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Sample records for highly sensitive radiochromic

  1. EBT-XD Radiochromic Film Sensitivity Calibrations Using Proton Beams from a Pelletron Accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockler, Barak; Grun, Alexander; Brown, Gunnar; Klein, Matthew; Wood, Jacob; Cooper, Anthony; Ward, Ryan; Freeman, Charlie; Padalino, Stephen; Regan, S. P.; Sangster, T. C.

    2017-10-01

    Radiochromic film (RCF) is a transparent detector film that permanently changes color following exposure to ionizing radiation. RCF is used frequently in medical applications, but also has been used in a variety of high energy density physics diagnostics. RCF is convenient to use because it requires no chemical processing and can be scanned using commercially available document scanners. In this study, the sensitivity of Gafchromic™ EBT-XD RCF to protons and x-rays was measured. Proton beams produced by the SUNY Geneseo Pelletron accelerator were directed into an evacuated target chamber where they scattered off a thin gold foil. The scattered protons were incident on a sample of RCF which subtended a range of angles around the scattering center. A new analysis method, which relies on the variation in scattered proton fluence as a function of scattering angle in accordance with the Rutherford scattering law, is currently being developed to speed up the proton calibrations. Samples of RCF were also exposed to x-ray radiation using an X-RAD 160 x-ray irradiator, allowing the sensitivity of RCF to X-rays to be measured. This work was funded in part by a Grant from the DOE through the Laboratory for Laser Energetics as well as the NSF.

  2. Radiochromic film for dosimetric measurements in radiation shielding composites synthesized for applied in radiology procedures of high dose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fontainha, C. C. P. [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear, Av. Pte. Antonio Carlos 6627, 31270-901 Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais (Brazil); Baptista N, A. T.; Faria, L. O., E-mail: crissia@gmail.com [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear / CNEN, Av. Pte. Antonio Carlos 6627, 31270-901 Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais (Brazil)

    2015-10-15

    Full text: Medical radiology offers great benefit to patients. However, although specifics procedures of high dose, as fluoroscopy, Interventional Radiology, Computed Tomography (CT) make up a small percent of the imaging procedures, they contribute to significantly increase dose to population. The patients may suffer tissue damage. The probability of deterministic effects incidence depends on the type of procedure performed, exposure time, and the amount of applied dose at the irradiated area. Calibrated radiochromic films can identify size and distribution of the radiated fields and measure intensities of doses. Radiochromic films are sensitive for doses ranging from 0.1 to 20 c Gy and they have the same response for X-rays effective energies ranging from 20 to 100 keV. New radiation attenuators materials have been widely investigated resulting in dose reduction entrance skin dose. In this work, Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} and ZrO{sub 2}:8 % Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} composites were obtained by mixing them with P(VDF-Tr Fe) copolymers matrix from casting method and then characterized by Ftir. Dosimetric measurements were obtained with Xr-Q A2 Gafchromic radiochromic films. In this setup, one radiochromic film is directly exposed to the X-rays beam and another one measures the attenuated beam were exposed to an absorbed dose of 10 mGy of RQR5 beam quality (70 kV X-ray beam). Under the same conditions, irradiated Xr-Q A2 films were stored and scanned measurement in order to obtain a more reliable result. The attenuation factors, evaluated by Xr-Q A2 radiochromic films, indicate that both composites are good candidates for use as patient radiation shielding in high dose medical procedures. (Author)

  3. Radiochromic film-based quality assurance for CT-based high-dose-rate brachytherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asgharizadeh, Saeid; Bekerat, Hamed; Syme, Alasdair; Aldelaijan, Saad; DeBlois, François; Vuong, Té; Evans, Michael; Seuntjens, Jan; Devic, Slobodan

    2015-01-01

    In the past, film dosimetry was developed into a powerful tool for external beam radiotherapy treatment verification and quality assurance. The objective of this work was the development and clinical testing of the EBT3 model GafChromic film based brachytherapy quality assurance (QA) system. Retrospective dosimetry study was performed to test a patient-specific QA system for preoperative endorectal brachytherapy that uses a radiochromic film dosimetry system. A dedicated phantom for brachytherapy applicator used for rectal cancer treatment was fabricated enabling us to compare calculated-to-measured dose distributions. Starting from the same criteria used for external beam intensity-modulated radiation therapy QA (3%, 3 mm), passing criteria for high- and low-dose gradient regions were subsequently determined. Finally, we investigated the QA system's sensitivity to controlled source positional errors on selected patient plans. In low-dose gradient regions, measured dose distributions with criteria of 3%, 3 mm barely passed the test, as they showed 95% passing pixels. However, in the high-dose gradient region, a more stringent condition could be established. Both criteria of 2%, 3 mm and 3%, 2 mm with gamma function calculated using normalization to the same absolute dose value in both measured and calculated dose distributions, and matrix sizes rescaled to match each other showed more than 95% of pixels passing, on average, for 15 patient plans analyzed. Although the necessity of the patient-specific brachytherapy QA needs yet to be justified, we described a radiochromic film dosimetry-based QA system that can be a part of the brachytherapy commissioning process, as well as yearly QA program. Copyright © 2015 American Brachytherapy Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Novel radiochromic dosimeters based on Calcein dye for high dose applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldweri, Feras M.; Rabaeh, Khalid A.; Al-Ahmad, Kefaia N.

    2017-10-01

    New compositions of radio-chromic solutions and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) films containing different concentrations of Calcein dye have been introduced as high dose dosimeter. The dosimeters were irradiated with gamma rays from 60C o source at doses from 5 to 30 kGy for film and from 0.25 to 1 kGy for solution. UV/vis spectrophotometry was used to investigate the absorbance (optical density) of unirradiated and irradiated films and solutions in terms of absorbance at 493 nm for film and 496 nm for solution. The effects of scan temperature, relative humidity and stability of the response of films and solutions after irradiation were investigated. The results show that these films could be used as dosimeter in industrial radiation processing. The useful dose range of developed Calcein-PVA film and solution dosimeters is in the range of 5-20 kGy and 0.25-1 kGy respectively

  5. Radiochromic film dosimetry

    CERN Document Server

    Xu Zhi Yong

    2002-01-01

    Radiochromic film dosimetry was developed to measure ionization irradiation dose for industry and medicine. At this time, there are no comprehensive guideline on the medical application, calibration method and densitometer system for medicine. The review gives update on Radiochromic film dosimetry used for medicine, including principles, film model and material, characteristics, calibration method, scanning densitometer system and medical application

  6. Radiochromic and radiofluorogenic 3D solid polymer dosimeter: initial results for high doses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernal Zamorano, Maria del Rocio; Sanders, Nicolai Højer; Lindvold, Lars René

    2017-01-01

    The complexity of dose distributions has increased with the advent of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). For that reason, experimental measurements using 3D dosimeters with high spatial resolution are required to check the delivered dose. In this study a new 3D solid polymer dosimeter...... with absorbance and fluorescence responses to radiation is presented. Measuring fluorescence instead of absorbance improves the spatial resolution and eases the read out of the dosimeter. The proposed dosimeter is tissue-equivalent and can be moulded in any shape by a controllable and fast photopolymerization...

  7. Commissioning of applicator-guided stereotactic body radiation therapy boost with high-dose-rate brachytherapy for advanced cervical cancer using radiochromic film dosimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldelaijan, Saad; Wadi-Ramahi, Shada; Nobah, Ahmad; Moftah, Belal; Devic, Slobodan; Jastaniyah, Noha

    To describe an EBT3 GAFCHROMIC film-based dosimetry method to be used in commissioning of a combined HDR brachytherapy (HDRB) and stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) boost for treatment of advanced cervical cancer involving extensive residual disease after external beam treatment. A cube phantom was designed to firmly fit an intrauterine tandem applicator and EBT3 radiochromic film pieces. A high-risk clinical target volume (CTVHR, Total) was contoured with an extended arm at one side. The HDRB treatment was planned to cover the proximal CTVHR, Total with 7 Gy and the distal volume, referred to as CTVHR, Distal, was planned by SBRT for dose augmentation. After HDRB treatment delivery, SBRT treatment was delivered within 1 hour by image guidance using the applicator geometry. Intentional 1D and 2D misalignments were introduced to evaluate the effect on target volumes. In addition, effect of film reirradiation at different time gaps and dose levels was evaluated. Film dosimetric accuracy, with up to 2 hours gap between irradiations, was shown to be unaffected. A 2%/2 mm gamma analysis between measured and planned doses showed agreement of >99%. Misalignments of more than 2 mm between applicator and SBRT isocenter resulted in suboptimal dose-volume histogram affecting mostly D98% and D90% of CTVHR, Distal. Visualizing how target dose-volume metrics are affected by minor misalignments between SBRT and HDRB dose gradients, in light of achievable phantom-based experimental quality assurance level, encourages the clinical applicability of this technique. Radiochromic film was shown to be a valuable tool to commission procedures combining two different treatment planning systems and modalities with varying dose rates and energy ranges. Copyright © 2017 American Brachytherapy Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Dose comparison between TG-43-based calculations and radiochromic film measurements of the Freiburg flap applicator used for high-dose-rate brachytherapy treatments of skin lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldelaijan, Saad; Bekerat, Hamed; Buzurovic, Ivan; Devlin, Phillip; DeBlois, Francois; Seuntjens, Jan; Devic, Slobodan

    Current high-dose-rate brachytherapy skin treatments with the Freiburg flap (FF) applicator are planned with treatment planning systems based on the American Association of Physicists in Medicine TG-43 data sets, which assume full backscatter conditions in dose calculations. The aim of this work is to describe an experimental method based on radiochromic film dosimetry to evaluate dose calculation accuracy during surface treatments with the FF applicator at different depths and bolus thicknesses. Absolute doses were measured using a reference EBT3 radiochromic film dosimetry system within a Solid Water phantom at different depths (0, 0.5, 1, 2, and 3 cm) with respect to the phantom surface. The impact of bolus (up to 3-cm thickness) placed on top of the applicator was investigated for two clinical loadings created using Oncentra MasterPlan: 5 cm × 5 cm and 11 cm × 11 cm. For smaller loading and depths beyond 2 cm and for larger loading and depths beyond 1 cm, the dose difference was less than 3% (±4%). At shallower depths, differences of up to 6% (±4%) at the surface were observed if no bolus was added. The addition of 2-cm bolus for the smaller loading and 1 cm for larger loading minimized the difference to less than 3% (±4%). For typical FF applicator loading sizes, the actual measured dose was 6% (±4%) lower at the skin level when compared with TG-43. Additional bolus above the FF was shown to decrease the dose difference. The consideration of change in clinical practice should be carefully investigated in light of clinical reference data. Copyright © 2017 American Brachytherapy Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Analysis of the response dependence of Ebt3 radiochromic film with energy, dose rate, wavelength, scanning mode and humidity; Analisis de la dependencia de la respuesta de la pelicula radiocromica EBT3 con la energia, tasa de dosis, longitud de onda, modo de escaneo y con la humedad

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leon M, E. Y.; Camacho L, M. A. [Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Mexico, Facultad de Medicina, Laboratorio de Fotomedicina, Biofotonica y Espectroscopia Laser de Pulsos Ultracortos, Jesus Carranza y Paseo Tollocan s/n, 50120 Toluca, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Herrera G, J. A.; Garcia G, O. A. [Instituto Nacional de Neurologia y Neurocirugia, Laboratorio de Fisica Medica y Unidad de Radiocirugia, 14269 Ciudad de Mexico (Mexico); Villarreal B, J. E., E-mail: yaz_3333@hotmail.com [University of Calgary, Department of Oncology, Tom Baker Cancer Centre, 1331 29th street NW Calgary, Alberta T2N 4N2 (Canada)

    2016-10-15

    With the development of new modalities in radiotherapy treatments, the use of radiochromic films has increased considerably. Because the characteristics that presented, they are suitable for quality control and dose measurement. In this work and analysis of the dependence of the response of Ebt3 radiochromic films with energy, dose rate, wavelength, scan mode and humidity, for a dose range of 0-70 Gy is presented. According to the results, the response of Ebt3 radiochromic films has low dependence on energy, dose rate, scan mode and humidity. However, the sensitivity of the response Ebt3 radiochromic films has a high dependence on the wavelength of the optical system used for reading. (Author)

  10. SU-F-T-550: Radiochromic Plastic Thin Sheet Dosimeter: Initial Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordan, K [London Regional Cancer Program, London, ON (United Kingdom); Adamovics, J [John Adamovics, Skillman, NJ (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Thin sheets, of a high sensitivity formulation of radiochromic dosimeter, Presage were prepared and evaluated for optical readout. Methods: Sheets of radiochromic polyurethane, 12 cm long, 10 cm wide and 0.2 cm thick were prepared with leuco crystal violet as the reporter molecule. Sample transmission was evaluated at a wavelength of 590 nm with in-house constructed instruments: optical cone beam laser CT scanner, fixed and scanning spot densitometers. Sample sequential irradiations to a total dose of 40 Gy were conducted with a modified, Theratron 60, cobalt radiotherapy machine at dose rates of 1 or 0.25 Gy per minute. Exposure to ambient and readout light was minimized to limit background photochromic signals. Samples were stored at 4°C. Optical activity was assessed from linearly polarized transmission images. Comparison sensitivity measurements with EBT3 film were conducted. Results: Samples were transparent, smooth and pale purple before irradiation. Radiochromic reaction was completed in less than 5 minutes. A linear dose response with a sensitivity of 0.5 cm-1Gy-1 was observed. Micrometer measurements found sheet thickness variations up to 20%. Uniform dose, 2 Gy attenuation images, correlated with local sheet thicknesses. Comparable measurements with EBT3 film were 3 times more sensitive at 1 Gy but above 15 Gy, EBT3 film had lower sensitivity than 0.2 cm thick Presage sheet dosimeter due to its non-linear response. Conclusion: Dose sensitivity provided a 10% decrease in transmission for a 1 Gy dose. Improvements in mold design are expected to allow production of sheets with less than 5% variation in thickness. Above, 10 Gy, Presage sheet dosimeter performance expected to exceed EBT3 film based on linearity, sensitivity, transparency and smoothness of samples. J Adamovics is owner of Heuris Inc.

  11. Proposed linear energy transfer areal detector for protons using radiochromic film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayer, Rulon [Henry M. Jackson Foundation for the Advancement of Military Medicine, Bethesda, Maryland 20817 (United States); Lin, Liyong; Fager, Marcus; Douglas, Dan; McDonough, James; Carabe, Alejandro [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania Medical Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 (United States)

    2015-04-15

    Radiation therapy depends on predictably and reliably delivering dose to tumors and sparing normal tissues. Protons with kinetic energy of a few hundred MeV can selectively deposit dose to deep seated tumors without an exit dose, unlike x-rays. The better dose distribution is attributed to a phenomenon known as the Bragg peak. The Bragg peak is due to relatively high energy deposition within a given distance or high Linear Energy Transfer (LET). In addition, biological response to radiation depends on the dose, dose rate, and localized energy deposition patterns or LET. At present, the LET can only be measured at a given fixed point and the LET spatial distribution can only be inferred from calculations. The goal of this study is to develop and test a method to measure LET over extended areas. Traditionally, radiochromic films are used to measure dose distribution but not for LET distribution. We report the first use of these films for measuring the spatial distribution of the LET deposited by protons. The radiochromic film sensitivity diminishes for large LET. A mathematical model correlating the film sensitivity and LET is presented to justify relating LET and radiochromic film relative sensitivity. Protons were directed parallel to radiochromic film sandwiched between solid water slabs. This study proposes the scaled-normalized difference (SND) between the Treatment Planning system (TPS) and measured dose as the metric describing the LET. The SND is correlated with a Monte Carlo (MC) calculation of the LET spatial distribution for a large range of SNDs. A polynomial fit between the SND and MC LET is generated for protons having a single range of 20 cm with narrow Bragg peak. Coefficients from these fitted polynomial fits were applied to measured proton dose distributions with a variety of ranges. An identical procedure was applied to the protons deposited from Spread Out Bragg Peak and modulated by 5 cm. Gamma analysis is a method for comparing the calculated

  12. High-Sensitivity Spectrophotometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, T. D.

    1982-01-01

    Selected high-sensitivity spectrophotometric methods are examined, and comparisons are made of their relative strengths and weaknesses and the circumstances for which each can best be applied. Methods include long path cells, noise reduction, laser intracavity absorption, thermocouple calorimetry, photoacoustic methods, and thermo-optical methods.…

  13. Radiochromic film calibration for the RQT9 quality beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, K. C.; Gomez, A. M. L.; Alonso, T. C.; Mourao, A. P.

    2017-11-01

    When ionizing radiation interacts with matter it generates energy deposition. Radiation dosimetry is important for medical applications of ionizing radiation due to the increasing demand for diagnostic radiology and radiotherapy. Different dosimetry methods are used and each one has its advantages and disadvantages. The film is a dose measurement method that records the energy deposition by the darkening of its emulsion. Radiochromic films have a little visible light sensitivity and respond better to ionizing radiation exposure. The aim of this study is to obtain the resulting calibration curve by the irradiation of radiochromic film strips, making it possible to relate the darkening of the film with the absorbed dose, in order to measure doses in experiments with X-ray beam of 120 kV, in computed tomography (CT). Film strips of GAFCHROMIC XR-QA2 were exposed according to RQT9 reference radiation, which defines an X-ray beam generated from a voltage of 120 kV. Strips were irradiated in "Laboratório de Calibração de Dosímetros do Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear" (LCD / CDTN) at a dose range of 5-30 mGy, corresponding to the range values commonly used in CT scans. Digital images of the irradiated films were analyzed by using the ImageJ software. The darkening responses on film strips according to the doses were observed and they allowed obtaining the corresponding numeric values to the darkening for each specific dose value. From the numerical values of darkening, a calibration curve was obtained, which correlates the darkening of the film strip with dose values in mGy. The calibration curve equation is a simplified method for obtaining absorbed dose values using digital images of radiochromic films irradiated. With the calibration curve, radiochromic films may be applied on dosimetry in experiments on CT scans using X-ray beam of 120 kV, in order to improve CT acquisition image processes.

  14. Iron-based radiochromic systems for UV dosimetry applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hannah J.; Alqathami, Mamdooh; Blencowe, Anton; Ibbott, Geoffrey

    2018-01-01

    Phototherapy treatment using ultraviolet (UV) A and B light sources has long existed as a treatment option for various skin conditions. Quality control for phototherapy treatment recommended by the British Association of Dermatologists and British Photodermatology Group generally focused on instrumentation-based dosimetry measurements. The purpose of this study was to present an alternative, easily prepared dosimeter system for the measurement of UV dose and as a simple quality assurance technique for phototherapy treatments. Five different UVA-sensitive radiochromic dosimeter formulations were investigated and responded with a measurable and visible optical change both in solution and in gel form. Iron(III) reduction reaction formulations were found to be more sensitive to UVA compared to iron(II) oxidation formulations. One iron(III) reduction formulation was found to be especially promising due to its sensitivity to UVA dose, ease of production, and linear response up to a saturation point.

  15. Non-diffusing radiochromic leuco-crystal violet hydrogel dosimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, K. J.; Lindenmaier, T.; Dekker, K. H.

    2017-05-01

    A systematic study to prepare mixed-micelle, radiochromic hydrogels found that non-diffusing dosimeters can be prepared. Subsequent experiments determined that sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) a negatively charged surfactant, binds positively charged crystal violet dye to gelatin below the critical micelle concentration. A typical formulation includes: 4% gelatin by mass, 1 mM hydrogen peroxide, 1 mM SDS, 1 mM leuco crystal violet (LCV) and 25 mM trichloroacetic acid (TCAA). This transparent material has an initial attenuation coefficient of 0.08 cm-1 and dose sensitivity of 0.015 cm-1 Gy-1. Which is a doubling of the dose sensitivity from the initial formulation with uncharged Triton X100 micelles. Reconstructed beam profiles from 3D optical CT scans performed 1, 14 and 85 hours post irradiation demonstrate no diffusion of the recorded dose distribution.

  16. Dosimetric comparison between a planning system and Radiochromic-EBT2 films in surface brachytherapy treatments of high rate; Comparacion dosimetrica entre un sistema de planificacion y peliculas radiocromicas EBT2 en tratamientos de braquiterapia superficial de alta tasa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutierrez Ramos, S. M.; Carrasco Herrera, M. a.; Vicent, D.; Rodriguez, C.; Herrador, M.

    2013-07-01

    The objective of this work is to study a situation in which, the accuracy of the calculation of the planner may be limited, superficial brachytherapy treatment. It has relative to the dose obtained with the planner with that obtained with film radiochromic EBT2. (Author)

  17. Angular dependence on the records of dose in radiochromic films strips

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, K. C.; Prata M, A. [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica de Minas Gerais, Centro de Engenharia Biomedica, Av. Amazonas 5253, 30421-169 Nova Suica, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais (Brazil); Alonso, T. C. [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear - CNEN, Av. Pte. Antonio Carlos 6627, 31270-901 Pampulha, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais (Brazil); Campo de O, P. M., E-mail: kamilacosta1995@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Departamento de Anatomia e Imagen, Av. Prof. Alfredo Balena 190, 30130-100 Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais (Brazil)

    2016-10-15

    Radiological images have relevant information both the diagnostic results as to treatment decisions. Then, the diagnostic quality of image that allows a proper analysis should be achieved with the lowest possible deposition of dose in a patient. CT scans produce sectional images that allow the observation of internal structures of the human body without overlap. As in conventional radiology, the contrast which allows obtaining CT images results from the difference in X-ray beam absorption, according to the characteristics of each tissue. The increased of the beam absorption by a tissue means that it appears brighter in the image. In CT scanners, X-ray tube rotates around the patient, and this rotation results in a cross-sectional image of the body. From a sectional image series is possible to obtain a 3-dimensional image that can be viewed from different angles. Among the methods of dose measurement is the use of radiochromic films, which record the energy deposition by darkening its emulsion. The radiochromic films show little sensitivity to visible light and respond better to exposure to ionizing radiation. In this work, strips of the radiochromic film GAFCHROMIC XR-QA2 were irradiated at different angular positions for radiation quality RQT8, defining a beam of X-rays generated from a voltage of 100 kV. The response of radiochromic films depending on the doses was assessed through digital images obtained by H P Scan jet G-4050 scanner. Digital images were analyzed using Image-J software, which allowed obtaining numerical values corresponding to the intensity of darkening for each film. The aim of this study is to evaluate the dose deposition in radiochromic film according to the angular variation in order how is affected the record. So, to examine the use of film strips to record doses in Computed Tomography tests. (Author)

  18. A prototype quantitative film scanner for radiochromic film dosimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranade, Manisha K; Li, Jonathan G; Dubose, Ryan S; Kozelka, Jakub; Simon, William E; Dempsey, James F

    2008-02-01

    We have developed a high resolution, quantitative, two-dimensional optical film scanner for use with a commercial high sensitivity radiochromic film (RCF) for measuring single fraction external-beam radiotherapy dose distributions. The film scanner was designed to eliminate artifacts commonly observed in RCF dosimetry. The scanner employed a stationary light source and detector with a moving antireflective glass film platen attached to a high precision computerized X-Y translation stage. An ultrabright red light emitting diode (LED) with a peak output at 633 nm and full width at half maximum (FWHM) of 16 nm was selected as the scanner light source to match the RCF absorption peak. A dual detector system was created using two silicon photodiode detectors to simultaneously measure incident and transmitted light. The LED light output was focused to a submillimeter (FWHM 0.67 mm) spot size, which was determined from a scanning knife-edge technique for measuring Gaussian optical beams. Data acquisition was performed with a 16-bit A/D card in conjunction with commercial software. The linearity of the measured densities on the scanner was tested using a calibrated neutral-density step filter. Sensitometric curves and three IMRT field scans were acquired with a spatial resolution of 1 mm for both radiographic film and RCF. The results were compared with measurements taken with a commercial diode array under identical delivery conditions. The RCF was rotated by 90 deg and rescanned to study orientation effects. Comparison between the RCF and the diode array measurements using percent dose difference and distance-to-agreement criteria produced average passing rates of 99.0% using 3%/3 mm criteria and 96.7% using 2%/2 mm criteria. The same comparison between the radiographic film and diode array measurements resulted in average passing rates 96.6% and 91.6% for the above two criteria, respectively. No measurable light-scatter or interference scanner artifacts were observed

  19. Linearization of dose-response curve of the radiochromic film dosimetry system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devic, Slobodan; Tomic, Nada; Aldelaijan, Saad; DeBlois, Francois; Seuntjens, Jan; Chan, Maria F.; Lewis, Dave [Medical Physics Unit, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec H3G 1A4 (Canada) and Department of Radiation Oncology, SMBD Jewish General Hospital, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec H3T 1E2 (Canada); Executive Administration for Radiation Protection and Safety Medical Devices Sector, Saudi Food and Drug Authority, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia 13312 (Saudi Arabia); Medical Physics Unit, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec H3G 1A4 (Canada) and Department of Radiation Oncology, SMBD Jewish General Hospital, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec H3T 1E2 (Canada); Medical Physics Unit, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec H3G 1A4 (Canada); Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center Basking Ridge, New Jersey 07920 (United States); Ashland Inc., Wayne, New Jersey 07470 (United States)

    2012-08-15

    Purpose: Despite numerous advantages of radiochromic film dosimeter (high spatial resolution, near tissue equivalence, low energy dependence) to measure a relative dose distribution with film, one needs to first measure an absolute dose (following previously established reference dosimetry protocol) and then convert measured absolute dose values into relative doses. In this work, we present result of our efforts to obtain a functional form that would linearize the inherently nonlinear dose-response curve of the radiochromic film dosimetry system. Methods: Functional form [{zeta}= (-1){center_dot}netOD{sup (2/3)}/ln(netOD)] was derived from calibration curves of various previously established radiochromic film dosimetry systems. In order to test the invariance of the proposed functional form with respect to the film model used we tested it with three different GAFCHROMIC Trade-Mark-Sign film models (EBT, EBT2, and EBT3) irradiated to various doses and scanned on a same scanner. For one of the film models (EBT2), we tested the invariance of the functional form to the scanner model used by scanning irradiated film pieces with three different flatbed scanner models (Epson V700, 1680, and 10000XL). To test our hypothesis that the proposed functional argument linearizes the response of the radiochromic film dosimetry system, verification tests have been performed in clinical applications: percent depth dose measurements, IMRT quality assurance (QA), and brachytherapy QA. Results: Obtained R{sup 2} values indicate that the choice of the functional form of the new argument appropriately linearizes the dose response of the radiochromic film dosimetry system we used. The linear behavior was insensitive to both film model and flatbed scanner model used. Measured PDD values using the green channel response of the GAFCHROMIC Trade-Mark-Sign EBT3 film model are well within {+-}2% window of the local relative dose value when compared to the tabulated Cobalt-60 data. It was also

  20. Linearization of dose-response curve of the radiochromic film dosimetry system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devic, Slobodan; Tomic, Nada; Aldelaijan, Saad; Deblois, Francois; Seuntjens, Jan; Chan, Maria F; Lewis, Dave

    2012-08-01

    Despite numerous advantages of radiochromic film dosimeter (high spatial resolution, near tissue equivalence, low energy dependence) to measure a relative dose distribution with film, one needs to first measure an absolute dose (following previously established reference dosimetry protocol) and then convert measured absolute dose values into relative doses. In this work, we present result of our efforts to obtain a functional form that would linearize the inherently nonlinear dose-response curve of the radiochromic film dosimetry system. Functional form [ζ = (-1)[middle dot]netOD((2∕3))∕ln(netOD)] was derived from calibration curves of various previously established radiochromic film dosimetry systems. In order to test the invariance of the proposed functional form with respect to the film model used we tested it with three different GAFCHROMIC™ film models (EBT, EBT2, and EBT3) irradiated to various doses and scanned on a same scanner. For one of the film models (EBT2), we tested the invariance of the functional form to the scanner model used by scanning irradiated film pieces with three different flatbed scanner models (Epson V700, 1680, and 10000XL). To test our hypothesis that the proposed functional argument linearizes the response of the radiochromic film dosimetry system, verification tests have been performed in clinical applications: percent depth dose measurements, IMRT quality assurance (QA), and brachytherapy QA. Obtained R(2) values indicate that the choice of the functional form of the new argument appropriately linearizes the dose response of the radiochromic film dosimetry system we used. The linear behavior was insensitive to both film model and flatbed scanner model used. Measured PDD values using the green channel response of the GAFCHROMIC™ EBT3 film model are well within ±2% window of the local relative dose value when compared to the tabulated Cobalt-60 data. It was also found that criteria of 3%∕3 mm for an IMRT QA plan and 3%∕2

  1. Measurement of gold nanofilm dose enhancement using unlaminated radiochromic film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rakowski, Joseph T., E-mail: rakowski@karmanos.org; Snyder, Michael G.; Hillman, Yair [Department of Radiation Oncology, School of Medicine, Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan 48201 (United States); Laha, Suvra S.; Lawes, Gavin [Department of Physics, Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan 48201 (United States); Buczek, Matthew G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, School of Medicine, Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan 48201 and MidMichigan Health, Midland, Michigan 48670 (United States); Tucker, Mark A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, School of Medicine, Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan 48201 and Missouri Cancer Associates, Columbia, Missouri 65202 (United States); Liu, Fangchao; Mao, Guangzhao [Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, College of Engineering, Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan 48201 (United States)

    2015-10-15

    Purpose: Bombarding high-Z material with x-ray radiation releases Auger electrons and Coster–Kronig electrons, along with deeper penetrating fluorescent x-rays and photoelectrons. The Auger and Coster–Kronig electron penetration distance is on the order of nanometers to micrometers in water or tissue, creating a large dose enhancement accompanied by a RBE greater than 1 at the cellular level. The authors’ aim is to measure the gold nanofilm dose enhancement factor (DEF) at the cellular level with unlaminated radiochromic film via primary 50 kVp tungsten x-ray spectrum interaction, similar to an electronic brachytherapy spectrum. Methods: Unlaminated Gafchromic{sup ®} EBT2 film and Monte Carlo modeling were combined to derive DEF models. Gold film of thickness 23.1 ±  4.3 nm and surface roughness of 1.2 ± 0.2 nm was placed in contact with unlaminated radiochromic film in a downstream orientation and exposed to a 50 kVp tungsten bremsstrahlung, mean energy 19.2 keV. Film response correction factors were derived by Monte Carlo modeling of electron energy deposition in the film’s active layer, and by measuring film energy dependence from 4.5 keV to 50 kVp. Results: The measured DEF within a 13.6 μm thick water layer was 0.29 with a mean dose of 94 ± 9.4 cGy from Au emissions and 324 ± 32.4 cGy from the 50 kVp primary beam. Monte Carlo derived correction factors allowed determination of Au contributed dose in shallower depths at 0.25 μm intervals. Maximum DEF of 18.31 was found in the first 0.25 μm water depth. Conclusions: Dose enhancement from Au nanofilm can be measured at the cellular level using unlaminated radiochromic film. Complementing the measured dose value with Monte Carlo calculations allows estimation of dose enhancement at depth increments within the cellular range.

  2. New radiochromic gel for 3D dosimetry based on Turnbull blue: basic properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šolc, Jaroslav; Spěváček, Václav

    2009-09-01

    The recently developed new radiochromic gel dosimeter based on Turnbull blue dye formed by irradiation (the TBG dosimeter) does not exhibit dose pattern degradation due to diffusion effects as observed in the Fricke-gel dosimeter with xylenol orange incorporated into the gel matrix (the FXG dosimeter). The TBG dosimeter can be easily prepared and its optical properties enable evaluation of the gel's response using the cone-beam optical computed tomography technique. The preparation procedure is described in the paper along with the basic characteristics of the gel, including dose response, dose sensitivity, ageing under different storage conditions, diffusion rates of Turnbull blue and gel density. The measurement of diffusion is described in more detail. The same method was applied to the FXG dosimeter for direct comparison. It was found that the diffusion coefficient of the TBG dosimeter stored at 24 °C is less than 4 × 10-3 mm2 h-1 (1σ confidence level), compared to the value of 7.3 × 10-1 mm2 h-1 (1σ) of the FXG dosimeter measured at the same temperature. Although the TBG dosimeter is less sensitive than the FXG dosimeter, its diffusion coefficient is practically negligible and, therefore, it offers large potential as a three-dimensional dosimeter for applications encompassing sharp dose gradients such as high-dose-rate brachytherapy.

  3. SU-G-TeP2-06: Development of Novel Radiochromic Films for Radiotherapy Dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alqathami, M; Lee, H; Ibbott, G [UT MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Won Choi, G [UT MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX-Texas (United States); Blencowe, A [The University of South Australia, South Australia, SA (Australia); Wen, Z [MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Adamovics, J [Department of Chemistry and Biology, Rider University, Skillman, NJ (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To develop and evaluate novel radiochromic films for quality assurance in radiotherapy dosimetry. Materials and Methods: Novel radiochromic film compositions were formulated using leuco crystal violet (LCV) as a reporting system and tetrabromoethane as a free radical source. The film matrix used consisted of polyurethane polymer mixed with dibutyl phthalate plasticizer (20 wt%). The concentration of the radical initiator was kept constant at 10 wt% and the concentration of the LCV dye varied (1 and 2 wt%). To ensure uniform thickness of the film, its precursors were sandwiched between two pieces of glass separated by a 1 mm gap between during the curing process. The films were cut into pieces and were irradiated with a 6 MV X-ray beam to selected doses. The change in optical density was measured using a flatbed scanner and a spectrophotometer. Results: The results showed that all film formulations exhibited a linear response with dose and an absorption maximum at ∼ 590 nm. The formulation with 2 wt% LCV was ∼ 30% more sensitive to dose than the formulation with 1 wt% LCV. Both films were very deformable. In addition, the radiochromic response of the film was found to bleach over a short period of time (few weeks) allowing the film to be reused for dose verification measurements. Conclusion: Both film formulations displayed excellent sensitivity and linearity to radiation dose and thus can be used for the 2D dosimetry of clinical megavoltage and kilovoltage X-ray beams. In addition, the thickness of the film could easily be increased allowing for their potential use as a deformable bolus material. However, thicker films would need more optimization of the manufacturing procedure to ensure consistent material uniformity and sensitivity are recommended.

  4. On the re-calibration process in radiochromic film dosimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Morales, Carmen; Vera-Sánchez, Juan Antonio; González-López, Antonio

    2017-10-01

    The accuracy and precision of the dose estimates obtained with radiochromic film dosimetry are investigated in a clinical environment. The improvement in the accuracy of dose estimates reached with corrective methods is analyzed. Two novel re-calibration algorithms for radiochromic film dosimetry are presented. Two different EBT3 lots are evaluated in two different centres. They are calibrated in Varian linacs and read in two different EPSON scaners. Once the lots are calibrated, three films per lot are considered and divided into stripes that are exposed to known doses. Several dosimetry protocols usually employed in radiochromic film dosimetry are used to convert film responses to absorbed doses. These protocols are characterized by different choices of the film responses or different sensitometric curves. Finally, the accuracy and reproducibility of the dose estimates is investigated with and without the corrective methods. The variabilities that affect radiochromic film dosimetry, such as intra-lot variability, inter-scan variability, post-exposure time and film autodevelopment may give rise to inaccuracies in the dose estimates. However, the implementation of re-calibration methods leads to more accurate dose estimates. All the investigated protocols showed more accurate and reproducible results when the re-calibrated methods were employed. So, the novel re-calibration methods may be applied in order to improve the accuracy and reproducibility of radiochromic film dosimetry. Copyright © 2017 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Commissioning a hobby cutting device for radiochromic film preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolfaghari, Somayeh; Francis, Kirby E; Kairn, Tanya; Crowe, Scott B

    2017-06-01

    In addition to a high spatial resolution and well characterised dose response, one of the major advantages of radiochromic film as a dosimeter is that sheets of film can be cut into pieces suitable for use as calibration films, and for in vivo and phantom measurements. The cutting of film is typically done using scissors or a guillotine, and this process can be time-consuming, limited in precision, requires extensive handling and does not allow holes to be cut from the film without cutting from an existing edge. This study investigated the use of a Brother ScanNCut hobby cutting system for EBT3 film preparation. The optimal operating parameters (blade size, pressure, speed) that resulted in precise cuts with minimal delamination at cut edges were identified using test cutting patterns. These parameters were then used to cut a large film insert for a stereotactic head phantom for comparison against an insert cut with scissors. While the hobby cutting system caused a wider region of delamination at the film edge (1.8 mm) compared to scissors (1 mm), the hobby cutting system was found to be able to produce reproducible cuts more efficiently and more accurately than scissors. The use of the hobby cutting system is recommended for complex phantom inserts (containing sharp corners or holes for alignment rods) or in situations where large numbers of film pieces need to be prepared.

  6. Sensitivity of film measured off-axis ratios to film calibration curve using radiochromic film; Sensibilidade das razoes fora do eixo central medidas para a curva de calibracao de filmes usando filme radiocromico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Hernandez, Diana [Universidad Nacional Autnoma de Mexico (UNAM), Mexico City (Mexico). Inst. de Fisica; Larraga-Gutierrez, Jose M. [Instituto Nacional de Neurologia y Neurocirugia, Mexico City (Mexico). Unidad de Radioneurocirugia. Lab. de Fisica Medica

    2011-07-01

    Off-axis ratios of conical beams generated with a stereotactic radiosurgery-dedicated Linac were measured with EBT2 film and stereotactic diode. The sensitivity of both full width at half maximum (FWHM) and penumbras (80-20% and 90-10%, respectively), with respect to the characteristics of the film calibration curve fit, was investigated. In all cases, penumbras resulted to be more sensitive than FWHM. However, these differences were, in general, smaller than the ones found between EBT2 reference values and the stereotactic diode measurements. The larger variation in OAR parameters was found to depend on whether the fit intersected or not the origin. A 1D gamma-index analysis showed this difference can be important in all measured conical beams. (author)

  7. High-sensitivity nanosensors for biomarker detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swierczewska, Magdalena; Liu, Gang; Lee, Seulki; Chen, Xiaoyuan

    2012-04-07

    High sensitivity nanosensors utilize optical, mechanical, electrical, and magnetic relaxation properties to push detection limits of biomarkers below previously possible concentrations. The unique properties of nanomaterials and nanotechnology are exploited to design biomarker diagnostics. High-sensitivity recognition is achieved by signal and target amplification along with thorough pre-processing of samples. In this tutorial review, we introduce the type of detection signals read by nanosensors to detect extremely small concentrations of biomarkers and provide distinctive examples of high-sensitivity sensors. The use of such high-sensitivity nanosensors can offer earlier detection of disease than currently available to patients and create significant improvements in clinical outcomes.

  8. High-sensitivity nanosensors for biomarker detection†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swierczewska, Magdalena; Liu, Gang

    2013-01-01

    High sensitivity nanosensors utilize optical, mechanical, electrical, and magnetic relaxation properties to push detection limits of biomarkers below previously possible concentrations. The unique properties of nanomaterials and nanotechnology are exploited to design biomarker diagnostics. High-sensitivity recognition is achieved by signal and target amplification along with thorough pre-processing of samples. In this tutorial review, we introduce the type of detection signals read by nanosensors to detect extremely small concentrations of biomarkers and provide distinctive examples of high-sensitivity sensors. The use of such high-sensitivity nanosensors can offer earlier detection of disease than currently available to patients and create significant improvements in clinical outcomes. PMID:22187721

  9. Characterization of radiochromic films EBT3 by means of the scanner Vidar dosimetry Pro Red and Epson 10000-XL use; Caracterizacion de films radiocromicos EBT3 mediante el uso de scanner Vidar dosimetry Pro Red y Epson 10000-XL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medina, L.; Garrigo, E.; Venencia, D.; Adrada, A.; Filipuzzi, M., E-mail: fisicamedina11@gmail.com [Instituto Privado de Radioterapia, Obispo Oro 423, X5000BFI Cordoba (Argentina)

    2014-08-15

    The Radiochromic film have become an attractive tool for verification of dose distributions in IMRT because these have high spatial resolution film, are near water equivalent and not require revealed, A critical aspect of the use of these film is used for digitizing scanner The purpose of this paper is to characterize EBT3 using two types of scanner. Were employed The Radiochromic film EBT3, was used photon beam 6 MV generated by a linear accelerator Siemens Primus, he films were irradiated at a dose range between 0 Gy a 9 Gy. The stabilization time after irradiation was 24 hours. The films were digitized with a scanner Epson 10000-XL y el VIDAR Dosimetry Pro Red. We used the software for construction of the calibration curve. The resolution of each dosimetry system was analyzed through the results of the spatial response function by analyzing a step pattern. The Epson scanner is most sensitive to the red channel. This is less than that obtained with the Vidar. The Vidar scanner spatial response profiles disturbs not opposed to Epson analyzed. The calibration curves for both dosimetry systems can be employed. However, the sensitivity and repeatability of the system is better than Red Vidar Epson 10000-XL. (author)

  10. Dose determination with nitro blue tetrazolium containing radiochromic dye films by measuring absorbed and reflected light

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kovács, A.; Baranyai, M.; Wojnárovits, L.

    2000-01-01

    Tetrazolium salts as heterocyclic organic compounds are known to form highly coloured, water insoluble formazans by reduction, which can be utilized in radiation processing dosimetry. Radiochromic films containing nitro blue tetrazolium dissolved in a polymer matrix were found suitable for dose...... determination in a wide dose range both by absorbance and reflectance measurements. The concept of measuring reflected light from dose labels has been discussed earlier and emerged recently due to the requirement of introducing semiquantitative label dose indicators for quarantine control. The usefulness...

  11. High sensory-processing sensitivity at work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers, A.; Rasche, J.; Schabracq, M.J.

    2008-01-01

    In this study, the construct validity of an instrument for the measurement of sensory-processing sensitivity (SPS), the Highly Sensitive Person Scale (HSPS), was examined. Among the outcomes, first, the results confirm an earlier conclusion of researchers that the HSPS does not measure a

  12. SU-F-T-583: Comparison of EBT3 Radiochromic Film Densitometry with Narrow Bandwidth LED Source in Point, Slot and Full Aperture Geometries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordan, K [London Regional Cancer Program (United Kingdom); University of Western Ontario, London, ON, CA (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Film densitometers optimized for radiochromic EBT3 film are not commercially available and flatbed document scanners are limited by broad spectral overlap of the red green and blue channels and polarization effects. Non-polarized, narrow bandwith, intensity stabilized light emitting diode (LED) light sources were constructed and transmission measurements compared for point, slot and full aperture geometries. Methods: LED’s with 10 nm bandwidths were focused to 1 mm spots for point scanning. The LED’s back-illuminated a 6 mm diameter diffuser near the focal point of a 25 cm diameter Fresnel lens for slot and full aperture transmission imaging. Films were located at the aperture plane, 15 cm from the lens and imaged with a 16 bit digital camera with 50 mm lens. Sheets, 10×8 cm, were irradiated to 25 Gy with a 4×4 cm 6 MV photon beam. Transmission measurements with a 633nm, linearly polarized laser were used as lowacceptance angle reference geometry. Results: LED intensity stabilized to <1% within one minute of startup. The useful transmission range increased as the acceptance angle decreased, laser(∼2%)> spot(∼3%)> slot(∼5%)> full aperture(∼10%). The Fresnel lens introduced a 4-fold polarization symmetry that increased radially causing a 2% change in transmission at 10 cm from the optic axis for EBT3 film. Polarized spot densitometer and laser transmission were similar. Conclusion: Spectrally filtered LED sources were effective for transmission measurements of radiochromic films. Because of polarization sensitivity of EBT3 film, the scanning spot geometry is the most general for measuring unpolarised transmission of larger film sizes, ie > 15×15 cm. Due to EBT3 film scatter, spot scanning should provide the most accurate profiles of high dose gradients, for a given acceptance angle. The spot scanning densitometer provided useful transmission to ∼5, 25, >25 Gy with 635, 590 and 530 nm light respectively.

  13. Aluminum nanocantilevers for high sensitivity mass sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davis, Zachary James; Boisen, Anja

    2005-01-01

    We have fabricated Al nanocantilevers using a simple, one mask contact UV lithography technique with lateral and vertical dimensions under 500 and 100 nm, respectively. These devices are demonstrated as highly sensitive mass sensors by measuring their dynamic properties. Furthermore, it is shown...... that Al has a potential higher sensitivity than Si based dynamic sensors. Initial testing of these devices has been conducted using a scanning electron microscope setup were the devices were tested under high vacuum conditions. The Q factor was measured to be approximately 200 and the mass sensitivity...

  14. Experimental comparison of profiles of acquired small fields with ionization chambers, diodes, radiochromic s and TLD films; Comparacion experimental de perfiles de campos pequenos adquiridos con camaras de ionizacion, diodos, peliculas radiocromicas y TLD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venencia, D.; Garrigo, E. [Instituto Privado de Radioterapia, Obispo Oro 423, X5000BFI Cordoba (Argentina); Filipuzzi, M. [Instituto Balseiro, Centro Atomico Bariloche, Av. Bustillo 9500, 8400 Bariloche - Rio Negro (Argentina); Germanier, A., E-mail: devenencia@radioncologia-zunino.org [Centro de Excelencia en Productos y Procesos, Santa Maria de Punilla, 5164 Cordoba (Argentina)

    2014-08-15

    The use of radiation small fields, introduced by new techniques, can bring a considerable uncertainty in the precision of the acquired profiles, due to the conditions of lateral electronic non-equilibrium and the perturbations introduced by the detectors (volume effect and alteration of the charged particles flowing) [Das et al., 2007]. The development of new miniature detectors looks to diminish the uncertainty created by the material and the size of the sensitive volume of the dosimeter. For this reason, comparative measurements for three sizes of square field were carried out (20 mm, 10 mm and 5 mm, of side) using a detectors series: 3 ionization chambers (PTW-31003, IBA-CC04, PTW-31016), 2 diodes (PTW-60012, IBA-Sfd), thermoluminescent detectors micro-cubes of 1 mm of edge (TLD-700) and radiochromic s films EBT-3. These last two were used as reference detectors, due to their spatial high resolution and similar performance with Monte Carlo simulations [Francescon et al., 1998]. So much the thermoluminescent detectors as the radiochromic films resolved the profiles in a similar way. Both diodes responded correctly, but the rest of the detectors overestimated the gloom of the fields, which allows conclude that the used TLD (and both diodes) can resolve field sizes correctly, usually utilized in radio-surgery, without producing significant alterations in the acquired data. (author)

  15. Determining the mechanical properties of a radiochromic silicone-based 3D dosimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, L. P.; Høye, E. M.; Balling, P.; Muren, L. P.; Petersen, J. B. B.; Poulsen, P. R.; Yates, E. S.; Skyt, P. S.

    2017-07-01

    New treatment modalities in radiotherapy (RT) enable delivery of highly conformal dose distributions in patients. This creates a need for precise dose verification in three dimensions (3D). A radiochromic silicone-based 3D dosimetry system has recently been developed. Such a dosimeter can be used for dose verification in deformed geometries, which requires knowledge of the dosimeter’s mechanical properties. In this study we have characterized the dosimeter’s elastic behaviour under tensile and compressive stress. In addition, the dose response under strain was determined. It was found that the dosimeter behaved as an incompressible hyperelastic material with a non-linear stress/strain curve and with no observable hysteresis or plastic deformation even at high strains. The volume was found to be constant within a 2% margin at deformations up to 60%. Furthermore, it was observed that the dosimeter returned to its original geometry within a 2% margin when irradiated under stress, and that the change in optical density per centimeter was constant regardless of the strain during irradiation. In conclusion, we have shown that this radiochromic silicone-based dosimeter’s mechanical properties make it a viable candidate for dose verification in deformable 3D geometries.

  16. Evolution, present state and future of the radiochromic dyeing films; Evolucion, estado actual y futuro de las peliculas de tinte radiocromico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villarreal B, J.E. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    The evolution of radiochromic films, their present state and their developing future are the object of this work. For this purpose a review of the evolution was realized and also of the present state of using the radiochromic dyeing films as tools to determine the absorbed doses distribution produces by beta emissor sources, beta-gamma, electrons and X-rays. In particular it is presented the development of radiochromic films type GafChromic that by their quality in terms of reproducibility, sensibility and high spatial resolution they have been converted in those films of greatest use so dominating market. Since one of the application fields more important of this type of films is clinical dosimetry, the more eminent applications in this area are presented, which the high resolution dosimetry that use GafChromic has been converted in a basic tool. On the other hand the scopes of this type of dosimetry and the possible development lines of dosimetry with radiochromic dyeing films are discussed. (Author)

  17. Total skin electron therapy (TSET): a reimplementation using radiochromic films and IAEA TRS-398 code of practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiapparelli, P; Zefiro, D; Massone, F; Taccini, G

    2010-07-01

    The aim of this work is to present an updated implementation of total skin electron therapy (TSET) using IAEA TRS-398 code of practice for absolute dosimetry and taking advantage of the use of radiochromic films. The optimization of quality control tests is also included. A Varian 2100 C/D linear accelerator equipped with the special procedure HDTSe- (high dose rate total skin electron mode, E=6 MeV) was employed to perform TSET irradiations using the modified Stanford technique. The commissioning was performed following the AAPM report 23 recommendations. In particular, for dual-field beams irradiation, the optimal tilt angle was investigated and the dose distribution in the treatment plane was measured. For a complete six dual-field beams irradiation, the treatment skin dose on the surface of a cylindrical phantom was evaluated by radiochromic films and the B factor which relates the single dual-field skin dose to the six dual-field skin dose was assessed. Since the TRS-398 reference conditions do not meet the requirements of TSET absolute dosimetry, GafChromic EBT films were also employed to check and validate the application of the protocol. Simplified procedures were studied to verify beam constancy in PMMA phantoms without the more difficult setup of total skin irradiation. The optimized geometrical setup for dual-field beams was: Tilt angle = +/- 19 degrees, SSD=353 cm, and the beam degrader (200 x 100 X 1 cm3) placed at 320 cm from the source. As regards to dose homogeneity in the treatment plane, for dual-field beams irradiation, the mean relative dose value was 97% +/- 5% (normalizing to 100% at the calibration point level). For six dual-field beams irradiation, the multiplication factor B was 2.63. In addition, beam quality, dose rate, and bremsstrahlung contribution were also suitable for TSET treatments. The TRS-398 code of practice was used for TSET dosimetry, as dose measurements performed by ionization chamber and radiochromic film agreed within 2

  18. Patient-Specific QA of Spot-Scanning Proton Beams using Radiochromic Film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Maria F; Chen, Chin-Cheng; Shi, Chengyu; Li, Jingdong; Tang, Xiaoli; Li, Xiang; Mah, Dennis

    2017-05-01

    Radiochromic film for spot-scanning QA provides high spatial resolution and efficiency gains from one-shot irradiation for multiple depths. However, calibration can be a tedious procedure which may limit widespread use. Moreover, since there may be an energy dependence, which manifests as a depth dependence, this may require additional measurements for each patient. We present a one-scan protocol to simplify the procedure. A calibration using an EBT3 film, exposed by a 6-level step-wedge plan on a Proteus ® PLUS proton system (IBA, Belgium), was performed at depths of 18, 20, 24cm using Plastic Water ® (CIRS, Norfolk, VA). The calibration doses ranged from 65-250 cGy(RBE) (relative biological effectiveness) for proton energies of 170-200 MeV. A clinical prostate+nodes plan was used for validation. The planar doses at selected depths were measured with EBT3 films and analyzed using One-scan protocol (one-scan digitization of QA film and at least one film exposed to a known dose). The gamma passing rates, dose-difference maps, and profiles of 2D planar doses measured with EBT3 film and IBA MatriXX-PT, versus the RayStation TPS calculations were analyzed and compared. The EBT3 film measurement results matched well with the TPS calculation data with an average passing rate of ~95% for 2%/2mm and slightly lower passing rates were obtained from an ion chamber array detector. We were able to demonstrate that the use of a proton step-wedge provided clinically acceptable results and minimized variations between film-scanner orientation, inter-scan, and scanning conditions. Furthermore, for relative dosimetry (calibration is not done at the time of experiment) it could be derived from no more than two films exposed to known doses (one could be zero) for rescaling the master calibration curve at each depth. The sensitivity of the calibration to depth variations has been explored. One-scan protocol results appear to be comparable to that of the ion chamber array detector

  19. Cooled membrane for high sensitivity gas sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Ruifen; Pawliszyn, Janusz

    2014-04-18

    A novel sample preparation method that combines the advantages of high surface area geometry and cold surface effect was proposed to achieve high sensitivity gas sampling. To accomplish this goal, a device that enables the membrane to be cooled down was developed for sampling, and a gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer was used for separation and quantification analysis. Method development included investigation of the effect of membrane temperature, membrane size, gas flow rate and humidity. Results showed that high sensitivity for equilibrium sampling, such as limonene sampling in the current study could be achieved by either cooling down the membrane and/or using a large volume extraction phase. On the other hand, for pre-equilibrium extraction, in which the extracted amount was mainly determined by membrane surface area and diffusion coefficient, high sensitivity could be obtained by using thinner membranes with a larger surface and/or a higher sampling flow rate. In addition, humidity showed no significant influence on extraction efficiency, due to the absorption property of the liquid extraction phase. Next, the limit of detection (LOD) was found, and the reproducibility of the developed cooled membrane gas sampling method was evaluated. Results showed that LODs with a membrane diameter of 19mm at room temperature sampling were 9.2ng/L, 0.12ng/L, 0.10ng/L for limonene, cinnamaldehyde and 2-pentadecanone, respectively. Intra- and inter-membrane sampling reproducibility revealed RSD% lower than 8% and 13%, respectively. Results uniformly demonstrated that the proposed cooled membrane device could serve as an alternative powerful tool for future gas sampling. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Radiochromic Plastic Films for Accurate Measurement of Radiation Absorbed Dose and Dose Distributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McLaughlin, W. L.; Miller, Arne; Fidan, S.

    1977-01-01

    Thin radiochromic dye films are useful for measuring large radiation absorbed doses (105–108 rads) and for high-resolution imaging of dose patterns produced by penetrating radiation beams passing through non-homogeneous media. Certain types of amino-substituted triarylmethane cyanides dissolved...... in polymeric solutions can be cast into flexible free-standing thin films of uniform thickness and reproducible response to ultraviolet and ionizing radiation. The increase in optical density versus energy deposited by radiation is linear over a wide range of doses and is for practical purposes independent...... of dose rate (1–1014 rad s−1). Upon irradiation of the film, the profile of the radiation field is registered as a permanent colored image of the dose distribution. Unlike most other types of dyed plastic dose meters, the optical density produced by irradiation is in most cases stable for periods...

  1. Review of high-sensitivity Radon studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojcik, M.; Zuzel, G.; Simgen, H.

    2017-10-01

    A challenge in many present cutting-edge particle physics experiments is the stringent requirements in terms of radioactive background. In peculiar, the prevention of Radon, a radioactive noble gas, which occurs from ambient air and it is also released by emanation from the omnipresent progenitor Radium. In this paper we review various high-sensitivity Radon detection techniques and approaches, applied in the experiments looking for rare nuclear processes happening at low energies. They allow to identify, quantitatively measure and finally suppress the numerous sources of Radon in the detectors’ components and plants.

  2. The high sensitivity double beta spectrometer TGV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briancon, Ch.; Brudanin, V. B.; Egorov, V. G.; Janout, Z.; Koníček, J.; Kovalík, A.; Kovalenko, V. E.; Kubašta, J.; Pospíšil, S.; Revenko, A. V.; Rukhadze, N. I.; Salamatin, A. V.; Sandukovsky, V. G.; Štekl, I.; Timkin, V. V.; Tsupko-Sitnikov, V. V.; Vorobel, V.; Vylov, Ts.

    1996-02-01

    A high sensitivity double beta spectrometer TGV (Telescope Germanium Vertical) has been developed. It is based on 16 HPGe detectors of volume 1200 × 6 mm 3 each in the same cryostat. The TGV spectrometer was proposed for the study of ultrarare nuclear processes (e.g. 2νββ, 0νββ, 2νEC/EC). Details of the TGV spectrometer construction are described, the principles of background suppression, the results of Monte Carlo simulations and the results of test background measurements (in Dubna and Modane underground laboratory) are provided.

  3. [Clinical interpretation of high sensitivity troponin T].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alquézar Arbé, Aitor; Santaló Bel, Miguel; Sionis, Alessandro

    2015-09-21

    Determination of cardiac troponin (cTn) is necessary for the diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction without ST segment elevation. However Tnc can be released in other clinical situations. The development of high-sensitive cTn T assays (hs-cTnT) improves the management of patients with suspected acute coronary syndrome. Here, we provide an overview of the diverse causes of hs-cTnT elevation and recommend strategies for the clinical interpretation of the test result. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. High sensitivity troponin and valvular heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Cian P; Donnellan, Eoin; Phelan, Dermot; Griffin, Brian P; Enriquez-Sarano, Maurice; McEvoy, John W

    2017-07-01

    Blood-based biomarkers have been extensively studied in a range of cardiovascular diseases and have established utility in routine clinical care, most notably in the diagnosis of acute coronary syndrome (e.g., troponin) and the management of heart failure (e.g., brain-natriuretic peptide). The role of biomarkers is less well established in the management of valvular heart disease (VHD), in which the optimal timing of surgical intervention is often challenging. One promising biomarker that has been the subject of a number of recent VHD research studies is high sensitivity troponin (hs-cTn). Novel high-sensitivity assays can detect subclinical myocardial damage in asymptomatic individuals. Thus, hs-cTn may have utility in the assessment of asymptomatic patients with severe VHD who do not have a clear traditional indication for surgical intervention. In this state-of-the-art review, we examine the current evidence for hs-cTn as a potential biomarker in the most commonly encountered VHD conditions, aortic stenosis and mitral regurgitation. This review provides a synopsis of early evidence indicating that hs-cTn has promise as a biomarker in VHD. However, the impact of its measurement on clinical practice and VHD outcomes needs to be further assessed in prospective studies before routine clinical use becomes a reality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Highly Sensitive Electro-Optic Modulators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeVore, Peter S [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-10-26

    There are very important diagnostic and communication applications that receive faint electrical signals to be transmitted over long distances for capture. Optical links reduce bandwidth and distance restrictions of metal transmission lines; however, such signals are only weakly imprinted onto the optical carrier, resulting in low fidelity transmission. Increasing signal fidelity often necessitates insertion of radio-frequency (RF) amplifiers before the electro-optic modulator, but (especially at high frequencies) RF amplification results in large irreversible distortions. We have investigated the feasibility of a Sensitive and Linear Modulation by Optical Nonlinearity (SALMON) modulator to supersede RF-amplified modulators. SALMON uses cross-phase modulation, a manifestation of the Kerr effect, to enhance the modulation depth of an RF-modulated optical wave. This ultrafast process has the potential to result in less irreversible distortions as compared to a RF-amplified modulator due to the broadband nature of the Kerr effect. Here, we prove that a SALMON modulator is a feasible alternative to an RFamplified modulator, by demonstrating a sensitivity enhancement factor greater than 20 and significantly reduced distortion.

  6. High sensitive radiation detector for radiology dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valente, M.; Malano, F. [Instituto de Fisica Enrique Gaviola, Oficina 102 FaMAF - UNC, Av. Luis Medina Allende, Ciudad Universitaria, 5000 Cordoba (Argentina); Molina, W.; Vedelago, J., E-mail: valente@famac.unc.edu.ar [Laboratorio de Investigaciones e Instrumentacion en Fisica Aplicada a la Medicina e Imagenes por Rayos X, Laboratorio 448 FaMAF - UNC, Ciudad Universitaria, 5000 Cordoba (Argentina)

    2014-08-15

    Fricke solution has a wide range of applications as radiation detector and dosimetry. It is particularly appreciated in terms of relevant comparative advantages, like tissue equivalence when prepared in aqueous media like gel matrix, continuous mapping capability, dose rate recorded and incident direction independence as well as linear dose response. This work presents the development and characterization of a novel Fricke gel system, based on modified chemical compositions making possible its application in clinical radiology. Properties of standard Fricke gel dosimeter for high dose levels are used as starting point and suitable chemical modifications are introduced and carefully investigated in order to attain high resolution for low dose ranges, like those corresponding to radiology interventions. The developed Fricke gel radiation dosimeter system achieves the expected typical dose dependency, actually showing linear response in the dose range from 20 up to 4000 mGy. Systematic investigations including several chemical compositions are carried out in order to obtain a good enough dosimeter response for low dose levels. A suitable composition among those studied is selected as a good candidate for low dose level radiation dosimetry consisting on a modified Fricke solution fixed to a gel matrix containing benzoic acid along with sulfuric acid, ferrous sulfate, xylenol orange and ultra-pure reactive grade water. Dosimeter samples are prepared in standard vials for its in phantom irradiation and further characterization by spectrophotometry measuring visible light transmission and absorbance before and after irradiation. Samples are irradiated by typical kV X-ray tubes and calibrated Farmer type ionization chamber is used as reference to measure dose rates inside phantoms in at vials locations. Once sensitive material composition is already optimized, dose-response curves show significant improvement regarding overall sensitivity for low dose levels. According to

  7. High sensitivity field asymmetric ion mobility spectrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavarria, Mario A; Matheoud, Alessandro V; Marmillod, Philippe; Liu, Youjiang; Kong, Deyi; Brugger, Jürgen; Boero, Giovanni

    2017-03-01

    A high sensitivity field asymmetric ion mobility spectrometer (FAIMS) was designed, fabricated, and tested. The main components of the system are a 10.6 eV UV photoionization source, an ion filter driven by a high voltage/high frequency n-MOS inverter circuit, and a low noise ion detector. The ion filter electronics are capable to generate square waveforms with peak-to-peak voltages up to 1000 V at frequencies up to 1 MHz with adjustable duty cycles. The ion detector current amplifier has a gain up to 10 12 V/A with an effective equivalent input noise level down to about 1 fA/Hz 1/2 during operation with the ion filter at the maximum voltage and frequency. The FAIMS system was characterized by detecting different standard chemical compounds. Additionally, we investigated the use of a synchronous modulation/demodulation technique to improve the signal-to-noise ratio in FAIMS measurements. In particular, we implemented the modulation of the compensation voltage with the synchronous demodulation of the ion current. The analysis of the measurements at low concentration levels led to an extrapolated limit of detection for acetone of 10 ppt with an averaging time of 1 s.

  8. High sensitivity field asymmetric ion mobility spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavarria, Mario A.; Matheoud, Alessandro V.; Marmillod, Philippe; Liu, Youjiang; Kong, Deyi; Brugger, Jürgen; Boero, Giovanni

    2017-03-01

    A high sensitivity field asymmetric ion mobility spectrometer (FAIMS) was designed, fabricated, and tested. The main components of the system are a 10.6 eV UV photoionization source, an ion filter driven by a high voltage/high frequency n-MOS inverter circuit, and a low noise ion detector. The ion filter electronics are capable to generate square waveforms with peak-to-peak voltages up to 1000 V at frequencies up to 1 MHz with adjustable duty cycles. The ion detector current amplifier has a gain up to 1012 V/A with an effective equivalent input noise level down to about 1 fA/Hz1/2 during operation with the ion filter at the maximum voltage and frequency. The FAIMS system was characterized by detecting different standard chemical compounds. Additionally, we investigated the use of a synchronous modulation/demodulation technique to improve the signal-to-noise ratio in FAIMS measurements. In particular, we implemented the modulation of the compensation voltage with the synchronous demodulation of the ion current. The analysis of the measurements at low concentration levels led to an extrapolated limit of detection for acetone of 10 ppt with an averaging time of 1 s.

  9. Temperature, humidity and time. Combined effects on radiochromic film dosimeters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdel-Fattah, A.A.; Miller, A.

    1996-01-01

    The effects of both relative humidity and temperature during irradiation on the dose response of FWT-60-00 and Riso B3 radiochromic film dosimeters have been investigated in the relative humidity (RH) range 11-94% and temperature range 20-60 degrees C for irradiation by Co-60 photons and 10-Me......V electrons. The results show that humidity and temperature cannot be treated as independent variables, rather there appears to be interdependence between absorbed dose, temperature, and humidity. Dose rate does not seem to play a significant role. The dependence of temperature during irradiation is +0.......25 +/- 0.1% per degrees C for the FWT-60-00 dosimeters and +0.5 +/- 0.1% per degrees C For Riso B3 dosimeters at temperatures between 20 and 50 degrees C and at relative humidities between 20 and 53%. At extreme conditions both with respect to temperature and to humidity, the dosimeters show much stronger...

  10. Dose profile study in head CT scans using radiochromic films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ladino G, A. M.; Prata M, A., E-mail: amlgphys@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear, Av. Pte. Antonio Carlos 6627, 31270-901 Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais (Brazil)

    2016-10-15

    Diagnostic images of computed tomography generate higher doses than other methods of diagnostic radiology using X-ray beam attenuation. Clinical applications of CT have been increased by technological advances, what leads to a wide variety of scanner in the Brazilian technological pool. It has been difficult to implement dose reduction strategies because of the lack of proper guidance on computed tomography examinations. However, CT scanners allow adjusting acquisition parameter according to the patients physical profile and diagnostic application for which the scan is intended. The knowledge of the dose distribution is important because changes in image acquisition parameters may provide dose reduction. In this study, it was used a cylindrical head phantom in PMMA with 5 openings, what allows dose measurement in 5 regions. In a GE CT scanner, Discovery model of 64 channels, the central slice of the head phantom was irradiated and the absorbed doses were measured using a pencil ionization chamber. Radiochromic film strips were placed in the peripheral and in the central region of the head phantom and was performed a scan of 10 cm in the phantom central region. The scan was performed using the head scanning protocol of the radiobiology service, with a voltage of 120 kV. After scanning, the radiochromic film strips were digitalized and their digital images were used to have the dose longitudinal profiles. The dose values recorded have variation in a range of 18.66 to 23.57 mGy. In the results it was compared the dose index values obtained by the pencil chamber measurement to the dose longitudinal profiles recorded by the film strips. (Author)

  11. Development of high sensitivity radon detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Takeuchi, Y; Kajita, T; Tasaka, S; Hori, H; Nemoto, M; Okazawa, H

    1999-01-01

    High sensitivity detectors for radon in air and in water have been developed. We use electrostatic collection and a PIN photodiode for these detectors. Calibration systems have been also constructed to obtain collection factors. As a result of the calibration study, the absolute humidity dependence of the radon detector for air is clearly observed in the region less than about 1.6 g/m sup 3. The calibration factors of the radon detector for air are 2.2+-0.2 (counts/day)/(mBq/m sup 3) at 0.08 g/m sup 3 and 0.86+-0.06 (counts/day)/(mBq/m sup 3) at 11 g/m sup 3. The calibration factor of the radon detector for water is 3.6+-0.5 (counts/day)/(mBq/m sup 3). The background level of the radon detector for air is 2.4+-1.3 counts/day. As a result, one standard deviation excess of the signal above the background of the radon detector for air should be possible for 1.4 mBq/m sup 3 in a one-day measurement at 0.08 g/m sup 3.

  12. SU-E-CAMPUS-T-06: Radiochromic Film Analysis Based On Principal Components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wendt, R [UT MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: An algorithm to convert the color image of scanned EBT2 radiochromic film [Ashland, Covington KY] into a dose map was developed based upon a principal component analysis. The sensitive layer of the EBT2 film is colored so that the background streaks arising from variations in thickness and scanning imperfections may be distinguished by color from the dose in the exposed film. Methods: Doses of 0, 0.94, 1.9, 3.8, 7.8, 16, 32 and 64 Gy were delivered to radiochromic films by contact with a calibrated Sr-90/Y-90 source. They were digitized by a transparency scanner. Optical density images were calculated and analyzed by the method of principal components. The eigenimages of the 0.94 Gy film contained predominantly noise, predominantly background streaking, and background streaking plus the source, respectively, in order from the smallest to the largest eigenvalue. Weighting the second and third eigenimages by −0.574 and 0.819 respectively and summing them plus the constant 0.012 yielded a processed optical density image with negligible background streaking. This same weighted sum was transformed to the red, green and blue space of the scanned images and applied to all of the doses. The curve of processed density in the middle of the source versus applied dose was fit by a twophase association curve. A film was sandwiched between two polystyrene blocks and exposed edge-on to a different Y-90 source. This measurement was modeled with the GATE simulation toolkit [Version 6.2, OpenGATE Collaboration], and the on-axis depth-dose curves were compared. Results: The transformation defined using the principal component analysis of the 0.94 Gy film minimized streaking in the backgrounds of all of the films. The depth-dose curves from the film measurement and simulation are indistinguishable. Conclusion: This algorithm accurately converts EBT2 film images to dose images while reducing noise and minimizing background streaking. Supported by a sponsored research

  13. Poster - Thur Eve - 18: Characterization of a camera and LED lightbox imaging system for radiochromic film dosimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, K; Percy, E; Olding, T; Schreiner, L J; Salomons, G

    2012-07-01

    Radiation therapy treatment modalities continue to develop and have become increasingly complex. With this, dose verification and quality assurance (QA) is of great importance to ensure that a prescribed dose is accurately and precisely delivered to a patient. Radiochromic film dosimetry has been adopted as a convenient option for QA, because it is relatively energy independent, is near tissue equivalent, and has high spatial resolution. Unfortunately, it is not always easy to use. In this study, preliminary work towards developing a novel method of imaging radiochromic film is presented. The setup consists of a camera mounted vertically above a lightbox containing red LEDs, interfaced with computer image acquisition software. Imaging results from this system will be compared with imaging performed using an Epson Expression 10000XL scanner (a device in common clinical use). The lightbox imaging technique with camera readout is much faster relative to a flatbed scanner. The film measurements made using the camera are independent of film orientation, and show reduced artifacts, so that there are fewer corrections required compared to the use of flatbed scanners. Optical scatter also appears to be less of an issue with this design than with the flat bed scanner. While further work needs to be done to optimize the lightbox imaging system, the lightbox system shows great promise for a rapid, simple, and orientation independent setup, improving on existing film scanning systems. © 2012 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  14. Response of radiochromic dye films to low energy heavy charged particles

    CERN Document Server

    Buenfil, A E; Gamboa-Debuen, I; Aviles, P; Avila, O; Olvera, C; Robledo, R; Rodriguez-Ponce, M; Mercado-Uribe, H; Rodriguez-Villafuerte, M; Brandan, M E

    2002-01-01

    We have studied the possible use of radiochromic dye films (RCF) as heavy charged particle dosemeters. We present the results of irradiating two commercial RCF (GafChromic HD-810 and MD-55-1) with 1.5, 2.9 and 4.4 MeV protons, 1.4, 2.8, 4.7, 5.9, 6.8 MeV sup 4 He ions and 8.5 and 12.4 MeV sup 1 sup 2 C ions, at proton doses from about 1 Gy up to 3 kGy, helium ions doses from 3 Gy to 5 kGy and carbon ion doses from 30 Gy to 20 kGy. The films were scanned and digitized using commercial equipment. For a given particle, the response per unit dose at different energies indicates an energy dependence of the sensitivity, which is discussed. Comparison was made for the use of a standard spectrophotometer to obtain optical density readings versus a white light scanner.

  15. Optical CT scanning of cross-linked radiochromic gel without cylinder wall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordan, Kevin [London Regional Cancer Program, London Health Sciences Centre and Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Western Ontario, London, ON (Canada)], E-mail: kevin.jordan@lhsc.on.ca

    2009-05-01

    Genipin cross-linked gelatin hydrogels with 0.2 M sulphuric acid are radiochromic and have sufficient sensitivity for investigating doses less than 50 Gray. Because of the gelatine cross-links, these gels have sufficient strength to allow removal from the vessel container in which they were cast. Placing the gels in the same liquid that was used for preparing the gel allows the radiochemistry to the same throughout the gels and provides physical support. In this buoyancy neutral environment the gel has the same shape and the preparation vessel. This allows optical CT scanning without wall artefacts due to reflection, refraction and optical activity. A gel was irradiated to dose of 25 Gray with a 10 MV photon beam of 20 x 20 mm cross section. Full 3D optical CT scanning was performed with a Vista 10 optical cone-beam CT scanner. Central beam axis profiles and depth dose agree with diode and parallel plate ion chamber measurements. These results demonstrate that genipin cross-linked gel can be used for accurate 3D dosimetry, including surface dose measurements.

  16. Dandelions, tulips and orchids: evidence for the existence of low-sensitive, medium-sensitive and high-sensitive individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lionetti, Francesca; Aron, Arthur; Aron, Elaine N; Burns, G Leonard; Jagiellowicz, Jadzia; Pluess, Michael

    2018-01-22

    According to empirical studies and recent theories, people differ substantially in their reactivity or sensitivity to environmental influences with some being generally more affected than others. More sensitive individuals have been described as orchids and less-sensitive ones as dandelions. Applying a data-driven approach, we explored the existence of sensitivity groups in a sample of 906 adults who completed the highly sensitive person (HSP) scale. According to factor analyses, the HSP scale reflects a bifactor model with a general sensitivity factor. In contrast to prevailing theories, latent class analyses consistently suggested the existence of three rather than two groups. While we were able to identify a highly sensitive (orchids, 31%) and a low-sensitive group (dandelions, 29%), we also detected a third group (40%) characterised by medium sensitivity, which we refer to as tulips in keeping with the flower metaphor. Preliminary cut-off scores for all three groups are provided. In order to characterise the different sensitivity groups, we investigated group differences regarding the Big Five personality traits, as well as experimentally assessed emotional reactivity in an additional independent sample. According to these follow-up analyses, the three groups differed in neuroticism, extraversion and emotional reactivity to positive mood induction with orchids scoring significantly higher in neuroticism and emotional reactivity and lower in extraversion than the other two groups (dandelions also differed significantly from tulips). Findings suggest that environmental sensitivity is a continuous and normally distributed trait but that people fall into three distinct sensitive groups along a sensitivity continuum.

  17. High sensitivity optical measurement of skin gloss

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ezerskaia, A.; Ras, Arno; Bloemen, Pascal; Pereira, S.F.; Urbach, Paul; Varghese, Babu

    2017-01-01

    We demonstrate a low-cost optical method for measuring the gloss properties with improved sensitivity in the low gloss regime, relevant for skin gloss properties. The gloss estimation method is based on, on the one hand, the slope of the intensity gradient in the transition regime between

  18. Environmental Sensitivity in Children: Development of the Highly Sensitive Child Scale and Identification of Sensitivity Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pluess, Michael; Assary, Elham; Lionetti, Francesca; Lester, Kathryn J.; Krapohl, Eva; Aron, Elaine N.; Aron, Arthur

    2018-01-01

    A large number of studies document that children differ in the degree they are shaped by their developmental context with some being more sensitive to environmental influences than others. Multiple theories suggest that "Environmental Sensitivity" is a common trait predicting the response to negative as well as positive exposures.…

  19. A method for multichannel dosimetry with EBT3 radiochromic films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pérez Azorín, Jose Fernando, E-mail: josefernando.perezazorin@osakidetza.net [Hospital Universitario de Cruces, Department of Medical Physics, Plz. Cruces s/n, Barakaldo, 48903 Bizkaia (Spain); Ramos García, Luis Isaac, E-mail: liramos@unav.es [Clínica Universitaria de Navarra, Department of Oncology, University of Navarre, Av. Pio XII s/n, Pamplona, 31008 Navarre (Spain); Martí-Climent, Josep M., E-mail: jmmartic@unav.es [Clínica Universitaria de Navarra, Department of Nuclear Medicine, University of Navarre, Av. Pio XII s/n, Pamplona, 31008 Navarre (Spain)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: An improved method for multichannel dosimetry is presented. This method explicitly takes into account the information provided by the unexposed image of the film. Methods: The method calculates the dose by applying a couple of perturbations to the scanned dose, one dependent and the other independent on the color channel. The method has been compared with previous multichannel and two single channel methods (red and green) against measurements using two different tests: first, five percentage depth dose profiles covering a wide range of doses; second, the dose map perpendicular to the beam axis for a 15 × 15cm{sup 2} square field. Finally, the results of 30 IMRT quality assurances tests are presented. All tests have been evaluated using the gamma analysis. Results: The coefficient of variation was found to be similar for all methods in a wide range of doses. The results of the proposed method are more in agreement with the experimental measurements and with the treatment planning system. Furthermore, the differences in the mean gamma pass rates are statistically significant. Conclusions: The improved multichannel dosimetric method is able to remove many of the common disturbances usually present in radiochromic films and improves the gamma analysis results compared with the other three methods.

  20. Computed tomography scan optimization using head phantom and radiochromic films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, Lorena C.; Santana, P.C.; Velasquez, Carlos E.; Mourao, Arnaldo P., E-mail: lorena.cfernandes@hotmail.com, E-mail: carlosvelcab@hotmail.com, E-mail: pridili@gmail.com, E-mail: apmourao@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear; Centro de Imagem Molecular do INCT-Medicina Molecular (CIMol/UFMG) Belo Horizonte (Brazil); Centro Federal de Educação Tecnológica de Minas Gerais (CEFET-MG), Belo Horizonte (Brazil)

    2017-11-01

    The research and development in technology applied to computed tomography has been improve in the image quality, resulting in the best identification of diseases, and therefore an increase in the number of exams, among them the head exams can be highlighted. In order to promote a radioprotection and reduction on the dose of the general public some international agencies have stipulated dose limits to be followed and the implementation of the principles of ALARA in all establishments that use ionizing radiation. One of these principles is the optimization that should be treated with substantial attention, because the reduction of radiation doses can be feasible as long as it does not compromise the tomographic images; such practice is difficult to perform due to the lack of proper guidance. In optimization of the CT exams, not only the lowest dose is evaluated to obtain diagnostic image, but also should be knowledge the dose distribution throughout the scanned area. In this work were used a cylindrical head phantom of PMMA, a GE Discovery CT scan with 64 channels, and radiochromic films. The films were positioned in the phantom in their central region for the dose evaluation using the automatic control for the voltages of 80, 100 and 120 kV. The images were acquired from the scan of the phantom and the film readings were obtained through digital images. The results show an evaluation of the longitudinal kerma profiles, dose delivered, and the image noise was also observed using the central slice images. (author)

  1. Mismatch negativity (MMN) in high and low noise sensitive individuals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    White, Kim; Meeter, Martijn

    2015-01-01

    Although noise sensitivity is known to be an important determinant of noise annoyance, its neural underpinnings are not yet well established. In the present study, high and low noise sensitive participants were selected based on their scores on the Noise Sensitivity Scale (NSS) and the Noise

  2. Scalloped electrodes for highly sensitive electrical measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vazquez Rodriguez, Patricia; Dimaki, Maria; Svendsen, Winnie Edith

    2011-01-01

    In this work we introduce a novel out-of-plane electrode with pronounced scalloped surface and high aspect ratio for electrical recordings of brain tissue in vitro, with the aim to reduce significantly the impedance of the measuring system. The profile and height of the structures is tailored by ...

  3. Highly linear, sensitive analog-to-digital converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, J.; Finley, W. R.

    1969-01-01

    Analog-to-digital converter converts 10 volt full scale input signal into 13 bit digital output. Advantages include high sensitivity, linearity, low quantitizing error, high resistance to mechanical shock and vibration loads, and temporary data storage capabilities.

  4. Heterogeneous catalysis in highly sensitive microreactors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Jakob Lind

    oxygen surplus, is presented. The e_ect of pretreating the catalyst, CuZnO, in a mixture of H2 and CO before methanol synthesis, is presented. Transient increased methanol production is seen after pretreatment, with a maximum in the transient for a pretreatment with a one to one CO to H2 ratio...... of adsorbates readily converted to methanol as the source of the transient increase in methanol production, is eliminated. A study of mass selected ruthenium nanoparticles from a magnetron-sputter gas-aggregation source, deposited in microreactors, is presented. It is, shown that CO methanation can be measured....... The highly active state of the catalyst after pretreatment in a CO and H2 mixture is shown to have transient methanol synthesis capabilities at 60.. Estimates of the area of the catalytic surface, is obtained using formate temperature programmed desorption measurements. From these, the possibility...

  5. Highly sensitive fiber loop ringdown strain sensor with low temperature sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghimire, Maheshwar; Wang, Chuji

    2017-10-01

    We report a highly sensitive strain sensor with low temperature sensitivity based on the fiber loop ringdown technique. An innovative approach that employs a micro air-gap as the strain sensor head is described. The sensor has demonstrated the static strain sensitivity of 0.26 µs/µɛ, corresponding to the detection limit of 65 nɛ with the low temperature cross sensitivity of 37 nɛ/°C. This is the highest static strain sensitivity achieved without using a combination of fiber optic sensing components, such as fiber Bragg gratings or Fabry-Perot interferometers. Moreover, the sensor design allows the strain sensitivity and measuring range to be adjusted by changing the length of the sensor.

  6. Radiochromic film dosimetry for UV-C treatments of apple fruit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radiochromic films were evaluated for their suitability to estimate UV-C doses and dose uniformity on apple fruit surface. Parameters investigated included film type, color changes of the films in response to different UV-C doses, color stability of films, UV-C light intensity, and temperature. In...

  7. High sensitivity probe absorption technique for time-of-flight ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We report on a phase-sensitive probe absorption technique with high sensitivity, capable of detecting a few hundred ultra-cold atoms in flight in an observation time of a few milliseconds. The large signal-to-noise ratio achieved is sufficient for reliable measurements on low intensity beams of cold atoms. We demonstrate the ...

  8. High sensitivity probe absorption technique for time-of-flight ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Absorption imaging using a high sensitivity CCD camera gives the size of the expanding cloud and hence ... (LVIS) [2], the peak signal in a 1 mm thick resonant probe beam corresponds to the absorption by 3 × 105 ... used in our atom optics experiments on the reflection of atoms from magnetic thin films [13]. The sensitivity ...

  9. Characterization of the proton beam from an IBA Cyclone 18/9 with radiochromic film EBT2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sansaloni, F.; Lagares, J. I.; Arce, P.; Llop, J.; Perez, J. M. [Medical Applications Unit, Technology Department, CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain); Radiochemistry Department, Molecular Imaging unit, CIC-biomaGUNE, San Sebastian (Spain); Technology Department, CIEMAT (Spain)

    2012-12-19

    The use of radiochromic films is widespread in different areas of medical physics like radiotherapy and hadrontherapy; however, radiochromic films have been scarcely used in the characterization of proton or deuteron beams generated in biomedical cyclotrons. In this paper the radiochromic film EBT2 was used to study the beam size and the proton beam energy of an IBA Cyclone 18/9 cyclotron. The results indicate that the beam size can be easily measured at a very low expense; however, an accurate determination of the beam energy might require the implementation of certain experimental improvements.

  10. Enhancement of the optical properties of a new radiochromic dosimeter based on aliphatic-aromatic biodegradable polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schimitberger, Thiago, E-mail: tschimitberger@ufmg.br [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia. Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear; Faria, Luiz O., E-mail: farialo@cdtn.br [Centro de desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    The development of a dosimeter that is of low cost, easy to process without dependence on expensive complex instruments and environment friendly is a challenging in irradiation quality control. Recently, an aliphatic-aromatic biodegradable polymer has been proposed as radiochromic dosimeter. The dosimeter is based on biodegradable poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate) copolymers (PBAT). In order to improve the photoluminescence (PL) properties of PBAT, increasing its range of applicability (50 kGy to 1000 kGy), this work investigates the influence of solution concentration in the dose response. Films with thickness of c.a. 80 μm were produce by wirebar coating, a simple deposition method for preparing large areas of organic films at low cost. The irradiation of samples was performed at room temperature using a Co-60 source at dose rate of 20 kGy/h. The films were exposed to doses ranging from 501 kGy to 1000 kGy. A 405 nm LED light source was used to excite the films. The USB2000 spectrometer made by Ocean Optics was used to collect the emission spectra of the luminescent films. The photoluminescent intensity captured by the spectrometer present linear radiation dose dependence. The maximum PL for the film sample made from a 0.05 g.mL{sup -1} solution is 1.5 (a.u.) while it is about 3.5 (a.u.) for a film sample made from a 0.2 mg.mL{sup -1} solution, when irradiated with 1000 kGy. These results indicate that PBAT films have great potential to be used as a high gamma dose radiochromic dosimeter over a wide dose range, expanding its applicability for different radiations process. (author)

  11. Highly sensitive humidity sensor based on graphene oxide foam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kai-Lun; Hou, Zhi-Ling; Zhang, Bao-Xun; Zhao, Quan-Liang

    2017-10-01

    Since sensitive humidity sensing is strongly desired, we present a highly sensitive humidity sensor fabricated from graphene oxide (GO) foam based on low-frequency dielectric properties. The GO foam shows humidity- and compression-dependent dielectric. Upon applying compression on GO foam, the humidity sensitivity increases and the maximum humidity sensitivity of dielectric loss is more than 12-fold higher than that of direct-current electrical conductivity. The highly sensitive humidity response originates from the generation of local conductive networks, which is the result of the connected isolated conductive regions by water cluster. Additionally, the dielectric properties of fabricated GO foam show a stable and repeatable humidity response, suggesting a carbon prototype with great potential in humidity sensors.

  12. Murine High Specificity/Sensitivity Competitive Europium Insulin Autoantibody Assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babaya, Naru; Liu, Edwin; Miao, DongMei; Li, Marcella; Yu, Liping

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Most insulin autoantibody assays for both human and animal models are in a radioassay format utilizing 125I-insulin, but despite the radioassay format international workshops have documented difficulty in standardization between laboratories. There is thus a need for simpler assay formats that do not utilize radioactivity, yet retain the high specificity and sensitivity of radioassays. Methods To establish an easier enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for insulin autoantibodies of non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice, we used an ELISA format, competition with unlabeled insulin, europium-avidin, and time-resolved fluorescence detection (competitive europium insulin autoantibody assay). Results The competitive europium assay of insulin autoantibodies when applied to sera from NOD mice had high sensitivity and specificity (92% sensitivity, 100% specificity) compared to our standard insulin autoantibody radioassay (72% sensitivity, 100% specificity) in analyzing blind workshop sera. It is noteworthy that though the assay has extremely high sensitivity for murine insulin autoantibodies and utilizes human insulin as target autoantigen, human sera with high levels of insulin autoantibodies are not detected. Conclusions Our results clearly indicate that low levels of insulin autoantibodies can be detected in an ELISA-like format. Combining a europium-based ELISA with competition with fluid-phase autoantigen can be applicable to many autoantigens to achieve high specificity and sensitivity in an ELISA format. PMID:19344197

  13. Dose Distribution According to the Tissue Composition Using Wedge Filter by Radiochromic Film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yon Lae [Dept. of Radiologic Technology, Choonhae College of Health Sciences, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jeong Woo; Park, Byung Moon [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Konku University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Jae Yong; Park, Ji Yeon; Suh, Tae Suk [Dept. of Biomedical Engineering, Catholic University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-06-15

    The purpose of this study is to analyze the dose distribution when wedge filter is used in the various tissue electron density materials. The dose distribution was assessed that the enhanced dynamic wedge filter and physical wedge filter were used in the solid water phantom, cork phantom, and air cavity. The film dosimetry was suitable simple to measure 2D dose distribution. Therefore, the radiochromic films (Gafchromic EBT2, ISP, NJ, USA) were selected to measure and to analyze the dose distributions. A linear accelerator using 6 MV photon were irradiated to field size of 10 x10 cm{sup 2} with 400 MUs. The dose distributions of EBT2 films were analyzed the in-field area and penumbra regions by using dose analysis program. In the dose distributions of wedge field, the dose from a physical wedge was higher than that from a dynamic wedge at the same electron density materials. A dose distributions of wedge type in the solid water phantom and the cork phantom were in agreements with 2%. However, the dose distribution in air cavity showed the large difference with those in the solid water phantom or cork phantom dose distributions. Dose distribution of wedge field in air cavity was not shown the wedge effect. The penumbra width, out of the field of thick and thin, was observed larger from 1 cm to 2 cm at the thick end. The penumbra of physical wedge filter was much larger average 6% than the dynamic wedge filter. If the physical wedge filter is used, the dose was increased to effect the scatter that interacted with photon and physical wedge. In the case of difference in electron like the soft tissue, lung, and air, the transmission, absorption, and scattering were changed in the medium at high energy photon. Therefore, the treatment at the difference electron density should be inhomogeneity correction in treatment planning system.

  14. Correcting lateral response artifacts from flatbed scanners for radiochromic film dosimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, David; Chan, Maria F

    2015-01-01

    lateral position response artifact. To validate this method, corrections were applied to several films that were exposed to 15 × 15 cm(2) open fields and large IMRT and VMAT fields and scanned at the extreme edges of the scan window in addition to the central location. Calibration and response data were used to generate dose maps and perform gamma analysis using single- or triple-channel dosimetry with FilmQAPro 2014 software. The authors' study found that calibration curves at the different lateral positions could be correlated by a simple two-point rescaling using the response for unexposed film as well as the response of film exposed at high doses between 800 and 1600 cGy. The coefficients A(L,X) and BL,X for each color channel X were found to be independent of dose at each lateral location L. This made it possible to apply the relationship Response(C, D, X) = A(L,X) + B(L,X) ⋅ Response(L, D, X), to the raw film responses, permitting correction of the response values at any lateral position to an equivalent response, as if that part of the film was located at the center of the scanner. This correction method was validated for several films exposed to open as well as large IMRT and VMAT fields. The work reported elaborates on the process using the correction procedures to eliminate the lateral response artifact and demonstrates improvements in the accuracy of radiochromic film dosimetry for the radiation therapy quality assurance applications.

  15. Achieving sensitive, high-resolution laser spectroscopy at CRIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groote, R. P. de [Instituut voor Kern- en Stralingsfysica, KU Leuven (Belgium); Lynch, K. M., E-mail: kara.marie.lynch@cern.ch [EP Department, CERN, ISOLDE (Switzerland); Wilkins, S. G. [The University of Manchester, School of Physics and Astronomy (United Kingdom); Collaboration: the CRIS collaboration

    2017-11-15

    The Collinear Resonance Ionization Spectroscopy (CRIS) experiment, located at the ISOLDE facility, has recently performed high-resolution laser spectroscopy, with linewidths down to 20 MHz. In this article, we present the modifications to the beam line and the newly-installed laser systems that have made sensitive, high-resolution measurements possible. Highlights of recent experimental campaigns are presented.

  16. Achieving sensitive, high-resolution laser spectroscopy at CRIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Groote, R. P.; Lynch, K. M.; Wilkins, S. G.

    2017-11-01

    The Collinear Resonance Ionization Spectroscopy (CRIS) experiment, located at the ISOLDE facility, has recently performed high-resolution laser spectroscopy, with linewidths down to 20 MHz. In this article, we present the modifications to the beam line and the newly-installed laser systems that have made sensitive, high-resolution measurements possible. Highlights of recent experimental campaigns are presented.

  17. Novel radio-chromic solution dosimeter for radiotherapy treatment planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabaeh, Khalid A; Moussa, Akram A; Basfar, Ahmed A; Msalam, Rashed I

    2013-06-01

    Nitro blue tetrazolium (NBT) solution dosimeters were prepared and investigated based on radiation-induced reduction of NBT(2+). NBT solution dosimeters containing different concentrations of NBT dye from 1 to 5 mM were prepared in a solution of ethanol. The dosimeters were irradiated with 6 MV X-ray beam at doses up to 30 Gy. The dose sensitivity of NBT solution increases strongly with increase of concentrations of NBT dye. The dose response of NBT dosimeters increases remarkably by addition of various concentrations of sodium formate (0.5, 2.5 and 5 mM). It becomes more remarkable with increasing pH value of NBT-sodium formate dosimeters. The sensitivity of the solution increased fairly with increase of irradiation temperature, therefore, the response of the solutions has to be corrected under actual processing conditions. The stability of solution dosimeters after irradiation was very high up to 30 days. Copyright © 2012 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. High-sensitivity troponin after running--a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilela, E M; Bastos, J C C; Rodrigues, R P; Nunes, J P L

    2014-01-01

    A systematic review was carried out to study the pattern of high-sensitivity cardiac troponin release after running (search performed on PubMed, ISI Web of Knowledge and Scopus databases). A total of ten reports were identified as meeting the pre-specified criteria (eight using high-sensitivity troponin T and two using high-sensitivity troponin I). The papers were published between 2009 and 2013, amounting to a total of 479 participants under study. Eight reports provided data comparing post-running troponin levels with the 99th percentile reference value. A total number of 296 participants, out of 424, showed post-running high-sensitivity troponin values higher than the 99th percentile reference value (69.8%). In conclusion, using high-sensitivity cardiac troponin assays, studies have shown that elevated post-running values are seen in more than two-thirds of runners. Whether troponin release in this setting represents a fully reversible phenomenon is currently unknown; the effects of strenuous running on long-term health are also uncertain.

  19. High-sensitivity Compton imaging with position-sensitive Si and Ge detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vetter, K. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States)], E-mail: kvetter@llnl.gov; Burks, M.; Cork, C.; Cunningham, M.; Chivers, D.; Hull, E. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Krings, T. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Forschungszentrum Juelich, 52425 Juelich (Germany); Manini, H.; Mihailescu, L.; Nelson, K. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Protic, D. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Forschungszentrum Juelich, 52425 Juelich (Germany); Valentine, J.; Wright, D. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States)

    2007-08-21

    We report on the development of high-sensitivity and compact Compton imaging systems built of large and position-sensitive Si(Li) and HPGe detectors. The primary goal of this effort is to provide improved capabilities in the passive detection of nuclear materials for homeland security. Our detectors are implemented in double-sided strip configuration, which-along with digital signal processing-provides energies and three-dimensional position information of individual {gamma}-ray interactions. {gamma}-Ray tracking algorithms then determine the scattering sequence of the {gamma}-ray, which in turn allows us-employing the Compton scattering formula-to reconstruct a cone of possible incident angles and ultimately an image. This Compton imaging concept enables large-field-of-view {gamma}-ray imaging without the use of a heavy collimator or aperture. The intrinsically high-energy resolution of the detectors used, the excellent position resolution we have demonstrated, both combined with the high efficiency of large-volume detectors is the basis for high Compton imaging sensitivity. These capabilities are being developed to identify and localize potential threat sources and to potentially increase the sensitivity in detecting weak sources out of the midst of natural, medical, or commercial sources. {gamma}-ray imaging provides a new degree of freedom to distinguish between spatial and temporal background fluctuations and compact threat sources.

  20. High-sensitivity, high-speed continuous imaging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Scott A; Bender, III, Howard A

    2014-11-18

    A continuous imaging system for recording low levels of light typically extending over small distances with high-frame rates and with a large number of frames is described. Photodiode pixels disposed in an array having a chosen geometry, each pixel having a dedicated amplifier, analog-to-digital convertor, and memory, provide parallel operation of the system. When combined with a plurality of scintillators responsive to a selected source of radiation, in a scintillator array, the light from each scintillator being directed to a single corresponding photodiode in close proximity or lens-coupled thereto, embodiments of the present imaging system may provide images of x-ray, gamma ray, proton, and neutron sources with high efficiency.

  1. Estimation of MSAD values in computed tomography scans using radiochromic films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Bruno Beraldo; Teogenes Augusto da, E-mail: bbo@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Mourao, Arnaldo Prata [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica de Minas Gerais (CEFET-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2013-03-15

    Objective: To evaluate the feasibility of using radiochromic films as an alternative dosimeter to estimate the multiple scan average dose on the basis on kerma profiles. Materials and Methods: The radiochromic films were distributed in cylinders positioned in the center and in four peripheral bores of a standard abdominal phantom utilized for computed tomography dosimetry. Results: Values for multiple scan average dose values corresponded to 13.6 {+-} 0.7, 13.5 {+-} 0.7 and 18.7 {+-} 1.0 mGy for pitch of 0.75, 1.00 and 1.50, respectively. Conclusion: In spite of results showing lower values than the reference level for radiodiagnosis (25 mGy) established by the Brazilian regulations for abdominal studies, it is suggested that there is room to optimize procedures and review the reference level for radiodiagnosis in Brazil. (author)

  2. Comparison of the radiochromic EBT2 responses for 4MV LINACs in calibration processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Sabrina D.; Castro, André L.S.; Mendes, Thais M.; Campos, Tarcisio P.R. [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear; Nogueira, Luciana B., E-mail: sadonatosilva@hotmail.com, E-mail: radioterapia.andre@gmail.com, E-mail: thaismelomendes@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: tprcampos@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: Lucibn19@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Departamento de Anatomia e Imagem

    2017-07-01

    Background: Actually, cancer has gained a larger dimension and become a global public health problem. Radiotherapy (RT) is a neoplasia treatment and RT linear accelerators must undergo a strict dose quality control. Pure liquid water or solid water phantoms can be used with this intuit. In recent years, radiochromic films with equivalent tissue composition have been widely used as dosimeters in the medical field. Objective: the proposal was to analyze two distinct radiochromic film responses in water and solid water phantoms, in a distinct LINAC spectra of 4MV beam. Methods: Solid water phantom and EBT2 Radiochromic films were set. Films were exposed to a set of absorbed doses established by distinct monitor units (MU) specified in each RT-center. Mathematical relations between the degree of red-intensity from digitized films and the absorbed dose for both spectra were established. The coefficients of the polynomial function of the calibration curve were determined from the Origin software. The uncertainty of both processes was analyzed. The efficiency of the two calibration processes was set up. Results: The adjustment of the calibration curve provided the coefficients of the second-order equation that relates the dose absorbed with the optical density of the film. The uncertainty regarding the calibration performed in water and solid water and the dose-error accuracy are in agreement with the literature. Conclusion: Both water or solid water were effective in calibration and can be used in routines of quality-control measurements. The results show that EBT2-radiochromic films is suitable to for dose-calibration in RT. (author)

  3. A unified approach to deconvolution radiation spectra measured by radiochromic films

    CERN Document Server

    Stancic, V; Ljubenov, V

    2002-01-01

    A method for the evaluation of energy distribution of a radiation source on the basis of measured space distribution of deposited energy is proposed. The measured data were obtained by using radiochromic films. Mathematical modeling is defined as a Fredholm integral equation inversion problem. Negative solutions were treated as an additional condition expressed through undefined energy group boundaries, caused by virtue of the physical phenomenon of statistical uncertainty. Examples are given of the electron source and neutron radiation field.

  4. Large pi-aromatic molecules as potential sensitizers for highly efficient dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imahori, Hiroshi; Umeyama, Tomokazu; Ito, Seigo

    2009-11-17

    Recently, dye-sensitized solar cells have attracted much attention relevant to global environmental issues. Thus far, ruthenium(II) bipyridyl complexes have proven to be the most efficient TiO(2) sensitizers in dye-sensitized solar cells. However, a gradual increment in the highest power conversion efficiency has been recognized in the past decade. More importantly, considering that ruthenium is a rare metal, novel dyes without metal or using inexpensive metal are desirable for highly efficient dye-sensitized solar cells. Large pi-aromatic molecules, such as porphyrins, phthalocyanines, and perylenes, are important classes of potential sensitizers for highly efficient dye-sensitized solar cells, owing to their photostability and high light-harvesting capabilities that can allow applications in thinner, low-cost dye-sensitized solar cells. Porphyrins possess an intense Soret band at 400 nm and moderate Q bands at 600 nm. Nevertheless, the poor light-harvesting properties relative to the ruthenium complexes have limited the cell performance of porphyrin-sensitized TiO(2) cells. Elongation of the pi conjugation and loss of symmetry in porphyrins cause broadening and a red shift of the absorption bands together with an increasing intensity of the Q bands relative to that of the Soret band. On the basis of the strategy, the cell performance of porphyrin-sensitized solar cells has been improved intensively by the enhanced light absorption. Actually, some push-pull-type porphyrins have disclosed a remarkably high power conversion efficiency (6-7%) that was close to that of the ruthenium complexes. Phthalocyanines exhibit strong absorption around 300 and 700 nm and redox features that are similar to porphyrins. Moreover, phthalocyanines are transparent over a large region of the visible spectrum, thereby enabling the possibility of using them as "photovoltaic windows". However, the cell performance was poor, owing to strong aggregation and lack of directionality in the

  5. Performance of terahertz metamaterials as high-sensitivity sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yanan; Zhang, Bo; Shen, Jingling

    2017-09-01

    A high-sensitivity sensor based on the resonant transmission characteristics of terahertz (THz) metamaterials was investigated, with the proposal and fabrication of rectangular bar arrays of THz metamaterials exhibiting a period of 180 μm on a 25 μm thick flexible polyimide. Varying the size of the metamaterial structure revealed that the length of the rectangular unit modulated the resonant frequency, which was verified by both experiment and simulation. The sensing characteristics upon varying the surrounding media in the sample were tested by simulation and experiment. Changing the surrounding medium from that of air to that of alcohol or oil produced resonant frequency redshifts of 80 GHz or 150 GHz, respectively, which indicates that the sensor possessed a high sensitivity of 667 GHz per unit of refractive index. Finally, the influence of the sample substrate thickness on the sensor sensitivity was investigated by simulation. It may be a reference for future sensor design.

  6. A highly sensitive method for quantification of iohexol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schulz, A.; Boeringer, F.; Swifka, J.

    2014-01-01

    lohexol (1-N,3-N-bis(2,3-dihydroxypropyl)-5-IN-(2,3-dihydroxypropyl) acetamide-2,4,6-triiodobenzene1,3-dicarboxamide) is used for accurate determination of the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. However, high iohexol amounts might lead to adverse effects in...... in organisms. In order to minimize the iohexol dosage required for the GFR determination in humans, the development of a sensitive quantification method is essential. Therefore, the objective of our preclinical study was to establish and validate a simple and robust liquid......-spectrometry based method has been proved to be sensitive, selective and suitable for the quantification of iohexol in serum. Due to high sensitivity of this novel method the iohexol application dose as well as the sampling time in the clinical routine could be reduced in the future in order to further minimize side...

  7. Portable High Sensitivity and High Resolution Sensor to Determine Oxygen Purity Levels Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of this Phase I STTR project is to develop a highly sensitive oxygen (O2) sensor, with high accuracy and precision, to determine purity levels of high...

  8. Aluminum nano-cantilevers for high sensitivity mass sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davis, Zachary James; Boisen, Anja

    2005-01-01

    We have fabricated Al nano-cantilevers using a very simple one mask contact UV lithography technique with lateral dimensions under 500 nm and vertical dimensions of approximately 100 nm. These devices are demonstrated as highly sensitive mass sensors by measuring their dynamic properties. Further...

  9. Sensitive high performance liquid chromatographic method for the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A new simple, sensitive, cost-effective and reproducible high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method for the determination of proguanil (PG) and its metabolites, cycloguanil (CG) and 4-chlorophenylbiguanide (4-CPB) in urine and plasma is described. The extraction procedure is a simple three-step process ...

  10. High-sensitivity C-reactive protein, lipid profile, malondialdehyde ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    High-sensitivity C-reactive protein, lipid profile, malondialdehyde and total antioxidant capacity in psoriasis. ... Abstract. Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease characterized by epidermal hyperproliferation and lymphocytic infiltration. The ongoing inflammatory process in psoriasis affects the arterial wall promoting ...

  11. Performance studies on high pressure 1-D position sensitive ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Performance studies on high pressure 1-D position sensitive neutron detectors. S S DESAI and A M SHAIKH∗. Solid State Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085, India. *Corresponding author. E-mail: shaikham@barc.gov.in. Abstract. The powder diffractometer and Hi-Q diffractometer at ...

  12. Highly sensitive detection using microring resonator and nanopores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bougot-Robin, K.; Hoste, J. W.; Le Thomas, N.; Bienstman, P.; Edel, J. B.

    2016-04-01

    One of the most significant challenges facing physical and biological scientists is the accurate detection and identification of single molecules in free-solution environments. The ability to perform such sensitive and selective measurements opens new avenues for a large number of applications in biological, medical and chemical analysis, where small sample volumes and low analyte concentrations are the norm. Access to information at the single or few molecules scale is rendered possible by a fine combination of recent advances in technologies. We propose a novel detection method that combines highly sensitive label-free resonant sensing obtained with high-Q microcavities and position control in nanoscale pores (nanopores). In addition to be label-free and highly sensitive, our technique is immobilization free and does not rely on surface biochemistry to bind probes on a chip. This is a significant advantage, both in term of biology uncertainties and fewer biological preparation steps. Through combination of high-Q photonic structures with translocation through nanopore at the end of a pipette, or through a solid-state membrane, we believe significant advances can be achieved in the field of biosensing. Silicon microrings are highly advantageous in term of sensitivity, multiplexing, and microfabrication and are chosen for this study. In term of nanopores, we both consider nanopore at the end of a nanopipette, with the pore being approach from the pipette with nanoprecise mechanical control. Alternatively, solid state nanopores can be fabricated through a membrane, supporting the ring. Both configuration are discussed in this paper, in term of implementation and sensitivity.

  13. Highly Mass-Sensitive Thin Film Plate Acoustic Resonators (FPAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ventsislav Yantchev

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The mass sensitivity of thin aluminum nitride (AlN film S0 Lamb wave resonators is theoretically and experimentally studied. Theoretical predictions based on modal and finite elements method analysis are experimentally verified. Here, two-port 888 MHz synchronous FPARs are micromachined and subsequently coated with hexamethyl-disiloxane(HMDSO-plasma-polymerized thin films of various thicknesses. Systematic data on frequency shift and insertion loss versus film thickness are presented. FPARs demonstrate high mass-loading sensitivity as well as good tolerance towards the HMDSO viscous losses. Initial measurements in gas phase environment are further presented.

  14. Instruction manual for ORNL tandem high abundance sensitivity mass spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, D.H.; McKown, H.S.; Chrisite, W.H.; Walker, R.L.; Carter, J.A.

    1976-06-01

    This manual describes the physical characteristics of the tandem mass spectrometer built by Oak Ridge National Laboratory for the International Atomic Energy Agency. Specific requirements met include ability to run small samples, high abundance sensitivity, good precision and accuracy, and adequate sample throughput. The instrument is capable of running uranium samples as small as 10/sup -12/ g and has an abundance sensitivity in excess of 10/sup 6/. Precision and accuracy are enhanced by a special sweep control circuit. Sample throughput is 6 to 12 samples per day. Operating instructions are also given.

  15. Electrooptic modulation methods for high sensitivity tunable diode laser spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenar, David A.; Jennings, Donald E.; Nadler, Shacher

    1990-01-01

    A CdTe phase modulator and low power RF sources have been used with Pb-salt tunable diode lasers operating near 8 microns to generate optical sidebands for high sensitivity absorption spectroscopy. Sweep averaged, first-derivative sample spectra of CH4 were acquired by wideband phase sensitive detection of the electrooptically (EO) generated carrier-sideband beat signal. EO generated beat signals were also used to frequency lock the TDL to spectral lines. This eliminates low frequency diode jitter, and avoids the excess laser linewidth broadening that accompanies TDL current modulation frequency locking methods.

  16. High Sensitivity Very Low Frequency Receiver for Earthquake Data Acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munir, A.; Najmurrokhman, A.

    2017-03-01

    high sensitivity very low frequency (VLF) receiver is developed based on AD744 monolithic operational amplifier (Op-Amp) for earthquake data acquisition. In research related natural phenomena such as atmospheric noise, lightning and earthquake, a VLF receiver particularly with high sensitivity is utterly required due to the low power of VLF wave signals received by the antenna. The developed receiver is intended to have high sensitivity reception for the signals in frequency range of 10-30kHz allocated for earthquake observation. The VLF receiver which is portably designed is also equipped with an output port connectable to the soundcard of personal computer for further data acquisition. After obtaining the optimum design, the hardware realization is implemented on a printed circuit board (PCB) for experimental characterization. It shows that the sensitivity of realized VLF receiver is almost linear in the predefined frequency range for the input signals lower than -12dBm and to be quadratic for the higher level input signals.

  17. High Sensitivity Polymer Optical Fiber-Bragg-Grating-Based Accelerometer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stefani, Alessio; Andresen, Søren; Yuan, Wu

    2012-01-01

    We report on the fabrication and characterization of the first accelerometer based on a polymer optical fiber Bragg grating (FBG) for operation at both 850 and 1550 nm. The devices have a flat frequency response over a 1-kHz bandwidth and a resonance frequency of about 3 kHz. The response is linear...... up to at least 15 g and sensitivities as high as 19 pm/g (shift in resonance wavelength per unit acceleration) have been demonstrated. Given that 15 g corresponds to a strain of less than 0.02% and that polymer fibers have an elastic limit of more than 1%, the polymer FBG accelerometer can measure...... very strong accelerations. We compare with corresponding silica FBG accelerometers and demonstrate that using polymer FBGs improves the sensitivity by more than a factor of four and increases the figure of merit, defined as the sensitivity times the resonance frequency squared....

  18. Model changes EBT2 radiochromic film from its predecessor EBT; Cambios del modelo EBT2 de peliculas radiocromicas respecto a su predecesora EBT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrasco Herrera, M. A.; Perucha Ortega, M.; Baeza Trujillo, M.; Luis Simon, F. J.; Herrador Cordoba, M.

    2011-07-01

    The model EBT2 Gafchromic radiochromic film is significantly different from its predecessor EBT. The presence of a yellow pigment in the active layer results in a reduced sensitivity to ambient light, on the other hand, this pigment can apply a correction to the measured signal to compensate for changes due to differences in the thickness of the active layer, there by improving a priori, the homogeneity of the response of the film. Another new feature they present is the lack of symmetry of the layers that make up the film, leading to the emergence of a new unit of the pixel value obtained with the orientation of the film to scan: heads or tails. (Author)

  19. Anticipation of interoceptive threat in highly anxiety sensitive persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melzig, Christiane A; Michalowski, Jaroslaw M; Holtz, Katharina; Hamm, Alfons O

    2008-10-01

    Anticipatory anxiety plays a major role in the etiology of panic disorder. Although anticipatory anxiety elicited by expectation of interoceptive cues is specifically relevant for panic patients, it has rarely been studied. Using a population analogue in high fear of such interoceptive arousal sensations (highly anxiety sensitive persons) we evaluated a new experimental paradigm to assess anticipatory anxiety during anticipation of interoceptive (somatic sensations evoked by hyperventilation) and exteroceptive (electric shock) threat. Symptom reports, autonomic arousal, and defensive response mobilization (startle eyeblink response) were monitored during threat and matched safe conditions in 26 highly anxiety sensitive persons and 22 controls. The anticipation of exteroceptive threat led to a defensive and autonomic mobilization as indexed by a potentiation of the startle response and an increase in skin conductance level in both experimental groups. During interoceptive threat, however, only highly anxiety sensitive persons but not the controls exhibited a startle response potentiation as well as autonomic activation. The anticipation of a hyperventilation procedure thus seems a valid paradigm to investigate anticipatory anxiety elicited by interoceptive cues in the clinical context.

  20. High-Performance Ruthenium Sensitizers Containing Imidazolium Counterions for Efficient Dye Sensitization in Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoyu; Li, Shiqing; Gao, Ge; Wu, Di; Lan, Jingbo; Wang, Ruilin; You, Jingsong

    2017-07-21

    A new type of water-soluble ruthenium sensitizers incorporating imidazolium counterions, denoted [DMPI]2 -Ru and [DMHI]2 -Ru, has been developed, which can be efficiently adsorbed onto TiO2 photoanodes in aqueous solution. Owing to the good thermal stability of imidazolium, [DMPI]2 -Ru adsorbed on TiO2 has a higher decomposition temperature than N719 dye [di(tetrabutylammonium) cis-di(thiocyanato)bis(2,2'-bipyridine-4,4'-dicarboxylato)ruthenium(II)]. When using organic solvent-based I- /I3- electrolytes, solars cell based on [DMPI]2 -Ru-sensitized TiO2 in water show high power conversion efficiencies (PCE) of up to 10.2 %, which is higher than that of N719 (9.9 %) under the common conditions for dye sensitization in organic solvent. [DMHI]2 -Ru, with poorer water solubility than [DMPI]2 -Ru, gives a smaller dye-adsorption amount on TiO2 and thus a lower PCE of 9.4 %. From the viewpoint of safety and environmental impact, the fabrication of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) by using water as solvent is undoubtedly a preferable strategy. Although the [DMPI]2 -Ru-based device fabricated by using water as the solvent for both the dye-sensitization process and the electrolyte gives a relatively low efficiency, it provides a promising approach for the practical application of DSSCs. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Highly sensitive troponin T in patients with acute ischemic stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, J K; Ueland, T; Aukrust, P

    2012-01-01

    in decedents than in survivors. After adjustment for stroke severity, C-reactive protein, age, NT-proBNP and prior heart and/or renal failure, hsTnT levels were not a significant predictor of long-term all-cause or cardiovascular mortality. Conclusion: Elevated levels of hsTnT are frequently present......Background: Newly developed troponin assays have superior diagnostic and prognostic performance in acute coronary syndrome (ACS), when compared to conventional troponin assays; however, highly sensitive troponin has not been evaluated in patients with acute ischemic stroke. Methods: Highly...... sensitive troponin T (hsTnT) was measured daily during the first 4 days in 193 consecutive patients with acute ischemic stroke without overt ACS or atrial fibrillation. The patients were previously tested normal with a fourth-generation TnT assay. The patients were followed for 47 months, with all...

  2. Dosimetric validation of a magnetic resonance image gated radiotherapy system using a motion phantom and radiochromic film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, James M; Ginn, John S; O'Connell, Dylan P; Agazaryan, Nzhde; Cao, Minsong; Thomas, David H; Yang, Yingli; Lazea, Mircea; Lee, Percy; Low, Daniel A

    2017-05-01

    Magnetic resonance image (MRI) guided radiotherapy enables gating directly on the target position. We present an evaluation of an MRI-guided radiotherapy system's gating performance using an MRI-compatible respiratory motion phantom and radiochromic film. Our evaluation is geared toward validation of our institution's clinical gating protocol which involves planning to a target volume formed by expanding 5 mm about the gross tumor volume (GTV) and gating based on a 3 mm window about the GTV. The motion phantom consisted of a target rod containing high-contrast target inserts which moved in the superior-inferior direction inside a body structure containing background contrast material. The target rod was equipped with a radiochromic film insert. Treatment plans were generated for a 3 cm diameter spherical planning target volume, and delivered to the phantom at rest and in motion with and without gating. Both sinusoidal trajectories and tumor trajectories measured during MRI-guided treatments were used. Similarity of the gated dose distribution to the planned, motion-frozen, distribution was quantified using the gamma technique. Without gating, gamma pass rates using 4%/3 mm criteria were 22-59% depending on motion trajectory. Using our clinical standard of repeated breath holds and a gating window of 3 mm with 10% target allowed outside the gating boundary, the gamma pass rate was 97.8% with 3%/3 mm gamma criteria. Using a 3 mm window and 10% allowed excursion, all of the patient tumor motion trajectories at actual speed resulting in at least 95% gamma pass rate at 4%/3 mm. Our results suggest that the device can be used to compensate respiratory motion using a 3 mm gating margin and 10% allowed excursion results in conjunction with repeated breath holds. Full clinical validation requires a comprehensive evaluation of tracking performance in actual patient images, outside the scope of this study. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics

  3. SU-E-I-42: Measurement of X-Ray Beam Width and Geometric Efficiency in MDCT Using Radiochromic Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liillau, T; Liebmann, M; von Boetticher, H; Poppe, B

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of this work was to measure the x-ray beam width and geometric efficiency (GE) of a multi detector computed tomography scanner (MDCT) for different beam collimations using radiochromic films. In MDCT, the primary beam width extends the nominal beam collimation to irradiate the active detector elements uniformly (called 'over-beaming') which contributes to increased radiation dose to the patient compared to single detector CT. Therefore, the precise determination of the primary beam width and GE is of value for any CT dose calculation using Monte Carlo or analytical methods. Single axial dose profiles free in air were measured for 6 different beam collimations nT for a Siemens SOMATOM Sensation 64 Scanner with Gafchromic XR-QA2 films. The films were calibrated relative to the measured charge of a PTW semiflex ionization chamber (type: 31010) for a single rotation in the CT scanner at the largest available beam collimation of 28.8 mm. The beam energy for all measurements in this work was set to 120 kVp. For every measured dose profile and beam collimation the GEin-air and the full-width-at-half- maximum value (FWHM) as a value for the x-ray beam width was determined. Over-beaming factors FWHM / nT were calculated accordingly. For MDCT beam collimations from 7.2 (12×0.6 mm) to 28.8 (24×1.2 mm) the geometric efficiency was between 58 and 85 %. The over- beaming factor ranged from 1.43 to 1.11. For beam collimations of 1×5 mm and 1×10 mm the GE was 77 % and 84 % respectively. The over-beaming factors were close to 1, as expected. This work has shown that radiochromic films can be used for accurate x-ray beam width and geometric efficiency measurements due to their high spatial resolution. The measured free-in-air geometric efficiency and the over-beaming factor depend strongly on beam collimation. © 2012 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  4. Structural Glycomic Analyses at High Sensitivity: A Decade of Progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alley, William R.; Novotny, Milos V.

    2014-01-01

    The field of glycomics has recently advanced in response to the urgent need for structural characterization and quantification of complex carbohydrates in biologically and medically important applications. The recent success of analytical glycobiology at high sensitivity reflects numerous advances in biomolecular mass spectrometry and its instrumentation, capillary and microchip separation techniques, and microchemical manipulations of carbohydrate reactivity. The multimethodological approach appears to be necessary to gain an in-depth understanding of very complex glycomes in different biological systems. PMID:23560930

  5. Sensitivity to Envelope Interaural Time Differences at High Modulation Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleeck, Stefan; McAlpine, David

    2015-01-01

    Sensitivity to interaural time differences (ITDs) conveyed in the temporal fine structure of low-frequency tones and the modulated envelopes of high-frequency sounds are considered comparable, particularly for envelopes shaped to transmit similar fidelity of temporal information normally present for low-frequency sounds. Nevertheless, discrimination performance for envelope modulation rates above a few hundred Hertz is reported to be poor—to the point of discrimination thresholds being unattainable—compared with the much higher (>1,000 Hz) limit for low-frequency ITD sensitivity, suggesting the presence of a low-pass filter in the envelope domain. Further, performance for identical modulation rates appears to decline with increasing carrier frequency, supporting the view that the low-pass characteristics observed for envelope ITD processing is carrier-frequency dependent. Here, we assessed listeners’ sensitivity to ITDs conveyed in pure tones and in the modulated envelopes of high-frequency tones. ITD discrimination for the modulated high-frequency tones was measured as a function of both modulation rate and carrier frequency. Some well-trained listeners appear able to discriminate ITDs extremely well, even at modulation rates well beyond 500 Hz, for 4-kHz carriers. For one listener, thresholds were even obtained for a modulation rate of 800 Hz. The highest modulation rate for which thresholds could be obtained declined with increasing carrier frequency for all listeners. At 10 kHz, the highest modulation rate at which thresholds could be obtained was 600 Hz. The upper limit of sensitivity to ITDs conveyed in the envelope of high-frequency modulated sounds appears to be higher than previously considered. PMID:26721926

  6. Skin dose measurements using radiochromic films, TLDS and ionisation chamber and comparison with Monte Carlo simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alashrah, Saleh; Kandaiya, Sivamany; Maalej, Nabil; El-Taher, A

    2014-12-01

    Estimation of the surface dose is very important for patients undergoing radiation therapy. The purpose of this study is to investigate the dose at the surface of a water phantom at a depth of 0.007 cm as recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection and International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurement with radiochromic films (RFs), thermoluminescent dosemeters and an ionisation chamber in a 6-MV photon beam. The results were compared with the theoretical calculation using Monte Carlo (MC) simulation software (MCNP5, BEAMnrc and DOSXYZnrc). The RF was calibrated by placing the films at a depth of maximum dose (d(max)) in a solid water phantom and exposing it to doses from 0 to 500 cGy. The films were scanned using a transmission high-resolution HP scanner. The optical density of the film was obtained from the red component of the RGB images using ImageJ software. The per cent surface dose (PSD) and percentage depth dose (PDD) curve were obtained by placing film pieces at the surface and at different depths in the solid water phantom. TLDs were placed at a depth of 10 cm in a solid water phantom for calibration. Then the TLDs were placed at different depths in the water phantom and were exposed to obtain the PDD. The obtained PSD and PDD values were compared with those obtained using a cylindrical ionisation chamber. The PSD was also determined using Monte Carlo simulation of a LINAC 6-MV photon beam. The extrapolation method was used to determine the PSD for all measurements. The PSD was 15.0±3.6% for RF. The TLD measurement of the PSD was 16.0±5.0%. The (0.6 cm(3)) cylindrical ionisation chamber measurement of the PSD was 50.0±3.0%. The theoretical calculation using MCNP5 and DOSXYZnrc yielded a PSD of 15.0±2.0% and 15.7±2.2%. In this study, good agreement between PSD measurements was observed using RF and TLDs with the Monte Carlo calculation. However, the cylindrical chamber measurement yielded an overestimate of the PSD

  7. Radiochromic film dosimetry: considerations on precision and accuracy for EBT2 and EBT3 type films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreindl, Ralf; Georg, Dietmar; Stock, Markus

    2014-05-01

    Gafchromic® EBT2 film is a widely used dosimetric tool for quality assurance in radiation therapy. In 2012 EBT3 was presented as a replacement for EBT2 films. The symmetric structure of EBT3 films to reduce face-up/down dependency as well as the inclusion of a matte film surface to frustrate Newton Ring artifacts present the most prominent improvements of EBT3 films. The aim of this study was to investigate the characteristics of EBT3 films, to benchmark the films against the known EBT2-features and to evaluate the dosimetric behavior over a time period greater than 6 months. All films were irradiated to clinical photon beams (6 MV, 10 MV and 18 MV) on an Elekta Synergy Linac equipped with a Beam Modulator MLC in solid water phantom slabs. Film digitalization was done with a flatbed transparency scanner (Type Epson Expression 1680 Pro). MATLAB® was used for further statistical calculations and image processing. The investigations on post-irradiation darkening, film orientation, film uniformity and energy dependency resulted in negligible differences between EBT2 and EBT3 film. A minimal improvement in face-up/down dependence was found for EBT3. The matte film surface of EBT3 films turned out to be a practical feature as Newton rings could be eliminated completely. Considering long-term behavior (> 6 months) a shift of the calibration curve for EBT2 and EBT3 films due to changes in the dynamic response of the active component was observed. In conclusion, the new EBT3 film yields comparable results to its predecessor EBT2. The general advantages of radiochromic film dosimeters are completed by high film homogeneity, low energy dependence for the observed energy range and a minimized face-up/down dependence. EBT2 dosimetry-protocols can also be used for EBT3 films, but the inclusion of periodical recalibration-interval (e.g. once a quarter) is recommended for protocols of both film generations. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  8. Freely suspended nanocomposite membranes as highly sensitive sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Chaoyang; Markutsya, Sergiy; Pikus, Yuri; Tsukruk, Vladimir V

    2004-10-01

    Highly sensitive sensor arrays are in high demand for prospective applications in remote sensing and imaging. Measuring microscopic deflections of compliant micromembranes and cantilevers is developing into one of the most versatile approaches for thermal, acoustic and chemical sensing. Here, we report on an innovative fabrication of compliant nanocomposite membranes with nanoscale thickness showing extraordinary sensitivity and dynamic range, which makes them candidates for a new generation of membrane-based sensor arrays. These nanomembranes with a thickness of 25-70 nm, which can be freely suspended over large (hundred micrometres) openings are fabricated with molecular precision by time-efficient, spin-assisted layer-by-layer assembly. They are designed as multilayered molecular composites made of a combination of polymeric monolayers and a metal nanoparticle intralayer. We demonstrate that these nanocomposite membranes possess unparalleled sensitivity and a unique autorecovering ability. The membrane nanostructure that is responsible for these outstanding properties combines multilayered polymer/nanoparticle organization, high polymer-chain orientation, and a pre-stretched state.

  9. Recent trends in high spin sensitivity magnetic resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blank, Aharon; Twig, Ygal; Ishay, Yakir

    2017-07-01

    new ideas, show how these limiting factors can be mitigated to significantly improve the sensitivity of induction detection. Finally, we outline some directions for the possible applications of high-sensitivity induction detection in the field of electron spin resonance.

  10. High-sensitivity active pixel sensor with variable threshold photodetector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Sung-Hyun; Bae, Myunghan; Choi, Byoung-Soo; Lyu, Hong-Kun; Shin, Jang-Kyoo

    2015-05-01

    A novel high-sensitivity active pixel sensor (APS) with a variable threshold photodetector has been presented and for the first time, a simple SPICE model for the variable threshold photodetector is presented. Its SPICE model is in good agreement with measurements and is more simpler than the conventional model. The proposed APS has a gate/body-tied PMOSFET-type photodetector with an overlapping control gate that makes it possible to control the sensitivity of the proposed APS. It is a hybrid device composed of a metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET), a lateral bipolar junction transistor (BJT) and a vertical BJT. Using sufficient overlapping control gate bias to operate the MOSFET in inversion mode, the variable threshold photodetector allows for increasing the photocurrent gain by 105 at low light intensities when the control gate bias is -3 V. Thus, the proposed APS with a variable threshold photodetector has better low-light-level sensitivity than the conventional APS operating mode, and it has a variable sensitivity which is determined by the control gate bias. The proposed sensor has been fabricated by using 0.35 μm 2-poly 4-metal standard complementary MOS (CMOS) process and its characteristics have been evaluated.

  11. High-sensitivity bend angle measurements using optical fiber gratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauf, Abdul; Zhao, Jianlin; Jiang, Biqiang

    2013-07-20

    We present a high-sensitivity and more flexible bend measurement method, which is based on the coupling of core mode to the cladding modes at the bending region in concatenation with optical fiber grating serving as band reflector. The characteristics of a bend sensing arm composed of bending region and optical fiber grating is examined for different configurations including single fiber Bragg grating (FBG), chirped FBG (CFBG), and double FBGs. The bend loss curves for coated, stripped, and etched sections of fiber in the bending region with FBG, CFBG, and double FBG are obtained experimentally. The effect of separation between bending region and optical fiber grating on loss is measured. The loss responses for single FBG and CFBG configurations are compared to discover the effectiveness for practical applications. It is demonstrated that the sensitivity of the double FBG scheme is twice that of the single FBG and CFBG configurations, and hence acts as sensitivity multiplier. The bend loss response for different fiber diameters obtained through etching in 40% hydrofluoric acid, is measured in double FBG scheme that resulted in a significant increase in the sensitivity, and reduction of dead-zone.

  12. Highly Sensitive Detection of Protein Biomarkers with Organic Electrochemical Transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Ying; Wang, Naixiang; Yang, Anneng; Law, Helen Ka-Wai; Li, Li; Yan, Feng

    2017-11-01

    The analysis of protein biomarkers is of great importance in the diagnosis of diseases. Although many convenient and low-cost electrochemical approaches have been extensively investigated, they are not sensitive enough in the detection of protein biomarkers with low concentrations in physiological environments. Here, this study reports a novel organic-electrochemical-transistor-based biosensor that can successfully detect cancer protein biomarkers with ultrahigh sensitivity. The devices are operated by detecting electrochemical activity on gate electrodes, which is dependent on the concentrations of proteins labeled with catalytic nanoprobes. The protein sensors can specifically detect a cancer biomarker, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2, down to the concentration of 10(-14) g mL(-1) , which is several orders of magnitude lower than the detection limits of previously reported electrochemical approaches. Moreover, the devices can successfully differentiate breast cancer cells from normal cells at various concentrations. The ultrahigh sensitivity of the protein sensors is attributed to the inherent amplification function of the organic electrochemical transistors. This work paves a way for developing highly sensitive and low-cost biosensors for the detection of various protein biomarkers in clinical analysis in the future. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. SU-C-201-02: Dosimetric Verification of SBRT with FFF-VMAT Using a 3-D Radiochromic/Optical-CT Dosimetry System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Na, Y; Black, P; Wuu, C [Columbia University, New York, NY (United States); Adamovics, J [Department of Chemistry and Biology, Rider University, Skillman, NJ (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: With an increasing use of small field size and high dose rate irradiation in the advances of radiotherapy techniques, such as stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) and stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS), an in-depth quality assurance (QA) system is required. The purpose of this study is to investigate a high resolution optical CT-based 3D radiochromic dosimetry system for SBRT with intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and flattening filter free (FFF) volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT). Methods: Cylindrical PRESAGE radiochromic dosimeters of 10cm height and 11cm diameter were used to validate SBRT. Four external landmarks were placed on the surface of each dosimeter to define the isocenter of target. SBRT plans were delivered using a Varian TrueBeam™ linear accelerator (LINAC). Three validation plans, SBRT with IMRT (6MV 600MU/min), FFF-VMAT (10MV 2400MU/min), and mixed FFF-VMAT (6MV 1400MU/min, 10MV 2400MU/min), were delivered to the PRESAGE dosimeters. Each irradiated PRESAGE dosimeter was scanned using a single laser beam optical CT scanner and reconstructed with a 1mm × 1mm high spatial resolution. The comparison of measured dose distributions of irradiated PRESAGE dosimeters to those calculated by Pinnacle{sup 3} treatment planning system (TPS) were performed with a 10% dose threshold, 3% dose difference (DD), and 3mm distance-to-agreement (DTA) Gamma criteria. Results: The average pass rates for the gamma comparisons between PRESAGE and Pinnacle{sup 3} in the transverse, sagittal, coronal planes were 94.6%, 95.9%, and 96.4% for SBRT with IMRT, FFF-VMAT, and mixed FFF-VMAT plans, respectively. A good agreement of the isodose distributions of those comparisons were shown at the isodose lines 50%, 70%, 80%, 90% and 98%. Conclusion: This study demonstrates the feasibility of the high resolution optical CT-based 3D radiochromic dosimetry system for validation of SBRT with IMRT and FFF-VMAT. This dosimetry system offers higher precision QA with 3D

  14. Polymer-Particle Pressure-Sensitive Paint with High Photostability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Matsuda

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available We propose a novel fast-responding and paintable pressure-sensitive paint (PSP based on polymer particles, i.e. polymer-particle (pp-PSP. As a fast-responding PSP, polymer-ceramic (PC-PSP is widely studied. Since PC-PSP generally consists of titanium (IV oxide (TiO2 particles, a large reduction in the luminescent intensity will occur due to the photocatalytic action of TiO2. We propose the usage of polymer particles instead of TiO2 particles to prevent the reduction in the luminescent intensity. Here, we fabricate pp-PSP based on the polystyrene particle with a diameter of 1 μm, and investigate the pressure- and temperature-sensitives, the response time, and the photostability. The performances of pp-PSP are compared with those of PC-PSP, indicating the high photostability with the other characteristics comparable to PC-PSP.

  15. High derivatives for fast sensitivity analysis in linear magnetodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petin, P. [ENSIEG, Saint Martin d`Heres (France). Lab. d`Electrotechnique de Grenoble]|[FRMASOFT+CSI, Lyon (France); Coulomb, J.L. [ENSIEG, Saint Martin d`Heres (France). Lab. d`Electrotechnique de Grenoble; Conraux, P. [FRAMASOFT+CSI, Lyon (France)

    1997-03-01

    In this article, the authors present a method of sensitivity analysis using high derivatives and Taylor development. The principle is to find a polynomial approximation of the finite elements solution towards the sensitivity parameters. While presenting the method, they explain why this method is applicable with special parameters only. They applied it on a magnetodynamic problem, simple enough to be able to find the analytical solution with a formal calculus tool. They then present the implementation and the good results obtained with the polynomial, first by comparing the derivatives themselves, then by comparing the approximate solution with the theoretical one. After this validation, the authors present results on a real 2D application and they underline the possibilities of reuse in other fields of physics.

  16. Fast protocol for radiochromic film dosimetry using a cloud computing web application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo-Ortega, Juan-Francisco; Pozo, Miquel; Moragues, Sandra; Casals, Joan

    2017-07-01

    To investigate the feasibility of a fast protocol for radiochromic film dosimetry to verify intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) plans. EBT3 film dosimetry was conducted in this study using the triple-channel method implemented in the cloud computing application (Radiochromic.com). We described a fast protocol for radiochromic film dosimetry to obtain measurement results within 1h. Ten IMRT plans were delivered to evaluate the feasibility of the fast protocol. The dose distribution of the verification film was derived at 15, 30, 45min using the fast protocol and also at 24h after completing the irradiation. The four dose maps obtained per plan were compared using global and local gamma index (5%/3mm) with the calculated one by the treatment planning system. Gamma passing rates obtained for 15, 30 and 45min post-exposure were compared with those obtained after 24h. Small differences respect to the 24h protocol were found in the gamma passing rates obtained for films digitized at 15min (global: 99.6%±0.9% vs. 99.7%±0.5%; local: 96.3%±3.4% vs. 96.3%±3.8%), at 30min (global: 99.5%±0.9% vs. 99.7%±0.5%; local: 96.5%±3.2% vs. 96.3±3.8%) and at 45min (global: 99.2%±1.5% vs. 99.7%±0.5%; local: 96.1%±3.8% vs. 96.3±3.8%). The fast protocol permits dosimetric results within 1h when IMRT plans are verified, with similar results as those reported by the standard 24h protocol. Copyright © 2017 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Three-dimensional radiochromic film dosimetry for volumetric modulated arc therapy using a spiral water phantom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanooka, Masao; Doi, Hiroshi; Miura, Hideharu; Inoue, Hiroyuki; Niwa, Yasue; Takada, Yasuhiro; Fujiwara, Masayuki; Sakai, Toshiyuki; Sakamoto, Kiyoshi; Kamikonya, Norihiko; Hirota, Shozo

    2013-11-01

    We validated 3D radiochromic film dosimetry for volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) using a newly developed spiral water phantom. The phantom consists of a main body and an insert box, each of which has an acrylic wall thickness of 3 mm and is filled with water. The insert box includes a spiral film box used for dose-distribution measurement, and a film holder for positioning a radiochromic film. The film holder has two parallel walls whose facing inner surfaces are equipped with spiral grooves in a mirrored configuration. The film is inserted into the spiral grooves by its side edges and runs along them to be positioned on a spiral plane. Dose calculation was performed by applying clinical VMAT plans to the spiral water phantom using a commercial Monte Carlo-based treatment-planning system, Monaco, whereas dose was measured by delivering the VMAT beams to the phantom. The calculated dose distributions were resampled on the spiral plane, and the dose distributions recorded on the film were scanned. Comparisons between the calculated and measured dose distributions yielded an average gamma-index pass rate of 87.0% (range, 91.2-84.6%) in nine prostate VMAT plans under 3 mm/3% criteria with a dose-calculation grid size of 2 mm. The pass rates were increased beyond 90% (average, 91.1%; range, 90.1-92.0%) when the dose-calculation grid size was decreased to 1 mm. We have confirmed that 3D radiochromic film dosimetry using the spiral water phantom is a simple and cost-effective approach to VMAT dose verification.

  18. Technical Note: Statistical dependences between channels in radiochromic film readings. Implications in multichannel dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    González-López, Antonio, E-mail: antonio.gonzalez7@carm.es [Hospital Clínico Universitario Virgen de la Arrixaca, Ctra. Madrid-Cartagena, El Palmar, Murcia 30120 (Spain); Vera-Sánchez, Juan Antonio [Servicio de Protección Radiológica y Física Médica Hospital Universitari Sant Joan de Reus, Av. del Dr. Josep Laporte, 2, Reus, Tarragona 43204 (Spain); Ruiz-Morales, Carmen [Hospital IMED Elche, Max Planck No. 3, Elche, Alicante 03203 (Spain)

    2016-05-15

    Purpose: This note studies the statistical relationships between color channels in radiochromic film readings with flatbed scanners. The same relationships are studied for noise. Finally, their implications for multichannel film dosimetry are discussed. Methods: Radiochromic films exposed to wedged fields of 6 MV energy were read in a flatbed scanner. The joint histograms of pairs of color channels were used to obtain the joint and conditional probability density functions between channels. Then, the conditional expectations and variances of one channel given another channel were obtained. Noise was extracted from film readings by means of a multiresolution analysis. Two different dose ranges were analyzed, the first one ranging from 112 to 473 cGy and the second one from 52 to 1290 cGy. Results: For the smallest dose range, the conditional expectations of one channel given another channel can be approximated by linear functions, while the conditional variances are fairly constant. The slopes of the linear relationships between channels can be used to simplify the expression that estimates the dose by means of the multichannel method. The slopes of the linear relationships between each channel and the red one can also be interpreted as weights in the final contribution to dose estimation. However, for the largest dose range, the conditional expectations of one channel given another channel are no longer linear functions. Finally, noises in different channels were found to correlate weakly. Conclusions: Signals present in different channels of radiochromic film readings show a strong statistical dependence. By contrast, noise correlates weakly between channels. For the smallest dose range analyzed, the linear behavior between the conditional expectation of one channel given another channel can be used to simplify calculations in multichannel film dosimetry.

  19. Investigation of nanoscale structures by small-angle X-ray scattering in a radiochromic dosimeter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skyt, Peter Sandegaard; Jensen, Grethe Vestergaard; Wahlstedt, Isak Hannes

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the nanoscale structures in a radiochromic dosimeter that was based on leuco-malachite-green dye and the surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) suspended in a gelatin matrix. Small-angle X-ray scattering was used to investigate the structures of a range of compositions...... of the dosimeter. When omitting gelatin, ellipsoidal micelles of SDS were formed with a core radius near 15 Å, an eccentricity of 1.6, and a head-group shell thickness near 7 Å. Gelatin significantly changed the micelles to a cylindrical shape with around three times lower core radius and four times larger shell...

  20. Radiochromic film measurement of spatial uniformity for a laser generated x-ray environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher, J. H.; Newlander, C. D.; Horton, R.; Fournier, K. B.; Emig, J.; Patterson, R.; Davis, J. F.; Seiler, S.; Jenkins, P. P.

    2012-10-01

    n existing x-ray source application (XRSA) test cassette was modified to hold multiple x-ray filter materials followed by two radiochromic film types (FWT-60 and HD-810 Gafchromic® film) to qualitatively characterize the spectral-spatial uniformity over the XRSA sample field of view. Multiple sets of film were examined and nominal set was determined. These initial, qualitative measurements suggest a low-energy regime (E < 3 keV) spatial anisotropy and spatial isotropy at higher energies (E > 3 keV).

  1. High sensitivity chemically amplified EUV resists through enhanced EUV absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ongayi, Owendi; Christianson, Matthew; Meyer, Matthew; Coley, Suzanne; Valeri, David; Kwok, Amy; Wagner, Mike; Cameron, Jim; Thackeray, Jim

    2012-03-01

    Resolution, line edge roughness, sensitivity and low outgassing are the key focus points for extreme ultraviolet (EUV) resist materials. Sensitivity has become increasingly important so as to address throughput concerns in device manufacturing and compensate for the low power of EUV sources. Recent studies have shown that increasing the polymer linear absorption absorption coefficient in EUV resists translates to higher acid generation efficiency and good pattern formation. In this study, novel high absorbing polymer platforms are evaluated. The contributing effect of the novel absorbing chromophore to the resultant chemically amplified photoresist is evaluated and compared with a standard methacrylate PAG Bound Polymer (PBP) platform. We report that by increasing EUV absorption, we cleanly resolved 17 nm 1:1 line space can be achieved at a sensitivity of 14.5 mJ/cm2, which is consistent with dose requirements dictated by the ITRS roadmap. We also probe the effect of fluorinated small molecule additives on acid yield generation (Dil C) at EUV of a PBP platform.

  2. Highly strain-sensitive magnetostrictive tunnel magnetoresistance junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavassolizadeh, Ali; Hayes, Patrick; Rott, Karsten; Reiss, Günter; Quandt, Eckhard; Meyners, Dirk

    2015-06-01

    Tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR) junctions with CoFeB/MgO/CoFeB layers are promising for strain sensing applications due to their high TMR effect and magnetostrictive sense layer (CoFeB). TMR junctions available even in submicron dimensions can serve as strain sensors for microelectromechanical systems devices. Upon stress application, the magnetization configuration of such junctions changes due to the inverse magnetostriction effect resulting in strain-sensitive tunnel resistance. Here, strain sensitivity of round-shaped junctions with diameters of 11.3 μm, 19.2 μm, 30.5 μm, and 41.8 μm were investigated on macroscopic cantilevers using a four-point bending apparatus. This investigation mainly focuses on changes in hard-axis TMR loops caused by the stress-induced anisotropy. A macrospin model is proposed, supported by micromagnetic simulations, which describes the complete rotation of the sense layer magnetization within TMR loops of junctions, exposed to high stress. Below 0.2‰ tensile strain, a representative junction with 30.5 μm diameter exhibits a very large gauge factor of 2150. For such high gauge factor a bias field H = - 3.2 kA / m is applied in an angle equal to 3 π / 2 toward the pinned magnetization of the reference layer. The strain sensitivity strongly depends on the bias field. Applying stress along π / 4 against the induced magnetocrystalline anisotropy, both compressive and tensile strain can be identified by a unique sensor. More importantly, a configuration with a gauge factor of 400 at zero bias field is developed which results in a straightforward and compact measuring setup.

  3. Interface engineering of a highly sensitive solution processed organic photodiode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yu Jin; Park, Chan Eon; Chung, Dae Sung

    2014-09-14

    We report on tuning of the interfacial properties of a highly sensitive organic photodiode by introducing a buffer layer between the anode and the semiconductor layer. The effects of different buffer layers consisting of a self-assembled monolayer (SAM), PEDOT:PSS, and pentacene on the morphology and crystallinity of the upper-deposited bulk heterojunction semiconductor layer are carefully analyzed combined with electrical analysis. The active layer is controlled to be nearly homogeneous and to have low crystallinity by using a SAM or PEDOT:PSS buffer layers, whereas a highly crystalline morphology is realized by using the pentacene buffer layer. When exposed to light pulses, the external quantum efficiency and thus the photocurrent are slightly higher for the PEDOT:PSS-based photodiode; however the dark current is the lowest for the pentacene-based photodiode. We discuss the origin of the high sensitivity (a detectivity of 1.3 × 10(12) Jones and a linear dynamic range of 95 dB) of the pentacene-based photodiode, particularly in terms of the morphology-driven low dark current.

  4. High-Sensitivity Measurement of Density by Magnetic Levitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemiroski, Alex; Kumar, A A; Soh, Siowling; Harburg, Daniel V; Yu, Hai-Dong; Whitesides, George M

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents methods that use Magnetic Levitation (MagLev) to measure very small differences in density of solid diamagnetic objects suspended in a paramagnetic medium. Previous work in this field has shown that, while it is a convenient method, standard MagLev (i.e., where the direction of magnetization and gravitational force are parallel) cannot resolve differences in density mm) because (i) objects close in density prevent each other from reaching an equilibrium height due to hard contact and excluded volume, and (ii) using weaker magnets or reducing the magnetic susceptibility of the medium destabilizes the magnetic trap. The present work investigates the use of weak magnetic gradients parallel to the faces of the magnets as a means of increasing the sensitivity of MagLev without destabilization. Configuring the MagLev device in a rotated state (i.e., where the direction of magnetization and gravitational force are perpendicular) relative to the standard configuration enables simple measurements along the axes with the highest sensitivity to changes in density. Manipulating the distance of separation between the magnets or the lengths of the magnets (along the axis of measurement) enables the sensitivity to be tuned. These modifications enable an improvement in the resolution up to 100-fold over the standard configuration, and measurements with resolution down to 10(-6) g/cm(3). Three examples of characterizing the small differences in density among samples of materials having ostensibly indistinguishable densities-Nylon spheres, PMMA spheres, and drug spheres-demonstrate the applicability of rotated Maglev to measuring the density of small (0.1-1 mm) objects with high sensitivity. This capability will be useful in materials science, separations, and quality control of manufactured objects.

  5. High Sensitivity Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering Detection of Tryptophan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandakkathara, Archana

    Raman spectroscopy has the capability of providing detailed information about molecular structure, but the extremely small cross section of Raman scattering prevents this technique from applications requiring high sensitivity. Surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) on the other hand provides strongly increased Raman signal from molecules attached to metallic nanostructures. SERS is thus a promising technique for high sensitivity analytical applications. One particular area of interest is the application of such techniques for the analysis of the composition of biological cells. However, there are issues which have to be addressed in order to make SERS a reliable technique such as the optimization of conditions for any given analyte, understanding the kinetic processes of binding of the target molecules to the nanostructures and understanding the evolution and coagulation of the nanostructures, in the case of colloidal solutions. The latter processes introduce a delay time for the observation of maximum enhancement factors which must be taken into account for any given implementation of SERS. In the present thesis the goal was to develop very sensitive SERS techniques for the measurement of biomolecules of interest for analysis of the contents of cells. The techniques explored could be eventually be applicable to microfluidic systems with the ultimate goal of analyzing the molecular constituents of single cells. SERS study of different amino acids and organic dyes were performed during the course of this thesis. A high sensitivity detection system based on SERS has been developed and spectrum from tryptophan (Trp) amino acid at very low concentration (10-8 M) has been detected. The concentration at which good quality SERS spectra could be detected from Trp is 4 orders of magnitude smaller than that previously reported in literature. It has shown that at such low concentrations the SERS spectra of Trp are qualitatively distinct from the spectra commonly reported in

  6. High pressure-sensitive gene expression in Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.F. Vogel

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis is a Gram-positive lactic acid bacterium used in food biotechnology. It is necessary to investigate many aspects of a model organism to elucidate mechanisms of stress response, to facilitate preparation, application and performance in food fermentation, to understand mechanisms of inactivation, and to identify novel tools for high pressure biotechnology. To investigate the mechanisms of the complex bacterial response to high pressure we have analyzed changes in the proteome and transcriptome by 2-D electrophoresis, and by microarrays and real time PCR, respectively. More than 16 proteins were found to be differentially expressed upon high pressure stress and were compared to those sensitive to other stresses. Except for one apparently high pressure-specific stress protein, no pressure-specific stress proteins were found, and the proteome response to pressure was found to differ from that induced by other stresses. Selected pressure-sensitive proteins were partially sequenced and their genes were identified by reverse genetics. In a transcriptome analysis of a redundancy cleared shot gun library, about 7% of the genes investigated were found to be affected. Most of them appeared to be up-regulated 2- to 4-fold and these results were confirmed by real time PCR. Gene induction was shown for some genes up-regulated at the proteome level (clpL/groEL/rbsK, while the response of others to high hydrostatic pressure at the transcriptome level seemed to differ from that observed at the proteome level. The up-regulation of selected genes supports the view that the cell tries to compensate for pressure-induced impairment of translation and membrane transport.

  7. Highly sensitive detection of Staphylococcus aureus directly from patient blood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Padmapriya P Banada

    Full Text Available Rapid detection of bloodstream infections (BSIs can be lifesaving. We investigated the sample processing and assay parameters necessary for highly-sensitive detection of bloodstream bacteria, using Staphylococcus aureus as a model pathogen and an automated fluidic sample processing-polymerase chain reaction (PCR platform as a model diagnostic system.We compared a short 128 bp amplicon hemi-nested PCR and a relatively shorter 79 bp amplicon nested PCR targeting the S. aureus nuc and sodA genes, respectively. The sodA nested assay showed an enhanced limit of detection (LOD of 5 genomic copies per reaction or 10 colony forming units (CFU per ml blood over 50 copies per reaction or 50 CFU/ml for the nuc assay. To establish optimal extraction protocols, we investigated the relative abundance of the bacteria in different components of the blood (white blood cells (WBCs, plasma or whole blood, using the above assays. The blood samples were obtained from the patients who were culture positive for S. aureus. Whole blood resulted in maximum PCR positives with sodA assay (90% positive as opposed to cell-associated bacteria (in WBCs (71% samples positive or free bacterial DNA in plasma (62.5% samples positive. Both the assays were further tested for direct detection of S. aureus in patient whole blood samples that were contemporaneous culture positive. S. aureus was detected in 40/45 of culture-positive patients (sensitivity 89%, 95% CI 0.75-0.96 and 0/59 negative controls with the sodA assay (specificity 100%, 95% CI 0.92-1.We have demonstrated a highly sensitive two-hour assay for detection of sepsis causing bacteria like S. aureus directly in 1 ml of whole blood, without the need for blood culture.

  8. Highly sensitive reduced graphene oxide microelectrode array sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Andrew M H; Kenry; Teck Lim, Chwee; Low, Hong Yee; Loh, Kian Ping

    2015-03-15

    Reduced graphene oxide (rGO) has been fabricated into a microelectrode array (MEA) using a modified nanoimprint lithography (NIL) technique. Through a modified NIL process, the rGO MEA was fabricated by a self-alignment of conducting Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) and rGO layer without etching of the rGO layer. The rGO MEA consists of an array of 10μm circular disks and microelectrode signature has been found at a pitch spacing of 60μm. The rGO MEA shows a sensitivity of 1.91nAμm(-1) to dopamine (DA) without the use of mediators or functionalization of the reduced graphene oxide (rGO) active layer. The performance of rGO MEA remains stable when tested under highly resistive media using a continuous flow set up, as well as when subjecting it to mechanical stress. The successful demonstration of NIL for fabricating rGO microelectrodes on flexible substrate presents a route for the large scale fabrication of highly sensitive, flexible and thin biosensing platform. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. A simple, tunable, and highly sensitive radio-frequency sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yan; Sun, Jiwei; He, Yuxi; Wang, Zheng; Wang, Pingshan

    2013-08-05

    We report a radio frequency (RF) sensor that exploits tunable attenuators and phase shifters to achieve high-sensitivity and broad band frequency tunability. Three frequency bands are combined to enable sensor operations from ∼20 MHz to ∼38 GHz. The effective quality factor (Qeff ) of the sensor is as high as ∼3.8 × 10(6) with 200 μl of water samples. We also demonstrate the measurement of 2-proponal-water-solution permittivity at 0.01 mole concentration level from ∼1 GHz to ∼10 GHz. Methanol-water solution and de-ionized water are used to calibrate the RF sensor for the quantitative measurements.

  10. Highly sensitive and specific radioimmunoassays for dihydroergotoxine components in plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pradelles, P.; Collignon, F.

    1984-01-01

    The development of three analogous radioimmunoassay (RIA) procedures for dihydroergotoxine components is described. The antisera were produced by immunization of rabbits with immunogens obtained by coupling egg albumin to the indole group of each ergot alkaloid derivative. In each radioimmunoassay, antibodies do not cross-react more than 5% with the two other derivatives. The tracers iodinated with iodine 125 were prepared by the chloramine-T method and purified by thin layer chromatography. Both antibody affinity and high specific radioactivity of tracers allow a sensitive assay (detection limit less than 20 pg/ml) in human plasma. After high performance liquid chromatography of extracted plasma, immunoreactive materials other than those corresponding to the elution of the three dihydroergotoxine components were not detected. Two preliminary pharmacokinetic profiles obtained in dog and human for each derivative are shown.

  11. Development of high sensitive radon detector with electrostatic collection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nemoto, Machiko [Tokai Univ., Hiratsuka, Kanagawa (Japan). Faculty of Science; Tasaka, Shigeki; Hori, Hidemitsu; Okumura, Kimihiro; Kajita, Takaaki; Takeuchi, Yasuo

    1997-10-01

    One of the main purposes of Super-Kamiokande is the observation of solar neutrinos. The radon concentration in the detector water should be less than about 5 mBq/m{sup 3}, because low energy background events in this experiment are dominated by radon daughters. We developed a high sensitive radon detector with an electrostatic collection method and a PIN photodiode to measure the energy of {alpha} particles from the daughter nuclei of {sup 222}Rn. We constructed a calibration system to study high voltage dependence and absolute humidity dependence of the detector. As a result, the absolute humidity dependence was clearly observed at the region less than 1.6 g/m{sup 3}. The calibration factor at 0.08 g/m{sup 3} was 1.8{+-}0.1 (count/d)/(mBq/m{sup 3}). The detection limit was 13 mBq/m{sup 3} by the Curie`s method. (author)

  12. New application of superconductors: High sensitivity cryogenic light detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardani, L., E-mail: laura.cardani@roma1.infn.it [Dipartimento di Fisica, Sapienza Università di Roma, Piazzale Aldo Moro 2, 00185 Roma (Italy); Physics Department, Princeton University, Washington Road, 08544 Princeton, NJ (United States); Bellini, F.; Casali, N. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Sapienza Università di Roma, Piazzale Aldo Moro 2, 00185 Roma (Italy); INFN – Sezione di Roma, Piazzale Aldo Moro 2, 00185 Roma, Italy (Italy); Castellano, M.G. [Istituto di Fotonica e Nanotecnologie – CNR, Via Cineto Romano 42, 00156 Roma (Italy); Colantoni, I.; Coppolecchia, A. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Sapienza Università di Roma, Piazzale Aldo Moro 2, 00185 Roma (Italy); Cosmelli, C.; Cruciani, A. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Sapienza Università di Roma, Piazzale Aldo Moro 2, 00185 Roma (Italy); INFN – Sezione di Roma, Piazzale Aldo Moro 2, 00185 Roma, Italy (Italy); D' Addabbo, A. [INFN – Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, Assergi (L' Aquila) 67010 (Italy); Di Domizio, S. [INFN – Sezione di Genova, Via Dodecaneso 33, 16146 Genova (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Genova, Via Dodecaneso 33, 16146 Genova (Italy); Martinez, M. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Sapienza Università di Roma, Piazzale Aldo Moro 2, 00185 Roma (Italy); INFN – Sezione di Roma, Piazzale Aldo Moro 2, 00185 Roma, Italy (Italy); Laboratorio de Fisica Nuclear y Astroparticulas, Universidad de Zaragoza, Zaragoza 50009 (Spain); Tomei, C. [INFN – Sezione di Roma, Piazzale Aldo Moro 2, 00185 Roma, Italy (Italy); and others

    2017-02-11

    In this paper we describe the current status of the CALDER project, which is developing ultra-sensitive light detectors based on superconductors for cryogenic applications. When we apply an AC current to a superconductor, the Cooper pairs oscillate and acquire kinetic inductance, that can be measured by inserting the superconductor in a LC circuit with high merit factor. Interactions in the superconductor can break the Cooper pairs, causing sizable variations in the kinetic inductance and, thus, in the response of the LC circuit. The continuous monitoring of the amplitude and frequency modulation allows to reconstruct the incident energy with excellent sensitivity. This concept is at the basis of Kinetic Inductance Detectors (KIDs) that are characterized by natural aptitude to multiplexed read-out (several sensors can be tuned to different resonant frequencies and coupled to the same line), resolution of few eV, stable behavior over a wide temperature range, and ease in fabrication. We present the results obtained by the CALDER collaboration with 2×2 cm{sup 2} substrates sampled by 1 or 4 Aluminum KIDs. We show that the performances of the first prototypes are already competitive with those of other commonly used light detectors, and we discuss the strategies for a further improvement.

  13. Luminescent Lanthanide Reporters for High-Sensitivity Novel Bioassays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anstey, Mitchell R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Fruetel, Julia A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Foster, Michael E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Hayden, Carl C. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Buckley, Heather L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Arnold, John [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2013-09-01

    Biological imaging and assay technologies rely on fluorescent organic dyes as reporters for a number of interesting targets and processes. However, limitations of organic dyes such as small Stokes shifts, spectral overlap of emission signals with native biological fluorescence background, and photobleaching have all inhibited the development of highly sensitive assays. To overcome the limitations of organic dyes for bioassays, we propose to develop lanthanide-based luminescent dyes and demonstrate them for molecular reporting applications. This relatively new family of dyes was selected for their attractive spectral and chemical properties. Luminescence is imparted by the lanthanide atom and allows for relatively simple chemical structures that can be tailored to the application. The photophysical properties offer unique features such as narrow and non-overlapping emission bands, long luminescent lifetimes, and long wavelength emission, which enable significant sensitivity improvements over organic dyes through spectral and temporal gating of the luminescent signal.Growth in this field has been hindered due to the necessary advanced synthetic chemistry techniques and access to experts in biological assay development. Our strategy for the development of a new lanthanide-based fluorescent reporter system is based on chelation of the lanthanide metal center using absorbing chromophores. Our first strategy involves "Click" chemistry to develop 3-fold symmetric chelators and the other involves use of a new class of tetrapyrrole ligands called corroles. This two-pronged approach is geared towards the optimization of chromophores to enhance light output.

  14. A highly sensitive fiber Bragg grating diaphragm pressure transducer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allwood, Gary; Wild, Graham; Lubansky, Alex; Hinckley, Steven

    2015-10-01

    In this work, a novel diaphragm based pressure transducer with high sensitivity is described, including the physical design structure, in-depth analysis of optical response to changes in pressure, and a discussion of practical implementation and limitations. A flat circular rubber membrane bonded to a cylinder forms the body of the transducer. A fiber Bragg grating bonded to the center of the diaphragm structure enables the fractional change in pressure to be determined by analyzing the change in Bragg wavelength of the reflected spectra. Extensive evaluation of the physical properties and optical characteristics of the transducer has been performed through experimentation, and modeling using small deformation theory. The results show the transducer has a sensitivity of 0.116 nm/kPa, across a range of 15 kPa. Ultra-low cost interrogation of the optical signal was achieved through the use of an optically mismatched Bragg grating acting as an edge filter to convert the spectral change into an intensity change. A numerical model of the intensity based interrogation was implemented in order to validate the experimental results. Utilizing this interrogation technique and housing both the sensing and reference Bragg gratings within the main body of the transducer means it is effectively temperature insensitive and easily connected to electronic systems.

  15. Sensitivity of once-shocked, weathered high explosives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, K.L.; Harris, B.W.

    1998-07-01

    Effects caused by stimulating once-shocked, weathered high explosives (OSW-HE) are investigated. The sensitivity of OSW-HE to mechanical stimuli was determined using standard industry tests. Some initial results are given. Pieces of OSW-HE were collected from active and inactive firing sites and from an area surrounding a drop tower at Los Alamos where skid and spigot tests were done. Samples evaluated were cast explosives or plastic bonded explosive (PBX) formulations containing cyclotrimethylenetrinitramine (RDX), cyclotetramethylene tetranitramine (HMX), 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), mock or inert HE [tris(beta-chloroethyl)phosphate (CEF)], barium nitrate, cyanuric acid, talc, and Kel-F. Once-shocked, weathered LX-10 Livermore explosive [HMX/Viton A, (95/5 wt %)], PBX 9011 [HMX/Estane, (90/10 wt %)], PBX 9404 [HMX/nitrocellulose, tris(beta-chloroethyl) phosphate, (94/3/3 wt %)], Composition B or cyclotol (TNT/RDX explosives), and PBX 9007 (90% RDX, 9.1% styrene, 0.5% dioctyl phthalate, and 0.45 resin) were subjected to the hammer test, the drop-weight impact sensitivity test, differential thermal analysis (DTA), the spark test, the Henkin`s critical temperature test, and the flame test. Samples were subjected to remote, wet cutting and drilling; remote, liquid-nitrogen-cooled grinding and crushing; and scanning electron microscope (SEM) surface analyses for morphological changes.

  16. High efficiency solid-state sensitized heterojunction photovoltaic device

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Mingkui

    2010-06-01

    The high molar extinction coefficient heteroleptic ruthenium dye, NaRu(4,4′-bis(5-(hexylthio)thiophen-2-yl)-2,2′-bipyridine) (4-carboxylic acid-4′-carboxylate-2,2′-bipyridine) (NCS) 2, exhibits certified 5% electric power conversion efficiency at AM 1.5 solar irradiation (100 mW cm-2) in a solid-state dye-sensitized solar cell using 2,2′,7,7′-tetrakis-(N,N-di-pmethoxyphenylamine)-9, 9′-spirobifluorene (spiro-MeOTAD) as the organic hole-transporting material. This demonstration elucidates a class of photovoltaic devices with potential for low-cost power generation. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. High-Sensitivity AGN Polarimetry at Sub-Millimeter Wavelengths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Martí-Vidal

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The innermost regions of radio loud Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN jets are heavily affected by synchrotron self-absorption, due to the strong magnetic fields and high particle densities in these extreme zones. The only way to overcome this absorption is to observe at sub-millimeter wavelengths, although polarimetric observations at such frequencies have so far been limited by sensitivity and calibration accuracy. However, new generation instruments such as the Atacama Large mm/sub-mm Array (ALMA overcome these limitations and are starting to deliver revolutionary results in the observational studies of AGN polarimetry. Here we present an overview of our state-of-the-art interferometric mm/sub-mm polarization observations of AGN jets with ALMA (in particular, the gravitationally-lensed sources PKS 1830−211 and B0218+359, which allow us to probe the magneto-ionic conditions at the regions closest to the central black holes.

  18. Magnetic probe array with high sensitivity for fluctuating field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanamaru, Yuki; Gota, Hiroshi; Fujimoto, Kayoko; Ikeyama, Taeko; Asai, Tomohiko; Takahashi, Tsutomu; Nogi, Yasuyuki

    2007-03-01

    A magnetic probe array is constructed to measure precisely the spatial structure of a small fluctuating field included in a strong confinement field that varies with time. To exclude the effect of the confinement field, the magnetic probes consisting of figure-eight-wound coils are prepared. The spatial structure of the fluctuating field is obtained from a Fourier analysis of the probe signal. It is found that the probe array is more sensitive to the fluctuating field with a high mode number than that with a low mode number. An experimental demonstration of the present method is attempted using a field-reversed configuration plasma, where the fluctuating field with 0.1% of the confinement field is successfully detected.

  19. Highly Sensitive Filter Paper Substrate for SERS Trace Explosives Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro M. Fierro-Mercado

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We report on a novel and extremely low-cost surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS substrate fabricated depositing gold nanoparticles on common lab filter paper using thermal inkjet technology. The paper-based substrate combines all advantages of other plasmonic structures fabricated by more elaborate techniques with the dynamic flexibility given by the inherent nature of the paper for an efficient sample collection, robustness, and stability. We describe the fabrication, characterization, and SERS activity of our substrate using 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene, 2,4-dinitrotoluene, and 1,3,5-trinitrobenzene as analytes. The paper-based SERS substrates presented a high sensitivity and excellent reproducibility for analytes employed, demonstrating a direct application in forensic science and homeland security.

  20. Laser-engraved carbon nanotube paper for instilling high sensitivity, high stretchability, and high linearity in strain sensors

    KAUST Repository

    Xin, Yangyang

    2017-06-29

    There is an increasing demand for strain sensors with high sensitivity and high stretchability for new applications such as robotics or wearable electronics. However, for the available technologies, the sensitivity of the sensors varies widely. These sensors are also highly nonlinear, making reliable measurement challenging. Here we introduce a new family of sensors composed of a laser-engraved carbon nanotube paper embedded in an elastomer. A roll-to-roll pressing of these sensors activates a pre-defined fragmentation process, which results in a well-controlled, fragmented microstructure. Such sensors are reproducible and durable and can attain ultrahigh sensitivity and high stretchability (with a gauge factor of over 4.2 × 10(4) at 150% strain). Moreover, they can attain high linearity from 0% to 15% and from 22% to 150% strain. They are good candidates for stretchable electronic applications that require high sensitivity and linearity at large strains.

  1. Development of radiochromic film for spatially quantitative dosimetric analysis of indirect ionizing radiation fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Samuel Loren

    Two types of radiochromic films (RCF) were characterized for this work: EBT and XRQA film. Both films were investigated for: radiation interaction with film structure; light interaction with film structure for optimal film readout (densitometry) sensitivity; range of absorbed dose measurements; dependence of film dose measurement response as a function of changing radiation energy; fractionation and dose rate effects on film measurement response; film response sensitivity to ambient factors; and stability of measured film response with time. EBT film was shown to have the following properties: near water equivalent atomic weight (Zeff); dynamic dose range of 10 -1-102 Gy; 3% change in optical density (OD) response for a single exposure level when exposed to radiation energies from (75-18,000) kV; and best digitized using transmission densitometry. XRQA film was shown to have: a Zeff of ˜25; a 12 fold increase in sensitivity at lower photon energies for a dynamic dose range of 10-3-100 Gy, a difference of 25% in OD response when comparing 120 kV to 320 kV, and best digitized using reflective densitometry. Both XRQA and EBT films were shown to have: a temporal stability (DeltaOD) of ˜1% for t > 24 hr post film exposure for up to ˜20 days; a change in dose response of ˜0.03 mGy hr-1 when exposed to fluorescent room lighting at standard room temperature and humidity levels; a negligible dose rate and fractionation effect when operated within the optimal dose ranges; and a light wavelength dependence with dose for film readout. The flat bed scanner was chosen as the primary film digitizer due to its availability, cost, OD range, functionality (transmission and reflection scanning), and digitization speed. As a cost verses functionality comparison, the intrinsic and operational limitations were determined for two flat bed scanners. The EPSON V700 and 10000XL exhibited equal spatial and OD accuracy. The combined precision of both the scanner light sources and CCD

  2. Graphene nanomesh as highly sensitive chemiresistor gas sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Rajat Kanti; Badhulika, Sushmee; Saucedo, Nuvia M.; Mulchandani, Ashok

    2016-01-01

    Graphene is a one atom thick carbon allotrope with all surface atoms that has attracted significant attention as a promising material as the conduction channel of a field-effect transistor and chemical field-effect transistor sensors. However, the zero bandgap of semimetal graphene still limits its application for these devices. In this work, ethanol-chemical vapor deposition (CVD) grown p-type semiconducting large-area monolayer graphene film was patterned into nanomesh by the combination of nanosphere lithography and reactive ion etching and evaluated as field-effect transistor and chemiresistor gas sensors. The resulting neck-width of the synthesized nanomesh was about ~20 nm comprised of the gap between polystyrene spheres that was formed during the reactive ion etching process. The neck-width and the periodicities of the graphene nanomesh could be easily controlled depending the duration/power of RIE and the size of PS nanospheres. The fabricated GNM transistor device exhibited promising electronic properties featuring high drive current and ION/IOFF ratio of about 6, significantly higher than its film counterpart. Similarly, when applied as chemiresistor gas sensor at room temperature, the graphene nanomesh sensor showed excellent sensitivity towards NO2 and NH3, significantly higher than their film counterparts. The ethanol-based graphene nanomesh sensors exhibited sensitivities of about 4.32%/ppm in NO2 and 0.71%/ppm in NH3 with limit of detections of 15 ppb and 160 ppb, respectively. Our demonstrated studies on controlling the neck width of the nanomesh would lead to further improvement of graphene-based transistors and sensors. PMID:22931286

  3. Innovative nanostructures for highly sensitive vibrational biosensing (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popp, Juergen; Mayerhöfer, Thomas; Cialla-May, Dana; Weber, Karina; Huebner, Uwe

    2016-03-01

    Employing vibrational spectroscopy (IR-absorption and Raman spectroscopy) allows for the labelfree detection of molecular specific fingerprints of inorganic, organic and biological substances. The sensitivity of vibrational spectroscopy can be improved by several orders of magnitude via the application of plasmonic active surfaces. Within this contribution we will discuss two such approaches, namely surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) as well as surface enhanced IR absorption (SEIRA). It will be shown that SERS using metal colloids as SERS active substrate in combination with a microfluidic lab-on-a-chip (LOC) device enables high throughput and reproducible measurements with highest sensitivity and specificity. The application of such a LOC-SERS approach for therapeutic drug monitoring (e.g. quantitative detection of antibiotics in a urine matrix) will be presented. Furthermore, we will introduce innovative bottom-up strategies to prepare SERS-active nanostructures coated with a lipophilic sensor layer as one-time use SERS substrates for specific food analysis (e.g. quantitative detection of toxic food colorants). The second part of this contribution presents a slit array metamaterial perfect absorber for IR sensing applications consisting of a dielectric layer sandwiched between two metallic layers of which the upper layer is perforated with a periodic array of slits. Light-matter interaction is greatly amplified in the slits, where also the analyte is concentrated, as the surface of the substrate is covered by a thin silica layer. Thus, already small concentrations of analytes down to a monolayer can be detected by refractive index sensing and identified by their spectral fingerprints with a standard mid-infrared lab spectrometer.

  4. SU-F-T-573: Evaluation of EBT-XD Radiochromic Films for Verification of SBRT and SRS Treatment Delivery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aubry, J; Zerouali, K [Centre hospitalier de l’Universite de Montreal, Montreal, Quebec (Canada)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the accuracy and precision of radiochromic films EBT-XD for quality control of stereotaxic body radiation therapy (SBRT) and stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) plan delivery. Methods: A film cut in 3×10 cm2 strips was irradiated from 0 to 20 Gy in increments of 1 to 1.5 Gy using a 15 MeV electron beam. Triple-channel film calibration was completed 24 hours later by scanning the film strips on an Epson 10000XL scanner using a well-defined protocol. Several dose measurements of increasing complexity were subsequently performed with Varian iX accelerators. Pieces of films were first irradiated in a solid water phantom with 6 MV photon beams and a static gantry to doses spanning the calibration range, either in a single field or multiple fields setup. High dose (>15 Gy per fraction) IMRT plans were then measured. Finally films were irradiated with volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) plans of lung and spinal lesions with prescribed doses per fraction between 8 and 20 Gy. The dose measured with the films was compared to the calculated dose from the Eclipse planning system using the Anisotropic Analytical Algorithm (AAA). Results: 77 dose measurements were compared to either ion chamber measurements or dose calculations (reference). The average dose difference between film measurements and reference was 0.7 % and the standard deviation was 1.3%. The maximum and minimum dose differences were +3.5% and −2% in the 4 Gy to 20 Gy range. Measured dose profiles of lung and vertebra treatment plans agreed very well with the calculations. Conclusion: EBT-XD films are a useful dosimeter for quality control of SBRT and SRS plan delivery. The measurement of a full 2D dose plane with high spatial resolution and acceptable dose accuracy make it an advantageous choice compared to other detectors such as ion chambers or diodes.

  5. Acceleration sensitivity compensation in high performance crystal oscillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmons, D. A.

    1978-01-01

    Two approaches to achieving reduced acceleration sensitivity of crystal oscillators are discussed. The first involves electronic compensation within the frequency control loop. The second utilizes two resonators of comparable acceleration sensitivity to compensate each other. Problems encountered in matching and tuning the resonators are discussed, as well as orientation symmetry of the frequency deviation patterns. Results on frequency stability which reflect an improved static sensitivity are presented.

  6. Highly sensitive and multiplexed platforms for allergy diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monroe, Margo R.

    Allergy is a disorder of the immune system caused by an immune response to otherwise harmless environmental allergens. Currently 20% of the US population is allergic and 90% of pediatric patients and 60% of adult patients with asthma have allergies. These percentages have increased by 18.5% in the past decade, with predicted similar trends for the future. Here we design sensitive, multiplexed platforms to detect allergen-specific IgE using the Interferometric Reflectance Imaging Sensor (IRIS) for various clinical settings. A microarray platform for allergy diagnosis allows for testing of specific IgE sensitivity to a multitude of allergens, while requiring only small volumes of patient blood sample. However, conventional fluorescent microarray technology is limited by i) the variation of probe immobilization, which hinders the ability to make quantitative, assertive, and statistically relevant conclusions necessary in immunodiagnostics and ii) the use of fluorophore labels, which is not suitable for some clinical applications due to the tendency of fluorophores to stick to blood particulates and require daily calibration methods. This calibrated fluorescence enhancement (CaFE) method integrates the low magnification modality of IRIS with enhanced fluorescence sensing in order to directly correlate immobilized probe (major allergens) density to allergen-specific IgE in patient serum. However, this platform only operates in processed serum samples, which is not ideal for point of care testing. Thus, a high magnification modality of IRIS was adapted as an alternative allergy diagnostic platform to automatically discriminate and size single nanoparticles bound to specific IgE in unprocessed, characterized human blood and serum samples. These features make IRIS an ideal candidate for clinical and diagnostic applications, such a POC testing. The high magnification (nanoparticle counting) modality in conjunction with low magnification of IRIS in a combined instrument

  7. Adjoint sensitivity analysis of high frequency structures with Matlab

    CERN Document Server

    Bakr, Mohamed; Demir, Veysel

    2017-01-01

    This book covers the theory of adjoint sensitivity analysis and uses the popular FDTD (finite-difference time-domain) method to show how wideband sensitivities can be efficiently estimated for different types of materials and structures. It includes a variety of MATLAB® examples to help readers absorb the content more easily.

  8. Characterization of three high efficiency and blue sensitive silicon photomultipliers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otte, Adam Nepomuk; Garcia, Distefano; Nguyen, Thanh; Purushotham, Dhruv

    2017-02-01

    We report about the optical and electrical characterization of three high efficiency and blue sensitive Silicon photomultipliers from FBK, Hamamatsu, and SensL. Key features of the tested devices when operated at 90% breakdown probability are peak photon detection efficiencies between 40% and 55%, temperature dependencies of gain and PDE that are less than 1%/°C, dark rates of ∼50 kHz/mm2 at room temperature, afterpulsing of about 2%, and direct optical crosstalk between 6% and 20%. The characteristics of all three devices impressively demonstrate how the Silicon-photomultiplier technology has improved over the past ten years. It is further demonstrated how the voltage and temperature characteristics of a number of quantities can be parameterized on the basis of physical models. The models provide a deeper understanding of the device characteristics over a wide bias and temperature range. They also serve as examples how producers could provide the characteristics of their SiPMs to users. A standardized parameterization of SiPMs would enable users to find the optimal SiPM for their application and the operating point of SiPMs without having to perform measurements thus significantly reducing design and development cycles.

  9. Improvement of sensitivity in high-resolution Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, H; Nakajima, K; Suzuki, M; Sasakawa, K; Kimura, K

    2011-06-01

    The sensitivity (limit of detection) of high-resolution Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (HRBS) is mainly determined by the background noise of the spectrometer. There are two major origins of the background noise in HRBS, one is the stray ions scattered from the inner wall of the vacuum chamber of the spectrometer and the other is the dark noise of the microchannel plate (MCP) detector which is commonly used as a focal plane detector of the spectrometer in HRBS. In order to reject the stray ions, several barriers are installed inside the spectrometer and a thin Mylar foil is mounted in front of the detector. The dark noise of the MCP detector is rejected by the coincidence measurement with the secondary electrons emitted from the Mylar foil upon the ion passage. After these improvements, the background noise is reduced by a factor of 200 at a maximum. The detection limit can be improved down to 10 ppm for As in Si at a measurement time of 1 h under ideal conditions. © 2011 American Institute of Physics

  10. Ultra-high sensitivity imaging of cancer using SERRS nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kircher, Moritz F.

    2016-05-01

    "Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy" (SERS) nanoparticles have gained much attention in recent years for in silico, in vitro and in vivo sensing applications. Our group has developed novel generations of biocompatible "surfaceenhanced resonance Raman spectroscopy" (SERRS) nanoparticles as novel molecular imaging agents. Via rigorous optimization of the different variables contributing to the Raman enhancement, we were able to design SERRS nanoparticles with so far unprecedented sensitivity of detection under in vivo imaging conditions (femto-attomolar range). This has resulted in our ability to visualize, with a single nanoparticle, many different cancer types (after intravenous injection) in mouse models. The cancer types we have tested so far include brain, breast, esophagus, stomach, pancreas, colon, sarcoma, and prostate cancer. All mouse models used are state-of-the-art and closely mimic the tumor biology in their human counterparts. In these animals, we were able to visualize not only the bulk tumors, but importantly also microscopic extensions and locoregional satellite metastases, thus delineating for the first time the true extent of tumor spread. Moreover, the particles enable the detection of premalignant lesions. Given their inert composition they are expected to have a high chance for clinical translation, where we envision them to have an impact in various scenarios ranging from early detection, image-guidance in open or minimally invasive surgical procedures, to noninvasive imaging in conjunction with spatially offset (SESORS) Raman detection devices.

  11. Highly sensitive NIR PtSi/Si-nanostructure detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hua-gao; Guo, Pei; Yuan, An-bo; Long, Fei; Li, Rui-zhi; Li, Ping; Li, Yi

    2016-10-01

    We report a high external quantum efficiency (EQE) photodiode detector with PtSi/Si-nanostructures. Black silicon nanostructures were fabricated by metal-assist chemical etching (MCE), a 2 nm Pt layer was subsequently deposited on black silicon surface by DC magnetron sputtering system, and PtSi/Si-nanostructures were formed in vacuum annealing at 450 oC for 5 min. As the PtSi/Si-nanostructures presented a spiky shape, the absorption of incident light was remarkably enhanced for the repeat reflection and absorption. The breakdown voltage, dark current, threshold voltage and responsivity of the device were investigated to evaluate the performance of the PtSi/Si-nanostructures detector. The threshold voltage and dark currents of the PtSi/Si-nanostructure photodiode tends to be slightly higher than those of the standard diodes. The breakdown voltage remarkably was reduced because of existing avalanche breakdown in PtSi/Si-nanostructures. However, the photodiodes had high response at room temperature in near infrared region. At -5 V reverse bias voltage, the responsivity was 0.72 A/W in 1064 nm wavelength, and the EQE was 83.9%. By increasing the reverse bias voltage, the responsivity increased. At -60 V reverse bias voltage, the responsivity was 3.5 A/W, and the EQE was 407.5%, which means the quantum efficiency of PtSi/Si-nanostructure photodiodes was about 10 times higher than that of a standard diode. Future research includes how to apply this technology to enhance the NIR sensitivity of image sensors, such as Charge Coupled Devices (CCD).

  12. Chemically tuned linear energy transfer dependent quenching in a deformable, radiochromic 3D dosimeter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høye, Ellen Marie; Skyt, Peter Sandegaard; Balling, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Most solid-state detectors, including 3D dosimeters, show lower signal in the Bragg peak than expected, a process termed quenching. The purpose of this study was to investigate how variation in chemical composition of a recently developed radiochromic, silicone-based 3D dosimeter influences...... the observed quenching in proton beams. The dependency of dose response on linear energy transfer, as calculated through Monte Carlo simulations of the dosimeter, was investigated in 60 MeV proton beams. We found that the amount of quenching varied with the chemical composition: peak-to-plateau ratios (1cm...... into the plateau) ranged from 2.2 to 3.4, compared to 4.3 using an ionization chamber. The dose response, and thereby the quenching, was predominantly influenced by the curing agent concentration, which determined the dosimeter’s deformation properties. The dose response was found to be linear at all depths. All...

  13. SU-E-T-44: Angular Dependence of Surface Dose Enhancement Measured On Several Inhomogeneities Using Radiochromic EBT3 Films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jansen, A; Schoenfeld, A; Poppinga, D; Chofor, N; Poppe, B [University of Oldenburg, Oldenburg (Germany); Pius Hospital Oldenburg, Oldenburg (Germany)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: The quantification of the relative surface dose enhancement in dependence on the angle of incidence and the atomic number Z of the surface material. Methods: Experiments were performed with slabs made of aluminum, titanium, copper, silver, dental gold and lead. The metal slabs with equal sizes of 1.0×8.0×8.8mm{sup 3} were embedded in an Octavius 4D phantom (PTW Freiburg, Germany). Radiochromic EBT3 films were used to measure the surface dose for angles of incidence ranging from 0° to 90°. The setup with the metals slabs at the isocenter was irradiated with acceleration voltages of 6MV and 10MV. Water reference measurements were taken under equal conditions. Results: The surface dose enhancement is highest for angles of incidence below 30° and drops significantly for higher. The surface dose enhancement produced by lead and dental gold at 6MV showed a peak of 65%. At 90°, the surface dose enhancement dropped to 15% for both materials. The surface dose enhancements for silver, copper, titanium and aluminum were 45%, 32%, 22% and 12% at 0°, respectively. At an angle of incidence of 80°, the values dropped to 22%, 18%, 12% und 6%. The values for 10MV were very similar. Lead and dental gold showed peaks of 65% und 60%. Their values dropped to 18% at an angle of 90°. The surface dose enhancements for silver, copper, titanium and aluminum were 45%, 30%, 20% and 8% at 0°. At 80° the values dropped to 30%, 20%, 12% and 5%. A dependence of the magnitude of the surface dose enhancement on the atomic number of the surface material can be seen, which is in consistence with literature. Conclusion: The results show that the surface dose enhancements near implant materials with high Z-values should be taken into consideration in radio therapy, even when the angle of incidence is flat.

  14. High throughput modular chambers for rapid evaluation of anesthetic sensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eckmann David M

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anesthetic sensitivity is determined by the interaction of multiple genes. Hence, a dissection of genetic contributors would be aided by precise and high throughput behavioral screens. Traditionally, anesthetic phenotyping has addressed only induction of anesthesia, evaluated with dose-response curves, while ignoring potentially important data on emergence from anesthesia. Methods We designed and built a controlled environment apparatus to permit rapid phenotyping of twenty-four mice simultaneously. We used the loss of righting reflex to indicate anesthetic-induced unconsciousness. After fitting the data to a sigmoidal dose-response curve with variable slope, we calculated the MACLORR (EC50, the Hill coefficient, and the 95% confidence intervals bracketing these values. Upon termination of the anesthetic, Emergence timeRR was determined and expressed as the mean ± standard error for each inhaled anesthetic. Results In agreement with several previously published reports we find that the MACLORR of halothane, isoflurane, and sevoflurane in 8–12 week old C57BL/6J mice is 0.79% (95% confidence interval = 0.78 – 0.79%, 0.91% (95% confidence interval = 0.90 – 0.93%, and 1.96% (95% confidence interval = 1.94 – 1.97%, respectively. Hill coefficients for halothane, isoflurane, and sevoflurane are 24.7 (95% confidence interval = 19.8 – 29.7%, 19.2 (95% confidence interval = 14.0 – 24.3%, and 33.1 (95% confidence interval = 27.3 – 38.8%, respectively. After roughly 2.5 MACLORR • hr exposures, mice take 16.00 ± 1.07, 6.19 ± 0.32, and 2.15 ± 0.12 minutes to emerge from halothane, isoflurane, and sevoflurane, respectively. Conclusion This system enabled assessment of inhaled anesthetic responsiveness with a higher precision than that previously reported. It is broadly adaptable for delivering an inhaled therapeutic (or toxin to a population while monitoring its vital signs, motor reflexes, and providing precise control

  15. Comparison of the responses of TLD-100 and radiochromic films exposed to X-rays of low energy in a radiodiagnostic clinical treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, M.; Mesa, F.; Sosa, M. [Physics Institute, University of Guanajuato, Loma del Bosque 103, Lomas del Campestre, 37150 Leon, Guanajuato (Mexico)

    2007-07-01

    Full text: In this work a comparison of the responses of a TLD-100 and a radiochromic film exposed to a low energy X-ray beam is presented. X-rays in the range of 20 to 120 KV from a clinical machine at the radiodiagnostic unit of the IMSS-Tl hospital in Leon were used. The processes of calibration of both the TLD-100 and the radiochromic films are also discussed. (Author)

  16. SU-E-T-485: In Vivo Dosimetry with EBT3 Radiochromic Films for TBI Treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lozares, S; Gracia, M; Olasolo, J; Gallardo, N; Fuentemilla, N; Pellejero, S; Miquelez, S; Maneru, F; Martin, M; Bragado, L; Rubio, A [Complejo Hospitalario de Navarra, Pamplona, Navarra (Spain)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Total body irradiation (TBI) is a technique that requires special equipment to control “in vivo” the dose to the patient because it is a complex technique performed in extraordinary conditions. There are several devices to perform this task (diodes, TLDs, ionization chambers, MOSFET). In this paper we study the possibility of performing these measurements with radiochromic films EBT3 properly calibrated. This method has been compared to the PTW diodes system for TBI. Methods: Once made the TC to the patients, we measured different thicknesses of the relevant areas of the body (head, neck, chest with or without arms, umbilicus area, knees and ankles); for each of these thicknesses we measured dose rate (cGy / UM) in RW3 phantom, in TBI conditions, with ionization chamber in the center; in turn, the input diode and the output of each configuration is placed to assign dose to each set of diodes. Movie calibration is performed according to manufacturer’s recommendations but TBI conditions. The dose at the center of each thickness compared to a linear interpolation of the dose at the entrance and exit, resulting in an adequate approximation. Finally in each session for each patient put a piece of film (2×2 cm2) at the entrance and another at the exit in each area, obtaining these readings and interpolating the estimated center dose, as with the diodes. Results: These results show a greater homogeneity in the distribution for use with film and validate the use of the same for this task and, if necessary, to avoid purchasing diode group if they have not. Conclusion: By using radiochromic films for this technique gives us a proper calculation of the dose received by the patient in the absence of other methods, or gives us a second additional track that already used normally.

  17. A practical tool to evaluate dose distributions using radiochromic film in radiation oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamponi, M; Bona, R; Poggiu, A; Marini, P

    2015-02-01

    Triple channel algorithm and specific procedures make more reliable radiochromic dosimetry for treatment planning verification and quality assurance in radiation therapy. A tool to obtain radiochromic dose distributions and compare them with the ones resulting from a treatment planning system was developed and applied. The tool was developed as Microsoft Excel macro; it builds dose calibration curves against net optical density of Gafchromic EBT3 film, produces axial, coronal and sagittal dose maps and allows to evaluate them against dose distributions calculated by the Varian treatment planning system Eclipse using gamma index and gamma angle. The net optical density standard errors of estimate of calibration curves at 6 MV Varian DBX600 linac energy were 0.2%, 0.4% and 0.2% for the red, green and blue channels. Tests of these curves by means of three independent eight dose points measurement series, at 15 MV and 6 MV Varian 2100C linac and at 6 MV DBX600 linac energies, showed less than 2% of dose errors for the red channel and less than 3% for the green channel in the range 100-450 cGy. The comparisons between dose distributions from Gafchromic EBT3 triple channel algorithm and the ones from Eclipse analytic anisotropic algorithm (AAA) showed values of gamma index 95th percentile between 0.6 and 1.0. The obtained results encourage the application of this tool in radiation therapy quality assurance. Copyright © 2014 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. SU-E-T-122: Dose Response Analysis of Radiochromic Films in Regions of Low Dose Using Separation Color Components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marini, G; Nicolucci, P

    2012-06-01

    To evaluate the dose response of EBT2 films in regions of low dose using the decomposition of the image's color channels (RGB, Red, Green and Blue). Doses ranging from 1 Gy to 60 Gy were used to calibrate the dose response of Gafchromic ® EBT2 films irradiated in 6MV photons beams. Segments of film with dimensions of 8.5 cm × 8.5 cm were used. Another segment of film with dimensions 8.5 cm × 20.25 cm was also irradiated with a maximum dose of 4Gy to determine the percentage depth dose (PDD). The films were digitized by a LaserJet M1132 MFP - HP ® scanner in standard resolution of 150dpi and analyzed by a routine created in MatLab to convert the image to gray levels as well as assess the desired color components from the image. The green component presented the higher sensitivity (17.8 a.u./Gy) when the separated color channels and the shades of gray analysis are compared. The red component presented the highest signal to noise ratio in the low dose range (63% at 1Gy). The blue component presented low sensitivity (0.66 a.u./Gy) in the entire dose range. A linear fitting (r=0.998) was used to the green and gray components until a dose of 4 Gy. The red component presented a non-linear behavior in the entire dose range. The useful dose range found was from 1 Gy to 15 Gy. The maximum differences between the reference PDD, measured with ionization chamber in a water phantom, and the PDDs determined with film were 6%, 9% and 14% for the green, gray and red components, respectively. This work results show that the use of radiochromic films on planning verification procedures in low dose ranges can be benefit from the analysis of the image's separated color components. © 2012 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  19. Highly sensitive and selective colorimetric sensing of antibiotics in milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaofang; Zhang, Yang; Zhao, Hong; He, Yujian; Li, Xiangjun; Yuan, Zhuobin

    2013-05-17

    Antibiotics residues in foods are very harmful to human beings. Determination of antibiotics residues relies largely on the availability of adequate analytical techniques. Currently, there is an urgent need for on site and real time detection of antibiotics in food. In this work, a novel one step synthesis of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) was proposed using pyrocatechol violet (PCV) as a reducer agent. Highly sensitive and selective colorimetric detection of four antibiotics kanamycin mono sulfate (KA), neomycin sulfate (NE), streptomycin sulfate (ST) and bleomycin sulfate (BL) was realized during the formation of AuNPs. PCV has -OH groups and these antibiotics have -OH, -NH2, -NH- groups, so there may be some special hydrogen-bonding interactions between PCV and these antibiotics. Therefore, the presence of KA, NE, ST and BL would influence the synthesis of AuNPs, then the color and state of AuNPs would change, which could be observed with the naked eye or a UV-vis spectrophotometer. Results showed that A670 was linear with the logarithm of KA concentration in the range from 1.0×10(-8) to 5.0×10(-7)M and 5.0×10(-7) to 5.5×10(-5)M. The detection limit of KA was 1.0×10(-9)M (S/N=3). The coexisting substances including 1.0×10(-5)M phenylalanine, alanine, glycerol, glucose, Mg(2+), Ca(2+), Na(+), K(+), CO3(2-), SO4(2-), NO3(-), Cl(-) and Br(-) did not affect the determination of 1.0×10(-7)M antibiotics. In particular, the proposed method could be applied successfully to the detection of antibiotics in the pretreated liquid milk products. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Highly sensitive and unbiased approach for elucidating antibody repertoires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Sherry G; Ba, Zhaoqing; Du, Zhou; Zhang, Yu; Hu, Jiazhi; Alt, Frederick W

    2016-07-12

    Developing B lymphocytes undergo V(D)J recombination to assemble germ-line V, D, and J gene segments into exons that encode the antigen-binding variable region of Ig heavy (H) and light (L) chains. IgH and IgL chains associate to form the B-cell receptor (BCR), which, upon antigen binding, activates B cells to secrete BCR as an antibody. Each of the huge number of clonally independent B cells expresses a unique set of IgH and IgL variable regions. The ability of V(D)J recombination to generate vast primary B-cell repertoires results from a combinatorial assortment of large numbers of different V, D, and J segments, coupled with diversification of the junctions between them to generate the complementary determining region 3 (CDR3) for antigen contact. Approaches to evaluate in depth the content of primary antibody repertoires and, ultimately, to study how they are further molded by secondary mutation and affinity maturation processes are of great importance to the B-cell development, vaccine, and antibody fields. We now describe an unbiased, sensitive, and readily accessible assay, referred to as high-throughput genome-wide translocation sequencing-adapted repertoire sequencing (HTGTS-Rep-seq), to quantify antibody repertoires. HTGTS-Rep-seq quantitatively identifies the vast majority of IgH and IgL V(D)J exons, including their unique CDR3 sequences, from progenitor and mature mouse B lineage cells via the use of specific J primers. HTGTS-Rep-seq also accurately quantifies DJH intermediates and V(D)J exons in either productive or nonproductive configurations. HTGTS-Rep-seq should be useful for studies of human samples, including clonal B-cell expansions, and also for following antibody affinity maturation processes.

  1. High-intensity xenon plasma discharge lamp for bulk-sensitive high-resolution photoemission spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souma, S; Sato, T; Takahashi, T; Baltzer, P

    2007-12-01

    We have developed a highly brilliant xenon (Xe) discharge lamp operated by microwave-induced electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) for ultrahigh-resolution bulk-sensitive photoemission spectroscopy (PES). We observed at least eight strong radiation lines from neutral or singly ionized Xe atoms in the energy region of 8.4-10.7 eV. The photon flux of the strongest Xe I resonance line at 8.437 eV is comparable to that of the He Ialpha line (21.218 eV) from the He-ECR discharge lamp. Stable operation for more than 300 h is achieved by efficient air-cooling of a ceramic tube in the resonance cavity. The high bulk sensitivity and high-energy resolution of PES using the Xe lines are demonstrated for some typical materials.

  2. Development of high sensitivity and high speed large size blank inspection system LBIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohara, Shinobu; Yoshida, Akinori; Hirai, Mitsuo; Kato, Takenori; Moriizumi, Koichi; Kusunose, Haruhiko

    2017-07-01

    The production of high-resolution flat panel displays (FPDs) for mobile phones today requires the use of high-quality large-size photomasks (LSPMs). Organic light emitting diode (OLED) displays use several transistors on each pixel for precise current control and, as such, the mask patterns for OLED displays are denser and finer than the patterns for the previous generation displays throughout the entire mask surface. It is therefore strongly demanded that mask patterns be produced with high fidelity and free of defect. To enable the production of a high quality LSPM in a short lead time, the manufacturers need a high-sensitivity high-speed mask blank inspection system that meets the requirement of advanced LSPMs. Lasertec has developed a large-size blank inspection system called LBIS, which achieves high sensitivity based on a laser-scattering technique. LBIS employs a high power laser as its inspection light source. LBIS's delivery optics, including a scanner and F-Theta scan lens, focus the light from the source linearly on the surface of the blank. Its specially-designed optics collect the light scattered by particles and defects generated during the manufacturing process, such as scratches, on the surface and guide it to photo multiplier tubes (PMTs) with high efficiency. Multiple PMTs are used on LBIS for the stable detection of scattered light, which may be distributed at various angles due to irregular shapes of defects. LBIS captures 0.3mμ PSL at a detection rate of over 99.5% with uniform sensitivity. Its inspection time is 20 minutes for a G8 blank and 35 minutes for G10. The differential interference contrast (DIC) microscope on the inspection head of LBIS captures high-contrast review images after inspection. The images are classified automatically.

  3. High-resolution melting analysis (HRMA): a highly sensitive inexpensive genotyping alternative for population studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, B L; Lu, C-P; Alvarado Bremer, J R

    2010-01-01

    High-resolution melting analysis (HRMA) is a highly sensitive closed-tube genotyping method used primarily in clinical studies. As the method is rapid, inexpensive and amenable to high throughput, we decided to investigate its applicability to population studies. Small amplicons and unlabelled probes were used to genotype the nuclear genes, lactate dehydrogenase-A (ldh-A), myosin light chain-2 (mlc-2), acidic ribosomal phosphoprotein P0 (ARP) and calmodulin (CaM) in populations of swordfish, Xiphias gladius. Results indicate that HRMA is a powerful genotyping tool to study wild populations. © 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  4. High incidence of sensitization to ornamental plants in allergic rhinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahillon, V; Saussez, S; Michel, O

    2006-09-01

    A few indoor plants have been described as potential allergens, in single case reports of allergic rhinitis. There is no data evaluating the prevalence of allergic sensitization to these plants. The relationship between owning indoor ornamental plants with the risk to be sensitized has been evaluated in atopic rhinitis. A group of 59 patients with allergic rhinitis were submitted to skin prick tests (SPT) using both the leafs of their own plant and commercial extracts of the most frequent airborne allergens. A control group of 15 healthy subjects was tested with the same allergens. While no subject from the control group developed a significant SPT to any of the tested plants, 78% of allergic rhinitis had positive SPT to at least one plant, the most frequent sensitization being Ficus benjamina, yucca, ivy and palm tree. In allergic rhinitis, indoor plants should be considered as potential allergens.

  5. Development of High Temperature/High Sensitivity Novel Chemical Resistive Sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Chunrui [Univ. of Texas, San Antonio, TX (United States); Enriquez, Erik [Univ. of Texas, San Antonio, TX (United States); Wang, Haibing [Univ. of Texas, San Antonio, TX (United States); Xu, Xing [Univ. of Texas, San Antonio, TX (United States); Bao, Shangyong [Univ. of Texas, San Antonio, TX (United States); Collins, Gregory [Univ. of Texas, San Antonio, TX (United States)

    2013-08-13

    The research has been focused to design, fabricate, and develop high temperature/high sensitivity novel multifunctional chemical sensors for the selective detection of fossil energy gases used in power and fuel systems. By systematically studying the physical properties of the LnBaCo2O5+d (LBCO) [Ln=Pr or La] thin-films, a new concept chemical sensor based high temperature chemical resistant change has been developed for the application for the next generation highly efficient and near zero emission power generation technologies. We also discovered that the superfast chemical dynamic behavior and an ultrafast surface exchange kinetics in the highly epitaxial LBCO thin films. Furthermore, our research indicates that hydrogen can superfast diffuse in the ordered oxygen vacancy structures in the highly epitaxial LBCO thin films, which suggest that the LBCO thin film not only can be an excellent candidate for the fabrication of high temperature ultra sensitive chemical sensors and control systems for power and fuel monitoring systems, but also can be an excellent candidate for the low temperature solid oxide fuel cell anode and cathode materials.

  6. High-speed high-sensitivity infrared spectroscopy using mid-infrared swept lasers (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childs, David T. D.; Groom, Kristian M.; Hogg, Richard A.; Revin, Dmitry G.; Cockburn, John W.; Rehman, Ihtesham U.; Matcher, Stephen J.

    2016-03-01

    Infrared spectroscopy is a highly attractive read-out technology for compositional analysis of biomedical specimens because of its unique combination of high molecular sensitivity without the need for exogenous labels. Traditional techniques such as FTIR and Raman have suffered from comparatively low speed and sensitivity however recent innovations are challenging this situation. Direct mid-IR spectroscopy is being speeded up by innovations such as MEMS-based FTIR instruments with very high mirror speeds and supercontinuum sources producing very high sample irradiation levels. Here we explore another possible method - external cavity quantum cascade lasers (EC-QCL's) with high cavity tuning speeds (mid-IR swept lasers). Swept lasers have been heavily developed in the near-infrared where they are used for non-destructive low-coherence imaging (OCT). We adapt these concepts in two ways. Firstly by combining mid-IR quantum cascade gain chips with external cavity designs adapted from OCT we achieve spectral acquisition rates approaching 1 kHz and demonstrate potential to reach 100 kHz. Secondly we show that mid-IR swept lasers share a fundamental sensitivity advantage with near-IR OCT swept lasers. This makes them potentially able to achieve the same spectral SNR as an FTIR instrument in a time x N shorter (N being the number of spectral points) under otherwise matched conditions. This effect is demonstrated using measurements of a PDMS sample. The combination of potentially very high spectral acquisition rates, fundamental SNR advantage and the use of low-cost detector systems could make mid-IR swept lasers a powerful technology for high-throughput biomedical spectroscopy.

  7. High sensitivity PCR assay in plastic micro reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jianing; Liu, Yingjie; Rauch, Cory B; Stevens, Rauch L; Liu, Randall H; Lenigk, Robin; Grodzinski, Piotr

    2002-11-01

    Small volume operation and rapid thermal cycling have been subjects of numerous reports in micro reactor chip development. Sensitivity aspects of the micro PCR reactor have not been studied in detail, however, despite the fact that detection of rare targets or trace genomic material from clinical and/or environmental samples has been a great challenge for microfluidic devices. In this study, a serpentine shaped thin (0.75 mm) polycarbonate plastic PCR micro reactor was designed, constructed, and tested for not only its rapid operation and efficiency, but also its detection sensitivity and specificity, in amplification of Escherichia coli (E. coli) K12-specific gene fragment. At a template concentration as low as 10 E. coli cells (equivalent to 50 fg genomic DNA), a K12-specific gene product (221 bp) was adequately amplified with a total of 30 cycles in 30 min. Sensitivity of the PCR micro reactor was demonstrated with its ability to amplify K12-specific gene from 10 cells in the presence of 2% blood. Specificity of the polycarbonate PCR micro reactor was also proven through multiplex PCR and/or amplification of different pathogen-specific genes. This is, to our knowledge, the first systematic study of assay sensitivity and specificity performed in plastic, disposable micro PCR devices.

  8. New Highly-Sensitive Ultra-Performance Liquid Chromatography ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To develop and validate a simple, rapid, sensitive and specific ultraperformance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry method for the quantification of the angiotensin II receptor antagonist, telmisartan (TEL), in human plasma. Methods: After simple protein precipitation using acetonitrile and methanol, TEL and ...

  9. SU-E-T-516: Investigation of a Novel Radiochromic Radiation Reporting System Utilizing the Reduction of Ferric Ion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, H; Alqathami, M; Wang, J; Ibbott, G [UT MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Blencowe, A [The University of South Australia, South Australia, SA (Australia)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose To introduce and characterize a new “reverse-Fricke” radiation reporting system utilizing the reduction of ferric ions (Fe{sup 3+}) to ferrous ions (Fe{sup 2+}). Methods Two formulations of the radiochromic reporting system, referred to as A and B, were prepared for investigation. Formulation-A consisted of 14 mM 1,10-phenanthroline, 42 mM ethanol, and 57 mM ammonium ferric oxalate in water. Formulation-B consisted of 27 mM 1,10-phenanthroline, 42 mM ethanol, and 28 mM ammonium ferric oxalate in water. Solutions were prepared immediately prior to irradiation with a Cobalt-60 unit with radiation doses of 0, 1, 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 Gy. The change in optical density over the visible range of 450–650 nm was measured using a spectrophotometer immediately after irradiation. The effective atomic numbers of the formulations were calculated using Mayneord’s formula. Results Ionizing radiation energy absorbed in the solutions causes the reduction of ferric ions (Fe{sup 3+}) into ferrous ions (Fe{sup 2+}), which then forms a 1:3 red colored complex with 1,10-phenanthroline ([(C{sub 1} {sub 2}H{sub 8}N{sup 2}){sub 3}Fe]{sup 2+}) that can be measured spectrophotometrically. The absorbance spectra of the resulting complex displayed a peak maximum at 512 nm with a greater change in absorbance for Formulation-B after receiving comparable radiation doses. The change in absorbance relative to dose exhibited a linear response up to 25 Gy for both Formulation-A (R{sup 2} = 0.98) and Formulation-B (R{sup 2} = 0.97). The novel formulations were also nearly water equivalent (Zeff = 7.42) with effective atomic numbers of 7.65 and 7.52 and mass densities within 0.2% of water. Conclusion Both formulations displayed visible Fe{sup 2+} complex formation with 1,10-phenanthroline after irradiation using a Cobalt-60 source. The higher sensitivity measured for Formulation-B is attributed to the increase in 1,10-phenanthroline concentration and the increase in the 1

  10. Evaluation of the use of radiochromic films alongside of the ionization chamber and TLDs in measuring peripheral doses; Avaliacao do uso de filmes radiocromicos ao lado de camara de ionizacao e TLDs na mensuracao de doses perifericas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soboll, Danyel S.; Wolter, Brenda Von; Nascimento, Josiane Q., E-mail: soboll@utfpr.edu.br [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Viamonte, Alfredo; Alves, Victor G.L., E-mail: aviamonte@inca.gov.br [Instituto Nacional de Cancer (PQRT/INCA), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Qualidade em Radioterapia

    2014-07-01

    The objective of this work is to submit radiochromic films, thermoluminescent dosimeters and ionization chamber to identical situations irradiation, in order to assess their capabilities in measuring peripheral doses. The growing number of survivors of childhood cancer has created the need to investigate the cause of the sequelae of treatment. Measurements of peripheral radiation to the radiotherapy target region increment the knowledge of the subject and assist in the development of protection methods. As the periphery of the radiation spectrum is different from that in the beam, the energy independence supposedly provided in radiochromic films can overcome the energy dependence found of ionization and TLD chambers, in order to discard the necessity of correction of the values if films are used. In this work the three dosimeters were exposed to doses arising from the issuance of 6 MV beams, field 10 cm x 10 cm and 500 UM. The dosimeters were placed at 0, 10, 17.5 and 30 cm from the central ray, always under 5 cm of water. The results showed that the figures reported by the films have high average standard deviation and for more conclusive results is necessary to proceed with the radiations, employing more intense beams.

  11. Highly sensitive BTX detection using surface functionalized QCM sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bozkurt, Asuman Aşıkoğlu; Özdemir, Okan; Altındal, Ahmet, E-mail: altindal@yildiz.edu.tr [Department of Physics, Yildiz Technical University, Davutpasa, 34210 Istanbul (Turkey)

    2016-03-25

    A novel organic compound was designed and successfully synthesized for the fabrication of QCM based sensors to detect the low concentrations of BTX gases in indoor air. The effect of the long-range electron orbital delocalization on the BTX vapour sensing properties of azo-bridged Pcs based chemiresistor-type sensors have also been investigated in this work. The sensing behaviour of the film for the online detection of volatile organic solvent vapors was investigated by utilizing an AT-cut quartz crystal resonator. It was observed that the adsorption of the target molecules on the coating surface cause a reversible negative frequency shift of the resonator. Thus, a variety of solvent vapors can be detected by using the phthalocyanine film as sensitive coating, with sensitivity in the ppm range and response times in the order of several seconds depending on the molecular structure of the organic solvent.

  12. Extremely high frequency sensitivity in a 'simple' ear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moir, Hannah M; Jackson, Joseph C; Windmill, James F C

    2013-08-23

    An evolutionary war is being played out between the bat, which uses ultrasonic calls to locate insect prey, and the moth, which uses microscale ears to listen for the approaching bat. While the highest known frequency of bat echolocation calls is 212 kHz, the upper limit of moth hearing is considered much lower. Here, we show that the greater wax moth, Galleria mellonella, is capable of hearing ultrasonic frequencies approaching 300 kHz; the highest frequency sensitivity of any animal. With auditory frequency sensitivity that is unprecedented in the animal kingdom, the greater wax moth is ready and armed for any echolocation call adaptations made by the bat in the on-going bat-moth evolutionary war.

  13. Extremely high frequency sensitivity in a ‘simple’ ear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moir, Hannah M.; Jackson, Joseph C.; Windmill, James F. C.

    2013-01-01

    An evolutionary war is being played out between the bat, which uses ultrasonic calls to locate insect prey, and the moth, which uses microscale ears to listen for the approaching bat. While the highest known frequency of bat echolocation calls is 212 kHz, the upper limit of moth hearing is considered much lower. Here, we show that the greater wax moth, Galleria mellonella, is capable of hearing ultrasonic frequencies approaching 300 kHz; the highest frequency sensitivity of any animal. With auditory frequency sensitivity that is unprecedented in the animal kingdom, the greater wax moth is ready and armed for any echolocation call adaptations made by the bat in the on-going bat–moth evolutionary war. PMID:23658005

  14. Highly Sensitive Cadmium Concentration Sensor Using Long Period Grating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Lalasangi

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we have proposed a simple and effective Long Period Grating chemical sensor for detecting the traces of Cadmium (Cd++ in drinking water at ppm level. Long Period gratings (LPG were fabricated by point-by-point technique with CO2 laser. We have characterized the LPG concentration sensor sensitivity for different solutions of Cd concentrations varying from 0.01 ppm to 0.04 ppm by injecting white Light source and observed transmitted spectra using Optical Spectrum Analyzer (OSA. Proper reagents have been used in the solutions for detection of the Cd species. The overall shift in wavelength is 10 nm when surrounding medium gradually changed from water to 0.04 ppm of cadmium concentrations. A comparative study has been done using sophisticated spectroscopic atomic absorption spectrometer (AAS and Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP instruments. The spectral sensitivity enhancement was done by modifying grating surface with gold nanoparticles.

  15. The strain-rate sensitivity of high-strength high-toughness steels.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dilmore, M.F. (AFRL/MNMW, Eglin AFB, FL); Crenshaw, Thomas B.; Boyce, Brad Lee

    2006-01-01

    The present study examines the strain-rate sensitivity of four high strength, high-toughness alloys at strain rates ranging from 0.0002 s-1 to 200 s-1: Aermet 100, a modified 4340, modified HP9-4-20, and a recently developed Eglin AFB steel alloy, ES-1c. A refined dynamic servohydraulic method was used to perform tensile tests over this entire range. Each of these alloys exhibit only modest strain-rate sensitivity. Specifically, the strain-rate sensitivity exponent m, is found to be in the range of 0.004-0.007 depending on the alloy. This corresponds to a {approx}10% increase in the yield strength over the 7-orders of magnitude change in strain-rate. Interestingly, while three of the alloys showed a concominant {approx}3-10% drop in their ductility with increasing strain-rate, the ES1-c alloy actually exhibited a 25% increase in ductility with increasing strain-rate. Fractography suggests the possibility that at higher strain-rates ES-1c evolves towards a more ductile dimple fracture mode associated with microvoid coalescence.

  16. A High-Sensitivity Current Sensor Utilizing CrNi Wire and Microfiber Coils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaodong Xie

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available We obtain an extremely high current sensitivity by wrapping a section of microfiber on a thin-diameter chromium-nickel wire. Our detected current sensitivity is as high as 220.65 nm/A2 for a structure length of only 35 μm. Such sensitivity is two orders of magnitude higher than the counterparts reported in the literature. Analysis shows that a higher resistivity or/and a thinner diameter of the metal wire may produce higher sensitivity. The effects of varying the structure parameters on sensitivity are discussed. The presented structure has potential for low-current sensing or highly electrically-tunable filtering applications.

  17. Highly Sensitive Sensors Based on Photonic Crystal Fiber Modal Interferometers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel Villatoro

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We review the research on photonic crystal fiber modal interferometers with emphasis placed on the characteristics that make them attractive for different sensing applications. The fabrication of such interferometers is carried out with different post-processing techniques such as grating inscription, tapering or cleaving, and splicing. In general photonic crystal fiber interferometers exhibit low thermal sensitivity while their applications range from sensing strain or temperature to refractive index and volatile organic compounds.

  18. Improvement in the light sensitivity of the ultrahigh-speed high-sensitivity CCD with a microlens array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashida, T.,; Yonai, J.; Kitamura, K.; Arai, T.; Kurita, T.; Tanioka, K.; Maruyama, H.; Etoh, T. Goji; Kitagawa, S.; Hatade, K.; Yamaguchi, T.; Takeuchi, H.; Iida, K.

    2008-02-01

    We are advancing the development of ultrahigh-speed, high-sensitivity CCDs for broadcast use that are capable of capturing smooth slow-motion videos in vivid colors even where lighting is limited, such as at professional baseball games played at night. We have already developed a 300,000 pixel, ultrahigh-speed CCD, and a single CCD color camera that has been used for sports broadcasts and science programs using this CCD. However, there are cases where even higher sensitivity is required, such as when using a telephoto lens during a baseball broadcast or a high-magnification microscope during science programs. This paper provides a summary of our experimental development aimed at further increasing the sensitivity of CCDs using the light-collecting effects of a microlens array.

  19. High-sensitivity damage detection based on enhanced nonlinear dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epureanu, Bogdan I.; Yin, Shih-Hsun; Derriso, Mark M.

    2005-04-01

    One of the most important aspects of detecting damage in the framework of structural health monitoring is increasing the sensitivity of the monitored feature to the presence, location, and extent of damage. Distinct from previous techniques of obtaining information about the monitored structure—such as measuring frequency response functions—the approach proposed herein is based on an active interrogation of the system. This interrogation approach allows for the embedding of the monitored system within a larger system by means of a nonlinear feedback excitation. The dynamics of the larger system is then analyzed in state space, and the shape of the attractor of its dynamics is used as a complex geometric feature which is very sensitive to damage. The proposed approach is implemented for monitoring the structural integrity of a panel forced by transverse loads and undergoing limit cycle oscillations and chaos. The nonlinear von Karman plate theory is used to obtain a model for the panel combined with a nonlinear feedback excitation. The presence of damage is modeled as loss of stiffness of various levels in a portion of the plate at various locations. The sensitivity of the proposed approach to parametric changes is shown to be an effective tool in detecting damages. An earlier version was presented at the SPIE 11th International Symposium on Smart Structures and Materials.

  20. Economical Alternatives for High Sensitivity in Atomic Spectrometry Laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Yavuz Ataman

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The most commonly used analytical tools for determination of elements at trace levels are atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS, inductively coupled plasma, optical emission and mass spectrometry (ICP-OES and ICP-MS and atomic fluorescence spectrometry (AFS. Although sensitive plasma techniques are becoming predominant in most of the western laboratories, AAS keeps its importance in developing countries. Simple and inexpensive ways of enhancing sensitivity will be described for laboratories equipped with only a flame AA spectrometer. Although there are many chemical preconcentration procedures to improve sensitivity of flame AAS, only some atom trapping techniques will be included here. One kind of atom trapping device is a slotted quartz tube (SQT used for in situ preconcentration of analyte species followed by a rapid revolatilization cycle to obtain an enhanced signal. These devices provide limits of detection at a level of µg L-1. Another kind of atom trapping involves use of vapor generation technique and quartz or tungsten atom trapping surfaces. The analytical steps consist of the generation of volatile species, usually by hydride formation using NaBH4, trapping these species at the surface of an atom trap held at an optimized temperature and finally re-volatilizing analyte species by rapid heating of trap. These species are transported using a carrier gas to an externally heated quartz tube as commonly used in hydride generation AAS systems; a transient signal is formed and measured. These traps have limits of detection in the order of ng L-1.

  1. High-performance and high-sensitivity applications of graphene transistors with self-assembled monolayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Chao-Hui; Kumar, Vinod; Moyano, David Ricardo; Wen, Shao-Hsuan; Parashar, Vyom; Hsiao, She-Hsin; Srivastava, Anchal; Saxena, Preeti S; Huang, Kun-Ping; Chang, Chien-Chung; Chiu, Po-Wen

    2016-03-15

    Charge impurities and polar molecules on the surface of dielectric substrates has long been a critical obstacle to using graphene for its niche applications that involve graphene's high mobility and high sensitivity nature. Self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) have been found to effectively reduce the impact of long-range scatterings induced by the external charges. Yet, demonstrations of scalable device applications using the SAMs technique remains missing due to the difficulties in the device fabrication arising from the strong surface tension of the modified dielectric environment. Here, we use patterned SAM arrays to build graphene electronic devices with transport channels confined on the modified areas. For high-mobility applications, both rigid and flexible radio-frequency graphene field-effect transistors (G-FETs) were demonstrated, with extrinsic cutoff frequency and maximum oscillation frequency enhanced by a factor of ~2 on SiO2/Si substrates. For high sensitivity applications, G-FETs were functionalized by monoclonal antibodies specific to cancer biomarker chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan 4, enabling its detection at a concentration of 0.01 fM, five orders of magnitude lower than that detectable by a conventional colorimetric assay. These devices can be very useful in the early diagnosis and monitoring of a malignant disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. SU-F-BRF-13: Investigating the Feasibility of Accurate Dose Measurement in a Deforming Radiochromic Dosimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juang, T [Medical Physics Graduate Program, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Adamovics, J [Rider University, Skillman, NJ (United States); Oldham, M [Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Presage-Def, a deformable radiochromic 3D dosimeter, has been previously shown to have potential for validating deformable image registration algorithms. This work extends this effort to investigate the feasibility of using Presage-Def to validate dose-accumulation algorithms in deforming structures. Methods: Two cylindrical Presage-Def dosimeters (8cm diameter, 4.5cm length) were irradiated in a water-bath with a simple 4-field box treatment. Isocentric dose was 20Gy. One dosimeter served as control (no deformation) while the other was laterally compressed during irradiation by 21%. Both dosimeters were imaged before and after irradiation with a fast (∼10 minutes for 1mm isotropic resolution), broad beam, high resolution optical-CT scanner. Measured dose distributions were compared to corresponding distributions calculated by a commissioned Eclipse planning system. Accuracy in the control was evaluated with 3D gamma (3%/3mm). The dose distribution calculated for the compressed dosimeter in the irradiation geometry cannot be directly compared via profiles or 3D gamma to the measured distribution, which deforms with release from compression. Thus, accuracy under deformation was determined by comparing integral dose within the high dose region of the deformed dosimeter distribution versus calculated dose. Dose profiles were used to study temporal stability of measured dose distributions. Results: Good dose agreement was demonstrated in the control with a 3D gamma passing rate of 96.6%. For the dosimeter irradiated under compression, the measured integral dose in the high dose region (518.0Gy*cm3) was within 6% of the Eclipse-calculated integral dose (549.4Gy*cm3). Elevated signal was noted on the dosimeter edge in the direction of compression. Change in dosimeter signal over 1.5 hours was ≤2.7%, and the relative dose distribution remained stable over this period of time. Conclusion: Presage-Def is promising as a 3D dosimeter capable of accurately

  3. High mass resolution time of flight mass spectrometer for measuring products in heterogeneous catalysis in highly sensitive microreactors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thomas; Jensen, Robert; Christensen, M. K.

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate a combined microreactor and time of flight system for testing and characterization of heterogeneous catalysts with high resolution mass spectrometry and high sensitivity. Catalyst testing is performed in silicon-based microreactors which have high sensitivity and fast thermal...

  4. Highly sensitive measurement of submicron waveguides based on Brillouin scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godet, Adrien; Ndao, Abdoulaye; Sylvestre, Thibaut; Beugnot, Jean-Charles; Phan Huy, Kien

    2017-02-01

    Fabrication and characterization of submicron optical waveguides is one of the major challenges in modern photonics, as they find many applications from optical sensors to plasmonic devices. Here we report on a novel technique that allows for a complete and precise characterization of silica optical nanofibers. Our method relies on the Brillouin backscattering spectrum analysis that directly depends on the waveguide geometry. Our method was applied to several fiber tapers with diameter ranging from 500 nm to 3 μm. Results were compared to scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images and numerical simulations with very good agreement and similar sensitivity.

  5. Extremely high frequency sensitivity in a ‘simple’ ear

    OpenAIRE

    Moir, Hannah M.; Jackson, Joseph C.; Windmill, James F. C.

    2013-01-01

    An evolutionary war is being played out between the bat, which uses ultrasonic calls to locate insect prey, and the moth, which uses microscale ears to listen for the approaching bat. While the highest known frequency of bat echolocation calls is 212 kHz, the upper limit of moth hearing is considered much lower. Here, we show that the greater wax moth, Galleria mellonella, is capable of hearing ultrasonic frequencies approaching 300 kHz; the highest frequency sensitivity of any animal. With a...

  6. The Relationship between Ethical Sensitivity, High Ability and Gender in Higher Education Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schutte, Ingrid; Wolfensberger, Marca; Tirri, Kirsi

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the ethical sensitivity of high-ability undergraduate students (n=731) in the Netherlands who completed the 28-item Ethical Sensitivity Scale Questionnaire (ESSQ) developed by Tirri & Nokelainen (2007; 2011). The ESSQ is based on Narvaez' (2001) operationalization of ethical sensitivity in seven dimensions. The following…

  7. Analysis of Cyberbullying Sensitivity Levels of High School Students and Their Perceived Social Support Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akturk, Ahmet Oguz

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to determine the cyberbullying sensitivity levels of high school students and their perceived social supports levels, and analyze the variables that predict cyberbullying sensitivity. In addition, whether cyberbullying sensitivity levels and social support levels differed according to gender was also…

  8. Highly sensitive, self-powered and wearable electronic skin based on pressure-sensitive nanofiber woven fabric sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yuman; He, Jianxin; Wang, Hongbo; Qi, Kun; Nan, Nan; You, Xiaolu; Shao, Weili; Wang, Lidan; Ding, Bin; Cui, Shizhong

    2017-10-11

    The wearable electronic skin with high sensitivity and self-power has shown increasing prospects for applications such as human health monitoring, robotic skin, and intelligent electronic products. In this work, we introduced and demonstrated a design of highly sensitive, self-powered, and wearable electronic skin based on a pressure-sensitive nanofiber woven fabric sensor fabricated by weaving PVDF electrospun yarns of nanofibers coated with PEDOT. Particularly, the nanofiber woven fabric sensor with multi-leveled hierarchical structure, which significantly induced the change in contact area under ultra-low load, showed combined superiority of high sensitivity (18.376 kPa-1, at ~100 Pa), wide pressure range (0.002-10 kPa), fast response time (15 ms) and better durability (7500 cycles). More importantly, an open-circuit voltage signal of the PPNWF pressure sensor was obtained through applying periodic pressure of 10 kPa, and the output open-circuit voltage exhibited a distinct switching behavior to the applied pressure, indicating the wearable nanofiber woven fabric sensor could be self-powered under an applied pressure. Furthermore, we demonstrated the potential application of this wearable nanofiber woven fabric sensor in electronic skin for health monitoring, human motion detection, and muscle tremor detection.

  9. A new compact, high sensitivity neutron imaging system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caillaud, T.; Landoas, O.; Briat, M.; Rosse, B.; Thfoin, I.; Philippe, F.; Casner, A.; Bourgade, J. L.; Disdier, L. [CEA, DAM, DIF,F-91297 Arpajon (France); Glebov, V. Yu.; Marshall, F. J.; Sangster, T. C. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, 250 East River Road, Rochester, New York 14623-1299 (United States); Park, H. S.; Robey, H. F.; Amendt, P. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)

    2012-10-15

    We have developed a new small neutron imaging system (SNIS) diagnostic for the OMEGA laser facility. The SNIS uses a penumbral coded aperture and has been designed to record images from low yield (10{sup 9}-10{sup 10} neutrons) implosions such as those using deuterium as the fuel. This camera was tested at OMEGA in 2009 on a rugby hohlraum energetics experiment where it recorded an image at a yield of 1.4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 10}. The resolution of this image was 54 {mu}m and the camera was located only 4 meters from target chamber centre. We recently improved the instrument by adding a cooled CCD camera. The sensitivity of the new camera has been fully characterized using a linear accelerator and a {sup 60}Co {gamma}-ray source. The calibration showed that the signal-to-noise ratio could be improved by using raw binning detection.

  10. Highly sensitive urea sensing with ion-irradiated polymer foils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fink, Dietmar, E-mail: fink@daad-alumni.de [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, P.O. Box 55-534, 09340 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Nuclear Physics Institute, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, 250 68 Rez (Czech Republic); Munoz Hernandez, Gerardo [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, P.O. Box 55-534, 09340 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Division de Ciencias Naturales e Ingenieria, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Cuajimalpa, Pedro Antonio de los Santos 84, Col. Sn. Miguel Chapultepec, C.P. 11850, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Alfonta, Lital, E-mail: alfontal@bgu.ac.il [Avram and Stella Goldstein-Goren Department of Biotechnology Engineering, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, P.O. Box 653, Beer-Sheva 84105 (Israel)

    2012-02-15

    Recently we prepared urea-sensors by attaching urease to the inner walls of etched ion tracks within thin polymer foil. Here, alternative track-based sensor configurations are examined where the enzyme remained in solution. The conductivities of systems consisting of two parallel irradiated polymer foils and confining different urea/urease mixtures in between were examined. The correlations between conductivity and urea concentration differed strongly for foils with unetched and etched tracks, which points at different sensing mechanisms - tentatively attributed to the adsorption of enzymatic reaction products on the latent track entrances and to the enhanced conductivity of reaction product-filled etched tracks, respectively. All examined systems enable in principle, urea sensing. They point at the possibility of sensor cascade construction for more sensitive or selective sensor systems.

  11. Large scintillation cells for high sensitivity radon concentration measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, B. L.; El Ganayni, M.; Cohen, E. S.

    1983-07-01

    Methods for improving the sensitivity of scintillation cells for radon concentration measurements were studied with emphasis on improving light collection efficiency. This allows the length and hence the volume of the cell to be increased. Variables studied were choice of scintillator material, its method of application and thickness, length of cell, cell material, type and configuration of reflectors, choice of photomultipliers, and factors affecting background. Response from various areas of the cell surface was studied with an alpha source and with radon filling. Coating the window with phosphor was found to be counter-productive. The optimum results obtained were with the inside of the cell (other than the window) covered with a thick layer of ZnS(Ag), or with a thick layer of reflective material coated with a thin layer of phosphor. With it, a 10 cm diameter plexiglass cell can be extended to at least 50 cm length without difficulty from insufficient pulse height.

  12. Effects of composition interactions on the response of a turnbull blue radiochromic gel dosimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shieh, Jiunn-I.; Cheng, Kai-Yuan; Shyu, Huey-Lih; Yu, Yi-Chen; Hsieh, Ling-Ling

    2014-11-01

    In this study, the Taguchi statistical method was used to design experiments for investigating the effects of interactions among compositions on the performance of a Turnbull blue gel (TBG) radiochromic dosimeter. Four parameters were considered as the design factors: (A) concentration of ferric chloride, (B) concentration of potassium ferricyanide, (C) concentration of sulfuric acid, and (D) amount of gelling agent added. Two levels were selected for each factor. The change in optical absorbance at 695 nm under UVA exposures was monitored to determine the response of the dosimeters. The results showed that the contributions of factors A-D on the absorbance were 20.01%, 23.16%, 27.03%, and 0.49%, respectively. The contributions of significant interaction effects were AC (8.60%), BC (5.61%), and ABC (10.56%). This finding indicated that sulfuric acid (C) was the most influential factor, whereas gelling agent (D) was the least influential factor. Sulfuric acid had an important function in two two-way interactions and one three-way interaction in the response of TBG to UV exposure.

  13. Chemically tuned linear energy transfer dependent quenching in a deformable, radiochromic 3D dosimeter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Høye, Ellen Marie; Skyt, Peter S; Balling, Peter; Muren, Ludvig P; Taasti, Vicki T; Swakoń, Jan; Mierzwińska, Gabriela; Rydygier, Marzena; Bassler, Niels; Petersen, Jørgen B B

    2017-02-21

    Most solid-state detectors, including 3D dosimeters, show lower signal in the Bragg peak than expected, a process termed quenching. The purpose of this study was to investigate how variation in chemical composition of a recently developed radiochromic, silicone-based 3D dosimeter influences the observed quenching in proton beams. The dependency of dose response on linear energy transfer, as calculated through Monte Carlo simulations of the dosimeter, was investigated in 60 MeV proton beams. We found that the amount of quenching varied with the chemical composition: peak-to-plateau ratios (1 cm into the plateau) ranged from 2.2 to 3.4, compared to 4.3 using an ionization chamber. The dose response, and thereby the quenching, was predominantly influenced by the curing agent concentration, which determined the dosimeter's deformation properties. The dose response was found to be linear at all depths. All chemical compositions of the dosimeter showed dose-rate dependency; however this was not dependent on the linear energy transfer. Track-structure theory was used to explain the observed quenching effects. In conclusion, this study shows that the silicone-based dosimeter has potential for use in measuring 3D-dose-distributions from proton beams.

  14. SU-F-J-151: Evaluation of a Magnetic Resonance Image Gated Radiotherapy System Using a Motion Phantom and Radiochromic Film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamb, J; Ginn, J; O’Connell, D; Thomas, D; Agazaryan, N; Cao, M; Yang, Y; Low, D [UCLA, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Magnetic resonance image (MRI) guided radiotherapy enables gating directly on target position for soft-tissue targets in the lung and abdomen. We present a dosimetric evaluation of a commercially-available FDA-approved MRI-guided radiotherapy system’s gating performance using a MRI-compatible respiratory motion phantom and radiochromic film. Methods: The MRI-compatible phantom was capable of one-dimensional motion. The phantom consisted of a target rod containing high-contrast target inserts which moved inside a body structure containing background contrast material. The target rod was equipped with a radiochromic film insert. Treatment plans were generated for a 3 cm diameter spherical target, and delivered to the phantom at rest and in motion with and without gating. Both sinusoidal and actual tumor trajectories (two free-breathing trajectories and one repeated-breath hold) were used. Gamma comparison at 5%/3mm was used to measure fidelity to the static target dose distribution. Results: Without gating, gamma pass rates were 24–47% depending on motion trajectory. Using our clinical standard of repeated breath holds and a gating window of 3 mm with 10% of the target allowed outside the gating boundary, the gamma pass rate was 99.6%. Relaxing the gating window to 5 mm resulted in gamma pass rate of 98.6% with repeated breath holds. For all motion trajectories gated with 3 mm margin and 10% allowed out, gamma pass rates were between 64–100% (mean:87.5%). For a 5 mm margin and 10% allowed out, gamma pass rates were between 57–98% (mean: 82.49%), significantly lower than for 3 mm by paired t-test (p=0.01). Conclusion: We validated the performance of respiratory gating based on real-time cine MRI images with the only FDA-approved MRI-guided radiotherapy system. Our results suggest that repeated breath hold gating should be used when possible for best accuracy. A 3 mm gating margin is statistically significantly more accurate than a 5 mm gating margin.

  15. SU-F-T-570: Comparison of Synthetic Diamond, Microionization Chamber, and Radiochromic Film for Absolute Dosimetry of VMAT Radiosurgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popple, R; Wu, X; Kraus, J; Thomas, E; Brezovich, I [The University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Patient specific quality assurance of stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) plans is challenging because of small target sizes and high dose gradients. We compared three detectors for dosimetry of VMAT SRS plans. Methods: The dose at the center of seventeen targets was measured using a synthetic diamond detector (2.2 mm diameter, 1 µm thickness), a 0.007 cm{sup 3} ionization chamber, and radiochromic film. Measurements were made in a PMMA phantom in the clinical geometry – all gantry and table angles were delivered as planned. The diamond and chamber positions were offset by 1 cm from the film plane, so the isocenter was shifted accordingly to place the center of the target at the detector of interest. To ensure accurate detector placement, the phantom was positioned using kV images. To account for the shift-induced difference in geometry and differing prescription doses between plans, the measurements were normalized to the expected dose calculated by the treatment planning system. Results: The target sizes ranged from 2.8 mm to 34.8 mm (median 14.8 mm). The mean measurement-to-plan ratios were 1.054, 1.076, and 1.023 for RCF, diamond, and chamber, respectively. The mean difference between the chamber and film was −3.2% and between diamond and film was 2.2%. For targets larger than 15 mm, the mean difference relative to film was −0.8% and 0.1% for chamber and diamond, respectively, whereas for targets smaller than 15 mm, the difference was −5.3% and 4.2% for chamber and diamond, respectively. The difference was significant (p=0.005) using the two-sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. Conclusion: The detectors agree for target sizes larger than 15 mm. Relative to film, for smaller targets the diamond detector over-responds, whereas the ionization chamber under-responds. Further work is needed to characterize detector response in modulated SRS fields.

  16. Development and characterization of a three-dimensional radiochromic film stack dosimeter for megavoltage photon beam dosimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCaw, Travis J; Micka, John A; DeWerd, Larry A

    2014-05-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) dosimeters are particularly useful for verifying the commissioning of treatment planning and delivery systems, especially with the ever-increasing implementation of complex and conformal radiotherapy techniques such as volumetric modulated arc therapy. However, currently available 3D dosimeters require extensive experience to prepare and analyze, and are subject to large measurement uncertainties. This work aims to provide a more readily implementable 3D dosimeter with the development and characterization of a radiochromic film stack dosimeter for megavoltage photon beam dosimetry. A film stack dosimeter was developed using Gafchromic(®) EBT2 films. The dosimeter consists of 22 films separated by 1 mm-thick spacers. A Virtual Water™ phantom was created that maintains the radial film alignment within a maximum uncertainty of 0.3 mm. The film stack dosimeter was characterized using simulations and measurements of 6 MV fields. The absorbed-dose energy dependence and orientation dependence of the film stack dosimeter were investigated using Monte Carlo simulations. The water equivalence of the dosimeter was determined by comparing percentage-depth-dose (PDD) profiles measured with the film stack dosimeter and simulated using Monte Carlo methods. Film stack dosimeter measurements were verified with thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) microcube measurements. The film stack dosimeter was also used to verify the delivery of an intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) procedure. The absorbed-dose energy response of EBT2 film differs less than 1.5% between the calibration and film stack dosimeter geometries for a 6 MV spectrum. Over a series of beam angles ranging from normal incidence to parallel incidence, the overall variation in the response of the film stack dosimeter is within a range of 2.5%. Relative to the response to a normally incident beam, the film stack dosimeter exhibits a 1% under-response when the beam axis is parallel to the film

  17. Nitrogen detected TROSY at high field yields high resolution and sensitivity for protein NMR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Koh; Arthanari, Haribabu; Shimada, Ichio; Wagner, Gerhard

    2015-12-01

    Detection of (15)N in multidimensional NMR experiments of proteins has sparsely been utilized because of the low gyromagnetic ratio (γ) of nitrogen and the presumed low sensitivity of such experiments. Here we show that selecting the TROSY components of proton-attached (15)N nuclei (TROSY (15)NH) yields high quality spectra in high field magnets (>600 MHz) by taking advantage of the slow (15)N transverse relaxation and compensating for the inherently low (15)N sensitivity. The (15)N TROSY transverse relaxation rates increase modestly with molecular weight but the TROSY gain in peak heights depends strongly on the magnetic field strength. Theoretical simulations predict that the narrowest line width for the TROSY (15)NH component can be obtained at 900 MHz, but sensitivity reaches its maximum around 1.2 GHz. Based on these considerations, a (15)N-detected 2D (1)H-(15)N TROSY-HSQC ((15)N-detected TROSY-HSQC) experiment was developed and high-quality 2D spectra were recorded at 800 MHz in 2 h for 1 mM maltose-binding protein at 278 K (τc ~ 40 ns). Unlike for (1)H detected TROSY, deuteration is not mandatory to benefit (15)N detected TROSY due to reduced dipolar broadening, which facilitates studies of proteins that cannot be deuterated, especially in cases where production requires eukaryotic expression systems. The option of recording (15)N TROSY of proteins expressed in H2O media also alleviates the problem of incomplete amide proton back exchange, which often hampers the detection of amide groups in the core of large molecular weight proteins that are expressed in D2O culture media and cannot be refolded for amide back exchange. These results illustrate the potential of (15)NH-detected TROSY experiments as a means to exploit the high resolution offered by high field magnets near and above 1 GHz.

  18. High sensitivity of northeastern broadleaf forest trees to water availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levesque, M.; Pederson, N.; Andreu-Hayles, L.

    2015-12-01

    Temperate deciduous forests of eastern US provide goods and services to millions of people and play a vital role in the terrestrial carbon and hydrological cycles. However, ongoing climate change and increased in CO2 concentration in the atmosphere (ca) are expected to alter growth and gas exchange of trees, and ultimately forest productivity. Still, the magnitude of these effects is unclear. A better comprehension of the species-specific responses to environmental changes will better inform models and managers on the vulnerability and resiliency of these forests. Tree-ring analysis was combined with δ¹³C and δ18O measurements to investigate growth and physiological responses of red oak (Quercus rubra L.) and tulip poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera L.) in northeastern US to changes in water availability and ca for the period 1950-2014. We found very strong correlations between summer climatic water balance (June-August) and isotopic tree-ring series for δ¹³C (r = -0.65 and -0.73), and δ18O (r = -0.59 and -0.70), for red oak and tulip poplar, respectively. In contrast, tree-ring width was less sensitive to summer water availability (r = 0.33-0.39). Prior to the mid 1980s, low water availability resulted in low stomatal conductance, photosynthesis, and growth. Since that period, pluvial conditions occurring in northeastern US have increased stomatal conductance, carbon uptake, and growth of both species. These findings demonstrate that broadleaf trees in this region could be more sensitive to drought than expected. This appears especially true since much of the calibration period looks wet in a multi-centennial perspective. Further, stronger spatial correlations were found between climate data with tree-ring isotopes than with tree-ring width and the geographical area of the observed δ18O-precipitation response (i.e. the area over which correlations are > 0.5) covers most of the northeastern US. Given the good fit between the isotopic time series and water

  19. Storing quantum information in spins and high-sensitivity ESR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, John J L; Bertet, Patrice

    2018-02-01

    Quantum information, encoded within the states of quantum systems, represents a novel and rich form of information which has inspired new types of computers and communications systems. Many diverse electron spin systems have been studied with a view to storing quantum information, including molecular radicals, point defects and impurities in inorganic systems, and quantum dots in semiconductor devices. In these systems, spin coherence times can exceed seconds, single spins can be addressed through electrical and optical methods, and new spin systems with advantageous properties continue to be identified. Spin ensembles strongly coupled to microwave resonators can, in principle, be used to store the coherent states of single microwave photons, enabling so-called microwave quantum memories. We discuss key requirements in realising such memories, including considerations for superconducting resonators whose frequency can be tuned onto resonance with the spins. Finally, progress towards microwave quantum memories and other developments in the field of superconducting quantum devices are being used to push the limits of sensitivity of inductively-detected electron spin resonance. The state-of-the-art currently stands at around 65 spins per Hz, with prospects to scale down to even fewer spins. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Highly sensitive vacuum ion pump current measurement system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansknecht, John Christopher [Williamsburg, VA

    2006-02-21

    A vacuum system comprising: 1) an ion pump; 2) power supply; 3) a high voltage DC--DC converter drawing power from the power supply and powering the vacuum pump; 4) a feedback network comprising an ammeter circuit including an operational amplifier and a series of relay controlled scaling resistors of different resistance for detecting circuit feedback; 5) an optional power block section intermediate the power supply and the high voltage DC--DC converter; and 6) a microprocessor receiving feedback information from the feedback network, controlling which of the scaling resistors should be in the circuit and manipulating data from the feedback network to provide accurate vacuum measurement to an operator.

  1. High Sensitivity Indium Phosphide Based Avalanche Photodiode Focal Plane Arrays Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — nLight has demonstrated highly-uniform APD arrays based on the highly sensitive InGaAs/InP material system. These results provide great promise for achieving the...

  2. Thyroglobulin measurement using highly sensitive assays in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giovanella, Luca; Clark, Penelope M; Chiovato, Luca

    2014-01-01

    stimulation by endogenous or exogenous TSH is recommended by current clinical guidelines to detect occult disease with a maximum sensitivity due to the suboptimal sensitivity of older Tg assays. However, the development of new highly sensitive Tg assays with improved analytical sensitivity and precision...... at low concentrations now allows detection of very low Tg concentrations reflecting minimal amounts of thyroid tissue without the need for TSH stimulation. Use of these highly sensitive Tg assays has not yet been incorporated into clinical guidelines but they will, we believe, be used by physicians...... caring for patients with DTC. The aim of this clinical position paper is, therefore, to offer advice on the various aspects and implications of using these highly sensitive Tg assays in the clinical care of patients with DTC....

  3. Mass Spectrometry-based Assay for High Throughput and High Sensitivity Biomarker Verification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Xuejiang; Tang, Keqi

    2017-06-14

    Searching for disease specific biomarkers has become a major undertaking in the biomedical research field as the effective diagnosis, prognosis and treatment of many complex human diseases are largely determined by the availability and the quality of the biomarkers. A successful biomarker as an indicator to a specific biological or pathological process is usually selected from a large group of candidates by a strict verification and validation process. To be clinically useful, the validated biomarkers must be detectable and quantifiable by the selected testing techniques in their related tissues or body fluids. Due to its easy accessibility, protein biomarkers would ideally be identified in blood plasma or serum. However, most disease related protein biomarkers in blood exist at very low concentrations (<1ng/mL) and are “masked” by many none significant species at orders of magnitude higher concentrations. The extreme requirements of measurement sensitivity, dynamic range and specificity make the method development extremely challenging. The current clinical protein biomarker measurement primarily relies on antibody based immunoassays, such as ELISA. Although the technique is sensitive and highly specific, the development of high quality protein antibody is both expensive and time consuming. The limited capability of assay multiplexing also makes the measurement an extremely low throughput one rendering it impractical when hundreds to thousands potential biomarkers need to be quantitatively measured across multiple samples. Mass spectrometry (MS)-based assays have recently shown to be a viable alternative for high throughput and quantitative candidate protein biomarker verification. Among them, the triple quadrupole MS based assay is the most promising one. When it is coupled with liquid chromatography (LC) separation and electrospray ionization (ESI) source, a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer operating in a special selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mode

  4. PCF Based Sensor with High Sensitivity, High Birefringence and Low Confinement Losses for Liquid Analyte Sensing Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huseyin Ademgil

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we report a design of high sensitivity Photonic Crystal Fiber (PCF sensor with high birefringence and low confinement losses for liquid analyte sensing applications. The proposed PCF structures are designed with supplementary elliptical air holes in the core region vertically-shaped V-PCF and horizontally-shaped H-PCF. The full vectorial Finite Element Method (FEM simulations performed to examine the sensitivity, the confinement losses, the effective refractive index and the modal birefringence features of the proposed elliptical air hole PCF structures. We show that the proposed PCF structures exhibit high relative sensitivity, high birefringence and low confinement losses simultaneously for various analytes.

  5. High finesse hollow-core fiber resonating cavity for high sensitivity gas sensing application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Yanzhen; Jin, Wei; Yang, Fan; Ho, Hoi Lut

    2017-04-01

    We present all-fiber resonating Fabry-Perot gas cells made with a piece of hollow-core photonic bandgap fiber (HCPBF) sandwiched by two single mode fibers with mirrored ends. A HC-PBF cavity made of 6.75-cm-long HC-1550-06 fiber achieved a cavity finesse of 128, corresponding to an effective optical path length of 5.5 m. Such HC-PBF cavities can be used as absorption cells for high sensitivity gas detection with fast response. Preliminary experiment with a 9.4-cm-long resonating gas cell with a finesse of 68 demonstrated a detection limit better than 7.5 p.p.m. acetylene.

  6. Multidimensional NMR approaches towards highly resolved, sensitive and high-throughput quantitative metabolomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchand, Jérémy; Martineau, Estelle; Guitton, Yann; Dervilly-Pinel, Gaud; Giraudeau, Patrick

    2017-02-01

    Multi-dimensional NMR is an appealing approach for dealing with the challenging complexity of biological samples in metabolomics. This article describes how spectroscopists have recently challenged their imagination in order to make 2D NMR a powerful tool for quantitative metabolomics, based on innovative pulse sequences combined with meticulous analytical chemistry approaches. Clever time-saving strategies have also been explored to make 2D NMR a high-throughput tool for metabolomics, relying on alternative data acquisition schemes such as ultrafast NMR. Currently, much work is aimed at drastically boosting the NMR sensitivity thanks to hyperpolarisation techniques, which have been used in combination with fast acquisition methods and could greatly expand the application potential of NMR metabolomics. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Aptamer-Functionalized Fluorescent Silica Nanoparticles for Highly Sensitive Detection of Leukemia Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Juntao; Yang, Nuo; Hu, Zixi; Su, Jing; Zhong, Jianhong; Yang, Yang; Yu, Yating; Zhu, Jianmeng; Xue, Dabin; Huang, Yingying; Lai, Zongqiang; Huang, Yong; Lu, Xiaoling; Zhao, Yongxiang

    2016-06-01

    A simple, highly sensitive method to detect leukemia cells has been developed based on aptamer-modified fluorescent silica nanoparticles (FSNPs). In this strategy, the amine-labeled Sgc8 aptamer was conjugated to carboxyl-modified FSNPs via amide coupling between amino and carboxyl groups. Sensitivity and specificity of Sgc8-FSNPs were assessed using flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy. These results showed that Sgc8-FSNPs detected leukemia cells with high sensitivity and specificity. Aptamer-modified FSNPs hold promise for sensitive and specific detection of leukemia cells. Changing the aptamer may allow the FSNPs to detect other types of cancer cells.

  8. High Sensitivity Optomechanical Reference Accelerometer over 10 kHz

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-05

    Supplementary Note © 2014 . Published in Applied Physics Letters, Vol. Ed. 0 104, (22) (2014), ( (22). DoD Components reserve a royalty-free, nonexclusive and...lgn= Hz p ð1 gn ¼ 9:80665 m=s2Þ over several kHz. In experimental gravitational physics , remarkably high acceleration resolutions at levels of fgn...approximately 10 pm= Hz p .1,2 In geodesy and geophysics, superconducting gravimeters reach accelera- tion resolutions of the order of pgn= Hz p over

  9. Purification of ethanol for highly sensitive self-assembly experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathrin Barbe

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Ethanol is the preferred solvent for the formation of self-assembled monolayers (SAMs of thiolates on gold. By applying a thin film sensor system, we could demonstrate that even the best commercial qualities of ethanol contain surface-active contaminants, which can compete with the desired thiolates for surface sites. Here we present that gold nanoparticles deposited onto zeolite X can be used to remove these contaminants by chemisorption. This nanoparticle-impregnated zeolite does not only show high capacities for surface-active contaminants, such as thiols, but can be fully regenerated via a simple pyrolysis protocol.

  10. Highly sensitive determination of atropine using cobalt oxide nanostructures: Influence of functional groups on the signal sensitivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soomro, Razium Ali, E-mail: raziumsoomro@gmail.com [Interface Analysis Centre, School of Physics, University of Bristol, Bristol, BS8 1TL (United Kingdom); National Centre of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro, 76080 (Pakistan); Nafady, Ayman [Department of Chemistry, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia); Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Sohag University, Sohag (Egypt); Hallam, Keith Richard [Interface Analysis Centre, School of Physics, University of Bristol, Bristol, BS8 1TL (United Kingdom); Jawaid, Sana [National Centre of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro, 76080 (Pakistan); Al Enizi, Abdullah [Department of Chemistry, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia); Sherazi, Syed Tufail Hussain; Sirajuddin [National Centre of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro, 76080 (Pakistan); Ibupoto, Zafar Hussain [Dr M.A. Kazi Institute of Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro, 76080 (Pakistan); Willander, Magnus [Department of Science and Technology, Campus Norrkoping, Linkoping University, SE-60174, Norrkoping (Sweden)

    2016-12-15

    This study describes sensitive determination of atropine using glassy carbon electrodes (GCE) modified with Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanostructures. The as-synthesised nanostructures were grown using cysteine (CYS), glutathione (GSH) and histidine (HYS) as effective templates under hydrothermal action. The obtained morphologies revealed interesting structural features, including both cavity-based and flower-shaped structures. The as-synthesised morphologies were noted to actively participate in electro-catalysis of atropine (AT) drug where GSH-assisted structures exhibited the best signal response in terms of current density and over-potential value. The study also discusses the influence of functional groups on the signal sensitivity of atropine electro-oxidation. The functionalisation was carried with the amino acids originally used as effective templates for the growth of Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanostructures. The highest increment was obtained when GSH was used as the surface functionalising agent. The GSH-functionalised Co{sub 3}O{sub 4}-modified electrode was utilised for the electro-chemical sensing of AT in a concentration range of 0.01–0.46 μM. The developed sensor exhibited excellent working linearity (R{sup 2} = 0.999) and signal sensitivity up to 0.001 μM of AT. The noted high sensitivity of the sensor is associated with the synergy of superb surface architectures and favourable interaction facilitating the electron transfer kinetics for the electro-catalytic oxidation of AT. Significantly, the developed sensor demonstrated excellent working capability when used for AT detection in human urine samples with strong anti-interference potential against common co-existing species, such as glucose, fructose, cysteine, uric acid, dopamine and ascorbic acid. - Highlights: • Template-assisted growth of Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanostructures. • Shape-dependent electro-catalysis of atropine. • Effect of functionalisation of signal sensitivity.

  11. The highly sensitive brain: an fMRI study of sensory processing sensitivity and response to others' emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acevedo, Bianca P; Aron, Elaine N; Aron, Arthur; Sangster, Matthew-Donald; Collins, Nancy; Brown, Lucy L

    2014-07-01

    Theory and research suggest that sensory processing sensitivity (SPS), found in roughly 20% of humans and over 100 other species, is a trait associated with greater sensitivity and responsiveness to the environment and to social stimuli. Self-report studies have shown that high-SPS individuals are strongly affected by others' moods, but no previous study has examined neural systems engaged in response to others' emotions. This study examined the neural correlates of SPS (measured by the standard short-form Highly Sensitive Person [HSP] scale) among 18 participants (10 females) while viewing photos of their romantic partners and of strangers displaying positive, negative, or neutral facial expressions. One year apart, 13 of the 18 participants were scanned twice. Across all conditions, HSP scores were associated with increased brain activation of regions involved in attention and action planning (in the cingulate and premotor area [PMA]). For happy and sad photo conditions, SPS was associated with activation of brain regions involved in awareness, integration of sensory information, empathy, and action planning (e.g., cingulate, insula, inferior frontal gyrus [IFG], middle temporal gyrus [MTG], and PMA). As predicted, for partner images and for happy facial photos, HSP scores were associated with stronger activation of brain regions involved in awareness, empathy, and self-other processing. These results provide evidence that awareness and responsiveness are fundamental features of SPS, and show how the brain may mediate these traits.

  12. High Quality Rapeseed Products as Feed for Sensitive Monogastrics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Heidi Blok

    . Glucosinolates can be transformed enzymatic by the enzyme myrosinase (EC. 3.2.1.147), or non-enzymatic by heat treatment or under the acidic and reducing conditions in the stomach of monogastrics. The type of transformation product depends on the parent glucosinolate and of the chemical conditions, and in some...... for cheaper protein rapeseed meal has been considered as an alternative to soya-protein. Rapeseed (Brassica napus L. spp. oleifera) has a well-balanced amino acid profile for monogastrics, but it contains several compounds which are anti-nutritional and might lower the protein quality and limit the amount...... cake was included, while losses up to 88% were observed when cold-pressed rapeseed caked was used. N-balance trials with rats clearly demonstrated effects on the biologic value caused by high glucosinolate concentrations, active myrosinase and long temperature treatments. The second study (manuscript...

  13. Color Sensitivity Multiple Exposure Fusion using High Dynamic Range Image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varsha Borole

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a high dynamic range imaging (HDRI method using a capturing camera image using normally exposure, over exposure and under exposure. We make three different images from a multiple input image using local histogram stretching. Because the proposed method generated three histogram-stretched images from a multiple input image, ghost artifacts that are the result of the relative motion between the camera and objects during exposure time, are inherently removed. Therefore, the proposed method can be applied to a consumer compact camera to provide the ghost artifacts free HDRI. Experiments with several sets of test images with different exposures show that the proposed method gives a better performance than existing methods in terms of visual results and computation time.

  14. Photonic crystal nanofiber air-mode cavity with high Q-factor and high sensitivity for refractive index sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiaoxue; Chen, Xin; Nie, Hongrui; Yang, Daquan

    2018-01-01

    Recently, due to its superior characteristics and simple manufacture, such as small size, low loss, high sensitivity and convenience to couple, the optical fiber sensor has become one of the most promising sensors. In order to achieve the most effective realization of light propagation by changing the structure of sensors, FOM(S •Q/λres) ,which is determined by two significant variables Q-factor and sensitivity, as a trade-off parameter should be optimized to a high value. In typical sensors, a high Q can be achieved by confining the optical field in the high refractive index dielectric region to make an interaction between analytes and evanescent field of the resonant mode. However, the ignored sensitivity is relatively low with a high Q achieved, which means that the resonant wavelength shift changes non-obviously when the refractive index increases. Meanwhile, the sensitivity also leads to a less desirable FOM. Therefore, a gradient structure, which can enhance the performance of sensors by achieving high Q and high sensitivity, has been developed by Kim et al. later. Here, by introducing parabolic-tapered structure, the light field localized overlaps strongly and sufficiently with analytes. And based on a one-dimensional photonic-crystal nanofiber air-mode cavity, a creative optical fiber sensor is proposed by combining good stability and transmission characteristics of fiber and strengths of tapered structure, realizing excellent FOM {4.7 x 105 with high Q-factors (Q{106) and high sensitivities (<700 nm/RIU).

  15. High sensitivity microchannel plate detectors for space extreme ultraviolet missions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshioka, K; Homma, T; Murakami, G; Yoshikawa, I

    2012-08-01

    Microchannel plate (MCP) detectors have been widely used as two-dimensional photon counting devices on numerous space EUV (extreme ultraviolet) missions. Although there are other choices for EUV photon detectors, the characteristic features of MCP detectors such as their light weight, low dark current, and high spatial resolution make them more desirable for space applications than any other detector. In addition, it is known that the photocathode can be tailored to increase the quantum detection efficiency (QDE) especially for longer UV wavelengths (100-150 nm). There are many types of photocathode materials available, typically alkali halides. In this study, we report on the EUV (50-150 nm) QDE evaluations for MCPs that were coated with Au, MgF(2), CsI, and KBr. We confirmed that CsI and KBr show 2-100 times higher QDEs than the bare photocathode MCPs, while Au and MgF(2) show reduced QDEs. In addition, the optimal geometrical parameters for the CsI deposition were also studied experimentally. The best CsI thickness was found to be 150 nm, and it should be deposited on the inner wall of the channels only where the EUV photons initially impinge. We will also discuss the techniques and procedures for reducing the degradation of the photocathode while it is being prepared on the ground before being deployed in space, as adopted by JAXA's EXCEED mission which will be launched in 2013.

  16. Nanowire-templated microelectrodes for high-sensitivity pH detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antohe, V.A.; Radu, Adrian; Mátéfi-Tempfli, Mária

    2009-01-01

    A highly sensitive pH capacitive sensor has been designed by confined growth of vertically aligned nanowire arrays on interdigited microelectrodes. The active surface of the device has been functionalized with an electrochemical pH transducer (polyaniline). We easily tune the device features...... by combining lithographic techniques with electrochemical synthesis. The reported electrical LC resonance measurements show considerable sensitivity enhancement compared to conventional capacitive pH sensors realized with microfabricated interdigited electrodes. The sensitivity can be easily improved...

  17. Hypoxia-sensitive reporter system for high-throughput screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujita, Tadayuki; Kawaguchi, Shin-ichi; Dan, Takashi; Baird, Liam; Miyata, Toshio; Yamamoto, Masayuki

    2015-02-01

    The induction of anti-hypoxic stress enzymes and proteins has the potential to be a potent therapeutic strategy to prevent the progression of ischemic heart, kidney or brain diseases. To realize this idea, small chemical compounds, which mimic hypoxic conditions by activating the PHD-HIF-α system, have been developed. However, to date, none of these compounds were identified by monitoring the transcriptional activation of hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs). Thus, to facilitate the discovery of potent inducers of HIF-α, we have developed an effective high-throughput screening (HTS) system to directly monitor the output of HIF-α transcription. We generated a HIF-α-dependent reporter system that responds to hypoxic stimuli in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. This system was developed through multiple optimization steps, resulting in the generation of a construct that consists of the secretion-type luciferase gene (Metridia luciferase, MLuc) under the transcriptional regulation of an enhancer containing 7 copies of 40-bp hypoxia responsive element (HRE) upstream of a mini-TATA promoter. This construct was stably integrated into the human neuroblastoma cell line, SK-N-BE(2)c, to generate a reporter system, named SKN:HRE-MLuc. To improve this system and to increase its suitability for the HTS platform, we incorporated the next generation luciferase, Nano luciferase (NLuc), whose longer half-life provides us with flexibility for the use of this reporter. We thus generated a stably transformed clone with NLuc, named SKN:HRE-NLuc, and found that it showed significantly improved reporter activity compared to SKN:HRE-MLuc. In this study, we have successfully developed the SKN:HRE-NLuc screening system as an efficient platform for future HTS.

  18. Sensory Processing Sensitivity: Factors of the Highly Sensitive Person Scale and Their relationships to Personality and Subjective Health Complaints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Listou Grimen, Hanne; Diseth, Åge

    2016-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the factor structure of a Norwegian version of the Highly Sensitive Person Scale (HSPS) and to investigate how sensory processing sensitivity (SPS) is related to personality traits of neuroticism, extraversion, and openness and to subjective health complaints (SHC) in a sample of 167 undergraduate psychology students. The results showed that the variance in a shortened version of the HSPS was best described by three separate factors: ease of excitation (EOE), aesthetic sensitivity (AES), and low sensory threshold (LST). Furthermore, the result showed than an overall SPS factor (EOE, LST, and AES combined) was predicted positively by neuroticism and openness and negatively by extraversion. With respect to SHC, the results showed that EOE and LST were positively associated with psychological health complaints. However, the personality trait of neuroticism contributed more than the SPS factors as predictor of SHC. In conclusion, the present study supported a shortened version of the HSPS and its relation to personality factors and SHC. © The Author(s) 2016.

  19. Unraveling the high- and low-sensitivity agonist responses of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harpsøe, Kasper; Ahring, Philip K; Christensen, Jeppe K

    2011-01-01

    for the observation of two distinct agonist sensitivities. Using different expression ratios of mammalian a4 and ß2 subunits and concatenated constructs, we demonstrate that a biphasic response is an intrinsic functional property of the (a4)(3)(ß2)(2) receptor. In addition to two high-sensitivity sites at a4ß2...

  20. Development of the "Highly Sensitive Dog" questionnaire to evaluate the personality dimension "Sensory Processing Sensitivity" in dogs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maya Braem

    Full Text Available In humans, the personality dimension 'sensory processing sensitivity (SPS', also referred to as "high sensitivity", involves deeper processing of sensory information, which can be associated with physiological and behavioral overarousal. However, it has not been studied up to now whether this dimension also exists in other species. SPS can influence how people perceive the environment and how this affects them, thus a similar dimension in animals would be highly relevant with respect to animal welfare. We therefore explored whether SPS translates to dogs, one of the primary model species in personality research. A 32-item questionnaire to assess the "highly sensitive dog score" (HSD-s was developed based on the "highly sensitive person" (HSP questionnaire. A large-scale, international online survey was conducted, including the HSD questionnaire, as well as questions on fearfulness, neuroticism, "demographic" (e.g. dog sex, age, weight; age at adoption, etc. and "human" factors (e.g. owner age, sex, profession, communication style, etc., and the HSP questionnaire. Data were analyzed using linear mixed effect models with forward stepwise selection to test prediction of HSD-s by the above-mentioned factors, with country of residence and dog breed treated as random effects. A total of 3647 questionnaires were fully completed. HSD-, fearfulness, neuroticism and HSP-scores showed good internal consistencies, and HSD-s only moderately correlated with fearfulness and neuroticism scores, paralleling previous findings in humans. Intra- (N = 447 and inter-rater (N = 120 reliabilities were good. Demographic and human factors, including HSP score, explained only a small amount of the variance of HSD-s. A PCA analysis identified three subtraits of SPS, comparable to human findings. Overall, the measured personality dimension in dogs showed good internal consistency, partial independence from fearfulness and neuroticism, and good intra- and inter

  1. Development of the "Highly Sensitive Dog" questionnaire to evaluate the personality dimension "Sensory Processing Sensitivity" in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braem, Maya; Asher, Lucy; Furrer, Sibylle; Lechner, Isabel; Würbel, Hanno; Melotti, Luca

    2017-01-01

    In humans, the personality dimension 'sensory processing sensitivity (SPS)', also referred to as "high sensitivity", involves deeper processing of sensory information, which can be associated with physiological and behavioral overarousal. However, it has not been studied up to now whether this dimension also exists in other species. SPS can influence how people perceive the environment and how this affects them, thus a similar dimension in animals would be highly relevant with respect to animal welfare. We therefore explored whether SPS translates to dogs, one of the primary model species in personality research. A 32-item questionnaire to assess the "highly sensitive dog score" (HSD-s) was developed based on the "highly sensitive person" (HSP) questionnaire. A large-scale, international online survey was conducted, including the HSD questionnaire, as well as questions on fearfulness, neuroticism, "demographic" (e.g. dog sex, age, weight; age at adoption, etc.) and "human" factors (e.g. owner age, sex, profession, communication style, etc.), and the HSP questionnaire. Data were analyzed using linear mixed effect models with forward stepwise selection to test prediction of HSD-s by the above-mentioned factors, with country of residence and dog breed treated as random effects. A total of 3647 questionnaires were fully completed. HSD-, fearfulness, neuroticism and HSP-scores showed good internal consistencies, and HSD-s only moderately correlated with fearfulness and neuroticism scores, paralleling previous findings in humans. Intra- (N = 447) and inter-rater (N = 120) reliabilities were good. Demographic and human factors, including HSP score, explained only a small amount of the variance of HSD-s. A PCA analysis identified three subtraits of SPS, comparable to human findings. Overall, the measured personality dimension in dogs showed good internal consistency, partial independence from fearfulness and neuroticism, and good intra- and inter-rater reliability

  2. A new implementation of multichannel radiochromic film dosimetry; Una nueva implementacion del analisis multicanal para la dosimetria mediante peliculas radiocromicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez Rodriguez, C.; Martin Martin, G.; Bermudez Luna, R.; Lopez Fernandez, A.; Tores Olombrada, M. V. de

    2014-07-01

    The aims of this paper are to carry out a new implementation of the multichannel radiochromic film dosimetry (Micke A, Lewis D, Yu X. Multichannel film dosimetry with nonuniformity correction. Med Phys 2011;38:2523-34), to quantify the variation in gamma index as compared to the single channel film dosimetry, and to determine if the procedure achieves similar results by means of a different scanner that the one used by Micke et al. Radiochromic EBT2 films and a Microtek 9000 XL scanner were used. Our procedure simplifies the system calibration splitting it into two factors, manufactured batch and digitalization specific. Absorbed dose spatial distributions from an open radiotherapy beam without any modulation and 20 IMRT treatments were determined. Their gamma index maps were calculated and a comparison of the results from single channel and multichannel dosimetry was performed. A 5% mean increase in concordance was obtained by using the multichannel film dosimetry. Our results are similar to those reported by Micke et al. even though we are using a different scanner. (Author)

  3. Interoceptive threat leads to defensive mobilization in highly anxiety sensitive persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melzig, Christiane A; Holtz, Katharina; Michalowski, Jaroslaw M; Hamm, Alfons O

    2011-06-01

    To study defensive mobilization elicited by the exposure to interoceptive arousal sensations, we exposed highly anxiety sensitive students to a symptom provocation task. Symptom reports, autonomic arousal, and the startle eyeblink response were monitored during guided hyperventilation and a recovery period in 26 highly anxiety sensitive persons and 22 controls. Normoventilation was used as a non-provocative comparison condition. Hyperventilation led to autonomic arousal and a marked increase in somatic symptoms. While high and low anxiety sensitive persons did not differ in their defensive activation during hyperventilation, group differences were detected during early recovery. Highly anxiety sensitive students exhibited a potentiation of startle response magnitudes and increased autonomic arousal after hyper- as compared to after normoventilation, indicating defensive mobilization evoked by the prolonged presence of feared somatic sensations. Copyright © 2010 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  4. Postsynthetic lanthanide functionalization of nanosized metal-organic frameworks for highly sensitive ratiometric luminescent thermometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, You; Yan, Bing; Lei, Fang

    2014-12-14

    A straightforward postsynthetic lanthanide functionalization strategy is developed for fabricating highly sensitive ratiometric luminescent nanothermometers based on nanosized MOFs, which highlights the ability of a broad range of nanosized MOFs to construct nanothermometers.

  5. Sensitivity and accuracy of high-throughput metabarcoding methods for early detection of invasive fish species

    Science.gov (United States)

    For early detection biomonitoring of aquatic invasive species, sensitivity to rare individuals and accurate, high-resolution taxonomic classification are critical to minimize detection errors. Given the great expense and effort associated with morphological identification of many...

  6. Temperature insensitive hysteresis free highly sensitive polymer optical fiber Bragg grating humidity sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woyessa, Getinet; Nielsen, Kristian; Stefani, Alessio; Markos, Christos; Bang, Ole

    2016-01-25

    The effect of humidity on annealing of poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) based microstructured polymer optical fiber Bragg gratings (mPOFBGs) and the resulting humidity responsivity are investigated. Typically annealing of PMMA POFs is done in an oven without humidity control around 80°C and therefore at low humidity. We demonstrate that annealing at high humidity and high temperature improves the performances of mPOFBGs in terms of stability and sensitivity to humidity. PMMA POFBGs that are not annealed or annealed at low humidity level will have a low and highly temperature dependent sensitivity and a high hysteresis in the humidity response, in particular when operated at high temperature. PMMA mPOFBGs annealed at high humidity show higher and more linear humidity sensitivity with negligible hysteresis. We also report how annealing at high humidity can blue-shift the FBG wavelength more than 230 nm without loss in the grating strength.

  7. Temperature insensitive hysteresis free highly sensitive polymer optical fiber Bragg grating humidity sensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Woyessa, Getinet; Nielsen, Kristian; Stefani, Alessio

    2016-01-01

    The effect of humidity on annealing of poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) based microstructured polymer optical fiber Bragg gratings (mPOFBGs) and the resulting humidity responsivity are investigated. Typically annealing of PMMA POFs is done in an oven without humidity control around 80°C...... and therefore at low humidity. We demonstrate that annealing at high humidity and high temperature improves the performances of mPOFBGs in terms of stability and sensitivity to humidity. PMMA POFBGs that are not annealed or annealed at low humidity level will have a low and highly temperature dependent...... sensitivity and a high hysteresis in the humidity response, in particular when operated at high temperature. PMMA mPOFBGs annealed at high humidity show higher and more linear humidity sensitivity with negligible hysteresis. We also report how annealing at high humidity can blue-shift the FBG wavelength more...

  8. High-Q Fabry–Pérot Micro-Cavities for High-Sensitivity Volume Refractometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noha Gaber

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This work reports a novel structure for a Fabry–Pérot micro cavity that combines the highest reported quality factor for an on-chip Fabry–Pérot resonator that exceeds 9800, and a very high sensitivity for an on-chip volume refractometer based on a Fabry–Pérot cavity that is about 1000 nm/refractive index unit (RIU. The structure consists of two cylindrical Bragg micromirrors that achieve confinement of the Gaussian beam in the plan parallel to the chip substrate, while for the perpendicular plan, external fiber rod lenses (FRLs are placed in the optical path of the input and the output of the cavity. This novel structure overcomes number of the drawbacks presented in previous designs. The analyte is passed between the mirrors, enabling its detection from the resonance peak wavelengths of the transmission spectra. Mixtures of ethanol and deionized (DI-water with different ratios are used as analytes with different refractive indices to exploit the device as a micro-opto-fluidic refractometer. The design criteria are detailed and the modeling is based on Gaussian-optics equations, which depicts a scenario closer to reality than the usually used ray-optics modeling.

  9. Slow light engineering for high Q high sensitivity photonic crystal microcavity biosensors in silicon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakravarty, Swapnajit; Zou, Yi; Lai, Wei-Cheng; Chen, Ray T

    2012-01-01

    Current trends in photonic crystal microcavity biosensors in silicon-on-insulator (SOI), that focus on small and smaller sensors have faced a bottleneck trying to balance two contradictory requirements of resonance quality factor and sensitivity. By simultaneous control of the radiation loss and optical mode volumes, we show that both requirements can be satisfied simultaneously. Microcavity sensors are designed in which resonances show highest Q ≈ 9300 in the bio-ambient phosphate buffered saline (PBS) as well as highest sensitivity among photonic crystal biosensors. We experimentally demonstrated mass sensitivity 8.8 atto-grams with sensitivity per unit area of 0.8 pg/mm(2). Highest sensitivity, irrespective of the dissociation constant K(d), is demonstrated among all existing label-free optical biosensors in silicon at the concentration of 0.1 μg/ml. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. A highly sensitive method for the detection of Chrysanthemum virus B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiyong Guan

    2017-03-01

    Conclusion: A highly specific and sensitive nested PCR-based assay has been described for detecting CVB. This new method is highly specific and sensitive for the detection of CVB, which is known to infect chrysanthemum plants in the fields. Further, this protocol has an advantage over traditional methods as it is more cost-effective. This assay is ideal for an early stage diagnosis of the disease.

  11. Desensitization protocol for highly sensitized renal transplant patients: A single-center experience

    OpenAIRE

    Kute, Vivek B.; Vanikar, Aruna V.; Trivedi, Hargovind L; Shah, Pankaj R; Kamal R Goplani; Patel, Himanshu V.; Gumber, Manoj R.; Patel, Rashmi D; Kamal V Kanodia; Kamlesh S Suthar; Trivedi, Varsha B; Pranjal R Modi

    2011-01-01

    Highly sensitized patients are destined to remain untransplanted for long. Early transplantation results in cost-saving, reduced morbidity/mortality and improved quality of life. We carried out a prospective study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of desensitization protocol vis-à-vis patient/graft survival in living donor renal transplantation in highly sensitized patients. Between December 2008 and April 2010, 34 renal transplant (RTx) patients underwent desensitization protocol. An anti-...

  12. A buried intrusion monitoring system based on high sensitivity optical fiber geophone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shujuan; Zhang, Faxiang; Zhang, Xiaolei; Sun, Zhihui; Min, Li; Wang, Chang

    2017-10-01

    A new intrusion monitoring system is designed, based on a high sensitivity fiber grating geophone and PGC interferometric demodulation. A kind of high sensitive fiber Bragg grating geophone is designed. The sensitivity of the geophone is analyzed by finite element software. The PGC interferometric demodulation algorithm is used to detect the wavelength of the geophone, to reduce the noise of the system and improve the signal-to-noise ratio. Invasive monitoring test was carried out, the personnel and vehicles invading signal were collected and analyzed. Test results show that the intrusion monitoring system based on fiber geophone can effectively identify remote intrusion, and has low false alarm rate.

  13. Highly sensitive fiber optic Fabry-Perot geophone with graphene coated PMMA membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, C. B.; Wu, Y.; Wu, F.; Li, C.; Zhou, J. H.; Rao, Y. J.; Chen, Y. F.

    2017-04-01

    A highly sensitive fiber-optic Fabry-Perot interferometric geophone (FFPG) with graphene coated PMMA membrane is proposed and demonstrated, where the graphene coating is used for enhancement of the mechanical strength of the membrane. It is found that the sensitivity of the FFPG is much higher than that of the conventional electrical geophone. Such a novel all-optical geophone with low cost, high sensitivity, electromagnetic interference immunity, easy fabrication and robust structure would have great potential for use in oil/gas exploration and seismic wave detection.

  14. Ultra-long high-sensitivity Φ-OTDR for high spatial resolution intrusion detection of pipelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Fei; Wu, Han; Jia, Xin-Hong; Rao, Yun-Jiang; Wang, Zi-Nan; Peng, Zheng-Pu

    2014-06-02

    An ultra-long phase-sensitive optical time domain reflectometry (Φ-OTDR) that can achieve high-sensitivity intrusion detection over 131.5km fiber with high spatial resolution of 8m is presented, which is the longest Φ-OTDR reported to date, to the best of our knowledge. It is found that the combination of distributed Raman amplification with heterodyne detection can extend the sensing distance and enhances the sensitivity substantially, leading to the realization of ultra-long Φ-OTDR with high sensitivity and spatial resolution. Furthermore, the feasibility of applying such an ultra-long Φ-OTDR to pipeline security monitoring is demonstrated and the features of intrusion signal can be extracted with improved SNR by using the wavelet detrending/denoising method proposed.

  15. Validation of the entire 2D array Octavius by radiochromic films; Validacion del conjunto Octavius 2D array mediante peliculas radiocromicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iriondo Igerabide, U.; Former Forner, A.; Otal Palacin, A.; Martin Albina, M. L.; Lozares Cordero, S.; Maneru Camara, F.; Pellejero Pellejero, S.; Miquelez Alonso, S.; Soto Prados, P. M.; Rubio Arroniz, A.

    2011-07-01

    We have validated the 2D-array Octavius set for verification of IMRT plans complete, radiating with the same angles of incidence in the patient's actual plan. This has been taken as reference measurements with radiochromic films, since they are almost isotropic response, higher resolution and we already have experience with them.

  16. Comparison of calibration curve of radiochromic films EBT2 and EBT; Comparacion de la curva de calibracion de las peliculas radiocromica EBT2 y EBT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parra Osorio, V.; Martin-Viera Cueto, J. A.; Galan Montenegro, P.; Benitez Villegas, E. M.; Casado Villalon, F. F.; Bodineau Gil, C.

    2013-07-01

    The aim is to compare the quality of the fit to calibrate two radiochromic films batches, one model and another of EBT3 EBT2, using both experimental settings as phenomenological expression as of the calibration curve depends on the precision and accuracy of the estimate of absorbed dose. (Author)

  17. High strain rate sensitivity of hardness in quinary Ti-Zr-Hf-Cu-Ni high entropy metallic glass thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shaofan; Wang, Haibin; Xiao, Lin; Guo, Nan; Zhao, Delin; Yao, Kefu; Chen, Na

    2017-10-01

    Quinary Ti-Zr-Hf-Cu-Ni high-entropy metallic glass thin films were produced by magnetron sputter deposition. Nanoindentation tests indicate that the deposited film exhibits a relatively large hardness of 10.4±0.6 GPa and a high elastic modulus of 131±11 GPa under the strain rate of 0.5 s-1. Specifically, the strain rate sensitivity of hardness measured for the thin film is 0.05, the highest value reported for metallic glasses so far. Such high strain rate sensitivity of hardness is likely due to the high-entropy effect which stabilizes the amorphous structure with enhanced homogeneity.

  18. Correlation between high-sensitive collimator and quantitative analysis in lung ventilation SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jung Soo [Dept. of Radiological Technology, Dongnam Health University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sang Hyun [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    This study investigated the correlation between the characteristics of collimator in accordance with the efficiency of detecting photon signals and the quantitative analysis of the lung function, thereby assessing the possibility of clinically applying high sensitivity lung ventilation SPECT. From March to May, 2014, 10 subjects in normal volunteers underwent an ultra high resolution, high resolution a nd high sensitivity collimator planar scan and SPECT. The experiment showed t hat compared with the collimator scan, the quantitative analysis results were significant (p=0.89), and compared to the high resolution collimator SPECT, the time was reduced by 4.9 fold. Therefore, the lung ventilation SPECT that had not been used due to an undermined effectiveness can offer usefulness when clinically applied if a high sensitivity collimator is used since the quality and quantity of information and the duration of scan time all offer an improvement.

  19. High-sensitivity Troponin T Assay in Asymptomatic High Cardiovascular Risk Patients. The TUSARC Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez, Isabel; Hernández, Luis; García, Héctor; Villamandos, Vicente; López, María Gracia; Palazuelos Molinero, Jorge; Martín Raymondi, Diego

    2017-04-01

    High-sensitivity troponin T assays (Hs-TnT) have been carried out in selected populations in clinical trials and in registries of the general population with low cardiovascular risk (CVR). The aim of this study was to determine the proportion of individuals with detectable Hs-TnT and the proportion of individuals with elevated Hs-TnT in a Spanish population of asymptomatic individuals with very high CVR, as well as the parameters associated with Hs-TnT elevation. The study included 690 patients. Hs-TnT detection and Hs-TnT elevation (≥99th percentile value), as well the association of elevated Hs-TnT and clinical, analytical, and treatment data were analyzed. Hs-TnT was analyzed in 646 patients and was detected in 645. Elevated TnT was detected in 212 patients (32.9%). On multivariate analysis, elevated TnT was independently associated with male sex (OR, 2.81; 95%CI, 1.67-4.73; P < .001), older age (OR, 1.06; 95%CI, 1.04-1.09; P < .001), a higher body mass index (OR, 1.07; 95%CI, 1.02-1.12; P < .002), insulin therapy (OR, 1.99; 95%CI, 1.15-3.46; P = .01), history of heart failure (OR, 3.92; 95%CI, 1.24-12.39; P = .02), and estimated glomerular filtration rate calculated by CKD-EPI (OR, 0.96; 95%CI, 0.95-0.97; P < .001). In a Spanish population of asymptomatic individuals at very high CVR, Hs-TnT was associated with older age, male sex, higher body mass index, insulin therapy, history of heart failure, and lower glomerular filtration rate. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. Sensitivity of the High Altitude Water Cherenkov Experiment to observe Gamma-Ray Bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, M. M.

    Ground based telescopes have marginally observed very high energy emission (>100GeV) from gamma-ray bursts(GRB). For instance, Milagrito observed GRB970417a with a significance of 3.7 sigmas over the background. Milagro have not yet observed TeV emission from a GRB with its triggered and untriggered searches or GeV emission with a triggered search using its scalers. These results suggest the need of new observatories with higher sensitivity to transient sources. The HAWC (High Altitute Water Cherenkov) observatory is proposed as a combination of the Milagro tecnology with a very high altitude (>4000m over see level) site. The expected HAWC sensitivity for GRBs is at least >10 times the Milagro sensitivity. In this work HAWC sensitivity for GRBs is discussed for different detector configurations such as altitude, distance between PMTs, depth under water of PMTs, number of PMTs required for a trigger, etc.

  1. Highly Sensitive Local Surface Plasmon Resonance in Anisotropic Au Nanoparticles Deposited on Nanofibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masanari Saigusa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the facile and high-throughput fabrication method of anisotropic Au nanoparticles with a highly sensitive local surface plasmon resonance (LPR using cylindrical nanofibers as substrates. The substrates consisting of nanofibers were prepared by the electrospinning of poly(vinylidene fluoride (PVDF. The Au nanoparticles were deposited on the surface of electrospun nanofibers by vacuum evaporation. Scanning electron microscopy revealed the formation of a curved Au island structure on the surface of cylindrical nanofibers. Polarized UV-visible extinction spectroscopy showed anisotropy in their LPR arising from the high surface curvature of the nanofiber. The LPR of the Au nanoparticles on the thinnest nanofiber with a diameter of ~100 nm showed maximum refractive index (RI sensitivity over 500 nm/RI unit (RIU. The close correlation between the fiber diameter dependence of the RI sensitivity and polarization dependence of the LPR suggests that anisotropic Au nanoparticles improve RI sensitivity.

  2. Two-channel highly sensitive sensors based on 4 × 4 multimode interference couplers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Trung-Thanh

    2017-12-01

    We propose a new kind of microring resonators (MRR) based on 4 × 4 multimode interference (MMI) couplers for multichannel and highly sensitive chemical and biological sensors. The proposed sensor structure has advantages of compactness and high sensitivity compared with the reported sensing structures. By using the transfer matrix method (TMM) and numerical simulations, the designs of the sensor based on silicon waveguides are optimized and demonstrated in detail. We apply our structure to detect glucose and ethanol concentrations simultaneously. A high sensitivity of 9000 nm/RIU, detection limit of 2 × 10‒4 for glucose sensing and sensitivity of 6000 nm/RIU, detection limit of 1.3 × 10‒5 for ethanol sensing are achieved.

  3. Efficient and stable solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells based on a high-molar-extinction-coefficient sensitizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mingkui; Moon, Soo-Jin; Xu, Mingfei; Chittibabu, Kethineni; Wang, Peng; Cevey-Ha, Ngoc-Le; Humphry-Baker, Robin; Zakeeruddin, Shaik M; Grätzel, Michael

    2010-01-01

    The high-molar-extinction-coefficient heteroleptic ruthenium dye, cis-Ru (4,4'-bis(5-octylthieno[3,2-b] thiophen-2-yl)-2,2'-bipyridine) (4,4'-dicarboxyl-2,2'-bipyridine) (NCS)(2), exhibits an AM 1.5 solar (100 mW cm(-2))-to-electric power-conversion efficiency of 4.6% in a solid-state dye-sensitized solar cell (SSDSC) with 2,2', 7,7'-tetrakis-(N,N-di-p-methoxyphenylamine)9,9'-spirobifluorene (spiro-MeOTAD) as the organic hole-transporting material. These SSDSC devices exhibit good durability during accelerated tests under visible-light soaking for 1000 h at 60 degrees C. This demonstration elucidates a class of photovoltaic devices with potential for stable and low-cost power generation. The electron recombination dynamics and charge collection that take place at the dye-sensitized heterojunction are studied by means of impedance and transient photovoltage decay techniques.

  4. High-sensitivity and high-Q-factor glass photonic crystal cavity and its applications as sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siraji, Ashfaqul Anwar; Zhao, Yang

    2015-04-01

    We investigate the properties of a planar photonic crystal cavity on glass and its applications as sensors. An airbridged twofold defect cavity on Schott glass background and Gorilla glass substrate has been designed for high Q-factor up to 4459. The average sensitivity of the cavity resonance to background refractive index is 388 nm/Refractive Index Unit. The resonant wavelength is sensitive to background temperature by 18.5 pm/°C. The designed sensors show much higher sensitivity than those based on waveguide interferometers or photonic bandgap structures without cavity resonance. The results are also useful for experimental studies of glass photonic devices.

  5. Longevity Tests of High-Sensitivity BD-PND Bubble Dosimeters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radev, R; Carlberg, E

    2002-07-09

    Medium- and very-high-sensitivity neutron bubble dosimeters (BD-PNDs) made by Bubble Technology Industries (BTI) were used to study the life span of such dosimeters in a standard setup with a {sup 252}Cf source. Although data on the longevity of bubble dosimeters with low and medium sensitivity exist, such data for dosimeters with high and very high sensitivity are not readily available. The manufacturer guarantees optimum dosimeter performance for 3 months after receipt. However, it is important to know the change in the dosimeters' characteristics with time, especially after the first 3 months. The long-term performance of four sets of very high sensitivity and one set of medium-sensitivity bubble dosimeters was examined for periods of up to 13 months. During that time, the detectors were exposed and reset more than 20 times. Although departures from initial detection sensitivity were observed in several cases, the detectors indicated a significantly longer life span than stated in the manufacturer's warranty. In addition, the change in the number of bubbles and in evaluated neutron dose as a function of the time from the end of exposure until the dosimeters were read was investigated.

  6. A highly sensitive humidity sensor based on a nanofibrous membrane coated quartz crystal microbalance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xianfeng; Ding, Bin; Yu, Jianyong; Wang, Moran; Pan, Fukui

    2010-02-05

    A novel humidity sensor was fabricated by electrospinning deposition of nanofibrous polyelectrolyte membranes as sensitive coatings on a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM). The results of sensing experiments indicated that the response of the sensors increased by more than two orders of magnitude with increasing relative humidity (RH) from 6 to 95% at room temperature, exhibiting high sensitivity, and that, in the range of 20-95% RH, the Log(Deltaf) showed good linearity. The sensitivity of fibrous composite polyacrylic acid (PAA)/poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) membranes was two times higher than that of the corresponding flat films at 95% RH. Compared with fibrous PAA/PVA membranes, the nanofibrous PAA membranes exhibited remarkably enhanced humidity sensitivity due to their high PAA content and large specific surface area caused by the formation of ultrathin nanowebs among electrospun fibers. Additionally, the resultant sensors exhibited a good reversible behavior and good long term stability.

  7. Highly sensitive detection of dipicolinic acid with a water-dispersible terbium-metal organic framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhardwaj, Neha; Bhardwaj, Sanjeev; Mehta, Jyotsana; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Deep, Akash

    2016-12-15

    The sensitive detection of dipicolinic acid (DPA) is strongly associated with the sensing of bacterial organisms in food and many types of environmental samples. To date, the demand for a sensitive detection method for bacterial toxicity has increased remarkably. Herein, we investigated the DPA detection potential of a water-dispersible terbium-metal organic framework (Tb-MOF) based on the fluorescence quenching mechanism. The Tb-MOF showed a highly sensitive ability to detect DPA at a limit of detection of 0.04nM (linear range of detection: 1nM to 5µM) and also offered enhanced selectivity from other commonly associated organic molecules. The present study provides a basis for the application of Tb-MOF for direct, convenient, highly sensitive, and specific detection of DPA in the actual samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Tenfold improved sensitivity using high refractive-index substrates for surface plasmon sensing

    OpenAIRE

    Micheletto, Ruggero; Hamamoto, Katsumi; Fujii, Takashi; Kawakami, Yoichi

    2008-01-01

    Surface plasmon resonance sensors exploit the high sensitivity to local perturbations of plasma waves in a thin metal layer. These devices have a wide range of applications as biomedical, environmental, industrial, and homeland security. We concentrate on the theoretical aspects of the sensing principle. By calculations at various indexes of refraction we proved that using substrate material of higher index, sensitivity and dynamics range improve conspicuously. Finally, we show experimental d...

  9. Highly sensitive protein detection by biospecific AFM-based fishing with pulsed electrical stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleshakova, Tatyana O; Malsagova, Kristina A; Kaysheva, Anna L; Kopylov, Arthur T; Tatur, Vadim Yu; Ziborov, Vadim S; Kanashenko, Sergey L; Galiullin, Rafael A; Ivanov, Yuri D

    2017-08-01

    We report here the highly sensitive detection of protein in solution at concentrations from 10-15 to 10-18 m using the combination of atomic force microscopy (AFM) and mass spectrometry. Biospecific detection of biotinylated bovine serum albumin was carried out by fishing out the protein onto the surface of AFM chips with immobilized avidin, which determined the specificity of the analysis. Electrical stimulation was applied to enhance the fishing efficiency. A high sensitivity of detection was achieved by application of nanosecond electric pulses to highly oriented pyrolytic graphite placed under the AFM chip. A peristaltic pump-based flow system, which is widely used in routine bioanalytical assays, was employed throughout the analysis. These results hold promise for the development of highly sensitive protein detection methods using nanosensor devices.

  10. The incidence of the different sources of noise on the uncertainty in radiochromic film dosimetry using single channel and multichannel methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-López, Antonio; Vera-Sánchez, Juan Antonio; Ruiz-Morales, Carmen

    2017-11-01

    The influence of the various sources of noise on the uncertainty in radiochromic film (RCF) dosimetry using single channel and multichannel methods is investigated in this work. These sources of noise are extracted from pixel value (PV) readings and dose maps. Pieces of an RCF were each irradiated to different uniform doses, ranging from 0 to 1092 cGy. Then, the pieces were read at two resolutions (72 and 150 ppp) with two flatbed scanners: Epson 10000XL and Epson V800, representing two states of technology. Noise was extracted as described in ISO 15739 (2013), separating its distinct constituents: random noise and fixed pattern (FP) noise. Regarding the PV maps, FP noise is the main source of noise for both models of digitizer. Also, the standard deviation of the random noise in the 10000XL model is almost twice that of the V800 model. In the dose maps, the FP noise is smaller in the multichannel method than in the single channel ones. However, random noise is higher in this method, throughout the dose range. In the multichannel method, FP noise is reduced, as a consequence of this method’s ability to eliminate channel independent perturbations. However, the random noise increases, because the dose is calculated as a linear combination of the doses obtained by the single channel methods. The values of the coefficients of this linear combination are obtained in the present study, and the root of the sum of their squares is shown to range between 0.9 and 1.9 over the dose range studied. These results indicate the random noise to play a fundamental role in the uncertainty of RCF dosimetry: low levels of random noise are required in the digitizer to fully exploit the advantages of the multichannel dosimetry method. This is particularly important for measuring high doses at high spatial resolutions.

  11. The Nature and Nurture of High IQ: An Extended Sensitive Period for Intellectual Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brant, A.M.; Munakata, Y.; Boomsma, D.I.; DeFries, J.C.; Haworth, C.M.A.; Keller, M.C.; Martin, N.G.; McGue, M.; Petrill, S.A.; Plomin, R.; Wadsworth, S.J.; Wright, M.J.; Hewitt, J.K.

    2013-01-01

    IQ predicts many measures of life success, as well as trajectories of brain development. Prolonged cortical thickening observed in individuals with high IQ might reflect an extended period of synaptogenesis and high environmental sensitivity or plasticity. We tested this hypothesis by examining the

  12. Brandaris 128: A digital 25 million frames per second camera with 128 highly sensitive frames

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chin, Chien Ting; Lancée, Charles; Borsboom, Jerome; Mastik, Frits; Frijlink, Martijn E.; de Jong, N.; Versluis, Michel; Lohse, Detlef

    2003-01-01

    A high-speed camera that combines a customized rotating mirror camera frame with charge coupled device (CCD) image detectors and is practically fully operated by computer control was constructed. High sensitivity CCDs are used so that image intensifiers, which would degrade image quality, are not

  13. Intrauterine sensitization of allergen-specific IgE analyzed by a highly sensitive new allergen microarray.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamemura, Norio; Tada, Hitomi; Shimojo, Naoki; Morita, Yoshinori; Kohno, Yoichi; Ichioka, Takao; Suzuki, Koichi; Kubota, Kenji; Hiyoshi, Mineyoshi; Kido, Hiroshi

    2012-07-01

    To design a rational allergy prevention program, it is important to determine whether allergic sensitization starts in utero under the maternal immune system. To investigate the origin of allergen-specific IgE antibodies in cord blood (CB) and maternofetal transfer of immunoglobulins. The levels of food and inhalant allergen-specific IgE, IgA, IgG, and IgG(4) antibodies in CB and maternal blood (MB) from 92 paired neonates and mothers were measured by using a novel allergen microarray of diamond-like-carbon-coated chip, with high-sensitivity detection of allergen-specific antibodies and allergen profiles. The levels of allergen-specific IgE antibodies against food and inhalant allergens and allergen profiles were identical in CB and newborn blood, but the levels and profiles, specifically against inhalant allergens, were different from those in MB. The level of allergen-specific IgA antibodies was below the detection levels in CB despite clear detection in MB. Therefore, contamination with MB in CB was excluded on the basis of extremely low levels of IgA antibodies in CB and the obvious mismatch of the allergen-specific IgE and IgA profiles between CB and MB. However, the levels of allergen-specific IgG and IgG(4) antibodies and their allergen profiles were almost identical in both MB and CB. Allergen-specific levels of IgE and IgA antibodies and their allergen profiles analyzed by the diamond-like-carbon allergen chip indicate that IgE antibodies in CB are of fetal origin. Food-allergen specific IgE antibodies were detected more often than inhalant-allergen specific IgE antibodies in CB, the reason of which remains unclarified. Copyright © 2012 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. High-resolution, high sensitivity detectors for molecular imaging with radionuclides: The coded aperture option

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cusanno, F. [Istituto Superiore di Sanita and INFN gruppo Sanita, Viale Regina Elena 299, 00161 Rome (Italy)]. E-mail: francesco.cusanno@iss.infn.it; Cisbani, E. [Istituto Superiore di Sanita and INFN gruppo Sanita, Viale Regina Elena 299, 00161 Rome (Italy); Colilli, S. [Istituto Superiore di Sanita and INFN gruppo Sanita, Viale Regina Elena 299, 00161 Rome (Italy); Fratoni, R. [Istituto Superiore di Sanita and INFN gruppo Sanita, Viale Regina Elena 299, 00161 Rome (Italy); Garibaldi, F. [Istituto Superiore di Sanita and INFN gruppo Sanita, Viale Regina Elena 299, 00161 Rome (Italy); Giuliani, F. [Istituto Superiore di Sanita and INFN gruppo Sanita, Viale Regina Elena 299, 00161 Rome (Italy); Gricia, M. [Istituto Superiore di Sanita and INFN gruppo Sanita, Viale Regina Elena 299, 00161 Rome (Italy); Lo Meo, S. [Istituto Superiore di Sanita and INFN gruppo Sanita, Viale Regina Elena 299, 00161 Rome (Italy); Lucentini, M. [Istituto Superiore di Sanita and INFN gruppo Sanita, Viale Regina Elena 299, 00161 Rome (Italy); Magliozzi, M.L. [Istituto Superiore di Sanita and INFN gruppo Sanita, Viale Regina Elena 299, 00161 Rome (Italy); Santavenere, F. [Istituto Superiore di Sanita and INFN gruppo Sanita, Viale Regina Elena 299, 00161 Rome (Italy); Lanza, R.C. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Majewski, S. [Jefferson Lab, Newport News, 12000 Jefferson Avenue, 23606 VA (United States); Cinti, M.N. [University La Sapienza, Rome (Italy); Pani, R. [University La Sapienza, Rome (Italy); Pellegrini, R. [University La Sapienza, Rome (Italy); Orsini Cancelli, V. [INFN Sezione Roma III, Rome (Italy); De Notaristefani, F. [INFN Sezione Roma III, Rome (Italy); Bollini, D. [INFN Sezione di Bologna , Bologna (Italy); Navarria, F. [INFN Sezione di Bologna , Bologna (Italy); Moschini, G. [INFN Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Legnaro (Italy)

    2006-12-20

    Molecular imaging with radionuclides is a very sensitive technique because it allows to obtain images with nanomolar or picomolar concentrations. This has generated a rapid growth of interest in radionuclide imaging of small animals. Indeed radiolabeling of small molecules, antibodies, peptides and probes for gene expression enables molecular imaging in vivo, but only if a suitable imaging system is used. Detecting small tumors in humans is another important application of such techniques. In single gamma imaging, there is always a well known tradeoff between spatial resolution and sensitivity due to unavoidable collimation requirements. Limitation of the sensitivity due to collimation is well known and affects the performance of imaging systems, especially if only radiopharmaceuticals with limited uptake are available. In many cases coded aperture collimation can provide a solution, if the near field artifact effect can be eliminated or limited. At least this is the case for 'small volumes' imaging, involving small animals. In this paper 3D-laminography simulations and preliminary measurements with coded aperture collimation are presented. Different masks have been designed for different applications showing the advantages of the technique in terms of sensitivity and spatial resolution. The limitations of the technique are also discussed.

  15. Development and clinical implementation of a global software use and analysis of radiochromic s films; Desarrollo e implementacion clinica de un software global de uso y analisis de peliculas radiocromicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gimeno Olmos, J.; Martinez Fernandez, J. M.; Pastor Sanchis, V.; Gonzalez Perez, V.; Guardino de la Flor, C.; Dolores Alemany, V. de los; Crispin Contreras, V.

    2011-07-01

    The aim of this study was to gather information in one solution the different processes that occur with the use of radiochromic films: calibration, reading, corrections, step-absorbed dose, dose distribution analysis and comparison with reference distributions.

  16. Highly sensitive glucose sensors based on enzyme-modified whole-graphene solution-gated transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Meng; Liao, Caizhi; Mak, Chun Hin; You, Peng; Mak, Chee Leung; Yan, Feng

    2015-02-01

    Noninvasive glucose detections are convenient techniques for the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus, which require high performance glucose sensors. However, conventional electrochemical glucose sensors are not sensitive enough for these applications. Here, highly sensitive glucose sensors are successfully realized based on whole-graphene solution-gated transistors with the graphene gate electrodes modified with an enzyme glucose oxidase. The sensitivity of the devices is dramatically improved by co-modifying the graphene gates with Pt nanoparticles due to the enhanced electrocatalytic activity of the electrodes. The sensing mechanism is attributed to the reaction of H2O2 generated by the oxidation of glucose near the gate. The optimized glucose sensors show the detection limits down to 0.5 μM and good selectivity, which are sensitive enough for non-invasive glucose detections in body fluids. The devices show the transconductances two orders of magnitude higher than that of a conventional silicon field effect transistor, which is the main reason for their high sensitivity. Moreover, the devices can be conveniently fabricated with low cost. Therefore, the whole-graphene solution-gated transistors are a high-performance sensing platform for not only glucose detections but also many other types of biosensors that may find practical applications in the near future.

  17. The Design and Optimization of a Highly Sensitive and Overload-Resistant Piezoresistive Pressure Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiawei Meng

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A piezoresistive pressure sensor with a beam-membrane-dual-island structure is developed for micro-pressure monitoring in the field of aviation, which requires great sensitivity and overload resistance capacity. The design, fabrication, and test of the sensor are presented in this paper. By analyzing the stress distribution of sensitive elements using the finite element method, a novel structure incorporating sensitive beams with a traditional bossed diaphragm is built up. The proposed structure proved to be advantageous in terms of high sensitivity and high overload resistance compared with the conventional bossed diaphragm and flat diaphragm structures. Curve fittings of surface stress and deflection based on ANSYS simulation results are performed to establish the sensor equations. Fabricated on an n-type single crystal silicon wafer, the sensor chips are wire-bonded to a printed circuit board (PCB and packaged for experiments. The static and dynamic characteristics are tested and discussed. Experimental results show that the sensor has a sensitivity as high as 17.339 μV/V/Pa in the range of 500 Pa at room temperature, and a high overload resistance of 200 times overpressure. Due to the excellent performance, the sensor can be applied in measuring micro-pressure lower than 500 Pa.

  18. Highly sensitive glucose sensors based on enzyme-modified whole-graphene solution-gated transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Meng; Liao, Caizhi; Mak, Chun Hin; You, Peng; Mak, Chee Leung; Yan, Feng

    2015-02-06

    Noninvasive glucose detections are convenient techniques for the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus, which require high performance glucose sensors. However, conventional electrochemical glucose sensors are not sensitive enough for these applications. Here, highly sensitive glucose sensors are successfully realized based on whole-graphene solution-gated transistors with the graphene gate electrodes modified with an enzyme glucose oxidase. The sensitivity of the devices is dramatically improved by co-modifying the graphene gates with Pt nanoparticles due to the enhanced electrocatalytic activity of the electrodes. The sensing mechanism is attributed to the reaction of H2O2 generated by the oxidation of glucose near the gate. The optimized glucose sensors show the detection limits down to 0.5 μM and good selectivity, which are sensitive enough for non-invasive glucose detections in body fluids. The devices show the transconductances two orders of magnitude higher than that of a conventional silicon field effect transistor, which is the main reason for their high sensitivity. Moreover, the devices can be conveniently fabricated with low cost. Therefore, the whole-graphene solution-gated transistors are a high-performance sensing platform for not only glucose detections but also many other types of biosensors that may find practical applications in the near future.

  19. A Flexible and Highly Sensitive Piezoresistive Pressure Sensor Based on Micropatterned Films Coated with Carbon Nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-lin Yao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Excellent flexibility, high sensitivity, and low consumption are essential characteristics in flexible microtube pressure sensing occasion, for example, implantable medical devices, industrial pipeline, and microfluidic chip. This paper reports a flexible, highly sensitive, and ultrathin piezoresistive pressure sensor for fluid pressure sensing, whose sensing element is micropatterned films with conductive carbon nanotube layer. The flexible pressure sensor, the thickness of which is 40 ± 10 μm, could be economically fabricated by using biocompatible polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS. Experimental results show that the flexible pressure sensor has high sensitivity (0.047 kPa−1 in gas sensing and 5.6 × 10−3 kPa−1 in liquid sensing and low consumption (<180 μW, and the sensor could be used to measure the pressure in curved microtubes.

  20. Highly Sensitive and Reproducible SERS Performance from Uniform Film Assembled by Magnetic Noble Metal Composite Microspheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Chunyu; Zou, Bingfang; Wang, Yongqiang; Cheng, Lin; Zheng, Haihong; Zhou, Shaomin

    2016-01-26

    To realize highly sensitive and reproducible SERS performance, a new route was put forward to construct uniform SERS film by using magnetic composite microspheres. In the experiment, monodisperse Fe3O4@SiO2@Ag microspheres with hierarchical surface were developed and used as building block of SERS substrate, which not only realized fast capturing analyte through dispersion and collection under external magnet but also could be built into uniform film through magnetically induced self-assembly. By using R6G as probe molecule, the as-obtained uniform film exhibited great improvement on SERS performance in both sensitivity and reproducibility when compared with nonuniform film, demonstrating the perfect integration of high sensitivity of hierarchal noble metal microspheres and high reproducibility of ordered microspheres array. Furthermore, the as-obtained product was used to detect pesticide thiram and also exhibited excellent SERS performance for trace detection.

  1. Highly Sensitive Electro-Plasmonic Switches Based on Fivefold Stellate Polyhedral Gold Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Liubiao; Jiang, Yueyue; Liow, Chihao; Meng, Fanben; Sun, Yinghui; Chandran, Bevita K; Liang, Ziqiang; Jiang, Lin; Li, Shuzhou; Chen, Xiaodong

    2015-10-28

    Electron-photon coupling in metal nanostructures has raised a new trend for active plasmonic switch devices in both fundamental understanding and technological applications. However, low sensitivity switches with an on/off ratio less than 5 have restricted applications. In this work, an electrically modulated plasmonic switch based on a surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) system with a single fivefold stellate polyhedral gold nanoparticle (FSPAuNP) is reported. The reversible switch of the SERS signal shows high sensitivity with an on/off ratio larger than 30. Such a high on/off ratio arises primarily from the plasmonic resonance shift of the FSPAuNP with the incident laser due to the altered free electron density on the nanoparticle under an applied electrochemical potential. This highly sensitive electro-plasmonic switch may enable further development of plasmonic devices. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. High-frequency phase shift measurement greatly enhances the sensitivity of QCM immunosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    March, Carmen; García, José V; Sánchez, Ángel; Arnau, Antonio; Jiménez, Yolanda; García, Pablo; Manclús, Juan J; Montoya, Ángel

    2015-03-15

    In spite of being widely used for in liquid biosensing applications, sensitivity improvement of conventional (5-20MHz) quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) sensors remains an unsolved challenging task. With the help of a new electronic characterization approach based on phase change measurements at a constant fixed frequency, a highly sensitive and versatile high fundamental frequency (HFF) QCM immunosensor has successfully been developed and tested for its use in pesticide (carbaryl and thiabendazole) analysis. The analytical performance of several immunosensors was compared in competitive immunoassays taking carbaryl insecticide as the model analyte. The highest sensitivity was exhibited by the 100MHz HFF-QCM carbaryl immunosensor. When results were compared with those reported for 9MHz QCM, analytical parameters clearly showed an improvement of one order of magnitude for sensitivity (estimated as the I50 value) and two orders of magnitude for the limit of detection (LOD): 30μgl(-1) vs 0.66μgL(-1)I50 value and 11μgL(-1) vs 0.14μgL(-1) LOD, for 9 and 100MHz, respectively. For the fungicide thiabendazole, I50 value was roughly the same as that previously reported for SPR under the same biochemical conditions, whereas LOD improved by a factor of 2. The analytical performance achieved by high frequency QCM immunosensors surpassed those of conventional QCM and SPR, closely approaching the most sensitive ELISAs. The developed 100MHz QCM immunosensor strongly improves sensitivity in biosensing, and therefore can be considered as a very promising new analytical tool for in liquid applications where highly sensitive detection is required. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Effect of particle size in the TL response of natural quartz sensitized with high gamma dose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, A B Jr; Guzzo, P L; Sullasi, H L; Khoury, H J, E-mail: alvarobcjr@yahoo.com.b

    2010-11-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of particle size in the thermoluminescence (TL) response of natural quartz sensitized with high gamma dose. For this, fragments of a single crystal taken from the Solonopole district (Brazil) were crushed and classified into ten size fractions ranging from 38 {mu}m to 5 mm. Aliquots of each size fraction were sensitized with 25 kGy of gamma dose of {sup 60}Co and heat-treated in a muffle furnace at 400{sup o}C. The non-sensitized samples were exposed to test doses between 50 Gy and 5 kGy and the sensitized samples were exposed to a unique test dose equal to 50 mGy. For non-sensitized samples, the TL peak near 325 {sup 0}C increases with the particle size decreasing. However, in the case of sensitized samples, the TL output near 280 {sup 0}C increases with the increasing of particle size up to mean grain size equal to 308 {mu}m. Above 308 {mu}m, an abrupt reduction in the TL intensity was noticed. These effects are discussed in relation to the specific surface area and the different interaction of high gamma doses with fine and coarse particles of quartz.

  4. Seed oil polyphenols: rapid and sensitive extraction method and high resolution-mass spectrometry identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koubaa, Mohamed; Mhemdi, Houcine; Vorobiev, Eugène

    2015-05-01

    Phenolic content is a primary parameter for vegetables oil quality evaluation, and directly involved in the prevention of oxidation and oil preservation. Several methods have been reported in the literature for polyphenols extraction from seed oil but the approaches commonly used remain manually handled. In this work, we propose a rapid and sensitive method for seed oil polyphenols extraction and identification. For this purpose, polyphenols were extracted from Opuntia stricta Haw seed oil, using high frequency agitation, separated, and then identified using a liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry method. Our results showed good sensitivity and reproducibility of the developed methods. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Association between high-sensitive troponin I and coronary artery calcification in a Danish general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olson, Fredrik; Engborg, Jonathan; Grønhøj, Mette H.

    2016-01-01

    . METHODS: 1173 randomized, middle-aged subjects without known CVD underwent a non-contrast cardiac-CT scan for CAC determination. Hs-TnI was detected using ARCHITECT STAT High Sensitive Troponin-I immunoassay. Total 10-year cardiovascular mortality risk was estimated using HeartScore. The relationship......BACKGROUND: High-sensitive troponin I (hs-TnI) is an individual predictor of future cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, the relationship between hs-TnI and coronary artery calcification (CAC) as determined by computed tomography (CT) has not previously been investigated in a general population...

  6. Real-time, single-step bioassay using nanoplasmonic resonator with ultra-high sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiang; Ellman, Jonathan A; Chen, Fanqing Frank; Su, Kai-Hang; Wei, Qi-Huo; Sun, Cheng

    2014-04-01

    A nanoplasmonic resonator (NPR) comprising a metallic nanodisk with alternating shielding layer(s), having a tagged biomolecule conjugated or tethered to the surface of the nanoplasmonic resonator for highly sensitive measurement of enzymatic activity. NPRs enhance Raman signals in a highly reproducible manner, enabling fast detection of protease and enzyme activity, such as Prostate Specific Antigen (paPSA), in real-time, at picomolar sensitivity levels. Experiments on extracellular fluid (ECF) from paPSA-positive cells demonstrate specific detection in a complex bio-fluid background in real-time single-step detection in very small sample volumes.

  7. Effect of high gamma-doses in the sensitization of natural quartz for thermoluminescence dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khoury, H.J.; Guzzo, P.L.; Brito, S.B. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, 50740-540 Recife PE (Brazil)

    2006-07-01

    Sensitization is an important effect in radiation dosimetry using thermoluminescent (TL materials where the enhancement of sensitivity is a desirable feature. Until known, the investigation of sensitization in quartz has been restricted to its first glow peak appearing around 110 C. In addition, the sensitization process has been essentially produced by heat-treatments in powdered quartz. The aim of this study is to investigate the sensitization process in the second glow peak of crystalline quartz using high doses of gamma irradiation. For this, five lots of samples were prepared from quartz single crystals issued from different geologies in Brazil. Chips of 5 x 5 x 1 mm{sup 3} (60 mg) were cut and lapped parallel to the (0001) plane. The specimens were initially irradiated with doses of gamma radiation of {sup 137} Cs in the range of 10 mGy to 10 Gy in order to determine its TL response curve. After that, the specimens were submitted to successive high doses of gamma-irradiation with {sup 60} Co from 25 kGy to 350 kGy. After each irradiation, the TL response curves to gamma radiation of {sup 137} Cs were determined for each quartz lot irradiated in the range of 2 to 20 mGy. The TL measurements were carried out with a 2800M Victoreen reader using the step mode. The step parameters were set in 10 s from 30 to 160 C (first region) and in 20 s from 160 to 320 C (second region). The absolute TL signal used to obtain the calibration curves represented the sum of electric charges under the glow peak appearing in the second region. The results showed that the TL response of the quartz studied increased with the dose sensitization, so that the TL response for 10mGy of {sup 137} Cs radiation varied from 0.05 nC/mg for the quartz without sensitization to 10 nC/mg after a sensitization with 50 kGy of gamma radiation of {sup 60} Co. The effect of sensitization with high doses of gamma irradiation was clearly observed for three quartz lots and it was observed that the high

  8. High Excitation Transfer Efficiency from Energy Relay Dyes in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Hardin, Brian E.

    2010-08-11

    The energy relay dye, 4-(Dicyanomethylene)-2-methyl-6-(4- dimethylaminostyryl)-4H-pyran (DCM), was used with a near-infrared sensitizing dye, TT1, to increase the overall power conversion efficiency of a dye-sensitized solar cell (DSC) from 3.5% to 4.5%. The unattached DCM dyes exhibit an average excitation transfer efficiency (EÌ?TE) of 96% inside TT1-covered, mesostructured TiO2 films. Further performance increases were limited by the solubility of DCM in an acetonitrile based electrolyte. This demonstration shows that energy relay dyes can be efficiently implemented in optimized dye-sensitized solar cells, but also highlights the need to design highly soluble energy relay dyes with high molar extinction coefficients. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  9. High sensitivity optical fiber strain sensor using twisted multimode fiber based on SMS structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yuan; Liu, Deming; Lu, Ping; Sun, Qizhen; Yang, Wei; Wang, Shun; Liu, Li; Ni, Wenjun

    2017-12-01

    A low-cost way of achieving a high sensitivity optical fiber strain sensor by introducing higher-order interference modes using a torsional multimode fiber (MMF) instead of normal MMF based on single-mode-multimode-single-mode (SMS) structure is proposed and the coupling mechanism of twist fiber is investigated theoretically. The sensor is fabricated by simple process of heating and twisting a small region of MMF. According to this method, the shift of multimode interference spectrum caused by an axial strain will be greatly magnified. Different strain sensitivities can be easily realized by controlling the torsional number of circles. The experimental results indicated a high strain sensitivity of 42.5 pm/ με at most.

  10. Biconical-taper-assisted fiber interferometer with modes coupling enhancement for high-sensitive curvature measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wo, Jianghai; Sun, Qizhen; Li, Xiaolei; Liu, Deming; Shum, Perry Ping

    2014-04-01

    A modal interferometer based on multimode-singlemode-multimode fiber structure built with a biconical taper for fiber curvature measurement is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. Due to the tapered singlemode fiber acting as a high-efficient mode power converter to enhance the modes coupling, curvature sensor with improved sensitivity is achieved by monitoring the defined fringe visibility of the interference spectrum. The measuring range can be tuned by changing the waist diameter of the fiber taper. Meanwhile, the sensor shows an intrinsic ability to overcome the influence of temperature cross-sensitivity and the power fluctuation of light source. The advantages of easy fabrication, high-quality spectrum with improved sensitivity, and small hysteresis will provide great potential for practical applications of the sensor.

  11. Elucidation of high sensitivity of δ-HMX: New insight from first principles simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuklja, Maija M.; Tsyshevsky, Roman V.; Sharia, Onise

    2017-01-01

    Understanding of a significant difference in sensitivities of β and δ phases of cyclotetramethylene-tetranitramine (HMX) has been long one of the challenges in the field of high energy density materials. Despite many experimental and theoretical efforts to explain the high sensitivity of the δ phase, convincing reasons behind the HMX behavior remained unclear. We established that the presence of a polar surface in δ-HMX has fundamental implications for stability and overall chemical behavior of the material. A comparative quantum-chemical analysis of decomposition mechanisms in polar δ-HMX and nonpolar β-HMX discovered a considerable difference in dominating dissociation reactions, activation barriers, and reaction rates. The polarization-induced charge transfer offered a logical explanation for different sensitivity of β-HMX and δ-HMX polymorphs to detonation initiation. Our conclusions also removed long-standing contradictions and explained a large range of experimental data on thermal decomposition of HMX.

  12. Surface plasmon resonance hydrogen sensor based on metallic grating with high sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Kaiqun; Lu, Yonghua; Chen, Junxue; Zheng, Rongsheng; Wang, Pei; Ming, Hai

    2008-11-10

    High sensitivity is obtained at larger resonant incident angle if negative diffraction order of metallic grating is used to excite the surface plasmon. A highly sensitive grating-based surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensor is designed for the hydrogen detection. A thin palladium (Pd) film deposited on the grating surface is used as transducer. The influences of grating period and the thickness of Pd on the performance of sensor are investigated using rigorous coupled-wave analysis (RCWA) method. The sensitivity as well as the width of the SPR curves and reflective amplitude is considered simultaneously for designing the grating-based SPR hydrogen sensor, and a set of optimized structural parameters is presented. The performance of grating-based SPR sensor is also compared with that of conventional prism-based SPR sensor.

  13. Highly sensitive and selective liquid crystal optical sensor for detection of ammonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Xiaofang; Zhong, Yuanbo; Chen, Rui; Wang, Fei; Luo, Dan

    2017-06-12

    Ammonia detection technologies are very important in environment monitoring. However, most existing technologies are complex and expensive, which limit the useful range of real-time application. Here, we propose a highly sensitive and selective optical sensor for detection of ammonia (NH3) based on liquid crystals (LCs). This optical sensor is realized through the competitive binding between ammonia and liquid crystals on chitosan-Cu2+ that decorated on glass substrate. We achieve a broad detection range of ammonia from 50 ppm to 1250 ppm, with a low detection limit of 16.6 ppm. This sensor is low-cost, simple, fast, and highly sensitive and selective for detection of ammonia. The proposal LC sensing method can be a sensitive detection platform for other molecule monitors such as proteins, DNAs and other heavy metal ions by modifying sensing molecules.

  14. A highly sensitive RF-to-DC power converter with an extended dynamic range

    KAUST Repository

    Almansouri, Abdullah Saud Mohammed

    2017-10-24

    This paper proposes a highly sensitive RF-to-DC power converter with an extended dynamic range that is designed to operate at the medical band 433 MHz and simulated using 0.18 μm CMOS technology. Compared to the conventional fully cross-coupled rectifier, the proposed design offers 3.2× the dynamic range. It is also highly sensitive and requires −18 dBm of input power to produce a 1 V-output voltage when operating with a 100 kΩ load. Furthermore, the proposed design offers an open circuit sensitivity of −23.4 dBm and a peak power conversion efficiency of 67%.

  15. A wide range and highly sensitive optical fiber pH sensor using polyacrylamide hydrogel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, Akhilesh Kumar; Singh, Vinod Kumar

    2017-12-01

    In the present study we report the fabrication and characterization of no-core fiber sensor (NCFS) using smart hydrogel coating for pH measurement. The no-core fiber (NCF) is stubbed between two single-mode fibers with SMA connector before immobilizing of smart hydrogel. The wavelength interrogation technique is used to calculate the sensitivity of the proposed sensor. The result shows a high sensitivity of 1.94 nm/pH for a wide range of pH values varied from 3 to 10 with a good linear response. In addition to high sensitivity, the fabricated sensor provides a fast response time with a good stability, repeatability and reproducibility.

  16. High sensitive LPFG magnetic field sensor based on dual-peak resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Zhengtian; Ling, Qiang; Lan, Jinlong; Gao, Kan

    2017-11-01

    A high sensitivity magnetic field sensor based on magnetic-fluid-clad LPFG structure with dual peak resonance is presented and experimentally investigated. Based on coupled mode theory, the sensing principle of this sensor is originated from the sensibility of the dual peak based LPFG to the environment refractive index. In experiment, a dual peak interval change was available to 38 nm with a magnetic field strength varying from 0 to 12 mT when the temperature was 17.3 °C, and the dual peak interval displays a cubic polynomial dependence with the magnetic field strength at the low field regime. The sensitivity of this sensor to the magnetic field can be available to 4.08 nm/mT, and it is one order and two orders of magnitude higher than that of the sensors based on MSM and SMS fiber structure, respectively. The novel sensor has many advantages of simple technology, structure stability and high sensitivity.

  17. Establishment of a new marginal plaque index with high sensitivity for changes in oral hygiene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deinzer, Renate; Jahns, Stephan; Harnacke, Daniela

    2014-12-01

    Although several plaque indices exist, they rarely assess in detail the plaque adjacent to the gingival margin, an area most important for periodontal health. This study aims to develop a new marginal plaque index (MPI) and to assess its validity and treatment sensitivity compared to the internationally accepted Turesky modification of the Quigley and Hein Index (TQHI). Data from two studies with n = 64 and n = 67 participants, respectively, are reported here. Convergence of MPI with TQHI and concurrent and predictive validity with papillary bleeding index were assessed, as was treatment sensitivity to a treatment of proximal hygiene (study 1) or toothbrushing (study 2), respectively. Convergent validity with TQHI is very good. Concurrent and predictive validity parameters of the MPI are similar to the TQHI. The treatment sensitivity of MPI exceeds TQHI by far. This results in a reduction by >70% of the sample size needed to discover significant treatment effects. As expected, the largest treatment sensitivity was observed for proximal MPI measures in study 1, whereas study 2 showed largest effects for cervical measures. MPI appears to be a valid plaque-scoring system that assesses plaque at the gingival margin. It responds with high sensitivity to treatments aimed at plaque reduction at the gingival margin. Its treatment sensitivity and capacity to differentiate between proximal and cervical plaque make it a promising tool for periodontal research.

  18. Niacin Skin Sensitivity Is Increased in Adolescents at Ultra-High Risk for Psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Gregor E; Smesny, Stefan; Schäfer, Miriam R; Milleit, Berko; Langbein, Kerstin; Hipler, Uta-Christina; Milleit, Christine; Klier, Claudia M; Schlögelhofer, Monika; Holub, Magdalena; Holzer, Ingrid; Berk, Michael; McGorry, Patrick D; Sauer, Heinrich; Amminger, G Paul

    2016-01-01

    Most studies provide evidence that the skin flush response to nicotinic acid (niacin) stimulation is impaired in schizophrenia. However, only little is known about niacin sensitivity in the ultra-high risk (UHR) phase of psychotic disorders. We compared visual ratings of niacin sensitivity between adolescents at UHR for psychosis according to the one year transition outcome (UHR-T n = 11; UHR-NT n = 55) with healthy controls (HC n = 25) and first episode schizophrenia patients (FEP n = 25) treated with atypical antipsychotics. Contrary to our hypothesis niacin sensitivity of the entire UHR group was not attenuated, but significantly increased compared to the HC group, whereas no difference could be found between the UHR-T and UHR-NT groups. As expected, niacin sensitivity of FEP was attenuated compared to HC group. In UHR individuals niacin sensitivity was inversely correlated with omega-6 and -9 fatty acids (FA), but positively correlated with phospholipase A2 (inPLA2) activity, a marker of membrane lipid repair/remodelling. Increased niacin sensitivity in UHR states likely indicates an impaired balance of eicosanoids and omega-6/-9 FA at a membrane level. Our findings suggest that the emergence of psychosis is associated with an increased mobilisation of eicosanoids prior to the transition to psychosis possibly reflecting a "pro-inflammatory state", whereas thereafter eicosanoid mobilisation seems to be attenuated. Potential treatment implications for the UHR state should be further investigated.

  19. Loss-less Nano-fractionator for High Sensitivity, High Coverage Proteomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kulak, Nils A; Geyer, Philipp E; Mann, Matthias

    2017-01-01

    to be particularly powerful. This first dimension is typically performed with milliliter/min flow and relatively large column inner diameters, which allow efficient pre-fractionation but typically require peptide amounts in the milligram range. Here, we describe a novel approach termed "spider fractionator" in which...... more rapid or for extremely deep measurements. We demonstrate excellent sensitivity by decreasing sample amounts from 100 μg into the sub-microgram range, without losses attributable to the spider fractionator and while quantifying close to 10,000 proteins. Finally, we apply the system to the rapid...

  20. [Psychological Well-being of Highly-sensitive Persons in Transition to Parenthood - A Cross-sectional Study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmückle, M; Lindert, J; Schmolz, G

    2017-12-01

    Well-being of highly sensitive people in the transformation period to parenthood is of increasing concern. This study examines whether the transformation period to parenthood has a higher effect on the psychological well-being (PWB) of highly sensitive people than on not highly sensitive people. A cross-sectional study was undertaken of parents (n=614), highly sensitive (n=440) and not highly sensitive (n=174), at the transition to parenthood. Instruments were the Ryff psychological well-being scale. Independent variables and well-being were examined by descriptive and bivariate methods. Well-being of highly sensitive parents is associated with transition to parenthood (b=-10,129; phighly sensitive highly sensitive highly sensitive parents. It can be stated that there is an urgent need for research in this area. Because with a prevalence of 10-20% highly sensitive people within the population, it can be assumed that highly sensitive mostly young parents, could be an important target group of health promotion. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  1. An UPLC-MS/MS method for highly sensitive high-throughput analysis of phytohormones in plant tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balcke Gerd Ulrich

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phytohormones are the key metabolites participating in the regulation of multiple functions of plant organism. Among them, jasmonates, as well as abscisic and salicylic acids are responsible for triggering and modulating plant reactions targeted against pathogens and herbivores, as well as resistance to abiotic stress (drought, UV-irradiation and mechanical wounding. These factors induce dramatic changes in phytohormone biosynthesis and transport leading to rapid local and systemic stress responses. Understanding of underlying mechanisms is of principle interest for scientists working in various areas of plant biology. However, highly sensitive, precise and high-throughput methods for quantification of these phytohormones in small samples of plant tissues are still missing. Results Here we present an LC-MS/MS method for fast and highly sensitive determination of jasmonates, abscisic and salicylic acids. A single-step sample preparation procedure based on mixed-mode solid phase extraction was efficiently combined with essential improvements in mobile phase composition yielding higher efficiency of chromatographic separation and MS-sensitivity. This strategy resulted in dramatic increase in overall sensitivity, allowing successful determination of phytohormones in small (less than 50 mg of fresh weight tissue samples. The method was completely validated in terms of analyte recovery, sensitivity, linearity and precision. Additionally, it was cross-validated with a well-established GC-MS-based procedure and its applicability to a variety of plant species and organs was verified. Conclusion The method can be applied for the analyses of target phytohormones in small tissue samples obtained from any plant species and/or plant part relying on any commercially available (even less sensitive tandem mass spectrometry instrumentation.

  2. An UPLC-MS/MS method for highly sensitive high-throughput analysis of phytohormones in plant tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Phytohormones are the key metabolites participating in the regulation of multiple functions of plant organism. Among them, jasmonates, as well as abscisic and salicylic acids are responsible for triggering and modulating plant reactions targeted against pathogens and herbivores, as well as resistance to abiotic stress (drought, UV-irradiation and mechanical wounding). These factors induce dramatic changes in phytohormone biosynthesis and transport leading to rapid local and systemic stress responses. Understanding of underlying mechanisms is of principle interest for scientists working in various areas of plant biology. However, highly sensitive, precise and high-throughput methods for quantification of these phytohormones in small samples of plant tissues are still missing. Results Here we present an LC-MS/MS method for fast and highly sensitive determination of jasmonates, abscisic and salicylic acids. A single-step sample preparation procedure based on mixed-mode solid phase extraction was efficiently combined with essential improvements in mobile phase composition yielding higher efficiency of chromatographic separation and MS-sensitivity. This strategy resulted in dramatic increase in overall sensitivity, allowing successful determination of phytohormones in small (less than 50 mg of fresh weight) tissue samples. The method was completely validated in terms of analyte recovery, sensitivity, linearity and precision. Additionally, it was cross-validated with a well-established GC-MS-based procedure and its applicability to a variety of plant species and organs was verified. Conclusion The method can be applied for the analyses of target phytohormones in small tissue samples obtained from any plant species and/or plant part relying on any commercially available (even less sensitive) tandem mass spectrometry instrumentation. PMID:23173950

  3. Temperature uniformity mapping in a high pressure high temperature reactor using a temperature sensitive indicator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grauwet, T.; Plancken, van der I.; Vervoort, L.; Matser, A.M.; Hendrickx, M.; Loey, van A.

    2011-01-01

    Recently, the first prototype ovomucoid-based pressure–temperature–time indicator (pTTI) for high pressure high temperature (HPHT) processing was described. However, for temperature uniformity mapping of high pressure (HP) vessels under HPHT sterilization conditions, this prototype needs to be

  4. High Sensitivity to Auxin is a Common Feature of Hairy Root 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Wen Hui; Davioud, Elisabeth; David, Chantal; Barbier-Brygoo, Hélène; Tempé, Jacques; Guern, Jean

    1990-01-01

    The responses to auxin of Lycopersicon esculentum roots transformed by (Tl+Tr)-DNA of the Ri plasmid of agropine-type Agrobacterium rhizogenes strain 15834 and Catharanthus trichophyllus roots transformed by the (Tl+Tr)-DNA, and by Tl- or Tr- DNA alone of the same bacterial strain were compared to that of their normal counterparts. The transmembrane electrical potential difference of root protoplasts was measured as a function of the concentration of exogenous naphthalene acetic acid. The sensitivity to auxin expressed by this response was shown to be independent of the measurement conditions and of the basal polarization of isolated protoplasts. According to this electrical response, as well as to the modulation by auxin of proton excretion by root tips and root tip elongation, roots transformed by (Tl+Tr) DNA are 100 to 1000 times more sensitive to exogenous auxin than normal roots, as is the case with normal and transformed roots from Lotus corniculatus (WH Shen, A Petit, J Guern, J Tempé [1988] Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 85: 3417-3421). Further-more, transformed roots of C. trichophyllus are not modified in their sensitivity to fusicoccin, illustrating the specificity of the modification of the auxin sensitivity. Roots transformed by the Tr-DNA alone showed the same sensitivity to auxin as normal roots, whereas the roots transformed by the Tl-DNA alone exhibited an auxin sensitivity as high as the roots transformed by (Tl+Tr)-DNA. It was concluded that the high sensitivity to auxin is controlled by the Tl-DNA in agropine type Ri plasmids. PMID:16667748

  5. Label-free biosensing with high sensitivity in dual-core microstructured polymer optical fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markos, Christos; Yuan, Wu; Vlachos, Kyriakos

    2011-01-01

    We present experimentally feasible designs of a dual-core microstructured polymer optical fiber (mPOF), which can act as a highly sensitive, label-free, and selective biosensor. An immobilized antigen sensing layer on the walls of the holes in the mPOF provides the ability to selectively capture...

  6. High sensitivity of quick view capsule endoscopy for detection of small bowel Crohn's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halling, Morten Lee; Nathan, Torben; Kjeldsen, Jens

    2014-01-01

    Capsule endoscopy (CE) has a high sensitivity for diagnosing small bowel Crohn's disease, but video analysis is time consuming. The quick view (qv) function is an effective tool to reduce time consumption. The aim of this study was to determine the rate of missed small bowel ulcerations with qv...

  7. Proposal of highly sensitive optofluidic sensors based on dispersive photonic crystal waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xiao, Sanshui; Mortensen, Niels Asger

    2007-01-01

    Optofluidic sensors based on highly dispersive two-dimensional photonic crystal waveguides are studied theoretically. Results show that these structures are strongly sensitive to the refractive index of the infiltrated liquid (nl), which is used to tune dispersion of the photonic crystal waveguide...

  8. A New Kind of Laser Microphone Using High Sensitivity Pulsed Laser Vibrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chen-Chia; Trivedi, Sudhir; Jin, Feng; Swaminathan, V.; Prasad, Narasimha S.

    2008-01-01

    We demonstrate experimentally a new kind of laser microphone using a highly sensitive pulsed laser vibrometer. By using the photo-electromotive-force (photo-EMF) sensors, we present data indicating the real-time detection of surface displacements as small as 4 pm.

  9. Prognostic value of high sensitive C-reactive protein in subjects with silent myocardial ischemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouridsen, Mette; Intzilakis, Theodoros; Binici, Zeynep

    2012-01-01

    . High-sensitive CRP and 48-hour ambulatory ECG monitoring were performed. The primary endpoint was the combined endpoint of death and myocardial infarction. RESULTS: The median follow-up time was 76 months. Seventy-seven subjects (11.4%) had SMI. The combined endpoint occurred in 26% of the subjects...

  10. Genotype-based dosage of acenocoumarol in highly-sensitive geriatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano, Roberto; Franco, María-Esther; López, Luis; Moneva, Juan-José; Carrasco, Vicente; Pérez-Layo, Maria-Angeles

    2015-03-01

    Our aim was to determinate the acenocoumarol dose requirement in highly sensitive geriatric patients, based on a minimum of genotype (VKORC1 and CYP2C9) data. We used a Gaussian kernel density estimation test to identify patients highly sensitive to the drug and PHARMACHIP®-Cuma test (Progenika Biopharma, SA, Grifols, Spain) to determine the CYP2C9 and VKORC1 genotype. All highly sensitive geriatric patients were taking ≤5.6 mg/week of acenocoumarol (AC), and 86% of these patients presented the following genotypes: CYP2C9*1/*3 or CYP2C9*1/*2 plus VKORC1 A/G, CYP2C9*3/*3, or VKORC1 A/A. VKORC1 A and CYP2C9*2 and/or *3 allelic variants extremely influence on AC dose requirement of highly sensitive geriatric patients. These patients display acenocoumarol dose requirement of ≤5.6 mg/week.

  11. Highly sensitive micromachined capacitive pressure sensor with reduced hysteresis and low parasitic capacitance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Thomas; Fragiacomo, Giulio; Hansen, Ole

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the design and fabrication of a capacitive pressure sensor that has a large capacitance signal and a high sensitivity of 76 pF/bar in touch mode operation. Due to the large signal, problems with parasitic capacitances are avoided and hence it is possible to integrate the sensor...

  12. Performance of a highly sensitive optical waveguide Mach-Zehnder interferometer immunosensor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heideman, Rene; Kooyman, R.P.H.; Greve, Jan

    1993-01-01

    We describe a highly sensitive sensor which uses the evanescent field of a reusable planar optical waveguide as the sensing element. The waveguide used is optimized to obtain a steep dependence of the propagation velocity on the refractive-index profile near the surface. The adsorption of a layer of

  13. Spectral-domain optical coherence reflectometric sensor for highly sensitive molecular detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joo, C.; de Boer, J.F.

    2007-01-01

    We describe what we believe to be a novel use of spectral-domain optical coherence reflectometry (SD-OCR) for highly sensitive molecular detection in real time. The SD-OCR sensor allows identification of a sensor surface of interest in an OCR depth scan and monitoring the phase alteration due to

  14. A very sensitive high-resolution NMR method for quadrupolar nuclei: SPAM-DQF-STMAS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoureux, Jean-Paul; Flambard, Alexandrine; Delevoye, Laurent; Montagne, Lionel

    2005-07-21

    We show that by combining the intrinsically larger (with respect to MQMAS) efficiency of Double-Quantum Filtered Satellite-Transition MAS (DQF-STMAS), with the large S/N gain of the Soft-Pulse Added Mixing (SPAM) concept, a new very sensitive high-resolution solid-state NMR method can be obtained for semi-integer quadrupolar nuclei.

  15. Molecular imprinting ratiometric fluorescence sensor for highly selective and sensitive detection of phycocyanin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoyan; Yu, Jialuo; Kang, Qi; Shen, Dazhong; Li, Jinhua; Chen, Lingxin

    2016-03-15

    A facile strategy was developed to prepare molecular imprinting ratiometric fluorescence sensor for highly selective and sensitive detection of phycocyanin (PC) based on fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET), via a sol-gel polymerization process using nitrobenzoxadiazole (NBD) as fluorescent signal source. The ratio of two fluorescence peak emission intensities of NBD and PC was utilized to determine the concentration of PC, which could effectively reduce the background interference and fluctuation of diverse conditions. As a result, this sensor obtained high sensitivity with a low detection limit of 0.14 nM within 6 min, and excellent recognition specificity for PC over its analogues with a high imprinting factor of 9.1. Furthermore, the sensor attained high recoveries in the range of 93.8-110.2% at three spiking levels of PC, with precisions below 4.7% in seawater and lake water samples. The developed sensor strategy demonstrated simplicity, reliability, rapidity, high selectivity and high sensitivity, proving to be a feasible way to develop high efficient fluorescence sensors and thus potentially applicable for ultratrace analysis of complicated matrices. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. A fit-for-purpose approach to analytical sensitivity applied to a cardiac troponin assay: time to escape the 'highly-sensitive' trap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ungerer, Jacobus P J; Pretorius, Carel J

    2014-04-01

    Highly-sensitive cardiac troponin (cTn) assays are being introduced into the market. In this study we argue that the classification of cTn assays into sensitive and highly-sensitive is flawed and recommend a more appropriate way to characterize analytical sensitivity of cTn assays. The raw data of 2252 cardiac troponin I (cTnI) tests done in duplicate with a 'sensitive' assay was extracted and used to calculate the cTnI levels in all, including those below the 'limit of detection' (LoD) that were censored. Duplicate results were used to determine analytical imprecision. We show that cTnI can be quantified in all samples including those with levels below the LoD and that the actual margins of error decrease as concentrations approach zero. The dichotomous classification of cTn assays into sensitive and highly-sensitive is theoretically flawed and characterizing analytical sensitivity as a continuous variable based on imprecision at 0 and the 99th percentile cut-off would be more appropriate.

  17. COMPET: High resolution high sensitivity MRI compatible pre-clinical PET scanner

    CERN Document Server

    Hines, Kim-Eigard; Skretting, Arne; Rohne, Ole; Bjaalie, Jan G; Volgyes, David; Rissi, Michael; Dorholt, Ole; Stapnes, Steinar

    2013-01-01

    COMPET is a pre-clinical MRI compatible PET scanner which decouples sensitivity and resolution by the use of a novel detector design. The detector has been built using 8 x 8 cm(2) square layers consisting of 30 LYSO crystals (2 x 3 x 80 mm(2)) interleaved with 24 Wavelength Shifting Fibers (WLS) (3 x 1 x 80 mm(3)). By stacking several layers into a module, the point-of-interaction (POI) can be measured in 3D. Four layers form a PET ring where the sensitivity can be increased by stacking several layers. The layers can be stacked so that no inter-crystal or inter-module gap is formed. COMPET has used four assembled layers for module and scanner characterization. The modules are connected to the COMPET data-acquisition chain and the reconstructed images are produced with the novel geometry-independent COMPET image reconstruction algorithm. Time and energy resolution have been resolved and found to be around 4 as and 14% respectively. Tests for MRI interference and count rate performance have been carried out The...

  18. High levels of dietary stearate promote adiposity and deteriorate hepatic insulin sensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Havekes Louis M

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Relatively little is known about the role of specific saturated fatty acids in the development of high fat diet induced obesity and insulin resistance. Here, we have studied the effect of stearate in high fat diets (45% energy as fat on whole body energy metabolism and tissue specific insulin sensitivity. Methods C57Bl/6 mice were fed a low stearate diet based on palm oil or one of two stearate rich diets, one diet based on lard and one diet based on palm oil supplemented with tristearin (to the stearate level of the lard based diet, for a period of 5 weeks. Ad libitum fed Oxidative metabolism was assessed by indirect calorimetry at week 5. Changes in body mass and composition was assessed by DEXA scan analysis. Tissue specific insulin sensitivity was assessed by hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp analysis and Western blot at the end of week 5. Results Indirect calorimetry analysis revealed that high levels of dietary stearate resulted in lower caloric energy expenditure characterized by lower oxidation of fatty acids. In agreement with this metabolic phenotype, mice on the stearate rich diets gained more adipose tissue mass. Whole body and tissue specific insulin sensitivity was assessed by hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp and analysis of insulin induced PKBser473 phosphorylation. Whole body insulin sensitivity was decreased by all high fat diets. However, while insulin-stimulated glucose uptake by peripheral tissues was impaired by all high fat diets, hepatic insulin sensitivity was affected only by the stearate rich diets. This tissue-specific pattern of reduced insulin sensitivity was confirmed by similar impairment in insulin-induced phosphorylation of PKBser473 in both liver and skeletal muscle. Conclusion In C57Bl/6 mice, 5 weeks of a high fat diet rich in stearate induces a metabolic state favoring low oxidative metabolism, increased adiposity and whole body insulin resistance characterized by severe hepatic insulin

  19. A novel detection platform for parallel monitoring of DNA hybridization with high sensitivity and specificity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yi, Sun; Perch-Nielsen, Ivan R.; Wang, Zhenyu

    We developed a high-sensitive platform to monior multiple hybridization events in real time. By creating a microoptical array in a polymeric chip, the system combine the excellent discriminative power of supercritical angle fluorescence (SAF) microscopy with high-throughput capabilities of microa......We developed a high-sensitive platform to monior multiple hybridization events in real time. By creating a microoptical array in a polymeric chip, the system combine the excellent discriminative power of supercritical angle fluorescence (SAF) microscopy with high-throughput capabilities...... of microarrays. The micro-optical array is easy to fabricate, and exhibits significantly improved analytical performance. It has a potential to become a basic tool for applications such as gene expression or single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) detection....

  20. A flexible and highly pressure-sensitive graphene-polyurethane sponge based on fractured microstructure design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Hong-Bin; Ge, Jin; Wang, Chang-Feng; Wang, Xu; Hu, Wei; Zheng, Zhi-Jun; Ni, Yong; Yu, Shu-Hong

    2013-12-10

    A fractured microstructure design: A new type of piezoresistive sensor with ultra-high-pressure sensitivity (0.26 kPa(-1) ) in low pressure range (design in a graphene-nanosheet-wrapped polyurethane (PU) sponge. This low-cost and easily scalable graphene-wrapped PU sponge pressure sensor has potential application in high-spatial-resolution, artificial skin without complex nanostructure design. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. 12th Rencontres du Vietnam : High Sensitivity Experiments Beyond the Standard Model

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this workshop is to gather researchers, theoreticians, experimentalists and young scientists searching for physics beyond the Standard Model of particle physics using high sensitivity experiments. The standard model has been very successful in describing the particle physics world; the Higgs-Englert-Brout boson discovery is its last major discovery. Complementary to the high energy frontier explored at colliders, real opportunities for discovery exist at the precision frontier, testing fundamental symmetries and tracking small SM deviations.

  2. Laryngeal High-Speed Videoendoscopy: Sensitivity of Objective Parameters towards Recording Frame Rate

    OpenAIRE

    Anne Schützenberger; Melda Kunduk; Michael Döllinger; Christoph Alexiou; Denis Dubrovskiy; Marion Semmler; Anja Seger; Christopher Bohr

    2016-01-01

    The current use of laryngeal high-speed videoendoscopy in clinic settings involves subjective visual assessment of vocal fold vibratory characteristics. However, objective quantification of vocal fold vibrations for evidence-based diagnosis and therapy is desired, and objective parameters assessing laryngeal dynamics have therefore been suggested. This study investigated the sensitivity of the objective parameters and their dependence on recording frame rate. A total of 300 endoscopic high-sp...

  3. Temperature insensitive hysteresis free highly sensitive polymer optical fiber Bragg grating humidity sensor

    OpenAIRE

    Woyessa, Getinet; Nielsen, Kristian; Stefani, Alessio; Markos, Christos; Bang, Ole

    2016-01-01

    The effect of humidity on annealing of poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) based microstructured polymer optical fiber Bragg gratings (mPOFBGs) and the resulting humidity responsivity are investigated. Typically annealing of PMMA POFs is done in an oven without humidity control around 80°C and therefore at low humidity. We demonstrate that annealing at high humidity and high temperature improves the performances of mPOFBGs in terms of stability and sensitivity to humidity. PMMA POFBGs that are ...

  4. Sensitivity of MENA Tropical Rainbelt to Dust Shortwave Absorption: A High Resolution AGCM Experiment

    KAUST Repository

    Bangalath, Hamza Kunhu

    2016-06-13

    Shortwave absorption is one of the most important, but the most uncertain, components of direct radiative effect by mineral dust. It has a broad range of estimates from different observational and modeling studies and there is no consensus on the strength of absorption. To elucidate the sensitivity of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) tropical summer rainbelt to a plausible range of uncertainty in dust shortwave absorption, AMIP-style global high resolution (25 km) simulations are conducted with and without dust, using the High-Resolution Atmospheric Model (HiRAM). Simulations with dust comprise three different cases by assuming dust as a very efficient, standard and inefficient absorber. Inter-comparison of these simulations shows that the response of the MENA tropical rainbelt is extremely sensitive to the strength of shortwave absorption. Further analyses reveal that the sensitivity of the rainbelt stems from the sensitivity of the multi-scale circulations that define the rainbelt. The maximum response and sensitivity are predicted over the northern edge of the rainbelt, geographically over Sahel. The sensitivity of the responses over the Sahel, especially that of precipitation, is comparable to the mean state. Locally, the response in precipitation reaches up to 50% of the mean, while dust is assumed to be a very efficient absorber. Taking into account that Sahel has a very high climate variability and is extremely vulnerable to changes in precipitation, the present study suggests the importance of reducing uncertainty in dust shortwave absorption for a better simulation and interpretation of the Sahel climate.

  5. The Effect of a Diet Moderately High in Protein and Fiber on Insulin Sensitivity Measured Using the Dynamic Insulin Sensitivity and Secretion Test (DISST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Te Morenga

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Evidence shows that weight loss improves insulin sensitivity but few studies have examined the effect of macronutrient composition independently of weight loss on direct measures of insulin sensitivity. We randomised 89 overweight or obese women to either a standard diet (StdD, that was intended to be low in fat and relatively high in carbohydrate (n = 42 or to a relatively high protein (up to 30% of energy, relatively high fibre (>30 g/day diet (HPHFib (n = 47 for 10 weeks. Advice regarding strict adherence to energy intake goals was not given. Insulin sensitivity and secretion was assessed by a novel method—the Dynamic Insulin Sensitivity and Secretion Test (DISST. Although there were significant improvements in body composition and most cardiometabolic risk factors on HPHFib, insulin sensitivity was reduced by 19.3% (95% CI: 31.8%, 4.5%; p = 0.013 in comparison with StdD. We conclude that the reduction in insulin sensitivity after a diet relatively high in both protein and fibre, despite cardiometabolic improvements, suggests insulin sensitivity may reflect metabolic adaptations to dietary composition for maintenance of glucose homeostasis, rather than impaired metabolism.

  6. High sensitivity optical biosensor based on polymer materials and using the Vernier effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azuelos, Paul; Girault, Pauline; Lorrain, Nathalie; Poffo, Luiz; Guendouz, Mohammed; Thual, Monique; Lemaître, Jonathan; Pirasteh, Parastesh; Hardy, Isabelle; Charrier, Joël

    2017-11-27

    We demonstrate the fabrication of a Vernier effect SU8/PMATRIFE polymer optical biosensor with high homogeneous sensitivity using a standard photolithography process. The sensor is based on one micro-resonator embedded on each arm of a Mach-Zehnder interferometer. Measurements are based on the refractive index variation of the optical waveguide superstrate with different concentrations of glucose solutions. The sensitivity of the sensor has been measured as 17558 nm/RIU and the limit of detection has been estimated to 1.1.10-6 RIU.

  7. High quality factor and high sensitivity chalcogenide 1D photonic crystal microbridge cavity for mid-infrared sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Peipeng; Yu, Zenghui; Shen, Xiang; Dai, Shixun

    2017-01-01

    We present and theoretically investigate a mid-infrared (mid-IR) optical sensor based on a Ge11.5As24Se64.5 one-dimensional photonic crystal microbridge cavity (PhC-MC). Optimizing the structure of the PhC-MC strongly confines the resonant mode field to the air region, thereby greatly enhancing the overlap and interaction of the light field and target analytes. A high calculated sensitivity (2280 nm per refractive index unit) is achieved with a resonant wavelength of 4132 nm. The figure of merit of the device for sensing is extremely high (929,750) because of the high quality factor and sensitivity of the cavity. The sensing part of the cavity is also small (50×3 μm2). The proposed PhC-MC can be an ideal platform for on-chip integrated mid-IR optical sensing.

  8. The fabrication of high sensitivity gold nanorod H2S gas sensors utilizing the highly uniform anodic aluminum oxide template

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Yu Li

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Gold nanorod were fabricated using anodic alumina oxide template for H2S gas detection. The nanorod gas sensor exhibits high surface density and contact area, which can increase detection sensitivity. The anodic alumina oxide template contains an array of pores, with a width of 70 nm and a length of 27μm. Au nanorod were obtained through electro-deposition under a pulse bias of −1 V. The resistance of the Au nanorod was recorded upon exposure to various concentrations of H2S. The resistance could be attributed to the high electron affinity between sulfide and Au nanorod. Au–sulfide bonds provide strong bonding, which could alter the conductivity of the sensor. The gas sensor exhibits high sensitivity and short response time for H2S detection at room temperature.

  9. A SERS-based lateral flow assay biosensor for highly sensitive detection of HIV-1 DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Xiuli; Cheng, Ziyi; Yu, Jimin; Choo, Priscilla; Chen, Lingxin; Choo, Jaebum

    2016-04-15

    User-friendly lateral flow (LF) strips have been extensively used for point-of-care (POC) self-diagnostics, but they have some limitations in their detection sensitivity and quantitative analysis because they only identify the high cut-off value of a biomarker by utilizing color changes that are detected with the naked eye. To resolve these problems associated with LF strips, we developed a novel surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS)-based LF assay for the quantitative analysis of a specific biomarker in the low concentration range. Herein, human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) DNA was chosen as the specific biomarker. Raman reporter-labeled gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) were employed as SERS nano tags for targeting and detecting the HIV-1 DNA marker, as opposed to using bare AuNPs in LF strips. It was possible to quantitatively analyze HIV-1 DNA with high sensitivity by monitoring the characteristic Raman peak intensity of the DNA-conjugated AuNPs. Under optimized conditions, the detection limit of our SERS-based lateral flow assay was 0.24 pg/mL, which was at least 1000 times more sensitive compared to colorimetric or fluorescent detection methods. These results demonstrate the potential feasibility of the proposed SERS-based lateral flow assay to quantitatively detect a broad range of genetic diseases with high sensitivity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. PECULIARITIES OF IMMUNE RESPONSE TO TUBERCULIN IN CHILDREN WITH HIGH SENSITIVITY TO IT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.Ya. Tyul’kova

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available According to normative documents regulating anti-tuberculosis measures, children with hyperergy to tuberculin (papule _ 17 mm are in risk group of development of local tuberculosis. Patients with hyperergy to tuberculin are treated with two anti-tuberculosis drugs for minimization of this risk. Children and adolescents with high sensitivity to tuberculin (papule = 15–16 mm can be treated with one drug. Present study proved that selection of patients into corresponding risk groups based on subjective measures of papule diameter lead to low effectiveness of preventive treatment in children with high sensitivity to tuberculin. An analysis showed that patients with high sensitivity and hyperergy to tuberculin have comparable frequency of different social, epidemiological, clinical and immunopathological states and rates of immunological tests. This fact shows necessity of observation of children with papule 15–16 mm as a reaction for 2 tuberculin units in frames of VI B group and performance of preventive treatment with two antituberculosis drugs.Key words: children, tuberculin, sensitivity, hyperergy, immune system.(Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. – 2010;9(4:22-26

  11. Covalent functionalization of zinc oxide nanowires for high sensitivity p-nitrophenol detection in biological systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Anurag, E-mail: agupta16@crimson.ua.edu [The University of Alabama, 101 Houser Hall, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 (United States); Kim, Bruce C. [The University of Alabama, 101 Houser Hall, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 (United States); Edwards, Eugene; Brantley, Christina; Ruffin, Paul [U.S. Army, RDECOM/AMRDEC, 5400 Fowler Road, Redstone Arsenal, AL 35898 (United States)

    2012-11-01

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High quality synthesis of ZnO nanowires through a CVD process and characterization. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Covalent functionalization with fluorescent receptor to produce novel hybrid organic-inorganic system. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Surface sensitive XPS results are analyzed to deduce proof of covalent functionalization. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Detection limit of 28 ppb estimated for sensor through fluorescence studies. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Highly sensitive and selective sensing platform design is proposed based on empirical findings. - Abstract: High-quality zinc oxide (ZnO) nanowires were synthesized using the atmospheric chemical vapor deposition technique and were appropriately characterized. Subsequently, the nanowire surface was covalently grafted with 1-pyrenebutyric acid (PBA) fluorophore, and surface-sensitive X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared-attenuated total reflectance spectroscopy were utilized to confirm the functionalization of 1-pyrenebutyric acid on the nanowire surface. Additionally, photoluminescence (PL) measurements were used to evaluate the optical behavior of pristine nanowires. Through fluorescence quenching of 1-pyrenebutyric acid by p-nitrophenol, a detection limit of 28 ppb was estimated. Based on these findings, ZnO nanowires functionalized with 1-pyrenebutyric acid are envisaged as extremely sensitive platforms for the ultra-trace detection of p-nitrophenol in biological systems.

  12. Next Generation Flow for highly sensitive and standardized detection of minimal residual disease in multiple myeloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Montero, J; Sanoja-Flores, L; Paiva, B; Puig, N; García-Sánchez, O; Böttcher, S; van der Velden, V H J; Pérez-Morán, J-J; Vidriales, M-B; García-Sanz, R; Jimenez, C; González, M; Martínez-López, J; Corral-Mateos, A; Grigore, G-E; Fluxá, R; Pontes, R; Caetano, J; Sedek, L; Del Cañizo, M-C; Bladé, J; Lahuerta, J-J; Aguilar, C; Bárez, A; García-Mateo, A; Labrador, J; Leoz, P; Aguilera-Sanz, C; San-Miguel, J; Mateos, M-V; Durie, B; van Dongen, J J M; Orfao, A

    2017-10-01

    Flow cytometry has become a highly valuable method to monitor minimal residual disease (MRD) and evaluate the depth of complete response (CR) in bone marrow (BM) of multiple myeloma (MM) after therapy. However, current flow-MRD has lower sensitivity than molecular methods and lacks standardization. Here we report on a novel next generation flow (NGF) approach for highly sensitive and standardized MRD detection in MM. An optimized 2-tube 8-color antibody panel was constructed in five cycles of design-evaluation-redesign. In addition, a bulk-lysis procedure was established for acquisition of ⩾107 cells/sample, and novel software tools were constructed for automatic plasma cell gating. Multicenter evaluation of 110 follow-up BM from MM patients in very good partial response (VGPR) or CR showed a higher sensitivity for NGF-MRD vs conventional 8-color flow-MRD -MRD-positive rate of 47 vs 34% (P=0.003)-. Thus, 25% of patients classified as MRD-negative by conventional 8-color flow were MRD-positive by NGF, translating into a significantly longer progression-free survival for MRD-negative vs MRD-positive CR patients by NGF (75% progression-free survival not reached vs 7 months; P=0.02). This study establishes EuroFlow-based NGF as a highly sensitive, fully standardized approach for MRD detection in MM which overcomes the major limitations of conventional flow-MRD methods and is ready for implementation in routine diagnostics.

  13. A highly sensitive multiplasmonic sensor using hyperbolic chiral sculptured thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Farhat; Faryad, Muhammad

    2017-11-01

    Surface plasmon-polariton (SPP) waves guided by an interface of a metal and a hyperbolic chiral sculptured thin film (STF) were theoretically investigated for optical sensing of an analyte. The chiral STF was infiltrated with the analyte to be sensed, and the resulting change in the incidence angle of excitation of the SPP waves in the prism-coupled configuration was computed. The results indicated the potential of this configuration for a plasmonic sensor with sensitivity up to 6000 degrees per refractive index units of the infiltrating fluid in the angular investigation scheme, with multiple SPP waves of the same frequency but different phase speeds, spatial profiles, and sensitivities. The enhancement in the sensitivity is attributed to the high field strength of the SPP waves near the interface. A multiplasmonic sensor is advantageous because of its potential for higher confidence in the measurement of the same analyte.

  14. MOF-Bacteriophage Biosensor for Highly Sensitive and Specific Detection of Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhardwaj, Neha; Bhardwaj, Sanjeev K; Mehta, Jyotsana; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Deep, Akash

    2017-10-04

    To produce a sensitive and specific biosensor for Staphylococcus aureus, bacteriophages have been interfaced with a water-dispersible and environmentally stable metal-organic framework (MOF), NH 2 -MIL-53(Fe). The conjugation of the MOF with bacteriophages has been achieved through the use of glutaraldehyde as cross-linker. Highly sensitive detection of S. aureus in both synthetic and real samples was realized by the proposed MOF-bacteriophage biosensor based on the photoluminescence quenching phenomena: limit of detection (31 CFU/mL) and range of detection (40 to 4 × 10 8 CFU/mL). This is the first report exploiting the use of an MOF-bacteriophage complex for the biosensing of S. aureus. The results of our study highlight that the proposed biosensor is more sensitive than most of the previous methods while exhibiting some advanced features like specificity, regenerability, extended range of linear detection, and stability for long-term storage (even at room temperature).

  15. High Sensitivity Refractive Index Sensor Based on Dual-Core Photonic Crystal Fiber with Hexagonal Lattice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiyang Wang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A refractive index sensor based on dual-core photonic crystal fiber (PCF with hexagonal lattice is proposed. The effects of geometrical parameters of the PCF on performances of the sensor are investigated by using the finite element method (FEM. Two fiber cores are separated by two air holes filled with the analyte whose refractive index is in the range of 1.33–1.41. Numerical simulation results show that the highest sensitivity can be up to 22,983 nm/RIU(refractive index unit when the analyte refractive index is 1.41. The lowest sensitivity can reach to 21,679 nm/RIU when the analyte refractive index is 1.33. The sensor we proposed has significant advantages in the field of biomolecule detection as it provides a wide-range of detection with high sensitivity.

  16. High Sensitivity Refractive Index Sensor Based on Dual-Core Photonic Crystal Fiber with Hexagonal Lattice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haiyang; Yan, Xin; Li, Shuguang; An, Guowen; Zhang, Xuenan

    2016-10-08

    A refractive index sensor based on dual-core photonic crystal fiber (PCF) with hexagonal lattice is proposed. The effects of geometrical parameters of the PCF on performances of the sensor are investigated by using the finite element method (FEM). Two fiber cores are separated by two air holes filled with the analyte whose refractive index is in the range of 1.33-1.41. Numerical simulation results show that the highest sensitivity can be up to 22,983 nm/RIU(refractive index unit) when the analyte refractive index is 1.41. The lowest sensitivity can reach to 21,679 nm/RIU when the analyte refractive index is 1.33. The sensor we proposed has significant advantages in the field of biomolecule detection as it provides a wide-range of detection with high sensitivity.

  17. Highly sensitive nanostructure SnO2 based gas sensor for environmental pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korgaokar, Sushil; Moradiya, Meet; Prajapati, Om; Thakkar, Pranav; Pala, Jay; Savaliya, Chirag; Parikh, Sachin; Markna, J. H.

    2017-05-01

    A major quantity of pollutants are produced from industries and vehicles in the form of gas. New approaches are needed to solve well-known environmental pollutants like CO, CO2, NO2, SOx. Therefore detection with effective gas sensors is a vital part of pollution prevention efforts. There is a need to develop fast, rapid, cost-effective, highly sensitive, low power, and non-intrusive rugged sensors that can be easily installed. In the present study, nanostructured SnO2 used as a sensitive material in the devices and synthesized using hydrothermal process. The detailed development of the fabrication of SnO2 nanostructures gas sensor is described, which shows the remarkable change in the sensing properties with varying particle size. Additionally, we have used X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) for characterization and carefully examined the relative parameters like response magnitude (sensitivity) and selectivity of SnO2 nano structures with different particle size.

  18. Implementing SPAM into STMAS: a net sensitivity improvement in high-resolution NMR of quadrupolar nuclei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoureux, J P; Delevoye, L; Fink, G; Taulelle, F; Flambard, A; Montagne, L

    2005-08-01

    Gan and Kwak recently introduced two new tools for high-resolution 2D NMR methods applied to quadrupolar nuclei: double-quantum filtering in STMAS (DQF-STMAS) and the soft-pulse added mixing (SPAM) idea. Double-quantum filtering suppresses all undesired signals in the STMAS method with limited loss in sensitivity. With SPAM, all pathways are added constructively after the second hard-pulse instead of using a single pathway as previously. Here, the sensitivity, advantages and drawbacks of DQF-STMAS are compared to 3QMAS. Additionally, SPAM can be included into DQF-STMAS method, resulting in a net sensitivity gain with respect to 3QMAS of ca. 10-15.

  19. Highly sensitive determination of hydrogen peroxide and glucose by fluorescence correlation spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watabe, Satoshi; Sakamoto, Yuki; Morikawa, Mika; Okada, Ryuichi; Miura, Toshiaki; Ito, Etsuro

    2011-01-01

    Because H(2)O(2) is generated by various oxidase-catalyzed reactions, a highly sensitive determination method of H(2)O(2) is applicable to measurements of low levels of various oxidases and their substrates such as glucose, lactate, glutamate, urate, xanthine, choline, cholesterol and NADPH. We propose herein a new, highly sensitive method for the measurement of H(2)O(2) and glucose using fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS). FCS has the advantage of allowing us to determine the number of fluorescent molecules. FCS measures the fluctuations in fluorescence intensity caused by fluorescent probe movement in a small light cavity with a defined volume generated by confocal illumination. We thus developed a highly sensitive determination system of H(2)O(2) by FCS, where horseradish peroxidase (HRP) catalyzes the formation of a covalent bond between fluorescent molecules and proteins in the presence of H(2)O(2). Our developed system gave a linear calibration curve for H(2)O(2) in the range of 28 to 300 nM with the detection limit of 8 nM. In addition, by coupling with glucose oxidase (GOD)-catalyzed reaction, the method allows to measure glucose in the range of 80 nM to 1.5 µM with detection limit of 24 nM. The method was applicable to the assay of glucose in blood plasma. The mean concentration of glucose in normal human blood plasma was determined to be 4.9 mM. In comparison with commercial available methods, the detection limit and the minimum value of determination for glucose are at least 2 orders of magnitude more sensitive in our system. Such a highly sensitive method leads the fact that only a very small amount of plasma (20 nL) is needed for the determination of glucose concentration in blood plasma.

  20. Highly sensitive determination of hydrogen peroxide and glucose by fluorescence correlation spectroscopy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Watabe

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Because H(2O(2 is generated by various oxidase-catalyzed reactions, a highly sensitive determination method of H(2O(2 is applicable to measurements of low levels of various oxidases and their substrates such as glucose, lactate, glutamate, urate, xanthine, choline, cholesterol and NADPH. We propose herein a new, highly sensitive method for the measurement of H(2O(2 and glucose using fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: FCS has the advantage of allowing us to determine the number of fluorescent molecules. FCS measures the fluctuations in fluorescence intensity caused by fluorescent probe movement in a small light cavity with a defined volume generated by confocal illumination. We thus developed a highly sensitive determination system of H(2O(2 by FCS, where horseradish peroxidase (HRP catalyzes the formation of a covalent bond between fluorescent molecules and proteins in the presence of H(2O(2. Our developed system gave a linear calibration curve for H(2O(2 in the range of 28 to 300 nM with the detection limit of 8 nM. In addition, by coupling with glucose oxidase (GOD-catalyzed reaction, the method allows to measure glucose in the range of 80 nM to 1.5 µM with detection limit of 24 nM. The method was applicable to the assay of glucose in blood plasma. The mean concentration of glucose in normal human blood plasma was determined to be 4.9 mM. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In comparison with commercial available methods, the detection limit and the minimum value of determination for glucose are at least 2 orders of magnitude more sensitive in our system. Such a highly sensitive method leads the fact that only a very small amount of plasma (20 nL is needed for the determination of glucose concentration in blood plasma.

  1. Highly Sensitive and Selective Gas Sensor Using Hydrophilic and Hydrophobic Graphenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Some, Surajit; Xu, Yang; Kim, Youngmin; Yoon, Yeoheung; Qin, Hongyi; Kulkarni, Atul; Kim, Taesung; Lee, Hyoyoung

    2013-06-01

    New hydrophilic 2D graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets with various oxygen functional groups were employed to maintain high sensitivity in highly unfavorable environments (extremely high humidity, strong acidic or basic). Novel one-headed polymer optical fiber sensor arrays using hydrophilic GO and hydrophobic reduced graphene oxide (rGO) were carefully designed, leading to the selective sensing of volatile organic gases for the first time. The two physically different surfaces of GO and rGO could provide the sensing ability to distinguish between tetrahydrofuran (THF) and dichloromethane (MC), respectively, which is the most challenging issue in the area of gas sensors. The eco-friendly physical properties of GO allowed for faster sensing and higher sensitivity when compared to previous results for rGO even under extreme environments of over 90% humidity, making it the best choice for an environmentally friendly gas sensor.

  2. Spectral and Concentration Sensitivity of Multijunction Solar Cells at High Temperature: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedman, Daniel J.; Steiner, Myles A.; Perl, Emmett E.; Simon, John

    2017-06-14

    We model the performance of two-junction solar cells at very high temperatures of ~400 degrees C and beyond for applications such as hybrid PV/solar-thermal power production, and identify areas in which the design and performance characteristics behave significantly differently than at more conventional near-room-temperature operating conditions. We show that high-temperature operation reduces the sensitivity of the cell efficiency to spectral content, but increases the sensitivity to concentration, both of which have implications for energy yield in terrestrial PV applications. For other high-temperature applications such as near-sun space missions, our findings indicate that concentration may be a useful tool to enhance cell efficiency.

  3. Ultra-High Sensitive Strain Sensor Based on Post-Processed Optical Fiber Bragg Grating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta S. Ferreira

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available An ultra-high sensitive strain sensor is proposed. The sensing head, based on the post-processing of a fiber Bragg grating, is used to perform passive and active strain measurements. Both wavelength and full width half maximum dependences with the applied strain are studied for the passive sensor, where maximum sensitivities of 104.1 pm/µε and 61.6 pm/µε are respectively obtained. When combining the high performance of this sensor with a ring laser cavity configuration, the Bragg grating will act as a filter and high resolution measurements can be performed. With the proposed sensor, a resolution of 700 nε is achieved.

  4. Highly Sensitive and Ultrastable Skin Sensors for Biopressure and Bioforce Measurements Based on Hierarchical Microstructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Qi-Jun; Zhuang, Jiaqing; Venkatesh, Shishir; Zhou, Ye; Han, Su-Ting; Wu, Wei; Kong, Ka-Wai; Li, Wen-Jung; Chen, Xianfeng; Li, Robert K Y; Roy, Vellaisamy A L

    2018-01-31

    Piezoresistive microsensors are considered to be essential components of the future wearable electronic devices. However, the expensive cost, complex fabrication technology, poor stability, and low yield have limited their developments for practical applications. Here, we present a cost-effective, relatively simple, and high-yield fabrication approach to construct highly sensitive and ultrastable piezoresistive sensors using a bioinspired hierarchically structured graphite/polydimethylsiloxane composite as the active layer. In this fabrication, a commercially available sandpaper is employed as the mold to develop the hierarchical structure. Our devices exhibit fascinating performance including an ultrahigh sensitivity (64.3 kPa-1), fast response time (100 000 cycles), and high ambient stability (>1 year). The applications of these devices in sensing radial artery pulses, acoustic vibrations, and human body motion are demonstrated, exhibiting their enormous potential use in real-time healthcare monitoring and robotic tactile sensing.

  5. Three-dimensional conformal graphene microstructure for flexible and highly sensitive electronic skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jun; Ran, Qincui; Wei, Dapeng; Sun, Tai; Yu, Leyong; Song, Xuefen; Pu, Lichun; Shi, Haofei; Du, Chunlei

    2017-03-01

    We demonstrate a highly stretchable electronic skin (E-skin) based on the facile combination of microstructured graphene nanowalls (GNWs) and a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) substrate. The microstructure of the GNWs was endowed by conformally growing them on the unpolished silicon wafer without the aid of nanofabrication technology. Then a stamping transfer method was used to replicate the micropattern of the unpolished silicon wafer. Due to the large contact interface between the 3D graphene network and the PDMS, this type of E-skin worked under a stretching ratio of nearly 100%, and showed excellent mechanical strength and high sensitivity, with a change in relative resistance of up to 6500% and a gauge factor of 65.9 at 99.64% strain. Furthermore, the E-skin exhibited an obvious highly sensitive response to joint movement, eye movement and sound vibration, demonstrating broad potential applications in healthcare, body monitoring and wearable devices.

  6. Evaluation of different calibration curves QA of IMRT plans with radiochromic films; Evaluacion de diversas curvas de calibracion QA de planes de IMRT con peliculas radiocromicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez Rodriguez, J.; Martin Rincon, C.; Garcia Repiso, S.; Ramos Paheo, J. A.; Verde Velasco, J. M.; Sena Espinel, E. de

    2013-07-01

    The non-linear relationship between dose and the optical density, characteristic plates radiochromic Gafchromic EBT and EBT2, has been studied by various authors, whose publications are proposed different functional forms that fit the specific values measured curves that allow the full range of useful dose calibration. The objective of the work focuses on evaluating the influence of the use of different calibration curves in the dose measurement for quality control of IMRT treatments. (Author)

  7. Compton imaging with a highly-segmented, position-sensitive HPGe detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinbach, T.; Hirsch, R.; Reiter, P.; Birkenbach, B.; Bruyneel, B.; Eberth, J.; Hess, H.; Lewandowski, L. [Universitaet zu Koeln, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Koeln (Germany); Gernhaeuser, R.; Maier, L.; Schlarb, M.; Weiler, B.; Winkel, M. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Physik Department, Garching (Germany)

    2017-02-15

    A Compton camera based on a highly-segmented high-purity germanium (HPGe) detector and a double-sided silicon-strip detector (DSSD) was developed, tested, and put into operation; the origin of γ radiation was determined successfully. The Compton camera is operated in two different modes. Coincidences from Compton-scattered γ-ray events between DSSD and HPGe detector allow for best angular resolution; while the high-efficiency mode takes advantage of the position sensitivity of the highly-segmented HPGe detector. In this mode the setup is sensitive to the whole 4π solid angle. The interaction-point positions in the 36-fold segmented large-volume HPGe detector are determined by pulse-shape analysis (PSA) of all HPGe detector signals. Imaging algorithms were developed for each mode and successfully implemented. The angular resolution sensitively depends on parameters such as geometry, selected multiplicity and interaction-point distances. Best results were obtained taking into account the crosstalk properties, the time alignment of the signals and the distance metric for the PSA for both operation modes. An angular resolution between 13.8 {sup circle} and 19.1 {sup circle}, depending on the minimal interaction-point distance for the high-efficiency mode at an energy of 1275 keV, was achieved. In the coincidence mode, an increased angular resolution of 4.6 {sup circle} was determined for the same γ-ray energy. (orig.)

  8. Design of a Matching Network for a High-Sensitivity Broadband Magnetic Resonance Sounding Coil Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yang; Teng, Fei; Li, Suhang; Wan, Ling; Lin, Tingting

    2017-10-27

    The magnetic resonance sounding (MRS) technique is a non-invasive geophysical method that can provide unique insights into the hydrological properties of groundwater. The Cu coil sensor is the preferred choice for detecting the weak MRS signal because of its high sensitivity, low fabrication complexity and low cost. The tuned configuration was traditionally used for the MRS coil sensor design because of its high sensitivity and narrowband filtering. However, its narrow bandwidth may distort the MRS signals. To address this issue, a non-tuned design exhibiting a broad bandwidth has emerged recently, however, the sensitivity decreases as the bandwidth increases. Moreover, the effect of the MRS applications is often seriously influenced by power harmonic noises in the developed areas, especially low-frequency harmonics, resulting in saturation of the coil sensor, regardless of the tuned or non-tuned configuration. To solve the two aforementioned problems, we propose a matching network consisting of an LC broadband filter in parallel with a matching capacitor and provide a design for a coil sensor with a matching network (CSMN). The theoretical parameter calculations and the equivalent schematic of the CSMN with noise sources are investigated, and the sensitivity of the CSMN is evaluated by the Allan variance and the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Correspondingly, we constructed the CSMN with a 3 dB bandwidth, passband gain, normalized equivalent input noise and sensitivity (detection limit) of 1030 Hz, 4.6 dB, 1.78 nV/(Hz)(1/2) @ 2 kHz and 3 nV, respectively. Experimental tests in the laboratory show that the CSMN can not only improve the sensitivity, but also inhibit the signal distortion by suppressing power harmonic noises in the strong electromagnetic interference environment. Finally, a field experiment is performed with the CSMN to show a valid measurement of the signals of an MRS instrument system.

  9. A Microneedle Functionalized with Polyethyleneimine and Nanotubes for Highly Sensitive, Label-Free Quantification of DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saadat-Moghaddam, Darius; Kim, Jong-Hoon

    2017-01-01

    The accurate measure of DNA concentration is necessary for many DNA-based biological applications. However, the current methods are limited in terms of sensitivity, reproducibility, human error, and contamination. Here, we present a microneedle functionalized with polyethyleneimine (PEI) and single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) for the highly sensitive quantification of DNA. The microneedle was fabricated using ultraviolet (UV) lithography and anisotropic etching, and then functionalized with PEI and SWCNTs through a dip coating process. The electrical characteristics of the microneedle change with the accumulation of DNA on the surface. Current-voltage measurements in deionized water were conducted to study these changes in the electrical properties of the sensor. The sensitivity test found the signal to be discernable from the noise level down to 100 attomolar (aM), demonstrating higher sensitivity than currently available UV fluorescence and UV absorbance based methods. A microneedle without any surface modification only had a 100 femtomolar (fM) sensitivity. All measurement results were consistent with fluorescence microscopy. PMID:28812987

  10. Development of a highly sensitive lateral immunochromatographic assay for rapid detection of Vibrio parahaemolyticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xinfeng; Guan, Yuyao; Cheng, Shiliang; Huang, Yidan; Yan, Qin; Zhang, Jun; Huang, Guanjun; Zheng, Jian; Liu, Tianqiang

    2016-12-01

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus is widely present in brackish water all over the world, causing infections in certain aquatic animals. It is also a foodborne pathogen that causes diarrhea in humans. The aim of this study is to develop an immunochromatographic lateral flow assay (LFA) for rapid detection of V. parahaemolyticus in both aquatic products and human feces of diarrheal patients. Two monoclonal antibody (MAb) pairs, GA1a-IC9 and IC9-KB4c, were developed and proven to be highly specific and sensitive to V. parahaemolyticus. Based on the two MAb pairs, two types of LFA strips were prepared. Their testing limits for V. parahaemolyticus culture were both 1.2×103CFU/ml. The diagnostic sensitivities and specificities were both 100% for the 32 tested microbial species, including 6 Vibrio species. Subsequently, the LFA strips were used to test Whiteleg shrimps and human feces. The type II strip showed a higher diagnostic sensitivity. Its sensitivity and specificity for hepatopancreas and fecal samples from 13 Whiteleg shrimps and fecal samples from 146 human diarrheal patients were all 100%. In conclusion, our homemade type II LFA is a very promising testing device for rapid and convenient detection of V. parahaemolyticus infection not only in aquatic animals, but also in human diarrheal patients. This sensitive immunochromtographic LFA allows rapid detection of V. parahaemolyticus without requirement of culture enrichment. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Application of a sensitivity analysis technique to high-order digital flight control systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paduano, James D.; Downing, David R.

    1987-01-01

    A sensitivity analysis technique for multiloop flight control systems is studied. This technique uses the scaled singular values of the return difference matrix as a measure of the relative stability of a control system. It then uses the gradients of these singular values with respect to system and controller parameters to judge sensitivity. The sensitivity analysis technique is first reviewed; then it is extended to include digital systems, through the derivation of singular-value gradient equations. Gradients with respect to parameters which do not appear explicitly as control-system matrix elements are also derived, so that high-order systems can be studied. A complete review of the integrated technique is given by way of a simple example: the inverted pendulum problem. The technique is then demonstrated on the X-29 control laws. Results show linear models of real systems can be analyzed by this sensitivity technique, if it is applied with care. A computer program called SVA was written to accomplish the singular-value sensitivity analysis techniques. Thus computational methods and considerations form an integral part of many of the discussions. A user's guide to the program is included. The SVA is a fully public domain program, running on the NASA/Dryden Elxsi computer.

  12. Performance evaluation of the ECAT HRRT: an LSO-LYSO double layer high resolution, high sensitivity scanner

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Hugo W. A. M.; van Velden, Floris H. P.; Kloet, Reina W.; Buijs, Fred L.; Boellaard, Ronald; Lammertsma, Adriaan A.

    2007-03-01

    The ECAT high resolution research tomograph (HRRT) is a dedicated brain and small animal PET scanner, with design features that enable high image spatial resolution combined with high sensitivity. The HRRT is the first commercially available scanner that utilizes a double layer of LSO/LYSO crystals to achieve photon detection with depth-of-interaction information. In this study, the performance of the commercial LSO/LYSO HRRT was characterized, using the NEMA protocol as a guideline. Besides measurement of spatial resolution, energy resolution, sensitivity, scatter fraction, count rate performance, correction for attenuation and scatter, hot spot recovery and image quality, a clinical evaluation was performed by means of a HR+/HRRT human brain comparison study. Point source resolution varied across the field of view from approximately 2.3 to 3.2 mm (FWHM) in the transaxial direction and from 2.5 to 3.4 mm in the axial direction. Absolute line-source sensitivity ranged from 2.5 to 3.3% and the NEMA-2001 scatter fraction equalled 45%. Maximum NECR was 45 kcps and 148 kcps according to the NEMA-2001 and 1994 protocols, respectively. Attenuation and scatter correction led to a volume uniformity of 6.3% and a system uniformity of 3.1%. Reconstructed values deviated up to 15 and 8% in regions with high and low densities, respectively, which can possibly be assigned to inaccuracies in scatter estimation. Hot spot recovery ranged from 60 to 94% for spheres with diameters of 1 to 2.2 cm. A high quantitative agreement was met between HR+ and HRRT clinical data. In conclusion, the ECAT HRRT has excellent resolution and sensitivity properties, which is a crucial advantage in many research studies.

  13. Performance evaluation of the ECAT HRRT: an LSO-LYSO double layer high resolution, high sensitivity scanner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jong, Hugo W A M de; Velden, Floris H P van; Kloet, Reina W; Buijs, Fred L; Boellaard, Ronald; Lammertsma, Adriaan A [Department of Nuclear Medicine and PET Research, VU University Medical Centre, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2007-03-07

    The ECAT high resolution research tomograph (HRRT) is a dedicated brain and small animal PET scanner, with design features that enable high image spatial resolution combined with high sensitivity. The HRRT is the first commercially available scanner that utilizes a double layer of LSO/LYSO crystals to achieve photon detection with depth-of-interaction information. In this study, the performance of the commercial LSO/LYSO HRRT was characterized, using the NEMA protocol as a guideline. Besides measurement of spatial resolution, energy resolution, sensitivity, scatter fraction, count rate performance, correction for attenuation and scatter, hot spot recovery and image quality, a clinical evaluation was performed by means of a HR+/HRRT human brain comparison study. Point source resolution varied across the field of view from approximately 2.3 to 3.2 mm (FWHM) in the transaxial direction and from 2.5 to 3.4 mm in the axial direction. Absolute line-source sensitivity ranged from 2.5 to 3.3% and the NEMA-2001 scatter fraction equalled 45%. Maximum NECR was 45 kcps and 148 kcps according to the NEMA-2001 and 1994 protocols, respectively. Attenuation and scatter correction led to a volume uniformity of 6.3% and a system uniformity of 3.1%. Reconstructed values deviated up to 15 and 8% in regions with high and low densities, respectively, which can possibly be assigned to inaccuracies in scatter estimation. Hot spot recovery ranged from 60 to 94% for spheres with diameters of 1 to 2.2 cm. A high quantitative agreement was met between HR+ and HRRT clinical data. In conclusion, the ECAT HRRT has excellent resolution and sensitivity properties, which is a crucial advantage in many research studies.

  14. Development of HEROICs: High-Sensitivity, High-Dynamic Range Detector Systems for Ultraviolet Astronomy Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — "We propose a four-year program for the fabrication and characterization of high dynamic range, low background photon counting detectors that will support the next...

  15. MWCNTs based high sensitive lateral flow strip biosensor for rapid determination of aqueous mercury ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Li; Teng, Jun; Zhu, Mengya; Zheng, Lei; Zhong, Youhao; Liu, Guodong; Xue, Feng; Chen, Wei

    2016-11-15

    Here, we describe a disposable multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) labeled nucleic acid lateral flow strip biosensor for rapid and sensitive detection of aqueous mercury ions (Hg(2+)). Unlike the conventional colloidal gold nanoparticle based strip biosensors, the carboxylated MWCNTs were selected as the labeling substrate because of its high specific surface area for immobilization of recognition probes, improved stability and enhanced detection sensitivity of the strip biosensor. Combining the sandwich-type of T-Hg(2+)-T recognition mechanism with the optical properties of MWCNTs on lateral flow strip, optical black bands were observed on the lateral flow strips. Parameters (such as membrane category, the MWCNTs concentration, the amount of MWCNT-DNA probe, and the volume of the test probe) that govern the sensitivity and reproducibility of the sensor were optimized. The response of the optimized biosensor was highly linear over the range of 0.05-1ppb target Hg(2+), and the detection threshold was estimated at 0.05 ppb within a 15-min assay time. The sensitivity was 10-fold higher than the conventional colloidal gold based strip biosensor. More importantly, the stability of the sensor was also greatly improved with the usage of MWCNTs as the labeling. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Corrosion Behavior of the Stressed Sensitized Austenitic Stainless Steels of High Nitrogen Content in Seawater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Almubarak

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to study the effect of high nitrogen content on corrosion behavior of austenitic stainless steels in seawater under severe conditions such as tensile stresses and existence of sensitization in the structure. A constant tensile stress has been applied to sensitized specimens types 304, 316L, 304LN, 304NH, and 316NH stainless steels. Microstructure investigation revealed various degrees of stress corrosion cracking. SCC was severe in type 304, moderate in types 316L and 304LN, and very slight in types 304NH and 316NH. The electrochemical polarization curves showed an obvious second current peak for the sensitized alloys which indicated the existence of second phase in the structure and the presence of intergranular stress corrosion cracking. EPR test provided a rapid and efficient nondestructive testing method for showing passivity, degree of sensitization and determining IGSCC for stainless steels in seawater. A significant conclusion was obtained that austenitic stainless steels of high nitrogen content corrode at a much slower rate increase pitting resistance and offer an excellent resistance to stress corrosion cracking in seawater.

  17. High Sensitivity Gas Detection Using a Macroscopic Three-Dimensional Graphene Foam Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavari, Fazel; Chen, Zongping; Thomas, Abhay V.; Ren, Wencai; Cheng, Hui-Ming; Koratkar, Nikhil

    2011-11-01

    Nanostructures are known to be exquisitely sensitive to the chemical environment and offer ultra-high sensitivity for gas-sensing. However, the fabrication and operation of devices that use individual nanostructures for sensing is complex, expensive and suffers from poor reliability due to contamination and large variability from sample-to-sample. By contrast, conventional solid-state and conducting-polymer sensors offer excellent reliability but suffer from reduced sensitivity at room-temperature. Here we report a macro graphene foam-like three-dimensional network which combines the best of both worlds. The walls of the foam are comprised of few-layer graphene sheets resulting in high sensitivity; we demonstrate parts-per-million level detection of NH3 and NO2 in air at room-temperature. Further, the foam is a mechanically robust and flexible macro-scale network that is easy to contact (without Lithography) and can rival the durability and affordability of traditional sensors. Moreover, Joule-heating expels chemisorbed molecules from the foam's surface leading to fully-reversible and low-power operation.

  18. A high-sensitivity thromboplastin reagent prepared from cultured human cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdes-Camin, R; Callahan, J B; Ebert, R F

    1994-08-01

    High-sensitivity thromboplastin reagents suitable for use in the prothrombin time (PT) assay are typically prepared from human brain and placenta, tissues that are in limited supply and subject to viral contamination. Cloning and expression of recombinant human tissue factor (TF) has enabled production of a new generation of thromboplastin reagents whose performance and utility are under active investigation. The purpose of this study was to determine the feasibility of producing a sensitive human thromboplastin reagent from a non-recombinant source: cultured human cells. Several human cell lines with apparently high constitutive TF synthesis were identified, and a viable thromboplastin reagent (Humaplastin) was produced from a human lung cell line via a non-conventional process that did not require reconstitution or rehydration of TF in cell membranes. When calibrated against BCT/253, a human brain international reference thromboplastin, Humaplastin exhibited a mean normal prothrombin time of 12.6 +/- 0.7 s (mean +/- SD: n = 20) and an International Sensitivity Index of 1.09 +/- 0.019. The performance of this reagent was well correlated (r = 0.983) with Thromborel S, a commercially available human placental thromboplastin reagent. Orthogonal least squares regression of the log PT values from the placental thromboplastin reagent versus Humaplastin and two recombinant TF-based thromboplastin reagents suggested that the latter three reagents are somewhat more sensitive than the placental thromboplastin reagent, although such differences should not be expected to have a significant impact on clinical utility. It is concluded that cultured human lung cells represent a suitable source of tissue thromboplastin for production of a high-sensitivity non-recombinant thromboplastin reagent.

  19. High-Efficiency Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell with Three-Dimensional Photoanode

    KAUST Repository

    Tétreault, Nicolas

    2011-11-09

    Herein, we present a straightforward bottom-up synthesis of a high electron mobility and highly light scattering macroporous photoanode for dye-sensitized solar cells. The dense three-dimensional Al/ZnO, SnO2, or TiO 2 host integrates a conformal passivation thin film to reduce recombination and a large surface-area mesoporous anatase guest for high dye loading. This novel photoanode is designed to improve the charge extraction resulting in higher fill factor and photovoltage for DSCs. An increase in photovoltage of up to 110 mV over state-of-the-art DSC is demonstrated. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  20. Scrambled eggs: A highly sensitive molecular diagnostic workflow for Fasciola species specific detection from faecal samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nichola Eliza Davies Calvani

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Fasciolosis, due to Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica, is a re-emerging zoonotic parasitic disease of worldwide importance. Human and animal infections are commonly diagnosed by the traditional sedimentation and faecal egg-counting technique. However, this technique is time-consuming and prone to sensitivity errors when a large number of samples must be processed or if the operator lacks sufficient experience. Additionally, diagnosis can only be made once the 12-week pre-patent period has passed. Recently, a commercially available coprological antigen ELISA has enabled detection of F. hepatica prior to the completion of the pre-patent period, providing earlier diagnosis and increased throughput, although species differentiation is not possible in areas of parasite sympatry. Real-time PCR offers the combined benefits of highly sensitive species differentiation for medium to large sample sizes. However, no molecular diagnostic workflow currently exists for the identification of Fasciola spp. in faecal samples.A new molecular diagnostic workflow for the highly-sensitive detection and quantification of Fasciola spp. in faecal samples was developed. The technique involves sedimenting and pelleting the samples prior to DNA isolation in order to concentrate the eggs, followed by disruption by bead-beating in a benchtop homogeniser to ensure access to DNA. Although both the new molecular workflow and the traditional sedimentation technique were sensitive and specific, the new molecular workflow enabled faster sample throughput in medium to large epidemiological studies, and provided the additional benefit of speciation. Further, good correlation (R2 = 0.74-0.76 was observed between the real-time PCR values and the faecal egg count (FEC using the new molecular workflow for all herds and sampling periods. Finally, no effect of storage in 70% ethanol was detected on sedimentation and DNA isolation outcomes; enabling transport of samples from endemic

  1. Scrambled eggs: A highly sensitive molecular diagnostic workflow for Fasciola species specific detection from faecal samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvani, Nichola Eliza Davies; Windsor, Peter Andrew; Bush, Russell David; Šlapeta, Jan

    2017-09-01

    Fasciolosis, due to Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica, is a re-emerging zoonotic parasitic disease of worldwide importance. Human and animal infections are commonly diagnosed by the traditional sedimentation and faecal egg-counting technique. However, this technique is time-consuming and prone to sensitivity errors when a large number of samples must be processed or if the operator lacks sufficient experience. Additionally, diagnosis can only be made once the 12-week pre-patent period has passed. Recently, a commercially available coprological antigen ELISA has enabled detection of F. hepatica prior to the completion of the pre-patent period, providing earlier diagnosis and increased throughput, although species differentiation is not possible in areas of parasite sympatry. Real-time PCR offers the combined benefits of highly sensitive species differentiation for medium to large sample sizes. However, no molecular diagnostic workflow currently exists for the identification of Fasciola spp. in faecal samples. A new molecular diagnostic workflow for the highly-sensitive detection and quantification of Fasciola spp. in faecal samples was developed. The technique involves sedimenting and pelleting the samples prior to DNA isolation in order to concentrate the eggs, followed by disruption by bead-beating in a benchtop homogeniser to ensure access to DNA. Although both the new molecular workflow and the traditional sedimentation technique were sensitive and specific, the new molecular workflow enabled faster sample throughput in medium to large epidemiological studies, and provided the additional benefit of speciation. Further, good correlation (R2 = 0.74-0.76) was observed between the real-time PCR values and the faecal egg count (FEC) using the new molecular workflow for all herds and sampling periods. Finally, no effect of storage in 70% ethanol was detected on sedimentation and DNA isolation outcomes; enabling transport of samples from endemic to non

  2. A Flexible and Highly Sensitive Pressure Sensor Based on a PDMS Foam Coated with Graphene Nanoplatelets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Rinaldi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The demand for high performance multifunctional wearable devices is more and more pushing towards the development of novel low-cost, soft and flexible sensors with high sensitivity. In the present work, we describe the fabrication process and the properties of new polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS foams loaded with multilayer graphene nanoplatelets (MLGs for application as high sensitive piezoresistive pressure sensors. The effective DC conductivity of the produced foams is measured as a function of MLG loading. The piezoresistive response of the MLG-PDMS foam-based sensor at different strain rates is assessed through quasi-static pressure tests. The results of the experimental investigations demonstrated that sensor loaded with 0.96 wt.% of MLGs is characterized by a highly repeatable pressure-dependent conductance after a few stabilization cycles and it is suitable for detecting compressive stresses as low as 10 kPa, with a sensitivity of 0.23 kPa−1, corresponding to an applied pressure of 70 kPa. Moreover, it is estimated that the sensor is able to detect pressure variations of ~1 Pa. Therefore, the new graphene-PDMS composite foam is a lightweight cost-effective material, suitable for sensing applications in the subtle or low and medium pressure ranges.

  3. SERUM LEVELS OF HIGH SENSITIVITY C REACTIVE PROTEIN AND MALONDIALDEHYDE IN CHRONIC KIDNEY DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakshitha Gowda B.H, Meera K.S , Mahesh E

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chronic kidney disease cases are at increased risk for progression to end stage renal disease and accelerated atherosclerosis, with premature cardiovascular morbidity and mortality being the more frequent outcome. Aim: The study was taken up to find if there is any association between nontraditional cardiovascular risk markers like high sensitivity C reactive protein (marker of inflammation and malondialdehyde (marker of lipid peroxidation with the progression of chronic kidney disease. Methodology: The study included 44 pre dialysis chronic kidney disease cases and 44 healthy controls. Serum levels of creatinine, high sensitivity C reactive protein and malondialdehyde were estimated in both groups. The mean estimated glomerular filtration rate(eGFR in chronic kidney disease patients was calculated by the MDRD formula. Results: The mean eGFR in cases was found to be 23.65 14.99 ml/min by MDRD formula. The serum hsCRP and malondialdehyde levels in cases was 11.8 7.24 mg/L and 3.02 1.24 nmol/ml respectively. Conclusion: There was a significant negative correlation (p<0.001 between high sensitivity C-reactive protein and malondialdehyde with eGFR. A highly significant positive correlation was found between serum hsCRP and malondialdehyde (p<0.001 in chronic kidney disease underlining the synergism between oxidative stress and inflammation, perpetuating to further deterioration of renal function and enhancing the predisposition to cardiovascular risk with the progression of chronic kidney disease.

  4. Aptamer-Based ELISA Assay for Highly Specific and Sensitive Detection of Zika NS1 Protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyung Hyun; Zeng, Huaqiang

    2017-12-05

    We report here a few Zika NS1-binding ssDNA aptamers selected using the conventional SELEX protocol, and their application in an ELISA assay for sensitive diagnosis of Zika NS1 protein. Among the aptamers identified, aptamers 2 and 10 could recognize different binding epitopes of Zika NS1 protein. This complementary in binding site, when coupled with an extraordinarily high binding affinity by 2 (41-nt, KD = 45 pM) and high specificity by 10, was used successfully to construct an ELISA-based assay where 2 and 10 serve as the capture and detection agents, respectively, giving rise to a highly specific detection of Zika NS1 with a detection limit of 100 ng/mL in buffer. Further testing of a few in-house anti-Zika NS1 antibodies show that 2 could also pair with an anti-Zika NS1 antibody. Such aptamer-antibody pairing not only lowers the detection sensitivity by 3 orders of magnitude to 0.1 ng/mL in buffer but also enable highly sensitive detection of as low as 1 and 10 ng/mL of Zika NS1 to be carried out in 10% and 100% human serum, respectively. These results suggest that the selected aptamers would be useful for medical diagnosis of Zika virus infection in various aptamer-based diagnostic devices including ELISA assay.

  5. Fabrication of highly catalytic silver nanoclusters/graphene oxide nanocomposite as nanotag for sensitive electrochemical immunoassay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiamian; Wang, Xiuyun; Wu, Shuo; Song, Jie; Zhao, Yanqiu; Ge, Yanqiu; Meng, Changgong

    2016-02-04

    Silver nanoclusters and graphene oxide nanocomposite (AgNCs/GRO) is synthesized and functionalized with detection antibody for highly sensitive electrochemical sensing of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), a model tumor marker involved in many cancers. AgNCs with large surface area and abundant amount of low-coordinated sites are synthesized with DNA as template and exhibit high catalytic activity towards the electrochemical reduction of H2O2. GRO is employed to assemble with AgNCs because it has large specific surface area, super electronic conductivity and strong π-π stacking interaction with the hydrophobic bases of DNA, which can further improve the catalytic ability of the AgNCs. Using AgNCs/GRO as signal amplification tag, an enzyme-free electrochemical immunosensing protocol is designed for the highly sensitive detection of CEA on the capture antibody functionalized immunosensing interface. Under optimal conditions, the designed immunosensor exhibits a wide linear range from 0.1 pg mL(-1) to 100 ng mL(-1) and a low limit of detection of 0.037 pg mL(-1). Practical sample analysis reveals the sensor has good accuracy and reproducibility, indicating the great application prospective of the AgNCs/GRO in fabricating highly sensitive immunosensors, which can be extended to the detection of various kinds of low abundance disease related proteins. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Highly Sensitive Glucose Sensor Based on Organic Electrochemical Transistor with Modified Gate Electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Xudong; Chan, Paddy K L

    2017-01-01

    An organic electrochemical transistor (OECT) with a glucose oxidase (GOx) and poly(n-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone)-capped platinum nanoparticles (Pt NPs) gate electrode was successfully integrated with a microfluidic channel to act as a highly sensitive chip-based glucose sensor. The sensing mechanism relies on the enzymatic reaction between glucose and GOx followed by electrochemical oxidation of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) produced in the enzymatic reaction. This process largely increases the electrolyte potential that applies on PEDOT:PSS channel and causes more cations penetrate into PEDOT:PSS film to reduce it to semi-conducting state resulting in lower electric current between the source and the drain. The extremely high sensitivity and low detection limit (0.1 μM) of the sensor was achievable due to highly efficient Pt NPs catalysis in oxidation of H2O2. Pt NPs were deposited by a bias-free two-step dip coating method followed by a UV-Ozone post-treatment to enhance catalytic ability. A polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microfluidic channel was directly attached to the OECT active layer, providing a short detection time (~1 min) and extremely low analyte consumption (30 μL). Our sensor has great potential for real-time, noninvasive, and portable glucose sensing applications due to its compact size and high sensitivity.

  7. Performance of high-resolution position-sensitive detectors developed for storage-ring decay experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaguchi, T., E-mail: yamaguti@phy.saitama-u.ac.jp [Department of Physics, Saitama University, Saitama 338-8570 (Japan); Suzaki, F. [Department of Physics, Saitama University, Saitama 338-8570 (Japan); Izumikawa, T. [RI Center, Niigata University, Niigata 951-8510 (Japan); Miyazawa, S. [Department of Physics, Saitama University, Saitama 338-8570 (Japan); Morimoto, K. [RIKEN Nishina Center, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Suzuki, T. [Department of Physics, Saitama University, Saitama 338-8570 (Japan); Tokanai, F. [Department of Physics, Yamagata University, Yamagata 990-8560 (Japan); Furuki, H.; Ichihashi, N.; Ichikawa, C. [Department of Physics, Saitama University, Saitama 338-8570 (Japan); Kitagawa, A. [National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Kuboki, T. [Department of Physics, Saitama University, Saitama 338-8570 (Japan); Momota, S. [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Kochi University of Technology, Kochi 782-8502 (Japan); Nagae, D. [Institute of Physics, University of Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8571 (Japan); Nagashima, M.; Nakamura, Y. [Department of Physics, Niigata University, Niigata 950-2181 (Japan); Nishikiori, R.; Niwa, T. [Institute of Physics, University of Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8571 (Japan); Ohtsubo, T. [Department of Physics, Niigata University, Niigata 950-2181 (Japan); Ozawa, A. [Institute of Physics, University of Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8571 (Japan); and others

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • Position-sensitive detectors were developed for storage-ring decay spectroscopy. • Fiber scintillation and silicon strip detectors were tested with heavy ion beams. • A new fiber scintillation detector showed an excellent position resolution. • Position and energy detection by silicon strip detectors enable full identification. -- Abstract: As next generation spectroscopic tools, heavy-ion cooler storage rings will be a unique application of highly charged RI beam experiments. Decay spectroscopy of highly charged rare isotopes provides us important information relevant to the stellar conditions, such as for the s- and r-process nucleosynthesis. In-ring decay products of highly charged RI will be momentum-analyzed and reach a position-sensitive detector set-up located outside of the storage orbit. To realize such in-ring decay experiments, we have developed and tested two types of high-resolution position-sensitive detectors: silicon strips and scintillating fibers. The beam test experiments resulted in excellent position resolutions for both detectors, which will be available for future storage-ring experiments.

  8. Highly sensitive iridium(iii) complex-based phosphorescent probe for thiophenol detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Li; Yang, Lin; Luo, Shuai; Huang, Yan; Lu, Zhiyun

    2017-10-10

    A cyclometalated iridium(iii) complex (Ir-DNBS) was designed and synthesized as a high-performance phosphorescent thiophenol probe. Ir-DNBS displays a distinct phosphorescence "off-on" response toward thiophenol with high selectivity, high sensitivity (detection limit: 2.5 nM) and fast response (10 min). It is noteworthy that the signaling phosphore of Ir-DNBS possesses relatively high photoluminescence quantum efficiency (ΦPL = 0.21) together with relatively long lifetime (τ = 2.07 μs), indicative of its potential in achieving high temporal resolution. Ir-DNBS is also applicable to the detection of thiophenol in actual water samples with high recovery rate. Photophysical and spectral characterization results revealed that the probing mechanism of Ir-DNBS toward thiophenol lies in the thiolate-mediated cleavage reaction, resulting in suppressed photo-induced excited state electron transfer process in the reaction product.

  9. Improved Diffuse Fluorescence Flow Cytometer Prototype for High Sensitivity Detection of Rare Circulating Cells In Vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pestana, Noah Benjamin

    Accurate quantification of circulating cell populations is important in many areas of pre-clinical and clinical biomedical research, for example, in the study of cancer metastasis or the immune response following tissue and organ transplants. Normally this is done "ex-vivo" by drawing and purifying a small volume of blood and then analyzing it with flow cytometry, hemocytometry or microfludic devices, but the sensitivity of these techniques are poor and the process of handling samples has been shown to affect cell viability and behavior. More recently "in vivo flow cytometry" (IVFC) techniques have been developed where fluorescently-labeled cells flowing in a small blood vessel in the ear or retina are analyzed, but the sensitivity is generally poor due to the small sampling volume. To address this, our group recently developed a method known as "Diffuse Fluorescence Flow Cytometry" (DFFC) that allows detection and counting of rare circulating cells with diffuse photons, offering extremely high single cell counting sensitivity. In this thesis, an improved DFFC prototype was designed and validated. The chief improvements were three-fold, i) improved optical collection efficiency, ii) improved detection electronics, and iii) development of a method to mitigate motion artifacts during in vivo measurements. In combination, these improvements yielded an overall instrument detection sensitivity better than 1 cell/mL in vivo, which is the most sensitive IVFC system reported to date. Second, development and validation of a low-cost microfluidic device reader for analysis of ocular fluids is described. We demonstrate that this device has equivalent or better sensitivity and accuracy compared a fluorescence microscope, but at an order-of-magnitude reduced cost with simplified operation. Future improvements to both instruments are also discussed.

  10. High-sensitivity monitoring of micromechanical vibration using optical whispering gallery mode resonators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schliesser, A; Anetsberger, G; Riviere, R; Arcizet, O; Kippenberg, T J [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Quantenoptik, Hans-Kopfermann-Strasse 1, 85748 Garching (Germany)], E-mail: tjk@mpq.mpg.de

    2008-09-15

    The inherent coupling of optical and mechanical modes in high finesse optical microresonators provides a natural, highly sensitive transduction mechanism for micromechanical vibration. Using homodyne and polarization spectroscopy techniques, we achieve shot-noise limited displacement sensitivities of 10{sup -19} m Hz{sup -1/2}. In an unprecedented manner, this enables the detection and study of a variety of mechanical modes, which are identified as radial breathing, flexural and torsional modes using three-dimensional finite element modeling. Furthermore, a broadband equivalent displacement noise is measured and found to agree well with models for thermorefractive noise in silica dielectric cavities. Implications for ground-state cooling, displacement sensing and Kerr squeezing are discussed.

  11. A high sensitivity ultralow temperature RF conductance and noise measurement setup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmentier, F. D.; Mahé, A.; Denis, A.; Berroir, J.-M.; Glattli, D. C.; Plaçais, B.; Fève, G.

    2011-01-01

    We report on the realization of a high sensitivity RF noise measurement scheme to study small current fluctuations of mesoscopic systems at milli-Kelvin temperatures. The setup relies on the combination of an interferometric amplification scheme and a quarter-wave impedance transformer, allowing the measurement of noise power spectral densities with gigahertz bandwidth up to five orders of magnitude below the amplifier noise floor. We simultaneously measure the high frequency conductance of the sample by derivating a portion of the signal to a microwave homodyne detection. We describe the principle of the setup, as well as its implementation and calibration. Finally, we show that our setup allows to fully characterize a subnanosecond on-demand single electron source. More generally, its sensitivity and bandwidth make it suitable for applications manipulating single charges at GHz frequencies.

  12. High-Sensitivity, Highly Transparent, Gel-Gated MoS2 Phototransistor on Biodegradable Nanopaper

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Qing

    2016-06-21

    Transition metal dichalcogenides hold great promise for a variety of novel electrical, optical and mechanical devices and applications. Among them, molybdenum disulphide (MoS2) is gaining increasing attention as the gate dielectric and semiconductive channel for high-perfomance field effect transistors. Here we report on the first MoS2 phototransistor built on flexible, transparent and biodegradable substrate with electrolyte gate dielectric. We have carried out systematic studies on its electrical and optoelectronic properties. The MoS2 phototransistor exhibited excellent photo responsivity of ~1.5 kA/W, about two times higher compared to typical back-gated devices reported in previous studies. The device is highly transparent at the same time with an average optical transmittance of 82%. Successful fabrication of phototransistors on flexible cellulose nanopaper with excellent performance and transparency suggests that it is feasible to achieve an ecofriendly, biodegradable phototransistor with great photoresponsivity, broad spectral range and durable flexibility.

  13. Micromegas a high-granularity position-sensitive gaseous detector for high particle-flux environments

    CERN Document Server

    Giomataris, Ioanis; Robert, J P; Charpak, Georges

    1996-01-01

    We describe a novel structure for a gaseous detector that is under development at Saclay. It consists of a two-stage parallel-plate avalanche chamber of small amplification gap (100 microm) combined with a conversion-drift space. It allows a fast removal of positive ionsproduced during the avalanche development. Fast signals (3/4 1 ns) are obtained duirng the collection of the electron avalanche on the anode microstrip plane. The induced positive ion signal has a rise time of 100 ns. The fast evacuation of positive ions combined with the high granularity of the detector provide a high rate capability. Gas gains of up to $10^5$ have been achieved.

  14. Transitioning high sensitivity cardiac troponin I (hs-cTnI) into routine diagnostic use: More than just a sensitivity issue

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lee, Graham R

    2016-04-01

    High sensitivity cardiac troponin T and I (hs-cTnT and hs-cTnI) assays show analytical, diagnostic and prognostic improvement over contemporary sensitive cTn assays. However, given the importance of troponin in the diagnosis of myocardial infarction, implementing this test requires rigorous analytical and clinical verification across the total testing pathway. This was the aim of this study.

  15. Dyes designed for high sensitivity detection of double-stranded DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glazer, Alexander N.; Benson, Scott C.

    1994-01-01

    Novel fluorescent dyes are provided, characterized by having a fluorophore joined to a polycationic chain of at least two positive charges. The dyes are found to provide for high enhancement upon binding to nucleic acid and have strong binding affinities to the nucleic acid, as compared to the fluorophore without the polycationic chain. The dyes find use in detection of dsDNA in gel electrophoresis and solution at substantially higher sensitivities using substantially less dye.

  16. Development of Thin-film Dye-sensitized Photoactive Materials on Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethylene

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-01

    solar cells (DSSC) are an attractive candidate for future solar energy harvesting since they do not require expensive semi- conductor substrates or highly...a rapid inert gas dehydration and ultrasonic agitation detachment method. The free-standing arrays, comprised of hexagonally closed-packed...performance of the resulting devices. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Dye-sensitized solar cell, UHMWPE, tunable TiO2 nanotubes 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17

  17. Graphene-β-Ga2 O3 Heterojunction for Highly Sensitive Deep UV Photodetector Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Wei-Yu; Wu, Guo-An; Wang, Kui-Yuan; Zhang, Teng-Fei; Zou, Yi-Feng; Wang, Dan-Dan; Luo, Lin-Bao

    2016-12-01

    A deep UV light photodetector is assembled by coating multilayer graphene on beta-gallium oxide (β-Ga2 O3 ) wafer. Optoelectronic analysis reveals that the heterojunction device is virtually blind to light illumination with wavelength longer than 280 nm, but is highly sensitive to 254 nm light with very good stability and reproducibility. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Sensory sensitivities and performance on sensory perceptual tasks in high-functioning individuals with autism

    OpenAIRE

    Minshew, Nancy J.; Hobson, Jessica A.

    2008-01-01

    Despite extensive reports of sensory symptoms in autism, there is little empirical support for their neurological basis. Sixty individuals with high-functioning autism and 61 matched typical comparison participants were administered a sensory questionnaire and standardized neuropsychological tests of elementary and higher cortical sensory perception. Thirty-two per cent of participants with autism endorsed more sensory sensitivity items than any of the participants in the comparison group. On...

  19. Cardiac troponin T determination by a highly sensitive assay in postmortem serum and pericardial fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Herrera, Lucas; Valenzuela, Aurora; Ramos, Valentín; Blázquez, Antonia; Villanueva, Enrique

    2016-06-01

    The main objective of this study was to test, for the first time, a highly sensitive cardiac troponin T (cTnThs) assay in postmortem serum and pericardial fluid and to evaluate cardiac troponin T (cTnT) levels and their stability after death at different postmortem intervals, in an attempt to determine the viability of the cTnThs assay in the postmortem diagnosis of the cause of death. cTnT levels were determined in serum and pericardial fluid samples taken from 58 cadavers at known postmortem intervals, whose causes of death were categorized into the following groups: (1) sudden cardiac deaths, (2) multiple trauma, (3) mechanical asphyxia, and (4) other natural deaths. cTnT was determined by inmunoassay, using the Troponin T highly sensitive STAT assay (Roche(®)). Average cTnT levels measured by a highly sensitive assay in postmortem serum were markedly higher than clinical serum levels. Moreover, similar results, higher cTnT levels in postmortem pericardial fluid, were obtained when compared to levels found in pericardial fluid taken from two living patients during coronary artery bypass surgery. cTnT levels in both postmortem fluids remained stable for up to 34 h after death. No differences in cTnT levels in either postmortem fluid by sex and age were detected. Levels of cTnT found in pericardial fluid in the other natural deaths group were significantly lower than the cTnT levels found in that postmortem fluid from any of the other causes of death groups. It is therefore reasonable to conclude that determination of cTnT by a highly sensitive assay in pericardial fluid can provide forensic pathologists with a complementary test to the diagnosis of cause of death.

  20. Highly sensitive surface-scanning detector for the direct bacterial detection using magnetoelastic (ME) biosensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuzhe; Horikawa, Shin; Chen, I.-Hsuan; Du, Songtao; Wikle, Howard C.; Suh, Sang-Jin; Chin, Bryan A.

    2017-05-01

    This paper demonstrates a highly sensitive surface-scanning detector used for magnetoelastic (ME) biosensors for the detection of Salmonella on the surface of a polyethylene (PE) food preparation surface. The design and fabrication methods of the new planar spiral coil are introduced. Different concentrations of Salmonella were measured on the surface of a PE board. The efficacy of Salmonella capture and detection is discussed.

  1. Capacitively-coupled differential position detection in the development of a high-sensitivity torsion balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rackson, Charles; Watt, Alex; Kim, Woo-Joong; Seattle University Team

    2015-03-01

    We report on the development of a high-sensitivity torsion balance using a capacitively-coupled Wheatstone Bridge. The torsion balance will be employed to measure the Casimir Force, with a particular emphasis on the surface patch effects that are ubiquitous on metallic surfaces. We will show that these effects also play a significant role in another class of experiments involving quantum-point contacts between two metal wires.

  2. Radiation injury in a patient with unusually high sensitivity to radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsubara, S.; Saito, F.; Suda, T.; Fijibayashi, H.; Shibuya, H.; Horiuchi, J.; Suzuki, S.

    1988-01-01

    Radiation therapy is usually given with the assumption that interindividual variations in radiosensitivity are small, except for some patients with hereditary diseases associated with increased sensitivity. Recently, we observed radiation induced pericarditis in a breast carcinoma patient, in whom clinical signs, blood counts and chromosome analysis after in vitro irradiation of blood suggested a state of unusually high radiosensitivity. No evidence of constitutional chromosome abnormality was found in karyotypic analysis with the G-banding technique.

  3. Performance comparison of CMOS-based photodiodes for high-resolution and high-sensitivity digital mammography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, J. H.; Cho, M.; Kim, M. S.; Lee, D. H.; Cho, G.

    2011-12-01

    In order to develop a high-resolution and high-sensitivity digital mamographic detector, to use a commercially-available and well-developed CMOS image sensor (CIS) process can be a cost-effective way. However, in any commercial CIS process, several different types of n- or p-layers can be used so that various pn-junction structures could be formed depending on the choice of n- and p-layer combination. We performed a comparative analysis on the characteristics of three types of photodiodes formed on a high-resistivity p-type epitaxial wafer by applying three available n-layer processes in order to develop the high-sensitivity photodiode for a scintillator-based X-ray imaging detector. As a preliminar study, a small test-version CIS chip with an 80 × 80 pixel array of a 3-transistor active pixel sensor structure, 50 μm pitch and 80{%} fill factor was fabricated. The pixel area is subdivided into four 40 × 40 sub-arrays and 3 different types of photodides are designed for each sub-array by using n+, n- and n-well layers. All other components are designed to be identical for impartial comparison of the photodiodes only. Among 3 types, the n-/p-epi photodiode exhibited high charge-to-voltage gain (0.86 μV/e-), high quantum efficiency (49% at 532 nm wavelength) and low dark current (294 pA/cm2). The test CIS chip was coupled to a phosphor screen, Lanex Fine or Lanex Regular, both composed of Gd2O2S:Tb, and was tested using X-rays in a mammography setting. Among 6 cases, n-/p-epi photodiode coupled with the Lanex Regular also showed the highest sensitivity of 30.5 mV/mR.

  4. Simulation of a Love wave device with ZnO nanorods for high mass sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivedi, Shyam; Nemade, Harshal B

    2018-03-01

    The paper presents 3D finite element simulation and analysis of Love wave resonator with different guiding layer materials and investigation of the coupled resonance effect with ZnO nanorods on the device surface. Analytical estimation of phase velocity and mass sensitivity of Love wave device with SiO2, ZnO, gold, SU-8, and parylene-C as guiding layer materials is performed for comparative analysis. Simulations are carried out to study the variation in electromechanical coupling coefficient, displacement profile and frequency response of the Love wave resonator. SU-8 offers high mass sensitivity of 1044 m2/kg while gold layer provides maximum K2 of 8.6%. In comparison to SiO2 and ZnO, polymers exhibit sharp rise and fall in K2 within a narrow range of normalized layer thickness (0.03-0.1). ZnO nanorods of varying height and surface nanorod density are designed over the Love wave resonator with SiO2 as the waveguiding layer. In the presence of coupled resonance, the nanorods and substrate vibrate in unison causing an increase in average stress and mass sensitivity but leads to decrease in the electromechanical coupling coefficient of the device. Surface nanorod packing density of 25 μm-2 offers high mass sensitivity of 1304 m2/kg that is 20 times greater in comparison to the mass sensitivity of a plain Love wave device. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. High-sensitivity C-reactive protein predicts target organ damage in Chinese patients with metabolic syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Zhigang; Nie, Hai; He, Hongbo

    2007-01-01

    with metabolic syndrome. A total of 1082 consecutive patients of Chinese origin were screened for the presence of metabolic syndrome according to the National Cholesterol Education Program's Adult Treatment Panel III. High-sensitivity C-reactive protein and target organ damage, including cardiac hypertrophy...... with the elevated high-sensitivity C-reactive protein had a higher percentage of target organ damage than those with lower high-sensitivity C-reactive protein. Stepwise multiple logistic regression confirmed that high-sensitivity C-reactive protein was significantly associated with cardiac hypertrophy, carotid...

  6. A fully integrated microfluidic platform for highly sensitive analysis of immunochemical parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, Sascha; Lopez-Calle, Eloisa; Espindola, Pamela; Boehm, Christoph; Brueckner, Thorsten; Spinke, Juergen; Marcinowski, Moritz; Keller, Thomas; Tgetgel, Armin; Herbert, Nicolas; Fischer, Thomas; Beiersdorf, Erik

    2017-11-06

    We present a novel fully integrated centrifugal microfluidic platform for highly sensitive immunoassays in point-of-care settings. The platform consists of a disposable cartridge containing structures for assay processing, a porous membrane and all dried reagents required for the analysis. Additionally, a blister containing a washing buffer is connected to a new aliquoting structure enabling the serial aliquoting of washing buffer for repetitive bound-free separation steps. The proof-of-concept for two immunoassays is shown in the cartridge with each requiring only 30 μL of whole blood or plasma as the sample material. The detection of the cardiac marker Troponin T with a functional sensitivity of 7.55 ng L -1 (cv = 10%) within 11 minutes is shown based on samples from ten donors which were measured with six breadboard instruments to prove the platform capability for highly sensitive measurements at diagnostic relevant concentrations. Furthermore an assay for the cardiac marker NT-proBNP (five donors, six instruments) with a time-to-result of 12 minutes demonstrates that high-titer analytes (43 to 16.566 ng L -1 ) can be measured as well. A method comparison of our platform with a state-of-the-art laboratory analyzer proves an excellent correlation of the measured analyte concentrations. All results are obtained from injection moulded cartridges and all components of the platform are compatible for mass production.

  7. Highly Sensitive and Selective VOC Sensor Systems Based on Semiconductor Gas Sensors: How to?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Schütze

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring of volatile organic compounds (VOCs is of increasing importance in many application fields such as environmental monitoring, indoor air quality, industrial safety, fire detection, and health applications. The challenges in all of these applications are the wide variety and low concentrations of target molecules combined with the complex matrix containing many inorganic and organic interferents. This paper will give an overview over the application fields and address the requirements, pitfalls, and possible solutions for using low-cost sensor systems for VOC monitoring. The focus lies on highly sensitive metal oxide semiconductor gas sensors, which show very high sensitivity, but normally lack selectivity required for targeting relevant VOC monitoring applications. In addition to providing an overview of methods to increase the selectivity, especially virtual multisensors achieved with dynamic operation, and boost the sensitivity further via novel pro-concentrator concepts, we will also address the requirement for high-performance gas test systems, advanced solutions for operating and read-out electronic, and, finally, a cost-efficient factory and on-site calibration. The various methods will be primarily discussed in the context of requirements for monitoring of indoor air quality, but can equally be applied for environmental monitoring and other fields.

  8. Inexpensive designer antigen for anti-HIV antibody detection with high sensitivity and specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talha, Sheikh M; Salminen, Teppo; Chugh, Deepti A; Swaminathan, Sathyamangalam; Soukka, Tero; Pettersson, Kim; Khanna, Navin

    2010-03-01

    A novel recombinant multiepitope protein (MEP) has been designed that consists of four linear, immunodominant, and phylogenetically conserved epitopes, taken from human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-encoded antigens that are used in many third-generation immunoassay kits. This HIV-MEP has been evaluated for its diagnostic potential in the detection of anti-HIV antibodies in human sera. A synthetic MEP gene encoding these epitopes, joined by flexible peptide linkers in a single open reading frame, was designed and overexpressed in Escherichia coli. The recombinant HIV-MEP was purified using a single affinity step, yielding >20 mg pure protein/liter culture, and used as the coating antigen in an in-house immunoassay. Bound anti-HIV antibodies were detected by highly sensitive time-resolved fluorometry, using europium(III) chelate-labeled anti-human antibody. The sensitivity and specificity of the HIV-MEP were evaluated using Boston Biomedica worldwide HIV performance, HIV seroconversion, and viral coinfection panels and were found to be comparable with those of commercially available anti-HIV enzyme immunoassay (EIA) kits. The careful choice of epitopes, high epitope density, and an E. coli-based expression system, coupled with a simple purification protocol and the use of europium(III) chelate-labeled tracer, provide the capability for the development of an inexpensive diagnostic test with high degrees of sensitivity and specificity.

  9. European multicenter analytical evaluation of the Abbott ARCHITECT STAT high sensitive troponin I immunoassay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krintus, Magdalena; Kozinski, Marek; Boudry, Pascal

    2014-01-01

    high sensitive cardiac troponin I (hs-cTnI) assay and its 99th percentile upper reference limit (URL). METHODS: Laboratories from nine European countries evaluated the ARCHITECT STAT high sensitive troponin I (hs-TnI) immunoassay on the ARCHITECT i2000SR/i1000SR immunoanalyzers. Imprecision, limit...... hs-cTnI assay and contemporary cTnI assay at 99th percentile cut-off was found to be 95%. TnI was detectable in 75% and 57% of the apparently healthy population using the lower (1.1 ng/L) and upper (1.9 ng/L) limit of the LoD range provided by the ARCHITECT STAT hs-TnI package insert, respectively....... The 99th percentile values were gender dependent. CONCLUSIONS: The new ARCHITECT STAT hs-TnI assay with improved analytical features meets the criteria of high sensitive Tn test and will be a valuable diagnostic tool....

  10. Highly Sensitive Flexible NH3 Sensors Based on Printed Organic Transistors with Fluorinated Conjugated Polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nketia-Yawson, Benjamin; Jung, A-Ra; Noh, Yohan; Ryu, Gi-Seong; Tabi, Grace Dansoa; Lee, Kyung-Koo; Kim, BongSoo; Noh, Yong-Young

    2017-03-01

    Understanding the sensing mechanism in organic chemical sensors is essential for improving the sensing performance such as detection limit, sensitivity, and other response/recovery time, selectivity, and reversibility for real applications. Here, we report a highly sensitive printed ammonia (NH3) gas sensor based on organic thin film transistors (OTFTs) with fluorinated difluorobenzothiadiazole-dithienosilole polymer (PDFDT). These sensors detected NH3 down to 1 ppm with high sensitivity (up to 56%) using bar-coated ultrathin (NH3 interactions comprise hydrogen bonds and electrostatic interactions between the PDFDT polymer backbone and NH3 gas molecules, thus lowering the highest occupied molecular orbital levels, leading to hole trapping in the OTFT sensors. Additionally, density functional theory calculations show that gaseous NH3 molecules are captured via cooperation of fluorine atoms and dithienosilole units in PDFDT. We verified that incorporation of functional groups that interact with a specific gas molecule in a conjugated polymer is a promising strategy for producing high-performance printed OTFT gas sensors.

  11. Highly sensitive and quantitative evaluation of the EGFR T790M mutation by nanofluidic digital PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwama, Eiji; Takayama, Koichi; Harada, Taishi; Okamoto, Isamu; Ookubo, Fumihiko; Kishimoto, Junji; Baba, Eishi; Oda, Yoshinao; Nakanishi, Yoichi

    2015-08-21

    The mutation of T790M in EGFR is a major mechanism of resistance to treatment with EGFR-TKIs. Only qualitative detection (presence or absence) of T790M has been described to date, however. Digital PCR (dPCR) analysis has recently been applied to the quantitative detection of target molecules in cancer with high sensitivity. In the present study, 25 tumor samples (13 obtained before and 12 after EGFR-TKI treatment) from 18 NSCLC patients with activating EGFR mutations were evaluated for T790M with dPCR. The ratio of the number of T790M alleles to that of activating mutation alleles (T/A) was determined. dPCR detected T790M in all 25 samples. Although T790M was present in all pre-TKI samples from 13 patients, 10 of these patients had a low T/A ratio and manifested substantial tumor shrinkage during treatment with EGFR-TKIs. In six of seven patients for whom both pre- and post-TKI samples were available, the T/A ratio increased markedly during EGFR-TKI treatment. Highly sensitive dPCR thus detected T790M in all NSCLC patients harboring activating EGFR mutations whether or not they had received EGFR-TKI treatment. Not only highly sensitive but also quantitative detection of T790M is important for evaluation of the contribution of T790M to EGFR-TKI resistance.

  12. Highly sensitive ratiometric detection of heparin and its oversulfated chondroitin sulfate contaminant by fluorescent peptidyl probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Pramod Kumar; Lee, Hyeri; Lee, Keun-Hyeung

    2017-05-15

    The selective and sensitive detection of heparin, an anticoagulant in clinics as well as its contaminant oversulfated chondroitin sulfate (OSCS) is of great importance. We first reported a ratiometric sensing method for heparin as well as OSCS contaminants in heparin using a fluorescent peptidyl probe (Pep1, pyrene-GSRKR) and heparin-digestive enzyme. Pep1 exhibited a highly sensitive ratiometric response to nanomolar concentration of heparin in aqueous solution over a wide pH range (2~11) and showed highly selective ratiometric response to heparin among biological competitors such as hyaluronic acid and chondroitin sulfate. Pep1 showed a linear ratiometric response to nanomolar concentrations of heparin in aqueous solutions and in human serum samples. The detection limit for heparin was calculated to be 2.46nM (R2=0.99) in aqueous solutions, 2.98nM (R2=0.98) in 1% serum samples, and 3.43nM (R2=0.99) in 5% serum samples. Pep1 was applied to detect the contaminated OSCS in heparin with heparinase I, II, and III, respectively. The ratiometric sensing method using Pep1 and heparinase II was highly sensitive, fast, and efficient for the detection of OSCS contaminant in heparin. Pep1 with heparinase II could detect as low as 0.0001% (w/w) of OSCS in heparin by a ratiometric response. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. High sensitivity plasmonic biosensor based on nanoimprinted quasi 3D nanosquares for cell detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Shuyan; Li, Hualin; Yang, Mengsu; Pang, Stella W

    2016-07-22

    Quasi three-dimensional (3D) plasmonic nanostructures consisting of Au nanosquares on top of SU-8 nanopillars and Au nanoholes on the bottom were developed and fabricated using nanoimprint lithography with simultaneous thermal and UV exposure. These 3D plasmonic nanostructures were used to detect cell concentration of lung cancer A549 cells, retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells, and breast cancer MCF-7 cells. Nanoimprint technology has the advantage of producing high uniformity plasmonic nanostructures for such biosensors. Multiple resonance modes were observed in these quasi 3D plasmonic nanostructures. The hybrid coupling of localized surface plasmon resonances and Fabry-Perot cavity modes in the quasi 3D nanostructures resulted in high sensitivity of 496 nm/refractive index unit. The plasmonic resonance peak wavelength and sensitivity could be tuned by varying the Au thickness. Resonance peak shifts for different cells at the same concentration were distinct due to their different cell area and confluency. The cell concentration detection limit covered a large range of 5 × 10(2) to 1 × 10(7) cells ml(-1) with these new plasmonic nanostructures. They also provide a large resonance peak shift of 51 nm for as little as 0.08 cells mm(-2) of RPE cells for high sensitivity cell detection.

  14. Magnetic fields are causing small, but significant changes of the radiochromic EBT3 film response to 6 MV photons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delfs, Björn; Schoenfeld, Andreas A; Poppinga, Daniela; Kapsch, Ralf-Peter; Jiang, Ping; Harder, Dietrich; Poppe, Björn; Looe, Hui Khee

    2018-01-31

    The optical density (OD) of EBT3 radiochromic films (Ashland Specialty Ingredients, Bridgewater, NJ, USA) exposed to absorbed doses to water up to D  =  20 Gy in magnetic fields of B  =  0.35 and 1.42 T was measured in the three colour channels of an Epson Expression 10000XL flatbed scanner. A 7 cm wide water phantom with fixed film holder was placed between the pole shoes of a constant-current electromagnet with variable field strength and was irradiated by a 6 MV photon beam whose axis was directed at right angles with the field lines. The doses at the film position at water depth 5 cm were measured with a calibrated ionization chamber when the magnet was switched off and were converted to the doses in presence of the magnetic field via the monitor units and by a Monte Carlo-calculated correction accounting for the slight change of the depth dose curves in magnetic fields. In the presence of the 0.35 and 1.42 T fields small negative changes of the OD values at given absorbed doses to water occurred and just significantly exceeded the uncertainty margin given by the stochastic and the uncorrected systematic deviations. This change can be described by a  +2.1% change of the dose values needed to produce a given optical density in the presence of a 1.42 T field. The thereby modified OD versus D function remained unchanged irrespective of whether the original short film side-the preference direction of the monomer crystals of the film-was directed parallel or orthogonal to the magnetic field. The 'orientation effect', the difference between the optical densities measured in the 'portrait' or 'landscape' film positions on the scanner bed caused by the reflection of polarised light in the scanner's mirror system, remained unaltered after EBT3 film exposure in magnetic fields. An independent optical bench investigation of EBT3 films exposed to doses of 10 and 20 Gy at 0.35 and 1.42 T showed that the direction of the electric vector of polarised

  15. Highly sensitive hydrazine chemical sensor fabricated by modified electrode of vertically aligned zinc oxide nanorods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameen, Sadia; Akhtar, M Shaheer; Shin, Hyung Shik

    2012-10-15

    A highly sensitive, reliable and reproducible hydrazine chemical sensor was fabricated using vertically aligned ZnO nanorods (NRs) electrode. The low temperature hydrothermal process was adopted to synthesize the vertically aligned ZnO NRs on fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) glass. The morphological characterizations revealed the vertical arrangement of highly dense ZnO NRs on FTO substrates. The ultraviolet diffused reflectance spectroscopy (UV-DRS) of aligned ZnO NRs electrode obtained the band gap of ~3.29eV which was close to that of bulk ZnO nanomaterials. The synthesized aligned ZnO NRs electrode was directly used to elucidate the chemical sensing performance towards the detection of hydrazine by simple current-voltage (I-V) characteristics. The aligned ZnO NRs electrode based hydrazine chemical sensor presented a significantly high sensitivity of ~4.42446×10(-5) A mM(-1) cm(-2) and the detection limit of ~515.7 μM with a correlation coefficient (R) of ~0.73297 and a short response time (10s). The electrochemical analysis of vertically aligned ZnO NRs electrode in the presence of hydrazine showed the increased current with high height of anodic peak which confirmed the involvement of high electron transfer process via high electrocatalytic activity of the electrode. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. A highly sensitive and specific system for large-scale gene expression profiling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Hui-Yun

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rapid progress in the field of gene expression-based molecular network integration has generated strong demand on enhancing the sensitivity and data accuracy of experimental systems. To meet the need, a high-throughput gene profiling system of high specificity and sensitivity has been developed. Results By using specially designed primers, the new system amplifies sequences in neighboring exons separated by big introns so that mRNA sequences may be effectively discriminated from other highly related sequences including their genes, unprocessed transcripts, pseudogenes and pseudogene transcripts. Probes used for microarray detection consist of sequences in the two neighboring exons amplified by the primers. In conjunction with a newly developed high-throughput multiplex amplification system and highly simplified experimental procedures, the system can be used to analyze >1,000 mRNA species in a single assay. It may also be used for gene expression profiling of very few (n = 100 or single cells. Highly reproducible results were obtained from duplicate samples with the same number of cells, and from those with a small number (100 and a large number (10,000 of cells. The specificity of the system was demonstrated by comparing results from a breast cancer cell line, MCF-7, and an ovarian cancer cell line, NCI/ADR-RES, and by using genomic DNA as starting material. Conclusion Our approach may greatly facilitate the analysis of combinatorial expression of known genes in many important applications, especially when the amount of RNA is limited.

  17. Highly Sensitive Aluminum-Based Biosensors using Tailorable Fano Resonances in Capped Nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kuang-Li; Hsu, Hsuan-Yeh; You, Meng-Lin; Chang, Chia-Chun; Pan, Ming-Yang; Shi, Xu; Ueno, Kosei; Misawa, Hiroaki; Wei, Pei-Kuen

    2017-03-01

    Metallic nanostructure-based surface plasmon sensors are capable of real-time, label-free, and multiplexed detections for chemical and biomedical applications. Recently, the studies of aluminum-based biosensors have attracted a large attention because aluminum is a more cost-effective metal and relatively stable. However, the intrinsic properties of aluminum, having a large imaginary part of the dielectric function and a longer evanescent length, limit its sensing capability. Here we show that capped aluminum nanoslits fabricated on plastic films using hot embossing lithography can provide tailorable Fano resonances. Changing height of nanostructures and deposited metal film thickness modulated the transmission spectrum, which varied from Wood’s anomaly-dominant resonance, asymmetric Fano profile to surface plasmon-dominant resonance. For biolayer detections, the maximum surface sensitivity occurred at the dip of asymmetric Fano profile. The optimal Fano factor was close to -1.3. The wavelength and intensity sensitivities for surface thickness were up to 2.58 nm/nm and 90%/nm, respectively. The limit of detection (LOD) of thickness reached 0.018 nm. We attributed the enhanced surface sensitivity for capped aluminum nanoslits to a reduced evanescent length and sharp slope of the asymmetric Fano profile. The protein-protein interaction experiments verified the high sensitivity of capped nanostructures. The LOD was down to 236 fg/mL.

  18. Increased thermal pain sensitivity in animals exposed to chronic high dose Vicodin but not pure hydrocodone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, Thomas F; Carpenter, Patrick S; Caballero, Nadia; Putnam, Andrew J; Steere, Joshua T; Matz, Gregory J; Foecking, Eileen M

    2014-01-01

    Vicodin, the combination drug of acetaminophen and the opioid hydrocodone, is one of the most prescribed drugs on the market today. Opioids have demonstrated the ability to paradoxically cause increased pain sensitivity to users in a phenomena called opioid-induced hyperalgesia (OIH). While selected opioids have been shown to produce OIH symptoms in an animal model, hydrocodone and the combination drug Vicodin have yet to be studied. The purpose of this study was to explore the effect of exposure to chronic high dose Vicodin or its components on the sensitivity to both thermal and mechanical pain. Animals were randomly divided into 4 groups, Vicodin, acetaminophen, hydrocodone, or vehicle control, and administered the drug daily for 120 days. Rats were subsequently tested for thermal and mechanical sensitivity. The rats in the Vicodin group displayed a significant decrease in withdrawal time to thermal pain. The rats receiving acetaminophen, hydrocodone, and vehicle showed no statistically significant hypersensitivity in thermal testing. None of the groups demonstrated statistically significant hypersensitivity to mechanical testing. The data suggests Vicodin produces signs of OIH in a rodent model. However, increased pain sensitivity was only noted in the thermal pathway and the hypersensitivity was only seen with the opioid combination drug, not the opioid alone. The results of this study both support the results of previous rodent opioid studies while generating further questions about the specific properties of Vicodin that contribute to pain hypersensitivity. The growing use of Vicodin to treat chronic pain necessitates further research looking into this paradoxical pain response.

  19. High intensity interval training improves liver and adipose tissue insulin sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcinko, Katarina; Sikkema, Sarah R.; Samaan, M. Constantine; Kemp, Bruce E.; Fullerton, Morgan D.; Steinberg, Gregory R.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Endurance exercise training reduces insulin resistance, adipose tissue inflammation and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), an effect often associated with modest weight loss. Recent studies have indicated that high-intensity interval training (HIIT) lowers blood glucose in individuals with type 2 diabetes independently of weight loss; however, the organs affected and mechanisms mediating the glucose lowering effects are not known. Intense exercise increases phosphorylation and inhibition of acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) by AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in muscle, adipose tissue and liver. AMPK and ACC are key enzymes regulating fatty acid metabolism, liver fat content, adipose tissue inflammation and insulin sensitivity but the importance of this pathway in regulating insulin sensitivity with HIIT is unknown. Methods In the current study, the effects of 6 weeks of HIIT were examined using obese mice with serine–alanine knock-in mutations on the AMPK phosphorylation sites of ACC1 and ACC2 (AccDKI) or wild-type (WT) controls. Results HIIT lowered blood glucose and increased exercise capacity, food intake, basal activity levels, carbohydrate oxidation and liver and adipose tissue insulin sensitivity in HFD-fed WT and AccDKI mice. These changes occurred independently of weight loss or reductions in adiposity, inflammation and liver lipid content. Conclusions These data indicate that HIIT lowers blood glucose levels by improving adipose and liver insulin sensitivity independently of changes in adiposity, adipose tissue inflammation, liver lipid content or AMPK phosphorylation of ACC. PMID:26909307

  20. Highly Sensitive Liquid Core Temperature Sensor Based on Multimode Interference Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel A. Fuentes-Fuentes

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A novel fiber optic temperature sensor based on a liquid-core multimode interference device is demonstrated. The advantage of such structure is that the thermo-optic coefficient (TOC of the liquid is at least one order of magnitude larger than that of silica and this, combined with the fact that the TOC of silica and the liquid have opposite signs, provides a liquid-core multimode fiber (MMF highly sensitive to temperature. Since the refractive index of the liquid can be easily modified, this allows us to control the modal properties of the liquid-core MMF at will and the sensor sensitivity can be easily tuned by selecting the refractive index of the liquid in the core of the device. The maximum sensitivity measured in our experiments is 20 nm/°C in the low-temperature regime up to 60 °C. To the best of our knowledge, to date, this is the largest sensitivity reported for fiber-based MMI temperature sensors.

  1. High-sensitivity four-layer polymer fiber-optic evanescent wave sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Xin; Zhong, Nianbing; Liao, Qiang; Cen, Yanyan; Wu, Ruohua; Wang, Zhengkun

    2017-05-15

    We present a novel four-layer structure consisting of bottom, second, third, and surface layers in the sensing region, for a D-shaped step-index fiber-optic evanescent wave (FOEW) sensor. To reduce the background noise, the surface of the longitudinal section in the D-shaped region is coated with a light-absorbing film. We check the morphologies of the second and surface layers, examine the refractive indices (RIs) of the third and surface layers, and analyze the composition of the surface layer. We also investigate the effects of the thicknesses and RIs of the third and surface layers and the LA film on the light transmission and sensitivity of the FOEW sensors. The results highlight the very good sensitivity of the proposed FOEW sensor with a four-layer structure, which reached -0.077 (μg/l)(-1) in the detection of the target antibody; the sensitivity of the novel FOEW sensor was 7.60 and 1.52 times better than that of a conventional sensor with a core-cladding structure and an FOEW sensor with a three-layer structure doped with GeO2. The applications of this high-sensitivity FOEW sensor can be extended to biodefense, disease diagnosis, and biomedical and biochemical analysis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. High-Sensitivity Charge Detection with a Single-Lead Quantum Dot for Scalable Quantum Computation

    Science.gov (United States)

    House, Matthew; Bartlett, Ian; Pakkiam, Prasanna; Koch, Matthias; Peretz, Eldad; van der Heijden, Joost; Kobayashi, Takashi; Rogge, Sven; Simmons, Michelle

    We report the development of a high sensitivity semiconductor charge sensor based on a quantum dot coupled to a single lead, designed to minimize the geometric requirements of a charge sensor for scalable quantum computing architectures. The quantum dot is fabricated in Si:P using atomic precision lithography and its charge transitions are measured with rf reflectometry. A second quantum dot with two leads placed 42 nm away serves as both a charge for the sensor to measure and as a conventional rf single electron transistor (rf-SET) with which to make a comparison of the charge detection sensitivity. We demonstrate sensitivity equivalent to an integration time of 550 ns to detect a single charge with a signal-to-noise ratio of 1, compared with an integration time of 55 ns for the rf-SET. This level of sensitivity is suitable for fast (Communication Technology (Project No. CE110001027) and the U.S. Army Research Office under Contract No. W911NF-13-1-0024.

  3. MOSFET sensitivity dependence on integrated dose from high-energy photon beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanyi, James A; Krafft, Shane P; Hagio, Tomoe; Fuss, Martin; Salter, Bill J

    2008-01-01

    The ability of a commercially available dual bias, dual MOSFET dosimetry system to measure therapeutic doses reproducibly throughout its vendor-defined dose-based lifetime has been evaluated by characterizing its sensitivity variation to integrated/cumulative doses from,high-energy (6 and 15 MV) photon radiotherapy beams. The variation of sensitivity as a function of total integrated dose was studied for three different dose-per-fraction levels; namely, 50, 200, and 1200 cGy/fraction. In standard sensitivity mode (i.e., measurements involving dose-per-fraction levels > or =100 cGy), the response of the MOSFET system to identical irradiations increased with integrated dose for both energies investigated. Dose measurement reproducibility for the low (i.e., 50 cGy) dose fractions was within 2.1% (if the system was calibrated before each in-phantom measurement) and 3.1% [if the system was calibrated prior to first use, with no intermediate calibration(s)]. Similarly, dose measurement reproducibility was between 2.2% and 6.6% for the conventional (i.e., 200 cGy) dose fractions and between 1.8% and 7.9% for escalated (i.e., 1200 cGy) dose fractions. The results of this study suggest that, due to the progressively increasing sensitivity resulting from the dual-MOSFET design, frequent calibrations are required to achieve measurement accuracy of < or =3% (within one standard deviation).

  4. The functional highly sensitive brain: a review of the brain circuits underlying sensory processing sensitivity and seemingly related disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acevedo, Bianca; Aron, Elaine; Pospos, Sarah; Jessen, Dana

    2018-04-19

    During the past decade, research on the biological basis of sensory processing sensitivity (SPS)-a genetically based trait associated with greater sensitivity and responsivity to environmental and social stimuli-has burgeoned. As researchers try to characterize this trait, it is still unclear how SPS is distinct from seemingly related clinical disorders that have overlapping symptoms, such as sensitivity to the environment and hyper-responsiveness to incoming stimuli. Thus, in this review, we compare the neural regions implicated in SPS with those found in fMRI studies of-Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), Schizophrenia (SZ) and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) to elucidate the neural markers and cardinal features of SPS versus these seemingly related clinical disorders. We propose that SPS is a stable trait that is characterized by greater empathy, awareness, responsivity and depth of processing to salient stimuli. We conclude that SPS is distinct from ASD, SZ and PTSD in that in response to social and emotional stimuli, SPS differentially engages brain regions involved in reward processing, memory, physiological homeostasis, self-other processing, empathy and awareness. We suggest that this serves species survival via deep integration and memory for environmental and social information that may subserve well-being and cooperation.This article is part of the theme issue 'Diverse perspectives on diversity: multi-disciplinary approaches to taxonomies of individual differences'. © 2018 The Authors.

  5. Improving sensitivity of residual current transformers to high frequency earth fault currents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Czapp Stanislaw

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available For protection against electric shock in low voltage systems residual current devices are commonly used. However, their proper operation can be interfered when high frequency earth fault current occurs. Serious hazard of electrocution exists then. In order to detect such a current, it is necessary to modify parameters of residual current devices, especially the operating point of their current transformer. The authors proposed the modification in the structure of residual current devices. This modification improves sensitivity of residual current devices when high frequency earth fault current occurs. The test of the modified residual current device proved that the authors’ proposition is appropriate.

  6. Towards sensitive, high-throughput, biomolecular assays based on fluorescence lifetime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioanna Skilitsi, Anastasia; Turko, Timothé; Cianfarani, Damien; Barre, Sophie; Uhring, Wilfried; Hassiepen, Ulrich; Léonard, Jérémie

    2017-09-01

    Time-resolved fluorescence detection for robust sensing of biomolecular interactions is developed by implementing time-correlated single photon counting in high-throughput conditions. Droplet microfluidics is used as a promising platform for the very fast handling of low-volume samples. We illustrate the potential of this very sensitive and cost-effective technology in the context of an enzymatic activity assay based on fluorescently-labeled biomolecules. Fluorescence lifetime detection by time-correlated single photon counting is shown to enable reliable discrimination between positive and negative control samples at a throughput as high as several hundred samples per second.

  7. Controlled assembly of organic whispering-gallery-mode microlasers as highly sensitive chemical vapor sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Miaomiao; Wei, Cong; Lin, Xianqing; Liu, Yuan; Hu, Fengqin; Zhao, Yong Sheng

    2017-03-09

    We demonstrate the fabrication of organic high Q active whispering-gallery-mode (WGM) resonators from π-conjugated polymer by a controlled emulsion-solvent-evaporation method, which can simultaneously provide optical gain and act as an effective resonant cavity. By measuring the shift of their lasing modes on exposure to organic vapor, we successfully monitored the slight concentration variation in the chemical gas. These microlaser sensors demonstrated high detection sensitivity and good signal repeatability under continuous chemical gas treatments. The results offer an effective strategy to design miniaturized optical sensors.

  8. Performance Sensitivity Studies on the PIAA Implementation of the High-Contrast Imaging Testbed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidick, Erkin; Lou, John; Shaklan, Stuart; Levine, Marie

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the sensitivity studies on the Phase-Induced Amplitude Apodization (PIAA), or pupil mapping using the High-Contrast Imaging Testbed (HCIT). PIAA is a promising technique in high-dynamic range stellar coronagraph. This presentation reports on the investigation of the effects of the phase and rigid-body errors of various optics on the narrowband contrast performance of the PIAA/HCIT hybrid system. The results have shown that the 2-step wavefront control method utilizing 2-DMs is quite effective in compensating the effects of realistic phase and rigid-body errors of various optics

  9. Highly sensitive antenna using inkjet overprinting with particle-free conductive inks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komoda, Natsuki; Nogi, Masaya; Suganuma, Katsuaki; Otsuka, Kanji

    2012-11-01

    Printed antennas with low signal losses and fast response in high-frequency bands have been required. Here we reported on highly sensitive antennas using additive patterning of particle-free metallo-organic decomposition silver inks. Inkjet overprinting of metallo-organic decomposition inks onto copper foil and silver nanowire line produced antenna with mirror surfaces. As a result, the overprinted antennas decreased their return losses at 0.5-4.0 GHz and increased the speed of data communication in WiFi network.

  10. Creating geometrically robust designs for highly sensitive problems using topology optimization: Acoustic cavity design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Rasmus E.; Lazarov, Boyan S.; Jensen, Jakob S.

    2015-01-01

    Resonance and wave-propagation problems are known to be highly sensitive towards parameter variations. This paper discusses topology optimization formulations for creating designs that perform robustly under spatial variations for acoustic cavity problems. For several structural problems, robust...... and limitations are discussed. In addition, a known explicit penalization approach is considered for comparison. For near-uniform spatial variations it is shown that highly robust designs can be obtained using the double filter approach. It is finally demonstrated that taking non-uniform variations into account...

  11. High sensitivity contrast enhanced optical coherence tomography for functional in vivo imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liba, Orly; SoRelle, Elliott D.; Sen, Debasish; de la Zerda, Adam

    2017-02-01

    In this study, we developed and applied highly-scattering large gold nanorods (LGNRs) and custom spectral detection algorithms for high sensitivity contrast-enhanced optical coherence tomography (OCT). We were able to detect LGNRs at a concentration as low as 50 pM in blood. We used this approach for noninvasive 3D imaging of blood vessels deep in solid tumors in living mice. Additionally, we demonstrated multiplexed imaging of spectrally-distinct LGNRs that enabled observations of functional drainage in lymphatic networks. This method, which we call MOZART, provides a platform for molecular imaging and characterization of tissue noninvasively at cellular resolution.

  12. Fabrication of highly catalytic silver nanoclusters/graphene oxide nanocomposite as nanotag for sensitive electrochemical immunoassay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jiamian; Wang, Xiuyun; Wu, Shuo, E-mail: wushuo@dlut.edu.cn; Song, Jie; Zhao, Yanqiu; Ge, Yanqiu; Meng, Changgong

    2016-02-04

    Silver nanoclusters and graphene oxide nanocomposite (AgNCs/GRO) is synthesized and functionalized with detection antibody for highly sensitive electrochemical sensing of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), a model tumor marker involved in many cancers. AgNCs with large surface area and abundant amount of low-coordinated sites are synthesized with DNA as template and exhibit high catalytic activity towards the electrochemical reduction of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. GRO is employed to assemble with AgNCs because it has large specific surface area, super electronic conductivity and strong π-π stacking interaction with the hydrophobic bases of DNA, which can further improve the catalytic ability of the AgNCs. Using AgNCs/GRO as signal amplification tag, an enzyme-free electrochemical immunosensing protocol is designed for the highly sensitive detection of CEA on the capture antibody functionalized immunosensing interface. Under optimal conditions, the designed immunosensor exhibits a wide linear range from 0.1 pg mL{sup −1} to 100 ng mL{sup −1} and a low limit of detection of 0.037 pg mL{sup −1}. Practical sample analysis reveals the sensor has good accuracy and reproducibility, indicating the great application prospective of the AgNCs/GRO in fabricating highly sensitive immunosensors, which can be extended to the detection of various kinds of low abundance disease related proteins. - Highlights: • An enzyme-free electrochemical immunosensor is reported for detecting proteins. • A silver nanocluster/graphene oxide composite is synthesized as nanotag. • The nanotags exhibit highly catalytic activity to the electro-reduction of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. • The as-fabricated immunosensor could detect protein in serum samples.

  13. A Small Range Six-Axis Accelerometer Designed with High Sensitivity DCB Elastic Element

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhibo Sun

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a small range six-axis accelerometer (the measurement range of the sensor is ±g with high sensitivity DCB (Double Cantilever Beam elastic element. This sensor is developed based on a parallel mechanism because of the reliability. The accuracy of sensors is affected by its sensitivity characteristics. To improve the sensitivity, a DCB structure is applied as the elastic element. Through dynamic analysis, the dynamic model of the accelerometer is established using the Lagrange equation, and the mass matrix and stiffness matrix are obtained by a partial derivative calculation and a conservative congruence transformation, respectively. By simplifying the structure of the accelerometer, a model of the free vibration is achieved, and the parameters of the sensor are designed based on the model. Through stiffness analysis of the DCB structure, the deflection curve of the beam is calculated. Compared with the result obtained using a finite element analysis simulation in ANSYS Workbench, the coincidence rate of the maximum deflection is 89.0% along the x-axis, 88.3% along the y-axis and 87.5% along the z-axis. Through strain analysis of the DCB elastic element, the sensitivity of the beam is obtained. According to the experimental result, the accuracy of the theoretical analysis is found to be 90.4% along the x-axis, 74.9% along the y-axis and 78.9% along the z-axis. The measurement errors of linear accelerations ax, ay and az in the experiments are 2.6%, 0.6% and 1.31%, respectively. The experiments prove that accelerometer with DCB elastic element performs great sensitive and precision characteristics.

  14. Novel, high sensitivity and high frequency instruments for in-situ measurements of volcanic gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Mike; Chiarugi, Antonio; D'Amato, Francesco; Viciani, Silvia; Queisser, Manuel; La Spina, Alessandro

    2017-04-01

    The accurate, precise and traceable measurement of volcanic gas compositions and fluxes is a key pillar upon which our understanding of volcanic processes and geological volatile cycles rests. While enormous progress has been made in the quality and quantity of in-situ gas composition measurements in recent years, the number of instruments which are both field deployable and able to accurately measure magmatic gas compositions remains quite limited. This makes intercomparisons and validations, key activities for any quantitative field study, challenging. Furthermore, the potential of UAV and airborne technology can only be fully realised when we have high frequency measurements of volcanic gases from several gas sensors simultaneously, as gas concentrations can vary quickly during flight, and any frequency response delay between individual gas sensors may introduce significant artifacts in retrieved gas ratios. For these reasons, within the European Research Council project CO2Volc, we have produced and field-tested new, custom-built TDLS- and LED-based in-situ gas sensing systems, capable of measuring H2O, CO2, SO2, HCl and HF at 5-10 Hz and sub-ppm precision for CO2 and SO2, and 50 ppb detection limit for HCl and HF. Here, we report results from the field tests, and examine the potential new applications they offer.

  15. Engineering 'cell robots' for parallel and highly sensitive screening of biomolecules under in vivo conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Lifu; Zeng, An-Ping

    2017-11-09

    Cells are capable of rapid replication and performing tasks adaptively and ultra-sensitively and can be considered as cheap "biological-robots". Here we propose to engineer cells for screening biomolecules in parallel and with high sensitivity. Specifically, we place the biomolecule variants (library) on the bacterial phage M13. We then design cells to screen the library based on cell-phage interactions mediated by a specific intracellular signal change caused by the biomolecule of interest. For proof of concept, we used intracellular lysine concentration in E. coli as a signal to successfully screen variants of functional aspartate kinase III (AK-III) under in vivo conditions, a key enzyme in L-lysine biosynthesis which is strictly inhibited by L-lysine. Comparative studies with flow cytometry method failed to distinguish the wild-type from lysine resistance variants of AK-III, confirming a higher sensitivity of the method. It opens up a new and effective way of in vivo high-throughput screening for functional molecules and can be easily implemented at low costs.

  16. High sensitivity photonic time-stretch electro-optic sampling of terahertz pulses

    CERN Document Server

    Szwaj, Christophe; Parquier, Marc Le; Roy, Pascale; Manceron, Laurent; Brubach, Jean-Blaise; Tordeux, Marie-Agnès; Bielawski, Serge

    2016-01-01

    Single-shot recording of terahertz electric signals has recently become possible at high repetition rates, by using the photonic time-stretch electro-optic sampling (EOS) technique. However the moderate sensitivity of time-stretch EOS is still a strong limit for a range of applications. Here we present a variant enabling to increase the sensitivity of photonic time-stretch for free-propagating THz signals. A key point is to integrate the idea presented in Ref. [Ahmed et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85, 013114 (2014)], for upgrading classical time-stretch systems. The method is tested using the high repetition rate terahertz coherent synchrotron radiation source (CSR) of the SOLEIL synchrotron radiation facility. The signal-to-noise ratio of our terahertz digitizer could thus be straightforwardly improved by a factor $\\approx 6.5$, leading to a noise-equivalent input electric field below $1.25$~V/cm inside the electro-optic crystal, over the 0-300~GHz band (i.e, 2.3~$\\mu$V/cm/$\\sqrt{\\text{Hz}}$). The sensitivity is...

  17. A high sensitivity field effect transistor biosensor for methylene blue detection utilize graphene oxide nanoribbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ting-Chun; Li, Yan-Sheng; Chiang, Wei-Hung; Pei, Zingway

    2017-03-15

    In this work, we developed a field effect transistor (FET) biosensor utilizing solution-processed graphene oxide nanoribbon (GONR) for methylene blue (MB) sensing. MB is a unique material; one of its crucial applications is as a marker in the detection of biomaterials. Therefore, a highly sensitive biosensor with a low detection limit that can be fabricated simply in a noncomplex detection scheme is desirable. GONR is made by unzipping multiwall carbon nanotubes, which can be mass-produced at low temperature. The GONR-FET biosensor demonstrated a sensitivity of 12.5μA/mM (determined according to the drain current difference caused by the MB concentration change). The Raman spectra indicate that the materials quality of the GONR and the domain size for the C=C sp 2 bonding were both improved after MB detection. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy revealed that the hydroxyl groups on the GONR were removed by the reductive MB. According to XPS and Raman, the positive charge is proposed to transfer from MB to GONR during sensing. This transfer causes charge in-neutrality in the GONR which is compensated by releasing •OH functional groups. With high sensitivity, a low detection limit, and a simple device structure, the GONR-FET sensor is suitable for sensing biomaterials. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Highly sensitive detection of multiple tumor markers for lung cancer using gold nanoparticle probes and microarrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Wanlei; Wang, Wentao; Yao, Shihua; Wu, Shan; Zhang, Honglian; Zhang, Jishen; Jing, Fengxiang; Mao, Hongju; Jin, Qinghui; Cong, Hui; Jia, Chunping; Zhang, Guojun; Zhao, Jianlong

    2017-03-15

    Assay of multiple serum tumor markers such as carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), cytokeratin 19 fragment antigen (CYFRA21-1), and neuron specific enolase (NSE), is important for the early diagnosis of lung cancer. Dickkopf-1 (DKK1), a novel serological and histochemical biomarker, was recently reported to be preferentially expressed in lung cancer. Four target proteins were sandwiched by capture antibodies attached to microarrays and detection antibodies carried on modified gold nanoparticles. Optical signals generated by the sandwich structures were amplified by gold deposition with HAuCl4 and H2O2, and were observable by microscopy or the naked eye. The four tumor markers were subsequently measured in 106 lung cancer patients and 42 healthy persons. The assay was capable of detecting multiple biomarkers in serum sample at concentration of highly improved the sensitivity (to 87.74%) for diagnosis of lung cancer compared with sensitivity of single markers. A rapid, highly sensitive co-detection method for multiple biomarkers based on gold nanoparticles and microarrays was developed. In clinical use, it would be expected to improve the early diagnosis of lung cancer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. High temperature gradient nanogap-Pirani micro-sensor with maximum sensitivity around atmospheric pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghouila-Houri, C.; Talbi, A.; Viard, R.; Moutaouekkil, M.; Elmazria, O.; Gallas, Q.; Garnier, E.; Merlen, A.; Pernod, P.

    2017-09-01

    This letter describes and discusses the design and testing of an efficient nanogap Pirani micro-sensor for pressure measurements in a wide range with a maximum sensitivity around atmospheric pressure. The structure combines a substrate-free heated wire and a mechanical support made of silicon oxide micro-bridges allowing both a constant nanoscale gap between the wire and the substrate and a 1 mm long and 3 μm wide wire. The high aspect ratio of the wire provides a uniform heating profile along the wire and contributes to low pressure detection. On the contrary, both the nanoscale gap and the short wire length between two micro-bridges contribute to shift the high limit of the pressure range. When tested between 10 kPa and 800 kPa, the sensor presents a wide measurement range, not fully reached by the experiments, with a maximum of sensitivity close to the atmospheric pressure and performances with up to 38%/dec sensitivity when operating in a constant temperature mode with an overheat of 20 °C.

  20. Highly sensitive integrated pressure sensor with horizontally oriented carbon nanotube network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammad Haniff, Muhammad Aniq Shazni; Lee, Hing Wah; Bien, Daniel Chia Sheng; Teh, Aun Shih; Azid, Ishak Abdul

    2014-01-28

    This paper presents a functionalized, horizontally oriented carbon nanotube network as a sensing element to enhance the sensitivity of a pressure sensor. The synthesis of horizontally oriented nanotubes from the AuFe catalyst and their deposition onto a mechanically flexible substrate via transfer printing are studied. Nanotube formation on thermally oxidized Si (100) substrates via plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition controls the nanotube coverage and orientation on the flexible substrate. These nanotubes can be simply transferred to the flexible substrate without changing their physical structure. When tested under a pressure range of 0 to 50 kPa, the performance of the fabricated pressure sensor reaches as high as approximately 1.68%/kPa, which indicates high sensitivity to a small change of pressure. Such sensitivity may be induced by the slight contact in isolated nanotubes. This nanotube formation, in turn, enhances the modification of the contact and tunneling distance of the nanotubes upon the deformation of the network. Therefore, the horizontally oriented carbon nanotube network has great potential as a sensing element for future transparent sensors.

  1. Elucidation of high sensitivity of δ-HMX: New insight from the first principle simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuklja, Maija; Sharia, Onise; Tsyshevsky, Roman

    2015-06-01

    Understanding of a tremendous difference in sensitivities of β and δ phases of cyclotetramethylene-tetranitramine (HMX) has been long one of the stubborn challenges in the field of high energy density materials. Despite many experimental and theoretical efforts to explain the high sensitivity of the δ phase, convincing reasons behind the HMX behavior remained puzzling. We established that the presence of a polar surface in δ-HMX has fundamental implications for stability and overall chemical behavior of the material. A comparative state-of-the-art quantum-chemical analysis of major decomposition mechanisms in polar δ-HMX and nonpolar β-HMX discovered a dramatic difference in dominating dissociation reactions, activation barriers, and reaction rates. The polarization-induced charge transfer offered a logical explanation for different sensitivity of β-HMX and δ-HMX polymorphs to detonation initiation. Our conclusions also removed long-standing contradictions and explained a large range of experimental data on thermal decomposition of HMX.

  2. Combining isothermal rolling circle amplification and electrochemiluminescence for highly sensitive point mutation detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Qiang; Zhou, Xiaoming

    2008-12-01

    Many pathogenic and genetic diseases are associated with changes in the sequence of particular genes. We describe here a rapid and highly efficient assay for the detection of point mutation. This method is a combination of isothermal rolling circle amplification (RCA) and high sensitive electrochemluminescence (ECL) detection. In the design, a circular template generated by ligation upon the recognition of a point mutation on DNA targets was amplified isothermally by the Phi29 polymerase using a biotinylated primer. The elongation products were hybridized with tris (bipyridine) ruthenium (TBR)-tagged probes and detected in a magnetic bead based ECL platform, indicating the mutation occurrence. P53 was chosen as a model for the identification of this method. The method allowed sensitive determination of the P53 mutation from wild-type and mutant samples. The main advantage of RCA-ECL is that it can be performed under isothermal conditions and avoids the generation of false-positive results. Furthermore, ECL provides a faster, more sensitive, and economical option to currently available electrophoresis-based methods.

  3. Determination of chlorinated hydrocarbons in water using highly sensitive mid-infrared sensor technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Rui; Mizaikoff, Boris; Li, Wen-Wei; Qian, Chen; Katzir, Abraham; Raichlin, Yosef; Sheng, Guo-Ping; Yu, Han-Qing

    2013-01-01

    Chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons and chlorinated aromatic hydrocarbons (CHCs) are toxic and carcinogenic contaminants commonly found in environmental samples, and efficient online detection of these contaminants is still challenging at the present stage. Here, we report an advanced Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy-attenuated total reflectance (FTIR-ATR) sensor for in-situ and simultaneous detection of multiple CHCs, including monochlorobenzene, 1,2-dichlorobenzene, 1,3-dichlorobenzene, trichloroethylene, perchloroethylene, and chloroform. The polycrystalline silver halide sensor fiber had a unique integrated planar-cylindric geometry, and was coated with an ethylene/propylene copolymer membrane to act as a solid phase extractor, which greatly amplified the analytical signal and contributed to a higher detection sensitivity compared to the previously reported sensors. This system exhibited a high detection sensitivity towards the CHCs mixture at a wide concentration range of 5~700 ppb. The FTIR-ATR sensor described in this study has a high potential to be utilized as a trace-sensitive on-line device for water contamination monitoring.

  4. High sensitivity electro-optic modulation of slow light in ellipse rods PC-CROW

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Changhong; Wan, Yong; Zong, Weihua

    2017-07-01

    A tunable slow light with low group velocity, high buffer performance and high sensitivity is realized in photonic crystal coupled resonator optical waveguide (PC-CROW) with elliptical rod around cavity. By adjusting the long axis and short axis of the elliptical rods, the slow light and buffer performance of PC-CROW are optimized. As ae=0.42a, be=0.20a, the group velocity is below 2.3053×10-4c, simultaneously, the buffer capacity C and delay time Ts reach the optimum value of 9.8214 bit and 354.8 ps. Then the dynamic modulation of the slow light and buffer performance based on this optimized structure has been discussed systematically. Thanks to the electro-optic effect of the polystyrene substrate, the guided mode shifts linearly to short wavelength in sensitivity of 3.0 nm/mV around 1550 nm, as the applied voltage increases. The modulation sensitivities of delay time and buffer capacity are 0.445 ns/mV and 0.051 bit/mV, respectively. These results show a considerable potential for this structure that can be dynamically controlled according to the practical requirements by electro-optic effect in PC-CROW.

  5. Refractory testicular germ cell tumors are highly sensitive to the second generation DNA methylation inhibitor guadecitabine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albany, Costantine; Hever-Jardine, Mary P; von Herrmann, Katherine M; Yim, Christina Y; Tam, Janice; Warzecha, Joshua M; Shin, Leah; Bock, Sarah E; Curran, Brian S; Chaudhry, Aneeq S; Kim, Fred; Sandusky, George E; Taverna, Pietro; Freemantle, Sarah J; Christensen, Brock C; Einhorn, Lawrence H; Spinella, Michael J

    2017-01-10

    Testicular germ cell tumors (TGCTs) are the most common cancers of young males. A substantial portion of TGCT patients are refractory to cisplatin. There are no effective therapies for these patients, many of whom die from progressive disease. Embryonal carcinoma (EC) are the stem cells of TGCTs. In prior in vitro studies we found that EC cells were highly sensitive to the DNA methyltransferase inhibitor, 5-aza deoxycytidine (5-aza). Here, as an initial step in bringing demethylation therapy to the clinic for TGCT patients, we evaluated the effects of the clinically optimized, second generation demethylating agent guadecitabine (SGI-110) on EC cells in an animal model of cisplatin refractory testicular cancer. EC cells were exquisitely sensitive to guadecitabine and the hypersensitivity was dependent on high levels of DNA methyltransferase 3B. Guadecitabine mediated transcriptional reprogramming of EC cells included induction of p53 targets and repression of pluripotency genes. As a single agent, guadecitabine completely abolished progression and induced complete regression of cisplatin resistant EC xenografts even at doses well below those required to impact somatic solid tumors. Low dose guadecitabine also sensitized refractory EC cells to cisplatin in vivo. Genome-wide analysis indicated that in vivo antitumor activity was associated with activation of p53 and immune-related pathways and the antitumor effects of guadecitabine were dependent on p53, a gene rarely mutated in TGCTs. These preclinical findings suggest that guadecitabine alone or in combination with cisplatin is a promising strategy to treat refractory TGCT patients.

  6. High-sensitive thermal video camera with self-scanned 128 InSb linear array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujisada, Hiroyuki

    1991-12-01

    A compact thermal video camera with very high sensitivity has been developed by using a self-scanned 128 InSb linear array photodiode. Two-dimensional images are formed by a self- scanning function of the linear array focal plane assembly in the horizontal direction and by a vibration mirror in the vertical direction. Images with 128 X 128 pixel number are obtained every 1/30 seconds. A small size InSb detector array with a total length of 7.68 mm is utilized in order to build the compact system. In addition, special consideration is given to a configuration of optics, vibration mirror, and focal plane assembly. Real-time signal processing by a microprocessor is carried out to compensate inhomogeneous sensitivities and irradiances for each detector. The standard NTSC TV format is employed for output video signals. The thermal video camera developed had a very high radiometric sensitivity. Minimum resolvable temperature difference (MRTD) is estimated at about 0.02 K for 300 K target. The stable operation is possible without blackbody reference, because of very small stray radiation.

  7. Using the HSPF and SWMM Models in a High Pervious Watershed and Estimating Their Parameter Sensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin-Yi Tsai

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Models are necessary tools for watershed management. However, applying watershed models is time consuming and requires technical knowledge, including model selection and validation. The objective of this study is to assess two commonly used watershed models and their parameter sensitivity to reduce model loadings and to gain a better understanding of the model performances. The Hydrological Simulation Program-Fortran (HSPF model and Storm Water Management Model (SWMM were applied to a mostly forested Taiwanese reservoir watershed with pollution from tea plantations. Statistical analysis showed that both models are suitable for the studied watershed, but the performances of the flow and water quality simulations are different. The mean flow simulated by SWMM was lower than the experimental observations. The HSPF model performed better, possibly because the soil in the study area is highly permeable and the HSPF model has more precise soil layer calculations. SWMM may underestimate the total phosphorous (TP and suspended solid (SS loads following small storm events in highly permeable watersheds. The Latin Hypercube-One factor At a Time (LH-OAT method was used to determine the parameter sensitivity of the HSPF model and SWMM. In both of the models, the parameters related to infiltration and soil characteristics strongly affected the flow simulation, except when using the Horton infiltration method in the SWMM. Manning’s roughness coefficient for pervious areas was more sensitive in SWMM than in the HSPF model because SWMM has fewer parameters.

  8. FBG based high sensitive pressure sensor and its low-cost interrogation system with enhanced resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachava, Vengal Rao; Kamineni, Srimannarayana; Madhuvarasu, Sai Shankar; Putha, Kishore; Mamidi, Venkata Reddy

    2015-12-01

    A fiber Bragg grating (FBG) pressure sensor with high sensitivity and resolution has been designed and demonstrated. The sensor is configured by firmly fixing the FBG with a metal bellows structure. The sensor works by means of measuring the Bragg wavelength shift of the FBG with respect to pressure change. From the experimental results, the pressure sensitivity of the sensor is found to be 90.6 pm/psi, which is approximately 4000 times as that of a bare fiber Bragg grating. A very good linearity of 99.86% is observed between the Bragg wavelength of the FBG and applied pressure. The designed sensor shows good repeatability with a negligible hysteresis error of ± 0.29 psi. A low-cost interrogation system that includes a long period grating (LPG) and a photodiode (PD) accompanied with simple electronic circuitry is demonstrated for the FBG sensor, which enables the sensor to attain high resolution of up to 0.025 psi. Thermal-strain cross sensitivity of the FBG pressure sensor is compensated using a reference FBG temperature sensor. The designed sensor can be used for liquid level, specific gravity, and static/dynamic low pressure measurement applications.

  9. Chlorine-trapped CVD bilayer graphene for resistive pressure sensor with high detection limit and high sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phuong Pham, Viet; Triet Nguyen, Minh; Park, Jin Woo; Kwak, Sung Soo; Nguyen, Dieu Hien Thi; Kyeom Mun, Mu; Danh Phan, Hoang; San Kim, Doo; Kim, Ki Hyun; Lee, Nae-Eung; Yeom, Geun Young

    2017-06-01

    Pressure sensing is one of the key functions for smart electronics. Considerably more effort is required to achieve the fabrication of pressure sensors that can imitate and overcome the sophisticated pressure sensing characteristics in nature and industry, especially in the innovation of materials and structures. Almost all of the pressure sensors reported until now have a high sensitivity at a low-pressure detection limit (ZnO/chlorine radical-trap doped bilayer graphene (ZGClG) as an ideal channel for pressure sensors. Using this ZGClG as the channel, this study shows the possibility of forming a pressure sensor with a high sensitivity (0.19 kPa-1) and a high responsivity (0.575 s) at V  =  1 V on glass substrate. Further, the pressure detection limit of this device was as high as 98 kPa. The investigation of the sensing mechanism under pressure has revealed that the significant improved sensing effect is related to the heavy p-type chlorine trap doping in the channel graphene with chlorine radicals without damaging the graphene. This work indicates that the ZGClG channel used for the pressure sensing device could also provide a simple and essential sensing platform for chemical-, medical-, and biological-sensing for future smart electronics.

  10. Italian spring accelerometer (ISA) a high sensitive accelerometer for ``BepiColombo'' ESA CORNERSTONE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iafolla, V.; Nozzoli, S.

    2001-12-01

    The targets of the ESA CORNERSTONE mission to Mercury "BepiColombo" are concerned with both planetary and magnetospheric physics and to test some aspects of the general relativity. A payload devoted to a set of experiments named radio science is located within one of the three proposed modules, the Mercury Planetary Orbiter (MPO). In particular, a high sensitivity accelerometer ( a minFisica dello Spazio Interplanetario (IFSI), with the financial support of the Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI). A prototype of such an instrument was constructed, matching the requirements of the radio science experiment. Results of the study concerning the use of ISA in the BepiColombo mission are reported here, particular care being devoted to the description of the instrument and to its sensitivity and thermal stabilisation.

  11. Flexible polymer transistors with high pressure sensitivity for application in electronic skin and health monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Gregor; Tee, Benjamin C-K; Mei, Jianguo; Appleton, Anthony L; Kim, Do Hwan; Wang, Huiliang; Bao, Zhenan

    2013-01-01

    Flexible pressure sensors are essential parts of an electronic skin to allow future biomedical prostheses and robots to naturally interact with humans and the environment. Mobile biomonitoring in long-term medical diagnostics is another attractive application for these sensors. Here we report the fabrication of flexible pressure-sensitive organic thin film transistors with a maximum sensitivity of 8.4 kPa(-1), a fast response time of stability over >15,000 cycles and a low power consumption of devices in the subthreshold regime, where the capacitance change upon compression of the dielectric is strongly amplified. We demonstrate that our sensors can be used for non-invasive, high fidelity, continuous radial artery pulse wave monitoring, which may lead to the use of flexible pressure sensors in mobile health monitoring and remote diagnostics in cardiovascular medicine.

  12. An improved Ras sensor for highly sensitive and quantitative FRET-FLIM imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana F Oliveira

    Full Text Available Ras is a signaling protein involved in a variety of cellular processes. Hence, studying Ras signaling with high spatiotemporal resolution is crucial to understanding the roles of Ras in many important cellular functions. Previously, fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM of fluorescent resonance energy transfer (FRET-based Ras activity sensors, FRas and FRas-F, have been demonstrated to be useful for measuring the spatiotemporal dynamics of Ras signaling in subcellular micro-compartments. However the predominantly nuclear localization of the sensors' acceptor has limited its sensitivity. Here, we have overcome this limitation and developed two variants of the existing FRas sensor with different affinities: FRas2-F (K(d∼1.7 µM and FRas2-M (K(d∼0.5 µM. We demonstrate that, under 2-photon fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy, FRas2 sensors provide higher sensitivity compared to previous sensors in 293T cells and neurons.

  13. High-sensitivity thermometer based on singlemode-multimode FBG-singlemode fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Ming; Yang, Biyao; Jiang, Peng; Liu, Xuejing; Dai, Lingling; Hu, Yanhui; Zhang, Bingxin

    2017-11-01

    A fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensing configuration for temperature measurement based on singlemode-multimode FBG-singlemode fiber was proposed and experimentally demonstrated. The configuration was formed by fabricating an FBG in a multimode fiber, which was sandwiched between two singlemode fibers. Both theoretical and experimental analyses were performed. An average sensitivity of 266.25 pm/ °C and a resolvable index change of 3.75 × 10-2 °C were obtained in the temperature range from -40 °C to +40 °C . The proposed thermometer could find useful applications in biology, medicine, and material science because of its superior properties such as high sensitivity, compact size, easy fabrication, linear response, ease of interconnection with other in-fiber optical components, and low cost.

  14. Development of High Sensitivity Humidity Sensor Based on Gray TiO₂/SrTiO₃ Composite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Min; Wei, Shunhang; Ren, Wei; Wu, Rong

    2017-06-07

    A gray TiO₂/SrTiO₃ composite nanocrystalline sensor with narrow band-gap was successfully prepared through a facile wet chemical method. The precursor was calcined in N₂ flow under atmospheric pressure and thereafter, a humidity sensor based on the composite was fabricated. The sensor showed high resistive sensitivity and varied by more than four orders of magnitude with an increase in relative humidity (RH) from 11% to 95%. The response and recovery time were about 3.1 s and 76 s, respectively with maximum hysteresis at 1% RH. In comparison with pure SrTiO₃ and black TiO₂, the gray composite based device exhibits a higher sensitivity. These results demonstrate the potential of gray TiO₂/SrTiO₃ for humidity sensing applications.

  15. A highly selective, colorimetric, and environment-sensitive optical potassium ion sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Guangjie; Sun, Ruofan; Du, Jiqing; Chen, Meiwan; Tian, Yanqing

    2017-05-18

    Potassium ions (K+) play vital roles in many biological processes and thus highly selective sensors for K+ are critical for disease diagnosis and health monitoring. Herein, we report a colorimetric K+ sensor (KS7) in which a hemicyanine dye was used as a fluorophore and phenylaza-[18]crown-6 lariat ether (ACLE) was utilized as a K+ ligand. The maximum absorption peak of KS7 shifted hypsochromically by 77 nm (from 515 to 438 nm) with an isosbestic point at 452 nm upon the addition of K+ to its aqueous solution accompanied by a color change from red to yellow. This sensor exhibited a linear response range to K+ from 1 to 200 mM, indicating its wide detection range for cellular, urinary, and environmental potassium ions. Further, this sensor is solvent-sensitive, implying its environmental sensitivity. For the demonstration of its applications, we prepared filter paper-based K+ test strips, which were used to detect K+ in urine conveniently.

  16. High Sensitivity Carbon Nanotubes Flow-Rate Sensors and Their Performance Improvement by Coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Yang

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available A new type of hot-wire flow-rate sensor (HWFS with a sensing element made of a macro-sized carbon nanotube (CNT strand is presented in this study. An effective way to improve repeatability of the CNT flow-rate sensor by coating a layer of Al2O3 on the CNT surface is proposed. Experimental results show that due to the large surface-to-volume ratio and thin coated Al2O3 layer, the CNT flow-rate sensor has higher sensitivity and faster response than a conventional platinum (Pt HWFS. It is also demonstrated that the covered CNT flow-rate sensor has better repeatability than its bare counterpart due to insulation from the surrounding environment. The proposed CNT flow-rate sensor shows application potential for high-sensitivity measurement of flow rate.

  17. Highly Sensitive Flexible Human Motion Sensor Based on ZnSnO3/PVDF Composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Young Jin; Aziz, Shahid; Mehdi, Syed Murtuza; Sajid, Memoon; Jagadeesan, Srikanth; Choi, Kyung Hyun

    2017-07-01

    A highly sensitive body motion sensor has been fabricated based on a composite active layer of zinc stannate (ZnSnO3) nano-cubes and poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) polymer. The thin film-based active layer was deposited on polyethylene terephthalate flexible substrate through D-bar coating technique. Electrical and morphological characterizations of the films and sensors were carried out to discover the physical characteristics and the output response of the devices. The synergistic effect between piezoelectric ZnSnO3 nanocubes and β phase PVDF provides the composite with a desirable electrical conductivity, remarkable bend sensitivity, and excellent stability, ideal for the fabrication of a motion sensor. The recorded resistance of the sensor towards the bending angles of -150° to 0° to 150° changed from 20 MΩ to 55 MΩ to 100 MΩ, respectively, showing the composite to be a very good candidate for motion sensing applications.

  18. Design of a Piezoelectric Accelerometer with High Sensitivity and Low Transverse Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bian Tian

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to meet the requirements of cable fault detection, a new structure of piezoelectric accelerometer was designed and analyzed in detail. The structure was composed of a seismic mass, two sensitive beams, and two added beams. Then, simulations including the maximum stress, natural frequency, and output voltage were carried out. Moreover, comparisons with traditional structures of piezoelectric accelerometer were made. To verify which vibration mode is the dominant one on the acceleration and the space between the mass and glass, mode analysis and deflection analysis were carried out. Fabricated on an n-type single crystal silicon wafer, the sensor chips were wire-bonged to printed circuit boards (PCBs and simply packaged for experiments. Finally, a vibration test was conducted. The results show that the proposed piezoelectric accelerometer has high sensitivity, low resonance frequency, and low transverse effect.

  19. Highly Sensitive and Selective Sensor Chips with Graphene-Oxide Linking Layer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stebunov, Yury V.; Aftenieva, Olga A.; Arsenin, Aleksey V.

    2015-01-01

    The development of sensing interfaces can significantly improve the performance of biological sensors. Graphene oxide provides a remarkable immobilization platform for surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensors due to its excellent optical and biochemical properties. Here, we describe a novel sen......, the demonstrated sensor chips are bioselective with more than 25 times reduced binding for nonspecific interaction and can be used multiple times. We consider the results presented here of importance for any future applications of highly sensitive SPR biosensing....... sensor chip for SPR biosensors based on graphene-oxide linking layers. The biosensing assay model was based on a graphene oxide film containing streptavidin. The proposed sensor chip has three times higher sensitivity than the carboxymethylated dextran surface of a commercial sensor chip. Moreover...

  20. Near Infrared Emission of Highly Electronically Excited CO: A Sensitive Probe to Study the Interstellar Medium??

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudipati, Murthy S.

    2002-01-01

    Among the various spectroscopic features of the second most abundant molecule in the space, CO, "the triplet - triplet transitions involving the lowest triplet state a(sup 3)II and the higher-lying a(sup 1)3 SIGMA (sup +), d(sup 3) (DELTA), e (sup 3) SIGMA (sup -) states spanning near-UV to mid-IR spectral range" have so far not been explored in astrophysical observations. The energies of these transitions are highly sensitive to the surroundings in which CO exists, i.e. gas-phase, polar or non-polar condensed phase. It is proposed here that these triplet-triplet emission/absorption bands can be used as a sensitive probe to investigate the local environments of CO, whether in the planetary atmosphere, stellar atmosphere or interstellar medium.

  1. A highly sensitive sensor for ethyl acetate by changing fluorescent colour of lanthanide complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lina

    2017-09-01

    A lanthanide complex, namely, [La 2 (L-DBTA) 3 (CH 3 OH) 2 (H 2 O) 2 ]∙2H2O has been synthesized using a simple reaction of L-O,O´-dibenzoyl tartaric acid with LaCl 3 ∙6H 2 O under ambient temperature. The luminescence spectrum in the solid state at room temperature revealed that the complex exhibited blue-light emission that originated from ligand. In addition, the lanthanide complex is developed as a fluorescent probe for sensing small molecules. Luminescence studies reveal that the lanthanide complex could detect ethyl acetate sensitively through fluorescence colour change from blue to yellow. Furthermore, the complex exhibited appealing features including high sensitivity and an ultrafast response. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. High Sensitivity Carbon Nanotubes Flow-Rate Sensors and Their Performance Improvement by Coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xing; Zhou, Zhaoying; Wang, Dingqu; Liu, Xiaoli

    2010-01-01

    A new type of hot-wire flow-rate sensor (HWFS) with a sensing element made of a macro-sized carbon nanotube (CNT) strand is presented in this study. An effective way to improve repeatability of the CNT flow-rate sensor by coating a layer of Al2O3 on the CNT surface is proposed. Experimental results show that due to the large surface-to-volume ratio and thin coated Al2O3 layer, the CNT flow-rate sensor has higher sensitivity and faster response than a conventional platinum (Pt) HWFS. It is also demonstrated that the covered CNT flow-rate sensor has better repeatability than its bare counterpart due to insulation from the surrounding environment. The proposed CNT flow-rate sensor shows application potential for high-sensitivity measurement of flow rate. PMID:22399913

  3. An integrated low 1/f noise and high-sensitivity CMOS instrumentation amplifier for TMR sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zhiqiang; Luan, Bo; Zhao, Jincai; Liu, Xiaowei

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, a very low 1/f noise integrated Wheatstone bridge magnetoresistive sensor ASIC based on magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ) technology is presented for high sensitivity measurements. The present CMOS instrumentation amplifier employs the gain-boost folded-cascode structure based on the capacitive-feedback chopper-stabilized technique. By chopping both the input and the output of the amplifier, combined with MTJ magnetoresistive sensitive elements, a noise equivalent magnetoresistance 1 nT/Hz1/2 at 2 Hz, the equivalent input noise spectral density 17 nV/Hz1/2(@2Hz) is achieved. The chip-scale package of the TMR sensor and the instrumentation amplifier is only about 5 mm × 5 mm × 1 mm, while the whole DC current dissipates only 2 mA.

  4. High-sensitivity detection of triacetone triperoxide (TATP) and its precursor acetone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunayevskiy, Ilya; Tsekoun, Alexei; Prasanna, Manu; Go, Rowel; Patel, C. Kumar N.

    2007-09-01

    Triacetone triperoxide (C9H18O6, molecular mass of 222.24 g/mol) (TATP) is a powerful explosive that is easy to synthesize using commonly available household chemicals, acetone, and hydrogen peroxide 1 2. Because of the simplicity of its synthesis, TATP is often the explosive of choice for terrorists, including suicide bombers. For providing safety to the population, early detection of TATP and isolation of such individuals are essential. We report unambiguous, high-sensitivity detection of TATP and its precursor, acetone, using room-temperature quantum cascade laser photoacoustic spectroscopy (QCL-PAS). The available sensitivity is such that TATP, carried on a person (at a nominal body temperature of 37 °C), should be detectable at some distance. The combination of demonstrated detection of TATP and acetone should be ideal for screening at airports and other public places for providing increased public safety.

  5. Highly Sensitive and Selective Sensor Chips with Graphene-Oxide Linking Layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stebunov, Yury V; Aftenieva, Olga A; Arsenin, Aleksey V; Volkov, Valentyn S

    2015-10-07

    The development of sensing interfaces can significantly improve the performance of biological sensors. Graphene oxide provides a remarkable immobilization platform for surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensors due to its excellent optical and biochemical properties. Here, we describe a novel sensor chip for SPR biosensors based on graphene-oxide linking layers. The biosensing assay model was based on a graphene oxide film containing streptavidin. The proposed sensor chip has three times higher sensitivity than the carboxymethylated dextran surface of a commercial sensor chip. Moreover, the demonstrated sensor chips are bioselective with more than 25 times reduced binding for nonspecific interaction and can be used multiple times. We consider the results presented here of importance for any future applications of highly sensitive SPR biosensing.

  6. The use of interactive stories to deal with awareness of high sensitivity in middle childhood / Durbach L.M.

    OpenAIRE

    Durbach, Lisa-Mandi

    2011-01-01

    One in five children are born highly sensitive (HS), with nervous systems that are more sensitive to sensory subtleties. The highly sensitive child (HSC) presents with behaviour that is often a way of coping with sensory overload from their environment. The symptoms of HS are often mistaken for shyness, introversion, timidity and a low sensory threshold. Because of their lack of understanding, teachers mislabel and misdiagnose these children as being mentally ill, or as sufferi...

  7. A Micro Saddle Coil with Switchable Sensitivity for Local High-Resolution Imaging of Luminal Tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetsuji Dohi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on a micro saddle coil for local high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI fabricated by embedding a flexible coil pattern into a polydimethyilsiloxane (PDMS tube. We can change the sensitivity of the micro coil by deforming the shape of the coil from a saddle-shaped mode to a planar-shaped mode. The inductance, the resistance, and the Q-factor of the coil in the saddle-shaped mode were 2.45 μH, 3.31 Ω, and 39.9, respectively. Those of the planar-shaped mode were 3.07 μH, 3.92 Ω, and 42.9, respectively. In MRI acquired in saddle-shaped mode, a large visible area existed around the coil. Although the sensitive area was considerably reduced in the planar-shaped mode, clear MRI images were obtained. The signal-to-noise ratios (SNR of the saddle-shaped and planar-shaped modes were 194.9 and 505.9, respectively, at voxel size of 2.0 × 2.0 × 2.0 mm3 and 11.7 and 37.4, respectively, at voxel size of 0.5 × 0.5 × 1.0 mm3. The sensitivity of the saddle-shaped and the planar-shaped modes were about 3 times and 10 times higher, respectively, than those of the medical head coil at both voxel sizes. Thus, the micro saddle coil enabled large-area imaging and highly sensitive imaging by switching the shape of the coil.

  8. A high sensitivity assay for the inflammatory marker C-Reactive protein employing acoustic biosensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cooper Matthew A

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract C-Reactive Protein (CRP is an acute phase reactant routinely used as a biomarker to assess either infection or inflammatory processes such as autoimmune diseases. CRP also has demonstrated utility as a predictive marker of future risk of cardiovascular disease. A new method of immunoassay for the detection of C-Reactive Protein has been developed using Resonant Acoustic Profiling™ (RAP™ with comparable sensitivity to a high sensitivity CRP ELISA (hsCRP but with considerable time efficiency (12 minutes turnaround time to result. In one method, standard solutions of CRP (0 to 231 ng/mL or diluted spiked horse serum sample are injected through two sensor channels of a RAP™ biosensor. One contains a surface with sheep antibody to CRP, the other a control surface containing purified Sheep IgG. At the end of a 5-minute injection the initial rate of change in resonant frequency was proportional to CRP concentration. The initial rates of a second sandwich step of anti-CRP binding were also proportional to the sample CRP concentration and provided a more sensitive method for quantification of CRP. The lower limit of detection for the direct assay and the homogenous sandwich assay were both 20 ng/mL whereas for the direct sandwich assay the lower limit was 3 ng/mL. In a step towards a rapid clinical assay, diluted horse blood spiked with human CRP was passed over one sensor channel whilst a reference standard solution at the borderline cardiovascular risk level was passed over the other. A semi-quantities ratio was thus obtained indicative of sample CRP status. Overall, the present study revealed that CRP concentrations in serum that might be expected in both normal and pathological conditions can be detected in a time-efficient, label-free immunoassay with RAP™ detection technology with determined CRP concentrations in close agreement with those determined using a commercially available high sensitivity ELISA.

  9. A highly sensitive assay for monitoring the secretory pathway and ER stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian E Badr

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The secretory pathway is a critical index of the capacity of cells to incorporate proteins into cellular membranes and secrete proteins into the extracellular space. Importantly it is disrupted in response to stress to the endoplasmic reticulum that can be induced by a variety of factors, including expression of mutant proteins and physiologic stress. Activation of the ER stress response is critical in the etiology of a number of diseases, such as diabetes and neurodegeneration, as well as cancer. We have developed a highly sensitive assay to monitor processing of proteins through the secretory pathway and endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress in real-time based on the naturally secreted Gaussia luciferase (Gluc.An expression cassette for Gluc was delivered to cells, and its secretion was monitored by measuring luciferase activity in the conditioned medium. Gluc secretion was decreased down to 90% when these cells were treated with drugs that interfere with the secretory pathway at different steps. Fusing Gluc to a fluorescent protein allowed quantitation and visualization of the secretory pathway in real-time. Expression of this reporter protein did not itself elicit an ER stress response in cells; however, Gluc proved very sensitive at sensing this type of stress, which is associated with a temporary decrease in processing of proteins through the secretory pathway. The Gluc secretion assay was over 20,000-fold more sensitive as compared to the secreted alkaline phosphatase (SEAP, a well established assay for monitoring of protein processing and ER stress in mammalian cells.The Gluc assay provides a fast, quantitative and sensitive technique to monitor the secretory pathway and ER stress and its compatibility with high throughput screening will allow discovery of drugs for treatment of conditions in which the ER stress is generally induced.

  10. Dual sensitivity of inferior colliculus neurons to ITD in the envelopes of high-frequency sounds: experimental and modeling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Le; Devore, Sasha; Delgutte, Bertrand; Colburn, H Steven

    2014-01-01

    Human listeners are sensitive to interaural time differences (ITDs) in the envelopes of sounds, which can serve as a cue for sound localization. Many high-frequency neurons in the mammalian inferior colliculus (IC) are sensitive to envelope-ITDs of sinusoidally amplitude-modulated (SAM) sounds. Typically, envelope-ITD-sensitive IC neurons exhibit either peak-type sensitivity, discharging maximally at the same delay across frequencies, or trough-type sensitivity, discharging minimally at the same delay across frequencies, consistent with responses observed at the primary site of binaural interaction in the medial and lateral superior olives (MSO and LSO), respectively. However, some high-frequency IC neurons exhibit dual types of envelope-ITD sensitivity in their responses to SAM tones, that is, they exhibit peak-type sensitivity at some modulation frequencies and trough-type sensitivity at other frequencies. Here we show that high-frequency IC neurons in the unanesthetized rabbit can also exhibit dual types of envelope-ITD sensitivity in their responses to SAM noise. Such complex responses to SAM stimuli could be achieved by convergent inputs from MSO and LSO onto single IC neurons. We test this hypothesis by implementing a physiologically explicit, computational model of the binaural pathway. Specifically, we examined envelope-ITD sensitivity of a simple model IC neuron that receives convergent inputs from MSO and LSO model neurons. We show that dual envelope-ITD sensitivity emerges in the IC when convergent MSO and LSO inputs are differentially tuned for modulation frequency.

  11. Highly Sensitive and Rapid Fluorescence Detection with a Portable FRET Analyzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Haseong; Han, Gui Hwan; Fu, Yaoyao; Gam, Jongsik; Lee, Seung Goo

    2016-10-01

    Recent improvements in Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) sensors have enabled their use to detect various small molecules including ions and amino acids. However, the innate weak signal intensity of FRET sensors is a major challenge that prevents their application in various fields and makes the use of expensive, high-end fluorometers necessary. Previously, we built a cost-effective, high-performance FRET analyzer that can specifically measure the ratio of two emission wavelength bands (530 and 480 nm) to achieve high detection sensitivity. More recently, it was discovered that FRET sensors with bacterial periplasmic binding proteins detect ligands with maximum sensitivity in the critical temperature range of 50 - 55 °C. This report describes a protocol for assessing sugar content in commercially-available beverage samples using our portable FRET analyzer with a temperature-specific FRET sensor. Our results showed that the additional preheating process of the FRET sensor significantly increases the FRET ratio signal, to enable more accurate measurement of sugar content. The custom-made FRET analyzer and sensor were successfully applied to quantify the sugar content in three types of commercial beverages. We anticipate that further size reduction and performance enhancement of the equipment will facilitate the use of hand-held analyzers in environments where high-end equipment is not available.

  12. Double Fano resonances in an individual metallic nanostructure for high sensing sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Zhendong; Wen, Xiangmin; Gu, Ping; Zhong, Huang; Zhan, Peng; Chen, Zhuo; Wang, Zhenlin

    2017-11-01

    In this paper, we report on the design and observation of double Fano resonances (DFRs) in an individual symmetry-reduced nanostructure and the induced high sensing sensitivity. Such a plasmonic nanostructure consists of a partially overlapped double-metallic nanotriangles with unequal sizes fabricated by using fast and low-cost angle-resolved nanosphere lithography. Symmetry breaking generates two narrow quadrupolar dark modes, which further enhance the coupling with fundamental bright dipole modes within the same structure, manifesting the effect of DFRs. The resonance wavelength and line shape of DFRs can be tailored by changing the degree of asymmetry as well as the size of the designed nanostructure. Based on DFRs, a high sensitivity to dielectric environment with a maximum figure of merit of 35 is measured. Due to a fast manufacturing process with high reproducibility and high structural tunability, the fabricated individual metallic nanostructure provides an opportunity for significant potential applications in localized surface plasmon resonance based single or double-wavelength sensors in the near-infrared region.

  13. European multicenter analytical evaluation of the Abbott ARCHITECT STAT high sensitive troponin I immunoassay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krintus, Magdalena; Kozinski, Marek; Boudry, Pascal; Capell, Nuria Estañ; Köller, Ursula; Lackner, Karl; Lefèvre, Guillaume; Lennartz, Lieselotte; Lotz, Johannes; Herranz, Antonio Mora; Nybo, Mads; Plebani, Mario; Sandberg, Maria B; Schratzberger, Wolfgang; Shih, Jessie; Skadberg, Øyvind; Chargui, Ahmed Taoufik; Zaninotto, Martina; Sypniewska, Grazyna

    2014-11-01

    International recommendations highlight the superior value of cardiac troponins (cTns) for early diagnosis of myocardial infarction along with analytical requirements of improved precision and detectability. In this multicenter study, we investigated the analytical performance of a new high sensitive cardiac troponin I (hs-cTnI) assay and its 99th percentile upper reference limit (URL). Laboratories from nine European countries evaluated the ARCHITECT STAT high sensitive troponin I (hs-TnI) immunoassay on the ARCHITECT i2000SR/i1000SR immunoanalyzers. Imprecision, limit of blank (LoB), limit of detection (LoD), limit of quantitation (LoQ) linearity of dilution, interferences, sample type, method comparisons, and 99th percentile URLs were evaluated in this study. Total imprecision of 3.3%-8.9%, 2.0%-3.5% and 1.5%-5.2% was determined for the low, medium and high controls, respectively. The lowest cTnI concentration corresponding to a total CV of 10% was 5.6 ng/L. Common interferences, sample dilution and carryover did not affect the hs-cTnI results. Slight, but statistically significant, differences with sample type were found. Concordance between the investigated hs-cTnI assay and contemporary cTnI assay at 99th percentile cut-off was found to be 95%. TnI was detectable in 75% and 57% of the apparently healthy population using the lower (1.1 ng/L) and upper (1.9 ng/L) limit of the LoD range provided by the ARCHITECT STAT hs-TnI package insert, respectively. The 99th percentile values were gender dependent. The new ARCHITECT STAT hs-TnI assay with improved analytical features meets the criteria of high sensitive Tn test and will be a valuable diagnostic tool.

  14. Serial measurements of high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T after exercise stress test in stable coronary artery disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Axelsson, Anna; Ruwald, Martin Huth; Dalsgaard, Morten

    2013-01-01

    The aim was to assess serial measurements of high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hs-cTNT) post-exercise in patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD).......The aim was to assess serial measurements of high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hs-cTNT) post-exercise in patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD)....

  15. High Sensitive Precise 3D Accelerometer for Solar System Exploration with Unmanned Spacecrafts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savenko, Y. V.; Demyanenko, P. O.; Zinkovskiy, Y. F.

    Solutions of several space and geophysical tasks require creating high sensitive precise accelerometers with sensitivity in order of 10 -13 g. These several tasks are following: inertial navigation of the Earth and Space; gravimetry nearby the Earth and into Space; geology; geophysics; seismology etc. Accelerometers (gravimeters and gradientmeters) with required sensitivity are not available now. The best accelerometers in the world have sensitivity worth on 4-5 orders. It has been developed a new class of fiber-optical sensors (FOS) with light pulse modulation. These sensors have super high threshold sensitivity and wide (up to 10 orders) dynamic range, and can be used as a base for creating of measurement units of physical values as 3D superhigh sensitive precise accelerometers of linear accelerations that is suitable for highest requirements. The principle of operation of the FOS is organically combined with a digital signal processing. It allows decreasing hardware of the accelerometer due to using a usual air-borne or space-borne computer; correcting the influence of natural, design, technological drawbacks of FOS on measured results; neutralising the influence of extraordinary situations available during using of FOS; decreasing the influence of internal and external destabilising factors (as for FOS), such as oscillation of environment temperature, instability of pendulum cycle frequency of sensitive element of the accelerometer etc. We were conducted a quantitative estimation of precise opportunities of analogue FOS in structure of fiber optical measuring devices (FOMD) for elementary FOMD with analogue FOS built on modern element basis of fiber optics (FO), at following assumptions: absolute parameter stability of devices of FOS measuring path; single transmission band of registration path; maximum possible inserted in optical fiber (OF) a radiated power. Even at such idealized assumptions, a calculated value in limit reached minimum inaccuracy of

  16. A High Sensitivity IDC-Electronic Tongue Using Dielectric/Sensing Membranes with Solvatochromic Dyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Rajibur Rahaman Khan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an electronic tongue/taste sensor array containing different interdigitated capacitor (IDC sensing elements to detect different types of tastes, such as sweetness (glucose, saltiness (NaCl, sourness (HCl, bitterness (quinine-HCl, and umami (monosodium glutamate is proposed. We present for the first time an IDC electronic tongue using sensing membranes containing solvatochromic dyes. The proposed highly sensitive (30.64 mV/decade sensitivity IDC electronic tongue has fast response and recovery times of about 6 s and 5 s, respectively, with extremely stable responses, and is capable of linear sensing performance (R2 ≈ 0.985 correlation coefficient over the wide dynamic range of 1 µM to 1 M. The designed IDC electronic tongue offers excellent reproducibility, with a relative standard deviation (RSD of about 0.029. The proposed device was found to have better sensing performance than potentiometric-, cascoded compatible lateral bipolar transistor (C-CLBT-, Electronic Tongue (SA402-, and fiber-optic-based taste sensing systems in what concerns dynamic range width, response time, sensitivity, and linearity. Finally, we applied principal component analysis (PCA to distinguish between various kinds of taste in mixed taste compounds.

  17. Highly Sensitive Bacteriophage-Based Detection of Brucella abortus in Mixed Culture and Spiked Blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirill V. Sergueev

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available For decades, bacteriophages (phages have been used for Brucella species identification in the diagnosis and epidemiology of brucellosis. Traditional Brucella phage typing is a multi-day procedure including the isolation of a pure culture, a step that can take up to three weeks. In this study, we focused on the use of brucellaphages for sensitive detection of the pathogen in clinical and other complex samples, and developed an indirect method of Brucella detection using real-time quantitative PCR monitoring of brucellaphage DNA amplification via replication on live Brucella cells. This assay allowed the detection of single bacteria (down to 1 colony-forming unit per milliliter within 72 h without DNA extraction and purification steps. The technique was equally efficient with Brucella abortus pure culture and with mixed cultures of B. abortus and α-proteobacterial near neighbors that can be misidentified as Brucella spp., Ochrobactrum anthropi and Afipia felis. The addition of a simple short sample preparation step enabled the indirect phage-based detection of B. abortus in spiked blood, with the same high sensitivity. This indirect phage-based detection assay enables the rapid and sensitive detection of live B. abortus in mixed cultures and in blood samples, and can potentially be applied for detection in other clinical samples and other complex sample types.

  18. A Novel High-Sensitivity, Low-Power, Liquid Crystal Temperature Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Francisco Algorri

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A novel temperature sensor based on nematic liquid crystal permittivity as a sensing magnitude, is presented. This sensor consists of a specific micrometric structure that gives considerable advantages from other previous related liquid crystal (LC sensors. The analytical study reveals that permittivity change with temperature is introduced in a hyperbolic cosine function, increasing the sensitivity term considerably. The experimental data has been obtained for ranges from −6 °C to 100 °C. Despite this, following the LC datasheet, theoretical ranges from −40 °C to 109 °C could be achieved. These results have revealed maximum sensitivities of 33 mVrms/°C for certain temperature ranges; three times more than of most silicon temperature sensors. As it was predicted by the analytical study, the micrometric size of the proposed structure produces a high output voltage. Moreover the voltage’s sensitivity to temperature response can be controlled by the applied voltage. This response allows temperature measurements to be carried out without any amplification or conditioning circuitry, with very low power consumption.

  19. A novel high-sensitivity, low-power, liquid crystal temperature sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algorri, José Francisco; Urruchi, Virginia; Bennis, Noureddine; Sánchez-Pena, José Manuel

    2014-04-09

    A novel temperature sensor based on nematic liquid crystal permittivity as a sensing magnitude, is presented. This sensor consists of a specific micrometric structure that gives considerable advantages from other previous related liquid crystal (LC) sensors. The analytical study reveals that permittivity change with temperature is introduced in a hyperbolic cosine function, increasing the sensitivity term considerably. The experimental data has been obtained for ranges from -6 °C to 100 °C. Despite this, following the LC datasheet, theoretical ranges from -40 °C to 109 °C could be achieved. These results have revealed maximum sensitivities of 33 mVrms/°C for certain temperature ranges; three times more than of most silicon temperature sensors. As it was predicted by the analytical study, the micrometric size of the proposed structure produces a high output voltage. Moreover the voltage's sensitivity to temperature response can be controlled by the applied voltage. This response allows temperature measurements to be carried out without any amplification or conditioning circuitry, with very low power consumption.

  20. High sensitivity LPG Mach-Zehnder sensor for real-time fuel conformity analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osório, Jonas H.; Mosquera, L.; Gouveia, Carlos J.; Biazoli, Claudecir R.; Hayashi, Juliano G.; Jorge, Pedro A. S.; Cordeiro, Cristiano M. B.

    2013-01-01

    A high sensitivity refractive index sensor based on the combination of mechanically induced long period gratings (LPG) and fiber tapers was developed for real-time fuel quality analysis. The sensor was built in a Mach-Zehnder configuration by employing a pair of in-series gratings. In order to enhance sensor sensitivity, the region between both LPGs was tapered down from 125 to 10 µm. The system was tested by measuring water concentration in ethanol and ethanol concentration in commercial gasoline. The tapered sensor has shown an average sensitivity of 930 nm/RIU, 18 times higher than the non-tapered version. The resolution limit of the system using spectral interrogation was estimated to be 0.06% of ethanol dissolved in gasoline. For the purpose of real-time monitoring, an interrogation system based on white light interferometry (WLI) and virtual instrumentation was employed to evaluate ethanol evaporation in water, avoiding the use of spectral analysis. The WLI system, using phase tracking techniques, enabled us to record the evolution of the ethanol concentration in water with a resolution of 0.005% (v/v).

  1. Highly Sensitive Bacteriophage-Based Detection of Brucella abortus in Mixed Culture and Spiked Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergueev, Kirill V.; Filippov, Andrey A.; Nikolich, Mikeljon P.

    2017-01-01

    For decades, bacteriophages (phages) have been used for Brucella species identification in the diagnosis and epidemiology of brucellosis. Traditional Brucella phage typing is a multi-day procedure including the isolation of a pure culture, a step that can take up to three weeks. In this study, we focused on the use of brucellaphages for sensitive detection of the pathogen in clinical and other complex samples, and developed an indirect method of Brucella detection using real-time quantitative PCR monitoring of brucellaphage DNA amplification via replication on live Brucella cells. This assay allowed the detection of single bacteria (down to 1 colony-forming unit per milliliter) within 72 h without DNA extraction and purification steps. The technique was equally efficient with Brucella abortus pure culture and with mixed cultures of B. abortus and α-proteobacterial near neighbors that can be misidentified as Brucella spp., Ochrobactrum anthropi and Afipia felis. The addition of a simple short sample preparation step enabled the indirect phage-based detection of B. abortus in spiked blood, with the same high sensitivity. This indirect phage-based detection assay enables the rapid and sensitive detection of live B. abortus in mixed cultures and in blood samples, and can potentially be applied for detection in other clinical samples and other complex sample types. PMID:28604602

  2. Alcohol Recognition by Flexible, Transparent and Highly Sensitive Graphene-Based Thin-Film Sensors

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Xuezhu

    2017-06-22

    Chemical sensors detect a variety of chemicals across numerous fields, such as automobile, aerospace, safety, indoor air quality, environmental control, food, industrial production and medicine. We successfully assemble an alcohol-sensing device comprising a thin-film sensor made of graphene nanosheets (GNs) and bacterial cellulose nanofibers (BCNs). We show that the GN/BCN sensor has a high selectivity to ethanol by distinguishing liquid-phase or vapor-phase ethanol (C2H6O) from water (H2O) intelligently with accurate transformation into electrical signals in devices. The BCN component of the film amplifies the ethanol sensitivity of the film, whereby the GN/BCN sensor has 12400% sensitivity for vapor-phase ethanol compared to the pure GN sensor, which has only 21% sensitivity. Finally, GN/BCN sensors demonstrate fast response/recovery times and a wide range of alcohol detection (10-100%). The superior sensing ability of GN/BCN compared to GNs alone is due to the improved wettability of BCNs and the ionization of liquids. We prove a facile, green, low-cost route for the assembly of ethanol-sensing devices with potential for vast application.

  3. A Highly Sensitive Gold-Coated Photonic Crystal Fiber Biosensor Based on Surface Plasmon Resonance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Rabiul Hasan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we numerically demonstrate a two-layer circular lattice photonic crystal fiber (PCF biosensor based on the principle of surface plasmon resonance (SPR. The finite element method (FEM with circular perfectly matched layer (PML boundary condition is applied to evaluate the performance of the proposed sensor. A thin gold layer is deposited outside the PCF structure, which acts as the plasmonic material for this design. The sensing layer (analyte is implemented in the outermost layer, which permits easy and more practical fabrication process compared to analyte is put inside the air holes. It is demonstrated that, at gold layer thickness of 40 nm, the proposed sensor shows maximum sensitivity of 2200 nm/RIU using the wavelength interrogation method in the sensing range between 1.33–1.36. Besides, using an amplitude interrogation method, a maximum sensitivity of 266 RIU−1 and a maximum sensor resolution of 3.75 × 10−5 RIU are obtained. We also discuss how phase matching points are varied with different fiber parameters. Owing to high sensitivity and simple design, the proposed sensor may find important applications in biochemical and biological analyte detection.

  4. Global Sensitivity Analysis of High Speed Shaft Subsystem of a Wind Turbine Drive Train

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Asadi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The wind turbine dynamics are complex and critical area of study for the wind industry. Quantification of the effective factors to wind turbine performance is valuable for making improvements to both power performance and turbine health. In this paper, the global sensitivity analysis of validated mathematical model for high speed shaft drive train test rig has been developed in order to evaluate the contribution of systems input parameters to the specified objective functions. The drive train in this study consists of a 3-phase induction motor, flexible shafts, shafts’ coupling, bearing housing, and disk with an eccentric mass. The governing equations were derived by using the Lagrangian formalism and were solved numerically by Newmark method. The variance based global sensitivity indices are introduced to evaluate the contribution of input structural parameters correlated to the objective functions. The conclusion from the current research provides informative beneficial data in terms of design and optimization of a drive train setup and also can provide better understanding of wind turbine drive train system dynamics with respect to different structural parameters, ultimately designing more efficient drive trains. Finally, the proposed global sensitivity analysis (GSA methodology demonstrates the detectability of faults in different components.

  5. A Wearable and Highly Sensitive Graphene Strain Sensor for Precise Home-Based Pulse Wave Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tingting; Jiang, Xin; Zhong, Yujia; Zhao, Xuanliang; Lin, Shuyuan; Li, Jing; Li, Xinming; Xu, Jianlong; Li, Zhihong; Zhu, Hongwei

    2017-07-28

    Profuse medical information about cardiovascular properties can be gathered from pulse waveforms. Therefore, it is desirable to design a smart pulse monitoring device to achieve noninvasive and real-time acquisition of cardiovascular parameters. The majority of current pulse sensors are usually bulky or insufficient in sensitivity. In this work, a graphene-based skin-like sensor is explored for pulse wave sensing with features of easy use and wearing comfort. Moreover, the adjustment of the substrate stiffness and interfacial bonding accomplish the optimal balance between sensor linearity and signal sensitivity, as well as measurement of the beat-to-beat radial arterial pulse. Compared with the existing bulky and nonportable clinical instruments, this highly sensitive and soft sensing patch not only provides primary sensor interface to human skin, but also can objectively and accurately detect the subtle pulse signal variations in a real-time fashion, such as pulse waveforms with different ages, pre- and post-exercise, thus presenting a promising solution to home-based pulse monitoring.

  6. Highly Sensitive Colorimetric Assay for Determining Fe3+ Based on Gold Nanoparticles Conjugated with Glycol Chitosan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyungmin Kim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A highly sensitive and simple colorimetric assay for the detection of Fe3+ ions was developed using gold nanoparticles (AuNPs conjugated with glycol chitosan (GC. The Fe3+ ion coordinates with the oxygen atoms of GC in a hexadentate manner (O-Fe3+-O, decreasing the interparticle distance and inducing aggregation. Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry showed that the bound Fe3+ was coordinated to the oxygen atoms of the ethylene glycol in GC, which resulted in a significant color change from light red to dark midnight blue due to aggregation. Using this GC-AuNP probe, the quantitative determination of Fe3+ in biological, environmental, and pharmaceutical samples could be achieved by the naked eye and spectrophotometric methods. Sensitive response and pronounced color change of the GC-AuNPs in the presence of Fe3+ were optimized at pH 6, 70°C, and 300 mM NaCl concentration. The absorption intensity ratio (A700/A510 linearly correlated to the Fe3+ concentration in the linear range of 0–180 μM. The limits of detection were 11.3, 29.2, and 46.0 nM for tap water, pond water, and iron supplement tablets, respectively. Owing to its facile and sensitive nature, this assay method for Fe3+ ions can be applied to the analysis of drinking water and pharmaceutical samples.

  7. A Novel High-Sensitivity, Low-Power, Liquid Crystal Temperature Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algorri, José Francisco; Urruchi, Virginia; Bennis, Noureddine; Sánchez-Pena, José Manuel

    2014-01-01

    A novel temperature sensor based on nematic liquid crystal permittivity as a sensing magnitude, is presented. This sensor consists of a specific micrometric structure that gives considerable advantages from other previous related liquid crystal (LC) sensors. The analytical study reveals that permittivity change with temperature is introduced in a hyperbolic cosine function, increasing the sensitivity term considerably. The experimental data has been obtained for ranges from −6 °C to 100 °C. Despite this, following the LC datasheet, theoretical ranges from −40 °C to 109 °C could be achieved. These results have revealed maximum sensitivities of 33 mVrms/°C for certain temperature ranges; three times more than of most silicon temperature sensors. As it was predicted by the analytical study, the micrometric size of the proposed structure produces a high output voltage. Moreover the voltage's sensitivity to temperature response can be controlled by the applied voltage. This response allows temperature measurements to be carried out without any amplification or conditioning circuitry, with very low power consumption. PMID:24721771

  8. A highly sensitive, low-cost, wearable pressure sensor based on conductive hydrogel spheres

    KAUST Repository

    Tai, Yanlong

    2015-01-01

    Wearable pressure sensing solutions have promising future for practical applications in health monitoring and human/machine interfaces. Here, a highly sensitive, low-cost, wearable pressure sensor based on conductive single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT)/alginate hydrogel spheres is reported. Conductive and piezoresistive spheres are embedded between conductive electrodes (indium tin oxide-coated polyethylene terephthalate films) and subjected to environmental pressure. The detection mechanism is based on the piezoresistivity of the SWCNT/alginate conductive spheres and on the sphere-electrode contact. Step-by-step, we optimized the design parameters to maximize the sensitivity of the sensor. The optimized hydrogel sensor exhibited a satisfactory sensitivity (0.176 ΔR/R0/kPa-1) and a low detectable limit (10 Pa). Moreover, a brief response time (a few milliseconds) and successful repeatability were also demonstrated. Finally, the efficiency of this strategy was verified through a series of practical tests such as monitoring human wrist pulse, detecting throat muscle motion or identifying the location and the distribution of an external pressure using an array sensor (4 × 4). © 2015 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  9. Highly sensitive displacement measurement based on spectral interferometry and Vernier effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Militky, J.; Kadulova, M.; Hlubina, P.

    2016-05-01

    A highly sensitive measurement of the displacement of an interferometer mirror based on spectral interferometry and Vernier effect is proposed and demonstrated. The displacement measurement employs two interferometers in tandem, an interferometer represented by a combination of a polarizer, a birefrigent quartz crystal and an analyzer, and a Michelson interferometer. In the setup the Vernier effect is generated and the resultant channeled spectrum is with the envelope which shifts with the displacement of the interferometer mirror. We analyze the new measurement method theoretically and show that the sensitivity of the displacement measurement based on the wavelength interrogation is substantially increased in comparison to a standard method with a Michelson interferometer. We also demonstrate the realization of the measurement setup in which the position of the interferometer mirror is controlled via a closed-loop piezo positioning system. Experimental results show that the displacement measurement can reach a sensitivity of 264 nm/μm, which is substantially increased in comparison to -34 nm/μm reached for a standard measurement.

  10. Colorimetry and SERS dual-mode detection of telomerase activity: combining rapid screening with high sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zong, Shenfei; Wang, Zhuyuan; Chen, Hui; Hu, Guohua; Liu, Min; Chen, Peng; Cui, Yiping

    2014-01-01

    As an important biomarker and therapeutic target, telomerase has attracted considerable attention concerning its detection and monitoring. Here, we present a colorimetry and surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) dual-mode telomerase activity detection method, which has several distinctive advantages. First, colorimetric functionality allows rapid preliminary discrimination of telomerase activity by the naked eye. Second, the employment of SERS technique results in greatly improved detection sensitivity. Third, the combination of colorimetry and SERS into one detection system can ensure highly efficacious and sensitive screening of numerous samples. Besides, the avoidance of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) procedures further guarantees fine reliability and simplicity. Generally, the presented method is realized by an "elongate and capture" procedure. To be specific, gold nanoparticles modified with Raman molecules and telomeric repeat complementary oligonucleotide are employed as the colorimetric-SERS bifunctional reporting nanotag, while magnetic nanoparticles functionalized with telomerase substrate oligonucleotide are used as the capturing substrate. Telomerase can synthesize and elongate telomeric repeats onto the capturing substrate. The elongated telomeric repeats subsequently facilitate capturing of the reporting nanotag via hybridization between telomeric repeat and its complementary strand. The captured nanotags can cause a significant difference in the color and SERS intensity of the magnetically separated sediments. Thus both the color and SERS can be used as indicators of the telomerase activity. With fast screening ability and outstanding sensitivity, we anticipate that this method would greatly promote practical application of telomerase-based early-stage cancer diagnosis.

  11. Piezoelectric Sensor to Measure Soft and Hard Stiffness with High Sensitivity for Ultrasonic Transducers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Rui Li

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available During dental sinus lift surgery, it is important to monitor the thickness of the remaining maxilla to avoid perforating the sinus membrane. Therefore, a sensor should be integrated into ultrasonic dental tools to prevent undesirable damage. This paper presents a piezoelectric (PZT sensor installed in an ultrasonic transducer to measure the stiffness of high and low materials. Four design types using three PZT ring materials and a split PZT for actuator and sensor ring materials were studied. Three sensor locations were also examined. The voltage signals of the sensor and the displacement of the actuator were analyzed to distinguish the low and high stiffness. Using sensor type T1 made of the PZT-1 material and the front location A1 provided a high sensitivity of 2.47 Vm/kN. The experimental results demonstrated that our design can measure soft and hard stiffness.

  12. Piezoelectric Sensor to Measure Soft and Hard Stiffness with High Sensitivity for Ultrasonic Transducers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan-Rui; Su, Chih-Chung; Lin, Wen-Jin; Chang, Shuo-Hung

    2015-06-11

    During dental sinus lift surgery, it is important to monitor the thickness of the remaining maxilla to avoid perforating the sinus membrane. Therefore, a sensor should be integrated into ultrasonic dental tools to prevent undesirable damage. This paper presents a piezoelectric (PZT) sensor installed in an ultrasonic transducer to measure the stiffness of high and low materials. Four design types using three PZT ring materials and a split PZT for actuator and sensor ring materials were studied. Three sensor locations were also examined. The voltage signals of the sensor and the displacement of the actuator were analyzed to distinguish the low and high stiffness. Using sensor type T1 made of the PZT-1 material and the front location A1 provided a high sensitivity of 2.47 Vm/kN. The experimental results demonstrated that our design can measure soft and hard stiffness.

  13. Development of highly sensitive handheld device for real-time detection of bacteria in food

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kewei; Zhang, Anxue; Fu, Liling; Chin, Bryan A.; Cheng, Z.-Y.

    2010-04-01

    To ensure the safety of food, a detection device, which can detect/monitor the present of bacteria in a real-time manner and can be easily used for in-field tests, is highly desirable. Recently, magnetostrictive particles (MSPs) as a new type of high-performance biosensor have been developed. The detection of various bacteria and spores in food with high sensitivity has already been experimentally demonstrated. To fully use the technique for food safety, two miniaturized interrogation systems based on frequency-domain and time-domain technique are developed to fabricate a handheld detection device. The detection of Salmonella typhimurium (S. typhimurium) in liquid using a time-domain based interrogation system was demonstrated.

  14. High sensitivity troponin in cardiovascular disease. Is there more than a marker of myocardial death?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsounis, Dimitrios; Deftereos, Spyridon; Bouras, Georgios; Giannopoulos, Georgios; Anatoliotakis, Nikolaos; Raisakis, Konstantinos; Kossyvakis, Charalambos; Cleman, Michael W

    2013-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death worldwide and coronary artery disease is its most prevalent manifestation, associated with high mortality and morbidity. In clinical practice cardiac troponins (cTn) are the cornerstone of the diagnosis, risk stratification and thus selection of the optimal treatment strategy in patients with acute coronary syndrome. According to the third update of the universal definition of myocardial infarction (MI) cTn is the preferred cardiac biomarker of myocardial necrosis in the setting of acute myocardial ischemia. Over the last years newer high sensitivity cardiac troponin (hs-cTn) assays have been developed that are more sensitive than conventional assays, have low limit of detection, low imprecision and low reference limits, but due to variability, the deployment of a standardization and harmonization method is required before their wide use in clinical practice. Recent studies have shown that their utilization seems to improve the diagnostic accuracy detecting MI in patients presenting with chest pain. However, the improved sensitivity comes along with a decreased specificity, though serial cTn measurements and the detection of early changes could improve the specificity and the overall diagnostic performance. Moreover, apart from their use in the diagnosis and risk stratification of MI and acute coronary syndromes, hs-cTn assays seem to have a key role in risk stratification and short and long-term prognosis in a variety of cardiovascular modalities such as stable coronary disease, heart failure and acute pulmonary embolism. In addition, studies have suggested that cTns may be used as a biomarker in the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease leading to the identification of high-risk populations or individuals with silent heart disease.

  15. Photo- and biophysical studies of lectin-conjugated fluorescent nanoparticles: reduced sensitivity in high density assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yaqi; Gildersleeve, Jeffrey C; Basu, Amit; Zimmt, Matthew B

    2010-11-18

    Lectin-conjugated, fluorescent silica nanoparticles (fNP) have been developed for carbohydrate-based histopathology evaluations of epithelial tissue biopsies. The fNP platform was selected for its enhanced emissive brightness compared to direct dye labeling. Carbohydrate microarray studies were performed to compare the carbohydrate selectivity of the mannose-recognizing lectin Concanavalin A (ConA) before and after conjugation to fluorescent silica nanoparticles (ConA-fNP). These studies revealed surprisingly low emission intensities upon staining with ConA-fNP compared to those with biotin-ConA/Cy3-streptavidin staining. A series of photophysical and biophysical characterizations of the fNP and ConA-fNP conjugates were performed to probe the low sensitivity from fNP in the microarray assays. Up to 1200 fluorescein (FL) and 80 tetramethylrhodamine (TR) dye molecules were incorporated into 46 nm diameter fNP, yielding emissive brightness values 400 and 35 times larger than the individual dye molecules, respectively. ConA lectin conjugated to carboxylic acid surface-modified nanoparticles covers 15-30% of the fNP surface. The CD spectra and mannose substrate selectivity of ConA conjugated to the fNP differed slightly compared to that of soluble ConA. Although, the high emissive brightness of fNP enhances detection sensitivity for samples with low analyte densities, large fNP diameters limit fNP recruitment and binding to samples with high analyte densities. The high analyte density and nearly two-dimensional target format of carbohydrate microarrays make probe size a critical parameter. In this application, fNP labels afford minimal sensitivity advantage compared to direct dye labeling.

  16. Molecular structure and thermodynamic predictions to create highly sensitive microRNA biosensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larkey, Nicholas E.; Brucks, Corinne N.; Lansing, Shan S.; Le, Sophia D.; Smith, Natasha M.; Tran, Victoria; Zhang, Lulu; Burrows, Sean M., E-mail: sean.burrows@oregonstate.edu

    2016-02-25

    Many studies have established microRNAs (miRNAs) as post-transcriptional regulators in a variety of intracellular molecular processes. Abnormal changes in miRNA have been associated with several diseases. However, these changes are sometimes subtle and occur at nanomolar levels or lower. Several biosensing hurdles for in situ cellular/tissue analysis of miRNA limit detection of small amounts of miRNA. Of these limitations the most challenging are selectivity and sensor degradation creating high background signals and false signals. Recently we developed a reporter+probe biosensor for let-7a that showed potential to mitigate false signal from sensor degradation. Here we designed reporter+probe biosensors for miR-26a-2-3p and miR-27a-5p to better understand the effect of thermodynamics and molecular structures of the biosensor constituents on the analytical performance. Signal changes from interactions between Cy3 and Cy5 on the reporters were used to understand structural aspects of the reporter designs. Theoretical thermodynamic values, single stranded conformations, hetero- and homodimerization structures, and equilibrium concentrations of the reporters and probes were used to interpret the experimental observations. Studies of the sensitivity and selectivity revealed 5–9 nM detection limits in the presence and absence of interfering off-analyte miRNAs. These studies will aid in determining how to rationally design reporter+probe biosensors to overcome hurdles associated with highly sensitive miRNA biosensing. - Highlights: • Challenges facing highly sensitive miRNA biosensor designs are addressed. • Thermodynamic and molecular structure design metrics for reporter+probe biosensors are proposed. • The influence of ideal and non-ideal reporter hairpin structures on reporter+probe formation and signal change are discussed. • 5–9 nM limits of detection were observed with no interference from off-analytes.

  17. Rational design of highly sensitive fluorescence probes for protease and glycosidase based on precisely controlled spirocyclization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakabe, Masayo; Asanuma, Daisuke; Kamiya, Mako; Iwatate, Ryu J; Hanaoka, Kenjiro; Terai, Takuya; Nagano, Tetsuo; Urano, Yasuteru

    2013-01-09

    We have synthesized and evaluated a series of hydroxymethyl rhodamine derivatives and found an intriguing difference of intramolecular spirocyclization behavior: the acetylated derivative of hydroxymethyl rhodamine green (Ac-HMRG) exists as a closed spirocyclic structure in aqueous solution at physiological pH, whereas HMRG itself takes an open nonspirocyclic structure. Ac-HMRG is colorless and nonfluorescent, whereas HMRG is strongly fluorescent. On the basis of these findings, we have developed a general design strategy to obtain highly sensitive fluorescence probes for proteases and glycosidases, by replacing the acetyl group of Ac-HMRG with a substrate moiety of the target enzyme. Specific cleavage of the substrate moiety in the nonfluorescent probe by the target enzyme generates a strong fluorescence signal. To confirm the validity and flexibility of our strategy, we designed and synthesized fluorescence probes for leucine aminopeptidase (Leu-HMRG), fibroblast activation protein (Ac-GlyPro-HMRG), and β-galactosidase (βGal-HMRG). All of these probes were almost nonfluorescent due to the formation of spirocyclic structure, but were converted efficiently to highly fluorescent HMRG by the target enzymes. We confirmed that the probes can be used in living cells. These probes offer great practical advantages, including high sensitivity and rapid response (due to regulation of fluorescence at a single reactive site), as well as resistance to photobleaching, and are expected to be useful for a range of biological and pathological investigations.

  18. High sensitivity chemiluminescence enzyme immunoassay for detecting staphylococcal enterotoxin A in multi-matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chunmei; Liu, Zhijia; Li, Yongming; Li, Qi; Song, Chaojun; Xu, Zhuwei; Zhang, Yun; Zhang, Yusi; Ma, Ying; Sun, Yuanjie; Chen, Lihua; Fang, Liang; Yang, Angang; Yang, Kun; Jin, Boquan

    2013-09-24

    In this study, detection of staphylococcal enterotoxin A (SEA) in multi-matrices using a highly sensitive and specific microplate chemiluminescence enzyme immunoassay (CLEIA) has been established. A pair of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) was selected from 37 anti-SEA mAbs by pairwise analysis, and the experimental conditions of the CLEIA were optimized. This CLEIA exhibited high performance with a wide dynamic range from 6.4 pg mL(-1) to 1600 pg mL(-1), and the measured low limit of detection (LOD) was 3.2 pg mL(-1). No cross-reactivity was observed when this method was applied to test SEB, SEC1, and SED. It has also been successfully applied for analyzing SEA in a variety of environmental, biological, and clinical matrices, such as sewage, tap water, river water, roast beef, peanut butter, cured ham, 10% nonfat dry milk, milk, orange juice, human urine, and serum. Thus, the highly sensitive and SEA-specific CLEIA should make it attractive for quantifying SEA in public health and diagnosis in near future. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. First demonstration of high-order QAM signal amplification in PPLN-based phase sensitive amplifier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umeki, T; Tadanaga, O; Asobe, M; Miyamoto, Y; Takenouchi, H

    2014-02-10

    We demonstrate the phase sensitive amplification of a high-order quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) signal using non-degenerate parametric amplification in a periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN) waveguide. The interaction between the pump, signal, and phase-conjugated idler enables us to amplify arbitrary phase components of the signal. The 16QAM signals are amplified without distortion because of the high gain linearity of the PPLN-based phase sensitive amplifier (PSA). Both the phase and amplitude noise reduction capabilities of the PSA are ensured. Phase noise cancellation is achieved by using the interaction with the phase-conjugated idler. A degraded signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is restored by using the gain difference between a phase-correlated signal-idler pair and uncorrelated excess noise. The applicability of the simultaneous amplification of multi-carrier signals and the amplification of two independent polarization signals are also confirmed with a view to realizing ultra-high spectrally efficient signal amplification.

  20. A facile and high sensitive micro fluorimeter based on light emitting diode and photodiode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Xuhui; Gao, Yan; Feng, Chunbo; Guan, Yafeng

    2017-12-01

    A facile and high sensitive micro fluorimeter was developed and evaluated. It employed light emitting diode (LED) as light source, cuvette as detection cell, and photodiode (PD) as optoelectronic detector. Optical and electronic parameters were optimized and demonstrated. A high power LED was chosen, which could irradiate the inner area of the cuvette completely at the same time with divergence angle as small as possible. The optimum LED brought 2.5 times signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) enhancement. Using reflector at the opposite direction of excitation light path doubled SNR. The amplifier circuit of PD was deeply investigated to achieve high sensitivity, low noise, and good stability. The limit of detection (LOD) of fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) and chlorophyll at SNR = 3 were 10pM ~ 0.004 ppb and 0.05 ppb, respectively. Basing on the principle structure, a portable fluorimeter for fungimycin detection was developed using a low power UV LED as light source. The LOD for aflatoxin B1 was 0.1 ppb. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Novel Reversible Mechanochromic Elastomer with High Sensitivity: Bond Scission and Bending-Induced Multicolor Switching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Taisheng; Zhang, Na; Dai, Jingwen; Li, Zili; Bai, Wei; Bai, Ruke

    2017-04-05

    Although the rational designed mechanochromic polymer (MCP) materials have evoked major interest and experienced significant progress recently, it is still a great challenge to develop a facile and effective strategy for preparation of reversible broad-spectrum MCPs with a combination of wide-range color switch ability and high sensitivity, which thus make it possible to mimic gorgeous color change as in nature. Herein, we designed and synthesized a novel rhodamine-based mechanochromic elastomer. Our results demonstrated that the elastomer exhibited very promising and unique properties. Three primary fluorescence colors were presented during continuous uniaxial extension and relaxing process, and reversible broad-spectrum fluorescence color change could be achieved consequently. The fluorescence quantum yield of the opened zwitterion of this new mechanophore was as high as 0.67. In addition, the elastomer showed very high sensitivity to stress with a detectable activation strain of ∼0.24, which was much smaller than those reported in the previous literature reports. Meantime, the easy-to-obtain material, facile preparation, and good mechanical property also made it suitable for potential practical applications.

  2. High Sensitivity TSS Prediction: Estimates of Locations Where TSS Cannot Occur

    KAUST Repository

    Schaefer, Ulf

    2013-10-10

    Background Although transcription in mammalian genomes can initiate from various genomic positions (e.g., 3′UTR, coding exons, etc.), most locations on genomes are not prone to transcription initiation. It is of practical and theoretical interest to be able to estimate such collections of non-TSS locations (NTLs). The identification of large portions of NTLs can contribute to better focusing the search for TSS locations and thus contribute to promoter and gene finding. It can help in the assessment of 5′ completeness of expressed sequences, contribute to more successful experimental designs, as well as more accurate gene annotation. Methodology Using comprehensive collections of Cap Analysis of Gene Expression (CAGE) and other transcript data from mouse and human genomes, we developed a methodology that allows us, by performing computational TSS prediction with very high sensitivity, to annotate, with a high accuracy in a strand specific manner, locations of mammalian genomes that are highly unlikely to harbor transcription start sites (TSSs). The properties of the immediate genomic neighborhood of 98,682 accurately determined mouse and 113,814 human TSSs are used to determine features that distinguish genomic transcription initiation locations from those that are not likely to initiate transcription. In our algorithm we utilize various constraining properties of features identified in the upstream and downstream regions around TSSs, as well as statistical analyses of these surrounding regions. Conclusions Our analysis of human chromosomes 4, 21 and 22 estimates ~46%, ~41% and ~27% of these chromosomes, respectively, as being NTLs. This suggests that on average more than 40% of the human genome can be expected to be highly unlikely to initiate transcription. Our method represents the first one that utilizes high-sensitivity TSS prediction to identify, with high accuracy, large portions of mammalian genomes as NTLs. The server with our algorithm implemented is

  3. High sensitivity TSS prediction: estimates of locations where TSS cannot occur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Ulf; Kodzius, Rimantas; Kai, Chikatoshi; Kawai, Jun; Carninci, Piero; Hayashizaki, Yoshihide; Bajic, Vladimir B

    2010-11-15

    Although transcription in mammalian genomes can initiate from various genomic positions (e.g., 3'UTR, coding exons, etc.), most locations on genomes are not prone to transcription initiation. It is of practical and theoretical interest to be able to estimate such collections of non-TSS locations (NTLs). The identification of large portions of NTLs can contribute to better focusing the search for TSS locations and thus contribute to promoter and gene finding. It can help in the assessment of 5' completeness of expressed sequences, contribute to more successful experimental designs, as well as more accurate gene annotation. Using comprehensive collections of Cap Analysis of Gene Expression (CAGE) and other transcript data from mouse and human genomes, we developed a methodology that allows us, by performing computational TSS prediction with very high sensitivity, to annotate, with a high accuracy in a strand specific manner, locations of mammalian genomes that are highly unlikely to harbor transcription start sites (TSSs). The properties of the immediate genomic neighborhood of 98,682 accurately determined mouse and 113,814 human TSSs are used to determine features that distinguish genomic transcription initiation locations from those that are not likely to initiate transcription. In our algorithm we utilize various constraining properties of features identified in the upstream and downstream regions around TSSs, as well as statistical analyses of these surrounding regions. Our analysis of human chromosomes 4, 21 and 22 estimates ∼46%, ∼41% and ∼27% of these chromosomes, respectively, as being NTLs. This suggests that on average more than 40% of the human genome can be expected to be highly unlikely to initiate transcription. Our method represents the first one that utilizes high-sensitivity TSS prediction to identify, with high accuracy, large portions of mammalian genomes as NTLs. The server with our algorithm implemented is available at http://cbrc.kaust.edu.sa/ddm/.

  4. A highly selective and sensitive rhodamine-derived fluorescent probe for detection of Cu2 +

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Linlin; Diao, Quanping

    2017-05-01

    A novel water-soluble and reversible fluorescent probe was designed and synthesized based on a rhodamine B derivative. It was used for detection of Cu2 + in drinking water and in living cells with high sensitivity and excellent selectivity. The tested concentration range and the limit of detection (LOD) of the probe were 0-15.00 μmol L- 1 and 0.085 μmol L- 1, respectively. In addition, the mode of binding and mechanism of interaction between the probe and Cu2 + were analyzed by density functional theory (DFT) calculations.

  5. A high sensitivity time-resolved microfluorimeter for real-time cell biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Fernandez, M. L.; Tobin, M. J.; Clarke, D. T.; Gregory, C. M.; Jones, G. R.

    1996-10-01

    We describe an instrument based on the novel combination of synchrotron radiation, a high sensitivity time-resolved microfluorimeter, and a multiframe single photon counting data acquisition system. This instrument has been designed specifically to measure kinetic events in live cells using fluorescence resonance energy transfer, and is capable of rapidly collecting multiple consecutive decay profiles from a small number of fluorophores. The low irradiance on the samples (measurements over periods of hours. A very low limit of detection (measurements of fluorescence resonance energy transfer are used to monitor the degree of clustering of epidermal growth factor receptors during endocytosis, over a period of about 1 h, with a 5 s resolution.

  6. High Sensitivity Detection of Broadband Acoustic Vibration Using Optical Demodulation Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhen

    Measuring the high frequency acoustic vibrations represents the fundamental interest in revealing the intrinsic dynamic characteristic of board range of systems, such as the growth of the fetus, blood flow in human palms, and vibrations of carbon nanotube. However, the acoustic wave detection capability is limited by the detection bandwidth and sensitivity of the commonly used piezoelectric based ultrasound detectors. To overcome these limitations, this thesis focuses on exploring the optical demodulation method for highly sensitive detection of broadband acoustic vibration. First, a transparent optical ultrasonic detector has been developed using micro-ring resonator (MRR) made of soft polymeric materials. It outperforms the traditional piezoelectric detectors with broader detection bandwidth, miniaturized size and wide angular sensitivity. Its ease of integration into photoacoustic microscopy system has resulted in the great improvement of the imaging resolution. A theoretic framework has been developed to establish the quantitative understanding of its unique distance and angular dependent detection characteristics and was subsequently validated experimentally. The developed theoretic framework provides a guideline to fully accounts for the trade-offs between axial and lateral resolution, working distance, and the field of view in developing optimal imaging performance for a wide range of biological and clinical applications. MRR-based ultrasonic detector is further integrated into confocal fluorescence microscopy to realize the simultaneous imaging of fluorescence and optical absorption of retinal pigment epithelium, achieving multi-contrast imaging at sub-cellular level. The needs to resolve the fine details of the biological specimen with the resolution beyond the diffraction limit further motivate the development of optical demodulated ultrasonic detection method based on near-field scanning optical microscopy (NSOM). The nano-focusing probe was developed

  7. Highly sensitive devices for primary signal processing of the micromechanical capacitive transducers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konoplev, B.; Ryndin, E.; Lysenko, I.; Denisenko, M.; Isaeva, A.

    2016-12-01

    A method of signal processing devices design for micromechanical accelerometers with capacitive transducers is proposed. This method provides the complex solution of the sensibility increasing and noise immunity problems by finding of the difference frequency of signals, which are formed by two identical generators with micromechanical capacitive transducers in frequency control circuits. In this study the analog and digital versions of the highly sensitive signal processing devices circuits with frequency output were developed. The breadboards of these devices are fabricated and studied and the project of their integral realization is designed.

  8. Highly Sensitive Fluorescence Probe Based on Functional SBA-15 for Selective Detection of Hg2+

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Xiaoyu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract An inorganic–organic hybrid fluorescence chemosensor (DA/SBA-15 was prepared by covalent immobilization of a dansylamide derivative into the channels of mesoporous silica material SBA-15 via (3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES groups. The primary hexagonally ordered mesoporous structure of SBA-15 was preserved after the grafting procedure. Fluorescence characterization shows that the obtained inorganic–organic hybrid composite is highly selective and sensitive to Hg2+ detection, suggesting the possibility for real-time qualitative or quantitative detection of Hg2+ and the convenience for potential application in toxicology and environmental science.

  9. Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Based on High Surface Area Nanocrystalline Zinc Oxide Spheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavuluri Srinivasu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available High surface area nanocrystalline zinc oxide material is fabricated using mesoporous nanostructured carbon as a sacrificial template through combustion process. The resulting material is characterized by XRD, N2 adsorption, HR-SEM, and HR-TEM. The nitrogen adsorption measurement indicates that the materials possess BET specific surface area ca. 30 m2/g. Electron microscopy images prove that the zinc oxide spheres possess particle size in the range of 0.12 μm–0.17 μm. The nanocrystalline zinc oxide spheres show 1.0% of energy conversion efficiency for dye-sensitized solar cells.

  10. Development of a highly-sensitive Penning ionization electron spectrometer using the magnetic bottle effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ota, Masahiro; Ishiguro, Yuki; Nakajima, Yutaro; Miyauchi, Naoya; Yamakita, Yoshihiro, E-mail: yamakita@uec.ac.jp [Department of Engineering Science, Graduate School of Informatics and Engineering The University of Electro-Communications 1-5-1 Chofugaoka, Chofu, Tokyo 182-8585 (Japan)

    2016-02-01

    This paper reports on a highly-sensitive retarding-type electron spectrometer for a continuous source of electrons, in which the electron collection efficiency is increased by utilizing the magnetic bottle effect. This study demonstrates an application to Penning ionization electron spectroscopy using collisional ionization with metastable He*(2{sup 3}S) atoms. Technical details and performances of the instrument are presented. This spectrometer can be used for studies of functional molecules and assemblies, and exterior electron densities are expected to be selectively observed by the Penning ionization.

  11. GIOVE: a new detector setup for high sensitivity germanium spectroscopy at shallow depth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heusser, G.; Weber, M.; Hakenmüller, J.; Laubenstein, M.; Lindner, M.; Maneschg, W.; Simgen, H.; Stolzenburg, D.; Strecker, H.

    2015-11-01

    We report on the development and construction of the high-purity germanium spectrometer setup GIOVE (Germanium Inner Outer VEto), recently built and now operated at the shallow underground laboratory of the Max-Planck-Institut für Kernphysik, Heidelberg. Particular attention was paid to the design of a novel passive and active shield, aiming at efficient rejection of environmental and muon induced radiation backgrounds. The achieved sensitivity level of ≤ 100 \\upmu Bq kg^{-1} for primordial radionuclides from U and Th in typical γ ray sample screening measurements is unique among instruments located at comparably shallow depths and can compete with instruments at far deeper underground sites.

  12. Highly sensitive detection of explosive triacetone triperoxide by an In2O3 sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wen-Hui; Zhang, Wei-De; Chen, Lu-Ya

    2010-08-01

    Triacetone triperoxide (TATP) is one of the most sensitive known explosives and can be easily synthesized using the commonly available chemicals acetone and hydrogen peroxide, but is difficult to be detected. In this study, In2O3 nanoparticles were synthesized by a glucose-assisted solvothermal method at 120 °C for 18 h. The gas sensor based on In2O3 nanoparticles exhibits a high response, fast response and recovery, a wide detecting range of 0.50-500 mg, good stability and excellent stability to TATP.

  13. Magnetic Separation-Assistant Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer Inhibition for Highly Sensitive Probing of Nucleolin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan-Ran; Liu, Qian; Hong, Zhangyong; Wang, He-Fang

    2015-12-15

    For the widely used "off-on" fluorescence (or phosphorescence) resonance energy transfer (FRET or PRET) system, the separation of donors and acceptors species was vital for enhancing the sensitivity. To date, separation of free donors from FRET/PRET inhibition systems was somewhat not convenient, whereas separation of the target-induced far-between acceptors has hardly been reported yet. We presented here a novel magnetic separation-assistant fluorescence resonance energy transfer (MS-FRET) inhibition strategy for highly sensitive detection of nucleolin using Cy5.5-AS1411 as the donor and Fe3O4-polypyrrole core-shell (Fe3O4@PPY) nanoparticles as the NIR quenching acceptor. Due to hydrophobic interaction and π-π stacking of AS1411 and PPY, Cy5.5-AS1411 was bound onto the surface of Fe3O4@PPY, resulting in 90% of fluorescence quenching of Cy5.5-AS1411. Owing to the much stronger specific interaction of AS1411 and nucleolin, the presence of nucleolin could take Cy5.5-AS1411 apart from Fe3O4@PPY and restore the fluorescence of Cy5.5-AS1411. The superparamagnetism of Fe3O4@PPY enabled all separations and fluorescence measurements complete in the same quartz cell, and thus allowed the convenient but accurate comparison of the sensitivity and fluorescence recovery in the cases of separation or nonseparation. Compared to nonseparation FRET inhibition, the separation of free Cy5.5-AS1411 from Cy5.5-AS1411-Fe3O4@PPY solution (the first magnetic separation, MS-1) had as high as 25-fold enhancement of the sensitivity, whereas further separation of the nucleolin-inducing far-between Fe3O4@PPY from the FRET inhibition solution (the second magnetic separation, MS-2) could further enhance the sensitivity to 35-fold. Finally, the MS-FRET inhibition assay displayed the linear range of 0.625-27.5 μg L(-1) (8.1-359 pM) and detection limit of 0.04 μg L(-1) (0.05 pM) of nucleolin. The fluorescence intensity recovery (the percentage ratio of the final restoring fluorescence intensity

  14. Design Optimization of Structural Parameters for Highly Sensitive Photonic Crystal Label-Free Biosensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-ah Han

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The effects of structural design parameters on the performance of nano-replicated photonic crystal (PC label-free biosensors were examined by the analysis of simulated reflection spectra of PC structures. The grating pitch, duty, scaled grating height and scaled TiO2 layer thickness were selected as the design factors to optimize the PC structure. The peak wavelength value (PWV, full width at half maximum of the peak, figure of merit for the bulk and surface sensitivities, and surface/bulk sensitivity ratio were also selected as the responses to optimize the PC label-free biosensor performance. A parametric study showed that the grating pitch was the dominant factor for PWV, and that it had low interaction effects with other scaled design factors. Therefore, we can isolate the effect of grating pitch using scaled design factors. For the design of PC-label free biosensor, one should consider that: (1 the PWV can be measured by the reflection peak measurement instruments, (2 the grating pitch and duty can be manufactured using conventional lithography systems, and (3 the optimum design is less sensitive to the grating height and TiO2 layer thickness variations in the fabrication process. In this paper, we suggested a design guide for highly sensitive PC biosensor in which one select the grating pitch and duty based on the limitations of the lithography and measurement system, and conduct a multi objective optimization of the grating height and TiO2 layer thickness for maximizing performance and minimizing the influence of parameter variation. Through multi-objective optimization of a PC structure with a fixed grating height of 550 nm and a duty of 50%, we obtained a surface FOM of 66.18 RIU−1 and an S/B ratio of 34.8%, with a grating height of 117 nm and TiO2 height of 210 nm.

  15. DMSO increases mutation-scanning detection sensitivity in clinical samples using high resolution melting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Chen; Castellanos-Rizaldos, Elena; Bejar, Rafael; Ebert, Benjamin L.; Makrigiorgos, G. Mike

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Mutation scanning provides the simplest, lowest cost method for identifying DNA variations on single PCR amplicons, and it may be performed prior to sequencing to avoid screening of non-informative wild type samples. High resolution melting (HRM) is the most commonly used method for mutation scanning. However, by using PCR-HRM mutations below ≈ 3–10% that can still be clinically significant may often be missed. Therefore, enhancing HRM detection sensitivity is important for mutation scanning and its clinical application. METHODS We used serial dilution of TP53 exon 8 mutation containing cell lines to demonstrate the improvement in detection sensitivity for conventional-PCR-HRM in the presence of DMSO. We also conducted full-COLD-PCR to further enrich low-level mutations prior to HRM±DMSO and employed droplet-digital PCR to derive the optimal conditions for mutation enrichment. Both conventional-PCR-HRM and full-COLD-PCR-HRM ±DMSO were used for mutation scanning in TP53 exon 8 in cancer samples containing known mutations and in myelodysplastic syndrome samples with unknown mutations. Mutations in other genes were also examined. RESULTS The detection sensitivity of PCR-HRM-scanning increases 2–5-fold in the presence of DMSO, depending also on mutation type and sequence context, and can typically detect mutation abundance of about 1%. When mutation enrichment is applied during amplification using full-COLD-PCR and followed by HRM in the presence of DMSO, mutations with 0.2–0.3% mutation abundance in TP53 exon 8 can be detected. CONCLUSIONS DMSO improves HRM mutation scanning sensitivity. When full-COLD-PCR is employed, followed by DMSO-HRM, the overall improvement is about 20-fold as compared to conventional PCR-HRM. PMID:26432802

  16. Fetal microchimerism persists at high levels in c-kit stem cells in sensitized mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Partha; Dart, Melanie L; Schumacher, Steve M; Burlingham, William J

    2010-10-01

    We previously showed that fetal and maternal exposure to non-inherited maternal antigens (NIMA) during gestation and nursing resulted in lifelong tolerance to NIMA in some offspring. This NIMA-specific tolerance was mediated by regulatory T cells (Tregs) and was correlated with the level of multi-lineage maternal microchimerism (Mc) indicating a causative link between Mc and Treg development. To determine if transfer of fetal cells into mothers resulted in a similar tolerance to fetal cells, we used qPCR to detect rare fetal derived cells and a delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) assay to detect fetal alloantigen-specific effector and regulatory T cells in mothers. We found that 5/8 B6 mothers of H2(b/d) offspring were sensitized to the alloantigens H2(d) and HY, indicating a dominance of alloantigen-specific effector T cells. Though these sensitized mothers did not have detectable fetal Mc (FMc) in any of the organs tested, they had very high levels of fetus-derived c-kit(+) stem cells in their bone marrow. The remaining 3/8 B6 mothers that were not sensitized to the fetal antigens had detectable FMc found mostly in heart, lungs and liver, and in 2/3, we could detect alloantigen-specific regulatory T cells. This data indicates that, as in NIMA-specific tolerance, tolerance in multiparous females to inherited paternal antigens (IPA) expressed by the fetus is associated with the presence of fetal Mc in differentiated cell subsets. Surprisingly, robust lin(-)c-kit(+) bone marrow cell fetal Mc can occur in sensitized mothers. This suggests a continuous source of allospecific priming, coupled with active elimination of mature IPA-expressing lin(+) cells by effector T cells of the maternal host.

  17. Highly efficient phase-sensitive parametric gain in periodically poled LiNbO3 ridge waveguide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishimoto, Tadashi; Inafune, Koji; Ogawa, Yoh; Sasaki, Hironori; Murai, Hitoshi

    2016-05-01

    We have developed a periodically poled LiNbO3 (PPLN) ridge waveguide device and experimentally demonstrated a phase-sensitive optical parametric amplification. The highly efficient net phase-sensitive parametric gain of +18.6  dB is obtained in a cascaded second harmonic generation and difference frequency generation configuration. The phase-sensitive gain is greater by +5.8  dB in comparison with the phase-insensitive gain. We successfully confirmed the phase-sensitive amplification with a high gain in the PPLN ridge waveguide.

  18. Performance of the high-sensitivity troponin assay in diagnosing acute myocardial infarction: systematic review and meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Saleh, Ayman; Alazzoni, Ashraf; Al Shalash, Saleh; Ye, Chenglin; Mbuagbaw, Lawrence; Thabane, Lehana; Jolly, Sanjit S.

    2014-01-01

    Background High-sensitivity cardiac troponin assays have been adopted by many clinical centres worldwide; however, clinicians are uncertain how to interpret the results. We sought to assess the utility of these assays in diagnosing acute myocardial infarction (MI). Methods We carried out a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies comparing high-sensitivity with conventional assays of cardiac troponin levels among adults with suspected acute MI in the emergency department. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane databases up to April 2013 and used bivariable random-effects modelling to obtain summary parameters for diagnostic accuracy. Results We identified 9 studies that assessed the use of high-sensitivity troponin T assays (n = 9186 patients). The summary sensitivity of these tests in diagnosing acute MI at presentation to the emergency department was estimated to be 0.94 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.89–0.97); for conventional tests, it was 0.72 (95% CI 0.63–0.79). The summary specificity was 0.73 (95% CI 0.64–0.81) for the high-sensitivity assay compared with 0.95 (95% CI 0.93–0.97) for the conventional assay. The differences in estimates of the summary sensitivity and specificity between the high-sensitivity and conventional assays were statistically significant (p sensitivity troponin I assays and showed similar results. Interpretation Used at presentation to the emergency department, the high-sensitivity cardiac troponin assay has improved sensitivity, but reduced specificity, compared with the conventional troponin assay. With repeated measurements over 6 hours, the area under the curve is similar for both tests, indicating that the major advantage of the high-sensitivity test is early diagnosis. PMID:25295240

  19. Radiochromic and radiofluorogenic 3D solid polymer dosimeter; effect of the photoinitiator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernal-Zamorano, M.R.; Sanders, Nicolai Højer; Lindvold, Lars René

    2017-01-01

    of determining the absorbed dose by measuring its fluorescence instead of the absorbance, which is a more established method. Measuring fluorescence could potentially provide higher sensitivity and spatial resolution, which is critical for 3D dosimetry. In this study, absorbance and fluorescence responses...

  20. High-temperature sensitivity and its acclimation for photosynthetic electron reactions of desert succulents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chetti, M.B.; Nobel, P.S. (Univ. of California, Los Angeles (USA))

    1987-08-01

    Photosynthetic electron reactions of succulent plants from hot deserts are able to tolerate extremely high temperatures and to acclimate to seasonal increase in temperature. In this study, we report the influence of relatively long, in vivo, high-temperature treatments on electron transport reactions for two desert succulents, Agave deserti and Opuntia ficus-indica, species which can tolerate 60{degree}C. Whole chain electron transport averaged 3{degree}C more sensitive to a 1-hour high-temperature treatment than did PSII (Photosystem II) which in turn averaged 3{degree}C more sensitive than did PSI. For plants maintained at day/night air temperatures of 30{degree}C/20{degree}C, treatment at 50{degree}C cause these reactions to be inhibited an average of 39% during the first hour, an additional 31% during the next 4 hours, and 100% by 12 hours. Upon shifting the plants from 30{degree}C/20{degree}C to 45{degree}C/35{degree}C, the high temperatures where activity was inhibited 50% increased 3{degree}C to 8{degree}C for the three electron transport reactions, the half-times for acclimation averaging 5 days for A. deserti and 4 days for O. ficus-indica. For the 45{degree}C/35{degree}C plants treated at 60{degree}C for 1 hour, PSI activity was reduced by 54% for A. deserti and 36% for O. ficus-indica. Acclimation leads to a toleration of very high temperatures without substantial disruption of electron transport for these desert succulents, facilitating their survival in hot deserts. Indeed, the electron transport reactions of these species tolerate longer periods at higher temperatures than any other vascular plants so far reported.

  1. Sensitivity of the IceCube detector for ultra-high energy electron neutrino events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voigt, Bernhard

    2008-07-16

    IceCube is a neutrino telescope currently under construction in the glacial ice at South Pole. At the moment half of the detector is installed, when completed it will instrument 1 km{sup 3} of ice providing a unique experimental setup to detect high energy neutrinos from astrophysical sources. In this work the sensitivity of the complete IceCube detector for a diffuse electron-neutrino flux is analyzed, with a focus on energies above 1 PeV. Emphasis is put on the correct simulation of the energy deposit of electromagnetic cascades from charged-current electron-neutrino interactions. Since existing parameterizations lack the description of suppression effects at high energies, a simulation of the energy deposit of electromagnetic cascades with energies above 1 PeV is developed, including cross sections which account for the LPM suppression of bremsstrahlung and pair creation. An attempt is made to reconstruct the direction of these elongated showers. The analysis presented here makes use of the full charge waveform recorded with the data acquisition system of the IceCube detector. It introduces new methods to discriminate efficiently between the background of atmospheric muons, including muon bundles, and cascade signal events from electron-neutrino interactions. Within one year of operation of the complete detector a sensitivity of 1.5.10{sup -8}E{sup -2} GeVs{sup -1}sr{sup -1}cm{sup -2} is reached, which is valid for a diffuse electron neutrino flux proportional to E{sup -2} in the energy range from 16 TeV to 13 PeV. Sensitivity is defined as the upper limit that could be set in absence of a signal at 90% confidence level. Including all neutrino flavors in this analysis, an improvement of at least one order of magnitude is expected, reaching the anticipated performance of a diffuse muon analysis. (orig.)

  2. A combined HM-PCR/SNuPE method for high sensitive detection of rare DNA methylation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tierling Sascha

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background DNA methylation changes are widely used as early molecular markers in cancer detection. Sensitive detection and classification of rare methylation changes in DNA extracted from circulating body fluids or complex tissue samples is crucial for the understanding of tumor etiology, clinical diagnosis and treatment. In this paper, we describe a combined method to monitor the presence of methylated tumor DNA in an excess of unmethylated background DNA of non-tumorous cells. The method combines heavy methyl-PCR, which favors preferential amplification of methylated marker sequence from bisulfite-treated DNA with a methylation-specific single nucleotide primer extension monitored by ion-pair, reversed-phase, high-performance liquid chromatography separation. Results This combined method allows detection of 14 pg (that is, four to five genomic copies of methylated chromosomal DNA in a 2000-fold excess (that is, 50 ng of unmethylated chromosomal background, with an analytical sensitivity of > 90%. We outline a detailed protocol for the combined assay on two examples of known cancer markers (SEPT9 and TMEFF2 and discuss general aspects of assay design and data interpretation. Finally, we provide an application example for rapid testing on tumor methylation in plasma DNA derived from a small cohort of patients with colorectal cancer. Conclusion The method allows unambiguous detection of rare DNA methylation, for example in body fluid or DNA isolates from cells or tissues, with very high sensitivity and accuracy. The application combines standard technologies and can easily be adapted to any target region of interest. It does not require costly reagents and can be used for routine screening of many samples.

  3. Sensitivity analysis for high percentiles of ochratoxim-a exposure distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albert, I.; Gauchi, J. P.

    2001-07-01

    High percentile estimations of the exposure to the mycotoxin Ochratoxin-A (OTA) in food, for the French population, were calculated in a previous study by a Monte Carlo type simulation method from real consumption and contamination data. In this paper, from the same data (but only for the children class), we focus on sensitivity analysis (SA) of the high 95 th and 99 th percentiles (the simulation outputs), relatively to the variation of the parameters of the fitted probability density functions (the simulation inputs), necessary for having a relevant and stable estimation of these percentiles. After some preliminary trials, we postulated a quadratic polynomial model and we used an experimental design approach depending on a resolution-V fractional factorial design of 6561 experiments to lead to an optimal estimation of the polynomial model parameters. The factors ranges were established by bootstrap sampling taking into account the consumption dependencies by the Iman and Conover method and, eventually, taking into account the parameter correlation of the fitted probability densities. Finally, we have validated and useful parsimonious polynomial models for each desired percentile showing a major influence of the distribution parameters of the two foods Cereals and Pork, and eventually three with Fruit Juices in the sensitivity of the percentiles. (Author) 7 refs.

  4. High-sensitivity AMS for heavy nuclides at the Munich Tandem accelerator

    CERN Document Server

    Knie, K; Korschinek, G; Rugel, G; Rühm, W; Wallner, C

    2000-01-01

    During the last years we have aimed at utilizing the high energy achievable at the Munich MP Tandem (TV=14 MV) for maximum sensitivity. One of our interests is the measurements of radionuclides around A=60 ( sup 5 sup 3 Mn, sup 6 sup 0 Fe, sup 6 sup 3 Ni) because of their high scientific potentials. However, in this mass region there are usually strong limitations in sensitivity due to a large isobaric background. Its suppression is performed by means of a gas-filled magnet and a multi DELTA E ionization chamber. A Wien filter and a time-of-flight path allow a further suppression of (non-isobaric) background. The optimization of the setup as a whole yielded detection limits of sup 5 sup 3 Mn/Mn approx 2x10 sup - sup 1 sup 4 sup 6 sup 3 Ni/Ni approx 2x10 sup - sup 1 sup 4 and sup 6 sup 0 Fe/Fe approx 2x10 sup - sup 1 sup 6 , which presently cannot be achieved by any other detection method. The overall efficiency (including ion source) is typically 10 sup - sup 5 -10 sup - sup 4. The gas-filled magnet allows an...

  5. Symmetry-Breaking as a Paradigm to Design Highly-Sensitive Sensor Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Palacios

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A large class of dynamic sensors have nonlinear input-output characteristics, often corresponding to a bistable potential energy function that controls the evolution of the sensor dynamics. These sensors include magnetic field sensors, e.g., the simple fluxgate magnetometer and the superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID, ferroelectric sensors and mechanical sensors, e.g., acoustic transducers, made with piezoelectric materials. Recently, the possibilities offered by new technologies and materials in realizing miniaturized devices with improved performance have led to renewed interest in a new generation of inexpensive, compact and low-power fluxgate magnetometers and electric-field sensors. In this article, we review the analysis of an alternative approach: a symmetry-based design for highly-sensitive sensor systems. The design incorporates a network architecture that produces collective oscillations induced by the coupling topology, i.e., which sensors are coupled to each other. Under certain symmetry groups, the oscillations in the network emerge via an infinite-period bifurcation, so that at birth, they exhibit a very large period of oscillation. This characteristic renders the oscillatory wave highly sensitive to symmetry-breaking effects, thus leading to a new detection mechanism. Model equations and bifurcation analysis are discussed in great detail. Results from experimental works on networks of fluxgate magnetometers are also included.

  6. Highly sensitive polymerase chain reaction-free quantum dot-based quantification of forensic genomic DNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tak, Yu Kyung; Kim, Won Young; Kim, Min Jung; Han, Eunyoung [College of Pharmacy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Han, Myun Soo; Kim, Jong Jin [Forensic DNA Center, National Forensic Service, Seoul 158-707 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Wook [Department of Biological Sciences, Dankook University, Cheonan 330-714 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jong Eun [DNA Link, VICHEN CITY Building 3F, Seoul 121-850 (Korea, Republic of); Song, Joon Myong, E-mail: jmsong@snu.ac.kr [College of Pharmacy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-04-06

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Genomic DNA quantification were performed using a quantum dot-labeled Alu sequence. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This probe provided PCR-free determination of human genomic DNA. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Qdot-labeled Alu probe-hybridized genomic DNAs had a 2.5-femtogram detection limit. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Qdot-labeled Alu sequence was used to assess DNA samples for human identification. - Abstract: Forensic DNA samples can degrade easily due to exposure to light and moisture at the crime scene. In addition, the amount of DNA acquired at a criminal site is inherently limited. This limited amount of human DNA has to be quantified accurately after the process of DNA extraction. The accurately quantified extracted genomic DNA is then used as a DNA template in polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification for short tandem repeat (STR) human identification. Accordingly, highly sensitive and human-specific quantification of forensic DNA samples is an essential issue in forensic study. In this work, a quantum dot (Qdot)-labeled Alu sequence was developed as a probe to simultaneously satisfy both the high sensitivity and human genome selectivity for quantification of forensic DNA samples. This probe provided PCR-free determination of human genomic DNA and had a 2.5-femtogram detection limit due to the strong emission and photostability of the Qdot. The Qdot-labeled Alu sequence has been used successfully to assess 18 different forensic DNA samples for STR human identification.

  7. The power of liking: Highly sensitive aesthetic processing for guiding us through the world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faerber, Stella J; Carbon, Claus-Christian

    2012-01-01

    Assessing liking is one of the most intriguing and influencing types of processing we experience day by day. We can decide almost instantaneously what we like and are highly consistent in our assessments, even across cultures. Still, the underlying mechanism is not well understood and often neglected by vision scientists. Several potential predictors for liking are discussed in the literature, among them very prominently typicality. Here, we analysed the impact of subtle changes of two perceptual dimensions (shape and colour saturation) of three-dimensional models of chairs on typicality and liking. To increase the validity of testing, we utilized a test-adaptation-retest design for extracting sensitivity data of both variables from a static (test only) as well as from a dynamic perspective (test-retest). We showed that typicality was only influenced by shape properties, whereas liking combined processing of shape plus saturation properties, indicating more complex and integrative processing. Processing the aesthetic value of objects, persons, or scenes is an essential and sophisticated mechanism, which seems to be highly sensitive to the slightest variations of perceptual input.

  8. Highly Sensitive and Patchable Pressure Sensors Mimicking Ion-Channel-Engaged Sensory Organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Kyoung-Yong; Son, Young Jun; Han, Chang-Soo

    2016-04-26

    Biological ion channels have led to much inspiration because of their unique and exquisite operational functions in living cells. Specifically, their extreme and dynamic sensing abilities can be realized by the combination of receptors and nanopores coupled together to construct an ion channel system. In the current study, we demonstrated that artificial ion channel pressure sensors inspired by nature for detecting pressure are highly sensitive and patchable. Our ion channel pressure sensors basically consisted of receptors and nanopore membranes, enabling dynamic current responses to external forces for multiple applications. The ion channel pressure sensors had a sensitivity of ∼5.6 kPa(-1) and a response time of ∼12 ms at a frequency of 1 Hz. The power consumption was recorded as less than a few μW. Moreover, a reliability test showed stability over 10 000 loading-unloading cycles. Additionally, linear regression was performed in terms of temperature, which showed no significant variations, and there were no significant current variations with humidity. The patchable ion channel pressure sensors were then used to detect blood pressure/pulse in humans, and different signals were clearly observed for each person. Additionally, modified ion channel pressure sensors detected complex motions including pressing and folding in a high-pressure range (10-20 kPa).

  9. Application of graphene for preconcentration and highly sensitive stripping voltammetric analysis of organophosphate pesticide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu Shuo, E-mail: wushuo@dlut.edu.cn [School of Chemistry, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116023 (China); Lan Xiaoqin; Cui Lijun; Zhang Lihui; Tao Shengyang; Wang Hainan; Han Mei; Liu Zhiguang; Meng Changgong [School of Chemistry, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116023 (China)

    2011-08-12

    Highlights: {yields} An electrochemical sensor is fabricated based on {beta}-CD dispersed graphene. {yields} The sensor could selectively detect organophosphate pesticide with high sensitivity. {yields} The {beta}-CD dispersed graphene owns large adsorption capacity for MP and superconductivity. {yields} The {beta}-CD dispersed graphene is superior to most of the porous sorbents ever known. - Abstract: Electrochemical reduced {beta}-cyclodextrin dispersed graphene ({beta}-CD-graphene) was developed as a sorbent for the preconcentration and electrochemical sensing of methyl parathion (MP), a representative nitroaromatic organophosphate pesticide with good redox activity. Benefited from the ultra-large surface area, large delocalized {pi}-electron system and the superconductivity of {beta}-CD-graphene, large amount of MP could be extracted on {beta}-CD-graphene modified electrode via strong {pi}-{pi} interaction and exhibited fast accumulation and electron transfer rate. Combined with differential pulse voltammetric analysis, the sensor shows ultra-high sensitivity, good selectivity and fast response. The limit of detection of 0.05 ppb is more than 10 times lower than those obtained from other sorbent based sensors. The method may open up a new possibility for the widespread use of electrochemical sensors for monitoring of ultra-trace OPs.

  10. Rapid Prototyping of a High Sensitivity Graphene Based Glucose Sensor Strip.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farshad Tehrani

    Full Text Available A rapid prototyping of an inexpensive, disposable graphene and copper nanocomposite sensor strip using polymeric flexible substrate for highly sensitive and selective nonenzymatic glucose detection has been developed and tested for direct oxidization of glucose. The CuNPs were electrochemically deposited on to the graphene sheets to improve electron transfer rates and to enhance electrocatalytic activity toward glucose. The graphene based electrode with CuNPs demonstrated a high degree of sensitivity (1101.3 ± 56 μA/mM.cm2, excellent selectivity (without an interference with Ascorbic Acid, Uric Acid, Dopamine, and Acetaminophen, good stability with a linear response to glucose ranging from 0.1 mM to 0.6 mM concentration, and detection limits of 0.025 mM to 0.9 mM. Characterization of the electrodes was performed by scanning electron microscopy (FESEM and SEM. The electrochemical properties of the modified graphene electrodes were inspected by cyclic voltammetry (CV, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS, and amperometry.

  11. Rapid Prototyping of a High Sensitivity Graphene Based Glucose Sensor Strip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tehrani, Farshad; Reiner, Lisa; Bavarian, Behzad

    2015-01-01

    A rapid prototyping of an inexpensive, disposable graphene and copper nanocomposite sensor strip using polymeric flexible substrate for highly sensitive and selective nonenzymatic glucose detection has been developed and tested for direct oxidization of glucose. The CuNPs were electrochemically deposited on to the graphene sheets to improve electron transfer rates and to enhance electrocatalytic activity toward glucose. The graphene based electrode with CuNPs demonstrated a high degree of sensitivity (1101.3 ± 56 μA/mM.cm2), excellent selectivity (without an interference with Ascorbic Acid, Uric Acid, Dopamine, and Acetaminophen), good stability with a linear response to glucose ranging from 0.1 mM to 0.6 mM concentration, and detection limits of 0.025 mM to 0.9 mM. Characterization of the electrodes was performed by scanning electron microscopy (FESEM and SEM). The electrochemical properties of the modified graphene electrodes were inspected by cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and amperometry.

  12. Laryngeal High-Speed Videoendoscopy: Sensitivity of Objective Parameters towards Recording Frame Rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Schützenberger

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The current use of laryngeal high-speed videoendoscopy in clinic settings involves subjective visual assessment of vocal fold vibratory characteristics. However, objective quantification of vocal fold vibrations for evidence-based diagnosis and therapy is desired, and objective parameters assessing laryngeal dynamics have therefore been suggested. This study investigated the sensitivity of the objective parameters and their dependence on recording frame rate. A total of 300 endoscopic high-speed videos with recording frame rates between 1000 and 15 000 fps were analyzed for a vocally healthy female subject during sustained phonation. Twenty parameters, representing laryngeal dynamics, were computed. Four different parameter characteristics were found: parameters showing no change with increasing frame rate; parameters changing up to a certain frame rate, but then remaining constant; parameters remaining constant within a particular range of recording frame rates; and parameters changing with nearly every frame rate. The results suggest that (1 parameter values are influenced by recording frame rates and different parameters have varying sensitivities to recording frame rate; (2 normative values should be determined based on recording frame rates; and (3 the typically used recording frame rate of 4000 fps seems to be too low to distinguish accurately certain characteristics of the human phonation process in detail.

  13. A frequency and sensitivity tunable microresonator array for high-speed quantum processor readout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittaker, J. D.; Swenson, L. J.; Volkmann, M. H.; Spear, P.; Altomare, F.; Berkley, A. J.; Bumble, B.; Bunyk, P.; Day, P. K.; Eom, B. H.; Harris, R.; Hilton, J. P.; Hoskinson, E.; Johnson, M. W.; Kleinsasser, A.; Ladizinsky, E.; Lanting, T.; Oh, T.; Perminov, I.; Tolkacheva, E.; Yao, J.

    2016-01-01

    Superconducting microresonators have been successfully utilized as detection elements for a wide variety of applications. With multiplexing factors exceeding 1000 detectors per transmission line, they are the most scalable low-temperature detector technology demonstrated to date. For high-throughput applications, fewer detectors can be coupled to a single wire but utilize a larger per-detector bandwidth. For all existing designs, fluctuations in fabrication tolerances result in a non-uniform shift in resonance frequency and sensitivity, which ultimately limits the efficiency of bandwidth utilization. Here, we present the design, implementation, and initial characterization of a superconducting microresonator readout integrating two tunable inductances per detector. We demonstrate that these tuning elements provide independent control of both the detector frequency and sensitivity, allowing us to maximize the transmission line bandwidth utilization. Finally, we discuss the integration of these detectors in a multilayer fabrication stack for high-speed readout of the D-Wave quantum processor, highlighting the use of control and routing circuitry composed of single-flux-quantum loops to minimize the number of control wires at the lowest temperature stage.

  14. High-sensitivity cardiac troponin assays: answers to frequently asked questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chenevier-Gobeaux, Camille; Bonnefoy-Cudraz, Éric; Charpentier, Sandrine; Dehoux, Monique; Lefevre, Guillaume; Meune, Christophe; Ray, Patrick

    2015-02-01

    Cardiac troponin (cTn) assays have quickly gained in analytical sensitivity to become what are termed 'high-sensitivity cardiac troponin' (hs-cTn) assays, bringing a flurry of dense yet incomplete literature data. The net result is that cTn assays are not yet standardized and there are still no consensus-built data on how to use and interpret cTn assay results. To address these issues, the authors take cues and clues from multiple disciplines to bring responses to frequently asked questions. In brief, the effective use of hs-cTn hinges on knowing: specific assay characteristics, particularly precision at the 99th percentile of a reference population; factors of variation at the 99th percentile value; and the high-individuality of hs-cTn assays, for which the notion of individual kinetics is more informative than straight reference to 'normal' values. The significance of patterns of change between two assay measurements has not yet been documented for every hs-cTn assay. Clinicians need to work hand-in-hand with medical biologists to better understand how to use hs-cTn assays in routine practice. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Highly sensitive fiber-optic accelerometer by grating inscription in specific core dip fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong, Qiangzhou; Guo, Tuan; Bao, Weijia; Shao, Zhihua; Peng, Gang-Ding; Qiao, Xueguang

    2017-09-19

    A highly sensitive fiber-optic accelerometer based on detecting the power output of resonances from the core dip is demonstrated. The sensing probe comprises a compact structure, hereby a short section of specific core (with a significant core dip) fiber stub containing a straight fiber Bragg grating is spliced to another single-mode fiber via a core self-alignment process. The femtosecond laser side-illumination technique was utilized to ensure that the grating inscription region is precisely positioned and compact in size. Two well-defined core resonances were achieved in reflection: one originates from the core dip and the other originates from fiber core. The key point is that only one of these two reflective resonances exhibits a high sensitivity to fiber bend (and vibration), whereas the other is immune to it. For low frequency (core mode reflection. Moreover, the sensor simultaneously provides an inherent power reference to eliminate unwanted power fluctuations from the light source and transmission lines, thus providing a means of evaluating weak seismic wave at low frequency.

  16. Edge sensitivity of “edgeless” silicon pad detectors measured in a high-energy beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perea Solano, B.; Abreu, M. C.; Avati, V.; Boccali, T.; Boccone, V.; Bozzo, M.; Capra, R.; Casagrande, L.; Chen, W.; Eggert, K.; Heijne, E.; Klauke, S.; Li, Z.; Mäki, T.; Mirabito, L.; Morelli, A.; Niinikoski, T. O.; Oljemark, F.; Palmieri, V. G.; Rato Mendes, P.; Rodrigues, S.; Siegrist, P.; Silvestris, L.; Sousa, P.; Tapprogge, S.; Trocmé, B.

    2005-09-01

    We report measurements in a high-energy beam of the sensitivity of the edge region in “edgeless” planar silicon pad diode detectors. The edgeless side of these rectangular diodes is formed by a cut and break through the contact implants. A large surface current on such an edge prevents the normal reverse biasing of this device above the full depletion voltage, but we have shown that the current can be sufficiently reduced by the use of a suitable cutting method, followed by edge treatment, and by operating the detector at a low temperature. A pair of these edgeless silicon diode pad sensors was exposed to the X5 high-energy pion beam at CERN, to determine the edge sensitivity. The signal of the detector pair triggered a reference telescope made of silicon microstrip detector modules. The gap width between the edgeless sensors, determined using the tracks measured by the reference telescope, was then compared with the results of precision metrology. It was concluded that the depth of the dead layer at the diced edge is compatible with zero within the statistical precision of ±8 μm and systematic error of ±6 μm.

  17. Identification of an epigenetic biomarker panel with high sensitivity and specificity for colorectal cancer and adenomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lind Guro E

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The presence of cancer-specific DNA methylation patterns in epithelial colorectal cells in human feces provides the prospect of a simple, non-invasive screening test for colorectal cancer and its precursor, the adenoma. This study investigates a panel of epigenetic markers for the detection of colorectal cancer and adenomas. Methods Candidate biomarkers were subjected to quantitative methylation analysis in test sets of tissue samples from colorectal cancers, adenomas, and normal colonic mucosa. All findings were verified in independent clinical validation series. A total of 523 human samples were included in the study. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve analysis was used to evaluate the performance of the biomarker panel. Results Promoter hypermethylation of the genes CNRIP1, FBN1, INA, MAL, SNCA, and SPG20 was frequent in both colorectal cancers (65-94% and adenomas (35-91%, whereas normal mucosa samples were rarely (0-5% methylated. The combined sensitivity of at least two positives among the six markers was 94% for colorectal cancers and 93% for adenoma samples, with a specificity of 98%. The resulting areas under the ROC curve were 0.984 for cancers and 0.968 for adenomas versus normal mucosa. Conclusions The novel epigenetic marker panel shows very high sensitivity and specificity for both colorectal cancers and adenomas. Our findings suggest this biomarker panel to be highly suitable for early tumor detection.

  18. High Efficiency of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Based on Ruthenium and Metal-Free Dyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Che-Lung Lee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of using different concentrations of triazoloisoquinoline based small molecule as coadsorbent to modify the monolayer of a TiO2 semiconductor on the performance of a dye-sensitized solar cell is studied. The co-adsorbent significantly enhances the open-circuit photovoltage (, the short circuit photocurrent density ( the solar energy conversion efficiency (. The co-adsorbent 4L is applied successfully to prepare an insulating molecular layer with N719 and achieve high energy conversion efficiency as high as 8.83% at 100 mW cm−2 and AM 1.5 at 1 to 0.25 (N719 : co-adsorbent molar ratio. The resulting efficiency is about 6% higher than that of a nonadditive device. The result shows that the organic small molecule 4L (2-cyano-3-(5-(4-(3-oxo-[1,2,4]triazolo[3,4-a]isoquinoline-2(3H-ylphenylthiophene-2-ylacrylic acid is the promising candidates for improvement of the performance of dye-sensitized solar cell.

  19. Highly sensitive polymerase chain reaction-free quantum dot-based quantification of forensic genomic DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tak, Yu Kyung; Kim, Won Young; Kim, Min Jung; Han, Eunyoung; Han, Myun Soo; Kim, Jong Jin; Kim, Wook; Lee, Jong Eun; Song, Joon Myong

    2012-04-06

    Forensic DNA samples can degrade easily due to exposure to light and moisture at the crime scene. In addition, the amount of DNA acquired at a criminal site is inherently limited. This limited amount of human DNA has to be quantified accurately after the process of DNA extraction. The accurately quantified extracted genomic DNA is then used as a DNA template in polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification for short tandem repeat (STR) human identification. Accordingly, highly sensitive and human-specific quantification of forensic DNA samples is an essential issue in forensic study. In this work, a quantum dot (Qdot)-labeled Alu sequence was developed as a probe to simultaneously satisfy both the high sensitivity and human genome selectivity for quantification of forensic DNA samples. This probe provided PCR-free determination of human genomic DNA and had a 2.5-femtogram detection limit due to the strong emission and photostability of the Qdot. The Qdot-labeled Alu sequence has been used successfully to assess 18 different forensic DNA samples for STR human identification. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. The Power of Liking: Highly Sensitive Aesthetic Processing for Guiding Us through the World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stella J. Faerber

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Assessing liking is one of the most intriguing and influencing types of processing we experience day by day. We can decide almost instantaneously what we like and are highly consistent in our assessments, even across cultures. Still, the underlying mechanism is not well understood and often neglected by vision scientists. Several potential predictors for liking are discussed in the literature, among them very prominently typicality. Here, we analysed the impact of subtle changes of two perceptual dimensions (shape and colour saturation of three-dimensional models of chairs on typicality and liking. To increase the validity of testing, we utilized a test-adaptation–retest design for extracting sensitivity data of both variables from a static (test only as well as from a dynamic perspective (test–retest. We showed that typicality was only influenced by shape properties, whereas liking combined processing of shape plus saturation properties, indicating more complex and integrative processing. Processing the aesthetic value of objects, persons, or scenes is an essential and sophisticated mechanism, which seems to be highly sensitive to the slightest variations of perceptual input.