteristics to access protocol techniques. Currently there are no computer aided design (CAD) tools on the market to support the interrelated design of all parts of optical communication systems, thus the designer has to rely on costly and time consuming testbed evaluations. The objective of the CATO (CAD tool for optical networks and interconnects) project is to develop a prototype of an intelligent CAD tool for the specification, design, simulation and optimization of optical communication networks. CATO allows the user to build an abstract, possible incomplete, model of the system, and determine its expected performance. Based on design constraints provided by the user, CATO will automatically complete an optimum design, using mathematical programming techniques, intelligent search methods and artificial intelligence (AI). Initial design and testing of a CATO prototype (CATO-1) has been completed recently. The objective was to prove the feasibility of combining AI techniques, simulation techniques, an optical device library and a graphical user interface into a flexible CAD tool for obtaining optimal communication network designs in terms of system cost and performance. CATO-1 is an experimental tool for designing packet-switching wavelength division multiplexing all-optical communication systems using a LAN/MAN ring topology as the underlying network. The two specific AI algorithms incorporated are simulated annealing and a genetic algorithm. CATO-1 finds the optimal number of transceivers for each network node, using an objective function that includes the cost of the devices and the overall system performance.

  19. Complexity in neuronal noise depends on network interconnectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serletis, Demitre; Zalay, Osbert C; Valiante, Taufik A; Bardakjian, Berj L; Carlen, Peter L

    2011-06-01

    "Noise," or noise-like activity (NLA), defines background electrical membrane potential fluctuations at the cellular level of the nervous system, comprising an important aspect of brain dynamics. Using whole-cell voltage recordings from fast-spiking stratum oriens interneurons and stratum pyramidale neurons located in the CA3 region of the intact mouse hippocampus, we applied complexity measures from dynamical systems theory (i.e., 1/f(γ) noise and correlation dimension) and found evidence for complexity in neuronal NLA, ranging from high- to low-complexity dynamics. Importantly, these high- and low-complexity signal features were largely dependent on gap junction and chemical synaptic transmission. Progressive neuronal isolation from the surrounding local network via gap junction blockade (abolishing gap junction-dependent spikelets) and then chemical synaptic blockade (abolishing excitatory and inhibitory post-synaptic potentials), or the reverse order of these treatments, resulted in emergence of high-complexity NLA dynamics. Restoring local network interconnectivity via blockade washout resulted in resolution to low-complexity behavior. These results suggest that the observed increase in background NLA complexity is the result of reduced network interconnectivity, thereby highlighting the potential importance of the NLA signal to the study of network state transitions arising in normal and abnormal brain dynamics (such as in epilepsy, for example).

  20. Pneumatic Performance Study of a High Pressure Ejection Device Based on Real Specific Energy and Specific Enthalpy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Ren

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In high-pressure dynamic thermodynamic processes, the pressure is much higher than the air critical pressure, and the temperature can deviate significantly from the Boyle temperature. In such situations, the thermo-physical properties and pneumatic performance can’t be described accurately by the ideal gas law. This paper proposes an approach to evaluate the pneumatic performance of a high-pressure air catapult launch system, in which esidual functions are used to compensate the thermal physical property uncertainties of caused by real gas effects. Compared with the Nelson-Obert generalized compressibility charts, the precision of the improved virial equation of state is better than Soave-Redlich-Kwong (S-R-K and Peng-Robinson (P-R equations for high pressure air. In this paper, the improved virial equation of state is further used to establish a compressibility factor database which is applied to evaluate real gas effects. The specific residual thermodynamic energy and specific residual enthalpy of the high-pressure air are also derived using the modified corresponding state equation and improved virial equation of state which are truncated to the third virial coefficient. The pneumatic equations are established on the basis of the derived residual functions. The comparison of the numerical results shows that the real gas effects are strong, and the pneumatic performance analysis indicates that the real dynamic thermodynamic process is obviously different from the ideal one.

  1. Crosstalk in modern on-chip interconnects a FDTD approach

    CERN Document Server

    Kaushik, B K; Patnaik, Amalendu

    2016-01-01

    The book provides accurate FDTD models for on-chip interconnects, covering most recent advancements in materials and design. Furthermore, depending on the geometry and physical configurations, different electrical equivalent models for CNT and GNR based interconnects are presented. Based on the electrical equivalent models the performance comparison among the Cu, CNT and GNR-based interconnects are also discussed in the book. The proposed models are validated with the HSPICE simulations. The book introduces the current research scenario in the modeling of on-chip interconnects. It presents the structure, properties, and characteristics of graphene based on-chip interconnects and the FDTD modeling of Cu based on-chip interconnects. The model considers the non-linear effects of CMOS driver as well as the transmission line effects of interconnect line that includes coupling capacitance and mutual inductance effects. In a more realistic manner, the proposed model includes the effect of width-dependent MFP of the ...

  2. Carbon nanotubes for interconnects process, design and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Dijon, Jean; Maffucci, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    This book provides a single-source reference on the use of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) as interconnect material for horizontal, on-chip and 3D interconnects. The authors demonstrate the uses of bundles of CNTs, as innovative conducting material to fabricate interconnect through-silicon vias (TSVs), in order to improve the performance, reliability and integration of 3D integrated circuits (ICs). This book will be first to provide a coherent overview of exploiting carbon nanotubes for 3D interconnects covering aspects from processing, modeling, simulation, characterization and applications. Coverage also includes a thorough presentation of the application of CNTs as horizontal on-chip interconnects which can potentially revolutionize the nanoelectronics industry. This book is a must-read for anyone interested in the state-of-the-art on exploiting carbon nanotubes for interconnects for both 2D and 3D integrated circuits. Provides a single-source reference on carbon nanotubes for interconnect applications; Includes c...

  3. Decentralised output feedback control of Markovian jump interconnected systems with unknown interconnections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li-Wei; Yang, Guang-Hong

    2017-07-01

    The problem of decentralised output feedback control is addressed for Markovian jump interconnected systems with unknown interconnections and general transition rates (TRs) allowed to be unknown or known with uncertainties. A class of decentralised dynamic output feedback controllers are constructed, and a cyclic-small-gain condition is exploited to dispose the unknown interconnections so that the resultant closed-loop system is stochastically stable and satisfies an H∞ performance. With slack matrices to cope with the nonlinearities incurred by unknown and uncertain TRs in control synthesis, a novel controller design condition is developed in linear matrix inequality formalism. Compared with the existing works, the proposed approach leads to less conservatism. Finally, two examples are used to illustrate the effectiveness of the new results.

  4. Fiber bundle probes for interconnecting miniaturized medical imaging devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamora, Vanessa; Hofmann, Jens; Marx, Sebastian; Herter, Jonas; Nguyen, Dennis; Arndt-Staufenbiel, Norbert; Schröder, Henning

    2017-02-01

    Miniaturization of medical imaging devices will significantly improve the workflow of physicians in hospitals. Photonic integrated circuit (PIC) technologies offer a high level of miniaturization. However, they need fiber optic interconnection solutions for their functional integration. As part of European funded project (InSPECT) we investigate fiber bundle probes (FBPs) to be used as multi-mode (MM) to single-mode (SM) interconnections for PIC modules. The FBP consists of a set of four or seven SM fibers hexagonally distributed and assembled into a holder that defines a multicore connection. Such a connection can be used to connect MM fibers, while each SM fiber is attached to the PIC module. The manufacturing of these probes is explored by using well-established fiber fusion, epoxy adhesive, innovative adhesive and polishing techniques in order to achieve reliable, low-cost and reproducible samples. An innovative hydrofluoric acid-free fiber etching technology has been recently investigated. The preliminary results show that the reduction of the fiber diameter shows a linear behavior as a function of etching time. Different etch rate values from 0.55 μm/min to 2.3 μm/min were found. Several FBPs with three different type of fibers have been optically interrogated at wavelengths of 630nm and 1550nm. Optical losses are found of approx. 35dB at 1550nm for FBPs composed by 80μm fibers. Although FBPs present moderate optical losses, they might be integrated using different optical fibers, covering a broad spectral range required for imaging applications. Finally, we show the use of FBPs as promising MM-to-SM interconnects for real-world interfacing to PIC's.

  5. Industrial tooling and methods for the junctions of the superconducting busbars in the interconnections between the LHC cryomagnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balaguer, J M; Colombet, T; Jacquemod, A; Laurent, F; Nambride, C; Taffard, Y; Tock, J Ph

    2006-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is the next world-facility for the high energy physics community, presently under installation at CERN, Geneva. The main components of the LHC are the twin-aperture high-field superconducting cryomagnets that are powered in series by superconducting Nb-Ti busbars. Along the machine, about 60 000 splices between the superconducting busbars have to be performed in-situ during the interconnection activities. They are carrying a nominal current varying from 600 A to 13 kA depending upon the magnets, at an operating temperature of 1.9 K. Three specific techniques have been developed and optimised for the splicing of the three main types of cables: inductive and resistive soldering, ultrasonic welding. After a brief presentation of the constraints and requirements applying to these junctions, the tooling is described, highlighting the industrialisation aspects. Before their use to interconnect actual cryomagnets in the LHC tunnel, the equipments and procedures follow rigorous qualification to ensure that all the characteristics of the junctions (electrical, mechanical, reliability, ...) are within the specifications. The assessment of the tooling performance is obtained via sample testing of superconducting busbars. Initial results are presented

  6. Analysis of the trade-offs between conventional and superconducting interconnections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frye, R.

    1989-01-01

    Superconductivity can now be achieved at temperatures compatible with semiconductor device operation. This raises the interesting possibility of using the new, high-temperature superconducting ceramics for interconnections in electronic systems. This paper examines some of the consequences of a resistance-free interconnection medium. A problem with conventional conductors in electronic systems is that the resistance of wires increases quadratically as the wire dimensions are scaled down. Below some minimum cross-sectional area, determined by the metal resistivity and wire length, the resistance in these lines begins to severely limit their bandwidth. Superconductors, on the other hand, are not constrained by the same scaling rules. They provide a high bandwidth interconnection at all sizes and lengths. The limitations for superconductors are set by their critical current densities. If line dimensions become too small, a superconductor will no longer support an adequate flow of current. An analysis is presented examining the performance trade-offs for conventional and superconducting interconnections in applications ranging from printed wiring boards to chips. For most semiconductor device-based applications, the potential gains in wiring density offered by superconductors are probably more important than the bandwidth improvements. An important result of the analysis is that it determines the values of critical current density above which superconductors outperform conventional wires in systems of various physical sizes. This identifies particular interconnection technologies for which high-temperature superconductors show the most promise

  7. Environmental Regulation Impacts on Eastern Interconnection Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markham, Penn N [ORNL; Liu, Yilu [ORNL; Young II, Marcus Aaron [ORNL

    2013-07-01

    In the United States, recent environmental regulations will likely result in the removal of nearly 30 GW of oil and coal-fired generation from the power grid, mostly in the Eastern Interconnection (EI). The effects of this transition on voltage stability and transmission line flows have previously not been studied from a system-wide perspective. This report discusses the results of power flow studies designed to simulate the evolution of the EI over the next few years as traditional generation sources are replaced with environmentally friendlier ones such as natural gas and wind.

  8. Interconnectivity and the Electronic Academic Library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald E. Riggs

    1988-03-01

    Full Text Available 無Due to the emphasis on the use of computing networks on campuses and to the very nature of more information being accessible to library users only via electronic means, we are witnessing a migration to electronic academic libraries. this new type of library is being required to have interconnections with the campus' other online information/data systems. Arizona State University libraries have been provided the opportunity to develop an electronic library that will be the focal point of a campus-wide information/data network.

  9. LaCrO{sub 3}-dispersed Cr for metallic interconnect of planar SOFC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Rak-Hyun; Shin, Dong Ryul [Korea Institute of Energy Research, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Dokiya, Masayuki [National Institute of Materials and Chemical Research, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    In the planar SOFC, the interconnect materials plays two roles as an electrical connection and as a gas separation plate in a cell stack. The interconnect materials must be chemically stable in reducing and oxidizing environments, and have high electronic conductivity, high thermal conductivity, matching thermal expansion with an electrolyte, high mechanical strength, good fabricability, and gas tightness. Lanthanum chromite so far has been mainly used as interconnect materials in planar SOFC. However, the ceramic materials are very weak in mechanical strength and have poor machining property as compared with metal. Also the metallic materials have high electronic conductivity and high thermal conductivity. Recently some researchers have studied metallic interconnects such as Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Inconel 600 cermet, Ni-20Cr coated with (LaSr)CoO{sub 3}, and Y{sub 2}O{sub 3-} or La{sub 2}O{sub 3}-dispersed Cr alloy. These alloys have still some problems because Ni-based alloys have high thermal expansion, the added Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} and La{sub 2}O{sub 3} to metals have no electronic conductivity, and the oxide formed on the surface of Cr alloy has high volatility. To solve these problems, in this study, LaCrO{sub 3}-dispersed Cr for metallic interconnect of planar SOFC was investigated. The LaCrO{sub 3}-dispersed Cr can be one candidate of metallic interconnect because LaCrO{sub 3} possesses electronic conductivity and Cr metal has relatively low thermal expansion. The content of 25 vol.% LaCrO{sub 3} Was selected on the basis of a theoretically calculated thermal expansion. The thermal expansion, electrical and oxidation properties were examined and the results were discussed as related to SOFC requirements.

  10. Installation and Quality Assurance of the Interconnections between Cryo-assemblies of the LHC Long Straight Sections

    CERN Document Server

    Garion, C; Tock, J P

    2006-01-01

    The interconnections between the cryomagnets and cryogenic utilities in the LHC long Straight Sections constitute the last machine installation activity. They are ensuring continuity of the beam and insulation vacuum systems, cryogenic fluid and electrical circuits and thermal insulation. The assembly is carried out in a constraining tunnel environment with restricted space. Therefore, the assembly sequence has to be well defined and specific tests have to be performed during the interconnection work to secure the reliability of the system and thus to ensure the global accelerator availability. The LHC has 8 long straight insertion zones composed of special cryomagnets involving specific interconnection procedures and QA plans. The aim of this paper is to present the installation and quality assurance procedures implemented for the LHC LSS interconnections. Technologies such as manual and automatic welding and resistive soldering will be described as well as the different quality controls, such as visual and ...

  11. Impact of Bundle Structure on Performance of on-Chip CNT Interconnects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuruvilla, N.; Raina, J.P

    2014-01-01

    CNTs are proposed as a promising candidate against copper in deep submicron IC interconnects. Still this technology is in its infancy. Most available literatures on performance predictions of CNT interconnects, have focused only on interconnect geometries using segregated CNTs. Yet during the manufacturing phase, CNTs are obtained usually as a mixture of single-walled and multi-walled CNTs (SWCNTs and MWCNTs). Especially in case of SWCNTs; it is usually available as a mixture of both Semi conducting CNTs and metallic CNTs. This paper attempts to answer whether segregation is inevitable before using them to construct interconnects. This paper attempt to compare the performance variations of bundled CNT interconnects, where bundles are made of segregated CNTs versus mixed CNTs, for future technology nodes using electrical model based analysis. Also a proportionate mixing of different CNTs has been introduced so as to yield a set of criteria to aid the industry in selection of an appropriate bundle structure for use in a specific application with optimum performance. It was found that even the worst case performance of geometries using a mixture of SWCNTs and MWCNTs was better than copper. These results also reveal that, for extracting optimum performance vide cost matrix, the focus should be more on diameter controlled synthesis than on segregation.

  12. A Methodology for Physical Interconnection Decisions of Next Generation Transport Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gutierrez Lopez, Jose Manuel; Riaz, M. Tahir; Madsen, Ole Brun

    2011-01-01

    of possibilities when designing the physical network interconnection. This paper develops and presents a methodology in order to deal with aspects related to the interconnection problem of optical transport networks. This methodology is presented as independent puzzle pieces, covering diverse topics going from......The physical interconnection for optical transport networks has critical relevance in the overall network performance and deployment costs. As telecommunication services and technologies evolve, the provisioning of higher capacity and reliability levels is becoming essential for the proper...... development of Next Generation Networks. Currently, there is a lack of specific procedures that describe the basic guidelines to design such networks better than "best possible performance for the lowest investment". Therefore, the research from different points of view will allow a broader space...

  13. Status of the segment interconnect, cable segment ancillary logic, and the cable segment hybrid driver projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swoboda, C.; Barsotti, E.; Chappa, S.; Downing, R.; Goeransson, G.; Lensy, D.; Moore, G.; Rotolo, C.; Urish, J.

    1985-01-01

    The FASTBUS Segment Interconnect (SI) provides a communication path between two otherwise independent, asynchronous bus segments. In particular, the Segment Interconnect links a backplane crate segment to a cable segment. All standard FASTBUS address and data transactions can be passed through the SI or any number of SIs and segments in a path. Thus systems of arbitrary connection complexity can be formed, allowing simultaneous independent processing, yet still permitting devices associated with one segment to be accessed from others. The model S1 Segment Interconnect and the Cable Segment Ancillary Logic covered in this report comply with all the mandatory features stated in the FASTBUS specification document DOE/ER-0189. A block diagram of the SI is shown

  14. Interconnected ponds operation for flood hazard distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putra, S. S.; Ridwan, B. W.

    2016-05-01

    The climatic anomaly, which comes with extreme rainfall, will increase the flood hazard in an area within a short period of time. The river capacity in discharging the flood is not continuous along the river stretch and sensitive to the flood peak. This paper contains the alternatives on how to locate the flood retention pond that are physically feasible to reduce the flood peak. The flood ponds were designed based on flood curve number criteria (TR-55, USDA) with the aim of rapid flood peak capturing and gradual flood retuning back to the river. As a case study, the hydrologic condition of upper Ciliwung river basin with several presumed flood pond locations was conceptually designed. A fundamental tank model that reproducing the operation of interconnected ponds was elaborated to achieve the designed flood discharge that will flows to the downstream area. The flood hazard distribution status, as the model performance criteria, will be computed within Ciliwung river reach in Manggarai Sluice Gate spot. The predicted hazard reduction with the operation of the interconnected retention area result had been bench marked with the normal flow condition.

  15. An interconnecting bus power optimization method combining interconnect wire spacing with wire ordering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Zhang-Ming; Hao Bao-Tian; En Yun-Fei; Yang Yin-Tang; Li Yue-Jin

    2011-01-01

    On-chip interconnect buses consume tens of percents of dynamic power in a nanometer scale integrated circuit and they will consume more power with the rapid scaling down of technology size and continuously rising clock frequency, therefore it is meaningful to lower the interconnecting bus power in design. In this paper, a simple yet accurate interconnect parasitic capacitance model is presented first and then, based on this model, a novel interconnecting bus optimization method is proposed. Wire spacing is a process for spacing wires for minimum dynamic power, while wire ordering is a process that searches for wire orders that maximally enhance it. The method, i.e., combining wire spacing with wire ordering, focuses on bus dynamic power optimization with a consideration of bus performance requirements. The optimization method is verified based on various nanometer technology parameters, showing that with 50% slack of routing space, 25.71% and 32.65% of power can be saved on average by the proposed optimization method for a global bus and an intermediate bus, respectively, under a 65-nm technology node, compared with 21.78% and 27.68% of power saved on average by uniform spacing technology. The proposed method is especially suitable for computer-aided design of nanometer scale on-chip buses. (interdisciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  16. A combined SEM and CV Study of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Interconnect Steels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kammer Hansen, Kent; Ofoegbu, Stanley; Mikkelsen, Lars

    2012-01-01

    Scanning electron microscopy and cyclic voltammetry were used to investigate the high temperature oxidation behavior of two solid oxide fuel cell interconnect steels. One alloy had a low content of manganese; the other alloy had a high content of manganese. Four reduction and four oxidation peaks...

  17. Opportunities and Benefits for Increasing Transmission Capacity between the US Eastern and Western Interconnections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa-Acevedo, Armando L.

    Historically, the primary justification for building wide-area transmission lines in the US and around the world has been based on reliability and economic criteria. Today, the influence of renewable portfolio standards (RPS), Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulations, transmission needs, load diversity, and grid flexibility requirements drives interest in high capacity wide-area transmission. By making use of an optimization model to perform long-term (15 years) co-optimized generation and transmission expansion planning, this work explored the benefits of increasing transmission capacity between the US Eastern and Western Interconnections under different policy and futures assumptions. The model assessed tradeoffs between investments in cross-interconnection HVDC transmission, AC transmission needs within each interconnection, generation investment costs, and operational costs, while satisfying different policy compliance constraints. Operational costs were broken down into the following market products: energy, up-/down regulation reserve, and contingency reserve. In addition, the system operating flexibility requirements were modeled as a function of net-load variability so that the flexibility of the non-wind/non-solar resources increases with increased wind and solar investment. In addition, planning reserve constraints are imposed under the condition that they be deliverable to the load. Thus, the model allows existing and candidate generation resources for both operating reserves and deliverable planning reserves to be shared throughout the interconnections, a feature which significantly drives identification of least-cost investments. This model is used with a 169-bus representation of the North American power grid to design four different high-capacity wide-area transmission infrastructures. Results from this analysis suggest that, under policy that imposes a high-renewable future, the benefits of high capacity transmission between the Eastern and

  18. Reconfigurable Optical Interconnections Via Dynamic Computer-Generated Holograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hua-Kuang (Inventor); Zhou, Shao-Min (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    A system is presented for optically providing one-to-many irregular interconnections, and strength-adjustable many-to-many irregular interconnections which may be provided with strengths (weights) w(sub ij) using multiple laser beams which address multiple holograms and means for combining the beams modified by the holograms to form multiple interconnections, such as a cross-bar switching network. The optical means for interconnection is based on entering a series of complex computer-generated holograms on an electrically addressed spatial light modulator for real-time reconfigurations, thus providing flexibility for interconnection networks for large-scale practical use. By employing multiple sources and holograms, the number of interconnection patterns achieved is increased greatly.

  19. Standard specification for high efficiency particulate air filters. Revision No. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porter, F.E.

    1976-01-01

    This specification covers the requirements for four types and four sizes of high efficiency particulate air filters, assembled with or without separators and gaskets. Types include Fire Resistant and Moisture Resistant; Hydrogen Fluoride Fume (HF) Resistant; Fire Resistant and Moisture Resistant and Chemical Resistant; and Fire Resistant and Moisture Resistant, High Temperature and High Humidity

  20. Two-dimensional optoelectronic interconnect-processor and its operational bit error rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, J. Jiang; Gollsneider, Brian; Chang, Wayne H.; Carhart, Gary W.; Vorontsov, Mikhail A.; Simonis, George J.; Shoop, Barry L.

    2004-10-01

    Two-dimensional (2-D) multi-channel 8x8 optical interconnect and processor system were designed and developed using complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) driven 850-nm vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) arrays and the photodetector (PD) arrays with corresponding wavelengths. We performed operation and bit-error-rate (BER) analysis on this free-space integrated 8x8 VCSEL optical interconnects driven by silicon-on-sapphire (SOS) circuits. Pseudo-random bit stream (PRBS) data sequence was used in operation of the interconnects. Eye diagrams were measured from individual channels and analyzed using a digital oscilloscope at data rates from 155 Mb/s to 1.5 Gb/s. Using a statistical model of Gaussian distribution for the random noise in the transmission, we developed a method to compute the BER instantaneously with the digital eye-diagrams. Direct measurements on this interconnects were also taken on a standard BER tester for verification. We found that the results of two methods were in the same order and within 50% accuracy. The integrated interconnects were investigated in an optoelectronic processing architecture of digital halftoning image processor. Error diffusion networks implemented by the inherently parallel nature of photonics promise to provide high quality digital halftoned images.

  1. Current Solutions: Recent Experience in Interconnecting Distributed Energy Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, M.

    2003-09-01

    This report catalogues selected real-world technical experiences of utilities and customers that have interconnected distributed energy assets with the electric grid. This study was initiated to assess the actual technical practices for interconnecting distributed generation and had a particular focus on the technical issues covered under the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) 1547(TM) Standard for Interconnecting Distributed Resources With Electric Power Systems.

  2. Interconnection network architectures based on integrated orbital angular momentum emitters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaffardi, Mirco; Zhang, Ning; Malik, Muhammad Nouman; Lazzeri, Emma; Klitis, Charalambos; Lavery, Martin; Sorel, Marc; Bogoni, Antonella

    2018-02-01

    Novel architectures for two-layer interconnection networks based on concentric OAM emitters are presented. A scalability analysis is done in terms of devices characteristics, power budget and optical signal to noise ratio by exploiting experimentally measured parameters. The analysis shows that by exploiting optical amplifications, the proposed interconnection networks can support a number of ports higher than 100. The OAM crosstalk induced-penalty, evaluated through an experimental characterization, do not significantly affect the interconnection network performance.

  3. Self-Rerouting and Curative Interconnect Technology (SERCUIT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    SPECIAL REPORT RDMR-CS-17-01 SELF-REROUTING AND CURATIVE INTERCONNECT TECHNOLOGY (SERCUIT) Shiv Joshi Concepts to Systems, Inc...Final 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Self-Rerouting and Curative Interconnect Technology (SERCUIT) 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) Shiv Joshi...concepts2systems.com (p) 434-207-5189 x (f) Click to view full size Title Contract Number SELF-REROUTING AND CURATIVE INTERCONNECT TECHNOLOGY (SERCUIT) W911W6-17-C-0029

  4. Facilitated charge transport in ternary interconnected electrodes for flexible supercapacitors with excellent power characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wanjun; He, Yongmin; Li, Xiaodong; Zhou, Jinyuan; Zhang, Zhenxing; Zhao, Changhui; Gong, Chengshi; Li, Shuankui; Pan, Xiaojun; Xie, Erqing

    2013-12-07

    Flexible and high performance supercapacitors are very critical in modern society. In order to develop the flexible supercapacitors with high power density, free-standing and flexible three-dimensional graphene/carbon nanotubes/MnO2 (3DG/CNTs/MnO2) composite electrodes with interconnected ternary 3D structures were fabricated, and the fast electron and ion transport channels were effectively constructed in the rationally designed electrodes. Consequently, the obtained 3DG/CNTs/MnO2 composite electrodes exhibit superior specific capacitance and rate capability compared to 3DG/MnO2 electrodes. Furthermore, the 3DG/CNTs/MnO2 based asymmetric supercapacitor demonstrates the maximum energy and power densities of 33.71 W h kg(-1) and up to 22,727.3 W kg(-1), respectively. Moreover, the asymmetric supercapacitor exhibits excellent cycling stability with 95.3% of the specific capacitance maintained after 1000 cycle tests. Our proposed synthesis strategy to construct the novel ternary 3D structured electrodes can be efficiently applied to other high performance energy storage/conversion systems.

  5. Thermodynamic basis for engineering high-affinity, high-specificity binding-induced DNA clamp nanoswitches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idili, Andrea; Plaxco, Kevin W; Vallée-Bélisle, Alexis; Ricci, Francesco

    2013-12-23

    Naturally occurring chemoreceptors almost invariably employ structure-switching mechanisms, an observation that has inspired the use of biomolecular switches in a wide range of artificial technologies in the areas of diagnostics, imaging, and synthetic biology. In one mechanism for generating such behavior, clamp-based switching, binding occurs via the clamplike embrace of two recognition elements onto a single target molecule. In addition to coupling recognition with a large conformational change, this mechanism offers a second advantage: it improves both affinity and specificity simultaneously. To explore the physics of such switches we have dissected here the thermodynamics of a clamp-switch that recognizes a target DNA sequence through both Watson-Crick base pairing and triplex-forming Hoogsteen interactions. When compared to the equivalent linear DNA probe (which relies solely on Watson-Crick interactions), the extra Hoogsteen interactions in the DNA clamp-switch increase the probe's affinity for its target by ∼0.29 ± 0.02 kcal/mol/base. The Hoogsteen interactions of the clamp-switch likewise provide an additional specificity check that increases the discrimination efficiency toward a single-base mismatch by 1.2 ± 0.2 kcal/mol. This, in turn, leads to a 10-fold improvement in the width of the "specificity window" of this probe relative to that of the equivalent linear probe. Given these attributes, clamp-switches should be of utility not only for sensing applications but also, in the specific field of DNA nanotechnology, for applications calling for a better control over the building of nanostructures and nanomachines.

  6. Distributed Energy Resources Interconnection Systems: Technology Review and Research Needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedman, N. R.

    2002-09-01

    Interconnecting distributed energy resources (DER) to the electric utility grid (or Area Electric Power System, Area EPS) involves system engineering, safety, and reliability considerations. This report documents US DOE Distribution and Interconnection R&D (formerly Distributed Power Program) activities, furthering the development and safe and reliable integration of DER interconnected with our nation's electric power systems. The key to that is system integration and technology development of the interconnection devices that perform the functions necessary to maintain the safety, power quality, and reliability of the EPS when DER are connected to it.

  7. Cost based interconnection charges as a way to induce competition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falch, Morten

    The objective of this paper is to analyse the relationship between regulation of interconnection charges and the level of competition. One of the most important issues in the debate on interconnect regulation has been use of forward looking costs for setting of interconnection charges. This debat...... has been ongoing within the EU as well as in US. This paper discusses the European experiences and in particular the Danish experiences with use of cost based interconnection charges, and their impact on competition in the telecom market....

  8. Financial viability of the Sonora-Baja California interconnection line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso, G.; Ortega, G.

    2017-09-01

    In the Development Program of the National Electricity Sector 2015-2029, an electric interconnection line between Sonora and Baja California (Mexico) is proposed, this study analyzes the financial viability of this interconnection line based on the maximum hourly and seasonal energy demand between both regions and proposes alternatives for the supply of electric power that supports the economic convenience of this interconnection line. The results show that additional capacity is required in Sonora to cover the maximum demands of both regions since in the current condition of the National Electric System the interconnection line is not justified. (Author)

  9. 78 FR 73239 - Small Generator Interconnection Agreements and Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-05

    ... Electronics Engineers (IEEE) Standard 1547 for Interconnecting Distributed Resources with Electric Power... discriminatory manner.\\38\\ \\37\\ The Electricity Consumers Resource Council, American Chemistry Council, American...

  10. On the radiochemical purity of elementary 35S with high specific activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todorovsky, D.S.; Kostadinov, K.N.; Efremova, Yu.N.

    1979-01-01

    Radiochemical composition and chemical changes with increasing storage time of benzene solutions and of solid species of elementary 35 S with high specific activity are studied. The dependence of the stability on the specific activity and the radioactive concentration is shown and some tentative limits are given for permissible storage periods. (author)

  11. Using High-Precision Specific Gravity Measurements to Study Minerals in Undergraduate Geoscience Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandriss, Mark E.

    2010-01-01

    This article describes ways to incorporate high-precision measurements of the specific gravities of minerals into undergraduate courses in mineralogy and physical geology. Most traditional undergraduate laboratory methods of measuring specific gravity are suitable only for unusually large samples, which severely limits their usefulness for student…

  12. Synthesis of glycolic acid-1-14C of high specific activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramamurthy, T.V.; Viswanathan, K.V.

    1987-01-01

    A simple procedure is described which efficiently converts traces of 14 C labelled cyanide present as a dilute solution into glycolic acid-1- 14 C with more than 85% radiochemical recovery and of high specific activity. (author)

  13. Hollow Carbon Nanofiber-Encapsulated Sulfur Cathodes for High Specific Capacity Rechargeable Lithium Batteries

    KAUST Repository

    Zheng, Guangyuan; Yang, Yuan; Cha, Judy J.; Hong, Seung Sae; Cui, Yi

    2011-01-01

    Sulfur has a high specific capacity of 1673 mAh/g as lithium battery cathodes, but its rapid capacity fading due to polysulfides dissolution presents a significant challenge for practical applications. Here we report a hollow carbon nanofiber

  14. Asynchronous decentralized method for interconnected electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Anni; Joo, Sung-Kwan; Song, Kyung-Bin; Kim, Jin-Ho; Lee, Kisung

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents an asynchronous decentralized method to solve the optimization problem of interconnected electricity markets. The proposed method decomposes the optimization problem of combined electricity markets into individual optimization problems. The impact of neighboring markets' information is included in the objective function of the individual market optimization problem by the standard Lagrangian relaxation method. Most decentralized optimization methods use synchronous models of communication to exchange updated market information among markets during the iterative process. In this paper, however, the solutions of the individual optimization problems are coordinated through an asynchronous communication model until they converge to the global optimal solution of combined markets. Numerical examples are presented to demonstrate the advantages of the proposed asynchronous method over the existing synchronous methods. (author)

  15. Virtual interconnection platform initiative scoping study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yong [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Kou, Gefei [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Pan, Zuohong [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Liu, Yilu [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); King Jr., Thomas J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Due to security and liability concerns, the research community has limited access to realistic large-scale power grid models to test and validate new operation and control methodologies. It is also difficult for industry to evaluate the relative value of competing new tools without a common platform for comparison. This report proposes to develop a large-scale virtual power grid model that retains basic features and represents future trends of major U.S. electric interconnections. This model will include realistic power flow and dynamics information as well as a relevant geospatial distribution of assets. This model will be made widely available to the research community for various power system stability and control studies and can be used as a common platform for comparing the efficacies of various new technologies.

  16. Study of complete interconnect reliability for a GaAs MMIC power amplifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Qian; Wu, Haifeng; Chen, Shan-ji; Jia, Guoqing; Jiang, Wei; Chen, Chao

    2018-05-01

    By combining the finite element analysis (FEA) and artificial neural network (ANN) technique, the complete prediction of interconnect reliability for a monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC) power amplifier (PA) at the both of direct current (DC) and alternating current (AC) operation conditions is achieved effectively in this article. As a example, a MMIC PA is modelled to study the electromigration failure of interconnect. This is the first time to study the interconnect reliability for an MMIC PA at the conditions of DC and AC operation simultaneously. By training the data from FEA, a high accuracy ANN model for PA reliability is constructed. Then, basing on the reliability database which is obtained from the ANN model, it can give important guidance for improving the reliability design for IC.

  17. Examination of Critical Length Effect in Copper Interconnects With Oxide and Low-k Dielectrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thrasher, Stacye; Gall, Martin; Justison, Patrick; Hernandez, Richard; Kawasaki, Hisao; Capasso, Cristiano; Nguyen, Timothy

    2004-01-01

    As technology moves toward faster microelectronic devices with smaller feature sizes, copper is replacing aluminum-copper alloy and low-k dielectric is replacing oxide as the materials of choice for advanced interconnect integrations. Copper not only brings to the table the advantage of lower resistivity, but also exhibits better electromigration performance when compared to Al(Cu). Low-k dielectric materials are advantageous because they reduce power consumption and improve signal delay. Due to these advantages, the industry trend is moving towards integrating copper and low-k dielectric for high performance interconnects. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the critical length effect in single-inlaid copper interconnects and determine the critical product (jl)c, for a variety of integrations, examining the effect of ILD (oxide vs. low-k), geometry, and stress temperature

  18. Economic Valuation of Reserves on Cross Border Interconnections; A Danish Case Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farashbashi-Astaneh, Seyed-Mostafa; Rather, Zakir Hussain; Hu, Weihao

    2014-01-01

    regions that plan for high penetration of intermittent renewables. Extreme intermittency in the nature of wind power imposes elevated risk levels to power system operation. This every day challenge of wind dominant power systems necessitate the crucial role of operating reserves. In this paper, we propose...... benefit of reserve provision provided by cross border interconnections. The focus here will be on reserve services from abundant hydropower resource in Norway, taking advantage of fast VSC-based HVDC interconnection that is expected to be commissioned in immediate coming years....

  19. Opto-VLSI-based reconfigurable free-space optical interconnects architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aljada, Muhsen; Alameh, Kamal; Chung, Il-Sug

    2007-01-01

    is the Opto-VLSI processor which can be driven by digital phase steering and multicasting holograms that reconfigure the optical interconnects between the input and output ports. The optical interconnects architecture is experimentally demonstrated at 2.5 Gbps using high-speed 1×3 VCSEL array and 1......×3 photoreceiver array in conjunction with two 1×4096 pixel Opto-VLSI processors. The minimisation of the crosstalk between the output ports is achieved by appropriately aligning the VCSEL and PD elements with respect to the Opto-VLSI processors and driving the latter with optimal steering phase holograms....

  20. Efficient modeling of metallic interconnects for thermo-mechanical simulation of SOFC stacks: homogenized behaviors and effect of contact

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tadesse Molla, Tesfaye; Kwok, Kawai; Frandsen, Henrik Lund

    2016-01-01

    temperature, deformations involving the elastic, creep as well as effect of changes in the geometry due to contact should be accounted for. The constitutive law can be applied using 3D modeling, but for simple presentation of the theory, 2D plane strain formulation is used to model the corrugated metallic......Currently thermo-mechanical analysis of the entire solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) stack at operational conditions is computationally challenging if the geometry of metallic interconnects is considered explicitly. This is particularly the case when creep deformations in the interconnect are considered...... model to calculate the homogenized mechanical response of corrugated metallic interconnects at high temperatures.Thereafter, a constitutive law for the homogenized structure (effective material law) is developed. In order to properly describe the mechanical behavior of the interconnect at high...

  1. Strategic siting and regional grid interconnections key to low-carbon futures in African countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Grace C. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy and Resources Group; Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). International Energy Studies Group; Deshmukh, Ranjit [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy and Resources Group; Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). International Energy Studies Group; Ndhlukula, Kudakwashe [Namibia Univ. of Science and Technology, Windhoek, (Namibia). Southern Africa Development Community (SADC) Centre for Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency; Radojicic, Tijana [International Renewable Energy Agency, Masdar City, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates); Reilly-Moman, Jessica [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy and Resources Group; Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). International Energy Studies Group; Phadke, Amol [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). International Energy Studies Group; Kammen, Daniel M. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy and Resources Group; Callaway, Duncan S. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy and Resources Group

    2017-03-27

    Recent forecasts suggest that African countries must triple their current electricity generation by 2030. Our multicriteria assessment of wind and solar potential for large regions of Africa shows how economically competitive and low-environmental– impact renewable resources can significantly contribute to meeting this demand. We created the Multicriteria Analysis for Planning Renewable Energy (MapRE) framework to map and characterize solar and wind energy zones in 21 countries in the Southern African Power Pool (SAPP) and the Eastern Africa Power Pool (EAPP) and find that potential is several times greater than demand in many countries. Significant fractions of demand can be quickly served with “no-regrets” options—or zones that are low-cost, low-environmental impact, and highly accessible. Because no-regrets options are spatially heterogeneous, international interconnections are necessary to help achieve low-carbon development for the region as a whole, and interconnections that support the best renewable options may differ from those planned for hydropower expansion. Additionally, interconnections and selecting wind sites to match demand reduce the need for SAPP-wide conventional generation capacity by 9.5% in a high-wind scenario, resulting in a 6–20% cost savings, depending on the avoided conventional technology. Strategic selection of low-impact and accessible zones is more cost effective with interconnections compared with solutions without interconnections. In conclusion, the overall results are robust to multiple load growth scenarios. Together, results show that multicriteria site selection and deliberate planning of interconnections may significantly increase the economic and environmental competitiveness of renewable alternatives relative to conventional generation.

  2. Strategic siting and regional grid interconnections key to low-carbon futures in African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Grace C; Deshmukh, Ranjit; Ndhlukula, Kudakwashe; Radojicic, Tijana; Reilly-Moman, Jessica; Phadke, Amol; Kammen, Daniel M; Callaway, Duncan S

    2017-04-11

    Recent forecasts suggest that African countries must triple their current electricity generation by 2030. Our multicriteria assessment of wind and solar potential for large regions of Africa shows how economically competitive and low-environmental-impact renewable resources can significantly contribute to meeting this demand. We created the Multicriteria Analysis for Planning Renewable Energy (MapRE) framework to map and characterize solar and wind energy zones in 21 countries in the Southern African Power Pool (SAPP) and the Eastern Africa Power Pool (EAPP) and find that potential is several times greater than demand in many countries. Significant fractions of demand can be quickly served with "no-regrets" options-or zones that are low-cost, low-environmental impact, and highly accessible. Because no-regrets options are spatially heterogeneous, international interconnections are necessary to help achieve low-carbon development for the region as a whole, and interconnections that support the best renewable options may differ from those planned for hydropower expansion. Additionally, interconnections and selecting wind sites to match demand reduce the need for SAPP-wide conventional generation capacity by 9.5% in a high-wind scenario, resulting in a 6-20% cost savings, depending on the avoided conventional technology. Strategic selection of low-impact and accessible zones is more cost effective with interconnections compared with solutions without interconnections. Overall results are robust to multiple load growth scenarios. Together, results show that multicriteria site selection and deliberate planning of interconnections may significantly increase the economic and environmental competitiveness of renewable alternatives relative to conventional generation.

  3. Preparation of high specific activity labelled triiodothyronine (T3) for radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pillai, M.R.A.; Nagvekar, U.H.; Desai, C.N.; Mani, R.S.

    1981-01-01

    A method standardized for the preparation of high specific activity labelled triiodothyronine (T 3 ) is discussed. Iodine-125 labelled T 3 with a specific activity of 3 mCi μg was prepared by iodinating 3,5-diiodothyronine (T 2 ) and purifying it over Sephadex G-25 gel. Radochemical purity and stability evaluations were done by paper chromatography. Specific activity of the labelled T 3 prepared was estimated by the self-displacement method. The use of this high specific activity labelled T 3 in radioimmunoassay increased the sensitivity considerably. The advantage of this procedure is that the specific activity of labelled T 3 formed is independent of reaction yield and labelled T 3 yield. (author)

  4. Barriers and drivers of new interconnections between EU and non-EU electricity systems. Economic and regulatory aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Werven, M.J.N.; Van Oostvoorn, F.

    2006-05-01

    Interconnection of different electricity systems offers several advantages and benefits. In the first place it provides reliability and increases the robustness of the system. Furthermore, it increases economic efficiency and reduces the possibility to abuse market power. Price differences are the signal that efficiency gains can be obtained. To make a sound decision whether to invest in new interconnection capacity, the causes behind the price differences should be well understood. Price differences must originate from structural, long-term causes. Differences in primary resources, fuel mix and load patterns are such causes. It is important to note that price differences that result from the difference between regulatory structures (lack of level playing field) may not be structural and therefore may not justify investment in interconnection capacity. Next to advantages and benefits, interconnection is faced with costs and barriers. Firstly, there are investment costs, which are high for building new interconnections, and there are energy losses that are caused by transporting electricity. A third possible barrier is congestion within the EU, which impedes the imported electricity to freely flow to demand areas (and hinders the export of electricity to neighbouring regions). Furthermore, interconnection may create loop flows. In addition, interconnection could lead to an increasing import dependency, which may create political resistance. And finally, there may be opposition from residents in the areas where the transmission and interconnection lines have to be built. Concerning regulatory issues, trade between markets is more likely to be impeded or distorted if market designs and rules between countries/regions differ substantially. Regulatory issues that are of relevance comprise rules concerning the timing of gate closure, imbalance arrangements, the firmness of transmission access rights, the type of tariff regulation, unbundling, the ownership of

  5. Results on 3D interconnection from AIDA WP3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moser, Hans-Günther, E-mail: hgm@hll.mpg.de

    2016-09-21

    From 2010 to 2014 the EU funded AIDA project established in one of its work packages (WP3) a network of groups working collaboratively on advanced 3D integration of electronic circuits and semiconductor sensors for applications in particle physics. The main motivation came from the severe requirements on pixel detectors for tracking and vertexing at future Particle Physics experiments at LHC, super-B factories and linear colliders. To go beyond the state-of-the-art, the main issues were studying low mass, high bandwidth applications, with radiation hardness capabilities, with low power consumption, offering complex functionality, with small pixel size and without dead regions. The interfaces and interconnects of sensors to electronic readout integrated circuits are a key challenge for new detector applications.

  6. Interconnecting Multidiscilinary Data Infrastructures: From Federation to Brokering Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nativi, S.

    2014-12-01

    Standardization and federation activities have been played an essential role to push interoperability at the disciplinary and cross-disciplinary level. However, they demonstrated not to be sufficient to resolve important interoperability challenges, including: disciplinary heterogeneity, cross-organizations diversities, cultural differences. Significant international initiatives like GEOSS, IODE, and CEOS demonstrated that a federation system dealing with global and multi-disciplinary domain turns out to be rater complex, raising more the already high entry level barriers for both Providers and Users. In particular, GEOSS demonstrated that standardization and federation actions must be accompanied and complemented by a brokering approach. Brokering architecture and its implementing technologies are able to implement an effective interoperability level among multi-disciplinary systems, lowering the entry level barriers for both data providers and users. This presentation will discuss the brokering philosophy as a complementary approach for standardization and federation to interconnect existing and heterogeneous infrastructures and systems. The GEOSS experience will be analyzed, specially.

  7. The Quality Control of the LHC Continuous Cryostat Interconnections

    CERN Document Server

    Bertinelli, F; Bozzini, D; Cruikshank, P; Fessia, P; Grimaud, A; Kotarba, A; Maan, W; Olek, S; Poncet, A; Russenschuck, Stephan; Savary, F; Sulek, Z; Tock, J P; Tommasini, D; Vaudaux, L; Williams, L

    2008-01-01

    The interconnections between the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) magnets have required some 40 000 TIG welded joints and 65 000 electrical splices. At the level of single joints and splices, non-destructive techniques find limited application: quality control is based on the qualification of the process and of operators, on the recording of production parameters and on production samples. Visual inspection and process audits were the main techniques used. At the level of an extended chain of joints and splices - from a 53.5 m half-cell to a complete 2.7 km arc sector - quality control is based on vacuum leak tests, electrical tests and RF microwave reflectometry that progressively validated the work performed. Subsequent pressure tests, cryogenic circuits flushing with high pressure helium and cool-downs revealed a few unseen or new defects. This paper presents an overview of the quality control techniques used, seeking lessons applicable to similar large, complex projects.

  8. The GIOD Project-Globally Interconnected Object Databases

    CERN Document Server

    Bunn, J J; Newman, H B; Wilkinson, R P

    2001-01-01

    The GIOD (Globally Interconnected Object Databases) Project, a joint effort between Caltech and CERN, funded by Hewlett Packard Corporation, has investigated the use of WAN-distributed Object Databases and Mass Storage systems for LHC data. A prototype small- scale LHC data analysis center has been constructed using computing resources at Caltechs Centre for advanced Computing Research (CACR). These resources include a 256 CPU HP Exemplar of ~4600 SPECfp95, a 600 TByte High Performance Storage System (HPSS), and local/wide area links based on OC3 ATM. Using the exemplar, a large number of fully simulated CMS events were produced, and used to populate an object database with a complete schema for raw, reconstructed and analysis objects. The reconstruction software used for this task was based on early codes developed in preparation for the current CMS reconstruction program, ORCA. (6 refs).

  9. Specific features of high-cycle and ultra-high-cycle fatigue

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lukáš, Petr; Kunz, Ludvík

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 25, - (2002), s. 747-753 ISSN 8756-758X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK1010104; GA AV ČR IAA2041002 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2041904 Keywords : ultra high cycle fatigue * fatigue mechanisms * cyclic plastic deformation Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics Impact factor: 0.701, year: 2002

  10. Calculation of radiation production of high specific activity isotopes 192Ir and 60Co

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Quan; Zhong Wenfa; Xu Xiaolin

    1997-01-01

    The high specific activity isotopes: 192 Ir and 60 Co in the high neutron flux reactor are calculated with the method of reactor physics. The results of calculation are analyzed in two aspects: the production of isotopes and the influence to parameters of the reactor, and hence a better case is proposed as a reference to the production

  11. Standardization on the specification, test and evaluation of high efficiency motors and inverters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kil Yong [Korea Electric Power Corp. (KEPCO), Taejon (Korea, Republic of). Research Center; Hyun, Chang Soon [Korea Academy of Industrial Technology, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-12-31

    Most of the power systems energy is consumed by electrical motors. This report proposes a method for the standardization on the specification, test and evaluation of the high efficiency motors and related inverters. The results of this report can be referred to the rebate program for promoting the use of high efficiency motors and inverters (author). 26 refs., 102 figs.

  12. Baseline prostatic specific antigen does not predict the outcome of high energy transurethral microwave thermotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laguna, M. Pilar; Kiemeney, Lambertus A.; Debruyne, Frans M. J.; de La Rosette, Jean J. M. C. H.

    2002-01-01

    PURPOSE: We assessed the prognostic value of baseline prostate specific antigen (PSA) for outcome after high energy transurethral thermotherapy in patients with lower urinary tract symptoms. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Data were collected prospectively in 404 consecutive patients treated with high energy

  13. Application of Trapezoidal-Shaped Characteristic Basis Functions to Arrays of Electrically Interconnected Antenna Elements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maaskant, R.; Mittra, R.; Tijhuis, A.G.; Graglia, R.D.

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes a novel technique for generating the characteristic basis functions (CBFs) used to represent the surface currents on finite arrays of electrically interconnected antenna elements. The CBFs are high-level basis functions, defined on subdomains in which the original problem is

  14. 2D and 3D interconnect fabrication by picosecond Laser Induced Forward Transfer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterhuis, G.; Huis in 't veld, A.J.; Chall, P.

    2011-01-01

    Interconnects are an important cost driver in advanced 3D chip packaging. This holds for Through Silicon Vias (TSV) for chip stacking, but also for other integrated Si-technology. Especially in applications with a low number (<100 mm-2) of relatively large (10-2- um diameter), high aspect ratio

  15. Updating Small Generator Interconnection Procedures for New Market Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coddington, M.; Fox, K.; Stanfield, S.; Varnado, L.; Culley, T.; Sheehan, M.

    2012-12-01

    Federal and state regulators are faced with the challenge of keeping interconnection procedures updated against a backdrop of evolving technology, new codes and standards, and considerably transformed market conditions. This report is intended to educate policymakers and stakeholders on beneficial reforms that will keep interconnection processes efficient and cost-effective while maintaining a safe and reliable power system.

  16. 14 CFR 29.957 - Flow between interconnected tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Fuel System § 29.957 Flow between interconnected tanks. (a) Where tank outlets are interconnected and allow fuel to flow between them due to gravity or flight accelerations, it must be impossible for fuel to flow between tanks in...

  17. Robert Aymar seals the last interconnect in the LHC

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2007-01-01

    The LHC completes the circle. On 7 November, in a brief ceremony in the LHC tunnel, CERN Director General Robert Aymar (Photo 1) sealed the last interconnect between the main magnets of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Jean-Philippe Tock, leader of the Interconnections team, tightens the last bolt (Photos 4-8).

  18. Super-stretchable metallic interconnects on polymer with a linear strain of up to 100%

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arafat, Yeasir; Dutta, Indranath; Panat, Rahul, E-mail: Rahul.panat@wsu.edu [School of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Washington State University, Pullman, Washington 99163 (United States)

    2015-08-24

    Metal interconnects in flexible and wearable devices are heterogeneous metal-polymer systems that are expected to sustain large deformation without failure. The principal strategy to make strain tolerant interconnect lines on flexible substrates has comprised of creating serpentine structures of metal films with either in-plane or out-of-plane waves, using porous substrates, or using highly ductile materials such as gold. The wavy and helical serpentine patterns preclude high-density packing of interconnect lines on devices, while ductile materials such as Au are cost prohibitive for real world applications. Ductile copper films can be stretched if bonded to the substrate, but show high level of cracking beyond few tens of % strain. In this paper, we demonstrate a material system consisting of Indium metal film over an elastomer (PDMS) with a discontinuous Cr layer such that the metal interconnect can be stretched to extremely high linear strain (up to 100%) without any visible cracks. Such linear strain in metal interconnects exceeds that reported in literature and is obtained without the use of any geometrical manipulations or porous substrates. Systematic experimentation is carried out to explain the mechanisms that allow the Indium film to sustain the high strain level without failure. The islands forming the discontinuous Cr layer are shown to move apart from each other during stretching without delamination, providing strong adhesion to the Indium film while accommodating the large strain in the system. The Indium film is shown to form surface wrinkles upon release from the large strain, confirming its strong adhesion to PDMS. A model is proposed based upon the observations that can explain the high level of stretch-ability of the Indium metal film over the PDMS substrate.

  19. Mapping of interconnection of climate risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokohata, Tokuta; Tanaka, Katsumasa; Nishina, Kazuya; Takanashi, Kiyoshi; Emori, Seita; Kiguchi, Masashi; Iseri, Yoshihiko; Honda, Yasushi; Okada, Masashi; Masaki, Yoshimitsu; Yamamoto, Akitomo; Shigemitsu, Masahito; Yoshimori, Masakazu; Sueyoshi, Tetsuo; Iwase, Kenta; Hanasaki, Naota; Ito, Akihiko; Sakurai, Gen; Iizumi, Toshichika; Oki, Taikan

    2015-04-01

    Anthropogenic climate change possibly causes various impacts on human society and ecosystem. Here, we call possible damages or benefits caused by the future climate change as "climate risks". Many climate risks are closely interconnected with each other by direct cause-effect relationship. In this study, the major climate risks are comprehensively summarized based on the survey of studies in the literature using IPCC AR5 etc, and their cause-effect relationship are visualized by a "network diagram". This research is conducted by the collaboration between the experts of various fields, such as water, energy, agriculture, health, society, and eco-system under the project called ICA-RUS (Integrated Climate Assessment - Risks, Uncertainties and Society). First, the climate risks are classified into 9 categories (water, energy, food, health, disaster, industry, society, ecosystem, and tipping elements). Second, researchers of these fields in our project survey the research articles, and pick up items of climate risks, and possible cause-effect relationship between the risk items. A long list of the climate risks is summarized into ~130, and that of possible cause-effect relationship between the risk items is summarized into ~300, because the network diagram would be illegible if the number of the risk items and cause-effect relationship is too large. Here, we only consider the risks that could occur if climate mitigation policies are not conducted. Finally, the chain of climate risks is visualized by creating a "network diagram" based on a network graph theory (Fruchtman & Reingold algorithm). Through the analysis of network diagram, we find that climate risks at various sectors are closely related. For example, the decrease in the precipitation under the global climate change possibly causes the decrease in river runoff and the decrease in soil moisture, which causes the changes in crop production. The changes in crop production can have an impact on society by

  20. Fuel cell electrode interconnect contact material encapsulation and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derose, Anthony J.; Haltiner, Jr., Karl J.; Gudyka, Russell A.; Bonadies, Joseph V.; Silvis, Thomas W.

    2016-05-31

    A fuel cell stack includes a plurality of fuel cell cassettes each including a fuel cell with an anode and a cathode. Each fuel cell cassette also includes an electrode interconnect adjacent to the anode or the cathode for providing electrical communication between an adjacent fuel cell cassette and the anode or the cathode. The interconnect includes a plurality of electrode interconnect protrusions defining a flow passage along the anode or the cathode for communicating oxidant or fuel to the anode or the cathode. An electrically conductive material is disposed between at least one of the electrode interconnect protrusions and the anode or the cathode in order to provide a stable electrical contact between the electrode interconnect and the anode or cathode. An encapsulating arrangement segregates the electrically conductive material from the flow passage thereby, preventing volatilization of the electrically conductive material in use of the fuel cell stack.

  1. Optical backplane interconnect switch for data processors and computers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, Herbert D.; Benz, Harry F.; Hammer, Jacob M.

    1989-01-01

    An optoelectronic integrated device design is reported which can be used to implement an all-optical backplane interconnect switch. The switch is sized to accommodate an array of processors and memories suitable for direct replacement into the basic avionic multiprocessor backplane. The optical backplane interconnect switch is also suitable for direct replacement of the PI bus traffic switch and at the same time, suitable for supporting pipelining of the processor and memory. The 32 bidirectional switchable interconnects are configured with broadcast capability for controls, reconfiguration, and messages. The approach described here can handle a serial interconnection of data processors or a line-to-link interconnection of data processors. An optical fiber demonstration of this approach is presented.

  2. Solar-cell interconnect design for terrestrial photovoltaic modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mon, G. R.; Moore, D. M.; Ross, R. G., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Useful solar cell interconnect reliability design and life prediction algorithms are presented, together with experimental data indicating that the classical strain cycle (fatigue) curve for the interconnect material does not account for the statistical scatter that is required in reliability predictions. This shortcoming is presently addressed by fitting a functional form to experimental cumulative interconnect failure rate data, which thereby yields statistical fatigue curves enabling not only the prediction of cumulative interconnect failures during the design life of an array field, but also the quantitative interpretation of data from accelerated thermal cycling tests. Optimal interconnect cost reliability design algorithms are also derived which may allow the minimization of energy cost over the design life of the array field.

  3. Comparison of Spontaneously Elicited Language Patterns in Specific Language Impairment and High-Functioning Autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Megan; Trauner, Doris

    2018-02-01

    We aimed to characterize differences in the use of language in children with specific language impairment and high-functioning autism by analyzing verbal responses on standardized tests. The overall goal was to provide clinicians with additional tools with which to aid in distinguishing the two neurodevelopmental disorders. This study included 16 children with specific language impairment, 28 children with high-functioning autism, and 52 typically developing participants between the ages of six and 14. Groups were matched for age, and specific language impairment and high-functioning autism groups were matched on verbal and performance IQ. Responses from standardized tests were examined for response length, grammatical errors, filler words, perseverations, revisions (repeated attempts to begin or continue a sentence), off-topic attention shifts (lapses in attention to the task), and rambling. Data were analyzed using parametric and nonparametric methods. Specific language impairment responses were longer and contained more filler words than did those of the other two groups, whereas high-functioning autism responses exhibited more grammatical errors, off-topic attention shifts, and rambling. Specific language impairment and high-functioning autism responses showed higher rates of perseveration compared with controls. There were no significant differences in revisions among the three groups. Differences in language patterns of participants with specific language impairment and high-functioning autism may be useful to the clinician in helping to differentiate isolated language impairment from high-functioning autism. The results also support the conclusion that the two conditions are separable, and each exhibits a different pattern of language dysfunction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Synthesis of [diene-"1"4C] curcumin at high specific activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filer, Crist N.; Lacy, James M.; Wright, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    An efficient method is described to label curcumin with "1"4C at high specific activity. - Highlights: • This paper describes the synthesis of ["1"4C] Curcumin at the highest specific activity and total activity amount yet reported. • The "1"4C label was installed in the diene framework of Curcumin. • This paper also describes the characterization of ["1"4C] Curcumin by HPLC and mass spectrometry.

  5. 76 FR 45248 - PJM Interconnection, L.L.C., PJM Power Providers Group v. PJM Interconnection, L.L.C...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-28

    ...-002; Docket No. EL11-20-001] PJM Interconnection, L.L.C., PJM Power Providers Group v. PJM Interconnection, L.L.C.; Supplemental Notice of Staff Technical Conference On June 13, 2011, the Commission issued... Resources Services, Inc., Maryland Public Service Commission, Monitoring Analytics, L.L.C., National Rural...

  6. 76 FR 39870 - PJM Interconnection, LLC; PJM Power Providers Group v. PJM Interconnection, LLC; Notice of Date...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-07

    .... EL11-20-001] PJM Interconnection, LLC; PJM Power Providers Group v. PJM Interconnection, LLC; Notice of... Sell Offers for Planned Generation Capacity Resources submitted into PJM's Reliability Pricing Model... presents an opportunity to exercise buyer market power; (2) whether the Fixed Resource Requirement (FRR...

  7. High-throughput bioscreening system utilizing high-performance affinity magnetic carriers exhibiting minimal non-specific protein binding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanyu, Naohiro; Nishio, Kosuke; Hatakeyama, Mamoru; Yasuno, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Toshiyuki; Tada, Masaru; Nakagawa, Takashi; Sandhu, Adarsh; Abe, Masanori; Handa, Hiroshi

    2009-01-01

    For affinity purification of drug target protein we have developed magnetic carriers, narrow in size distribution (184±9 nm), which exhibit minimal non-specific binding of unwanted proteins. The carriers were highly dispersed in aqueous solutions and highly resistant to organic solvents, which enabled immobilization of various hydrophobic chemicals as probes on the carrier surfaces. Utilizing the carriers we have automated the process of separation and purification of the target proteins that had been done by manual operation previously.

  8. Interconnection issues in Ontario : a status check

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helbronner, V.

    2010-01-01

    This PowerPoint presentation discussed wind and renewable energy interconnection issues in Ontario. The province's Green Energy Act established a feed-in tariff (FIT) program and provided priority connection access to the electricity system for renewable energy generation facilities that meet regulatory requirements. As a result of the province's initiatives, Hydro One has identified 20 priority transmission expansion projects and is focusing on servicing renewable resource clusters. As of October 2010, the Ontario Power Authority (OPA) has received 1469 MW of FIT contracts executed for wind projects. A further 5953 MW of wind projects are awaiting approval. A Korean consortium is now planning to develop 2500 MW of renewable energy projects in the province. The OPA has also been asked to develop an updated transmission expansion plan. Transmission/distribution availability tests (TAT/DAT) have been established to determine if there is sufficient connection availability for FIT application projects. Economic connection tests (ECTs) are conducted to assess whether grid upgrade costs to enable additional FIT capacity are justifiable. When projects pass the ECT, grid upgrades needed for the connection included in grid expansion plans. Ontario's long term energy plan was also reviewed. tabs., figs.

  9. Thermal Runaways in LHC Interconnections: Experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Willering, G P; Bottura, L; Scheuerlein, C; Verweij, A P

    2011-01-01

    The incident in the LHC in September 2008 occurred in an interconnection between two magnets of the 13 kA dipole circuit. This event was traced to a defect in one of the soldered joints between two superconducting cables stabilized by a copper busbar. Further investigation revealed defective joints of other types. A combination of (1) a poor contact between the superconducting cable and the copper stabilizer and (2) an electrical discontinuity in the stabilizer at the level of the connection can lead to an unprotected quench of the busbar. Once the heating power in the unprotected superconducting cable exceeds the heat removal capacity a thermal run-away occurs, resulting in a fast melt-down of the non-stabilized cable. We have performed a thorough investigation of the conditions upon which a thermal run-away in the defect can occur. To this aim, we have prepared heavily instrumented samples with well-defined and controlled defects. In this paper we describe the experiment, and the analysis of the data, and w...

  10. Unavailability of critical SCADA communication links interconnecting a power grid and a Telco network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bobbio, A.; Bonanni, G.; Ciancamerla, E.; Clemente, R.; Iacomini, A.; Minichino, M.; Scarlatti, A.; Terruggia, R.; Zendri, E.

    2010-01-01

    The availability of power supply to power grid customers depends upon the availability of services of supervision, control and data acquisition (SCADA) system, which constitutes the nervous system of a power grid. In turn, SCADA services depend on the availability of the interconnected networks supporting such services. We propose a service oriented stochastic modelling methodology to investigate the availability of large interconnected networks, based on the hierarchical application of different modelling formalisms to different parts of the networks. Interconnected networks are decomposed according to the specific services delivered until the failure and repair mechanisms of the decomposed elementary blocks can be identified. We represent each network by a convenient stochastic modelling formalism, able to capture the main technological issues and to cope with realistic assumptions about failure and recovery mechanisms. This procedure confines the application of the more intensive computational techniques to those subsystems that actually require it. The paper concentrates on an actual failure scenario, occurred in Rome in January 2004 that involved the outage of critical SCADA communication links, interconnecting a power grid and a Telco network.

  11. Unavailability of critical SCADA communication links interconnecting a power grid and a Telco network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bobbio, A. [Dipartimento di Informatica, Universita del Piemonte Orientale, Viale Michel 11, 15121 Alessandria (Italy); Bonanni, G.; Ciancamerla, E. [ENEA - CRE Casaccia, Via Anguillarese 301, 00060 Roma (Italy); Clemente, R. [Telecom Italia Mobile, Via Isonzo112, 10141 Torino (Italy); Iacomini, A. [ACEA, Pl. Ostiense 2, 00154 Roma (Italy); Minichino, M., E-mail: minichino@casaccia.enea.i [ENEA - CRE Casaccia, Via Anguillarese 301, 00060 Roma (Italy); Scarlatti, A. [ACEA, Pl. Ostiense 2, 00154 Roma (Italy); Terruggia, R. [Dipartimento di Informatica, Universita del Piemonte Orientale, Viale Michel 11, 15121 Alessandria (Italy); Zendri, E. [ACEA, Pl. Ostiense 2, 00154 Roma (Italy)

    2010-12-15

    The availability of power supply to power grid customers depends upon the availability of services of supervision, control and data acquisition (SCADA) system, which constitutes the nervous system of a power grid. In turn, SCADA services depend on the availability of the interconnected networks supporting such services. We propose a service oriented stochastic modelling methodology to investigate the availability of large interconnected networks, based on the hierarchical application of different modelling formalisms to different parts of the networks. Interconnected networks are decomposed according to the specific services delivered until the failure and repair mechanisms of the decomposed elementary blocks can be identified. We represent each network by a convenient stochastic modelling formalism, able to capture the main technological issues and to cope with realistic assumptions about failure and recovery mechanisms. This procedure confines the application of the more intensive computational techniques to those subsystems that actually require it. The paper concentrates on an actual failure scenario, occurred in Rome in January 2004 that involved the outage of critical SCADA communication links, interconnecting a power grid and a Telco network.

  12. Protocol and Topology Issues for Wide-Area Satellite Interconnection of Terrestrial Optical LANs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parraga, N.

    2002-01-01

    Apart from broadcasting, the satellite business is targeting niche markets. Wide area interconnection is considered as one of these niche markets, since it addresses operators and business LANs (B2B, business to business) in remote areas where terrestrial infrastructure is not available. These LANs - if high-speed - are typically based on optical networks such as SONET. One of the advantages of SONET is its architecture flexibility and capacity to transport all kind of applications including multimedia with a range of different transmission rates. The applications can be carried by different protocols among which the Internet Protocol (IP) or the Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) are the most prominent ones. Thus, the question arises how these protocols can be interconnected via the satellite segment. The paper addresses several solutions for interworking with different protocols. For this investigation we distinguish first of all between the topology and the switching technology of the satellites. In case of a star network with transparent satellite, the satellite protocol consists of physical layer and data layer which can be directly interconnected with layer 2 interworking function to their terrestrial counterparts in the SONET backbone. For regenerative satellites the situation is more complex: here we need to distinguish the types of transport protocols being used in the terrestrial and satellite segment. Whereas IP, ATM, MPEG dominate in the terrestrial networks, satellite systems usually do not follow these standards. Some might employ minor additions (for instance, satellite specific packet headers), some might be completely proprietary. In general, interworking must be done for the data plane on top of layer 2 (data link layer), whereas for the signaling plane the interworking is on top of layer 3. In the paper we will discuss the protocol stacks for ATM, IP, and MPEG with a regenerative satellite system. As an example we will use the EuroSkyWay satellite

  13. On the importance of specific heats as regards efficiency increases for highly dilute IC engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caton, Jerald A.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Importance of specific heats towards increasing engine efficiency was quantified. • Decreases of specific heats contribute 3.5–6.3% (abs) to the efficiency. • Dilute engines benefit from decreases of specific heats due to lower temperatures. - Abstract: Engineering and scientific efforts continue with the development of advanced, IC engines using highly dilute mixtures, and relatively high compression ratios. Such engines are known to provide opportunities for low emissions as well as high efficiencies. The main features of these engines include higher compression ratios, lean operation, use of EGR, and shorter burn durations. First, this study reviews the quantitative contributions of each of these features as determined by an engine cycle simulation. Second, this study provides the quantitative contributions to the increased efficiency in terms of fundamental thermodynamic considerations. An automotive engine operated at 2000 rpm was selected for this study. For the conditions examined, the net indicated thermal efficiency increased from 37.0% (conventional engine) to 53.9% (high efficiency engine) – for an incremental increase of 16.9% (absolute). The contribution of increases of the ratio of specific heats towards the final thermal efficiency is quantified. This aspect has been well known, but has not been quantified for actual engines. For the various conditions examined, 21–35% of the total efficiency improvement was estimated to be due to the increase of the ratio of specific heats

  14. Hollow Carbon Nanofiber-Encapsulated Sulfur Cathodes for High Specific Capacity Rechargeable Lithium Batteries

    KAUST Repository

    Zheng, Guangyuan

    2011-10-12

    Sulfur has a high specific capacity of 1673 mAh/g as lithium battery cathodes, but its rapid capacity fading due to polysulfides dissolution presents a significant challenge for practical applications. Here we report a hollow carbon nanofiber-encapsulated sulfur cathode for effective trapping of polysulfides and demonstrate experimentally high specific capacity and excellent electrochemical cycling of the cells. The hollow carbon nanofiber arrays were fabricated using anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) templates, through thermal carbonization of polystyrene. The AAO template also facilitates sulfur infusion into the hollow fibers and prevents sulfur from coating onto the exterior carbon wall. The high aspect ratio of the carbon nanofibers provides an ideal structure for trapping polysulfides, and the thin carbon wall allows rapid transport of lithium ions. The small dimension of these nanofibers provides a large surface area per unit mass for Li2S deposition during cycling and reduces pulverization of electrode materials due to volumetric expansion. A high specific capacity of about 730 mAh/g was observed at C/5 rate after 150 cycles of charge/discharge. The introduction of LiNO3 additive to the electrolyte was shown to improve the Coulombic efficiency to over 99% at C/5. The results show that the hollow carbon nanofiber-encapsulated sulfur structure could be a promising cathode design for rechargeable Li/S batteries with high specific energy. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  15. Optics vs copper: from the perspective of "Thunderbolt" interconnect technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hengju; Krause, Christine; Ko, Jamyuen; Gao, Miaobin; Liu, Guobin; Wu, Huichin; Qi, Mike; Lam, Chun-Chit

    2013-02-01

    Interconnect technology has been progressed at a very fast pace for the past decade. The signaling rates have steadily increased from 100:Mb/s to 25Gb/s. In every generation of interconnect technology evolution, optics always seems to take over at first, however, at the end, the cost advantage of copper wins over. Because of this, optical interconnects are limited to longer distance links where the attenuation in copper cable is too large for the integrated circuits to compensate. Optical interconnect has long been viewed as the premier solution in compared with copper interconnect. With the release of Thunderbolt technology, we are entering a new era in consumer electronics that runs at 10Gb/s line rate (20Gb/s throughput per connector interface). Thunderbolt interconnect technology includes both active copper cables and active optical cables as the transmission media which have very different physical characteristics. In order for optics to succeed in consumer electronics, several technology hurdles need to be cleared. For example, the optical cable needs to handle the consumer abuses such as pinch and bend. Also, the optical engine used in the active optical cable needs to be physically very small so that we don't change the looks and feels of the cable/connector. Most importantly, the cost of optics needs to come down significantly to effectively compete with the copper solution. Two interconnect technologies are compared and discussed on the relative cost, power consumption, form factor, density, and future scalability.

  16. Signal Integrity Analysis in Single and Bundled Carbon Nanotube Interconnects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majumder, M.K.; Pandya, N.D.; Kaushik, B.K.; Manhas, S.K.

    2013-01-01

    Carbon nanotube (CN T) can be considered as an emerging interconnect material in current nano scale regime. They are more promising than other interconnect materials such as Al or Cu because of their robustness to electromigration. This research paper aims to address the crosstalk-related issues (signal integrity) in interconnect lines. Different analytical models of single- (SWCNT), double- (DWCNT), and multiwalled CNTs (MWCNT) are studied to analyze the crosstalk delay at global interconnect lengths. A capacitively coupled three-line bus architecture employing CMOS driver is used for accurate estimation of crosstalk delay. Each line in bus architecture is represented with the equivalent RLC models of single and bundled SWCNT, DWCNT, and MWCNT interconnects. Crosstalk delay is observed at middle line (victim) when it switches in opposite direction with respect to the other two lines (aggressors). Using the data predicted by ITRS 2012, a comparative analysis on the basis of crosstalk delay is performed for bundled SWCNT/DWCNT and single MWCNT interconnects. It is observed that the overall crosstalk delay is improved by 40.92% and 21.37% for single MWCNT in comparison to bundled SWCNT and bundled DWCNT interconnects, respectively.

  17. Synthesis of high specific activity tritium labelled [2-3H]-adenosine-5'-triphosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaiswal, D.K.; Morimoto, H.; Trump, E.L.; Williams, P.G.; Wemmer, D.E.

    1996-01-01

    A procedure for high level tritium labelling at the C2-H position of adenosine 5'-triphosphate ([2- 3 H]-ATP, 1), based on the tritiodehalogenation reaction of 2-bromoadenosine 5'-triphosphate (2) has been elaborated. This precursor was prepared in a six-step synthesis from guanosine. The tritiodehalogenation of (2) for three hours over palladium oxide in phosphate buffer yielded tritium labelled ATP with high specific activity, in good chemical yield. (author)

  18. Synthesis of [1,2-3H] testosterone of high specific radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Jiaxiu; Sun Zhiwei; Shen Decun

    1987-01-01

    [1,2- 3 H] testosterone of specific activity as high as 51 Ci/mmol, and radiochemical purity more than 99% has been prepared. The experimental conditions, such as reaction time, ratio of raw material to catalyst and separation method have been studied. The product was separated by silica-paper TLC (thin-laryer chromatography) at first, then purified by high performance liquid chromatography. The product has good stability with a purity of 95% after one year storage

  19. Analysis of interconnecting energy systems over a synchronized life cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nian, Victor

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A methodology is developed for evaluating a life cycle of interconnected systems. • A new concept of partial temporal boundary is introduced via quantitative formulation. • The interconnecting systems are synchronized through the partial temporal boundary. • A case study on the life cycle of the coal–uranium system is developed. - Abstract: Life cycle analysis (LCA) using the process chain analysis (PCA) approach has been widely applied to energy systems. When applied to an individual energy system, such as coal or nuclear electricity generation, an LCA–PCA methodology can yield relatively accurate results with its detailed process representation based on engineering data. However, there are fundamental issues when applying conventional LCA–PCA methodology to a more complex life cycle, namely, a synchronized life cycle of interconnected energy systems. A synchronized life cycle of interconnected energy systems is established through direct interconnections among the processes of different energy systems, and all interconnecting systems are bounded within the same timeframe. Under such a life cycle formation, there are some major complications when applying conventional LCA–PCA methodology to evaluate the interconnecting energy systems. Essentially, the conventional system and boundary formulations developed for a life cycle of individual energy system cannot be directly applied to a life cycle of interconnected energy systems. To address these inherent issues, a new LCA–PCA methodology is presented in this paper, in which a new concept of partial temporal boundary is introduced to synchronize the interconnecting energy systems. The importance and advantages of these new developments are demonstrated through a case study on the life cycle of the coal–uranium system.

  20. High-field specific heats of A15 V3Si and Nb3Sn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, G.R.; Brandt, B.L.

    1984-01-01

    In order to further understand the anomalous behavior of the specific heat of Nb 3 Sn in an 18-T magnetic field discovered by Stewart, Cort, and Webb [Phys. Rev. B 24, 3841 (1981)], we have performed specific-heat measurements on a different sample of Nb 3 Sn at lower fields both in the normal and mixed states, as well as measurement to 19 T on both transforming and nontransforming V 3 Si. The high-field data for V 3 Si indicate that this material behaves quite normally, and that γ/sup trans/ 3 Sn, however, remains anomalous, with both the same ''kink'' in the normal-state field data as observed by Stewart, Cort, and Webb (although at a slightly higher temperature) and unusual mixed-state behavior. The mixed-state specific heat of the V 3 Si samples is as expected, based on earlier work on the mixed-state specific heat of V and Nb

  1. Chemical synthesis of high specific-activity [35S]adenosylhomocysteine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stern, P.H.; Hoffman, R.M.

    1986-01-01

    The study of the family of transmethylases, critical to normal cellular function and often altered in cancer, can be facilitated by the availability of a high specific-activity S-adenosylhomocysteine. The authors report the two-step preparation of [ 35 S]adenosylhomocysteine from [ 35 S]methionine at a specific activity of 1420 Ci/mmol in an overall yield of 24% by a procedure involving demethylation of the [ 35 S]methionine to [ 35 S]homocysteine followed by condensation with 5'-chloro-5'-deoxyadenosine. The ease of the reactions, ready availability and low cost of the reagents and high specific-activity and stability of the product make the procedure an attractive one with many uses, and superior to current methodology

  2. Highly specific detection of genetic modification events using an enzyme-linked probe hybridization chip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, M Z; Zhang, X F; Chen, X M; Chen, X; Wu, S; Xu, L L

    2015-08-10

    The enzyme-linked probe hybridization chip utilizes a method based on ligase-hybridizing probe chip technology, with the principle of using thio-primers for protection against enzyme digestion, and using lambda DNA exonuclease to cut multiple PCR products obtained from the sample being tested into single-strand chains for hybridization. The 5'-end amino-labeled probe was fixed onto the aldehyde chip, and hybridized with the single-stranded PCR product, followed by addition of a fluorescent-modified probe that was then enzymatically linked with the adjacent, substrate-bound probe in order to achieve highly specific, parallel, and high-throughput detection. Specificity and sensitivity testing demonstrated that enzyme-linked probe hybridization technology could be applied to the specific detection of eight genetic modification events at the same time, with a sensitivity reaching 0.1% and the achievement of accurate, efficient, and stable results.

  3. Highly Specific and Wide Range NO2 Sensor with Color Readout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fàbrega, Cristian; Fernández, Luis; Monereo, Oriol; Pons-Balagué, Alba; Xuriguera, Elena; Casals, Olga; Waag, Andreas; Prades, Joan Daniel

    2017-11-22

    We present a simple and inexpensive method to implement a Griess-Saltzman-type reaction that combines the advantages of the liquid phase method (high specificity and fast response time) with the benefits of a solid implementation (easy to handle). We demonstrate that the measurements can be carried out using conventional RGB sensors; circumventing all the limitations around the measurement of the samples with spectrometers. We also present a method to optimize the measurement protocol and target a specific range of NO 2 concentrations. We demonstrate that it is possible to measure the concentration of NO 2 from 50 ppb to 300 ppm with high specificity and without modifying the Griess-Saltzman reagent.

  4. Porous silicon structures with high surface area/specific pore size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northrup, M.A.; Yu, C.M.; Raley, N.F.

    1999-03-16

    Fabrication and use of porous silicon structures to increase surface area of heated reaction chambers, electrophoresis devices, and thermopneumatic sensor-actuators, chemical preconcentrates, and filtering or control flow devices. In particular, such high surface area or specific pore size porous silicon structures will be useful in significantly augmenting the adsorption, vaporization, desorption, condensation and flow of liquids and gases in applications that use such processes on a miniature scale. Examples that will benefit from a high surface area, porous silicon structure include sample preconcentrators that are designed to adsorb and subsequently desorb specific chemical species from a sample background; chemical reaction chambers with enhanced surface reaction rates; and sensor-actuator chamber devices with increased pressure for thermopneumatic actuation of integrated membranes. Examples that benefit from specific pore sized porous silicon are chemical/biological filters and thermally-activated flow devices with active or adjacent surfaces such as electrodes or heaters. 9 figs.

  5. Specificity of "Live High-Train Low" altitude training on exercise performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bejder, Jacob; Nordsborg, Nikolai Baastrup

    2018-01-01

    The novel hypothesis that "Live High-Train Low" (LHTL) does not improve sport-specific exercise performance (e.g., time trial) is discussed. Indeed, many studies demonstrate improved performance after LHTL but unfortunately control groups are often lacking, leaving open the possibility of training...

  6. A large, benign prostatic cyst presented with an extremely high serum prostate-specific antigen level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Han-Kuang; Pemberton, Richard

    2016-01-08

    We report a case of a patient who presented with an extremely high serum prostate specific antigen (PSA) level and underwent radical prostatectomy for presumed prostate cancer. Surprisingly, the whole mount prostatectomy specimen showed only small volume, organ-confined prostate adenocarcinoma and a large, benign intraprostatic cyst, which was thought to be responsible for the PSA elevation. 2016 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  7. Do high-growth entrepreneurial firms have a specific system of governance?

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Wirtz

    2009-01-01

    From a meta-model linking a firm’s corporate governance system to managerial discretion (Charreaux, 2008), this article presents a specific corporate governance model for the high growth entrepreneurial firm. A survey of the empirical literature on the governance of entrepreneurial firms confirms the plausibility of this theoretical framework, especially with respect to the cognitive dimension of corporate governance.

  8. Interacting Social Processes on Interconnected Networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucila G Alvarez-Zuzek

    Full Text Available We propose and study a model for the interplay between two different dynamical processes -one for opinion formation and the other for decision making- on two interconnected networks A and B. The opinion dynamics on network A corresponds to that of the M-model, where the state of each agent can take one of four possible values (S = -2,-1, 1, 2, describing its level of agreement on a given issue. The likelihood to become an extremist (S = ±2 or a moderate (S = ±1 is controlled by a reinforcement parameter r ≥ 0. The decision making dynamics on network B is akin to that of the Abrams-Strogatz model, where agents can be either in favor (S = +1 or against (S = -1 the issue. The probability that an agent changes its state is proportional to the fraction of neighbors that hold the opposite state raised to a power β. Starting from a polarized case scenario in which all agents of network A hold positive orientations while all agents of network B have a negative orientation, we explore the conditions under which one of the dynamics prevails over the other, imposing its initial orientation. We find that, for a given value of β, the two-network system reaches a consensus in the positive state (initial state of network A when the reinforcement overcomes a crossover value r*(β, while a negative consensus happens for r βc. We develop an analytical mean-field approach that gives an insight into these regimes and shows that both dynamics are equivalent along the crossover line (r*, β*.

  9. Genomic Predictability of Interconnected Biparental Maize Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedelsheimer, Christian; Endelman, Jeffrey B.; Stange, Michael; Sorrells, Mark E.; Jannink, Jean-Luc; Melchinger, Albrecht E.

    2013-01-01

    Intense structuring of plant breeding populations challenges the design of the training set (TS) in genomic selection (GS). An important open question is how the TS should be constructed from multiple related or unrelated small biparental families to predict progeny from individual crosses. Here, we used a set of five interconnected maize (Zea mays L.) populations of doubled-haploid (DH) lines derived from four parents to systematically investigate how the composition of the TS affects the prediction accuracy for lines from individual crosses. A total of 635 DH lines genotyped with 16,741 polymorphic SNPs were evaluated for five traits including Gibberella ear rot severity and three kernel yield component traits. The populations showed a genomic similarity pattern, which reflects the crossing scheme with a clear separation of full sibs, half sibs, and unrelated groups. Prediction accuracies within full-sib families of DH lines followed closely theoretical expectations, accounting for the influence of sample size and heritability of the trait. Prediction accuracies declined by 42% if full-sib DH lines were replaced by half-sib DH lines, but statistically significantly better results could be achieved if half-sib DH lines were available from both instead of only one parent of the validation population. Once both parents of the validation population were represented in the TS, including more crosses with a constant TS size did not increase accuracies. Unrelated crosses showing opposite linkage phases with the validation population resulted in negative or reduced prediction accuracies, if used alone or in combination with related families, respectively. We suggest identifying and excluding such crosses from the TS. Moreover, the observed variability among populations and traits suggests that these uncertainties must be taken into account in models optimizing the allocation of resources in GS. PMID:23535384

  10. Method of forming a leak proof plasma sprayed interconnection layer on an electrode of an electrochemical cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Lewis J. H.; Vora, Shailesh D.

    1995-01-01

    A dense, substantially gas-tight, electrically conductive interconnection layer is formed on an electrode structure of an electrochemical cell by: (A) providing an electrode structure; (B) forming on a selected portion of the electrode surface, an interconnection layer having the general formula La.sub.1-x M.sub.x Cr.sub.1-y N.sub.y O.sub.3, where M is a dopant selected from the group of Ca, Sr, Ba, and mixtures thereof, and where N is a dopant selected from the group of Mg, Co, Ni, Al, and mixtures thereof, and where x and y are each independently about 0.075-0.25, by thermally spraying, preferably plasma arc spraying, a flux added interconnection spray powder, preferably agglomerated, the flux added powder comprising flux particles, preferably including dopant, preferably (CaO).sub.12. (Al.sub.2 O.sub.3).sub.7 flux particles including Ca and Al dopant, and LaCrO.sub.3 interconnection particles, preferably undoped LaCrO.sub.3, to form a dense and substantially gas-tight interconnection material bonded to the electrode structure by a single plasma spraying step; and, (C) heat treating the interconnection layer at from about 1200.degree. to 1350.degree. C. to further densify and heal the micro-cracks and macro-cracks of the thermally sprayed interconnection layer. The result is a substantially gas-tight, highly doped, electrically conductive interconnection material bonded to the electrode structure. The electrode structure can be an air electrode, and a solid electrolyte layer can be applied to the unselected portion of the air electrode, and further a fuel electrode can be applied to the solid electrolyte, to form an electrochemical cell for generation of electrical power.

  11. Report on achievements in fiscal 1998. Development of technologies to put photovoltaic power generation systems into practical use - Demonstrative research on photovoltaic power generation system (Study on grid interconnection technique for dispersed photovoltaic systems under high-density connection); 1998 nendo taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Taiyoko hatsuden system no jissho kenkyu (komitsudo renkei gijutsu no kenkyu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Interconnecting photovoltaic systems with power transmission systems under high density affects power quality, protection, maintenance and stability of the transmission lines. As measures to deal with this issue, investigations are being made on (1) elucidation of effects imposed on transmission lines, (2) establishment of countermeasure technologies, and (3) technological options leading to higher value addition. In Item (1), with an objective to identify the current status, evaluations were given on prevention of independent operation of commercially available inverters, and on their stabilizing performance against system fluctuation. The evaluations were performed by conducting a test for multiple unit operation in parallel and a single unit performance test. The test result indicated that, while the prevention performance can be satisfied, maloperation has occurred frequently due to the system fluctuation, and that voltage rise due to the inverter was suppressed effectively by using the simultaneous control of active and reactive powers. In Item (2), a demonstration test was launched on an inverter incorporating a new prevention device. The effective means to suppress voltage rise in the high-voltage power transmission lines is the discrete voltage suppression by controlling reactive power. In addition, a proposal was made on a new voltage and phase detection method that can be used at short circuit of the high-voltage transmission lines. In Item (3), having a photovoltaic system contain a small size batteries was found effective in suppressing the power generation output variation, and in smoothing the loads. (NEDO)

  12. On-chip photonic interconnects a computer architect's perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Nitta, Christopher J; Akella, Venkatesh

    2013-01-01

    As the number of cores on a chip continues to climb, architects will need to address both bandwidth and power consumption issues related to the interconnection network. Electrical interconnects are not likely to scale well to a large number of processors for energy efficiency reasons, and the problem is compounded by the fact that there is a fixed total power budget for a die, dictated by the amount of heat that can be dissipated without special (and expensive) cooling and packaging techniques. Thus, there is a need to seek alternatives to electrical signaling for on-chip interconnection appli

  13. The Enhanced Segment Interconnect for FASTBUS data communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machen, D.R.; Downing, R.W.; Kirsten, F.A.; Nelson, R.O.

    1987-01-01

    The Enhanced Segment Interconnect concept (ESI) for improved FASTBUS data communications is a development supported by the U.S. Department of Energy under the Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program. The ESI will contain both the Segment Interconnect (SI) Tyhpe S-1 and an optional buffered interconnect for store-and-forward data communications; fiber-optic-coupled serial ports will provide optional data paths. The ESI can be applied in large FASTBUS-implemented physics experiments whose data-set or data-transmission distance requirements dictate alternate approaches to data communications. This paper describes the functions of the ESI and the status of its development, now 25% complete

  14. Interconnecting PV on New York City's Secondary Network Distribution System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, K; Coddington, M; Burman, K; Hayter, S; Kroposki, B; Watson, and A

    2009-11-01

    less expensive distributed PV system interconnections. To assess ways to improve the interconnection process, NREL conducted a four-part study with support from DOE. The NREL team then compiled the final reports from each study into this report. In Section 1PV Deployment Analysis for New York City we analyze the technical potential for rooftop PV systems in the city. This analysis evaluates potential PV power production in ten Con Edison networks of various locations and building densities (ranging from high density apartments to lower density single family homes). Next, we compare the potential power production to network loads to determine where and when PV generation is most likely to exceed network load and disrupt network protection schemes. The results of this analysis may assist Con Edison in evaluating future PV interconnection applications and in planning future network protection system upgrades. This analysis may also assist other utilities interconnecting PV systems to networks by defining a method for assessing the technical potential of PV in the network and its impact on network loads. Section 2. A Briefing for Policy Makers on Connecting PV to a Network Grid presents an overview intended for nontechnical stakeholders. This section describes the issues associated with interconnecting PV systems to networks, along with possible solutions. Section 3. Technical Review of Concerns and Solutions to PV Interconnection in New York City summarizes common concerns of utility engineers and network experts about interconnecting PV systems to secondary networks. This section also contains detailed descriptions of nine solutions, including advantages and disadvantages, potential impacts, and road maps for deployment. Section 4. Utility Application Process Reviewlooks at utility interconnection application processes across the country and identifies administrative best practices for efficient PV interconnection.

  15. Enhanced Lithium- and Sodium-Ion Storage in an Interconnected Carbon Network Comprising Electronegative Fluorine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Seok-Min; Etacheri, Vinodkumar; Hong, Chulgi Nathan; Choi, Seung Wan; Lee, Ki Bong; Pol, Vilas G

    2017-06-07

    Fluorocarbon (C x F y ) anode materials were developed for lithium- and sodium-ion batteries through a facile one-step carbonization of a single precursor, polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF). Interconnected carbon network structures were produced with doped fluorine in high-temperature carbonization at 500-800 °C. The fluorocarbon anodes derived from the PVDF precursor showed higher reversible discharge capacities of 735 mAh g -1 and 269 mAh g -1 in lithium- and sodium-ion batteries, respectively, compared to the commercial graphitic carbon. After 100 charge/discharge cycles, the fluorocarbon showed retentions of 91.3% and 97.5% in lithium (at 1C) and sodium (at 200 mA g -1 ) intercalation systems, respectively. The effects of carbonization temperature on the electrochemical properties of alkali metal ion storage were thoroughly investigated and documented. The specific capacities in lithium- and sodium-ion batteries were dependent on the fluorine content, indicating that the highly electronegative fluorine facilitates the insertion/extraction of lithium and sodium ions in rechargeable batteries.

  16. High specificity but low sensitivity of mutation-specific antibodies against EGFR mutations in non-small-cell lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bondgaard, Anna-Louise; Høgdall, Estrid; Mellemgaard, Anders

    2014-01-01

    of more sensitive methods including real-time PCR (RT-PCR). Immunohistochemistry with mutation-specific antibodies might be a promising detection method. We evaluated 210 samples with NSCLC from an unselected Caucasian population. Extracted DNA was analyzed for EGFR mutations by RT-PCR (Therascreen EGFR......, and staining score (multipum of intensity (graded 0-3) and percentages (0-100%) of stained tumor cells) was calculated. Positivity was defined as staining score >0. Specificity of exon19 antibody was 98.8% (95% confidence interval=95.9-99.9%) and of exon21 antibody 97.8% (95% confidence interval=94...... was demonstrated. However, sensitivity was low, especially for exon19 deletions, and thus these antibodies cannot yet be used as screening method for EGFR mutations in NSCLC. Refinement of sensitivity for the mutation-specific antibodies is warranted to improve molecular diagnosis using EGFR immunohistochemistry....

  17. Floating dielectric slab optical interconnection between metal-dielectric interface surface plasmon polariton waveguides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Minsu; Park, Junghyun; Lee, Il-Min; Lee, Byoungho

    2009-01-19

    A simple and effective optical interconnection which connects two distanced single metal-dielectric interface surface plasmon waveguides by a floating dielectric slab waveguide (slab bridge) is proposed. Transmission characteristics of the suggested structure are numerically studied using rigorous coupled wave analysis, and design rules based on the study are given. In the wave-guiding part, if the slab bridge can support more than the fundamental mode, then the transmission efficiency of the interconnection shows strong periodic dependency on the length of the bridge, due to the multi-mode interference (MMI) effect. Otherwise, only small fluctuation occurs due to the Fabry-Pérot effect. In addition, light beating happens when the slab bridge is relatively short. In the wave-coupling part, on the other hand, gap-assisted transmission occurs at each overlapping region as a consequence of mode hybridization. Periodic dependency on the length of the overlap region also appears due to the MMI effect. According to these results, we propose design principles for achieving both high transmission efficiency and stability with respect to the variation of the interconnection distance, and we show how to obtain the transmission efficiency of 68.3% for the 1mm-long interconnection.

  18. The economic impacts of a submarine HVDC interconnection between Norway and Great Britain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doorman, Gerard L.; Frøystad, Dag Martin

    2013-01-01

    In the present paper we analyze the profitability of different HVDC interconnection alternatives between Norway and Great Britain for present and future scenarios. The analysis is done from a merchant and a social welfare perspective. The analyses include interconnections between Norway and Scotland and Southern Great Britain, respectively, as well as an alternative link to a future offshore wind farm. From a social welfare perspective the northern interconnection alternative is profitable under all sets of assumptions. The southern alternative is profitable under present conditions, but less than the northern alternative. The alternative link to the offshore wind park is not profitable, but this result is highly dependent on market conditions. From a merchant perspective none of the alternatives is profitable, clearly illustrating that leaving investments to commercial parties does not realize all projects that increase social welfare. - Highlights: • Profitability of interconnection between Norway and GB is analyzed using simulation. • The Northern alternative increases social welfare under all assumptions. • None of the alternatives is profitable from a merchant perspective. • A link to a prospective wind farm 200 km from the GB coast is not profitable. • Social welfare increasing infrastructure may not be built on commercial conditions

  19. Specification for the interconnection to a electric network of low tension of photovoltaic systems with 30 kW of capacity; Especificacion para la interconexion a la red electrica de baja tension de sistemas fotovoltaicos con capacidad hasta 30kW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Gutierrez, Jose [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Mexico (Mexico)

    2007-06-15

    In this presentation, there are shown the details of the photovoltaic systems interconnected with the electric network (SFVI), carried out by the Mexico's Federal Electricity Commission (CFE) with the support of the Mexican Electric Research Institute (IIE). First of all, there are found the objectives of the photovoltaic system interconnected to the electric network (SFVI). Then, there are mentioned the places where such sort of systems could be installed; besides, it is shown a diagram explaining the process of such systems. At the same time, there are briefly explained the components that are necessaries for their properly operation. Some of the elements previously mentioned are: photovoltaic generator (GFV), inverter, interface, and logic circuits and the control. It is shown a diagram with the location of the electrical disconnect switches. Then, it is shortly explained the place where the SFVI should be connected and there are given some requisites that are important to fulfill in order to have everything updated. Finally, it is mentioned the methodology that should be followed in order to supervise that everything works in a properly way, this last issue is carried out by CFE. [Spanish] En esta presentacion se presentan los pormenores del sistema fotovoltaico interconectado a la red (SFVI), realizado por la Comision federal de Electricidad (CFE) con apoyo del Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE). En primer lugar, se encuentran los objetivos que tiene el uso de SFVI. Enseguida, se muestra un diagrama que explica el proceso que dichos sistemas realizan. Asimismo, se explican brevemente los elementos que, de uno u otro modo, son necesarios para el adecuado funcionamiento del SFV. Ademas, se muestra un diagrama con la ubicacion de los interruptores de desconexion. Luego, se explica escuetamente el lugar donde se debe de conectar el SFVI, ademas de algunas condiciones que se deben de cumplir para que no haya mayores contratiempos. Finalmente, se

  20. Evaluation of highly conserved hsp65-specific nested PCR primers for diagnosing Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priyadarshini, P; Tiwari, K; Das, A; Kumar, D; Mishra, M N; Desikan, P; Nath, G

    2017-02-01

    To evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of a new nested set of primers designed for the detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex targeting a highly conserved heat shock protein gene (hsp65). The nested primers were designed using multiple sequence alignment assuming the nucleotide sequence of the M. tuberculosis H37Rv hsp65 genome as base. Multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium species along with other non-mycobacterial and fungal species were included to evaluate the specificity of M. tuberculosis hsp65 gene-specific primers. The sensitivity of the primers was determined using serial 10-fold dilutions, and was 100% as shown by the bands in the case of M. tuberculosis complex. None of the other non M. tuberculosis complex bacterial and fungal species yielded any band on nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The first round of amplification could amplify 0.3 ng of the template DNA, while nested PCR could detect 0.3 pg. The present hsp65-specific primers have been observed to be sensitive, specific and cost-effective, without requiring interpretation of biochemical tests, real-time PCR, sequencing or high-performance liquid chromatography. These primer sets do not have the drawbacks associated with those protocols that target insertion sequence 6110, 16S rDNA, rpoB, recA and MPT 64.

  1. Effective Inhibition of Bone Morphogenetic Protein Function by Highly Specific Llama-Derived Antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calpe, Silvia; Wagner, Koen; El Khattabi, Mohamed; Rutten, Lucy; Zimberlin, Cheryl; Dolk, Edward; Verrips, C Theo; Medema, Jan Paul; Spits, Hergen; Krishnadath, Kausilia K

    2015-11-01

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMP) have important but distinct roles in tissue homeostasis and disease, including carcinogenesis and tumor progression. A large number of BMP inhibitors are available to study BMP function; however, as most of these antagonists are promiscuous, evaluating specific effects of individual BMPs is not feasible. Because the oncogenic role of the different BMPs varies for each neoplasm, highly selective BMP inhibitors are required. Here, we describe the generation of three types of llama-derived heavy chain variable domains (VHH) that selectively bind to either BMP4, to BMP2 and 4, or to BMP2, 4, 5, and 6. These generated VHHs have high affinity to their targets and are able to inhibit BMP signaling. Epitope binning and docking modeling have shed light into the basis for their BMP specificity. As opposed to the wide structural reach of natural inhibitors, these small molecules target the grooves and pockets of BMPs involved in receptor binding. In organoid experiments, specific inhibition of BMP4 does not affect the activation of normal stem cells. Furthermore, in vitro inhibition of cancer-derived BMP4 noncanonical signals results in an increase of chemosensitivity in a colorectal cancer cell line. Therefore, because of their high specificity and low off-target effects, these VHHs could represent a therapeutic alternative for BMP4(+) malignancies. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  2. Production of high specific activity 27Mg by fast neutron irradiation and recoil-aided leaching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wierczinski, B.; Goeij, J.J.M. de; Volkers, K.J.

    2000-01-01

    High specific activity 27 Mg was produced via recoil-aided leaching from alumina in aqueous medium during irradiation with fast neutrons from a nuclear reactor. After irradiation the aqueous medium was passed through an IC-chelate column, the 24 Na formed during irradiation was removed by elution with 0.25 ml . l -1 sodium acetate and subsequently the 27 Mg was eluted with 2 mol . l -1 hydrochloric acid. Irradiation of alumina with a particle size of 3 μm and a specific surface area of 100 m 2 . g -1 in Milli-Q Plus Water yielded 90% of the total 27 Mg activity produced. Under standard conditions activities of about 8 . 10 5 Bq and specific activities of ca. 10 13 Bq . mol -1 were obtained at the end of irradiation. The standard working conditions involved irradiation of 200 mg alumina dispersed in 0.5 ml liquid in a fast neutron flux of 3 . 10 15 m -2 . s -1 for 15 min, a waiting time of 10 min, and a processing time of 15 minutes. Various alumina samples with different particle sizes and specific surfaces were tested, and the 27 Mg yields were fitted to a mathematical function. Since the high leaching yields cannot only be explained by recoil only, other phenomena such as diffusion and leaching aided by the high hydration energy of the Mg 2+ ion are probably involved. (orig.)

  3. Synthesis of high specific activity carbon-11 labeled tracers for neuroreceptor studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dannals, R.F.; Ravert, H.T.; Wilson, A.A.; Wagner, H.N. Jr; Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, MD

    1989-01-01

    The use of short-lived positron-emitting radiotracers together with positron emission tomography (PET) has allowed scientists to acquire previously inaccessible information regarding problems in physiology, biochemistry, and pharmacology in the living human body. In the past five years, successes in the application of PET to the non-invasive determination of the spatial distribution and regional concentration of a variety of neurotransmitter binding sites within the living brain often followed the successful selections and syntheses of appropriately radiolabeled ligands. This presentation concentrates on the synthesis of these high specific activity radiotracers for neuroreceptor PET studies labeled specifically with carbon-11. (author). 15 refs.; 1 fig

  4. Opto-Electronic and Interconnects Hierarchical Design Automation System (OE-IDEAS)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Turowski, M

    2004-01-01

    As microelectronics technology continues to advance, the associated electrical interconnection technology is not likely to keep pace, due to many parasitic effects appearing in metallic interconnections...

  5. Knowledge Access in Rural Inter-connected Areas Network ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Knowledge Access in Rural Inter-connected Areas Network (KariaNet) - Phase II ... the existing network to include two thematic networks on food security and rural ... Woman conquering male business in Yemen : Waleya's micro-enterprise.

  6. Free-Space Optical Interconnect Employing VCSEL Diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Rainee N.; Savich, Gregory R.; Torres, Heidi

    2009-01-01

    Sensor signal processing is widely used on aircraft and spacecraft. The scheme employs multiple input/output nodes for data acquisition and CPU (central processing unit) nodes for data processing. To connect 110 nodes and CPU nodes, scalable interconnections such as backplanes are desired because the number of nodes depends on requirements of each mission. An optical backplane consisting of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs), VCSEL drivers, photodetectors, and transimpedance amplifiers is the preferred approach since it can handle several hundred megabits per second data throughput.The next generation of satellite-borne systems will require transceivers and processors that can handle several Gb/s of data. Optical interconnects have been praised for both their speed and functionality with hopes that light can relieve the electrical bottleneck predicted for the near future. Optoelectronic interconnects provide a factor of ten improvement over electrical interconnects.

  7. Knowledge Access in Rural Inter-connected Areas Network ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Knowledge Access in Rural Inter-connected Areas Network (KariaNet) - Phase II ... poor by sharing innovations, best practices and indigenous knowledge using ... A third thematic network - on knowledge management strategies - will play an ...

  8. Amorphous carbon nanofibres inducing high specific capacitance of deposited hydrous ruthenium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barranco, V.; Pico, F.; Ibanez, J.; Lillo-Rodenas, M.A.; Linares-Solano, A.; Kimura, M.; Oya, A.; Rojas, R.M.; Amarilla, J.M.; Rojo, J.M.

    2009-01-01

    Composites consisting of ruthenium oxide particles deposited on amorphous carbon nanofibres are prepared by a repetitive impregnation procedure. The choice of amorphous carbon nanofibres as support of amorphous ruthenium oxide leads to composites in which the deposited oxide consists of aggregates of extremely small primary particles (1-1.5 nm-size) and showing high porosity (specific surface area of 450 m 2 g -1 ). This special deposition of the oxide seems to favour: (i) high oxide capacitance (1000 Fg -1 ) at high oxide loadings (up to 20 wt%) and (ii) high capacitance retention (ca. 80% from the initial oxide capacitance) at high current densities (200 mA cm -2 ). Amorphous carbon nanofibres are suitable supports for amorphous ruthenium oxide and perhaps for other amorphous oxides acting as active electrode materials.

  9. Interconnected Power Systems Mexico-Guatemala financed by BID

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, Veronica

    2003-01-01

    The article describes the plans for the interconnection of the electric power systems of Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Panama and Mexico within the project Plan Pueba Panama. The objective of the interconnection is to create an electric market in the region that contributes to reduce costs and prices. The project will receive a financing of $37.5 millions of US dollars from the Banco Intrameramericano de Desarrollo (BID)

  10. Robust design of head interconnect for hard disk drive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, X. K.; Liu, Q. H.; Liu, Z. J.

    2005-05-01

    Design of head interconnect is one of the important issues for hard disk drives with higher data rate and storage capacity. The impedance of interconnect and electromagnetic coupling influence the quality level of data communication. Thus an insightful study on how the trace configuration affects the impedance and crosstalk is necessary. An effective design approach based on Taguchi's robust design method is employed therefore in an attempt to realize impedance matching and crosstalk minimization with the effects of uncontrollable sources taken into consideration.

  11. Monolithic microwave integrated circuits: Interconnections and packaging considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhasin, K. B.; Downey, A. N.; Ponchak, G. E.; Romanofsky, R. R.; Anzic, G.; Connolly, D. J.

    1984-01-01

    Monolithic microwave integrated circuits (MMIC's) above 18 GHz were developed because of important potential system benefits in cost reliability, reproducibility, and control of circuit parameters. The importance of interconnection and packaging techniques that do not compromise these MMIC virtues is emphasized. Currently available microwave transmission media are evaluated to determine their suitability for MMIC interconnections. An antipodal finline type of microstrip waveguide transition's performance is presented. Packaging requirements for MMIC's are discussed for thermal, mechanical, and electrical parameters for optimum desired performance.

  12. Monolithic microwave integrated circuits: Interconnections and packaging considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhasin, K. B.; Downey, A. N.; Ponchak, G. E.; Romanofsky, R. R.; Anzic, G.; Connolly, D. J.

    Monolithic microwave integrated circuits (MMIC's) above 18 GHz were developed because of important potential system benefits in cost reliability, reproducibility, and control of circuit parameters. The importance of interconnection and packaging techniques that do not compromise these MMIC virtues is emphasized. Currently available microwave transmission media are evaluated to determine their suitability for MMIC interconnections. An antipodal finline type of microstrip waveguide transition's performance is presented. Packaging requirements for MMIC's are discussed for thermal, mechanical, and electrical parameters for optimum desired performance.

  13. Load shedding scheme in the south/southeastern interconnected system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieira Filho, Xisto; Couri, J J.G.; Gomes, P; Almeida, P C [ELETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    1988-12-31

    This paper presents some characteristics of the Brazilian interconnected system and discusses the load shedding scheme in its different stages considering the beginning of operation of the Itaipu power plant. The present situation of the South and Southeastern load shedding scheme combination is also commented. Finally, the interconnected system evolution and the effects on the load shedding schemes are discussed. 4 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Printed polymer photonic devices for optical interconnect systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subbaraman, Harish; Pan, Zeyu; Zhang, Cheng; Li, Qiaochu; Guo, L. J.; Chen, Ray T.

    2016-03-01

    Polymer photonic device fabrication usually relies on the utilization of clean-room processes, including photolithography, e-beam lithography, reactive ion etching (RIE) and lift-off methods etc, which are expensive and are limited to areas as large as a wafer. Utilizing a novel and a scalable printing process involving ink-jet printing and imprinting, we have fabricated polymer based photonic interconnect components, such as electro-optic polymer based modulators and ring resonator switches, and thermo-optic polymer switch based delay networks and demonstrated their operation. Specifically, a modulator operating at 15MHz and a 2-bit delay network providing up to 35.4ps are presented. In this paper, we also discuss the manufacturing challenges that need to be overcome in order to make roll-to-roll manufacturing practically viable. We discuss a few manufacturing challenges, such as inspection and quality control, registration, and web control, that need to be overcome in order to realize true implementation of roll-to-roll manufacturing of flexible polymer photonic systems. We have overcome these challenges, and currently utilizing our inhouse developed hardware and software tools, <10μm alignment accuracy at a 5m/min is demonstrated. Such a scalable roll-to-roll manufacturing scheme will enable the development of unique optoelectronic devices which can be used in a myriad of different applications, including communication, sensing, medicine, security, imaging, energy, lighting etc.

  15. Financial Economy and Financial System: Basis of Structural Interconnection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khorosheva Olena I.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the article lies in identification of grounds of interconnection of the financial economy and financial system. The study was conducted with consideration of main provisions of the theory of finance and concept of financial economy, which is a set of means used in the process of reproduction of finance by their owner for formation and / or maintenance of the own system of values in the viable state. For the first time ever the structure of the financial system is identified as an aggregate of financial economies and financial market. The article justifies a necessity of expansion of boundaries of perception of the state financial economy, which is offered to include public financial economy of the state level and the set of financial economies of the state as a subject of economic activity. Such an approach forms a base for justification of the synthesis of participation of the state in financial relations as the owner and as the basic macro-economic regulator. Prospects of further study in this direction are: development of classification of financial economies; revelation of specific features of impact of shadow finance on development of the national financial economy; and assessment of possibilities of inclusion of structured financial products into the system of values of financial economies in Ukraine.

  16. Production of high quality distillate to meet a fit-for-purpose boiler feedwater specification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minnich, K. [Veolia Water Solutions Oil and Gas, Calgary, AB (Canada); Neu, D. [Veolia Water Solutions and Technologies/HPD, Pewaukee, WI (United States); Drone, J.L. [Veolia Water Solutions and Technologies/HPD, Plainfield, IL (United States)

    2009-07-01

    Veolia Water Solutions and Technologies has significant experience managing boiler water chemistry and is the world's largest manufacturer of evaporation systems. The company has conducted extensive testing and analysis for produced water evaporation distillate from multiple facilities. In order to produce boiler feed water, evaporation of produced water is used at several steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) facilities. There are no official guidelines for the required quality of evaporator distillate to feed a once through steam generator (OTSG) or high pressure industrial watertube boiler (IWT) that will produce injection steam. This paper presented a basis for a fit-for-purpose specification for IWT boilers as well as data on the performance of a Vapor Washer, which produces high quality distilled water that meets fit-for-purpose specifications even during normal variations in feed conditions. Specifically, the paper discussed boiler water requirements for steam injection IWTs; the quality of distillate from a produced water evaporator; the benefits of vapour washing to maintain distillate quality; and suggested boiler chemistry limits for a fit-for-purpose specification. Oxygen, iron, and copper were discussed as being implicated with corrosion and reaction in boilers. Hardness contaminants such as calcium and magnesium were also presented. Suggested limits for boiler water in the fit-for-purpose specification were also presented for silica, total alkalinity, free OH alkalinity, and total dissolved solids in steam. It was concluded that foaming episodes can occur in produced water evaporators due to normal variations, and the distillate can fail to meet the fit-for-purpose specification during foam upsets. 3 refs., 9 figs.

  17. Numerical simulation of CTE mismatch and thermal-structural stresses in the design of interconnects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Geoffrey John M.

    With the ever-increasing chip complexity, interconnects have to be designed to meet the new challenges. Advances in optical lithography have made chip feature sizes available today at 70 nm dimensions. With advances in Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography, X-ray Lithography, and Ion Projection Lithography it is expected that the line width will further decrease to 20 nm or less. With the decrease in feature size, the number of active devices on the chip increases. With higher levels of circuit integration, the challenge is to dissipate the increased heat flux from the chip surface area. Thermal management considerations include coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) matching to prevent failure between the chip and the board. This in turn calls for improved system performance and reliability of the electronic structural systems. Experience has shown that in most electronic systems, failures are mostly due to CTE mismatch between the chip, board, and the solder joint (solder interconnect). The resulting high thermal-structural stress and strain due to CTE mismatch produces cracks in the solder joints with eventual failure of the electronic component. In order to reduce the thermal stress between the chip, board, and the solder joint, this dissertation examines the effect of inserting wire bundle (wire interconnect) between the chip and the board. The flexibility of the wires or fibers would reduce the stress at the rigid joints. Numerical simulations of two, and three-dimensional models of the solder and wire interconnects are examined. The numerical simulation is linear in nature and is based on linear isotropic material properties. The effect of different wire material properties is examined. The effect of varying the wire diameter is studied by changing the wire diameter. A major cause of electronic equipment failure is due to fatigue failure caused by thermal cycling, and vibrations. A two-dimensional modal and harmonic analysis was simulated for the wire interconnect

  18. Polyaniline nanofibers with a high specific surface area and an improved pore structure for supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hailing; Li, Xingwei; Wang, Gengchao

    2015-10-01

    Polyaniline (PANI) with a high specific surface area and an improved pore structure (HSSA-PANI) has been prepared by using a facile method, treating PANI nanofibers with chloroform (CHCl3), and its structure, morphology and pore structure are investigated. The specific surface area and pore volume of HSSA-PANI are 817.3 m2 g-1 and 0.6 cm3 g-1, and those of PANI are 33.6 m2 g-1 and 0.2 cm3 g-1. As electrode materials, a large specific surface area and pore volume can provide high electroactive regions, accelerate the diffusion of ions, and mitigate the electrochemical degradation of active materials. Compared with PANI, the capacity retention rate of HSSA-PANI is 90% with a growth of current density from 5.0 to 30 A g-1, and that of PANI is 29%. At a current density of 30 A g-1, the specific capacitance of HSSA-PANI still reaches 278.3 F g-1, and that of PANI is 86.7 F g-1. At a current density of 5.0 A g-1, the capacitance retention of HSSA-PANI is 53.1% after 2000 cycles, and that of PANI electrode is only 28.1%.

  19. Development of a highly sensitive and specific immunoassay for enrofloxacin based on heterologous coating haptens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhanhui; Zhang, Huiyan; Ni, Hengjia; Zhang, Suxia; Shen, Jianzhong

    2014-04-11

    In the paper, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent immunoassay (ELISA) for detection of enrofloxacin was described using one new derivative of enrofloxacin as coating hapten, resulting in surprisingly high sensitivity and specificity. Incorporation of aminobutyric acid (AA) in the new derivative of enrofloxacin had decreased the IC50 of the ELISA for enrofloxacin from 1.3 μg L(-1) to as low as 0.07 μg L(-1). The assay showed neglect cross-reactivity for other fluoroquinolones but ofloxacin (8.23%), marbofloxacin (8.97%) and pefloxacin (7.29%). Analysis of enrofloxacin fortified chicken muscle showed average recoveries from 81 to 115%. The high sensitivity and specificity of the assay makes it a suitable screening method for the determination of low levels of enrofloxacin in chicken muscle without clean-up step. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Constrained dansyl derivatives reveal bacterial specificity of highly conserved thymidylate synthases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calò, Sanuele; Tondi, Donatella; Ferrari, Stefania; Venturelli, Alberto; Ghelli, Stefano; Costi, Maria Paola

    2008-03-25

    The elucidation of the structural/functional specificities of highly conserved enzymes remains a challenging area of investigation, and enzymes involved in cellular replication are important targets for functional studies and drug discovery. Thymidylate synthase (TS, ThyA) governs the synthesis of thymidylate for use in DNA synthesis. The present study focused on Lactobacillus casei TS (LcTS) and Escherichia coli TS (EcTS), which exhibit 50 % sequence identity and strong folding similarity. We have successfully designed and validated a chemical model in which linear, but not constrained, dansyl derivatives specifically complement the LcTS active site. Conversely, chemically constrained dansyl derivatives showed up to 1000-fold improved affinity for EcTS relative to the inhibitory activity of linear derivatives. This study demonstrates that the accurate design of small ligands can uncover functional features of highly conserved enzymes.

  1. Incorporation of gene-specific variability improves expression analysis using high-density DNA microarrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spitznagel Edward

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The assessment of data reproducibility is essential for application of microarray technology to exploration of biological pathways and disease states. Technical variability in data analysis largely depends on signal intensity. Within that context, the reproducibility of individual probe sets has not been hitherto addressed. Results We used an extraordinarily large replicate data set derived from human placental trophoblast to analyze probe-specific contribution to variability of gene expression. We found that signal variability, in addition to being signal-intensity dependant, is probe set-specific. Importantly, we developed a novel method to quantify the contribution of this probe set-specific variability. Furthermore, we devised a formula that incorporates a priori-computed, replicate-based information on probe set- and intensity-specific variability in determination of expression changes even without technical replicates. Conclusion The strategy of incorporating probe set-specific variability is superior to analysis based on arbitrary fold-change thresholds. We recommend its incorporation to any computation of gene expression changes using high-density DNA microarrays. A Java application implementing our T-score is available at http://www.sadovsky.wustl.edu/tscore.html.

  2. A two-level voltage source inverter with differentially sinusoidal pulse width modulation used in the interconnection system of a wind turbine generator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandros C. Charalampidis

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This study analyses an interconnection system based on differentially sinusoidal pulse width modulation, used for the interconnection to the grid of a variable speed wind turbine. The modulation technique used provides specific advantages in comparison with the commonly used sinusoidal pulse width modulation (SPWM technique, such as lower DC bus voltage requirements, smaller switching losses for the same switching frequency as well as less higher harmonic content in the voltage waveforms produced. The respective control system is also described in detail. Thus this study provides a guide enabling the design of any interconnection system based on this modulation technique.

  3. Structural basis for the high specificity of a Trypanosoma congolense immunoassay targeting glycosomal aldolase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joar Pinto

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Animal African trypanosomosis (AAT is a neglected tropical disease which imposes a heavy burden on the livestock industry in Sub-Saharan Africa. Its causative agents are Trypanosoma parasites, with T. congolense and T. vivax being responsible for the majority of the cases. Recently, we identified a Nanobody (Nb474 that was employed to develop a homologous sandwich ELISA targeting T. congolense fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase (TcoALD. Despite the high sequence identity between trypanosomatid aldolases, the Nb474-based immunoassay is highly specific for T. congolense detection. The results presented in this paper yield insights into the molecular principles underlying the assay's high specificity.The structure of the Nb474-TcoALD complex was determined via X-ray crystallography. Together with analytical gel filtration, the structure reveals that a single TcoALD tetramer contains four binding sites for Nb474. Through a comparison with the crystal structures of two other trypanosomatid aldolases, TcoALD residues Ala77 and Leu106 were identified as hot spots for specificity. Via ELISA and surface plasmon resonance (SPR, we demonstrate that mutation of these residues does not abolish TcoALD recognition by Nb474, but does lead to a lack of detection in the Nb474-based homologous sandwich immunoassay.The results show that the high specificity of the Nb474-based immunoassay is not determined by the initial recognition event between Nb474 and TcoALD, but rather by its homologous sandwich design. This (i provides insights into the optimal set-up of the assay, (ii may be of great significance for field applications as it could explain the potential detection escape of certain T. congolense strains, and (iii may be of general interest to those developing similar assays.

  4. Status of JENDL High Energy File. Evaluation method, tools, specification, release procedure, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukahori, Tokio [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1998-11-01

    The ENDF-6 format file should be kept as a standard distribution file and it is not difficult to convert into some other form for code`s libraries. From this point of view, status of JENDL High Energy File is introduced in this report as well as evaluation strategy, recommended specification, stored nuclides and quantities, a format structure, evaluation methods and tools, and release plan. (author)

  5. Fabrication of mesoporous and high specific surface area lanthanum carbide-carbon nanotube composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biasetto, L.; Carturan, S.; Maggioni, G.; Zanonato, P.; Bernardo, P. Di; Colombo, P.; Andrighetto, A.; Prete, G.

    2009-01-01

    Mesoporous lanthanum carbide-carbon nanotube composites were produced by means of carbothermal reaction of lanthanum oxide, graphite and multi-walled carbon nanotube mixtures under high vacuum. Residual gas analysis revealed the higher reactivity of lanthanum oxide towards carbon nanotubes compared to graphite. After sintering, the composites revealed a specific surface area increasing with the amount of carbon nanotubes introduced. The meso-porosity of carbon nanotubes was maintained after thermal treatment.

  6. Specification for high voltage cable plug and socket connections for medical X-ray equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    Under the direction of the Light Engineering Standards Committee, a British Standard Specification has been prepared for three-conductor and four-conductor high-voltage cable plug and socket connections for medical X-ray equipment. The standard deals with the essential dimensions to ensure mechanical interchangeability, the recommended dimensions, the wiring connections to contacts of plug and socket and the marking of contacts of plug and socket. (U.K.)

  7. Method of preparing tritium-labelled thymidine-5'-monophosphates of high specific activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filip, J.; Vesely, J.; Cihak, A.

    1976-01-01

    A method is described of preparing thymidine-5'-monophosphates labelled with tritium of high specific activity based on enzyme synthesis in vitro. Phosphorylation was carried out using the catalytic effect of an enzyme contained in the supernatant fraction prepared from Yoshida ascites carcinoma in rats. The course of the enzyme reaction can be controlled by the concentration of the individual reaction mixture components. The method described allows obtaining thymidine-5'-monophosphate of radiochemical purity better than 95%. (J.B.)

  8. Brachytherapy boost and cancer-specific mortality in favorable high-risk versus other high-risk prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinayak Muralidhar

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : Recent retrospective data suggest that brachytherapy (BT boost may confer a cancer-specific survival benefit in radiation-managed high-risk prostate cancer. We sought to determine whether this survival benefit would extend to the recently defined favorable high-risk subgroup of prostate cancer patients (T1c, Gleason 4 + 4 = 8, PSA 20 ng/ml. Material and methods: We identified 45,078 patients in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database with cT1c-T3aN0M0 intermediate- to high-risk prostate cancer diagnosed 2004-2011 treated with external beam radiation therapy (EBRT only or EBRT plus BT. We used multivariable competing risks regression to determine differences in the rate of prostate cancer-specific mortality (PCSM after EBRT + BT or EBRT alone in patients with intermediate-risk, favorable high-risk, or other high-risk disease after adjusting for demographic and clinical factors. Results : EBRT + BT was not associated with an improvement in 5-year PCSM compared to EBRT alone among patients with favorable high-risk disease (1.6% vs. 1.8%; adjusted hazard ratio [AHR]: 0.56; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.21-1.52, p = 0.258, and intermediate-risk disease (0.8% vs. 1.0%, AHR: 0.83, 95% CI: 0.59-1.16, p = 0.270. Others with high-risk disease had significantly lower 5-year PCSM when treated with EBRT + BT compared with EBRT alone (3.9% vs. 5.3%; AHR: 0.73; 95% CI: 0.55-0.95; p = 0.022. Conclusions : Brachytherapy boost is associated with a decreased rate of PCSM in some men with high-risk prostate cancer but not among patients with favorable high-risk disease. Our results suggest that the recently-defined “favorable high-risk” category may be used to personalize therapy for men with high-risk disease.

  9. Specification of optical components for a high average-power laser environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, J.R.; Chow, R.; Rinmdahl, K.A.; Willis, J.B.; Wong, J.N.

    1997-06-25

    Optical component specifications for the high-average-power lasers and transport system used in the Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS) plant must address demanding system performance requirements. The need for high performance optics has to be balanced against the practical desire to reduce the supply risks of cost and schedule. This is addressed in optical system design, careful planning with the optical industry, demonstration of plant quality parts, qualification of optical suppliers and processes, comprehensive procedures for evaluation and test, and a plan for corrective action.

  10. Non-aqueous nanoporous gold based supercapacitors with high specific energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou, Ying; Chen, Luyang; Hirata, Akihiko; Fujita, Takeshi; Chen, Mingwei

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we report that the supercapacitor performance of polypyrrole (PPy) in non-aqueous electrolytes can be dramatically improved by highly conductive nanoporous gold which acts as both the support of active PPy and the current collector of supercapacitors. The excellent electronic conductivity, rich porous structure and large surface area of the nanoporous electrodes give rise to a high specific capacitance and low internal resistance in non-aqueous electrolytes. Combining with a wide working potential window of ~ 2 V, the non-aqueous PPy-based supercapacitors show an extraordinary energy density and power density.

  11. High Sensitivity and High Detection Specificity of Gold-Nanoparticle-Grafted Nanostructured Silicon Mass Spectrometry for Glucose Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsao, Chia-Wen; Yang, Zhi-Jie

    2015-10-14

    Desorption/ionization on silicon (DIOS) is a high-performance matrix-free mass spectrometry (MS) analysis method that involves using silicon nanostructures as a matrix for MS desorption/ionization. In this study, gold nanoparticles grafted onto a nanostructured silicon (AuNPs-nSi) surface were demonstrated as a DIOS-MS analysis approach with high sensitivity and high detection specificity for glucose detection. A glucose sample deposited on the AuNPs-nSi surface was directly catalyzed to negatively charged gluconic acid molecules on a single AuNPs-nSi chip for MS analysis. The AuNPs-nSi surface was fabricated using two electroless deposition steps and one electroless etching step. The effects of the electroless fabrication parameters on the glucose detection efficiency were evaluated. Practical application of AuNPs-nSi MS glucose analysis in urine samples was also demonstrated in this study.

  12. Impact of a PV system interconnected to the electric network of a High Consumption Domestic user's demand in BCS; Impacto de un sistema fotovoltaico interconectado a red en la demanda electrica de un usuario DAC en BCS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez Grajales, H. R.; Agredano Diaz, Jaime; Gonzalez Galarza, R.; Munguia del Rio, G. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2010-11-15

    In Mexico, the incident solar radiation is high enough, that encourage its use both to produce process heat or electricity trough solar cells in autonomous configurations or grid. In European countries with substantially lower irradiation levels such as Germany or Spain. PV Grid Connected Systems (PVGCS) are a mature technology that is widely used in these countries, mainly due to tax incentives and preferential feed in tariffs schemes. Of the benefits that electricity production modality provides both the user and to the electricity grid and also the technical benefits for the utilities for incorporating distributed generation at its distribution system. In Mexico, more and more people are motivated to invest in this type of technology. This article analyzes the particular case of a user that is classified as High Consumption Domestic Customer (HCDC) in the city of La Paz, Baja California Sur, Mexico, who owns a single phase of 6 kWp PVGCS installed on the roof of her house. The reported results in this paper come from data analyzed by the Electrical Research Institute (IIE) for a three year monitoring period. The paper includes meteorological information, energy and power balances, maximum power, standard production, system losses, efficiency of the photovoltaic generator and inverters, among other performance information. The document highlights the impact that the PV system on electricity consumption user billing from the utility, and some recommendations are provided on what must be done in order get out from the HCDC classification and the economic benefits of it. [Spanish] En Mexico se tienen niveles de irradiacion solar suficientemente altos que desde un punto de vista puramente energetico alientan a su aprovechamiento en la produccion de electricidad, ello mediante sistemas fotovoltaicos directamente conectados a la red electrica convencional (SFVI). En paises europeos con niveles de irradiacion sustancialmente inferiores - i.e. Espana o Alemania- esta

  13. Purification of charybdotoxine, a specific inhibitor of the high-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, C.; Phillips, M.; Miller, C.

    1986-01-01

    Charybdotoxim is a high-affinity specific inhibitor of the high-conductance Ca 2+ -activated K + channel found in the plasma membranes of many vertebrate cell types. Using Ca 2+ -activated K + channels reconstituted into planar lipid bilayer membranes as an assay, the authors have purified the toxin from the venom of the scorpion Leiurus quinquestriatus by a two-step procedure involving chromatofocusing on SP-Sephadex, followed by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. Charybdotoxin is shown to be a highly basic protein with a mass of 10 kDa. Under the standard assay conditions, the purified toxin inhibits the Ca 2+ -activated K + channel with an apparent dissociation constant of 3.5 nM. The protein is unusually stable, with inhibitory potency being insensitive to boiling or exposure to organic solvents. The toxin's activity is sensitive to chymotrypsin treatment and to acylation of lysine groups. The protein may be radioiodinated without loss of activity

  14. Fabrication of high specificity hollow mesoporous silica nanoparticles assisted by Eudragit for targeted drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    She, Xiaodong; Chen, Lijue; Velleman, Leonora; Li, Chengpeng; Zhu, Haijin; He, Canzhong; Wang, Tao; Shigdar, Sarah; Duan, Wei; Kong, Lingxue

    2015-05-01

    Hollow mesoporous silica nanoparticles (HMSNs) are one of the most promising carriers for effective drug delivery due to their large surface area, high volume for drug loading and excellent biocompatibility. However, the non-ionic surfactant templated HMSNs often have a broad size distribution and a defective mesoporous structure because of the difficulties involved in controlling the formation and organization of micelles for the growth of silica framework. In this paper, a novel "Eudragit assisted" strategy has been developed to fabricate HMSNs by utilising the Eudragit nanoparticles as cores and to assist in the self-assembly of micelle organisation. Highly dispersed mesoporous silica spheres with intact hollow interiors and through pores on the shell were fabricated. The HMSNs have a high surface area (670 m(2)/g), small diameter (120 nm) and uniform pore size (2.5 nm) that facilitated the effective encapsulation of 5-fluorouracil within HMSNs, achieving a high loading capacity of 194.5 mg(5-FU)/g(HMSNs). The HMSNs were non-cytotoxic to colorectal cancer cells SW480 and can be bioconjugated with Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF) for efficient and specific cell internalization. The high specificity and excellent targeting performance of EGF grafted HMSNs have demonstrated that they can become potential intracellular drug delivery vehicles for colorectal cancers via EGF-EGFR interaction. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Starvation, Together with the SOS Response, Mediates High Biofilm-Specific Tolerance to the Fluoroquinolone Ofloxacin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernier, Steve P.; Lebeaux, David; DeFrancesco, Alicia S.; Valomon, Amandine; Soubigou, Guillaume; Coppée, Jean-Yves; Ghigo, Jean-Marc; Beloin, Christophe

    2013-01-01

    High levels of antibiotic tolerance are a hallmark of bacterial biofilms. In contrast to well-characterized inherited antibiotic resistance, molecular mechanisms leading to reversible and transient antibiotic tolerance displayed by biofilm bacteria are still poorly understood. The physiological heterogeneity of biofilms influences the formation of transient specialized subpopulations that may be more tolerant to antibiotics. In this study, we used random transposon mutagenesis to identify biofilm-specific tolerant mutants normally exhibited by subpopulations located in specialized niches of heterogeneous biofilms. Using Escherichia coli as a model organism, we demonstrated, through identification of amino acid auxotroph mutants, that starved biofilms exhibited significantly greater tolerance towards fluoroquinolone ofloxacin than their planktonic counterparts. We demonstrated that the biofilm-associated tolerance to ofloxacin was fully dependent on a functional SOS response upon starvation to both amino acids and carbon source and partially dependent on the stringent response upon leucine starvation. However, the biofilm-specific ofloxacin increased tolerance did not involve any of the SOS-induced toxin–antitoxin systems previously associated with formation of highly tolerant persisters. We further demonstrated that ofloxacin tolerance was induced as a function of biofilm age, which was dependent on the SOS response. Our results therefore show that the SOS stress response induced in heterogeneous and nutrient-deprived biofilm microenvironments is a molecular mechanism leading to biofilm-specific high tolerance to the fluoroquinolone ofloxacin. PMID:23300476

  16. Evaluation of STS 430 and STS 444 for SOFC Interconnect Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S. H.; Huh, J. Y.; Jun, J. H.; Kim, D. H.; Jun, J. H.

    2007-01-01

    Ferritic stainless steels for the SOFC interconnect applications are required to possess not only a good oxidation resistance, but also a high electrical conductivity of te oxide scale that forms during exposure at the SOFC operating environment. In order to understand the effects of alloying elements on the oxidation behavior of ferritic stainless steels and on the electrical properties of oxide scales, two kinds of commercial ferritic stainless steels, STS 430 and STS 444, were investigated by performing isothermal oxidations at 800 .deg. C in a wet air containing 3% H 2 O. The results showed that STS 444 was superior to STS 430 in both of the oxidation resistance and the area specific resistance. Although STS 444 contained a less amount of Mn for the (Mn, Cr) 3 O 4 spinel formation than STS 430, the minor alloying elements of Al and Mo in STS 444, which were accumulated in the base metal region adjacent the scale, were suggested to reduce the scale growth rate and to enhance the scale adherence to the base metal

  17. Development of pore interconnectivity/morphology in porous silica films investigated by cyclic voltammetry and slow positron annihilation spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Xiuqin; Xiong, Bangyun; Li, Qichao; Mao, Wenfeng; Xiao, Wei; Fang, Pengfei; He, Chunqing

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: •Porous silica films were studied by cyclic voltammetry and positron annihilation. •Highly interconnected pores were formed in the film fabricated with more CTAB. •Aligned nanochannels were observed in the porous flim prepared with 25 wt.% CTAB. •I − and Ps diffusion in the films was governed by pore interconnectivity/morphology. •Cyclic voltammetry is feasible to explore pore interconnectivity/morphology. -- Abstract: Cyclic voltammetry and positronium (Ps) 3γ-annihilation spectroscopy were applied to investigate pore interconnectivity/morphology of porous silica films fabricated with various loading of cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB). With increasing the ratio of CTAB up to 15 wt.%, the total charge Q, resulted from I − diffusion across the silica films, increased remarkably, indicative of formation of highly interconnected pores in the films prepared with more porogen. However, it decreased dramatically with further loading CTAB of 25 wt.%. Interestingly, 3γ-annihilation fraction I 3γ due to a triplet-state Ps (ortho-positronium, o-Ps) emission from the silica films showed a similar behavior as a function of CTAB loading. The abnormal decrement in Q and I 3γ in the film fabricated with 25 wt.% CTAB was well explained by formation of long nanochannels aligning parallel to the film surface. The results indicated that the total charge Q and Ps 3γ-annihilation fraction were closely associated with I − and Ps diffusion governed by the pore interconnectivity/morphology of the silica films, which made cyclic voltammetry possible to be a feasible tool to characterize pore interconnectivity/morphology of porous thin films

  18. Development of Innovative Distributed Power Interconnection and Control Systems: Annual Report, December 2000-December 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liss, W.; Dybel, M.; West, R.; Adams, L.

    2002-11-01

    This report covers the first year's work performed by the Gas Technology Institute and Encorp Inc. under subcontract to the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. The objective of this three-year contract is to develop innovative grid interconnection and control systems. This supports the advancement of distributed generation in the marketplace by making installations more cost-effective and compatible across the electric power and energy management systems. Specifically, the goals are: (1) To develop and demonstrate cost-effective distributed power grid interconnection products and software and communication solutions applicable to improving the economics of a broad range of distributed power systems, including existing, emerging, and other power generation technologies. (2) To enhance the features and capabilities of distributed power products to integrate, interact, and provide operational benefits to the electric power and advanced energy management systems. This includes features and capabilities for participating in resource planning, the provision of ancillary services, and energy management. Specific topics of this report include the development of an advanced controller, a power sensing board, expanded communication capabilities, a revenue-grade meter interface, and a case study of an interconnection distributed power system application that is a model for demonstrating the functionalities of the design of the advanced controller.

  19. INTERCONNECTING NETWORKS WITH DIFFERENT LEVELS OF SECURITY – A PRESENT NATO PROBLEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIVIU TATOMIR

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A situation often met in the Romanian Armed Forces in recent years is the need for interconnecting two networks (domains with different levels of classification. Considering that the Romanian armed troops are involved in numerous missions with NATO partners, solutions, already implemented across the organization, are considered to be applied in domestic systems, also. This paper presents the solutions adopted by NATO in order to solve the problem of cross -domains interconnections. We present the maturity level reached by these solutions and the possibility of implementing these solutions in the Romanian Armed Forces, with or without specific adaptation to our own rules and regulations. The goal is to use a NATO already proved solution to our national classified networks.

  20. Testing of Ni-plated ferritic steel interconnect in SOFC stacks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, K.A.; Dinesen, A.R.; Korcakova, L.

    2006-01-01

    heating to 1,030 °C. During this time, 20–70 μm thick surface layers of austenitic steel were formed, which were covered by a 1–4 μm chromia layer on the anode side and by a layer of mixed Cr-Fe-Ni-spinels over a 1–4 μm chromia layer on the cathode side. The microstructure and composition...... of the protective scale on the cathode side was susceptible to pitting-type corrosion patterns, which may limit the life expectancy to less than 2,000 hours for the 200 μm thick interconnect tested. The initial area-specific resistances (ASR) at the interconnect/cathode current collector interface...

  1. Identification of fluorescent compounds with non-specific binding property via high throughput live cell microscopy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangeeta Nath

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Compounds exhibiting low non-specific intracellular binding or non-stickiness are concomitant with rapid clearing and in high demand for live-cell imaging assays because they allow for intracellular receptor localization with a high signal/noise ratio. The non-stickiness property is particularly important for imaging intracellular receptors due to the equilibria involved. METHOD: Three mammalian cell lines with diverse genetic backgrounds were used to screen a combinatorial fluorescence library via high throughput live cell microscopy for potential ligands with high in- and out-flux properties. The binding properties of ligands identified from the first screen were subsequently validated on plant root hair. A correlative analysis was then performed between each ligand and its corresponding physiochemical and structural properties. RESULTS: The non-stickiness property of each ligand was quantified as a function of the temporal uptake and retention on a cell-by-cell basis. Our data shows that (i mammalian systems can serve as a pre-screening tool for complex plant species that are not amenable to high-throughput imaging; (ii retention and spatial localization of chemical compounds vary within and between each cell line; and (iii the structural similarities of compounds can infer their non-specific binding properties. CONCLUSION: We have validated a protocol for identifying chemical compounds with non-specific binding properties that is testable across diverse species. Further analysis reveals an overlap between the non-stickiness property and the structural similarity of compounds. The net result is a more robust screening assay for identifying desirable ligands that can be used to monitor intracellular localization. Several new applications of the screening protocol and results are also presented.

  2. Bacteria can form interconnected microcolonies when a self-excreted product reduces their surface motility: evidence from individual-based model simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mabrouk, Nabil; Deffuant, Guillaume; Tolker-Nielsen, Tim

    2010-01-01

    Recent experimental observations of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a model bacterium in biofilm research, reveal that, under specific growth conditions, bacterial cells form patterns of interconnected microcolonies. In the present work, we use an individual-based model to assess the involvement of bacte......Recent experimental observations of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a model bacterium in biofilm research, reveal that, under specific growth conditions, bacterial cells form patterns of interconnected microcolonies. In the present work, we use an individual-based model to assess the involvement...... of bacteria motility and self-produced extracellular substance in the formation of these patterns. In our simulations, the pattern of interconnected microcolonies appears only when bacteria motility is reduced by excreted extracellular macromolecules. Immotile bacteria form isolated microcolonies...... and constantly motile bacteria form flat biofilms. Based on experimental data and computer simulations, we suggest a mechanism that could be responsible for these interconnected microcolonies....

  3. High expression of testes-specific protease 50 is associated with poor prognosis in colorectal carcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Zheng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Testes-specific protease 50 (TSP50 is normally expressed in testes and abnormally expressed in breast cancer, but whether TSP50 is expressed in colorectal carcinoma (CRC and its clinical significance is unclear. We aimed to detect TSP50 expression in CRC, correlate it with clinicopathological factors, and assess its potential diagnostic and prognostic value. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: TSP50 mRNAs and proteins were detected in 7 CRC cell lines and 8 CRC specimens via RT-PCR and Western blot analysis. Immunohistochemical analysis of TSP50, p53 and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA with tissue microarrays composed of 95 CRCs, 20 colorectal adenomas and 20 normal colorectal tissues were carried out and correlated with clinicopathological characteristics and disease-specific survival for CRC patients. There was no significant correlation between the expression levels of TSP50 and p53 (P = 0.751 or CEA (P = 0.663. Abundant expression of TSP50 protein was found in CRCs (68.4% while it was poorly expressed in colorectal adenomas and normal tissues (P<0.0001. Thus, CRCs can be distinguished from them with high specificity (92.5% and positive predictive value (PPV, 95.6%. The survival of CRC patients with high TSP50 expression was significantly shorter than that of the patients with low TSP50 expression (P = 0.010, specifically in patients who had early-stage tumors (stage I and II; P = 0.004. Multivariate Cox regression analysis indicated that high TSP50 expression was a statistically significant independent risk factor (hazard ratio  = 2.205, 95% CI = 1.214-4.004, P = 0.009. CONCLUSION: Our data demonstrate that TSP50 is a potential effective indicator of poor survival for CRC patients, especially for those with early-stage tumors.

  4. An Immunoglobulin G1 Monoclonal Antibody Highly Specific to the Wall of Cryptosporidium Oocysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weir, C.; Vesey, G.; Slade, M.; Ferrari, B.; Veal, D. A.; Williams, K.

    2000-01-01

    The detection of Cryptosporidium oocysts in drinking water is critically dependent on the quality of immunofluorescent reagents. Experiments were performed to develop a method for producing highly specific antibodies to Cryptosporidium oocysts that can be used for water testing. BALB/c mice were immunized with six different antigen preparations and monitored for immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgM responses to the surface of Cryptosporidium oocysts. One group of mice received purified oocyst walls, a second group received a soluble protein preparation extracted from the outside of the oocyst wall, and the third group received whole inactivated oocysts. Three additional groups were immunized with sequentially prepared oocyst extracts to provide for a comparison of the immune response. Mice injected with the soluble protein extract demonstrated an IgG response to oocysts surface that was not seen in the whole-oocyst group. Mice injected with whole oocysts showed an IgM response only, while mice injected with purified oocyst walls showed little increase in IgM or IgG levels. Of the additional reported preparations only one, BME (2-mercaptoethanol treated), produced a weak IgM response to the oocyst wall. A mouse from the soluble oocyst extract group yielding a high IgG response was utilized to produce a highly specific IgG1 monoclonal antibody (Cry104) specific to the oocyst surface. Comparative flow cytometric analysis indicated that Cry104 has a higher avidity and specificity to oocysts in water concentrates than other commercially available antibodies. PMID:10973448

  5. Preclinical evaluation of somatostatin analogs bearing two macrocyclic chelators for high specific activity labeling with radiometals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storch, D.; Schmitt, J.S.; Waldherr, C.; Maecke, H.R.; Waser, B.; Reubi, J.C.

    2007-01-01

    Radiometallated analogues of the regulatory peptide somatostatin are of interest in the in vivo localization and targeted radiotherapy of somatostatin receptor-overexpressing tumors. An important aspect of their use in vivo is a fast and efficient labeling (complexation) protocol for radiometals along with a high specific activity. We describe in this manuscript synthetic methods for the coupling of two chelators (1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid = DOTA) to the bioactive peptide [Tyr 3 ,Thr 8 ]-octreotide (TATE) in order to increase the specific activity (radioactivity in Bq per mole peptide). The full chelator-linker-peptide conjugate was assembled on solid support using standard Fmoc chemistry. Two DOTA-chelators were linked to the peptide using lysine or N,N'-bis(3-aminopropyl)-glycine (Apg); in addition, pentasarcosine (Sar 5 ) was used as a spacer between the chelators and the peptide to probe its influence on biology and pharmacology. Complexation rates with In 3+ and Y 3+ salts and the corresponding radiometals were high, the bis-DOTA-derivatives showed higher complexation rates and gave higher specific activity than DOTA-TATE. Pharmacological and biological data of the complexed molecules did not show significant differences if compared to the parent peptide [ 111/nat In-DOTA]-TATE except for [( 111/nat In-DOTA) 2 -Apg]-TATE which showed a lower binding affinity and rate of internalization into tumor cells. The biodistribution of [( 111/nat In-DOTA)-Lys( 111/nat In-DOTA)]-TATE in the rat tumor model (AR4-2J) showed a high and specific (as shown by a blocking experiment) tracer uptake in somatostatin receptor-positive tissue but a lower tumor uptake compared to [ 111/nat In-DOTA]-TATE. (orig.)

  6. Lyapunov-based Stability of Feedback Interconnections of Negative Imaginary Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Ghallab, Ahmed G.

    2017-10-19

    Feedback control systems using sensors and actuators such as piezoelectric sensors and actuators, micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) sensors and opto-mechanical sensors, are allowing new advances in designing such high precision technologies. The negative imaginary control systems framework allows for robust control design for such high precision systems in the face of uncertainties due to unmodelled dynamics. The stability of the feedback interconnection of negative imaginary systems has been well established in the literature. However, the proofs of stability feedback interconnection which are used in some previous papers have a shortcoming due to a matrix inevitability issue. In this paper, we provide a new and correct Lyapunov-based proof of one such result and show that the result is still true.

  7. Lyapunov-based Stability of Feedback Interconnections of Negative Imaginary Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Ghallab, Ahmed G.; Mabrok, Mohamed; Petersen, Ian R.

    2017-01-01

    Feedback control systems using sensors and actuators such as piezoelectric sensors and actuators, micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) sensors and opto-mechanical sensors, are allowing new advances in designing such high precision technologies. The negative imaginary control systems framework allows for robust control design for such high precision systems in the face of uncertainties due to unmodelled dynamics. The stability of the feedback interconnection of negative imaginary systems has been well established in the literature. However, the proofs of stability feedback interconnection which are used in some previous papers have a shortcoming due to a matrix inevitability issue. In this paper, we provide a new and correct Lyapunov-based proof of one such result and show that the result is still true.

  8. Electromigration in integrated circuit interconnects studied by X-ray microscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Schneider, G; Anderson, E; Bates, W; Salmassi, F; Nachimuthu, P; Pearson, A; Richardson, D; Hambach, D; Hoffmann, N; Hasse, W; Hoffmann, K

    2003-01-01

    To study mass transport phenomena in advanced microelectronic devices with X-rays requires penetration of dielectric and Si layers up to 30 mu m thick. X-ray imaging at 1.8 keV photon energy provides a high amplitude contrast between Cu or Al interconnects and dielectric layers and can penetrate through the required thickness. To perform X-ray microscopy at 1.8 keV, a new Ru/Si multilayer was designed for the transmission X-ray microscope XM-1 installed at the Advanced Light Source in Berkeley. The mass flow in a passivated Cu interconnect was studied at current densities up to 10 sup 7 A/cm sup 2. In addition, we demonstrated the high material contrast from different elements in integrated circuits with a resolution of about 40 nm.

  9. Influence of Micro-Damage on Reliability of Cryogenic Bellows in the LHC Interconnections

    CERN Document Server

    Garion, C

    2008-01-01

    To achieve maximum beam energy in the LHC the accumulated length of the interconnections between LHC main magnets has been limited to around 3% of the total magnetic length in the Arcs and Dispersion Suppressors. Such a low ratio leads to a very compact design of components located in the LHC interconnections. This implies development and evolution of high intensity plastic strain fields in the stainless steel expansion bellows subjected to thermo-mechanical loads at low temperatures. These components have been optimised to ensure high reliability standards required for the LHC. Nevertheless, initial damage can occur and lead to a premature fatigue failure. For structures in which plasticity is not confined to the crack tip region, standard failure mechanics, based classically on the stress intensity factor or the strain energy density release rate, can not be used. In the present paper, a constitutive model taking into account plastic strain induced g->a' phase transformation and orthotropic ductile damage i...

  10. Electromigration in integrated circuit interconnects studied by X-ray microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, G. E-mail: gschnei1@gwdg.de; Denbeaux, G.; Anderson, E.; Bates, W.; Salmassi, F.; Nachimuthu, P.; Pearson, A.; Richardson, D.; Hambach, D.; Hoffmann, N.; Hasse, W.; Hoffmann, K

    2003-01-01

    To study mass transport phenomena in advanced microelectronic devices with X-rays requires penetration of dielectric and Si layers up to 30 {mu}m thick. X-ray imaging at 1.8 keV photon energy provides a high amplitude contrast between Cu or Al interconnects and dielectric layers and can penetrate through the required thickness. To perform X-ray microscopy at 1.8 keV, a new Ru/Si multilayer was designed for the transmission X-ray microscope XM-1 installed at the Advanced Light Source in Berkeley. The mass flow in a passivated Cu interconnect was studied at current densities up to 10{sup 7} A/cm{sup 2}. In addition, we demonstrated the high material contrast from different elements in integrated circuits with a resolution of about 40 nm.

  11. Synchrotron X-Ray Microdiffraction Studies of Electromigration in Interconnect lines at the Advanced Light Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamura, Nobumichi; Chen, Kai; Kunz, Martin

    2009-12-01

    Synchrotron polychromatic X-ray microdiffraction is a particularly suitable technique to study in situ the effect of electromigration in metal interconnects as add spatial resolution to grain orientation and strain sensitivity. This technique has been extensively used at the Advanced Light Source to monitor changes in aluminum and copper interconnect test structures while high-density current is passed into them during accelerated tests at elevated temperature. One of the principal findings is the observation of electromigration-induced plasticity in the metal lines that appear during the very early stages of electromigration. In some of the lines, high density of geometrically necessary dislocation are formed leading to additional diffusion paths causing an enhancement of electromigration effect at test temperature.

  12. Reliability of microtechnology interconnects, devices and systems

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Johan; Sarkka, Jussi; Tegehall, Per-Erik; Andersson, Cristina

    2011-01-01

    This text discusses the reliability of microtechnology products from the bottom up, beginning with devices and extending to systems. It covers many topics, and it addresses specific failure modes in solder and conductive adhesives at great length.

  13. Optic Tract Edema: A Highly Specific Magnetic Resonance Imaging Finding for the Diagnosis of Craniopharyngiomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirunpat, S.; Tanomkiat, W.; Sriprung, H.; Chetpaophan, J. [Prince of Songkla Univ., Hat Yai (Thailand). Dept. of Radiology and Epidemiology Unit

    2005-07-01

    Purpose: To clarify the accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity of optic tract edema in the diagnosis of craniopharyngiomas. Material and Methods: Preoperative magnetic resonance images (MRIs) of 49 patients (between May 1996 and March 2003) who had a diagnosis of parasellar masses were blindly reviewed by two radiologists. The spread of edema surrounding the tumor on the coronal TSE T2-weighted images was analyzed. Sensitivity and specificity were calculated based on the numbers in this series and also pooled numbers from previous known reported series. Results: Edema along the optic tracts was detected in 7 of 1 craniopharyngiomas, giving a sensitivity of 63.6% (95% CI{approx_equal}30.8-89.1) for our series and 66.7% (95% CI{approx_equal}47.2-82.7) for the pooled numbers. The specificity was 00% (95% CI{approx_equal}90.7-100.0) for our series and 93.9% (95% CI{approx_equal}87.1-97.7) for the pooled numbers. None of the 28 pituitary macroadenomas, 4 meningiomas, 2 hypothalamic astrocytomas, 2 germinomas, mixed-germ cell tumor and arachnoid cyst in our study showed edema of the optic pathways. Conclusion: Optic tract edema, commonly seen in craniopharyngiomas, is a useful MR finding for distinguishing craniopharyngiomas from other parasellar tumors with considerable sensitivity and high specificity.

  14. Optic Tract Edema: A Highly Specific Magnetic Resonance Imaging Finding for the Diagnosis of Craniopharyngiomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirunpat, S.; Tanomkiat, W.; Sriprung, H.; Chetpaophan, J.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To clarify the accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity of optic tract edema in the diagnosis of craniopharyngiomas. Material and Methods: Preoperative magnetic resonance images (MRIs) of 49 patients (between May 1996 and March 2003) who had a diagnosis of parasellar masses were blindly reviewed by two radiologists. The spread of edema surrounding the tumor on the coronal TSE T2-weighted images was analyzed. Sensitivity and specificity were calculated based on the numbers in this series and also pooled numbers from previous known reported series. Results: Edema along the optic tracts was detected in 7 of 1 craniopharyngiomas, giving a sensitivity of 63.6% (95% CI≅30.8-89.1) for our series and 66.7% (95% CI≅47.2-82.7) for the pooled numbers. The specificity was 00% (95% CI≅90.7-100.0) for our series and 93.9% (95% CI≅87.1-97.7) for the pooled numbers. None of the 28 pituitary macroadenomas, 4 meningiomas, 2 hypothalamic astrocytomas, 2 germinomas, mixed-germ cell tumor and arachnoid cyst in our study showed edema of the optic pathways. Conclusion: Optic tract edema, commonly seen in craniopharyngiomas, is a useful MR finding for distinguishing craniopharyngiomas from other parasellar tumors with considerable sensitivity and high specificity

  15. High-Throughput Screening to Identify Regulators of Meiosis-Specific Gene Expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassir, Yona

    2017-01-01

    Meiosis and gamete formation are processes that are essential for sexual reproduction in all eukaryotic organisms. Multiple intracellular and extracellular signals feed into pathways that converge on transcription factors that induce the expression of meiosis-specific genes. Once triggered the meiosis-specific gene expression program proceeds in a cascade that drives progress through the events of meiosis and gamete formation. Meiosis-specific gene expression is tightly controlled by a balance of positive and negative regulatory factors that respond to a plethora of signaling pathways. The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has proven to be an outstanding model for the dissection of gametogenesis owing to the sophisticated genetic manipulations that can be performed with the cells. It is possible to use a variety selection and screening methods to identify genes and their functions. High-throughput screening technology has been developed to allow an array of all viable yeast gene deletion mutants to be screened for phenotypes and for regulators of gene expression. This chapter describes a protocol that has been used to screen a library of homozygous diploid yeast deletion strains to identify regulators of the meiosis-specific IME1 gene.

  16. Simple and high yielding method for preparing tissue specific extracellular matrix coatings for cell culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeQuach, Jessica A; Mezzano, Valeria; Miglani, Amar; Lange, Stephan; Keller, Gordon M; Sheikh, Farah; Christman, Karen L

    2010-09-27

    The native extracellular matrix (ECM) consists of a highly complex, tissue-specific network of proteins and polysaccharides, which help regulate many cellular functions. Despite the complex nature of the ECM, in vitro cell-based studies traditionally assess cell behavior on single ECM component substrates, which do not adequately mimic the in vivo extracellular milieu. We present a simple approach for developing naturally derived ECM coatings for cell culture that provide important tissue-specific cues unlike traditional cell culture coatings, thereby enabling the maturation of committed C2C12 skeletal myoblast progenitors and human embryonic stem cells differentiated into cardiomyocytes. Here we show that natural muscle-specific coatings can (i) be derived from decellularized, solubilized adult porcine muscle, (ii) contain a complex mixture of ECM components including polysaccharides, (iii) adsorb onto tissue culture plastic and (iv) promote cell maturation of committed muscle progenitor and stem cells. This versatile method can create tissue-specific ECM coatings, which offer a promising platform for cell culture to more closely mimic the mature in vivo ECM microenvironment.

  17. High-field specific heats of A15 V3Si and Nb3Sn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, G. R.; Brandt, B. L.

    1984-04-01

    In order to further understand the anomalous behavior of the specific heat of Nb3Sn in an 18-T magnetic field discovered by Stewart, Cort, and Webb [Phys. Rev. B 24, 3841 (1981)], we have performed specific-heat measurements on a different sample of Nb3Sn at lower fields both in the normal and mixed states, as well as measurement to 19 T on both transforming and nontransforming V3Si. The high-field data for V3Si indicate that this material behaves quite normally, and that γtransJunod and Muller [Solid State Commun. 36, 721 (1980)]. Nb3Sn, however, remains anomalous, with both the same "kink" in the normal-state field data as observed by Stewart, Cort, and Webb (although at a slightly higher temperature) and unusual mixed-state behavior. The mixed-state specific heat of the V3Si samples is as expected, based on earlier work on the mixed-state specific heat of V and Nb.

  18. Identification of an epigenetic biomarker panel with high sensitivity and specificity for colorectal cancer and adenomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lind Guro E

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The presence of cancer-specific DNA methylation patterns in epithelial colorectal cells in human feces provides the prospect of a simple, non-invasive screening test for colorectal cancer and its precursor, the adenoma. This study investigates a panel of epigenetic markers for the detection of colorectal cancer and adenomas. Methods Candidate biomarkers were subjected to quantitative methylation analysis in test sets of tissue samples from colorectal cancers, adenomas, and normal colonic mucosa. All findings were verified in independent clinical validation series. A total of 523 human samples were included in the study. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve analysis was used to evaluate the performance of the biomarker panel. Results Promoter hypermethylation of the genes CNRIP1, FBN1, INA, MAL, SNCA, and SPG20 was frequent in both colorectal cancers (65-94% and adenomas (35-91%, whereas normal mucosa samples were rarely (0-5% methylated. The combined sensitivity of at least two positives among the six markers was 94% for colorectal cancers and 93% for adenoma samples, with a specificity of 98%. The resulting areas under the ROC curve were 0.984 for cancers and 0.968 for adenomas versus normal mucosa. Conclusions The novel epigenetic marker panel shows very high sensitivity and specificity for both colorectal cancers and adenomas. Our findings suggest this biomarker panel to be highly suitable for early tumor detection.

  19. Experiences with the hydraulic design of the high specific speed Francis turbine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obrovsky, J; Zouhar, J

    2014-01-01

    The high specific speed Francis turbine is still suitable alternative for refurbishment of older hydro power plants with lower heads and worse cavitation conditions. In the paper the design process of such kind of turbine together with the results comparison of homological model tests performed in hydraulic laboratory of ČKD Blansko Engineering is introduced. The turbine runner was designed using the optimization algorithm and considering the high specific speed hydraulic profile. It means that hydraulic profiles of the spiral case, the distributor and the draft tube were used from a Kaplan turbine. The optimization was done as the automatic cycle and was based on a simplex optimization method as well as on a genetic algorithm. The number of blades is shown as the parameter which changes the resulting specific speed of the turbine between n s =425 to 455 together with the cavitation characteristics. Minimizing of cavitation on the blade surface as well as on the inlet edge of the runner blade was taken into account during the design process. The results of CFD analyses as well as the model tests are mentioned in the paper

  20. Experiences with the hydraulic design of the high specific speed Francis turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obrovsky, J.; Zouhar, J.

    2014-03-01

    The high specific speed Francis turbine is still suitable alternative for refurbishment of older hydro power plants with lower heads and worse cavitation conditions. In the paper the design process of such kind of turbine together with the results comparison of homological model tests performed in hydraulic laboratory of ČKD Blansko Engineering is introduced. The turbine runner was designed using the optimization algorithm and considering the high specific speed hydraulic profile. It means that hydraulic profiles of the spiral case, the distributor and the draft tube were used from a Kaplan turbine. The optimization was done as the automatic cycle and was based on a simplex optimization method as well as on a genetic algorithm. The number of blades is shown as the parameter which changes the resulting specific speed of the turbine between ns=425 to 455 together with the cavitation characteristics. Minimizing of cavitation on the blade surface as well as on the inlet edge of the runner blade was taken into account during the design process. The results of CFD analyses as well as the model tests are mentioned in the paper.

  1. Preparation and quantification of 3'-phosphoadenosine 5'-phospho[35S]sulfate with high specific activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vargas, F.

    1988-01-01

    The synthesis and quantitation of the sulfate donor 3'-phosphoadenosine 5'-phospho[35S]sulfate (PAP35S), prepared from inorganic [35S]sulfate and ATP, were studied. An enzymatic transfer method based upon the quantitative transfer of [35S]sulfate from PAP35S to 2-naphthol and 4-methylumbelliferone by the action of phenolsulfotransferase activity from rat brain cytosol was also developed. The 2-naphthyl[35S]sulfate or 35S-methylumbelliferone sulfate formed was isolated by polystyrene bead chromatography. This method allows the detection of between 0.1 pmol and 1 nmol/ml of PAP35S. PAP35S of high specific activity (75 Ci/mmol) was prepared by incubating ATP and carrier-free Na2 35SO4 with a 100,000g supernatant fraction from rat spleen. The product was purified by ion-exchange chromatography. The specific activity and purity of PAP35S were estimated by examining the ratios of Km values for PAP35S of the tyrosyl protein sulfotransferase present in microsomes from rat cerebral cortex. The advantage and applications of these methods for the detection of femtomole amounts, and the synthesis of large scale quantities of PAP35S with high specific activity are discussed

  2. Sphagnum mosses harbour highly specific bacterial diversity during their whole lifecycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragina, Anastasia; Berg, Christian; Cardinale, Massimiliano; Shcherbakov, Andrey; Chebotar, Vladimir; Berg, Gabriele

    2012-04-01

    Knowledge about Sphagnum-associated microbial communities, their structure and their origin is important to understand and maintain climate-relevant Sphagnum-dominated bog ecosystems. We studied bacterial communities of two cosmopolitan Sphagnum species, which are well adapted to different abiotic parameters (Sphagnum magellanicum, which are strongly acidic and ombrotrophic, and Sphagnum fallax, which are weakly acidic and mesotrophic), in three Alpine bogs in Austria by a multifaceted approach. Great differences between bacterial fingerprints of both Sphagna were found independently from the site. This remarkable specificity was confirmed by a cloning and a deep sequencing approach. Besides the common Alphaproteobacteria, we found a discriminative spectrum of bacteria; although Gammaproteobacteria dominated S. magellanicum, S. fallax was mainly colonised by Verrucomicrobia and Planctomycetes. Using this information for fluorescent in situ hybridisation analyses, corresponding colonisation patterns for Alphaproteobacteria and Planctomycetes were detected. Bacterial colonies were found in high abundances inside the dead big hyalocytes, but they were always connected with the living chlorocytes. Using multivariate statistical analysis, the abiotic factors nutrient richness and pH were identified to modulate the composition of Sphagnum-specific bacterial communities. Interestingly, we found that the immense bacterial diversity was transferred via the sporophyte to the gametophyte, which can explain the high specificity of Sphagnum-associated bacteria over long distances. In contrast to higher plants, which acquire their bacteria mainly from the environment, mosses as the phylogenetically oldest land plants maintain their bacterial diversity within the whole lifecycle.

  3. Design and component specifications for high average power laser optical systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Neil, R.W.; Sawicki, R.H.; Johnson, S.A.; Sweatt, W.C.

    1987-01-01

    Laser imaging and transport systems are considered in the regime where laser-induced damage and/or thermal distortion have significant design implications. System design and component specifications are discussed and quantified in terms of the net system transport efficiency and phase budget. Optical substrate materials, figure, surface roughness, coatings, and sizing are considered in the context of visible and near-ir optical systems that have been developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory for laser isotope separation applications. In specific examples of general applicability, details of the bulk and/or surface absorption, peak and/or average power damage threshold, coating characteristics and function, substrate properties, or environmental factors will be shown to drive the component size, placement, and shape in high-power systems. To avoid overstressing commercial fabrication capabilities or component design specifications, procedures will be discussed for compensating for aberration buildup, using a few carefully placed adjustable mirrors. By coupling an aggressive measurements program on substrates and coatings to the design effort, an effective technique has been established to project high-power system performance realistically and, in the process, drive technology developments to improve performance or lower cost in large-scale laser optical systems. 13 refs.

  4. Effects of variable specific heat on energy transfer in a high-temperature supersonic channel flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaoping; Li, Xiaopeng; Dou, Hua-Shu; Zhu, Zuchao

    2018-05-01

    An energy transfer mechanism in high-temperature supersonic turbulent flow for variable specific heat (VSH) condition through turbulent kinetic energy (TKE), mean kinetic energy (MKE), turbulent internal energy (TIE) and mean internal energy (MIE) is proposed. The similarities of energy budgets between VSH and constant specific heat (CSH) conditions are investigated by introducing a vibrational energy excited degree and considering the effects of fluctuating specific heat. Direct numerical simulation (DNS) of temporally evolving high-temperature supersonic turbulent channel flow is conducted at Mach number 3.0 and Reynolds number 4800 combined with a constant dimensional wall temperature 1192.60 K for VSH and CSH conditions to validate the proposed energy transfer mechanism. The differences between the terms in the two kinetic energy budgets for VSH and CSH conditions are small; however, the magnitude of molecular diffusion term for VSH condition is significantly smaller than that for CSH condition. The non-negligible energy transfer is obtained after neglecting several small terms of diffusion, dissipation and compressibility related. The non-negligible energy transfer involving TIE includes three processes, in which energy can be gained from TKE and MIE and lost to MIE. The same non-negligible energy transfer through TKE, MKE and MIE is observed for both the conditions.

  5. Highly Specific Detection of Five Exotic Quarantine Plant Viruses using RT-PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoseong Choi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available To detect five plant viruses (Beet black scorch virus, Beet necrotic yellow vein virus, Eggplant mottled dwarf virus, Pelargonium zonate spot virus, and Rice yellow mottle virus for quarantine purposes, we designed 15 RT-PCR primer sets. Primer design was based on the nucleotide sequence of the coat protein gene, which is highly conserved within species. All but one primer set successfully amplified the targets, and gradient PCRs indicated that the optimal temperature for the 14 useful primer sets was 51.9°C. Some primer sets worked well regardless of annealing temperature while others required a very specific annealing temperature. A primer specificity test using plant total RNAs and cDNAs of other plant virus-infected samples demonstrated that the designed primer sets were highly specific and generated reproducible results. The newly developed RT-PCR primer sets would be useful for quarantine inspections aimed at preventing the entry of exotic plant viruses into Korea.

  6. Design and component specifications for high average power laser optical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Neil, R.W.; Sawicki, R.H.; Johnson, S.A.; Sweatt, W.C.

    1987-01-01

    Laser imaging and transport systems are considered in the regime where laser-induced damage and/or thermal distortion have significant design implications. System design and component specifications are discussed and quantified in terms of the net system transport efficiency and phase budget. Optical substrate materials, figure, surface roughness, coatings, and sizing are considered in the context of visible and near-ir optical systems that have been developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory for laser isotope separation applications. In specific examples of general applicability, details of the bulk and/or surface absorption, peak and/or average power damage threshold, coating characteristics and function, substrate properties, or environmental factors will be shown to drive the component size, placement, and shape in high-power systems. To avoid overstressing commercial fabrication capabilities or component design specifications, procedures will be discussed for compensating for aberration buildup, using a few carefully placed adjustable mirrors. By coupling an aggressive measurements program on substrates and coatings to the design effort, an effective technique has been established to project high-power system performance realistically and, in the process, drive technology developments to improve performance or lower cost in large-scale laser optical systems. 13 refs

  7. The effects of varying resistance-training loads on intermediate- and high-velocity-specific adaptations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, K; Bishop, P; Hunter, G; Fleisig, G

    2001-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare changes in velocity-specific adaptations in moderately resistance-trained athletes who trained with either low or high resistances. The study used tests of sport-specific skills across an intermediate- to high-velocity spectrum. Thirty NCAA Division I baseball players were randomly assigned to either a low-resistance (40-60% 1 repetition maximum [1RM]) training group or a high-resistance (70-90% 1RM) training group. Both of the training groups intended to maximallv accelerate each repetition during the concentric phase (IMCA). The 10 weeks of training consisted of 4 training sessions a week using basic core exercises. Peak force, velocity, and power were evaluated during set angle and depth jumps as well as weighted jumps using 30 and 50% 1RM. Squat 1RMs were also tested. Although no interactions for any of the jump tests were found, trends supported the hypothesis of velocity-specific training. Percentage gains suggest that the combined use of heavier training loads (70-90% 1RM) and IMCA tend to increase peak force in the lower-body leg and hip extensors. Trends also show that the combined use of lighter training loads (40-60% 1RM) and IMCA tend to increase peak power and peak velocity in the lower-body leg and hip extensors. The high-resistance group improved squats more than the low-resistance group (p training loads and IMCA to increase 1RM strength in the lower bodies of resistance-trained athletes.

  8. Selection of DNA aptamers against epidermal growth factor receptor with high affinity and specificity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Deng-Liang; Song, Yan-Ling; Zhu, Zhi; Li, Xi-Lan; Zou, Yuan; Yang, Hai-Tao; Wang, Jiang-Jie; Yao, Pei-Sen; Pan, Ru-Jun; Yang, Chaoyong James; Kang, De-Zhi

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • This is the first report of DNA aptamer against EGFR in vitro. • Aptamer can bind targets with high affinity and selectivity. • DNA aptamers are more stable, cheap and efficient than RNA aptamers. • Our selected DNA aptamer against EGFR has high affinity with K d 56 ± 7.3 nM. • Our selected DNA aptamer against EGFR has high selectivity. - Abstract: Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR/HER1/c-ErbB1), is overexpressed in many solid cancers, such as epidermoid carcinomas, malignant gliomas, etc. EGFR plays roles in proliferation, invasion, angiogenesis and metastasis of malignant cancer cells and is the ideal antigen for clinical applications in cancer detection, imaging and therapy. Aptamers, the output of the systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX), are DNA/RNA oligonucleotides which can bind protein and other substances with specificity. RNA aptamers are undesirable due to their instability and high cost of production. Conversely, DNA aptamers have aroused researcher’s attention because they are easily synthesized, stable, selective, have high binding affinity and are cost-effective to produce. In this study, we have successfully identified DNA aptamers with high binding affinity and selectivity to EGFR. The aptamer named TuTu22 with K d 56 ± 7.3 nM was chosen from the identified DNA aptamers for further study. Flow cytometry analysis results indicated that the TuTu22 aptamer was able to specifically recognize a variety of cancer cells expressing EGFR but did not bind to the EGFR-negative cells. With all of the aforementioned advantages, the DNA aptamers reported here against cancer biomarker EGFR will facilitate the development of novel targeted cancer detection, imaging and therapy

  9. Selection of DNA aptamers against epidermal growth factor receptor with high affinity and specificity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Deng-Liang [The First Clinical Medical College of Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou (China); Department of Neurosurgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou (China); Song, Yan-Ling; Zhu, Zhi; Li, Xi-Lan; Zou, Yuan [State Key Laboratory for Physical Chemistry of Solid Surfaces, Key Laboratory for Chemical Biology of Fujian Province, Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry, and Department of Chemical Biology, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Yang, Hai-Tao; Wang, Jiang-Jie [The First Clinical Medical College of Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou (China); Yao, Pei-Sen [Department of Neurosurgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou (China); Pan, Ru-Jun [The First Clinical Medical College of Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou (China); Yang, Chaoyong James, E-mail: cyyang@xmu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory for Physical Chemistry of Solid Surfaces, Key Laboratory for Chemical Biology of Fujian Province, Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry, and Department of Chemical Biology, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Kang, De-Zhi, E-mail: kdzy99988@163.com [The First Clinical Medical College of Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou (China); Department of Neurosurgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou (China)

    2014-10-31

    Highlights: • This is the first report of DNA aptamer against EGFR in vitro. • Aptamer can bind targets with high affinity and selectivity. • DNA aptamers are more stable, cheap and efficient than RNA aptamers. • Our selected DNA aptamer against EGFR has high affinity with K{sub d} 56 ± 7.3 nM. • Our selected DNA aptamer against EGFR has high selectivity. - Abstract: Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR/HER1/c-ErbB1), is overexpressed in many solid cancers, such as epidermoid carcinomas, malignant gliomas, etc. EGFR plays roles in proliferation, invasion, angiogenesis and metastasis of malignant cancer cells and is the ideal antigen for clinical applications in cancer detection, imaging and therapy. Aptamers, the output of the systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX), are DNA/RNA oligonucleotides which can bind protein and other substances with specificity. RNA aptamers are undesirable due to their instability and high cost of production. Conversely, DNA aptamers have aroused researcher’s attention because they are easily synthesized, stable, selective, have high binding affinity and are cost-effective to produce. In this study, we have successfully identified DNA aptamers with high binding affinity and selectivity to EGFR. The aptamer named TuTu22 with K{sub d} 56 ± 7.3 nM was chosen from the identified DNA aptamers for further study. Flow cytometry analysis results indicated that the TuTu22 aptamer was able to specifically recognize a variety of cancer cells expressing EGFR but did not bind to the EGFR-negative cells. With all of the aforementioned advantages, the DNA aptamers reported here against cancer biomarker EGFR will facilitate the development of novel targeted cancer detection, imaging and therapy.

  10. Nanoantenna couplers for metal-insulator-metal waveguide interconnects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onbasli, M. Cengiz; Okyay, Ali K.

    2010-08-01

    State-of-the-art copper interconnects suffer from increasing spatial power dissipation due to chip downscaling and RC delays reducing operation bandwidth. Wide bandwidth, minimized Ohmic loss, deep sub-wavelength confinement and high integration density are key features that make metal-insulator-metal waveguides (MIM) utilizing plasmonic modes attractive for applications in on-chip optical signal processing. Size-mismatch between two fundamental components (micron-size fibers and a few hundred nanometers wide waveguides) demands compact coupling methods for implementation of large scale on-chip optoelectronic device integration. Existing solutions use waveguide tapering, which requires more than 4λ-long taper distances. We demonstrate that nanoantennas can be integrated with MIM for enhancing coupling into MIM plasmonic modes. Two-dimensional finite-difference time domain simulations of antennawaveguide structures for TE and TM incident plane waves ranging from λ = 1300 to 1600 nm were done. The same MIM (100-nm-wide Ag/100-nm-wide SiO2/100-nm-wide Ag) was used for each case, while antenna dimensions were systematically varied. For nanoantennas disconnected from the MIM; field is strongly confined inside MIM-antenna gap region due to Fabry-Perot resonances. Major fraction of incident energy was not transferred into plasmonic modes. When the nanoantennas are connected to the MIM, stronger coupling is observed and E-field intensity at outer end of core is enhanced more than 70 times.

  11. Preparing tomorrow's network today: RTE at the crossroads of the European electricity system. Cross-border electricity interconnections Key issues and figures - 2014 Edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-10-01

    The interconnected electricity transmission network is a key element for ensuring security of supply, the creation of a single market and the integration of renewable energies. RTE and its European partners provide strengthened coordination by the use of interconnections to ensure solidarity between European countries. Interconnections also allow an electricity supplier to sell its energy to a customer located in another country in Europe. They contribute on a European scale to optimising the use of production means and in particular the integration of variable renewable energies. RTE, within the EnTSo-E (European Network of Transmission System Operators for Electricity), contributes to the publication of a common vision of the future of networks by 2030. The needs for new interconnection capacity are identified in the ten-year European network development plan (TYnDP) on the basis of a cost-benefit analysis. France is interconnected to all its neighbours via many cross-border links. However interconnection capacity with the various countries and its use differ widely. The usage profile of the interconnections is specific to each border and varies according to: - the characteristics of the production mix of each country, and in particular the level of production of renewable energies. - the level of consumption, which depends on the season, the type of day (working or non-working) the time of day, etc. - import and export capacity, which may be different depending on the internal constraints of the networks of each country

  12. 3D High Density mmWave Interconnects, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Nuvotronics has developed and optimized the PolyStrataTM process for the fabrication of intricate microwave and millimeter-wave devices. These devices have primarily...

  13. VXS, A High Speed Cu Switch Fabric Interconnect for VME

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wong, Henry

    2004-01-01

    ... and keying strategy, 2X power improvements, and cooling strategies. This work was done within the context of the VSO industry standards body to promote an eco-system of developers, vendors, and users...

  14. Signal Integrity Analysis of High-Speed Interconnects

    CERN Document Server

    Oltean Karlsson, A

    2007-01-01

    LHC detectors and future experiments will produce very large amount of data that will be transferred at multi-Gigabit speeds. At such data rates, signal-integrity effects become important and traditional rules of thumb are no longer enough for the design and layout of the traces. Simulations for signal-integrity effects at board level provide a way to study and validate several scenarios before arriving at a set of optimized design rules prior to building the actual printed circuit board (PCB). This article describes some of the available tools at CERN. Two case studies will be used to highlight the capabilities of these programs.

  15. Targeted radiotherapy of multicell neuroblastoma spheroids with high specific activity [125I]meta-iodobenzylguanidine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roa, Wilson H.Y.; Miller, Gerald G.; McEwan, Alexander J.B.; McQuarrie, Steve A.; Tse, Jeanie; Wu, Jonn; Wiebe, Leonard I.

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: Iodine-125 induces cell death by a mechanism similar to that of high linear energy transfer (high-LET) radiation. This study investigates the cytotoxicity of high-specific-activity [ 125 I]meta-iodobenzylguanidine ( 125 I-mIBG) in human SK-N-MC neuroblastoma cells grown as three-dimensional multicellular spheroids. Materials and Methods: Spheroids were incubated with high-specific-activity 125 I-mIBG (6 mCi/μg, 1000 times that of the conventional specific activity used for autoradiography). Cytotoxicity was assessed by fluorescence viability markers and confocal microscopy for intact spheroids, fluorescence-activated cell sorting and clonogenic assay, and clonogenic assays for dispersed whole spheroids. Distribution of radioactive mIBG was determined by quantitative light-microscope autoradiography of spheroid cryostat sections. Dose estimation was based on temporal knowledge of the retained radioactivity inside spheroids, and of the radiolabel's emission characteristics. Findings were compared with those of spheroids treated under the same conditions with 131 I-mIBG, cold mIBG, and free iodine-125. Results: 125 I-mIBG exerted significant cell killing. Complete spheroids were eradicated when they were treated with 500 μCi of 125 I-mIBG, while those treated with 500 μCi or 1000 μCi of 131 I-mIBG were not. The observed difference in cytotoxicity between treatments with 125 I- and 131 I-mIBG could not be accounted for by the absorbed dose of spheroid alone. The peripheral, proliferating cell layer of the spheroids remained viable at the moderate radioactivity of 100 μCi for both isotopes. Cytotoxicity induced by 125 I-mIBG was quantitatively comparable by the peripheral rim thickness to that of 131 I-mIBG at the dose of 100 μCi. The peripheral rim thickness decreased most significantly in the first 17 hours after initial treatment. There was no statistical decrease in the rim thickness identified afterwards for the second, third, and fourth days of

  16. Detection of porcine endogenous retrovirus (PERV) using highly specific antisera against Gag and Env

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, Nicole; Krach, Ulrich; Niebert, Marcus; Toenjes, Ralf R.

    2003-01-01

    Porcine endogenous retroviruses (PERV) are considered an obstacle to the safe use of cells, tissues, and organs from pigs in the course of xenotransplantation. Thus, the detection of viral proteins and of a potential PERV infection is of major interest. Recently, we have published the generation of a highly specific antiserum directed against the nucleocapsid (p10) of PERV (Xenotransplantation 7 (2000), 221). Here we present new peptide-antisera specific to the capsid protein (p30) and the surface molecule of PERV class B (SU, gp70(B)) as well as the transmembrane moiety of the envelope protein (TM, p15E) of PERV which showed functionality in several immunological assays, such as immunoblots, immunofluorescence, and immunogold staining. Thus, these antisera can be used as tools for the identification of viral proteins in basic research as well as clinical trials

  17. Polarity-specific high-level information propagation in neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yen-Nan; Chang, Po-Yen; Hsiao, Pao-Yueh; Lo, Chung-Chuan

    2014-01-01

    Analyzing the connectome of a nervous system provides valuable information about the functions of its subsystems. Although much has been learned about the architectures of neural networks in various organisms by applying analytical tools developed for general networks, two distinct and functionally important properties of neural networks are often overlooked. First, neural networks are endowed with polarity at the circuit level: Information enters a neural network at input neurons, propagates through interneurons, and leaves via output neurons. Second, many functions of nervous systems are implemented by signal propagation through high-level pathways involving multiple and often recurrent connections rather than by the shortest paths between nodes. In the present study, we analyzed two neural networks: the somatic nervous system of Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) and the partial central complex network of Drosophila, in light of these properties. Specifically, we quantified high-level propagation in the vertical and horizontal directions: the former characterizes how signals propagate from specific input nodes to specific output nodes and the latter characterizes how a signal from a specific input node is shared by all output nodes. We found that the two neural networks are characterized by very efficient vertical and horizontal propagation. In comparison, classic small-world networks show a trade-off between vertical and horizontal propagation; increasing the rewiring probability improves the efficiency of horizontal propagation but worsens the efficiency of vertical propagation. Our result provides insights into how the complex functions of natural neural networks may arise from a design that allows them to efficiently transform and combine input signals.

  18. Sensory-specific satiety is intact in rats made obese on a high-fat high-sugar choice diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Kevin P

    2017-05-01

    Sensory-specific satiety (SSS) is the temporary decreased pleasantness of a recently eaten food, which inhibits further eating. Evidence is currently mixed whether SSS is weaker in obese people, and whether such difference precedes or follows from the obese state. Animal models allow testing whether diet-induced obesity causes SSS impairment. Female rats (n = 24) were randomly assigned to an obesogenic high-fat, high-sugar choice diet or chow-only control. Tests of SSS involved pre-feeding a single palatable, distinctively-flavored food (cheese- or cocoa-flavored) prior to free choice between both foods. Rats were tested for short-term SSS (2 h pre-feeding immediately followed by 2 h choice) and long-term SSS (3 day pre-feeding prior to choice on day 4). In both short- and long-term tests rats exhibited SSS by shifting preference towards the food not recently eaten. SSS was not impaired in obese rats. On the contrary, in the long-term tests they showed stronger SSS than controls. This demonstrates that neither the obese state nor a history of excess energy consumption fundamentally causes impaired SSS in rats. The putative impaired SSS in obese people may instead reflect a specific predisposition, properties of the obesogenic diet, or history of restrictive dieting and bingeing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. 11.72 sq cm SiC Wafer-scale Interconnected 64 kA PiN Diode

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-30

    drop of 10.3 V. The dissipated energy was 382 J and the calculated action exceeded 1.7 MA2 -s. Preliminary development of high voltage interconnection...scale diode action (surge current integral), a key reliability parameter, exceeded 1.7 MA2 -s. Figure 6: The wafer-scale interconnected diode...scale diode was 382 J and the calculated action exceeded 1.7 MA2 -sec. High voltage operation of PiN diodes, thyristors, and other semiconductor

  20. Electronic interconnects and devices with topological surface states and methods for fabricating same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdani, Ali; Ong, N. Phuan; Cava, Robert J.

    2016-05-03

    An interconnect is disclosed with enhanced immunity of electrical conductivity to defects. The interconnect includes a material with charge carriers having topological surface states. Also disclosed is a method for fabricating such interconnects. Also disclosed is an integrated circuit including such interconnects. Also disclosed is a gated electronic device including a material with charge carriers having topological surface states.