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Sample records for highly selective spectrophotometric

  1. Development of a highly sensitive and selective method for extractive spectrophotometric determination of aluminum(III) from environmental matrices, synthetic mixtures, and alloys using orthohydroxypropiophenoneisonicotinoylhydrazone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandraiah, C; Rajesh Kumar, J; Adinarayana Reddy, S; Lee, Jin-Young; Varada Reddy, A

    2010-01-01

    Orthohydroxypropiophenoneisonicotinoylhydrazone (OHPINH) is proposed as a new sensitive reagent for the spectrophotometric determination of aluminum(III). OHPINH formed a greenish-yellow colored complex with aluminum(III) in buffer solutions of pH 1 to 3. The color in pH 2 was stable for more than 48 h. The complex solution has given maximum absorbance at 390 nm when the reagent was chosen as blank and the absorbance of the reagent at this wavelength is negligible; the molar absorptivity and Sandell's sensitivity being 0.6371x10(4) L mol(-1) cm(-1) and 4.234x10(-3) microg cm(-2), respectively. The system obeys Beer's law in the range of 0.5-3.5 microg mL(-1) with excellent linearity in terms of the correlation coefficient value of 0.999. Most of the common metal ions generally found associated with aluminum(III) do not interfere. The repeatability of the method was checked by finding the relative standard deviation. The developed method has been successfully employed for the determination of aluminum(III) environmental matrices like medicinal and leafy samples, alloys, and synthetic mixtures.

  2. Selection of Wavelengths for Optimum Precision in Simultaneous Spectrophotometric Determinations.

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    DiTusa, Michael R.; Schilt, Alfred A.

    1985-01-01

    Although many textbooks include a description of simultaneous determinations employing absorption spectrophotometry and treat the mathematics necessary for analytical quantitations, treatment of analytical wavelength selection has been mostly qualitative. Therefore, a general method for selecting wavelengths for optimum precision in simultaneous…

  3. Selective and non-extractive spectrophotometric determination of cefdinir in formulations based on donor-acceptor complex formation

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    Babita K. Singh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Cefdinir has broad spectrum of activity and high prescription rates, hence its counterfeiting seems imminent. We have proposed a simple, fast, selective and non-extractive spectrophotometric method for the content assay of cefdinir in formulations. The method is based on complexation of cefdinir and Fe under reducing condition in a buffered medium (pH 11 to form a magenta colored donor-acceptor complex (λ max = 550 nm; apparent molar absorptivity = 3720 L mol-1 cm-1. No other cephalosporins, penicillins and common excipients interfere under the test conditions. The Beer's law is followed in the concentration range 8-160 µg mL-1.

  4. Spectrophotometric and high performance liquid chromatographic methods for sensitive determination of bisphenol A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Yafeng; Zhou, Meng; Gu, Jia; Li, Xiangmei

    2014-03-25

    A new spectrophotometric method for the determination of trace amounts of bisphenol A based on a diazotization-coupling reaction was developed. In acidic solution, clenbuterol was first diazotized with sodium nitrite, then coupled with bisphenol A to from an azo-compound [I] in NH3-NH4Cl buffer, which shows a maximum absorption at 410 nm. The effects of the amount of sodium nitrite, diazo reaction time, the amount of clenbuterol, coupling reaction time and coupling reaction temperature have been examined. Under the optional conditions, the determination of the linear range of bisphenol A is 0.24-8.4 μg/mL, correlation coefficient is 0.9905 and detection limit of this method is 0.15 μg/mL. The spectrophotometric method is simple, rapid, high sensitivity with better accuracy. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) technique combined with this new spectrophotometric method has been also developed for the measurement of bisphenol A. The analysis was achieved on a C18 column using water and methanol as a mobile phase and the detection was done spectrophotometrically at 410 nm. These reported methods were applied to the determination of bisphenol A in hot water in contact with commercially available table-water bottle samples. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. A rapid spectrophotometric determination of imidacloprid in selected commercial formulations in the presence of 6-chloronicotinic acid

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    BILJANA F. ABRAMOVIĆ

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A simple first-order derivative spectrophotometric method was developed for the simultaneous determination of imidacloprid and 6-chloronicotinic acid (6-CNA. By using the zero-crossing approach, imidacloprid was determined at 249.0 nm and 6-CNA at 236.0 nm with detection limits of 0.32 and 0.17 µg mL-1, respectively, and relative standard deviations not exceeding 1.2 % in the case of model systems. The proposed method was applied for the determination of imidacloprid and 6-CNA in commercial formulations. A conventional spectrophotometric method (at 270 nm was also employed for the determination of the content of imidacloprid in the same commercial formulations. The results of the developed spectrophotometric methods were in good agreement with those obtained by the high-performance liquid chromatographic method.

  6. Sensitive determination of clarithromycin in human plasma by high-performance liquid chromatography with spectrophotometric detection.

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    Amini, Hossein; Ahmadiani, Abolhassan

    2005-03-25

    A rapid, selective and sensitive high-performance liquid chromatographic method with spectrophotometric detection was developed for the determination of clarithromycin in human plasma. Liquid-liquid extraction of clarithromycin and norverapamil (as internal standard) from plasma samples was performed with n-hexane/1-butanol (98:2, v/v) in alkaline condition followed by back-extraction into diluted acetic acid. Chromatography was carried out using a CN column (250 mm x 4.6 mm, 5 microm) under isocratic elution with acetonitrile-50 mM aqueous sodium dihydrogen phosphate (32:68, v/v), pH 4.5. Detection was made at 205 nm and analyses were run at a flow-rate of 1.0 ml/min at 40 degrees C. The analysis time was less than 11 min. The method was specific and sensitive with a quantification limit of 31.25 ng/ml and a detection limit of 10 ng/ml in plasma. The mean absolute recovery of clarithromycin from plasma was 95.9%, while the intra- and inter-day coefficient of variation and percent error values of the assay method were all less than 9.5%. Linearity was assessed in the range of 31.25-2000 ng/ml in plasma with a correlation coefficient of greater than 0.999. The method was used to analyze several hundred human plasma samples for bioavailability studies.

  7. Selective Spectrophotometric Determination of Metformin Hydrochloride in Pharmaceuticals and Urine Using Two Nitrophenols as Chromogenic Agents

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    Kanakapura Basavaiah

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Metformin hydrochloride (MFH is an oral anti-diabetic drug of biguanide class. Two selective spectrophotometric methods were presented for the determination of MFH in pharmaceuticals. The methods were based on the measurement of yellow-coloured charge-transfer complexes formed between MFH and two poly-nitrophenols, namely, 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP method, at 405 nm and picric acid (PA method; at 410 nm in dichloromethane medium. The variables which affect the complex formation were studied and optimized. Beer’s law was obeyed over the concentration ranges: 2.4-48.0 and 3.2-64.0 µg ml-1 with molar absorptivity values of 3.24 × 103 and 2.30 × 103 l mol-1 cm-1, with DNP method and PA method, respectively. The limits of detection (LOD and quantification (LOQ were calculated to be 0.13 and 0.40 µg ml-1 for DNP method and 0.19 and 0.59 µg ml-1 for PA method. Methods were validated for accuracy, precision, robustness, ruggedness and selectivity. The proposed methods were applied to the determination of MFH in tablets. The accuracy and precision of the methods were found excellent. Accuracy of the methods was ascertained by recovery test via standard-addition procedure. The methods were applied to spiked human urine sample without detectable interference from endogenous substances.

  8. Sensitive and Selective Spectrophotometric Determination of Gabapentin in Capsules Using Two Nitrophenols as Chromogenic Agents

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    Sameer A. M. Abdulrahman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Two simple and selective spectrophotometric methods have been proposed for the determination of gabapentin (GBP in pure form and in capsules. Both methods are based on the proton transfer from the Lewis acid such as 2,4,6-trinitrophenol (picric acid; PA or 2,4-dinitrophenol (2,4-DNP to the primary amino group of GBP which works as Lewis base and formation of yellow ion-pair complexes. The ion-pair complexes formed show absorption maximum at 415 and 420 nm for PA and 2,4-DNP, respectively. Under the optimized experimental conditions, Beer's law is obeyed over the concentration ranges of 1.25–15.0 and 2.0–18.0 μg mL−1 GBP for PA and 2,4-DNP methods, respectively. The molar absorptivity, Sandell's sensitivity, detection and, quantification limits for both methods are also reported. The proposed methods were applied successfully to the determination of GBP in pure form and commercial capsules. Statistical comparison of the results was performed using Student's t-test and F-ratio at 95% confidence level, and there was no significant difference between the reference and proposed methods with regard to accuracy and precision. Further, the validity of the proposed methods was confirmed by recovery studies via standard addition technique.

  9. Spectrophotometric Enzyme Assays for High-Throughput Screening

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    Jean-Louis Reymond

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews high-throughput screening enzyme assays developed in our laboratory over the last ten years. These enzyme assays were initially developed for the purpose of discovering catalytic antibodies by screening cell culture supernatants, but have proved generally useful for testing enzyme activities. Examples include TLC-based screening using acridone-labeled substrates, fluorogenic assays based on the β-elimination of umbelliferone or nitrophenol, and indirect assays such as the back-titration method with adrenaline and the copper-calcein fluorescence assay for aminoacids.

  10. A sensitive and selective spectrophotometric method for 2-chlorophenol based on solid phase extraction with mixed hemimicelle magnetic nanoparticles

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    Siriboon Mukdasai

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The first study of a sensitive and selective spectrophotometric detection of 2-chlorophenol (2-CP was reported. The method is based on derivatization of 2-CP with 4-aminoantipyrine (4-AAP and subsequent preconcentration by solid phase extraction (SPE using mixed hemimicelles adsorbent of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide coated magnetic nanoparticles (CTAB coated Fe3O4 NPs before its detection by spectrophotometry at 510 nm. The adsorption capacity was evaluated using the Langmuir adsorption isotherm model, with high correlation coefficients (R2 = 0.9983. The optimum conditions for SPE were CTAB coated Fe3O4 NPs 20 mg under vortex 60 s and methanol as the desorption solvent under sonication for 7 min. The linearity of the method was in the range of 0.05–1.0 mg L−1 with correlation coefficient (0.9970. The limit of detection (LOD and limit of quantitation (LOQ were 0.01 mg L−1 and 0.05 mg L−1, respectively. Good precision with relative standard deviation (%RSD, n = 5 less than 3.7% was obtained. The method was successfully applied for the determination of 2-CP in soil samples with satisfactory recoveries (81.7–95.2%.

  11. Synthesis of chitosan based magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers for selective separation and spectrophotometric determination of histamine in tuna fish.

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    Hashemi, Mahdi; Nazari, Zahra; Noshirvani, Nooshin

    2017-12-01

    A novel chitosan molecularly imprinted polymers (CHI/MIPs) coated on Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) for selective solid phase extraction (SPE) of histamine (His) was synthesized by cross-linking of CHI with (3-Glycidyloxypropyl) trimethoxysilane (GPTMS) in the presence of His as the template molecule, and GPTMS/MNPS. Synthesized sorbent was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, FT-IR and via adsorption kinetics and adsorption isotherms. The application of this sorbent was investigated in preconcentration and spectrophotometric determination of His by charge transfer complexation. The method is based on the adsorption of His on CHI/MMIPs and subsequent reaction of desorbed His with 2,3-Dichloro 5,6-dicyano-p-benzoquinone (DDQ) reagent for final spectrophotometric detection. The experimental parameters affecting separation efficiency and spectrophotometric determination were optimized. Under optimum conditions and at an analytical wavelength of 468nm, the calibration plot is linear in the 5.0-160.0ngmL-1 concentration range, and the limit of detection (estimated at S/N=3) is 1.5ngmL-1. The intra-day and inter-day precisions are in the range from 2.9 to 4.1%. The method was successfully applied for determination of His in spiked tuna fish samples where it gave recoveries ranging from 94.3 to 107.0%. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. A comparative study between three stability indicating spectrophotometric methods for the determination of diatrizoate sodium in presence of its cytotoxic degradation product based on two-wavelength selection

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    Riad, Safaa M.; El-Rahman, Mohamed K. Abd; Fawaz, Esraa M.; Shehata, Mostafa A.

    2015-06-01

    Three sensitive, selective, and precise stability indicating spectrophotometric methods for the determination of the X-ray contrast agent, diatrizoate sodium (DTA) in the presence of its acidic degradation product (highly cytotoxic 3,5-diamino metabolite) and in pharmaceutical formulation, were developed and validated. The first method is ratio difference, the second one is the bivariate method, and the third one is the dual wavelength method. The calibration curves for the three proposed methods are linear over a concentration range of 2-24 μg/mL. The selectivity of the proposed methods was tested using laboratory prepared mixtures. The proposed methods have been successfully applied to the analysis of DTA in pharmaceutical dosage forms without interference from other dosage form additives. The results were statistically compared with the official US pharmacopeial method. No significant difference for either accuracy or precision was observed.

  13. Spectrophotometric high-precision seawater pH determination for use in underway measuring systems

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    S. Aßmann

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Autonomous sensors are required for a comprehensive documentation of the changes in the marine carbon system and thus to differentiate between its natural variability and anthropogenic impacts. Spectrophotometric determination of pH – a key variable of the seawater carbon system – is particularly suited to achieve precise and drift-free measurements. However, available spectrophotometric instruments are not suitable for integration into automated measurement systems (e.g. FerryBox since they do not meet the major requirements of reliability, stability, robustness and moderate cost. Here we report on the development and testing of a~new indicator-based pH sensor that meets all of these requirements. This sensor can withstand the rough conditions during long-term deployments on ships of opportunity and is applicable to the open ocean as well as to coastal waters with a complex matrix and highly variable conditions. The sensor uses a high resolution CCD spectrometer as detector connected via optical fibers to a custom-made cuvette designed to reduce the impact of air bubbles. The sample temperature can be precisely adjusted (25 °C ± 0.006 °C using computer-controlled power supplies and Peltier elements thus avoiding the widely used water bath. The overall setup achieves a measurement frequency of 1 min−1 with a precision of ±0.0007 pH units, an average offset of +0.0005 pH units to a reference system, and an offset of +0.0081 pH units to a certified standard buffer. Application of this sensor allows monitoring of seawater pH in autonomous underway systems, providing a key variable for characterization and understanding of the marine carbon system.

  14. Sensitive and selective spectrophotometric determination of pantoprazole sodium in pharmaceuticals using permanganate

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    K. B. VINAY

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available A simple visible spectrophotometric method is described for the determination of pantoprazole sodium sesquihydrate (PSS. The method is based on the formation of a brown colored product on treating PSS with permanganate in neutral medium, the absorbance being measured at 350 nm. The experimental conditions for the assay were optimized. The absorbance is found to increase linearly with the concentration of PSS and the calibration graph is linear in the range of 2.5-40.0 μg ml-1 with a linear regression coefficient of 0.998. The calculated molar absorptivity value is 1.27x104 l mol-1 cm-1 and the corresponding Sandel sensitivity is 0.0341 µg cm-2. The limits of detection (LOD and quantification (LOQ are calculated to be 0.49 and 1.47 µg ml-1, respectively. Intra-day and inter-day accuracy expressed as relative error were better than 2.0% and the corresponding precision (RSD was less than 2.5 %. The developed and validated method was applied to the determination of the active ingredient in a tablet dosage form and the results obtained agreed well with those of the reference method. The accuracy and reliability of the method were ascertained by performing recovery experiments via standard-addition procedure.

  15. Spectrophotometric Determination of Ezetimibe

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    P. Baby Sudha Lakshmi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Two simple, sensitive, selective and accurate spectro-photometric methods (Method A and Method B for the determination of eztimibe in bulk drug and pharmaceutical formulations (tablets have been described. Method A and B are based on the redox/complex formation reaction of drug with 1,10-phenanthroline and hexacyano-ferrate(III in presence of ferric chloride to form coloured chromogens exhibiting λmax at 510 and 740 nm respectively. The results of analysis for the two methods have been validated statistically and by recovery studies. The results are compared with those obtained using UV spectrophotometric method in alcohol at 231.7 nm.

  16. Geomorphology and spectrophotometric properties of the highly active Anhur-Bes regions on the 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko comet

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    Fornasier, S.; Feller, C.; Lee, J.-C.; Ferrari, S.; Massironi, M.; Hasselmann, P. H.; Deshapriya, J. D. P.; Mottola, S.; Barucci, M. A.

    2017-09-01

    In this work we present the spectrophotometric and geomorphological analysis of the Anhur and Bes regions located in the Southern hemisphere of the 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko nucleus. These regions are more fragmented than other areas on the nucleus and show local compositional heterogeneities with fresh exposure of several ice-rich patches. They are also highly active regions and sources of several jets, including the strongest outburst observed by Rosetta, which took place at the comet's perihelion passage

  17. Spectrophotometric Analysis of Phosphoric Acid Leakage in High-Temperature Phosphoric Acid-Doped Polybenzimidazole Membrane Fuel Cell Application

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    Seungyoon Han

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available High-temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cells (HT-PEMFCs utilize a phosphoric acid- (PA- doped polybenzimidazole (PBI membrane as a polymer electrolyte. The PA concentration in the membrane can affect fuel cell performance, as a significant amount of PA can leak from the membrane electrode assembly (MEA by dissolution in discharged water, which is a byproduct of cell operation. Spectrophotometric analysis of PA leakage in PA-doped polybenzimidazole membrane fuel cells is described here. This spectrophotometric analysis is based on measurement of absorption of an ion pair formed by phosphomolybdic anions and the cationoid color reagent. Different color reagents were tested based on PA detection sensitivity, stability of the formed color, and accuracy with respect to the amount of PA measured. This method allows for nondestructive analysis and monitoring of PA leakage during HT-PEMFCs operation.

  18. The measurement of acetanilide in plasma by spectrophotometric and selected ion monitoring methods.

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    Baty, J D; Playfer, J; Evans, D A; Lamb, J

    1977-08-01

    Plasma samples from volunteers who had received an oral dose of acetanilide have been analysed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry and ultraviolet absorption techniques. The gas chromatography mass spectrometry method involved extraction of the plasma and analysis of the acetanilide using selected ion monitoring with a deuterated internal standard. In the ultraviolet method the plasma was hydrolysed with acid to convert the acetanilide to aniline, and this compound was diazotized and coupled with N-1-naphthylethylene-diamine. The absorbance of the resulting complex was read at 550 nm. Acetanilide levels in plasma determined by the selected ion monitoring method were significantly lower than those measured by spectrophotometry. Pharmacokinetic data calculated from the results obtained using these two assays are very different and illustrate the need for an accurate and specific method of analysis. The major metabolites of acetanilide are shown not to interfere with these assays and the results suggest the possible presence of a new metabolite of acetanilide.

  19. Selective flotation-spectrophotometric determination of trace copper(II) in natural waters, human blood and drug samples using phenanthraquinone monophenylthiosemicarbazone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalifa, M E; Akl, M A; Ghazy, S E

    2001-06-01

    Copper(II) forms 1:1 and 1:2 intense red complexes with phenanthraquinone monophenylthiosemicarbazone (PPT) at pH 3-3.5 and > or =6.5, respectively. These complexes exhibit maximal absorbance at 545 and 517 nm, the molar absorptivity being 2.3 x 10(4) and 4.8 x 10(4) l mol(-1) cm(-1), respectively. However, the 1:1 complex was quantitatively floated with oleic acid (HOL) surfactant in the pH range 4.5-5.5, providing a highly selective and sensitive procedure for the spectrophotometric determination of CuII. The molar absorptivity of the floated Cu-PPT complex was 1.5 x 10(5) l mol)(-1) cm(-1). Beer's law was obeyed over the range 3-400 ppb at 545 nm. The analytical parameters affecting the flotation process and hence the determination of copper traces were reported. Also, the structure of the isolated solid complex and the mechanism of flotation were suggested. Moreover, the procedure was successfully applied to the analysis of CuII in natural waters, serum blood and some drug samples.

  20. Selective Spectrophotometric and Spectrofluorometric Methods for the Determination of Amantadine Hydrochloride in Capsules and Plasma via Derivatization with 1,2-Naphthoquinone-4-sulphonate

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    Ashraf M. Mahmoud

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available New selective and sensitive spectrophotometric and spectrofluorometric methods have been developed and validated for the determination of amantadine hydrochloride (AMD in capsules and plasma. The methods were based on the condensation of AMD with 1,2-naphthoquinone-4-sulphonate (NQS in an alkaline medium to form an orange-colored product. The spectrophotometric method involved the measurement of the colored product at 460  nm. The spectrofluorometric method involved the reduction of the product with potassium borohydride, and the subsequent measurement of the formed fluorescent reduced AMD-NQS product at 382  nm after excitation at 293  nm. The variables that affected the reaction were carefully studied and optimized. Under the optimum conditions, linear relationships with good correlation coefficients (0.9972–0.9974 and low LOD (1.39 and 0.013 g mL−1 were obtained in the ranges of 5–80 and 0.05–10  g mL−1 for the spectrophotometric and spectrofluorometric methods, respectively. The precisions of the methods were satisfactory; RSD ≤2.04%. Both methods were successfully applied to the determination of AMD in capsules. As its higher sensitivity, the spectrofluorometric method was applied to the determination of AMD in plasma; the recovery was 96.3–101.2±0.57–4.2%. The results obtained by the proposed methods were comparable with those obtained by the official method

  1. Selective spectrophotometric determination of TNT using a dicyclohexylamine-based colorimetric sensor.

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    Erçağ, Erol; Uzer, Ayşem; Apak, Reşat

    2009-05-15

    Because of the extremely heterogeneous distribution of explosives in contaminated soils, on-site colorimetric methods are efficient tools to assess the nature and extent of contamination. To meet the need for rapid and low-cost chemical sensing of explosive traces or residues in soil and post-blast debris, a colorimetric absorption-based sensor for trinitrotoluene (TNT) determination has been developed. The charge-transfer (CT) reagent (dicyclohexylamine, DCHA) is entrapped in a polyvinylchloride (PVC) polymer matrix plasticised with dioctylphtalate (DOP), and moulded into a transparent sensor membrane sliced into test strips capable of sensing TNT showing an absorption maximum at 530 nm when placed in a 1-mm spectrophotometer cell. The sensor gave a linear absorption response to 5-50 mg L(-1) TNT solutions in 30% aqueous acetone with limit of detection (LOD): 3 mg L(-1). The sensor is only affected by tetryl, but not by RDX, pentaerythritoltetranitrate (PETN), dinitrotoluene (DNT), and picric acid. The proposed method was statistically validated for TNT assay against high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) using a standard sample of Comp B. The developed sensor was relatively resistant to air and water, was of low-cost and high specificity, gave a rapid and reproducible response, and was suitable for field use of TNT determination in both dry and humid soil and groundwater with a portable colorimeter.

  2. Determination of plutonium resent in highly radioactive irradiated fuel solution by spectrophotometric method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhamodharam, Krishnan [Reprocessing Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam (India); Pius, Anitha [The Gandhigram Rural Institute - Deemed University, Gandhigram (India)

    2016-06-15

    A simple and rapid spectrophotometric method has been developed to enable the determination of plutonium concentration in an irradiated fuel solution in the presence of all fission products. An excess of ceric ammonium nitrate solution was employed to oxidize all the valence states of plutonium to +6 oxidation state. Interference due to the presence of fission products such as ruthenium and zirconium, and corrosion products such as iron in the envisaged concentration range, as in the irradiated fuel solution, was studied in the determination of plutonium concentration by the direct spectrophotometric method. The stability of plutonium in +6 oxidation state was monitored under experimental conditions as a function of time. Results obtained are reproducible, and this method is applicable to radioactive samples resulting before the solvent extraction process during the reprocessing of fast reactor spent fuel. An analysis of the concentration of plutonium shows a relative standard deviation of <1.2% in standard as well as in simulated conditions. This reflects the fast reactor fuel composition with respect to uranium, plutonium, fission products such as ruthenium and zirconium, and corrosion products such as iron.

  3. Determination of Plutonium Present in Highly Radioactive Irradiated Fuel Solution by Spectrophotometric Method

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    Krishnan Dhamodharan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A simple and rapid spectrophotometric method has been developed to enable the determination of plutonium concentration in an irradiated fuel solution in the presence of all fission products. An excess of ceric ammonium nitrate solution was employed to oxidize all the valence states of plutonium to +6 oxidation state. Interference due to the presence of fission products such as ruthenium and zirconium, and corrosion products such as iron in the envisaged concentration range, as in the irradiated fuel solution, was studied in the determination of plutonium concentration by the direct spectrophotometric method. The stability of plutonium in +6 oxidation state was monitored under experimental conditions as a function of time. Results obtained are reproducible, and this method is applicable to radioactive samples resulting before the solvent extraction process during the reprocessing of fast reactor spent fuel. An analysis of the concentration of plutonium shows a relative standard deviation of <1.2% in standard as well as in simulated conditions. This reflects the fast reactor fuel composition with respect to uranium, plutonium, fission products such as ruthenium and zirconium, and corrosion products such as iron.

  4. Validation of high performance liquid chromatographic and spectrophotometric methods for the determination of the antiparkinson agent pramipexole dihydrochloride monohydrate in pharmaceutical products

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    Serpil Sevim

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available abstract The antiparkinson agent pramipexole dihydrochloride monohydrate was quantified in pharmaceutical products by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC and derivative spectrophotometry. The first method was based on HPLC using tamsulosin HCl as an internal standard. In this method, chromatographic separation was achieved using a LiChrospher 60 RP column at 25°C, with a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min at 263 nm. The eluent comprised 0.01 mol/L ammonium acetate (pH 4.4 and acetonitrile (35:65 by volume. The linearity range was found to be 10.0-30.0 µg/mL with a mean recovery of 100.5 ± 1.10. The limit of detection (8 ng/mL and limit of quantification (50 ng/mL were calculated. In the second method, the first derivative spectrophotometric technique for the determination of pramipexole dihydrochloride monohydrate was performed by measuring the amplitude at 249 and 280 nm. In the first derivative technique, the absorbance and concentration plot was rectilinear over the 5.0-35.0 µg/mL range with a lower detection limit of 1.5 ng/mL and quantification limit of 4.5 ng/mL. The typical excipients included in the pharmaceutical product do not interfere with the selectivity of either method. The developed methods were validated for robustness, selectivity, specificity, linearity, precision, and accuracy as per the ICH and FDA guidelines (ICH Q2B, 1996; FDA,2000. In conclusion, the developed methods were successful in determining the quantity of the antiparkinson agent pramipexole dihydrochloride monohydrate in pharmaceutical products. The RSD values for the pharmaceutical product used in this study were found to be 0.97% for the HPLC method and 0.00% for the first derivative spectrophotometric method.

  5. Development and validation of high performance liquid chromatography with a spectrophotometric detection method for the chemical purity and assay of nepafenac.

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    Lipiec-Abramska, Elżbieta; Jedynak, Łukasz; Formela, Adam; Roszczyński, Jacek; Cybulski, Marcin; Puchalska, Maria; Zagrodzka, Joanna

    2014-03-01

    The study is a proposition of the application of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with a spectrophotometric UV range detector to analyze the chemical purity and assay of nepafenac, an active pharmaceutical ingredient (API). During literature search only a few publications were found about nepafenac. HPLC UV methods were mainly presented in patent documents about nepafenac synthesis and chemical purity. The presented method allows to separate all potential related compounds from nepafenac and to quantitate the nepafenac amount. As there is no official monograph in the pharmacopeias about nepafenac, the performed full validation procedure makes the method ready to use in routine analysis. The composition of the mobile phase (10mM ammonium formate, pH 4.1) and the HPLC column (Phenomenex Gemini-NX C18) were selected during the development step. Presented data confirm the benefits of the developed method. Four of the most potential impurities were validated as for the quantitative test and the rest of impurities were validated as for the limit test - according to ICH Q2(R1). The accuracy/recovery results for the chemical purity method are within 90-108%, in the case of assay studies from 99% to 101%; the limit of detection is as low as 15-30ng/mL. The linearity passes all statistical tests. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. A highly sensitive spectrophotometric method for the determination of some phenothiazine antipsychotics using chloramine-T and indigocarmine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basavaiah, K; Swamy, J M

    2001-08-01

    A new simple, accurate and precise spectrophotometric method for the determination of six phenothiazine drugs in pure form and in dosage forms is described. The method is based on the oxidation of the studied drugs by a known excess of Chloramine-T in hydrochloric acid medium and subsequent determination of the unreacted oxidant by reacting it with indigocarmine in the same acid medium. The reacted oxidant corresponds to the drug content. The colored species exhibits maximum absorption at 610 nm. The apparent molar absorptivity values and Sandell sensitivity values are in the range 1.53 x 10(4)-2.96 x 10(4) l mol-1 cm-1 and 13.75-37.15 ng cm-2, respectively. The method is highly sensitive and suitable for 1-15 micrograms ml-1 concentrations with the detection limits being in the range, 0.0651-0.1724 microgram ml-1. The method was successfully applied to the studied drugs in their dosage forms. The results are reproducible within +/- 1% and compare favorably with those obtained by the procedures of the British Pharmacopeia.

  7. High throughput microwell spectrophotometric assay for olmesartan medoxomil in tablets based on its charge-transfer reaction with DDQ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darwish Ibrahim A.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The study describes the development and validation of a new microwell-based spectrophotometric assay for determination of olmesartan medoxomil (OLM in tablets. The formation of a colored charge-transfer (CT complex between OLM as an n-electron donor and 2,3-dichloro- -5,6-dicyano-1,4-benzoquinone (DDQ as a p-electron acceptor was investigated, and employed as the basis for the development of the new assay. The proposed assay was conducted in 96-microwell plates. The absorbance of the colored-CT complex was measured at 460 nm with a microplate reader. Optimum conditions of the reaction and the analytical procedures of the assay were established. Under the optimum conditions, a linear relationship with a good correlation coefficient was found between the absorbance and the concentration of OLM in the range of 2-200 μg per well. The limits of detection and quantitation were 0.53 and 1.61 μg per well, respectively. No interference was observed from the excipients present in OLM tablets or from hydrochlorothiazide and amlodipine besylate that were co-formulated with OLM in some of its formulations. The assay was successfully applied to the analysis of OLM in tablets with good accuracy and precision. The assay described herein has a great practical value in the routine analysis of OLM in quality control laboratories, since it has a high throughput property and consumes low volumes of organic solvent. It thus offers a reduction in the exposure of analysts to the toxic effects of organic solvents, as well as a reduction in the cost of analysis.

  8. High Selectivity Oxygen Delignification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucian A. Lucia

    2005-11-15

    Project Objective: The objectives of this project are as follows: (1) Examine the physical and chemical characteristics of a partner mill pre- and post-oxygen delignified pulp and compare them to lab generated oxygen delignified pulps; (2) Apply the chemical selectivity enhancement system to the partner pre-oxygen delignified pulps under mill conditions (with and without any predetermined amounts of carryover) to determine how efficiently viscosity is preserved, how well selectivity is enhanced, if strength is improved, measure any yield differences and/or bleachability differences; and (3) Initiate a mill scale oxygen delignification run using the selectivity enhancement agent, collect the mill data, analyze it, and propose any future plans for implementation.

  9. Measurement of Capsaicinoids in Chiltepin Hot Pepper: A Comparison Study between Spectrophotometric Method and High Performance Liquid Chromatography Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Alberto González-Zamora; Erick Sierra-Campos; Rebeca Pérez-Morales; Cirilo Vázquez-Vázquez; Miguel A. Gallegos-Robles; López-Martínez, José D.; García-Hernández, José L.

    2015-01-01

    Direct spectrophotometric determination of capsaicinoids content in Chiltepin pepper was investigated as a possible alternative to HPLC analysis. Capsaicinoids were extracted from Chiltepin in red ripe and green fruit with acetonitrile and evaluated quantitatively using the HPLC method with capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin standards. Three samples of different treatment were analyzed for their capsaicinoids content successfully by these methods. HPLC-DAD revealed that capsaicin, dihydrocapsaici...

  10. Measurement of Capsaicinoids in Chiltepin Hot Pepper: A Comparison Study between Spectrophotometric Method and High Performance Liquid Chromatography Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto González-Zamora

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Direct spectrophotometric determination of capsaicinoids content in Chiltepin pepper was investigated as a possible alternative to HPLC analysis. Capsaicinoids were extracted from Chiltepin in red ripe and green fruit with acetonitrile and evaluated quantitatively using the HPLC method with capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin standards. Three samples of different treatment were analyzed for their capsaicinoids content successfully by these methods. HPLC-DAD revealed that capsaicin, dihydrocapsaicin, and nordihydrocapsaicin comprised up to 98% of total capsaicinoids detected. The absorbance of the diluted samples was read on a spectrophotometer at 215–300 nm and monitored at 280 nm. We report herein the comparison between traditional UV assays and HPLC-DAD methods for the determination of the molar absorptivity coefficient of capsaicin (ε280=3,410 and ε280=3,720 M−1 cm−1 and dihydrocapsaicin (ε280=4,175 and ε280=4,350 M−1 cm−1, respectively. Statistical comparisons were performed using the regression analyses (ordinary linear regression and Deming regression and Bland-Altman analysis. Comparative data for pungency was determined spectrophotometrically and by HPLC on samples ranging from 29.55 to 129 mg/g with a correlation of 0.91. These results indicate that the two methods significantly agree. The described spectrophotometric method can be routinely used for total capsaicinoids analysis and quality control in agricultural and pharmaceutical analysis.

  11. Extractive spectrophotometric determination of five selected drugs by ion-pair complex formation with bromothymol blue in pure form and pharmaceutical preparations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sneha G. Nair

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Simple, precise, selective, and expeditious spectrophotometric methods have been developed for the determination of itopride (ITO, midodrine (MID, diclofenac (DIC, mesalamine (MES, and sumatriptan (SUM in their pure form as well as in pharmaceutical preparations. The method was based on ion-pair complex formation between the drugs and anionic dye, bromothymol blue in an acidic medium (pH 2.0–4.0. The yellow colored complexes formed were quantitatively extracted into chloroform and measured at 411, 410, 413, 412, and 414 nm wavelength for ITO, MID, DIC, MES, and SUM, respectively. Beer’s law was obeyed in the concentration range of 3.0–30 µg/mL for ITO, 1.0–20 µg/mL for MID, 1.5–40 µg/mL for DIC, 1.2–12 µg/mL for MES, and 0.5–15 µg/mL for SUM. The stoichiometry of the complexes formed between the drugs and the dye was 1:1 as determined by Job’s method of continuous variation. The association constant (KIP of the ion-pair complexes formed was evaluated using Benesi–Hildebrand equation. Limit of detection, limit of quantification, and Sandell’s sensitivity of the methods were also estimated. The proposed methods were successfully employed for the determination of these drugs in their pharmaceutical dosage forms.

  12. High Selectivity Oxygen Delignification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arthur J. Ragauskas

    2005-09-30

    The overall objective of this program was to develop improved extended oxygen delignification (EOD) technologies for current U.S. pulp mill operations. This was accomplished by: (1) Identifying pulping conditions that optimize O and OO performance; (2) Identifying structural features of lignin that enhance reactivity towards EOD of high kappa pulps; (3) Identifying factors minimizing carbohydrate degradation and improve pulp strength of EOD high kappa pulps; (4) Developing a simple, reproducible method of quantifying yield gains from EOD; and (5) Developing process conditions that significantly reduce the capital requirements of EOD while optimizing the yield benefits. Key research outcomes included, demonstrating the use of a mini-O sequence such as (E+O)Dkf:0.05(E+O) or Dkf:0.05(E+O)(E+O) without interstage washing could capture approximately 60% of the delignification efficiency of a conventional O-stage without the major capital requirements associated with an O-stage for conventional SW kraft pulps. The rate of formation and loss of fiber charge during an O-stage stage can be employed to maximize net fiber charge. Optimal fiber charge development and delignification are two independent parameters and do not parallel each other. It is possible to utilize an O-stage to enhance overall cellulosic fiber charge of low and high kappa SW kraft pulps which is beneficial for physical strength properties. The application of NIR and multi-variant analysis was developed into a rapid and simple method of determining the yield of pulp from an oxygen delignification stage that has real-world mill applications. A focus point of this program was the demonstration that Kraft pulping conditions and oxygen delignification of high and low-kappa SW and HW pulps are intimately related. Improved physical pulp properties and yield can be delivered by controlling the H-factor and active alkali charge. Low AA softwood kraft pulp with a kappa number 30 has an average improvement of 2% in

  13. SHORT COMMUNICATION SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC DETERMINATION OF TRACE OXALIC ACID WITH. ZIRCONIUM(IV)-DIBROMOCHLOROARSENAZO COMPLEX. Qing-Zhou Zhai*, Xiao-Xia Zhang and Qing-Zhou Liu. Research Center for Nanotechnology, Changchun University of Science and Technology,. Weixing Road, Changchun 130022, ...

  14. Sensitive and selective spectrophotometric assay of piroxicam in pure form, capsule and human blood serum samples via ion-pair complex formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alizadeh, Nina; Keyhanian, Fereshteh

    2014-09-01

    A simple, accurate and highly sensitive spectrophotometric method has been developed for the rapid determination of piroxicam (PX) in pure and pharmaceutical formulations. The proposed method involves formation of stable yellow colored ion-pair complexes of the amino derivative (basic nitrogen) of PX with three sulphonphthalein acid dyes namely; bromocresol green (BCG), bromothymol blue (BTB), bromophenol blue (BPB) in acidic medium. The colored species exhibited absorption maxima at 438, 429 and 432 nm with molar absorptivity values of 9.400 × 103, 1.218 × 103 and 1.02 × 104 L mol-1 cm-1 for PX-BCG, PX-BTB and PX-BPB complexes, respectively. The effect of optimum conditions via acidity, reagent concentration, time and solvent were studied. The reactions were extremely rapid at room temperature and the absorbance values remained constant for 48 h. Beer’s law was obeyed with a good correlation coefficient in the concentration ranges 1-100 μg mL-1 for BCG, BTB complexes and 1-95 μg mL-1 for BPB complex. The composition ratio of the ion-pair complexes were found to be 1:1 in all cases as established by Job’s method. No interference was observed from common additives and excipients which may be present in the pharmaceutical preparations. The proposed method was successfully applied for the determination of PX in capsule and human blood serum samples with good accuracy and precision.

  15. On-line dilution flow injection manifold for the selective spectrophotometric determination of ascorbic acid based on the Fe(II)-2,2'-dipyridyl-2-pyridylhydrazone complex formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Themelis, D G; Tzanavaras, P D; Kika, F S

    2001-08-03

    A new simple and rapid FI method for the accurate and precise spectrophotometric determination of ascorbic acid (AsA) in pharmaceutical formulations is reported. The method is based on the reduction of Fe(III) to Fe(II) by the analyte, and the subsequent reaction of the produced Fe(II) with 2,2'-dipyridyl-2-pyridylhydrazone (DPPH) in acidic medium (pH ca. 2.5) to form a colored complex (lambda(max)=535 nm). An on-line dilution mode using a binary inlet static mixer (BISM) was incorporated in the FI system, allowing the determination of the analyte in a wide concentration range. The calibration graph was linear in the range of 5.7-600.0 mg l(-1) AsA, at a sampling rate of 120 injections h(-1). The method was found to be very precise [s(r)=0.1% at 300 mg l(-1) AsA (n=12)] and the 3delta detection limit (c(L)=1.7 mg l(-1)) was quite satisfactory. The detailed study of various interferences confirmed the high selectivity of the proposed method. Its application to a variety of pharmaceuticals produced excellent results, with a mean relative error of e(r)<1.0%.

  16. Spectrophotometric Analysis of Caffeine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Showkat Ahmad Bhawani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The nature of caffeine reveals that it is a bitter white crystalline alkaloid. It is a common ingredient in a variety of drinks (soft and energy drinks and is also used in combination with various medicines. In order to maintain the optimum level of caffeine, various spectrophotometric methods have been developed. The monitoring of caffeine is very important aspect because of its consumption in higher doses that can lead to various physiological disorders. This paper incorporates various spectrophotometric methods used in the analysis of caffeine in various environmental samples such as pharmaceuticals, soft and energy drinks, tea, and coffee. A range of spectrophotometric methodologies including chemometric techniques and derivatization of spectra have been used to analyse the caffeine.

  17. Ultraviolet Spectrophotometric Determination of Simvastain in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study is aimed at describing an accurate, robust and reproducible ultraviolet spectrophotometric technique for the determination of simvastain in bulk and pharmaceutical dosage formulations. Samples from three different brands of simvastatin 10mg were selected for the study. Different aliquots were taken from the ...

  18. SHORT COMMUNICATION KINETIC SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    ABSTRACT. ABSTRACT. A novel catalytic kinetic spectrophotometric method for the determination of iron is developed based on the catalytic effect of Fe(III) on the oxidation reaction of p-acetylarsenazo(ASApA) by potassium periodate. Maximum absorbance of the Fe(III)-ASApA-KIO4 system in 8.0 × 10-3 M sulfuric acid ...

  19. CATALYTIC KINETIC SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC DETERMINATION ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Based on the property that in 0.12 M sulfuric acid medium titanium(IV) catalyzes the discoloring reaction of DBS-arsenazo oxidized by potassium bromate, a new catalytic kinetic spectrophotometric method for the determination of trace titanium (IV) was developed. The linear range of the determination of titanium is

  20. SHORT COMMUNICATION SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    a

    ABSTRACT. The interaction of neutral red (NR) with yeast RNA (yRNA) was studied by UV-Vis spectrophotometry to develop a simple spectrophotometric method for the determination yRNA. NR exhibited a maximum absorption peak at 528 nm in a Britton-Robinson (B-R) buffer solution of pH 4.0. After the addition of.

  1. Development of Ultraviolet Spectrophotometric Method for Analysis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Intra- and inter-day precision (% RSD) at different concentration levels were < 2 %, indicating that the proposed derivative spectrophotometric method is highly reproducible during one run and between different runs; LOD and LOQ were 0.105 and 0.318 mg/ml, respectively signifying that it can be adopted for routine quality ...

  2. A study of selective spectrophotometric methods for simultaneous determination of Itopride hydrochloride and Rabeprazole sodium binary mixture: Resolving sever overlapping spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Heba M.

    2015-02-01

    Itopride hydrochloride (IT) and Rabeprazole sodium (RB) are co-formulated together for the treatment of gastro-esophageal reflux disease. Three simple, specific and accurate spectrophotometric methods were applied and validated for simultaneous determination of Itopride hydrochloride (IT) and Rabeprazole sodium (RB) namely; constant center (CC), ratio difference (RD) and mean centering of ratio spectra (MCR) spectrophotometric methods. Linear correlations were obtained in range of 10-110 μg/μL for Itopride hydrochloride and 4-44 μg/mL for Rabeprazole sodium. No preliminary separation steps were required prior the analysis of the two drugs using the proposed methods. Specificity was investigated by analyzing the synthetic mixtures containing the two cited drugs and their capsules dosage form. The obtained results were statistically compared with those obtained by the reported method, no significant difference was obtained with respect to accuracy and precision. The three methods were validated in accordance with ICH guidelines and can be used for quality control laboratories for IT and RB.

  3. Lipid Peroxidation Process in Meat and Meat Products: A Comparison Study of Malondialdehyde Determination between Modified 2-Thiobarbituric Acid Spectrophotometric Method and Reverse-Phase High-Performance Liquid Chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitznerová, Anna; Šuleková, Monika; Nagy, Jozef; Marcinčák, Slavomír; Semjon, Boris; Čertík, Milan; Klempová, Tatiana

    2017-11-16

    The aim of this work was to compare the methods of malondialdehyde detection, as the main secondary product of the lipid peroxidation process, in meat and meat products. Malondialdehyde measurements were performed by two modified methods, the 2-thiobarbituric acid spectrophotometric method and the reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography in raw, mechanically-deboned chicken meat and in manufactured frankfurters. The malondialdehyde concentrations measured by the 2-thiobarbituric acid spectrophotometric method were found to be overestimated by more than 25% in raw meat and more than 27% in frankfurters in comparison to the results of reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (p high-performance liquid chromatography method was more applicable and more accurate for the quantification of malondialdehyde in samples of meat and meat products.

  4. Compatible validated spectrofluorimetric and spectrophotometric methods for determination of vildagliptin and saxagliptin by factorial design experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Aziz, Omar; Ayad, Miriam F.; Tadros, Mariam M.

    2015-04-01

    Simple, selective and reproducible spectrofluorimetric and spectrophotometric methods have been developed for the determination of vildagliptin and saxagliptin in bulk and their pharmaceutical dosage forms. The first proposed spectrofluorimetric method is based on the dansylation reaction of the amino group of vildagliptin with dansyl chloride to form a highly fluorescent product. The formed product was measured spectrofluorimetrically at 455 nm after excitation at 345 nm. Beer's law was obeyed in a concentration range of 100-600 μg ml-1. The second proposed spectrophotometric method is based on the charge transfer complex of saxagliptin with tetrachloro-1,4-benzoquinone (p-chloranil). The formed charge transfer complex was measured spectrophotometrically at 530 nm. Beer's law was obeyed in a concentration range of 100-850 μg ml-1. The third proposed spectrophotometric method is based on the condensation reaction of the primary amino group of saxagliptin with formaldehyde and acetyl acetone to form a yellow colored product known as Hantzsch reaction, measured at 342.5 nm. Beer's law was obeyed in a concentration range of 50-300 μg ml-1. All the variables were studied to optimize the reactions' conditions using factorial design. The developed methods were validated and proved to be specific and accurate for quality control of vildagliptin and saxagliptin in their pharmaceutical dosage forms.

  5. Spectrophotometric Examination of Rough Print Surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Erzsébet Novotny

    2011-01-01

    The objective was to assess the impact of the surface texture of individual creative paper types (coated or patterned)on the quality of printing and to identify to what extent the various creative paper types require specific types ofspectrophotometers. We used stereomicroscopic images to illustrate unprinted and printed surfaces of creative papertypes. Surface roughness was measured to obtain data on the unevenness of surfaces. Spectrophotometric tests wereused to select the most suitable sp...

  6. Spectrophotometric Determination and Thermodynamic Parameters ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    Spectrophotometric Determination and Thermodynamic. Parameters of Charge Transfer Complexation Between. Stavudine and Chloranilic Acid. Wilfred O Obonga, Edwin O Omeje*, Philip F Uzor and Malachy O Ugwu. Department of Pharmaceutical and Medicinal Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University ...

  7. Spectrophotometric estimation of cobalt with ninhydrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, Karamat; Wattoo, Feroza Hamid; Wattoo, Muhammad Hamid Sarwar; Imran, Muhammad; Asad, Muhammad Javaid; Tirmizi, Syed Ahmed; Wadood, Abdul

    2012-04-01

    A violet coloured complex was developed when cobalt metal reacts with ninhydrin at pH 8.2, using sodium acetate buffer solution. Absorbance of the complex was measured at 395 nm. Various factors, such as volume of the ligand used, solution pH, stability of the complex with time and interference of other metals, which effect the complex formation have been studied in detail. Present developed method can be used for the spectrophotometric estimation of cobalt with ninhydrin complex. The method is simple, selective and cheap for the determination of cobalt in very less time.

  8. Double injection/single detection asymmetric flow injection manifold for spectrophotometric determination of ascorbic acid and uric acid: Selection the optimal conditions by MCDM approach based on different criteria weighting methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boroumand, Samira; Chamjangali, Mansour Arab; Bagherian, Ghadamali

    2017-03-01

    A simple and sensitive double injection/single detector flow injection analysis (FIA) method is proposed for the simultaneous kinetic determination of ascorbic acid (AA) and uric acid (UA). This method is based upon the difference between the rates of the AA and UA reactions with Fe3 + in the presence of 1, 10-phenanthroline (phen). The absorbance of Fe2 +/1, 10-phenanthroline (Fe-phen) complex obtained as the product was measured spectrophotometrically at 510 nm. To reach a good accuracy in the differential kinetic determination via the mathematical manipulations of the transient signals, different criteria were considered in the selection of the optimum conditions. The multi criteria decision making (MCDM) approach was applied for the selection of the optimum conditions. The importance weights of the evaluation criteria were determined using the analytic hierarchy process, entropy method, and compromised weighting (CW). The experimental conditions (alternatives) were ranked by the technique for order preference by similarity to an ideal solution. Under the selected optimum conditions, the obtained analytical signals were linear in the ranges of 0.50-5.00 and 0.50-4.00 mg L- 1 for AA and UA, respectively. The 3σ detection limits were 0.07 mg L- 1 for AA and 0.12 mg L- 1 for UA. The relative standard deviations for four replicate determinations of AA and UA were 2.03% and 3.30% respectively. The method was also applied for the analysis of analytes in the blood serum, Vitamine C tablets, and tap water with satisfactory results.

  9. High-performance liquid chromatographic and first derivative of the ratio spectrophotometric determination of amlodipine and valsartan in their binary mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kul, Dilek; Dogan-Topal, Burcu; Kutucu, Tugba; Uslu, Bengi; Ozkan, Sibel A

    2010-01-01

    Amlodipine besylate (AML) is a long-acting calcium channel blocker used as an antihypertensive agent. Valsartan (VAL) is also used to treat hypertension, either alone or in combination with other agents. Two-component mixtures of AML and VAL were analyzed by HPLC and the ratio spectra of the first derivative spectrophotometric technique. The spectrophotometric method depends on the first derivative of the ratio-spectra by measurements of the amplitudes at 234.0 nm for VAL and 351.0 nm for AML. Calibration graphs were established for 0.5-20 microg/mL AML and 1-32 microg/mL VAL using the ratio spectra of the first derivative spectrophotometric method. In the HPLC method, an ACE 5 C18 (4.6 x 150 mm, 5 microm) RP column at 30 degrees C with the mobile phase methanol-acetonitrile-NaH2PO4.H2O buffer, including 5 mL/L triethylamine and adjusted to pH 3.0 (42 + 18 + 40, v/v/v) at 2.0 mL/min flow rate was used to separate both compounds with detection at 254.0 nm. Linearity was obtained in the concentration range of 0.5-500 microg/mL for AML and 5.0-900 microg/mL for VAL. The proposed methods have been extensively validated. These methods allow a number of cost- and time-saving benefits. They were successfully applied to the determination of AML and VAL in synthetic mixtures and in a pharmaceutical dosage form. There was no significant difference between the performance of the proposed methods regarding the mean and SD values. The proposed methods are simple, rapid, and suitable for QC applications.

  10. Spectrophotometric Determination of Cilostazol in Tablet Dosage Form

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    Purpose: To develop simple, rapid and selective spectrophotometric methods for the determination of cilostazol in tablet dosage form. Methods: Cilostazol was dissolved in 50 % methanol and its absorbance was scanned by ultraviolet. (UV) spectrophotometry. Both linear regression equation and standard absorptivity were ...

  11. Four Derivative Spectrophotometric Methods for the Simultaneous Determination of Carmoisine and Ponceau 4R in Drinks and Comparison with High Performance Liquid Chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turak, Fatma; Dinç, Mithat; Dülger, Oznur; Ozgür, Mahmure Ustun

    2014-01-01

    Four simple, rapid, and accurate spectrophotometric methods were developed for the simultaneous determination of two food colorants, Carmoisine (E122) and Ponceau 4R (E124), in their binary mixtures and soft drinks. The first method is based on recording the first derivative curves and determining each component using the zero-crossing technique. The second method uses the first derivative of ratio spectra. The ratio spectra are obtained by dividing the absorption spectra of the binary mixture by that of one of the components. The third method, derivative differential procedure, is based on the measurement of difference absorptivities derivatized in first order of solution of drink samples in 0,1 N NaOH relative to that of an equimolar solution in 0,1 N HCl at wavelengths of 366 and 451 nm for Carmoisine and Ponceau 4R, respectively. The last method, based on the compensation method is presented for derivative spectrophotometric determination of E122 and E124 mixtures with overlapping spectra. By using ratios of the derivative maxima, the exact compensation of either component in the mixture can be achieved, followed by its determination. These proposed methods have been successfully applied to the binary mixtures and soft drinks and the results were statistically compared with the reference HPLC method (NMKL 130).

  12. Four Derivative Spectrophotometric Methods for the Simultaneous Determination of Carmoisine and Ponceau 4R in Drinks and Comparison with High Performance Liquid Chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turak, Fatma; Dinç, Mithat; Dülger, Öznur; Özgür, Mahmure Ustun

    2014-01-01

    Four simple, rapid, and accurate spectrophotometric methods were developed for the simultaneous determination of two food colorants, Carmoisine (E122) and Ponceau 4R (E124), in their binary mixtures and soft drinks. The first method is based on recording the first derivative curves and determining each component using the zero-crossing technique. The second method uses the first derivative of ratio spectra. The ratio spectra are obtained by dividing the absorption spectra of the binary mixture by that of one of the components. The third method, derivative differential procedure, is based on the measurement of difference absorptivities derivatized in first order of solution of drink samples in 0,1 N NaOH relative to that of an equimolar solution in 0,1 N HCl at wavelengths of 366 and 451 nm for Carmoisine and Ponceau 4R, respectively. The last method, based on the compensation method is presented for derivative spectrophotometric determination of E122 and E124 mixtures with overlapping spectra. By using ratios of the derivative maxima, the exact compensation of either component in the mixture can be achieved, followed by its determination. These proposed methods have been successfully applied to the binary mixtures and soft drinks and the results were statistically compared with the reference HPLC method (NMKL 130). PMID:24672549

  13. Four Derivative Spectrophotometric Methods for the Simultaneous Determination of Carmoisine and Ponceau 4R in Drinks and Comparison with High Performance Liquid Chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma Turak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Four simple, rapid, and accurate spectrophotometric methods were developed for the simultaneous determination of two food colorants, Carmoisine (E122 and Ponceau 4R (E124, in their binary mixtures and soft drinks. The first method is based on recording the first derivative curves and determining each component using the zero-crossing technique. The second method uses the first derivative of ratio spectra. The ratio spectra are obtained by dividing the absorption spectra of the binary mixture by that of one of the components. The third method, derivative differential procedure, is based on the measurement of difference absorptivities derivatized in first order of solution of drink samples in 0,1 N NaOH relative to that of an equimolar solution in 0,1 N HCl at wavelengths of 366 and 451 nm for Carmoisine and Ponceau 4R, respectively. The last method, based on the compensation method is presented for derivative spectrophotometric determination of E122 and E124 mixtures with overlapping spectra. By using ratios of the derivative maxima, the exact compensation of either component in the mixture can be achieved, followed by its determination. These proposed methods have been successfully applied to the binary mixtures and soft drinks and the results were statistically compared with the reference HPLC method (NMKL 130.

  14. short communication indirect spectrophotometric determination

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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    E-mail: asamin2002@hotmail.com. SHORT COMMUNICATION. INDIRECT SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC DETERMINATION OF ... arthritis, osteoarthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, and acute pain in musculoskeletal disorder and acute gout. It has been shown to be an effective analgesic in fracture, dental, postoperative and.

  15. KINETIC SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC DETERMINATION OF SOME ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    ABSTRACT. A simple and sensitive kinetic spectrophotometric method was developed for the determination of some fluoroquinolonea antibiotics; gemifloxacin mesylate, moxifloxacin hydrochloride and gatifloxacin in bulk and in pharmaceutical preparations. The method is based upon a kinetic investigation of the oxidation ...

  16. KINETIC SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC DETERMINATION OF SOME ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    (KMnO4) in alkaline medium (NaOH). The intensity of the color was increased with time and therefore, a kinetically based method was developed for the spectrophotometric determination of these drugs in pharmaceutical formulations. The absorbance of the oxidation product remains stable for at least 8.0 hours.

  17. Spectrophotometric determination of association constant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    Least-squares 'Systematic Trial-and-Error Procedure' (STEP) for spectrophotometric evaluation of association constant (equilibrium constant) K and molar absorption coefficient E for a 1:1 molecular complex, A + B = C, with error analysis according to Conrow et al. (1964). An analysis of the Charge...

  18. Spectrophotometric determination of eflornithine hydrochloride ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To develop and validate a spectrophotometric method for the quantitative determination of eflornithine hydrochloride as a pure compound and in pharmaceutical formulations. Methods: The method involved the reaction of the target compound with vanillin reagent at specific pH 5.6 to produce a green reddish color ...

  19. SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC METHOD FOR THE DETERMINATION ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A simple, rapid and sensitive spectrophotometric method has been developed for the determination of iodate (IO3-) in table salt and sea water. The proposed method is based on the reaction of iodate with potassium iodide in an acid medium to liberate iodine. The liberated iodine bleaches the blue color of methylene blue ...

  20. Second derivative spectrophotometric determination of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hemn

    2013-11-13

    Nov 13, 2013 ... To our knowledge, there are no derivative spectrophotometric methods concerning the determination of cyclophosphamide in pharmaceutical formulations. Derivative spectrophotometry is an analytical technique of great utility for extracting both qualitative and quanti. *Corresponding author. E-mail: ...

  1. Spectrophotometric Determination of Eflornithine Hydrochloride ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To develop and validate a spectrophotometric method for the quantitative determination of eflornithine hydrochloride as a pure compound and in pharmaceutical formulations. Methods: The method involved the reaction of the target compound with vanillin reagent at specific pH. 5.6 to produce a green reddish color ...

  2. Second derivative spectrophotometric determination of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A new, simple, rapid, wide applicable range and reliable second derivative spectrophotometric method has been developed for determination of cyclophosphamide (CP) in bulk and pharmaceutical dosage forms. Calibration graph is linear in the concentration range of 25 - 200 μg/ml of CP with 10 μg/ml of detection limit and ...

  3. Simultaneous determination of Allura Red and Ponceau 4R in drinks with the use of four derivative spectrophotometric methods and comparison with high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turak, Fatma; Ozgur, Mahmure Ustun

    2013-01-01

    Four simple, rapid, sensitive, and accurate spectrophotometric methods were developed for the simultaneous determination of Allura Red (AR) and Ponceau 4R (P) without previous chemical separation. The first method, derivative spectrophotometry, depends on first derivative spectrophotometry with zero-crossing and peak-to-base measurement. The second method, derivative ratio spectrophotometry, uses the first derivative of the ratio spectra. The ratio spectra are obtained by dividing the absorption spectra of a binary mixture by that of one of the components. The third method, differential derivative spectrophotometry, is based on the measurement of the difference absorptivities derivatized in the first order of a sample extract in 0.1 M NaOH relative to that of an equimolar solution in 0.1 M HCl. The fourth method, based on the compensation technique, is presented for the derivative spectrophotometric determination of binary mixtures with overlapping spectra by using ratios of the derivative maximum or minimum; the exact compensation of either component in the mixture can be achieved, followed by its determination. All the proposed methods were successfully applied to the determination of the colorants in their laboratory mixtures and granulated drinks without any interference by the ingredients. AR and P showed good linearity, with regression coefficients of 0.9994-0.9999. The LOD and LOQ values ranged from 0.059 to 0.102 and 0.198 to 0.341 microg/mL, respectively. The intraday and interday precision tests produced good RSD values (<1.37%); recoveries ranged from 98.75 to 100.37% for all four methods. The common ingredients and additives did not interfere in the AR and P determination. The results of the proposed methods were statistically compared with the results of an HPLC method given in the literature (Nordic Committee on Food Analysis; NMKL 130) at the 95% confidence level by Student's test and the variance ratio F-test. No statistically significant difference

  4. Simultaneous determination of the brand new two-drug combination for the treatment of hepatitis C: Sofosbuvir/ledipasvir using smart spectrophotometric methods manipulating ratio spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eissa, Maya S.

    2017-08-01

    In this work, various sensitive and selective spectrophotometric methods were first introduced for the simultaneous determination of sofosbuvir and ledipasvir in their binary mixture without preliminary separation. Ledipasvir was determined simply by zero-order spectrophotometric method at its λmax = 333.0 nm in a linear range of 2.5-30.0 μg/ml without any interference of sofosbuvir even in low or high concentrations and with mean percentage recovery of 100.05 ± 0.632. Sofosbuvir can be quantitatively estimated by one of the following smart spectrophotometric methods based on ratio spectra developed for the resolution of the overlapped spectra of their binary mixture; ratio difference spectrophotometric method (RD) by computing the difference between the amplitudes of sofosbuvir ratio spectra at 228 nm and 270 nm, first derivative (DD1) of ratio spectra by measuring the sum of amplitude of trough and peak at 265 nm and 277 nm, respectively, ratio subtraction (RS) spectrophotometric method in which sofosbuvir can be successfully determined at its λmax = 261.0 nm and mean centering (MC) of ratio spectra by measuring the mean centering values at 270 nm. All of the above mentioned spectrophotometric methods can estimate sofosbuvir in a linear range of 7.5-90.0 μg/ml with mean percentage recoveries of 100.57 ± 0.810, 99.92 ± 0.759, 99.51 ± 0.475 and 100.75 ± 0.672, respectively. These methods were successfully applied to the analysis of their combined dosage form and bulk powder. The adopted methods were also validated as per ICH guidelines and statistically compared to an in-house HPLC method.

  5. CATALYTIC KINETIC SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC DETERMINATION ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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    Research Center for Nanotechnology, Changchun University of Science and Technology,. Changchun 130022 ... Although catalytic kinetic spectrophotometry has been used in the determination of copper, the selectivity ... In this paper CPApA was used as the chromogenic agent, H2O2 as the oxidant, Cu(II) as the catalyst.

  6. Simple spectrophotometric determination of monopersulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wacławek, S; Grübel, K; Černík, M

    2015-10-05

    A simple, sensitive and accurate spectrophotometric method has been developed and validated for the determination of monopersulfate (MPS) which is an active part of potassium monopersulfate triple salt that has the commercial name - Oxone. This work proposes a spectrophotometric determination of monopersulfate based on modification of the iodometric titration method. The analysis of absorption spectra was made for the concentration range from 1.35 to 13.01 ppm of MPS (with a detection and quantification limit of 0.41 and 1.35 ppm, respectively) and different pH values. The influence of several anions on the measurement was also investigated. Furthermore, the absorbance of iron and cobalt (often used as free radical initiators) proved to have no effect on the measurement of MPS concentrations. On the basis of the conducted studies, we propose 395 nm as an optimal wavelength for the determination of MPS concentrations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Spectrophotometric analysis of irradiated spices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Josimovic, L.; Cudina, I.

    1987-01-01

    Seven different spices (thyme, cinnamon, coriander, caraway, pimento, paprika, black pepper) were treated by gamma radiation at an absorbed dose of 10 kGy, and the effect on chemical quality was determined. The effects of this dose were assessed by spectrophotometric analysis of some water-soluble constituents of spices (carbohydrates; carbonyl compounds) and on the content of water-insoluble steam-volatile oils. The colour of paprika and the content of piperine in pepper held in different packaging materials were measured in unirradiated and irradiated samples as a function of storage time. In all cases irradiation does not bring about any distinct qualitative or quantitative chemical changes based on spectrophotometric analysis of spice extracts.

  8. Evaluation of spectrophotometric methods for screening of green rooibos (Aspalathus linearis) and green honeybush (Cyclopia genistoides) extracts for high levels of Bio-active compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joubert, Elizabeth; Manley, Marena; Botha, Mariza

    2008-01-01

    The potential of UV spectrophotometry and an aluminium chloride (AlCl(3)) colorimetric method to determine the dihydrochalcone (DHC) and mangiferin contents of green rooibos and honeybush (C. genistoides) extracts, respectively, was investigated. The DHC content of rooibos water extracts, determined using UV spectroscopy, correlated with the sum of the aspalathin and nothofagin contents as quantified using HPLC (r = 0.98). A correlation coefficient of 0.91 was obtained when correlating the mangiferin content of C. genistoides methanol extracts, determined by the AlCl(3) colorimetric method, with the results obtained by HPLC. Using the linear equations from the correlations it was possible to predict the DHC and mangiferin contents of extracts from the respective spectrophotometric measurements to a reasonable accuracy as an alternative to HPLC. The total polyphenol (TP) content of rooibos water extracts can also be determined using UV spectrophotometry and aspalathin as a standard (r = 0.99) as an alternative to the Folin-Ciocalteau method. The TP content of rooibos extracts correlated (r = 0.99) with its total antioxidant activity (TAA) as determined with the ABTS radical cation scavenging assay, but the TP content of C. genistoides water extracts is not a good indication of their TAA (r = 0.27). The aspalathin content of rooibos extracts correlated with their TAA (r = 0.96), but the mangiferin content of honeybush water extracts only gave a moderate correlation with their TAA (r = 0.75). Copyright 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Antioxidant Capability of Ultra-high Temperature Milk and Ultra-high Temperature Soy Milk and their Fermented Products Determined by Four Distinct Spectrophotometric Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahar Torki Baghbadorani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Due to the recent emerging information on the antioxidant properties of soy products, substitution of soy milk for milk in the diet has been proposed by some nutritionists. We aimed to compare four distinct antioxidant measuring methods in the evaluation of antioxidant properties of industrial ultra-high temperature (UHT milk, UHT soy milk, and their fermented products by Lactobacillus plantarum A7. Materials and Methods: Ascorbate auto-oxidation inhibition assay, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl-hydrate (DPPH free radical scavenging method, hydrogen peroxide neutralization assay and reducing activity test were compared for the homogeneity and accuracy of the results. Results: The results obtained by the four tested methods did not completely match with each other. The results of the DPPH assay and the reducing activity were more coordinated than the other methods. By the use of these methods, the antioxidant capability of UHT soy milk was measured more than UHT milk (33.51 ± 6.00% and 945 ± 56 μM cysteine compared to 8.70 ± 3.20% and 795 ± 82 μM cysteine. The negative effect of fermentation on the antioxidant potential of UHT soy milk was revealed as ascorbate auto-oxidation inhibition assay, DPPH method and reducing activity tests ended to approximately 52%, 58%, and 80% reduction in antioxidant potential of UHT soy milk, respectively. Conclusions: The antioxidative properties of UHT soy milk could not be solely due to its phenolic components. Peptides and amino acids derived from thermal processing in soy milk probably have a main role in its antioxidant activity, which should be studied in the future.

  10. Antioxidant Capability of Ultra-high Temperature Milk and Ultra-high Temperature Soy Milk and their Fermented Products Determined by Four Distinct Spectrophotometric Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baghbadorani, Sahar Torki; Ehsani, Mohammad Reza; Mirlohi, Maryam; Ezzatpanah, Hamid; Azadbakht, Leila; Babashahi, Mina

    2017-01-01

    Due to the recent emerging information on the antioxidant properties of soy products, substitution of soy milk for milk in the diet has been proposed by some nutritionists. We aimed to compare four distinct antioxidant measuring methods in the evaluation of antioxidant properties of industrial ultra-high temperature (UHT) milk, UHT soy milk, and their fermented products by Lactobacillus plantarum A7. Ascorbate auto-oxidation inhibition assay, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl-hydrate (DPPH) free radical scavenging method, hydrogen peroxide neutralization assay and reducing activity test were compared for the homogeneity and accuracy of the results. The results obtained by the four tested methods did not completely match with each other. The results of the DPPH assay and the reducing activity were more coordinated than the other methods. By the use of these methods, the antioxidant capability of UHT soy milk was measured more than UHT milk (33.51 ± 6.00% and 945 ± 56 μM cysteine compared to 8.70 ± 3.20% and 795 ± 82 μM cysteine). The negative effect of fermentation on the antioxidant potential of UHT soy milk was revealed as ascorbate auto-oxidation inhibition assay, DPPH method and reducing activity tests ended to approximately 52%, 58%, and 80% reduction in antioxidant potential of UHT soy milk, respectively. The antioxidative properties of UHT soy milk could not be solely due to its phenolic components. Peptides and amino acids derived from thermal processing in soy milk probably have a main role in its antioxidant activity, which should be studied in the future.

  11. Development of highly sensitive extractive spectrophotometric determination of nickel(II) in medicinal leaves, soil, industrial effluents and standard alloy samples using pyridoxal-4-phenyl-3-thiosemicarbazone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarma, Loka Subramanyam; Kumar, Jyothi Rajesh; Reddy, Koduru Janardhan; Thriveni, Thenepalli; Reddy, Ammireddy Varada

    2008-01-01

    Pyridoxal-4-phenyl-3-thiosemicarbazone (PPT) is proposed as a new sensitive reagent for the extractive spectrophotometric determination of nickel(II). PPT reacts with nickel(II) in the pH range 4.0-6.0 to form a reddish brown colored complex, which was well-extracted into n-butanol. The absorbance value of the Ni(II)-PPT complex was measured at different time intervals at 430nm, to ascertain the stability of the complex. The system obeyed Beer's law up to 0.5-5.0microgmL(-1) of nickel(II), with an excellent linearity in terms of the correlation coefficient value of 0.99. The molar absorptivity and Sandell's sensitivity of the extracted species are 1.92 x 10(4)Lmol(-1)cm(-1) and 0.003057microgcm(-2) respectively at 430nm. The detection limit of the method is 0.069microgmL(-1). To assess precision and accuracy of the developed method, determinations were carried out at different concentrations. The relative standard deviation of all measurements does not exceed 2.62%. The developed method has been satisfactorily applied for the determination of nickel(II), when present alone or in the presence of diverse ions, which are usually associated with nickel(II) in medicinal leaves, soil and industrial effluent samples. Various standard and certified reference materials (CM 247 LC, IN 718, BCS 233, 266, 253 and 251) have also been tested for the determination of nickel for the purpose of validation of the present method. The results of the proposed method are compared with those obtained from an atomic absorption spectrometer (AAS).

  12. Simultaneous Spectrophotometric Determination of Valsartan and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To develop a direct, simple and extraction-free spectrophotometric method for the simultaneous estimation of valsartan and ezetimibe in pharmaceuticals. Methods: A spectrophotometric method for the determination of valsartan and ezetimibe was developed using acidic dyes, namely, bromophenol blue (BPB) ...

  13. Catalytic kinetic spectrophotometric determination of trace copper ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A novel catalytic kinetic-spectrophotometric method is proposed for the determination of copper based on this principle. Copper(II) can be determined spectrophotometrically by measuring the decrease in the absorbance of CPApA at the wavelength of 554 nm using the fixed-time method. The optimum reaction conditions ...

  14. Comparative cytotoxic and spectrophotometric quantification of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The comparative cytotoxic and spectrophotometric quantification of phytochemicals of the methanol extracts of the leaf and root bark of Securinega virosa was carried out. Phytochemical screening and spectrophotometric quantification of total flavonoids and phenolics of the extracts were carried out using standard reported ...

  15. sensitized spectrophotometric determination of trace amounts of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    ABSTRACT. ABSTRACT. A simple and accurate spectrophotometric method for determination of trace amounts of Cu2+ ions in various real samples has been described. The spectrophotometric determination of trace amount of Cu2+ ion using diacetyl monooxime (DAMO) in the presence of cetyltrimethylammonium ...

  16. Spectrophotometric Determination of Ceftriaxone Using 4-Dimethylaminobenzaldehyde

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.M.A. Rind*1, , , , , , and

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available A new spectrophotometric method has been developed for the determination of the potent antibiotic ceftriaxone (CF by derivatization with 4-dimethylaminobenzaldehyde (DAB. The derivative indicated molar absorptivity of 5.3 x 103 L mol-1 cm-1 at λmax 397 nm and obeyed the Beer’s law within 20-100 µgmL-1. The color reaction was highly stable and did not show any change in absorbance up to 24 h. The method was successfully applied for the determination of CF from various pharmaceutical preparations available in local market. The amounts of CF found in various pharmaceutical preparations were within 237.4-990 mg ampoule-1 with standard deviation (SD ± 0.0004-0.044 (n=3 respectively.

  17. Aromatic amino acids in high selectivity bismuth(III) recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghatak, Sumanta Kumar; Dey, Debarati; Sen, Souvik; Sen, Kamalika

    2013-04-21

    The three aromatic amino acids, tyrosine, tryptophan and phenylalanine, play different physiological roles in life processes. Metal ions capable of binding these amino acids may aid in the reduction of effective concentration of these amino acids in any physiological system. Here we have studied the efficacy of some heavy metals for their complexation with these three amino acids. Bismuth has been found to bind selectively with these aromatic amino acids and this was confirmed using spectrofluorimetric, spectrophotometric and cyclic voltammetric studies. The series of heavy metals has been chosen because each of these metals remains associated with the others at very low concentration levels and Bi(III) is the least toxic amongst the other elements. So, selective recognition for Bi(III) would also mean no response for the other heavy elements if contaminants are present even at low concentration levels. The affinity towards these amino acids has been found to be in the order tryptophan < phenylalanine < tyrosine. The association constants of these amino acids have been calculated using Benesi-Hildebrand equations and the corresponding free energy change has also been calculated. The values of the association constants obtained from BH equations using absorbance values corroborate with the Stern-Volmer constants obtained from fluorimetric studies. The evidence for complexation is also supported by the results of cyclic voltammetry.

  18. Development and validation of spectrophotometric method for simultaneous estimation of paracetamol and lornoxicam in different dissolution media

    OpenAIRE

    Patel, Dasharath M.; Sardhara, Bhavesh M.; Thumbadiya, Diglesh H.; Patel, Chhagan N.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Paracetamol and lornoxicam in combined tablet dosage form are available in the market. This combination is used to treat inflammatory diseases of the joints, osteoarthritis and sciatica. Spectrophotometric and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) methods have been reported for their simultaneous estimation in tablet dosage form in specific solvent. This paper presents simple, accurate and reproducible spectrophotometric method for simultaneous determination of paracetamol...

  19. Identification of Polish cochineal (Porphyrophora polonica L.) in historical textiles by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with spectrophotometric and tandem mass spectrometric detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lech, Katarzyna; Jarosz, Maciej

    2016-05-01

    The present work reports a method for identification of Polish cochineal (Porphyrophora polonica L.) in historical fabrics by the use of high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array and tandem mass spectrometric detection with electrospray ionization (HPLC-DAD-ESI MS/MS). This hyphened technique allows detection and identification of 16 new minor colorants present in the discussed scale insect (including two previously observed by Wouters and Verhecken (Ann Soc Entomol Fr. 1989;25:393-410), but specified only as compounds of unknown structures) that do not occur (e.g., in American cochineal). The MS/MS experiments, complemented with UV-VIS data, enable identification of mono- and di-, C- and O-hexosides of kermesic and flavokermesic acids or their derivatives. The present paper introduces a fingerprint of color compounds present in Polish cochineal and defines them, particularly pp6 (ppI, O-hexoside of flavokermesic acid), as its markers allow distinguishing of Polish-cochineal reds from the American ones. Usefulness of the selected set of markers for identification of Polish cochineal has been demonstrated in the examination of textiles from the collection of the National Museum in Warsaw using the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) method, originally elaborated on the basis of this study.

  20. Spectrophotometric Analysis of Pigments: A Critical Assessment of a High-Throughput Method for Analysis of Algal Pigment Mixtures by Spectral Deconvolution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan-Erik Thrane

    Full Text Available The Gauss-peak spectra (GPS method represents individual pigment spectra as weighted sums of Gaussian functions, and uses these to model absorbance spectra of phytoplankton pigment mixtures. We here present several improvements for this type of methodology, including adaptation to plate reader technology and efficient model fitting by open source software. We use a one-step modeling of both pigment absorption and background attenuation with non-negative least squares, following a one-time instrument-specific calibration. The fitted background is shown to be higher than a solvent blank, with features reflecting contributions from both scatter and non-pigment absorption. We assessed pigment aliasing due to absorption spectra similarity by Monte Carlo simulation, and used this information to select a robust set of identifiable pigments that are also expected to be common in natural samples. To test the method's performance, we analyzed absorbance spectra of pigment extracts from sediment cores, 75 natural lake samples, and four phytoplankton cultures, and compared the estimated pigment concentrations with concentrations obtained using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. The deviance between observed and fitted spectra was generally very low, indicating that measured spectra could successfully be reconstructed as weighted sums of pigment and background components. Concentrations of total chlorophylls and total carotenoids could accurately be estimated for both sediment and lake samples, but individual pigment concentrations (especially carotenoids proved difficult to resolve due to similarity between their absorbance spectra. In general, our modified-GPS method provides an improvement of the GPS method that is a fast, inexpensive, and high-throughput alternative for screening of pigment composition in samples of phytoplankton material.

  1. Spectrophotometric retinal oximetry in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Traustason, Sindri; Kiilgaard, Jens Folke; Karlsson, Robert

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: To assess the validity of spectrophotometric retinal oximetry, by comparison to blood gas analysis and intra-vitreal measurements of partial pressure of oxygen (pO2). METHODS: Female domestic pigs were used for all experiments (n=8). Oxygen fraction in inspired air was changed using...... a mixture of room air, pure oxygen and pure nitrogen, ranging from 5% to 100% oxygen. Femoral arterial blood gas analysis and retinal oximetry was performed at each level of inspiratory oxygen fraction. Retinal oximetry was performed using a commercial instrument, the Oxymap Retinal Oximeter T1 (Oxymap ehf......, Reykjavik, Iceland). The device simultaneously acquires images at two wavelengths (570 nm and 600 nm) and specialized software automatically detects retinal blood vessels. In three pigs, invasive pO2-measurements were performed after the initial non-invasive measurements. RESULTS: Comparison of femoral...

  2. Spectrophotometric determination of pizotefin maleate in pure form and tablets using π-acceptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Amin

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Two simple, quick and sensitive methods were described for the spectrophotometric determination of pizotefin maleate (PZT either in pure form or pharmaceutical form (tablets. The methods were based on the reaction of pizotefin maleate as ‘n’ electron donor with chloranilic acid (p-CLA and 7,7,8,8-tetracyanoquinodimethane (TCNQ as π-acceptors to give highly coloured radical anion species which were quantitated spectrophotometrically at 533 and 839 nm for chloranilic acid and 7,7,8,8-tetracyanoquinodimethane, respectively. Different experimental conditions for the two methods were optimized. Beer’s law was obeyed in the concentration ranges of 10-160 and 2.0-20 mg mL-1 PZT for p-CLA and TCNQ, respectively with good correlation coefficient of ≥0.9993 and a relative standard deviation (RSD of ≤ 1.31%. The molar absorptivity, Sandell sensitivity, detection and quantification limits were also reported. The proposed methods were successfully applied for determination of PZT in tablets with good accuracy and precision and without interferences from common additives by applying the standard addition technique. The developed methods have been validated statistically for their accuracy, precision, sensitivity, selectivity, robustness and ruggedness as per ICH guidelines and the results compared favourably with those obtained using the reported method.

  3. Method development for arsenic analysis by modification in spectrophotometric technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Tahir

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic is a non-metallic constituent, present naturally in groundwater due to some minerals and rocks. Arsenic is not geologically uncommon and occurs in natural water as arsenate and arsenite. Additionally, arsenic may occur from industrial discharges or insecticide application. World Health Organization (WHO and Pakistan Standard Quality Control Authority have recommended a permissible limit of 10 ppb for arsenic in drinking water. Arsenic at lower concentrations can be determined in water by using high tech instruments like the Atomic Absorption Spectrometer (hydride generation. Because arsenic concentration at low limits of 1 ppb can not be determined easily with simple spectrophotometric technique, the spectrophotometric technique using silver diethyldithiocarbamate was modified to achieve better results, up to the extent of 1 ppb arsenic concentration.

  4. High-Sensitivity Spectrophotometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, T. D.

    1982-01-01

    Selected high-sensitivity spectrophotometric methods are examined, and comparisons are made of their relative strengths and weaknesses and the circumstances for which each can best be applied. Methods include long path cells, noise reduction, laser intracavity absorption, thermocouple calorimetry, photoacoustic methods, and thermo-optical methods.…

  5. Spectrophotometric Examination of Rough Print Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erzsébet Novotny

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to assess the impact of the surface texture of individual creative paper types (coated or patternedon the quality of printing and to identify to what extent the various creative paper types require specific types ofspectrophotometers. We used stereomicroscopic images to illustrate unprinted and printed surfaces of creative papertypes. Surface roughness was measured to obtain data on the unevenness of surfaces. Spectrophotometric tests wereused to select the most suitable spectrophotometer from meters with different illumination setup for testing anygiven print. For the purpose of testing, we used spectrophotometers which are commonly available generally used totest print products for colour accuracy. With the improvement of measuring geometries, illumination setup, colourmeasurement becomes more and more capable of producing reliable results unaffected by surface textures. Our testshave proved this fact by showing that the GretagMacbeth Spectrolino with annular illumination is less sensitive tosurface texture than the X-Rite Spetrodensitometer and the Techkon SpetroDens with directional illumination. Furthertests have brought us to the conclusion that there is a difference even between the two devices with directionalillumination. While the X-Rite 530 Spectrodensitometer is more suitable for testing coated surfaces, the TechkonSpectroDens can come close to ΔE*ab values produced by the annular illuminated device for textured surfaces.

  6. Highly Selective Hydroformylation of the Cinchona Alkaloids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lambers, Marielle; Beijer, Felix H.; Padron, José M.; Toth, Imre; Vries, Johannes G. de

    2002-01-01

    The four naturally occurring cinchona alkaloids were subjected to hydroformylation to create an extra functional group that allows immobilization. Cinchonidine, quinine, and quinidine, could be hydroformylated with virtually complete terminal selectivity, using a rhodium/tetraphosphite catalyst. The

  7. Efficient and Highly Aldehyde Selective Wacker Oxidation

    KAUST Repository

    Teo, Peili

    2012-07-06

    A method for efficient and aldehyde-selective Wacker oxidation of aryl-substituted olefins using PdCl 2(MeCN) 2, 1,4-benzoquinone, and t-BuOH in air is described. Up to a 96% yield of aldehyde can be obtained, and up to 99% selectivity can be achieved with styrene-related substrates. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  8. Spectrophotometric Rapid-Response Classification of Near-Earth Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mommert, Michael; Trilling, David; Butler, Nat; Axelrod, Tim; Moskovitz, Nick; Jedicke, Robert; Pichardo, Barbara; Reyes-Ruiz, Mauricio

    2015-08-01

    Small NEOs are, as a whole, poorly characterized, and we know nothing about the physical properties of the majority of all NEOs. The rate of NEO discoveries is increasing each year, and projects to determine the physical properties of NEOs are lagging behind. NEOs are faint, and generally even fainter by the time that follow-up characterizations can be made days or weeks after their discovery. There is a need for a high-throughput, high-efficiency physical characterization strategy in which hundreds of faint NEOs can be characterized each year. Broadband photometry in the near-infrared is sufficiently diagnostic to assign taxonomic types, and hence constrain both the individual and ensemble properties of NEOs.We present results from our rapid response near-infrared spectrophotometric characterization program of NEOs. We are using UKIRT (on Mauna Kea) and the RATIR instrument on the 1.5m telescope at the San Pedro Martir Observatory (Mexico) to allow us to make observations most nights of the year in robotic/queue mode. We derive taxonomic classifications for our targets using machine-learning techniques that are trained on a large sample of measured asteroid spectra. For each target we assign a probability for it to belong to a number of different taxa. Target selection, observation, data reduction, and analysis are highly automated, requiring only a minimum of user interaction, making this technique powerful and fast. Our targets are NEOs that are generally too faint for other characterization techniques, or would require many hours of large telescope time.

  9. Reliability and accuracy of Crystaleye spectrophotometric system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Li; Tan, Jian Guo; Zhou, Jian Feng; Yang, Xu; Du, Yang; Wang, Fang Ping

    2010-01-01

    to develop an in vitro shade-measuring model to evaluate the reliability and accuracy of the Crystaleye spectrophotometric system, a newly developed spectrophotometer. four shade guides, VITA Classical, VITA 3D-Master, Chromascop and Vintage Halo NCC, were measured with the Crystaleye spectrophotometer in a standardised model, ten times for 107 shade tabs. The shade-matching results and the CIE L*a*b* values of the cervical, body and incisal regions for each measurement were automatically analysed using the supporting software. Reliability and accuracy were calculated for each shade tab both in percentage and in colour difference (ΔE). Difference was analysed by one-way ANOVA in the cervical, body and incisal regions. range of reliability was 88.81% to 98.97% and 0.13 to 0.24 ΔE units, and that of accuracy was 44.05% to 91.25% and 1.03 to 1.89 ΔE units. Significant differences in reliability and accuracy were found between the body region and the cervical and incisal regions. Comparisons made among regions and shade guides revealed that evaluation in ΔE was prone to disclose the differences. measurements with the Crystaleye spectrophotometer had similar, high reliability in different shade guides and regions, indicating predictable repeated measurements. Accuracy in the body region was high and less variable compared with the cervical and incisal regions.

  10. Sensitive inexpensive spectrophotometric and spectrofluorimetric analysis of ezogabine, levetiracetam and topiramate in tablet formulations using Hantzsch condensation reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, F. A.; El-Yazbi, A. F.; Wagih, M. M.; Barary, M. A.

    2017-09-01

    Two highly sensitive, simple and selective spectrophotometric and spectrofluorimetric assays have been investigated for the analysis of ezogabine, levetiracetam and topiramate in their pure and in pharmaceutical dosage forms. The suggested methods depend on the condensation of the primary amino-groups in the three drugs with acetylacetone and formaldehyde according to Hantzsch reaction yielding highly fluorescent yellow colored dihydropyridine derivatives. The reaction products of ezogabine, levetiracetam and topiramate were measured spectrophotometrically at 418, 390 and 380 nm or spectrofluorimetrically at λem/ex of 495/425 nm, 490/415 nm and 488/410 nm, respectively. Various experimental conditions have been carefully studied to maximize the reaction yield. At the optimum reaction conditions, the calibration curves were rectilinear over the concentration ranges of 8-25, 60-180 and 80-200 μg/mL spectrophotometrically and 0.02-0.2, 0.2-1.2 and 0.2-1.5 μg/mL spectrofluorimetrically for ezogabine, levetiracetam and topiramate, respectively with good correlation coefficients. The suggested methods were applied successfully for the analysis of ezogabine, levetiracetam and topiramate in their commercial tablets with high percentage recoveries and negligible interference from various excipients in pharmaceutical dosage forms. The results were statistically analyzed and showed the absence of any significant difference between both developed and published methods. The procedures were validated and evaluated by the ICH guidelines revealing good reproducibility and accuracy. Therefore, the two proposed methods may be considered of high interest for practical and reliable analysis of ezogabine, levetiracetam and topiramate in pharmaceutical dosage forms.

  11. Spectrophotometric and spectrofluorimetric studies on the selective sensing of fluoride ions by Co(II) and Ni(II) complexes of naphthoquinone derivative possessing enhanced H-bonding property

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhupriya, Selvaraj; Elango, Kuppanagounder P.

    2012-11-01

    A novel colorimetric chemosensor based on aminonaphthoquinone (L) bearing an N-H receptor unit directly attached to quinone signaling unit has been designed, synthesized and demonstrated. The ligand showed a highly selective colorimetric response to fluoride ions based on H-bond formation with the receptor unit. The binding constants of the L and its square planar [Co(L)Cl2]·3H2O and [Ni(L)Cl2]·4H2O complexes, computed using fluorescent enhancement data, were found to be 0.6, 1.5 and 0.9 × 108 M-1, respectively, indicating enhancement of H-bond donor ability of the receptor unit, as a result of complexation with metal ions, towards fluoride ion sensing. Also, these sensors had high selectivity for fluoride ion detection over other common anions, such as Cl-, Br-, I-, AcO-, NO3-, H2PO4- and CN- in acetonitrile.

  12. Spectrophotometric determination of Er(III) in water solution of nitrilotriacetic acid and tiron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lis, S.; Hnatejko, Z.; Makowska, B.; Elbanowski, M. (Uniwersytet Adama Mickiewicza, Poznan (Poland). Inst. Chemii)

    1994-01-01

    The paper presents the results of study of absorption spectra of chosen ternary Ln/NTA/Tiron systems. The analysis of the spectra has been performed to test the possibility of using the ternary complexes for the spectrophotometric determination of lanthanide(III) ions. The system Er/NTA/Tiron, showing the highest value of molar absorptivity, was selected for spectrophotometric determination of the erbium ion. An acceptable level of other lanthanide ions and yttrium introduced into the Er(III) solution was determined. (author). 12 refs, 4 tabs.

  13. A Simple UV Spectrophotometric Method for the Determination of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: The present study was undertaken to develop a validated, rapid, simple and low-cost ultraviolet (UV) spectrophotometric method for estimating levofloxacin (LFX) in dosage preparations. Method: UV spectrophotometric analysis was performed spectrophotometrically at a pre-determined max of 290 nm with 0.1M ...

  14. Spectrophotometric Analysis of Phenolic Compounds in Grapes and Wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleixandre-Tudo, Jose Luis; Buica, Astrid; Nieuwoudt, Helene; Aleixandre, Jose Luis; du Toit, Wessel

    2017-05-24

    Phenolic compounds are of crucial importance for red wine color and mouthfeel attributes. A large number of enzymatic and chemical reactions involving phenolic compounds take place during winemaking and aging. Despite the large number of published analytical methods for phenolic analyses, the values obtained may vary considerably. In addition, the existing scientific knowledge needs to be updated, but also critically evaluated and simplified for newcomers and wine industry partners. The most used and widely cited spectrophotometric methods for grape and wine phenolic analysis were identified through a bibliometric search using the Science Citation Index-Expanded (SCIE) database accessed through the Web of Science (WOS) platform from Thompson Reuters. The selection of spectrophotometry was based on its ease of use as a routine analytical technique. On the basis of the number of citations, as well as the advantages and disadvantages reported, the modified Somers assay appears as a multistep, simple, and robust procedure that provides a good estimation of the state of the anthocyanins equilibria. Precipitation methods for total tannin levels have also been identified as preferred protocols for these types of compounds. Good reported correlations between methods (methylcellulose precipitable vs bovine serum albumin) and between these and perceived red wine astringency, in combination with the adaptation to high-throughput format, make them suitable for routine analysis. The bovine serum albumin tannin assay also allows for the estimation of the anthocyanins content with the measurement of small and large polymeric pigments. Finally, the measurement of wine color using the CIELab space approach is also suggested as the protocol of choice as it provides good insight into the wine's color properties.

  15. Development and validation of an high-performance liquid chromatographic, and a ultraviolet spectrophotometric method for determination of Ambroxol hydrochloride in pharmaceutical preparations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muralidharan, Selvadurai; Kumar, Jaya Raja; Dhanara, Sokkalingam Arumugam

    2013-01-01

    A high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) and ultraviolet (UV) methods were developed and validated for the quantitative determination of Ambroxol hydrochloride (AMH) in pharmaceutical dosage form. HPLC was carried out by reversed phase (RP) technique on an RP-18 column with a mobile phase composed of acetonitrile and water (pH 3.5 adjusted with orthophosphoric acid [60:40, v/v]). UV method was performed with the λmax at 250 nm. Both the methods showed good linearity, reproducibility, and precision. No spectral or chromatographic interferences from the tablet excipients were found in UV and HPLC. The method was successfully applied to commercial tablets. Validation parameters such as linearity, precision, accuracy, and specificity were determined. The HPLC Limit of detection (LOD) and Limit of quantification (LOQ) for Ambroxol were found to be 1 and 5 ng/ml, respectively. The UV LOD and LOQ for Ambroxol were found to be 1 and 4 μg/ml, respectively. The results were statistically compared using one-way analysis of variance. The proposed economical method could be applicable for routine analysis of AMH and monitoring of the quality of marketed drugs. PMID:23662284

  16. Development and validation of an high-performance liquid chromatographic, and a ultraviolet spectrophotometric method for determination of Ambroxol hydrochloride in pharmaceutical preparations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selvadurai Muralidharan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC and ultraviolet (UV methods were developed and validated for the quantitative determination of Ambroxol hydrochloride (AMH in pharmaceutical dosage form. HPLC was carried out by reversed phase (RP technique on an RP-18 column with a mobile phase composed of acetonitrile and water (pH 3.5 adjusted with orthophosphoric acid [60:40, v/v]. UV method was performed with the λmax at 250 nm. Both the methods showed good linearity, reproducibility, and precision. No spectral or chromatographic interferences from the tablet excipients were found in UV and HPLC. The method was successfully applied to commercial tablets. Validation parameters such as linearity, precision, accuracy, and specificity were determined. The HPLC Limit of detection (LOD and Limit of quantification (LOQ for Ambroxol were found to be 1 and 5 ng/ml, respectively. The UV LOD and LOQ for Ambroxol were found to be 1 and 4 μg/ml, respectively. The results were statistically compared using one-way analysis of variance. The proposed economical method could be applicable for routine analysis of AMH and monitoring of the quality of marketed drugs.

  17. Optical Transmitter Terminal for Selective RF High Frequency Bans Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of the proposal work is to investigate the highly innovative conceptual design of an optical communication selective frequency transmitter terminal...

  18. Selection and characterisation of high ethanol tolerant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-12-17

    Dec 17, 2008 ... 15% ethanol tolerance. High level ethanol tolerant Saccharomyces yeast, Orc 6, was investigated for its potential application in .... Growth in media of osmotic pressure range 0 - 25% (w/v) sorbitol ..... Saccharomyces cerevisiae through soya flour supplementation. Biotechnol. Lett. 10(3): 217-220. Bechem ...

  19. Extractive Spectrophotometric Determination of Omeprazole in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    Methods: Extractive spectrophotometric determination of omeprazole was developed using acidic dyes .... (potassium dihydrogen phosphate + sodium ... against a blank similarly prepared by replacing drug solution with 0.05M HCl. Assay of a commercial pharmaceutical preparation. Standard solutions of pure omeprazole ...

  20. Development and Application of Kinetic Spectrophotometric Method ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Original Research Article. Development and Application of Kinetic. Spectrophotometric Method for the Determination of. Metronidazole. Vojkan M Miljkovic1*, Danijela A Kostic2*, Zoran Z Bojanic1, Biljana. M.Kalicanin1, Gordana M Kocic1. 1Faculty of Medicine, 2Faculty of Sciences and Mathematics, The University of Nis, ...

  1. Spectrophotometric determination of proteins associated with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Twenty six Aeromonas isolates from fishes, poultry and humans in Zaria were quantified for total soluble proteins (enzymes) profiles in January, 2007 by spectrophotometric (Biuret) method. Isolates were grown on Brain Heart Infusion (BHI) broth, they were incubated at 370C and centrifuged at 1,000 g/dl using harous ...

  2. Development of two charge transfer complex spectrophotometric ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To develop a simple, fast and sensitive spectrophotometric method for the determination of tofisopam in tablet dosage ... and TCNQ, respectively. Conclusion: The developed methods for tofisopam have good accuracy and precision, and comparable ..... profiles of tofisopam and diazepam. Eur J Clin. Pharmacol ...

  3. Spectrophotometric Determination of Trimipramine in Tablet Dosage ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To develop and validate simple, rapid and sensitive spectrophotometric procedures for determination of trimipramine in tablet dosage form. Methods: The methods were based on the interaction of trimipramine as n-electron donor with the ο-acceptor, iodine and various π-acceptors, namely: chloranil (CH), ...

  4. spectrophotometric methods for the microdetermination of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    Leonardo, P. (2009). Flow-injection spectrophotometric determination of tetracycline and doxycycline in pharmaceutical formulations using chloramine-T as oxidizing agent. Química. Nova, 32:1764-1769. Siva Chandra, Y.; Suryanarayana Rao, V. & Rama Murthy, P. S.. (1996). Determination of hostacycline and doxycycline ...

  5. Organic reagents in spectrophotometric methods of analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savvin, Sergey B; Mikhailova, Alla V [V.I. Vernadsky Institute of Geochemistry and Analytical Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Shtykov, S N [Department of Chemistry, N.G. Chernyshevskii Saratov State University (Russian Federation)

    2006-04-30

    The role of organic, in particular, complex-forming, reagents in the formation and development of spectrophotometric analysis is discussed. The prospects for the use of organic reagents in modern analytical methods are considered; the attention is focused on modified and immobilised reagents, receptor molecules and on the use of nonaqueous and organised media.

  6. Kinetic spectrophotometric determination of some fluoroquinolone ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A simple and sensitive kinetic spectrophotometric method was developed for the determination of some fluoroquinolonea antibiotics; gemifloxacin mesylate, moxifloxacin hydrochloride and gatifloxacin in bulk and in pharmaceutical preparations. The method is based upon a kinetic investigation of the oxidation reaction of ...

  7. Development of Ultraviolet Spectrophotometric Method for Analysis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP

    Purpose: An ultraviolet spectrophotometric system was developed and validated for the quantitative determination of lornoxicam in solid dosage forms. Methods: Lornoxicam was dissolved in 0.01M NaOH and analysed using ultraviolet (UV) spectrophotometry. Various analytical parameters such as linearity, precision, ...

  8. Spectrophotometric Determination of Nitrate in Vegetables Using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. MIKE HORSFALL

    ABSTRACT: A rapid and sensitive spectrophotometric method for the determination of nitrate in vegetables is described. The method is based on the measurement of the absorbance of yellow sodium nitrophenoxide formed via the reaction of phenol with the vegetable-based nitrate in presence of sulphuric acid.

  9. Spectrophotometric determination of nitrate in vegetables using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A rapid and sensitive spectrophotometric method for the determination of nitrate in vegetables is described. The method is based on the measurement of the absorbance of yellow sodium nitrophenoxide formed via the reaction of phenol with the vegetable-based nitrate in presence of sulphuric acid. The analytical ...

  10. short communication development of an indirect spectrophotometric

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    B. S. Chandravanshi

    funnel. The same procedure as employed for water samples was used for separation of phases. ... mechanical shaking for five min in a separating funnel. ... Scheme 1. Proposed reaction mechanism for spectrophotometric determination of methamidophos. Figure 1. Effect of sodium hydroxide concentration on the reaction.

  11. Extractive spectrophotometric method for the determination of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the view of the potential hazards associated with the widespread use of carbaryl insecticide, a new simple extractive spectrophotometric method has been developed for its determination in environmental samples viz. soil, water and foodstuffs for its safer and more effective use. The proposed method is based on the ...

  12. Microwave assisted spectrophotometric method for the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A sensitive spectrophotometric method has been developed for the trace determination of copper using leucocrystal violet as chromogenic reagent. The proposed method is based on the reaction of copper(II) with potassium iodide in acid medium to liberate iodine, which oxidizes leucocrystal violet to crystal violet dye ...

  13. spectrophotometric determination of proteins associated with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    ABSTRACT. Twenty six Aeromonas isolates from fishes, poultry and humans in Zaria were quantified for total soluble proteins (enzymes) profiles in January, 2007 by spectrophotometric (Biuret) method. Isolates were grown on Brain Heart Infusion (BHI) broth, they were incubated at 370C and centrifuged at 1,000 g/dl using ...

  14. Development and Application of Kinetic Spectrophotometric Method ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To develop an improved kinetic-spectrophotometric procedure for the determination of metronidazole (MNZ) in pharmaceutical formulations. Methods: The method is based on oxidation reaction of MNZ by hydrogen peroxide in the presence of Fe(II) ions at pH 4.5 (acetate buffer). The reaction was monitored ...

  15. A SIMPLE SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC DETERMINATION OF TRACE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    a

    ABSTRACT. A simple and sensitive spectrophotometric method has been developed for the determination of trace amounts of vanadium using thionin as a chromogenic reagent. The proposed method is based on the reaction of vanadium(V) with potassium iodide in acid medium to liberate iodine, which bleaches the violet ...

  16. Optimization, Validation and Application of Spectrophotometric ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ginkgo biloba extract's (GBE50) inhibitory effect on HMG-CoA reductase activity was evaluated using the optimized spectrophotometric protocol. Results: The optimum assay conditions were as follows: reaction buffer pH 7.0, 100 μM NADPH, 50 μM HMG-CoA, and 200 μg/mL microsomal protein. The preincubation and ...

  17. Spectrophotometric Determination of Trimipramine in Tablet Dosage ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    transfer complexes. The complexes obtained were measured spectrophotometrically at 292, 220, 520,. 302, and 824 nm for I2, CH, ... [13,14], which absorb radiation in both ultra-violet and visible region. The rapid formation of the ... A double beam ultraviolet-visible spectro- photometer (Thermo Scientific, England) with 1-.

  18. Spectrophotometric investigation of the Fe(III–disulphonated hydroquinone complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. OBRADOVIC

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Iron(III form an indigo-blue complex with the disulphonated product of hydroquinone (K2S2Hy in acid media with an absorption maxima at 600 nm. The time stability of the complex, dependence of the complex absorbance on pH and the influence of temperature and solvent were followed on the basis of spectrophotometric measurements. Using the Job, mole ratio and Henry–Franck–Ostwald methods, the composition and relative stability constant of this complex, in 80 vol.% ethanol as solvent, were determined (1:1; logb’293 = 3.37. A new spectrophotometric method for the determination of iron has been developed and the calibration curve is linear in the concentration range from0.65 to 6.45 mg cm-3. The effects of foreign ions on the determination of iron were investigated in order to assess the selectivity of the method. The method was applied for the determination of Fe(III in the natural juice of beet.

  19. Selection of Highly Expressed Gene Variants in Escherichia coli Using Translationally Coupled Antibiotic Selection Markers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rennig, Maja; Daley, Daniel O.; Nørholm, Morten H. H.

    2018-01-01

    Strategies to select highly expressed variants of a protein coding sequence are usually based on trial-and-error approaches, which are time-consuming and expensive. We address this problem using translationally coupled antibiotic resistance markers. The system requires that the target gene can...... be fused at the 3'-end with a translational coupling element and an antibiotic resistance gene. Highly expressed target genes can then be selected using a fast and simple whole cell survival assay in the presence of high antibiotic concentrations. Herein we show that the system can be used to select highly...

  20. A novel spectrophotometric method for the determination of copper ion by using a salophen ligand, N,N′-disalicylidene-2,3-diaminopyridine

    OpenAIRE

    Babayeva, Könül; Demir, Serkan; Andac, Müberra

    2017-01-01

    In this study, a novel, selective and highly sensitive spectrophotometric method has been developed for the determination of copper(II) by using a new chromogenic reagent N,N′-bissalicylidene-2,3-diaminopyridine (H2IF). The absorbance was measured at λmax = 414 nm. Experimental conditions were optimized, and Beer’s law was observed in the concentration range of 6.35–318 μg L−1 of copper. The molar absorptivity of the complex was calculated and found to be 1.46 × 105 L mol−1 cm−1. The detectio...

  1. Spectrophotometric determination of nitrite based on its catalytic effect on the reaction of nuclear fast red and potassium bromate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HASSAN ZAVVAR MOUSAVI

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available A highly selective and sensitive catalytic spectrophotometric method was developed for the determination of nitrite in water samples. The method is based on its catalytic effect on the nuclear fast red–potassium bromate redox reaction in acidic medium. The reaction was followed spectrophotometrically by measuring the change in the absorbance at 518 nm of nuclear fast red 5 min after initiation of the reaction. In this study, the experimental parameters were optimized and the effects of other cations and anions on the determination of nitrite were examined. The calibration graph was linear in the range 2.0–45 µg mL-1 of nitrite. The relative standard deviations for the determination of 15 and 30 µg mL-1 of nitrite were 3.1 and 1.75 %, respectively (n = 8. The detection limit calculated from three times the standard deviation of the blank 3Sb was 0.7 µg mL-1. The method was successfully applied to the determination of nitrite in spiked tap, natural and wastewater samples.

  2. Spectrophotometric determination of fluorine in silicate rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peck, L.C.; Smith, V.C.

    1964-01-01

    The rock powder is sintered with a sodium carbonate flux containing zinc oxide and magnesium carbonate, the sinter-cake leached with water and the resulting solution filtered. Fluorine is separated from the acidified filtrate by steam distillation and determined spectrophotometrically by means of a zirconium-SPADNS reagent. If a multiple-unit distillation apparatus is used, 12 determinations can be completed per man-day. ?? 1964.

  3. Spectrophotometric technique quantitatively determines NaMBT inhibitor in ethylene glycol-water solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrard, G. G.

    1967-01-01

    Spectrophotometric method, using a ratio-recording ultraviolet-absorption spectrophotometer, permits analysis of NaMBT in ethylene glycol-water solutions with high accuracy. It reduces analysis time, requires smaller samples, and is able to detect extremely small concentrations of mercaptobenzothiazole.

  4. CBFS: high performance feature selection algorithm based on feature clearness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minseok Seo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The goal of feature selection is to select useful features and simultaneously exclude garbage features from a given dataset for classification purposes. This is expected to bring reduction of processing time and improvement of classification accuracy. METHODOLOGY: In this study, we devised a new feature selection algorithm (CBFS based on clearness of features. Feature clearness expresses separability among classes in a feature. Highly clear features contribute towards obtaining high classification accuracy. CScore is a measure to score clearness of each feature and is based on clustered samples to centroid of classes in a feature. We also suggest combining CBFS and other algorithms to improve classification accuracy. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: From the experiment we confirm that CBFS is more excellent than up-to-date feature selection algorithms including FeaLect. CBFS can be applied to microarray gene selection, text categorization, and image classification.

  5. In situ spectrophotometric measurement of dissolved inorganic carbon in seawater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liua, Xuewu; Byrne, Robert H.; Adornato, Lori; Yates, Kimberly K.; Kaltenbacher, Eric; Ding, Xiaoling; Yang, Bo

    2013-01-01

    Autonomous in situ sensors are needed to document the effects of today’s rapid ocean uptake of atmospheric carbon dioxide (e.g., ocean acidification). General environmental conditions (e.g., biofouling, turbidity) and carbon-specific conditions (e.g., wide diel variations) present significant challenges to acquiring long-term measurements of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) with satisfactory accuracy and resolution. SEAS-DIC is a new in situ instrument designed to provide calibrated, high-frequency, long-term measurements of DIC in marine and fresh waters. Sample water is first acidified to convert all DIC to carbon dioxide (CO2). The sample and a known reagent solution are then equilibrated across a gas-permeable membrane. Spectrophotometric measurement of reagent pH can thereby determine the sample DIC over a wide dynamic range, with inherent calibration provided by the pH indicator’s molecular characteristics. Field trials indicate that SEAS-DIC performs well in biofouling and turbid waters, with a DIC accuracy and precision of ∼2 μmol kg–1 and a measurement rate of approximately once per minute. The acidic reagent protects the sensor cell from biofouling, and the gas-permeable membrane excludes particulates from the optical path. This instrument, the first spectrophotometric system capable of automated in situ DIC measurements, positions DIC to become a key parameter for in situ CO2-system characterizations.

  6. Validated Extractive Spectrophotometric Estimation of Tadalafil in Tablet Dosage Form

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Adlin Jino Nesalin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Two simple spectrophotometric methods have been developed for the estimation of tadalafil in both pure and tablet dosage form. Methods A and B are based on the formation of ion-pair complexes of the drug with dyes such as bromothymol blue (BTB and bromocresol green (BCG in acidic buffer solution followed by their extraction with chloroform to form yellow colored chromogen with absorption maxima at 420 nm and 415 nm respectively. Beer’s law is valid in the concentration range of 10-50 mcg/mL for both the methods. These developed methods were validated for precision, accuracy, ruggedness and robustness. Statistical analysis proves that the methods are reproducible and selective for the routine analysis of the said drug.

  7. Spectrophotometric flow injection monitoring of sulfide during sugar fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Claudineia R; Barros, Valdemir A F; Basso, Luiz C; Zagatto, Elias A G

    2011-09-15

    A spectrophotometric flow injection procedure involving N,N-dimethyl-p-phenylenediamine (DMPD) is applied to the sulfide monitoring of a sugar fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae under laboratory conditions. The gaseous chemical species evolving from the fermentative process, mainly CO(2), are trapped allowing a cleaned sample aliquot to be collected and introduced into the flow injection analyzer. Measurement rate, signal repeatability, detection limit and reagent consumption per measurement were estimated as 150 h(-1), 0.36% (n=20), 0.014 mg L(-1) S and 120 μg DMPD, respectively. The main characteristics of the monitoring record are discussed. The strategy is worthwhile for selecting yeast strain, increasing the industrial ethanol production and improving the quality of wines. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. A first-derivative spectrophotometric method for the estimation of Lopinavir in tablets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hetal Paresh Thakkar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed at the development and validation of a first-derivative ultraviolet (UV spectrophotometric method for the estimation of Lopinavir in formulation as well as in bulk drug. The reported methods of analysis include chromatographic methods such as high-performance liquid chromatography using a UV detector. Chromatographic methods are tedious, time consuming and are not suitable for routine analysis. However, UV-based methods are fast, simple and economical. Thus, these methods are preferred for routine analysis. The absorption scan of Lopinavir in the UV region does not exhibit any sharp peak. However, the first-derivative spectrum showed an absorption minima at 220 nm, which was selected as the analytical wavelength. Thus, a first-derivative method was developed and validated for the routine analysis of Lopinavir. The method was found to be simple, sensitive and selective, as evidenced by non-interference from the excipients and ritonavir present in the tablet formulation. The linearity was observed in the range of 5 to 35 μg/ml. The method was found to have a high degree of accuracy and precision, both inter- and intra-day. The limit of detection and limit of quantitation were found to be 0.844 and 2.558 μg/ml, respectively.

  9. Super-surface selective nanomembranes providing simultaneous high permeation flux and high selectivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Michael Z.; Simpson, John T.; Aytug, Tolga; Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans; Sturgeon, Matthew R.

    2016-04-12

    Superhydrophobic membrane structures having a beneficial combination of throughput and a selectivity. The membrane structure can include a porous support substrate; and a membrane layer adherently disposed on and in contact with the porous support substrate. The membrane layer can include a nanoporous material having a superhydrophobic surface. The superhydrophobic surface can include a textured surface, and a modifying material disposed on the textured surface. Methods of making and using the membrane structures.

  10. Spectrophotometric determination of catecholamine using vanadium and eriochrome cyanine r

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagaraja, Padmarajaiah; Shrestha, Ashwinee Kumar; Shivakumar, Anantharaman; Al-Tayar, Naef Ghallab Saeed; Gowda, Avinask K., E-mail: profpn58@yahoo.co [University of Mysore, Manasagangotri (India). Dept. of Studies in Chemistry

    2011-07-01

    highly sensitive spectrophotometric method for the analysis of catecholamine drugs; L-dopa and methyldopa, is described. The analysis is based on the reaction of drug molecules with vanadium (V) which is reduced to vanadium (IV) and form complex with eriochrome cyanine R to give products having maximum absorbance ({lambda}{sub max}) at 565 nm. Beer's law is obeyed in the range 0.028-0.84 and 0.099-0.996 {mu}g mL{sup -1} for L-dopa and methyldopa, respectively. The statistical analysis as well as comparison with reported methods demonstrated high precision and accuracy of the proposed method. The method was successfully applied in the analysis of pharmaceutical preparations. (author)

  11. Using Spectrophotometric Titrations To Characterize Humic Acid Reactivity at Environmental Concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janot, N.; Benedetti, M. F. [Univ Paris Diderot, Lab Geochim Eaux, UMR CNRS 7154, IPGP, F-75025 Paris 13 (France); Janot, N.; Reiller, P. E. [CE Saclay, CEA DEN DANS DPC SECR, Lab Speciat Radionucleides and Mol, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette (France); Korshin, G. V. [Univ Washington, Dept Civil and Environm Engn, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States)

    2010-07-01

    Potentiometric titration is a common method to characterize dissolved organic matter (DOM) reactivity. Because of the sensitivity of pH electrodes, it is necessary to work with very high DOM ({>=}1 g/L) concentrations that are unrealistic compared to those found in natural waters (0. 1 to 100 mg/L). To obtain proton binding data for concentrations closer to environmental values, spectroscopic titration methodology is a viable alternative to traditional potentiometric titrations. Spectrophotometric titrations and UV visible spectra of a diluted solution of purified Aldrich humic acid (5 mg(DOC)/L) are used to estimate changes in proton binding moieties as function of pH and ionic strength after calculation of differential absorbance spectra variations. After electrostatic correction of spectrophotometric data, there is a linear operational correlation between spectrophotometric and potentiometric data which can be used as a transfer function between the two properties. Spectrophotometric titrations are then used to determine the changes of humic acid protonation after adsorption onto alpha-alumina. (authors)

  12. Spectrophotometric estimation of cobalt with ninhydrin

    OpenAIRE

    Mahmood, Karamat; Wattoo, Feroza Hamid; Wattoo, Muhammad Hamid Sarwar; Imran, Muhammad; Asad, Muhammad Javaid; Tirmizi, Syed Ahmed; Wadood, Abdul

    2012-01-01

    A violet coloured complex was developed when cobalt metal reacts with ninhydrin at pH 8.2, using sodium acetate buffer solution. Absorbance of the complex was measured at 395 nm. Various factors, such as volume of the ligand used, solution pH, stability of the complex with time and interference of other metals, which effect the complex formation have been studied in detail. Present developed method can be used for the spectrophotometric estimation of cobalt with ninhydrin complex. The method ...

  13. Development of Two Charge-Transfer Complex Spectrophotometric ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Development of Two Charge-Transfer Complex. Spectrophotometric Methods for Determination of ... Purpose: To develop an easy, fast and sensible spectrophotometric method for determination of tofisopam in tablet dosage form. Methods: ..... profiles of tofisopam and diazepam. Eur J Clin. Pharmacol 1982; 22: 137-142. 2.

  14. Spectrophotometric determination of fluoride in drinking water using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A sensitive spectrophotometric determination of fluoride in drinking water has been developed using aluminium complexes of triphenylmethane dyes (chrome azurol B and malachite green) as spectrophotometric reagents. The method allowed a reliable determination of fluoride in the range of 0.5–4.0 mg·l-1 for chrome ...

  15. Spectrophotometric determination of fluoride in drinking water using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-03-14

    Mar 14, 2011 ... A sensitive spectrophotometric determination of fluoride in drinking water has been developed using aluminium complexes of triphenylmethane dyes (chrome azurol B and malachite green) as spectrophotometric reagents. The method allowed a reliable determination of fluoride in the range of 0.5–4.0 ...

  16. Spectrophotometric intracutaneous analysis for differential diagnosis of pigmented skin lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Е. V. Filonenko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The non-invasive diagnosis of pigmented skin lesions by spectrophotometric intracutaneous analysis (SIA-scopy using device for dermatoscopy (SIAscope V by Astron Clinica, Ltd was approved in P.A.Herzen Moscow Cancer Research Institute. The method is based on analysis of light interaction with wavelength of 440–960 nm anf human skin, which is recorded by change of image on scan. The comparative analysis of SIA-scopy and histological data in 327 pigmented skin lesions in 147 patients showed, that SIA had high diagnostic efficiency for cutaneous melanoma: the sensitivity was 96%, specifity – 94%, diagnostic accuracy – 94%. For study of malignant potential of pigmented lesions by SIA-scopy the most informative capacity was obtained for assessment of melanin in papillary dermis, status of blood vessels and collagen fibres (SIA-scans 3, 4, 5.

  17. Validation of a spectrophotometric method for quantification of carboxyhemoglobin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luchini, Paulo D; Leyton, Jaime F; Strombech, Maria de Lourdes C; Ponce, Julio C; Jesus, Maria das Graças S; Leyton, Vilma

    2009-10-01

    The measurement of carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) levels in blood is a valuable procedure to confirm exposure to carbon monoxide (CO) either for forensic or occupational matters. A previously described method using spectrophotometric readings at 420 and 432 nm after reduction of oxyhemoglobin (O(2)Hb) and methemoglobin with sodium hydrosulfite solution leads to an exponential curve. This curve, used with pre-established factors, serves well for lower concentrations (1-7%) or for high concentrations (> 20%) but very rarely for both. The authors have observed that small variations on the previously described factors F1, F2, and F3, obtained from readings for 100% COHb and 100% O(2)Hb, turn into significant changes in COHb% results and propose that these factors should be determined every time COHb is measured by reading CO and O(2) saturated samples. This practice leads to an increase in accuracy and precision.

  18. Stability indicating spectrophotometric and spectrodensitometric methods for the determination of diatrizoate sodium in presence of its degradation product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd El-Rahman, Mohamed K.; Riad, Safaa M.; Abdel Gawad, Sherif A.; Fawaz, Esraa M.; Shehata, Mostafa A.

    2015-02-01

    Three sensitive, selective, and precise stability indicating methods for the determination of the X-ray contrast agent, diatrizoate sodium (DTA), in the presence of its acidic degradation product (highly cytotoxic 3,5 diamino metabolite) and in pharmaceutical formulation were developed and validated. The first method is a first derivative (D1) spectrophotometric one, which allows the determination of DTA in the presence of its degradate at 231.2 nm (corresponding to zero crossing of the degradate) over a concentration range of 2-24 μg/mL with mean percentage recovery 99.95 ± 0.97%. The second method is the first derivative of the ratio spectra (DD1) by measuring the peak amplitude at 227 nm over the same concentration range as D1 spectrophotometric method, with mean percentage recovery 99.99 ± 1.15%. The third method is a TLC-densitometric one, where DTA was separated from its degradate on silica gel plates using chloroform:methanol:ammonium hydroxide (20:10:2 by volume) as a developing system. This method depends on quantitative densitometric evaluation of thin layer chromatogram of DTA at 238 nm over a concentration range of 4-20 μg/spot, with mean percentage recovery 99.88 ± 0.89%. The selectivity of the proposed methods was tested using laboratory-prepared mixtures. The proposed methods have been successfully applied to the analysis of DTA in pharmaceutical dosage forms without interference from other dosage form additives. The results were statistically compared with the official US pharmacopeial method. No significant difference for either accuracy or precision was observed.

  19. Optimal Feature Selection in High-Dimensional Discriminant Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolar, Mladen; Liu, Han

    2015-02-01

    We consider the high-dimensional discriminant analysis problem. For this problem, different methods have been proposed and justified by establishing exact convergence rates for the classification risk, as well as the ℓ 2 convergence results to the discriminative rule. However, sharp theoretical analysis for the variable selection performance of these procedures have not been established, even though model interpretation is of fundamental importance in scientific data analysis. This paper bridges the gap by providing sharp sufficient conditions for consistent variable selection using the sparse discriminant analysis (Mai et al., 2012). Through careful analysis, we establish rates of convergence that are significantly faster than the best known results and admit an optimal scaling of the sample size n , dimensionality p , and sparsity level s in the high-dimensional setting. Sufficient conditions are complemented by the necessary information theoretic limits on the variable selection problem in the context of high-dimensional discriminant analysis. Exploiting a numerical equivalence result, our method also establish the optimal results for the ROAD estimator (Fan et al., 2012) and the sparse optimal scaling estimator (Clemmensen et al., 2011). Furthermore, we analyze an exhaustive search procedure, whose performance serves as a benchmark, and show that it is variable selection consistent under weaker conditions. Extensive simulations demonstrating the sharpness of the bounds are also provided.

  20. Design and Analysis of a High Speed Carry Select Adder

    OpenAIRE

    Simarpreet Singh Chawla; Swapnil Aggarwal; Anshika; Nidhi Goel

    2015-01-01

    An optimal high-speed and low-power VLSI architecture requires an efficient arithmetic processing unit that is optimized for speed and power consumption. Adders are one of the widely used in digital integrated circuit and system design. High speed adder is the necessary component in a data path, e.g. Microprocessors and a Digital signal processor. The present paper proposes a novel high-speed adder by combining the advantages of Carry Look Ahead Adder (CLAA) and Carry Select Adder (CSA), devi...

  1. Design and Analysis of a High Speed Carry Select Adder

    OpenAIRE

    Simarpreet Singh Chawla; Swapnil Aggarwal; Anshika; Nidhi Goel

    2015-01-01

    An optimal high-speed and low-power VLSI architecture requires an efficient arithmetic processing unit that is optimized for speed and power consumption. Adders are one of the widely used in digital integrated circuit and system design.High speed adder is the necessary component in a data path, e.g. Microprocessors and a Digital signal processor. The present paper proposes a novel high-speed adder by combining the advantages of Carry Look Ahead Adder (CLAA) and Carry Select Adder (CSA), devis...

  2. Spectrophotometric Determination of Zinc Using 7-(4-Nitrophenylazo-8-Hydroxyquinoline-5-Sulfonic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korn Maria das Graças Andrade

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available A sensitive and selective spectrophotometric method is proposed for the rapid determination of zinc(II using an 8-hydroxyquinoline derivative, 7-(4-nitrophenylazo-8-hydroxyquinoline-5-sulfonic acid (p-NIAZOXS, as a new spectrophotometric reagent. The reaction between the p-NIAZOXS and zinc(II is instantaneous at pH 9.2 (borax buffer and the absorbance remains stable for over 24 h. The method allows the determination of zinc over the range of 0.05-1.0 mug mL-1 with a molar absorptivity of 3.75x10(4 L mol-1 cm-1 and features a detection limit of 15 ng mL-1. The proposed method has been successfully applied to the determination of zinc in several pharmaceutical preparations and copper alloys. The precision (R.S.D. < 2% and the accuracy obtained were satisfactory.

  3. Validated spectrophotometric methods for the evaluation of Oseltamivir counterfeit pharmaceutical capsules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasha M. Youssef

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Four rapid, reliable and economical spectrophotometric methods have been established for the quantitative determination of Oseltamivir phosphate (OST without the interference of ascorbic acid (ASC found in some of its counterfeit capsules. The first method involves the use of derivative spectrophotometry with the zero-crossing technique where OST was easily determined using its 1D (Δλ = 3 at 219 nm. The second method is based on a first-order derivative ratio spectrophotometry (1DD, Δλ = 5 where 218 nm was selected for its quantification, while the third method applies a more advanced spectrophotometric method based on the ratio difference spectrophotometry (RD in which the difference in absorbance ratio was measured between 217 and 210 nm. In the fourth method, difference spectrophotometric method (ΔA is applied by subtracting absorbance at 252 from that at 263 nm where the difference in absorbance was zero for ASC. The proposed methods were validated for linearity, accuracy, precision and selectivity. Synthetic mixtures of different proportions and commercial capsules were assayed by the proposed methods and the results revealed good accuracy and repeatability of the developed methods.

  4. A Primer on High-Throughput Computing for Genomic Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Lin eWu

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available High-throughput computing (HTC uses computer clusters to solve advanced computational problems, with the goal of accomplishing high throughput over relatively long periods of time. In genomic selection, for example, a set of markers covering the entire genome is used to train a model based on known data, and the resulting model is used to predict the genetic merit of selection candidates. Sophisticated models are very computationally demanding and, with several traits to be evaluated sequentially, computing time is long and output is low. In this paper, we present scenarios and basic principles of how HTC can be used in genomic selection, implemented using various techniques from simple batch processing to pipelining in distributed computer clusters. Various scripting languages, such as shell scripting, Perl and R, are also very useful to devise pipelines. By pipelining, we can reduce total computing time and consequently increase throughput. In comparison to the traditional data processing pipeline residing on the central processors, performing general purpose computation on a graphics processing unit (GPU provide a new-generation approach to massive parallel computing in genomic selection. While the concept of HTC may still be new to many researchers in animal breeding, plant breeding, and genetics, HTC infrastructures have already been built in many institutions, such as the University of Wisconsin – Madison, which can be leveraged for genomic selection, in terms of central processing unit (CPU capacity, network connectivity, storage availability, and middleware connectivity. Exploring existing HTC infrastructures as well as general purpose computing environments will further expand our capability to meet increasing computing demands posed by unprecedented genomic data that we have today. We anticipate that HTC will impact genomic selection via better statistical models, faster solutions, and more competitive products (e.g., from design of

  5. Spectrophotometric characterization of hemozoin as a malaria biomarker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Ivo; Lima, Rui; Minas, Graça.; Catarino, Susana O.

    2017-08-01

    Malaria is a parasitic disease with more than a billion people worldwide at risk of contraction. The disease is predominantly widespread in regions with precarious healthcare conditions and resources. Despite the several available malaria diagnostic methods, only two are predominantly used in the field in malaria-endemic countries: microscopy and rapid diagnostic tests. In this work, an alternative diagnostic system is proposed, based on optical absorption spectrophotometry. The main objective of this paper is the spectrophotometric study of hemozoin as a malaria biomarker, since it is a sub-product of the malaria infection. The optical absorbance of hemoglobin and hemozoin solutions in purified water was measured in the visible spectrum range using a spectrophotometric setup. The results showed main absorbance peaks at 540 nm and 574 nm for hemoglobin, and at 672 nm for hemozoin. The tests performed in aqueous solutions have shown that both hemoglobin and synthetic hemozoin, when alone in solution, were detected by absorbance, with sensitivity of 0.05 g/L, and with a high linearity (R2> 0.92 for all wavelength peaks). Furthermore, it was found that the whole blood and the hemoglobin spectra have similar absorption peaks. By combining whole blood and synthetic hemozoin solutions, it was proved that both the hemozoin and the hemoglobin absorbance peaks could still be detected by spectrophotometry. For instance, in polydimethylsiloxane wells, the proposed method was able to detect hemozoin in whole blood samples for optical paths as low as 3 mm in cylindrical wells, thus proving the capability for this method's miniaturization. With this work, it is possible to conclude that hemozoin is a viable candidate as a biomarker for malaria detection by optical absorption spectrophotometry and also, that an autonomous, fully integrated and low cost miniaturized system, based on such a principle, could provide an efficient diagnosis of malaria.

  6. SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC DETERMINATION OF NITRITE BY ITS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    KEY WORDS: Nitrite, Catalytic effect, Congo red, Spectrophotometry, Drinking water. INTRODUCTION ... such as high sensitivity, low detection limits, good selectivity, rapid analysis and inexpensive instrumentation. ... Determination of nitrite by its catalytic effect on oxidation of congo red with bromate. Bull. Chem. Soc.

  7. High density transcriptional mapping of chromosome 21 by hybridization selection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tassone, F.; Wade, H.; Gardiner, K. [Eleanor Roosevelt Institute, Denver, CO (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    A transcriptional map of human chromosome 21 is important for the study of Down syndrome, development processes and genome organization. To construct a high density transcriptional map, the technique of cDNA hybrid selection is being applied to a minimal tiling path of YAC clones that span 21q. The cDNA used for selection represents a complex pool of sequences obtained from a variety of fetal and adult tissues and cell lines. Approximately 70-80 YAC clones are sufficient to span 21q; each is individually processed through the selection procedure to obtain a YAC-specific {open_quotes}selected cDNA library{close_quotes}. Survey analysis of each library includes determination of levels of ribosomal contamination, verification of enrichment of control genes, identification of a preliminary number of novel unique sequences, and verification that novel sequences map to the correct YAC and chromosomal regions. This analysis has been completed for 19 YACs that together comprise approximately 10 Mb of non-overlapping DNA, 25% of the long arm. Ribosomal cDNA contamination is low (<10%) and all known genes of appropriate tissue specificity of expression have been recovered, as well as new genes from each YAC. Libraries of expression have been recovered, as well as new genes from each YAC. Libraries from 8 of these YACs are now being subjected to exhaustive analysis to identify all novel genes contained within them and to obtain complete cDNAs and expression analysis for each. Not all regions of the chromosome, however, are equally amenable to these analyses. Selected cDNA libraries from the centromeric YACs are yielding apparently novel genes, but confirmation of map position is problematic. Also of interest is a region of several megabases within the Giemsa dark band, 21q21. Selected cDNA libraries from these YACs so far have yielded no novel genes and support the idea of a genuinely very gene-poor region.

  8. High-dimensional model estimation and model selection

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    I will review concepts and algorithms from high-dimensional statistics for linear model estimation and model selection. I will particularly focus on the so-called p>>n setting where the number of variables p is much larger than the number of samples n. I will focus mostly on regularized statistical estimators that produce sparse models. Important examples include the LASSO and its matrix extension, the Graphical LASSO, and more recent non-convex methods such as the TREX. I will show the applicability of these estimators in a diverse range of scientific applications, such as sparse interaction graph recovery and high-dimensional classification and regression problems in genomics.

  9. New Spectrophotometric Method for Determination of Cadmium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. S. Parikh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The reagent 2-hydroxy-4-n-butoxy-5-bromopropiophenone thiosemicarbazone (HBBrPT has been used for the determination of Cd(II by using spectrophotometric method. The reagent HBBrPT gave an intense yellow colour with Cd(II solution in basic medium. The maximum absorbance was observed at 440 nm, in basic buffer solution (pH 10.00. The molor absorptivity and Sandell’s sensitivity of Cd(II-HBBrPT complex were 4035 mol-1 cm-1 and 0.02765 μg cm-2 respectively. The stability constant of 1:2 Cd(II-HBBrPT complex was 8.46×106. The effect of various iron was also studied.

  10. A Primer on High-Throughput Computing for Genomic Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiao-Lin; Beissinger, Timothy M.; Bauck, Stewart; Woodward, Brent; Rosa, Guilherme J. M.; Weigel, Kent A.; Gatti, Natalia de Leon; Gianola, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    High-throughput computing (HTC) uses computer clusters to solve advanced computational problems, with the goal of accomplishing high-throughput over relatively long periods of time. In genomic selection, for example, a set of markers covering the entire genome is used to train a model based on known data, and the resulting model is used to predict the genetic merit of selection candidates. Sophisticated models are very computationally demanding and, with several traits to be evaluated sequentially, computing time is long, and output is low. In this paper, we present scenarios and basic principles of how HTC can be used in genomic selection, implemented using various techniques from simple batch processing to pipelining in distributed computer clusters. Various scripting languages, such as shell scripting, Perl, and R, are also very useful to devise pipelines. By pipelining, we can reduce total computing time and consequently increase throughput. In comparison to the traditional data processing pipeline residing on the central processors, performing general-purpose computation on a graphics processing unit provide a new-generation approach to massive parallel computing in genomic selection. While the concept of HTC may still be new to many researchers in animal breeding, plant breeding, and genetics, HTC infrastructures have already been built in many institutions, such as the University of Wisconsin–Madison, which can be leveraged for genomic selection, in terms of central processing unit capacity, network connectivity, storage availability, and middleware connectivity. Exploring existing HTC infrastructures as well as general-purpose computing environments will further expand our capability to meet increasing computing demands posed by unprecedented genomic data that we have today. We anticipate that HTC will impact genomic selection via better statistical models, faster solutions, and more competitive products (e.g., from design of marker panels to realized

  11. Peptide-Directed Highly Selective Targeting of Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urakami, Takeo; Järvinen, Tero A.H.; Toba, Michie; Sawada, Junko; Ambalavanan, Namasivayam; Mann, David; McMurtry, Ivan; Oka, Masahiko; Ruoslahti, Erkki; Komatsu, Masanobu

    2011-01-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a disorder of the pulmonary vasculature associated with elevated pulmonary vascular resistance. Despite recent advances in the treatment of PAH, with eight approved clinical therapies and additional therapies undergoing clinical trials, PAH remains a serious life-threatening condition. The lack of pulmonary vascular selectivity and associated systemic adverse effects of these therapies remain the main obstacles to successful treatment. Peptide-mediated drug delivery that specifically targets the vasculature of PAH lungs may offer a solution to the lack of drug selectivity. Herein, we show highly selective targeting of rat PAH lesions by a novel cyclic peptide, CARSKNKDC (CAR). Intravenous administration of CAR peptide resulted in intense accumulation of the peptide in monocrotaline-induced and SU5416/hypoxia-induced hypertensive lungs but not in healthy lungs or other organs of PAH rats. CAR homed to all layers of remodeled pulmonary arteries, ie, endothelium, neointima, medial smooth muscle, and adventitia, in the hypertensive lungs. CAR also homed to capillary vessels and accumulated in the interstitial space of the PAH lungs, manifesting its extravasation activity. These results demonstrated the remarkable ability of CAR to selectively target PAH lung vasculature and effectively penetrate and spread throughout the diseased lung tissue. These results suggest the clinical utility of CAR in the targeted delivery of therapeutic compounds and imaging probes to PAH lungs. PMID:21549345

  12. ON SELECTION OF CIRCUIT-BREAKERS SWITCHING ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS OF HIGH AND EXTRA-HIGH VOLTAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. M. Lazimov

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes some additional conditions for high-voltage circuit-breaker selection keeping in mind coordination of the switched over-voltages and voltages induced in secondary circuits with their permissible values.

  13. Transport of water vapor and inert gas mixtures through highly selective and highly permeable polymer membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Metz, S.J.; van de Ven, W.J.C.; Potreck, Jens; Mulder, M.H.V.; Wessling, Matthias

    2005-01-01

    This paper studies in detail the measurement of the permeation properties of highly permeable and highly selective polymers for water vapor/nitrogen gas mixtures. The analysis of the mass transport of a highly permeable polymer is complicated by the presence of stagnant boundary layers at feed and

  14. TITRIMETRIC AND SENSITIVE SPECTRO-PHOTOMETRIC METHODS FOR THE ASSAY OF QUETIAPINE FUMARATE IN PHARMACEUTICAL FORMULATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagaraju Rajendraprasad

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Quetiapine fumarate (QTF is a selective monoaminergic antagonist with high affinity for the serotonin Type 2 (5HT2, and dopamine type 2 (D2 receptors. Titrimetric and spectrophotometric assay of quetiapine fumarate (QTF using perchloric acid and acetic acid as reagents are described. The first method (method A is a non-aqueous titrimetric method and is based on the titration of QTF in glacial acetic acid with 0.01 M acetous perchloric acid using crystal violet as indicator. In the second method (method B, QTF has been measured in 0.1M acetic acid spectrophotometrically at a wavelength of 222 nm. The titri¬metric method was applicable over the range of 2.0–20.0 mg of QTF. The reac¬tion stoichiometry of 1:3 is obtained which served as the basis for calculation. In spectrophotometry, Beer’s law was obeyed over the concentration range of 1.25–15.0 µg mL-1. The linear regression equation of the calibration graph was A = 0.0115 + 0.0673c with a regression coefficient (r of 0.9986 (n = 7. The apparent molar absorptivity was calculated to be 4.25104 L mol-1cm-1 and the Sandell sensitivity was 0.0145 µg cm-2. The limits of detection (LOD and quantification (LOQ calculated as per the ICH guidelines were 0.07 and 0.21 µg mL-1, respectively. Accuracy and precision of the assays were determined by computing the intra-day and inter-day variations at three different levels of QTF. The intra-day and inter-day relative standard deviation (%RSD were in the range of 0.99–2.88 and 1.65–2.32%, for method A and B, respectively, with an acceptable percentage relative error (%RE < 2%. The methods were successfully applied to the determination of QTF in two different brands of tablets with good accuracy and precision and without detectable interference by excipients. The methods have demonstrated to be simple and easy to apply in routine usage and do not need any costly instrumentation. Therefore, the proposed procedures are advantageous and can be

  15. Material Selection and Characterization for High Gradient RF Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Arnau-Izquierdo, G; Heikkinen, S; Ramsvik, T; Sgobba, Stefano; Taborelli, M; Wuensch, W

    2007-01-01

    The selection of candidate materials for the accelerating cavities of the Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) is carried out in parallel with high power RF testing. The maximum DC breakdown field of copper, copper alloys, refractory metals, aluminium and titanium have been measured with a dedicated setup. Higher maximum fields are obtained for refractory metals and for titanium, which exhibits, however, important damages after conditioning. Fatigue behaviour of copper alloys has been studied for surface and bulk by pulsed laser irradiation and ultrasonic excitation, respectively. The selected copper alloys show consistently higher fatigue resistance than copper in both experiments. In order to obtain the best local properties in the device a possible solution is a bi-metallic assembly. Junctions of molybdenum and copper-zirconium UNS C15000 alloy, achieved by HIP (Hot Isostatic Pressing) diffusion bonding or explosion bonding were evaluated for their mechanical strength. The reliability of the results obtained wit...

  16. Spectrophotometric assay of catalase with perborate as substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomson, J.F.; Nance, S.L.; Tollaksen, S.L.

    1978-01-01

    A spectrophotometric assay for catalase has been developed in which sodium perborate, rather than hydrogen peroxide, is used as the substrate. The method is convenient, rapid, and readily adapted to the measurement of catalase in subcellular fractions.

  17. High Selectivity Wideband Bandpass Filter Using Stub Loaded Resonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xing-Bing; Jiang, Ting

    2017-07-01

    This article presents a high selectivity wideband bandpass filter (BPF) adopting stub loaded resonator. Hereinto, aim passband is determined by BPF without stub embedded, which is only composed of four half-wavelength open-loop resonators. Based on typical tapped-line coupling, two same stubs are located at physical middle points of two resonators connected with I/O feed lines, respectively. Due to embedded point at middle of loaded resonator, the stub with two open-end branches has no influence on original half-wavelength resonant frequency, and aim passband keeps unchanged. Because of different even-mode resonant frequencies between loaded and unloaded resonators, no new passband is constructed. With the help of embedded stubs, original transmission zero (TZ) near low-edge of aim passband is shifted towards passband, and a new TZ is introduced near high-edge. High selectivity and good passband characteristics are obtained optimizing sizes of stubs, I/O tapped position and top open-end length of loaded resonator.

  18. Guidelines for Microplate Selection in High Content Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trask, Oscar J

    2018-01-01

    Since the inception of commercialized automated high content screening (HCS) imaging devices in the mid to late 1990s, the adoption of media vessels typically used to house and contain biological specimens for interrogation has transitioned from microscope slides and petri dishes into multi-well microtiter plates called microplates. The early 96- and 384-well microplates commonly used in other high-throughput screening (HTS) technology applications were often not designed for optical imaging. Since then, modifications and the use of next-generation materials with improved optical clarity have enhanced the quality of captured images, reduced autofocusing failures, and empowered the use of higher power magnification objectives to resolve fine detailed measurements at the subcellular pixel level. The plethora of microplates and their applications requires practitioners of high content imaging (HCI) to be especially diligent in the selection and adoption of the best plates for running longitudinal studies or larger screening campaigns. While the highest priority in experimental design is the selection of the biological model, the choice of microplate can alter the biological response and ultimately may change the experimental outcome. This chapter will provide readers with background, troubleshooting guidelines, and considerations for choosing an appropriate microplate.

  19. Frequency selective surfaces based high performance microstrip antenna

    CERN Document Server

    Narayan, Shiv; Jha, Rakesh Mohan

    2016-01-01

    This book focuses on performance enhancement of printed antennas using frequency selective surfaces (FSS) technology. The growing demand of stealth technology in strategic areas requires high-performance low-RCS (radar cross section) antennas. Such requirements may be accomplished by incorporating FSS into the antenna structure either in its ground plane or as the superstrate, due to the filter characteristics of FSS structure. In view of this, a novel approach based on FSS technology is presented in this book to enhance the performance of printed antennas including out-of-band structural RCS reduction. In this endeavor, the EM design of microstrip patch antennas (MPA) loaded with FSS-based (i) high impedance surface (HIS) ground plane, and (ii) the superstrates are discussed in detail. The EM analysis of proposed FSS-based antenna structures have been carried out using transmission line analogy, in combination with the reciprocity theorem. Further, various types of novel FSS structures are considered in desi...

  20. Plans, Patterns, and Move Categories Guiding a Highly Selective Search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trippen, Gerhard

    In this paper we present our ideas for an Arimaa-playing program (also called a bot) that uses plans and pattern matching to guide a highly selective search. We restrict move generation to moves in certain move categories to reduce the number of moves considered by the bot significantly. Arimaa is a modern board game that can be played with a standard Chess set. However, the rules of the game are not at all like those of Chess. Furthermore, Arimaa was designed to be as simple and intuitive as possible for humans, yet challenging for computers. While all established Arimaa bots use alpha-beta search with a variety of pruning techniques and other heuristics ending in an extensive positional leaf node evaluation, our new bot, Rat, starts with a positional evaluation of the current position. Based on features found in the current position - supported by pattern matching using a directed position graph - our bot Rat decides which of a given set of plans to follow. The plan then dictates what types of moves can be chosen. This is another major difference from bots that generate "all" possible moves for a particular position. Rat is only allowed to generate moves that belong to certain categories. Leaf nodes are evaluated only by a straightforward material evaluation to help avoid moves that lose material. This highly selective search looks, on average, at only 5 moves out of 5,000 to over 40,000 possible moves in a middle game position.

  1. Selection of High Temperature Organic Materials for Future Stirling Convertors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Euy-Sik Eugene

    2017-01-01

    In the future higher temperature Stirling convertors for improved efficiency and performance, various high temperature organic materials have been demanded as essential components for their unique properties and functions such as bonding, potting, sealing, thread locking, insulation, and lubrication. The higher temperature capabilities would also allow current state-of-the-art (SOA) convertors to be used in additional missions, particularly those that require a Venus flyby for a gravity assist. Stirling convertor radioisotope generators have been developed for potential future space applications including Lunar/Mars surface power or a variety of spacecraft and vehicles, especially with a long mission cycle, sometimes up to 17 years, such as deep space exploration. Thus, performance, durability, and reliability of the organics should be critically evaluated in terms of comprehensive structure-process-service environment relations based on the potential mission specifications. The initial efforts in screening the high temperature candidates focused on the most susceptible organics, such as adhesive, potting compound, o-ring, shrink tubing, and thread locker materials in conjunction with commercially available materials. More systematic and practical test methodologies that were developed and optimized based on the extensive organic evaluations and validations performed for various Stirling convertor types were employed to determine thermal stability, outgassing, and material compatibility of the selected organic candidates against their functional requirements. Processing and fabrication conditions and procedures were also optimized. This paper presents results of the three-step candidate evaluation processes, their application limitations, and the final selection recommendations.

  2. Spectrophotometric Determination of Malondialdehyde in Urine Suitable for Epidemiological Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tin Weitner

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A reliable method for spectrophotometric determination of urinary malondialdehyde (MDA, according to the thiobarbituric acid (TBA assay, is described. To account for matrix interference and differences in individual urine composition, standard addition procedure was applied. The method is adequately selective (LoQ = 0.09 μM in the presence of 0.1 M creatinine and 0.5 M urea and reliable (within-day and between-day variability of less than 5 %. The mean level of urinary MDA was 1.52 ± 0.73 µM that is in good agreement with spectrofluorometric determination (1.20 ± 0.56 μM; p = 0.085 as well as with previous studies that used HPLC. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that MDA is stabile in urine at room temperature for 24 h and when stored at –20 °C for 6 months. The described method enables simple, rapid and cost-effective determination of urinary MDA as a relevant and non-invasive marker of “whole-body” oxidative stress. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

  3. Spectrophotometric Determination of Selenium Through Triiodide Anion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizerea-Spiridon, Otilia; Nartita, Radu; Rogobete, Alexandru F; Negrea, Adina; Stroescu, Ramona; Bizerea, Teofana O; Ilie, Constantin; Marginean, Otilia

    2017-05-01

    Selenium is a chemical element found in the human body that plays a crucial role in its regulation. Depending on the concentration, it may have beneficial or have toxic effects. Selenium is incorporated as selenocysteine amino acid residue in selenoproteins which play an important role in many biological functions: anti-oxidant defense, regulation of the immune function and of the inflammatory response, metabolism of thyroid hormones, functioning of the central nervous system, biosynthesis of DNA and RNA, fertility, and reproduction. Excess selenium, altough less common than selenium deficiency, has equally important negative effects. Given the importance of selenium quantification in various samples, the study proposes a simple and direct spectrophotometric determination of selenium using triiodide anions. The method is based on the oxidation of iodide in acidic medium by selenium (IV) contained in the sample, to form elemental iodine which, in turn, reacts with the excess iodide to form the triiodide anions, the most stable soluble species in aqueous solution. Triiodide is colored from yellow to brown, depending on the concentration. The coloured compound has maximum absorbance at specific wavelengths and thus, the stage of interaction with a chromogenic agent is eliminated. Due to the sensitivity of the reaction, the detection limit of triiodide, and therefore selenium, is extended toward lower values. The optimal conditions for the measurements were established: λ = 290 nm, pH = 1.0 - 1.5, reaction time = 15 minutes. Two areas of selenium detection were determined from the samples: 0.025 - 0.100 ppm, and 0.1 - 4.0 ppm. The detection limit of selenium was lowered at 0.100 ppm and even at 0.025 ppm, which significantly improves the sensitivity of the determination. Types of samples were specified which are suitable for analysis using the proposed method and explained why, in case of biological fluids, it must be used only accompanied by an adequate digestion

  4. Enzyme assays: high-throughput screening, genetic selection, and fingerprinting

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Reymond, Jean-Louis

    2006-01-01

    ... (Testing Many Substrates Toward Hydrolase) Comparison with Other Methods 26 Estimating and Measuring Selectivity 27 Estimating Selectivity without a Reference Compound 28 Quantitative Measure of Se...

  5. Ultraviolet spectrophotometric determination of tantalum with pyrogallol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinnin, J.I.

    1953-01-01

    In a search for a more rapid method for the determination of tantalum in rocks and minerals, an intensive study was made of the tantalum-pyrogallol reaction recommended by Platanov and Krivoshlikov, and a better modified spectrophotometric procedure is given. The improved method consists in measuring the absorbancy of the tantalum-pyrogallol complex at 325 m?? in 4N hydrochloric acid and a fixed concentration (0.0175M) of ammonium oxalate. Beer's law is followed for the concentration range up to 40 ?? per ml. Sensitivity in terms of molar absorbancy index is 4775. Most interferences are additive in character and readily correctable. Separations or major corrections are required in the presence of significant amounts of molybdenum, tungsten, antimony, and uranium. The method has been successfully applied to three ores previously analyzed by gravimetric techniques. The method affords greater speed, sensitivity, and reproducibility in the determination of tantalum in rocks and minerals. A more reliable technique for preparing standard solutions of tantalum has been developed.

  6. Spectrophotometric Estimation of Sulfadoxine in Pharmaceutical Preparations

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    Sangita Sharma

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Four simple, sensitive, accurate and rapid visible spectrophotometric methods (A, B, C and D have been developed for the estimation of sulfadoxine in pharmaceutical preparations. They are based on the diazotization of sulfadoxine with sodium nitrite and hydrochloric acid followed by coupling with N-(1-naphthyl ethylenediamine dihydrochloride (Method A to form pink coloured chromogen, diphenylamine (Method B to form light pink coloured chromogen, chromotropic acid (in alkaline medium (Method C to form orange coloured chromogen, Resorcinol (in alkaline medium (Method D to form light orange coloured chromogen and exhibiting absorption maxima (λmax at 536 nm, 524 nm, 520 nm and 496 nm respectively. The coloured chromogens formed are stable for more than 2 h. Beer’s law was obeyed in the concentration range of 1.0 - 5.0 μg/mL in Method A , 5.0 - 25.0 μg/mL in Method B, 5.0 - 25.0 μg/mL in Method C and 4.0 - 8.0 μg/mL in Method D respectively. The results of the three analysis have been validated statistically and by recovery studies. The results obtained in the proposed methods are in good agreements with labeled amounts, when marketed pharmaceutical preparations are analyzed.

  7. A Simple Spectrophotometric Method for the Determination of Copper in Some Real, Environmental, Biological, Food and Soil Samples Using Salicylaldehyde Benzoyl Hydrazone

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    M. Jamaluddin Ahmed

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A very simple, ultra-sensitive, highly selective and non-extractive spectrophotometric method for the determination of trace amounts copper(II has been developed. Salicylaldehy debenzoyl hydrazone (SAL-BH has been proposed as a new analytical reagent for the direct non-extractive spectrophotometric determination of copper(II. SAL-BH reacts with copper in a slightly acidic (0.0001-0.005 M H2SO4 in 40% 1,4-dioxane media with copper(II to give a highly absorbent greenish yellow chelate with a molar ratio 1:1(CuII: SAL-BH The reaction is instantaneous and the maximum absorption was obtained at 404 nm and remains stable for 72 h. The average molar absorptivity and Sandell’s sensitivity were found to be 1.4×105 L mol-1 cm-1 and 5.0 ng cm-2 of copper(II, respectively. Linear calibration graphs were obtained for 0.01 – 18 mg L-1 of CuII. The detection limit and quantification limit of the reaction system were found to be 1 ng mL-1 and 10 µg L-1, respectively. A large excess of over 50 cations, anions and complexing agents (e.g., tartrate, oxalate, citrate, phosphate, thiocyanate etc. do not interfere in the determination. The method is highly selective for copper and was successfully used for the determination of copper in several standard reference materials (steels and alloys as well as in some environmental waters (portable and polluted, biological (human blood and urine, food and soil samples and solutions containing both copper(I and copper(II as well as some complex synthetic mixtures. The results of the proposed method for biological and food samples were comparable with AAS and were found to be in good agreement. The method has high precision and accuracy (s = ± 0.01 for 0.5 mg L-1.

  8. Spectrophotometric method for quantitative determination of triclabendazole in bulk and pharmaceutical

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    Alankar Shrivastava

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Triclabendazole (TCBZ, 6-chloro-5(2-3 dichlorophenoxy-2-methyl thio-benzimidazole, an halogenated benzimidazole (BZD thiol derivative, shows high efficacy against both the immature and mature stages of Fasciola hepatica in sheep and cattle, which is a differential feature compared to other available trematodicidal drugs. As a consequence of its excellent activity against the liver fluke, it has been extensively used and this has inevitably promoted the selection of TCBZ-resistant populations, which is now a worrying problem in several areas of the world. We propose simple ultraviolet spectrophotometric method for the estimation of triclabendazole in 0.1 methanolic HCl for the estimation of the drug. Method was validated as per ICH guidelines. Materials and Methods: Spectral absorbance measurements were made on Shimadzu UV-1800 with 10 mm matched quartz cells and dilutions were made in 0.1 M methanolic HCl. Results: The LOD and LOQ of triclabendazole at 305 nm were found to be 0.068434 and 2.73×10-4 μg/ml respectively. The calibration was linear in the range of 1-10 μg/ml. Analytical parameters such as stability, selectivity, accuracy, and precision have been established for the method in Endex and Fasinex tablets and evaluated statistically to assess the application of the method. Conclusion: Method passes all parameters with in desirable limits and found to be simple, stable, sensitive, reproducible, and accurate for the routine analysis of the drug in pharmaceutical formulations and in pharmaceutical investigations involving triclabendazole.

  9. Simple Sensitive Spectrophotometric Determination of Vanadium in Biological and Environmental Samples

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    B. Krishna Priya

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Novel, rapid, highly sensitive and selective spectrophotometric method for the determination of traces of vanadium (V in environmental and biological samples, pharmaceutical and steel samples was studied. The method is based on oxidation of 2,4- dinitro phenyl hydrazine(2,4-DNPH by vanadium (V followed by coupling reaction with N-(1-naphthalene-1-ylethane-1,2-diamine-dihydrochloride (NEDA in acidic medium to give red colored derivative or on oxidation of 4-Amino Pyridine by vanadium (V followed by coupling reaction with NEDA in basic medium to give pink colored derivative. The red colored derivative having an λmax 495 nm which is stable for 8 days and the pink colored derivative with 525 nm is stable for more than 7 days at 350C. Beer's law is obeyed for vanadium (V in the concentration range of 0.02 - 3.5 μg mL–1 (red derivative and 0.03 – 4.5 μg mL–1 (pink derivative at the wave length of maximum absorption. The optimum reaction conditions and other analytical parameters were investigated to enhance the sensitivity of the present method. The detailed study of various interferences made the method more selective. The proposed method was successfully applied to the analysis of vanadium in natural water samples, plant material, soil samples, synthetic mixtures, pharmaceutical samples and biological samples. The results obtained were agreed with the reported methods at the 95 % confidence level. The performance of proposed method was evaluated in terms of Student's t-test and Variance ratio f-test which indicates the significance of proposed method over reported method.

  10. Development of a Low Cost, Compact, Spectrophotometric pH Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaulding, R. S.; Darlington, R. C.; Beck, J. C.; DeGrandpre, M. D.

    2016-02-01

    Understanding the ecological impacts of oceanic CO2 uptake in the post-industrial world requires high spatial and temporal resolution measurements of inorganic carbon. Most researchers aim for measuring two of the four inorganic carbon parameters (partial pressure of CO2, total alkalinity, total dissolve inorganic carbon, and pH), in order to fully characterize the carbonate system. While this is desirable in many circumstances, in some cases it may be possible to fully characterize the system using pH and salinity, or even to use pH alone as a proxy to the health of calcifying marine organisms. The development of relatively inexpensive spectrophotometric pH sensors compatible with Lagrangian drifters would greatly improve the ability of researchers to characterize the changing oceanic carbonate system. We have designed and tested a novel, miniaturized, submersible, autonomous opto-fluidic device that can be manufactured at a relatively low cost. The flexible design can be deployed independent of or in tandem with GDP style drifters and will enable spectrophotometric pH technology on a host of drifting platforms and buoys. This device uses a dual wavelength light emitting diode (LED) light source, low volume mixer, and an optical flow-cell mounted to the electronic controller board. Laboratory testing shows that this device measures pH with similar accuracy and precision to other spectrophotometric methods such as the SAMI-pH.

  11. OPTIMIZING CONDITIONS FOR SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC DETERMINATION OF TOTAL POLYPHENOLS IN WINES USING FOLIN-CIOCALTEU REAGENT

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    Daniel Bajčan

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Wine is a complex beverage that obtains its properties mainly due to synergistic effect of alcohol, organic acids, arbohydrates, as well as the phenolic and aromatic substances. At present days, we can observe an increased interest in the study of polyphenols in wines that have antioxidant, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer and many other beneficial effects. Moderate and regular consumption of the red wine especially, with a high content of phenolic compounds, has a beneficial effect on human health. The aim of this work was to optimize conditions for spectrophotometric determination of total polyphenols in winwas to optimize conditions for spectrophotometric determination of total polyphenols in winwas to optimize conditions for spectrophotometric determination of total polyphenols in winwas to optimize conditions for pectrophotometric determination of total polyphenols in wine using Folin-Ciocaulteu reagent. Based on several studies, in order to minimize chemical use and optimize analysis time, we have proposed a method for the determination of total polyphenols using 0.25 ml Folin-Ciocaulteu reagent, 3 ml of 20% Na2CO3 solution and time of coloring complex 1.5 hour. We f

  12. Novel antimicrobial peptides with high anticancer activity and selectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Hung-Lun; Yip, Bak-Sau; Chen, Kuan-Hao; Yu, Hui-Yuan; Chih, Ya-Han; Cheng, Hsi-Tsung; Chou, Yu-Ting; Cheng, Jya-Wei

    2015-01-01

    We describe a strategy to boost anticancer activity and reduce normal cell toxicity of short antimicrobial peptides by adding positive charge amino acids and non-nature bulky amino acid β-naphthylalanine residues to their termini. Among the designed peptides, K4R2-Nal2-S1 displayed better salt resistance and less toxicity to hRBCs and human fibroblast than Nal2-S1 and K6-Nal2-S1. Fluorescence microscopic studies indicated that the FITC-labeled K4R2-Nal2-S1 preferentially binds cancer cells and causes apoptotic cell death. Moreover, a significant inhibition in human lung tumor growth was observed in the xenograft mice treated with K4R2-Nal2-S1. Our strategy provides new opportunities in the development of highly effective and selective antimicrobial and anticancer peptide-based therapeutics.

  13. Novel antimicrobial peptides with high anticancer activity and selectivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hung-Lun Chu

    Full Text Available We describe a strategy to boost anticancer activity and reduce normal cell toxicity of short antimicrobial peptides by adding positive charge amino acids and non-nature bulky amino acid β-naphthylalanine residues to their termini. Among the designed peptides, K4R2-Nal2-S1 displayed better salt resistance and less toxicity to hRBCs and human fibroblast than Nal2-S1 and K6-Nal2-S1. Fluorescence microscopic studies indicated that the FITC-labeled K4R2-Nal2-S1 preferentially binds cancer cells and causes apoptotic cell death. Moreover, a significant inhibition in human lung tumor growth was observed in the xenograft mice treated with K4R2-Nal2-S1. Our strategy provides new opportunities in the development of highly effective and selective antimicrobial and anticancer peptide-based therapeutics.

  14. Highly oxidized peroxisomes are selectively degraded via autophagy in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Michitaro; Oikawa, Kazusato; Yoshimoto, Kohki; Kondo, Maki; Mano, Shoji; Yamada, Kenji; Hayashi, Makoto; Sakamoto, Wataru; Ohsumi, Yoshinori; Nishimura, Mikio

    2013-12-01

    The positioning of peroxisomes in a cell is a regulated process that is closely associated with their functions. Using this feature of the peroxisomal positioning as a criterion, we identified three Arabidopsis thaliana mutants (peroxisome unusual positioning1 [peup1], peup2, and peup4) that contain aggregated peroxisomes. We found that the PEUP1, PEUP2, and PEUP4 were identical to Autophagy-related2 (ATG2), ATG18a, and ATG7, respectively, which are involved in the autophagic system. The number of peroxisomes was increased and the peroxisomal proteins were highly accumulated in the peup1 mutant, suggesting that peroxisome degradation by autophagy (pexophagy) is deficient in the peup1 mutant. These aggregated peroxisomes contained high levels of inactive catalase and were more oxidative than those of the wild type, indicating that peroxisome aggregates comprise damaged peroxisomes. In addition, peroxisome aggregation was induced in wild-type plants by exogenous application of hydrogen peroxide. The cat2 mutant also contained peroxisome aggregates. These findings demonstrate that hydrogen peroxide as a result of catalase inactivation is the inducer of peroxisome aggregation. Furthermore, an autophagosome marker, ATG8, frequently colocalized with peroxisome aggregates, indicating that peroxisomes damaged by hydrogen peroxide are selectively degraded by autophagy in the wild type. Our data provide evidence that autophagy is crucial for quality control mechanisms for peroxisomes in Arabidopsis.

  15. High throughput selection of effective serodiagnostics for Trypanosoma cruzi infection.

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    Gretchen Cooley

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Diagnosis of Trypanosoma cruzi infection by direct pathogen detection is complicated by the low parasite burden in subjects persistently infected with this agent of human Chagas disease. Determination of infection status by serological analysis has also been faulty, largely due to the lack of well-characterized parasite reagents for the detection of anti-parasite antibodies.In this study, we screened more than 400 recombinant proteins of T. cruzi, including randomly selected and those known to be highly expressed in the parasite stages present in mammalian hosts, for the ability to detect anti-parasite antibodies in the sera of subjects with confirmed or suspected T. cruzi infection.A set of 16 protein groups were identified and incorporated into a multiplex bead array format which detected 100% of >100 confirmed positive sera and also documented consistent, strong and broad responses in samples undetected or discordant using conventional serologic tests. Each serum had a distinct but highly stable reaction pattern. This diagnostic panel was also useful for monitoring drug treatment efficacy in chronic Chagas disease.These results substantially extend the variety and quality of diagnostic targets for Chagas disease and offer a useful tool for determining treatment success or failure.

  16. Spectrophotometric Determination of Ceftibuten in Bulk and in Pharmaceutical Formulations

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    R. Vijayalakshmi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple and cost effective spectrophotometric method is described for the determination of ceftibuten in pure form and in pharmaceutical formulations. The method is based on the formation of blue colored chromogen, when the drug reacts with Folin-Ciocalteu (F-C reagent in alkaline medium. The colored species has an absorption maximum at 798 nm and obeys Beer’s law in the concentration range 10-50 mcg/mL. The apparent molar absorptivity and sandell’s sensitivity were 0.4583x104 and 0.3x104 respectively. The slope and intercept of the equation of the regression line are 4.5x10-3 and 1.3x10-5 respectively. The optimum experimental parameters for the reaction have been studied and the validity of the described procedure was assessed. Statistical analysis of the results has been carried out revealing high accuracy and good precision. The proposed method was successfully applied for the determination of ceftibuten in pharmaceutical formulations.

  17. Spectrophotometric Determination of Phenolic Antioxidants in the Presence of Thiols and Proteins

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    Aslı Neslihan Avan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Development of easy, practical, and low-cost spectrophotometric methods is required for the selective determination of phenolic antioxidants in the presence of other similar substances. As electron transfer (ET-based total antioxidant capacity (TAC assays generally measure the reducing ability of antioxidant compounds, thiols and phenols cannot be differentiated since they are both responsive to the probe reagent. In this study, three of the most common TAC determination methods, namely cupric ion reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC, 2,2′-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid diammonium salt/trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (ABTS/TEAC, and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP, were tested for the assay of phenolics in the presence of selected thiol and protein compounds. Although the FRAP method is almost non-responsive to thiol compounds individually, surprising overoxidations with large positive deviations from additivity were observed when using this method for (phenols + thiols mixtures. Among the tested TAC methods, CUPRAC gave the most additive results for all studied (phenol + thiol and (phenol + protein mixtures with minimal relative error. As ABTS/TEAC and FRAP methods gave small and large deviations, respectively, from additivity of absorbances arising from these components in mixtures, mercury(II compounds were added to stabilize the thiol components in the form of Hg(II-thiol complexes so as to enable selective spectrophotometric determination of phenolic components. This error compensation was most efficient for the FRAP method in testing (thiols + phenols mixtures.

  18. Spectrophotometric Determination of Phenolic Antioxidants in the Presence of Thiols and Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avan, Aslı Neslihan; Demirci Çekiç, Sema; Uzunboy, Seda; Apak, Reşat

    2016-08-12

    Development of easy, practical, and low-cost spectrophotometric methods is required for the selective determination of phenolic antioxidants in the presence of other similar substances. As electron transfer (ET)-based total antioxidant capacity (TAC) assays generally measure the reducing ability of antioxidant compounds, thiols and phenols cannot be differentiated since they are both responsive to the probe reagent. In this study, three of the most common TAC determination methods, namely cupric ion reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC), 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt/trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (ABTS/TEAC), and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), were tested for the assay of phenolics in the presence of selected thiol and protein compounds. Although the FRAP method is almost non-responsive to thiol compounds individually, surprising overoxidations with large positive deviations from additivity were observed when using this method for (phenols + thiols) mixtures. Among the tested TAC methods, CUPRAC gave the most additive results for all studied (phenol + thiol) and (phenol + protein) mixtures with minimal relative error. As ABTS/TEAC and FRAP methods gave small and large deviations, respectively, from additivity of absorbances arising from these components in mixtures, mercury(II) compounds were added to stabilize the thiol components in the form of Hg(II)-thiol complexes so as to enable selective spectrophotometric determination of phenolic components. This error compensation was most efficient for the FRAP method in testing (thiols + phenols) mixtures.

  19. Spectrophotometric Methods for Simultaneous Determination of Oxytetracycline HCl and Flunixin Meglumine in Their Veterinary Pharmaceutical Formulation

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    Hanan A. Merey

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Four precise, accurate, selective, and sensitive UV-spectrophotometric methods were developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of a binary mixture of Oxytetracycline HCl (OXY and Flunixin Meglumine (FLU. The first method, dual wavelength (DW, depends on measuring the difference in absorbance (ΔA 273.4–327 nm for the determination of OXY where FLU is zero while FLU is determined at ΔA 251.7–275.7 nm. The second method, first-derivative spectrophotometric method (1D, depends on measuring the peak amplitude of the first derivative selectively at 377 and 266.7 nm for the determination of OXY and FLU, respectively. The third method, ratio difference method, depends on the difference in amplitudes of the ratio spectra at ΔP 286.5–324.8 nm and ΔP 249.6–286.3 nm for the determination of OXY and FLU, respectively. The fourth method, first derivative of ratio spectra method (1DD, depends on measuring the amplitude peak to peak of the first derivative of ratio spectra at 296.7 to 369 nm and 259.1 to 304.7 nm for the determination of OXY and FLU, respectively. Different factors affecting the applied spectrophotometric methods were studied. The proposed methods were validated according to ICH guidelines. Satisfactory results were obtained for determination of both drugs in laboratory prepared mixture and pharmaceutical dosage form. The developed methods are compared favourably with the official ones.

  20. Spectrophotometric Methods for Simultaneous Determination of Oxytetracycline HCl and Flunixin Meglumine in Their Veterinary Pharmaceutical Formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merey, Hanan A; Abd-Elmonem, Mahmmoud S; Nazlawy, Hagar N; Zaazaa, Hala E

    2017-01-01

    Four precise, accurate, selective, and sensitive UV-spectrophotometric methods were developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of a binary mixture of Oxytetracycline HCl (OXY) and Flunixin Meglumine (FLU). The first method, dual wavelength (DW), depends on measuring the difference in absorbance (ΔA 273.4-327 nm) for the determination of OXY where FLU is zero while FLU is determined at ΔA 251.7-275.7 nm. The second method, first-derivative spectrophotometric method (1D), depends on measuring the peak amplitude of the first derivative selectively at 377 and 266.7 nm for the determination of OXY and FLU, respectively. The third method, ratio difference method, depends on the difference in amplitudes of the ratio spectra at ΔP 286.5-324.8 nm and ΔP 249.6-286.3 nm for the determination of OXY and FLU, respectively. The fourth method, first derivative of ratio spectra method (1DD), depends on measuring the amplitude peak to peak of the first derivative of ratio spectra at 296.7 to 369 nm and 259.1 to 304.7 nm for the determination of OXY and FLU, respectively. Different factors affecting the applied spectrophotometric methods were studied. The proposed methods were validated according to ICH guidelines. Satisfactory results were obtained for determination of both drugs in laboratory prepared mixture and pharmaceutical dosage form. The developed methods are compared favourably with the official ones.

  1. Determinação espectrofotométrica de alumínio em concentrados salinos utilizados em hemodiálise empregando pré-concentração em fluxo Spectrophotometric aluminium determination in high salts concentrations solution used in hemodyalisis emploing preconcentration in flow injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria do Socorro Silva Pereira

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available An automatic flow injection procedure for spectrophotometric aluminium determination in purified water and solutions containing high salts concentrations used for hemodyalisis treatment was developed. The method was base on reaction of Al3+ with cianine eriochrome R (ECR after preconcentration using the AG50W-X8 cationic-exchange resin. Elution was carried out using a 1 % (m/v calcium chloride solution. The manifold comprised an automatic proporcional injector controlled by a computer equipped with an eletronic interface and software written in QuicBASIC 4.5 with facilities to control the injector and perform data acquisition. Samples with concentration ranging from 4.96 to 19.90 µg L-1 Al were analyzed and recoveries between 88 and 113% were obtained by using the standard addition method. Other profitable analytical characteristics such as a relative standard deviation 1.3 % (n = 10 for a typical sample 14.5 µg L-1 Al, a linear response ranging up to 60.0 µg L-1Al, and a sampling throughput of 10 determinations per hour were achieved. A detection limit of 4.2 µg L-1 Al was estimated as suggested by IUPAC.

  2. First derivative spectrophotometric determination of granisetron hydrochloride in presence of its hydrolytic products and preservative and application to pharmaceutical preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewala, Ismail I; Bedair, Mona M; Shousha, Sherif M

    2013-04-01

    Granisetron is a selective 5-HT3 receptor antagonist used in prevention and treatment of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting. The drug is available in tablet dosage form and parenteral dosage form containing benzyl alcohol as a preservative. The main route of degradation of granisetron is through hydrolysis. The present work describes the development of a simple, rapid, and reliable first derivative spectrophotometric method for the determination of granisetron in presence of its hydrolytic products as well as the formulations adjuvant and benzyl alcohol. The method is based on the measurement of the first derivative response of granisetron at 290 nm where the interference of the hydrolytic products, the co-formulated adjuvant and benzyl alcohol is completely eliminated. The proposed method was validated with respect to specificity, linearity, selectivity, accuracy, precision, robustness, detection, and quantification limits. Regression analysis showed good correlation between the first derivative response and the concentration of granisetron over a range of 8-16 μg ml(-1) . Statistical analysis proved the accuracy of the proposed method compared with a reference stability indicating high performance liquid chromatography method. The described method was successfully applied to the determination of granisetron in different batches of tablets and ampoules. The assay results obtained in this study strongly encourage us to apply the validated method for the quality control and routine analysis of tablets and parenteral preparations containing granisetron. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Determination of Thiocyanate by Kinetic Spectrophotometric Flow Injection Analysis

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    Mohsen Keyvanfard

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple and rapid flow injection spectrophotometric method has been developed for the determination of amount of thiocyanate in wastewaters and well water samples. It is based on the reaction of thiocyanate in hydrochloric acid with janus green and bromate. Reaction was monitored spectrophotometrically by measuring janus green absorbance at λmax=554 nm. The calibration graph was linear over the range 0.02–1.0 μg mL−1 and the detection limit was 0.016 μg mL−1 (s/n=3. The throughput was 25 samples per hour.

  4. Determination of loratadine in pharmaceuticals by a spectrophotometric method

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    Pavalache Georgeta

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The spectrophotometric method for determination of loratadine using tetraiodomercurate has been applied in various pharmaceutical formulations. The results confirmed that recovery value is optimum and the method is valid, thus it can be used in quality control and evaluation of loratadine tablets, oral formulations of mixed composition, oral solutions, etc. The method is easy and simple to apply, does not require complicated equipment and spectrophotometric reading time is reduced, which allows a large number of analyzes in a relatively short time.

  5. Highly selective enrichment of phosphorylated peptides using titanium dioxide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thingholm, Tine; Jørgensen, Thomas J D; Jensen, Ole N

    2006-01-01

    a protocol for selective phosphopeptide enrichment using titanium dioxide (TiO2) chromatography. The selectivity toward phosphopeptides is obtained by loading the sample in a 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHB) or phthalic acid solution containing acetonitrile and trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) onto a TiO2 micro...

  6. Determination of Trace Amounts of Lead Using the Flotation-spectrophotometric method

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    Sabah Shiri

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study describes a simple and highly selective method for separation, preconcentration and spectrophotometric determination of extremely low concentrations of lead. It is based on flotation of a complex of Pb 2+ ions and Alizarin yellow between aqueous and n -hexane interface at pH = 6. The proposed procedure is also applied for determination of lead in both tap water and prepared sea water samples. Beer's Law was obeyed over the concentration range of 3.86 × 10 -8 To 8.20 × 10 -7 molL -1 (8-170 ngmL -1 with an apparent molar absorptivity of 1.33 × 10 6 molL -1 cm -1 for a 100 mL aliquot of the water sample. The detection limit (n = 10 was 8.7 × 10 -9 molL -1 (1.0 ngmL -1 and the Relative standard deviation (R.S.D, (n = 10 for 7.2 × 10 -7 molL -1 (150 ngmL -1 of Pb (II was 4.36%. A notable advantage of the method is that the determination of Pb (II is free from the interference of almost all cations and ions found in the environment and waste water samples. The determination of Pb (II in tap and synthetic seawater samples was also carried out by the present method. The results were satisfactorily comparable so that the applicability of the proposed method was confirmed to the real samples.

  7. Determination of Trace Amounts of Lead Using the Flotation-spectrophotometric method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabah Shiri

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study describes a simple and highly selective method for separation, preconcentration and spectrophotometric determination of extremely low concentrations of lead. It is based on flotation of a complex of Pb 2+ ions and Alizarin yellow between aqueous and n -hexane interface at pH = 6. The proposed procedure is also applied for determination of lead in both tap water and prepared sea water samples. Beer's Law was obeyed over the concentration range of 3.86 × 10 −8 To 8.20 × 10 −7 molL −1 (8-170 ngmL −1 with an apparent molar absorptivity of 1.33 × 10 6 molL −1 cm −1 for a 100 mL aliquot of the water sample. The detection limit (n = 10 was 8.7 × 10 −9 molL −1 (1.0 ngmL −1 and the Relative standard deviation (R.S.D, (n = 10 for 7.2 × 10 −7 molL −1 (150 ngmL −1 of Pb (II was 4.36%. A notable advantage of the method is that the determination of Pb (II is free from the interference of almost all cations and ions found in the environment and waste water samples. The determination of Pb (II in tap and synthetic seawater samples was also carried out by the present method. The results were satisfactorily comparable so that the applicability of the proposed method was confirmed to the real samples.

  8. Highly sensitive and selective colorimetric sensing of antibiotics in milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaofang; Zhang, Yang; Zhao, Hong; He, Yujian; Li, Xiangjun; Yuan, Zhuobin

    2013-05-17

    Antibiotics residues in foods are very harmful to human beings. Determination of antibiotics residues relies largely on the availability of adequate analytical techniques. Currently, there is an urgent need for on site and real time detection of antibiotics in food. In this work, a novel one step synthesis of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) was proposed using pyrocatechol violet (PCV) as a reducer agent. Highly sensitive and selective colorimetric detection of four antibiotics kanamycin mono sulfate (KA), neomycin sulfate (NE), streptomycin sulfate (ST) and bleomycin sulfate (BL) was realized during the formation of AuNPs. PCV has -OH groups and these antibiotics have -OH, -NH2, -NH- groups, so there may be some special hydrogen-bonding interactions between PCV and these antibiotics. Therefore, the presence of KA, NE, ST and BL would influence the synthesis of AuNPs, then the color and state of AuNPs would change, which could be observed with the naked eye or a UV-vis spectrophotometer. Results showed that A670 was linear with the logarithm of KA concentration in the range from 1.0×10(-8) to 5.0×10(-7)M and 5.0×10(-7) to 5.5×10(-5)M. The detection limit of KA was 1.0×10(-9)M (S/N=3). The coexisting substances including 1.0×10(-5)M phenylalanine, alanine, glycerol, glucose, Mg(2+), Ca(2+), Na(+), K(+), CO3(2-), SO4(2-), NO3(-), Cl(-) and Br(-) did not affect the determination of 1.0×10(-7)M antibiotics. In particular, the proposed method could be applied successfully to the detection of antibiotics in the pretreated liquid milk products. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Comparative study of novel versus conventional two-wavelength spectrophotometric methods for analysis of spectrally overlapping binary mixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotfy, Hayam M.; Hegazy, Maha A.; Rezk, Mamdouh R.; Omran, Yasmin Rostom

    2015-09-01

    Smart spectrophotometric methods have been applied and validated for the simultaneous determination of a binary mixture of chloramphenicol (CPL) and prednisolone acetate (PA) without preliminary separation. Two novel methods have been developed; the first method depends upon advanced absorbance subtraction (AAS), while the other method relies on advanced amplitude modulation (AAM); in addition to the well established dual wavelength (DW), ratio difference (RD) and constant center coupled with spectrum subtraction (CC-SS) methods. Accuracy, precision and linearity ranges of these methods were determined. Moreover, selectivity was assessed by analyzing synthetic mixtures of both drugs. The proposed methods were successfully applied to the assay of drugs in their pharmaceutical formulations. No interference was observed from common additives and the validity of the methods was tested. The obtained results have been statistically compared to that of official spectrophotometric methods to give a conclusion that there is no significant difference between the proposed methods and the official ones with respect to accuracy and precision.

  10. New simple spectrophotometric assay of total carotenes in margarines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luterotti, S.; Bicanic, D.D.; Pozgaj, R.

    2006-01-01

    Direct and reliable spectrophotometric method for assaying total carotenes (TC) in margarines with the minimum of sample manipulation is proposed. For the first time saponification step used in determination of carotenes in margarines was omitted leading to a substantial cost saving and reduction of

  11. Development of a Visible Spectrophotometric Method for the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To develop and validate a simple visible spectrophotometric method for the quantitative determination of ganciclovir in bulk sample and dosage form. Method: The method was based on the diazo coupling reaction between diazotized ganciclovir and acidified p-dimethylaminobenzaldehyde. Various analytical ...

  12. Spectrophotometric and theoretical studies on the determination of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To develop a simple and cost effective spectrophotometric method for the determination of etilefrine hydrochloride (ET) in pharmaceutical formulations and human plasma. Methods: The method is based on extraction of ET into chloroform as ion-pair complexes with bromocresol green (BCG) and methyl orange ...

  13. Spectrophotometric Titration of a Mixture of Calcium and Magnesium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulton, Robert; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Describes a spectrophotometric titration experiment which uses a manual titration spectrophotometer and manually operated buret, rather than special instrumentation. Identifies the equipment, materials, and procedures needed for the completion of the experiment. Recommends the use of this experiment in introductory quantitative analysis…

  14. NEW SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC METHOD WITH KMnO 4 FOR ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The new method, an instrument-based and simple experimental procedure involves the reaction of the hypochlorite with arsenious oxide (As2O3) (pH 6.5) followed by the coupled reaction of residual As2O3 with permanganate at acidic pH. A titration procedure is described and spectrophotometric method is designed using ...

  15. A sensitive spectrophotometric determination of nitrogen dioxide in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the present investigation, a simple and sensitive spectrophotometric method for the determination of nitrogen dioxide in various environmental samples is described. Nitrogen dioxide in air was fixed as nitrite ion in alkaline sodium arsenite absorbing solution. The nitrite formed was diazotized with paminoacetophenone in ...

  16. Eliminating amino acid interference during spectrophotometric NH4+ analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ros, G.H.; Leeuwen, van A.G.; Temminghoff, E.J.M.

    2011-01-01

    Amino acids can interfere with NH4+ in spectrophotometric NH4+ determination hampering accurate quantification of the fate of NH4+ and dissolved organic N in soils. Serious interference has been reported for soils rich in organic matter, and for soils that have been fumigated, oven-dried or

  17. Spectrophotometric determination of procainamide by the method of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Spectrophotometric method of analysis of procainamide in its pharmaceutical dosage form by charge-transfer complexation using chloranilic acid was investigated. This investigation was designed to show that charge-transfer complexation can be a sensitive and accurate technique of assaying procainamide when ...

  18. Spectrophotometric assay of catalase with perborate as substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomson, J.R.; Nance, S.L.; Tollaksen, S.L.

    1978-01-01

    A spectrophotometric assay for catalase in mouse liver fractions has been developed in which sodium perborate, rather than hydrogen peroxide, is used as the substrate. The method is convenient, rapid, and readily adapted to the measurement of catalase in subcellular fractions.

  19. Development of a Visible Spectrophotometric Method for the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Purpose: To develop and validate a simple visible spectrophotometric method for the quantitative determination of ... reliable alternative to the official method for the routine analysis of ganciclovir in bulk and dosage forms. Keywords: Ganciclovir .... absorbance reading was taken at 404 nm with methanol as blank.

  20. A Novel Derivatization Ultraviolet Spectrophotometric Method for the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To develop a novel ultraviolet (UV)–spectrophotometric method for the determination of dihydroartemisinin (DHA) in tablets using ... The method used for analysis was validated and a linear calibration curve constructed in the .... methanol and absorbance reading taken at 290 nm. The test was also carried out in ...

  1. Spectrophotometric determination of pizotefin maleate in pure form ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two simple, quick and sensitive methods were described for the spectrophotometric determination of pizotefin maleate (PZT) either in pure form or pharmaceutical form (tablets). The methods were based on the reaction of pizotefin maleate as 'n' electron donor with chloranilic acid (p-CLA) and 7,7,8 ...

  2. A new spectrophotometric method for determination of residual ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-12-22

    Dec 22, 2011 ... Commonly-used techniques for quantification of the polycation, such as colloidal and potentiometric titration as well as 1H. NMR, have poor sensitivity and detection limits. This paper describes a more sensitive UV spectrophotometric method for quantitative determination of residual polyDADMAC in treated ...

  3. Determination of gelation dose of poly(vinyl acetate) by a spectrophotometric method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guven, Olgun; Yigit, Fatma

    1986-01-01

    The gelation point is an important property of polymers undergoing crosslinking when subjected to high energy radiation. This point is generally determined by viscometric and solubility methods or by mechanical measurements. When crosslinking and discoloration take place simultaneously, gelation doses can be determined spectrophotometrically. In this work it is demonstrated that the gelation dose of poly (vinyl acetate) can be determined by simply recording the u.v.-vis. spectra of the solutions of ..gamma..-irradiated polymer. The reliability of the method is verified by viscometric and solubility measurements.

  4. High throughput in vivo protease inhibitor selection platform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    The invention relates to a recombinant microbial cell comprising a selection platform for screening for a protease inhibitor, wherein the platform comprises transgenes encoding a protease having selective peptide bond cleavage activity at a recognition site amino acid sequence; and transgenes...... encoding polypeptides conferring resistance to microbial growth inhibitors; wherein the polypeptides comprise the recognition site amino acid sequence cleavable by the protease. Protease inhibitors are detected by their ability to inhibit protease specific cleavage and inactivation of the polypeptides...... platform for screening for a protease inhibitor....

  5. Family Structure Changes during High School and College Selectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Brian P.; Sorensen, Kia N.

    2017-01-01

    Research has shown that family structure changes negatively influence educational attainment, but they overlook qualitative distinctions in college choice, such as college selectivity. Yet, college choice research has largely focused on static measures of family structure, failing to account for year-to-year family structure changes that occur…

  6. Determination of tacrolimus in pharmaceutical formulations by validated spectrophotometric methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. M. Böer

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available

    Two simple, rapid and sensitive spectrophotometric methods were developed for the determination of tacrolimus in pharmaceutical dosage forms. The methods, based on the sulphuric acid reaction and on the iodine charge-transfer reaction, gave absorption peaks at 295 nm and 365 nm, respectively. The calibration curves were linear in the concentration range of 30-55 µg mL-1for the sulphuric acid method (r²=0.9999 and 5-10 µg mL-1 (r²=0.9999 for the charge-transfer method. The specificity was assessed, showing that there was no interference from the excipients. The accuracy of both of the methods was higher than 99.44%, with a bias lower than 2%, and high precision was also demonstrated. The limits of quantitation for the two methods were 30 µg mL-1 and 5 µg mL-1. The proposed methods were applied to the determination of tacrolimus in capsule dosage forms, and the results compared statistically with the validated reversed-phase liquid chromatography (RP-LC method, showing significant correlation (p<0.05 and demonstrating either method to be an excellent alternative to LC. The application of these simple methods to routine quality control analysis of pharmaceuticals could contribute to their safety and therapeutic efficacy. Keywords: tacrolimus; sulphuric acid reaction; iodine charge-transfer; spectrophotometry; pharmaceutical formulations.

  7. Spectrophotometric Modeling of Rhea's Surface from Vims Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciarniello, Mauro; Capaccioni, F.; Filacchione, G.; Clark, R. N.; Cruikshank, D. P.; Cerroni, P.; Coradini, A.; Brown, R. H.; Buratti, B. J.; Tosi, F.; Stephan, K.

    2010-10-01

    The huge amount of hyperspectral data from the VIMS (Visual Infrared Mapping Spectrometer) instrument onboard Cassini spacecraft allows the study of the surface properties of icy bodies in Saturnian system in the 0.35 - 5.1 um spectral range. In this work we have analyzed 112 full disk images of Rhea with solar phase angle range 0°-110°. The goal of this work is to perform a quantitative evaluation of physical parameters affecting the spectrophotometric behavior of the satellite's surface. We have applied the Hapke model (Hapke, 1993) in order to describe both the full-disk phase function at each wavelength and the spectrum at given phase angles. With this approach we are able to constrain ice grain size and the amount of organic contaminants as well as the opposition effect surge and the surface roughness of Rhea. The best fit model is represented by an intraparticle mixture of water ice and Triton tholin (99.6%-0.4%) and particle radius of 38 um. What emerges from the analysis is that wavelength dependent parameters, i.e. opposition surge width and amplitude (h, Bo) and single particle phase function parameters (b,v), are correlated with the estimated single scattering albedo of particles (w), as expected for media with grain size larger than the wavelength. Regarding the opposition effect, we find that both Shadow Hiding and Coherent Backscattering contribute. The surface roughness parameter we obtain is theta=33°. This value is fairly high if compared to surface structures (e.g. reliefs or craters), which supports the hypotesis of a correlation with size scales on the order of particle clumping. This research is fully supported by an Italian Space Agency grant.

  8. Selection of common bean lines with high grain yield and high grain calcium and iron concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nerinéia Dalfollo Ribeiro

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Genetic improvement of common bean nutritional quality has advantages in marketing and can contribute to society as a food source. The objective of this study was to evaluate the genetic variability for grain yield, calcium and iron concentrations in grains of inbred common bean lines obtained by different breeding methods. For this, 136 F7 inbred lines were obtained using the Pedigree method and 136 F7 inbred lines were obtained using the Single-Seed Descent (SSD method. The lines showed genetic variability for grain yield, and concentrations of calcium and iron independently of the method of advancing segregating populations. The Pedigree method allows obtaining a greater number of lines with high grain yield. Selection using the SSD method allows the identification of a larger number of lines with high concentrations of calcium and iron in grains. Weak negative correlations were found between grain yield and calcium concentration (r = -0.0994 and grain yield and iron concentration (r = -0.3926. Several lines show genetic superiority for grain yield and concentrations of calcium and iron in grains and their selection can result in new common bean cultivars with high nutritional quality.

  9. Spectrophotometric determination of β-adrenergic antagonists drugs via ion-pair complex formation using MO and EBT

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Didamony, A. M.; Shehata, A. M.

    2014-09-01

    Two simple, rapid and sensitive spectrophotometric methods have been proposed for the assay of bisoprolol fumarate (BSF), propranolol hydrochloride (PRH), and timolol maleate (TIM) either in bulk or in pharmaceutical formulations. The methods are based on the reaction of the selected drugs with methyl orange (MO) and eriochrome black T in acidic buffers, after extracting in dichloromethane and measured quantitatively with maximum absorption at 428 and 518 nm for MO and EBT, respectively. The analytical parameters and their effects on the reported systems are investigated. The extracts are intensely colored and very stable at room temperature. The calibration graphs were linear over the concentration range of 0.8-6.4, 0.4-3.6, 0.8-5.6 μg/mL for BSF, PRH, and TIM, respectively, with MO and 0.8-6.4, 0.4-3.2, and 0.8-8.0 μg/mL for BSF, PRH, and TIM, respectively, with EBT. The stoichiometry of the complexes was found to be 1 : 1 in all cases. The proposed methods were successfully extended to pharmaceutical preparations. Excipients used as additive in commercial formulations did not interfere in the analysis. The proposed methods can be recommended for quality control and routine analysis where time, cost effectiveness and high specificity of analytical technique are of great importance.

  10. Spectrophotometric determination of benzydamine HCl, levamisole HCl and mebeverine HCl through ion-pair complex formation with methyl orange

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Didamony, Akram M.

    2008-03-01

    A simple, rapid and sensitive spectrophotometric method has been proposed for the assay of benzydamine HCl (BENZ), levamisole HCl (LEV) and mebeverine HCl (MBV) in bulk and pharmaceutical formulations. The method based on the reaction of the selected drugs with methyl orange (MO) in buffered aqueous solution at pH 3.6. The formed yellow ion-pair complexes were extracted with dichloromethane and measured quantitatively with maximum absorption at 422 nm. The analytical parameters and their effects on the reported systems are investigated. The extracts are intensely colored and very stable at room temperature. The calibration graphs were linear over the concentration range of 2-10 μg ml -1 for BENZ, 6-24 μg ml -1 for LEV and 4-14 μg ml -1 for MBV. The stoichiometry of the reaction was found to be 1:1 in all cases and the conditional stability constant ( Kf) of the complexes have been calculated. The proposed method was successfully extended to pharmaceutical preparations-tablets. Excipients used as additive in commercial formulations did not interfere in the analysis. The proposed method can be recommended for quality control and routine analysis where time, cost effectiveness and high specificity of analytical technique are of great importance.

  11. Metabolic risk factors in mice divergently selected for BMR fed high fat and high carb diets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julita Sadowska

    Full Text Available Factors affecting contribution of spontaneous physical activity (SPA; activity associated with everyday tasks to energy balance of humans are not well understood, as it is not clear whether low activity is related to dietary habits, precedes obesity or is a result of thereof. In particular, human studies on SPA and basal metabolic rates (BMR, accounting for >50% of human energy budget and their associations with diet composition, metabolic thrift and obesity are equivocal. To clarify these ambiguities we used a unique animal model-mice selected for divergent BMR rates (the H-BMR and L-BMR line type presenting a 50% between-line type difference in the primary selected trait. Males of each line type were divided into three groups and fed either a high fat, high carb or a control diet. They then spent 4 months in individual cages under conditions emulating human "sedentary lifestyle", with SPA followed every month and measurements of metabolic risk indicators (body fat mass %, blood lipid profile, fasting blood glucose levels and oxidative damage in the livers, kidneys and hearts taken at the end of study. Mice with genetically determined high BMR assimilated more energy and had higher SPA irrespective of type of diet. H-BMR individuals were characterized by lower dry body fat mass %, better lipid profile and lower fasting blood glucose levels, but higher oxidative damage in the livers and hearts. Genetically determined high BMR may be a protective factor against diet-induced obesity and most of the metabolic syndrome indicators. Elevated spontaneous activity is correlated with high BMR, and constitutes an important factor affecting individual capability to sustain energy balance even under energy dense diets.

  12. Feature selection for high-dimensional integrated data

    KAUST Repository

    Zheng, Charles

    2012-04-26

    Motivated by the problem of identifying correlations between genes or features of two related biological systems, we propose a model of feature selection in which only a subset of the predictors Xt are dependent on the multidimensional variate Y, and the remainder of the predictors constitute a “noise set” Xu independent of Y. Using Monte Carlo simulations, we investigated the relative performance of two methods: thresholding and singular-value decomposition, in combination with stochastic optimization to determine “empirical bounds” on the small-sample accuracy of an asymptotic approximation. We demonstrate utility of the thresholding and SVD feature selection methods to with respect to a recent infant intestinal gene expression and metagenomics dataset.

  13. Simultaneous Spectrophotometric Determination of Mycophenolate Mofetil and Its Active Metabolite in Human Plasma Using Chemometrics Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tayyebeh Madrakian

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A spectrophotometric method for selective complexation reaction and simultaneous determination of mycophenolate mofetil (MPM, and mycophenolic acid (MPA using three multivariate chemometric methods, i.e. partial least squares regression, principal component regression and principal component artificial neural networks, is proposed. The method is based on the complexation reaction of MPM and MPA with Fe(III ion in the solution. A nonionic surfactant, Triton X-100, was used for dissolving the complexes and intensifying the signals. The linear determination ranges for the determination of MPA and MPM were 5.0-215.0 mg l-1, and 10.0-1000.0 mg l-1, respectively. The detection limit for MPA and MPM was obtained as 0.3 mg l-1 and 1.1 mg l-1, respectively. Satisfactory results were obtained by the combination of spectrophotometric method and chemometrics techniques. The method was successfully applied to the simultaneous determination of MPM and MPA in serum sample and the results were comparable with HPLC method.

  14. Derivative spectrophotometric determination of the herbicides picloram and triclopyr in mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BILJANA F. ABRAMOVIC

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available A derivative spectrophotometric method for the determination of the herbicides picloram (4-amino-3,5,6-trichloropicolinic acid and triclopyr (3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridyloxyacetic acid in mixtures was developed in this work. Derivative spectrophotometric determination of the selected herbicides was preceded by investigations concerning the influence of pH, in the pH interval from 1 to 9. At pH 3.2, picloram and triclopyr solutions are stable under daylight for nine months. This pH was used for all subsequent determinations. It was also found that the use of the first derivative of the spectra at 232 nm was optimal for the determination of picloram, while use of the second derivative of the spectra at 211 nm was best suited for the determination of triclopyr. The calibration curves are linear in the concentration range 0.8 – 13 µg cm-3 with correlation coefficients –0.9998 for picloram and 0.9996 for triclopyr. The limit of detection of the developed method is 0.08 µg cm-3 for picloram and 0.03 µg cm-3 for triclopyr. Derivative spectrophotometry was shown to be an appropriate method for the determination of picloram and triclopyr in mixtures and in pesticide formulations, unlike the deconvolution method.

  15. Spectrophotometric study of etodolac complexes with copper (II) and iron (III).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amer, Sawsan M; El-Saharty, Yasser S; Metwally, Fadia H; Younes, Kareem M

    2005-01-01

    A rapid, simple, and selective method was developed for the determination of etodolac. The method depends on complexation of etodolac with copper (II) acetate and iron (III) chloride followed by extraction of complexes with dichloromethane and then measuring the extracted complexes spectrophotometrically at 684 and 385 nm in case of Cu (II) or Fe (III), respectively. Different factors affecting the reaction, such as pH, reagent concentration, and time, were studied. By use of Job's method of continuous variation, the molar ratio method, and elemental analysis, the stoichiometry of the reaction was found to be in the ratio of 1:2 and 1:3, metal:drug in the case of Cu (II) and Fe (III), respectively. The method obeys Beer's law in a concentration range of 2.00-9.00 and 0.50-2.00 mg/mL in case of Cu (II) and Fe (III), respectively. The stability of the complexes formed was also studied, and the reaction products were isolated for further investigation. The complexes have apparent molar absorptivities of about 32.14 +/- 0.97 and 168.32 +/- 1.12 for Cu (II) and Fe (III), respectively. The suggested procedures were successfully applied to the analysis of pure etodolac and its pharmaceutical formulations. The validity of the procedures was further ascertained by the method of standard additions, and the results were compared with other reported spectrophotometric methods and showed no significant difference in accuracy and precision.

  16. Spectrophotometric evaluation of optical performances of polarizing technologies for smart window applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levati, N.; Vitali, L.; Fustinoni, D.; Niro, A.

    2014-11-01

    In recent years, window-integrated solar protection systems are used and studied as a promising energy saving technology, both for cold and hot climates. In particular, smart windows, whose optical proprieties in the solar wavelength range can somehow be controlled, show interesting results, especially in reducing the air conditioning power consumption. With the improvement of nanolithography techniques as well as with the possibility of designing polarization intervals, coupled polarizing films show a good potential as a dynamic and wavelength-selective shading technology. In this paper, UV-Vis-NIR spectrophotometric measurements are carried out on two polarizing technologies, Polaroid crystalline polarizer and Wire Grid broadband polarizer, in single- and double- film layout, to evaluate their optical performances, i.e. spectral transmittance, reflectance and absorptivity. The solar radiation glazing factors, according to the standard UNI EN 410, are calculated. The measured data are also analyzed in detail to emphasize the optical peculiarities of the materials under study that do not stand out from the standard parameters, as well as the specific problems that arise in spectrophotometric evaluations of polarizing films.

  17. Spectrophotometric determination of bio-active compounds with chloramine-T and gallocyanine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sastry, C S; Srinivas, K R; Prasad, K M

    1996-10-01

    A simple, sensitive and selective method for the spectrophotometric determination of drugs, viz., sulphamethoxazole, tetracycline HCl, amidopyrine, nifurtimox and isoniazid and biologically important amino acids, cysteine, aspartic acid and arginine based on their reactivity with chloramine-T (CAT) is proposed. The method involves the addition of excess CAT of a known concentration in the presence of 0.25 M HCl and the determination of the unreacted CAT by measurement of the decrease in the absorbance of the dye, gallocyanine (lambda(max): 540 nm), the most suitable of several dyes that were tested. This method was applied to the determination of drug contents in pharmaceutical formulations and to the measurement of the aspartic acid content of some protein hydrolysates. The method is useful for the determination of the target compounds in microgram quantities from 0.4-5.6 microg mL(-1) with the exceptions of arginine (1.0-8.0 microg mL(-1)) and nifurtimox (0.8-5.6 microg mL(-1)). Standard deviations were typically 0.5 mg per dose (RSD 0.5-1.2%). No interferences were observed from common excipients in formulations, and detailed interference studies of other amino acids in the determination of cysteine, aspartic acid and arginine are reported. The validity of the method was tested against spectrophotometric and titrimetric reference methods. Recoveries were 99.8-102.1%.

  18. Design of a high activity and selectivity alcohol catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foley, H.C.; Mills, G.A.

    1992-11-30

    Efforts to synthesize bimetallic cluster-derived Rh-Mo catalysts for CO and CO[sub 2] hydrogenation to preferentially produce oxygenates. The rhodium-molybdenum cluster, (PPh[sub 3])[sub 2]RhMO(CO)([mu]-CO)[sub 2]Cp, was employed as a precursor to alumina- and silica-supported catalysts which were in CO hydrogenation. When compared to catalysts made from the distinct organometallic complexes, RhH(CO)(PPh[sub 3])[sub 3] and [MO(CO)[sub 3]Cp][sub 2], the catalysts derived from a binuclear precursor show higher activities for CO hydrogenation and superior selectivities towards oxygenates, namely, methanol, dimethyl ether and ethanol. Their product distributions depend on the support. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy studies indicate that CO chemisorbs on cluster-derived catalysts as gem-dicarbonyls while it is chemisorbed only in the linear-carbonyl configuration on catalysts made from separate rhodium and molybdenum complexes. The particular oxygenate selectivity of the cluster-derived catalysts may be correlated to the strong electronic interaction between Rh and Mo. Carbon dioxide hydrogenation has also been carried out on the catalysts mentioned above. Again, the cluster-derived catalysts show higher oxygenate selectivities. Finally, the catalysts were studied with regard to both CO and CO[sub 2] hydrogenation kinetics, apparent activation energies inferred.

  19. Selection of a tool to decision making for site selection for high level waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guiller Madeira Jonni

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to create a panel comparing some of the key decision-making support tools used in situations with the characteristics of the problem of selecting suitable areas for constructing a final deep geologic repository. The tools addressed in this work are also well known and with easy implementation. The decision-making process in matters of this kind is, in general, complex due to its multicriteria nature and the conflicting opinions of various stakeholders. Thus, a comprehensive study was performed with the literature in this subject, specifically in documents of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA, regarding the importance of the criteria involved in the decision-making process. Therefore, we highlighted six judgment attributes for selecting a decision support tool, suitable for the problem. For this study, we have selected the following multicriteria tools: AHP, Delphi, Brainstorm, Nominal Group Technique and AHP-Delphi. Finally, the AHP-Delphi method has demonstrated to be more appropriate for managing the inherent multiple attributes to the problem proposed.

  20. Two different spectrophotometric determinations of potential anticancer drug and its toxic metabolite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farid, Nehal F.; Abdelwahab, Nada S.

    2015-06-01

    Flutamide is a hormone therapy used for men with advanced prostate cancer. Flutamide is highly susceptible to hydrolysis with the production of 3-(trifluoromethyl)aniline, which is reported to be one of its toxic metabolites, impurities and related substances according to BP and USP. Flutamide was found to be stable when exposed to oxidation by 30% hydrogen peroxide and direct sunlight for up to 4 h. Two accurate and sensitive spectrophotometric methods were used for determination of flutamide in bulk and in pharmaceutical formulations. Method (I) is the area under curve (AUC) spectrophotometric method that depends on measuring the AUC in the wavelength ranges of 275-305 nm and 350-380 nm and using Cramer's rule. The linearity range was found to be 1-35 μg/mL and 0.5-16 μg/mL for the drug and the degradate, respectively. In method (II), combination of the isoabsorptive and dual wavelength spectrophotometric methods was used for resolving the binary mixture. The absorbance at 249.2 nm (λiso) was used for determination of total mixture concentration, while the difference in absorbance between 232 nm and 341.2 nm was used for measuring the drug concentration. By subtraction, the degradate concentration was obtained. Beer's law was obeyed in the range of 2-35 μg/mL and 0.5-20 μg/mL for the drug and its degradate, respectively. The two methods were validated according to USP guidelines and were applied for determination of the drug in its pharmaceutical dosage form. Moreover AUC method was used for the kinetic study of the hydrolytic degradation of flutamide. The kinetic degradation of flutamide was found to follow pseudo-first order kinetics and is pH and temperature dependent. Activation energy, kinetic rate constants and t1/2 at different temperatures and pH values were calculated.

  1. Low Cost High Performance Nanostructured Spectrally Selective Coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Sungho [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2017-04-05

    Sunlight absorbing coating is a key enabling technology to achieve high-temperature high-efficiency concentrating solar power operation. A high-performance solar absorbing material must simultaneously meet all the following three stringent requirements: high thermal efficiency (usually measured by figure of merit), high-temperature durability, and oxidation resistance. The objective of this research is to employ a highly scalable process to fabricate and coat black oxide nanoparticles onto solar absorber surface to achieve ultra-high thermal efficiency. Black oxide nanoparticles have been synthesized using a facile process and coated onto absorber metal surface. The material composition, size distribution and morphology of the nanoparticle are guided by numeric modeling. Optical and thermal properties have been both modeled and measured. High temperature durability has been achieved by using nanocomposites and high temperature annealing. Mechanical durability on thermal cycling have also been investigated and optimized. This technology is promising for commercial applications in next-generation high-temperature concentration solar power (CSP) plants.

  2. Determination of lead in solution by solid phase extraction, elution, and spectrophotometric detection using 4-(2-pyridylazo)-resorcinol

    OpenAIRE

    Rahman, Ismail M. M.; Furusho, Yoshiaki; Begum, Zinnat A.; Sato, Rika; Okumura, Hiroshi; Honda, Hiroko; Hasegawa, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    Lead (+2) was selectively adsorbed on a solid phase extraction (SPE) gel (molecular recognition technology, MRT), quantitatively extracted, and spectrophotometrically determined as the Pb(II)-PAR (4-(2-pyridylazo)- resorcinol) complex. The linear range was 0.01 to 0.75 mg L-1 and the detection limit was 6.4 μg L-1. The MRT-SPE allows selective Pb(II) extraction from complex ion-rich matrices, which is difficult with other techniques. Interference from common matrix ions such as Fe2+, Ni2+, Cu...

  3. Study of the Antioxidant Property Variation of Cornelian Cherry Fruits during Storage Using HPTLC and Spectrophotometric Assays

    OpenAIRE

    Anamaria Hosu; Claudia Cimpoiu; Luminita David; Bianca Moldovan

    2016-01-01

    Cornus species fruits are well known as a rich source of antioxidant compounds responsible for their diverse health benefits. The present study aims to investigate the variation of the total antioxidant capacity of Cornelian cherry (Cornus mas L.) fruits during storage, using high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) and two spectrophotometric assays based on different mechanisms: the 2,2-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazolyne-6-sulphonic acid) radical cation (ABTS+∙) assay and the ferric r...

  4. Lifecycle Prognostics Architecture for Selected High-Cost Active Components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N. Lybeck; B. Pham; M. Tawfik; J. B. Coble; R. M. Meyer; P. Ramuhalli; L. J. Bond

    2011-08-01

    There are an extensive body of knowledge and some commercial products available for calculating prognostics, remaining useful life, and damage index parameters. The application of these technologies within the nuclear power community is still in its infancy. Online monitoring and condition-based maintenance is seeing increasing acceptance and deployment, and these activities provide the technological bases for expanding to add predictive/prognostics capabilities. In looking to deploy prognostics there are three key aspects of systems that are presented and discussed: (1) component/system/structure selection, (2) prognostic algorithms, and (3) prognostics architectures. Criteria are presented for component selection: feasibility, failure probability, consequences of failure, and benefits of the prognostics and health management (PHM) system. The basis and methods commonly used for prognostics algorithms are reviewed and summarized. Criteria for evaluating PHM architectures are presented: open, modular architecture; platform independence; graphical user interface for system development and/or results viewing; web enabled tools; scalability; and standards compatibility. Thirteen software products were identified and discussed in the context of being potentially useful for deployment in a PHM program applied to systems in a nuclear power plant (NPP). These products were evaluated by using information available from company websites, product brochures, fact sheets, scholarly publications, and direct communication with vendors. The thirteen products were classified into four groups of software: (1) research tools, (2) PHM system development tools, (3) deployable architectures, and (4) peripheral tools. Eight software tools fell into the deployable architectures category. Of those eight, only two employ all six modules of a full PHM system. Five systems did not offer prognostic estimates, and one system employed the full health monitoring suite but lacked operations and

  5. Spectrophotometric Determination of Iron(II and Cobalt(II by Direct, Derivative, and Simultaneous Methods Using 2-Hydroxy-1-Naphthaldehyde-p-Hydroxybenzoichydrazone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. S. Anusuya Devi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Optimized and validated spectrophotometric methods have been proposed for the determination of iron and cobalt individually and simultaneously. 2-hydroxy-1-naphthaldehyde-p-hydroxybenzoichydrazone (HNAHBH reacts with iron(II and cobalt(II to form reddish-brown and yellow-coloured [Fe(II-HNAHBH] and [Co(II-HNAHBH] complexes, respectively. The maximum absorbance of these complexes was found at 405 nm and 425 nm, respectively. For [Fe(II-HNAHBH], Beer’s law is obeyed over the concentration range of 0.055–1.373 μg mL−1 with a detection limit of 0.095 μg mL−1 and molar absorptivity ɛ, 5.6 × 104 L mol−1 cm−1. [Co(II-HNAHBH] complex obeys Beer’s law in 0.118–3.534 μg mL−1 range with a detection limit of 0.04 μg mL−1 and molar absorptivity, ɛ of 2.3 × 104 L mol−1 cm−1. Highly sensitive and selective first-, second- and third-order derivative methods are described for the determination of iron and cobalt. A simultaneous second-order derivative spectrophotometric method is proposed for the determination of these metals. All the proposed methods are successfully employed in the analysis of various biological, water, and alloy samples for the determination of iron and cobalt content.

  6. Selection of local extremophile lactic acid bacteria with high capacity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study is related to the isolation and identification of strains of local thermophilic lactic acid bacteria belonging to the species, Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus bulgaricus. These bacteria can exist under extreme conditions of the digestive tract (acidity and high concentration of bile salts) and have a high ...

  7. Noria: A Highly Xe-Selective Nanoporous Organic Solid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patil, Rahul S. [Department of Chemistry, University of Missouri, Columbia Missouri 65211 United States; Fundamental and Computational Science Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington 99352 United States; Banerjee, Debasis [Fundamental and Computational Science Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington 99352 United States; Simon, Cory M. [Department of Chemical & Biomolecular Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley California 94720 United States; Atwood, Jerry L. [Department of Chemistry, University of Missouri, Columbia Missouri 65211 United States; Thallapally, Praveen K. [Fundamental and Computational Science Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington 99352 United States

    2016-07-05

    The successful mass-implementation of nuclear energy requires reprocessing of used nuclear fuel (UNF) to mitigate harmful radioactive waste. Volatile radionuclides such as Xe and Kr evolve into off-gas streams of UNF reprocessing facilities in parts per million concentrations; their capture and successive safe handing is essential from a regulatory point of view. As radioactive Xe has a short half-life, this captured Xe could be sold in the chemical market. Energy-intensive, expensive, and hazardous cryogenic distillation is the current benchmark process to capture and separate radioactive Xe and Kr from air. Thus, a cost-effective, alternative technology for the separation of Xe and Kr and their capture from air is of significant importance. Thus far, nanoporous materials, such as aluminosilicate zeolites, metal organic frameworks (MOFs) and porous organic molecules have shown promise for an adsorption-based separation process at room temperature. Herein, we report the selective Xe uptake in a crystalline porous organic oligomeric molecule, noria, and its structural analogue, PgC-noria, under ambient conditions. The selectivity of noria towards Xe arises from its tailored pore size and small cavities, which allows a directed non-bonding interaction of Xe atoms with a large number of carbon atoms of the noria molecular wheel in a confined space.

  8. Bayesian Variable Selection in High-dimensional Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    V. Rockova (Veronika)

    2013-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Advances in research technologies over the past few decades have encouraged the proliferation of massive datasets, revolutionizing statistical perspectives on high-dimensionality. Highthroughput technologies have become pervasive in diverse scientific disciplines

  9. Engineering Data on Selected High Speed Passenger Trucks

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-07-01

    The purpose of this project is to compile a list of high speed truck engineering parameters for characterization in dynamic performance modeling activities. Data tabulations are supplied for trucks from France, Germany, Italy, England, Japan, U.S.S.R...

  10. Regeneration of the vagus nerve after highly selective vagotomy, an autoradiographic study in the ferret stomach .

    OpenAIRE

    Al Muhtaseb, M. H. [محمد هاشم المحتسب; Abu-Khalaf, M.

    1995-01-01

    This study investigates the regeneration of the vagal nerve fibres after highly selective vagotomy in the ferret stomach by using the autoradiographic technique. Autoradiographic examination of the body of the stomach in the acute experimental animals has failed to show any labelled nerve fibres after highly selective vagotomy while the pylorus has shown many labelled nerve fibres . These observations indicate that the highly selective vagotomy has been performed properly and adequately. ...

  11. Development of spectrophotometric fingerprinting method for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Selective and efficient analytical methods are required not only for quality assurance but also for authentication of herbal formulations. A simple, rapid and validated fingerprint method has developed for estimation of piperine in 'Talisadi churna', a well known herbal formulation in India. The estimation was carried out in two ...

  12. simple and rapid spectrophotometric assay of levocetirizine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    (LOQ) are 2.99 and 1.69 µg mL-1 for above reagents, respectively. Other method validation parameters, such as accuracy, precision, robustness and ruggedness, and selectivity are also reported. The composition of CT complex was found to be 1:1. The proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of the ...

  13. A Novel Ion - selective Polymeric Membrane Sensor for Determining Thallium(I) With High Selectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassim, Anuar; Rezayi, Majid; Ahmadzadeh, Saeid; Rounaghi, Gholamhossein; Mohajeri, Masoomeh; Azah Yusof, Noor; Tee, Tan Wee; Yook Heng, Lee; Halim Abdullah, Abd

    2011-02-01

    Thallium is a toxic metal that introduced into the environment mainly as a waste from the production of zinc, cadmium, and lead and by combustion of coal. Thallium causes gastrointestinal irritation and nerve damage when people are exposed to it for relatively short period of time. For long term, thallium has the potential to cause the following effects: change in blood chemistry, damage to liver, kidney, intestinal and testicular tissue, and hair loss. In this work a membrane was prepared by use of 4'-nitrobenzo -18-crown-6 (4'NB18C6) as an ion carrier, polyvinylchloride (PVC) as a matrix, and diocthylphetalate (DOP) as a plasticizer for making an ion selective electrode for measurement of Tl+ cation in solutions. The amount of 4'-nitrobenzo-18C6 and polyvinylchloride were optimized in the preparation of the membrane. The response of the electrode was Nernstian within the concentration range 1.0 × 10-8 to 1.0 × 10-1M. This sensor displays a drift in Nernstian response for this cation with increasing the amount of ionophore and decreasing the amount of polyvinylchloride.The results of potentiometric measurements showed that, this electrode also responses to Cu2+ Ni2+ and Pb2+ cations, but the electrode has a wider dynamic range and a lower detection limit to Tl+ cation. The effects of various parameters such as pH, different cations interferences, effect of the amount of ionophore and polyvinylchloride and time on response of the coated ion selective electrode were investigated. Finally the constructed electrode was used in complexometric and precipitation titrations of Tl+ cation with EDTA and KBr, respectively. The response of the fabricated electrode at concentration range from 1.0 × 10-8 to 1.0 × 10-1M is linear with a Nernstian slope of 57.27 mV.

  14. Spectrophotometric assessment of nuclear proteins: a preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Ubiali

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Qualitative evaluation of protein content in formalin fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues is usually performed by means of cytofluorimetric analysis. On the other hand, several studies underline the opportunity to measure the concentration of nuclear proteins, which is often accomplished by using complex techniques and instrumentation. In the present work, we suggest a new application for the spectrophotometric evaluation of protein content on extracted and isolated nuclei, based on EDTA treatment of specimens and chemical extraction of proteins, followed by direct spectrophotometric measurement at UV wavelengths. We also demonstrate how this parameter correlates with other diagnostic factors, such as the proliferation index (MIB-1 and the DNA content (ploidy of cells. This method is simple and effective, yet less expensive than other protein quantitation protocols.

  15. Spectrophotometric and Refractometric Determination of Total Protein in Avian Plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodica Căpriță

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the total protein values obtained in heparin plasma of chickens by a spectrophotometric technique (biuret method, and the values obtained on the same day in the same samples by refractometry. The results obtained by refractometry (average value 2.638±0.153g% were higher than those obtained by the spectrophotometric method (average value 2.441±0.181g%. There was a low correlation (r = 0.6709 between the total protein values, determined with both methods. Protein is the major determinant of plasma refractive index, but glucose contributes too. The refractometric method is not recommended in chickens for the determination of total protein, because avian blood glucose concentration averages about twice than in mammalian blood.

  16. Economical spectrophotometric method for estimation of zaltoprofen in pharmaceutical formulations

    OpenAIRE

    Aher, Kiran B.; Bhavar, Girija B.; Joshi, Hemant P.; Chaudhari, Sanjay R.

    2011-01-01

    Aim: A simple, rapid, precise, and economical spectrophotometric method has been developed for quantitative analysis of zaltoprofen (ZLT) in pharmaceutical formulations. Materials and Methods: A mixture of methanol and water was used as a solvent. Initial stock solution of ZLT was prepared in methanol and subsequent dilution was done in water. The standard solution of ZLT in water showed two absorption maxima, one at 243.5 nm and another at 338.0 nm. Results: The drug obeyed Beer?Lambert's la...

  17. Spectrophotometric determination of yeast RNA with neutral red ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The interaction of neutral red (NR) with yeast RNA (yRNA) was studied by UV-Vis spectrophotometry to develop a simple spectrophotometric method for the determination yRNA. NR exhibited a maximum absorption peak at 528 nm in a Britton-Robinson (B-R) buffer solution of pH 4.0. After the addition of yRNA into NR ...

  18. Input variable selection for interpolating high-resolution climate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-10-20

    Oct 20, 2010 ... Accurate climate surfaces are vital for applications relating to groundwater recharge modelling, evapotranspiration estima- ... with distance to oceans and elevation to generate 8 sets of high-resolution (i.e. 3 arc second) climate surfaces of the Western .... ANUSPLIN, developed by the Australian National.

  19. Marker-assisted selection of high molecular weight glutenin alleles ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Bread-making quality in hexaploid wheats is a complex trait. It has been shown that the amount and composition of protein can influence dough rheological properties. The high-molecular-weight (HMW) glutenins are encoded by a complex locus, Glu-1, on the long arm of group-1 homoeologus chromosome of the A, B and ...

  20. Green chemistry: highly selective biocatalytic hydrolysis of nitrile compounds

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Brady, D

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The application of highly substrate-specific catalysts, such as biocatalysts, can reduce the number of synthetic steps required to generate organic compounds. A wide range of bacteria and yeast cultures were enriched on nitriles as the sole source...

  1. Machine learning for event selection in high energy physics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Whiteson, S.; Whiteson, D.

    2009-01-01

    The field of high energy physics aims to discover the underlying structure of matter by searching for and studying exotic particles, such as the top quark and Higgs boson, produced in collisions at modern accelerators. Since such accelerators are extraordinarily expensive, extracting maximal

  2. Selected Practices and Characteristics of Highly Effective Elementary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauritson, George Allen

    2012-01-01

    The federal government, through NCLB legislation, has provided target proficiency goals schools will be accountable to meet. Missouri public elementary schools use these target goals to determine their success. The focus of this study was to examine the highly effective public elementary schools in Missouri that met or exceeded the 2011 Adequate…

  3. High-density nanopore array for selective biomolecule transport.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patel, Kamlesh D.

    2011-11-01

    Development of sophisticated tools capable of manipulating molecules at their own length scale enables new methods for chemical synthesis and detection. Although nanoscale devices have been developed to perform individual tasks, little work has been done on developing a truly scalable platform: a system that combines multiple components for sequential processing, as well as simultaneously processing and identifying the millions of potential species that may be present in a biological sample. The development of a scalable micro-nanofluidic device is limited in part by the ability to combine different materials (polymers, metals, semiconductors) onto a single chip, and the challenges with locally controlling the chemical, electrical, and mechanical properties within a micro or nanochannel. We have developed a unique construct known as a molecular gate: a multilayered polymer based device that combines microscale fluid channels with nanofluidic interconnects. Molecular gates have been demonstrated to selectively transport molecules between channels based on size or charge. In order to fully utilize these structures, we need to develop methods to actively control transport and identify species inside a nanopore. While previous work has been limited to creating electrical connections off-channel or metallizing the entire nanopore wall, we now have the ability to create multiple, separate conductive connections at the interior surface of a nanopore. These interior electrodes will be used for direct sensing of biological molecules, probing the electrical potential and charge distribution at the surface, and to actively turn on and off electrically driven transport of molecules through nanopores.

  4. An objective method for High Dynamic Range source content selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Narwaria, Manish; Mantel, Claire; Da Silva, Matthieu Perreira

    2014-01-01

    With the aim of improving the immersive experience of the end user, High Dynamic Range (HDR) imaging has been gaining popularity. Therefore, proper validation and performance benchmarking of HDR processing algorithms is a key step towards standardization and commercial deployment. A crucial compo...... visible errors on contrast reduction. This information is subsequently analyzed via fuzzy clustering to enable a probabilistic interpretation. To evaluate the proposed approach, we performed an experimental study on a large set of publicly available HDR images....

  5. Reference satellite selection method for GNSS high-precision relative positioning

    OpenAIRE

    Xiao Gao; Wujiao Dai; Zhiyong Song; Changsheng Cai

    2017-01-01

    Selecting the optimal reference satellite is an important component of high-precision relative positioning because the reference satellite directly influences the strength of the normal equation. The reference satellite selection methods based on elevation and positional dilution of precision (PDOP) value were compared. Results show that all the above methods cannot select the optimal reference satellite. We introduce condition number of the design matrix in the reference satellite selection ...

  6. Ocean Health X-Prize testing of a Simplified Spectrophotometric pH Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darlington, R. C.; DeGrandpre, M. D.; Spaulding, R. S.; Beck, J. C.

    2016-02-01

    Since the Industrial Revolution, the world's oceans have absorbed increasing amounts of CO2, resulting in a >0.1 reduction in the pH of surface waters. This acidification of the oceans has many far reaching impacts on marine life. There is, therefore, great need of quality instrumentation to assess and follow the changing carbonate system. To address this need, we have developed a simplified spectrophotometric pH sensor with accuracy and precision suitable for sea surface measurements with special emphasis on reduced size and cost. The reduced size will allow deployment of sensors on a much wider variety of platforms than are currently possible, and the reduced cost will make the instruments available to a broader research community. This prototype pH instrument was entered into the Wendy Schmidt Ocean Health X-Prize, an incentivized global competition to spur innovation in sensors to monitor ocean acidification's impact on marine ecosystems. Results from the three phases of competition which explored accuracy, precision, and stability culminating in a one month field trial are detailed. The prototype proved to be highly accurate (+/-0.009), with good precision (+/-0.004) and stability showing drift indistinguishable from that of the validation measurements. The innovations that enabled this sensor to succeed in the competition could allow for deployment of spectrophotometric sensors on new platforms such as NOAAs Global Drifter Program, a network of non-recovered surface drifting buoys, which would greatly extend the spatial and temporal resolution of ocean acidification measurements.

  7. Spectrophotometric system to develop a non-invasive method for monitoring of posidonia oceanica meadows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menesatti, P.; Urbani, G.; Dolce, T.

    2007-09-01

    Posidonia oceanica (L.) is an endemic phanerogam of the Mediterranean Sea. It lives between 0.2 and 40 m depth and make up extensive meadows that play a fundamental role in the marine coast ecosystem. Near the coasts at higher anthropic pressure, Posidonia meadows present both quality and quantity damages (regression) due to the mechanical operations on the seabed (anchoring, drag netting, pipe lines) and the sea pollution. Nowadays, the seagrass regression is monitored by different systems: aereophotografic, side scan sonar, underwater television camera, direct underwater visual inspection. Scientific community is looking for to develop monitoring systems more reliable, rapid and non invasive. Aim of this study is to evaluate the application of a new spectrophotometric imaging system based on the acquisition of reflectance spectral images with a good optical (250 Kpixels) and spectral resolution (spectral range 400-970 nm, a total of 115 single wavelength, 5 nm step each one). First trials were made on Posidonia's leafs to evaluate the system capacity to recognize spectral differences between samples picked up at two different depths (0.3 - 4 m). High discrimination percentage (90%) were found between leaf samples as function of the different depths, analyzing the spectral data by Partial Least Squares model. Forward activities will stress the system capability also to evaluate different phenol concentrations on Posidonia leaves, an important index of physiologic vegetal damage, through direct underwater spectrophotometric monitoring.

  8. Spectro-photometric determinations of Mn, Fe and Cu in aluminum master alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehan; Naveed, A.; Shan, A.; Afzal, M.; Saleem, J.; Noshad, M. A.

    2016-08-01

    Highly reliable, fast and cost effective Spectro-photometric methods have been developed for the determination of Mn, Fe & Cu in aluminum master alloys, based on the development of calibration curves being prepared via laboratory standards. The calibration curves are designed so as to induce maximum sensitivity and minimum instrumental error (Mn 1mg/100ml-2mg/100ml, Fe 0.01mg/100ml-0.2mg/100ml and Cu 2mg/100ml-10mg/ 100ml). The developed Spectro-photometric methods produce accurate results while analyzing Mn, Fe and Cu in certified reference materials. Particularly, these methods are suitable for all types of Al-Mn, Al-Fe and Al-Cu master alloys (5%, 10%, 50% etc. master alloys).Moreover, the sampling practices suggested herein include a reasonable amount of analytical sample, which truly represent the whole lot of a particular master alloy. Successive dilution technique was utilized to meet the calibration curve range. Furthermore, the workout methods were also found suitable for the analysis of said elements in ordinary aluminum alloys. However, it was observed that Cush owed a considerable interference with Fe, the later one may not be accurately measured in the presence of Cu greater than 0.01 %.

  9. High Dietary Fat Selectively Increases Catalase Expression within Cardiac Mitochondria*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rindler, Paul M.; Plafker, Scott M.; Szweda, Luke I.; Kinter, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Obesity is a predictor of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. One consequence of obesity is dyslipidemia characterized by high blood triglycerides. It has been proposed that oxidative stress, driven by utilization of lipids for energy, contributes to these diseases. The effects of oxidative stress are mitigated by an endogenous antioxidant enzyme network, but little is known about its response to high fat utilization. Our experiments used a multiplexed quantitative proteomics method to measure antioxidant enzyme expression in heart tissue in a mouse model of diet-induced obesity. This experiment showed a rapid and specific up-regulation of catalase protein, with subsequent assays showing increases in activity and mRNA. Catalase, traditionally considered a peroxisomal protein, was found to be present in cardiac mitochondria and significantly increased in content and activity during high fat feeding. These data, coupled with the fact that fatty acid oxidation enhances mitochondrial H2O2 production, suggest that a localized catalase increase is needed to consume excessive mitochondrial H2O2 produced by increased fat metabolism. To determine whether the catalase-specific response is a common feature of physiological conditions that increase blood triglycerides and fatty acid oxidation, we measured changes in antioxidant expression in fasted versus fed mice. Indeed, a similar specific catalase increase was observed in mice fasted for 24 h. Our findings suggest a fundamental metabolic process in which catalase expression is regulated to prevent damage while preserving an H2O2-mediated sensing of diet composition that appropriately adjusts insulin sensitivity in the short term as needed to prioritize lipid metabolism for complete utilization. PMID:23204527

  10. Selected topics in high temperature chemistry defect chemistry of solids

    CERN Document Server

    Johannesen, Ø

    2013-01-01

    The properties of materials at high temperature play a vital role in their processing and practical use. The real properties of materials at elevated temperatures are very often governed by defects in their structure. Lattice defects may consist of point defects like vacancies, interstitial atoms or substituted atoms. These classes are discussed in general and specifically for oxides, nitrides, carbides and sulfides. Defect aggregates, shear structures and adaptive structures are also described. Special attention is paid to hydrogen defects which seem to play an important role in several mater

  11. Development of microwave assisted spectrophotometric method for the determination of glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Asif; Hussain, Zahid; Arain, Muhammad Balal; Shah, Nasrullah; Khan, Khalid Mohammad; Gulab, Hussain; Zada, Amir

    2016-01-15

    A spectrophotometric method was developed based on the microwave assisted synthesis of Maillard product. Various conditions of the reaction were optimized by varying the relative concentration of the reagents, operating temperature and volume of solutions used in the reaction in the microwave synthesizer. The absorbance of the microwave synthesized Maillard product was measured in the range of 360-740 nm using UV-Visible spectrophotometer. Based on the maximum absorbance, 370 nm was selected as the optimum wave length for further studies. The LOD and LOQ of glucose was found 3.08 μg mL(-1) and 9.33 μg mL(-1) with standard deviation of ±0.05. The developed method was also applicable to urine sample. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Kinetic spectrophotometric method for the determination of morphine in biological samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheibani, A.; Shishehbore, M. Reza; Mirparizi, E.

    2010-10-01

    In this paper a simple, selective and inexpensive kinetic method was developed for the determination of morphine based on its inhibitory effect on the Janus green-bromate system in sulfuric acid media. The reaction was monitored spectrophotometrically at 618 nm by a fixed time method. The effect of different parameters such as concentration of reactants and temperature on the rate of reaction was investigated and optimum conditions were obtained. The calibration curve was linear in the concentration range 0.07-7.98 mg L -1 of morphine, and detection limit of the method was 3.0 × 10 -2 mg L -1. The relative standard deviation for five determinations of 3.74 mg L -1 of morphine was 0.57%. Finally, the proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of morphine in human urine and serum as real samples.

  13. Spectrophotometric and direct-reading methods for the analysis of gas phase peroxyacetic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effkemann, S; Brødsgaard, S; Mortensen, P; Linde, S A; Karst, U

    2000-02-01

    A new method for the determination of peroxyacetic acid (PAA) in gas phase samples is described. It is based on the oxidation of ABTS (2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline)-6-sulfonate) by PAA with formation of a radical cation which is characterized by four strong absorption maxima between 405 nm and 810 nm. These allow for sensitive spectrophotometric determination of the peracid. The selectivity of the method towards hydrogen peroxide is strongly dependent on the sampling method used. Impinger sampling and sampling based on the use of coated solid sorbents (test tubes) was performed. Limits of detection are 10(-8) mol, limits of quantification are 5 x 10(-8) mol, the linear range consists of 1.5 concentration decades in both cases. Using ABTS-coated test tubes above 1 x 10(-7) mol, direct reading of the results is possible and may be used as rapid screening method for the PAA concentration.

  14. Spectrophotometric assays for total antioxidant capacity (TAC) in dog serum: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio, Camila Peres; Hernández-Ruiz, Josefa; Martinez-Subiela, Silvia; Tvarijonaviciute, Asta; Ceron, José Joaquin

    2016-08-15

    The aim of this review is to study the main spectrophotometric methods used to evaluate total antioxidant capacity (TAC) in serum samples of dogs. Total antioxidant capacity (TAC) is an analyte frequently used to assess the antioxidant status of biological samples and can evaluate the antioxidant response against the free radicals produced in a given disease. Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP), and cupric reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC) are different assays described to determine TAC of a sample. This review explains the basis of each assay and their application in the determination of TAC in dogs, and also provides selected information about reports in humans for comparative purposes. It is concluded that, ideally, various different assays integrated in a panel should be used for TAC evaluation, since depending on the assay performed TAC results can be markedly different.

  15. Development of microwave assisted spectrophotometric method for the determination of glucose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Asif; Hussain, Zahid; Arain, Muhammad Balal; Shah, Nasrullah; Khan, Khalid Mohammad; Gulab, Hussain; Zada, Amir

    2016-01-01

    A spectrophotometric method was developed based on the microwave assisted synthesis of Maillard product. Various conditions of the reaction were optimized by varying the relative concentration of the reagents, operating temperature and volume of solutions used in the reaction in the microwave synthesizer. The absorbance of the microwave synthesized Maillard product was measured in the range of 360-740 nm using UV-Visible spectrophotometer. Based on the maximum absorbance, 370 nm was selected as the optimum wave length for further studies. The LOD and LOQ of glucose was found 3.08 μg mL- 1 and 9.33 μg mL- 1 with standard deviation of ± 0.05. The developed method was also applicable to urine sample.

  16. A spectrophotometrical analitic method elaboration for tinidazole’s quantity determination from tablets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragos, D.,

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The main inconvenience of analytical determination of Tinidazole in pharmaceutical formulations consists in presence of ingredients, frequently with unknown identity. In order to overcome the complications of methods based on selective separations, a spectrophotometrical method for Tinidazole assay was performed and tested. By appropriate derivatization of the analythe, a photometrically estimable Schiff base is obtained, with absorptionin the visible region where the interference of ingredients is negligible. The linearity of analytic signal was checked out in methanol solution in the 2–14 mg/l concentration domain. The method exhibit a good reproducibility: in a 8-fold repetition the main standard deviation is 0.38 % of the average of individual values.

  17. Spectrophotometric bioanalytical flow-injection system for control of hemodialysis treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radomska, A; Glab, S; Koncki, R

    2001-09-01

    A spectrophotometric flow-injection analysis (FIA) system for monitoring clinical hemodialysis is demonstrated. The role of a dialysate urea detector incorporated in this bioanalytical system is played by an optical flow-through biosensor based on Prussian Blue film with chemically linked urease forming a monomolecular layer of the enzyme. This pH-enzyme optode-FIA system is useful for the selective determination of post-dialysate urea in the range of concentration corresponding to its level in real clinical samples (2-16 mmol l(-1)). This bioanalytical system allows the analysis of about 15 samples of spent dialysate per hour. The operational and storage stabilities of the applied biosensor are longer than 2 weeks and 2 months, respectively. Clinical evaluation of the bioanalytical system was performed.

  18. Cloud point extraction, preconcentration and spectrophotometric determination of nickel in water samples using dimethylglyoxime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Bahram

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A new and simple method for the preconcentration and spectrophotometric determination of trace amounts of nickel was developed by cloud point extraction (CPE. In the proposed work, dimethylglyoxime (DMG was used as the chelating agent and Triton X-114 was selected as a non-ionic surfactant for CPE. The parameters affecting the cloud point extraction including the pH of sample solution, concentration of the chelating agent and surfactant, equilibration temperature and time were optimized. Under the optimum conditions, the calibration graph was linear in the range of 10-150 ng mL-1 with a detection limit of 4 ng mL-1. The relative standard deviation for 9 replicates of 100 ng mL-1 Ni(II was 1.04%. The interference effect of some anions and cations was studied. The method was applied to the determination of Ni(II in water samples with satisfactory results.

  19. First-order derivative spectrophotometric estimation of nabumetone and paracetamol in tablet dosage form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rote, Ambadas R; Bhalerao, Swapnil R

    2011-10-01

    To develop and validate a simple, precise and accurate spectrophotometric method for the simultaneous estimation of nabumetone and paracetamol in their combined tablet dosage form. This method is based on first-order derivative spectroscopy. For determination of sampling wavelengths, each of nabumetone and paracetamol were scanned in the wavelength range of 200-400 nm in the spectrum mode and sampling wavelengths were selected at 261 nm (zero crossing of nabumetone) where paracetamol showed considerable absorbance and at 248.2 nm (zero crossing of paracetamol) where nabumetone showed considerable absorbance. Beer's law obeyed in the concentration range of 3-18 μg/ml for both the drugs. The correlation coefficients were found to be 0.9992 and 0.9998 for nabumetone and paracetamol, respectively. Mean recoveries were found satisfactory. The proposed method can be successfully applied for simultaneous estimation of nabumetone and paracetomol.

  20. Spectrophotometric and HPLC determination of deflazacort in pharmaceutical dosage forms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amarilis Scremin

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Deflazacort (DFZ is a glucocorticoid used as an anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressant drug. No official methods are available for DFZ determination in pharmaceutical formulations. The objective of this study was to develop, validate and compare spectrophotometric (UV and colorimetric and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC methods, for the quantitative determination of DFZ in tablets and oral suspension. For the UV method, ethanol was used as the solvent, with detection at 244 nm. The colorimetric method was based on the redox reaction with blue tetrazolium in alkaline medium, with detection at 524 nm. The method by HPLC was carried out using a C18 column, mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile:water (80:20, v/v with a flow rate of 1.0 mL min-1 and detection at 244 nm. The methods proved linear (r > 0.999, precise (RSD 97%. Statistical analysis of the results indicated that the UV and HPLC methods were statistically equivalent, while the values obtained for the colorimetric method differed significantly from the other methods.O deflazacorte (DFZ é um fármaco glicocorticóide usado como antiinflamatório e imunossupressor. Métodos oficiais não estão disponíveis para a determinação de DFZ em formas farmacêuticas. Este estudo teve como objetivo desenvolver, validar e comparar métodos por espectrofotometria (UV e colorimetria e cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência (CLAE, na determinação quantitativa de DFZ em comprimidos e suspensão oral. O método por UV utilizou etanol como solvente, com detecção em 244 nm. O método colorimétrico foi baseado na reação de redução com azul de tetrazólio em meio alcalino, com detecção em 524 nm. O método por CLAE utilizou coluna C18; fase móvel constituída de acetonitrila:água (80:20, v/v, com fluxo de 1,0 mL min-1 e detecção em 244 nm. Os métodos foram lineares (r > 0,999; precisos (RSD 97%. As análises estatísticas dos resultados obtidos indicaram que os m

  1. When selection ratios are high: predicting the expatriation willingness of prospective domestic entry-level job applicants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mol, S.T.; Born, M.P.; Willemsen, M.E.; van der Molen, H.T.; Derous, E.

    2009-01-01

    High expatriate selection ratios thwart the ability of multinational organizations to select expatriates. Reducing the selection ratio may be accomplished by selecting those applicants for entry level domestic positions who have expatriate aspirations. Regression analyses conducted on data from a

  2. Dynamo Enhancement and Mode Selection Triggered by High Magnetic Permeability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreuzahler, S.; Ponty, Y.; Plihon, N.; Homann, H.; Grauer, R.

    2017-12-01

    We present results from consistent dynamo simulations, where the electrically conducting and incompressible flow inside a cylinder vessel is forced by moving impellers numerically implemented by a penalization method. The numerical scheme models jumps of magnetic permeability for the solid impellers, resembling various configurations tested experimentally in the von Kármán sodium experiment. The most striking experimental observations are reproduced in our set of simulations. In particular, we report on the existence of a time-averaged axisymmetric dynamo mode, self-consistently generated when the magnetic permeability of the impellers exceeds a threshold. We describe a possible scenario involving both the turbulent flow in the vicinity of the impellers and the high magnetic permeability of the impellers.

  3. [Employees in high-reliability organizations: systematic selection of personnel as a final criterion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oubaid, V; Anheuser, P

    2014-05-01

    Employees represent an important safety factor in high-reliability organizations. The combination of clear organizational structures, a nonpunitive safety culture, and psychological personnel selection guarantee a high level of safety. The cockpit personnel selection process of a major German airline is presented in order to demonstrate a possible transferability into medicine and urology.

  4. Development and validation of spectrophotometric method for simultaneous estimation of paracetamol and lornoxicam in different dissolution media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Dasharath M; Sardhara, Bhavesh M; Thumbadiya, Diglesh H; Patel, Chhagan N

    2012-07-01

    Paracetamol and lornoxicam in combined tablet dosage form are available in the market. This combination is used to treat inflammatory diseases of the joints, osteoarthritis and sciatica. Spectrophotometric and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) methods have been reported for their simultaneous estimation in tablet dosage form in specific solvent. This paper presents simple, accurate and reproducible spectrophotometric method for simultaneous determination of paracetamol and lornoxicam in tablet dosage form in different dissolution media. The reported method is helpful in determination of paracetamol and lornoxicam during dissolution study. Simple, sensitive, accurate and economical spectrophotometric method based on an absorption correction equation was developed for the estimation of paracetamol and lornoxicam simultaneously in tablet dosage form in different dissolution media at different pH. Paracetamol showed absorption maxima at 243 nm in 0.1N HCland phosphate buffer pH 6.8, while lornoxicam showed absorption maxima at 374 nm in 0.1N HCland phosphate buffer pH 6.8. The linearity was obtained in the concentration range of 4-12 μg/ml for paracetamol and 4-16 μg/ ml for lornoxicam. The concentrations of the drugs were determined by an absorption correction equation method. The results of analysis have been validated statistically by recovery studies.

  5. Simultaneous derivative spectrophotometric analysis of doxylamine succinate, pyridoxine hydrochloride and folic Acid in combined dosage forms

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pathak, A; Rajput, S J

    2008-01-01

    Two UV spectrophotometric methods have been developed, based on first derivative spectrophotometry for simultaneous estimation of doxylamine succinate, pyridoxine hydrochloride, and folic acid in tablet formulations...

  6. High performance selectively oxidized VCSELs and arrays for parallel high-speed optical interconnects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mederer, Felix; Grabherr, Martin; Eberhard, Franz; Ecker, Irene; Jäger, Roland; Joos, Jürgen; Jung, Chistian; Kicherer, Max; King, Roger; Schnitzer, Peter; Unold, Heiko; Wiedenmann, Dieter; Ebeling, Karl Joachim

    We introduce a new layout for high-bandwidth single-mode selectively oxidized vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) arrays operating at 980 nm or 850 nm emission wavelength for substrate or epitaxial side emission. Coplanar feeding lines and polyimide passivation are used to reduce electrical parasitics in top-emitting GaAs and bottom-emitting InGaAs VCSELs. In order to enhance fundamental single-mode emission for larger devices of reduced series resistance a surface relief transverse mode filter is employed. Fabricated VCSELs are applied in various interconnect schemes. In detail, we demonstrate 2.5 Gb/s pseudo-random data transmission with GaAs VCSELs at an emission wavelength of λ=835 nm over 120 μm core diameter step index plastic-optical fiber (POF) of 2.5 m length. InGaAs quantum-well based VCSELs at 935 nm emission wavelength are investigated for use in perfluorinated graded-index plastic-optical fiber (GI-POF) links. We obtain a 7 Gb/s pseudo random bit sequence (PRBS) non-return-to-zero (NRZ) data transmission over 80 m long 155 μm diameter GI-POF. We investigate data transmission over standard 1300 nm, 9 μm core diameter single-mode fiber using selectively oxidized single-mode GaAs or InGaAs VCSELs. We achieve biased 3 Gb/s and bias-free 1 Gb/s pseudo-random data transmission over 4.3 km at 830 nm emission wavelength where a simple fiber mode filter is used to suppress intermodal dispersion caused by the second order fiber mode. For the first time, we demonstrate 12.5 Gb/s data rate transmission of PRBS signals over 100 m graded-index multimode fiber or 1 km single-mode fiber using high performance single-mode GaAs VCSELs of 12.3 GHz modulation bandwidth emitting at λ=850 nm. Longer wave-length InGaAs VCSELs with emission at λ=1130 nm are used to transmit 2.5 Gb/s signals over 10 km of 9 μm standard fiber. For all data transmission experiments bit-error rates (BER) remain better than 10-11 for transmission of PRBS signals for back

  7. Thermal Expansion Studies of Selected High Temperature Thermoelectric Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravi, Vilupanur; Firdosy, Samad; Caillat, Thierry; Brandon, Erik; Van Der Walde, Keith; Maricic, Lina; Sayir, Ali

    2008-01-01

    Radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs) generate electrical power by converting the heat released from the nuclear decay of radioactive isotopes (typically plutonium-238) into electricity using a thermoelectric converter. RTGs have been successfully used to power a number of space missions and have demonstrated their reliability over an extended period of time (tens of years) and are compact, rugged, radiation resistant, scalable, and produce no noise, vibration or torque during operation. System conversion efficiency for state-of-practice RTGs is about 6% and specific power less than or equal to 5.1 W/kg. Higher specific power would result in more on-board power for the same RTG mass, or less RTG mass for the same on-board power. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory has been leading, under the advanced thermoelectric converter (ATEC) project, the development of new high-temperature thermoelectric materials and components for integration into advanced, more efficient RTGs. Thermoelectric materials investigated to date include skutterudites, the Yb14MnSb11 compound, and SiGe alloys. The development of long-lived thermoelectric couples based on some of these materials has been initiated and is assisted by a thermo-mechanical stress analysis to ensure that all stresses under both fabrication and operation conditions will be within yield limits for those materials. Several physical parameters are needed as input to this analysis. Among those parameters, the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) is critically important. Thermal expansion coefficient measurements of several thermoelectric materials under consideration for ATEC are described in this paper. The stress response at the interfaces in material stacks subjected to changes in temperature is discussed, drawing on work from the literature and project-specific tools developed here. The degree of CTE mismatch and the associated effect on the formation of stress is highlighted.

  8. Spectrophotometric Determination of Nitrate in Vegetables Using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. MIKE HORSFALL

    The method is based on the measurement of the absorbance of yellow sodium nitrophenoxide formed ... The high concentration of nitrogen in soil may lead to ... nitrate-nitrogen. The reaction is quantitative and analogous to that reported by Tanaka et al. (1982). JASEM ISSN 1119-8362. All rights reserved. J. Appl. Sci.

  9. Heterogeneous natural selection on oxidative phosphorylation genes among fishes with extreme high and low aerobic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Feifei; Broughton, Richard E

    2015-08-26

    Oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) is the primary source of ATP in eukaryotes and serves as a mechanistic link between variation in genotypes and energetic phenotypes. While several physiological and anatomical factors may lead to increased aerobic capacity, variation in OXPHOS proteins may influence OXPHOS efficiency and facilitate adaptation in organisms with varied energy demands. Although there is evidence that natural selection acts on OXPHOS genes, the focus has been on detection of directional (positive) selection on specific phylogenetic branches where traits that increase energetic demands appear to have evolved. We examined patterns of selection in a broader evolutionary context, i.e., on multiple lineages of fishes with extreme high and low aerobic performance. We found that patterns of natural selection on mitochondrial OXPHOS genes are complex among fishes with different swimming performance. Positive selection is not consistently associated with high performance taxa and appears to be strongest on lineages containing low performance taxa. In contrast, within high performance lineages, purifying (negative) selection appears to predominate. We provide evidence that selection on OXPHOS varies in both form and intensity within and among lineages through evolutionary time. These results provide evidence for fluctuating selection on OXPHOS associated with divergence in aerobic performance. However, in contrast to previous studies, positive selection was strongest on low performance taxa suggesting that adaptation of OXPHOS involves many factors beyond enhancing ATP production in high performance taxa. The broader pattern indicates a complex interplay between organismal adaptations, ATP demand, and OXPHOS function.

  10. Geomorphological and Spectrophotometric Study of Philae Landing Site A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajola, M.; La Forgia, F.; Giacomini, L.; Oklay, N.; Massironi, M.; Bertini, I.; Simioni, E.; Marzari, F.; Barbieri, C.; Naletto, G.; Groussin, O.; Lazzarin, M.; Scholten, F.; Preusker, F.; Fornasier, S.; Vincent, J. B.; Sierks, H.

    2015-10-01

    On August 6, 2014, the European Space Agency's Rosetta spacecraft started orbiting the Jupiter family comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko (hereafter 67P). Afterwards, the OSIRIS instrument (Optical, Spectroscopic and Infrared Remote Imaging System [1]), got the highest-resolution-ever images of a cometary nucleus, reaching the unprecedented scale of 50 cm/px. A brief description of OSIRIS early analysis on the nucleus structure and activity of 67P is available in [2]. Despite its small dimensions, #4 km diameter, 67P shows a morphological diversity that is still puzzling the cometary community: boulders [3], highreflectivity particle clusters [4], local fracturing [5], pits [6], as well as dust covered terrains [7], are only few examples that can be found on 67P. Since the Rosetta arrival, an extremely detailed analysis of 67P surface has been performed to select five different landing sites candidates for the lander Philae. By using the OSIRIS images the comet shape model [8] has been produced to study the slope constraints, as well as the identification and measurements of boulders and production of hazard maps of the landing spots [3]. A final landing site, called Agilkia and located on the smaller lobe of the comet, was announced on October 15, 2014. Here, Philae, on November 12, 2014, made its historic comet touchdown [9]. Despite its unique scientific potential, one of the five finalists, called "site A", was avoided due to higher risks with respect to Agilkia, during both the landing phase and the surface operations. This area is located on the bigger lobe of the comet, on the Seth region [10] facing the Hathor cliff. Site A (Fig. 1) is close to the 'neck' region, i.e. the connecting bridge between the two lobes, where the main dust jet activity has been observed since the Rosetta arrival. This area is the biggest terrace of Seth region, delimited in the upper part by a steep wall showing multiple niches, strata heads and smaller terraces. Moreover, between the

  11. Spectrophotometric methods for the determination of urea in real samples using silver nanoparticles by standard addition and 2nd order derivative methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Nauman; Ismail, Muhammad; Khan, Adnan; Khan, Hamayun; Haider, Sajjad; Kamal, Tahseen

    2018-01-01

    In this work, we have developed simple, sensitive and inexpensive methods for the spectrophotometric determination of urea in urine samples using silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). The standard addition and 2nd order derivative methods were adopted for this purpose. AgNPs were prepared by chemical reduction of AgNO3 with hydrazine using 1,3-di-(1H-imidazol-1-yl)-2-propanol (DIPO) as a stabilizing agent in aqueous medium. The proposed methods were based on the complexation of AgNPs with urea. Using this concept, urea in the urine samples was successfully determined spectrophotometric methods. The results showed high percent recovery with ± RSD. The recoveries of urea in the three urine samples by spectrophotometric standard addition were 99.2% ± 5.37, 96.3% ± 4.49, 104.88% ± 4.99 and that of spectrophotometric 2nd order derivative method were 115.3% ± 5.2, 103.4% ± 2.6, 105.93% ± 0.76. The results show that these methods can open doors for a potential role of AgNPs in the clinical determination of urea in urine, blood, biological, non-biological fluids.

  12. Spectrophotometric methods for the determination of urea in real samples using silver nanoparticles by standard addition and 2nd order derivative methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Nauman; Ismail, Muhammad; Khan, Adnan; Khan, Hamayun; Haider, Sajjad; Kamal, Tahseen

    2018-01-15

    In this work, we have developed simple, sensitive and inexpensive methods for the spectrophotometric determination of urea in urine samples using silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). The standard addition and 2nd order derivative methods were adopted for this purpose. AgNPs were prepared by chemical reduction of AgNO 3 with hydrazine using 1,3-di-(1H-imidazol-1-yl)-2-propanol (DIPO) as a stabilizing agent in aqueous medium. The proposed methods were based on the complexation of AgNPs with urea. Using this concept, urea in the urine samples was successfully determined spectrophotometric methods. The results showed high percent recovery with ±RSD. The recoveries of urea in the three urine samples by spectrophotometric standard addition were 99.2%±5.37, 96.3%±4.49, 104.88%±4.99 and that of spectrophotometric 2nd order derivative method were 115.3%±5.2, 103.4%±2.6, 105.93%±0.76. The results show that these methods can open doors for a potential role of AgNPs in the clinical determination of urea in urine, blood, biological, non-biological fluids. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Bayesian Variable Selection in High Dimensional Survival Time Cancer Genomic Datasets using Nonlocal Priors

    OpenAIRE

    Nikooienejad, Amir; Wang, Wenyi; Johnson, Valen E.

    2017-01-01

    Variable selection in high dimensional cancer genomic studies has become very popular in the past decade, due to the interest in discovering significant genes pertinent to a specific cancer type. Censored survival data is the main data structure in such studies and performing variable selection for such data type requires certain methodology. With recent developments in computational power, Bayesian methods have become more attractive in the context of variable selection. In this article we i...

  14. Flow injection analysis of some oxidants using spectrophotometric detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Z. AL-Zamil

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A spectrophotometric flow-injection method has been devised for the determination of nanomole quantities of some oxidants i.e. iodate, periodate, permanganate and hydrogen peroxide. The method is based on the oxidation of iron(II to iron(III and the measurement of the absorbance of the red iron(III–thiocyanate complex at 485 nm. The optimal oxidation pH and the linearity ranges of the calibration curves have been investigated. The analytical aspects of the method including the statistical evaluation of the results are discussed. The analysis of some authentic samples showed an average percentage recovery of 99%.

  15. Spectrophotometric determination of nicoumalone, acebutolol hydrochloride and procainamide hydrochloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sastry, C S; Rao, T T; Sailaja, A

    1991-09-01

    A sensitive spectrophotometric method is described for the determination of nicoumalone (NIC), acebutolol hydrochloride (ACBH) or procainamide hydrochloride (PAH) either in pure form or in pharmaceutical formulations. The method is based on the oxidative coupling reaction through the involvement of an aromatic primary amino group (released through reduction in NIC or hydrolysis in ACBH or existing free in PAH) in the drug with 3-methyl-2-benzothiazolinone hydrazone hydrochloride (MBTH) in the presence of ferric chloride [Fe(III)]. The resulting chromophores are measured at 620 nm for NIC and ACBH and 580 nm for PAH. The concentration measurements are reproducible within a relative standard deviation of 1%.

  16. Interaction of diazepam with surfactants. Spectrophotometric and spectrofluorometric study

    Science.gov (United States)

    De La Guardia, M.; Rodilla, F.

    1986-03-01

    The interaction of diazepam with non-ionic, anionic and cationic surfactants has been studied spectrophotometrically and fluorometrically. It has been verified that the absorption spectrum of diazepam is not modified in micellar medium. However, a dramatic five-fold increase in fluorescence sensitivity is observed in the presence of sodium lauryl sulphate (SDS). The experimental conditions, temperature, pH and surfactant concentration have been optimized to improve the fluorometric determination of diazepam and a detection limit of 0,04 ppmhas been obtained.

  17. SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC ESTIMATION OF GEMFIBROZIL IN BULK AND PHARMACEUTICAL DOSAGE FORMS

    OpenAIRE

    Parikh Vikas C.; Karkhanis V.V

    2011-01-01

    A simple, sensitive and accurate UV spectrophotometric method has been developed for the determination of Gemfibrozil in bulk and pharmaceutical tablet dosage formulation. This method obeys Beer’s law in the concentration range of 30-90 µg/ml. with correlation coefficient of 0.9993 and exhibiting maximum absorption at 276 nm with apparent molar absorptivity of 0.1703 × 104 L mole-1 cm-1. The method is accurate and precise and is extended to pharmaceutical tablet dosage forms and there was no ...

  18. Simultaneous UV Spectrophotometric Estimation of Ambroxol Hydrochloride and Levocetirizine Dihydrochloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhu, S. Lakshmana; Shirwaikar, A. A.; Shirwaikar, Annie; Kumar, C. Dinesh; Kumar, G. Aravind

    2008-01-01

    A novel, simple, sensitive and rapid spectrophotometric method has been developed for simultaneous estimation of ambroxol hydrochloride and levocetirizine dihydrochloride. The method involved solving simultaneous equations based on measurement of absorbance at two wavelengths 242 nm and 231 nm, the γ max of ambroxol hydrochloride and levocetirizine dihydrochloride, respectively. Beer's law was obeyed in the concentration range 10–50 μg/ml and 8–24 μg/ml for ambroxol hydrochloride and levocetirizine dihydrochloride respectively. Results of the method were validated statistically and by recovery studies. PMID:20046721

  19. Utilization of spectrophotometric technique in noninvasive detection of hypoxemia impendence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cysewska-Sobusiak, Anna

    1993-09-01

    The spectrophotometric technique used in pulse oximetry makes it possible to measure the oxygen saturation of arterial blood noninvasively and continuously. The accuracy of pulse oximeters tends to decrease during extreme hypoxemia, and so the lowest values of the oxygen saturation can not be evaluated with known error, as yet. Furthermore, it is mostly in this range that many undesirable influences interfere with the measurement reliability. Thus, it can be helpful to observe and analyze what factors and to what extent they affect the applied processing procedures. The author of this paper describes the main results of her studies with the focus on the performances of the device specially made for her research.

  20. First-derivative ultraviolet spectrophotometric and high performance liquid chromatographic determination of ketoconazole in pharmaceutical emulsions Determinação do cetoconazol em emulsões por espectrofotometria no ultravioleta por derivada de primeira ordem e cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Rosa Maria Kedor-Hackmann

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available First-derivative ultraviolet spectrophotometric (Method I and reversed phase high performance liquid chromatographic (Method II methods were developed. The validated methods were applied for quantitative determination of ketoconazole in commercial and simulated emulsion formulations. Quantitative first-derivative UV spectrophotometric determinations were made using the zero-crossing method at 257 nm, with methanol as background solvent. Liquid chromatographic analysis was carried out on a LiChrospher® 100 RP-18 (5µm column. A mixture of triethylamine in methanol (1:500 v/v and 0.5% ammonium acetate solution (75:25 v/v was used as mobile phase at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min with UV detection at 225 nm. The retention time of ketoconazole and terconazole were 3.9 min and 5.9 min, respectively, the later being used as internal standard. Analytical curves were linear within a concentration range from 5.0 to 30.0 µg/mL for Method I and 20.0 to 80.0 µg/mL for Method II, with correlation coefficients of 0.9997 and 0.9981, respectively. The relative standard deviation (RSD was 0.56% and 0.41% for simulated and commercial emulsion formulations, respectively, using Method I. The corresponding values were 2.13% and 1.25%, respectively, using Method II. The percentage recoveries were above 100% for both methods. The excipients did not interfere in the analysis. The results showed that either method can be used for rapid ketoconazole determination in pharmaceutical emulsions with precision, accuracy and specificity.Foram desenvolvidos e padronizados métodos por espectrofotometria no ultravioleta (UV por derivada de primeira ordem (Método I e cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência (CLAE (Método II para a determinação quantitativa de cetoconazol em formulações farmacêuticas sob a forma de emulsão obtida no comércio e formulada em laboratório. A espectrofotometria no UV por derivada de primeira ordem foi padronizada usando-se o método do zero

  1. The Rigorous Evaluation of Spectrophotometric Data to Obtain an Equilibrium Constant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, John R.; Drago, Russell S.

    1982-01-01

    Most students do not know how to determine the equilibrium constant and estimate the error in it from spectrophotometric data that contain experimental errors. This "dry-lab" experiment describes a method that may be used to determine the "best-fit" value of the 1:1 equilibrium constant to spectrophotometric data. (Author/JN)

  2. Spectroradiometric and spectrophotometric translucency of ceramic materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Ho-Nam; Yu, Bin; Lee, Yong-Keun

    2010-10-01

    The spectroradiometer (SR) was introduced as an alternative instrument to the spectrophotometer (SP) for measuring color in dentistry. No published studies were identified on the SR-based translucency of clinically simulated dental ceramics that closely reflect clinical conditions. Furthermore, it is unclear whether there is a correlation between SR- and SP-based translucency values. The purpose of this study was to compare the translucency parameter (TP) of core, veneer, and layered ceramics determined by an SR, and to determine the correlations in TPs measured by an SR and a reflection SP. Seven A2 shade core ceramics and corresponding A2 and A3 shade veneer ceramics were fabricated with a layered thickness of 1.5 mm. The color of core, veneer, and A2- and A3-layered ceramics was measured over white and black backgrounds by an SR with 2 measuring apertures of 2.63 and 5.25 mm in diameter, and also by an SP (n=7). TP values were calculated and the differences in SR (5.25)-based TP values of the layered ceramics were analyzed with 2-way ANOVA with the fixed factors of shade designation and type of ceramic core (α=.05). The influence of the brand on the TP values of core, veneer, and A2- and A3-layered ceramics was also analyzed with 1-way ANOVA. Correlation analysis and paired t test were performed for the SR- and SP-based TP values (α=.05). SR (5.25)-based TP values of layered ceramics ranged from 4.4 to 12.5, and were influenced by the type but not by the shade designation. SR-based TP values of core, veneer, and A2- and A3-layered ceramics were influenced by the brand. SR- and SP-based TP values were highly correlated (r=0.982 to 0.987, Pceramic specimens. TP values measured by the SR and the SP were significantly different but highly correlated. Copyright © 2010 The Editorial Council of the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Spectrophotometric Determination of Losartan Potassium in Tablets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arianne Diane A. Aniñon

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In the quality control of pharmaceutical products, it is of utmost importance that validated analytical methods are used to ensure the credibility of the results generated. At the time of the study, official monographs from the United States Pharmacopeia and National Formulary (USP-NF for the quantification of Losartan potassium in tablets were unavailable, denoting the need for a validated analytical procedure for the analysis of the drug. The study adapted direct and first-derivative UV spectrophotometry methods proposed by Bonfilio and others (2010 for the assay of Losartan potassium in Losartan 50 mg. capsules, then modified and validated the said procedures for the assay of Losartan potassium in Losartan 100 mg. tablets following the International Conference on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use (ICH guidelines on method validation for accuracy, precision, specificity, linearity, limit of detection, and limit of quantitation. Results demonstrated that all the performance characteristics of both methods were highly satisfactory and confirmed the possible application of the methods in routine analysis of Losartan potassium tablets.

  4. Evaluation and Selection of Technology Concepts for a Hypersonic High Speed Standoff Missile

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Roth, Bryce

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes the application of a method for technology concept selection to the design of a hypersonic high-speed standoff missile capable of achieving pin-point strike of long-range targets...

  5. Genetically correlated effects of selective breeding for high and low methamphetamine consumption

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wheeler, J M; Reed, C; Burkhart-Kasch, S; Li, N; Cunningham, C L; Janowsky, A; Franken, F H; Wiren, K M; Hashimoto, J G; Scibelli, A C; Phillips, T J

    2009-01-01

    .... We produced mouse lines that orally self-administer high (MAHDR) or low (MALDR) amounts of methamphetamine, representing the first demonstration of selective breeding for self-administration of any psychostimulant drug...

  6. Reference satellite selection method for GNSS high-precision relative positioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Gao

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Selecting the optimal reference satellite is an important component of high-precision relative positioning because the reference satellite directly influences the strength of the normal equation. The reference satellite selection methods based on elevation and positional dilution of precision (PDOP value were compared. Results show that all the above methods cannot select the optimal reference satellite. We introduce condition number of the design matrix in the reference satellite selection method to improve structure of the normal equation, because condition number can indicate the ill condition of the normal equation. The experimental results show that the new method can improve positioning accuracy and reliability in precise relative positioning.

  7. Selective high-affinity polydentate ligands and methods of making such

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denardo, Sally J.; Denardo, Gerald L.; Balhorn, Rodney L.

    2018-02-06

    This invention provides novel polydentate selective high affinity ligands (SHALs) that can be used in a variety of applications in a manner analogous to the use of antibodies. SHALs typically comprise a multiplicity of ligands that each bind different region son the target molecule. The ligands are joined directly or through a linker thereby forming a polydentate moiety that typically binds the target molecule with high selectivity and avidity.

  8. High Trans Kinetic Selectivity in Ruthenium-Based Olefin Cross-Metathesis through Stereoretention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johns, Adam M; Ahmed, Tonia S; Jackson, Bradford W; Grubbs, Robert H; Pederson, Richard L

    2016-02-19

    The first kinetically controlled, highly trans-selective (>98%) olefin cross-metathesis reaction is demonstrated using Ru-based catalysts. Reactions with either trans or cis olefins afford products with highly trans or cis stereochemistry, respectively. This E-selective olefin cross-metathesis is shown to occur between two trans olefins and between a trans olefin and a terminal olefin. Additionally, new stereoretentive catalysts have been synthesized for improved reactivity.

  9. Validated UV-spectrophotometric method for the evaluation of the efficacy of makeup remover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charoennit, P; Lourith, N

    2012-04-01

    A UV-spectrophotometric method for the analysis of makeup remover was developed and validated according to ICH guidelines. Three makeup removers for which the main ingredients consisted of vegetable oil (A), mineral oil and silicone (B) and mineral oil and water (C) were sampled in this study. Ethanol was the optimal solvent because it did not interfere with the maximum absorbance of the liquid foundation at 250 nm. The linearity was determined over a range of makeup concentrations from 0.540 to 1.412 mg mL⁻¹ (R² = 0.9977). The accuracy of this method was determined by analysing low, intermediate and high concentrations of the liquid foundation and gave 78.59-91.57% recoveries with a relative standard deviation of makeup remover efficacy. © 2011 The Authors. ICS © 2011 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  10. Multi-pumping flow system for the spectrophotometric determination of dipyrone in pharmaceutical preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, José L F C; Oliveira Sá, Sandra M; Santos, João L M; Zagatto, Elias A G

    2003-08-08

    A novel flow system for the spectrophotometric determination of dipyrone with p-dimethylaminobenzaldehyde exploiting the multi-pumping approach was developed. The proposed methodology utilises several micro-pumps for propelling the involved fluids under improved mixing conditions, introducing sample/reagent aliquots and providing commuting facilities. As a consequence the multi-pumping system presents high versatility and manifold simplicity, as well as a straightforward operational control and enhanced analytical capabilities. Linearity of the analytical curve was observed within 10 and 400 mg l(-1) dipyrone (r=0.9997; n=6), results were precise (r.s.d.<0.12%; n=20) and sampling rate was 50 h(-1). Detection limit was estimated as 1 mg l(-1) dipyrone. The method was applied to pharmaceutical preparations and the results were in agreement with those obtained by the reference procedure with relative deviations within -1.7 and +2.2%.

  11. Development and application of spectrophotometric method for the determination of cefaclor in pharmaceutical formulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asad Raza

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple, fast and sensitive spectrophotometric method for the determination of cefaclor in pharmaceutical raw and dosage forms based on reaction with ninhydrin is developed, optimized and validated. The purple color (Ruhemenn's purple that resulted from the reaction was stabilized and measured at 560 nm. Beer's law is obeyed in the concentration range of 4-80 µg mL-1 with molar absorptivity of 1.42 × 10(5 L mole-1 cm-1. All variables including the reagent concentration, heating time, reaction temperature, color stability period, and cefaclor/ninhydrin ratio were studied in order to optimize the reaction conditions. No interference was observed from common pharmaceutical adjuvant. The developed method is easy to use, accurate and highly cost-effective for routine studies relative to HPLC and other techniques.

  12. Novel reagents for the sensitive spectrophotometric determination of flutamide, an anticancer drug in pharmaceutical preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaraja, Padmarajaiah; Arun Kumar, Hassan R; Vasantha, Ramanathapura A; Yathirajan, Hemmige S

    2002-03-20

    Simple and sensitive spectrophotometric methods for the determination of flutamide (FLA) in either pure form or in its pharmaceutical preparations are described. The first method is based on the diazotisation of reduced FLA, followed by coupling with alcoholic iminodibenzyl (IDB) in acid medium to give a purple coloured product having a lambda(max) of 570 nm. In the second method, the diazotisation of reduced FLA followed by coupling with 4-amino-5-hydroxy-2,7-naphthalenedisulphonic acid monosodium salt (AHND) in a buffer medium of pH 12, gives a red coloured product having a lambda(max) of 520 nm. Common excipients used as additives in pharmaceutical preparations do not interfere in the proposed methods. Both the methods are highly reproducible and have been applied to a wide variety of pharmaceutical preparations and the results compare favourably with the reported method.

  13. A rapid spectrophotometric determination of persulfate anion in ISCO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Chenju; Huang, Chiu-Fen; Mohanty, Nihar; Kurakalva, Rama Mohan

    2008-11-01

    Due to a gradual increase in the use of persulfate as an in situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) oxidant, a simple measurement of persulfate concentration is desirable to analyze persulfate distribution at designated time intervals on/off a site. Such a distribution helps evaluate efficacy of ISCO treatment at a site. This work proposes a spectrophotometric determination of persulfate based on modification of the iodometric titration method. The analysis of absorption spectra of a yellow color solution resulting from the reaction of persulfate and iodide in the presence of sodium bicarbonate reveals an absorbance at 352 nm, without significant interferences from the reagent matrix. The calibration graph was linear in the range of persulfate solution concentration of 0-70 mM at 352 nm. The proposed method is validated by the iodometric titration method. The solution pH was at near neutral and the presence of iron activator does not interfere with the absorption measurement. Also, analysis of persulfate in a groundwater sample using the proposed method indicates a good agreement with measurements by the titration method. This proposed spectrophotometric quantification of persulfate provides a simple and rapid method for evaluation of ISCO effectiveness at a remediation site.

  14. Spectrophotometric and spectrofluorimetric methods for determination of Racecadotril.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Nouruddin Wageih; Elghobashy, Mohammed Refaat; Mahmoud, Mohammed Gamal; Mohammed, Mohammed Abdelkawy

    2011-01-01

    Two accurate and sensitive spectrophotometric and spectrofluorimetric methods were developed for determination of Racecadotril. In the first method reduction of Fe3+ into Fe2+ in presence of o-phenanthroline by Racecadotril to form a stable orange-red ferroin chelate [Fe-(Phen)3]2+ was the basis for its determination. The absorbance at 510 nm was measured and linear correlation was obtained in the concentration range of 2.5-25 µg mL(-1). In the second method the native fluorescence of Racecadotril in acetonitrile solvent at λ=319 nm when excitation was at 252 nm is used for its determination. Linear correlation was obtained in the concentration range of 50 to 500 ng mL(-1). The proposed methods were applied for determination of Racecadotril in bulk powder with mean accuracy of 100.39±1.239 for the spectrophotometric method and 100.09±1.042 for the spectrofluorimetric method. The proposed methods were successfully applied for determination of Racecadotril in its pharmaceutical dosage form.

  15. Estimation of citicoline sodium in tablets by difference spectrophotometric method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sagar Suman Panda

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present work deals with development and validation of a novel, precise, and accurate spectrophotometric method for the estimation of citicoline sodium (CTS in tablets. This spectrophotometric method is based on the principle that CTS shows two different forms that differs in the absorption spectra in basic and acidic medium. Materials and Methods: The present work was being carried out on Shimadzu 1800 Double Beam UV-visible spectrophotometer. Difference spectra were generated using 10 mm quartz cells over the range of 200-400 nm. Solvents used were 0.1 M NaOH and 0.1 M HCl. Results: The maxima and minima in the difference spectra of CTS were found to be 239 nm and 283 nm, respectively. Amplitude was calculated from the maxima and minima of spectrum. The drug follows linearity in the range of 1-50 μ/ml (R 2 = 0.999. The average % recovery from the tablet formulation was found to be 98.47%. The method was validated as per International Conference on Harmonization of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use: ICH Q2(R1 Validation of Analytical Procedures: Text and Methodology guidelines. Conclusion: This method is simple and inexpensive. Hence it can be applied for determination of the drug in pharmaceutical dosage forms.

  16. A Simple and Safe Spectrophotometric Method for Iodide Determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermin Sulistyarti

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to practice green chemistry, a simple and safe spectrophotometric method for iodide determination has been successfully developed based on the formation of a blue starch-iodine complex. Iodide was oxidized to form iodine prior to the addition of a starch solution, and the blue starch-iodine complex was directly detected spectrophoto-metrically at a wavelength of 615 nm. The chemical parameters, such as type, reaction time, as well as concentration of oxidizing agents and solution pH were optimized with respect to sensitivity and analysis time. The method showed optimum results under iodate oxidant with a mol ratio of IO3-:I- =1:3, reaction time of 5 minutes, and solution pH of 5. Under these optimum conditions, the method showed linierity measurements from 5-40 mg/L iodide with a correlation (R2 of 0.9889. This technique offers a simple, safe, accurate, and relatively fast method for iodide determination, which is prospective for monitoring iodide samples.

  17. SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC, ATOMIC ABSORPTION AND CONDUCTOMETRIC ANALYSIS OF TRAMADOL HYDROCHLORIDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara M. Anis

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Six simple and sensitive spectroscopic and conductometric procedures (A-F were developed for the determination of tramadol hydrochloride. Methods A, B and C are based on the reaction of cobalt (II thiocyanate with tramadol to form a stable ternary complex, which could be measured by spectrophotometric (method A, atomic absorption (method B or conductometric (method C procedures. Methods D and E depend on the reaction of molybdenum thiocyanate with tramadol to form a stable ternary complex, measured by spectrophotometric means (method D or by atomic absorption procedures (method E, while method F depends on the formation of an ion pair complex between the studied drug and bromothymol blue which is extractable into methylene chloride. Tramadol hydrochloride could be assayed in the range of 80-560 and 40-–220 μg ml-1, 1-15 mg ml-1 and 2.5-22.5, 1.25-11.25 and 5-22 μg ml-1 using methods A,B,C,D,E and F, respectively. Various experimental conditions were studied. The results obtained showed good recoveries. The proposed procedures were applied successfully to the analysis of tramadol in its pharmaceutical preparations and the results were favorably comparable with the official method.

  18. Genome-wide analyses suggest parallel selection for universal traits may eclipse local environmental selection in a highly mobile carnivore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stronen, Astrid Vik; Jędrzejewska, Bogumiła; Pertoldi, Cino; Demontis, Ditte; Randi, Ettore; Niedziałkowska, Magdalena; Borowik, Tomasz; Sidorovich, Vadim E; Kusak, Josip; Kojola, Ilpo; Karamanlidis, Alexandros A; Ozolins, Janis; Dumenko, Vitalii; Czarnomska, Sylwia D

    2015-10-01

    Ecological and environmental heterogeneity can produce genetic differentiation in highly mobile species. Accordingly, local adaptation may be expected across comparatively short distances in the presence of marked environmental gradients. Within the European continent, wolves (Canis lupus) exhibit distinct north-south population differentiation. We investigated more than 67-K single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) loci for signatures of local adaptation in 59 unrelated wolves from four previously identified population clusters (northcentral Europe n = 32, Carpathian Mountains n = 7, Dinaric-Balkan n = 9, Ukrainian Steppe n = 11). Our analyses combined identification of outlier loci with findings from genome-wide association study of individual genomic profiles and 12 environmental variables. We identified 353 candidate SNP loci. We examined the SNP position and neighboring megabase (1 Mb, one million bases) regions in the dog (C. lupus familiaris) genome for genes potentially under selection, including homologue genes in other vertebrates. These regions included functional genes for, for example, temperature regulation that may indicate local adaptation and genes controlling for functions universally important for wolves, including olfaction, hearing, vision, and cognitive functions. We also observed strong outliers not associated with any of the investigated variables, which could suggest selective pressures associated with other unmeasured environmental variables and/or demographic factors. These patterns are further supported by the examination of spatial distributions of the SNPs associated with universally important traits, which typically show marked differences in allele frequencies among population clusters. Accordingly, parallel selection for features important to all wolves may eclipse local environmental selection and implies long-term separation among population clusters.

  19. Kinetic Spectrophotometric Method for Trace Amounts Determination of Bromide in Pharmaceutical Samples Using Janus Green-Bromate System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Reza Shishehbore

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A new simple and rapid kinetic spectrophotometric method has been developed to trace amounts determination of bromide. This method is based on the catalytic effect of bromide on the reaction between Janus Green and bromate in sulfuric acid media. The reaction was followed spectrophotometrically by measuring the absorbance at 618 nm. The fixed-time method was used for the first 210 s. The influence of reagents concentration, temperature and time on the sensitivity was studied. Under optimum experimental conditions, bromide can be determined in the range of 10.0-1800.0 μg/L. The relative standard deviations (n = 10 were 0.22 and 0.19% for 100.0 and 1000.0 g/L of bromide, respectively. The detection limit of the proposed method was 4.1 μg/L. The influence of potential interfering of some ions and biological species on the selectivity was studied. The proposed method was successfully applied for the determination of bromide in pharmaceutical samples. The new developed method was found to have fairly good selectivity, sensitivity, simplicity and rapidity.

  20. Comparison of three spectrophotometric methods for analysis of egg yolk carotenoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, K M S; Schweigert, F J

    2015-04-01

    Carotenoids accumulated in the egg yolk are of importance for two reasons. Firstly they are important pigments influencing customer acceptance and secondly they are essential components with positive health effects either as antioxidants or as precursor of vitamin A. Different analytical methods are available to quantitatively identify carotenoids from egg yolk such as spectrophotometric methods described by AOAC (Association of Official Analytical Chemists) and HPLC (High Performance Liquid Chromatography). Both methods have in common that they are time consuming, need a laboratory environment and well trained technical operators. Recently, a rapid lab-independent spectrophotometric method (iCheck, BioAnalyt GmbH, Germany) has been introduced that claims to be less time consuming and easy to operate. The aim of the current study was therefore to compare the novel method with the two standard methods. Yolks of 80 eggs were analysed as aliquots by the three methods in parallel. While both spectrometric methods are only able measure total carotenoids as total ß-carotene, HPLC enables the determination of individual carotenoids such lutein, zeaxanthin, canthaxanthin, ß-carotene and β-apocarotenoic ester. In general, total carotenoids levels as obtained by AOAC were in average 27% higher than those obtained by HPLC. Carotenoid values obtained by the reference methods AOAC and HPLC are highly correlated with the iCheck method with r(2) of 0.99 and 0.94 for iCheck vs. AOAC and iCheck vs. HPLC, respectively (both panalysis showed that the novel iCheck method is comparable to the reference methods. In conclusion, the novel rapid and portable iCheck method is a valid and effective tool to determine total carotenoid of egg yolk under laboratory-independent conditions with little trained personal. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. A fast and direct spectrophotometric method for the simultaneous determination of methyl paraben and hydroquinone in cosmetic products using successive projections algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteki, M; Nouroozi, S; Shahsavari, Z

    2016-02-01

    To develop a simple and efficient spectrophotometric technique combined with chemometrics for the simultaneous determination of methyl paraben (MP) and hydroquinone (HQ) in cosmetic products, and specifically, to: (i) evaluate the potential use of successive projections algorithm (SPA) to derivative spectrophotometric data in order to provide sufficient accuracy and model robustness and (ii) determine MP and HQ concentration in cosmetics without tedious pre-treatments such as derivatization or extraction techniques which are time-consuming and require hazardous solvents. The absorption spectra were measured in the wavelength range of 200-350 nm. Prior to performing chemometric models, the original and first-derivative absorption spectra of binary mixtures were used as calibration matrices. Variable selected by successive projections algorithm was used to obtain multiple linear regression (MLR) models based on a small subset of wavelengths. The number of wavelengths and the starting vector were optimized, and the comparison of the root mean square error of calibration (RMSEC) and cross-validation (RMSECV) was applied to select effective wavelengths with the least collinearity and redundancy. Principal component regression (PCR) and partial least squares (PLS) were also developed for comparison. The concentrations of the calibration matrix ranged from 0.1 to 20 μg mL(-1) for MP, and from 0.1 to 25 μg mL(-1) for HQ. The constructed models were tested on an external validation data set and finally cosmetic samples. The results indicated that successive projections algorithm-multiple linear regression (SPA-MLR), applied on the first-derivative spectra, achieved the optimal performance for two compounds when compared with the full-spectrum PCR and PLS. The root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) was 0.083, 0.314 for MP and HQ, respectively. To verify the accuracy of the proposed method, a recovery study on real cosmetic samples was carried out with satisfactory

  2. Selective and Regenerative Carbon Dioxide Capture by Highly Polarizing Porous Carbon Nitride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Youngtak; Le, Viet-Duc; Maiti, Uday Narayan; Hwang, Jin Ok; Park, Woo Jin; Lim, Joonwon; Lee, Kyung Eun; Bae, Youn-Sang; Kim, Yong-Hyun; Kim, Sang Ouk

    2015-09-22

    Energy-efficient CO2 capture is a stringent demand for green and sustainable energy supply. Strong adsorption is desirable for high capacity and selective capture at ambient conditions but unfavorable for regeneration of adsorbents by a simple pressure control process. Here we present highly regenerative and selective CO2 capture by carbon nitride functionalized porous reduced graphene oxide aerogel surface. The resultant structure demonstrates large CO2 adsorption capacity at ambient conditions (0.43 mmol·g(-1)) and high CO2 selectivity against N2 yet retains regenerability to desorb 98% CO2 by simple pressure swing. First-principles thermodynamics calculations revealed that microporous edges of graphitic carbon nitride offer the optimal CO2 adsorption by induced dipole interaction and allows excellent CO2 selectivity as well as facile regenerability. This work identifies a customized route to reversible gas capture using metal-free, two-dimensional carbonaceous materials, which can be extended to other useful applications.

  3. Analysis of severe feather pecking behavior in a high feather pecking selection line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Labouriau, R; Kjaer, J B; Abreu, G C G

    2009-01-01

    Even though feather pecking (FP) in laying hens has been extensively studied, a good solution to prevent chickens from this behavior under commercial circumstances has not been found. Selection against FP behavior is possible, but for a more effective selection across different populations......, it is necessary to characterize the genetic mechanism associated with this behavior. In this study, we use a high FP selection line, which has been selected for 8 generations. We present evidence of the presence of a major dominant allele affecting the FP behavior by using an argument based on the presence...... of mixture in the distribution of the observed FP and by studying the evolution of the proportion of very high FP along the sequence of 8 generations. This hypothesis is further supported by the fact that the gene transcription profile of the birds performing high FP differs from the profile of the other...

  4. The feature selection bias problem in relation to high-dimensional gene data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krawczuk, Jerzy; Łukaszuk, Tomasz

    2016-01-01

    Feature selection is a technique widely used in data mining. The aim is to select the best subset of features relevant to the problem being considered. In this paper, we consider feature selection for the classification of gene datasets. Gene data is usually composed of just a few dozen objects described by thousands of features. For this kind of data, it is easy to find a model that fits the learning data. However, it is not easy to find one that will simultaneously evaluate new data equally well as learning data. This overfitting issue is well known as regards classification and regression, but it also applies to feature selection. We address this problem and investigate its importance in an empirical study of four feature selection methods applied to seven high-dimensional gene datasets. We chose datasets that are well studied in the literature-colon cancer, leukemia and breast cancer. All the datasets are characterized by a significant number of features and the presence of exactly two decision classes. The feature selection methods used are ReliefF, minimum redundancy maximum relevance, support vector machine-recursive feature elimination and relaxed linear separability. Our main result reveals the existence of positive feature selection bias in all 28 experiments (7 datasets and 4 feature selection methods). Bias was calculated as the difference between validation and test accuracies and ranges from 2.6% to as much as 41.67%. The validation accuracy (biased accuracy) was calculated on the same dataset on which the feature selection was performed. The test accuracy was calculated for data that was not used for feature selection (by so called external cross-validation). This work provides evidence that using the same dataset for feature selection and learning is not appropriate. We recommend using cross-validation for feature selection in order to reduce selection bias. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Spectrophotometric Study of the Effect of Luting Agents on the Resultant Shade of Ceramic Veneers: An Invitro Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankar, Ajit Suryakant; Kale, Yogesh; Pustake, Swati; Bijjaragi, Shobha; Pustake, Bhushan

    2015-09-01

    Dentistry has found practically the best available aesthetic answer, is ceramic restoration. There are various factors that contribute to the success of ceramic veneers, like colour of underlying tooth, thickness if ceramics and the type of underlying luting cement. Shade selection and matching remains still challenge, however the shade of luting agent used for cementation of veneers produces a change in resultant shade of veneers. To compare and analyze the spectrophotometric effect of opaque and transparent luting agent on resultant shade of ceramic veneers made of 2L1.5 shade (Vitapan 3D-Masters) and B2 shade (Vitapan Classic). Out of 15 ceramic veneers of 2L1.5 shade (VITAPAN 3D- Master), seven teeth cemented with opaque cement and eight teeth with transparent cement shade of dual cure resin cement (Variolink II(TM)). Out of 10 ceramic veneers of B2 shade (VITAPAN Classic), five teeth were cemented with opaque cement and other five teeth with transparent cement shade of dual cure resin cement (Variolink II(TM)). Spectrophotometric (Macbeth U.S.A.) analysis of all ceramic veneer crowns done with optiview software and readings were recorded in Commission Internationale de I' Eclairge {CIELAB} system and dE value was calculated. Statistical analysis was done by using Paired t-test. Spectrophotometric analysis of all the veneers cemented with opaque luting agent were lighter in shade due to significant change in dL value. Veneers cemented with transparent luting agent were darker in shade due to significant change in the dL value. Opaque luting agent gives lighter shade and transparent luting agent gives darker shade to ceramic veneers fabricated with 2L1.5 and B2 shades.

  6. Spectrophotometric Study of the Effect of Luting Agents on the Resultant Shade of Ceramic Veneers: An Invitro Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kale, Yogesh; Pustake, Swati; Bijjaragi, Shobha; Pustake, Bhushan

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Dentistry has found practically the best available aesthetic answer, is ceramic restoration. There are various factors that contribute to the success of ceramic veneers, like colour of underlying tooth, thickness if ceramics and the type of underlying luting cement. Shade selection and matching remains still challenge, however the shade of luting agent used for cementation of veneers produces a change in resultant shade of veneers. Aim To compare and analyze the spectrophotometric effect of opaque and transparent luting agent on resultant shade of ceramic veneers made of 2L1.5 shade (Vitapan 3D-Masters) and B2 shade (Vitapan Classic). Materials and Methods Out of 15 ceramic veneers of 2L1.5 shade (VITAPAN 3D- Master), seven teeth cemented with opaque cement and eight teeth with transparent cement shade of dual cure resin cement (Variolink IITM). Out of 10 ceramic veneers of B2 shade (VITAPAN Classic), five teeth were cemented with opaque cement and other five teeth with transparent cement shade of dual cure resin cement (Variolink IITM). Spectrophotometric (Macbeth U.S.A.) analysis of all ceramic veneer crowns done with optiview software and readings were recorded in Commission Internationale de I’ Eclairge {CIELAB} system and dE value was calculated. Statistical Analysis Statistical analysis was done by using Paired t-test. Results Spectrophotometric analysis of all the veneers cemented with opaque luting agent were lighter in shade due to significant change in dL value. Veneers cemented with transparent luting agent were darker in shade due to significant change in the dL value. Conclusion Opaque luting agent gives lighter shade and transparent luting agent gives darker shade to ceramic veneers fabricated with 2L1.5 and B2 shades. PMID:26501014

  7. New simple spectrophotometric method for determination of the binary mixtures (atorvastatin calcium and ezetimibe; candesartan cilexetil and hydrochlorothiazide in tablets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarek S. Belal

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A new simple spectrophotometric method was developed for the determination of binary mixtures without prior separation. The method is based on the generation of ratio spectra of compound X by using a standard spectrum of compound Y as a divisor. The peak to trough amplitudes between two selected wavelengths in the ratio spectra are proportional to concentration of X without interference from Y. The method was demonstrated by determination of two drug combinations. The first consists of the two antihyperlipidemics: atorvastatin calcium (ATV and ezetimibe (EZE, and the second comprises the antihypertensives: candesartan cilexetil (CAN and hydrochlorothiazide (HCT. For mixture 1, ATV was determined using 10 μg/mL EZE as the divisor to generate the ratio spectra, and the peak to trough amplitudes between 231 and 276 nm were plotted against ATV concentration. Similarly, by using 10 μg/mL ATV as divisor, the peak to trough amplitudes between 231 and 276 nm were found proportional to EZE concentration. Calibration curves were linear in the range 2.5–40 μg/mL for both drugs. For mixture 2, divisor concentration was 7.5 μg/mL for both drugs. CAN was determined using its peak to trough amplitudes at 251 and 277 nm, while HCT was estimated using the amplitudes between 251 and 276 nm. The measured amplitudes were linearly correlated to concentration in the ranges 2.5–50 and 1–30 μg/mL for CAN and HCT, respectively. The proposed spectrophotometric method was validated and successfully applied for the assay of both drug combinations in several laboratory-prepared mixtures and commercial tablets. Keywords: Spectrophotometric analysis, Ratio spectra, Atorvastatin, Ezetimibe, Candesartan, Hydrochlorothiazide

  8. Silica-titania xerogel doped with Mo,P-heteropoly compounds for solid phase spectrophotometric determination of ascorbic acid in fruit juices, pharmaceuticals, and synthetic urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morosanova, Maria A; Morosanova, Elena I

    2017-01-01

    Ascorbic acid is one of the most important vitamins to monitor in dietary sources (juices and vitamins) and biological liquids. Silica and silica-titania xerogels doped with Mo,P-heteropoly compounds (HPC) have been synthesized varying titanium(IV) and HPC content in sol. Their surface area and porosity have been studied with nitrogen adsorption and scanning electron microscopy, their elemental composition has been studied with energy-dispersive X-ray analysis. The redox properties of the sensor material with sufficient porosity and maximal HPC content have been studied with potentiometry and solid phase spectrophotometry and it has been used for solid phase spectrophotometric determination of ascorbic acid. The proposed method is characterized by good selectivity, simple probe pretreatment and broad analytical range (2-200 mg/L, LOD 0.7 mg/L) and has been applied to the analysis of fruit juices, vitamin tablets, and synthetic urine. New sensor material has been used for simple and selective solid phase spectrophotometric procedure of ascorbic acid determination in fruit juices, vitamin tablets, and synthetic urine.Graphical abstractWe synthesized several silica-titania xerogels doped with Mo,P-heteropoly compounds, studied their properties, and designed the sensor material for solid phase spectrophotometric determination of ascorbic acid in fruit juices, pharmaceuticals, and synthetic urine.

  9. High-throughput screening to identify selective inhibitors of microbial sulfate reduction (and beyond)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, H. K.; Coates, J. D.; Deutschbauer, A. M.

    2015-12-01

    The selective perturbation of complex microbial ecosystems to predictably influence outcomes in engineered and industrial environments remains a grand challenge for geomicrobiology. In some industrial ecosystems, such as oil reservoirs, sulfate reducing microorganisms (SRM) produce hydrogen sulfide which is toxic, explosive and corrosive. Current strategies to selectively inhibit sulfidogenesis are based on non-specific biocide treatments, bio-competitive exclusion by alternative electron acceptors or sulfate-analogs which are competitive inhibitors or futile/alternative substrates of the sulfate reduction pathway. Despite the economic cost of sulfidogenesis, there has been minimal exploration of the chemical space of possible inhibitory compounds, and very little work has quantitatively assessed the selectivity of putative souring treatments. We have developed a high-throughput screening strategy to target SRM, quantitatively ranked the selectivity and potency of hundreds of compounds and identified previously unrecognized SRM selective inhibitors and synergistic interactions between inhibitors. Once inhibitor selectivity is defined, high-throughput characterization of microbial community structure across compound gradients and identification of fitness determinants using isolate bar-coded transposon mutant libraries can give insights into the genetic mechanisms whereby compounds structure microbial communities. The high-throughput (HT) approach we present can be readily applied to target SRM in diverse environments and more broadly, could be used to identify and quantify the potency and selectivity of inhibitors of a variety of microbial metabolisms. Our findings and approach are relevant for engineering environmental ecosystems and also to understand the role of natural gradients in shaping microbial niche space.

  10. Mixed models for selection of Jatropha progenies with high adaptability and yield stability in Brazilian regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teodoro, P E; Bhering, L L; Costa, R D; Rocha, R B; Laviola, B G

    2016-08-19

    The aim of this study was to estimate genetic parameters via mixed models and simultaneously to select Jatropha progenies grown in three regions of Brazil that meet high adaptability and stability. From a previous phenotypic selection, three progeny tests were installed in 2008 in the municipalities of Planaltina-DF (Midwest), Nova Porteirinha-MG (Southeast), and Pelotas-RS (South). We evaluated 18 families of half-sib in a randomized block design with three replications. Genetic parameters were estimated using restricted maximum likelihood/best linear unbiased prediction. Selection was based on the harmonic mean of the relative performance of genetic values method in three strategies considering: 1) performance in each environment (with interaction effect); 2) performance in each environment (with interaction effect); and 3) simultaneous selection for grain yield, stability and adaptability. Accuracy obtained (91%) reveals excellent experimental quality and consequently safety and credibility in the selection of superior progenies for grain yield. The gain with the selection of the best five progenies was more than 20%, regardless of the selection strategy. Thus, based on the three selection strategies used in this study, the progenies 4, 11, and 3 (selected in all environments and the mean environment and by adaptability and phenotypic stability methods) are the most suitable for growing in the three regions evaluated.

  11. A visual method for direct selection of high-producing Pichia pastoris clones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Sheng

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The methylotrophic yeast, Pichia pastoris, offers the possibility to generate a high amount of recombinant proteins in a fast and easy way to use expression system. Being a single-celled microorganism, P. pastoris is easy to manipulate and grows rapidly on inexpensive media at high cell densities. A simple and direct method for the selection of high-producing clones can dramatically enhance the whole production process along with significant decrease in production costs. Results A visual method for rapid selection of high-producing clones based on mannanase reporter system was developed. The study explained that it was possible to use mannanase activity as a measure of the expression level of the protein of interest. High-producing target protein clones were directly selected based on the size of hydrolysis holes in the selected plate. As an example, the target gene (9elp-hal18 was expressed and purified in Pichia pastoris using this technology. Conclusions A novel methodology is proposed for obtaining the high-producing clones of proteins of interest, based on the mannanase reporter system. This system may be adapted to other microorganisms, such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae for the selection of clones.

  12. Spectrophotometric and spectrofluorimetric methods for the determination of saxagliptin and vildagliptin in bulk and pharmaceutical preparations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marwa S. Moneeb

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available New simple and sensitive spectrophotometric and spectrofluorimetric methods have been developed and validated for the determination of saxagliptin (SAX and vildagliptin (VDG in bulk and pharmaceutical preparations. The spectrophotometric methods were based on derivatization of the investigated drugs with two reagents: 1,2-naphthoquinone-4-sulfonic acid sodium salt (NQS and 4-chloro-7-nitrobenzofurazan (NBD-Cl. For further increase in the sensitivity, the D1 spectra of the reactions products were also recorded. For NQS reaction, Beer’s law was obeyed over the ranges of 5–30 and 7–45 μg mL−1 for the absorbance readings; and 3–32 and 5–50 μg mL−1 for the derivative readings of SAX and VDG, respectively. For NBD-Cl reaction, Beer’s law was obeyed over the ranges of 3–20 and 4.5–35 μg mL−1 for the absorbance readings; and 1.5–25 and 2.5–40 μg mL−1 for the derivative readings of SAX and VDG, respectively. Spectrofluorimetric methods were developed based on the fact that the derivatized investigated drugs with NBD-Cl reagent are highly fluorescent products. The fluorescence concentration plots were linear over the ranges of 0.02–0.25 and 0.03–0.37 μg mL−1 for SAX and VDG, respectively. The fluorescence measurement enabled the detection of SAX and VDG at concentrations of about 3 and 7 ng mL−1, respectively. The proposed methods have been validated and successfully applied to the determination of the investigated drugs in their pharmaceutical preparations. The results obtained were statistically compared to those obtained from reference methods.

  13. Spectrophotometric Determination of Some Fluoroquinolone Antibacterials through Charge-transfer and Ion-pair Complexation Reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Brashy, Amina Mohamed; El-Sayed Metwally Mohamed; El-Sepai, Fawzi Abdallah [University of Mansoura, Mansoura (Egypt)

    2004-03-15

    Two simple, rapid and sensitive spectrophotometric methods for the determination of three fluoroquinolones, namely levofloxacin, norfloxacin and ciprofloxacin have been performed either in pure form or in their tablets. In the first method, levofloxacin and norfloxacin are directly treated with bromocresol green (BCG) in dichloromethane while ciprofloxacin is allowed to react with the same dye in aqueous acidic buffer. Highly yellow colored complex species were formed instantaneously in case of levofloxacin and norfloxacin or after extraction into dichloromethane for ciprofloxacin. The formed complexes are quantified spectrophotometrically at their absorption maxima at 411 nm for levofloxacin and 412 nm for norfloxacin and ciprofloxacin. The second method involves the reaction of levofloxacin with {rho}-chloranilic acid ({rho}-CA) and norfloxacin with tetracyanoethylene (TCNE) in acetonitrile to give complexes with maximum absorbance at 521 and 333 nm for the two drugs, respectively. Adopting the first procedure, calibration graphs were linear over the range 1- 20 {mu}g mL{sup .1} with mean percentage recoveries of 100.41 {+-} 0.72, 99.99 {+-} 0.54 and 100.23 {+-} 0.91 for the three drugs, respectively. For the second procedure, the concentration ranges were 15-250 {mu}g mL{sup .1} for levofloxacin using {rho}-CA and 0.8-16 {mu}g mL{sup .1} for norfloxacin using TCNE with mean percentage recoveries of 99.88 {+-} 0.45 and 100.26 {+-} 0.68 for the two drugs, respectively. The proposed methods were successfully applied to determine these drugs in their tablet formulations and the results compared favorably to that of reference methods. The proposed methods are recommended for quality control and routine analysis

  14. High-paraffinaceous oil as a disperse system: The selection of a flow equation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matveenko, V.N.; Kirsanov, E.S.; Remizov, S.V. [Moscow State Univ. (Russian Federation)

    1994-05-01

    The rheological properties of high-paraffinaceous oil were studied for different preliminary mechanical treatments of the samples. The flow curves were analyzed by different rheological models. The selection of Casson`s model for the range of high shear velocities was proven.

  15. Nutrition Information at the Point of Selection in High Schools Does Not Affect Purchases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainville, Alice Jo; Choi, Kyunghee; Ragg, Mark; King, Amber; Carr, Deborah H.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: Nutrition information can be an important component of local wellness policies. There are very few studies regarding nutrition information at the point of selection (POS) in high schools. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of posting entree nutrition information at the POS in high schools nationwide.…

  16. Assessment System for Junior High Schools in Taiwan to Select Environmental Education Facilities and Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Shyue-Yung; Chen, Wen-Te; Hsu, Wei-Ling

    2017-01-01

    Environmental education is essential for people to pursue sustainable development. In Taiwan, environmental education is taught to students until they graduate from junior high school. This study was conducted to establish an assessment system for junior high schools to select appropriate environmental education facilities and sites. A mix of…

  17. Inference for feature selection using the Lasso with high-dimensional data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brink-Jensen, Kasper; Ekstrøm, Claus Thorn

    2014-01-01

    that involve various effects strengths and correlation between predictors. The algorithm is also applied to a prostate cancer dataset that has been analyzed in recent papers on the subject. The proposed method is found to provide a powerful way to make inference for feature selection even for small samples......Penalized regression models such as the Lasso have proved useful for variable selection in many fields - especially for situations with high-dimensional data where the numbers of predictors far exceeds the number of observations. These methods identify and rank variables of importance but do...... not generally provide any inference of the selected variables. Thus, the variables selected might be the "most important" but need not be significant. We propose a significance test for the selection found by the Lasso. We introduce a procedure that computes inference and p-values for features chosen...

  18. Natural Selection on Genes Related to Cardiovascular Health in High-Altitude Adapted Andeans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Jacob E; Amaru, Ricardo; Song, Jihyun; Julian, Colleen G; Racimo, Fernando; Cheng, Jade Yu; Guo, Xiuqing; Yao, Jie; Ambale-Venkatesh, Bharath; Lima, João A; Rotter, Jerome I; Stehlik, Josef; Moore, Lorna G; Prchal, Josef T; Nielsen, Rasmus

    2017-11-02

    The increase in red blood cell mass (polycythemia) due to the reduced oxygen availability (hypoxia) of residence at high altitude or other conditions is generally thought to be beneficial in terms of increasing tissue oxygen supply. However, the extreme polycythemia and accompanying increased mortality due to heart failure in chronic mountain sickness most likely reduces fitness. Tibetan highlanders have adapted to high altitude, possibly in part via the selection of genetic variants associated with reduced polycythemic response to hypoxia. In contrast, high-altitude-adapted Quechua- and Aymara-speaking inhabitants of the Andean Altiplano are not protected from high-altitude polycythemia in the same way, yet they exhibit other adaptive features for which the genetic underpinnings remain obscure. Here, we used whole-genome sequencing to scan high-altitude Andeans for signals of selection. The genes showing the strongest evidence of selection-including BRINP3, NOS2, and TBX5-are associated with cardiovascular development and function but are not in the response-to-hypoxia pathway. Using association mapping, we demonstrated that the haplotypes under selection are associated with phenotypic variations related to cardiovascular health. We hypothesize that selection in response to hypoxia in Andeans could have vascular effects and could serve to mitigate the deleterious effects of polycythemia rather than reduce polycythemia itself. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Simple and highly Z-selective ruthenium-based olefin metathesis catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Occhipinti, Giovanni; Hansen, Fredrik R; Törnroos, Karl W; Jensen, Vidar R

    2013-03-06

    A one-step substitution of a single chloride anion of the Grubbs-Hoveyda second-generation catalyst with a 2,4,6-triphenylbenzenethiolate ligand resulted in an active olefin metathesis catalyst with remarkable Z selectivity, reaching 96% in metathesis homocoupling of terminal olefins. High turnover numbers (up to 2000 for homocoupling of 1-octene) were obtained along with sustained appreciable Z selectivity (>85%). Apart from the Z selectivity, many properties of the new catalyst, such as robustness toward oxygen and water as well as a tendency to isomerize substrates and react with internal olefin products, resemble those of the parent catalyst.

  20. Near-infrared light controlled photocatalytic activity of carbon quantum dots for highly selective oxidation reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haitao; Liu, Ruihua; Lian, Suoyuan; Liu, Yang; Huang, Hui; Kang, Zhenhui

    2013-03-01

    Selective oxidation of alcohols is a fundamental and significant transformation for the large-scale production of fine chemicals, UV and visible light driven photocatalytic systems for alcohol oxidation have been developed, however, the long wavelength near infrared (NIR) and infrared (IR) light have not yet fully utilized by the present photocatalytic systems. Herein, we reported carbon quantum dots (CQDs) can function as an effective near infrared (NIR) light driven photocatalyst for the selective oxidation of benzyl alcohol to benzaldehyde. Based on the NIR light driven photo-induced electron transfer property and its photocatalytic activity for H2O2 decomposition, this metal-free catalyst could realize the transformation from benzyl alcohol to benzaldehyde with high selectivity (100%) and conversion (92%) under NIR light irradiation. HO&z.rad; is the main active oxygen specie in benzyl alcohol selective oxidative reaction confirmed by terephthalic acid photoluminescence probing assay (TA-PL), selecting toluene as the substrate. Such metal-free photocatalytic system also selectively converts other alcohol substrates to their corresponding aldehydes with high conversion, demonstrating a potential application of accessing traditional alcohol oxidation chemistry.Selective oxidation of alcohols is a fundamental and significant transformation for the large-scale production of fine chemicals, UV and visible light driven photocatalytic systems for alcohol oxidation have been developed, however, the long wavelength near infrared (NIR) and infrared (IR) light have not yet fully utilized by the present photocatalytic systems. Herein, we reported carbon quantum dots (CQDs) can function as an effective near infrared (NIR) light driven photocatalyst for the selective oxidation of benzyl alcohol to benzaldehyde. Based on the NIR light driven photo-induced electron transfer property and its photocatalytic activity for H2O2 decomposition, this metal-free catalyst could realize

  1. Study on the Solid Phase Extraction and Spectrophotometric ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NJD

    thiorhodanine (ABTR) as a new chromogenic reagent for the determination of mercury. Based on the rapid reaction of mercury(II) with ABTR and the solid phase extraction of the coloured chelate with a C18 disk, a highly sensitive, selective and ...

  2. Polybenzimidazole-based mixed membranes with exceptional high water vapor permeability and selectivity

    KAUST Repository

    Akhtar, Faheem Hassan

    2017-09-13

    Polybenzimidazole (PBI), a thermal and chemically stable polymer, is commonly used to fabricate membranes for applications like hydrogen recovery at temperatures of more than 300 °C, fuel cells working in a highly acidic environment, and nanofiltration in aggressive solvents. This report shows for the first time use of PBI dense membranes for water vapor/gas separation applications. They showed an excellent selectivity and high water vapor permeability. Incorporation of inorganic hydrophilic titanium-based nano-fillers into the PBI matrix further increased the water vapor permeability and water vapor/N2 selectivity. The most selective mixed matrix membrane with 0.5 wt% loading of TiO2 nanotubes yielded a water vapor permeability of 6.8×104 Barrer and a H2O/N2 selectivity of 3.9×106. The most permeable membrane with 1 wt% loading of carboxylated TiO2 nanoparticles had a 7.1×104 Barrer water vapor permeability and a H2O/N2 selectivity of 3.1×106. The performance of these membranes in terms of water vapor transport and selectivity is among the highest reported ones. The remarkable ability of PBI to efficiently permeate water versus other gases opens the possibility to fabricate membranes for dehumidification of streams in harsh environments. This includes the removal of water from high temperature reaction mixtures to shift the equilibrium towards products.

  3. Determination of lisinopril in pharmaceuticals by a kinetic spectrophotometric method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čakar Mira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A kinetic spectrophotometric method for determination of lisinopril in pharmaceuticals has been developed. The method is based on activator action of lisinopril on Cu(II ions catalysing the oxidation of nile blue A with hydrogen peroxide in borate buffer (pH 9.3. A decrease of the absorbance was recorded at 635 nm for 5 min at 25°C. The linearity was established applying the tangent method within the concentration range of lisinopril from 0.8-6.4 μg mL-1, the detection and quantification limits being 0.158 μg mL-1 and 0.480 μg mL-1, respectively. The method has been successfully applied in three brands of tablets containing lisinopril alone or in combination with hydrochlorothiazide.

  4. Spectrophotometric flow-injection determination of nickel in biological materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicente, Simone; Maniasso, Nelson; Queiroz, Zilvanir F; Zagatto, Elias A G

    2002-05-24

    A flow-injection procedure is proposed for the spectrophotometric determination of nickel in plants and foodstuffs using 2-(5-brom-2-pyridylazo)-5-(diethylamino)-phenol (Br-PADAP) as colour-forming reagent. Tolerance to the presence of potential interferants is enhanced by adding sodium pyrophosphate to the reaction medium and by coupling a C(18) mini-column with immobilised 1-(2-thiazolylazo)-2-naphthol to the manifold. Linearity of the analytical curve is observed within 0.025 and 0.50 mgl(-1) Ni (r=0.9997, n=8), and detection limit is 17 mugl(-1) Ni. Precise results (r.s.d. approximately 1%) in agreement with certified values of standard reference materials are obtained at a sampling rate of 90 h(-1) that means 0.47 mug Br-PADAP per determination.

  5. Spectrophotometric flow-injection determination of sulphate in soil solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneses, Silvia R P; Maniasso, Nelson; Zagatto, Elias A G

    2005-03-15

    A flow-injection procedure for spectrophotometric determination of sulphate in soil solutions is proposed. Samples are directly soaked from the soils under field conditions, in-line filtered through ceramic plates, and preserved with thymol. The method involves reaction with barium dimethylsulphonazo(III) (DMSA) in the presence of dimethylsulphoxide (DMSO) with further measuring the decrease in absorbance at 668nm. A linear response is observed up to about 5mgl(-1) SO(4), and detection limit (3sigma criterion) is 0.1mgl(-1) SO(4). Only 4.5mug DMSA is consumed per determination. The system is rugged and baseline drift is not observed during extended operation periods. About 60 samples are injected per hour, and the results are precise (r.s.d. <2%) and in agreement with ion chromatography.

  6. Derivative spectrophotometric method for determination of acyclovir in polymeric nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Diniz Tavares

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A derivative spectrophotometric method was validated for quantification of acyclovir in poly (n-butylcyanoacrylate (PBCA nanoparticles. Specificity, linearity, precision, accuracy, recovery, detection (LOD and quantification (LOQ limits were established for method validation. First-derivative at 295.2 nm eliminated interferences from nanoparticle ingredients and presented linearity for acyclovir concentrations ranging from 1.25 to 40.0 µg/mL (r = 0.9999. Precision and accuracy data demonstrated good reproducibility. Recovery ranged from 99.3 to 101.2. LOD was 0.08 µg/mL and LOQ, 0.25 µg/mL. Thus, the proposed method proved to be easy, low cost, and accurate, and therefore, an useful alternative to quantify acyclovir in nanoparticles.

  7. Polarographic and Spectrophotometric Study of Lead Complexes with Diethanoldithiocarbamate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marques A.L.B.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Experimental and theoretical aspects concerning the behaviour of lead-dietanoldithiocarbamate complexes in aqueous solutions were studied. The reaction occurs through complexation and formation of a yellow precipitate, which is soluble in ligand excess and in some polar solvents. The results from elementary and gravimetric analyses show a stoichiometric relationship of 1:2 (Pb(II: DEDC. Some ambiguous interpretations have been clarified on the application in this system of Lingane?s equation. Polarographic measurements were used to determine the coordination number (@ 3.0 and overall formation constant betaMLn (@ 4 x 10(16, of the lead complexes with ammonium diethanoldithiocarbamate, which show a good agreement with previous potentiometric results for the same system. A kinetic-spectrophotometric study was carried out in order to establish the decomposition of these complexes in acid medium.

  8. SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC STUDIES OF SANGUINARINE-Β-CYCLODEXTRIN COMPLEX FORMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veaceslav Boldescu

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this study was to investigate the influence of pH and the presence of hydrophilic polymer polyvinylpyrrolidone on the formation of sanguinarine-β-cyclodextrin (SANG-β-CD inclusion complex. Spectrophotometric studies of the SANG-β-CD systems in the presence and without 0.1 % PVP at the pH 5.0 did not show any evidence of the complex formation. However, the same systems showed several obvious evidences at the pH 8.0: the hyperchromic and the hypochromic effects and the presence of the isosbestic point in the region of 200 – 210 nm. The association constants calculated by three linear methods: Benesi-Hildebrand, Scott and Scatchard, were two times higher for the systems with addition of 0.1% PVP than for the systems without it.

  9. Spectrophotometric Methods for the Assay of Fluvoxamine Using Chromogenic Reagents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Annapurna

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Simple, accurate and reproducible UV-Visible spectrophotometric methods were established for the assay of FXA based on the oxidative coupling and condensation reactions. Condensation and coupling of the FXA with Ninhydrin-Ascorbic acid is proposed in method A. Method B includes complexation of FXA with cobalt thiocyanate. The ligating property of FXA with sodium nitro prusside is incorporated in method C. The optical characteristics such as Beers law limits, molar absorptivity and Sandell’s sensitivity for the methods (A-C are given. Regression analysis using the method of least squares was made to evaluate the slope(b, intercept(a and correlation coefficient (r and standard error of estimation (Se for each system. Determination of FXA in bulk form and in pharmaceutical formulations were also incorporated.

  10. Spectrophotometric determination of tadalafil in pure and dosage forms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALI AL KAF

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Two simple, rapid, and extractive spectrophotometric methods were developed for the determination of tadalafil (TDF in both pure and tablet dosage form. These methods are based on the formation of ion-pair complexes between the basic nitrogen of the drug with bromocresol purple (BCP and methyl orange (MO in acidic buffer solution. The formed complexes were extracted with chloroform and measured at 410 and 425 nm using BCP and MO, respectively. Beer’s law was obeyed in the range 2.0–20 μg mL−1 with correlation coefficient (n = 6 ≥0.9996. The molar absorptivity, Sandell sensitivity, detection and quantification limits were also calculated. The composition of the ion pairs was found 1:1 by Job’s method. The proposed methods have been applied successfully for the analysis of TDF in pure and in its dosage forms. These developed methods were validated for accuracy and precision.

  11. Extractive Spectrophotometric Methods for the Determination of Etoricoxib in Tablets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamal Shah

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Two simple, rapid, sensitive, precise and economic spectrophotometric methods have been developed for the estimation of etoricoxib in tablet formulation. During the course of study, it was observed that acidic solution of the drug formed colored ion-association complexes with Bromocresol Green (BCG and Bromocresol Purple (BCP which were soluble in chloroform. This property of the drug was followed for the development of colorimetric methods for analysis of drug. The complex of etoricoxib with BCG and BCP showed λmax at 416 nm and 408 nm respectively. These methods were validated statistically. Recovery studies gave satisfactory results indicating that none of common additives and excipients interfere the assay method. The proposed methods are found to be simple, accurate and reproducible that was successfully applied for the analysis of tablet formulation.

  12. Extraction spectrophotometric method for determination of aluminium in silicates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, N L; Sinha, B C

    1990-10-01

    A simple, rapid and sensitive method has been worked out for spectrophotometric determination of macro and micro amounts of alumina in ceramic raw materials and finished products, including glasses. The method is based on the extraction of aluminum oxinate into chloroform after masking of titanium with chromotropic acid and of iron with ascorbic acid and 1,10-phenanthroline or ferrocyanide at pH 5.2. The absorbance is measured at 385 nm. Interference by Cu, Zn, Cd, Ni and Co, when present, is overcome by stripping them as cyanide complexes by shaking the chloroform extract with potassium cyanide solution. Zr is masked with quinalizarin sulphonic acid and fluoride with BeSO(4).

  13. Spectrophotometric determination of some penicillins with ammonium vanadate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, el-S A; Beltagy, Y A; El-Khalek, M M

    1977-05-01

    A spectrophotometric method for determining some penicillins has been developed. A known volume of the penicillin solution-in phosphate buffer of pH 6.8 is boiled with ammonium vanadate solution-in sulphuric acid medium-for 10 min and the absorbance of the colour formed is measured at 750 nm. The excess of vanadate can also be determined volumetrically. The method has been successfully applied for the determination of penicillin G sodium, phenoxymethyl penicillin, ampicillin sodium, phenethicillin potassium, cloxacillin sodium and methicillin sodium. The procedure is also used for analysing some pharmaceutical preparations of these drugs, e.g., injections. The results obtained are in agreement with those of the B P 1973 methods.

  14. Automated determination of uranium(VI) at ultra trace levels exploiting flow techniques and spectrophotometric detection using a liquid waveguide capillary cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avivar, Jessica; Ferrer, Laura; Cerda, Victor [University of the Balearic Islands, Chemistry Department, Palma (Spain); Casas, Montserrat [University of the Balearic Islands Cra, Physics Department and IFISC-CSIC, Palma (Spain)

    2010-05-15

    Rapid and fully automated multisyringe flow-injection analysis (MSFIA) with a multi-pumping flow system (MPFS) coupled to a long path-length liquid waveguide capillary cell (LWCC) is proposed for the determination of uranium(VI) at ultra trace levels. On-line separation and pre-concentration of uranium is carried out by means of a TRU resin. After elution, uranium(VI) is spectrophotometrically detected after reaction with arsenazo-III. Combination of the MSFIA and MPFS techniques with the TRU-resin enables the analysis to be performed in a short time, using large sample volumes and achieving high selectivity and sensitivity levels. A detection limit of 12.6 ng L{sup -1} (ppt) is reached for a 100-mL sample volume. The versatility of the proposed method also enables pre-concentration of variable sample volumes, enabling application of the analysis to a wide concentration range. Reproducibility of better than 5% and a resin durability of 40 injections should be emphasized. The developed method was successfully applied to different types of environmental sample matrices with recoveries between 95 and 108%. (orig.)

  15. A novel spectrophotometric method for the determination of copper ion by using a salophen ligand, N,N′-disalicylidene-2,3-diaminopyridine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Könül Babayeva

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a novel, selective and highly sensitive spectrophotometric method has been developed for the determination of copper(II by using a new chromogenic reagent N,N′-bissalicylidene-2,3-diaminopyridine (H2IF. The absorbance was measured at λmax = 414 nm. Experimental conditions were optimized, and Beer’s law was observed in the concentration range of 6.35–318 μg L−1 of copper. The molar absorptivity of the complex was calculated and found to be 1.46 × 105 L mol−1 cm−1. The detection and quantification limits were calculated and found to be 6.38 μg L−1 and 21.27 μg L−1, respectively. The calculated relative standard deviation (n = 5 was 0.62% for a standard solution including 63.5 μg L−1 copper(II. The interference effects of the common ions have been studied and the statistical assessment of the obtained results is presented. The developed method was applied for the determination of copper in water samples. The reliability and accuracy of the developed method was proven by the analysis of a waste water standard.

  16. Spectrophotometric determination of the sulfhydryl containing drug mesna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rim S. Haggag

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Four simple and sensitive spectrophotometric methods were developed for the determination of the sulfhydryl containing drug mesna (MSN. Methods I and II rely on nucleophilic aromatic substitution reactions using two UV tagging reagents namely: 4-chloro-7-nitrobenzo-2-oxa-1,3-diazole (NBD-Cl for method I and 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene (DNFB for method II. Both reactions took place in alkaline buffered medium and the obtained yellowish products were measured at 414 and 332 nm for methods I and II, respectively. Methods III and IV are indirect spectrophotometric methods based on the suppressive effect of MSN on the absorption of two ternary complex systems which are composed of 1,10-phenanthroline, silver and eosin for method III and 1,10-phenanthroline, silver and bromopyrogallol red for method IV. The decrease in absorbance of the ternary complexes was measured at 547 and 635 nm for methods III and IV, respectively. All the experimental parameters affecting these reactions were carefully studied and optimized. The methods were validated as per the ICH guidelines. The methods were applicable in the linearity ranges 4–18 μg/mL for method I, 4–16 μg/mL for method II, 0.25–2.25 μg/mL for method III and 0.25–1.75 μg/mL for method IV. The proposed methods were successfully applied for the analysis of MSN in its commercial ampoules and no interference was encountered from the present excipients as indicated by the satisfactory percentage recoveries. The results obtained were in a good agreement with those obtained from a previously published method of the investigated drug.

  17. Simple and sensitive spectrophotometric methods for determination of amantadine hydrochloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darwish, I. A.; Khedr, A. S.; Askal, H. F.; Mahmoud, R. M.

    2006-11-01

    Three simple and sensitive spectrophotometric methods (A-C) for determination of amantadine hydro-chloride have been developed and validated. The first method (A) is based on the oxidation of the drug by ammonium molybdate. The second method (B) was based on the charge-transfer complexation reaction between the amantadine base as an electron donor and iodine as a σ-acceptor. The third method (C) is based on the reaction of N-alkylvinylamine formed from the interaction of the free amino group in amantadine molecule and acetalde-hyde with chloranil to give colored vinylamino-substituted benzoquinone. The colored products of these reactions were measured at their corresponding maximum absorption peaks. Different variables affecting the reactions were carefully studied and optimized. Under the optimum conditions, linear relationships with good correlation coefficients 0.9993-0.9998 were found between the reading and the corresponding concentration of the drug in the range 2-90 µg·ml-1. The limits of detection ranged from 0.16 to 1.91 µg·ml-1. The precision of the methods was satisfactory: the values of relative standard deviation did not exceed 1.63%. The proposed methods were successfully applied to the analysis of amantadine HCl in its capsules with good accuracy and precision; the label claim percentages ranged from 99.8 to 100.5 ± (0.52-1.22) %. The results obtained by the proposed spectrophotometric methods were comparable with those obtained by the official method.

  18. Visible spectrophotometric determination of tantalum in soil, sediment, minerals, and alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, K S; Shukla, A; Agarwal, N; Hoffmann, P

    2001-01-01

    A new, sensitive, and selective method is described for the spectrophotometric determination of Ta(V). The method is based on the extraction of the Ta(V)-F-CV+ complex (CV+ = crystal violet cation) with a benzene solution of imidoyl derivatives (ID), i.e., N,N'-diphenylbenzamidine (DPBA), N-hydroxy-N,N'-diphenylbenzamidine, and N-(2,5-dimethyl)phenyl-p-tolylimidoylphenylhydrazine, from sulfuric acid solution; DPBA was selected for detailed study. The molar absorptivities of the Ta(V)-F-CV+-ID complexes in the benzene solution were in the range of (1.00-1.65) x 10(5) L/mol x cm at 600 nm. The limit of detection was 7 ng Ta/mL (which had an absorbance greater than that of the blank + 3 standard deviations). The optimization of the analytical variables, the composition of the complex, and the effect of diverse ions in the determination of Ta are discussed. The present method was applied to the determination of Ta in environmental samples, i.e., soil, sediment, minerals, and alloys.

  19. Spectrophotometric methods for simultaneous determination of Carvedilol and Hydrochlorothiazide in combined dosage form

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nada S. Abdelwahab

    2016-09-01

    In Method (I, two wavelengths were selected for each drug in such a way that the difference in absorbance is zero for the second drug. At wavelengths 238 and 248.8 nm HCT has equal absorbance values, therefore, these two wavelengths have been used to determine CV, on similar basis 266 and 289.4 nm were selected to determine HCT in the combined formulation. Method (II involves the formation of Q-absorbance equation using the respective absorptivity values at 229.2 nm (isoabsorptive point and 241 nm (λmax of CV. The drugs obey Beer’s Lambert’s law in the concentration range of 1–10 μg/mL for both CV and HCT (for Method I and in the range of 1–10 and 2–10 μg/mL for CV and HCT, respectively (for Method II. The accuracy and precision were determined and recovery studies confirmed the accuracy of the developed methods that were carried out following the International Conference on Harmonization (ICH guidelines. Statistical comparison of the suggested methods with the reported spectrophotometric one using F and t tests showed no significant difference regarding both accuracy and precision.

  20. Tracking and flavour tagging selection in the ATLAS High Level Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Calvetti, Milene; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    In high-energy physics experiments, track based selection in the online environment is crucial for the efficient real time selection of the rare physics process of interest. This is of particular importance at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), where the increasingly harsh collision environment is challenging the experiments to improve the performance of their online selection. Principal among these challenges is the increasing number of interactions per bunch crossing, known as pileup. In the ATLAS experiment the challenge has been addressed with multiple strategies. Firstly, specific trigger objects have been improved by building algorithms using detailed tracking and vertexing in specific detector regions to improve background rejection without loosing signal efficiency. Secondly, since 2015 all trigger areas have benefited from a new high performance Inner Detector (ID) software tracking system implemented in the High Level Trigger. Finally, performance will be further enhanced in future by the installation...

  1. A Highly Selective Photoresist Ashing Process for Silicon Nitride Films by Addition of Trifluoromethane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Makoto; Eto, Hideo; Makino, Nobuaki; Omiya, Kayoko; Homma, Tetsuya; Nagatomo, Takao

    2001-09-01

    A highly selective photoresist ashing process was developed for the fabrication of thin-film transistor liquid-crystal displays (TFT-LCDs). This ashing process utilizes downflow plasma consisting of a carbon trifluoromethane/oxygen (CHF3/O2) gas mixture at a low temperature. The etching selectivity of photoresist films to silicon nitride (SiN) film increased when using the CHF3/O2 gas mixture plasma, as compared to that when using the carbon tetrafluoride/oxygen (CF4/O2) gas mixture plasma. At the CHF3 gas flow rate of 30 sccm, a high etching selectivity ratio of about 1080 for the photoresist films to the SiN films was achieved at room temperature. On the basis of surface analysis results for SiN films and plasma analysis results for the CHF3/O2 gas mixture, a mechanism for the high etching selectivity of the photoresist films was proposed. Reaction products that were formed on SiN films by the CHF3/O2 gas mixture plasma obstructed the etching of SiN films by fluorine (F) radicals, resulting in the high selectivity. It was found that the CHF3/O2 gas mixture plasma reacted with SiN, resulting in the formation of a protective reaction product that is considered to be an ammonium salt such as (NH4)2SiF6.

  2. Selection of DNA aptamers against epidermal growth factor receptor with high affinity and specificity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Deng-Liang [The First Clinical Medical College of Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou (China); Department of Neurosurgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou (China); Song, Yan-Ling; Zhu, Zhi; Li, Xi-Lan; Zou, Yuan [State Key Laboratory for Physical Chemistry of Solid Surfaces, Key Laboratory for Chemical Biology of Fujian Province, Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry, and Department of Chemical Biology, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Yang, Hai-Tao; Wang, Jiang-Jie [The First Clinical Medical College of Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou (China); Yao, Pei-Sen [Department of Neurosurgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou (China); Pan, Ru-Jun [The First Clinical Medical College of Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou (China); Yang, Chaoyong James, E-mail: cyyang@xmu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory for Physical Chemistry of Solid Surfaces, Key Laboratory for Chemical Biology of Fujian Province, Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry, and Department of Chemical Biology, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Kang, De-Zhi, E-mail: kdzy99988@163.com [The First Clinical Medical College of Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou (China); Department of Neurosurgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou (China)

    2014-10-31

    Highlights: • This is the first report of DNA aptamer against EGFR in vitro. • Aptamer can bind targets with high affinity and selectivity. • DNA aptamers are more stable, cheap and efficient than RNA aptamers. • Our selected DNA aptamer against EGFR has high affinity with K{sub d} 56 ± 7.3 nM. • Our selected DNA aptamer against EGFR has high selectivity. - Abstract: Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR/HER1/c-ErbB1), is overexpressed in many solid cancers, such as epidermoid carcinomas, malignant gliomas, etc. EGFR plays roles in proliferation, invasion, angiogenesis and metastasis of malignant cancer cells and is the ideal antigen for clinical applications in cancer detection, imaging and therapy. Aptamers, the output of the systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX), are DNA/RNA oligonucleotides which can bind protein and other substances with specificity. RNA aptamers are undesirable due to their instability and high cost of production. Conversely, DNA aptamers have aroused researcher’s attention because they are easily synthesized, stable, selective, have high binding affinity and are cost-effective to produce. In this study, we have successfully identified DNA aptamers with high binding affinity and selectivity to EGFR. The aptamer named TuTu22 with K{sub d} 56 ± 7.3 nM was chosen from the identified DNA aptamers for further study. Flow cytometry analysis results indicated that the TuTu22 aptamer was able to specifically recognize a variety of cancer cells expressing EGFR but did not bind to the EGFR-negative cells. With all of the aforementioned advantages, the DNA aptamers reported here against cancer biomarker EGFR will facilitate the development of novel targeted cancer detection, imaging and therapy.

  3. Sensitive spectrophotometric assay of simvastatin in pharmaceuticals using permanganate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalsang Tharpa

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Two simple, sensitive, selective and inexpensive spectrophotometric methods are described for the determination of simvastatin (SMT in bulk drug and in tablets using permanganate as the oxidimetric reagent. In method A, SMT is treated with a measured excess of permanganate in acetic acid medium and the unreacted oxidant is measured at 550 nm, whereas in method B the reaction is carried out in alkaline medium and the resulting manganate is measured at 610 nm. In method A, the amount of permanganate reacted corresponds to the SMT content and the absorbance is found to decrease linearly with the concentration; and in method B, the absorbance increases with concentration. The working conditions of assays were optimized, and the methods were validated according to the current ICH guidelines. Under optimum conditions, SMT could be assayed in the concentration ranges, 1.47 - 17.67x10-5 and 2.27 - 27.18 x10-6 mol/L by method A and method B, respectively. The calculated molar absorptivities are 3.2 x 10³ and 2.5 x 10(4 L/mol/cm for method A and method B, respectively with corresponding Sandell sensitivity values of 0.0387 and 0.0178 μg/cm². The limits of detection (LOD and quantification (LOQ have also been reported. Accuracy and precision for the assay were determined by calculating the intra-day and inter-day at three concentrations; the intra-day RSD was Dois métodos espectrofotométricos simples, sensíveis, seletivos e baratos são descritos para a determinação de sinvastatina (SMT a granel e em comprimidos, utilizando permanganato como reagente oxidimétrico. No método A, a SMT é tratada com excesso conhecido de permanganato em meio de ácido acético e o oxidante que não reage é medido a 550 nm, enquanto no método B, a reação é efetuada em meio alcalino e o manganato resultante é medido a 610 nm. No método A, a quantidade de permanganato que reage corresponde ao conteúdo de SMT e a absorbância diminui linearmente com o aumento da

  4. Simultaneous spectrophotometric determination of benzoic acid, sorbic acid, and ascorbic acid using a net analyte signal-based method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naseri, Abdolhossein; Ghorbani-Kalhor, Ebrahim; Vallipour, Javad; Jafari, Samira; Shahverdizadeh, Gholam Hossein; Asadpour-Zeynali, Karim

    2009-01-01

    The net analyte preprocessing/classical least-squares (NAP/CLS) method is a simple chemometric method that has been used for the simultaneous spectrophotometric determination of benzoic acid, sorbic acid, and ascorbic acid. The obtained results indicated that the performances of the NAP/CLS and partial least-squares methods were almost identical. The net analyte signal (NAS) concept was also used to calculate multivariate analytical figures of merit, such as LOD, selectivity, and sensitivity. Wavelength selection was applied based on the concept of NAS regression, and improved the method performance in samples containing nonmodeled interferences. The method afforded recoveries in the range of 98-105%. The proposed method was successfully applied to determination of the analytes in an Iranian soft drink.

  5. SELECTION RESPONSE FOR INCREASED GRAIN YIELD IN TWO HIGH OIL MAIZE SYNTHETICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Made J. Mejaya

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Selection for increased oil level in maize showed the increase was associated with decrease in starch concentration, kernel weight, and grain yield. The study was conducted with the objectives: (1 to evaluate response to six cycles for increased grain yield in the high oil maize Alexho Elite (AE: 60-90 g kg-1 oil concentration and Ultra High Oil (UHO: 100-140 g kg-1 oil concentration using inbred tester B73; (2 to measure responses to selection for increased grain yield with changes in yield components; and (3 to determine a suitable tester. Previously the two synthetics had been selected for oil concentration. After six cycles, the six genotypes i.e. AE C0, AE C3, AE C6, UHO C0, UHO C3, and UHO C6 were testcrossed to B73, LH185, and LH202 inbreds (40 g kg-1 oil concentration to a total of 18 testcrosses. Two field experiments were used to evaluate selection in AE and UHO testcrosses. The study showed selection using inbred tester B73 in AE and UHO was effective in increasing grain yield of AE testcrosses without changing (i.e. decreasing oil and protein concentrations. AE testcrosses produced higher grain yield and greater selection response for grain yield than UHO testcrosses. LH185 was best for grain yield in AE and UHO testcrosses. Increase in grain yield in most of the testcrosses was associated with increases in starch concentration, kernel weight, kernel number, and grain weight.

  6. Validated derivative and ratio derivative spectrophotometric methods for the simultaneous determination of levocetirizine dihydrochloride and ambroxol hydrochloride in pharmaceutical dosage form

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Omnia I. M.; Ismail, Nahla S.; Elgohary, Rasha M.

    2016-01-01

    Three simple, precise, accurate and validated derivative spectrophotometric methods have been developed for the simultaneous determination of levocetirizine dihydrochloride (LCD) and ambroxol hydrochloride (ABH) in bulk powder and in pharmaceutical formulations. The first method is a first derivative spectrophotometric method (1D) using a zero-crossing technique of measurement at 210.4 nm for LCD and at 220.0 nm for ABH. The second method employs a second derivative spectrophotometry (2D) where the measurements were carried out at 242.0 and 224.4 nm for LCD and ABH, respectively. In the third method, the first derivative of the ratio spectra was calculated and the first derivative of the ratio amplitudes at 222.8 and 247.2 nm was selected for the determination of LCD and ABH, respectively. Calibration graphs were established in the ranges of 1.0-20.0 μg mL- 1 for LCD and 4.0-20.0 μg mL- 1 for ABH using derivative and ratio first derivative spectrophotometric methods with good correlation coefficients. The developed methods have been successfully applied to the simultaneous determination of both drugs in commercial tablet dosage form.

  7. Validated derivative and ratio derivative spectrophotometric methods for the simultaneous determination of levocetirizine dihydrochloride and ambroxol hydrochloride in pharmaceutical dosage form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Omnia I M; Ismail, Nahla S; Elgohary, Rasha M

    2016-01-15

    Three simple, precise, accurate and validated derivative spectrophotometric methods have been developed for the simultaneous determination of levocetirizine dihydrochloride (LCD) and ambroxol hydrochloride (ABH) in bulk powder and in pharmaceutical formulations. The first method is a first derivative spectrophotometric method ((1)D) using a zero-crossing technique of measurement at 210.4 nm for LCD and at 220.0 nm for ABH. The second method employs a second derivative spectrophotometry ((2)D) where the measurements were carried out at 242.0 and 224.4 nm for LCD and ABH, respectively. In the third method, the first derivative of the ratio spectra was calculated and the first derivative of the ratio amplitudes at 222.8 and 247.2 nm was selected for the determination of LCD and ABH, respectively. Calibration graphs were established in the ranges of 1.0-20.0 μg mL(-1) for LCD and 4.0-20.0 μg mL(-1) for ABH using derivative and ratio first derivative spectrophotometric methods with good correlation coefficients. The developed methods have been successfully applied to the simultaneous determination of both drugs in commercial tablet dosage form. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Design of Highly Selective Gas Sensors via Physicochemical Modification of Oxide Nanowires: Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyung-Sik Woo

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Strategies for the enhancement of gas sensing properties, and specifically the improvement of gas selectivity of metal oxide semiconductor nanowire (NW networks grown by chemical vapor deposition and thermal evaporation, are reviewed. Highly crystalline NWs grown by vapor-phase routes have various advantages, and thus have been applied in the field of gas sensors over the years. In particular, n-type NWs such as SnO2, ZnO, and In2O3 are widely studied because of their simple synthetic preparation and high gas response. However, due to their usually high responses to C2H5OH and NO2, the selective detection of other harmful and toxic gases using oxide NWs remains a challenging issue. Various strategies—such as doping/loading of noble metals, decorating/doping of catalytic metal oxides, and the formation of core–shell structures—have been explored to enhance gas selectivity and sensitivity, and are discussed herein. Additional methods such as the transformation of n-type into p-type NWs and the formation of catalyst-doped hierarchical structures by branch growth have also proven to be promising for the enhancement of gas selectivity. Accordingly, the physicochemical modification of oxide NWs via various methods provides new strategies to achieve the selective detection of a specific gas, and after further investigations, this approach could pave a new way in the field of NW-based semiconductor-type gas sensors.

  9. Enhanced selection of high affinity DNA-reactive B cells following cyclophosphamide treatment in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daisuke Kawabata

    Full Text Available A major goal for the treatment of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus with cytotoxic therapies is the induction of long-term remission. There is, however, a paucity of information concerning the effects of these therapies on the reconstituting B cell repertoire. Since there is recent evidence suggesting that B cell lymphopenia might attenuate negative selection of autoreactive B cells, we elected to investigate the effects of cyclophosphamide on the selection of the re-emerging B cell repertoire in wild type mice and transgenic mice that express the H chain of an anti-DNA antibody. The reconstituting B cell repertoire in wild type mice contained an increased frequency of DNA-reactive B cells; in heavy chain transgenic mice, the reconstituting repertoire was characterized by an increased frequency of mature, high affinity DNA-reactive B cells and the mice expressed increased levels of serum anti-DNA antibodies. This coincided with a significant increase in serum levels of BAFF. Treatment of transgene-expressing mice with a BAFF blocking agent or with DNase to reduce exposure to autoantigen limited the expansion of high affinity DNA-reactive B cells during B cell reconstitution. These studies suggest that during B cell reconstitution, not only is negative selection of high affinity DNA-reactive B cells impaired by increased BAFF, but also that B cells escaping negative selection are positively selected by autoantigen. There are significant implications for therapy.

  10. Scene content is predominantly conveyed by high spatial frequencies in scene-selective visual cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, Daniel; Golomb, Julie D; Walther, Dirk B

    2017-01-01

    In complex real-world scenes, image content is conveyed by a large collection of intertwined visual features. The visual system disentangles these features in order to extract information about image content. Here, we investigate the role of one integral component: the content of spatial frequencies in an image. Specifically, we measure the amount of image content carried by low versus high spatial frequencies for the representation of real-world scenes in scene-selective regions of human visual cortex. To this end, we attempted to decode scene categories from the brain activity patterns of participants viewing scene images that contained the full spatial frequency spectrum, only low spatial frequencies, or only high spatial frequencies, all carefully controlled for contrast and luminance. Contrary to the findings from numerous behavioral studies and computational models that have highlighted how low spatial frequencies preferentially encode image content, decoding of scene categories from the scene-selective brain regions, including the parahippocampal place area (PPA), was significantly more accurate for high than low spatial frequency images. In fact, decoding accuracy was just as high for high spatial frequency images as for images containing the full spatial frequency spectrum in scene-selective areas PPA, RSC, OPA and object selective area LOC. We also found an interesting dissociation between the posterior and anterior subdivisions of PPA: categories were decodable from both high and low spatial frequency scenes in posterior PPA but only from high spatial frequency scenes in anterior PPA; and spatial frequency was explicitly decodable from posterior but not anterior PPA. Our results are consistent with recent findings that line drawings, which consist almost entirely of high spatial frequencies, elicit a neural representation of scene categories that is equivalent to that of full-spectrum color photographs. Collectively, these findings demonstrate the

  11. Scene content is predominantly conveyed by high spatial frequencies in scene-selective visual cortex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Berman

    Full Text Available In complex real-world scenes, image content is conveyed by a large collection of intertwined visual features. The visual system disentangles these features in order to extract information about image content. Here, we investigate the role of one integral component: the content of spatial frequencies in an image. Specifically, we measure the amount of image content carried by low versus high spatial frequencies for the representation of real-world scenes in scene-selective regions of human visual cortex. To this end, we attempted to decode scene categories from the brain activity patterns of participants viewing scene images that contained the full spatial frequency spectrum, only low spatial frequencies, or only high spatial frequencies, all carefully controlled for contrast and luminance. Contrary to the findings from numerous behavioral studies and computational models that have highlighted how low spatial frequencies preferentially encode image content, decoding of scene categories from the scene-selective brain regions, including the parahippocampal place area (PPA, was significantly more accurate for high than low spatial frequency images. In fact, decoding accuracy was just as high for high spatial frequency images as for images containing the full spatial frequency spectrum in scene-selective areas PPA, RSC, OPA and object selective area LOC. We also found an interesting dissociation between the posterior and anterior subdivisions of PPA: categories were decodable from both high and low spatial frequency scenes in posterior PPA but only from high spatial frequency scenes in anterior PPA; and spatial frequency was explicitly decodable from posterior but not anterior PPA. Our results are consistent with recent findings that line drawings, which consist almost entirely of high spatial frequencies, elicit a neural representation of scene categories that is equivalent to that of full-spectrum color photographs. Collectively, these findings

  12. Marker-Assisted Selection to Pyramid Nematode Resistance and the High Oleic Trait in Peanut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Chu

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The dynamic challenges of peanut ( L. farming demand a quick response from breeders to develop new cultivars, a process that can be aided by the application of molecular markers. With the goal to pyramid nematode resistance and the trait for high oleic:linoleic acid (high O:L ratio in seeds, nematode-resistant cultivar Tifguard was used as the recurrent female parent and high O:L cultivars Georgia-02C and Florida-07 were used as donor parents for the high O:L trait. ‘Tifguard High O/L’ was generated through three rounds of accelerated backcrossing using BCF progenies selected with molecular markers for these two traits as the pollen donors. Selfed BCF plants yielded marker-homozygous individuals identified as Tifguard High O/L, compressing the hybridization and selection phases of the cultivar development process to less than 3 yr. The accuracy of marker-assisted selection (MAS was confirmed by phenotyping a subset of F populations from both parental combinations. Once additional molecular markers linked with traits of interest are designed to be compatible with high-throughput screening platforms, MAS will be more widely integrated into peanut breeding programs.

  13. Metal-organic framework based highly selective fluorescence turn-on probe for hydrogen sulphide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagarkar, Sanjog S.; Saha, Tanmoy; Desai, Aamod V.; Talukdar, Pinaki; Ghosh, Sujit K.

    2014-11-01

    Hydrogen sulphide (H2S) is known to play a vital role in human physiology and pathology which stimulated interest in understanding complex behaviour of H2S. Discerning the pathways of H2S production and its mode of action is still a challenge owing to its volatile and reactive nature. Herein we report azide functionalized metal-organic framework (MOF) as a selective turn-on fluorescent probe for H2S detection. The MOF shows highly selective and fast response towards H2S even in presence of other relevant biomolecules. Low cytotoxicity and H2S detection in live cells, demonstrate the potential of MOF towards monitoring H2S chemistry in biological system. To the best of our knowledge this is the first example of MOF that exhibit fast and highly selective fluorescence turn-on response towards H2S under physiological conditions.

  14. Graphene oxide membranes with high permeability and selectivity for dehumidification of air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Yongsoon; Liu, Wei; Schwenzer, Birgit; Manandhar, Sandeep; Chase-Woods, Dylan G.; Engelhard, Mark H.; Devanathan, Ram; Fifield, Leonard S.; Bennett, Wendy D.; Ginovska-Pangovska, Bojana; Gotthold, David W.

    2016-09-01

    Hierarchically stacked 2D graphene oxide (GO) membranes are a fascinating and promising new class of materials with the potential for radically improved water vapor/gas separation with excellent selectivity and high permeability. This paper details dehumidification results from flowing gas mixtures through free-standing GO membrane samples prepared by a casting method. The first demonstrated use of free-standing GO membranes for water vapor separation reveals outstanding water vapor permeability and H2O/N2 selectivity. Free-standing GO membranes exhibit extremely high water vapor permeability of 1.82 x 105 Barrer and a water vapor permeance of 1.01 x 10-5 mol/m2sPa, while the nitrogen permeability was below the system’s detection limit, yielding a selectivity >104 in 80% relative humidity (RH) air at 30.8 °C. The results show great potential for a range of energy conversion and environmental applications

  15. ERP markers of target selection discriminate children with high vs. low working memory capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andria eShimi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Selective attention enables enhancing a subset out of multiple competing items to maximize the capacity of our limited visual working memory (VWM system. Multiple behavioral and electrophysiological studies have revealed the cognitive and neural mechanisms supporting adults’ selective attention of visual percepts for encoding in VWM. However, research on children is more limited. What are the neural mechanisms involved in children’s selection of incoming percepts in service of VWM? Do these differ from the ones subserving adults’ selection? Ten-year-olds and adults used a spatial arrow cue to select a colored item for later recognition from an array of four colored items. The temporal dynamics of selection were investigated through EEG signals locked to the onset of the memory array. Both children and adults elicited significantly more negative activity over posterior scalp locations contralateral to the item to-be-selected for encoding (N2pc. However, this activity was elicited later and for longer in children compared to adults. Furthermore, although children as a group did not elicit a significant N2pc during the time-window in which N2pc was elicited in adults, the magnitude of N2pc during the adult time-window related to their behavioral performance during the later recognition phase of the task. This in turn highlights how children’s neural activity subserving attention during encoding relates to better subsequent VWM performance. Significant differences were observed when children were divided into groups of high vs. low VWM capacity as a function of cueing benefit. Children with large cue benefits in VWM capacity elicited an adult-like contralateral negativity following attentional selection of the to-be-encoded item, whereas children with low VWM capacity did not. These results corroborate the close coupling between selective attention and VWM from childhood and elucidate further the attentional mechanisms constraining VWM

  16. ERP markers of target selection discriminate children with high vs. low working memory capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimi, Andria; Nobre, Anna Christina; Scerif, Gaia

    2015-01-01

    Selective attention enables enhancing a subset out of multiple competing items to maximize the capacity of our limited visual working memory (VWM) system. Multiple behavioral and electrophysiological studies have revealed the cognitive and neural mechanisms supporting adults' selective attention of visual percepts for encoding in VWM. However, research on children is more limited. What are the neural mechanisms involved in children's selection of incoming percepts in service of VWM? Do these differ from the ones subserving adults' selection? Ten-year-olds and adults used a spatial arrow cue to select a colored item for later recognition from an array of four colored items. The temporal dynamics of selection were investigated through EEG signals locked to the onset of the memory array. Both children and adults elicited significantly more negative activity over posterior scalp locations contralateral to the item to-be-selected for encoding (N2pc). However, this activity was elicited later and for longer in children compared to adults. Furthermore, although children as a group did not elicit a significant N2pc during the time-window in which N2pc was elicited in adults, the magnitude of N2pc during the "adult time-window" related to their behavioral performance during the later recognition phase of the task. This in turn highlights how children's neural activity subserving attention during encoding relates to better subsequent VWM performance. Significant differences were observed when children were divided into groups of high vs. low VWM capacity as a function of cueing benefit. Children with large cue benefits in VWM capacity elicited an adult-like contralateral negativity following attentional selection of the to-be-encoded item, whereas children with low VWM capacity did not. These results corroborate the close coupling between selective attention and VWM from childhood and elucidate further the attentional mechanisms constraining VWM performance in children.

  17. ESTIMATION OF TIANEPTINE IN ITS TABLET FORM USING VISIBLE SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC METHODS

    OpenAIRE

    KALYANA RAMU BURIDI

    2013-01-01

    Two simple and sensitive visible spectrophotometric methods are described for the determination of tianeptine inbulk and pharmaceutical preparations based on the formation of colored species with SA- NaNO2-

  18. Spectrophotometric Method for the Determination of Atmospheric Cr Pollution as a Factor to Accelerated Corrosion

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dereje Homa; Ermias Haile; Alemayehu P. Washe

    2017-01-01

    The effect of Cr(VI) pollution on the corrosion rate of corrugated iron roof samples collected from tanning industry areas was investigated through simulated laboratory exposure and spectrophotometric detection of Cr(III...

  19. High-Lift Propeller System Configuration Selection for NASA's SCEPTOR Distributed Electric Propulsion Flight Demonstrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Michael D.; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Borer, Nicholas K.

    2016-01-01

    Although the primary function of propellers is typically to produce thrust, aircraft equipped with distributed electric propulsion (DEP) may utilize propellers whose main purpose is to act as a form of high-lift device. These \\high-lift propellers" can be placed upstream of wing such that, when the higher-velocity ow in the propellers' slipstreams interacts with the wing, the lift is increased. This technique is a main design feature of a new NASA advanced design project called Scalable Convergent Electric Propulsion Technology Operations Research (SCEPTOR). The goal of the SCEPTOR project is design, build, and y a DEP aircraft to demonstrate that such an aircraft can be much more ecient than conventional designs. This paper provides details into the high-lift propeller system con guration selection for the SCEPTOR ight demonstrator. The methods used in the high-lift propeller system conceptual design and the tradeo s considered in selecting the number of propellers are discussed.

  20. The Impact of Legalized Abortion on High School Graduation through Selection and Composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, Stephan

    2011-01-01

    This analysis examines whether the legalization of abortion changed high school graduation rates among the children selected into birth. Unless women in all socio-economic circumstances sought abortions to the same extent, increased use of abortion must have changed the distribution of child development inputs. I find that higher abortion ratios…

  1. Highly Selective Liquid-Phase Benzylation of Anisole with Solid-Acid Zeolite Catalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poreddy, Raju; Shunmugavel, Saravanamurugan; Riisager, Anders

    2015-01-01

    Zeolites were evaluated as solid acid catalysts for the liquid-phase benzylation of anisole with benzyl alcohol, benzyl bromide, and benzyl chloride at 80 °C. Among the examined zeolites, H-mordenite-10 (H-MOR-10) demonstrated particular high activity (>99 %) and excellent selectivity (>96...

  2. Highly Selective Continuous Gas-Phase Methoxycarbonylation of Ethylene with Supported Ionic Liquid Phase (SILP) Catalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khokarale, Santosh Govind; Garcia Suárez, Eduardo José; Fehrmann, Rasmus

    2017-01-01

    Supported ionic liquid phase (SILP) technology was applied for the first time to the Pd-catalyzed continuous, gas-phase methoxycarbonylation of ethylene to selectively produce methyl propanoate (MP) in high yields. The influence of catalyst and reaction parameters such as, for example, ionic liquid...

  3. A high-content subtractive screen for selecting small molecules affecting internalization of GPCRs

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kwon, Y-J

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available transduction to physiology. Here, the authors demonstrate a high-content screen using a panel of GPCR assays to identify receptor selective molecules acting within the kinase/phosphatase inhibitor family. A collection of 88 kinase and phosphatase inhibitors...

  4. Highly selective detection of Zn 2 and Cd 2 with a simple amino ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Chemical Sciences; Volume 128; Issue 1. Highly selective detection of Zn2+ and Cd2+ with a simple amino-terpyridine compound in ... Author Affiliations. Duobin Chao1. School of Petroleum and Chemical Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Panjin, Liaoning 124221, P. R. China ...

  5. Pd-Diimine : A Highly Selective Catalyst System for the Base-Free Oxidative Heck Reaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gottumukkala, Aditya L.; Teichert, Johannes F.; Heijnen, Donis; Eisink, Niek; van Dijk, Simon; Ferrer, Catalina; van den Hoogenband, Adri; Minnaard, Adriaan J.

    2011-01-01

    Pd(OAc)(2)/3 is an efficient catalyst system for the base-free oxidative Heck reaction that outperforms the currently available catalysts for the more challenging substrates studied. The catalyst system is highly selective, and works at room temperature with dioxygen as the oxidant.

  6. High-tide habitat choice : insights from modelling roost selection by shorebirds around a tropical bay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rogers, Danny I.; Battley, Phil F.; Piersma, Theunis; Van Gils, Jan A.; Rogers, Ken G.

    High tides force shorebirds from intertidal feeding areas to sites known as roosts. We investigated the roost selection of great knots, Calidris tenuirostris, and red knots, Calidris canutus, on a tropical coastline in northwestern Australia, assessing several roost attributes and recording the

  7. Process for selecting NEAMS applications for access to Idaho National Laboratory high performance computing resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael Pernice

    2010-09-01

    INL has agreed to provide participants in the Nuclear Energy Advanced Mod- eling and Simulation (NEAMS) program with access to its high performance computing (HPC) resources under sponsorship of the Enabling Computational Technologies (ECT) program element. This report documents the process used to select applications and the software stack in place at INL.

  8. A Highly Active and Selective Manganese Oxide Promoted Cobalt-on-Silica Fischer-Tropsch Catalyst

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Breejen, Johan P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304837318; Frey, Anne M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/341358851; Yang, Jia; Holmen, Anders; van Schooneveld, Matti M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/315032863; de Groot, Frank M. F.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/08747610X; Stephan, Odile; Bitter, Johannes H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/160581435; de Jong, Krijn P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/06885580X

    A highly active and selective manganese oxide-promoted silica-supported cobalt catalyst for the Fischer-Tropsch reaction is reported. Co/MnO/SiO2 catalysts were prepared via impregnation of a cobalt nitrate and manganese nitrate precursor, followed by drying and calcination in an NO/He flow. The

  9. Selecting microalgae with high lipid productivity and photosynthetic activity under nitrogen starvation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benvenuti, G.; Bosma, R.; Cuaresma Franco, M.; Janssen, M.G.J.; Barbosa, M.J.; Wijffels, R.H.

    2015-01-01

    An economically feasible microalgal lipid industry heavily relies on the selection of suitable strains. Because microalgae lipid content increases under a range of adverse conditions (e.g. nutrient deprivation, high light intensity), photosynthetic activity is usually strongly reduced. As a

  10. Ir/Sn dual-reagent catalysis towards highly selective alkylation of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Wintec

    *For correspondence. Ir/Sn dual-reagent catalysis towards highly selective alkylation of arenes and heteroarenes with benzyl alcohols. SUJIT ROY*, SUSMITA PODDER and JOYANTA CHOUDHURY. Organometallics and Catalysis Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology,. Kharagpur 721 302.

  11. Highly selective NOx reduction for diesel engine exhaust via an electrochemical system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shao, Jing; Tao, Youkun; Kammer Hansen, Kent

    2016-01-01

    in current diesel after-treatment techniques. The electrochemical system consisted of an electrochemical cell modified with NOx adsorbents and a diesel oxidation catalyst placed upstream of the cell. The system offers highly selective NOx reduction and a strong resistance to oxygen interference with almost...... zero emission of secondary pollutants....

  12. Materials selection for low temperature processed high Q resonators using ashby approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kazmi, S.N.R.; Salm, Cora; Schmitz, Jurriaan

    2009-01-01

    MicroElectroMechanical Systems (MEMS) is an emerging class of microfabrication technology that can truly be anticipated as an enabling technology for future radio frequency (RF) communications. This work focuses on the material selection using the Ashby approach for the high-Q resonators that need

  13. Middle-Class Parents' Educational Work in an Academically Selective Public High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacey, Meghan

    2016-01-01

    This article reports the findings of a study on the nature of parent-school engagement at an academically selective public high school in New South Wales, Australia. Such research is pertinent given recent policies of "choice" and decentralization, making a study of local stakeholders timely. The research comprised a set of interviews…

  14. Hierarchical High-Order Functional Connectivity Networks and Selective Feature Fusion for MCI Classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaobo; Zhang, Han; Lee, Seong-Whan; Shen, Dinggang

    2017-07-01

    Conventional Functional connectivity (FC) analysis focuses on characterizing the correlation between two brain regions, whereas the high-order FC can model the correlation between two brain region pairs. To reduce the number of brain region pairs, clustering is applied to group all the brain region pairs into a small number of clusters. Then, a high-order FC network can be constructed based on the clustering result. By varying the number of clusters, multiple high-order FC networks can be generated and the one with the best overall performance can be finally selected. However, the important information contained in other networks may be simply discarded. To address this issue, in this paper, we propose to make full use of the information contained in all high-order FC networks. First, an agglomerative hierarchical clustering technique is applied such that the clustering result in one layer always depends on the previous layer, thus making the high-order FC networks in the two consecutive layers highly correlated. As a result, the features extracted from high-order FC network in each layer can be decomposed into two parts (blocks), i.e., one is redundant while the other might be informative or complementary, with respect to its previous layer. Then, a selective feature fusion method, which combines sequential forward selection and sparse regression, is developed to select a feature set from those informative feature blocks for classification. Experimental results confirm that our novel method outperforms the best single high-order FC network in diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) subjects.

  15. Deep Mutational Scanning: Library Construction, Functional Selection, and High-Throughput Sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starita, Lea M; Fields, Stanley

    2015-08-03

    Deep mutational scanning is a highly parallel method that uses high-throughput sequencing to track changes in >10(5) protein variants before and after selection to measure the effects of mutations on protein function. Here we outline the stages of a deep mutational scanning experiment, focusing on the construction of libraries of protein sequence variants and the preparation of Illumina sequencing libraries. © 2015 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  16. Titrimetric and Spectrophotometric Determinations of Some Phenothiazine Psychotropics Using Chloramine-T

    OpenAIRE

    Some, Titrimetric and Spectrophotometric Deter

    2014-01-01

    A simple, convenient and accurate indirect titrimetric method and a rapid, sensitive and precise indirect spectrophotometric method for the determination of six phenothiazine drugs using chloramine-T as an oxidant are described. The titrimetric method is based on the oxidation of the drugs in sulphuric acid medium by a known excess of chloramine-T and iodometric determination of the unreacted chloramine-T. In the spectrophotometric method, the unreacted oxidant is made to react with...

  17. Spectrophotometric analysis of tomato plants produced from seeds exposed under space flight conditions for a long time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nechitailo, Galina S.; Yurov, S.; Cojocaru, A.; Revin, A.

    The analysis of the lycopene and other carotenoids in tomatoes produced from seeds exposed under space flight conditions at the orbital station MIR for six years is presented in this work. Our previous experiments with tomato plants showed the germination of seeds to be 32%Genetic investigations revealed 18%in the experiment and 8%experiments were conducted to study the capacity of various stimulating factors to increase germination of seeds exposed for a long time to the action of space flight factors. An increase of 20%achieved but at the same time mutants having no analogues in the control variants were detected. For the present investigations of the third generation of plants produced from seeds stored for a long time under space flight conditions 80 tomatoes from forty plants were selected. The concentration of lycopene in the experimental specimens was 2.5-3 times higher than in the control variants. The spectrophotometric analysis of ripe tomatoes revealed typical three-peaked carotenoid spectra with a high maximum of lycopene (a medium maximum at 474 nm), a moderate maximum of its predecessor, phytoin, (a medium maximum at 267 nm) and a low maximum of carotenes. In green tomatoes, on the contrary, a high maximum of phytoin, a moderate maximum of lycopene and a low maximum of carotenes were observed. The results of the spectral analysis point to the retardation of biosynthesis of carotenes while the production of lycopene is increased and to the synthesis of lycopene from phytoin. Electric conduction of tomato juice in the experimental samples is increased thus suggesting higher amounts of carotenoids, including lycopene and electrolytes. The higher is the value of electric conduction of a specimen, the higher are the spectral maxima of lycopene. The hydrogen ion exponent of the juice of ripe tomatoes increases due to which the efficiency of ATP biosynthesis in cell mitochondria is likely to increase, too. The results demonstrating an increase in the content

  18. High amino acid diversity and positive selection at a putative coral immunity gene (tachylectin-2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hellberg Michael E

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genes involved in immune functions, including pathogen recognition and the activation of innate defense pathways, are among the most genetically variable known, and the proteins that they encode are often characterized by high rates of amino acid substitutions, a hallmark of positive selection. The high levels of variation characteristic of immunity genes make them useful tools for conservation genetics. To date, highly variable immunity genes have yet to be found in corals, keystone organisms of the world's most diverse marine ecosystem, the coral reef. Here, we examine variation in and selection on a putative innate immunity gene from Oculina, a coral genus previously used as a model for studies of coral disease and bleaching. Results In a survey of 244 Oculina alleles, we find high nonsynonymous variation and a signature of positive selection, consistent with a putative role in immunity. Using computational protein structure prediction, we generate a structural model of the Oculina protein that closely matches the known structure of tachylectin-2 from the Japanese horseshoe crab (Tachypleus tridentatus, a protein with demonstrated function in microbial recognition and agglutination. We also demonstrate that at least three other genera of anthozoan cnidarians (Acropora, Montastrea and Nematostella possess proteins structurally similar to tachylectin-2. Conclusions Taken together, the evidence of high amino acid diversity, positive selection and structural correspondence to the horseshoe crab tachylectin-2 suggests that this protein is 1 part of Oculina's innate immunity repertoire, and 2 evolving adaptively, possibly under selective pressure from coral-associated microorganisms. Tachylectin-2 may serve as a candidate locus to screen coral populations for their capacity to respond adaptively to future environmental change.

  19. An Augmented Common Weight Data Envelopment Analysis for Material Selection in High-tech Industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iman Shokr

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Material selection is a challenging issue in manufacturing processes while the inappropriate selected material may lead to fail the manufacturing process or end user experience especially in high-tech industries such as aircraft and shipping. Every material has different quantitative and qualitative criteria which should be considered simultaneously when assessing and selecting the right material. A weighted linear optimization method (WLOM in the class of data envelopment analysis which exists in literature is adopted to address material selection problem while accounting for both qualitative and quantitative criteria. However, it is demonstrated the adopted WLOM method is not able to produce a full ranking vector for the material selection problems borrowed from the literature. Thus, an augmented common weight data envelopment analysis model (ACWDEA is developed in this paper with the aim of eliminating deficiencies of WLOM model. The proposed ACWDEA is able to produce full ranking vector in decision making problems with less computational complexities in superior to the WLOM. Two material selection problems are solved and results are compared with WLOM and previous methods. Finally, the robustness and effectiveness of the proposed ACWDEA method are evaluated through Spearman’s correlation tests.

  20. Use of response surface methodology for development of new microwell-based spectrophotometric method for determination of atrovastatin calcium in tablets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wani Tanveer A

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Response surface methodology by Box–Behnken design employing the multivariate approach enables substantial improvement in the method development using fewer experiments, without wastage of large volumes of organic solvents, which leads to high analysis cost. This methodology has not been employed for development of a method for analysis of atorvastatin calcium (ATR-Ca. Results The present research study describes the use of in optimization and validation of a new microwell-based UV-Visible spectrophotometric method of for determination of ATR-Ca in its tablets. By the use of quadratic regression analysis, equations were developed to describe the behavior of the response as simultaneous functions of the selected independent variables. Accordingly, the optimum conditions were determined which included concentration of 2,3-dichloro-5,6-dicyano-1,4-benzoquinone (DDQ, time of reaction and temperature. The absorbance of the colored-CT complex was measured at 460 nm by microwell-plate absorbance reader. The method was validated, in accordance with ICH guidelines for accuracy, precision, selectivity and linearity (r² = 0.9993 over the concentration range of 20–200 μg/ml. The assay was successfully applied to the analysis of ATR-Ca in its pharmaceutical dosage forms with good accuracy and precision. Conclusion The assay described herein has great practical value in the routine analysis of ATR-Ca in quality control laboratories, as it has high throughput property, consumes minimum volume of organic solvent thus it offers the reduction in the exposures of the analysts to the toxic effects of organic solvents, environmentally friendly "Green" approach and reduction in the analysis cost by 50-fold.

  1. Highly Active Ruthenium Metathesis Catalysts Exhibiting Unprecedented Activity and Z-Selectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosebrugh, Lauren E.; Herbert, Myles B.; Marx, Vanessa M.; Keitz, Benjamin K.; Grubbs, Robert H.

    2013-01-01

    A novel chelated ruthenium-based metathesis catalyst bearing an N-2,6-diisopropylphenyl group is reported and displays near-perfect selectivity for the Z-olefin (>95%), as well as unparalleled TONs of up to 7400, in a variety of homodimerization and industrially relevant metathesis reactions. This derivative and other new catalytically-active species were synthesized using an improved method employing sodium carboxylates to induce the salt metathesis and C-H activation of these chelated complexes. All of these new ruthenium-based catalysts are highly Z-selective in the homodimerization of terminal olefins. PMID:23317178

  2. High-throughput phenotyping and genomic selection: the frontiers of crop breeding converge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera-Bosquet, Llorenç; Crossa, José; von Zitzewitz, Jarislav; Serret, María Dolors; Araus, José Luis

    2012-05-01

    Genomic selection (GS) and high-throughput phenotyping have recently been captivating the interest of the crop breeding community from both the public and private sectors world-wide. Both approaches promise to revolutionize the prediction of complex traits, including growth, yield and adaptation to stress. Whereas high-throughput phenotyping may help to improve understanding of crop physiology, most powerful techniques for high-throughput field phenotyping are empirical rather than analytical and comparable to genomic selection. Despite the fact that the two methodological approaches represent the extremes of what is understood as the breeding process (phenotype versus genome), they both consider the targeted traits (e.g. grain yield, growth, phenology, plant adaptation to stress) as a black box instead of dissecting them as a set of secondary traits (i.e. physiological) putatively related to the target trait. Both GS and high-throughput phenotyping have in common their empirical approach enabling breeders to use genome profile or phenotype without understanding the underlying biology. This short review discusses the main aspects of both approaches and focuses on the case of genomic selection of maize flowering traits and near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and plant spectral reflectance as high-throughput field phenotyping methods for complex traits such as crop growth and yield. © 2012 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  3. Tracking and flavour tagging selection in the ATLAS High Level Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Calvetti, Milene; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    In high-energy physics experiments, track based selection in the online environment is crucial for the detection of physics processes of interest for further study. This is of particular importance at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), where the increasingly harsh collision environment is challenging participating experiments to improve the performance of their online selection. Principle among these challenges is the increasing number of interactions per bunch crossing, known as pileup. In the ATLAS experiment the challenge has been addressed with multiple strategies. Firstly, individual trigger groups focusing on specific physics objects have implemented novel algorithms which make use of the detailed tracking and vertexing performed within the trigger to improve rejection without losing efficiency. Secondly, since 2015 all trigger areas have also benefited from a new high performance inner detector software tracking system implemented in the High Level Trigger. Finally, performance will be further enhanced i...

  4. Flow “Fine” Synthesis: High Yielding and Selective Organic Synthesis by Flow Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The concept of flow “fine” synthesis, that is, high yielding and selective organic synthesis by flow methods, is described. Some examples of flow “fine” synthesis of natural products and APIs are discussed. Flow methods have several advantages over batch methods in terms of environmental compatibility, efficiency, and safety. However, synthesis by flow methods is more difficult than synthesis by batch methods. Indeed, it has been considered that synthesis by flow methods can be applicable for the production of simple gasses but that it is difficult to apply to the synthesis of complex molecules such as natural products and APIs. Therefore, organic synthesis of such complex molecules has been conducted by batch methods. On the other hand, syntheses and reactions that attain high yields and high selectivities by flow methods are increasingly reported. Flow methods are leading candidates for the next generation of manufacturing methods that can mitigate environmental concerns toward sustainable society. PMID:26337828

  5. Selection of high heterozygosity popcorn varieties in Brazil based on SSR markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eloi, I B O; Mangolin, C A; Scapim, C A; Gonçalves, C S; Machado, M F P S

    2012-07-19

    We analyzed genetic structure and diversity among eight populations of popcorn, using SSR loci as genetic markers. Our objectives were to select SSR loci that could be used to estimate genetic diversity within popcorn populations, and to analyze the genetic structure of promising populations with high levels of heterozygosity that could be used in breeding programs. Fifty-seven alleles (3.7 alleles per locus) were detected; the highest effective number of alleles (4.21) and the highest gene diversity (0.763) were found for the Umc2226 locus. A very high level of population differentiation was found (F(ST) = 0.3664), with F(ST) for each locus ranging from 0.1029 (Umc1664) to 0.6010 (Umc2350). This analysis allowed us to identify SSR loci with high levels of heterozygosity and heterozygous varieties, which could be selected for production of inbred lines and for developing new cultivars.

  6. Molybdenum disulfide nanoparticles decorated reduced graphene oxide: highly sensitive and selective hydrogen sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatesan, A.; Rathi, Servin; Lee, In-yeal; Park, Jinwoo; Lim, Dongsuk; Kang, Moonshik; Joh, Han-Ik; Kim, Gil-Ho; Kannan, E. S.

    2017-09-01

    In this work, we report on the hydrogen (H2) sensing behavior of reduced graphene oxide (RGO)/molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) nano particles (NPs) based composite film. The RGO/MoS2 composite exhibited a highly enhanced H2 response (∼15.6%) for 200 ppm at an operating temperature of 60 °C. Furthermore, the RGO/MoS2 composite showed excellent selectivity to H2 with respect to ammonia (NH3) and nitric oxide (NO) which are highly reactive gas species. The composite’s response to H2 is 2.9 times higher than that of NH3 whereas for NO it is 3.5. This highly improved H2 sensing response and selectivity of RGO/MoS2 at low operating temperatures were attributed to the structural integration of MoS2 nanoparticles in the nanochannels and pores in the RGO layer.

  7. A new system for the spectrophotometric determination of trace amounts of nitrite in environmental samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cherian Tom

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A selective and rapid spectrophotometric method for the determination of nitrite is presented. It is based on the reaction of nitrite with p-nitroaniline in acid medium to form diazonium ion, which is coupled with ethoxyethylenemaleic ester or ethylcyanoacetate in basic medium to form azo dyes, showing absorption maxima at 439 and 465 nm respectively. The method obeys Beer's law in the concentration range of 0.5-16 µg mL-1 of nitrite with ethoxyethylenemaleic ester and 0.2-18 µg mL-1 of nitrite with ethylcyanoacetate. The molar absorptivity and Sandell's sensitivity of p-nitroaniline-ethoxyethylenemaleic ester and p-nitroaniline-ethylcyanoacetate azo dyes are 5.04 X 10(4 L mol-1cm-1, 0.98 X 10-2 µg cm-2 and 1.21 X 10(4 L mol-1 cm-1, 0.98 X 10-2 µg cm-2 respectively. The optimum reaction conditions and other analytical parameters were evaluated. The method was successfully applied to the determination of nitrite in various water samples and soil samples.

  8. Determination of rapid chlorination rate constants by a stopped-flow spectrophotometric competition kinetics method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Dean; Liu, Huijuan; Qiang, Zhimin; Qu, Jiuhui

    2014-05-15

    Free chlorine is extensively used for water and wastewater disinfection nowadays. However, it still remains a big challenge to determine the rate constants of rapid chlorination reactions although competition kinetics and stopped-flow spectrophotometric (SFS) methods have been employed individually to investigate fast reaction kinetics. In this work, we proposed an SFS competition kinetics method to determine the rapid chlorination rate constants by using a common colorimetric reagent, N,N-diethyl-p-phenylenediamine (DPD), as a reference probe. A kinetic equation was first derived to estimate the reaction rate constant of DPD towards chlorine under a given pH and temperature condition. Then, on that basis, an SFS competition kinetics method was proposed to determine directly the chlorination rate constants of several representative compounds including tetracycline, ammonia, and four α-amino acids. Although Cl2O is more reactive than HOCl, its contribution to the overall chlorination kinetics of the test compounds could be neglected in this study. Finally, the developed method was validated through comparing the experimentally measured chlorination rate constants of the selected compounds with those obtained or calculated from literature and analyzing with Taft's correlation as well. This study demonstrates that the SFS competition kinetics method can measure the chlorination rate constants of a test compound rapidly and accurately. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. A newly validated and characterized spectrophotometric method for determination of a three water pollutants metal ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Marwa E.; Frag, Eman Y. Z.; Mohamed, Mona A.

    2018-01-01

    A simple, fast and accurate spectrophotometric method had been developed to determine lead (II), chromium (III) and barium (II) ions in pure forms and in spiked water samples using thoron (THO) as a reagent forming colored complexes. It was found that the formed complexes absorbed maximally at 539, 540 and 538 nm for Pb(II)-THO, Cr(III)-THO and Ba(II)-THO complexes, respectively. The optimum experimental conditions for these complexes had been studied carefully. Beer's law was obeyed in the range 1-35, 1-70, and 1-45 μg mL- 1 for Pb (II), Cr(III) and Ba(II) ions with THO reagent, respectively. Different parameters such as linearity, selectivity, recovery, limits of quantification and detection, precision and accuracy were also evaluated in order to validate the proposed method. The results showed that, THO was effective in simultaneous determination of Pb(II), Cr(III) and Ba(III) ions in pure forms and in spiked water samples. Also, the results of the proposed method were compared with that obtained from atomic absorption spectrometry. The isolated solid complexes had been characterized using elemental analysis, X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), IR, mass spectrometry and TD-DFT calculations. Their biological activities were investigated against different types of bacteria and fungi organisms.

  10. Derivatization of labetalol hydrochloride for its spectrofluorimetric and spectrophotometric determination inhuman plasma: Application to stability study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, Mahmoud A.; Derayea, Sayed M.; Abdel-Lateef, Mohamed A.; El Hamd, Mohamed A.

    2018-02-01

    Two simple, selective and accurate methods were developed for the determination of Labetalol hydrochloride in pure form and pharmaceutical tablets. Both methods are based on derivatization of the studied drug with 4-chloro-7-nitrobenzo-2-oxa-1,3-diazole (NBDsbnd Cl) in alkaline medium (pH 7.5).The reaction product was measured spectrofluorimetrically at 540 nm after excitation at 476 nm (method I) or spectrophotometrically at 480 nm (method II). The calibration graphs were rectilinear over the concentration ranges of 0.10-2.0 and 1.0-11.0 μg mL- 1 for methods I and II, respectively. The proposed methods were successfully applied to the analysis of commercial tablets without interference from common excipients. Furthermore, the spectrofluorimetric method was utilized for the in vitro determination of labetalol in spiked human plasma, with a percent mean recovery (n = 3) of 97.80 ± 1.29%. Moreover, the spectrofluorimetric method was extended to examine the stability study of LBT under different stress conditions such as alkaline, acidic, oxidative, photolytic and a thermal degradation.

  11. Spectrophotometric determination of etamsylate in pharmaceuticals using ferric chloride based on complex formation reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanakapura Basavaiah Vinay

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study describes two simple and selective spectrophotometric methods for the rapid determination of etamsylate (ETM in bulk and in capsule formulations. The methods are based on the oxidation of ETM with ferric chloride in neutral medium and subsequent chelation of the resulting iron(II with 1,10-phenanthroline (Phen (method A and with 2,2’-bipyridyl (Bipy (method B. The resulting red colored chromogens are measured at 510 and 520 nm, in method A and B, respectively. In both methods, the absorbance is found to increase linearly with increasing ETM concentration. Beer’s law is obeyed over the ranges 0.5-10 and 0.8-16 µg/ml for method A and B, respectively. The calculated molar absorptivity values are 2.17x104 and 1.65x104 l mol-1 cm-1 for method A and B, respectively, and the corresponding sandell sensitivities are 0.012 and 0.016 µg/cm2. Intra-day and inter-day precision and accuracy of the methods were established according to ICH guidelines. The proposed methods were applied to determine ETM in dosage forms and the results were statistically compared with that of an official BP method

  12. A rapid and sensitive spectrophotometric method for the determination of benzoyl peroxide in wheat flour samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kraingkrai Ponhong

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A simple, rapid, and sensitive spectrophotometric method for the determination of benzoyl peroxide (BPO in wheat flour samples was developed. The detection principle is based on BPO reacted with 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS to obtain a blue-green colored product that was detected at 415 nm by spectrophotometry. The effect of factors influencing the color reaction was investigated. Under the selected conditions, the linear range for quantification of BPO was observed between 0.2–1.0 mg L−1 with r2 = 0.998. The limit of detection (LOD was 0.025 mg L−1. The developed method obtained superior precision (relative standard deviation < 2% using 11 repeatability at 0.2 mg L−1, 0.6 mg L−1, and 0.8 mg L−1. The proposed methodology was successfully applied to determine BPO in wheat flour samples.

  13. Extractive Spectrophotometric Determination of Nortriptyline Hydrochloride Using Sudan II, IV and Black B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, A S; Saleh, H M

    2017-08-17

    A simple spectrophotometric methods has been developed for the determination of nortriptyline hydrochloride in pure and in pharmaceuticalformulations based on the formation of ion-pair complexes with sudun II (SII), sudan (IV) (SIV) and sudan black B (SBB). The selectivity of the method was improved through extraction with chloroform. The optimum conditions for complete extracted colour development were assessed. The absorbance measurements were made at 534, 596 and 649 nm for SII, SIV and SBB complexes, respectively. The calibration graph was linear in the ranges 0.5- 280. 0.5- 37.5 and 0.5 - 31.0 μg ml(-1) of the drug usiny the same reagents, respectively. The precision of the procedure was checked by calculating the relative standard deviation of ten replicate determinations on 15 μg ml(-1) of nortriptyline HCI and was found to be 1.7, 1.3 and 1.55% using SII, SIV, and SBB complexes, respectively. The molar absorptivity and Sandell sensitivity for each ion-pair were calculated. The proposed methods were successfully applied to the deterniination of pure nortriptyline HCI and in pharmaceutical formulations, and the results demonstrated that the method is equally accurate, precise and reproducible as the official method.

  14. Derivatization of labetalol hydrochloride for its spectrofluorimetric and spectrophotometric determination inhuman plasma: Application to stability study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, Mahmoud A; Derayea, Sayed M; Abdel-Lateef, Mohamed A; El Hamd, Mohamed A

    2018-02-05

    Two simple, selective and accurate methods were developed for the determination of Labetalol hydrochloride in pure form and pharmaceutical tablets. Both methods are based on derivatization of the studied drug with 4-chloro-7-nitrobenzo-2-oxa-1,3-diazole (NBDCl) in alkaline medium (pH7.5).The reaction product was measured spectrofluorimetrically at 540nm after excitation at 476nm (method I) or spectrophotometrically at 480nm (method II). The calibration graphs were rectilinear over the concentration ranges of 0.10-2.0 and 1.0-11.0μgmL-1 for methods I and II, respectively. The proposed methods were successfully applied to the analysis of commercial tablets without interference from common excipients. Furthermore, the spectrofluorimetric method was utilized for the in vitro determination of labetalol in spiked human plasma, with a percent mean recovery (n=3) of 97.80±1.29%. Moreover, the spectrofluorimetric method was extended to examine the stability study of LBT under different stress conditions such as alkaline, acidic, oxidative, photolytic and a thermal degradation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Simultaneous first order derivative spectrophotometric determination of vanadium and zirconium in alloy steels and minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varghese, Anitha; George, Louis

    2012-09-01

    A simple, selective and sensitive spectrophotometric method has been developed for the individual and simultaneous determination of trace amounts of vanadium(V) and zirconium(IV) in acetic acid medium using a newly synthesised reagent diacetylmonoxime salicyloylhydrazone (DMSH), without any prior separation. The molar absorptivity and Sandell's sensitivity of the coloured species are 1.30 x 10(4) and 1.82 x 10(4) L mol(-1)cm(-1) and 3.9 and 2.5 ng cm(-2) for V(V) and Zr(IV), respectively. Beer's law is obeyed between 0.26-2.80 and 0.30-3.20 μg mL(-1) concentration of vanadium (V) and zirconium (IV) at 405 and 380 nm respectively. The stoichiometry of the complex was found to be 1:1 (metal:ligand) for V(V) and 1:2 for Zr(IV) complexes. These metal ions interfere with the determination of each other in zero order spectrophotometry. The first derivative spectra of these complexes permitted a simultaneous determination of V(V) and Zr(IV) at zero crossing wavelengths of 445 nm and 405 nm, respectively. The optimum conditions for maximum colour development and other analytical parameters were evaluated. The proposed method has been successfully applied for the determination of zirconium and vanadium in standard alloy steel samples, mineral and soil samples. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Genomic mapping of social behavior traits in a F2 cross derived from mice selectively bred for high aggression

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nehrenberg, Derrick L; Wang, Shiliang; Buus, Ryan J; Perkins, James; de Villena, Fernando Pardo-Manuel; Pomp, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Rapid response to selection was previously observed in mice selected for high levels of inter-male aggression based on number of attacks displayed in a novel social interaction test after isolation housing...

  17. Genomic signatures of local directional selection in a high gene flow marine organism; the Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nielsen, Einar E; Hemmer-Hansen, Jakob; Poulsen, Nina A; Loeschcke, Volker; Moen, Thomas; Johansen, Torild; Mittelholzer, Christian; Taranger, Geir-Lasse; Ogden, Rob; Carvalho, Gary R

    2009-01-01

    .... Our global genome scan analysis identified eight outlier gene loci with very high statistical support, likely to be subject to directional selection in local demes, or closely linked to loci under selection...

  18. Sociodemographic differences in selected eating practices among alternative high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcan, Chrisa; Kubik, Martha Y; Fulkerson, Jayne A; Story, Mary

    2009-05-01

    Students attending alternative high schools are an at-risk group of youth for poor health behaviors and obesity. However, little is known about their dietary practices. To examine associations between sex, race/ethnicity, and socioeconomic status and selected dietary practices, including consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages, high-fat foods, and fruits and vegetables and fast-food restaurant use, among students attending alternative high schools. Population-based, cross-sectional study. A convenience sample of adolescents (n=145; 52% men; 63% aged sociodemographic differences in fruit/vegetable consumption. Higher socioeconomic status was associated with a higher consumption of regular soda (P=0.027). Racial/ethnic and sex differences in the consumption of regular soda, high-fat foods, and fast-food restaurant use among alternative high school students underscores the importance of implementing health promotion programs in alternative high schools.

  19. Highly Selective Fluorescent Sensing of Proteins Based on a Fluorescent Molecularly Imprinted Nanosensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuo Wang

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A fluorescent molecularly imprinted nanosensor was obtained by grafting imprinted polymer onto the surface of multi-wall carbon nanotubes and post-imprinting treatment with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC. The fluorescence of lysozyme-imprinted polymer (Lys-MIP was quenched more strongly by Lys than that of nonimprinted polymer (NIP, which indicated that the Lys-MIP could recognize Lys. The resulted imprinted material has the ability to selectively sense a target protein, and an imprinting factor of 3.34 was achieved. The Lys-MIP also showed selective detection for Lys among other proteins such as cytochrome C (Cyt C, hemoglobin (HB and bovine serum albumin (BSA due to the imprinted sites in the Lys-MIP. This approach combines the high selectivity of surface molecular imprinting technology and fluorescence, and converts binding events into detectable signals by monitoring fluorescence spectra. Therefore, it will have further applications for Lys sensing.

  20. High resolution x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy - a new technique for site- and spin-selectivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xin [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States). Dept. of Applied Science

    1996-12-01

    X-ray spectroscopy has long been used to elucidate electronic and structural information of molecules. One of the weaknesses of x-ray absorption is its sensitivity to all of the atoms of a particular element in a sample. Through out this thesis, a new technique for enhancing the site- and spin-selectivity of the x-ray absorption has been developed. By high resolution fluorescence detection, the chemical sensitivity of K emission spectra can be used to identify oxidation and spin states; it can also be used to facilitate site-selective X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure (XANES) and site-selective Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS). The spin polarization in K fluorescence could be used to generate spin selective XANES or spin-polarized EXAFS, which provides a new measure of the spin density, or the nature of magnetic neighboring atoms. Finally, dramatic line-sharpening effects by the combination of absorption and emission processes allow observation of structure that is normally unobservable. All these unique characters can enormously simplify a complex x-ray spectrum. Applications of this novel technique have generated information from various transition-metal model compounds to metalloproteins. The absorption and emission spectra by high resolution fluorescence detection are interdependent. The ligand field multiplet model has been used for the analysis of K{alpha} and K{beta} emission spectra. First demonstration on different chemical states of Fe compounds has shown the applicability of site selectivity and spin polarization. Different interatomic distances of the same element in different chemical forms have been detected using site-selective EXAFS.

  1. Highly Selective TiN-Supported Highly Dispersed Pt Catalyst: Ultra Active toward Hydrogen Oxidation and Inactive toward Oxygen Reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Junming; Tang, Haibo; Tian, Xinlong; Hou, Sanying; Li, Xiuhua; Du, Li; Liao, Shijun

    2018-01-31

    The severe dissolution of the cathode catalyst, caused by an undesired oxygen reduction reaction at the anode during startup and shutdown, is a fatal challenge to practical applications of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells. To address this important issue, according to the distinct structure-sensitivity between the σ-type bond in H 2 and the π-type bond in O 2 , we design a HD-Pt/TiN material by highly dispersing Pt on the TiN surface to inhibit the unwanted oxygen reduction reaction. The highly dispersed Pt/TiN catalyst exhibits excellent selectivity toward hydrogen oxidation and oxygen reduction reactions. With a Pt loading of 0.88 wt %, our catalyst shows excellent hydrogen oxidation reaction activity, close to that of commercial 20 wt % Pt/C catalyst, and much lower oxygen reduction reaction activity than the commercial 20 wt % Pt/C catalyst. The lack of well-ordered Pt facets is responsible for the excellent selectivity of the HD-Pt/TiN materials toward hydrogen oxidation and oxygen reduction reactions. Our work provides a new and cost-effective solution to design selective catalysts toward hydrogen oxidation and oxygen reduction reactions, making the strategy of using oxygen-tolerant anode catalyst to improve the stability of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells during startup and shutdown more affordable and practical.

  2. Molecular imprinting ratiometric fluorescence sensor for highly selective and sensitive detection of phycocyanin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoyan; Yu, Jialuo; Kang, Qi; Shen, Dazhong; Li, Jinhua; Chen, Lingxin

    2016-03-15

    A facile strategy was developed to prepare molecular imprinting ratiometric fluorescence sensor for highly selective and sensitive detection of phycocyanin (PC) based on fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET), via a sol-gel polymerization process using nitrobenzoxadiazole (NBD) as fluorescent signal source. The ratio of two fluorescence peak emission intensities of NBD and PC was utilized to determine the concentration of PC, which could effectively reduce the background interference and fluctuation of diverse conditions. As a result, this sensor obtained high sensitivity with a low detection limit of 0.14 nM within 6 min, and excellent recognition specificity for PC over its analogues with a high imprinting factor of 9.1. Furthermore, the sensor attained high recoveries in the range of 93.8-110.2% at three spiking levels of PC, with precisions below 4.7% in seawater and lake water samples. The developed sensor strategy demonstrated simplicity, reliability, rapidity, high selectivity and high sensitivity, proving to be a feasible way to develop high efficient fluorescence sensors and thus potentially applicable for ultratrace analysis of complicated matrices. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Direct conversion of CO2 into liquid fuels with high selectivity over a bifunctional catalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Peng; Li, Shenggang; Bu, Xianni; Dang, Shanshan; Liu, Ziyu; Wang, Hui; Zhong, Liangshu; Qiu, Minghuang; Yang, Chengguang; Cai, Jun; Wei, Wei; Sun, Yuhan

    2017-10-01

    Although considerable progress has been made in carbon dioxide (CO2) hydrogenation to various C1 chemicals, it is still a great challenge to synthesize value-added products with two or more carbons, such as gasoline, directly from CO2 because of the extreme inertness of CO2 and a high C-C coupling barrier. Here we present a bifunctional catalyst composed of reducible indium oxides (In2O3) and zeolites that yields a high selectivity to gasoline-range hydrocarbons (78.6%) with a very low methane selectivity (1%). The oxygen vacancies on the In2O3 surfaces activate CO2 and hydrogen to form methanol, and C-C coupling subsequently occurs inside zeolite pores to produce gasoline-range hydrocarbons with a high octane number. The proximity of these two components plays a crucial role in suppressing the undesired reverse water gas shift reaction and giving a high selectivity for gasoline-range hydrocarbons. Moreover, the pellet catalyst exhibits a much better performance during an industry-relevant test, which suggests promising prospects for industrial applications.

  4. Efficient removal and highly selective adsorption of Hg2+ by polydopamine nanospheres with total recycle capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiulan; Jia, Xin; Zhang, Guoxiang; Hu, Jiamei; Sheng, Wenbo; Ma, Zhiyuan; Lu, Jianjiang; Liu, Zhiyong

    2014-09-01

    This study reported a new method for efficient removal of Hg2+ from contaminated water using highly selective adsorptive polydopamine (PDA) nanospheres, which were uniform and had a small diameter (150-200 nm). The adsorption isotherms, kinetics, thermodynamics were investigated. Also, the effects of ionic strength, co-existing ions on removing ability of PDA nanospheres for Hg2+ were studied. Adsorption of Hg2+ was very fast and efficient as adsorption equilibrium was completed within 4 h and the maximum adsorption capacities were 1861.72 mg/g, 2037.22 mg/g, and 2076.81 mg/g at 298 K, 313 K, and 328 K respectively, increasing with increasing of temperature. The PDA nanospheres exhibited highly selective adsorption of Hg2+ and had a total desorption capacity of 100% in hydrochloric acid solution, pH 1. The results showed that the structure of PDA nanospheres remained almost unchanged after recycling five times. Furthermore, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was employed to determine the elements of PDA nanospheres before and after Hg2+ adsorption. Considering their efficient and highly Hg2+ selective adsorption, total recycle capacity, and high stability, PDA nanospheres will be feasible in a number of practical applications.

  5. A Study on Site Selecting for National Project including High Level Radioactive Waste Disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kilyoo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Many national projects are stopped since sites for the projects are not determined. The sites selections are hold by NIMBY for unpleasant facilities or by PYMFY for preferable facilities among local governments. The followings are the typical ones; NIMBY projects: high level radioactive waste disposal, THAAD, Nuclear power plant(NPP), etc. PIMFY projects: South-east new airport, KTX station, Research center for NPP decommission, etc. The site selection for high level radioactive waste disposal is more difficult problem, and thus government did not decide and postpone to a dead end street. Since it seems that there is no solution for site selection for high level radioactive waste disposal due to NIMBY among local governments, a solution method is proposed in this paper. To decide a high level radioactive waste disposal, the first step is to invite a bid by suggesting a package deal including PIMFY projects such as Research Center for NPP decommission. Maybe potential host local governments are asked to submit sealed bids indicating the minimum compensation sum that they would accept the high level radioactive waste disposal site. If there are more than one local government put in a bid, then decide an adequate site by considering both the accumulated PESS point and technical evaluation results. By considering how fairly preferable national projects and unpleasant national projects are distributed among local government, sites selection for NIMBY or PIMFY facilities is suggested. For NIMBY national projects, risk, cost benefit analysis is useful and required since it generates cost value to be used in the PESS. For many cases, the suggested method may be not adequate. However, similar one should be prepared, and be basis to decide sites for NIMBY or PIMFY national projects.

  6. Comparison of spectrophotometric and electrochemical methods for the evaluation of the antioxidant capacity of buckwheat products after hydrothermal treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielinska, Danuta; Szawara-Nowak, Dorota; Zielinski, Henryk

    2007-07-25

    This paper reports the use of spectrophotometric and voltammetric methods for the determination of the antioxidant capacity of buckwheat and its products originated from a technological line of a buckwheat roasted groats producer. 80% methanol extracts from raw and roasted buckwheat and groats and hulls obtained from roasted buckwheat were used. The spectrophotometric methods included (1) free radical scavenging activities of the extracts against ABTS*+ radical cation (TEAC) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH RSA) and (2) determination of reducing capacity by the means of Folin-Ciocalteu reagent (FCR) application. The radical scavenging activities of the extracts were also investigated using a voltammetric assay. Moreover, the flavonoids profiles of the studied materials were provided. Buckwheat roasting caused a decrease in TEAC, DPPH RSA, and FCR reducing capacity by 70%. The lowest TEAC, DPPH RSA, and FCR reducing capacities were noted for roasted groats. Both DPPH RSA and TEAC methods were highly positively correlated with the FCR reducing capacity assay (r = 0.98 and r = 0.99). Cyclic voltammograms of analyzed buckwheat extracts were useful for evaluation of the antioxidant capacity. The total charge below the anodic current waveform was correlated with the data obtained by TEAC (r = 0.770), DPPH RSA (r = 0.88), and FCR reducing capacity (r = 0.81). The changes in the antioxidant capacity of buckwheat and its products followed the changes in flavonoids composition. In particular, the concentration of flavonoids was related to measurements by cyclic voltammetry.

  7. Towards green analysis of virgin olive oil phenolic compounds: Extraction by a natural deep eutectic solvent and direct spectrophotometric detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradiso, Vito Michele; Clemente, Antonia; Summo, Carmine; Pasqualone, Antonella; Caponio, Francesco

    2016-12-01

    The determination of phenolic compounds in extra virgin olive oils (EVOO) by means of rapid, low-cost, environment-free methods would be a desirable achievement. A natural deep eutectic solvent (DES) based on glucose and lactic acid was considered as extraction solvent for phenolic compounds in EVOO. DESs are green solvents characterized by high availability, biodegradability, safety, and low cost. The spectrophotometric characteristics of DES extracts of 65 EVOO samples were related to the total phenolic content of the oils, assessed by methanol-water extraction coupled to the Folin-Ciocalteu assay. A regression model (ncalibration=45, nvalidation=20), including the absorbance at two wavelengths (257, 324nm), was obtained, with an adjusted R(2)=0.762. Therefore the DES could provide a promising and viable approach for a green screening method of phenolic compounds in EVOO, by means of simple spectrophotometric measurements of extracts, even for on-field analysis (for example in olive mills). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Examining applying high performance genetic data feature selection and classification algorithms for colon cancer diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Rajab, Murad; Lu, Joan; Xu, Qiang

    2017-07-01

    This paper examines the accuracy and efficiency (time complexity) of high performance genetic data feature selection and classification algorithms for colon cancer diagnosis. The need for this research derives from the urgent and increasing need for accurate and efficient algorithms. Colon cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide, hence it is vitally important for the cancer tissues to be expertly identified and classified in a rapid and timely manner, to assure both a fast detection of the disease and to expedite the drug discovery process. In this research, a three-phase approach was proposed and implemented: Phases One and Two examined the feature selection algorithms and classification algorithms employed separately, and Phase Three examined the performance of the combination of these. It was found from Phase One that the Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithm performed best with the colon dataset as a feature selection (29 genes selected) and from Phase Two that the Support Vector Machine (SVM) algorithm outperformed other classifications, with an accuracy of almost 86%. It was also found from Phase Three that the combined use of PSO and SVM surpassed other algorithms in accuracy and performance, and was faster in terms of time analysis (94%). It is concluded that applying feature selection algorithms prior to classification algorithms results in better accuracy than when the latter are applied alone. This conclusion is important and significant to industry and society. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. High hunting pressure selects for earlier birth date: Wild boar as a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamelon, M.; Besnard, A.; Gaillard, J.-M.; Servanty, S.; Baubet, E.; Brandt, S.; Gimenez, O.

    2011-01-01

    Exploitation by humans affects the size and structure of populations. This has evolutionary and demographic consequences that have typically being studied independent of one another. We here applied a framework recently developed applying quantitative tools from population ecology and selection gradient analysis to quantify the selection on a quantitative trait-birth date-through its association with multiple fitness components. From the long-term monitoring (22 years) of a wild boar (Sus scrofa scrofa) population subject to markedly increasing hunting pressure, we found that birth dates have advanced by up to 12 days throughout the study period. During the period of low hunting pressure, there was no detectable selection. However, during the period of high hunting pressure, the selection gradient linking breeding probability in the first year of life to birth date was negative, supporting current life-history theory predicting selection for early births to reproduce within the first year of life with increasing adult mortality. ?? 2011 The Author(s). Evolution?? 2011 The Society for the Study of Evolution..

  10. Detecting selection signatures between Duroc and Duroc synthetic pig populations using high-density SNP chip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edea, Z; Hong, J-K; Jung, J-H; Kim, D-W; Kim, Y-M; Kim, E-S; Shin, S S; Jung, Y C; Kim, K-S

    2017-08-01

    The development of high throughput genotyping techniques has facilitated the identification of selection signatures of pigs. The detection of genomic selection signals in a population subjected to differential selection pressures may provide insights into the genes associated with economically and biologically important traits. To identify genomic regions under selection, we genotyped 488 Duroc (D) pigs and 155 D × Korean native pigs (DKNPs) using the Porcine SNP70K BeadChip. By applying the FST and extended haplotype homozygosity (EHH-Rsb) methods, we detected genes under directional selection associated with growth/stature (DOCK7, PLCB4, HS2ST1, FBP2 and TG), carcass and meat quality (TG, COL14A1, FBXO5, NR3C1, SNX7, ARHGAP26 and DPYD), number of teats (LOC100153159 and LRRC1), pigmentation (MME) and ear morphology (SOX5), which are all mostly near or at fixation. These results could be a basis for investigating the underlying mutations associated with observed phenotypic variation. Validation using genome-wide association analysis would also facilitate the inclusion of some of these markers in genetic evaluation programs. © 2017 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  11. Highly Selective, Reversible Inhibitor Identified by Comparative Chemoproteomics Modulates Diacylglycerol Lipase Activity in Neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baggelaar, Marc P; Chameau, Pascal J P; Kantae, Vasudev; Hummel, Jessica; Hsu, Ku-Lung; Janssen, Freek; van der Wel, Tom; Soethoudt, Marjolein; Deng, Hui; den Dulk, Hans; Allarà, Marco; Florea, Bogdan I; Di Marzo, Vincenzo; Wadman, Wytse J; Kruse, Chris G; Overkleeft, Herman S; Hankemeier, Thomas; Werkman, Taco R; Cravatt, Benjamin F; van der Stelt, Mario

    2015-07-15

    Diacylglycerol lipase (DAGL)-α and -β are enzymes responsible for the biosynthesis of the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG). Selective and reversible inhibitors are required to study the function of DAGLs in neuronal cells in an acute and temporal fashion, but they are currently lacking. Here, we describe the identification of a highly selective DAGL inhibitor using structure-guided and a chemoproteomics strategy to characterize the selectivity of the inhibitor in complex proteomes. Key to the success of this approach is the use of comparative and competitive activity-based proteome profiling (ABPP), in which broad-spectrum and tailor-made activity-based probes are combined to report on the inhibition of a protein family in its native environment. Competitive ABPP with broad-spectrum fluorophosphonate-based probes and specific β-lactone-based probes led to the discovery of α-ketoheterocycle LEI105 as a potent, highly selective, and reversible dual DAGL-α/DAGL-β inhibitor. LEI105 did not affect other enzymes involved in endocannabinoid metabolism including abhydrolase domain-containing protein 6, abhydrolase domain-containing protein 12, monoacylglycerol lipase, and fatty acid amide hydrolase and did not display affinity for the cannabinoid CB1 receptor. Targeted lipidomics revealed that LEI105 concentration-dependently reduced 2-AG levels, but not anandamide levels, in Neuro2A cells. We show that cannabinoid CB1-receptor-mediated short-term synaptic plasticity in a mouse hippocampal slice model can be reduced by LEI105. Thus, we have developed a highly selective DAGL inhibitor and provide new pharmacological evidence to support the hypothesis that "on demand biosynthesis" of 2-AG is responsible for retrograde signaling.

  12. A highly selective, reversible inhibitor identified by comparative chemoproteomics modulates diacylglycerol lipase activity in neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baggelaar, Marc P.; Chameau, Pascal J. P.; Kantae, Vasudev; Hummel, Jessica; Hsu, Ku-Lung; Janssen, Freek; van der Wel, Tom; Soethoudt, Marjolein; Deng, Hui; den Dulk, Hans; Allarà, Marco; Florea, Bogdan I.; Di Marzo, Vincenzo; Wadman, Wytse J.; Kruse, Chris G.; Overkleeft, Herman S.; Hankemeier, Thomas; Werkman, Taco R.; Cravatt, Benjamin F.; van der Stelt, Mario

    2016-01-01

    Diacylglycerol lipase (DAGL)-α and -β are enzymes responsible for the biosynthesis of the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG). Selective and reversible inhibitors are required to study the function of DAGLs in neuronal cells in an acute and temporal fashion, but they are currently lacking. Here, we describe the identification of a highly selective DAGL inhibitor using structure-guided and a chemoproteomics strategy to characterize the selectivity of the inhibitor in complex proteomes. Key to the success of this approach is the use of comparative and competitive activity-based proteome profiling (ABPP), in which broad-spectrum and tailor-made activity-based probes are combined to report on the inhibition of a protein family in its native environment. Competitive ABPP with broad-spectrum fluorophosphonate-based probes and specific β-lactone-based probes led to the discovery of α-ketoheterocycle LEI105 as a potent, highly selective and reversible dual DAGL-α/DAGL-β inhibitor. LEI105 did not affect other enzymes involved in endocannabinoid metabolism including abhydrolase domain-containing protein 6, abhydrolase domain-containing protein 12, monoacylglycerol lipase and fatty acid amide hydrolase and did not display affinity for the cannabinoid CB1 receptor. Targeted lipidomics revealed that LEI105 concentration-dependently reduced 2-AG levels, but not anandamide levels, in Neuro2A cells. We show that cannabinoid CB1-receptor-mediated short-term synaptic plasticity in a mouse hippocampal slice model can be reduced by LEI105. Thus, we have developed a highly selective DAGL inhibitor and provide new pharmacological evidence to support the hypothesis that ‘on demand biosynthesis’ of 2-AG is responsible for retrograde signaling. PMID:26083464

  13. Oligonucleotide Functionalised Microbeads: Indispensable Tools for High-Throughput Aptamer Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lewis A. Fraser

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The functionalisation of microbeads with oligonucleotides has become an indispensable technique for high-throughput aptamer selection in SELEX protocols. In addition to simplifying the separation of binding and non-binding aptamer candidates, microbeads have facilitated the integration of other technologies such as emulsion PCR (ePCR and Fluorescence Activated Cell Sorting (FACS to high-throughput selection techniques. Within these systems, monoclonal aptamer microbeads can be individually generated and assayed to assess aptamer candidate fitness thereby helping eliminate stochastic effects which are common to classical SELEX techniques. Such techniques have given rise to aptamers with 1000 times greater binding affinities when compared to traditional SELEX. Another emerging technique is Fluorescence Activated Droplet Sorting (FADS whereby selection does not rely on binding capture allowing evolution of a greater diversity of aptamer properties such as fluorescence or enzymatic activity. Within this review we explore examples and applications of oligonucleotide functionalised microbeads in aptamer selection and reflect upon new opportunities arising for aptamer science.

  14. Oligonucleotide Functionalised Microbeads: Indispensable Tools for High-Throughput Aptamer Selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Lewis A; Kinghorn, Andrew B; Tang, Marco S L; Cheung, Yee-Wai; Lim, Bryce; Liang, Shaolin; Dirkzwager, Roderick M; Tanner, Julian A

    2015-12-01

    The functionalisation of microbeads with oligonucleotides has become an indispensable technique for high-throughput aptamer selection in SELEX protocols. In addition to simplifying the separation of binding and non-binding aptamer candidates, microbeads have facilitated the integration of other technologies such as emulsion PCR (ePCR) and Fluorescence Activated Cell Sorting (FACS) to high-throughput selection techniques. Within these systems, monoclonal aptamer microbeads can be individually generated and assayed to assess aptamer candidate fitness thereby helping eliminate stochastic effects which are common to classical SELEX techniques. Such techniques have given rise to aptamers with 1000 times greater binding affinities when compared to traditional SELEX. Another emerging technique is Fluorescence Activated Droplet Sorting (FADS) whereby selection does not rely on binding capture allowing evolution of a greater diversity of aptamer properties such as fluorescence or enzymatic activity. Within this review we explore examples and applications of oligonucleotide functionalised microbeads in aptamer selection and reflect upon new opportunities arising for aptamer science.

  15. Miniaturizable Ion-Selective Arrays Based on Highly Stable Polymer Membranes for Biomedical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mònica Mir

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Poly(vinylchloride (PVC is the most common polymer matrix used in the fabrication of ion-selective electrodes (ISEs. However, the surfaces of PVC-based sensors have been reported to show membrane instability. In an attempt to overcome this limitation, here we developed two alternative methods for the preparation of highly stable and robust ion-selective sensors. These platforms are based on the selective electropolymerization of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene (PEDOT, where the sulfur atoms contained in the polymer covalently interact with the gold electrode, also permitting controlled selective attachment on a miniaturized electrode in an array format. This platform sensor was improved with the crosslinking of the membrane compounds with poly(ethyleneglycol diglycidyl ether (PEG, thus also increasing the biocompatibility of the sensor. The resulting ISE membranes showed faster signal stabilization of the sensor response compared with that of the PVC matrix and also better reproducibility and stability, thus making these platforms highly suitable candidates for the manufacture of robust implantable sensors.

  16. Submillimetre observations of WISE-selected high-redshift, luminous AGN and their surrounding overdense environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Suzy F.

    2016-08-01

    We present JCMT SCUBA-2 850 μm submillimetre (submm) observations of 10 mid-infrared (mid-IR) luminous active galactic nuclei (AGNs), detected by the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) all-sky IR survey and 30 that have also been detected by the NVSS/FIRST radio survey. These rare sources are selected by their extremely red mid-IR spectral energy distributions (SEDs). Further investigations show that they are highly obscured, have abundant warm AGN-heated dust and are thought to be experiencing intense AGN feedback. When comparing the number of submm galaxies detected serendipitously in the surrounding 1.5 arcmin to those in blank-field submm surveys, there is a very significant overdensity, of order 3-5, but no sign of radial clustering centred at our primary objects. The WISE-selected AGN thus reside in 10-Mpc-scale overdense environments that could be forming in pre-viralized clusters of galaxies. WISE-selected AGNs appear to be the strongest signposts of high-density regions of active, luminous and dusty galaxies. SCUBA-2 850 μm observations indicate that their submm fluxes are low compared to many popular AGN SED templates, hence the WISE/radio-selected AGNs have either less cold and/or more warm dust emission than normally assumed for typical AGN. Most of the targets have total IR luminosities ≥1013 L⊙, with known redshifts of 20 targets between z ˜ 0.44-4.6.

  17. Hybrid Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems for Highly Reliable and Selective Characterization of Tank Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panos G. Datskos; Michael J. Sepaniak; Nickolay Lavrik; Pampa Dutta; Mustafa Culha

    2005-12-28

    The main objective of this research program is to develop robust and reliable micro-electro-mechanical sensing systems, based on microcantilevers (MCs), that can operate in liquid environments with high levels of sensitivity and selectivity. The chemical responses of MCs result from analyte-induced differential stress at the cantilever surfaces. We aim to employ various surface nanostructuring strategies that enhance these stresses and hence the degree of static bending of the cantilevers. Receptor phases as self assembled monolayers (SAMs) and thin films are being synthesized and tested to provide selectivity. Selectivity is chemically enhanced by using different phases on individual MCs in arrays and by adding a spectroscopic component, surface enhanced Raman spectrometry (SERS), in hybrid approaches to sensing. Significant progress was made in tasks that were listed in the work plan for DOE EMSP project ''Hybrid Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems for Highly Reliable and Selective Characterization of Tank Waste''. Several project areas are listed below and discussed and referenced to our literature on the topics.

  18. Highly selective Lewis acid sites in desilicated MFI zeolites for dihydroxyacetone isomerization to lactic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dapsens, Pierre Y; Mondelli, Cecilia; Pérez-Ramírez, Javier

    2013-05-01

    Desilication of commercial MFI-type (ZSM-5) zeolites in solutions of alkali metal hydroxides is demonstrated to generate highly selective heterogeneous catalysts for the aqueous-phase isomerization of biobased dihydroxyacetone (DHA) to lactic acid (LA). The best hierarchical ZSM-5 sample attains a LA selectivity exceeding 90 %, which is comparable to that of the state-of-the-art catalyst (i.e., the Sn-beta zeolite); this optimized hierarchical catalyst is recyclable over three runs. The Lewis acid sites, which are created through desilication along with the introduction of mesoporosity, are shown to play a crucial role in the formation of the desired product; these cannot be achieved by using other post-synthetic methods, such as steaming or impregnation of aluminum species. Desilication of other metallosilicates, such as Ga-MFI, also leads to high LA selectivity. In the presence of a soluble aluminum source, such as aluminum nitrate, alkaline-assisted alumination can introduce these unique Lewis acid centers in all-silica MFI zeolites. These findings highlight the potential of zeolites in the field of biomass-to-chemical conversion, and expand the applicability of desilication for the generation of selective catalytic centers. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Selective catalytic conversion of bio-oil over high-silica zeolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widayatno, Wahyu Bambang; Guan, Guoqing; Rizkiana, Jenny; Du, Xiao; Hao, Xiaogang; Zhang, Zhonglin; Abudula, Abuliti

    2015-03-01

    Four high silica zeolites, i.e., HSZ-385, 890, 960, and 990 were utilized for the selective catalytic conversion of bio-oil from Fallopia japonica to certain chemicals in a fixed-bed reactor. The Beta-type HSZ-960 zeolite showed the highest selectivity to hydrocarbons, especially to aromatics as well as PAH compounds with the lowest unwanted chemicals while HSZ-890 showed high selectivity to aromatics. NH3-Temperature Programmed Desorption (TPD) analysis indicated that different amounts of acid sites in different zeolites determined the catalytic activity for the oxygen removal from bio-oil, in which the acid sites at low temperature (LT) region gave more contribution within the utilized temperature region. The reusability test of HSZ-960 showed the stability of hydrocarbons yield at higher temperature due to the significant contribution of coke gasification which assisted further deoxygenation of bio-oil. These results provide a guidance to select suitable zeolite catalysts for the upgrading of bio-oil in a practical process. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. High temperature and bacteriophages can indirectly select for bacterial pathogenicity in environmental reservoirs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ville-Petri Friman

    Full Text Available The coincidental evolution hypothesis predicts that traits connected to bacterial pathogenicity could be indirectly selected outside the host as a correlated response to abiotic environmental conditions or different biotic species interactions. To investigate this, an opportunistic bacterial pathogen, Serratia marcescens, was cultured in the absence and presence of the lytic bacteriophage PPV (Podoviridae at 25°C and 37°C for four weeks (N = 5. At the end, we measured changes in bacterial phage-resistance and potential virulence traits, and determined the pathogenicity of all bacterial selection lines in the Parasemia plantaginis insect model in vivo. Selection at 37°C increased bacterial motility and pathogenicity but only in the absence of phages. Exposure to phages increased the phage-resistance of bacteria, and this was costly in terms of decreased maximum population size in the absence of phages. However, this small-magnitude growth cost was not greater with bacteria that had evolved in high temperature regime, and no trade-off was found between phage-resistance and growth rate. As a result, phages constrained the evolution of a temperature-mediated increase in bacterial pathogenicity presumably by preferably infecting the highly motile and virulent bacteria. In more general perspective, our results suggest that the traits connected to bacterial pathogenicity could be indirectly selected as a correlated response by abiotic and biotic factors in environmental reservoirs.

  1. An o-phthalaldehyde spectrophotometric assay for proteinases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Church, F C; Porter, D H; Catignani, G L; Swaisgood, H E

    1985-05-01

    A rapid and convenient spectrophotometric assay has been devised to measure proteolysis. The assay is based on the reaction of o-phthalaldehyde (OPA) and 2-mercaptoethanol with amino groups released during proteolysis of a protein substrate. The reaction is specific for primary amines in amino acids, peptides, and proteins, approaches completion within 1 to 2 min at 25 degrees C (half-times of approx 10-15 s), and requires no preliminary heating or separation of the hydrolyzed products from the undegraded protein substrate prior to performing the assay. The OPA assay was relatively as successful as a 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS) procedure in predicting the extent of hydrolysis of a protein substrate. The utility of the OPA method was demonstrated by measuring the degree of proteolytic degradation caused by trypsin, subtilisin, Pronase, and chymotrypsin of various soluble protein substrates. Ethanethiol (instead of 2-mercaptoethanol) or 50% of dimethyl sulfoxide can be included in the assay solution to stabilize certain OPA-amine products. The present method approaches the sensitivity of ninhydrin and TNBS procedures, is more convenient and rapid, and could substitute for these reagents in most assay systems.

  2. Spectrophotometric determination of nicradipine and isradipine in pharmaceutical formulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Al-Ghannam

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available A sensitive spectrophotometric method was developed for the determination of some 1,4-dihydropyridine compounds namely, nicardipine and isradipine either in pure form or in pharmaceutical preparations. The method is based on the reduction of nicardipine and isradipine with zinc powder and calcium chloride followed by further reduction with sodium pentacyanoaminoferrate (II to give violet and red products having the absorbance maximum at 546 and 539 nm with nicardipine and isradipine, respectively. Beer’s law was obeyed over the concentration range 8.0–180 μg/ml with the detection limit of 1.67 μg/ml for nicardipine and 8.0–110 μg/ml with the detection limit of 1.748 μg/ml for isradipine. The analytical parameters and their effects on the reported methods were investigated. The molar absorptivity, quantization limit, standard deviation of intercept (Sa, standard deviation of slope (Sb and standard deviation of the residuals (Sy/x were calculated. The composition of the result compounds were found 1:1 for nicardipine and 1:2 for isradipine by Job’s method and the conditional stability constant (Kf and the free energy changes (ΔG were calculated for compounds formed. The proposed method was applied successfully for the determination of nicardipine and isradipine in their dosage forms. The results obtained were in good agreement with those obtained using the reference or official methods. A proposal of the reaction pathway was presented.

  3. Stability studies on florfenicol using developed derivative spectrophotometric methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elimam, M M; Shantier, S W; Gadkariem, E A; Mohamed, M A; Osman, Z

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the stability of florfenicol using previously developed derivative spectrophotometric methods (D 1 and D 2 ). The studied stability-indicating pararmeters included alkali (NaOH, 1M), acid (HCl, 1M), pH changes (buffer pH 2.2-11), temperature (80°C and 100°C at pH 10) and light. A constructed pH profile for the drug degradation rate revealed a significant effect of pH on the drug stability between pH ranges 8 and 11. The obtained profile indicated first order dependence of K obs on [OH - ]. Arrhenius plot at pH 10 was found linear at temperatures 80°C and 100°C with estimated activation energy of 19.35kcal/mol. The calculated rate constant (K obs ), t ½ and t 90 at 25°C were found to be 1.8×10 -3 h, 385h and 58.3h, respectively. The photostability of florfenicol was also studied by exposing the drug solution to direct sunlight during mid-day time. The obtained results reflected the instability of florfenicol under the study conditions. Copyright © 2016 Académie Nationale de Pharmacie. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Spectrophotometric determination of yeast RNA with neutral red

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueliang Niu

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The interaction of neutral red (NR with yeast RNA (yRNA was studied by UV-Vis spectrophotometry to develop a simple spectrophotometric method for the determination yRNA. NR exhibited a maximum absorption peak at 528 nm in a Britton-Robinson (B-R buffer solution of pH 4.0. After the addition of yRNA into NR solution, the absorbance value was greatly decreased and no new absorption peaks appeared. The interaction conditions such as the buffer pH, reaction time, etc. were carefully studied. Under the optimal conditions the decrease in absorbance value was proportional to the yRNA concentration in the range from 0.2 to 20.0 mg L-1 when 8.0 × 10-5 M NR was employed. The detection limit was calculated as 0.78 mg L-1 (3σ and three synthetic samples were determined satisfactorily. A binding ratio of NR to yRNA was found to be 1:1 by the molar ratio method.

  5. Kinetic spectrophotometric determination of trace amounts of selenium and vanadium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Safavi, A.; Sedghy, H.R.; Shams, E. [Dept. of Chemistry, Shiraz Univ. (Iran)

    1999-11-01

    A sensitive kinetic spectrophotometric method has been developed for the determination of Se(IV) over the range of 45 to 4000 ng in 10 mL of solution. The method is based on the catalytic effect of Se(IV) on the reduction reaction of bromate by hydrazinium dichloride, with subsequent reaction of Ponceau S with products of the above reaction (chlorine and bromine), causing color changing of Ponceau S. Method development includes optimization of time interval for measurement of slope, pH, reagents concentration, and temperature. The optimized conditions yielded a theoretical detection limit of 33 ng/10 mL of solution of Se(IV). The interfering effects were studied and removed. The method was applied to the determination of selenium in spiked water, Kjeldahl tablet, selenium tablet, and shampoo. Vanadium(V) has an inhibition effect on the catalyzed reaction of bromate and hydrazine by selenium. Using this effect, V(V) can be determined in the range of 70 to 2500 ng in 10 mL of solution. The optimization procedure includes pH and selenium concentration. An extraction method was used for interference removal. The method was applied to the determination of vanadium in petroleum. (orig.)

  6. Catalytic spectrophotometric determination of trace aluminium with indigo carmine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Huai-Li; Xiong, Wen-Qiang; Gong, Ying-Kun; Peng, De-Jun; Li, Ling-Chun

    2007-04-01

    A new catalytic spectrophotometric method is described for the determination of trace amounts of Al(III). The methods based on catalytic action of Al(III) on the oxidation of indigo carmine (IC) by ammonium persulfate in hexamethylene tetramine-hydrochloric acid ((CH 2) 6N 4-HCl) buffer medium (pH 5.4) and in the presence of surfactant—TritonX-100. The effects of some factors on the reaction speed were investigated. Aluminium concentration is linear for 0-1.2 × 10 -7 g/ml in this method. The detection limit of the proposed method is 1.96 × 10 -8 g/ml. Most of the foreign ions except for Cu(II), Fe(III) do not interfere with the determination, and the interference of Cu(II) and Fe(III) in this method can be removed by extraction with sodium diethyldithiocarbamate-carbon tetrachloride (DDTC-CCl 4). This system is a quasi-zero-order reaction for Al(III), but it is a quasi-first-order reaction for IC. The apparent rate constant is 2.62 × 10 -5 s -1 and the apparent activation energy is 6.60 kJ/mol in the system. The proposed method was applied to the determination of trace aluminium(III) in real samples with satisfactory results.

  7. Verification of spectrophotometric method for nitrate analysis in water samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurniawati, Puji; Gusrianti, Reny; Dwisiwi, Bledug Bernanti; Purbaningtias, Tri Esti; Wiyantoko, Bayu

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this research was to verify the spectrophotometric method to analyze nitrate in water samples using APHA 2012 Section 4500 NO3-B method. The verification parameters used were: linearity, method detection limit, level of quantitation, level of linearity, accuracy and precision. Linearity was obtained by using 0 to 50 mg/L nitrate standard solution and the correlation coefficient of standard calibration linear regression equation was 0.9981. The method detection limit (MDL) was defined as 0,1294 mg/L and limit of quantitation (LOQ) was 0,4117 mg/L. The result of a level of linearity (LOL) was 50 mg/L and nitrate concentration 10 to 50 mg/L was linear with a level of confidence was 99%. The accuracy was determined through recovery value was 109.1907%. The precision value was observed using % relative standard deviation (%RSD) from repeatability and its result was 1.0886%. The tested performance criteria showed that the methodology was verified under the laboratory conditions.

  8. Spectrophotometric assay of creatinine in human serum sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avinash Krishnegowda

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A new spectrophotometric method for the analysis of creatinine concentration in human serum samples is developed. The method explores the oxidation of p-methylamino phenol sulfate (Metol in the presence of copper sulfate and creatinine which yields an intense violet colored species with maximum absorbance at 530 nm. The calibration graph of creatinine by fixed time assay ranged from 4.4 to 620 μM. Recovery of creatinine in human serum samples varied from 101% to 106%. Limit of detection and limit of quantification were 0.145 μM and 0.487 μM respectively. Sandell’s sensitivity was 0.112 μg cm−2 and molar absorptivity was 0.101 × 104 L mol−1 cm−1. Within day precision was 2.5–4.8% and day-to-day precision range was 3.2–7.8%. The robustness and ruggedness of the method expressed in RSD values ranged from 0.78% to 2.12% and 1.32% to 3.46% respectively, suggesting that the developed method was rugged. This method provides good sensitivity and is comparable to standard Jaffe’s method with comparatively less interference from foreign substances.

  9. Simpler spectrophotometric assay of paracetamol in tablets and urine samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirajuddin; Khaskheli, Abdul Rauf; Shah, Afzal; Bhanger, Muhammad Iqbal; Niaz, Abdul; Mahesar, Sarfaraz

    2007-11-01

    A very fast, economical and simpler direct spectrophotometric method was investigated for paracetamol (PC) determination in aqueous medium without using any chemical reagents. The method is based on the photo-absorption of the analyte at 243 nm after dissolution in water. The change in structure of PC after addition of water was studied by comparing the corresponding FTIR spectra. Optimization studies were conducted by using a 5 μg ml -1 standard solution of the analyte. Various parameters studied include, time for stability and measurement of spectra, effect of HCl, NaOH, CH 3COOH and NH 3 for change in absorbance and shift in spectra, interference by some analgesic drugs and some polar solvents and temperature effect. After optimization, Beer's law was obeyed in the range of 0.3-20 μg ml -1 PC solution with a correlation coefficient of 0.9999 and detection limit of 0.1 μg ml -1. The newly developed method was successfully applied for PC determination in some locally available tablets and urine samples. The proposed method is very useful for quick analysis of various types of solid and liquid samples containing PC.

  10. Spectrophotometric determination of total lactones in Andrographis paniculata Nees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Napaporn Jantakun

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available A spectrophotometric method for determination of total lactones in Andrographis paniculata was established by using dinitrobenzoic acid and potassium hydroxide solutions as colour forming agents. The absorbance of the solution was determined at 536 nm. The linearity range was 12-72 × 10-6 g.ml-1. The detection limit was 1.2 μg, the quantitation limit was 4.23 μg. The intraday variation had an average of slope 6082.97 g.ml-1, % RSD 0.10; an average intercept 0.2786, %RSD 3.66 (n=3. The interday variation had an average of 6146 g.ml-1 with the %RSD of 6.30 and an average intercept 0.2628, %RSD 4.95 (n=4. The coefficients of determination were 0.998-0.999. The total lactones content, calculated as andrographolide, determined by this method was 8.61±0.52% (n=4 and by the official method, Thai Herbal Pharmacopoeia, was 8.12±0.34% (n=2. The results of the two methods do not differ significantly at P=0.05 (P(|t|>0.903 = 0.53

  11. New detection systems of bacteria using highly selective media designed by SMART: selective medium-design algorithm restricted by two constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawanishi, Takeshi; Shiraishi, Takuya; Okano, Yukari; Sugawara, Kyoko; Hashimoto, Masayoshi; Maejima, Kensaku; Komatsu, Ken; Kakizawa, Shigeyuki; Yamaji, Yasuyuki; Hamamoto, Hiroshi; Oshima, Kenro; Namba, Shigetou

    2011-01-27

    Culturing is an indispensable technique in microbiological research, and culturing with selective media has played a crucial role in the detection of pathogenic microorganisms and the isolation of commercially useful microorganisms from environmental samples. Although numerous selective media have been developed in empirical studies, unintended microorganisms often grow on such media probably due to the enormous numbers of microorganisms in the environment. Here, we present a novel strategy for designing highly selective media based on two selective agents, a carbon source and antimicrobials. We named our strategy SMART for highly Selective Medium-design Algorithm Restricted by Two constraints. To test whether the SMART method is applicable to a wide range of microorganisms, we developed selective media for Burkholderia glumae, Acidovorax avenae, Pectobacterium carotovorum, Ralstonia solanacearum, and Xanthomonas campestris. The series of media developed by SMART specifically allowed growth of the targeted bacteria. Because these selective media exhibited high specificity for growth of the target bacteria compared to established selective media, we applied three notable detection technologies: paper-based, flow cytometry-based, and color change-based detection systems for target bacteria species. SMART facilitates not only the development of novel techniques for detecting specific bacteria, but also our understanding of the ecology and epidemiology of the targeted bacteria.

  12. New detection systems of bacteria using highly selective media designed by SMART: selective medium-design algorithm restricted by two constraints.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi Kawanishi

    Full Text Available Culturing is an indispensable technique in microbiological research, and culturing with selective media has played a crucial role in the detection of pathogenic microorganisms and the isolation of commercially useful microorganisms from environmental samples. Although numerous selective media have been developed in empirical studies, unintended microorganisms often grow on such media probably due to the enormous numbers of microorganisms in the environment. Here, we present a novel strategy for designing highly selective media based on two selective agents, a carbon source and antimicrobials. We named our strategy SMART for highly Selective Medium-design Algorithm Restricted by Two constraints. To test whether the SMART method is applicable to a wide range of microorganisms, we developed selective media for Burkholderia glumae, Acidovorax avenae, Pectobacterium carotovorum, Ralstonia solanacearum, and Xanthomonas campestris. The series of media developed by SMART specifically allowed growth of the targeted bacteria. Because these selective media exhibited high specificity for growth of the target bacteria compared to established selective media, we applied three notable detection technologies: paper-based, flow cytometry-based, and color change-based detection systems for target bacteria species. SMART facilitates not only the development of novel techniques for detecting specific bacteria, but also our understanding of the ecology and epidemiology of the targeted bacteria.

  13. Fluidized beds in flow analysis: use with ion-exchange separation for spectrophotometric determination of zinc in plant digests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Marta F T; Dias, Ana C B; Santos, João L M; Lima, José L F C; Zagatto, Elias A G

    2006-02-01

    A novel strategy for utilization of solid reagents in flow analysis is proposed. Establishment of diffuse and reproducible geometry enables the solid particles to be maintained in constant floating, reflux, and circulating motion inside a mini-chamber. This is efficiently accomplished with pulsed flows, a characteristic of multi-pumping flow systems. Drawbacks inherent in solid-phase packed columns, for example backpressure, preferential pathways, swelling, etc., and some limitations inherent in immobilized reagents are minimised. Spectrophotometric determination of zinc in plants was selected as an application of the technique. Dowex 1-X8 anionic resin was kept freely inside a mini-chamber. Zinc chloro-complexes were adsorbed on the moving particles and derivatization with zincon was performed after elution. Analytical figures of merit and the potential and limitations of the approach are discussed.

  14. Flow-through Bulk Optode for Spectrophotometric Determination of Thiocyanate and Its Application to Water and Saliva Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Fernández

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available A flow-through spectrophotometric bulk optode for the flow-injectiondetermination of thiocyanate is described. As active constituents, the optode incorporatesthe lipophilized pH indicator 5-octadecanoyloxy-2-(4-nitrophenylazophenol andmethyltridodecyl ammonium chloride, dissolved in a plasticized poly(vinylchloridemembrane entrapped in a cellulose support. The optode is applied, in conjunction with theflow injection technique, to the determination of thiocyanate at pH 7.5 (TRIS/H2SO4. Thesensor is readily regenerated with a 10-2 M NaOH carrier solution. The analyticalcharacteristics of this optode with respect to thiocyanate response time, dynamicmeasurement range, reproducibility and selectivity are discussed. The proposed FI methodis applied to the determination of thiocyanate in waters from different sources and in humansaliva samples in order to distinguish between smokers and non-smokers.

  15. Zero order and signal processing spectrophotometric techniques applied for resolving interference of metronidazole with ciprofloxacin in their pharmaceutical dosage form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attia, Khalid A M; Nassar, Mohammed W I; El-Zeiny, Mohamed B; Serag, Ahmed

    2016-02-05

    Four rapid, simple, accurate and precise spectrophotometric methods were used for the determination of ciprofloxacin in the presence of metronidazole as interference. The methods under study are area under the curve, simultaneous equation in addition to smart signal processing techniques of manipulating ratio spectra namely Savitsky-Golay filters and continuous wavelet transform. All the methods were validated according to the ICH guidelines where accuracy, precision and repeatability were found to be within the acceptable limits. The selectivity of the proposed methods was tested using laboratory prepared mixtures and assessed by applying the standard addition technique. So, they can therefore be used for the routine analysis of ciprofloxacin in quality-control laboratories. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Catalytic kinetic spectrophotometric determination of trace titanium based on titanium(IV-(DBS-arsenazo-potassium bromate system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing-Zhou Zhai

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Based on the property that in 0.12 M sulfuric acid medium titanium(IV catalyzes the discoloring reaction of DBS-arsenazo oxidized by potassium bromate, a new catalytic kinetic spectrophotometric method for the determination of trace titanium (IV was developed. The linear range of the determination of titanium is 0-2.4 μg/25 mL. The detection limit of the method is 0.47 ng/mL. The effects of fifty coexisting substances were studied and most of common substances do not interfere with the determination of titanium. The method has good selectivity. The present method was used in the determination of trace amount of titanium in cabbage and potato samples with satisfactory results. The relative standard deviations of ten replicate determinations of the method are 1.4-1.5 % and the recoveries of standard addition are 97.6-98.0 %, respectively.

  17. Selection Criteria for Combining High Yield and Striga Resistance in Sorghum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Showemimo, FA.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Ten genetically diverse but homozygote sorghum cultivars that are adapted to northern Guinea savanna zone of Nigeria were grown in Striga sick-field for two years. Agronomic traits of maturity, Striga resistance traits and actual grain yield were quantitatively heritable. Correlation coefficients computed among these traits revealed that grain yield was positively correlated with plant vigour, stem girth, root weight, shoot weight and plant height, while Striga count was negative and highly significantly correlated (r= -0.86 with grain yield. Correlated response indicated that selecting for bigger stem girth, high root, good plant vigour and shoot weight, and taller plants under Striga infestation will lead to a corresponding increase of 1.1%, 1.4%, 2.7%, 7.8% and 14.9% respectively on grain yield, while a 52.4% reduction in grain yield is observed by selecting Striga encouraging traits.

  18. High-temperature selective solar thermal absorber based on Fabry-Perot resonance cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hao; Wang, Liping

    2015-09-01

    In this work, we investigate the design, fabrication and characterization of a multilayer selective solar absorber made of metallic and dielectric thin films. The investigated selective absorber exhibits theoretical spectral absorptance higher than 95% within solar spectrum and infrared emittance lower than 5%, due to the Fabry-Perot resonance and antireflection effect. In terms of fabrication, different materials are tested under high temperatures in order to obtain the structure with best thermal stability. Structures with different materials are fabricated with sputtering, chemical vapor deposition and electron beam evaporation techniques. The near normal reflectance is characterized with a Fourier Transform Infrared spectrometer for these structures before and after heat treatment. Meanwhile, Rutherford backscattering Spectroscopy is employed to analyze the diffusion and oxidation conditions during the heating process. Moreover, better material choice and fabrication techniques are considered to construct solar absorber sample with better high temperature thermal stability.

  19. Highly sensitive and selective sugar detection by terahertz nano-antennas

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Dong-Kyu; Lee, Jun-Seok; Kim, Hyo-Seok; Kim, Chulki; Kim, Jae Hun; Lee, Taikjin; Son, Joo-Hiuk; Park, Q-Han; Seo, Minah

    2015-01-01

    Molecular recognition and discrimination of carbohydrates are important because carbohydrates perform essential roles in most living organisms for energy metabolism and cell-to-cell communication. Nevertheless, it is difficult to identify or distinguish various carbohydrate molecules owing to the lack of a significant distinction in the physical or chemical characteristics. Although there has been considerable effort to develop a sensing platform for individual carbohydrates selectively using chemical receptors or an ensemble array, their detection and discrimination limits have been as high in the millimolar concentration range. Here we show a highly sensitive and selective detection method for the discrimination of carbohydrate molecules using nano-slot-antenna array-based sensing chips which operate in the terahertz frequency range. This THz metamaterial sensing tool recognizes various types of carbohydrate molecules over a wide range of molecular concentrations. Strongly localized and enhanced terahertz t...

  20. Therapeutic Antibodies to Ganglioside GD2 Evolved from Highly Selective Germline Antibodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Sterner

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Antibodies play a crucial role in host defense and are indispensable research tools, diagnostics, and therapeutics. Antibody generation involves binding of genomically encoded germline antibodies followed by somatic hypermutation and in vivo selection to obtain antibodies with high affinity and selectivity. Understanding this process is critical for developing monoclonal antibodies, designing effective vaccines, and understanding autoantibody formation. Prior studies have found that antibodies to haptens, peptides, and proteins evolve from polyspecific germline antibodies. The immunological evolution of antibodies to mammalian glycans has not been studied. Using glycan microarrays, protein microarrays, cell binding studies, and molecular modeling, we demonstrate that therapeutic antibodies to the tumor-associated ganglioside GD2 evolved from highly specific germline precursors. The results have important implications for developing vaccines and monoclonal antibodies that target carbohydrate antigens. In addition, they demonstrate an alternative pathway for antibody evolution within the immune system that is distinct from the polyspecific germline pathway.

  1. Networked Pd (core) @ polyaniline (shell) composite: Highly electro-catalytic ability and unique selectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Youyi; Liu, Ning; Sun, Ling; Xu, Hao; Gao, Hong; Lu, Taofeng

    2018-01-01

    A networked composite (Pd@PANI), which is self-assemblied freely from Pd (core) @polyaniline (shell) nanoparticles, has been prepared successfully by a facilely one-step approach. Owing to the conductive environment and acid-doped behavior provided by PANI, the composite exhibits highly catalytic ability in the reaction involving acidic reactants. For instance, in the HCOOH electro-oxidation, 9.16 times of specific activity (comparing with that when using commercial Pd/C catalyst) is observed. Meanwhile, the as-prepared product is unable to catalyze some other systems like the electro-oxidation of C2H5OH, showing novel and unique selectivity. Those would open up new routes for synthesizing high-performance Pd-based catalysts, and could also shed some light on synthesizing new types of selective catalysts.

  2. Highly selective and potent agonists of sphingosine-1-phosphate 1 (S1P1) receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vachal, Petr; Toth, Leslie M; Hale, Jeffrey J; Yan, Lin; Mills, Sander G; Chrebet, Gary L; Koehane, Carol A; Hajdu, Richard; Milligan, James A; Rosenbach, Mark J; Mandala, Suzanne

    2006-07-15

    Novel series of sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) receptor agonists were developed through a systematic SAR aimed to achieve high selectivity for a single member of the S1P family of receptors, S1P1. The optimized structure represents a highly S1P1-selective and efficacious agonist: S1P1/S1P2, S1P1/S1P3, S1P1/S1P4>10,000-fold, S1P1/S1P5>600-fold, while EC50 (S1P1) <0.2 nM. In vivo experiments are consistent with S1P1 receptor agonism alone being sufficient for achieving desired lymphocyte-lowering effect.

  3. Highly sensitive and selective liquid crystal optical sensor for detection of ammonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Xiaofang; Zhong, Yuanbo; Chen, Rui; Wang, Fei; Luo, Dan

    2017-06-12

    Ammonia detection technologies are very important in environment monitoring. However, most existing technologies are complex and expensive, which limit the useful range of real-time application. Here, we propose a highly sensitive and selective optical sensor for detection of ammonia (NH3) based on liquid crystals (LCs). This optical sensor is realized through the competitive binding between ammonia and liquid crystals on chitosan-Cu2+ that decorated on glass substrate. We achieve a broad detection range of ammonia from 50 ppm to 1250 ppm, with a low detection limit of 16.6 ppm. This sensor is low-cost, simple, fast, and highly sensitive and selective for detection of ammonia. The proposal LC sensing method can be a sensitive detection platform for other molecule monitors such as proteins, DNAs and other heavy metal ions by modifying sensing molecules.

  4. Thermal-hydraulic code selection for modular high temperature gas-cooled reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komen, E.M.J.; Bogaard, J.P.A. van den

    1995-06-01

    In order to study the transient thermal-hydraulic system behaviour of modular high temperature gas-cooled reactors, the thermal-hydraulic computer codes RELAP5, MELCOR, THATCH, MORECA, and VSOP are considered at the Netherlands Energy Research Foundation ECN. This report presents the selection of the most appropriate codes. To cover the range of relevant accidents, a suite of three codes is recommended for analyses of HTR-M and MHTGR reactors. (orig.).

  5. Clinical outcome of intracytoplasmic injection of spermatozoa morphologically selected under high magnification: a prospective randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaban, Basak; Yakin, Kayhan; Alatas, Cengiz; Oktem, Ozgur; Isiklar, Aycan; Urman, Bulent

    2011-05-01

    Recent evidence shows that the selection of spermatozoa based on the analysis of morphology under high magnification (×6000) may have a positive impact on embryo development in cases with severe male factor infertility and/or previous implantation failures. The objective of this prospective randomized study was to compare the clinical outcome of 87 intracytoplasmic morphologically selected sperm injection (IMSI) cycles with 81 conventional intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycles in an unselected infertile population. IMSI did not provide a significant improvement in the clinical outcome compared with ICSI although there were trends for higher implantation (28.9% versus 19.5%), clinical pregnancy (54.0% versus 44.4%) and live birth rates (43.7% versus 38.3%) in the IMSI group. However, severe male factor patients benefited from the IMSI procedure as shown by significantly higher implantation rates compared with their counterparts in the ICSI group (29.6% versus 15.2%, P=0.01). These results suggest that IMSI may improve IVF success rates in a selected group of patients with male factor infertility. New technological developments enable the real time examination of motile spermatozoa with an inverted light microscope equipped with high-power differential interference contrast optics, enhanced by digital imaging. High magnification (over ×6000) provides the identification of spermatozoa with a normal nucleus and nuclear content. Intracytoplasmic injection of spermatozoa selected according to fine nuclear morphology under high magnification may improve the clinical outcome in cases with severe male factor infertility. Copyright © 2010 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. High strain-rate compressive behavior and constitutive modeling of selected polymers

    OpenAIRE

    Yokoyama T; Nakai K

    2012-01-01

    The present paper deals with constitutive modeling of the compressive stress-strain behavior of selected polymers at strain rates from 10−3 to 103/s using a modified Ramberg-Osgood equation. High strain-rate compressive stress-strain curves for four different commercially available extruded polymers are determined on the standard split Hopkinson pressure bar. The low and intermediate strain-rates compressive stress-strain relations are measured in an Instron testing machine. The five paramete...

  7. Highly efficient cobalt-doped carbon nitride polymers for solvent-free selective oxidation of cyclohexane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Fu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Selective oxidation of saturated hydrocarbons with molecular oxygen has been of great interest in catalysis, and the development of highly efficient catalysts for this process is a crucial challenge. A new kind of heterogeneous catalyst, cobalt-doped carbon nitride polymer (g-C3N4, was harnessed for the selective oxidation of cyclohexane. X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectra and high resolution transmission electron microscope revealed that Co species were highly dispersed in g-C3N4 matrix and the characteristic structure of polymeric g-C3N4 can be retained after Co-doping, although Co-doping caused the incomplete polymerization to some extent. Ultraviolet–visible, Raman and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy further proved the successful Co doping in g-C3N4 matrix as the form of Co(IIN bonds. For the selective oxidation of cyclohexane, Co-doping can markedly promote the catalytic performance of g-C3N4 catalyst due to the synergistic effect of Co species and g-C3N4 hybrid. Furthermore, the content of Co largely affected the activity of Co-doped g-C3N4 catalysts, among which the catalyst with 9.0 wt% Co content exhibited the highest yield (9.0% of cyclohexanone and cyclohexanol, as well as a high stability. Meanwhile, the reaction mechanism over Co-doped g-C3N4 catalysts was elaborated. Keywords: Selective oxidation of cyclohexane, Oxygen oxidant, Carbon nitride, Co-doping

  8. Selective screening of 650 high risk Iranian patients for detection of inborn error of metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Narges Pishva; Alie Mirzaee; Zohre Karamizade; Shahnaz Pourarian; Fariba Hemmati; Mostajab Razvi; Forough Saki

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Although metabolic diseases individually are rare ,but overall have an incidence of 1/2000 and can cause devastating and irreversible effect if not diagnosed early and treated promptly. selective screening is an acceptable method for detection of these multi presentation diseases. Method: using panel neonatal screening for detection of metabolic diseases in 650 high risk Iranian patients in Fars province. The following clinical features were used as inclusion criteria for inv...

  9. Ultrasensitive and highly selective detection of Cu2 + ions based on a new carbazole-Schiff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Jun; Bing, Qijing; Wang, Lin; Wang, Guang

    2018-01-01

    A new chemosensor for Cu2 + based on Schiff base with high sensitivity and selectivity was designed and synthesized. The fluorescence intensity of the chemosensor in CH3CN solution was enhanced 160-fold after the addition of 10 equiv. Cu2 + over other metal ions. In addition, it also facilitates colorimetric detection for Cu2 + in CH3CN solution. The chemosensor displayed low detection limit and fast response time to Cu2 +.

  10. Highly selective and active niobia-supported cobalt catalysts for fischer-tropsch synthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Den Otter, Jan H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/337238774; De Jong, Krijn P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/06885580X

    The performance of Co/Nb2O5 was compared to that of Co/γ-Al2O3 for the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis at 20 bar and over the temperature range of 220-260°C. The C5+ selectivity of Nb2O5-supported cobalt catalysts was found to be very high, i.e. up to 90 wt% C5+ at 220°C. The activity per unit weight

  11. Comparative Study of RP-HPLC and UV Spectrophotometric Techniques for the Simultaneous Determination of Amoxicillin and Cloxacillin in Capsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giang, Do T; Hoang, Vu D

    2010-04-01

    Reversed-phase HPLC and UV spectrophotometric techniques using water as solvent have been developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of amoxicillin and cloxacillin in capsules. For both techniques, the linearity range of 60.073x2013;140.0 µg/mL was studied. The spectrophotometric data show that non-derivative techniques, such as absorbance ratio and compensation, and ratio spectra first-order derivative could be successfully used for the co-assay of amoxicillin and cloxacillin. Based on the statistical comparison of spectrophotometric and chromatographic data, the interchangeability between HPLC and UV spectrophotometric techniques has been suggested for the routine analysis.

  12. High temperature size selective membranes. Final report, September 1992--March 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    Availability of a high temperature size selective membrane capable of separating hydrogen from carbon dioxide and other gases is seen as highly desirable from an economic perspective. Preparation of such a membrane is technically very difficult due to the limitations that the high temperature places on materials selection. We have prepared high temperature membranes as thin film composites of a porous Blackglas{trademark} support and a carbon molecular sieve selective film. Porous Blackglail{trademark} supports have been prepared by pyrolysis of a formed mixture of Blackglas{trademark} B-staged precursor and short Carbon fibers. Such supports have the necessary smoothness for use as a membrane support, good mechanical properties, and an appropriate pore size distribution. These supports can be made either in flat sheet form or in a tubular configuration. A carbon molecular sieve layer can be added to the support by repeated coating/pyrolysis with a dilute solution of precursor polymer. The preferred precursors are polyimide or polyamic acid. Crack formation is observed after the first pyrolyses, but these cracks are repaired during later pyrolyses. The final membrane thickness is only 2.5 {mu}m. The permeation flux of the membrane for hydrogen ranges from 8.1 x 10{sup -5} at room temperature to 3.0 x 10{sup -3} cm{sup 3} (STP) cm{sup -2} sec{sup -1} cmHg{sup -1} at 717{degrees}C, and the selectivity for hydrogen over nitrogen from 2.8 to 3.8, and a selectivity for hydrogen over carbon dioxide of 2.4. This selectivity is close to the Knudsen diffusion limit. In a companion study, unsupported carbon molecular sieve films were also prepared under pyrolysis conditions similar to those used for the supported film. Hydrogen adsorption porosimetry at 19.7{degrees}K was used to show that, under appropriate activation or pyrolysis conditions, such films can be prepared which adsorb hydrogen to a much greater extent than carbon dioxide.

  13. Spectrophotometric study of the thorium-morin mixed-color system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, M.H.; Milkey, R.G.

    1956-01-01

    A spectrophotometric study was made of the thoriummorin reaction to evaluate the suitability of morin as a reagent for the determination of trace amounts of thorium. At pH 2, the equilibrium constant for the reaction is 1 ?? 106, and a single complex having a thorium-morin ratio of 1 to 2 is formed. The complex shows maximum absorbance at a wave length of 410 m??, and its absorbance obeys Beer's law. The absorbance readings are highly reproducible, and the sensitivity is relatively high, an absorbance difference of 0.001 being equivalent to 0.007 ?? of ThO2 per sq. cm. The effects of acid, alcohol, and morin concentration, time, temperature, and age of the morin reagent as well as the behavior of morin with zirconium(IV), iron(III), aluminum(III), ytterbium(III), yttrium(III), uranium(VI), praseodymium(III), lead(II), lanthanum(III), and calcium(II) ions are discussed. A method is presented for the determination of thorium in pure solutions. Appropriate separations for the isolation of thorium may extend the usefulness of the method and permit the determination of trace amounts of thorium in complex materials.

  14. Toward high-throughput phenotyping: unbiased automated feature extraction and selection from knowledge sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Sheng; Liao, Katherine P; Shaw, Stanley Y; Gainer, Vivian S; Churchill, Susanne E; Szolovits, Peter; Murphy, Shawn N; Kohane, Isaac S; Cai, Tianxi

    2015-09-01

    Analysis of narrative (text) data from electronic health records (EHRs) can improve population-scale phenotyping for clinical and genetic research. Currently, selection of text features for phenotyping algorithms is slow and laborious, requiring extensive and iterative involvement by domain experts. This paper introduces a method to develop phenotyping algorithms in an unbiased manner by automatically extracting and selecting informative features, which can be comparable to expert-curated ones in classification accuracy. Comprehensive medical concepts were collected from publicly available knowledge sources in an automated, unbiased fashion. Natural language processing (NLP) revealed the occurrence patterns of these concepts in EHR narrative notes, which enabled selection of informative features for phenotype classification. When combined with additional codified features, a penalized logistic regression model was trained to classify the target phenotype. The authors applied our method to develop algorithms to identify patients with rheumatoid arthritis and coronary artery disease cases among those with rheumatoid arthritis from a large multi-institutional EHR. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUC) for classifying RA and CAD using models trained with automated features were 0.951 and 0.929, respectively, compared to the AUCs of 0.938 and 0.929 by models trained with expert-curated features. Models trained with NLP text features selected through an unbiased, automated procedure achieved comparable or slightly higher accuracy than those trained with expert-curated features. The majority of the selected model features were interpretable. The proposed automated feature extraction method, generating highly accurate phenotyping algorithms with improved efficiency, is a significant step toward high-throughput phenotyping. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association. All

  15. Selection of High Performance Alloy for Gas Turbine Blade Using Multiphysics Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Khawaja

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available With the extensive increase in the utilization of energy resources in the modern era, the need of energy extraction from various resources has pronounced in recent years. Thus comprehensive efforts have been made around the globe in the technological development of turbo machines where means of energy extraction is energized fluids. This development led the aviation industry to power boost due to better performing engines. Meanwhile, the structural conformability requirements relative to the functional requirements have also increased with the advent of newer, better performing materials. Thus there is a need to study the material behavior and its usage with the idea of selecting the best possible material for its application. In this work a gas turbine blade of a small turbofan engine, where geometry and aerodynamic data was available, was analyzed for its structural behavior in the proposed mission envelope, where the engine turbine is subjected to high thermal, inertial and aerodynamic loads. Multiphysics Finite Element (FE linear stress analysis was carried out on the turbine blade. The results revealed the upper limit of Ultimate Tensile Strength (UTS for the blade. Based on the limiting factor, high performance alloys were selected from the literature. The two most recommended alloy categories for gas turbine blades are NIMONIC and INCONEL from where total of 21 types of INCONEL alloys and 12 of NIMONIC alloys, available on commercial bases, were analyzed individually to meet the structural requirements. After applying selection criteria, four alloys were finalized from NIMONIC and INCONEL alloys for further analysis. On the basis of stress-strain behavior of finalized alloys, the Multiphysics FE nonlinear stress analysis was then carried out for the selection of the individual alloy by imposing a restriction of Ultimate Factor of Safety (UFOS of 1.33 and yield strength. Final selection is made keeping in view other factors

  16. Effect of acclimation to high ambient temperature of pigs selected for residual feed intake

    OpenAIRE

    Campos, Paulo Henrique Reis Furtado

    2011-01-01

    Thirty-six Large White castrate males belonging to two divergent lines in residual feed intake, with average initial body weight of 50.5 ± 0.9 kg and approximately 92 days of age, were used to evaluate the effects of acclimation to high temperature on the performance, thermoregulatory responses and blood parameters of pigs divergently selected for low and high residual feed intake. The experiment was conducted in two successive replicates of 18 animals each. The first replicate was composed b...

  17. Aging Behavior of High-Strength Al Alloy 2618 Produced by Selective Laser Melting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casati, Riccardo; Lemke, Jannis Nicolas; Alarcon, Adrianni Zanatta; Vedani, Maurizio

    2017-02-01

    High Si-bearing Al alloys are commonly used in additive manufacturing, but they have moderate mechanical properties. New high-strength compositions are necessary to spread the use of additively manufactured Al parts for heavy-duty structural applications. This work focuses on the microstructure, mechanical behavior, and aging response of an Al alloy 2618 processed by selective laser melting. Calorimetric analysis, electron microscopy, and compression tests were performed in order to correlate the mechanical properties with the peculiar microstructure induced by laser melting and thermal treatments

  18. Prompting one low-fat, high-fiber selection in a fast-food restaurant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, J L; Winett, R A

    1988-01-01

    Evidence increasingly links a high-fat, low-fiber diet to coronary heart disease and certain site cancers, indicating a need for large-scale dietary change. Studies showing the effectiveness of particular procedures in specific settings are important at this point. The present study, using an A-B-A-B design and sales data from computerized cash registers, replicated and extended previous work by showing that inexpensive prompts (i.e., signs and fliers) in a national fast-food restaurant could increase the sales of salads, a low-fat, high-fiber menu selection. Suggestions also are made pertinent to more widespread use of the procedures.

  19. Silver nanoparticles supported on alumina-​a highly efficient and selective nanocatalyst for imine reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poreddy, Raju; Garcia-Suarez, Eduardo J.; Riisager, Anders

    2014-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles supported on alumina were prepared and tested in the catalytic reduction of various imines to primary and secondary amines and were shown to be exceptionally active and chemoselective. Furthermore, the catalytic activity of the prepared nanocatalyst was also tested...... organic synthesis. Due to the mild reaction conditions and high conversion as well as high selectivity, we consider that the utilization of silver nanoparticles supported on alumina represents an attractive and environmentally friendly alternative to the current synthesis of N-alkyl amines....

  20. A selective electrocatalyst–based direct methanol fuel cell operated at high concentrations of methanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yan; Liu, Hui; Yang, Jun

    2017-01-01

    Owing to the serious crossover of methanol from the anode to the cathode through the polymer electrolyte membrane, direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) usually use dilute methanol solutions as fuel. However, the use of high-concentration methanol is highly demanded to improve the energy density of a DMFC system. Instead of the conventional strategies (for example, improving the fuel-feed system, membrane development, modification of electrode, and water management), we demonstrate the use of selective electrocatalysts to run a DMFC at high concentrations of methanol. In particular, at an operating temperature of 80°C, the as-fabricated DMFC with core-shell-shell Au@Ag2S@Pt nanocomposites at the anode and core-shell Au@Pd nanoparticles at the cathode produces a maximum power density of 89.7 mW cm−2 at a methanol feed concentration of 10 M and maintains good performance at a methanol concentration of up to 15 M. The high selectivity of the electrocatalysts achieved through structural construction accounts for the successful operation of the DMFC at high concentrations of methanol. PMID:28695199

  1. A selective electrocatalyst-based direct methanol fuel cell operated at high concentrations of methanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yan; Liu, Hui; Yang, Jun

    2017-06-01

    Owing to the serious crossover of methanol from the anode to the cathode through the polymer electrolyte membrane, direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) usually use dilute methanol solutions as fuel. However, the use of high-concentration methanol is highly demanded to improve the energy density of a DMFC system. Instead of the conventional strategies (for example, improving the fuel-feed system, membrane development, modification of electrode, and water management), we demonstrate the use of selective electrocatalysts to run a DMFC at high concentrations of methanol. In particular, at an operating temperature of 80°C, the as-fabricated DMFC with core-shell-shell Au@Ag 2 S@Pt nanocomposites at the anode and core-shell Au@Pd nanoparticles at the cathode produces a maximum power density of 89.7 mW cm -2 at a methanol feed concentration of 10 M and maintains good performance at a methanol concentration of up to 15 M. The high selectivity of the electrocatalysts achieved through structural construction accounts for the successful operation of the DMFC at high concentrations of methanol.

  2. Selective Loss of Early Differentiated, Highly Functional PD1high CD4 T Cells with HIV Progression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert M Paris

    Full Text Available The role of PD-1 expression on CD4 T cells during HIV infection is not well understood. Here, we describe the differential expression of PD-1 in CD127high CD4 T cells within the early/intermediate differentiated (EI (CD27highCD45RAlow T cell population among uninfected and HIV-infected subjects, with higher expression associated with decreased viral replication (HIV-1 viral load. A significant loss of circulating PD-1highCTLA-4low CD4 T cells was found specifically in the CD127highCD27highCD45RAlow compartment, while initiation of antiretroviral treatment, particularly in subjects with advanced disease, reversed these dynamics. Increased HIV-1 Gag DNA was also found in PD-1high compared to PD-1low ED CD4 T cells. In line with an increased susceptibility to HIV infection, PD-1 expression in this CD4 T cell subset was associated with increased activation and expression of the HIV co-receptor, CCR5. Rather than exhaustion, this population produced more IFN-g, MIP1-a, IL-4, IL-10, and IL-17a compared to PD-1low EI CD4 T cells. In line with our previous findings, PD-1high EI CD4 T cells were also characterized by a high expression of CCR7, CXCR5 and CCR6, a phenotype associated with increased in vitro B cell help. Our data show that expression of PD-1 on early-differentiated CD4 T cells may represent a population that is highly functional, more susceptible to HIV infection and selectively lost in chronic HIV infection.

  3. Automated respiratory cycles selection is highly specific and improves respiratory mechanics analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigo, Vincent; Graas, Estelle; Rigo, Jacques

    2012-07-01

    Selected optimal respiratory cycles should allow calculation of respiratory mechanic parameters focusing on patient-ventilator interaction. New computer software automatically selecting optimal breaths and respiratory mechanics derived from those cycles are evaluated. Retrospective study. University level III neonatal intensive care unit. Ten mins synchronized intermittent mandatory ventilation and assist/control ventilation recordings from ten newborns. The ventilator provided respiratory mechanic data (ventilator respiratory cycles) every 10 secs. Pressure, flow, and volume waves and pressure-volume, pressure-flow, and volume-flow loops were reconstructed from continuous pressure-volume recordings. Visual assessment determined assisted leak-free optimal respiratory cycles (selected respiratory cycles). New software graded the quality of cycles (automated respiratory cycles). Respiratory mechanic values were derived from both sets of optimal cycles. We evaluated quality selection and compared mean values and their variability according to ventilatory mode and respiratory mechanic provenance. To assess discriminating power, all 45 "t" values obtained from interpatient comparisons were compared for each respiratory mechanic parameter. A total of 11,724 breaths are evaluated. Automated respiratory cycle/selected respiratory cycle selections agreement is high: 88% of maximal κ with linear weighting. Specificity and positive predictive values are 0.98 and 0.96, respectively. Averaged values are similar between automated respiratory cycle and ventilator respiratory cycle. C20/C alone is markedly decreased in automated respiratory cycle (1.27 ± 0.37 vs. 1.81 ± 0.67). Tidal volume apparent similarity disappears in assist/control: automated respiratory cycle tidal volume (4.8 ± 1.0 mL/kg) is significantly lower than for ventilator respiratory cycle (5.6 ± 1.8 mL/kg). Coefficients of variation decrease for all automated respiratory cycle parameters in all infants. "t

  4. Third Derivative Spectrophotometric Method for Simultaneous Determination of Copper and Nickel Using 6-(2-Naphthyl)-2, 3-dihydro-1,2,4- triazine-3-thione

    OpenAIRE

    Maliheh Barazandeh Tehrani; Effat Souri

    2011-01-01

    A simple and sensitive derivative spectrophotometric method for simultaneous determination of nickel and copper using 6-(2- naphthyl)-2,3-dihydro-1,2,4-triazine-3-thione (NDTT) as a selective analytical reagent was developed. The complexes of metal ions with NDTT were formed immediately in basic media and extracted with chloroform. The zero-crossing measurement technique was found suitable for the direct measurement of the third-derivative value of Ni-NDTT and Cu-NDTT at 501 and 472 nm respec...

  5. Overdensities of SMGs around WISE-selected, ultraluminous, high-redshift AGNs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Suzy F.; Blain, Andrew W.; Assef, Roberto J.; Eisenhardt, Peter; Lonsdale, Carol; Condon, James; Farrah, Duncan; Tsai, Chao-Wei; Bridge, Carrie; Wu, Jingwen; Wright, Edward L.; Jarrett, Tom

    2017-08-01

    We investigate extremely luminous dusty galaxies in the environments around Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE)-selected hot dust-obscured galaxies (Hot DOGs) and WISE/radio-selected active galactic nuclei (AGNs) at average redshifts of z = 2.7 and 1.7, respectively. Previous observations have detected overdensities of companion submillimetre-selected sources around 10 Hot DOGs and 30 WISE/radio AGNs, with overdensities of ˜2-3 and ˜5-6, respectively. We find that the space densities in both samples to be overdense compared to normal star-forming galaxies and submillimetre galaxies (SMGs) in the Submillimetre Common-User Bolometer Array 2 (SCUBA-2) Cosmology Legacy Survey (S2CLS). Both samples of companion sources have consistent mid-infrared (mid-IR) colours and mid-IR to submm ratios as SMGs. The brighter population around WISE/radio AGNs could be responsible for the higher overdensity reported. We also find that the star formation rate densities are higher than the field, but consistent with clusters of dusty galaxies. WISE-selected AGNs appear to be good signposts for protoclusters at high redshift on arcmin scales. The results reported here provide an upper limit to the strength of angular clustering using the two-point correlation function. Monte Carlo simulations show no angular correlation, which could indicate protoclusters on scales larger than the SCUBA-2 1.5-arcmin scale maps.

  6. Rabies infection and specific effect of vaccination in mice selected for high and low immunobiological parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Queiroz-da-Silva L.H.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Innate and acquired resistance to rabies infection was investigated in mice genetically selected for high (H or low (L antibody responsiveness from selections I, III and IV and in mice selected for maximal (AIRmax or minimal (AIRmin acute inflammatory reaction. These mouse lines were infected intramuscularly with different virus dilutions and the LD50 was determined. The HIII and HIV mouse lines were more susceptible than the LIII and LIV lines and the HI line showed a discrete but higher resistance than the LI line. Analysis of the interline (H x L F1 hybrids from selections III and IV indicated different dominance effects on the "resistant" and" susceptible" phenotypes when the route of vaccination was changed. No differences were observed between the AIRmax and AIRmin mice, suggesting that inflammation plays a minor role in the resistance to rabies virus. The comparison of LD50 in mice vaccinated by distinct routes showed that the highest interline difference occurred after intramuscular vaccination (250-fold between H and L and 800-fold between F1 and L. These results indicate that different mechanisms may participate in acquired antirabies resistance

  7. Inherently stealthy and highly tumor-selective gold nanoraspberries for photothermal cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandra, Naveen; Portz, Christopher; Nergiz, Saide Z; Fales, Andrew; Vo-Dinh, Tuan; Singamaneni, Srikanth

    2015-05-14

    Owing to their unique optical properties such as large absorption and scattering cross section and large enhancement of electromagnetic field at the surface, plasmonic nanostructures have received extensive attention as a highly promising class of materials for nano-oncology. Most of the existing plasmonic nanostructures require extensive post-synthesis treatments and biofunctionalization routines to mitigate their cytotoxicity and/or make them tumor-specific. Here, we report one-pot synthesis of a novel class of plasmonic nanostructures, namely, gold nanoraspberries (GRBs) with tunable size and localized surface plasmon resonance by using a naturally abundant polysaccharide, chitosan, which acts as a template and capping agent. Significantly, the GRBs, which do not require any further biofunctionalization, exhibit excellent selectivity to tumor cells, thus enabling locoregional therapy at the cellular level. We demonstrate the tumor-selectivity of GRBs by photothermal ablation of tumor cells selectively from their co-culture with normal cells. The simple, scalable and tumor-selective nature of GRBs makes them excellent candidates for translational plasmonics-based nanomedicine.

  8. Selecting Optimal Feature Set in High-Dimensional Data by Swarm Search

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Fong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Selecting the right set of features from data of high dimensionality for inducing an accurate classification model is a tough computational challenge. It is almost a NP-hard problem as the combinations of features escalate exponentially as the number of features increases. Unfortunately in data mining, as well as other engineering applications and bioinformatics, some data are described by a long array of features. Many feature subset selection algorithms have been proposed in the past, but not all of them are effective. Since it takes seemingly forever to use brute force in exhaustively trying every possible combination of features, stochastic optimization may be a solution. In this paper, we propose a new feature selection scheme called Swarm Search to find an optimal feature set by using metaheuristics. The advantage of Swarm Search is its flexibility in integrating any classifier into its fitness function and plugging in any metaheuristic algorithm to facilitate heuristic search. Simulation experiments are carried out by testing the Swarm Search over some high-dimensional datasets, with different classification algorithms and various metaheuristic algorithms. The comparative experiment results show that Swarm Search is able to attain relatively low error rates in classification without shrinking the size of the feature subset to its minimum.

  9. Highly efficient selection of epitope specific antibody through competitive yeast display library sorting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puri, Vinita; Streaker, Emily; Prabakaran, Ponraj; Zhu, Zhongyu; Dimitrov, Dimiter S

    2013-01-01

    Combinatory antibody library display technologies have been invented and successfully implemented for the selection and engineering of therapeutic antibodies. Precise targeting of important epitopes on the protein of interest is essential for such isolated antibodies to serve as effective modulators of molecular interactions. We developed a strategy to efficiently isolate antibodies against a specific epitope on a target protein from a yeast display antibody library using dengue virus envelope protein domain III as a model target. A domain III mutant protein with a key mutation inside a cross-reactive neutralizing epitope was designed, expressed, and used in the competitive panning of a yeast display naïve antibody library. All the yeast display antibodies that bound to the wild type domain III but not to the mutant were selectively sorted and characterized. Two unique clones were identified and showed cross-reactive binding to envelope protein domain IIIs from different serotypes. Epitope mapping of one of the antibodies confirmed that its epitope overlapped with the intended neutralizing epitope. This novel approach has implications for many areas of research where the isolation of epitope-specific antibodies is desired, such as selecting antibodies against conserved epitope(s) of viral envelope proteins from a library containing high titer, high affinity non-neutralizing antibodies, and targeting unique epitopes on cancer-related proteins.

  10. Selection Effects in the Study of High-Redshift Galaxy Morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmegreen, Debra M.; Elmegreen, B.

    2010-05-01

    Selection effects from bandshifting, angular resolution limitations, surface brightness dimming, and intergalactic absorption skew our view of high redshift galaxies so that we primarily see those that are extremely bright, massive, and star-bursting. Bandshifting shows a galaxy in its restframe NUV or FUV at z>1, and also biases the determination of age from BViz colors to lower values. The rapid increase in resolvable physical size with redshift for zUDF) noise by redshift z 2. Intergalactic absorption further decreases the brightness of galaxies by factors of a few at this z. These effects combine to make the average star formation rate in an observable clump increase as (1+z)8 for z<1. None of these selection effects directly causes the clump mass to increase with redshift in clumpy galaxies, however. Clumps are well separated from each other and they show up over a wide range of wavelengths. The increase in clump mass with redshift is mostly from an increase in observable galaxy mass. This is because there is a nearly constant ratio of clump mass to galaxy luminosity and the primary selection effect is for bright galaxies, considering that the intrinsic surface brightness for anything observable increases sharply with z. Redshifted versions of local grand design, multiple arm, and flocculent spiral galaxies, along with dwarf irregulars and interacting galaxies, will be shown to indicate which features are observable at high redshift.

  11. Highly selective defluoridation of brick tea infusion by tea waste supported aluminum oxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Chuanyi; Xi, Junjun; Chen, Guijie; Feng, Zhihui; Ke, Fei; Ning, Jingming; Li, Daxiang; Ho, Chi-Tang; Cai, Huimei; Wan, Xiaochun

    2017-03-01

    Brick tea usually contains very high fluoride, which may affect human health. Biosorbents have received much attention for selective removal of fluoride because of low cost, environmental friendliness, and relative safeness. In the present study, a highly selective fluoride tea waste based biosorbent, namely, aluminum (Al) oxide decorated tea waste (Tea-Al), was successfully prepared. The Tea-Al biosorbent was characterized by energy-dispersive spectrometry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic analysis. The Tea-Al sample exhibited remarkably selective adsorption for fluoride (52.90%), but a weaker adsorption for other major constituents of brick tea infusion, such as catechins, polyphenols and caffeine, under the same conditions. Fluoride adsorption by Tea-Al for different times obeyed the surface reaction and adsorption isotherms fit the Freundlich model. In addition, the fluoride adsorption mechanism appeared to be an ion exchange between hydroxyl and fluoride ions. Results from this study demonstrated that Tea-Al is a promising biosorbent useful for the removal of fluoride in brick tea infusion. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Different Levels of DNA Methylation Detected in Human Sperms after Morphological Selection Using High Magnification Microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nino Guy Cassuto

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To analyze DNA methylation levels between two groups of spermatozoa taken from the same sample, following morphological selection by high magnification (HM at 6100x microscopy. A prospective study was conducted and studied 876 spermatozoa from 10 randomly selected men. Sperm morphology was characterized at HM according to criteria previously established. High-scoring Score 6 and low-scoring Score 0 sperm were selected. Sperm DNA methylation level was assessed using an immunoassay method targeting 5-methylcytosine residues by fluorescence microscopy with imaging analysis system to detect DNA methylation in single spermatozoon. Results. In total, 448 S6 spermatozoa and 428 S0 spermatozoa were analyzed. A strong relationship was found between sperm DNA methylation levels and sperm morphology observed at HM. Sperm DNA methylation level in the S6 group was significantly lower compared with that in the S0 group (p<10-6, OR = 2.4; and p<0.001, as determined using the Wilcoxon test. Conclusion. Differences in DNA methylation levels are associated with sperm morphology variations as observed at HM, which allows spermatozoa with abnormal levels to be discarded and ultimately decrease birth defects, malformations, and epigenetic diseases that may be transmitted from sperm to offspring in ICSI.

  13. Ultrathin and Ion-Selective Janus Membranes for High-Performance Osmotic Energy Conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhen; Sui, Xin; Li, Pei; Xie, Ganhua; Kong, Xiang-Yu; Xiao, Kai; Gao, Longcheng; Wen, Liping; Jiang, Lei

    2017-07-05

    The osmotic energy existing in fluids is recognized as a promising "blue" energy source that can help solve the global issues of energy shortage and environmental pollution. Recently, nanofluidic channels have shown great potential for capturing this worldwide energy because of their novel transport properties contributed by nanoconfinement. However, with respect to membrane-scale porous systems, high resistance and undesirable ion selectivity remain bottlenecks, impeding their applications. The development of thinner, low-resistance membranes, meanwhile promoting their ion selectivity, is a necessity. Here, we engineered ultrathin and ion-selective Janus membranes prepared via the phase separation of two block copolymers, which enable osmotic energy conversion with power densities of approximately 2.04 W/m 2 by mixing natural seawater and river water. Both experiments and continuum simulation help us to understand the mechanism for how membrane thickness and channel structure dominate the ion transport process and overall device performance, which can serve as a general guiding principle for the future design of nanochannel membranes for high-energy concentration cells.

  14. The selective catalytic cracking of Fischer-Tropsch liquids to high value transportation fuels. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwartz, M.M.; Reagon, W.J.; Nicholas, J.J.; Hughes, R.D.

    1994-11-01

    Amoco Oil Company, investigated a selective catalytic cracking process (FCC) to convert the Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) gasoline and wax fractions to high value transportation fuels. The primary tasks of this contract were to (1) optimize the catalyst and process conditions of the FCC process for maximum conversion of F-T wax into reactive olefins for later production of C{sub 4}{minus}C{sub 8} ethers, and (2) use the olefin-containing light naphtha obtained from FCC processing of the F-T wax as feedstock for the synthesis of ethers. The catalytic cracking of F-T wax feedstocks gave high conversions with low activity catalysts and low process severities. HZSM-5 and beta zeolite catalysts gave higher yields of propylene, isobutylene, and isoamylenes but a lower gasoline yield than Y zeolite catalysts. Catalyst selection and process optimization will depend on product valuation. For a given catalyst and process condition, Sasol and LaPorte waxes gave similar conversions and product selectivities. The contaminant iron F-T catalyst fines in the LaPorte wax caused higher coke and hydrogen yields.

  15. Review of Mid- to High-Temperature Solar Selective Absorber Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennedy, C. E.

    2002-07-01

    This report describes the concentrating solar power (CSP) systems using solar absorbers to convert concentrated sunlight to thermal electric power. It is possible to achieve solar absorber surfaces for efficient photothermal conversion having high solar absorptance (a) for solar radiation and a low thermal emittance (e) at the operational temperature. A low reflectance (?'' 0) at wavelengths (?) 3 mm and a high reflectance (?'' 1) at l 3 mm characterize spectrally selective surfaces. The operational temperature ranges of these materials for solar applications can be categorized as low temperature (T< 100 C), mid-temperature (100 C< T< 400 C), and high-temperature (T> 400 C). High- and mid-temperature applications are needed for CSP applications. For CSP applications, the ideal spectrally selective surface would be low-cost and easy to manufacture, chemically and thermally stable in air at elevated operating temperatures (T= 500 C), and have a solar absorptance= 0.98 and a thermal emittance= 0.05 at 500 C.

  16. Microalgal process-monitoring based on high-selectivity spectroscopy tools: status and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podevin, Michael; Fotidis, Ioannis A; Angelidaki, Irini

    2017-11-27

    Microalgae are well known for their ability to accumulate lipids intracellularly, which can be used for biofuels and mitigate CO2 emissions. However, due to economic challenges, microalgae bioprocesses have maneuvered towards the simultaneous production of food, feed, fuel, and various high-value chemicals in a biorefinery concept. On-line and in-line monitoring of macromolecules such as lipids, proteins, carbohydrates, and high-value pigments will be more critical to maintain product quality and consistency for downstream processing in a biorefinery to maintain and valorize these markets. The main contribution of this review is to present current and prospective advances of on-line and in-line process analytical technology (PAT), with high-selectivity - the capability of monitoring several analytes simultaneously - in the interest of improving product quality, productivity, and process automation of a microalgal biorefinery. The high-selectivity PAT under consideration are mid-infrared (MIR), near-infrared (NIR), and Raman vibrational spectroscopies. The current review contains a critical assessment of these technologies in the context of recent advances in software and hardware in order to move microalgae production towards process automation through multivariate process control (MVPC) and software sensors trained on "big data". The paper will also include a comprehensive overview of off-line implementations of vibrational spectroscopy in microalgal research as it pertains to spectral interpretation and process automation to aid and motivate development.

  17. High resolution profiling of ammonium and carbonate with solid contact ion selective electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athavale, R.; Wehrli, B.; Dinkel, C.; Crespo, G.; Bakker, E.; Brand, A.

    2016-02-01

    Biogeochemical processes involved in the carbon and nitrogen cycle are often confined to very narrow zones in aquatic systems. To study such processes, highly resolved measurements are required, which are not possible by conventional sampling and subsequent laboratory analysis. Potentiometric solid contact ion selective electrodes (SC-ISEs) are promising tools for high resolution in-situ profiling owing to their robustness to pressure changes, their improved detection limits ( 10-6 M) and selectivity and the fast response (t95 ≤ 10s). Conventional SC-ISEs work well under controlled laboratory conditions but can fail to meet the challenges of natural water matrices. In-situ application requires SC-ISEs which are insensitive to changes in redox conditions, pH, and light and to reactive solutes such as high sulfide concentrations. To meet these criteria, we adapted a double layer design by using different combinations of transducing materials and membrane matrices for fabrication of SC-ISEs. We applied these sensors in an custom built profiling set up and demonstrated the potential of this system for high resolution in-situ measurements.

  18. Validation of different spectrophotometric methods for determination of vildagliptin and metformin in binary mixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Ghany, Maha F.; Abdel-Aziz, Omar; Ayad, Miriam F.; Tadros, Mariam M.

    New, simple, specific, accurate, precise and reproducible spectrophotometric methods have been developed and subsequently validated for determination of vildagliptin (VLG) and metformin (MET) in binary mixture. Zero order spectrophotometric method was the first method used for determination of MET in the range of 2-12 μg mL-1 by measuring the absorbance at 237.6 nm. The second method was derivative spectrophotometric technique; utilized for determination of MET at 247.4 nm, in the range of 1-12 μg mL-1. Derivative ratio spectrophotometric method was the third technique; used for determination of VLG in the range of 4-24 μg mL-1 at 265.8 nm. Fourth and fifth methods adopted for determination of VLG in the range of 4-24 μg mL-1; were ratio subtraction and mean centering spectrophotometric methods, respectively. All the results were statistically compared with the reported methods, using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). The developed methods were satisfactorily applied to analysis of the investigated drugs and proved to be specific and accurate for quality control of them in pharmaceutical dosage forms.

  19. Spectrophotometric determination of etodolac in pure form and pharmaceutical formulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gouda Ayman A

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Etodolac (ETD is a non-steroidal anti-inflamatory antirheumatic drug. A survey of the literature reveals that there is no method available for the determination of ETD in pure form and pharmaceutical formulations by oxidation-reduction reactions. Results We describe three simple, sensitive and reproducible spectrophotometric assays (A-C for the determination of etodolac in pure form and in pharmaceutical formulations. Methods A and B are based on the oxidation of etodolac by Fe3+ in the presence of o-phenanthroline (o-phen or bipyridyl (bipy. The formation of the tris-complex on reaction with Fe3+-o-phen and/or Fe3+-bipy mixtures in acetate buffer solution at optimum pH was demonstrated at 510 and 520 nm with o-phen and bipy. Method C is based on the oxidation of etodolac by Fe3+ in acidic medium, and the subsequent interaction of iron(II with ferricyanide to form Prussian blue, with the product exhibiting an absorption maximum at 726 nm. The concentration ranges are 0.5–8, 1.0–10 and 2–18 μg mL-1 respectively for methods A, B and C. For more accurate analysis, Ringbom optimum concentration ranges were calculated, in addition to molar absorptivity, Sandell sensitivity, detection and quantification limits. Conclusion Our methods were successfully applied to the determination of etodolac in bulk and pharmaceutical formulations without any interference from common excipients. The relative standard deviations were ≤ 0.76 %, with recoveries of 99.87 % – 100.21 %.

  20. Derivative spectrophotometric analysis of benzophenone (as an impurity) in phenytoin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Three simple and rapid spectrophotometric methods were developed for detection and trace determination of benzophenone (the main impurity) in phenytoin bulk powder and pharmaceutical formulations. The first method, zero-crossing first derivative spectrophotometry, depends on measuring the first derivative trough values at 257.6 nm for benzophenone. The second method, zero-crossing third derivative spectrophotometry, depends on measuring the third derivative peak values at 263.2 nm. The third method, ratio first derivative spectrophotometry, depends on measuring the peak amplitudes of the first derivative of the ratio spectra (the spectra of benzophenone divided by the spectrum of 5.0 μg/mL phenytoin solution) at 272 nm. The calibration graphs were linear over the range of 1-10 μg/mL. The detection limits of the first and the third derivative methods were found to be 0.04 μg/mL and 0.11 μg/mL and the quantitation limits were 0.13 μg/mL and 0.34 μg/mL, respectively, while for the ratio derivative method, the detection limit was 0.06 μg/mL and the quantitation limit was 0.18 μg/mL. The proposed methods were applied successfully to the assay of the studied drug in phenytoin bulk powder and certain pharmaceutical preparations. The results were statistically compared to those obtained using a polarographic method and were found to be in good agreement. PMID:22152156

  1. Derivative spectrophotometric analysis of benzophenone (as an impurity in phenytoin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walash Mohamed

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Three simple and rapid spectrophotometric methods were developed for detection and trace determination of benzophenone (the main impurity in phenytoin bulk powder and pharmaceutical formulations. The first method, zero-crossing first derivative spectrophotometry, depends on measuring the first derivative trough values at 257.6 nm for benzophenone. The second method, zero-crossing third derivative spectrophotometry, depends on measuring the third derivative peak values at 263.2 nm. The third method, ratio first derivative spectrophotometry, depends on measuring the peak amplitudes of the first derivative of the ratio spectra (the spectra of benzophenone divided by the spectrum of 5.0 μg/mL phenytoin solution at 272 nm. The calibration graphs were linear over the range of 1-10 μg/mL. The detection limits of the first and the third derivative methods were found to be 0.04 μg/mL and 0.11 μg/mL and the quantitation limits were 0.13 μg/mL and 0.34 μg/mL, respectively, while for the ratio derivative method, the detection limit was 0.06 μg/mL and the quantitation limit was 0.18 μg/mL. The proposed methods were applied successfully to the assay of the studied drug in phenytoin bulk powder and certain pharmaceutical preparations. The results were statistically compared to those obtained using a polarographic method and were found to be in good agreement.

  2. Chemometrics assisted spectrophotometric determination of pyridine in water and wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Kunwar P; Basant, Nikita; Malik, Amrita; Singh, Vinod K; Mohan, Dinesh

    2008-12-07

    The paper reports a direct method for the determination of pyridine in water and wastewater samples based on ultraviolet spectrophotometric measurements using multi-way modeling techniques. Parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) and multi-way partial least squares (N-PLS) regression methods were employed for the decomposition of spectra and quantification of pyridine. The study was carried out in the pH range of 1.0-12.0 and concentration range of 0.67-51.7 microgmL(-1) of pyridine. Both the three-way PARAFAC and tri-PLS1 models successfully predicted the concentration of pyridine in synthetic (spiked) river water and field wastewater samples. The mean recovery obtained from PARAFAC regression model were 97.39% for the spiked and 99.84% for the field wastewater samples, respectively. The sensitivity and precision of the method for pyridine determination were 0.58% and 5.95%, respectively. The N-PLS regression model yielded mean recoveries of 99.29% and 100.18% for the spiked and field wastewater samples, respectively. The prediction accuracy of the methods was evaluated through the root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP). For PARAFAC, it was 0.65 and 0.82 microgmL(-1) for spiked river water and field wastewater samples, respectively, while for N-PLS, it was 0.25 and 0.37 microgmL(-1), respectively. Both the PARAFAC and N-PLS methods, thus, yielded satisfactory results for the prediction of pyridine concentration in water and wastewater samples.

  3. Derivative spectrophotometric analysis of benzophenone (as an impurity) in phenytoin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walash, Mohamed Ibrahim; Rizk, Mohamed Salem; Sheribah, Zeinab Awad; Salim, Mohamed Mansour

    2011-12-12

    Three simple and rapid spectrophotometric methods were developed for detection and trace determination of benzophenone (the main impurity) in phenytoin bulk powder and pharmaceutical formulations. The first method, zero-crossing first derivative spectrophotometry, depends on measuring the first derivative trough values at 257.6 nm for benzophenone. The second method, zero-crossing third derivative spectrophotometry, depends on measuring the third derivative peak values at 263.2 nm. The third method, ratio first derivative spectrophotometry, depends on measuring the peak amplitudes of the first derivative of the ratio spectra (the spectra of benzophenone divided by the spectrum of 5.0 μg/mL phenytoin solution) at 272 nm. The calibration graphs were linear over the range of 1-10 μg/mL. The detection limits of the first and the third derivative methods were found to be 0.04 μg/mL and 0.11 μg/mL and the quantitation limits were 0.13 μg/mL and 0.34 μg/mL, respectively, while for the ratio derivative method, the detection limit was 0.06 μg/mL and the quantitation limit was 0.18 μg/mL. The proposed methods were applied successfully to the assay of the studied drug in phenytoin bulk powder and certain pharmaceutical preparations. The results were statistically compared to those obtained using a polarographic method and were found to be in good agreement.

  4. Fearfulness and feather damage in laying hens divergently selected for high and low feather pecking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodenburg, T Bas; de Haas, Elske N; Nielsen, Birte Lindstrøm

    2010-01-01

    Feather pecking (FP) remains a major welfare and economic problem in laying hens. FP has been found to be related to other behavioural characteristics, such as fearfulness. There are indications that fearful birds are more likely to develop FP. Furthermore, FP can lead to increased fearfulness...... in the victims. To investigate further the relationship between FP and fearfulness, feather damage and behavioural fear responses were recorded in three White Leghorn lines of laying hens: a line selected for high FP (HFP line), a line selected for low FP (LFP line) and an unselected control line (10th...... in fear responses between the HFP and LFP lines were not found, neither in the TI-test, nor in the HA or NO test. As expected, birds from the HFP line had considerably more feather damage than birds from the LFP line and birds from the unselected control line were intermediate. Cages that withdrew from...

  5. Direct Selective Laser Sintering/Melting of High Density Alumina Powder Layers at Elevated Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deckers, J.; Meyers, S.; Kruth, J. P.; Vleugels, J.

    Direct selective laser sintering (SLS) or selective laser melting (SLM) are additive manufacturing techniques that can be used to produce three-dimensional ceramic parts directly, without the need for a sacrificial binder. In this paper, a low laser energy density is applied to SLS/SLM high density powder layers of sub-micrometer alumina at elevated temperatures (up to 800̊C). In order to achieve this, a furnace was designed and built into a commercial SLS machine. This furnace was able to produce a homogeneously heated cylindrical zone with a height of 60 mm and a diameter of 32 mm. After optimizing the layer deposition and laser scanning parameters, two ceramic parts with a density up to 85% and grain sizes as low as 5 μm were successfully produced.

  6. Palladium-tin catalysts for the direct synthesis of H₂O₂ with high selectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freakley, Simon J; He, Qian; Harrhy, Jonathan H; Lu, Li; Crole, David A; Morgan, David J; Ntainjua, Edwin N; Edwards, Jennifer K; Carley, Albert F; Borisevich, Albina Y; Kiely, Christopher J; Hutchings, Graham J

    2016-02-26

    The direct synthesis of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) from H2 and O2 represents a potentially atom-efficient alternative to the current industrial indirect process. We show that the addition of tin to palladium catalysts coupled with an appropriate heat treatment cycle switches off the sequential hydrogenation and decomposition reactions, enabling selectivities of >95% toward H2O2. This effect arises from a tin oxide surface layer that encapsulates small Pd-rich particles while leaving larger Pd-Sn alloy particles exposed. We show that this effect is a general feature for oxide-supported Pd catalysts containing an appropriate second metal oxide component, and we set out the design principles for producing high-selectivity Pd-based catalysts for direct H2O2 production that do not contain gold. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  7. Spectrophotometric determination of meclozine HCl and papaverine HCl in their pharmaceutical formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Ghani, N T; Shoukry, A F; Issa, Y M; Wahdan, O A

    2002-04-15

    A simple, accurate and highly sensitive spectrophotometric method is proposed for the rapid determination of meclozine and papaverine hydrochlorides using chromotrope 2B (C2B) and chromotrope 2R (C2R). The method consists of extracting the formed ion-associates into chloroform in the case of meclozine HCl and into methylene chloride in case of papaverine HCl. The ion-associates exhibit absorption maxima at 536 and 524 nm for C2B and C2R with meclozine HCl and at 540 and 528 nm with papaverine HCl, respectively. Meclozine can be determined up to 4.0 and 2.6 mg ml(-1), using C2B and C2R, respectively, while papaverine can be determined up to 1.68 and 1.37 mg ml(-1), respectively. The effect of acidity, reagent concentration, time, solvent and stoichiometric ratio of the ion-associates were studied. The molar absorptivity and Sandell sensitivity of the reaction products were calculated. The method was applied to the determination of the drugs in their pure state or pharmaceutical preparations with mean recovery values of 99.63-100.80 and 99.75-100.08% and coefficient of variation 0.945-2.210 and 1.020-1.268 for meclozine HCl and papaverine HCl, respectively.

  8. Optimization and Validation of Quantitative Spectrophotometric Methods for the Determination of Alfuzosin in Pharmaceutical Formulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Vamsi Krishna

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Three accurate, simple and precise spectrophotometric methods for the determination of alfuzosin hydrochloride in bulk drugs and tablets are developed. The first method is based on the reaction of alfuzosin with ninhydrin reagent in N, N'-dimethylformamide medium (DMF producing a colored product which absorbs maximally at 575 nm. Beer’s law is obeyed in the concentration range 12.5-62.5 µg/mL of alfuzosin. The second method is based on the reaction of drug with ascorbic acid in DMF medium resulting in the formation of a colored product, which absorbs maximally at 530 nm. Beer’s law is obeyed in the concentration 10-50 µg/mL of alfuzosin. The third method is based on the reaction of alfuzosin with p-benzoquinone (PBQ to form a colored product with λmax at 400 nm. The products of the reaction were stable for 2 h at room temperature. The optimum experimental parameters for the reactions have been studied. The validity of the described procedures was assessed. Statistical analysis of the results has been carried out revealing high accuracy and good precision. The proposed methods could be used for the determination of alfuzosin in pharmaceutical formulations. The procedures were rapid, simple and suitable for quality control application.

  9. Simple Spectrophotometric Determination of Torsemide in Bulk Drug and in Formulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marothu Vamsi Krishna

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple and cost effective spectrophotometric method is described for the determination of torsemide in pure form and in pharmaceutical formulations. The method is based on the formation of blue colored chromogen when the drug reacts with Folin-Ciocalteu (F-C reagent in alkaline medium. The colored species has an absorption maximum at 760 nm and obeys beer's law in the concentration range 30 – 150 ug mL−1. The absorbance was found to increase linearly with increasing concentration of TSM, which is corroborated by the calculated correlation coefficient value of 0.9999 (n=8. The apparent molar absorptivity and sandell sensitivity were 1.896×103 L mol−1 cm−1 and 0.183 μg cm−2, respectively. The slope and intercept of the equation of the regression line are 5.4x10−3 and 1.00×10−4 respectively. The limit of detection was 0.94.The optimum experimental parameters for the reaction have been studied. The validity of the described procedure was assessed. Statistical analysis of the results has been carried out revealing high accuracy and good precision. The proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of TSM in pharmaceutical formulations.

  10. Determination of the polyphenol contents in Macedonian grapes and wines by standardized spectrophotometric methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VIOLETA IVANOVA

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Wines and grapes contain a large array of phenolic compounds belonging to non-flavonoids and flavonoids. This study evaluates the polyphenolic contents of six commercial red and white Macedonian wines and four grape varieties. Spectrophotometric methods were applied for the determination of the total phenolics, the total flavonoids, the total anthocyanins and the total catechins. The efficiency of acetone/water (80/20 and methanol/water (80/20 solutions for the extraction of polyphenols from grape pulp, seeds and skins were compared. The best extraction efficiency was achieved using acetone/water. The obtained results showed that Macedonian grapes are rich in polyphenols, whereby the highest concentration of total phenolics was found for Vranec grapes. The analyzed wines contained high contents of polyphenol; the highest contents were found for Disan wine produced from the Vranec variety of grapes (1515 mg/L total phenolics, 1103 mg/L total flavonoids, 237 mg/L total anthocyanins and 845 mg/L total catechins. Principal component analysis was employed to check possible groupings of the studied red and white wine samples. A clear separation of white wines from red ones was observed.

  11. Multivariate curve resolution of spectrophotometric data for the determination of artificial food colors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachenmeier, Dirk W; Kessler, Waltraud

    2008-07-23

    In the analysis of food additives, past emphasis was put on the development of chromatographic techniques to separate target components from a complex matrix. Especially in the case of artificial food colors, direct spectrophotometric measurement was seen to lack in specificity due to a high spectral overlap between different components. Multivariate curve resolution (MCR) may be used to overcome this limitation. MCR is able to (i) extract from a complex spectral feature the number of involved components, (ii) attribute the resulting spectra to chemical compounds, and (iii) quantify the individual spectral contributions with or without a priori knowledge. We have evaluated MCR for the routine analysis of yellow and blue food colors in absinthe spirits. Using calibration standards, we were able to show that MCR equally performs as compared to partial least-squares regression but with much improved chemical information contained in the predicted spectra. MCR was then applied to an authentic collective of different absinthes. As confirmed by reference analytics, the food colors were correctly assigned with a sensitivity of 0.93 and a specificity of 0.85. Besides the artificial colors, the algorithm detected a further component in some samples that could be assigned to natural coloring from chlorophyll.

  12. Spectrophotometric Characterisation of the Trojan Asteroids (624) Hektor et (911) Agamemnon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doressoundiram, A.; Bott, N.; Perna, D.

    2016-12-01

    We obtained spectrophotometric observations of (624) Hektor and (911) Agamemnon, two large Trojan asteroids in order to (1) better understand the composition of their surface by means of their visible and infrared spectra, and (2) eventually detect a possible weak cometary activity by means of their images in the visible. We had data at different rotational phases to probe surface variegations. We found that the visible and infrared spectra are very similar to each other. That indicates a relatively homogenous surface for the asteroids, but it does not exclude the presence of localized inhomogeneities. Computation of a high spectral slope confirmed their D-type asteroids classification. No aqueous alteration absorption band was found in the visible spectra of both studied Trojan asteroids. This can be interpreted in two differents ways: either no liquid water flowed on their surface, or the surface is covered with a crust that mask the presence of hydrated minerals. We use a radiative transfer model to investigate the surface composition of these icy and primitive outer solar system bodies. We suggest models composed of mixtures of organic compounds, minerals and lower limits for water ice. Lastly, the analysis of the images of both Trojan asteroids did not reveal any cometary activity.

  13. Spectrophotometric study of the interaction of methylene blue with poly(styrene-co-sodium styrene sulfonate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souha Ben Mahmoud

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The interaction of the cationic phenothiazine dye, the Methylene Blue (MB with poly-(sodium styrene sulfonatef–co-(styrene1-f, (PSSNa f, has been investigated by spectrophotometric method. The polyelectrolyte induced metachromasy resulting in a blue shift of the absorption maxima of the dye, in agreement with the formation of dye H-aggregates. The stability of the PSSNa-MB complexes was studied as a function of polyelectrolyte chain length, polyelectrolyte electrostatic charge density f, polyelectrolyte concentration, NaCl salt addition, tetrahydrofurane (THF addition and THF treatment. The stoichiometry of PSSNa-MB complex evaluated by the molar ratio method was found 4:1 for the fully charged PSSNa f = 1. Reversal of metachromasy was observed upon salt and THF addition, while THF treatment does not affect the complex and allows recovering the initial complex. Finally, thermodynamic parameters of the interaction between the polyelectrolyte and the dye at different temperatures, namely free energy DG, the enthalpy DH and the entropy DS have been evaluated to determine the binding constant and as a consequence the stability of the complex. The metachromasy effect was found to be more high as the chemical charge f increases and reaches its maximum value f = 1, when operating at optimal conditions. So, the PSSNa f = 1-MB complex is the most stable in comparison to the others based on lower charge density PSSNa f.

  14. Simultaneous determination of caffeine, theophylline and theobromine in food samples by a kinetic spectrophotometric method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Zhenzhen; Ni, Yongnian; Kokot, Serge

    2013-12-15

    A novel kinetic spectrophotometric method was developed for the simultaneous determination of caffeine, theobromine and theophylline in food samples. This method was based on the different kinetic characteristics between the reactions of analytes with cerium sulphate in sulphuric acid and the associated change in absorbance at 320 nm. Experimental conditions, the effects of sulphuric acid, cerium sulphate and temperature, were optimised. Linear ranges (0.4-8.4 μg mL(-1)) for all three analytes were established, and the limits of detection were: 0.30 μg mL(-1) (caffeine), 0.33 μg mL(-1) (theobromine) and 0.16 μg mL(-1) (theophylline). The recorded data were processed by partial least squares and artificial neural network, and the developed mathematical models were then used for prediction. The proposed, novel method was applied to determine the analytes in commercial food samples, and there were no significant differences between the results from the proposed method and those obtained by high-performance liquid chromatography. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Spectrophotometric method for quantitative measuring essential oil in aromatic water and distillate with rose smell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semenova, E.; Presnyakova, V.; Goncharov, D.; Goncharov, M.; Presnyakova, E.; Presnyakov, S.; Moiseeva, I.; Kolesnikova, S.

    2017-01-01

    In this connection, we improved the express methods of determining the mixture of volatile aromatic substances by the spectrophotometry of aromatic water and steam distillate of essential oil raw materials (traditional or biotechnological with rose smell). Direct spectrophotometry of distillation water is impossible because it is a colloid of liquid oil and law is not observed. Therefore, it is necessary to dissolve 1 ml of distillate in ethanol in the ratio 1:4, in this case we take real solution with no lipophilic fall-out on the walls of cuvette, also the light absorption law is observed. There are stable maximums in spectrums of studied oils. Optical density of these maximums is a result of summary absorption of terpenoid components (aromatic and monoterpene alcohols, its ethers). Optical density of tested and standard solutions is measured in appropriate wavelengths. Spectrophotometric method of determination of essential oil quantity in aromatic water with rose smell differs with high sensitivity (10-5-10-6 gmol/l) and allows to determine oil concentration from 0,900 to 0,008 mg with an error less than 1%. At that, 1 ml is enough for analysis. It’s expedient to apply this method while operating with small quantity of water distillate in biochemical and biotechnological researches and also as express control for extraction and hydrodistillation of essential oil raw material (rose petals and flowers from different origin, eremothecium cultural liquid etc.).

  16. First-order derivative UV spectrophotometric method for simultaneous measurement of delapril and manidipine in tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todeschini, Vítor; Barden, Amanda Thomas; Sfair, Leticia Lenz; da Silva Sangoi, Maximiliano; Volpato, Nadia Maria

    2013-01-01

    A first-order derivative spectrophotometric (1D-UV) method was developed and validated for simultaneous determination of delapril (DEL) and manidipine (MAN) in tablets. The 1D-UV spectra were obtained using change lambda = 4.0 nm and wavelength set at 228 nm for DEL and 246 nm for MAN. The method was validated in accordance with the ICH requirements, involving the specificity, linearity, precision, accuracy, robustness and limits of detection and quantitation. The method showed high specificity in the presence of two drugs and formulation excipients and was linear over the concentration range of 18-54 microg mL(-1) (r2 = 0.9994) for DEL and 6-18 microg mL(-1) (r2 = 0.9981) for MAN with adequate results for the precision (< or = 1.47%) and accuracy (98.98% for DEL and 100.50% for MAN). Moreover, the method proved to be robust by a Plackett-Burman experimental design evaluation. The proposed 'D-UV method was successfully applied for simultaneous analysis of DEL and MAN in tablets and can be used as alternative green method to separation techniques. The results were compared with the validated liquid chromatography, capillary electrophoresis and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry methods, showing non-significant difference.

  17. A Sensitive Spectrophotometric Determination of Ritodrine, Pentazocine, Isoxsuprine Hydrochlorides and Amoxicillin in Pure and Pharmaceutical Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. D. Revanasiddappa

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple, accurate and highly sensitive spectrophotometric method for the determination of ritodrine hydrochloride (RTH, pentazocine hydrochloride (PZH, isoxsuprine hydrochloride (ISH and amoxicillin (AMX is described. The method is based on the oxidation of the studied drugs by a known excess of chloramine – T (CAT in hydrochloric acid medium and subsequent determination of the unreacted oxidant by reacting it with iodide in the same acid medium liberates iodine, which subsequently react with starch to form a stable starch-iodine complex. The reacted oxidant corresponds to the drug content. The coloured complex exhibits a maximum absorption at 590 nm. The apparent molar absorptivity values and Sandell’s sensitivity values are in the range 6.96x104 - 1.43x105 L mol–1 cm–1 and 2.45-4.30 ng cm–2, respectively. The method was successfully applied to the studied drugs in their dosage forms. The results are reproducible within ±1% and compare favorably with those of official methods of British Pharmacopoeia and the United States Pharmacopoeia.

  18. Habitat selection of a large carnivore along human-wildlife boundaries in a highly modified landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahata, Chihiro; Nielsen, Scott Eric; Takii, Akiko; Izumiyama, Shigeyuki

    2014-01-01

    When large carnivores occupy peripheral human lands conflict with humans becomes inevitable, and the reduction of human-carnivore interactions must be the first consideration for those concerned with conflict mitigation. Studies designed to identify areas of high human-bear interaction are crucial for prioritizing management actions. Due to a surge in conflicts, against a background of social intolerance to wildlife and the prevalent use of lethal control throughout Japan, Asiatic black bears (Ursus thibetanus) are now threatened by high rates of mortality. There is an urgent need to reduce the frequency of human-bear encounters if bear populations are to be conserved. To this end, we estimated the habitats that relate to human-bear interactions by sex and season using resource selection functions (RSF). Significant seasonal differences in selection for and avoidance of areas by bears were estimated by distance-effect models with interaction terms of land cover and sex. Human-bear boundaries were delineated on the basis of defined bear-habitat edges in order to identify areas that are in most need of proactive management strategies. Asiatic black bears selected habitats in close proximity to forest edges, forest roads, rivers, and red pine and riparian forests during the peak conflict season and this was correctly predicted in our human-bear boundary maps. Our findings demonstrated that bears selected abandoned forests and agricultural lands, indicating that it should be possible to reduce animal use near human lands by restoring season-specific habitat in relatively remote areas. Habitat-based conflict mitigation may therefore provide a practical means of creating adequate separation between humans and these large carnivores.

  19. Habitat selection of a large carnivore along human-wildlife boundaries in a highly modified landscape.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chihiro Takahata

    Full Text Available When large carnivores occupy peripheral human lands conflict with humans becomes inevitable, and the reduction of human-carnivore interactions must be the first consideration for those concerned with conflict mitigation. Studies designed to identify areas of high human-bear interaction are crucial for prioritizing management actions. Due to a surge in conflicts, against a background of social intolerance to wildlife and the prevalent use of lethal control throughout Japan, Asiatic black bears (Ursus thibetanus are now threatened by high rates of mortality. There is an urgent need to reduce the frequency of human-bear encounters if bear populations are to be conserved. To this end, we estimated the habitats that relate to human-bear interactions by sex and season using resource selection functions (RSF. Significant seasonal differences in selection for and avoidance of areas by bears were estimated by distance-effect models with interaction terms of land cover and sex. Human-bear boundaries were delineated on the basis of defined bear-habitat edges in order to identify areas that are in most need of proactive management strategies. Asiatic black bears selected habitats in close proximity to forest edges, forest roads, rivers, and red pine and riparian forests during the peak conflict season and this was correctly predicted in our human-bear boundary maps. Our findings demonstrated that bears selected abandoned forests and agricultural lands, indicating that it should be possible to reduce animal use near human lands by restoring season-specific habitat in relatively remote areas. Habitat-based conflict mitigation may therefore provide a practical means of creating adequate separation between humans and these large carnivores.

  20. Solar selective absorber coating for high service temperatures, produced by plasma sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanxner, Michael; Elgat, Zvi

    1990-08-01

    Spectrally selective absorber coatings, deposited on engineering material substrates such as stainless steel, have been developed for service as efficient solar photothermal energy converters. The selective solar absorber is based on a multilayer of thin films, produced by sputtering. The main solar absorber is a metal/ceramic (cermet) composite, such as, Mo/Al2th or Mo/Si02, with a graded metal concentration. Such a cermet layer, strongly absorbs radiation over most of the range of the solar spectrum but is transparent to longer wavelength radiation. The cermet layer is deposited on a highly reflecting infrared metal layer. Two more layers were added: An AhO diffusion barrier layer which is deposited first on the substrate and an AI2O or a Si02 antireflection layer which is deposited on the top of the cermet film. In order to better understand the spectral reflectivity of the multilayered selective coating, a procedure for the calculation of the optical properties was developed. After the R&D development phase was successfully completed, a full scale production coating machine was constructed. The production machine is a linear in line coater. The selective coating is deposited on stainless steel tubes, translating in the coating machine while rotating about their axes, along their axial direction. Measurements of reflectance, solar absorptivity, a, thermal emissivity, C, and high temperature durability, are all parts of the quality control routine. The results show values of a in the range 0.96 - 0.98. The thermal emissivity at 350CC is in the range 0.16 - 0.18. Thermal durability tests, show no degradation of the coating when subjected to up to 65O in vacuum for one month and when passed through a temperature cycling test which includes 1200 cycles between temperatures of 150CC and 450CCfor a period of two months.